WorldWideScience

Sample records for significant safety concerns

  1. Food Safety Concerns

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUYONG

    2004-01-01

    In China, there is an old saying:food is the first necessity of humans. The main concern of the Chinese used to be the security of the food supply rather than the safety of the food itself. However,after a long time fighting food shortages,China became self-sufficient in food in 1995. At this time, the country began for the first time to regulate food safety. Yet China has still not established a legal systern efficient in ensuring this safety. Many problems are rooted in the administration regime and China's priority of economic development.

  2. Safety concerns us all

    CERN Multimedia

    SC/GS/S

    2004-01-01

    In spite of periodic safety inspections, risks can never be entirely excluded. The Safety Commission invites you to inform your supervisor or Territorial Safety Officer (TSO) of any hazardous situations you may be aware of. Actions to be taken following the fall of two windowpanes A few weeks ago, a windowpane fell from the third floor of an office building, causing minor damage to a car parked outside. No one was hurt in the incident. The putty holding the window in place had gradually deteriorated over time, and strong winds undoubtedly triggered the incident. A few weeks later, a sudden draft caused a window on the fifth floor of the same building to shatter and fall to the ground below. No one was hurt and there was no material damage. The incident was caused by a fan set into the opening window: as the window slammed shut, the weight of the fan caused the glass to break. What can we do to improve safety? examine the windows of our offices and workshops and report any problems or faults, such as dam...

  3. Safety significance evaluation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lew, B.S.; Yee, D.; Brewer, W.K.; Quattro, P.J.; Kirby, K.D.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that the Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG and E), in cooperation with ABZ, Incorporated and Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC), investigated the use of artificial intelligence-based programming techniques to assist utility personnel in regulatory compliance problems. The result of this investigation is that artificial intelligence-based programming techniques can successfully be applied to this problem. To demonstrate this, a general methodology was developed and several prototype systems based on this methodology were developed. The prototypes address U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) event reportability requirements, technical specification compliance based on plant equipment status, and quality assurance assistance. This collection of prototype modules is named the safety significance evaluation system

  4. School Safety Concerns All Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Megan

    1999-01-01

    Suggests that school safety is an issue that concerns all students. Discusses how the staff of the Rockwood South (Missouri) "RAMpage" covered the shootings at Columbine High School in a 14-page issue and in follow-up issues. Suggests that the student newspaper covered the controversial topic in an appropriate, tasteful manner. (RS)

  5. Guide to the declaration procedure and coding system for criteria concerning significant events related to safety, radiation protection or the environment, applicable to basic nuclear installations and the transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacoste, Andre-Claude

    2005-01-01

    This guide notably contains various forms associated with the declaration of significant events, and explanations to fill them in: significant event declaration form for a basic nuclear installation, significant event declaration form for radioactive material transport, significant event report for a basic nuclear installation, significant event report for radioactive material transport, declaration criteria for significant events related to the safety of non-PWR basic nuclear installations, declaration criteria for significant events related to PWR safety, significant events declared further to events resulting in group 1 unavailability and non-compliance with technical operating specifications, declaration criteria for significant events concerning radiation protection for basic nuclear installations, declaration criteria for significant events concerning environmental protection, applicable to basic nuclear installations, and declaration criteria for significant events concerning radioactive material transport

  6. Nordic projects concerning nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soerensen, H.C.

    1988-11-01

    The report describes the nature of the work done in the first half of 1988 within the field of nuclear safety (1985-89) under the Nordic program for 1985-89. Five programmes and their documentation, are described and complete lists of addresses and of persons involved is given. (AB)

  7. Aviation Safety Concerns for the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Brian E.; Roelen, Alfred L. C.; den Hertog, Rudi

    2016-01-01

    The Future Aviation Safety Team (FAST) is a multidisciplinary international group of aviation professionals that was established to identify possible future aviation safety hazards. The principle was adopted that future hazards are undesirable consequences of changes, and a primary activity of FAST became identification and prioritization of possible future changes affecting aviation. Since 2004, FAST has been maintaining a catalogue of "Areas of Change" (AoC) that could potentially influence aviation safety. The horizon for such changes is between 5 to 20 years. In this context, changes must be understood as broadly as possible. An AoC is a description of the change, not an identification of the hazards that result from the change. An ex-post analysis of the AoCs identified in 2004 demonstrates that changes catalogued many years previous were directly implicated in the majority of fatal aviation accidents over the past ten years. This paper presents an overview of the current content of the AoC catalogue and a subsequent discussion of aviation safety concerns related to these possible changes. Interactions among these future changes may weaken critical functions that must be maintained to ensure safe operations. Safety assessments that do not appreciate or reflect the consequences of significant interaction complexity will not be fully informative and can lead to inappropriate trade-offs and increases in other risks. The FAST strongly encourages a system-wide approach to safety risk assessment across the global aviation system, not just within the domain for which future technologies or operational concepts are being considered. The FAST advocates the use of the "Areas of Change" concept, considering that several possible future phenomena may interact with a technology or operational concept under study producing unanticipated hazards.

  8. Safety studies concerning nuclear power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailly, Jean; Pelce, Jacques

    1980-01-01

    The safety of nuclear installations poses different technical problems, whether concerning pressurized water reactors or fast reactors. But investigating methods are closely related and concern, on the one hand, the behavior of shields placed between fuel and outside and, on the other, analysis of accidents. The article is therefore in two parts based on the same plan. Concerning light water reactors, the programme of studies undertaken in France accounts for the research carried out in countries where collaboration agreements exist. Concerning fast reactors, France has the initiative of their studies owing to her technical advance, which explains the great importance of the programmes under way [fr

  9. Aviation safety : FAA and DOD response to similar safety concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Report to the Honorable Norman Y. Mineta, Secretary of Transportation, and the Honorable Donald H. Rumsfeld, Secretary of Defense. : Safety of aircraft is a paramount concern in both civilian and military aviation. The Federal Aviation Administration...

  10. IRSN research programs concerning reactor safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bardelay, J.

    2005-01-01

    This paper is made up of 3 parts. The first part briefly presents the missions of IRSN (French research institute on nuclear safety), the second part reviews the research works currently led by IRSN in the following fields : -) the assessment of safety computer codes, -) thermohydraulics, -) reactor ageing, -) reactivity accidents, -) loss of coolant, -) reactor pool dewatering, -) core meltdown, -) vapor explosion, and -) fission product release. In the third part, IRSN is shown to give a major importance to experimental programs led on research or test reactors for collecting valid data because of the complexity of the physical processes that are involved. IRSN plans to develop a research program concerning the safety of high or very high temperature reactors. (A.C.)

  11. Safety concerns in composite manufacturing and machining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmatulu, Eylem; Alonayni, Abdullah; Alamir, Mohammed

    2018-03-01

    Because of the superior properties, composites have been used in many industrial applications, including aerospace, wind turbines, ships, cars, fishing rods, storage tanks, swimming pool panels, and baseball bats. Each application may require different combinations of reinforcements and matrices, which make the manufacturing safety even more challenging while working on these substances. In this study, safety issues in composite manufacturing and machining were investigated in detail, and latest developments were provided for workers. The materials most frequently used in composite manufacturing, such as matrix (polyester, vinylester, phenolic, epoxies, methyl ethyl ketone peroxide, benzoil peroxide, hardeners, and solvents), and reinforcement materials (carbon, glass and Kevlar fibers, honeycomb and foams) can be highly toxic to human body. These materials can also be very toxic to the environment when dumped out uncontrollably, creating major future health and environmental concerns. Throughout the manufacturing process, workers inhale vapors of the liquid matrix, hardeners and solvents / thinners, as well as reinforcement materials (chopped fibers and particles) in airborne. Milling, cutting and machining of the composites can further increase the toxic inhalations of airborne composite particles, resulting in major rashes, irritation, skin disorders, coughing, severe eye and lung injury and other serious illnesses. The major portions of these hazardous materials can be controlled using appropriate personal protective equipment for the chemicals and materials used in composite manufacturing and machining. This study provides best possible safety practices utilized in composite manufacturing facilities for workers, engineers and other participants.

  12. Radiation safety concerns during interventional radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Victor Raj, D.; Livingstone, Roshan Samuel

    2001-01-01

    Interventional radiological procedures are on the increase by virtue of the fact that these procedures replace highly invasive surgical and other procedures. Radiation dose to patients and hospital workers are of significance since these procedures tend to impart large dose to them. Moreover, long term risk from radiation absorbed by patients is of concern since the life expectancy of major fraction of patients is long after undergoing the procedure. This study intends to measure radiation dose imparted to patients as well as personnel- radiologists, technologists, nurses, etc. and estimate the risk factor involved

  13. Safety significance of ATR passive safety response attributes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atkinson, S.A.

    1990-01-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory was designed with some passive safety response attributes which contribute to the safety of the facility. The three passive safety attributes being evaluated in the paper are: 1) In-core and in-vessel natural convection cooling, 2) a passive heat sink capability of the ATR primary coolant system (PCS) for the transfer of decay power from the uninsulated piping to the confinement, and 3) gravity feed of emergency coolant makeup. The safety significance of the ATR passive safety response attributes is that the reactor can passively respond to most transients, given a reactor scram, to provide adequate decay power removal and a significant time for operator action should the normal active heat removal systems and their backup systems both fail. The ATR Interim Level 1 Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) models and results were used to evaluate the significance to ATR fuel damage frequency (or probability) of the above three passive response attributes. The results of the evaluation indicate that the first attribute is a major safety characteristic of the ATR. The second attribute has a noticeable but only minor safety significance. The third attribute has no significant influence on the ATR firewater injection system (emergency coolant system)

  14. Effectively managing public concerns about immunization safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Los beneficios de la vacunación frente a las enfermedades prevenibles de este modo son muy superiores a sus mínimos riesgos. Con el fin de mantener o fortalecer los programas nacionales de vacunación, los trabajadores de todos los niveles de la salud pública deberían recibir formación sobre los temas relacionados con la vacunación y estar preparados para responder a las dudas planteadas por el público. Una respuesta rápida y franca a los temores del público acerca de las vacunas podría garantizar la integridad de los programas de vacunación en todo el continente americano, según el documento "Directrices para enfrentarse a los temores sobre la seguridad de las vacunaciones" (Guidelines for Managing Immunization Safety Concerns, elaborado por la División de Vacunas e Inmunización de la Organización Panamericana de la Salud (OPS y resumido aquí. Todo acontecimiento médico que se considere posiblemente relacionado con una vacuna debe ser investigado en el ámbito local. Si su distribución temporal y los síntomas respaldan la sospecha de que pueda estar relacionado con una vacuna, se debe iniciar una investigación más formal y, una vez finalizada, el acontecimiento debe ser clasificado en una de las cuatro categorías siguientes: 1 relacionado con el programa, 2 relacionado con la vacuna, 3 no relacionado, o 4 desconocido (investigación no concluyente. Dependiendo de la categoría a la que haya sido asignado el acontecimiento, las acciones posteriores pueden consistir en tranquilizar a los padres, a los cuidadores y a otros adultos; comunicarse con el público y con otros trabajadores de la salud; instaurar tratamiento; corregir los errores del programa, como pueden ser la manipulación de la vacuna, su almacenamiento, su administration o los problemas relacionados con la jeringuilla; comentar con los fabricantes problemas relacionados con la calidad y eficacia de la vacuna; retirar la vacuna del mercado, o iniciar nuevas

  15. HTGR safety research concerns at NRC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minogue, R.B.

    1982-01-01

    A general discussion of HTGR technical and safety-related problems is given. The broad areas of current research programs specific to the Fort St. Vrain reactor and applicable to HTGR technology are summarized

  16. Development of safety analysis technology for integral reactor; evaluation on safety concerns of integral reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hee Chul; Kim, Woong Sik; Lee, J. H. [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Taejeon (Korea)

    2002-03-01

    The Nuclear Desalination Plant (NDP) is being developed to produce electricity and fresh water, and is expected to locate near population zone. In the aspect of safety, it is required to protect the public and environment from the possible releases of fission products and to prevent the fresh water from the contamination of radioactivity. Thus, in this study, the safety characteristics of the integral reactor adopting passive and inherent safety features significantly different from existing nuclear power plants were investigated. Also, safety requirements applicable to the NDP were analyzed based on the regulatory requirements for current light water reactor and advanced reactor designs, and user requirements for small-medium size reactors. Based on these analyses, some safety concerns to be considered in the design stage have been identified and discussed. They include the use of proven technology for new safety features, systematic event classification and selection, strengthening containment function, and the safety impacts on desalination-related systems. The study presents the general safety requirements applicable to licensing of an integral reactor and suggests additional regulatory requirements, which need to be developed, based on the direction to resolution of the safety concerns. The efforts to identify and technically resolve the safety concerns in the design stage will provide the early confidence of SMART safety and the technical basis to evaluate the safety to designers and reviewers in the future. Suggestion on the development of additional regulatory requirements will contribute for the regulator to taking actions for licensing of an integral reactor. 66 refs., 5 figs., 24 tabs. (Author)

  17. College Rampage Renews School Safety Concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Lesli A.

    2007-01-01

    Coming just four days before the anniversary of the Columbine school shootings, the mass slayings by a student gunman at Virginia Polytechnic Institute last week revived vexing questions and raised familiar fears for educators across the country who grapple daily with ensuring the safety of their students and staffs. The April 16 killings provoked…

  18. Chinese consumers concerns about food safety: Case of Tianjin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang XiaoYong, Xiaoyong

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study is to gain an insight to Chinese consumers' knowledge and concerns over food safety from a case study in Tianjin city. The results indicate that Chinese consumers are very much concerned about food safety, particularly with regard to vegetables and dairy products. Chinese

  19. New safety valve addresses environmental concerns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, J.; Austin, R.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that Conoco Pipeline is using a unique relief valve to reduce costs while improving environmental protection at its facilities. Conoco Pipeline Co. Inc. began testing new relief valves in 1987 to present over-pressuring its pipelines while enhancing the safety, environmental integrity and profitability of its pipelines. Conoco worked jointly with Rupture Pin Technology Inc., Oklahoma City, to seek a solution to a series of safety, environmental, and operational risks in the transportation of crude oil and refined products through pipelines. Several of the identified problems were traced to a single equipment source: the reliability of rupture discs used at pipeline stations to relieve pressure by diverting flow to tanks during over-pressure conditions. Conoco's corporate safety and environmental policies requires solving problems that deal with exposure to hydrocarbon vapors, chemical spills or the atmospheric release of fugitive emissions, such as during rupture disc maintenance. The company had used rupture pin valves as vent relief devices in conjunction with development by Rick Austin of inert gas methods to protect the inner casing wall and outer carrier pipeline wall in pipeline road crossings. The design relies on rupture pin valves set at 5 psi to isolate vent openings from the atmosphere prior to purging the annular space between the pipeline and casing with inert gas to prevent corrosion. Speciality Pipeline Inspection and Engineering Inc., Houston, is licensed to distribute the equipment for the new cased-crossing procedure

  20. Industrial radiography in the Philippines: safety concerns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, Jocelyn L.; Artificio, Thelma P.; Cerbolles, Justina S.; Caseria, Estrella S.; Agron, Inocencio A.

    2005-01-01

    Industrial radiography utilizes the highest activity (5.55 tera becquerel (TBq) to 7.4 TBq) among the various mobile application of radioisotopes. It is highly possible that radiographers exceed the annual dose limits for workers occupationally exposed to radiation (as prescribed in the Code of PNRI Regulations part 3) if they do not give cautious consideration to the factors that determine the radiation dose, namely: the gamma source dose rates, time distance and shielding. To enhance the safety culture among radiographers, various strategies are recommended to be undertaken by the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute as well as the licensed companies undertaking activities in industrial radiography. (Authors)

  1. Losing nuclear expertise - A safety concern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziakova, M.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Since the mid of eighties several important changes in human beings behaviour, which influence nuclear field, can be observed - the loss of interest in studying technical disciplines (namely nuclear), strong pressure of environmental movements, stagnation of electricity consumption and deregulation of electric markets. All these factors create conditions which are leading to the decrease of job positions related to the nuclear field connected particularly with research, design and engineering. Loss of interest in studying nuclear disciplines together with the decrease of number of job positions has led to the declining of university enrolments, closing of university departments and research reactors. In this manner just a very small number of appropriately educated new experts are brought In the same moment the additional internal factor - the relative ageing of the human workforce on both sites operators of nuclear facilities and research and engineering organisations can be observed. All these factors, if not addressed properly, could lead to the loss of nuclear expertise and the loss of nuclear expertise represents the direct thread to the nuclear safety. The latest studies have shown that at present NPPs cannot be replaced by other kinds of electric sources and in no case by renewable ones in an efficient manner. Therefore it is necessary to carefully manage knowledge gathered in the nuclear field during the years and to keep on the nuclear safety research, education and training to ensure and upgrade safe and reliable operation of existing and future nuclear facilities. This is responsibility of both the governments of the states using nuclear applications and owners of nuclear facilities. (author)

  2. Do Online Bicycle Routing Portals Adequately Address Prevalent Safety Concerns?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Loidl

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Safety concerns are among the most prevalent deterrents for bicycling. The provision of adequate bicycling infrastructure is considered as one of the most efficient means to increase cycling safety. However, limited public funding does not always allow agencies to implement cycling infrastructure improvements at the desirable level. Thus, bicycle trip planners can at least partly alleviate the lack of adequate infrastructure by recommending optimal routes in terms of safety. The presented study provides a systematic review of 35 bicycle routing applications and analyses to which degree they promote safe bicycling. The results show that most trip planners lack corresponding routing options and therefore do not sufficiently address safety concerns of bicyclists. Based on these findings, we developed recommendations on how to better address bicycling safety in routing portals. We suggest employing current communication technology and analysis to consider safety concerns more explicitly.

  3. Safety culture : a significant influence on safety in transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    An organizations safety culture can influence safety outcomes. Research and experience show that when safety culture is strong, accidents are less frequent and less severe. As a result, building and maintaining strong safety cultures should be a t...

  4. Physician attitudes towards pharmacological cognitive enhancement: safety concerns are paramount.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Opeyemi C Banjo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The ethical dimensions of pharmacological cognitive enhancement have been widely discussed in academic circles and the popular media, but missing from the conversation have been the perspectives of physicians - key decision makers in the adoption of new technologies into medical practice. We queried primary care physicians in major urban centers in Canada and the United States with the aim of understanding their attitudes towards cognitive enhancement. Our primary hypothesis was that physicians would be more comfortable prescribing cognitive enhancers to older patients than to young adults. Physicians were presented with a hypothetical pharmaceutical cognitive enhancer that had been approved by the regulatory authorities for use in healthy adults, and was characterized as being safe, effective, and without significant adverse side effects. Respondents overwhelmingly reported increasing comfort with prescribing cognitive enhancers as the patient age increased from 25 to 65. When asked about their comfort with prescribing extant drugs that might be considered enhancements (sildenafil, modafinil, and methylphenidate or our hypothetical cognitive enhancer to a normal, healthy 40 year old, physicians were more comfortable prescribing sildenafil than any of the other three agents. When queried as to the reasons they answered as they did, the most prominent concerns physicians expressed were issues of safety that were not offset by the benefit afforded the individual, even in the face of explicit safety claims. Moreover, many physicians indicated that they viewed safety claims with considerable skepticism. It has become routine for safety to be raised and summarily dismissed as an issue in the debate over pharmacological cognitive enhancement; the observation that physicians were so skeptical in the face of explicit safety claims suggests that such a conclusion may be premature. Thus, physician attitudes suggest that greater weight be placed upon the

  5. Aviation Safety: FAA and DOD Response to Similar Safety Concerns

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2002-01-01

    .... The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and the military services often face common safety issues as they oversee the operation of similar aircraft or even dissimilar aircraft that use common parts and materials...

  6. International antiterrorist conventions concerning the safety of air transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek BARCIK

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article the international law regulations are presented concerning the civilian safety of the air transport. The history concerning air terrorism and international antiterrorist conventions was described in detail, involving The Chicago Convention, The Tokyo Convention, The Hague Convention and Montreal Convention.

  7. Safety considerations concerning light water reactors in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, T.

    1977-01-01

    In 1975 the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate was commissioned by the Government to perform a Reactor Safety Study concerning commercial light water reactors. The study will contain an account of: - rules and regulations for reactor designs; - operation experience of the Swedish nuclear power plants with international comparisons; - the development of reactor designs during the last 10 years; - demands and conditions for inspection and inspection methods; - nuclear power plant operation organization; - training of operators; and - the results of research into nuclear safety. The study is scheduled for completion by July 1st, 1977, however, this paper gives a summary of the results of the Reactor Safety Study already available. The paper contains detailed statistics concerning safety related occurrences and reactor scrams in Sweden from July 1st, 1974 until the beginning of 1977

  8. Significant findings concerning the production of Italian Renaissance lustred majolica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padeletti, G.; Fermo, P.

    2013-12-01

    In the present paper the main results obtained, over a period of more than ten years, from a series of studies concerning the characterization of Italian Renaissance lustred majolicas (from Gubbio and Deruta, Umbria, Italy) are presented. Lustre decoration is a well-known technique, consisting in the application of a thin metallic iridescent film, containing silver and copper nanoparticles, over a previously glazed ceramic object. The technique had its origin in Persia (IX century), was imported by Moorish in Spain, and then developed in central Italy during the Renaissance period. Numerous analytical techniques (among which, ETASS, XRD, UV-Vis, SEM-EDX) have been employed for the characterization of lustred ceramic shards, allowing one to acquire information on both lustre chemical composition and nanostructure. In this way it was shown how some technological parameters, such as the firing conditions, are mandatory to obtain the final result. The presence of a specific marker of the lustre Italian production, i.e., cosalite (Pb2Bi2S5), has been also highlighted. From the study of the ceramic body composition (by means of XRD and ICP-OES and in particular of chemometric techniques) acquired on more than 50 ceramic shards it was possible to discriminate between Deruta and Gubbio production, in this way allowing one to assign objects of uncertain provenance to a specific site. Finally, the most interesting results obtained studying excellent lustred masterpieces from Renaissance belonging to important museums are here presented. In particular, with the use of nondestructive techniques (PIXE, RBS, and portable XRD), the production of Mastro Giorgio Andreoli from Gubbio was investigated. By means of the same analytical approach, one of the first examples of lustre in Italy (the famous Baglioni's albarello) was examined, and the controversial question of its attribution to Italian production was scientifically faced.

  9. Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis for HIV Prevention : Safety Concerns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tetteh, Raymond A; Yankey, Barbara A; Nartey, Edmund T; Lartey, Margaret; Leufkens, Hubert G M; Dodoo, Alexander N O

    Available evidence supports the efficacy of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) in decreasing the incidence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection among high-risk individuals, especially when used in combination with other behavioural preventive methods. Safety concerns about PrEP present

  10. Food safety concerns of fast food consumers in urban Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omari, Rose; Frempong, Godfred

    2016-03-01

    In Ghana, out-of-home ready-to-eat foods including fast food generally have been associated with food safety problems. Notwithstanding, fast food production and consumption are increasing in Ghana and therefore this study sought to determine the food safety issues of importance to consumers and the extent to which they worry about them. First, through three focus group discussions on consumers' personal opinions about food safety issues, some emergent themes were obtained, which were used to construct an open-ended questionnaire administered face-to-face to 425 respondents systematically sampled from 20 fast food restaurants in Accra. Findings showed that most fast food consumers were concerned about food hazards such as pesticide residue in vegetables, excessive use of artificial flavour enhancers and colouring substances, bacterial contamination, migrated harmful substances from plastic packages, and general unhygienic conditions under which food is prepared and sold. Consumers also raised concerns about foodborne diseases such as cholera, typhoid, food poisoning, diarrhoea, bird flu and swine flu. The logistic regression model showed that being male increased the likelihood of worrying about general food safety issues and excessive use of flavour enhancers than in females while being youthful increased the likelihood of being worried about typhoid fever than in older consumers. These findings imply that consumers in urban Ghana are aware and concerned about current trends of food safety and foodborne disease challenges in the country. Therefore, efforts targeted at improving food safety and reducing incidences of foodborne diseases should not only focus on public awareness creation but should also design more comprehensive programmes to ensure the making of food safety rules and guidelines and enforcing compliance to facilitate availability and consumers' choice of safe foods. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Ayurveda formulations: A roadmap to address the safety concerns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kishor Patwardhan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available It is a matter of serious concern that the number of case reports pointing at a possible association between the clinical toxicity and the use of Ayurveda formulations is increasing significantly over the years in scientific medical literature. Though most of these cases are connected with the presence of heavy metals such as lead, mercury and arsenic in these formulations, there are also reports suggesting toxicity due to the presence of toxic chemicals of herbal origin. In the year 2008, the Government of India took an initiative of establishing the National Pharmacovigilance Programme for Ayurveda, Siddha and Unani drugs in a structured way. However, due to lack of sustained support, this program has now become defunct. This issue is of vital importance and needs to be addressed effectively on a priority basis. In this communication, we propose the following crucial policy interventions to be introduced at different levels: a. Amendments to Drug and Cosmetic Act, b. Issuing consumer guidelines, c. Issuing prescription guidelines, d. Issuing clinical monitoring guidelines, e. Implementation of good manufacturing guidelines, f. Promoting documentation of clinical safety, g. Identifying the sources of contamination, and, h. Provision for stringent punishment. If these policy interventions are taken up and implemented, a significant positive change in the scenario can be expected in the near future.

  12. Food colors: Existing and emerging food safety concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oplatowska-Stachowiak, Michalina; Elliott, Christopher T

    2017-02-11

    Food colors are added to different types of commodities to increase their visual attractiveness or to compensate for natural color variations. The use of these additives is strictly regulated in the European Union, the United States, and many other countries worldwide. There is a growing concern about the safety of some commonly used legal food colorants and there is a trend to replace the synthetic forms with natural products. Additionally, a number of dyes with known or suspected genotoxic or carcinogenic properties have been shown to be added illegally to foods. Robust monitoring programs based on reliable detection methods are required to assure the food is free from harmful colors. The aim of this review is to present an up to date status of the various concerns arising from use of color additives in food. The most important food safety concerns in the field of food colors are lack of uniform regulation concerning legal food colors worldwide, possible link of artificial colors to hyperactive behavior, replacement of synthetic colors with natural ones, and the presence of harmful illegal dyes-both known but also new, emerging ones in food. The legal status of food color additives in the EU, United States, and worldwide is summarized. The reported negative health effects of both legal and illegal colors are presented. The European Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed notifications and US import alerts concerning food colors are analyzed and trends in fraudulent use of color additives identified. The detection methods for synthetic colors are also reviewed.

  13. Shoe concerns and foot problems of wearers of safety footwear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marr, S J; Quine, S

    1993-05-01

    In Australia workers in many industries are required to wear safety footwear (footwear incorporating a steel toe cap). An investigation of the problems reported by 321 workers (70 per cent male) employed in a broad range of work activities and required to wear safety footwear was conducted in 1990 and 1991. Respondents were interviewed by a professionally trained podiatrist using a structured questionnaire followed by a foot examination. An extremely high percentage (91 per cent) of subjects reported one or more foot problems (which were verified by the podiatrist), and most considered that the safety footwear either caused the problem or adversely affected an existing foot condition. The main shoe concerns reported were excessive heat (65 per cent of all respondents), inflexible soles (52 per cent), weight (48 per cent) and pressure from steel toe cap (47 per cent). Certain gender differences were identified. General recommendations are made.

  14. Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis for HIV Prevention: Safety Concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetteh, Raymond A; Yankey, Barbara A; Nartey, Edmund T; Lartey, Margaret; Leufkens, Hubert G M; Dodoo, Alexander N O

    2017-04-01

    Available evidence supports the efficacy of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) in decreasing the incidence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection among high-risk individuals, especially when used in combination with other behavioural preventive methods. Safety concerns about PrEP present challenges in the implementation and use of PrEP. The aim of this review is to discuss safety concerns observed in completed clinical trials on the use of PrEP. We performed a literature search on PrEP in PubMed, global advocacy for HIV prevention (Aids Vaccine Advocacy Coalition) database, clinical trials registry " http://www.clinicaltrials.gov " and scholar.google, using combination search terms 'pre-exposure prophylaxis', 'safety concerns in the use of pre-exposure prophylaxis', 'truvada use as PrEP', 'guidelines for PrEP use', 'HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis' and 'tenofovir' to identify clinical trials and literature on PrEP. We present findings associated with safety issues on the use of PrEP based on a review of 11 clinical trials on PrEP with results on safety and efficacy as at April 2016. We also reviewed findings from routine real-life practice reports. The pharmacological intervention for PrEP was tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/emtricitabine in a combined form as Truvada ® or tenofovir as a single entity. Both products are efficacious for PrEP and seem to have a good safety profile. Regular monitoring is recommended to prevent long-term toxic effects. The main adverse effects observed with PrEP are gastrointestinal related; basically mild to moderate nausea, vomiting and diarrhea. Other adverse drug effects worth monitoring are liver enzymes, renal function and bone mineral density. PrEP as an intervention to reduce HIV transmission appears to have a safe benefit-risk profile in clinical trials. It is recommended for widespread use but adherence monitoring and real-world safety surveillance are critical in the post-marketing phase to ensure that the benefits

  15. Nuclear safety. Concerns about the nuclear power reactors in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, Jim; Aloise, Gene; Flaherty, Thomas J.; Fitzgerald, Duane; Zavala, Mario; Hayward, Mary Alice

    1992-09-01

    the atmosphere, contains defective welds. Another said that reactor operator trainees have received training on inadequate reactor simulators. In contrast, a representative of the Cuban government told us that Cuba wants to build its reactor in accordance with safety standards. Also, according to information provided to us by a representative of the Russian government, Cuba's reactor has been constructed according to safety rules that take into account, among other things, the possible impacts of an earthquake. State Department, NRC, and DOE officials have expressed a number of concerns about the construction and operation of Cuba's nuclear power reactors. According to State Department officials, the United States maintains a comprehensive embargo on any U.S. transactions with Cuba and discourages other countries from providing assistance, except for safety purposes, to Cuba's nuclear power program. The United States would prefer that the construction of the reactors never be completed and wants Cuba to sign the Non-Proliferation Treaty or the Treaty of Tlatelolco, both of which bind signatories to blanket nonproliferation commitments for their entire nuclear program, before the United States considers reversing its policy of discouraging other countries from assisting Cuba with the construction of the reactors. The United States has asked Russia to cease providing any nuclear assistance until Cuba has signed either treaty. NRC officials are aware of, but could not verify, the Cuban emigres' allegations of safety deficiencies because available information was limited. They said, however, that if the allegations were true, the cited deficiencies could affect the safety of the reactors operation. In addition, they expressed concern about the ability of Cuba's industrial infrastructure to support the nuclear power reactors, the lack of a regulatory structure, the adequacy of training for reactor operators, the quality of the civil construction, and the design of the

  16. The safety concept of the Federal Government concerning waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfaffelhuber, J.K.

    1976-01-01

    The safety concept of the FRG concerning waste management is based on the ultimate aim of having in operation until 1985 nuclear power plants with a capacity of approx. 45,000 MWe, i.e. 50 nuclear power plants with an annual fuel consumption of 1,500 tons. A critical survey shows that there is still a great number of questions to be solved, concerning the fuel cycle in particular in terms of industrial standards, and that various problems ought to be the subject of R and D activities. Activities in the field of waste management so far are concerned only with project studies and details of project definition studies. On the one hand, the principles of the safety concept for waste management are to make possible and to guarantee the operation of nuclear facilities, and on the other hand, they are to subject those facilities which serve the purpose of waste disposal to similar safety regulations as the nuclear power plants are subjected to. The integrated waste disposal system of the Federal government for CWRs until the mid eighties is described. R+D activities are still necessary, in particular concerning reprocessing techniques, techniques in the reprocessing of Pu, the conditioning of highly active wastes, testing final storage techniques, and in the field of retention of gaseous radioactive nuclides (iodine, krypton, tritium) and of safeguarding waste disposal parks against terrorists and sabotage. The legal basis for the protection of the citizen is the Atomic Energy Act and its ordinances, EURATOM basic standards, and ICRP recommendations, some of which were tightened up for the FRG. Some recommendations of the Strahlenschutzkommision - radiation exposure, storage and separation of 85 Kr, 129 J, 131 J, and 133 Xe - are dealt with in detail. (HPH/LN) [de

  17. Mothers' Concerns for Personal Safety and Privacy While Breastfeeding: An Unexplored Phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen-Carole, Casey; Allen, Katherine; Fagnano, Maria; Dozier, Ann; Halterman, Jill

    2018-04-01

    Preliminary qualitative research in upstate NY shows new mothers are worried about safety while breastfeeding. Little is known regarding prevalence of these concerns and their effect on breastfeeding outcomes. (1) Determine frequency of breastfeeding safety and privacy concerns; (2) Explore their association with breastfeeding outcomes. Mothers were surveyed immediately and 1-month postpartum about breastfeeding goals; both surveys addressed privacy and safety concerns at home, work, and in public. Outcome data included breastfeeding intent, exclusivity, and duration. Breastfeeding/non-breastfeeding mothers were compared using Chi-square and multivariate analyses. A total of 279 women enrolled. Of these 82.8% initiated breastfeeding; at 1-month 72% provided any breast milk, and 44% were exclusively breastfeeding. About 99% felt safe breastfeeding at home; 25% reported privacy concerns; and 5% felt "vulnerable or unsafe" while breastfeeding. At 1-month, 49% agreed there was a safe place to breastfeed/express milk at work (20% unsure). Non-breastfeeding mothers expressed more safety concerns outside home/at work: 18% breastfeeding versus 28% non-breastfeeding outside home; 27% breastfeeding versus 40% non-breastfeeding at work. Nearly 54% who reported feeling vulnerable/unsafe with breastfeeding initiated breastfeeding, compared with 86% not reporting this concern (p = 0.008). Fewer women initiating breastfeeding reported vulnerability/safety (3% breastfeeding versus 14% non-breastfeeding, p = 0.008) or privacy (22% breastfeeding versus 40% non-breastfeeding, p = 0.19) concerns. Associations held after controlling for age, race, parity, insurance, geography, and marital-status. Significant associations between initiation, privacy, and safety concerns did not extend to duration or exclusivity. Many breastfeeding women reported safety and privacy concerns, especially outside the home and at work, which may influence breastfeeding initiation. Further study

  18. Questionnaire responses concerning safety issues in MR examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi-Sekino, Sachiko; Nakai, Toshiharu; Muranaka, Hiroyuki

    2011-01-01

    Recently, the rising numbers of medical implants and scanners with higher static magnetic field have increased safety concerns for magnetic resonance (MR) examination. To determine future safety focus, we distributed anonymous questionnaires to 3250 members of the Japanese Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine (JSMRM) and received 978 responses. Safety issues on the questionnaire concentrated on the handling of patients with implants (Q7-18, appendix), acoustic trauma due to scanning (Q19-21, appendix), and MR compatibility within the scanner room (Q22-25, appendix). Ninety-three percent of respondents indicated they had encountered cases with implants or medical materials of unknown MR compatibility; 21.7% reported heating problems and 15.0%, nerve stimulation problems, in patients with implants during MR examination. Although 88.7% of respondents recognized the term ''MR compatibility'', 68.2% indicated limited detailed understanding of the term. Eleven percent had had cases with suspected acoustic injury from MR scanner noise. Scanner noise levels were not clarified in any way in 37.4% cases, but 69.5% applied ear protection to patients. Labeling of ''MR compatibility'' of equipment brought into the MR scanner room was reported by 71.9%. More than 50% experienced MR compatibility issues related to equipment brought into the MR scanner room. With regard to safety issues on metallic objects which are implanted in MR workers, 88.1% indicated they would continue current operations even the implant is inside the body. Respondents identified lectures and seminars by professional societies, safety training by manufacturers, and information from the Internet and literature as the 3 main sources for up-dating safety information for MR examination. (author)

  19. Safety concerns for superconducting magnets of upcoming fusion experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, L.R.

    1983-01-01

    -Several fusion experiments being constructed (Tore Supra) or contemplated (DCT 8, Alcator DCT) feature superconducting coils. These coils introduce the following safety concerns: 1. Internally Cooled Conductor (ICC). ICC's are found to be highly stable against short heat pulses, even when the coolant is stagnant or moving at low steady-state velocity. However, a large heat pulse is certain to quench the conductor. Thus, determining the stability limits is vital. 2. Helium II Cooling. Helium II has both unique advantages as a coolant and unique safety problems. 3. Shorted Turns. In magnets with shorts from operational accidents, the current can switch back and forth between the short and the shorted turns, as those alternatively go normal and superconducting. 4. Hybrid Superconducting-Normal Conducting Coil System. The possibility of unequal currents in the different magnets and thus of unexpected forces on the superconducting magnets is much greater than for an all-superconducting system. Analysis of these problems are presented

  20. Safety Significance of the Halden IFA-650 LOCA Test Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuketa, Toyoshi; Nagase, Fumihisa; Grandjean, Claude; Petit, Marc; Hozer, Zoltan; Kelppe, Seppo; Khvostov, Grigori; Hafidi, Biya; Therache, Benjamin; Heins, Lothar; Valach, Mojmir; Voglewede, John; Wiesenack, Wolfgang

    2010-01-01

    CSNI therefore posed the question to the Working Group on Fuel Safety (WGFS): How could the Halden LOCA tests affect regulation? The WGFS agreed that the main safety concern would be fuel dispersal (and hence the potential for loss of coolable geometry) occurring at relatively low temperature, i.e. 800 deg. C. In order to assess the applicability of the IFA-650.4 results to actual power plant situations and the possible impact on safety criteria, a number of aspects should be clarified before considering a safety significance of the Halden IFA-650 series results: - Representativeness for NPP cases - Gas flow - Relocation - Burnup effect - Repeatability - Power history These items will be discussed one by one in this CSNI report. On April 17, 2009, test 650.9 was carried out with 650.4 sibling fuel. The target cladding peak temperature was 1100 deg. C in this case, but otherwise the experimental conditions were very similar. In many respects, 650.9 repeated the 650.4 experiment, e.g. by showing clear signs of fuel relocation which was confirmed by gamma scanning later on. The WGFS therefore decided that 650.9 should be considered as well for this CSNI report. Mention is also made of IFA-650.3, which failed with a small crack in a weak spot induced by thermocouple welding, and IFA-650.5 which involved ballooning and fuel ejection under conditions of restricted gas flow

  1. Psychometrics of the AAN Caregiver Driving Safety Questionnaire and contributors to caregiver concern about driving safety in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Janessa O; Springate, Beth; Bernier, Rachel A; Davis, Jennifer

    2018-03-01

    ABSTRACTBackground:The American Academy of Neurology (AAN) updated their practice parameters in the evaluation of driving risk in dementia and developed a Caregiver Driving Safety Questionnaire, detailed in their original manuscript (Iverson Gronseth, Reger, Classen, Dubinsky, & Rizzo, 2010). They described four factors associated with decreased driving ability in dementia patients: history of crashes or citations, informant-reported concerns, reduced mileage, and aggressive driving. An informant-reported AAN Caregiver Driving Safety Questionnaire was designed with these elements, and the current study was the first to explore the factor structure of this questionnaire. Additionally, we examined associations between these factors and cognitive and behavioral measures in patients with mild cognitive impairment or early Alzheimer's disease and their informants. Exploratory factor analysis revealed a four-component structure, consistent with the theory behind the AAN scale composition. These four factor scores also were significantly associated with performance on cognitive screening instruments and informant reported behavioral dysfunction. Regressions revealed that behavioral dysfunction predicted caregiver concerns about driving safety beyond objective patient cognitive dysfunction. In this first known quantitative exploration of the scale, our results support continued use of this scale in office driving safety assessments. Additionally, patient behavioral changes predicted caregiver concerns about driving safety over and above cognitive status, which suggests that caregivers may benefit from psychoeducation about cognitive factors that may negatively impact driving safety.

  2. Assessment of the factors with significant influence on safety culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farcasiu, M.; Nitoi, M.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a qualitative and a quantitative evaluation of the factors with significant impact on safety culture were performed. These techniques were established and applied in accordance with IAEA standards. In order to show the applicability and opportunity of the methodology a specific case study was prepared: safety culture evaluation for INR Pitesti. The qualitative evaluation was performed using specific developed questionnaires. Through analysis of the completed questionnaires was established the development stage of safety culture at INR. The quantitative evaluation was performed using a guide to rate the influence factors. For each factor was identified the influence (negative or positive) and ranking score was estimated using scoring criteria. The results have emphasized safety culture stages. The paper demonstrates the fact that using both quantitative and qualitative assessment techniques, a practical value of the safety culture concept is given. (authors)

  3. Production of neutrons in particle accelerators: a PNRI safety concern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, Corazon M.; Cayabo, Lynette B.; Artificio, Thelma P.; Melendez, Johnylen V.; Piquero, Myrna E.; Parami, Vangeline K.

    2002-09-01

    In the safety assessment made for the first cyclotron facility in the Philippines, that is the cyclotron in the P.E.T. (Positron Emission Tomography) center of the St. Luke's Medical Center, the concern on the production of neutrons associated with the operation of particle accelerators has been identified. This takes into consideration the principles in the operation of particle accelerators and the associated production of neutrons resulting from their operation, the hazards and risks in their operation. The Bureau of Health Devices and Technology (BHDT) of the Department of Health in the Philippines regulates and controls the presently existing six (6) linear accelerators distributed in different hospitals in the country, being classified as x-ray producing devices. From the results of this study, it is evident that the production of neutrons from the operation of accelerators, produces neutrons and that activation due to neutrons can form radioactive materials. The PNRI (Philippine Nuclear Research Institute) being mandated by law to regulate and control any equipment or devices producing or utilizing radioactive materials should take the proper steps to subject all accelerator facilities and devices in the Philippines such as linear accelerators under its regulatory control in the same manner as it did with the first cyclotron in the country. (Author)

  4. Health and safety concerns of textiles with nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, L.; Ramos, D.

    2017-10-01

    There is a growing concern related to the effects of nanomaterials in health and safety.Nanotechnologies are already present in many consumer products, including textiles. “Nanotextiles” can be considered as traditional textiles with the incorporation of nanoparticles. They present often functionalities such as antibacterial, ultraviolet radiation protection, water and dirt repellency, self-cleaning or flame retardancy. Nanoparticles can be released from the textile materials due to different effects (abrasion and other mechanical stresses, sweat, irradiation, washing, temperature changes, etc.). It is then expectable that “nanotextiles” may release individual nanoparticles, agglomerates of nanoparticles or small particles of textile with or without nanoparticles, depending on the type of integration of the nanoparticles in textiles. The most important exposure route of the human body to nanoparticles in case of textiles is skin contact. Several standards are being developed under the auspices of the European Committee for Standardization. In this paper, it is presented the development and application of a test method to evaluate the skin exposure to nanoparticles, to evaluate the transfer of the nanoparticles from the textile to the skin by the effect of abrasion and sweat.

  5. Audit Report The Procurement of Safety Class/Safety-Significant Items at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    the Savannah River Site. Our review disclosed that the Department had procured and installed safety-class and safety-significant SSCs that did not meet NQA-1 quality standards. Specifically, we identified multiple instances in which critical components did not meet required quality and safety standards. For example: (1) Three structural components were procured and installed by the prime contractor at Savannah River during construction of the MOX Facility that did not meet the technical specifications for items relied on for safety. These substandard items necessitated costly and time consuming remedial action to, among other things, ensure that nonconforming materials and equipment would function within safety margins; (2) In six instances, items used in the construction of TEF failed to satisfy quality standards. In one of these situations, operating procedures had to be modified to ensure that the problem item did not compromise safety; and (3) Finally, at the ISP, one component that did not meet quality standards was procured. The failure of the item could have resulted in a spill of up to 15,000 gallons of high-level radioactive waste. Based on an extensive examination of relevant internal controls and procurement practices, we concluded that these failures were attributable to inadequate attention to quality assurance at Savannah River. Simply put, Departmental controls were not adequate to prevent and/or detect quality assurance problems. For example, Federal and prime contractor officials did not expressly require that subcontractors or lower-tiered vendors comply with quality assurance requirements. Additionally, management did not effectively communicate quality assurance concerns between the several Departmental program elements operating at Savannah River. The procurement and installation of these nonconforming components resulted in cost increases. For example, as of October 2008, the MOX Facility had incurred costs of more than $680,000 due to problems

  6. Operating experience feedback from safety significant events at research reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shokr, A.M. [Atomic Energy Authority, Abouzabal (Egypt). Egypt Second Research Reactor; Rao, D. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    2015-05-15

    Operating experience feedback is an effective mechanism to provide lessons learned from the events and the associated corrective actions to prevent recurrence of events, resulting in improving safety in the nuclear installations. This paper analyzes the events of safety significance that have been occurred at research reactors and discusses the root causes and lessons learned from these events. Insights from literature on events at research reactors and feedback from events at nuclear power plants that are relevant to research reactors are also presented along with discussions. The results of the analysis showed the importance of communication of safety information and exchange of operating experience are vital to prevent reoccurrences of events. The analysis showed also the need for continued attention to human factors and training of operating personnel, and the need for establishing systematic ageing management programmes of reactor facilities, and programmes for safety management of handling of nuclear fuel, core components, and experimental devices.

  7. Operating experience feedback from safety significant events at research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shokr, A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Operating experience feedback is an effective mechanism to provide lessons learned from the events and the associated corrective actions to prevent recurrence of events, resulting in improving safety in the nuclear installations. This paper analyzes the events of safety significance that have been occurred at research reactors and discusses the root causes and lessons learned from these events. Insights from literature on events at research reactors and feedback from events at nuclear power plants that are relevant to research reactors are also presented along with discussions. The results of the analysis showed the importance of communication of safety information and exchange of operating experience are vital to prevent reoccurrences of events. The analysis showed also the need for continued attention to human factors and training of operating personnel, and the need for establishing systematic ageing management programmes of reactor facilities, and programmes for safety management of handling of nuclear fuel, core components, and experimental devices.

  8. Categorization of safety related motor operated valve safety significance for Ulchin Unit 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, D. I.; Kim, K. Y.

    2002-03-01

    We performed a categorization of safety related Motor Operated Valve (MOV) safety significance for Ulchin Unit 3. The safety evaluation of MOV of domestic nuclear power plants affects the generic data used for the quantification of MOV common cause failure ( CCF) events in Ulchin Units 3 PSA. Therefore, in this study, we re-estimated the MGL(Multiple Greek Letter) parameter used for the evaluation of MOV CCF probabilities in Ulchin Units 3 Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) and performed a classification of the MOV safety significance. The re-estimation results of the MGL parameter show that its value is decreased by 30% compared with the current value in Ulchin Unit 3 PSA. The categorization results of MOV safety significance using the changed value of MGL parameter shows that the number of HSSCs(High Safety Significant Components) is decreased by 54.5% compared with those using the current value of it in Ulchin Units 3 PSA

  9. Design concepts and safety concerns of the small and medium size reactors (SMR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seul, Kwang Won; Lee, Jae Hun; Kim, Hho Jung

    1998-01-01

    The small and medium size reactors (SMR) and interface facilities such as desalination plant are expected to be located near the population area because of restrictions in transporting the plant products such as fresh water to long distance area. To protect the public around the plant facility from the possible release of radioactive materials, the design development of the SMR is focusing on an enhancement of the safety and reliability as well as the economics. In this study, the major safety concepts of the SMR designs significantly different from the current PWR designs are investigated and the safety concerns applicable to the integrated SMR design of Korea (called SMART), were identified. Those safety issues include the use of proven technology, application of strengthening defense in depth, event categorization and selection, simplification of emergency planning, determination of accident source terms and so on. The efforts to resolve the safety concerns in the design stage will provide an improvement of the safety of the SMART design

  10. Automated discovery of safety and efficacy concerns for joint & muscle pain relief treatments from online reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, David Z; Gruss, Richard; Abrahams, Alan S

    2017-04-01

    Product issues can cost companies millions in lawsuits and have devastating effects on a firm's sales, image and goodwill, especially in the era of social media. The ability for a system to detect the presence of safety and efficacy (S&E) concerns early on could not only protect consumers from injuries due to safety hazards, but could also mitigate financial damage to the manufacturer. Prior studies in the field of automated defect discovery have found industry-specific techniques appropriate to the automotive, consumer electronics, home appliance, and toy industries, but have not investigated pain relief medicines and medical devices. In this study, we focus specifically on automated discovery of S&E concerns in over-the-counter (OTC) joint and muscle pain relief remedies and devices. We select a dataset of over 32,000 records for three categories of Joint & Muscle Pain Relief treatments from Amazon's online product reviews, and train "smoke word" dictionaries which we use to score holdout reviews, for the presence of safety and efficacy issues. We also score using conventional sentiment analysis techniques. Compared to traditional sentiment analysis techniques, we found that smoke term dictionaries were better suited to detect product concerns from online consumer reviews, and significantly outperformed the sentiment analysis techniques in uncovering both efficacy and safety concerns, across all product subcategories. Our research can be applied to the healthcare and pharmaceutical industry in order to detect safety and efficacy concerns, reducing risks that consumers face using these products. These findings can be highly beneficial to improving quality assurance and management in joint and muscle pain relief. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Definitive closure of nuclear power plants. Aspects concerning physical safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, C.; Puntarulo, L.; Canibano, J.

    1988-01-01

    This paper analyzes the various safety requirements that must be fulfilled by nuclear power plants for their operation without restrictions, such as safeguards, nuclear safety and physical protection. Physical protection, the subject most extensively dealt by the authors, is defined as safety measures aimed at providing protection against deliberate hostile deeds, such as robberies or non-authorized transport of radioactive materials or sabotage in nuclear facilities, performed either by individuals or by groups of individuals. (Author)

  12. Safety regulations concerning instrumentation and control systems for research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Shanshoury, A.I.

    2009-01-01

    A brief study on the safety and reliability issues related to instrumentation and control systems in nuclear reactor plants is performed. In response, technical and strategic issues are used to accomplish instrumentation and control systems safety. For technical issues there are ; systems aspects of digital I and C technology, software quality assurance, common-mode software, failure potential, safety and reliability assessment methods, and human factors and human machine interfaces. The strategic issues are the case-by-case licensing process and the adequacy of the technical infrastructure. The purpose of this work was to review the reliability of the safety systems related to these technical issues for research reactors

  13. New Automated System Available for Reporting Safety Concerns | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new system has been developed for reporting safety issues in the workplace. The Environment, Health, and Safety’s (EHS’) Safety Inspection and Issue Management System (SIIMS) is an online resource where any employee can report a problem or issue, said Siobhan Tierney, program manager at EHS.

  14. Safety Issues Concerning the Medical Use of Cannabis and Cannabinoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A Ware

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Safety issues are a major barrier to the use of cannabis and cannabinoid medications for clinical purposes. Information on the safety of herbal cannabis may be derived from studies of recreational cannabis use, but cannabis exposure and effects may differ widely between medical and recreational cannabis users. Standardized, quality-controlled cannabinoid products are available in Canada, and safety profiles of approved medications are available through the Canadian formulary. In the present article, the evidence behind major safety issues related to cannabis use is summarized, with the aim of promoting informed dialogue between physicians and patients in whom cannabinoid therapy is being considered. Caution is advised in interpreting these data, because clinical experience with cannabinoid use is in the early stages. There is a need for long-term safety monitoring of patients using cannabinoids for a wide variety of conditions, to further guide therapeutic decisions and public policy.

  15. Engineering Hematopoietic Cells for Cancer Immunotherapy: Strategies to Address Safety and Toxicity Concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resetca, Diana; Neschadim, Anton; Medin, Jeffrey A

    2016-09-01

    Advances in cancer immunotherapies utilizing engineered hematopoietic cells have recently generated significant clinical successes. Of great promise are immunotherapies based on chimeric antigen receptor-engineered T (CAR-T) cells that are targeted toward malignant cells expressing defined tumor-associated antigens. CAR-T cells harness the effector function of the adaptive arm of the immune system and redirect it against cancer cells, overcoming the major challenges of immunotherapy, such as breaking tolerance to self-antigens and beating cancer immune system-evasion mechanisms. In early clinical trials, CAR-T cell-based therapies achieved complete and durable responses in a significant proportion of patients. Despite clinical successes and given the side effect profiles of immunotherapies based on engineered cells, potential concerns with the safety and toxicity of various therapeutic modalities remain. We discuss the concerns associated with the safety and stability of the gene delivery vehicles for cell engineering and with toxicities due to off-target and on-target, off-tumor effector functions of the engineered cells. We then overview the various strategies aimed at improving the safety of and resolving toxicities associated with cell-based immunotherapies. Integrating failsafe switches based on different suicide gene therapy systems into engineered cells engenders promising strategies toward ensuring the safety of cancer immunotherapies in the clinic.

  16. Assessment of the nuclear installation's safety significant events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidican, D.

    2005-01-01

    This document tries to establish, based on the available documentation, the main steps in development of Assessment of the Events in Nuclear Installations. It takes into account: selection of the safety significant occurrences, establishing the direct cause and contributors as well as the root cause and contributors. Also, the document presents the necessary corrective actions and generic lessons to be learned from the event. The document is based especially on IAEA - ASSET guidelines and DOE root cause analysis Guidance. (author)

  17. Progress report concerning safety research for nuclear reactor facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    Examination and evaluation of safety research results for nuclear reactor facilities have been performed, as more than a year has elapsed since the plan had been initiated in April, 1976, by the special sub-committee for the safety of nuclear reactor facilities. The research is carried out by being divided roughly into 7 items, and seems to be steadily proceeding, though it does not yet reach the target. The above 7 items include researches for (1) criticality accident, (2) loss of coolant accident, (3) safety for light water reactor fuel, (4) construction safety for reactor facilities, (5) reduction of release of radioactive material, (6) safety evaluation based on the probability theory for reactor facilities, and (7) aseismatic measures for reactor facilities. With discussions on the progress and the results of the research this time, research on the behaviour on fuel in abnormal transients including in-core and out-core experiments has been added to the third item, deleting the power-cooling mismatch experiment in Nuclear Safety Research Reactor of JAERI. Also it has been decided to add two research to the seventh item, namely measured data collection, classification and analysis, and probability assessment of failures due to an earthquake. For these 7 items, the report describes the concrete contents of research to be performed in fiscal years of 1977 and 1978, by discussing on most rational and suitable contents conceivable at present. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  18. India's power program and its concern over environmental safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, G.E.; Mittra, J.

    2001-01-01

    India's need of electrical power is enormous and per capita consumption of power is to be increased at least by ten times to reach the level of world average. Thermal Power generation faces two fold problems. First, there is scarcity of good quality fuel and second, increasing environmental pollution. India's self reliant, three stage, 'closed-fuel-cycle' nuclear power program is promising better solution to the above problems. To ensure Radiation Protection and Safety of Radiation Sources, Indian Nuclear Power program emphasizes upon design and engineering safety by incorporating necessary safety features in the design, operational safety through structured training program and typically through software packages to handle rare unsafe events and regulation by complying safety directives. A health survey among the radiation workers indicates that there is no extra threat to the public from nuclear power program. Based on latest technology, as available in case of nuclear power option, it is quite possible to meet high energy requirement with least impact on the environment.. (authors)

  19. India's power programs and its concern over environmental safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, G.E.; Mittra, J.; Sarma, M.S.R.

    2000-01-01

    India's need for electrical power is enormous and per capita consumption of power is to be increased at least by 10 times to reach the level of the world average. Thermal power generation faces two-fold problems. First, there is scarcity of good quality fuel and second, increasing environmental pollution. India 's self reliant, . three stage, 'closed-fuel-cycle' nuclear power program is promising a better solution to the above problems. To ensure Radiation Protection and Safety of Radiation Sources, the Indian Nuclear Power program emphasizes upon design and engineering safety by incorporating' necessary safety features in the design, operational safety through a structured training program and typically through software packages to handle rare unsafe events and regulation by complying safety directives. A health survey among the radiation workers indicates that there is no extra threat to the public from the nuclear power program. Based on the latest technology, as available in case of the nuclear power option, it is quite possible to meet high energy requirements with least impact on the environment. (authors)

  20. Safety concerns related to modular/prefabricated building construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fard, Maryam Mirhadi; Terouhid, Seyyed Amin; Kibert, Charles J; Hakim, Hamed

    2017-03-01

    The US construction industry annually experiences a relatively high rate of fatalities and injuries; therefore, improving safety practices should be considered a top priority for this industry. Modular/prefabricated building construction is a construction strategy that involves manufacturing of the whole building or some of its components off-site. This research focuses on the safety performance of the modular/prefabricated building construction sector during both manufacturing and on-site processes. This safety evaluation can serve as the starting point for improving the safety performance of this sector. Research was conducted based on Occupational Safety and Health Administration investigated accidents. The study found 125 accidents related to modular/prefabricated building construction. The details of each accident were closely examined to identify the types of injury and underlying causes. Out of 125 accidents, there were 48 fatalities (38.4%), 63 hospitalized injuries (50.4%), and 14 non-hospitalized injuries (11.2%). It was found that, the most common type of injury in modular/prefabricated construction was 'fracture', and the most common cause of accidents was 'fall'. The most frequent cause of cause (underlying and root cause) was 'unstable structure'. In this research, the accidents were also examined in terms of corresponding location, occupation, equipment as well as activities during which the accidents occurred. For improving safety records of the modular/prefabricated construction sector, this study recommends that future research be conducted on stabilizing structures during their lifting, storing, and permanent installation, securing fall protection systems during on-site assembly of components while working from heights, and developing training programmes and standards focused on modular/prefabricated construction.

  1. Safety and proliferation concerns as constraints on nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, L.

    1981-01-01

    Issues of safety and proliferation with respect to the nuclear option are discussed in this chapter. The basic premises underlying the author's analysis are: energy supply and use is a means to promote desired forms of development and not an end in itself; avoidance of nuclear mysticiam; avoidance of permanent discrimination; recognition of incommensurables; technological sophistication; and nuclear proliferation motivations apart from nuclear power development. A rational energy planner in a developing country will have to weigh carefully the interwoven factors of comparative costs and safety. Apart from cost considerations, the principal motivation for developing nuclear power is energy security

  2. Identifying Food Safety Concerns when Communication Barriers Exist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Jack A.; Dawson, Mary; Madera, Juan M.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: Students must be prepared to lead a diverse workforce. The objective of this study was to establish a teaching method that helps students identify barriers to food safety while working in a simulated environment with communication barriers. This study employed a perspective taking exercise based upon the principles of social learning…

  3. Safety significance of ATR [Advanced Test Reactor] passive safety response attributes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atkinson, S.A.

    1989-01-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory was designed with some passive safety response attributes which contribute to the safety posture of the facility. The three passive safety attributes being evaluated in the paper are: (1) In-core and in-vessel natural convection cooling, (2) a passive heat sink capability of the ATR primary coolant system (PCS) for the transfer of decay power from the uninsulated piping to the confinement, and (3) gravity feed of emergency coolant makeup. The safety significance of the ATR passive safety response attributes is that the reactor can passively respond for most transients, given a reactor scram, to provide adequate decay power removal and a significant time for operator action should the normal active heat removal systems and their backup systems both fail. The ATR Interim Level 1 Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) model ands results were used to evaluate the significance to ATR fuel damage frequency (or probability) of the above three passive response attributes. The results of the evaluation indicate that the first attribute is a major safety characteristic of the ATR. The second attribute has a noticeable but only minor safety significance. The third attribute has no significant influence on the ATR Level 1 PRA because of the diversity and redundancy of the ATR firewater injection system (emergency coolant system). 8 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  4. Considerations concerning the reliability of reactor safety equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furet, J.; Guyot, Ch.

    1967-01-01

    A review is made of the circumstances which favor a good collection of maintenance data at the C.E.A. The large amount of data to be treated has made necessary the use of a computer for analyzing automatically the results collected. Here, only particular aspects of the reliability from the point of view of the electronics used for nuclear reactor control will be dealt with: sale and unsafe failures; probability of survival (in the case of reactor safety); availability. The general diagrams of the safety assemblies which have been drawn up for two types of reactor (power reactor and low power experimental reactor) are given. Results are presented of reliability analysis which could be applied to the use of functional modular elements, developed industrially in France. Improvement of this reliability appears to be fairly limited by an increase in the redundancy; on the other hand it is shown how it may be very markedly improved by the use of automatic tests with different frequencies for detecting unsafe failures rates of measurements for the sub-assemblies and for the logic sub-assemblies. Finally examples are given to show the incidence of the complexity and of the use of different technologies in reactor safety equipment on the reliability. (authors) [fr

  5. Safety significance of steam generator tube degradation mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roussel, G; Mignot, P [AIB-Vincotte Nuclear - AVN, Brussels (Belgium)

    1991-07-01

    Steam generator (SG) tube bundle is a part of the Reactor Coolant Pressure Boundary (RCPB): this means that its integrity must be maintained. However, operating experience shows various types of tube degradation to occur in the SG tubing, which may lead to SG tube leaks or SG tube ruptures and create a loss of primary system coolant through the SG, therefore providing a direct path to the environment outside the primary containment structure. In this paper, the major types of known SG tube degradations are described and analyzed in order to assess their safety significance with regard to SG tube integrity. In conclusion: The operational reliability and the safety of the PWR steam generator s requires a sufficient knowledge of the degradation mechanisms to determine the amount of degradation that a tube can withstand and the time that it may remain in operation. They also require the availability of inspection techniques to accurately detect and characterize the various degradations. The status of understanding of the major types of degradation summarized in this paper shows and justifies why efforts are being performed to improve the management of the steam generator tube defects.

  6. Software Reliability Issues Concerning Large and Safety Critical Software Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamel, Khaled; Brown, Barbara

    1996-01-01

    This research was undertaken to provide NASA with a survey of state-of-the-art techniques using in industrial and academia to provide safe, reliable, and maintainable software to drive large systems. Such systems must match the complexity and strict safety requirements of NASA's shuttle system. In particular, the Launch Processing System (LPS) is being considered for replacement. The LPS is responsible for monitoring and commanding the shuttle during test, repair, and launch phases. NASA built this system in the 1970's using mostly hardware techniques to provide for increased reliability, but it did so often using custom-built equipment, which has not been able to keep up with current technologies. This report surveys the major techniques used in industry and academia to ensure reliability in large and critical computer systems.

  7. Safety concerns and risk management of multiple sclerosis therapies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soelberg Sorensen, P.

    2017-01-01

    Currently, more than ten drugs have been approved for treatment of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS). Newer treatments may be more effective, but have less favorable safety record. Interferon-β preparations and glatiramer acetate treatment require frequent subcutaneous or intramuscular...... disease activity can choose between dimethyl fumarate and teriflunomide or the “old injectable.” Patients with very active MS may choose a more effective drug as the initial treatment. In case of side effects on one drug, switch to another drug can be tried. Suboptimal effect of the first drug indicates...... escalation to a highly efficacious drug. A favorable benefit-risk balance can be maintained by appropriate patient selection and appropriate risk management on therapy. New treatments will within the coming 1-2 years change our current treatment algorithm for relapsing-remitting MS....

  8. 'Speaking up' about patient safety concerns and unprofessional behaviour among residents: validation of two scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, William; Etchegaray, Jason M; Thomas, Eric J; Hickson, Gerald B; Lehmann, Lisa Soleymani; Schleyer, Anneliese M; Best, Jennifer A; Shelburne, Julia T; May, Natalie B; Bell, Sigall K

    2015-11-01

    To develop and test the psychometric properties of two new survey scales aiming to measure the extent to which the clinical environment supports speaking up about (a) patient safety concerns and (b) unprofessional behaviour. Residents from six large US academic medical centres completed an anonymous, electronic survey containing questions regarding safety culture and speaking up about safety and professionalism concerns. Confirmatory factor analysis supported two separate, one-factor speaking up climates (SUCs) among residents; one focused on patient safety concerns (SUC-Safe scale) and the other focused on unprofessional behaviour (SUC-Prof scale). Both scales had good internal consistency (Cronbach's α>0.70) and were unique from validated safety and teamwork climate measures (rspeaking up behaviour about safety and professionalism concerns (r=0.21, pspeaking up behaviour among residents. These two scales may fill an existing gap in residency and safety culture assessments by measuring the openness of communication about safety and professionalism concerns, two important aspects of safety culture that are under-represented in existing metrics. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  9. The U.S. commercial air tour industry: a review of aviation safety concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Sarah-Blythe

    2014-02-01

    The U.S. Title 14 Code of Federal Regulations defines commercial air tours as "flight[s] conducted for compensation or hire in an airplane or helicopter where a purpose of the flight is sightseeing." The incidence of air tour crashes in the United States is disproportionately high relative to similar commercial aviation operations, and air tours operating under Part 91 governance crash significantly more than those governed by Part 135. This paper reviews the government and industry response to four specific areas of air tour safety concern: surveillance of flight operations, pilot factors, regulatory standardization, and maintenance quality assurance. It concludes that the government and industry have successfully addressed many of these tenet issues, most notably by: advancing the operations surveillance infrastructure through implementation of en route, ground-based, and technological surveillance methods; developing Aeronautical Decision Making and cue-based training programs for air tour pilots; consolidating federal air tour regulations under Part 136; and developing public-private partnerships for raising maintenance operating standards and improving quality assurance programs. However, opportunities remain to improve air tour safety by: increasing the number and efficiency of flight surveillance programs; addressing pilot fatigue with more restrictive flight hour limitations for air tour pilots; ensuring widespread uptake of maintenance quality assurance programs, especially among high-risk operators not currently affiliated with private air tour safety programs; and eliminating the 25-mile exception allowing Part 91 operators to conduct commercial air tours without the safety oversight required of Part 135 operators.

  10. Criticality safety concerns of uranium deposits in cascade equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plaster, M.J.

    1996-01-01

    The Paducah and Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plants enrich uranium in the 235 U isotope by diffusing gaseous uranium hexafluoride (UF 6 ) through a porous barrier. The UF 6 gaseous diffusion cascade utilized several thousand open-quotes stagesclose quotes of barrier to produce highly enriched uranium (HEU). Historically, Portsmouth has enriched the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant's product (typically 1.8 wt% 235 U) as well as natural enrichment feed stock up to 97 wt%. Due to the chemical reactivity of UF 6 , particularly with water, the formation of solid uranium deposits occur at a gaseous diffusion plant. Much of the equipment operates below atmospheric pressure, and deposits are formed when atmospheric air enters the cascade. Deposits may also be formed from UF 6 reactions with oil, UF 6 reactions with the metallic surfaces of equipment, and desublimation of UF 6 . The major deposits form as a result of moist air in leakage due to failure of compressor casing flanges, blow-off plates, seals, expansion joint convolutions, and instrument lines. This report describes criticality concerns and deposit disposition

  11. Legal requirements concerning the technical safety of nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nolte, R.

    1984-01-01

    A short survey on nuclear risks and the nuclear safety conception is followed by the attempted clear definition of the semantic import of section 7, sub-section (2), No. 3 of the Atomic Energy Act. There are first beginnings of a concretization of the state-of-the-art in science and technology, i.e. all kinds of sub-legislative regulations such as the regulations of the Radiation Protection Ordinance which show scientific substance, guidelines issued by the Ministers, as well as codes for practice set up by various technical bodies and standardization associations, all of which are designed to compensate for this loop hole in the legislation. This study goes to examine to what extent administration and jurisdiction may take into account such codes of practice for the concretization of the legal requirements, and whether they are even binding on those executing the law. Only the respective regulations of the Radiation Protection Ordinance have a binding effect. All other guidelines and codes of practice are not legally binding per se, nor are they capable of being legally permitted by being referred to in terms of legal norms or by the self-commitment of those executing the law. Any attempt of using them, as the basis of a prime facie evidence or as an anticipating expertise, at least evidentarily for the concretization will have to fail owing to their evaluating character and to the fact that they may interfere in sociological conflict. An exception may be a case where a clear distinction can be made as to what extent the contents of such codes of practice is related to scientific and technological findings or to decisions based on evaluations. In such a case, a prima facil evicdence for the conformity of the regulation in question with the state-of-the-art in science and technology may be considered, which would easy the concretization of Art. 7 II Section 3 of the Atomic Law. (orig./HSCH) [de

  12. An analysis of electronic health record-related patient safety concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeks, Derek W; Smith, Michael W; Taylor, Lesley; Sittig, Dean F; Scott, Jean M; Singh, Hardeep

    2014-01-01

    Objective A recent Institute of Medicine report called for attention to safety issues related to electronic health records (EHRs). We analyzed EHR-related safety concerns reported within a large, integrated healthcare system. Methods The Informatics Patient Safety Office of the Veterans Health Administration (VA) maintains a non-punitive, voluntary reporting system to collect and investigate EHR-related safety concerns (ie, adverse events, potential events, and near misses). We analyzed completed investigations using an eight-dimension sociotechnical conceptual model that accounted for both technical and non-technical dimensions of safety. Using the framework analysis approach to qualitative data, we identified emergent and recurring safety concerns common to multiple reports. Results We extracted 100 consecutive, unique, closed investigations between August 2009 and May 2013 from 344 reported incidents. Seventy-four involved unsafe technology and 25 involved unsafe use of technology. A majority (70%) involved two or more model dimensions. Most often, non-technical dimensions such as workflow, policies, and personnel interacted in a complex fashion with technical dimensions such as software/hardware, content, and user interface to produce safety concerns. Most (94%) safety concerns related to either unmet data-display needs in the EHR (ie, displayed information available to the end user failed to reduce uncertainty or led to increased potential for patient harm), software upgrades or modifications, data transmission between components of the EHR, or ‘hidden dependencies’ within the EHR. Discussion EHR-related safety concerns involving both unsafe technology and unsafe use of technology persist long after ‘go-live’ and despite the sophisticated EHR infrastructure represented in our data source. Currently, few healthcare institutions have reporting and analysis capabilities similar to the VA. Conclusions Because EHR-related safety concerns have complex

  13. List of reports from BMFT, CEA, EPRI, JSTA and USNRC concerning reactor safety research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-02-01

    This list reviews reports from the Federal Republic of Germany, from France from Japan and from the United States of America concerning special problems in the field of reactor safety research. According to the cooperation in the Gesellschaft fuer Reaktorsicherheit (GRS). The list pursues the following order: Country of origin, problem area concerned, according to the Reactor Safety Research Programm of the BMFT, reporting organization. The list of reports appears quarterly. (orig.) [de

  14. Ibogaine: complex pharmacokinetics, concerns for safety, and preliminary efficacy measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mash, D C; Kovera, C A; Pablo, J; Tyndale, R F; Ervin, F D; Williams, I C; Singleton, E G; Mayor, M

    2000-09-01

    Ibogaine is an indole alkaloid found in the roots of Tabernanthe Iboga (Apocynaceae family), a rain forest shrub that is native to western Africa. Ibogaine is used by indigenous peoples in low doses to combat fatigue, hunger and thirst, and in higher doses as a sacrament in religious rituals. Members of American and European addict self-help groups have claimed that ibogaine promotes long-term drug abstinence from addictive substances, including psychostimulants and opiates. Anecdotal reports attest that a single dose of ibogaine eliminates opiate withdrawal symptoms and reduces drug craving for extended periods of time. The purported efficacy of ibogaine for the treatment of drug dependence may be due in part to an active metabolite. The majority of ibogaine biotransformation proceeds via CYP2D6, including the O-demethylation of ibogaine to 12-hydroxyibogamine (noribogaine). Blood concentration-time effect profiles of ibogaine and noribogaine obtained for individual subjects after single oral dose administrations demonstrate complex pharmacokinetic profiles. Ibogaine has shown preliminary efficacy for opiate detoxification and for short-term stabilization of drug-dependent persons as they prepare to enter substance abuse treatment. We report here that ibogaine significantly decreased craving for cocaine and heroin during inpatient detoxification. Self-reports of depressive symptoms were also significantly lower after ibogaine treatment and at 30 days after program discharge. Because ibogaine is cleared rapidly from the blood, the beneficial aftereffects of the drug on craving and depressed mood may be related to the effects of noribogaine on the central nervous system.

  15. Safety concerns and suggested design approaches to the HTGR Reformer process concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, R.C.

    1981-09-01

    This report is a safety review of the High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor Reformer Application Study prepared by Gas-Cooled Reactor Associates (GCRA) of La Jolla, California. The objective of this review was to identify safety concerns and suggests design approaches to minimize risk in the High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor Reformer (HTGR-R) process concept

  16. Safety concerns and suggested design approaches to the HTGR Reformer process concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, R.C.

    1981-09-01

    This report is a safety review of the High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor Reformer Application Study prepared by Gas-Cooled Reactor Associates (GCRA) of La Jolla, California. The objective of this review was to identify safety concerns and suggests design approaches to minimize risk in the High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor Reformer (HTGR-R) process concept.

  17. The health and safety concerns of immigrant women workers in the Toronto sportswear industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gannagé, C M

    1999-01-01

    Immigrant women's conditions of work have worsened with new government and managerial strategies to restructure the Canadian apparel industry. Changes in occupational health and safety legislation have both given and taken away tools that immigrant women workers could use to improve the quality of their working lives. The author outlines a methodology for eliciting the health and safety concerns of immigrant women workers.

  18. Experimental evidence concerning the significant information depth of electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wisniewski, Wolfgang, E-mail: wolfgang.w@uni-jena.de [Otto-Schott-Institut, Jena University, Fraunhoferstr. 6, 07743 Jena (Germany); Saager, Stefan [Fraunhofer Institute for Organic Electronics, Electron Beam and Plasma Technology FEP, Winterbergstraße 28, 01277 Dresden (Germany); Böbenroth, Andrea [Fraunhofer Institute for the Microstructure of Materials and Systems IMWS, Walter-Huelse-Straße 1, 06120 Halle (Saale) (Germany); Rüssel, Christian [Otto-Schott-Institut, Jena University, Fraunhoferstr. 6, 07743 Jena (Germany)

    2017-02-15

    Experiments concerning the information depth of electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) are performed on samples featuring an amorphous wedge on a crystalline substrate and a crystalline wedge on an amorphous substrate. The effects of the acceleration voltage and exemplary software settings on the ability to measure through an amorphous layer are presented. Changes in the EBSD-signal could be detected through a ≈142 nm thick layer of amorphous Si while orientation measurements could be performed through a ≈116 nm thick layer when using a voltage of 30 kV. The complexity of the information depth significant to a given EBSD-pattern and the multiple parameters influencing it are discussed. It is suggested that a “core information depth” is significant to high quality patterns while a larger “maximum information depth” becomes relevant when the pattern quality decreases or the sample is inhomogeneous within the information volume, i.e. in the form of partially crystalline materials or crystal layers in the nm scale. - Highlights: • Experimental evidence of the significant information depth of EBSD is presented. • Effects of the voltage and exemplary software settings are discussed. • Dependence of the significant information depth on the pattern quality is proposed. • The information depth may reach up to 142 nm in Si when using a voltage of 30 kV. • The information depth depends on the available technology.

  19. Summary of Tiger Team Assessment and Technical Safety Appraisal recurring concerns in the Maintenance Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Tiger Team Assessments and Technical Safety Appraisals (TSA) were reviewed and evaluated for concerns in the Maintenance Area (MA). Two hundred and thirty one (231) maintenance concerns were identified by the Tiger Team Assessments and TSA reports. These recurring concerns appear below. A summary of the Noteworthy Practices that were identified and a compilation of the maintenance concerns for each performance objective that were not considered as recurring are also included. Where the Tiger Team Assessment and TSA identified the operating contractor or facility by name, the concern has been modified to remove the name while retaining the intent of the comment

  20. Understanding text-based persuasion and support tactics of concerned significant others

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine van Stolk-Cooke

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The behavior of concerned significant others (CSOs can have a measurable impact on the health and wellness of individuals attempting to meet behavioral and health goals, and research is needed to better understand the attributes of text-based CSO language when encouraging target significant others (TSOs to achieve those goals. In an effort to inform the development of interventions for CSOs, this study examined the language content of brief text-based messages generated by CSOs to motivate TSOs to achieve a behavioral goal. CSOs generated brief text-based messages for TSOs for three scenarios: (1 to help TSOs achieve the goal, (2 in the event that the TSO is struggling to meet the goal, and (3 in the event that the TSO has given up on meeting the goal. Results indicate that there was a significant relationship between the tone and compassion of messages generated by CSOs, the CSOs’ perceptions of TSO motivation, and their expectation of a grateful or annoyed reaction by the TSO to their feedback or support. Results underscore the importance of attending to patterns in language when CSOs communicate with TSOs about goal achievement or failure, and how certain variables in the CSOs’ perceptions of their TSOs affect these characteristics.

  1. Statement on safety requirements concerning the long-term operation of the Muehleberg nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-12-01

    This report published by the Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate ENSI investigates the safety requirements with respect to the long-term operation of the Muehleberg nuclear power station in Switzerland. Relevant international requirements and Swiss legal stipulations concerning the long-term operation of the power station are stated. The management of aging processes is looked at. The regular verification of the integrity of various plant components such as containments, piping, steam generation system, etc. is looked at in detail. The state-of-the-art concerning deterministic accident analyses and refitting technology are discussed, as are automated safety systems. The applicable laws, decrees and guidelines are listed in appendices

  2. Concerned significant others of people with gambling problems in Finland: a cross-sectional population study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salonen, Anne H; Castrén, Sari; Alho, Hannu; Lahti, Tuuli

    2014-04-24

    Problem gambling not only impacts those directly involved, but also the concerned significant others (CSOs) of problem gamblers. The aims of this study were to investigate the proportion of male and female CSOs at the population level; to investigate who the CSOs were concerned about; and to investigate sociodemographic factors, gender differences, gambling behaviour, and health and well-being among CSOs and non-CSOs. The data (n = 4484) were based on a cross-sectional population study. Structured telephone interviews were conducted in 2011-2012. The data were weighted based on age, gender and residency. The respondents were defined as CSOs if they reported that at least one of their significant others (father, mother, sister/brother, grandparent, spouse, own child/children, close friend) had had gambling problems. Statistical significance was determined by chi-squared and Fisher's exact tests, and logistic regression analysis. Altogether, 19.3% of the respondents were identified as CSOs. Most commonly, the problem gambler was a close friend (12.4%) of the CSO. The percentage of close friends having a gambling problem was larger among male CSOs (14.4%) compared with female CSOs (10.3%; p ≤ 0.001), while the percentage of partners with gambling problem was larger among females (2.6%) than among males (0.8%; p ≤ 0.001). In the best fitting model, the odds ratio (95% CI) of being a male CSO was 2.03 (1.24-3.31) for past-year gambling problems, 1.46 (1.08-1.97) for loneliness and 1.78 (1.38-2.29) for risky alcohol consumption. The odds ratio (95% CI) of being a female CSO was 1.51 (1.09-2.08) for past-year gambling involvement, 3.05 (1.18-7.90) for past-year gambling problems, 2.21 (1.24-3.93) for mental health problems, 1.39 (1.03-1.89) for loneliness and 1.97 (1.43-2.71) for daily smoking. CSOs of problem gamblers often experience cumulating problems such as their own risky gambling behaviour, health problems and other addictive disorders. The

  3. Safety significance of inadvertent operation of motor-operated valves in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruger, C.J.; Higgins, J.C.; Carbonaro, J.F.; Hall, R.E.

    1994-01-01

    Concerns about the consequences of valve mispositioning were brought to the forefront following an event at Davis Besse in 1985. The concern related to the ability to reposition open-quotes position-changeableclose quotes motor-operated valves (MOVs) from the control room in the event of their inadvertent operation and was documented in U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) Bulletin 85-03 and Generic Letter (GL) 89-10. The mispositioned MOVs may not be able to be returned to their required position due to high differential pressure or high flow conditions across the valves. The inability to reposition such valves may have significantly safety consequences, as in the Davis Besse event. However, full consideration of such mispositioning in safety analyses and in MOV test programs can be labor intensive and expensive. Industry raised concerns that consideration of position-changeable valves under GL 89-10 would not decrease the probability of core damage to an extent that would justify licensee costs. As a response, Brookhaven National Laboratory has conducted separate scoping studies for both boiling water reactors (BWRs) and pressurized water reactors (PWRs) using probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) techniques to determine if such valve mispositioning by itself is significant to safety. The approach used internal events PRA models to survey the order of magnitude of the risk-significance of valve mispositioning by considering the failure of selected position-changeable MOVs. The change in core damage frequency was determined for each valve considered, and the results were presented as a risk increase ratio for each of four assumed MOV failure rates. The risk increase ratios resulting from this failure rate sensitivity study can be used as a basis for a determination of the risk-significance of the MOV mispositioning issues for BWRs and PWRs

  4. Significance of Waterway Navigation Positioning Systems On Ship's Manoeuvring Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galor, W.

    The main goal of navigation is to lead the ship to the point of destination safety and efficiently. Various factors may affect ship realisating this process. The ship movement on waterway are mainly limited by water area dimensions (surface and depth). These limitations cause the requirement to realise the proper of ship movement trajectory. In case when this re requirement cant't fulfil then marine accident may happend. This fact is unwanted event caused losses of human health and life, damage or loss of cargo and ship, pollution of natural environment, damage of port structures or blocking the port of its ports and lost of salvage operation. These losses in same cases can be catas- trophical especially while e.i. crude oil spilling could be place. To realise of safety navigation process is needed to embrace the ship's movement trajectory by waterways area. The ship's trajectory is described by manoeuvring lane as a surface of water area which is require to realise of safety ship movement. Many conditions affect to ship manoeuvring line. The main are following: positioning accuracy, ship's manoeuvring features and phenomena's of shore and ship's bulk common affecting. The accuracy of positioning system is most important. This system depends on coast navigation mark- ing which can range many kinds of technical realisation. Mainly used systems based on lights (line), radionavigation (local system or GPS, DGPS), or radars. If accuracy of positiong is higer, then safety of navigation is growing. This article presents these problems exemplifying with approaching channel to ports situated on West Pomera- nian water region.

  5. LMFBR conceptual design study: an overview of environmental and safety concerns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenchley, D.L.

    1981-06-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) initiated the Liquid Metal Fast Breeder (LMFBR) Conceptual Design Study (CDS) with the objective of maintaining a viable breeder option. The project is scheduled to be completed in FY-1981 but decisions regarding plant construction will be delayed until at least 1985. This report provides a review of the potential environmental and safety engineering concerns for the CDS and recommends specific action for the Environmental and Safety Engineering Division of DOE

  6. LMFBR conceptual design study: an overview of environmental and safety concerns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brenchley, D.L.

    1981-06-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) initiated the Liquid Metal Fast Breeder (LMFBR) Conceptual Design Study (CDS) with the objective of maintaining a viable breeder option. The project is scheduled to be completed in FY-1981 but decisions regarding plant construction will be delayed until at least 1985. This report provides a review of the potential environmental and safety engineering concerns for the CDS and recommends specific action for the Environmental and Safety Engineering Division of DOE.

  7. Ordinance of 14 March 1983 concerning the Federal Commission for the Safety of Nuclear Installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    The Frederal Council issued a new Ordinance concerning the Federal Commission for the Safety of Nuclear Installations. This Ordinance replaces an Ordinance of 13 June 1960 and takes into account the distribution of tasks decided several years ago between the Commission, which operates on a part-time basis, and the principal Division for the Safety of Nuclear Installations attached to the Federal Office of Energy. (NEA) [fr

  8. Summary of Tiger Team Assessment and Technical Safety Appraisal recurring concerns in the Operations Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Fourteen Tiger Team Assessment and eight Technical Safety Appraisal (TSA) final reports have been received and reviewed by the DOE Training Coordination Program during Fiscal Year 1992. These assessments and appraisals included both reactor and non-reactor nuclear facilities in their reports. The Tiger Team Assessments and TSA reports both used TSA performance objectives, and list ''concerns'' as a result of their findings. However, the TSA reports categorized concerns into the following functional areas: (1) Organization and Administration, (2) Radiation Protection, (3) Nuclear Criticality Safety, (4) Occupational Safety, (5) Engineering/Technical Support, (6) Emergency Preparedness, (7) Safety Assessments, (8) Quality Verification, (9) Fire Protection, (10) Environmental Protection, and (11) Energetic Materials Safety. Although these functional areas match most of the TSA performance objectives, not all of the TSA performance objectives are addressed. For example, the TSA reports did not include Training, Maintenance, and Operations as functional areas. Rather, they included concerns that related to these topics throughout the 11 functional areas identified above. For consistency, the Operations concerns that were identified in each of the TSA report functional areas have been included in this summary with the corresponding TSA performance objective

  9. Exposures Resulting in Safety and Health Concerns for Child Laborers in Less Developed Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek G. Shendell

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Worldwide, over 200 million children are involved in child labor, with another 20 million children subjected to forced labor, leading to acute and chronic exposures resulting in safety and health (S&H risks, plus removal from formal education and play. This review summarized S&H issues in child labor, including forced or indentured domestic labor as other sectors of child labor. Specifically, we focused on exposures leading to S&H risks. Methods. We used PubMed, Scopus, Science Direct, and Google Scholar. References were in English, published in 1990–2015, and included data focused on exposures and S&H concerns of child labor. Results. Seventy-six journal articles were identified, 67 met criteria, 57 focused on individual countries, and 10 focused on data from multiple countries (comparing 3–83 countries. Major themes of concern were physical exposures including ergonomic hazards, chemical exposure hazards, and missed education. Childhood labor, especially forced, exploitative labor, created a significant burden on child development, welfare, and S&H. Conclusions. More field researche data emphasizing longitudinal quantitative effects of exposures and S&H risks are needed. Findings warranted developing policies and educational interventions with proper monitoring and evaluation data collection, plus multiple governmental, international organization and global economic reform efforts, particularly in lower-income, less developed countries.

  10. Significant Guidance Issued by the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — A list of Significant Guidance documents, which include guidance document disseminated to regulated entities or the general public that may reasonably be anticipated...

  11. The significance of human actions for plant safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holloway, N.J.

    1988-01-01

    The occurrence of the Chernobyl accident and before it the accidents at Three Mile Island, Flixborough and Bhopal, together with lesser process plant accidents, has emphasised the potential danger of human errors in major hazard plant operations. The perception of human error, held by the majority of the public and containing a fair amount of truth for a simple perception, is of an unpredictable and uncontrollable force let loose within the safest of system designs, and able, by virtue of these properties, to override the best laid plans. In this paper, we review the nature of the human errors which most concern us in process plant operation, and consider some of the conceptual approaches which might bring these errors under the same type of control as has been achieved for random hardware failures. (author)

  12. Factors to Consider When Balancing Campus Safety Concerns with Students' Civil Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingersoll, Julia S.

    2017-01-01

    On April 16, 2007, a student at Virginia Tech University, known to be mentally ill, went on a rampage shooting 49 people on campus before taking his own life. When it was over, 32 people were dead, and the concept of a safe campus was forever changed. The incident revealed the inherent conflicts between campus safety concerns and students' civil…

  13. Application of the threshold of toxicological concern (TTC) to the safety evaluation of cosmetic ingredients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroes, R.; Renwick, A.G.; Feron, V.; Galli, C.L.; Gibney, M.; Greim, H.; Guy, R.H.; Lhuguenot, J.C.; Sandt, J.J.M. van de

    2007-01-01

    The threshold of toxicological concern (TTC) has been used for the safety assessment of packaging migrants and flavouring agents that occur in food. The approach compares the estimated oral intake with a TTC value derived from chronic oral toxicity data for structurally-related compounds.

  14. Reporter Concerns in 300 Mode-Related Incident Reports from NASA's Aviation Safety Reporting System

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGreevy, Michael W.

    1996-01-01

    A model has been developed which represents prominent reporter concerns expressed in the narratives of 300 mode-related incident reports from NASA's Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS). The model objectively quantifies the structure of concerns which persist across situations and reporters. These concerns are described and illustrated using verbatim sentences from the original narratives. Report accession numbers are included with each sentence so that concerns can be traced back to the original reports. The results also include an inventory of mode names mentioned in the narratives, and a comparison of individual and joint concerns. The method is based on a proximity-weighted co-occurrence metric and object-oriented complexity reduction.

  15. Food safety concerns deriving from the use of silver based food packaging materials: a case study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra ePezzuto

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The formulation of innovative packaging solutions, exerting a functional antimicrobial role in slowing down food spoilage, is expected to have a significant impact on the food industry, allowing both the maintenance of food safety criteria for longer periods and the reduction of food waste. Different materials are considered able to exert the required antimicrobial activity, among which are materials containing silver. However, challenges exist in the application of silver to food contact materials due to knowledge gaps in the production of ingredients, stability of delivery systems in food matrices and health risks caused by the same properties which also offer the benefits. Aims of the present study were to test the effectiveness and suitability of two packaging systems, one of which contained silver, for packaging and storing Stracchino cheese, a typical Italian fresh cheese, and to investigate if there was any potential for consumers to be exposed to silver, via migration from the packaging to the cheese. Results did not show any significant difference in the effectiveness of the packaging systems on packaged Stracchino cheese, excluding that the active packaging systems exerted an inhibitory effect on the growth of spoilage microorganisms. Moreover, silver migrated into the cheese matrix throughout the storage time (24 days. Silver levels in cheese finally exceeded the maximum established level for the migration of a non-authorised substance through a functional barrier (Commission Regulation (EC No. 450/2009. This result poses safety concerns and strongly suggests the need for more research aimed at better characterizing the new packaging materials in terms of their potential impacts on human health and the environment.

  16. ED accreditation update. Physicians, medical staff may report safety concerns without fear of disciplinary action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-01

    Educating your staff about The Joint Commission's requirements for concerns about hospital safety and quality of care requires the ED manager to set a tone of openness and cooperation, while at the same time emphasizing your department's role in addressing such concerns: * The ED should be the first place that staff members communicate quality and safety concerns. It is only when a problem is not addressed that they should take the issue to hospital administration and, if necessary, The Joint Commission. * A single event should not trigger a report to The Joint Commission, unless it is unusually serious. Otherwise, only a series of events should trigger a report. * Reassure your staff that you care about what is reported and will act quickly on it. Educate your staff about the reporting forms, and follow up with random audits to ensure compliance.

  17. Significance of actinide chemistry for the long-term safety of waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae Il

    2006-01-01

    A geochemical approach to the long-term safety of waste disposal is discussed in connection with the significance of actinides, which shall deliver the major radioactivity inventory subsequent to the relatively short-term decay of fission products. Every power reactor generates transuranic (TRU) elements: plutonium and minor actinides (Np, Am, Cm), which consist chiefly of long-lived nuclides emitting alpha radiation. The amount of TRU actinides generated in a fuel life period is found to be relatively small (about 1 wt% or less in spent fuel) but their radioactivity persists many hundred thousands years. Geological confinement of waste containing TRU actinides demands, as a result, fundamental knowledge on the geochemical behavior of actinides in the repository environment for a long period of time. Appraisal of the scientific progress in this subject area is the main objective of the present paper. Following the introductory discussion on natural radioactivities, the nuclear fuel cycle is briefly brought up with reference to actinide generation and waste disposal. As the long-term disposal safety concerns inevitably with actinides, the significance of the aquatic actinide chemistry is summarized in two parts: the fundamental properties relevant to their aquatic behavior and the geochemical reactions in nanoscopic scale. The constrained space of writing allows discussion on some examples only, for which topics of the primary concern are selected, e.g. apparent solubility and colloid generation, colloid-facilitated migration, notable speciation of such processes, etc. Discussion is summed up to end with how to make a geochemical approach available for the long-term disposal safety of nuclear waste or for the Performance Assessment (PA) as known generally

  18. Driving and dementia: Efficient approach to driving safety concerns in family practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Linda; Molnar, Frank

    2017-01-01

    To provide primary care physicians with an approach to driving safety concerns when older persons present with memory difficulties. The approach is based on an accredited memory clinic training program developed by the Centre for Family Medicine Primary Care Collaborative Memory Clinic. One of the most challenging aspects of dementia care is the assessment of driving safety. Drivers with dementia are at higher risk of motor vehicle collisions, yet many drivers with mild dementia might be safely able to continue driving for several years. Because safe driving is dependent on multiple cognitive and functional skills, clinicians should carefully consider many factors when determining if cognitive concerns affect driving safety. Specific findings on corroborated history and office-based cognitive testing might aid in the physician's decisions to refer for comprehensive on-road driving evaluation and whether to notify transportation authorities in accordance with provincial reporting requirements. Sensitive communication and a person-centred approach are essential. Primary care physicians must consider many factors when determining if cognitive concerns might affect driving safety in older drivers. Copyright© the College of Family Physicians of Canada.

  19. Social media in health--what are the safety concerns for health consumers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Annie Y S; Gabarron, Elia; Fernandez-Luque, Luis; Armayones, Manuel

    Recent literature has discussed the unintended consequences of clinical information technologies (IT) on patient safety, yet there has been little discussion about the safety concerns in the area of consumer health IT. This paper presents a range of safety concerns for consumers in social media, with a case study on YouTube. We conducted a scan of abstracts on 'quality criteria' related to YouTube. Five areas regarding the safety of YouTube for consumers were identified: (a) harmful health material targeted at consumers (such as inappropriate marketing of tobacco or direct-to-consumer drug advertising); (b) public display of unhealthy behaviour (such as people displaying self-injury behaviours or hurting others); (c) tainted public health messages (i.e. the rise of negative voices against public health messages); (d) psychological impact from accessing inappropriate, offensive or biased social media content; and (e) using social media to distort policy and research funding agendas. The examples presented should contribute to a better understanding about how to promote a safe consumption and production of social media for consumers, and an evidence-based approach to designing social media interventions for health. The potential harm associated with the use of unsafe social media content on the Internet is a major concern. More empirical and theoretical studies are needed to examine how social media influences consumer health decisions, behaviours and outcomes, and devise ways to deter the dissemination of harmful influences in social media.

  20. Guideline for examination concerning the evaluation of safety in light water power reactor installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    This guideline was drawn up as the guide for examination when the safety evaluation of nuclear reactors is carried out at the time of approving the installation of light water power reactors. Accordingly in case of the examination of safety, it must be confirmed that the contents of application are in conformity with this guideline. If they are in conformity, it is judged that the safety evaluation of the policy in the basic design of a reactor facility is adequate, and also that the evaluation concerning the separation from the public in surroundings is adequate as the condition of location of the reactor facility. This guideline is concerned with light water power reactors now in use, but the basic concept may be the reference for the examination of the other types of reactors. If such a case occurs that the safety evaluation does not conform to this guideline, it is not excluded when the appropriate reason is clarified. The purpose of safety evaluation, the scope to be evaluated, the selection of the events to be evaluated, the criteria for judgement, the matters taken into consideration at the time of analysis, the concrete events of abnormal transient change and accident in operation, and the concrete events of serious accident and hypothetic accident are stipulated. The explanation and two appendices are attached. (Kako, I.)

  1. Radiation Safety in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit: Too Little or Too Much Concern?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Chung Yu

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available With rising numbers of extremely premature infants in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU who require multiple radiologic examinations for their complex medical conditions, concerns the risk of radiation exposure become a more prevalent issue. The biological effects from cumulative doses of both primary and secondary radiation can be particularly troubling for very premature babies due to their inherent sensitivity to both iatrogenic and environmental insults. Similarly, radiologic studies performed in the NICU pose potentially significant exposure risks to caretakers and to the families of patients often present in the NICU during these examinations. The purpose of this article is to critically review the available literature regarding current exposure rates in the NICU, address the validity of radiation exposure concerns, and suggest areas for improvement. With few exceptions, studies reveal that there were only low doses of radiation derived from any single radiographic examination in standard NICUs and that the radiation dosage used was in compliance with recommendations made by the Commission of European Communities (EC and International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP. However, there were wide variations in the radiation dose per single examination (mean entrance skin doses ranged from 15 to 73.6 μGy and in the frequency (mean ranged from 3.2 to 31 examinations per infant of those examinations. Studies also reported low secondary exposure rates from scatter radiation to others present in the NICU during radiographic examinations. Key to limiting unnecessary radiation exposure in the NICU is the employment of proper radiation techniques and safety measures. Thus, adhering to recommendations made by the EC and ICRP can help to reduce the anxiety of patients' families and medical staff regarding their risks from the effects of ionizing radiation in the NICU.

  2. Identifying the most significant indicators of the total road safety performance index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tešić, Milan; Hermans, Elke; Lipovac, Krsto; Pešić, Dalibor

    2018-04-01

    The review of the national and international literature dealing with the assessment of the road safety level has shown great efforts of the authors who tried to define the methodology for calculating the composite road safety index on a territory (region, state, etc.). The procedure for obtaining a road safety composite index of an area has been largely harmonized. The question that has not been fully resolved yet concerns the selection of indicators. There is a wide range of road safety indicators used to show a road safety situation on a territory. Road safety performance index (RSPI) obtained on the basis of a larger number of safety performance indicators (SPIs) enable decision makers to more precisely define the earlier goal- oriented actions. However, recording a broader comprehensive set of SPIs helps identify the strengths and weaknesses of a country's road safety system. Providing high quality national and international databases that would include comparable SPIs seems to be difficult since a larger number of countries dispose of a small number of identical indicators available for use. Therefore, there is a need for calculating a road safety performance index with a limited number of indicators (RSPI ln n ) which will provide a comparison of a sufficient quality, of as many countries as possible. The application of the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) method and correlative analysis has helped to check if the RSPI ln n is likely to be of sufficient quality. A strong correlation between the RSPI ln n and the RSPI has been identified using the proposed methodology. Based on this, the most contributing indicators and methodologies for gradual monitoring of SPIs, have been defined for each country analyzed. The indicator monitoring phases in the analyzed countries have been defined in the following way: Phase 1- the indicators relating to alcohol, speed and protective systems; Phase 2- the indicators relating to roads and Phase 3- the indicators relating to

  3. List of reports concerning reactor safety research from BMFT, CEA, EPRI, JSTA, and USNRC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-12-01

    This list reviews reports from the Federal Republic of Germany, from France, from Japan and from the United States of America concerning special problems in the field of Reactor Safety Research. According to the cooperation of the Bundesminister fuer Forschung und Technologie (BMFT) with the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA), the Japan Science and Technologie Agency (JSTA), the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission, these Reports are available in the Gesellschaft fuer Reaktorsicherheit (GRS). The list pursues the following order: Country of origin, problem area concerned, according to the Reactor Safety Research Programm of the BMFT, reporting organization. The list of reports appears quarterly. (orig./HP) [de

  4. Surveys of research projects concerning nuclear facility safety, financed by the Federal Ministry of the Interior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-05-01

    Each progress report is a collection of individual reports, categorized by subject matter. They are a documentation of the contractor's progress, rendered by themselves on standardized forms, published, for the sake of general information on progress made in investigations concerning reactor safety, by the project attendance department of the GRS. The individual reports have serial numbers. Each report includes particulars of the objective, work carried out, results obtained and plans for project continuation. (orig./HP) [de

  5. Long-term criticality safety concerns associated with surplus fissile material disposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, J.S.

    1995-01-01

    A substantial inventory of surplus fissile material would result from ongoing and planned dismantlement of US and Russian nuclear weapons. This surplus fissile material could be dispositioned by irradiation in nuclear reactors, and the resulting spent MOx fuel would be similar in radiation characteristics to regular LWR spent UO2 fuel. The surplus fissile material could also be immobilized into high-level waste forms, such as borosilicate glass, synroc, or metal-alloy matrix. The MOx spent fuel, or the immobilized waste forms, could then be directly disposed of in a geologic repository. Long-term criticality safety concerns arise because the fissile contents (i.e., Pu-239 and its decay daughter U-235) in these waste forms are higher than in LWR spent UO2 fuel. MOx spent fuel could contain 3 to 4 wt% of reactor-grade plutonium, compared to only 0.9 wt% of plutonium in LWR spent UO2 fuel. At some future time (tens of thousand of years), when the waste forms had deteriorated due to intruding groundwater, the water could mix with the long-lived fissile materials to form into a critical system. If the critical system is self-sustaining, somewhat like the natural-occurring reactor in OKLO, fission products produced could readily be available for dissolution and release out to the accessible environment, adversely affecting public health and safety. This paper will address ongoing activities to evaluate long-term criticality safety concerns associated with disposition of fissile material in a geologic setting. Issues to be addressed include the identification of a worst-case water-intrusion scenario and waste-form geometries which present the most concern for long-term criticality safety; and suggests of technical solutions for such concerns

  6. THE INFLUENCE OF MEDIA EXPOSURE, SAFETY AND HEALTH CONCERNS, AND SELF-EFFICACY ON ENVIRONMENTAL ATTITUDES TOWARDS ELECTRONIC GREEN PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iman Khalid A. Qader

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available As the high-tech industry evolves at a rapid pace, vast amounts of hazardous materials are used in fuelling its global expansion. These rapid changes in production processes are significantly depleting natural resources. With the surge of popular interest and awareness pertaining to environmental issues, organisations may be in peril if consumers' attitudes towards their products are ignored. This study intends to understand consumers' environmental attitudes towards electronic green products and to identify the effect of three factors, namely, media exposure, safety and health concerns, and self- efficacy, on this attitude. Data were collected via a self-administered questionnaire among 170 respondents in a public university. The results of the study indicated that safety and health concerns as well as self-efficacy had significant positive impacts on consumers' environmental attitudes. Surprisingly, however, media exposure did not exhibit any significant influence on consumers' environmental attitude. It is recommended that campaign and awareness projects focus on safety and health issues. Additionally, media should play a more active role in increasing environmental awareness among consumers.

  7. Who was concerned about radiation, food safety, and natural disasters after the great East Japan earthquake and Fukushima catastrophe? A nationwide cross-sectional survey in 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Takashi; Shinozaki, Tomohiro; Naruse, Takashi; Miyamoto, Yuki

    2014-01-01

    Disaster-related concerns by sub-populations have not been clarified after the great East Japan earthquake and the Fukushima nuclear power plant incidents. This paper assesses who was concerned about radiation, food safety, and natural disasters among the general population in order to buffer such concerns effectively. The hypothesis that women, parents, and family caregivers were most concerned about radiation, food safety, and natural disaster was tested using a varying-intercept multivariable logistic regression with 5809 responses from a nationwide cross-sectional survey random-sampled in March 2012. Many people were at least occasionally concerned about radiation (53.5%), food safety (47.3%), and about natural disaster (69.5%). Women were more concerned than men about radiation (OR = 1.67; 95% CI = 1.35-2.06), food safety (1.70; 1.38-2.10), and natural disasters (1.74; 1.39-2.19). Parents and family care needs were not significant. Married couples were more concerned about radiation (1.53; 1.33-1.77), food safety (1.38; 1.20-1.59), and natural disasters (1.30; 1.12-1.52). Age, child-cohabitation, college-completion, retirement status, homemaker status, and the house-damage certificate of the last disaster were also associated with at least one concern. Participants from the Kanto region were more concerned about radiation (2.08; 1.58-2.74) and food safety (1.30; 1.07-1.59), which demonstrate similar positive associations to participants from Tohoku where a disaster relief act was invoked (3.36; 2.25-5.01 about radiation, 1.49; 1.08-2.06 about food safety). Sectioning the populations by gender and other demographics will clarify prospective targets for interventions, allow for a better understanding of post-disaster concerns, and help communicate relevant information effectively.

  8. Shelf life and safety concerns of bakery products--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, James P; Daifas, Daphne Phillips; El-Khoury, Wassim; Koukoutsis, John; El-Khoury, Anis

    2004-01-01

    Bakery products are an important part of a balanced diet and, today, a wide variety of such products can be found on supermarket shelves. This includes unsweetened goods (bread, rolls, buns, crumpets, muffins and bagels), sweet goods (pancakes, doughnuts, waffles and cookies) and filled goods (fruit and meat pies, sausage rolls, pastries, sandwiches, cream cakes, pizza and quiche). However, bakery products, like many processed foods, are subject to physical, chemical and microbiological spoilage. While physical and chemical spoilage limits the shelf life of low and intermediate moisture bakery products, microbiological spoilage by bacteria, yeast and molds is the concern in high moisture products i.e., products with a water activity (a(w)) > 0.85. Furthermore, several bakery products also have been implicated infoodborne illnesses involving Salmonella spp., Listeria monoctyogenes and Bacillus cereus, while Clostridium botulinum is a concern in high moisture bakery products packaged under modified atmospheres. This extensive review is divided into two parts. Part I focuses on the spoilage concerns of low, intermediate and high moisture bakery products while Part II focuses on the safety concerns of high moisture bakery products only. In both parts, traditional and novel methods of food preservation that can be used by the bakery industry to extend the shelf life and enhance the safety of products are discussed in detail.

  9. Occupational Safety and Health Concerns in Logging: A Cross-Sectional Assessment in Virginia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunwook Kim

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Increased logging mechanization has helped improve logging safety and health, yet related safety risks and concerns are not well understood. A cross-sectional study was completed among Virginia loggers. Participants (n = 122 completed a self-administered questionnaire focusing on aspects of safety and health related to logging equipment. Respondents were at a high risk of workplace injuries, with reported career and 12-month injury prevalences of 51% and 14%, respectively. Further, nearly all (98% respondents reported experiencing musculoskeletal symptoms. Over half (57.4% of respondents reported symptoms related to diesel exhaust exposure in their career. Few (15.6%, however, perceived their jobs to be dangerous. Based on the opinions and suggestions of respondents, three priority areas were identified for interventions: struck-by/against hazards, situational awareness (SA during logging operations, and visibility hazards. To address these hazards, and to have a broader and more substantial positive impact on safety and health, we discuss the need for proactive approaches such as incorporating proximity technologies in a logging machine or personal equipment, and enhancing logging machine design to enhance safety, ergonomics, and SA.

  10. Regulatory overview report 2013 concerning nuclear safety in Swiss nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-06-01

    The Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (ENSI) acting as the regulatory body of the Swiss Federation assesses and monitors nuclear facilities in Switzerland: these include five nuclear power plants, the interim storage facilities based at each plant, the Central Interim Storage Facility (ZWILAG) at Wuerenlingen together with the nuclear facilities at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) and the two universities of Basel and Lausanne. Using a combination of inspections, regulatory meetings, examinations and analyses together with reports from the licensees of individual facilities, ENSI obtains the overview required concerning nuclear safety. It ensures that the facilities comply with regulations. Its regulatory responsibilities include the transport of radioactive materials from and to nuclear facilities and the preparations for a deep geological repository for nuclear waste. ENSI maintains its own emergency organisation, an integral part of the national emergency structure. It provides the public with information on particular events in nuclear facilities. This Surveillance Report describes operational experience, systems technology, radiological protection and management in all the nuclear facilities. Generic issues relevant to all facilities such as probabilistic safety analyses are described. In 2013, the five nuclear power plants in Switzerland (Beznau Units 1 and 2, Muehleberg, Goesgen and Leibstadt) were all operated safely and had complied with their approved operating conditions. The nuclear safety at all plants was rated as being good. 34 events were reported. During operation, no reactor scrams were recorded. On the INES scale, ranging from 0-7, ENSI rated all reportable events as Level 0. The ENSI safety evaluation reflects both reportable events and the results of the approximately 460 inspections conducted during 2013. ZWILAG consists of several storage halls, a conditioning plant and a plasma plant. At the end of 2013, the cask storage hall

  11. Body Dysmorphic Disorder and Other Clinically Significant Body Image Concerns in Adolescent Psychiatric Inpatients: Prevalence and Clinical Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyl, Jennifer; Kittler, Jennifer; Phillips, Katharine A.; Hunt, Jeffrey I.

    2006-01-01

    Background: This study assessed prevalence and clinical correlates of body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), eating disorders (ED), and other clinically significant body image concerns in 208 consecutively admitted adolescent inpatients. It was hypothesized that adolescents with BDD would have higher levels of depression, anxiety, and suicidality.…

  12. Health and safety concerns os migrant workers: the experience of tunisian workers in modena, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faïçal Daly

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the relatively under-researched field of healthand safety of migrant workers, with special reference to Tunisian construction workers in the city of Modena in the Italian region of Emilia-Romagna. The empirical material comes from questionnaires and interviews with Tunisian migrants, plus smaller numbers of interviews with employers and trade union representatives in Modena. The paper starts by critically reviewing the scattered literature onthe health and safety of minority workers, most of which refers to the United States and the United Kingdom. The discussion then moves to a consideration of migrant health and safety questions in the contexts of racism, discrimination, social class, working conditions, labour market segmentation and (non- regulation. Specialattention is given to the failed role of trade unions in defending the rights of minority workers, in advanced countries generally and in Italy in particular. A case study is then made of the construction sector in Italy, enriched by personal accounts of the experiences of Tunisian migrant workers in Modena. Employer and tradeunion interviews reveal a lack of concern and ability to tackle the relevant issues. Barriers to health and safety awareness training are outlined. In the conclusion, recommendations are made for policy initiatives in this area.

  13. Food Safety Concerns and other Factors Affecting Iran’s Pistachio Exports to EU, Australia, and Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Ashktorab, Niloofar; Saghaian, Sayed Hossein; Shahnoushi, Naser

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the impact of food safety concerns on Iran’s pistachio export demand was investigated. Panel data and panel cointegration analyses were used to estimate the export demand function of Iran’s pistachio nuts to the European Union (EU), Japan, and Australia for the period of 1997 to 2006 so that the relationship between factors affecting Iran’s pistachio exports can be examined. The results show the existence of long-run relationships among the variables that have a significant imp...

  14. Report on the handling of safety information concerning flammable gases and ferrocyanide at the Hanford waste tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-07-01

    This report discusses concerns safety issues, and management at Hanford Tank Farm. Concerns center on the issue of flammable gas generation which could ignite, and on possible exothermic reactions of ferrocyanide compounds which were added to single shell tanks in the 1950's. It is believed that information concerning these issues has been mis-handled and the problems poorly managed

  15. Report on the handling of safety information concerning flammable gases and ferrocyanide at the Hanford waste tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-07-01

    This report discusses concerns safety issues, and management at Hanford Tank Farm. Concerns center on the issue of flammable gas generation which could ignite, and on possible exothermic reactions of ferrocyanide compounds which were added to single shell tanks in the 1950's. It is believed that information concerning these issues has been mis-handled and the problems poorly managed. (CBS)

  16. Caffeine-based food supplements and beverages: Trends of consumption for performance purposes and safety concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessada, Sílvia M F; Alves, Rita C; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P

    2018-07-01

    Nowadays, daily food supplementation regarding the improvement of physical and mental performance is a growing trend in sport practitioners, young students and active people. Food supplements are foodstuffs, labeled under food law and not obliged to safety assessments before their commercialization. Several products are commercialized claiming ergogenic effects as marketing strategies. Caffeine is often one of their main ingredients, as it increases both physical performance and concentration. This manuscript presents a general overview of the current caffeine-based food supplements and energy drinks available in the Portuguese market, as well as the consuming trends regarding their ergogenic effects, performance purposes, and active ingredients. Product claims, recommended daily intakes, caffeine pharmacology, and safety concerns aspects are also discussed aspects. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Socializing Young People to Ethics via Play Experience: Browser Games and Parental Concerns for Safety Online

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divina Meigs

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers an online game and its relation to safety and privacy, in order to examine social and ethical issues raised by parental concern over harmful content. To gain real insights on the responsibility of adults, it develops a hands-on approach that takes into account the major stakeholders, especially young people and the related circle of people around them. Therefore the research question that is raised is: how do browser games provide reassurance to parents about their children’s safety and privacy? The issue of safety online is explored in three parts, using an ethnographic research framework: it explores a specific online game, it provides a profile of participants, it analyses their types of actions in relation to safety and privacy, and discusses the results in terms of incidence of risk, peer-monitoring and community control. The findings show that there is a rather strong tendency to self-regulation, but that tendency is partly due to a strong presence of mediating adults and peers. The results are discussed in terms of incidence of risk, peer-monitoring and networked means of control on the one hand, and in terms of scientific contribution to socialization theory on the other hand. They lead to final considerations on the repertoire of ethical strategies set up online and its meaning for the concerns of adults towards online risk as well as the need for policies on regulation and self-regulation. They also lead to extensions on the socialization to norms and the appropriation of ethics by young people.

  18. Sports injuries, drowning and exposure to radiation concern Canada Safety Council meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliver, Caroline.

    1979-01-01

    Hazards associated with surface sports, aquatic sports and exposure to radiation were considered at a meeting of the Canada Safety Council in late 1979. The session on radiation noted that 6 of 20000 radiation workers wearing dosimeters were exposed to a dose in excess of 5 rem, the annual limit set by the Atomic Energy Control Board. Radiographers were in the job classification receiving the highest doses of ionizing radiation. Concern was expressed for the emission of damaging radiation from broken mercury vapour lamps. Increased regulation rather than training was seen as the most effective solution. (T.I.)

  19. List of reports from the BMFT, CEA, EPRI, JSTA and USNRC concerning reactor safety research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-09-01

    This list reviews reports from the Federal Republic of Germany, from France, from Japan and from the United States of America concerning special Problems in the field of Reactor Safety Research. According to the cooperation of the Bundesminister fuer Forschung und Technologie (BMFT) with the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA) the Japan Science and Technology Agency (JSTA) the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission these reports are available in the Gesellschaft fuer Reaktorsicherheit (GRS). The list pursues the following order: Country of origin, problem area concerned, according to the Reactor Saftety Research Program of the BMFT, reporting organization. The list of reports appears quarterly. (orig./HP) [de

  20. Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Safety Class and Safety Significant Commercial Grade Items (CGI) Critical Characteristic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    THOMAS, R.J.

    2000-01-01

    This document specifies the critical characteristics for Commercial Grade Items (CGI) procured for use in the Plutonium Finishing Plant as required by HNF-PRO-268 and HNF-PRO-1819. These are the minimum specifications that the equipment must meet in order to properly perform its safety function. There may be several manufacturers or models that meet the critical characteristics of any one item

  1. The significance of the probabilistic safety analysis (PSA) in administrative procedures under nuclear law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, H.P.

    1994-01-01

    The probabilistic safety analysis (PSA) is a useful tool for safety relevant evaluation of nuclear power plant designed on the basis of deterministic specifications. The PSA yields data identifying reliable or less reliable systems, or frequent or less frequent failure modes to be taken into account for safety engineering. Performance of a PSA in administrative procedures under nuclear law, e.g. licensing, is an obligation laid down in a footnote to criterion 1.1 of the BMI safety criteria catalogue, which has been in force unaltered since 1977. The paper explains the application and achievements of PSA in the phase of reactor development concerned with the conceptual design basis and design features, using as an example the novel PWR. (orig./HP) [de

  2. Parental safety concerns--a barrier to sport and physical activity in children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boufous, Soufiane; Finch, Caroline; Bauman, Adrian

    2004-10-01

    To examine the extent to which parents and carers perceive injury and safety risks as serious enough to prevent or discourage their children, aged 5-12 years, from participating in sports/physical activity and to identify factors that influence these perceptions. An analysis of the 2001 New South Wales Child Health Survey. More than one-quarter of parents/ carers of active children aged 5-12 years reported discouraging or preventing children from playing a particular sport (34.7% for boys and 16.6% for girls) because of injury and safety concerns. In boys, the most frequently discouraged sport was rugby league (23.2%), followed by rugby union (7.5%) and Australian rules football (2.8%). Among girls, the most frequently discouraged activities were rollerblading (2.7%), rugby league (2.3%) and soccer (2.1%). Multivariate analysis shows that factors independently associated with parents' decision to prevent/discourage their child from engaging in sport/physical activity include their child's age and gender, language spoken at home, presence of disability, and the respondent's relation to the child. Efforts need to be made to modify some sports/ activities, such as football codes, in order to minimise injury and to ensure that children continue enjoying their favourite activity well into adulthood. Guidelines designed to promote physical activity among children and young adolescents need to take into account parental concerns regarding the associated risk of injury.

  3. Critical Characteristics of Radiation Detection System Components to be Dedicated for use in Safety Class and Safety Significant System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DAVIS, S.J.

    2000-01-01

    This document identifies critical characteristics of components to be dedicated for use in Safety Significant (SS) Systems, Structures, or Components (SSCs). This document identifies the requirements for the components of the common, radiation area, monitor alarm in the WESF pool cell. These are procured as Commercial Grade Items (CGI), with the qualification testing and formal dedication to be performed at the Waste Encapsulation Storage Facility (WESF) for use in safety significant systems. System modifications are to be performed in accordance with the approved design. Components for this change are commercially available and interchangeable with the existing alarm configuration This document focuses on the operational requirements for alarm, declaration of the safety classification, identification of critical characteristics, and interpretation of requirements for procurement. Critical characteristics are identified herein and must be verified, followed by formal dedication, prior to the components being used in safety related applications

  4. Study concerning the power plant control and safety equipment by integrated distributed systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Optea, I.; Oprea, M.; Stanescu, P.

    1995-01-01

    The paper deals with the trends existing in the field of nuclear control and safety equipment and systems, proposing a high-efficiency integrated system. In order to enhance the safety of the plant and reliability of the structure system and components, we present a concept based on the latest computer technology with an open, distributed system, connected by a local area network with high redundancy. A modern conception for the control and safety system is to integrate all the information related to the reactor protection, active engineered safeguard and auxiliary systems parameters, offering a fast flow of information between all the agencies concerned so that situations can be quickly assessed. The integrated distributed control is based on a high performance operating system for realtime applications, flexible enough for transparent networking and modular for demanding configurations. The general design considerations for nuclear reactors instrumentation reliability and testing methods for real-time functions under dynamic regime are presented. Taking into account the fast progress in information technology, we consider the replacement of the old instrumentation of Cernavoda-1 NPP by a modern integrated system as an economical and efficient solution for the next units. (Author) 20 Refs

  5. The root cause of patient safety concerns in an Internet pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, Isaac D

    2008-07-01

    The Internet has become a revolutionary technology that affords worldwide opportunities never seen before. One such opportunity is the purchase of drugs over the Internet and the business of Internet pharmacies which has become prolific. Associated with this proliferation is the concern for patient safety. Numerous studies have shown that drugs purchased over the Internet come from pharmacies in a country other than the one where the patient resides and these pharmacies are not licensed, sometimes provide drugs without a prescription and that are not of the same composition as they should be, and do not provide adequate directions to the patient. In addition, the packaging of the drugs may be compromised resulting in altered medication. This paper examines the root cause of patient safety issues in Internet pharmacies. A review of the literature including the marketing literature was conducted. Healthcare marketing concepts guide business owners to identify patients' wants and distinguish them from their needs. Marketing principles detail aggressive marketing strategies within an organization's mission and in an ethical manner. Some Internet pharmacies misinterpret proven marketing principles and become overly aggressive in the market place focusing only on sales and profit rather than focusing on patient safety and long-term success of the Internet pharmacy.

  6. Genetically modified foods: safety, risks and public concerns-a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bawa, A S; Anilakumar, K R

    2013-12-01

    Genetic modification is a special set of gene technology that alters the genetic machinery of such living organisms as animals, plants or microorganisms. Combining genes from different organisms is known as recombinant DNA technology and the resulting organism is said to be 'Genetically modified (GM)', 'Genetically engineered' or 'Transgenic'. The principal transgenic crops grown commercially in field are herbicide and insecticide resistant soybeans, corn, cotton and canola. Other crops grown commercially and/or field-tested are sweet potato resistant to a virus that could destroy most of the African harvest, rice with increased iron and vitamins that may alleviate chronic malnutrition in Asian countries and a variety of plants that are able to survive weather extremes. There are bananas that produce human vaccines against infectious diseases such as hepatitis B, fish that mature more quickly, fruit and nut trees that yield years earlier and plants that produce new plastics with unique properties. Technologies for genetically modifying foods offer dramatic promise for meeting some areas of greatest challenge for the 21st century. Like all new technologies, they also pose some risks, both known and unknown. Controversies and public concern surrounding GM foods and crops commonly focus on human and environmental safety, labelling and consumer choice, intellectual property rights, ethics, food security, poverty reduction and environmental conservation. With this new technology on gene manipulation what are the risks of "tampering with Mother Nature"?, what effects will this have on the environment?, what are the health concerns that consumers should be aware of? and is recombinant technology really beneficial? This review will also address some major concerns about the safety, environmental and ecological risks and health hazards involved with GM foods and recombinant technology.

  7. Food Safety as a contributor to Food Security: global policy concerns & challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Kumar Chattu

    2015-12-01

    allergens which can be life threatening to some people that are highly sensitive is the priority of food chemical control. Other chemical properties of food such as vitamin and mineral content are also important and affect the overall quality of the food but are not as significant in terms of food safety.Microphysical particles such as glass and metal can be hazardous and cause serious injury to consumers. Pathogenic bacteria, viruses and toxins produced by microorganisms are all possible contaminants of food and impact food safety. Like food security, food safety is also effected by poverty and climate change. Hence Foo

  8. Ullage Compatible Optical Sensor for Monitoring Safety Significant Malfunctions, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Significant emphasis has been placed on aircraft fuel tank safety following the TWA Flight 800 accident in July 1996. Upon investigation, the National Transportation...

  9. Safety significance of component ageing, exemplary for MOV, based on French and German operating experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morlent, O. [CEA Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France). Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire; Michel, F. [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbH, Garching (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    An outline is given of how IPSN and GRS assess the effects of physical ageing on the safety of French and German Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) on the basis of the available knowledge and how investigations are carried out. The presentation is focused exemplary on a preliminary study illustrating approaches for the evaluation of the ageing behaviour of active components, the motor-operated valves (MOV). The results so far seems to demonstrate that the developed methodological approaches are suitable to obtain qualitative evidence with regard to the ageing behaviour of technical facilities such as MOV. The evaluation of the operating experience with French 900 MWe plants seems to reveal, for MOV of one system, a trend similar to some international findings about ageing-related events with increasing operating time; this trend will have to be confirmed. For the German NPPs so far, there appears to be no significant increase of ageing-related events concerning MOV as the plants get older. Future work on ageing scheduled at IPSN and GRS includes further cooperation on this issue, too; a deep analysis is necessary to explain the reasons of such apparent differences before any conclusion. (authors)

  10. Safety significance of component ageing, exemplary for MOV, based on French and German operating experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morlent, O.

    2001-01-01

    An outline is given of how IPSN and GRS assess the effects of physical ageing on the safety of French and German Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) on the basis of the available knowledge and how investigations are carried out. The presentation is focused exemplary on a preliminary study illustrating approaches for the evaluation of the ageing behaviour of active components, the motor-operated valves (MOV). The results so far seems to demonstrate that the developed methodological approaches are suitable to obtain qualitative evidence with regard to the ageing behaviour of technical facilities such as MOV. The evaluation of the operating experience with French 900 MWe plants seems to reveal, for MOV of one system, a trend similar to some international findings about ageing-related events with increasing operating time; this trend will have to be confirmed. For the German NPPs so far, there appears to be no significant increase of ageing-related events concerning MOV as the plants get older. Future work on ageing scheduled at IPSN and GRS includes further cooperation on this issue, too; a deep analysis is necessary to explain the reasons of such apparent differences before any conclusion. (authors)

  11. ENSI’s synopsis concerning the enhancement of safety margins; Zusammenfassung des ENSI zur Erhöhung der Sicherheitsmargen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-06-15

    This press release issued by the Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate ENSI discusses the results of its probabilistic safety analysis on the safety margins for Swiss nuclear power stations that was made after the Fukushima nuclear accident. External incidents such as earthquakes and flooding and their impact on the power stations are analysed by the ERSIM project concerning the enhancement of safety margins. Three shut-down scenarios are discussed. The safety margins with respect to earthquakes and flooding for all four nuclear power station sites are discussed in detail.

  12. Public safety risk management at socio-economic and / or historic-cultural significant dam sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Earle, Gordon D.; Ryan, Katherine; Pyykonen, Nicole K.; Pitts, Lucas [Otonabee Region Conservation Authority, Peterborough, (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    The Lang Dam and adjoining gristmill, located near Peterborough are integral parts of the Lang Pioneer Village museum. Activities occurring within close proximity to the dam have led to safety issues. The owner (ORCA) has developed and implemented public safety management plans (PSMPs) for each of its water control structures, including the Lang Dam. ORCA gave special attention to the social, economic, aesthetic, historic and cultural dimensions associated the implementation of public safety management plans. These factors play a significant role in how well public safety measures (PSMs) are received by stakeholder groups and the general public. This paper reported the challenges of developing and implementing a PSMP for the Lang Dam, with the focus on property site-specific PSMS while preserving socio-economic and historic-cultural character and values. It was demonstrated that the dam owners, regulatory authorities, control agencies and preservationists need to come together to develop a holistic public safety management process.

  13. A decade of e-cigarettes: Limited research & unresolved safety concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaisar, Mohammad Abul; Prasad, Shikha; Liles, Tylor; Cucullo, Luca

    2016-07-15

    It is well known that tobacco consumption is a leading cause of preventable deaths worldwide and has been linked to major diseases ranging from cancer to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, atherosclerosis, stroke and a host of neurological/neurodegenerative disorders. In the past decade a number of alternative vaping products have hit the market, rapidly gaining consumers especially among the younger population. Electronic nicotine delivery systems or e-cigarettes have become the sought-after product due to the belief that they are much safer than traditional cigarettes. However, inadequate research and lack of regulatory guidelines for both the manufacturing process and the content of the vaping solution of the e-cigarette has become a major concern. Highly debated and unresolved questions such as whether e-cigarettes may help smokers quit and whether e-cigarettes will promote the use of nicotine among non-smokers add to the confusion of the safety of e-cigarettes. In this review article, we summarize the current understanding (and lack thereof) of the potential health impacts of e-cigarettes. We will also highlight the most recent studies (in vivo/in vitro) which seem to conflict with the broad safety claims put forward by the manufacturers. Finally, we provide potential solutions to overcome the research gap of the short and long-term health impact of e-cigarettes. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  14. A decade of e-cigarettes: Limited research & unresolved safety concerns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaisar, Mohammad Abul; Prasad, Shikha; Liles, Tylor; Cucullo, Luca

    2016-01-01

    It is well known that tobacco consumption is a leading cause of preventable deaths worldwide and has been linked to major diseases ranging from cancer to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, atherosclerosis, stroke and a host of neurological/neurodegenerative disorders. In the past decade a number of alternative vaping products have hit the market, rapidly gaining consumers especially among the younger population. Electronic nicotine delivery systems or e-cigarettes have become the sought-after product due to the belief that they are much safer than traditional cigarettes. However, inadequate research and lack of regulatory guidelines for both the manufacturing process and the content of the vaping solution of the e-cigarette has become a major concern. Highly debated and unresolved questions such as whether e-cigarettes may help smokers quit and whether e-cigarettes will promote the use of nicotine among non-smokers add to the confusion of the safety of e-cigarettes. In this review article, we summarize the current understanding (and lack thereof) of the potential health impacts of e-cigarettes. We will also highlight the most recent studies (in vivo/in vitro) which seem to conflict with the broad safety claims put forward by the manufacturers. Finally, we provide potential solutions to overcome the research gap of the short and long-term health impact of e-cigarettes.

  15. A Decade of e-Cigarettes: Limited Research & Unresolved Safety Concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaisar, Mohammad Abul; Prasad, Shikha; Liles, Tylor; Cucullo, Luca

    2016-01-01

    It is well known that tobacco consumption is a leading cause of preventable deaths worldwide and has been linked to major diseases ranging from cancer to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, atherosclerosis, stroke and a host of neurological/neurodegenerative disorders. In the past decade a number of alternative vaping products have hit the market, rapidly gaining consumers especially among the younger population. Electronic nicotine delivery systems or e-cigarettes have become the sought-after product due to the belief that they are much safer than traditional cigarettes. However, inadequate research and lack of regulatory guidelines for both the manufacturing process and the content of the vaping solution of the e-cigarette has become a major concern. Highly debated and unresolved questions such as whether e-cigarettes may help smokers quit and whether e-cigarettes will promote the use of nicotine among non-smokers add to the confusion of the safety of e-cigarettes. In this review article, we summarize the current understanding (and lack thereof) of the potential health impacts of e-cigarettes. We will also highlight the most recent studies (in vivo/in vitro) which seem to conflict with the broad safety claims put forward by the manufacturers. Finally, we provide potential solutions to overcome the research gap of the short and long-term health impact of e-cigarettes. PMID:27477296

  16. Predictors of Likelihood of Speaking Up about Safety Concerns in Labour and Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyndon, Audrey; Sexton, J. Bryan; Simpson, Kathleen Rice; Rosenstein, Alan; Lee, Kathryn A.; Wachter, Robert M.

    2011-01-01

    Background Despite widespread emphasis on promoting “assertive communication” by caregivers as essential to patient safety improvement efforts, fairly little is known about when and how clinicians speak up to address safety concerns. In this cross-sectional study we use a new measure of speaking up to begin exploring this issue in maternity care. Methods We developed a scenario-based measure of clinician’s assessment of potential harm and likelihood of speaking up in response to perceived harm. We embedded this scale in a survey with measures of safety climate, teamwork climate, disruptive behaviour, work stress, and personality traits of bravery and assertiveness. The survey was distributed to all registered nurses and obstetricians practicing in two US Labour & Delivery units. Results The response rate was 54% (125 of 230 potential respondents). Respondents were experienced clinicians (13.7 ± 11 years in specialty). Higher perception of harm, respondent role, specialty experience, and site predicted likelihood of speaking up when controlling for bravery and assertiveness. Physicians rated potential harm in common clinical scenarios lower than nurses did (7.5 vs. 8.4 on 2–10 scale; p<0.001). Some participants (12%) indicated they were unlikely to speak up despite perceiving high potential for harm in certain situations. Discussion This exploratory study found nurses and physicians differed in their harm ratings, and harm rating was a predictor of speaking up. This may partially explain persistent discrepancies between physicians and nurses in teamwork climate scores. Differing assessments of potential harms inherent in everyday practice may be a target for teamwork intervention in maternity care. PMID:22927492

  17. Driving safety: concerns and experiences of parents of adolescent drivers with type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Daniel J; Gonder-Frederick, Linda A; Shepard, Jaclyn A; Campbell, Laura K; Vajda, Karen A

    2012-09-01

    Driving is a dangerous activity for adolescents, perhaps being even more precarious for adolescents with type 1 diabetes due to the possibility of extreme blood glucose (BG). There is no available data on adolescent driving safety concerns and type 1 diabetes. To begin addressing this issue, we surveyed parents regarding their observations and concerns. Seventy-two parents (87.5% mothers) of adolescent drivers aged 16-19 with type 1 diabetes provided analyzable data. Females comprised 36% of their adolescents, with 74% using pump therapy. In the past year, 13 and 84% of parents reported that their adolescent had experienced severe or moderate disruptive hypoglycemia, respectively. Over half (56%) of the parents reported moderate to extreme worry about how diabetes impacted their adolescent's driving, while only 21% of parents thought their adolescents had similar concerns (p = 0.037). Almost one third (31%) of parents thought their adolescent need not treat low BG until it fell below 70 mg/dL, 13% thought their adolescent could safely drive with BG below 65 mg/dL. And, 31 and 14% of parents, respectively, reported their adolescent had been in a collision or stopped by the police in the past year, which they attributed to both hypo- and hyperglycemia. Adolescents reportedly took steps to prevent hypo- and hyperglycemia while driving, but more aggressively avoided hypoglycemia (p < 0.001). While this data is limited, lacking a non-diabetic control group and randomized sample, it does suggest that driving and adolescent type 1 diabetes deserve further attention and investigation. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  18. Who was concerned about radiation, food safety, and natural disasters after the great East Japan earthquake and Fukushima catastrophe? A nationwide cross-sectional survey in 2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Sugimoto

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Disaster-related concerns by sub-populations have not been clarified after the great East Japan earthquake and the Fukushima nuclear power plant incidents. This paper assesses who was concerned about radiation, food safety, and natural disasters among the general population in order to buffer such concerns effectively. METHODS: The hypothesis that women, parents, and family caregivers were most concerned about radiation, food safety, and natural disaster was tested using a varying-intercept multivariable logistic regression with 5809 responses from a nationwide cross-sectional survey random-sampled in March 2012. RESULTS: Many people were at least occasionally concerned about radiation (53.5%, food safety (47.3%, and about natural disaster (69.5%. Women were more concerned than men about radiation (OR = 1.67; 95% CI = 1.35-2.06, food safety (1.70; 1.38-2.10, and natural disasters (1.74; 1.39-2.19. Parents and family care needs were not significant. Married couples were more concerned about radiation (1.53; 1.33-1.77, food safety (1.38; 1.20-1.59, and natural disasters (1.30; 1.12-1.52. Age, child-cohabitation, college-completion, retirement status, homemaker status, and the house-damage certificate of the last disaster were also associated with at least one concern. Participants from the Kanto region were more concerned about radiation (2.08; 1.58-2.74 and food safety (1.30; 1.07-1.59, which demonstrate similar positive associations to participants from Tohoku where a disaster relief act was invoked (3.36; 2.25-5.01 about radiation, 1.49; 1.08-2.06 about food safety. CONCLUSIONS: Sectioning the populations by gender and other demographics will clarify prospective targets for interventions, allow for a better understanding of post-disaster concerns, and help communicate relevant information effectively.

  19. A generic standard for assessing and managing activities with significant risk to health and safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilde, T.S.; Sandquist, G.M.

    2005-01-01

    Some operations and activities in industry, business, and government can present an unacceptable risk to health and safety if not performed according to established safety practices and documented procedures. The nuclear industry has extensive experience and commitment to assessing and controlling such risks. This paper provides a generic standard based upon DOE Standard DOE-STD-3007- 93, Nov 1993, Change Notice No. 1, Sep 1998. This generic standard can be used to assess practices and procedures employed by any industrial and government entity to ensure that an acceptable level of safety and control prevail for such operations. When any activity and operation is determined to involve significant risk to health and safety to workers or the public, the organization should adopt and establish an appropriate standard and methodology to ensure that adequate health and safety prevail. This paper uses DOE experience and standards to address activities with recognized potential for impact upon health and safety. Existing and future assessments of health and safety issues can be compared and evaluated against this generic standard for insuring that proper planning, analysis, review, and approval have been made. (authors)

  20. The home electronic media environment and parental safety concerns: relationships with outdoor time after school and over the weekend among 9-11 year old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkie, Hannah J; Standage, Martyn; Gillison, Fiona B; Cumming, Sean P; Katzmarzyk, Peter T

    2018-04-05

    Time spent outdoors is associated with higher physical activity levels among children, yet it may be threatened by parental safety concerns and the attraction of indoor sedentary pursuits. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships between these factors and outdoor time during children's discretionary periods (i.e., after school and over the weekend). Data from 462 children aged 9-11 years old were analysed using generalised linear mixed models. The odds of spending > 1 h outdoors after school, and > 2 h outdoors on a weekend were computed, according to demographic variables, screen-based behaviours, media access, and parental safety concerns. Interactions with sex and socioeconomic status (SES) were explored. Boys, low SES participants, and children who played on their computer for  1 h outside after school than girls, high SES children and those playing on a computer for ≥2 h, respectively. Counterintuitive results were found for access to media devices and crime-related safety concerns as both of these were positively associated with time spent outdoors after school. A significant interaction for traffic-related concerns*sex was found; higher road safety concerns were associated with lower odds of outdoor time after school in boys only. Age was associated with weekend outdoor time, which interacted with sex and SES; older children were more likely to spend > 2 h outside on weekends but this was only significant among girls and high SES participants. Our results suggest that specific groups of children are less likely to spend their free time outside, and it would seem that only prolonged recreational computer use has a negative association with children's outdoor time after school. Further research is needed to explore potential underlying mechanisms, and parental safety concerns in more detail.

  1. Safety report concerning Melusine (after power increase to 4 MW). Descriptive part. Volumes 1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baas, C.; Delcroix, V.; Jacquemain, M.; Marouby, R.; Meunier, C.; De Robien, E.; Rossillon, F.

    1967-03-01

    Construction of Melusine was started in January 1957, It first diverged on July 1, 1958. It operated at: 1 MW from March 1959; 1.4 MW from April 1960; 2 MW from September 1961; 4 MW from December 1965. Various modifications have been made since the reactor was built. They concern: - the addition of a hot cell. - the effluents: 2 reservoirs of 15 m 3 for liquid waste have been installed. The resin regeneration equipment has been completely modified. - the building: offices have been added - experimental zones have been set up in the hall - the electrical supply. - the cooling and purification circuits (installation of a second exchanger, replacement of the primary pumps, creation of a hot layer, etc... ). - the fuel elements (at the moment of the MTR type enriched to 90 per cent). - the swimming-pool (which has been partially equipped with a stainless steel coating). - the core (placing of 'stools', of a diving-board, etc...). - the ventilation: the hall has been de-pressurized during normal working in the event of an accident, the hall can be isolated and a safety circuit can be started up. A chimney has been installed. - the hall (which has been strengthened and sealed more effectively). - the control electronics (modification of the principle, and which are now entirely transistorized). So many changes have been made that the reactor now bears only a slight resemblance to the initial model. It has appeared necessary to make a brief review of these improvements in order to be able to judge more effectively the installations present safety characteristics; these latter are furthermore fairly well known as a result of the experiments carried out not only by the Thermal Transfer Service in Grenoble but also at Cadarache (Cabri) and Toulon (the work of Mr. PASCOUET). (authors) [fr

  2. Position Paper. Safety for K-12 students: United States policy concerning LGBT student safety must provide inclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    April Sanders

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Students who identify as lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender (LGBT are at risk for harassment due to their sexual orientation or gender identification with over 85% of LGBT students in the United States (US reporting such harassment. These statistics demonstrate one aspect of the significance of this issue, but the cost of human life in some instances has revealed another layer of importance related to a need for safety policies for LGBT students. Even though a need exists for such policies, the practice of heteronormativity found in US policymaking regarding bullying does not protect victims or curb the violence. This essay highlights several recent developments in anti-bullying policy in US schools that shows the existence of heteronormativity, which is not helping to pro-tect LGBT students. By understanding the discrimination encouraged by current policy, future policy can be better shaped to protect LGBT students.

  3. Radiation safety concerns and diagnostic reference levels for computed tomography scanners in Tamil Nadu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livingstone, Roshan S.; Dinakaran, Paul M.

    2011-01-01

    Radiation safety in computed tomography (CT) scanners is of concern due its widespread use in the field of radiological imaging. This study intends to evaluate radiation doses imparted to patients undergoing thorax, abdomen and pelvic CT examinations and formulate regional diagnostic reference levels (DRL) in Tamil Nadu, South India. In-site CT dose measurement was performed in 127 CT scanners in Tamil Nadu for a period of 2 years as a part of the Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB)-funded project. Out of the 127 CT scanners,13 were conventional; 53 single-slice helical scanners (SSHS); 44 multislice CT (MSCT) scanners; and 17 refurbished scanners. CT dose index (CTDI) was measured using a 32-cm polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA)-body phantom in each CT scanner. Dose length product (DLP) for different anatomical regions was generated using CTDI values. The regional DRLs for thorax, abdomen and pelvis examinations were 557, 521 and 294 mGy cm, respectively. The mean effective dose was estimated using the DLP values and was found to be 8.04, 6.69 and 4.79 mSv for thorax, abdomen and pelvic CT examinations, respectively. The establishment of DRLs in this study is the first step towards optimization of CT doses in the Indian context. (author)

  4. Safety concerns and hidden agenda behind HPV vaccines: another generation of drug-dependent society?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatami, Mahin

    2016-12-01

    Analyses of data and hidden agenda behind repeated failed outcomes of cancer research and therapy, status of American health, safety concerns for HPV vaccines and future research considerations are summarized in this commentary. A closer look at cancer science reveals that highly power structure (system) in medical establishment vs. anti-system and chaos in cancer research ('medical/scientific ponzi schemes') is potent recipe for failed therapeutics that kills patients but generates huge corporate profit. American health status ranks last among other developed nations despite the highest amount that USA invests in healthcare. This is a wake-up call to make sure that the evil part of human being does not prevent the health services that the public deserves. Otherwise, 'it does not matter how many resources you have, if you don't know, or don't want to know, how to use them, they will never be enough'. Answer to cancer and improved public health is possible only by switching the current corruptive and abusive culture of 'who you know' to a culture of 'what you know'. Policy makers and professionals in decision making roles are urged to return to common sense and logics that our Forefathers used to serve the public.

  5. Safety assessments and public concern for genetically modified food products: the American view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlander, Susan K

    2002-01-01

    In the relatively short time since their commercial introduction in 1996, genetically modified (GM) crops have been rapidly adopted in the United States GM crops are regulated through a coordinated framework developed in 1992 and administered by three agencies-the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) that ensures the products are safe to grow, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) that ensures the products are safe for the environment, and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) that ensures the products are safe to eat. Rigorous food and environmental safety assessments must be completed before GM crops can be commercialized. Fifty-one products have been reviewed by the FDA, including several varieties of corn, soybeans, canola, cotton, rice, sugar beets, potatoes, tomatoes, squash, papaya, and flax. Because FDA considers these crops "substantially equivalent" to their conventional counterparts, no special labeling is required for GM crops in the United States and they are managed as commodities with no segregation or identity preservation. GM crops have thus made their way through commodity distribution channels into thousands of ingredients used in processed foods. It has been estimated that 70% to 85% of processed foods on supermarket shelves in the United States today contain one or more ingredients potentially derived from GM crops. The food industry and retail industry have been monitoring the opinions of their consumers on the GM issue for the past several years. Numerous independent groups have also surveyed consumer concerns about GM foods. The results of these surveys are shared and discussed here.

  6. Application of the AHP method to analyze the significance of the factors affecting road traffic safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna SORDYL

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Over the past twenty years, the number of vehicles registered in Poland has grown rapidly. At the same time, a relatively small increase in the length of the road network has been observed. As a result of the limited capacity of available infrastructure, it leads to significant congestion and to increase of the probability of road accidents. The overall level of road safety depends on many factors - the behavior of road users, infrastructure solutions and the development of automotive technology. Thus the detailed assessment of the importance of individual elements determining road safety is difficult. The starting point is to organize the factors by grouping them into categories which are components of the DVE system (driver - vehicle - environment. In this work, to analyze the importance of individual factors affecting road safety, the use of analytic hierarchy process method (AHP was proposed. It is one of the multi-criteria methods which allows us to perform hierarchical analysis of the decision process, by means of experts’ opinions. Usage of AHP method enabled us to evaluate and rank the factors affecting road safety. This work attempts to link the statistical data and surveys in significance analysis of the elements determining road safety.

  7. Enacting laws concerning radiation safety management for students using X-rays and electron beams under 1 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishizawa, Kunihide; Shibata, Michihiro; Saze, Takuya

    2004-01-01

    Laws concerning radiation safety management were analyzed from the point of view of defining precisely what is meant by radiation and what is meant by the subject. There are no laws to protect students from radiation hazards when using X-rays and electron beams under 1 MeV for research and/or education. The Law concerning Technical Standards for Preventing Radiation Hazards gives the authorities the power to enact new rules and regulations that will protect the students. The Radiation Council must take charge for enactment of all laws regarding radiation safety management. (author)

  8. The Development of an Internet-Based Treatment for Problem Gamblers and Concerned Significant Others: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Anders; Magnusson, Kristoffer; Carlbring, Per; Andersson, Gerhard; Gumpert, Clara Hellner

    2018-06-01

    Problem gambling creates significant harm for the gambler and for concerned significant others (CSOs). While several studies have investigated the effects of individual cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for problem gambling, less is known about the effects of involving CSOs in treatment. Behavioral couples therapy (BCT) has shown promising results when working with substance use disorders by involving both the user and a CSO. This pilot study investigated BCT for problem gambling, as well as the feasibility of performing a larger scale randomized controlled trial. 36 participants, 18 gamblers and 18 CSOs, were randomized to either BCT or individual CBT for the gambler. Both interventions were Internet-delivered self-help interventions with therapist support. Both groups of gamblers improved on all outcome measures, but there were no differences between the groups. The CSOs in the BCT group lowered their scores on anxiety and depression more than the CSOs of those randomized to the individual CBT group did. The implications of the results and the feasibility of the trial are discussed.

  9. Development of Safety Significance Evaluation Program for Accidents and Events in NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Hui Chang; Hong, Seok Jin; Cho, Nam Chul; Chung, Dae Wook; Lee, Chang Joo

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the significance in terms of safety for the accidents and events occurred in nuclear power plants using probabilistic safety assessment techniques can provide useful insights to the regulator. Based on the quantified risk information of accident or event occurred, regulators can decide which regulatory areas should be focused than the others. To support these regulatory analysis activities, KINS-ASP program was developed. KINS-ASP program can supports the risk increase due to the occurred accidents or events by providing the graphic interfaces and linked quantification engines for the PSA experts and non- PSA acquainted regulators both

  10. Cognitive human reliability analysis for an assessment of the safety significance of complex transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amico, P.J.; Hsu, C.J.; Youngblood, R.W.; Fitzpatrick, R.G.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports that as part of a probabilistic assessment of the safety significance of complex transients at certain PWR power plants, it was necessary to perform a cognitive human reliability analysis. To increase the confidence in the results, it was desirable to make use of actual observations of operator response which were available for the assessment. An approach was developed which incorporated these observations into the human cognitive reliability (HCR) modeling approach. The results obtained provided additional insights over what would have been found using other approaches. These insights were supported by the observations, and it is suggested that this approach be considered for use in future probabilistic safety assessments

  11. Most significant preliminary results of the probabilistic safety analysis on the Juragua nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perdomo, Manuel

    1995-01-01

    Since 1990 the Group for PSA Development and Applications (GDA/APS) is working on the Level-1 PSA for the Juragua-1 NPP, as a part of an IAEA Technical Assistance Project. The main objective of this study, which is still under way, is to assess, in a preliminary way, the Reactor design safety to find its potential 'weak points' at the construction stage, using a eneric data base. At the same time, the study allows the PSA team to familiarize with the plant design and analysis techniques for the future operational PSA of the plant. This paper presents the most significant preliminary results of the study, which reveal some advantages of the safety characteristics of the plant design in comparison with the homologous VVER-440 reactors and some areas, where including slight modifications would improve the plant safety, considering the level of detail at which the study is carried out. (author). 13 refs, 1 fig, 2 tabs

  12. Enhancement of color and clarity in topaz and diamonds by nuclear radiation, safety and security concerns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shamshad Ahmed

    2009-01-01

    Inducement of color and clarity in gemstone Topaz, otherwise devoid of these attributes, has been achieved by synergistic utilization of neutron irradiation, electron beam irradiation and heat. The transformation of the colorless, cheaply available topaz into desirable deep blue topaz is a significant value addition, not achievable by other contending techniques .Likewise colorless and unclear diamonds, available in trade at throw away price, have been transformed by neutron irradiation into colored diamonds, known as fancy diamonds. The enhanced gems may possess stable or unstable colors depending on the nature of the color centers produced. In the case of blue topaz and fancy diamonds the colors produced were stable and heating at elevated temperatures can only lead to fading of colors. The enhancement of gems by neutron irradiation is commercially viable provided appropriate equipment and tools are used .In the paper are described the processes of the enhancement of topaz and diamonds along with the instrumentation involved. However, in view of the radioactivity generated as a result of the exposure of gems to the neutrons, and the likelihood of undue exposure of the users, operators etc to the radioactive gems, safety aspects command serious attention. In the paper, the strategies to avoid or to mitigate the radioactivity generated have been discussed. Also documented are the methodologies and the controls to ensure that the radioactive gems are not released before ensuring that the radioactivity, if any, in the irradiated materials is not above the permissible levels in conformity with the international standards. Safety, security and safeguard of these materials are thus appropriately addressed. (Authors)

  13. Regulatory oversight report 2016 concerning nuclear safety in Swiss nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-06-01

    ENSI, the Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate, assesses and monitors safety in the Swiss nuclear facilities. These include the five nuclear power plants: Beznau Units 1 and 2 (KKB1 and KKB2), Muehleberg (KKM), Goesgen (KKG) and Leibstadt (KKL), the interim storage facilities based at each plant, the Central Interim Storage Facility (Zwilag) in Wuerenlingen together with the nuclear facilities at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), the University of Basel (UniB) and the Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne (EPFL). Using a combination of inspections, regulatory meetings, checks, analyses and the reporting of the operators of individual facilities, ENSI obtains the required overview of nuclear safety in these facilities. It ensures that they operate as required by law. ENSI's regulatory responsibilities also include the transport of radioactive materials from and to nuclear facilities and preparations for a deep geological repository for radioactive waste. ENSI maintains its own emergency organisation, which is an integral part of the national emergency structure that would be activated in the event of a serious incident at a nuclear facility in Switzerland. ENSI reports periodically on its supervisory activities. It informs the public about special events and findings in the nuclear installations. All five nuclear power plants in Switzerland operated safely during the past year. Nuclear safety at all plants in operation was rated as good or satisfactory. In 2016, there were 31 reportable events at the nuclear power plants. 30 events were rated Level 0 (event of no or low safety significance) on the International Nuclear and Radiological Event Scale (INES) and one was rated Level 1 (anomaly) at KKL. Zwilag consists of several interim storage buildings, a conditioning plant and a plasma plant (incineration/melting plant). At the end of 2016, the cask storage hall contained 56 transport/storage casks with spent fuel assemblies and vitrified residue

  14. Significance of coast down time on safety and availability of a pool type fast breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natesan, K.; Velusamy, K.; Selvaraj, P.; Chellapandi, P.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Plant dynamics studies for quantifying the benefits of flow coast down time. • Establishment of minimum flow coast down time required for safety. • Assessment of influence of flow coast down on enhancing plant availability. • Synthesis of thermo mechanical benefits of flow coast down time on component design. - Abstract: Plant dynamic investigation towards establishing the influence of flow coast down time of primary and secondary sodium systems on safety and availability of plant has been carried out based on one dimensional analysis. From safety considerations, a minimum flow coast down time for primary sodium circuit is essential to be provided to limit the consequences of loss of flow event within allowable limits. Apart from safety benefits, large primary coast down time also improves plant availability by the elimination of reactor SCRAM during short term power failure events. Threshold values of SCRAM parameters also need optimization. By suitably selecting the threshold values for SCRAM parameters, significant reduction in the inertia of pumping systems can be derived to obtain desirable results on plant availability. With the optimization of threshold values and primary flow coast down behaviour equivalent to a halving time of 8 s, there is a possibility to eliminate reactor SCRAM during short term power failure events extending up to 0.75 s duration. Benefits of secondary flow halving on reducing transient thermal loading on components have also been investigated and mixed effects have been observed

  15. All-terrain vehicles (ATVs) on the road: a serious traffic safety and public health concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denning, Gerene; Jennissen, Charles; Harland, Karisa; Ellis, David; Buresh, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    On-road all-terrain vehicle (ATV) crashes are frequent occurrences that disproportionately impact rural communities. These crashes occur despite most states having laws restricting on-road ATV use. A number of overall risk factors for ATV-related injuries have been identified (e.g., lack of helmet, carrying passengers). However, few studies have determined the relative contribution of these and other factors to on-road crashes and injuries. The objective of our study was to determine whether there were differences between on- and off-road ATV crashes in their demographics and/or mechanisms and outcomes of injuries. Data were derived from our statewide ATV injury surveillance database (2002-2009). Crash location and crash and injury mechanisms were coded using a modification of the Department of Transportation (DOT) coding system. Descriptive analyses and statistical comparisons (chi-square test) of variables were performed. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine relative risk. 976 records were included in the final analysis, with 38 percent of the injured individuals from on-road crashes. Demographics were similar for crashes at each location, with approximately 80 percent males, 30 percent under the age of 16, and 15 percent passengers. However, females and youths under 16 were over 4 times more likely to be passengers (P ≤ 0.0001), regardless of crash location. Compared to those off-road, on-road crash victims were approximately 10 times more likely to be involved in a vehicle-vehicle collision (P road crashes were also twice as likely to test positive for alcohol as those off-road (P road victims were only half as likely to be helmeted (P road crashes involved a collision with another vehicle, suggesting that ATVs on the road represent a potential traffic safety concern. Of note, helmets were associated with reduced risk for the number and severity of brain injuries, providing further support for the importance of helmet use. Finally

  16. 75 FR 4305 - Regulatory Guidance Concerning the Applicability of the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-27

    ... review of, or preparation and transmission of, typed messages via wireless phones. Because of the safety... Secretary broad power in carrying out motor carrier safety statutes and regulations to ``prescribe.... Handheld or other wireless electronic devices that are brought into a CMV are considered ``additional...

  17. Food Safety as a contributor to Food Security: global policy concerns & challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Kumar Chattu

    2015-12-01

    Microphysical particles such as glass and metal can be hazardous and cause serious injury to consumers. Pathogenic bacteria, viruses and toxins produced by microorganisms are all possible contaminants of food and impact food safety. Like food security, food safety is also effected by poverty and climate change. Hence Foo

  18. We have to eat, right? : food safety concerns and shopping for daily vegetables in modernizing Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wertheim-Heck, S.C.O.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis analyses how people during everyday life confront real food safety risks that are difficult to influence and come to grips with and focuses on food safety risks in modernizing Vietnam.

    Over the past 40 years Vietnam has developed from war torn country with a highly centralized

  19. Crash safety concerns for out-of-position occupant postures: A look toward safety in highly automated vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMurry, Timothy L; Poplin, Gerald S; Shaw, Greg; Panzer, Matthew B

    2018-04-09

    Highly automated vehicle occupants will all be passengers and may be free to ride while in postures for which existing occupant safety systems such as seat belts and airbags were not originally designed. These occupants could therefore face increased risk of injury when a crash occurs. Given that current vehicles are capable of supporting a variety of occupant postures outside of the normal design position, such as reclined or turned passengers, an evaluation of current field data was performed to better understand the risks of being out of position. We investigated the frequency, demographics, and injury outcomes for out-of-position occupants using NASS-CDS. A matched analysis was performed to compare injury outcomes for out-of-position passengers with in-position drivers involved in similar crashes. Finally, case studies for out-of-position occupants were examined in the Crash Injury Research (CIREN) database. Only 0.5% of occupants in NASS-CDS with a coded posture were out of position at the time of crash. Of the out-of-position occupants, being turned or seated sideways was almost as likely as being reclined. Out-of-position occupants were younger and less likely to be belted than their in-position counterparts. Analysis of the injury data indicated a trend that being out of position was associated with an elevated risk for serious injury. However, the number of out-of-position occupants was too small to provide a definitive or statistically significant conclusion on injury outcome. Though highly automated vehicles may eventually reduce the number of crashes and traffic fatalities in the future, there will be a transition period when these vehicles remain at risk from collisions with human-driven vehicles. These crashes could cause higher than anticipated rates of injury if occupants are less likely to be belted or tend to be in positions for which restraints are not optimized. This study highlights the need for future research on occupant response and

  20. Parental concern about vaccine safety in Canadian children partially immunized at age 2: a multivariable model including system level factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Shannon E; Schopflocher, Donald P; Vaudry, Wendy

    2014-01-01

    Children who begin but do not fully complete the recommended series of childhood vaccines by 2 y of age are a much larger group than those who receive no vaccines. While parents who refuse all vaccines typically express concern about vaccine safety, it is critical to determine what influences parents of 'partially' immunized children. This case-control study examined whether parental concern about vaccine safety was responsible for partial immunization, and whether other personal or system-level factors played an important role. A random sample of parents of partially and completely immunized 2 y old children were selected from a Canadian regional immunization registry and completed a postal survey assessing various personal and system-level factors. Unadjusted odds ratios (OR) and adjusted ORs (aOR) were calculated with logistic regression. While vaccine safety concern was associated with partial immunization (OR 7.338, 95% CI 4.138-13.012), other variables were more strongly associated and reduced the strength of the relationship between concern and partial immunization in multivariable analysis (aOR 2.829, 95% CI 1.151-6.957). Other important factors included perceived disease susceptibility and severity (aOR 4.629, 95% CI 2.017-10.625), residential mobility (aOR 3.908, 95% CI 2.075-7.358), daycare use (aOR 0.310, 95% CI 0.144-0.671), number of needles administered at each visit (aOR 7.734, 95% CI 2.598-23.025) and access to a regular physician (aOR 0.219, 95% CI 0.057-0.846). While concern about vaccine safety may be addressed through educational strategies, this study suggests that additional program and policy-level strategies may positively impact immunization uptake.

  1. Annual report 1996 concerning the nuclear safety and radiological protection in the Swiss nuclear installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    The report presents detailed information about the nuclear safety and radiological protection in the Swiss nuclear power plants, the central interim storage at Wuerenlingen, the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) and other nuclear installations in Switzerland. figs., tabs., refs.

  2. Annual Report 1998 concerning the nuclear safety and radiological protection in the Swiss nuclear installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    The report presents detailed information about the nuclear safety and radiological protection in the Swiss nuclear power plants, the central interim storage at Wuerenlingen, the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) and other nuclear installations in Switzerland.

  3. Annual Report 1998 concerning the nuclear safety and radiological protection in the Swiss nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-05-01

    The report presents detailed information about the nuclear safety and radiological protection in the Swiss nuclear power plants, the central interim storage at Wuerenlingen, the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) and other nuclear installations in Switzerland

  4. Annual Report 1999 concerning the nuclear safety and radiological protection in the Swiss nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-08-01

    The report presents detailed information about the nuclear safety and radiological protection in the Swiss nuclear power plants, the central interim storage at Wuerenlingen, the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) and other nuclear installations in Switzerland

  5. Annual Report 1999 concerning the nuclear safety and radiological protection in the Swiss nuclear installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-08-15

    The report presents detailed information about the nuclear safety and radiological protection in the Swiss nuclear power plants, the central interim storage at Wuerenlingen, the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) and other nuclear installations in Switzerland.

  6. Annual report 1996 concerning the nuclear safety and radiological protection in the Swiss nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-05-01

    The report presents detailed information about the nuclear safety and radiological protection in the Swiss nuclear power plants, the central interim storage at Wuerenlingen, the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) and other nuclear installations in Switzerland. figs., tabs., refs

  7. Current regulatory developments concerning the implementation of probabilistic safety analyses for external hazards in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krauss, Matias; Berg, Heinz-Peter

    2014-01-01

    The Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU) initiated in September 2003 a comprehensive program for the revision of the national nuclear safety regulations which has been successfully completed in November 2012. These nuclear regulations take into account the current recommendations of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and Western European Nuclear Regulators Association (WENRA). In this context, the recommendations and guidelines of the Nuclear Safety Standards Commission (KTA) and the technical documents elaborated by the respective expert group on Probabilistic Safety Analysis for Nuclear Power Plants (FAK PSA) are being updated or in the final process of completion. A main topic of the revision was the issue external hazards. As part of this process and in the light of the accident at Fukushima and the findings of the related actions resulting in safety reviews of nuclear power plants at national level in Germany and on European level, a revision of all relevant standards and documents has been made, especially the recommendations of KTA and FAK PSA. In that context, not only design issues with respect to events such as earthquakes and floods have been discussed, but also methodological issues regarding the implementation of improved probabilistic safety analyses on this topic. As a result of the revision of the KTA 2201 series 'Design of Nuclear Power Plants against Seismic Events' with their parts 1 to 6, part 1 'Principles' was published as the first standard in November 2011, followed by the revised versions of KTA 2201.2 (soil) and 2201.4 (systems and components) in 2012. The modified the standard KTA 2201.3 (structures) is expected to be issued before the end of 2013. In case of part 5 (seismic instrumentation) and part 6 (post>seismic actions) draft amendments are expected in 2013. The expert group 'Probabilistic Safety Assessments for Nuclear Power Plants' (FAK PSA) is an advisory body of the Federal

  8. Regulatory oversight report 2015 concerning nuclear safety in Swiss nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-06-01

    The Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (ENSI) assesses and monitors nuclear facilities in Switzerland. These include the five nuclear power plants (Beznau Units 1 and 2, Muehleberg, Goesgen and Leibstadt), the interim storage facilities based at each plant, the Central Interim Storage Facility (Zwilag) at Wuerenlingen together with the nuclear facilities at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), the University of Basel and the Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne (EPFL), as well as the transport of radioactive materials and the preparatory work for a deep geological repository for nuclear waste. Using a combination of inspections, regulatory meetings, examinations and analyses together with reports from the licensees of individual facilities, ENSI obtains the required overview of nuclear safety in these facilities. ENSI maintains its own emergency organization. It provides the public with information on particular events and findings in nuclear facilities. ENSI publishes an annual Radiological Protection Report and a Research and Experience Report. Chapters 1 to 4 of this Surveillance Report deal with operational experience, systems technology, radiological protection and management of the 5 Swiss nuclear power plants. Chapter 5 deals with Zwilag. Chapters 6 and 7 are devoted to the nuclear facilities at PSI and the research reactor at EPFL as well as the decommissioned University of Basel’s research reactor. Chapter 8 covers the transport of radioactive materials. The subject of Chapter 9 is the deep geological storage of radioactive waste including work within the framework of the Sectoral Plan. Finally, Chapter 10 deals with generic issues relevant to all facilities such as probabilistic safety analyses. In 2015, all five nuclear power plants in Switzerland were safely operated and ENSI concluded that each had adhered to its approved operating conditions. There were 34 reportable events at the nuclear power plants; 32 events were rated at Level 0 on

  9. Regulatory overview report 2014 concerning nuclear safety in Swiss nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-06-01

    The Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (ENSI), acting as the regulatory body of the Swiss Federation, assesses and monitors nuclear facilities in Switzerland: the five nuclear power plants, the interim storage facilities based at each plant, the Central Interim Storage Facility (ZWILAG) at Wuerenlingen together with the nuclear facilities at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), the University of Basel (UniB) and the Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne (EPFL). Using a combination of inspections, regulatory meetings, examinations and analyses together with reports from the licensees of individual facilities, ENSI obtains the required overview of nuclear safety. It ensures that they comply with regulations. Its regulatory responsibilities include the transport of radioactive materials from and to nuclear facilities and the preparations for a deep geological repository for nuclear waste. ENSI maintains its own emergency organisation, an integral part of the national emergency structure. It provides the public with information on particular events in nuclear facilities. This Surveillance Report describes the operational experience, systems technology, radiological protection and management in all nuclear facilities. Generic issues relevant to all facilities such as probabilistic safety analyses are described. In 2014, all five nuclear power plants in Switzerland (Beznau Units I and 2, Muehleberg, Goesgen and Leibstadt) were operated safely. The nuclear safety at all plants was rated as good. 38 events were reported. There was one reactor scram at the Leibstadt nuclear power plant. On the International Event Scale (INES), ranging from 0--7, 37 events were rated as Level 0; one event was rated as INES 1: drill holes had penetrated the steel wall of the containment to secure two hand-held fire extinguishers. ZWILAG consists of several interim storage halls, a conditioning plant and a plasma plant. At the end of 2014, the cask storage hall contained 42

  10. Optimization method concerning target conflicts between safety aspects and occupational safety aspects in nuclear power plant operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, W.

    1991-01-01

    The simplified cost-benefit analysis has not been considered for applications in nuclear engineering with complex decisions between safety aspects and occupational safety aspects. The extended cost-benefit analysis encounters problems with non-monetary criteria. Solutions are in sight, however with a subjective element. A major problem in implementing the method is the psychological barrier as against an evaluation of human life. The multi-attribute utility analysis overcomes the difficulties of the extended cost-benefit analysis, however, it also creates new problems on account of the complicated construction of the utility functions. The problems are solved most elegantly with the multi-criteria outranking analysis, the only disadvantage possibly being less transparency at first sight. (orig./HP) [de

  11. Human health screening and public health significance of contaminants of emerging concern detected in public water supplies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Robert; Conerly, Octavia D.; Sander, William; Batt, Angela L.; Boone, J. Scott; Furlong, Edward T.; Glassmeyer, Susan T.; Kolpin, Dana W.; Mash, Heath

    2017-01-01

    The source water and treated drinking water from twenty five drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) across the United States were sampled in 2010–2012. Samples were analyzed for 247 contaminants using 15 chemical and microbiological methods. Most of these contaminants are not regulated currently either in drinking water or in discharges to ambient water by the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) or other U.S. regulatory agencies. This analysis shows that there is little public health concern for most of the contaminants detected in treated water from the 25 DWTPs participating in this study. For vanadium, the calculated Margin of Exposure (MOE) was less than the screening MOE in two DWTPs. For silicon, the calculated MOE was less than the screening MOE in one DWTP. Additional study, for example a national survey may be needed to determine the number of people ingesting vanadium and silicon above a level of concern. In addition, the concentrations of lithium found in treated water from several DWTPs are within the range previous research has suggested to have a human health effect. Additional investigation of this issue is necessary. Finally, new toxicological data suggest that exposure to manganese at levels in public water supplies may present a public health concern which will require a robust assessment of this information.

  12. Significance of FIZ Technik Databases in nuclear safety and environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, N.K.

    1993-01-01

    The language of the abstracts of the FIZ Technik databases is primarly German (e.g. DOMA 80%, SDIM 70%). Furthermore FIZ Technik offers licence databases on engineering and technology, management, manufacturers, products, contacts, standards and specifications, geosciences and natural resources. The contents and structure of the databases are described in the FIZ Technik bluesheets and the database news. With some examples the significance of the FIZ Technik databases DOMA, ZDEE, SDIM, SILI and MEDI in nuclear safety and environmental protection is shown. (orig.)

  13. Regulatory oversight report 2008 concerning nuclear safety in Swiss nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-04-01

    This annual report issued by the Swiss Federal Nuclear Inspectorate (ENSI) reports on the work carried out by the Inspectorate in 2008. This report reviews the regulatory activities in the four Swiss nuclear power stations and in four further nuclear installations in various Swiss research facilities. It deals with topics such as operational details, technologies in use, radiation protection, radioactive wastes, emergency dispositions, personnel and provides an assessment of operations from the safety point of view. Also, the transportation of nuclear materials - both nuclear fuels and nuclear wastes - is reported on. General topics discussed include probabilistic safety analyses and accident management, earthquake damage analysis and agreements on nuclear safety. The underground disposal of highly-radioactive nuclear wastes and work done in the rock laboratories are discussed, as are proposals for additional nuclear power stations

  14. The TSN bill concerning transparency and safety in the nuclear sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leger, M.; Lahorgue, M.B.; Strohl, P.

    2009-01-01

    This document gathers together 3 articles whose common purpose is to shed light on the 13. June 2006 French law on transparency and safety in the nuclear sector. This law is fundamental because it gave, for the first time, the legal definitions of basic concepts like nuclear safety, public information or transparency. It also gave a series of principles on which the right in nuclear activities, has to rely: the principle of precaution, the principle of prevention, the principle of remedial action, the principle of who pollutes has to pay, and the principle of public information. The law gives also a clear scheme of the roles and responsibilities in the nuclear sector: the state, the government, the nuclear safety authority, the nuclear facility operator and the land (on which the nuclear facility stands) owner. (A.C.)

  15. Description of present practice concerning the safety criteria for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    In the description at hand, the authors portray how the aims defined in the safety criteria are reached, and they make proposals for improvement. Basic principles, acceptances and requirements, with which the experts of TUeV and GRS involved in licensing procedures work at the moment, are compiled. This description of present practice has to be adapted perhaps to the existing scientific knowledge at the time. In order that an optimal behaviour as regards safety is reached by the employees in nuclear power plants, criterion 2.5 requires the following measures: the places of work and the work routine in nuclear power plants are to be organized in such a way, that they offer the conditions for the optimal behaviour of employees as regards safety. (orig./HP) [de

  16. Food Safety as a contributor to Food Security: global policy concerns & challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Vijay Kumar Chattu

    2015-01-01

    The theme for World Health Day campaign for this year 2015 is “Food safety: from farm to plate, make food safe”. The day focuses on demonstrating the importance of food safety along the whole length of the food chain in a globalized world, from production and transport, to preparation and consumption (1). Everyone needs food and needs it every day either plant sources or animal sources or both. The food we eat must be nutritious and safe but we often ignore or overlook the issue of food safet...

  17. Ensuring the nuclear safety of VVER-440 reactor pressure vessels in Skoda, Concern Enterprise, Plzen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hrbek, Z.

    1985-01-01

    Various types of routine inspections are described of reactor pressure vessels with the aim of identifying residual lifetime and overall safety. The inspection programme includes: choice of systems and instruments, type of tests, test frequency, safety criteria, measures to be taken in case of unsatisfactory results, documentation. The criteria are given for periodical inspections and requirements listed for instruments and equipment. The main three groups of tests are: visual inspection and dimension tests, surface inspection and volumetric inspection. Briefly described is some of the equipment used. (M.D.)

  18. Surveys of research projects concerning nuclear facility safety, financed by the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Protection and Reactor Safety, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-11-01

    Each progress report is a collection of individual reports, categorized by subject matter. They are a documentation of the contractor's progress, rendered by themselves on standardized forms, published, for the sake of general information on progress made in investigations concerning reactor safety, by the project attendance department of the GRS. The individual reports have serial numbers. Each report includes particulars of the objective, work carried out, results obtained and plans for project continuation. (orig.) [de

  19. Surveys of research projects concerning nuclear facility safety, financed by the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Protection and Reactor Safety, 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-06-01

    Each progress report is a collection of individual reports, categorized by subject matter. They are a documentation of the contractor's progress, rendered by themselves on standardized forms, published, for the sake of general information on progress made in investigations concerning reactor safety, by the project attendance department of the GRS. The individual reports have serial numbers. Each report includes particulars of the objective, work carried out, results obtained and plans for project continuation. (orig.) [de

  20. Surveys of research projects concerning nuclear facility safety financed by the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Protection and Reactor Safety, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-09-01

    Each progress report is a collection of individual reports, categorized by subject matter. They are a documentation of the contractor's progress, rendered by themselves on standardized forms, published, for the sake of general information on progress made in investigations concerning reactor safety, by the project attendance department of the GRS. The individual reports have serial numbers. Each report includes particulars of the objective, work carried out, results obtained and plans for project continuation. (orig.) [de

  1. Geological disposal of nuclear waste: II. From laboratory data to the safety analysis – Addressing societal concerns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grambow, Bernd; Bretesché, Sophie

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Models for repository safety can only partly be validated. • Long term risks need to be translated in the context of societal temporalities. • Social sciences need to be more strongly involved into safety assessment. - Abstract: After more than 30 years of international research and development, there is a broad technical consensus that geologic disposal of highly-radioactive waste will provide for the safety of humankind and the environment, now, and far into the future. Safety analyses have demonstrated that the risk, as measured by exposure to radiation, will be of little consequence. Still, there is not yet an operating geologic repository for highly-radioactive waste, and there remains substantial public concern about the long-term safety of geologic disposal. In these two linked papers, we argue for a stronger connection between the scientific data (paper I, Grambow et al., 2014) and the safety analysis, particularly in the context of societal expectations (paper II). In this paper (II), we assess the meaning of the technical results and derived models (paper I) for the determination of the long-term safety of a repository. We consider issues of model validity and their credibility in the context of a much broader historical, epistemological and societal context. Safety analysis is treated in its social and temporal dimensions. This perspective provides new insights into the societal dimension of scenarios and risk analysis. Surprisingly, there is certainly no direct link between increased scientific understanding and a public position for or against different strategies of nuclear waste disposal. This is not due to the public being poorly informed, but rather due to cultural cognition of expertise and historical and cultural perception of hazards to regions selected to host a geologic repository. The societal and cultural dimension does not diminish the role of science, as scientific results become even more important in distinguishing

  2. Safety report concerning the reactor Pegase - volume 1 - Description of the installation - volume 2 - Safety of the installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacour, J.

    1964-01-01

    In the first volume: This report is a description of the reactor Pegase, given with a view to examine the safety of the installations. The Cadarache site at which they are situated is briefly described, in particular because of the consequences on the techniques employed for building Pegase. A description is also given of the original aspects of the reactor. The independent loops which are designed for full-scale testing of fuel elements used in natural uranium-gas-graphite reactor systems are described in this report, together with their operational and control equipment. In the second volume: In the present report are examined the accidents which could cause damage to the Pegase reactor installation. Among possible causes of accidents considered are the seismicity of the region, an excessive power excursion of the reactor and a fracture in the sealing of an independent loop. Although all possible precautions have been taken to offset the effects of such accidents, their ultimate consequences are considered here. The importance is stressed of the security action and regulations which, added to the precautions taken for the construction, ensure the safety of the installations. (authors) [fr

  3. Current statistical tools, systems and bodies concerned with safety and accident statistics.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koornstra, M.J.

    1996-01-01

    There are a wide range of differences in the methods used nationally to classify and record road accidents. The current use of road safety information systems and the few systems available for international use are discussed. Recommendations are made for a more efficient, less costly, and improved

  4. Topical points of community policy concerning nuclear safety relevant to the Internal Market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroeder, M.

    1991-01-01

    Starting with the Internal Market concept, the lecture describes general and specific expectations directed to the nuclear community from a point of view of nuclear safety, and analyzes those aspects of nuclear safety, EC policy focuses on. There are the following chapters: 1. Selection of sites for nuclear installations, 2. installation and reactor safety, 3. radioactive waste management, 4. decommissioning of nuclear installations, 5. radioactive waste storage, 6. coping with nuclear accidents and other radiological emergency situations. Sophistication of public health and environmental protection within the framework of the EURATOM Treaty is seen in connection with interim and final storage as well as reprocessing of radioactive waste, and with the decommissioning of nuclear facilities on the basis of section 30 ff., and installation and reactor safety on the basis of section 203 EURATOM Treaty. Improving the protection of public health in particular is possible and necessary in order to make the EURATOM community into a proper nuclear community of law. (orig./HSCH) [de

  5. Using agro-industrial wastes for the cultivation of microalgae and duckweeds: Contamination risks and biomass safety concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markou, Giorgos; Wang, Liang; Ye, Jianfeng; Unc, Adrian

    2018-04-17

    Aquatic organisms, such as microalgae (Chlorella, Arthrospira (Spirulina), Tetrasselmis, Dunalliela etc.) and duckweed (Lemna spp., Wolffia spp. etc.) are a potential source for the production of protein-rich biomass and for numerous other high-value compounds (fatty acids, pigments, vitamins etc.). Their cultivation using agro-industrial wastes and wastewater (WaW) is of particular interest in the context of a circular economy, not only for recycling valuable nutrients but also for reducing the requirements for fresh water for the production of biomass. Recovery and recycling of nutrients is an unavoidable long-term approach for securing future food and feed production. Agro-industrial WaW are rich in nutrients and have been widely considered as a potential nutrient source for the cultivation of microalgae/duckweed. However, they commonly contain various hazardous contaminants, which could potentially taint the produced biomass, raising various concerns about the safety of their consumption. Herein, an overview of the most important contaminants, including heavy metals and metalloids, pathogens (bacteria, viruses, parasites etc.), and xenobiotics (hormones, antibiotics, parasiticides etc.) is given. It is concluded that pretreatment and processing of WaW is a requisite step for the removal of several contaminants. Among the various technologies, anaerobic digestion (AD) is widely used in practice and offers a technologically mature approach for WaW treatment. During AD, various organic and biological contaminants are significantly removed. Further removal of contaminants could be achieved by post-treatment and processing of digestates (solid/liquid separation, dilution etc.) to further decrease the concentration of contaminants. Moreover, during cultivation an additional removal may occur through various mechanisms, such as precipitation, degradation, and biotransformation. Since many jurisdictions regulate the presence of various contaminants in feed or food

  6. A quantitative approach for risk-informed safety significance categorization in option-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, Jun Su; Seong, Poong Hyun

    2004-01-01

    OPTION-2 recommends that Structures, Systems, or Components (SSCs) of Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) should be categorized into four groups according to their safety significance as well as whether they are safety-related or not. With changes to the scope of SSCs covered by 10 CFR 50, safety-related components which categorized into low safety significant SSC (RISC-3 SSC) can be exempted from the existing conservative burden (or requirements). As OPTION-2 paradigm is applied, a lot of SSCs may be categorized into RISC-3 SSCs. Changes in treatment of the RISC-3 SSCs will be recommended and then finally the recommended changes shall be evaluated. Consequently, before recommending the changes in treatment, probable candidate SSCs for the changes in treatment need to be identified for efficient risk-informed regulation and application (RIRA). Hence, in this work, a validation focused on the RISC-3 SSCs is proposed to identify probable candidate SSCs. Burden to Importance Ratio (BIR) is utilized as a quantitative measure for the validation. BIR is a measure representing the extent of resources or requirements imposed on a SSC with respect to the value of the importance measure of the SSC. Therefore SSCs having high BIR can be considered as probable candidate SSCs for the changes in treatment. In addition, the final decision whether RISC-3 SSCs can be considered as probable candidate SSCs or not should be made by an expert panel. For the effective decision making, a structured mathematical decision-making process is constructed based on Belief Networks (BBN) to overcome demerits of conventional group meeting based on unstructured discussion for decision-making. To demonstrate the usefulness of the proposed approach, the approach is applied to 22 components selected from 512 In-Service Test (IST) components of Ulchin unit 3. The results of the application show that the proposed approach can identify probable candidate SSCs for changes in treatment. The identification of the

  7. The Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate's Regulations concerning Safety in connection with the Disposal of Nuclear Material and Nuclear Waste. General Recommendations concerning the Application of the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate's Regulations above

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-06-01

    An english translation of the original Swedish regulations concerning the safety in disposal of nuclear wastes is published in this booklet, together with recommendations on how these regulations can be applied

  8. Risks of drowning and safety concerns at the beaches of Karachi--perspective from lifeguards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Masood Ali

    2014-05-01

    Going to beaches is a popular pastime for many people in Karachi. Lifeguards have been deployed on many beaches for the safety and protection of beachgoers. This cross-sectional survey was conducted to study the opinions and experiences of lifeguards posted at eight beaches of Karachi. Ignorance among beachgoers about how dangerous it could be at seaside, was reported by 19 (61.3%) out of 31 lifeguards interviewed. Lifeguards had to put up with verbal and physical abuse while discharging their duties, with verbal abuse being the universal experience. Improved record keeping of drowning and near-drowning data would help make better evidence-informed beach-safety decisions in Karachi for reducing the morbidity and mortality burden owing to drowning.

  9. Regulatory oversight report 2007 concerning nuclear safety in Swiss nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-04-01

    This annual report issued by the Swiss Federal Nuclear Inspectorate (HSK) reports on the work carried out by the Inspectorate in 2007. This report reviews the regulatory activities in the four Swiss nuclear power stations and in four further nuclear installations in various Swiss research facilities. It deals with topics such as operational details, technologies in use, radiation protection, radioactive wastes, emergency dispositions and personnel and provides an assessment of operations from the point of view of safety. Also, the transportation of nuclear materials - both nuclear fuels and nuclear wastes - is reported on. General topics discussed include probabilistic safety analyses and accident management. Finally, the disposal of nuclear wastes and work done in the rock laboratories in Switzerland is commented on

  10. Safety basis for selected activities in single-shell tanks with flammable gas concerns. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlosser, R.L.

    1996-01-01

    This is full revision to Revision 0 of this report. The purpose of this report is to provide a summary of analyses done to support activities performed for single-shell tanks. These activities are encompassed by the flammable gas Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ). The basic controls required to perform these activities involve the identification, elimination and/or control of ignition sources and monitoring for flammable gases. Controls are implemented through the Interim Safety Basis (ISB), IOSRs, and OSDs. Since this report only provides a historical compendium of issues and activities, it is not to be used as a basis to perform USQ screenings and evaluations. Furthermore, these analyses and others in process will be used as the basis for developing the Flammable Gas Topical Report for the ISB Upgrade

  11. Competition and safety as reflected in the legislation concerning technical supervision - are they incompatible

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, H.A.

    1986-01-01

    The author discusses the conflicts between competition and safety in the legislation on technical supervision, the requirements on specific sectors, and the consequences of the concentration of the functions of technical supervision in the hands of the Technical Supervisory Board (TUEV). The demand to give more room for competition is found to have no legal basis in fundamental law. It therefore rests with the legislator to concert the one with the other. (orig./HP) [de

  12. Simulation experiments concerning functioning tests of technical safety devices with process computers. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawickhorst, W.

    1976-12-01

    Computerized inspection techniques of engineered safety systems improve the diagnosis capability, relative to the presently used techniques, even if anticipated system disturbances can only be qualitatively predicted. To achieve this, the system to be inspected must be partitioned into small subsystems, which can be treated independently from each other. This report contains the formulation of a standardized inspection concept based on system decomposition. Its performance is discussed by means of simulation experiments. (orig.) [de

  13. Analysis of events significant with regard to safety of Bohunice V-1 nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suchomel, J.; Maron, V.; Kmosena, J.

    1986-01-01

    An analysis was made of operating safety of the V-1 nuclear power plant in Jaslovske Bohunice for the years 1980 - 1983. Of the total number of 676 reported failures only three were events with special safety significance, namely a complete loss of power supply for own consumption from the power grid, a failure of pins on the collectors of steam generators, and a failure of the heads of heat technology inspection channels. The failures were categorized according to the systems used in the USSR and in the USA and compared with data on failures in nuclear power plants in the two countries. The conclusions show that the operation of the V-1 nuclear power plant achieves results which are fully comparable with those recorded in 9 WWER-440 power plants operating in various countries. The average coefficient of availability is 0.72 and ranks the power plant in the fourth place among the said 9 plants. A comparison of the individual power plant units showed that of the total number of 22, the first unit of the V-1 plant ranks fifth with a coefficient of 0.78 and the second unit with a coefficient of 0.69 ranks 15th. (Z.M.)

  14. Regulatory overview report 2013 concerning nuclear safety in Swiss nuclear installations; Aufsichtsbericht 2013 zur nuklearen Sicherheit in den schweizerischen Kernanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-06-15

    The Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (ENSI) acting as the regulatory body of the Swiss Federation assesses and monitors nuclear facilities in Switzerland: these include five nuclear power plants, the interim storage facilities based at each plant, the Central Interim Storage Facility (ZWILAG) at Wuerenlingen together with the nuclear facilities at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) and the two universities of Basel and Lausanne. Using a combination of inspections, regulatory meetings, examinations and analyses together with reports from the licensees of individual facilities, ENSI obtains the overview required concerning nuclear safety. It ensures that the facilities comply with regulations. Its regulatory responsibilities include the transport of radioactive materials from and to nuclear facilities and the preparations for a deep geological repository for nuclear waste. ENSI maintains its own emergency organisation, an integral part of the national emergency structure. It provides the public with information on particular events in nuclear facilities. This Surveillance Report describes operational experience, systems technology, radiological protection and management in all the nuclear facilities. Generic issues relevant to all facilities such as probabilistic safety analyses are described. In 2013, the five nuclear power plants in Switzerland (Beznau Units 1 and 2, Muehleberg, Goesgen and Leibstadt) were all operated safely and had complied with their approved operating conditions. The nuclear safety at all plants was rated as being good. 34 events were reported. During operation, no reactor scrams were recorded. On the INES scale, ranging from 0-7, ENSI rated all reportable events as Level 0. The ENSI safety evaluation reflects both reportable events and the results of the approximately 460 inspections conducted during 2013. ZWILAG consists of several storage halls, a conditioning plant and a plasma plant. At the end of 2013, the cask storage hall

  15. Items to be reflected to the nuclear power safety measures in Japan (concerning the examination, design and operation management) (excluding the items to be reflected to the standards)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-10-01

    In connection with the Three Mile Island nuclear power accident in March, 1979, in the United States, in order to introduce the lessons from it in the nuclear power safety regulations in Japan, 52 items to be reflected to the nuclear power safety measures were chosen by the Nuclear Safety Commission. Of these, 16 items were examined by the Committee on Examination of Reactor Safety. It was decided that these results would be introduced in the nuclear safety regulations, by the Nuclear Safety Commission. The following 16 items are described. For the examination, four items concerning the automatic operation of safety systems and others; for the design, five items concerning a small rupture accident, the monitoring of the state of primary coolant, control room layout and others; for the operation management, seven items concerning the inspection at the time of repair, the prevention of faulty handlings by operators and others.

  16. Items to be reflected to the nuclear power safety measures in Japan (concerning the examination, design and operation management) (excluding the items to be reflected to the standards)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    In connection with the Three Mile Island nuclear power accident in March, 1979, in the United States, in order to introduce the lessons from it in the nuclear power safety regulations in Japan, 52 items to be reflected to the nuclear power safety measures were chosen by the Nuclear Safety Commission. Of these, 16 items were examined by the Committee on Examination of Reactor Safety. It was decided that these results would be introduced in the nuclear safety regulations, by the Nuclear Safety Commission. The following 16 items are described. For the examination, four items concerning the automatic operation of safety systems and others; for the design, five items concerning a small rupture accident, the monitoring of the state of primary coolant, control room layout and others; for the operation management, seven items concerning the inspection at the time of repair, the prevention of faulty handlings by operators and others. (J.P.N.)

  17. Gender differences and demographic influences in perceived concern for driver safety and support for impaired driving countermeasures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butters, Jennifer; Mann, Robert E; Wickens, Christine M; Boase, Paul

    2012-12-01

    Driving safety, impaired driving, and legislation to address these concerns remain important issues. It is imperative countermeasures be targeted toward the most appropriate groups. This paper explores the potential relationship between gender and driving attitudes toward safety issues and impaired-driving countermeasures. The data are from the 2007 Impaired Driving Survey commissioned by Transport Canada and Mothers Against Drunk Driving (MADD) Canada. The survey is a, stratified by region, telephone survey of 1,514 Canadian drivers 18years of age and older with a valid driver's license who had driven within the past 30days. The findings illustrate a consistent impact of gender on these issues. Other variables were also identified as relevant factors although less consistently. Current findings suggest that strategies for building support for interventions, or for changing risk perception/concern for risky driving behaviors should be tailored by gender to maximize the potential for behavior change. This information may assist program and policy developers through the identification of more or less receptive target groups. Future research directions are also presented. Copyright © 2012 National Safety Council and Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Rowers’ Self-Reported Behaviors, Attitudes, and Safety Concerns Related to Exercise, Training, and Competition During Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishtal, Joanna; Johnson, Teresa; Simms-Cendan, Judith

    2017-01-01

    Background The American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology notes that pregnant athletes require more supervision due to their involvement in strenuous training schedules throughout pregnancy. Currently, rowing is not mentioned in the guidelines despite its increasing popularity, high cardiovascular demands, and risk for abdominal trauma. Methods This study aimed to elicit information from competitive female rowers regarding exercise, training, and competition during pregnancy. We administered a survey consisting of 122 items to female Masters rowers in the United States, aged 21 to 49 years, from June to December 2013. Results A total of 224 recreational and elite rowers met the inclusion criteria. Pregnant rowers self-reported high levels of exercise engagement: 85.2% (n/N = 98/115) exercised during any past pregnancy; exercise adherence decreased throughout pregnancy with 51.3%, 42.4%, and 15.7% meeting and/or exceeding national guidelines during the first, second, and third trimesters, respectively. Rowers were significantly (p sport. Novel barriers to exercise in pregnancy included guilt towards the team and a mental barrier due to decreased performance. Healthcare providers are the number one information source for rowers regarding exercise during pregnancy. Conclusion Pregnant rowers are a relevant obstetrics population and have barriers and sport-specific safety concerns not previously identified in the literature. Rowers consider exercising in pregnancy to be important and struggle to meet exercise guidelines like the general population, indicating the need for healthcare providers to provide prenatal and antenatal education and interventions to support exercise during pregnancy even amongst athletes. PMID:28983443

  19. Rowers' Self-Reported Behaviors, Attitudes, and Safety Concerns Related to Exercise, Training, and Competition During Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Ashley; Mishtal, Joanna; Johnson, Teresa; Simms-Cendan, Judith

    2017-08-01

    Background The American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology notes that pregnant athletes require more supervision due to their involvement in strenuous training schedules throughout pregnancy. Currently, rowing is not mentioned in the guidelines despite its increasing popularity, high cardiovascular demands, and risk for abdominal trauma. Methods This study aimed to elicit information from competitive female rowers regarding exercise, training, and competition during pregnancy. We administered a survey consisting of 122 items to female Masters rowers in the United States, aged 21 to 49 years, from June to December 2013. Results A total of 224 recreational and elite rowers met the inclusion criteria. Pregnant rowers self-reported high levels of exercise engagement: 85.2% (n/N = 98/115) exercised during any past pregnancy; exercise adherence decreased throughout pregnancy with 51.3%, 42.4%, and 15.7% meeting and/or exceeding national guidelines during the first, second, and third trimesters, respectively. Rowers were significantly (p sport. Novel barriers to exercise in pregnancy included guilt towards the team and a mental barrier due to decreased performance. Healthcare providers are the number one information source for rowers regarding exercise during pregnancy. Conclusion Pregnant rowers are a relevant obstetrics population and have barriers and sport-specific safety concerns not previously identified in the literature. Rowers consider exercising in pregnancy to be important and struggle to meet exercise guidelines like the general population, indicating the need for healthcare providers to provide prenatal and antenatal education and interventions to support exercise during pregnancy even amongst athletes.

  20. Concerns related to Safety Management of Engineered Nanomaterials in research environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groso, A; Meyer, Th

    2013-01-01

    Since the rise of occupational safety and health research on nanomaterials a lot of progress has been made in generating health effects and exposure data. However, when detailed quantitative risk analysis is in question, more research is needed, especially quantitative measures of workers exposure and standards to categorize toxicity/hazardousness data. In the absence of dose-response relationships and quantitative exposure measurements, control banding (CB) has been widely adopted by OHS community as a pragmatic tool in implementing a risk management strategy based on a precautionary approach. Being in charge of health and safety in a Swiss university, where nanomaterials are largely used and produced, we are also faced with the challenge related to nanomaterials' occupational safety. In this work, we discuss the field application of an in-house risk management methodology similar to CB as well as some other methodologies. The challenges and issues related to the process will be discussed. Since exact data on nanomaterials hazardousness are missing for most of the situations, we deduce that the outcome of the analysis for a particular process is essentially the same with a simple methodology that determines only exposure potential and the one taking into account the hazardousness of ENPs. It is evident that when reliable data on hazardousness factors (as surface chemistry, solubility, carcinogenicity, toxicity etc.) will be available, more differentiation will be possible in determining the risk for different materials. On the protective measures side, all CB methodologies are inclined to overprotection side, only that some of them suggest comprehensive protective/preventive measures and others remain with basic advices. The implementation and control of protective measures in research environment will also be discussed.

  1. Concerns related to Safety Management of Engineered Nanomaterials in research environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groso, A.; Meyer, Th

    2013-04-01

    Since the rise of occupational safety and health research on nanomaterials a lot of progress has been made in generating health effects and exposure data. However, when detailed quantitative risk analysis is in question, more research is needed, especially quantitative measures of workers exposure and standards to categorize toxicity/hazardousness data. In the absence of dose-response relationships and quantitative exposure measurements, control banding (CB) has been widely adopted by OHS community as a pragmatic tool in implementing a risk management strategy based on a precautionary approach. Being in charge of health and safety in a Swiss university, where nanomaterials are largely used and produced, we are also faced with the challenge related to nanomaterials' occupational safety. In this work, we discuss the field application of an in-house risk management methodology similar to CB as well as some other methodologies. The challenges and issues related to the process will be discussed. Since exact data on nanomaterials hazardousness are missing for most of the situations, we deduce that the outcome of the analysis for a particular process is essentially the same with a simple methodology that determines only exposure potential and the one taking into account the hazardousness of ENPs. It is evident that when reliable data on hazardousness factors (as surface chemistry, solubility, carcinogenicity, toxicity etc.) will be available, more differentiation will be possible in determining the risk for different materials. On the protective measures side, all CB methodologies are inclined to overprotection side, only that some of them suggest comprehensive protective/preventive measures and others remain with basic advices. The implementation and control of protective measures in research environment will also be discussed.

  2. Problems and concerns in radiation safety management related with decommissioning of tritium facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawano, Takao

    2005-01-01

    The tritium facility at the National Institute for Fusion Science has been closed in 2002 after decommissioning procedure. A number of works have been completed including technical measures and administrative documentations to be reported to the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sport, Science and Technology. All the operations were carried out in three successive terms; 1) survey and preparations, 2) actual decommissioning works, and 3) report of all procedures to the Minister. A valuable experience we had during this project has been summarized, and some problems have also been pointed out from a viewpoint of radiation safety management. (author)

  3. Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This annual report of the Senior Inspector for the Nuclear Safety, analyses the nuclear safety at EDF for the year 1999 and proposes twelve subjects of consideration to progress. Five technical documents are also provided and discussed concerning the nuclear power plants maintenance and safety (thermal fatigue, vibration fatigue, assisted control and instrumentation of the N4 bearing, 1300 MW reactors containment and time of life of power plants). (A.L.B.)

  4. Safety concerns of herbal products and traditional Chinese herbal medicines: dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids and aristolochic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegelmeier, Bryan L; Brown, Ammon W; Welch, Kevin D

    2015-12-01

    In many countries, including the United States, herbal supplements, tisanes and vegetable products, including traditional Chinese medicines, are largely unregulated and their content is not registered, monitored or verified. Consequently, potent plant toxins including dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids and other potential carcinogens can contaminate these products. As herbal and food supplement producers are left to their own means to determine the safety and purity of their products prior to marketing, disturbingly often good marketing practices currently in place are ignored and content is largely undocumented. Historical examples of poisoning and health issues relating to plant material containing dehydopyrrolizidine alkaloids and aristolochic acids were used as examples to demonstrate the risk and potential toxicity of herbal products, food supplements, or traditional medicines. More work is needed to educate consumers of the potential risk and require the industry to be more responsible to verify the content and insure the safety of their products. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  5. Regulatory oversight report 2012 concerning nuclear safety in Swiss nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-04-01

    The Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (ENSI) assesses and monitors nuclear facilities in Switzerland. These include the five nuclear power plants, the interim storage facilities based at each plant, the Central Interim Storage Facility (ZWILAG) and the nuclear facilities at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), at the Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne (EPFL) and at the University of Basel. Using a combination of inspections, regulatory meetings, examinations and analyses together with reports from the licensees of individual facilities, ENSI obtains the required overview of nuclear safety in the relevant facilities. It ensures that the facilities comply with the regulations and operate as required by law. Its regulatory responsibilities also include the transport of radioactive materials from and to nuclear facilities and the preparations for a deep geological repository for nuclear waste. ENSI maintains its own emergency organisation. It formulates and updates its own guidelines which stipulate the criteria for evaluating the current activities and future plans of the operators of nuclear facilities. ENSI produces regular reports on its regulatory activities and nuclear safety in Swiss nuclear facilities. It fulfils its statutory obligation to provide the public with information on particular events and findings in nuclear facilities. In 2012, the five nuclear power plants in Switzerland were all operated safely. 34 events were reported; on the international INES scale of 0 to 7, ENSI rated 33 events as Level 0 and 1 as Level 1. ENSI evaluates the safety of each nuclear power plant as part of a systematic safety evaluation taking account of both reportable events and other findings, in particular the results of more than 400 inspections conducted by ENSI during 2012. ZWILAG consists of several interim storage halls, a conditioning plant and an incineration/melting plant. At the end of 2012, the cask storage hall contained 40 transport/storage casks

  6. Safety and Security Concerns of Nurses Working in the Intensive Care Unit: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keys, Yolanda; Stichler, Jaynelle F

    Intensive care units (ICUs) exist to serve as a safe place for critically ill patients to receive care from skilled practitioners. In this qualitative study, ICU nurses shared their perspectives on elements that promote safety and security on their units. After obtaining institutional review board approval, participants participated in telephone interviews with a nurse researcher who has experience as a bedside ICU nurse. Five categories and 14 themes were identified and then confirmed using member checking. Results indicate that participants prefer to provide care in ICUs with no more than 12 to 14 beds and provide the following: visibility of patients and coworkers; more than 1 way to exit; and can be locked in case of emergency or threat. Nearly all respondents mentioned adequate staffing as the most important attribute of a safe, secure care environment for patients and families. More research is needed to identify design features that make the most impact on providing a safe, secure ICU environment.

  7. Assessment of regulations set up under public law concerning questions of safety technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steiff, A.; Althaus, W.; Dietz, B.; Gross, H.J.; Stasiczek, M.; Salzwedel, J.; Reinhardt, M.

    1992-02-01

    A goal of the preliminary study was to assess the need for a data-processing system, to analyze the goals of such a system, to conceptualize it and examine possibilities for implementing it and to do a cost-benefit analysis of it. It serves as a means of assistance for - licensing and supervisory authorities, - the manufacturers and operators of plants, - the control institutions, - the communes, the governments of the Laender and the federal government, - trade associations and professional associations, - employers' organizations and employees' organizations in their efforts to solve problems and carry out tasks regarding safety technology. Such problems arise during the planning, construction, operation, alteration, closure and removal of plants as well as during the transport and storing of materials and goods. (orig./DG) [de

  8. Raspberry ketone in food supplements – High intake, few toxicity data – A cause for safety concern?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredsdorff, Lea; Wedebye, Eva Bay; Nikolov, Nikolai Georgiev

    2015-01-01

    Raspberry ketone (4-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-butanone) is marketed on the Internet as a food supplement. The recommended intake is between 100 and 1400 mg per day. The substance is naturally occurring in raspberries (up to 4.3 mg/kg) and is used as a flavouring substance. Toxicological studies...... on raspberry ketone are limited to acute and subchronic studies in rats. When the lowest recommended daily dose of raspberry ketone (100 mg) as a food supplement is consumed, it is 56 times the established threshold of toxicological concern (TTC) of 1800 μg/day for Class 1 substances. The margin of safety (MOS......) based on a NOAEL of 280 mg/kg bw/day for lower weight gain in rats is 165 at 100 mg and 12 at 1400 mg. The recommended doses are a concern taking into account the TTC and MOS. Investigations of raspberry ketone in quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models indicated potential cardiotoxic...

  9. SAFETY

    CERN Multimedia

    Niels Dupont

    2013-01-01

    CERN Safety rules and Radiation Protection at CMS The CERN Safety rules are defined by the Occupational Health & Safety and Environmental Protection Unit (HSE Unit), CERN’s institutional authority and central Safety organ attached to the Director General. In particular the Radiation Protection group (DGS-RP1) ensures that personnel on the CERN sites and the public are protected from potentially harmful effects of ionising radiation linked to CERN activities. The RP Group fulfils its mandate in collaboration with the CERN departments owning or operating sources of ionising radiation and having the responsibility for Radiation Safety of these sources. The specific responsibilities concerning "Radiation Safety" and "Radiation Protection" are delegated as follows: Radiation Safety is the responsibility of every CERN Department owning radiation sources or using radiation sources put at its disposition. These Departments are in charge of implementing the requi...

  10. Temporary blinding from bright light sources as a significant impact on occupational safety and health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reidenbach, Hans-Dieter

    2008-01-01

    Low power laser and high-brightness LEDs (HB-LEDs) have been applied in specially developed and computer assisted test setups in order to determine the duration and progression of colours in afterimages, the disturbance of visual acuity as well as the impairment of colour and contrast vision. Interrelationships between wavelength, exposure duration, optical power and energy have been investigated. Afterimage durations up to 300 seconds were found if the fovea of the human retina is irradiated from a laser beam at less than 30 μW, whereas lower values are valid in the Parafoveal region and in the periphery. The visual acuity was strongly reduced during about 30 % of the afterimage time. The time-dependent progression of the afterimage colours was determined for 4 different dominant wavelengths of HB-LEDs, i.e. 455 nm, 530 nm, 590 nm and 625 nm, in the power range between 0.05 m W and 0.5 m W for exposure durations between 0.5 s and 5 s. The flight of colours obtained with 5 test persons is given as 8-bit RGB-values and illustrated as a function of the applied optical energy in the CIE chromaticity diagram together with the respective total afterimage durations. The colour contrast capability was investigated for 3 volunteers with specially developed test charts in 7 colours, namely without and after glare from 4 coloured high-brightness LEDs. Each subject completed 56 time-consuming tests since adequate adaptation was necessary between the respective tests. Glare increases the identification times about 14 s and 16 s and even stronger impairment is observable especially at low colour contrast. Tests with 40 subjects and 4 different pseudoisochromatic colour plates have shown that colour vision was impaired for periods between 27 s and 186 s depending on the applied colour plate and respective LED colour. Such relatively long lasting visual disturbances could be of particular concern connected with performing safety critical operations such as working with machines

  11. Significance of Phébus-FP results for plant safety in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birchley, J.; Güntay, S.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Prototypicality of Phebus is unique for severe accident integral code assessment. • MELCOR and SCDAP show good simulation capability. • Phebus revealed knowledge gaps concerning organic iodine source. • Complementary studies seek to reduce uncertainties. • New engineering technology is developed to resolve organic iodine issue. - Abstract: Switzerland, in common with other countries, uses source term estimates to formulate emergency plans in the unlikely event of an accident with release of activity to the environment. In the past estimates have typically been based on conservative treatments of the accident sequence, necessitated by the limited validation status of models used for the phenomena that control the reactor accident evolution. Although analyses using best-estimate tools frequently indicated substantially smaller releases – knowledge and data were insufficient to place reliance on the methods or the calculated results. The Phébus programme is unique in providing a source of integral transient data on fission product release, transport and chemical behaviour under prototypic conditions, capturing the entire portfolio of processes – transport, material and chemical – and their causal interaction. To this day, no other source of such data is available. These data provide a means to assess, improve and validate methods for source term evaluation and establish the needs for establishing new processes to mitigate the source term. There are strong synergies and complementarities between the Phébus project, the International Source Term Project, the iodine-related studies at PSI and the aerosol retention projects at PSI, and current moves toward improved management/mitigation of severe accidents. The Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (ENSI), Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) and the Swiss utilities running five nuclear power plants share in the findings. The need to strengthen the foundation on which we perform best

  12. Pharmaceutical quality of "party pills" raises additional safety concerns in the use of illicit recreational drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Simon A; Thrimawithana, Thilini R; Antia, Ushtana; Fredatovich, John D; Na, Yonky; Neale, Peter T; Roberts, Amy F; Zhou, Huanyi; Russell, Bruce

    2013-06-14

    To determine the content and release kinetics of 1-benzylpiperazine (BZP) and 1-(3-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)piperazine (TFMPP) from "party pill" formulations. From these data, the possible impact of pharmaceutical quality upon the safety of such illicit formulations may be inferred. The amount of BZP and TFMPP in party pill formulations was determined using a validated HPLC method. The in-vitro release kinetics of selected party pill brands were determined using a USP dissolution apparatus (75 rpm, 37.5 degrees Celsius). The release data were then fitted to a first order release model using PLOT software and the time taken to achieve 90% release reported. Many of the tested party pill brands contained amounts of BZP and TFMPP that varied considerably from that stated on the packaging; including considerable TFMPP content in some brands not labelled to contain this drug. Dissolution studies revealed that there was considerable variability in the release kinetics between brands; in one case 90% release required >30 minutes. Lack of quality control in party pill manufacture may have led to the toxic effects reported by users unaware of the true content and release of drug from pills. More stringent regulation in the manufacture and quality control of "new generation party pills" is essential to the harm reduction campaign.

  13. Infectious respiratory disease outbreaks and pregnancy: occupational health and safety concerns of Canadian nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Karen P; O'Sullivan, Tracey L; Dow, Darcie; Amaratunga, Carol A

    2011-04-01

    This paper is a report of a qualitative study of emergency and critical care nurses' perceptions of occupational response and preparedness during infectious respiratory disease outbreaks including severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and influenza. Healthcare workers, predominantly female, face occupational and personal challenges in their roles as first responders/first receivers. Exposure to SARS or other respiratory pathogens during pregnancy represents additional occupational risk for healthcare workers. Perceptions of occupational reproductive risk during response to infectious respiratory disease outbreaks were assessed qualitatively by five focus groups comprised of 100 Canadian nurses conducted between 2005 and 2006. Occupational health and safety issues anticipated by Canadian nurses for future infectious respiratory disease outbreaks were grouped into four major themes: (1) apprehension about occupational risks to pregnant nurses; (2) unknown pregnancy risks of anti-infective therapy/prophylaxis; (3) occupational risk communication for pregnant nurses; and (4) human resource strategies required for pregnant nurses during outbreaks. The reproductive risk perceptions voiced by Canadian nurses generally were consistent with reported case reports of pregnant women infected with SARS or emerging influenza strains. Nurses' fears of fertility risks posed by exposure to infectious agents or anti-infective therapy and prophylaxis are not well supported by the literature, with the former not biologically plausible and the latter lacking sufficient data. Reproductive risk assessments should be performed for each infectious respiratory disease outbreak to provide female healthcare workers and in particular pregnant women with guidelines regarding infection control and use of anti-infective therapy and prophylaxis.

  14. Nanotoxicity: emerging concerns regarding nanomaterial safety and occupational hard metal (WC-Co) nanoparticle exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstead, Andrea L; Li, Bingyun

    As the number of commercial and consumer products containing engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) continually rises, the increased use and production of these ENMs presents an important toxicological concern. Although ENMs offer a number of advantages over traditional materials, their extremely small size and associated characteristics may also greatly enhance their toxic potentials. ENM exposure can occur in various consumer and industrial settings through inhalation, ingestion, or dermal routes. Although the importance of accurate ENM characterization, effective dosage metrics, and selection of appropriate cell or animal-based models are universally agreed upon as important factors in ENM research, at present, there is no "standardized" approach used to assess ENM toxicity in the research community. Of particular interest is occupational exposure to tungsten carbide cobalt (WC-Co) "dusts," composed of nano- and micro-sized particles, in hard metal manufacturing facilities and mining and drilling industries. Inhalation of WC-Co dust is known to cause "hard metal lung disease" and an increased risk of lung cancer; however, the mechanisms underlying WC-Co toxicity, the inflammatory disease state and progression to cancer are poorly understood. Herein, a discussion of ENM toxicity is followed by a review of the known literature regarding the effects of WC-Co particle exposure. The risk of WC-Co exposure in occupational settings and the updates of in vitro and in vivo studies of both micro- and nano-WC-Co particles are discussed.

  15. Herbal products containing Hibiscus sabdariffa L., Crataegus spp., and Panax spp.: Labeling and safety concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Maria Antónia; Rodrigues, Francisca; Alves, Rita C; Oliveira, Maria Beatriz P P

    2017-10-01

    Herbs have been used from ancient times for infusion preparation based on their potential health effects. In particular, the consumption of Hibiscus sabdariffa L., Crataegus spp. and Panax spp. has been largely associated to cardiovascular benefits. In this work, the label information of 52 herbal products for infusion preparation containing the referred herbs was analyzed and discussed, taking into consideration the European Union regulation for herbal products, which intends to protect public health and harmonize the legal framework in Member States. Details about the cardiovascular-related statements and warning notifications about consumption were considered. Also, regulatory issues and possible herb-drug interactions were explored and discussed. A total of 14 of the 52 herbal products selected presented health claims/statements on the label. Hibiscus was present in the majority of the products and, in some cases, it was mentioned only in the ingredients list and not on the product front-of-pack. Despite the promising outcomes of these plants to modulate cardiovascular risk markers, consumers with some sort of cardiovascular dysfunction and/or under medication treatments should be aware to carefully analyze the labels and consult additional information related to these herbal products. Manufacturers have also a huge responsibility to inform consumers by presenting awareness statements. Lastly, health professionals must advise and alert their patients about possible interactions that could occur between the concomitant consumption of drugs and herbs. Overall, there is still a real need of additional studies and clinical trials to better understand herbs effects and establish a science-based guidance to assess their safety. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Regulatory oversight report 2010 concerning nuclear safety in Swiss nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-06-01

    Acting as the regulatory body of the Swiss Confederation, the Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate, ENSI, assesses and monitors nuclear facilities in Switzerland. This includes the five nuclear power plants (NPPs), the plant-based interim storage facilities, the Central Interim Storage Facility (ZWILAG) at Wuerenlingen, the nuclear facilities at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), the two universities of Basel and Lausanne, the transport of radioactive materials from and to nuclear facilities and the preparation for a deep geologic repository for radioactive waste. Using inspections, surveillance meetings, reviews and analyses as well as reports from plant licensees, ENSI obtains the required overview of the safety of the nuclear facilities. It maintains its own emergency organisation, which is an integral part of the national emergency structure. The legislative framework at the basis of the activity of ENSI specifies the criteria by which it evaluates the activities and plans of the operators of nuclear facilities. ENSI provides the public with information on particular events and observations relating to nuclear facilities. The five nuclear power plants in Switzerland (Beznau Units 1 und 2, Muehleberg, Goesgen and Leibstadt) were all operated safely in 2010. Last year, there were 39 notifiable events in Switzerland: 4 events affected both Beznau Units, 10 events the Goesgen NPP, 6 the Leibstadt NPP and 13 the Muehleberg NPP and 6 in other facilities. Based on the International Nuclear Event Scale (INES) of 0-7, ENSI rated 38 events as Level 0, and as INES Level 2 the event on 31 August 2010 during maintenance work at the Leibstadt NPP, where a diver was exposed to radiation in excess of the maximum annual exposure rate of 20 mSv. The ZWILAG at Wuerenlingen consists of several interim storage halls, a conditioning plant and the plasma plant (incineration/melting plant). At the end of 2010, the cask storage hall contained 34 transport/storage casks with spent

  17. A safety concern related to CANDU moderator subcooling and status of KAERI moderator circulation test (MCT) experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhee, Bo W.; Kim, Hyoung T.; Kim, Tongbeum; Im, Sunghyuk

    2015-01-01

    The flow inside the moderator tank of a CANDU-6 reactor during full power steady state operation has been suspected to be operating in the buoyancy/inertial driven mixed convection regime as illustrated in the middle figure. At some regions of the moderator tank where the buoyancy driven upward flow and the inertial momentum driven downward flows interface counter-currently, there exist some interface regions between these two flows like the middle one, and the local temperatures at these interface regions are known to oscillate with different amplitude at various fluctuation frequencies as shown. According to a numerical simulation of the moderator flow and temperature distribution at full power steady state carried out by previous researches showed that any small disturbances in the flow or temperature may initiate the system unstable and aggravate the asymmetric flow and temperature patterns. The tests at the 3-D Moderator Test Facility (MTF) that is a representative scaled-down of CANDU reactors, reproduced the expected and observed moderator behavior in the reactor as well as the local temperature fluctuations arising from the delicate balance of forced and buoyancy induced flow. This observation raised a safety concern as the local moderator temperature at some regions showed fluctuations with an amplitude that may jeopardize the safety margin, i.e. the difference between the available subcooling and the subcooling requirement. The scope of this paper is to review the basis of the safety concern related to this moderator subcooling and local temperature fluctuation and describe the current status of MCT erection and some of the experiments carried so far

  18. Nanotoxicity: emerging concerns regarding nanomaterial safety and occupational hard metal (WC-Co nanoparticle exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armstead AL

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Andrea L Armstead,1,2 Bingyun Li1–3 1Department of Orthopaedics, School of Medicine, 2School of Pharmacy, West Virginia University, 3Mary Babb Randolph Cancer Center, Morgantown, WV, USA Abstract: As the number of commercial and consumer products containing engineered nanomaterials (ENMs continually rises, the increased use and production of these ENMs presents an important toxicological concern. Although ENMs offer a number of advantages over traditional materials, their extremely small size and associated characteristics may also greatly enhance their toxic potentials. ENM exposure can occur in various consumer and industrial settings through inhalation, ingestion, or dermal routes. Although the importance of accurate ENM characterization, effective dosage metrics, and selection of appropriate cell or animal-based models are universally agreed upon as important factors in ENM research, at present, there is no “standardized” approach used to assess ENM toxicity in the research community. Of particular interest is occupational exposure to tungsten carbide cobalt (WC-Co “dusts,” composed of nano- and micro-sized particles, in hard metal manufacturing facilities and mining and drilling industries. Inhalation of WC-Co dust is known to cause “hard metal lung disease” and an increased risk of lung cancer; however, the mechanisms underlying WC-Co toxicity, the inflammatory disease state and progression to cancer are poorly understood. Herein, a discussion of ENM toxicity is followed by a review of the known literature regarding the effects of WC-Co particle exposure. The risk of WC-Co exposure in occupational settings and the updates of in vitro and in vivo studies of both micro- and nano-WC-Co particles are discussed. Keywords: engineered nanomaterial, occupational exposure, lung disease, cancer, toxicity, particle

  19. Assessments of global drivers of vaccine hesitancy in 2014-Looking beyond safety concerns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Marti

    Full Text Available Vaccine hesitancy has become the focus of growing attention and concern globally despite overwhelming evidence of the value of vaccines in preventing disease and saving the lives of millions of individuals every year. Measuring vaccine hesitancy and its determinants worldwide is important in order to understand the scope of the problem and for the development of evidence-based targeted strategies to reduce hesitancy. Two indicators to assess vaccine hesitancy were developed to capture its nature and scope at the national and subnational level to collect data in 2014: 1 The top 3 reasons for not accepting vaccines according to the national schedule in the past year and whether the response was opinion- or assessment-based and 2 Whether an assessment (or measurement of the level of confidence in vaccination had taken place at national or subnational level in the previous 5 years. The most frequently cited reasons for vaccine hesitancy globally related to (1 the risk-benefit of vaccines, (2 knowledge and awareness issues, (3 religious, cultural, gender or socio-economic factors. Major issues were fear of side effects, distrust in vaccination and lack of information on immunization or immunization services. The analysis revealed that 29% of all countries had done an assessment of the level of confidence in their country, suggesting that vaccine confidence was an issue of importance. Monitoring vaccine hesitancy is critical because of its influence on the success of immunization programs. To our knowledge, the proposed indicators provide the first global snapshot of reasons driving vaccine hesitancy and depicting its widespread nature, as well as the extent of assessments conducted by countries.

  20. Regulatory oversight report 2011 concerning nuclear safety in Swiss nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-06-01

    The Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate ENSI, acting as the regulatory body of the Swiss Confederation, assesses and monitors nuclear facilities in Switzerland. These include five nuclear power plants, the interim storage facilities based at each plant, the Central Interim Storage Facility (ZWILAG) at Wuerenlingen together with the nuclear facilities at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) and the two universities of Basel and Lausanne. ENSI ensures that the facilities comply with regulations and operate according to the law. Its regulatory responsibilities also include the transport of radioactive materials to and from nuclear facilities and the preparations for a deep geologic repository for nuclear waste. It maintains its own emergency organisation, which is an integral part of a national emergency structure. Building on the legislative framework, ENSI also formulates and updates its own guidelines. It provides the public with information on particular events and findings in nuclear facilities. In 2011, all five nuclear power reactors in Switzerland (Beznau Units 1 and 2, Muehleberg, Goesgen and Leibstadt) were operated safely and ENSI concluded that they had complied with their approved operating conditions. There were 27 reportable events in the nuclear power plants in Switzerland: 7 at Beznau, 5 at Goesgen, 11 at Leibstadt und 4 at Muehleberg. On the international INES scale of 0 to 7, ENSI rated 26 events as Level 0. One event, at the Muehleberg nuclear power plant, was rated as INES Level 1. This related to a potential blockage of the emergency water intake system in the event of extreme flooding. The operator BKW shut down the Muehleberg plant ahead of the scheduled maintenance date and upgraded the system. ZWILAG consists of several interim storage halls, a conditioning plant and a plasma plant (incineration/melting plant). At the end of 2011, the cask storage hall contained 34 transport/storage casks with fuel assemblies and vitrified residue packages

  1. Economic approaches to measuring the significance of food safety in international trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caswell, J A

    2000-12-20

    International trade in food products has expanded rapidly in recent years. This paper presents economic approaches for analyzing the effects on trade in food products of the food safety requirements of governments and private buyers. Important economic incentives for companies to provide improved food safety arise from (1) public incentives such as ex ante requirements for sale of a product with sufficient quality and ex post penalties (liability) for sale of products with deficient quality, and (2) private incentives for producing quality such as internal performance goals (self-regulation) and the external (certification) requirements of buyers. The World Trade Organization's Sanitary Phytosanitary Agreement facilitates scrutiny of the benefits and costs of country-level regulatory programs and encourages regulatory rapprochement on food safety issues. Economists can help guide risk management decisions by providing estimates of the benefits and costs of programs to improve food safety and by analyzing their effect on trade in food products.

  2. Posiva's application for a decision in principle concerning a disposal facility for spent nuclear fuel. STUK's statement and preliminary safety appraisal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruokola, E.

    2000-03-01

    In May 1999, Posiva Ltd submitted to the Government an application, pursuant to the Nuclear Energy Act, for a Decision in Principle on a disposal facility for spent nuclear fuel from the Finnish nuclear power plants. The Ministry of Trade and Industry requested the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) to draw up a preliminary safety appraisal concerning the proposed disposal facility. In the beginning of this report, STUK's statement to the Ministry and Industry concerning the proposed disposal facility is given. In that statement, STUK concludes that the Decision in Principle is currently justified from the standpoint of safety. The statement is followed by a safety appraisal, where STUK deems, how the proposed disposal concept, site and facility comply with the safety requirements included in the Government's Decision (478/1999). STUK's preliminary safety appraisal was supported by contributions from a number of outside experts. A collective opinion by an international group of ten distinguished experts is appended to this report. (orig.)

  3. Cause for Concern: A Mixed-Methods Study of Campus Safety and Security Practices in United States-Mexico Border Institutions of Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Ryan Clevis

    2014-01-01

    Campus safety has been a source of concern since the 1990s. However, in 2007, the tragedy at the Virginia Polytechnic and State University sent a sense of alarm through many institutions of higher education. Immediately following this tragedy, institutions across the country began to evaluate and question their safety and security practices. While…

  4. Lumbar epidural catheter placement in the presence of low back tattoos: a review of the safety concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welliver, Dawn; Welliver, Mark; Carroll, Tammy; James, Peggy

    2010-06-01

    Current fashion in body art includes low back tattoos of varying designs and colors, a trend that presents unique concerns for anesthesia providers. Does the placement of epidural catheters risk the introduction of tattoo pigment dyes into the epidural space through the process of coring? Are there specific risks associated with tattoo dyes and epidural needle placement? We performed a comprehensive review of the literature using multiple search databases with the intent to form guidelines for practice using a level of evidence taxonomy. The available evidence does not identify any specific risks associated with epidural catheter placement through low back tattoos, although tissue coring with tissue transport to deeper sites has been confirmed. Continued investigation is necessary before comprehensive practice guidelines regarding the practice of placing epidural needles and catheters through lumbar tattoos can be developed. We suggest avoidance of piercing tattoos when performing epidural punctures until there is sound evidence of short-term and long-term safety.

  5. Modulation of Brain Activity with Noninvasive Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS): Clinical Applications and Safety Concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Haichao; Qiao, Lei; Fan, Dongqiong; Zhang, Shuyue; Turel, Ofir; Li, Yonghui; Li, Jun; Xue, Gui; Chen, Antao; He, Qinghua

    2017-01-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a widely-used tool to induce neuroplasticity and modulate cortical function by applying weak direct current over the scalp. In this review, we first introduce the underlying mechanism of action, the brief history from discovery to clinical scientific research, electrode positioning and montages, and parameter setup of tDCS. Then, we review tDCS application in clinical samples including people with drug addiction, major depression disorder, Alzheimer's disease, as well as in children. This review covers the typical characteristics and the underlying neural mechanisms of tDCS treatment in such studies. This is followed by a discussion of safety, especially when the current intensity is increased or the stimulation duration is prolonged. Given such concerns, we provide detailed suggestions regarding safety procedures for tDCS operation. Lastly, future research directions are discussed. They include foci on the development of multi-tech combination with tDCS such as with TMS and fMRI; long-term behavioral and morphological changes; possible applications in other research domains, and more animal research to deepen the understanding of the biological and physiological mechanisms of tDCS stimulation. PMID:28539894

  6. Deep Sequencing of Plant and Animal DNA Contained within Traditional Chinese Medicines Reveals Legality Issues and Health Safety Concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coghlan, Megan L.; Haile, James; Houston, Jayne; Murray, Dáithí C.; White, Nicole E.; Moolhuijzen, Paula; Bellgard, Matthew I.; Bunce, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been practiced for thousands of years, but only within the last few decades has its use become more widespread outside of Asia. Concerns continue to be raised about the efficacy, legality, and safety of many popular complementary alternative medicines, including TCMs. Ingredients of some TCMs are known to include derivatives of endangered, trade-restricted species of plants and animals, and therefore contravene the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) legislation. Chromatographic studies have detected the presence of heavy metals and plant toxins within some TCMs, and there are numerous cases of adverse reactions. It is in the interests of both biodiversity conservation and public safety that techniques are developed to screen medicinals like TCMs. Targeting both the p-loop region of the plastid trnL gene and the mitochondrial 16S ribosomal RNA gene, over 49,000 amplicon sequence reads were generated from 15 TCM samples presented in the form of powders, tablets, capsules, bile flakes, and herbal teas. Here we show that second-generation, high-throughput sequencing (HTS) of DNA represents an effective means to genetically audit organic ingredients within complex TCMs. Comparison of DNA sequence data to reference databases revealed the presence of 68 different plant families and included genera, such as Ephedra and Asarum, that are potentially toxic. Similarly, animal families were identified that include genera that are classified as vulnerable, endangered, or critically endangered, including Asiatic black bear (Ursus thibetanus) and Saiga antelope (Saiga tatarica). Bovidae, Cervidae, and Bufonidae DNA were also detected in many of the TCM samples and were rarely declared on the product packaging. This study demonstrates that deep sequencing via HTS is an efficient and cost-effective way to audit highly processed TCM products and will assist in monitoring their legality and safety especially when

  7. Safety analysis of final disposal of nuclear waste - significance, development and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Kjell; Norrby, Soeren; Simic, Eva; Wene, Clas-Otto

    2007-05-01

    The report starts with a review of the role and development of safety assessments from the middle of the 70's up until today. Then follows a section on how the assessment is performed today. The demands from the licensing authorities is then described. The report ends with a chapter on conclusions and reflections

  8. Safety at basic nuclear facilities other than nuclear power plants. Lessons learned from significant events reported in 2011 and 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The third report on the safety of basic nuclear installations in France other than power reactors presents an IRSN's analysis of significant events reported to the Nuclear Safety Authority in the years 2011 and 2012. It covers plants, laboratories, research reactors and facilities for the treatment, storage or disposal of waste. This report aims to contribute to a better understanding by stakeholders and more widely by the public of the safety and radiation protection issues associated with the operation of nuclear facilities, the progress made in terms of safety as well as the identified deficiencies. The main trend shows, once again, the significant role of organizational and human factors in the significant events that occurred in 2011 and 2012, of which the vast majority are without noteworthy consequences. Aging mechanisms are another major cause of equipment failure and require special attention. The report also provides IRSN's analysis of specific events that are particularly instructive for facility safety and a synthesis of assessments performed by IRSN on topics that are important for safety and radiation protection. IRSN also includes an overview of its analysis of measures proposed by licensees for increasing the safety of their facilities after the March 2011 accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in Japan, which consist of providing a 'hardened safety core' to confront extreme situations (earthquake, flooding, etc.) that are unlikely but plausible and can bring about levels of hazards higher than those taken into account in the design of the facilities

  9. Significance of the existing normative and technical documentation to promote ecologic safety

    OpenAIRE

    Fatima Ermakhanova

    2010-01-01

    The author justifies the need to develop new standards for gas purification process. It is believed that these standards should assume introduction of new resource-saving technologies and also meet the modern international requirements to improve environmental safety. The article shows the need for the introduction and development of environmental management system according to ISO 14000 standards to reduce the industrial impact of gas deposits on the environment.

  10. Light water reactor sequence timing: its significance to probabilistic safety assessment modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bley, D.C.; Buttemer, D.R.; Stetkar, J.W.

    1988-01-01

    This paper examines event sequence timing in light water reactor plants from the viewpoint of probabilistic safety assessment (PSA). The analytical basis for the ideas presented here come primarily from the authors' work in support of more than 20 PSA studies over the past several years. Timing effects are important for establishing success criteria for support and safety system response and for identifying the time available for operator recovery actions. The principal results of this paper are as follows: 1. Analysis of event sequence timing is necessary for meaningful probabilistic safety assessment - both the success criteria for systems performance and the probability of recovery are tightly linked to sequence timing. 2. Simple engineering analyses based on first principles are often sufficient to provide adequate resolution of the time available for recovery of PSA scenarios. Only those parameters that influence sequence timing and its variability and uncertainty need be examined. 3. Time available for recovery is the basic criterion for evaluation of human performance, whether time is an explicit parameter of the operator actions analysis or not. (author)

  11. The significance of democratic participation of the public with regard to nuclear fuel cycle safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gessenharter, W.; Diekmann, T.

    1989-01-01

    Three statements can characterise the current situation: (1) Nuclear industry faces a credibility gap; (2) there is no (more) 'nuclear consensus'; (3) the nuclear problems now are completely politicised. Participation of the public can develop into a political discourse only if that part of society concerned with nuclear energy sincerely joins the public debate. Experience so far has shown that those concerned with nuclear energy only appeared in public debates when a consensus pro nuclear energy could be expected. This attitude so far has done nothing but to foster emotionality on both sides, which reduced the chances of the nuclear industry to really come up to its social duties, and also reduced the chances of society to really tackle the problems of life in a world facing increasing risks and hazards. (orig./HSCH) [de

  12. A method for risk-informed safety significance categorization using the analytic hierarchy process and bayesian belief networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, Jun Su; Seong, Poong Hyun

    2004-01-01

    A risk-informed safety significance categorization (RISSC) is to categorize structures, systems, or components (SSCs) of a nuclear power plant (NPP) into two or more groups, according to their safety significance using both probabilistic and deterministic insights. In the conventional methods for the RISSC, the SSCs are quantitatively categorized according to their importance measures for the initial categorization. The final decisions (categorizations) of SSCs, however, are qualitatively made by an expert panel through discussions and adjustments of opinions by using the probabilistic insights compiled in the initial categorization process and combining the probabilistic insights with the deterministic insights. Therefore, owing to the qualitative and linear decision-making process, the conventional methods have the demerits as follows: (1) they are very costly in terms of time and labor, (2) it is not easy to reach the final decision, when the opinions of the experts are in conflict and (3) they have an overlapping process due to the linear paradigm (the categorization is performed twice - first, by the engineers who propose the method, and second, by the expert panel). In this work, a method for RISSC using the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and bayesian belief networks (BBN) is proposed to overcome the demerits of the conventional methods and to effectively arrive at a final decision (or categorization). By using the AHP and BBN, the expert panel takes part in the early stage of the categorization (that is, the quantification process) and the safety significance based on both probabilistic and deterministic insights is quantified. According to that safety significance, SSCs are quantitatively categorized into three categories such as high safety significant category (Hi), potentially safety significant category (Po), or low safety significant category (Lo). The proposed method was applied to the components such as CC-V073, CV-V530, and SI-V644 in Ulchin Unit

  13. The significance of thermohydraulic conditions for the corrosion safety of PWR steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulich, J.F.

    1975-04-01

    In several PWR nuclear power plants leakages have occurred in the steam generator which were caused by localised corrosion attack. While the attention of manufacturers and operators is focused on the influences of feedwater chemistry and tube material, the present work highlights the fact that the damage always occurred in those places where flow regimed are poorly defined. The investigation leads to the result that local dry out of the heating surface can be contributing cause of damage. A method is indicated for estimating the thermohydraulic conditions in the inflow region over the tube plate and measures to improve corrosion safety are discussed. (author)

  14. The french-german safety approach for future PWRs and its significance for EPR licensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frisch, W.; Gros, G.

    1997-06-01

    Three important general safety objectives are mentioned in this work: a further reduction of the core melt frequency, the practical elimination of accident situations which could lead to large early releases of radioactive material. If those situations cannot be considered as physically impossible, provisions have to be taken to design them out, the third point, for low pressure core melt situations the design has to be such that the associated maximum conceivable releases would necessitate only very limited protective measures in area and time ( no permanent relocation, no need for emergency evacuation outside the immediate vicinity of the plant, limited sheltering, no long term restrictions in consumption of food). (N.C.)

  15. Five-year follow-up of survival and relapse in patients who received cryotherapy during high-dose chemotherapy for stem cell transplantation shows no safety concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svanberg, A; Ohrn, K; Birgegård, G

    2012-11-01

    We have previously published a randomised controlled study of the efficacy of cryotherapy in preventing acute oral mucositis after high-dose chemotherapy for stem cell transplantation. The present study is a 5-year follow-up safety study of survival in these patients. In the previously published study oral cryotherapy (cooling of the oral cavity) during high-dose chemotherapy significantly reduced mucositis grade and opiate use in the treated group. All patients were followed up for at least 5 years with regard to relapse and death rates. Baseline data, transplant complications and mucositis data were compared. Significantly more patients (25/39) who received oral cryotherapy were alive after 5 years compared to 15/39 in the control group (P= 0.025). Relapse rates were similar. The only baseline difference was a lower proportion of patients in complete remission at transplantation in the control group (6 vs. 13, P= 0.047). This 5-year follow-up study gave no support for safety concerns with cryotherapy. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. When Vacant Lots Become Urban Gardens: Characterizing the Perceived and Actual Food Safety Concerns of Urban Agriculture in Ohio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Michelle L; Williams, Michele L; Basta, Nicholas; Hand, Michelle; Huber, Sarah

    2015-11-01

    This study was intended to characterize the perceived risks of urban agriculture by residents of four low-income neighborhoods in which the potential exists for further urban agriculture development and to provide data to support whether any chemical hazards and foodborne pathogens as potential food safety hazards were present. Sixty-seven residents participated in focus groups related to environmental health, food security, and urban gardening. In addition, soils from six locations were tested. Residents expressed interest in the development of urban gardens to improve access to healthy, fresh produce, but they had concerns about soil quality. Soils were contaminated with lead (Pb), zinc, cadmium (Cd), and copper, but not arsenic or chromium. Results from our study suggest paint was the main source of soil contamination. Detectable polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) levels in urban soils were well below levels of concern. These urban soils will require further management to reduce Pb and possibly Cd bioavailability to decrease the potential for uptake into food crops. Although the number of locations in this study is limited, results suggest lower levels of soil contaminants at well-established gardens. Soil tillage associated with long-term gardening could have diluted the soil metal contaminants by mixing the contaminants with clean soil. Also, lower PAH levels in long-term gardening could be due to enhanced microbial activity and PAH degradation, dilution, or both due to mixing, similar to metals. No foodborne pathogen targets were detected by PCR from any of the soils. Residents expressed the need for clearness regarding soil quality and gardening practices in their neighborhoods to consume food grown in these urban areas. Results from this study suggest long-term gardening has the potential to reduce soil contaminants and their potential threat to food quality and human health and to improve access to fresh produce in low-income urban communities.

  17. Employing the arts for knowledge production and translation: Visualizing new possibilities for women speaking up about safety concerns in maternity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackintosh, Nicola; Sandall, Jane; Collison, Claire; Carter, Wendy; Harris, James

    2018-06-01

    This project used animated film to translate research findings into accessible health information aimed at enabling women to speak up and secure professional help for serious safety concerns during pregnancy and after birth. We tested as proof of concept our use of the arts both as product (knowledge production) and process (enabling involvement). Emergencies during pregnancy and birth, while unusual, can develop rapidly and unexpectedly, with catastrophic consequences. Women's tacit knowledge of changes in their condition is an important resource to aid early detection, but women can worry about the legitimacy of their concerns and struggle to get these taken seriously by staff. Arts-based knowledge translation. A user group of women who had experienced complications in the perinatal period (n = 34) helped us develop and pilot test the animation. Obstetricians and midwives (15), clinical leads (3) and user group representatives (8) helped with the design and testing. The consultation process, script and storyboard enabled active interaction with the evidence, meaningful engagement with stakeholders and new understandings about securing help for perinatal complications. The method enabled us to address gender stereotypes and social norms about speaking up and embed a social script for women within the animation, to help structure their help seeking. While for some women, there was an emotional burden, the majority were glad to have been part of the animation's development and felt it had enabled their voices to be heard. This project has demonstrated the benefits of arts-science collaborations for meaningful co-production and effective translation of research evidence. © 2017 The Authors. Health Expectations published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Safety at civil basic nuclear installations other than nuclear power plants in France. Lessons learned by IRSN from significant events reported in 2013 and 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    IRSN publishes the lessons learned from its analysis of significant events which have occurred in 2013 and 2014 at 82 civil basic nuclear installations (INBs) other than nuclear power plants (NPPs). Produced every two year since 2009, this report concerns 73 facilities such as plants, laboratories, facilities for the treatment, disposal and storage of waste, and facilities which have been decommissioned, and 9 research reactors, operated by around twenty different licensees in France. 210 and 227 significant events were respectively reported in 2013 and 2014 to the French Nuclear Safety Authority (ASN). This number remains similar to previous years and tends to 'stabilize' at around 200 to 220. On the one hand, among the improvements observed in 2013 and 2014, IRSN found two subjects of particular interest: - Efforts made by the licensees to increase reliability of organisational and human measures related to handling operations, in particular at the spent fuel reprocessing plant of AREVA NC La Hague and in the radioactive waste storage facilities operated by the CEA. - Important improvement program deployed by the licensee of the FBFC plant in Romans-sur-Isere (Drome) to enhance operating practices, particularly regarding management of criticality risks (prevention of uncontrolled chain reactions). On the other hand, three subjects still require special vigilance by licensees: - Ensuring full control over the safety documentation of facilities. IRSN's cross-cutting analysis of events reveal a large number of cases for which parts of the safety documentation are not fully understood at the facilities, are not applied, are inaccurate or not applicable to the situation. - Ensuring in-depth and comprehensive planning of installation clean-up and dismantling operations. Risks of worker exposure to ionising radiation are higher during these operations which may require personnel to work in close proximity to radioactive materials. - Ensuring more

  19. Electronic Health Record-Related Safety Concerns: A Cross-Sectional Survey of Electronic Health Record Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajunen, Tuuli; Saranto, Kaija; Lehtonen, Lasse

    2016-01-01

    systematic assessments of EHR risks before harmful events occur. An EHR training program should be compulsory for all EHR users in order to address EHR safety concerns resulting from the failure to use HIT appropriately. PMID:27154599

  20. Development of the international status of science and technology concerning methods and tools for operational and long-term safety cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seher, Holger; Beuth, Thomas; Bracke, Guido; Kock, Ingo; Mayer, Kim-Marisa; Moog, Helge C.; Uhlmann, Stephan; Weyand, Torben

    2016-09-01

    The project ''development of the international status of science and technology concerning methods and tools for operational and long-term safety cases'' covers the following key aspects: global aspects of the methodology for scenario assumption for the operational phase following closure, potential analysis of the derives safety cases for the project Gorleben, determination of the solid phase composition of high-level radioactive wastes using geochemical modeling calculations, search for an adequate approach for the calculation of density and viscosity of saline solutions for the future use in GRS computer codes, international approaches for an integral analysis for the host rocks clay and granite in relation to the safety requirements of BMUB.

  1. Significance of impurities in the safety evaluation of crop protection products - (IUPAC technical report)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ambrus, A.; Hamilton, D.J.; Kuiper, H.A.; Racke, K.D.

    2003-01-01

    There may be substantial differences in the chemical composition of technical-grade products of the same active ingredient manufactured under different conditions, from different raw materials, or by different routes of synthesis. Resulting differences in impurity content may significantly affect

  2. Significance of iodine radioactive isotopes in the problem of radiation safety of nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malenchenko, A.F.; Mironov, V.P.

    1979-01-01

    The data on actual wastes of nuclear-power plants, environmental distribution and biological effects of iodine radioactive isotopes have been analyzed. Dose-response relationship is estimated as well as its significance for struma maligna development under ionizing radiation and the contribution of iodine radionuclides resulted from nuclear power engineering to this process

  3. Geochemistry and mercury contamination in receiving environments of artisanal mining wastes and identified concerns for food safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichelt-Brushett, Amanda J., E-mail: amanda.reichelt-brushett@scu.edu.au [Marine Ecology Research Centre, School of Environment, Science and Engineering, Southern Cross University, PO Box 157, Lismore, NSW (Australia); School of Environment, Science and Engineering Southern Cross University, PO Box 157, Lismore, NSW (Australia); Stone, Jane [School of Environment, Science and Engineering Southern Cross University, PO Box 157, Lismore, NSW (Australia); Howe, Pelli [Marine Ecology Research Centre, School of Environment, Science and Engineering, Southern Cross University, PO Box 157, Lismore, NSW (Australia); School of Environment, Science and Engineering Southern Cross University, PO Box 157, Lismore, NSW (Australia); Thomas, Bernard [School of Environment, Science and Engineering Southern Cross University, PO Box 157, Lismore, NSW (Australia); Clark, Malcolm [Marine Ecology Research Centre, School of Environment, Science and Engineering, Southern Cross University, PO Box 157, Lismore, NSW (Australia); School of Environment, Science and Engineering Southern Cross University, PO Box 157, Lismore, NSW (Australia); Male, Yusthinus [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Science, Pattimura University, Ambon (Indonesia); Nanlohy, Albert [Department of Fisheries and Marine Science, Pattimura University, Ambon (Indonesia); Butcher, Paul [School of Environment, Science and Engineering Southern Cross University, PO Box 157, Lismore, NSW (Australia); NSW Department of Primary Industries, National Marine Science Centre, PO Box 4321, Coffs Harbour, NSW (Australia)

    2017-01-15

    Artisanal small-scale gold mining (ASGM) using mercury (Hg) amalgamation has been occurring on Buru Island, Indonesia since early 2012, and has caused rapid accumulation of high Hg concentrations in river, estuary and marine sediments. In this study, sediment samples were collected from several sites downstream of the Mount Botak ASGM site, as well as in the vicinity of the more recently established site at Gogrea where no sampling had previously been completed. All sediment samples had total Hg (THg) concentrations exceeding Indonesian sediment quality guidelines and were up to 82 times this limit at one estuary site. The geochemistry of sediments in receiving environments indicates the potential for Hg-methylation to form highly bioavailable Hg species. To assess the current contamination threat from consumption of local seafood, samples of fish, molluscs and crustaceans were collected from the Namlea fish market and analysed for THg concentrations. The majority of edible tissue samples had elevated THg concentrations, which raises concerns for food safety. This study shows that river, estuary and marine ecosystems downstream of ASGM operations on Buru Island are exposed to dangerously high Hg concentrations, which are impacting aquatic food chains, and fisheries resources. Considering the high dietary dependence on marine protein in the associated community and across the Mollucas Province, and the short time period since ASGM operations commenced in this region, the results warrant urgent further investigation, risk mitigation, and community education. - Highlights: • Mercury contamination of sediments and seafood due to artisanal gold mining. • Considerable risks to human and ecosystem health are identified. • Results emphasise the urgent need for risk mitigation and community education.

  4. [An investigative report concerning safety and management in the magnetic resonance environment: there are more accidents than expected].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doi, Tsukasa; Yamatani, Yuya; Ueyama, Tsuyoshi; Nishiki, Shigeo; Ogura, Akio; Kawamitsu, Hideaki; Tsuchihashi, Toshio; Okuaki, Tomoyuki; Matsuda, Tsuyoshi; Kumashiro, Masayuki

    2011-01-01

    Using a questionnaire, we surveyed 2,500 facilities in Japan to clarify medical accidents concerning the magnetic resonance device and its environment. Data derived from 1,319 valid responses (52.8%), allowed us to analyze the situation of (or the reason for) the occurrence of the accidents and their environmental factors. Five hundred and nine facilities (39% of all facilities) had the experience of magnetically induced displacement of the large ferromagnetic material. Intravenous (I.V.) drip stands were involved the largest number of them: 31% (228 cases). Oxygen bottles had the second largest number of incidents: 20%. There were also many incidents involving various materials brought in by non-medical staff (e.g. stepladder for construction). About 20% of the accidents occurred outside of working hours. Patients in 12% of the facilities (154 facilities) experienced burns. In 39 of the cases, burns were received to the inside of the thighs. In 38 of the cases, patients received burns from an electrical cable touching the skin. There were also frequent incidents of burning regarding the boa. We received reports of burns and pain from the halo vest even though it's required to be worn for MR safety. Regarding incidents of contraindications, 280 patients with pacemakers were brought into the magnetic resonance (MR) inspection room. Twelve percent of the facilities experienced natural quench. Lack of training for the staff who introduce and operate high magnetic field devices are considered involving frequently occurring accidents of attractions and burns at hospitals with over 500 beds caused by carrying in materials.

  5. Geochemistry and mercury contamination in receiving environments of artisanal mining wastes and identified concerns for food safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reichelt-Brushett, Amanda J.; Stone, Jane; Howe, Pelli; Thomas, Bernard; Clark, Malcolm; Male, Yusthinus; Nanlohy, Albert; Butcher, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Artisanal small-scale gold mining (ASGM) using mercury (Hg) amalgamation has been occurring on Buru Island, Indonesia since early 2012, and has caused rapid accumulation of high Hg concentrations in river, estuary and marine sediments. In this study, sediment samples were collected from several sites downstream of the Mount Botak ASGM site, as well as in the vicinity of the more recently established site at Gogrea where no sampling had previously been completed. All sediment samples had total Hg (THg) concentrations exceeding Indonesian sediment quality guidelines and were up to 82 times this limit at one estuary site. The geochemistry of sediments in receiving environments indicates the potential for Hg-methylation to form highly bioavailable Hg species. To assess the current contamination threat from consumption of local seafood, samples of fish, molluscs and crustaceans were collected from the Namlea fish market and analysed for THg concentrations. The majority of edible tissue samples had elevated THg concentrations, which raises concerns for food safety. This study shows that river, estuary and marine ecosystems downstream of ASGM operations on Buru Island are exposed to dangerously high Hg concentrations, which are impacting aquatic food chains, and fisheries resources. Considering the high dietary dependence on marine protein in the associated community and across the Mollucas Province, and the short time period since ASGM operations commenced in this region, the results warrant urgent further investigation, risk mitigation, and community education. - Highlights: • Mercury contamination of sediments and seafood due to artisanal gold mining. • Considerable risks to human and ecosystem health are identified. • Results emphasise the urgent need for risk mitigation and community education.

  6. Solid waste deposits as a significant source of contaminants of emerging concern to the aquatic and terrestrial environments — A developing country case study from Owerri, Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arukwe, Augustine; Eggen, Trine; Möder, Monika

    2012-01-01

    of isomers), metabolites of non-ionic surfactants (nonylphenol-polyethoxylates), UV-filter compound ethyl methoxy cinnamate (EHMC) and bisphenol A (BPA) were particularly determined in the sediment samples at high μg/kg dry weight concentration. Measuring contaminants in such areas will help in increasing governmental, societal and industrial awareness on the extent and seriousness of the contamination both at waste disposal sites and surrounding terrestrial and aquatic environments. -- Highlights: ► Solid waste management in developing countries ► Solid waste as a significant source of contaminants of emerging concern ► Contaminant leaching from solid waste to surrounding environment ► Detection of several contaminants of emerging concern and with endocrine-disrupting activities ► Phthalates are the dominant contaminant group with concentrations that are comparable with other countries.

  7. Solid waste deposits as a significant source of contaminants of emerging concern to the aquatic and terrestrial environments - A developing country case study from Owerri, Nigeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arukwe, Augustine, E-mail: arukwe@bio.ntnu.no [Department of Biology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Hogskoleringen 5, 7491 Trondheim (Norway); Eggen, Trine [Bioforsk, Norwegian Institute for Agricultural and Environmental Research, Postveien 213, N-4353 Klepp St. (Norway); Moeder, Monika [Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research UFZ, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Permoserstrasse 15, D-04318 Leipzig (Germany)

    2012-11-01

    isomers), metabolites of non-ionic surfactants (nonylphenol-polyethoxylates), UV-filter compound ethyl methoxy cinnamate (EHMC) and bisphenol A (BPA) were particularly determined in the sediment samples at high {mu}g/kg dry weight concentration. Measuring contaminants in such areas will help in increasing governmental, societal and industrial awareness on the extent and seriousness of the contamination both at waste disposal sites and surrounding terrestrial and aquatic environments. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Solid waste management in developing countries Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Solid waste as a significant source of contaminants of emerging concern Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Contaminant leaching from solid waste to surrounding environment Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Detection of several contaminants of emerging concern and with endocrine-disrupting activities Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Phthalates are the dominant contaminant group with concentrations that are comparable with other countries.

  8. Gambling frequency, gambling problems and concerned significant others of problem gamblers in Finland: cross-sectional population studies in 2007 and 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salonen, Anne H; Alho, Hannu; Castrén, Sari

    2015-05-01

    This study compares past-year gambling frequency, gambling problems and concerned significant others (CSOs) of problem gamblers in Finland by age, from 2007 and 2011. We used random sample data collected in 2007 (n = 4722) and 2011 (n = 4484). The data were weighted, based on gender, age and region of residence. We measured the past-year gambling frequency using a categorical variable, while gambling severity was measured with the South Oaks Gambling Screen. We identified CSOs by a single question including seven response options. Chi-Squared and Fisher's exact tests were used. Overall, the past-year gambling frequency change was statistically significant between 2007 and 2011. Among 18-64-year-old Finnish people, the proportion of non-gamblers decreased. Yet, among 15-17-year-old respondents, non-gambling increased and gambling problems decreased. Among 18-24 year olds, the proportion of close ones with gambling problems also decreased. On the other hand, the proportion of family members with gambling problems increased among the 50-64 year olds. The increase in adult gambling participation was mainly explained by infrequent gambling. The proportion of gambling problems from the gamblers' and CSOs' perspective remained unchanged, yet significant changes were observed within age groups. The short-term changes in under-age gambling problems were desirable. Future studies should explore the adaptation and access hypotheses alongside gambling problems. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  9. Surveys of research projects concerning nuclear facility safety, financed by the Bundesminister des Innern. 9th annual report on SR-projects 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-06-01

    The FRG's Ministry of the Interior finances studies, expertises and investigations in the field of nuclear safety. The results of such work are meant to clarify questions left open concerning the execution of licensing procedures for nuclear facilities. The GRS (Reactor Safety Company) regularly provides information on the state of such studies, on the authority of the Ministry of the Interior. Each progress report is a collection of individual reports, categorized by subject matter. They are a documentation of the contractor's progress, rendered by themselves on standardized forms, published, for the sake of general information on progress made in investigations concerning reactor safety, by the project attendance department of the GRS. The individual reports have serial numbers. Each report includes particulars of the objective, work carried out, results obtained and plans for project continuation. (orig./HP) [de

  10. Posiva's application for a decision in principle concerning a disposal facility for spent nuclear fuel. STUK's statement and preliminary safety appraisal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruokola, E. [ed.

    2000-03-01

    In May 1999, Posiva Ltd submitted to the Government an application, pursuant to the Nuclear Energy Act, for a Decision in Principle on a disposal facility for spent nuclear fuel from the Finnish nuclear power plants. The Ministry of Trade and Industry requested the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) to draw up a preliminary safety appraisal concerning the proposed disposal facility. In the beginning of this report, STUK's statement to the Ministry and Industry concerning the proposed disposal facility is given. In that statement, STUK concludes that the Decision in Principle is currently justified from the standpoint of safety. The statement is followed by a safety appraisal, where STUK deems, how the proposed disposal concept, site and facility comply with the safety requirements included in the Government's Decision (478/1999). STUK's preliminary safety appraisal was supported by contributions from a number of outside experts. A collective opinion by an international group of ten distinguished experts is appended to this report. (orig.)

  11. Decree No 87-137 of 2 March 1987 concerning the High Council for nuclear safety and information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This Decree amends the Decree of 13th March 1973 setting up a High Council for Nuclear Safety. Its purpose is to widen the terms of reference of the High Council for Nuclear Safety. In addition to its responsibilities as regards the safety of nuclear installations, it is now competent in the field of information. The Council is now charged with informing the media as well as the public not only on questions of safety proper but also on incidents and accidents occurring in nuclear installations. (NEA) [fr

  12. Regulatory oversight report 2016 concerning nuclear safety in Swiss nuclear installations; Aufsichtsbericht 2016 zur nuklearen Sicherheit in den schweizerischen Kernanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2017-06-15

    ENSI, the Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate, assesses and monitors safety in the Swiss nuclear facilities. These include the five nuclear power plants: Beznau Units 1 and 2 (KKB1 and KKB2), Muehleberg (KKM), Goesgen (KKG) and Leibstadt (KKL), the interim storage facilities based at each plant, the Central Interim Storage Facility (Zwilag) in Wuerenlingen together with the nuclear facilities at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), the University of Basel (UniB) and the Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne (EPFL). Using a combination of inspections, regulatory meetings, checks, analyses and the reporting of the operators of individual facilities, ENSI obtains the required overview of nuclear safety in these facilities. It ensures that they operate as required by law. ENSI's regulatory responsibilities also include the transport of radioactive materials from and to nuclear facilities and preparations for a deep geological repository for radioactive waste. ENSI maintains its own emergency organisation, which is an integral part of the national emergency structure that would be activated in the event of a serious incident at a nuclear facility in Switzerland. ENSI reports periodically on its supervisory activities. It informs the public about special events and findings in the nuclear installations. All five nuclear power plants in Switzerland operated safely during the past year. Nuclear safety at all plants in operation was rated as good or satisfactory. In 2016, there were 31 reportable events at the nuclear power plants. 30 events were rated Level 0 (event of no or low safety significance) on the International Nuclear and Radiological Event Scale (INES) and one was rated Level 1 (anomaly) at KKL. Zwilag consists of several interim storage buildings, a conditioning plant and a plasma plant (incineration/melting plant). At the end of 2016, the cask storage hall contained 56 transport/storage casks with spent fuel assemblies and vitrified residue

  13. Significance of Alkali-Silica reaction in nuclear safety-related concrete structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Pape, Y.; Field, K.G.; Mattus, C.H.; Naus, D.J.; Busby, J.T.; Saouma, V.; Ma, Z.J.; Cabage, J.V.; Guimaraes, M.

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear Power Plant license renewal up to 60 years and possible life extension beyond has established a renewed focus on long-term aging of nuclear generating stations materials, and particularly, on concrete. Large irreplaceable sections of most nuclear generating stations include concrete components. The Expanded Materials Degradation Analysis, jointly performed by the Department of Energy, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the Academia and the Power Generation Industry, identified the need to develop a consistent knowledge base of alkali-silica reaction (ASR) within concrete as an urgent priority (Graves et al., 2014). ASR results in an expansion of Concrete produced by the reaction between alkali (generally from cement), reactive aggregate (like amorphous silica) and water absorption. ASR causes expansion, cracking and loss of mechanical properties. Considering that US commercial reactors in operation enter the age when ASR distress can be potentially observed and that numerous non-nuclear infrastructures (transportation, energy production) in a majority of the States have already experienced ASR-related concrete degradation, the susceptibility and significance of ASR for nuclear concrete structures must be addressed. This paper outlines an on-going research program including the investigation of the possibility of ASR in nuclear power plants, and the assessment of the residual shear bearing capacity of ASR-subjected nuclear structures. (authors)

  14. An approach toward estimating the safety significance of normal and abnormal operating procedures in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grant, T.F.; Harris, M.S.

    1989-01-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission's TMI Action Plan calls for a long-term plan to upgrade operating procedures in nuclear power plants. The scope of Generic Issue Human Factors 4.4, which stems from this requirement, includes the recommendation of improvements in nuclear power plant normal and abnormal operating procedures (NOPs and AOPs) and the implementation of appropriate regulatory action. This paper will describe the objectives, methodologies, and results of a Battelle-conducted value impact assessment to determine the costs and benefits of having the NRC implement regulatory action that would specify requirements for the preparation of acceptable NOPs and AOPs by the Commission's nuclear power plant licensees. The results of this value impact assessment are expressed in terms of ten cost/benefit attributes that can be affected by the NRC regulatory action. Five of these attributes require the calculation of change in public risk that could be expected to result from the action which, in this case, required determining the safety significance of NOPs and AOPs. In order to estimate this safety significance, a multi-step methodology was created that relies on an existing Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) to provide a quantitative framework for modeling the role of operating procedures. The purpose of this methodology is to determine what impact the improvement of NOPs and AOPs would have on public health and safety

  15. “Is it still safe to eat traditional food?” Addressing traditional food safety concerns in aboriginal communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bordeleau, Serge, E-mail: Serge.Bordeleau@uqat.ca [Chaire de Recherche du Canada en Foresterie Autochtone, Université du Québec en Abitibi-Témiscamingue, 445 boul. de l' Université, Rouyn-Noranda, Québec J9X 5E4 (Canada); Chaire Industrielle CRSNG-UQAT-UQÀM en Aménagement Forestier Durable, Université du Québec en Abitibi-Témiscamingue, 445 boul. de l' Université, Rouyn-Noranda, Québec J9X 5E4 (Canada); Asselin, Hugo, E-mail: Hugo.Asselin@uqat.ca [Chaire de Recherche du Canada en Foresterie Autochtone, Université du Québec en Abitibi-Témiscamingue, 445 boul. de l' Université, Rouyn-Noranda, Québec J9X 5E4 (Canada); Chaire Industrielle CRSNG-UQAT-UQÀM en Aménagement Forestier Durable, Université du Québec en Abitibi-Témiscamingue, 445 boul. de l' Université, Rouyn-Noranda, Québec J9X 5E4 (Canada); and others

    2016-09-15

    Food insecurity is a growing concern for indigenous communities worldwide. While the risk of heavy metal contamination associated to wild food consumption has been extensively studied in the Arctic, data are scarce for the Boreal zone. This study addressed the concerns over possible heavy metal exposure through consumption of traditional food in four Anishnaabeg communities living in the Eastern North American boreal forest. Liver and meat samples were obtained from 196 snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus) trapped during winter 2012 across the traditional lands of the participating communities and within 56–156 km of a copper smelter. Interviews were conducted with 78 household heads to assess traditional food habits, focusing on snowshoe hare consumption. Concentrations in most meat and liver samples were below the detection limit for As, Co, Cr, Ni and Pb. Very few meat samples had detectable Cd and Hg concentrations, but liver samples had mean dry weight concentrations of 3.79 mg/kg and 0.15 mg/kg respectively. Distance and orientation from the smelter did not explain the variability between samples, but percent deciduous and mixed forest cover had a marginal negative effect on liver Cd, Cu and Zn concentrations. The estimated exposition risk from snowshoe hare consumption was low, although heavy consumers could slightly exceed recommended Hg doses. In accordance with the holistic perspective commonly adopted by indigenous people, the nutritional and sociocultural importance of traditional food must be considered in risk assessment. Traditional food plays a significant role in reducing and preventing serious health issues disproportionately affecting First Nations, such as obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases. Traditional consumption of snowshoe hare (Lepus americanus) entails low risk of heavy metal exposure if animals are tapped > 50 km from a point emission source (such as a copper smelter in the present study), if risk-increasing behaviours are

  16. “Is it still safe to eat traditional food?” Addressing traditional food safety concerns in aboriginal communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bordeleau, Serge; Asselin, Hugo

    2016-01-01

    Food insecurity is a growing concern for indigenous communities worldwide. While the risk of heavy metal contamination associated to wild food consumption has been extensively studied in the Arctic, data are scarce for the Boreal zone. This study addressed the concerns over possible heavy metal exposure through consumption of traditional food in four Anishnaabeg communities living in the Eastern North American boreal forest. Liver and meat samples were obtained from 196 snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus) trapped during winter 2012 across the traditional lands of the participating communities and within 56–156 km of a copper smelter. Interviews were conducted with 78 household heads to assess traditional food habits, focusing on snowshoe hare consumption. Concentrations in most meat and liver samples were below the detection limit for As, Co, Cr, Ni and Pb. Very few meat samples had detectable Cd and Hg concentrations, but liver samples had mean dry weight concentrations of 3.79 mg/kg and 0.15 mg/kg respectively. Distance and orientation from the smelter did not explain the variability between samples, but percent deciduous and mixed forest cover had a marginal negative effect on liver Cd, Cu and Zn concentrations. The estimated exposition risk from snowshoe hare consumption was low, although heavy consumers could slightly exceed recommended Hg doses. In accordance with the holistic perspective commonly adopted by indigenous people, the nutritional and sociocultural importance of traditional food must be considered in risk assessment. Traditional food plays a significant role in reducing and preventing serious health issues disproportionately affecting First Nations, such as obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases. Traditional consumption of snowshoe hare (Lepus americanus) entails low risk of heavy metal exposure if animals are tapped > 50 km from a point emission source (such as a copper smelter in the present study), if risk-increasing behaviours are

  17. Internet-delivered cognitive-behavioural therapy for concerned significant others of people with problem gambling: study protocol for a randomised wait-list controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnusson, Kristoffer; Nilsson, Anders; Hellner Gumpert, Clara; Andersson, Gerhard; Carlbring, Per

    2015-12-09

    About 2.3% of the adult population in Sweden are considered to suffer from problem gambling, and it is estimated that only 5% of those seek treatment. Problem gambling can have devastating effects on the economy, health and relationship, both for the individual who gambles and their concerned significant other (CSO). No empirically supported treatment exists for the CSOs of people with problem gambling. Consequently, the aim of this study is to develop and evaluate a programme aimed at CSOs of treatment-refusing problem gamblers. The programme will be based on principles from cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) and motivational interviewing. To benefit as many CSOs as possible, the programme will be delivered via the internet with therapist support via encrypted email and short weekly conversations via telephone. This will be a randomised wait-list controlled internet-delivered treatment trial. A CBT programme for the CSOs of people with problem gambling will be developed and evaluated. The participants will work through nine modules over 10 weeks in a secure online environment, and receive support via secure emails and over the telephone. A total of 150 CSOs over 18 years of age will be included. Measures will be taken at baseline and at 3, 6 and 12 months. Primary outcomes concern gambling-related harm. Secondary outcomes include the treatment entry of the individual who gambles, the CSO's levels of depression, anxiety, as well as relationship satisfaction and quality of life. The protocol has been approved by the regional ethics board of Stockholm, Sweden. This study will add to the body of knowledge on how to protect CSOs from gambling-related harm, and how to motivate treatment-refusing individuals to seek professional help for problem gambling. NCT02250586. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  18. Safety concerning the alteration in fuel material usage (new installation of the uranium enrichment pilot plant) at Ningyo Pass Mine of Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    A report of the Committee on Examination of Nuclear Fuel Safety was presented to the Atomic Energy Commission of Japan, which is concerned with the safety in the alteration of fuel material usage (new installation of the uranium enrichment pilot plant) at the Ningyo Pass Mine. Its safety was confirmed. The alteration, i.e. installation of the uranium enrichment pilot plant, is as follows. Intended for the overall test of centrifugal uranium enrichment technology, the pilot plant includes a two-storied main building of about 9,000 m 2 floor space, containing centrifuges, UF 6 equipment, etc., a uranium storage of about 1,000 m 2 floor space, and a waste water treatment facility, two-storied with about 300 m 2 floor space. The contents of the examination are safety of the facilities, criticality control, radiation control, waste treatment, and effects of accidents on the surrounding environment. (Mori, K

  19. On the Issue of Regional Policy in the Sphere of Ecological Safety (Based on the Documents Concerning the Republic of Kalmykia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elza I. Mantaeva

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The regional government should provide ecological safety in order to ensure stable social and economic development of the country. The article outlines theoretical approach and recommendations on practice concerning ecological issues, investigates state policy aiming to preserve nature and analyses sources of threat to ecological safety in the region. The modern paradigm of the country’s and region’s development is characterized by the combination of ecological and economic policy. The ecological policy providing measures for efficient use of natural resources, their protection and restoration is implemented in the economic strategy of highly developed countries and encourages stable social and economic development of the country and the region. Some researchers assert that Russia’s most regions do not possess sufficient resources necessary to implement structural shifts which can eliminate the main threats to ecological safety. The Republic of Kalmykia can be included into this list. It is rich in natural resources but they are not restored due to the lack of regulation for efficient consumption. The main concerns of the republic are water supply, desertification, and pollution of atmosphere, waste disposal, and protection of wildlife and environment, preservation of hunting ground, forest management. The republic generates no electricity so it is delivered by neighboring regions. The republic should use the renewable ways of producing energy which can contribute to the energy and ecological safety and can attract new investment funds. There is an urgent need for stricter state regulation to ensure socioeconomic development and ecological safety in Kalmykia.

  20. Proposition of resolution tending to create an inquiry commission concerning the safety conditions of the radiotherapy practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-10-01

    Towards the number of radiotherapy acts made every year and the increase of the number of the revealed accidents, it is absolutely indispensable to have an feedback experience and an assessment of the existing means today to control the radioprotection. This work has to allow to give propositions to improve the radiotherapy quality and safety, and provide the patients safety before, during and after the ionizing radiation exposure. (N.C.)

  1. Protocol between the Nuclear Protection and Safety Bureau of Portugal and the Nuclear Energy Commission of Spain on Technical Information concerning Nuclear Installations in Border Areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    This Protocol was concluded under the Agreement of the same date on the safety of nuclear installations in border areas. Its purpose is to prescribe the type of information referred to in the Agreement. It lays down in detail all the documents to be supplied concerning the siting, construction, operation and decommissioning of nuclear installations, including the geological, seismological, meteorological, hydrological and ecological aspects of the sites concerned, for purposes of environmental protection; the characteristics of the projected installations and emergency plans must also be provided. Similarly to the Agreement, this Protocol will remain in force for a period of ten years. (NEA) [fr

  2. Regulatory oversight report 2015 concerning nuclear safety in Swiss nuclear installations; Aufsichtsbericht 2015 zur nuklearen Sicherheit in den schweizerischen Kernanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2016-06-15

    The Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (ENSI) assesses and monitors nuclear facilities in Switzerland. These include the five nuclear power plants (Beznau Units 1 and 2, Muehleberg, Goesgen and Leibstadt), the interim storage facilities based at each plant, the Central Interim Storage Facility (Zwilag) at Wuerenlingen together with the nuclear facilities at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), the University of Basel and the Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne (EPFL), as well as the transport of radioactive materials and the preparatory work for a deep geological repository for nuclear waste. Using a combination of inspections, regulatory meetings, examinations and analyses together with reports from the licensees of individual facilities, ENSI obtains the required overview of nuclear safety in these facilities. ENSI maintains its own emergency organization. It provides the public with information on particular events and findings in nuclear facilities. ENSI publishes an annual Radiological Protection Report and a Research and Experience Report. Chapters 1 to 4 of this Surveillance Report deal with operational experience, systems technology, radiological protection and management of the 5 Swiss nuclear power plants. Chapter 5 deals with Zwilag. Chapters 6 and 7 are devoted to the nuclear facilities at PSI and the research reactor at EPFL as well as the decommissioned University of Basel’s research reactor. Chapter 8 covers the transport of radioactive materials. The subject of Chapter 9 is the deep geological storage of radioactive waste including work within the framework of the Sectoral Plan. Finally, Chapter 10 deals with generic issues relevant to all facilities such as probabilistic safety analyses. In 2015, all five nuclear power plants in Switzerland were safely operated and ENSI concluded that each had adhered to its approved operating conditions. There were 34 reportable events at the nuclear power plants; 32 events were rated at Level 0 on

  3. Regulatory overview report 2014 concerning nuclear safety in Swiss nuclear installations; Aufsichtsbericht 2014 zur nuklearen Sicherheit in den schweizerischen Kernanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-06-15

    The Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (ENSI), acting as the regulatory body of the Swiss Federation, assesses and monitors nuclear facilities in Switzerland: the five nuclear power plants, the interim storage facilities based at each plant, the Central Interim Storage Facility (ZWILAG) at Wuerenlingen together with the nuclear facilities at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), the University of Basel (UniB) and the Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne (EPFL). Using a combination of inspections, regulatory meetings, examinations and analyses together with reports from the licensees of individual facilities, ENSI obtains the required overview of nuclear safety. It ensures that they comply with regulations. Its regulatory responsibilities include the transport of radioactive materials from and to nuclear facilities and the preparations for a deep geological repository for nuclear waste. ENSI maintains its own emergency organisation, an integral part of the national emergency structure. It provides the public with information on particular events in nuclear facilities. This Surveillance Report describes the operational experience, systems technology, radiological protection and management in all nuclear facilities. Generic issues relevant to all facilities such as probabilistic safety analyses are described. In 2014, all five nuclear power plants in Switzerland (Beznau Units I and 2, Muehleberg, Goesgen and Leibstadt) were operated safely. The nuclear safety at all plants was rated as good. 38 events were reported. There was one reactor scram at the Leibstadt nuclear power plant. On the International Event Scale (INES), ranging from 0--7, 37 events were rated as Level 0; one event was rated as INES 1: drill holes had penetrated the steel wall of the containment to secure two hand-held fire extinguishers. ZWILAG consists of several interim storage halls, a conditioning plant and a plasma plant. At the end of 2014, the cask storage hall contained 42

  4. Ethical considerations and proposed guidelines for the use of radio frequency identification: especially concerning its use for promoting public safety and national security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Amber McKee; Labay, Vladimir

    2006-04-01

    Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) is quickly growing in its applications. A variety of uses for the technology are beginning to be developed, including chips which can be used in identification cards, in individual items, and for human applications, allowing a chip to be embedded under the skin. Such chips could provide numerous benefits ranging from day-to-day convenience to the increased ability of the federal government to adequately ensure the safety of its citizens. However, there are also valid concerns about the potential of this technology to infringe on privacy, creating fears of a surveillance society. These are concerns that must be addressed quickly, with sensitivity to individual interests and societal welfare, allowing humanity to reap the benefits of convenience and safety without paying an unacceptable price in the loss of privacy.

  5. Brief report: Associations between in-person and electronic bullying victimization and missing school because of safety concerns among U.S. high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Riley J; Rasberry, Catherine N

    2015-08-01

    Although associations between bullying and health risk behaviors are well-documented, research on bullying and education-related outcomes, including school attendance, is limited. This study examines associations between bullying victimization (in-person and electronic) and missing school because of safety concerns among a nationally representative sample of U.S. high school students. We used logistic regression analyses to analyze data from the 2013 national Youth Risk Behavior Survey of students in grades 9-12. In-person and electronic victimization were each associated with increased odds of missing school due to safety concerns compared to no bullying victimization. Having been bullied both in-person and electronically was associated with greater odds of missing school compared to electronic bullying only for female students and in-person bullying only for male students. Collaborations between health professionals and educators to prevent bullying may improve school attendance. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. The nature of delayed dream incorporation ('dream-lag effect'): Personally significant events persist, but not major daily activities or concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichenlaub, Jean-Baptiste; van Rijn, Elaine; Phelan, Mairéad; Ryder, Larnia; Gaskell, M Gareth; Lewis, Penelope A; P Walker, Matthew; Blagrove, Mark

    2018-04-22

    Incorporation of details from waking life events into rapid eye movement (REM) sleep dreams has been found to be highest on the 2 nights after, and then 5-7 nights after, the event. These are termed, respectively, the day-residue and dream-lag effects. This study is the first to categorize types of waking life experiences and compare their incorporation into dreams across multiple successive nights. Thirty-eight participants completed a daily diary each evening and a dream diary each morning for 14 days. In the daily diary, three categories of experiences were reported: major daily activities (MDAs), personally significant events (PSEs) and major concerns (MCs). After the 14-day period each participant identified the correspondence between items in their daily diaries and subsequent dream reports. The day-residue and dream-lag effects were found for the incorporation of PSEs into dreams (effect sizes of .33 and .27, respectively), but only for participants (n = 19) who had a below-median total number of correspondences between daily diary items and dream reports (termed "low-incorporators" as opposed to "high-incorporators"). Neither the day-residue or dream-lag effects were found for MDAs or MCs. This U-shaped timescale of incorporation of events from daily life into dreams has been proposed to reflect REM sleep-dependent memory consolidation, possibly related to emotional memory processing. This study had a larger sample size of dreams than any dream-lag study hitherto with trained participants. Coupled with previous successful replications, there is thus substantial evidence supporting the dream-lag effect and further explorations of its mechanism, including its neural underpinnings, are warranted. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Sleep Research published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of European Sleep Research Society.

  7. Nanotechnology in sustainable agriculture: Present concerns and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nanotechnology in sustainable agriculture: Present concerns and future aspects. ... of those living in developing countries face daily food shortages as a result of ... applications in agricultural, food, and water safety that could have significant ...

  8. A review of significant events analysed in general practice: implications for the quality and safety of patient care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley Nick

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Significant event analysis (SEA is promoted as a team-based approach to enhancing patient safety through reflective learning. Evidence of SEA participation is required for appraisal and contractual purposes in UK general practice. A voluntary educational model in the west of Scotland enables general practitioners (GPs and doctors-in-training to submit SEA reports for feedback from trained peers. We reviewed reports to identify the range of safety issues analysed, learning needs raised and actions taken by GP teams. Method Content analysis of SEA reports submitted in an 18 month period between 2005 and 2007. Results 191 SEA reports were reviewed. 48 described patient harm (25.1%. A further 109 reports (57.1% outlined circumstances that had the potential to cause patient harm. Individual 'error' was cited as the most common reason for event occurrence (32.5%. Learning opportunities were identified in 182 reports (95.3% but were often non-specific professional issues not shared with the wider practice team. 154 SEA reports (80.1% described actions taken to improve practice systems or professional behaviour. However, non-medical staff were less likely to be involved in the changes resulting from event analyses describing patient harm (p Conclusion The study provides some evidence of the potential of SEA to improve healthcare quality and safety. If applied rigorously, GP teams and doctors in training can use the technique to investigate and learn from a wide variety of quality issues including those resulting in patient harm. This leads to reported change but it is unclear if such improvement is sustained.

  9. Review of the Safety Concern Related to CANDU Moderator Temperature Distribution and Status of KAERI Moderator Circulation Test (MCT) Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhee, Bo W.; Kim, Hyoung T. [Severe Accident and PHWR Safety Research Division, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Tongbeum [University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa); Im, Sunghyuk [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Following a large break LOCA and before Emergency Coolant Injection (ECI) initiation, pressure tubes (PT) significantly heat up as a result of the initial power pulse and degraded coolant flow. Consequently, some pressure tubes balloon and come into contact with the calandria tubes (CT). Following the PT/CT contact, the pressure tubes cool as they transfer some of the absorbed heat to the moderator via conduction at contact locations. As long as sustained calandria tube dryout does not occur, the calandria tube surface temperature remains below the creep threshold temperature and no further deformation is expected. Consequently, a sufficient condition to ensure fuel channel integrity following a large LOCA, is the avoidance of sustained calandria tubes dryout. If the moderator available subcooling at the onset of a large LOCA is greater than the subcooling requirements, a sustained calandria tube dryout is avoided. The subcooling requirements are determined from a set of experiments known as fuel channel contact experiments. The difference between available subcooling and required subcooling is called subcooling margins. The moderator flow circulation patterns are complicated slow flows that significantly vary from buoyancy dominated to inertia dominated patterns. Accurate predictions of flow patterns are essential for accurate calculation of moderator temperature distributions and the related moderator subcooling. Following a large break LOCA and before Emergency Coolant Injection (ECI) initiation, pressure tubes (PT) significantly heat up as a result of the initial power pulse and degraded coolant flow. Consequently, some pressure tubes balloon and come into contact with the calandria tubes (CT). Following the PT/CT contact, the pressure tubes cool as they transfer some of the absorbed heat to the moderator via conduction at contact locations. As long as sustained calandria tube dryout does not occur, the calandria tube surface temperature remains below the creep

  10. Track 2: business outlook and the significance of safety - safety of nuclear power reactor installations in a deregulated environment. Panel Discussion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, Stephen P.; Floyd, Stephen; Berkow, Herbert N.; Quinn, Edward L.; Hagen, Ronald E.; Esselman, Thomas C.

    2001-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Deregulation in the nuclear industry sets the stage for a new production environment with cost and profit-based competition. This not only affects the commercial reactor sector but also is a key element of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DoE's) strategy for facility deployment and commercialization. This panel is designed to explore how these transitions are being made with the assurance of the principle of safety in operations. Panelists have been assembled from industry, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and DOE to explore these challenges and opportunities in the deregulated operational environment from a variety of perspectives. Presentations by each panelist will be followed by a panel session that will explore both technical and process elements of these major transitions. Success in a deregulated environment requires both safety and economic operation of facilities. With respect to each of these attributes, competition may be expected to result in substantially higher levels of performance. This panel will examine how these expectations are likely to be set, how they will be measured, and what will constitute success. The baseline for evaluation begins with assessment of past performance. The panelists have examined this for both the commercial nuclear reactor sector, as well as for the DOE complex. The Nuclear Energy Institute and the NRC have been working over the past few years on a program to establish new performance indicators for monitoring safety of reactor operation. The session participants will first examine the effectiveness of this system as it is designed to measure performance in today's environment. Second, the panelists will project the capabilities and attributes of this system in monitoring safety in transition to a deregulated, consolidated market. Will these systems have the capability to identify trends that will be significant in this new environment? Will today's system and metrics be

  11. The programme of the Minister of the Interior for technical regulations concerning the safety of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, K.H.

    1977-01-01

    The BMI is responsible for the Atomic Energy Act being implemented. A survey is presented of the BMI's programme for setting up technical safety regulations (bar the KTA) according to the following categories: the structure of objects (hardware); the functions of machinery and human behaviour (software); know-how, abilities, responsibility of humans (live-ware); environment. (HP) [de

  12. Safety of Basic nuclear facilities (INB) other than electronuclear reactors. Lessons learned from declared significant events in 2011 and 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The first part of this report presents the different types of basic nuclear facilities other than electronuclear reactors. These installations can be industrial installations dedicated or not to the nuclear fuel cycle, research and support installations, be definitively stopped or being dismantled, or radioactive waste storage installations. After a comment of the main trends noticed in 2011 and 2012, the report proposes a transverse analysis of events which occurred in these installations. These events are related to various risks: dissemination of radioactive materials, exposure to ionizing radiations, criticality, fire and explosion, handling operations, loss of electric supplies or fluids, external aggression. Other events are those significant for the environment with a radiological component, or related to periodic controls and tests. The causes of these events are analysed. Specific events are presented which occurred on different sites (in the MELOX plant, in Areva sites in La Hague, Pierrelatte, in CEA sites in Cadarache and Saclay, in a fuel factory in Romans). Other topics are finally addressed: safety measures after the Fukushima accident, safety and radiation protection management systems of Areva and CEA, dismantling of nuclear installations

  13. The concerned significant others of people with gambling problems in a national representative sample in Sweden - a 1 year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Jessika; Romild, Ulla; Shepherdson, Emma

    2013-11-21

    Research into the impact of problem gambling on close social networks is scarce with the majority of studies only including help-seeking populations. To date only one study has examined concerned significant others (CSOs) from an epidemiological perspective and it did not consider gender. The aim of this study is to examine the health, social support, and financial situations of CSOs in a Swedish representative sample and to examine gender differences. A population study was conducted in Sweden in 2008/09 (n = 15,000, response rate 63%). Respondents were defined as CSOs if they reported that someone close to them currently or previously had problems with gambling. The group of CSOs was further examined in a 1-year follow up (weighted response rate 74% from the 8,165 respondents in the original sample). Comparisons were also made between those defined as CSOs only at baseline (47.7%, n = 554) and those defined as CSOs at both time points. In total, 18.2% of the population were considered CSOs, with no difference between women and men. Male and female CSOs experienced, to a large extent, similar problems including poor mental health, risky alcohol consumption, economic hardship, and arguments with those closest to them. Female CSOs reported less social support than other women and male CSOs had more legal problems and were more afraid of losing their jobs than other men. One year on, several problems remained even if some improvements were found. Both male and female CSOs reported more negative life events in the 1 year follow-up. Although some relationships are unknown, including between the CSOs and the individuals with gambling problems and the causal relationships between being a CSO and the range of associated problems, the results of this study indicate that gambling problems not only affect the gambling individual and their immediate close family but also the wider social network. A large proportion of the population can be defined as a CSO, half of whom are

  14. Pharmacogenetics of efficacy and safety of HCV treatment in HCV-HIV coinfected patients: significant associations with IL28B and SOCS3 gene variants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesc Vidal

    Full Text Available This was a safety and efficacy pharmacogenetic study of a previously performed randomized trial which compared the effectiveness of treatment of hepatitis C virus infection with pegylated interferon alpha (pegIFNα 2a vs. 2b, both with ribavirin, for 48 weeks, in HCV-HIV coinfected patients.The study groups were made of 99 patients (efficacy pharmacogenetic substudy and of 114 patients (safety pharmacogenetic substudy. Polymorphisms in the following candidate genes IL28B, IL6, IL10, TNFα, IFNγ, CCL5, MxA, OAS1, SOCS3, CTLA4 and ITPA were assessed. Genotyping was carried out using Sequenom iPLEX-Gold, a single-base extension polymerase chain reaction. Efficacy end-points assessed were: rapid, early and sustained virological response (RVR, EVR and SVR, respectively. Safety end-points assessed were: anemia, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, flu-like syndrome, gastrointestinal disturbances and depression. Chi square test, Student's T test, Mann-Whitney U test and logistic regression were used for statistic analyses.As efficacy is concerned, IL28B and CTLA4 gene polymorphisms were associated with RVR (p<0.05 for both comparisons. Nevertheless, only polymorphism in the IL28B gene was associated with SVR (p = 0.004. In the multivariate analysis, the only gene independently associated with SVR was IL28B (OR 2.61, 95%CI 1.2-5.6, p = 0.01. With respect to safety, there were no significant associations between flu-like syndrome or depression and the genetic variants studied. Gastrointestinal disturbances were associated with ITPA gene polymorphism (p = 0.04. Anemia was associated with OAS1 and CTLA4 gene polymorphisms (p = 0.049 and p = 0.045, respectively, neutropenia and thromobocytopenia were associated with SOCS3 gene polymorphism (p = 0.02 and p = 0.002, respectively. In the multivariate analysis, the associations of the SOCS3 gene polymorphism with neutropenia (OR 0.26, 95%CI 0.09-0.75, p = 0.01 and thrombocytopenia (OR

  15. Early safety outcome following transcatheter aortic valve implantation: is the amount of contrast media used a matter of concern?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vontobel, Jan; Possner, Mathias; Schütz, Philipp; Müller, Beat; Taramasso, Maurizio; Binder, Roland K; Haueis, Sabine; Attinger-Toller, Adrian; Maisano, Francesco; Nietlispach, Fabian

    2015-01-01

    The study objective was to evaluate the impact of the amount of contrast medium used for transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) on short-term outcome. Patients undergoing TAVI are exposed to repeat contrast medium application both for preprocedural screening and during the TAVI procedure itself. Whether the amount of contrast media is associated with worse outcome is unclear. A total of 257 patients were included (median age 82.7 years) and divided into two groups with preserved and reduced kidney function (glomerular filtration rate contrast media administered during and within 5 days prior to TAVI was analysed. A combined early safety endpoint at 30 days was evaluated. The early safety endpoint was reached by 31 patients and acute kidney injury occurred in 22 patients. The median total volume of contrast media administered was 144 ml (interquartile range 81-225 ml). The amount of contrast did not independently predict the early safety endpoint in the overall population (odds ratio [OR] 0.93, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.56 to 1.53, p = 0.774) and in subgroups with preserved and reduced kidney function. Change in creatinine was an independent strong predictor of the early safety endpoint in the overall population (OR 18.13, 95% CI 4.70 to 69.99, p contrast did not predict a change in creatinine within 72 hours following TAVI (r = 0.02, 95% CI -0.02 to 0.07, p = 0.368). Decreased kidney function after TAVI influences outcome. When rather small amounts of contrast media are used for screening and the TAVI procedure itself, the amount of contrast media seems not to be an independent predictor of outcome, further suggesting that decreased kidney function after TAVI is multifactorial.

  16. A Model Proposal and Implementation Concerning Occupational Health and Safety within the Framework of World Class Manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    GÜMÜŞOĞLU, Şevkinaz; TEPEKULE, Esin Tuba

    2017-01-01

    The approach, which aims atbecoming the best in every application and operation realizing every strategythat it has at a perfect level, has been referred to as World ClassManufacturing (WCM).  The synergic effectof WCM inherent in application and strategies will be helpful in takingbusinesses’ strength to the desired level in the current competitiveenvironment. For businesses in applications of Occupational Health and Safety(OHS) to perform at the top level will contribute to become the best,...

  17. RESPONSIBILITIES OF FOOD BUSINESS OPERATORS RELATED TO FOOD SAFETY: CONCERNS RELATED TO HACCP IN MICRO-BUSINESSES FOOD COMPANIES

    OpenAIRE

    T. Civera; D. Nucera; A. Bellio; M. Botosso; M. Mora; R. Goi; B. Griglio

    2012-01-01

    The research was aimed at collecting information on food safety knowledge by operators of small and less developed food businesses. This will allow to reveal what are the real drawbacks in HACCP application in these realities. Fifty meat producing plants located in Piedmont region were involved. In all the plants a questionnaire with questions on HACCP system was submitted. The analysis of the collected answers, evidenced that 42% of the operators needed to perform structural modifications in...

  18. Nuclear criticality safety: general. 4. The CASTOR X/32S Method of Covering mis-loading Concerns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lancaster, Dale B.; Rombough, Charles T.; Diersch, Rudolf; Spilker, Harry

    2001-01-01

    In the United States, most cask licenses do not directly consider mis-loading. If the enrichment limit for a shipping cask is high and the reactivity control is inherent in the cask, the reactivity effect of a mis-load is small. However, in large-capacity casks, such as the CASTOR X/32S, the effect can be much larger. The U.S. Department of Energy Topical Report on Actinide- Only Burnup Credit takes the position that a fuel assembly mis-load does need to be analyzed since there are multiple independent checks, and thus, the double-contingency principle is met. Unfortunately, 11 assemblies were mis-loaded at Palisades. This event has caused the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to ask for more detail on prevention of mis-loading. In the summer of 1999, Palisades loaded 11 assemblies, which did not comply with the loading requirements for their VSC-24 cask. The cask requires 5 yr of cooling, and these 11 assemblies had just a little more than 4 yr of cooling. The mis-loading did not result in an unsafe condition but in an un-reviewed condition. This mis-loading was not identified until November 2000 during a review related to an NRC information notice. The loading plan for the cask was incorrect. The engineering review of the loading plan missed the error. The operators had loaded the cask consistent with the loading plan. The cask loading was then confirmed by comparing to the loading plan. The loading plan was in error since the engineer assumed that the entire region of fuel was discharged at the same time. The 11 assemblies of concern were reinserted in the reactor, and the engineer and the reviewer did not check for this. The reactor records for all the assemblies were correct but apparently were not checked by the engineer who created the loading plan. To prevent a mis-load criticality event, the following steps will be required for the CASTOR X/32S storage and transport cask: 1. A loading plan will be prepared for each cask loaded. This plan will be

  19. Safety of the Transport of Radioactive Materials for Civilian Use in France. Lessons learned by IRSN from analysis of significant events reported in 2012 and 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    Every two years since 2008, IRSN has published in a report the lessons learnt from its analysis of significant events involving the transport of radioactive materials for civilian purposes in France. Each year in France, some 770,000 shipments of radioactive materials for civilian use are done by road, railway, inland waterway, sea and air. For 2012 and 2013, the report did not find evidence of degradation compared with previous years, particularly for industrial activities in the nuclear power industry, which raise the most significant safety issues. Since 1999, approximately a hundred events are reported each year, which represents, on average, one event per 10,000 packages transported. IRSN notes that none of the events that occurred over the two years had an impact on public health or environmental protection. Events involving a defect in the closure of spent fuel shipping packages and deviations concerning the content of the packages, which had increased in 2010 and 2011, are now down. It would seem to confirm that the organizational measures implemented by those sending the packages have had a positive impact. Previous trends which brought to light failures in the preparation of packages and their handling, in particular in the medical sector, have been confirmed. Even if most of the packages concerned contain low levels of radioactivity, recurrence of these events confirms the value of implementing appropriate preventive actions on the part of the companies involved. Lastly, descriptions of several typical events that occurred in 2012 and 2013 provide illustrations of the analyses that were performed on actual cases

  20. RESPONSIBILITIES OF FOOD BUSINESS OPERATORS RELATED TO FOOD SAFETY: CONCERNS RELATED TO HACCP IN MICRO-BUSINESSES FOOD COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Civera

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The research was aimed at collecting information on food safety knowledge by operators of small and less developed food businesses. This will allow to reveal what are the real drawbacks in HACCP application in these realities. Fifty meat producing plants located in Piedmont region were involved. In all the plants a questionnaire with questions on HACCP system was submitted. The analysis of the collected answers, evidenced that 42% of the operators needed to perform structural modifications in order to address the HACCP measures, whereas 40% applied modifications in working procedures. The most frequent shortcoming (44% of the answers of the HACCP system was represented by the applicability of Good Manufacturing Practices, and the most difficult control measure to be applied was the prevention of the cross-contaminations (40% of the answers. The information gathered within this project allowed to evidence the real needs of the micro businesses in the application of HACCP plan. These results can be useful for the institutions, which could elaborate HACCP alternative systems, able to better fulfil food safety requirements and Food Business Operator needs.

  1. Surveys of research projects concerning nuclear facility safety, financed by the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Protection and Reactor Safety, 1989. (14. annual report on SR-projects)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-11-01

    Each progress report is a collection of individual reports, categorized by subject matter. They are a documentation of the contractor's progress, rendered by themselves on standardized forms, published, for the sake of general information on progress made in investigations concerning reactor safety, by the project attendance department of the GRS. The individual reports have serial numbers. Each report includes particulars of the objective, work carried out, results obtained and plans for project continuation. (orig.) [de

  2. Study on safety of a nuclear ship having an integral marine water reactor. Intelligent information database program concerned with thermal-hydraulic characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inasaka, Fujio; Nariai, Hideki; Kobayashi, Michiyuki; Murata, Hiroyuki; Aya, Izuo

    2001-01-01

    As a high economical marine reactor with sufficient safety functions, an integrated type marine water reactor has been considered most promising. At the National Maritime Research Institute, a series of the experimental studies on the thermal-hydraulic characteristics of an integrated/passive-safety type marine water reactor such as the flow boiling of a helical-coil type steam generator, natural circulation of primary water under a ship rolling motion and flashing-condensation oscillation phenomena in pool water has been conducted. This current study aims at making use of the safety analysis or evaluation of a future marine water reactor by developing an intelligent information database program concerned with the thermal-hydraulic characteristics of an integral/passive-safety reactor on the basis of the above-mentioned valuable experimental knowledge. Since the program was created as a Windows application using the Visual Basic, it is available to the public and can be easily installed in the operating system. Main functions of the program are as follows: (1) steady state flow boiling analysis and determination of stability limit for any helical-coil type once-through steam generator design. (2) analysis and comparison with the flow boiling data, (3) reference and graphic display of the experimental data, (4) indication of the knowledge information such as analysis method and results of the study. The program will be useful for the design of not only the future integrated type marine water reactor but also the small sized water reactor. (author)

  3. Regulatory oversight report 2012 concerning nuclear safety in Swiss nuclear installations; Aufsichtsbericht 2012 zur nuklearen Sicherheit in den schweizerischen Kernanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-04-15

    The Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (ENSI) assesses and monitors nuclear facilities in Switzerland. These include the five nuclear power plants, the interim storage facilities based at each plant, the Central Interim Storage Facility (ZWILAG) and the nuclear facilities at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), at the Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne (EPFL) and at the University of Basel. Using a combination of inspections, regulatory meetings, examinations and analyses together with reports from the licensees of individual facilities, ENSI obtains the required overview of nuclear safety in the relevant facilities. It ensures that the facilities comply with the regulations and operate as required by law. Its regulatory responsibilities also include the transport of radioactive materials from and to nuclear facilities and the preparations for a deep geological repository for nuclear waste. ENSI maintains its own emergency organisation. It formulates and updates its own guidelines which stipulate the criteria for evaluating the current activities and future plans of the operators of nuclear facilities. ENSI produces regular reports on its regulatory activities and nuclear safety in Swiss nuclear facilities. It fulfils its statutory obligation to provide the public with information on particular events and findings in nuclear facilities. In 2012, the five nuclear power plants in Switzerland were all operated safely. 34 events were reported; on the international INES scale of 0 to 7, ENSI rated 33 events as Level 0 and 1 as Level 1. ENSI evaluates the safety of each nuclear power plant as part of a systematic safety evaluation taking account of both reportable events and other findings, in particular the results of more than 400 inspections conducted by ENSI during 2012. ZWILAG consists of several interim storage halls, a conditioning plant and an incineration/melting plant. At the end of 2012, the cask storage hall contained 40 transport/storage casks

  4. [Do residents and nurses communicate safety relevant concerns? : simulation study on the influence of the authority gradient].

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Pierre, M; Scholler, A; Strembski, D; Breuer, G

    2012-10-01

    Due to the negative impact on decision-making too steep authority gradients in teams represent a risk factor for patient safety. As residents and nursing staff may fear sanctions they may be reluctant to forward critical information to or challenge planned actions of attending physicians. In the setting of a simulation course it was investigated whether and to what extent team members would challenge decisions of familiar attending physicians. In each case where participants did not voice an opinion the underlying motives for the behavior were investigated. A total of 59 physicians and 18 nursing staff participated in the scenario. During a rapid sequence induction they were confronted with 7 critical situations created by the attending physician who had been instructed by the simulation team. Recommendations of the German Society of Anaesthesiology were ignored as well as clinical standard operating procedures (SOPs) and two potentially fatal drug administrations were ordered. An attempt was made to determine whether team members were aware of the safety threat at all and if so how they would solve the resulting conflicts. The level of verbal challenge was scored. During debriefing participants were asked to verbalize the motives which they thought might account for their silence or level of challenge. In situations where non-verbal conflict resolution was possible 65% of the participants pursued that strategy whereas 35% voiced an opinion. Situations necessitating verbal intervention were identified in 66% but 72% of the participants chose to remain silent. Team members decided to challenge the attending physician in only 28% of the situations. In 35% their statement was oblique, in 25% the problem was addressed but not further pursued and only in 40% did participants show crisp advocacy and assertiveness and initiated discussion. Asked why they had refrained from challenging the attending physician 37% had no answer, in 35% of situations participants observed a

  5. Considerations concerning the reliability of reactor safety equipment; Considerations sur la fiabilite des ensembles de securite de reacteurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furet, J; Guyot, Ch [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-07-01

    A review is made of the circumstances which favor a good collection of maintenance data at the C.E.A. The large amount of data to be treated has made necessary the use of a computer for analyzing automatically the results collected. Here, only particular aspects of the reliability from the point of view of the electronics used for nuclear reactor control will be dealt with: sale and unsafe failures; probability of survival (in the case of reactor safety); availability. The general diagrams of the safety assemblies which have been drawn up for two types of reactor (power reactor and low power experimental reactor) are given. Results are presented of reliability analysis which could be applied to the use of functional modular elements, developed industrially in France. Improvement of this reliability appears to be fairly limited by an increase in the redundancy; on the other hand it is shown how it may be very markedly improved by the use of automatic tests with different frequencies for detecting unsafe failures rates of measurements for the sub-assemblies and for the logic sub-assemblies. Finally examples are given to show the incidence of the complexity and of the use of different technologies in reactor safety equipment on the reliability. (authors) [French] On rappelle les circonstances qui favorisent au C.E.A. la collecte d'une information valable des resultats de la maintenance. L'importance des donnees a traiter a rendu necessaire l'utilisation d'une calculatrice poux l'analyse automatique des resultats recueillis. On se limitera ici aux aspects particuliers de la fiabilite du point de vue de l'electronique pour le controle et la commande de reacteurs nucleaires: pannes sures et pannes non sures; probabilite de survie dans le cas de la securite des reacteurs; facteur de disponibilite. Les schemas de principe des ensembles de securite definis pour deux types de reacteurs (reacteur de puissance et reacteur experimental de faible puissance) sont indiques. On

  6. 31 March 1992 - Royal Order amending Section 133(1) of the General Regulation on safety at Work concerning protection of workers against the hazards of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    A Royal Order of 31 March 1992 amends certain provisions of the Regulations on safety at work with respect to protection of workers against the hazards of ionizing radiation, amended in 1990. The purpose of the amendment is to avoid that certain international and national civil servants be hindered in their control duties. The following inspectors are concerned: the International Atomic Energy Agency inspectors; the persons designated as responsible for surveillance under the Euratom Treaty and the Act of 1955 on State security in the nuclear field; the inspectors designated by the Act of 1972 on inspections at work. (NEA)

  7. The U.S. weapon-grade plutonium shipment. Safety and security concern for the ''Eurofab'' operation in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marignac, Y.; Coeytaux, X.

    2004-09-01

    The present report is a comprehensive update based on a briefing published by W.I.S.E.-Paris in July 2003 on the US plan-also known as Eurofab- to have M.O.X. lead test assemblies fabricated in the French plant of ATPu, Cadarache. Based on recent developments, it discussed the specific risks raised by the unprecedented operation, in particular at the transport and fabrication stages. This analysis includes a joint assessment, by W.I.S.E.-Paris and Large and Associates, in response to the French Institute of radiation protection and nuclear safety (I.R.S.N.) criticism over the independent reports they previously published on this issue. (author)

  8. The safety regime concerning transboundary movement of radioactive waste and its compatibility with the trade regime of the WTO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strack, L.

    2004-01-01

    There is now extensive international law which regulates or prohibits the transboundary movement of radioactive waste. It seems likely that the trade restrictive provisions of the safety regime could be justified under the scope of Article X XI or X X GATT(general agreement on tariffs and trade). If a legitimate non proliferation issue were involved it is likely that any WTO (world trade organization) dispute settlement organ would allow governments the use of exceptions. Thus, the emerging international radioactive waste regime seems reconcilable under the WTO system. However, further clarification by the political, not the dispute settlement, institutions of the WTO would remove any remaining uncertainty by reaffirming the requirements of current law. Achieving sustainable development requires a coherent framework of global environment and economic governance. (N.C.)

  9. Decree of the President of the Republic of 31 July 1980 concerning the Higher Institute for Safety at Work (Section 23 of Act N0 833 of 1978)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    This Decree is important as respects nuclear energy insofar as the tasks of the Institute which are mainly of an advisory nature, also concern radiation protection and safety in connection with nuclear activities. It provides for an advisory role to be played by the Institute as regards health protection in the field of nuclear power generation and radioactive materials, including use of and trade in such materials. On the other hand, it does not affect the regulations governing the use of nuclear energy, in particular as concerns Act N 0 1240 of 1971 reorganising the CNEN, Act N 0 1860 of 1962 on the peaceful uses of nuclear energy, Presidential Decree N 0 185 of 1964 on radiation protection and the decrees implementing these tests (NEA) [fr

  10. Radiation safety concerns for pregnant or breast feeding patients. The positions of the NCRP and the ICRP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meinhold, C.B.

    1997-01-01

    For many years, protecting the fetus has been a concern of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) and the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). Early recommendations focused on the possibility of a wide variety of detrimental developmental effects while later recommendations focused on the potential for severe mental retardation and/or reduction in the intelligence quotient (I.Q.). The latest recommendations also note that the risk of cancer for the fetus is probably two to three times greater per Sv than in the adult. For all these reasons, the NCRP and the ICRP have provided guidance to physicians on taking all reasonable steps to ascertain whether any woman requiring a radiological or nuclear medicine procedure is pregnant or nursing a child. The NCRP and the ICRP also advise the clinician to postpone such procedures until after delivery or cessation of nursing, if possible

  11. Radiation safety concerns for pregnant or breast feeding patients. The positions of the NCRP and the ICRP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meinhold, C.B. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1997-01-01

    For many years, protecting the fetus has been a concern of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) and the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). Early recommendations focused on the possibility of a wide variety of detrimental developmental effects while later recommendations focused on the potential for severe mental retardation and/or reduction in the intelligence quotient (I.Q.). The latest recommendations also note that the risk of cancer for the fetus is probably two to three times greater per Sv than in the adult. For all these reasons, the NCRP and the ICRP have provided guidance to physicians on taking all reasonable steps to ascertain whether any woman requiring a radiological or nuclear medicine procedure is pregnant or nursing a child. The NCRP and the ICRP also advise the clinician to postpone such procedures until after delivery or cessation of nursing, if possible.

  12. Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    A brief account of activities carried out by the Nuclear power plants Jaslovske Bohunice in 1997 is presented. These activities are reported under the headings: (1) Nuclear safety; (2) Industrial and health safety; (3) Radiation safety; and Fire protection

  13. Common Health, Safety and Environmental Concerns in Upstream Oil and Gas Sector: Implications for HSE Management in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth Oppong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the literature to identify common occupational injuries, diseases, and psychological wellbeing on oil rigs as well as the negative environmental impacts of the upstream oil and gas sector. It ends by making recommendations for effective health, safety, and environmental (HSE management. Review of the literature showed that contusion (bruise, cuts, and laceration are the commonest occupational injuries that workers on the oil rig suffer and that the injuries mostly affect the hand and finger, leg, and eyes of the offshore workers. These injuries were found to be caused mostly by direct stroke, jamming and overstrain. Similarly, accidental poisoning, musculoskeletal disorders, respiratory disorders and diseases of the digestive system were also documented as the commonest occupational diseases among offshore workers. The literature also shows that working offshore is associated with poorer psychological wellbeing or health; this is to say that offshore workers tend to experience higher levels of stress, burnout, anxiety, depression, low job satisfaction (particularly with the environmental conditions associated with their work, and sleep disorders. Finally, the literature review indicated that land-use problems, air pollution, acid rain, climate change, habitat disruption, environmental degradation, oil spills and leakages are some of environmental impacts of upstream oil production. This review was concluded by recommending some measures for the management of the HSE hazards associated with the oil and gas sector.

  14. Solid waste deposits as a significant source of contaminants of emerging concern to the aquatic and terrestrial environments - a developing country case study from Owerri, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arukwe, Augustine; Eggen, Trine; Möder, Monika

    2012-11-01

    In developing countries, there are needs for scientific basis to sensitize communities on the problems arising from improper solid waste deposition and the acute and long-term consequences for areas receiving immobilized pollutants. In Nigeria, as in many other African countries, solid waste disposal by way of open dumping has been the only management option for such wastes. Herein, we have highlighted the challenges of solid waste deposit and management in developing countries, focusing on contaminants of emerging concern and leaching into the environment. We have analyzed sediments and run-off water samples from a solid waste dumping site in Owerri, Nigeria for organic load and compared these with data from representative world cities. Learning from previous incidents, we intend to introduce some perspective for awareness of contaminants of emerging concerns such as those with potential endocrine disrupting activities in wildlife and humans. Qualitative and quantitative data obtained by gas chromatography and mass spectrometric analysis (GC-MS) provide an overview on lipophilic and semi-polar substances released from solid waste, accumulated in sediments and transported via leachates. The chromatograms of the full scan analyses of the sediment extracts clearly point to contamination related to heavy oil. The homologous series of n-alkanes with chain lengths ranging between C16 and C30, as well as detected polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds such as anthracene, phenanthrene, fluoranthene and pyrene support the assumption that diesel fuel or high boiling fractions of oil are deposited on the site. Targeted quantitative analysis for selected compounds showed high concentration of substances typically released from man-made products such as plastics, textiles, household and consumer products. Phthalate, an integral component of plastic products, was the dominant compound group in all sediment samples and run-off water samples. Technical nonylphenols (mixture of

  15. Palliative patients’ and significant others’ experiences of transitions concerning organizational, psychosocial and existential issues during the course of incurable cancer: A systematic review protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Rikke; Uhrenfeldt, Lisbeth

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Review question/objective The objective of this review is to identify, appraise and synthesize the best available evidence exploring palliative patients’ or their significant others’ experiences of transitions during the course of incurable cancer. In this review, transitions are concept...... exploring euthanasia will be excluded because euthanasia is not included in the WHO definition of palliation. KEYWORDS Lived experience; incurable cancer; patient; significant other; transition; organizational; psychosocial; existential...

  16. Significant advantages of the safety-first concept in construction, operation, and maintenance of the Westinghosue AP1000 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cummins, E.; Benitz, K.

    2004-01-01

    In June 2003, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) published a draft opinion about safety of the AP1000 Westinghouse pressurized water reactor with 'passive safety' features. The report constitutes an important milestone in the development of the next generation of safe and cost-efficient nuclear power plants. A new AP1000 can be absolutely competitive with fossil fired power plants and may be able to revive the construction of new nuclear power plants worldwide. The reason for designing the AP1000 were safety considerations. The use of passive safety systems at the same time entails a considerable reduction in the costs of design, maintenance, and operation of an AP1000 plant. Independent experts confirmed that an AP1000 can be erected within three years or even less. The estimated electricity generating costs of an AP1000 plant in the United States amount to US Cent 3.2 to 3.6 per kilowatthour. (orig.)

  17. Pre-Departure Clearance (PDC): An Analysis of Aviation Safety Reporting System Reports Concerning PDC Related Errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montalyo, Michael L.; Lebacqz, J. Victor (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Airlines operating in the United States are required to operate under instrument flight rules (EFR). Typically, a clearance is issued via voice transmission from clearance delivery at the departing airport. In 1990, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) began deployment of the Pre-Departure Clearance (PDC) system at 30 U.S. airports. The PDC system utilizes aeronautical datalink and Aircraft Communication and Reporting System (ACARS) to transmit departure clearances directly to the pilot. An objective of the PDC system is to provide an immediate reduction in voice congestion over the clearance delivery frequency. Participating airports report that this objective has been met. However, preliminary analysis of 42 Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) reports has revealed problems in PDC procedures and formatting which have caused errors in the proper execution of the clearance. It must be acknowledged that this technology, along with other advancements on the flightdeck, is adding more responsibility to the crew and increasing the opportunity for error. The present study uses these findings as a basis for further coding and analysis of an additional 82 reports obtained from an ASRS database search. These reports indicate that clearances are often amended or exceptions are added in order to accommodate local ATC facilities. However, the onboard ACARS is limited in its ability to emphasize or highlight these changes which has resulted in altitude and heading deviations along with increases in ATC workload. Furthermore, few participating airports require any type of PDC receipt confirmation. In fact, 35% of all ASRS reports dealing with PDC's include failure to acquire the PDC at all. Consequently, this study examines pilots' suggestions contained in ASRS reports in order to develop recommendations to airlines and ATC facilities to help reduce the amount of incidents that occur.

  18. Concerns of Quality and Safety in Public Domain Surgical Education Videos: An Assessment of the Critical View of Safety in Frequently Used Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy Videos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deal, Shanley B; Alseidi, Adnan A

    2017-12-01

    Online videos are among the most common resources for case preparation. Using crowd sourcing, we evaluated the relationship between operative quality and viewing characteristics of online laparoscopic cholecystectomy videos. We edited 160 online videos of laparoscopic cholecystectomy to 60 seconds or less. Crowd workers (CW) rated videos using Global Objective Assessment of Laparoscopic Skills (GOALS), the critical view of safety (CVS) criteria, and assigned overall pass/fail ratings if CVS was achieved; linear mixed effects models derived average ratings. Views, likes, dislikes, subscribers, and country were recorded for subset analysis of YouTube videos. Spearman correlation coefficient (SCC) assessed correlation between performance measures. One video (0.06%) achieved a passing CVS score of ≥5; 23%, ≥4; 44%, ≥3; 79%, ≥2; and 100% ≥1. Pass/fail ratings correlated to CVS, SCC 0.95 (p quality. The average CVS and GOALS scores were no different for videos with >20,000 views (22%) compared with those with online surgical videos of LC. Favorable characteristics, such as number of views or likes, do not translate to higher quality. Copyright © 2017 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Regulatory oversight report 2010 concerning nuclear safety in Swiss nuclear installations; Aufsichtsbericht 2010 zur nuklearen Sicherheit in den schweizerischen Kernanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-06-15

    Acting as the regulatory body of the Swiss Confederation, the Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate, ENSI, assesses and monitors nuclear facilities in Switzerland. This includes the five nuclear power plants (NPPs), the plant-based interim storage facilities, the Central Interim Storage Facility (ZWILAG) at Wuerenlingen, the nuclear facilities at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), the two universities of Basel and Lausanne, the transport of radioactive materials from and to nuclear facilities and the preparation for a deep geologic repository for radioactive waste. Using inspections, surveillance meetings, reviews and analyses as well as reports from plant licensees, ENSI obtains the required overview of the safety of the nuclear facilities. It maintains its own emergency organisation, which is an integral part of the national emergency structure. The legislative framework at the basis of the activity of ENSI specifies the criteria by which it evaluates the activities and plans of the operators of nuclear facilities. ENSI provides the public with information on particular events and observations relating to nuclear facilities. The five nuclear power plants in Switzerland (Beznau Units 1 und 2, Muehleberg, Goesgen and Leibstadt) were all operated safely in 2010. Last year, there were 39 notifiable events in Switzerland: 4 events affected both Beznau Units, 10 events the Goesgen NPP, 6 the Leibstadt NPP and 13 the Muehleberg NPP and 6 in other facilities. Based on the International Nuclear Event Scale (INES) of 0-7, ENSI rated 38 events as Level 0, and as INES Level 2 the event on 31 August 2010 during maintenance work at the Leibstadt NPP, where a diver was exposed to radiation in excess of the maximum annual exposure rate of 20 mSv. The ZWILAG at Wuerenlingen consists of several interim storage halls, a conditioning plant and the plasma plant (incineration/melting plant). At the end of 2010, the cask storage hall contained 34 transport/storage casks with spent

  20. Esomeprazole use is independently associated with significant reduction of BMD: 1-year prospective comparative safety study of four proton pump inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahtiri, Elton; Islami, Hilmi; Hoxha, Rexhep; Qorraj-Bytyqi, Hasime; Rexhepi, Sylejman; Hoti, Kreshnik; Thaçi, Kujtim; Thaçi, Shpetim; Karakulak, Çağla

    2016-09-01

    Because of the efficacy of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), their the use is increasing dramatically. The risk of adverse effects of short-term PPI therapy is low, but there are important safety concerns for potential adverse effects of prolonged PPI therapy. Findings from studies assessing the association between PPI use and bone mineral density (BMD) and/or fracture risk are contradictory. The aim of this study was to prospectively assess potential association of PPI treatment with the 12-month change in BMD of the lumbar spine, femur neck, and total hip. The study was performed in 200 PPI users and 50 PPI nonusers. Lumbar spine (L1-L4), femur neck, and total hip BMD were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at the baseline and at 12 months. A total of 209 subjects completed the entire 12 months of the study and were included in the final analysis. A Wilcoxon signed-rank test showed that at 12 months PPI use was associated with statistically significant reductions in femur neck and total hip T scores (Z = -2.764, p = 0.005 and Z = -3.281, p = 0.001, respectively). A multiple linear regression analysis showed that only esomeprazole added significantly to the prediction of total lumbar spine and femur neck T scores (p = 0.048 and p = 0.037, respectively). Compared with the baseline, 12 months of PPI treatment resulted in lower femur neck and total hip BMD T scores. Among the four PPIs studied, esomeprazole was independently associated with significant reduction of BMD, whereas omeprazole had no effects on BMD. Considering the widespread use of PPIs, BMD screening should be considered in the case of prolonged PPI use.

  1. Regulatory oversight report 2011 concerning nuclear safety in Swiss nuclear installations; Aufsichtsbericht 2011 zur nuklearen Sicherheit in den schweizerischen Kernanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-06-15

    The Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate ENSI, acting as the regulatory body of the Swiss Confederation, assesses and monitors nuclear facilities in Switzerland. These include five nuclear power plants, the interim storage facilities based at each plant, the Central Interim Storage Facility (ZWILAG) at Wuerenlingen together with the nuclear facilities at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) and the two universities of Basel and Lausanne. ENSI ensures that the facilities comply with regulations and operate according to the law. Its regulatory responsibilities also include the transport of radioactive materials to and from nuclear facilities and the preparations for a deep geologic repository for nuclear waste. It maintains its own emergency organisation, which is an integral part of a national emergency structure. Building on the legislative framework, ENSI also formulates and updates its own guidelines. It provides the public with information on particular events and findings in nuclear facilities. In 2011, all five nuclear power reactors in Switzerland (Beznau Units 1 and 2, Muehleberg, Goesgen and Leibstadt) were operated safely and ENSI concluded that they had complied with their approved operating conditions. There were 27 reportable events in the nuclear power plants in Switzerland: 7 at Beznau, 5 at Goesgen, 11 at Leibstadt und 4 at Muehleberg. On the international INES scale of 0 to 7, ENSI rated 26 events as Level 0. One event, at the Muehleberg nuclear power plant, was rated as INES Level 1. This related to a potential blockage of the emergency water intake system in the event of extreme flooding. The operator BKW shut down the Muehleberg plant ahead of the scheduled maintenance date and upgraded the system. ZWILAG consists of several interim storage halls, a conditioning plant and a plasma plant (incineration/melting plant). At the end of 2011, the cask storage hall contained 34 transport/storage casks with fuel assemblies and vitrified residue packages

  2. Suicidality and risk of suicide--definition, drug safety concerns, and a necessary target for drug development: a brief report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Roger E; Salzman, Carl; Youngstrom, Eric A; Clayton, Paula J; Goodwin, Frederick K; Mann, J John; Alphs, Larry D; Broich, Karl; Goodman, Wayne K; Greden, John F; Meltzer, Herbert Y; Normand, Sharon-Lise T; Posner, Kelly; Shaffer, David; Oquendo, Maria A; Stanley, Barbara; Trivedi, Madhukar H; Turecki, Gustavo; Beasley, Charles M; Beautrais, Annette L; Bridge, Jeffrey A; Brown, Gregory K; Revicki, Dennis A; Ryan, Neal D; Sheehan, David V

    2010-08-01

    To address issues concerning potential treatment-emergent "suicidality," a consensus conference was convened March 23-24, 2009. This gathering of participants from academia, government, and industry brought together experts in suicide prevention, clinical trial design, psychometrics, pharmacoepidemiology, and genetics, as well as research psychiatrists involved in studies in studies of psychiatric disorders associated with elevated suicide risk across the life cycle. The process involved reviews of the relevant literature, and a series of 6 breakout sessions focused on specific questions of interest. Each of the participants at the meeting received references relevant to the formal presentations (as well as the slides for the presentations) for their review prior to the meeting. In addition, the assessment instruments of suicidal ideation/behavior were reviewed in relationship to standard measures of validity, reliability, and clinical utility, and these findings were discussed at length in relevant breakout groups, in the final plenary session, and in the preparation of the article. Consensus and dissenting views were noted. Discussion and questions followed each formal presentation during the plenary sessions. Approximately 6 questions per breakout group were prepared in advance by members of the Steering Committee and each breakout group chair. Consensus in the breakout groups was achieved by nominal group process. Consensus recommendations and any dissent were reviewed for each breakout group at the final plenary session. All plenary sessions were recorded and transcribed by a court stenographer. Following the transcript, with input by each of the authors, the final paper went through 14 drafts. The output of the meeting was organized into this brief report and the accompanying full article from which it is distilled. The full article was developed by the authors with feedback from all participants at the meeting and represents a consensus view. Any areas of

  3. Suicidality and risk of suicide--definition, drug safety concerns, and a necessary target for drug development: a consensus statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Roger E; Salzman, Carl; Youngstrom, Eric A; Clayton, Paula J; Goodwin, Frederick K; Mann, J John; Alphs, Larry D; Broich, Karl; Goodman, Wayne K; Greden, John F; Meltzer, Herbert Y; Normand, Sharon-Lise T; Posner, Kelly; Shaffer, David; Oquendo, Maria A; Stanley, Barbara; Trivedi, Madhukar H; Turecki, Gustavo; Beasley, Charles M; Beautrais, Annette L; Bridge, Jeffrey A; Brown, Gregory K; Revicki, Dennis A; Ryan, Neal D; Sheehan, David V

    2010-08-01

    To address issues concerning potential treatment-emergent "suicidality," a consensus conference was convened March 23-24, 2009. This gathering of participants from academia, government, and industry brought together experts in suicide prevention, clinical trial design, psychometrics, pharmacoepidemiology, and genetics, as well as research psychiatrists involved in studies of major depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, substance abuse/dependence, and other psychiatric disorders associated with elevated suicide risk across the life cycle. The process involved reviews of the relevant literature, and a series of 6 breakout sessions focused on specific questions of interest. Each of the participants at the meeting received references relevant to the formal presentations (as well as the slides for the presentations) for their review prior to the meeting. In addition, the assessment instruments of suicidal ideation/behavior were reviewed in relationship to standard measures of validity, reliability, and clinical utility, and these findings were discussed at length in relevant breakout groups, in the final plenary session, and in the preparation of the article. Consensus and dissenting views were noted. Discussion and questions followed each formal presentation during the plenary sessions. Approximately 6 questions per breakout group were prepared in advance by members of the Steering Committee and each breakout group chair. Consensus in the breakout groups was achieved by nominal group process. Consensus recommendations and any dissent were reviewed for each breakout group at the final plenary session. All plenary sessions were recorded and transcribed by a court stenographer. Following the transcript, with input by each of the authors, the final paper went through 14 drafts. The output of the meeting was organized into this scholarly article, which has been developed by the authors with feedback from all participants at the meeting and represents a consensus view

  4. [The significance of introducing registry study in the post-marketing safety research for Chinese medicine and pharmacy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Xing; Xie, Yan-Ming; Yang, Wei; Chang, Yan-Peng

    2014-03-01

    There is a new research model named 'registry study/patient registry' in Western medicine, which could be referred to by Chinese medicine researchers, such as active safety surveillance. This article will introduce registry study from different aspects as the developing history, features, and application in order to inform Chinese medicine researchers of future studies.

  5. Ptaquiloside, the major carcinogen of bracken fern, in the pooled raw milk of healthy sheep and goats: an underestimated, global concern of food safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virgilio, Antonella; Sinisi, Annamaria; Russo, Valeria; Gerardo, Salvatore; Santoro, Adriano; Galeone, Aldo; Taglialatela-Scafati, Orazio; Roperto, Franco

    2015-05-20

    Bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum) is a worldwide plant containing toxic substances, which represent an important chemical hazard for animals, including humans. Ptaquiloside, 1, a norsesquiterpenoid glucoside, is the major carcinogen of bracken detected in the food chain, particularly in the milk from farm animals. To date, ptaquiloside has been shown in the milk of cows feeding on a diet containing bracken fern. This is the first study that shows the systematic detection of ptaquiloside, 1, and reports its direct quantitation in pooled raw milk of healthy sheep and goats grazing on bracken. Ptaquiloside, 1, was detected by a sensitive method based on the chemical conversion of ptaquiloside, 1, into bromopterosine, 4, following gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. The presence of ptaquiloside, 1, possibly carcinogenic to humans, in the milk of healthy animals is an unknown potential health risk, thus representing a harmful and potential global concern of food safety.

  6. Arrangement between the Health and Safety Executive of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the Minister of the Interior of the Federal Republic of Germany for a continuing exchange of information on significant matters pertaining to the safety of nuclear installations and on collaboration in the development of regulatory safety criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    According to this Agreement, information is exchanged by communication of reports, research results and studies as well as by mutual information on measures and resolutions concerning the safety of nuclear installations. Reports and information also include decisions and enquiries by courts of law on matters of safety. Co-operation in the drafting of safety standards comprises mutual information about work undertaken or planned and the exchange of texts of law, rules and regulations. (NEA) [fr

  7. The patient's safety - For a dynamics of improvement. Nr 3. How to analyze your significant radiation protection events?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this publication is to present event analysis methods which are the most frequently used by radiotherapy departments. After an indication of key figures concerning radiotherapy patients, sessions and events, the document indicates the objectives and steps of an event analysis. It presents various analysis methods: Ishikawa diagram (or 5M method or causes-effects diagram), the cause tree, the ALARM method (association of litigation and risk management), the ORION method. It proposes a comparison between these five methods, their possibilities, their limits. Good practices are outlined in terms of data acquisition, method choice, event analysis, and improvement actions. The use of the cause tree analysis is commented by members of the Limoges hospital radiotherapy department, and that of the Ishikawa method by a member of the Beauvais hospital

  8. Proposition of resolution tending to create an inquiry commission concerning the safety conditions of the radiotherapy practices; Proposition de resolution tendant a creer une commission d'enquete concernant les conditions de securite des pratiques de radiotherapie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-10-15

    Towards the number of radiotherapy acts made every year and the increase of the number of the revealed accidents, it is absolutely indispensable to have an feedback experience and an assessment of the existing means today to control the radioprotection. This work has to allow to give propositions to improve the radiotherapy quality and safety, and provide the patients safety before, during and after the ionizing radiation exposure. (N.C.)

  9. [The Results of Self-Assessment by Medical Organizations Their Correspondence to Proposals (Practical Recommendations) of the Roszdravnadzor Concerning Organization of Internal Control of Quality and Safety of Medical Activity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, I V; Shvabsky, O R; Minulin, I B

    2017-11-01

    The article presents the analysis of the results of internal audits (self-rating) in medical organizations implemented on the basis of Proposals (practical guidelines) of the Roszdravnadzor concerning organization of inner control of quality and safety of medical activities in medical organization (hospital). The self-rating was implemented by the medical organizations themselves according the common criteria of the Proposals as provided the following plan: planning of self-rating, collection and processing of data, application of self-rating, analysis of obtained results, preparation of report. The article uses the results of self-rating of medical organizations corresponding to following criteria: profile of activity-multi-field hospital-number of beds more than 350-state property. The self-rating was implemented according to 11 basic parts of the Proposals. The criteria were developed for every part. The evaluation lists developed on the basis of the given Proposals permitted to medical organizations to independently establish problems in their activities. Within the framework of implemented self-rating medical organizations mentioned the directions of activity related to personnel management, identification of personality of patient, support of epidemiological and surgical safety as having significant discrepancies with the Proposals and requiring implementation of improvement measures.

  10. An assessment of surface mud system design options for minimizing the health, safety, and environmental impact concerns associated with drilling fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minton, R.C.; Bailey, M.G.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper a drilling fluid surface system design concept is proposed that resolves the Environmental, occupational hygiene and safety issues associated with conventional designs. Automation of the chemical handling and dosing system is the central element of the concept which, when fully integrated into the system, permits a significant reduction in the surface volume requirements. This, in turn, results in weight and capital cost savings, offsetting the cost of the processing and treatment plant, and a smaller overall footprint for the system. Adoption of the design philosophy results in a safe, healthy working environment in which all of the waste streams are managed so as to minimize the overall environmental impact of the drilling process

  11. Patient safety: Safety culture and patient safety ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Marlene Dyrløv

    2006-01-01

    ,demonstrating significant, consistent and sometimes large differences in terms of safety culture factors across the units participating in the survey. Paper 5 is the results of a study of the relation between safety culture, occupational health andpatient safety using a safety culture questionnaire survey......Patient safety - the prevention of medical error and adverse events - and the initiative of developing safety cultures to assure patients from harm have become one of the central concerns in quality improvement in healthcare both nationally andinternationally. This subject raises numerous...... challenging issues of systemic, organisational, cultural and ethical relevance, which this dissertation seeks to address through the application of different disciplinary approaches. The main focus of researchis safety culture; through empirical and theoretical studies to comprehend the phenomenon, address...

  12. Investigation of the radiological safety concerns and medical history of the late Joseph T. Harding, former employee of the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallario, E.J.; Wolfe, H.R.

    1981-03-01

    An ex-employee's claims that inadequate enforcement of radiation safety regulations allowed excess radiation exposure thereby causing his deteriorating health was not substantiated by a thorough investigation

  13. Investigation of the radiological safety concerns and medical history of the late Joseph T. Harding, former employee of the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallario, E.J.; Wolfe, H.R.

    1981-01-01

    An ex-employee's claims that inadequate enforcement of radiation safety regulations allowed excess radiation exposure thereby causing his deteriorating health was not substantiated by a thorough investigation

  14. Investigation of the radiological safety concerns and medical history of the late Joseph T. Harding, former employee of the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    CERN Document Server

    Vallario, E J

    1981-01-01

    An ex-employee's claims that inadequate enforcement of radiation safety regulations allowed excess radiation exposure thereby causing his deteriorating health was not substantiated by a thorough investigation.

  15. Proceedings of the CSNI WGOE/SEGHOF workshop on modifications at nuclear power plants - Operating experience, safety significance and the role of human factors and organisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Operating experience repeatedly shows that changes and modifications at nuclear power plants (NPPs) may lead to safety significant events. At the same time, modifications are necessary to ensure a safe and economic functioning of the NPPs. To ensure the continuing safety of NPPs it is important that processes for change and modification are given proper attention both by the NPPs and the regulators. The operability, maintainability and testability of every modification should be thoroughly assessed from different points of view to ensure that no safety problems are introduced. The OECD/NEA Committee on Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI) addressed the issue of modifications at a 'Workshop on Modifications at Nuclear Power Plants - Operating Experience, Safety Significance and Role of Human Factors' held at the OECD headquarters in Paris on October 6 to 8, 2003. This workshop was undertaken as a joint effort of the Working Group on Operating Experience (WGOE) and the Special Experts Group on Human and Organisational Factors (SEGHOF). During the workshop, WGOE focused on the theme of 'Minor Modifications and their Safety Significance', while SEGHOF focused on the topic 'Human and Organisational Factors in NPP Modifications'. The workshop was attended by 55 experts from the industry, regulators and technical support organizations in 15 countries. The workshop programme consisted of plenary and parallel sessions for presentations and discussions. One important part of the workshop was to discuss findings of the WGOE and SEGHOF surveys of utility and regulatory experience from modifications at the NPPs. Modifications at the NPPs are controlled by written procedures. The process varies depending on the type of the modification. Large modifications generally lead to fewer problems, because the projects are given both a great deal of attention and resources. In contrast, minor modifications seem to represent a generic challenge because they are less likely to be

  16. Using urinary solubility data to estimate the level of safety concern of low levels of melamine (MEL) and cyanuric acid (CYA) present simultaneously in infant formulas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez-Estevez, Manuel; Constable, Anne; Mazzatorta, Paolo; Renwick, Andrew G; Schilter, Benoit

    2010-01-01

    Melamine (MEL) and cyanuric acid (CYA) may occur simultaneously in milk products. There is no health based guidance value for the mixture of MEL+CYA. Limited toxicological data indicate that MEL+CYA toxicity occurs at levels lower than the toxic doses of the single compounds. The key adverse effect of MEL+CYA is the formation of crystals in the urinary tract, which is dependent on the solubility of the MEL+CYA complex. Urinary concentrations resulting from oral doses of MEL+CYA and MEL alone have been calculated from published data from animal studies. A human exposure scenario assuming consumption of infant formula contaminated at a level of 1 ppm of MEL and CYA each (2 ppm of MEL+CYA) was also analyzed. Margins of more than two orders or magnitude were observed between estimated urine concentrations known to be without detectable effects in rats and calculated human urine concentrations. Because the hazard is related to the physico-chemical characteristics of the mixture, there would be a negligible concern associated with crystal formation if the urinary concentration of the complex is within the solubility range. The solubility of MEL+CYA was higher in urine than in water. A strong pH-dependency was observed with the lowest solubility found at pH 5-5.5. The calculated human urinary concentration was about 30 times less than the solubility limit for MEL+CYA in adult human urine. Altogether, these data provide preliminary evidence suggesting that the presence of 1 ppm of MEL and CYA each in infant formula is unlikely to be of significant health concern. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. How Good Is Good: Improved Tracking and Managing of Safety Goals, Performance Indicators, Production Targets and Significant Events Using Learning Curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffey, Rommey B.; Saull, John W.

    2002-01-01

    We show a new way to track and measure safety and performance using learning curves derived on a mathematical basis. When unusual or abnormal events occur in plants and equipment, the regulator and good management practice requires they be reported, investigated, understood and rectified. In addition to reporting so-called 'significant events', both management and the regulator often set targets for individual and collective performance, which are used for both reward and criticism. For almost completely safe systems, like nuclear power plants, commercial aircraft and chemical facilities, many parameters are tracked and measured. Continuous improvement has to be demonstrated, as well as meeting reduced occurrence rates, which are set as management goals or targets. This process usually takes the form of statistics for availability of plant and equipment, forced or unplanned maintenance outage, loss of safety function, safety or procedural violations, etc. These are often rolled up into a set of so-called 'Performance Indicators' as measures of how well safety and operation is being managed at a given facility. The overall operating standards of an industry are also measured. A whole discipline is formed of tracking, measuring, reporting, managing and understanding the plethora of indicators and data. Decreasing occurrence rates and meeting or exceeding goals are seen and rewarded as virtues. Managers and operators need to know how good is their safety management system that has been adopted and used (and paid for), and whether it can itself be improved. We show the importance of accumulated experience in correctly measuring and tracking the decreasing event and error rates speculating a finite minimum rate. We show that the rate of improvement constitutes a measurable 'learning curve', and the attainment of the goals and targets can be affected by the adopted measures. We examine some of the available data on significant events, reportable occurrences, and loss of

  18. Safety of the Transport of Radioactive Materials for Civilian Use in France. Lessons learned by IRSN from analysis of significant events reported in 2014 and 2015. Mission report 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    IRSN publishes its report on the safety of transport of radioactive materials for civilian use in France for the years 2014 and 2015. It is based on an overall review of the significant events that occurred during this period during transport operations in France by road, railway, inland waterway, sea and air of 980 000 parcels loaded with radioactive substances. In 2014 and 2015, respectively 139 and 122 events were reported, which is about one event reported for 7,500 packages carried. While these figures are up significantly compared to 2013 (93 reported events, or 1 in 10,000 packages carried), IRSN believes that this trend should not however be interpreted as a deterioration of the safety level of the transport of radioactive materials. Indeed, it is largely explained by better detection of events relevant to safety by the actors concerned and therefore their declaration to the authorities. None of these events had significant radiological consequences for the workers, the population or the environment. As part of progress made, IRSN notes a sharp decrease, in 2015, in the number of damage of packages intended for medical activities during their handling in airport areas. This decrease is linked to awareness actions conducted for airlines companies and staff involved in the handling of packages. Finally, three themes must be the subject of particular vigilance of the actors concerned and of corrective actions: - Compliance with the requirements for the transport of gamma radiography devices, in particular those associated with the locking of the source; events related to the transport of gamma radiography devices appeared as remarkable events over the period (3 level 1 events and 1 level 2 events); - The tie-down of packages on their means of transport, given the risks of fall of the package during transport, as well as tie-down of the objects in their transport container; - The operations of filling and closing of drums containing uranium ore in order to

  19. A Safety and Health Guide for Vocational Educators. Incorporating Requirements of the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970, Relevant Pennsylvania Requirements with Particular Emphasis for Those Concerned with Cooperative Education and Work Study Programs. Volume 15. Number 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, Ray

    Intended as a guide for vocational educators to incorporate the requirements of the Occupational Safety and Health Act (1970) and the requirements of various Pennsylvania safety and health regulations with their cooperative vocational programs, the first chapter of this document presents the legal implications of these safety and health…

  20. SAFETY

    CERN Multimedia

    M. Plagge, C. Schaefer and N. Dupont

    2013-01-01

    Fire Safety – Essential for a particle detector The CMS detector is a marvel of high technology, one of the most precise particle measurement devices we have built until now. Of course it has to be protected from external and internal incidents like the ones that can occur from fires. Due to the fire load, the permanent availability of oxygen and the presence of various ignition sources mostly based on electricity this has to be addressed. Starting from the beam pipe towards the magnet coil, the detector is protected by flooding it with pure gaseous nitrogen during operation. The outer shell of CMS, namely the yoke and the muon chambers are then covered by an emergency inertion system also based on nitrogen. To ensure maximum fire safety, all materials used comply with the CERN regulations IS 23 and IS 41 with only a few exceptions. Every piece of the 30-tonne polyethylene shielding is high-density material, borated, boxed within steel and coated with intumescent (a paint that creates a thick co...

  1. SAFETY

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Schaefer and N. Dupont

    2013-01-01

      “Safety is the highest priority”: this statement from CERN is endorsed by the CMS management. An interpretation of this statement may bring you to the conclusion that you should stop working in order to avoid risks. If the safety is the priority, work is not! This would be a misunderstanding and misinterpretation. One should understand that “working safely” or “operating safely” is the priority at CERN. CERN personnel are exposed to different hazards on many levels on a daily basis. However, risk analyses and assessments are done in order to limit the number and the gravity of accidents. For example, this process takes place each time you cross the road. The hazard is the moving vehicle, the stake is you and the risk might be the risk of collision between both. The same principle has to be applied during our daily work. In particular, keeping in mind the general principles of prevention defined in the late 1980s. These principles wer...

  2. Investigation of the radiological safety concerns and medical history of the late Joseph T. Harding, former employee of the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vallario, E.J.; Wolfe, H.R.

    1981-03-01

    An ex-employee's claims that inadequate enforcement of radiation safety regulations allowed excess radiation exposure thereby causing his deteriorating health was not substantiated by a thorough investigation.

  3. Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, P.M.S.

    1987-01-01

    Aspects of fission reactors are considered - control, heat removal and containment. Brief descriptions of the reactor accidents at the SL-1 reactor (1961), Windscale (1957), Browns Ferry (1975), Three Mile Island (1979) and Chernobyl (1986) are given. The idea of inherently safe reactor designs is discussed. Safety assessment is considered under the headings of preliminary hazard analysis, failure mode analysis, event trees, fault trees, common mode failure and probabalistic risk assessments. These latter can result in a series of risk distributions linked to specific groups of fault sequences and specific consequences. A frequency-consequence diagram is shown. Fatal accident incidence rates in different countries including the United Kingdom for various industries are quoted. The incidence of fatal cancers from occupational exposure to chemicals is tabulated. Human factors and the acceptability of risk are considered. (U.K.)

  4. Going Concern eller Concerned Going

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haraszuk, Anni; Hartmann, Stig

    2012-01-01

    Højsæsonen for revision af årsrapporter 2011 er på trapperne; men hvordan håndterer revisorer egentlig going concern i praksis - i en tid præget af stejle op- og nedture?......Højsæsonen for revision af årsrapporter 2011 er på trapperne; men hvordan håndterer revisorer egentlig going concern i praksis - i en tid præget af stejle op- og nedture?...

  5. Vaccine Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... During Pregnancy Frequently Asked Questions about Vaccine Recalls Historical Vaccine Safety Concerns FAQs about GBS and Menactra ... CISA Resources for Healthcare Professionals Evaluation Current Studies Historical Background 2001-12 Publications Technical Reports Vaccine Safety ...

  6. Concerning safety issue associated with approval of modification of plan for reprocessing facilities of Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (reply to inquiry)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-01

    In response to an inquiry on the title issue received on Sept. 16, 1988, the Nuclear Safety Commission made an adequate study and submitted the findings to the Prime Minister on Oct. 20. the relevant modifications include the installation of combustion facilities comprising two furnaces to replace the existing facilities, and the addition of uranyl nitrate solution receiving equipment to the existing facilities for plutonium conversion technology development. The study addressed the effect of the modifications on the safety of the facilities and the environment. The combustion facilities, equipment and underground seepage water tank are designed in accordance with the applicable anti-earthquake standards. The facilities will be constructed of incombustible of flame-retardant materials. Equipment in the facilities will be used under negative pressure to prevent counterflow. Adequate measures will be taken for shielding, exposure control, waste disposal, etc. It is concluded that the modifications will not affect the safety of the reprocessing facilities. (Nogami, K.).

  7. Concerning safety issue associated with approval of modification of plan for reprocessing facilities of Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (reply to inquiry)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    In response to an inquiry on the title issue received on Sept. 16, 1988, the Nuclear Safety Commission made an adequate study and submitted the findings to the Prime Minister on Oct. 20. the relevant modifications include the installation of combustion facilities comprising two furnaces to replace the existing facilities, and the addition of uranyl nitrate solution receiving equipment to the existing facilities for plutonium conversion technology development. The study addressed the effect of the modifications on the safety of the facilities and the environment. The combustion facilities, equipment and underground seepage water tank are designed in accordance with the applicable anti-earthquake standards. The facilities will be constructed of incombustible of flame-retardant materials. Equipment in the facilities will be used under negative pressure to prevent counterflow. Adequate measures will be taken for shielding, exposure control, waste disposal, etc. It is concluded that the modifications will not affect the safety of the reprocessing facilities. (Nogami, K.)

  8. Regulatory oversight report 2008 concerning nuclear safety in Swiss nuclear installations; Aufsichtsbericht 2008 ueber die nukleare Sicherheit in den schweizerischen Kernanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-04-15

    This annual report issued by the Swiss Federal Nuclear Inspectorate (ENSI) reports on the work carried out by the Inspectorate in 2008. This report reviews the regulatory activities in the four Swiss nuclear power stations and in four further nuclear installations in various Swiss research facilities. It deals with topics such as operational details, technologies in use, radiation protection, radioactive wastes, emergency dispositions, personnel and provides an assessment of operations from the safety point of view. Also, the transportation of nuclear materials - both nuclear fuels and nuclear wastes - is reported on. General topics discussed include probabilistic safety analyses and accident management, earthquake damage analysis and agreements on nuclear safety. The underground disposal of highly-radioactive nuclear wastes and work done in the rock laboratories are discussed, as are proposals for additional nuclear power stations.

  9. Safety-relevant assessment concerning the proposals for investigations in proposed locations for stage 3 of the deep geological repositories project; Sicherheitstechnisches Gutachten zum Vorschlag der in Etappe 3 SGT weiter zu untersuchenden geologischen Standortgebiete - Sachplan geologische Tiefenlager, Etappe 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2017-04-15

    This comprehensive report published by the Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate ENSI examines the proposals made by the Swiss National Cooperative for the disposal of Radioactive Waste (NAGRA) concerning proposed locations for deep waste repositories. Important basic considerations to be made when narrowing down the choice of host rock types and the selection of possible locations are discussed. These include, amongst others, safety concepts for the repositories, geological models and technical feasibility of repositories in Opalinus Clay, Brown Dogger layers and marl. The properties of various host rocks are discussed. Methods to be used in choosing at least two possible sites for repositories are considered. Also, the radioactive dosage to be expected at the various sites proposed is discussed. A safety-relevant comparison of the sites is made and an overall assessment is presented. The locations proposed for surface facilities at three proposed locations are discussed. The report is completed with an appendix containing tables and a list of relevant expert reports.

  10. Development of the international status of science and technology concerning methods and tools for operational and long-term safety cases; Weiterentwicklung des internationalen Stands von Wissenschaft und Technik zu Methoden und Werkzeugen fuer Betriebs- und Langzeitsicherheitsnachweise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seher, Holger; Beuth, Thomas; Bracke, Guido; Kock, Ingo; Mayer, Kim-Marisa; Moog, Helge C.; Uhlmann, Stephan; Weyand, Torben (eds.)

    2016-09-15

    The project ''development of the international status of science and technology concerning methods and tools for operational and long-term safety cases'' covers the following key aspects: global aspects of the methodology for scenario assumption for the operational phase following closure, potential analysis of the derives safety cases for the project Gorleben, determination of the solid phase composition of high-level radioactive wastes using geochemical modeling calculations, search for an adequate approach for the calculation of density and viscosity of saline solutions for the future use in GRS computer codes, international approaches for an integral analysis for the host rocks clay and granite in relation to the safety requirements of BMUB.

  11. Report of the ASSET (Assessment of Safety Significant Events Team) mission to the Cernavoda nuclear power plant in Romania 8-12 August 1994 Division of Nuclear Safety. Root cause analysis of a significant event that occurred during commissioning of unit 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The IAEA Assessment of Safety Significant Events Team (ASSET) report presents the results of the team's investigation of a significant event that occurred during commissioning of Unit 1 of Cernavoda nuclear power plant. The results, conclusions and suggestions presented herein reflect the views of the ASSET experts. They are provided for consideration by the responsible authorities in Romania. The ASSET team's views presented in this report are based on visits to the plant, on review of documentation made available by the operating organization and on discussions with utility personnel. The report is intended to enhance operational safety at Cernavoda by proposing improvements to the policy for the prevention of incidents at the plant. The report includes, as a usual practice, the official response of the Regulatory Body and Operating Organization to the ASSET recommendations. Figs

  12. Medical Students Raising Concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druce, Maralyn R; Hickey, Andrea; Warrens, Anthony N; Westwood, Olwyn M R

    2016-09-16

    After a number of high-profile incidents and national reports, it has become clear that all health professionals and all medical students must be able to raise concerns about a colleague's behavior if this behavior puts patients, colleagues, or themselves at risk.Detailed evidence from medical students about their confidence to raise concerns is limited, together with examples of barriers, which impair their ability to do so. We describe a questionnaire survey of medical students in a single-center, examining self-reported confidence about raising concerns in a number of possible scenarios. Thematic analysis was applied to comments about barriers identified.Although 80% of respondents felt confident to report a patient safety issue, students were less confident around issues of probity, attitude, and conduct. This needs to be addressed to create clear mechanisms to raise concerns, as well as support for students during the process.

  13. Bridgman's concern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, R.A.

    1993-01-01

    In 1956 P.W. Bridgman published a letter to the editor in the Journal of Applied Physics reporting results of electrical resistance measurements on iron under static high pressure. The work was undertaken to verify the existence of a polymorphic phase transition at 130 kbar (13 GPa) reported in the same journal and year by the Los Alamos authors, Bancroft, Peterson and Minshall for high pressure, shock-compression loading. In his letter, Bridgman reported that he failed to find any evidence for the transition. Further, he raised some fundamental concerns as to the state of knowledge of shock-compression processes in solids. Later it was determined that Bridgman's static pressure scale was in error, and the shock observations became the basis for calibration of pressure values in static high pressure apparatuses. In spite of the error in pressure scales, Bridgman's concerns on descriptions of shock-compression processes were perceptive and have provided the basis for subsequent fundamental studies of shock-compressed solids. The present paper, written in response to receipt of the 1993 American Physical Society Shock-Compression Science Award, provides a brief contemporary assessment of those shock-compression issues which were the basis of Bridgman's 1956 concerns

  14. How immediate and significant is the outcome of training on diversified diets, hygiene and food safety? An effort to mitigate child undernutrition in rural Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seetha, Anitha; Tsusaka, Takuji W; Munthali, Timalizge W; Musukwa, Maggie; Mwangwela, Agnes; Kalumikiza, Zione; Manani, Tinna; Kachulu, Lizzie; Kumwenda, Nelson; Musoke, Mike; Okori, Patrick

    2018-04-01

    The present study examined the impacts of training on nutrition, hygiene and food safety designed by the Nutrition Working Group, Child Survival Collaborations and Resources Group (CORE). Adapted from the 21d Positive Deviance/Hearth model, mothers were trained on the subjects of appropriate complementary feeding, water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) practices, and aflatoxin contamination in food. To assess the impacts on child undernutrition, a randomised controlled trial was implemented on a sample of 179 mothers and their children (<2 years old) in two districts of Malawi, namely Mzimba and Balaka. Settings A 21d intensive learning-by-doing process using the positive deviance approach. Malawian children and mothers. Difference-in-difference panel regression analysis revealed that the impacts of the comprehensive training were positive and statistically significant on the Z-scores for wasting and underweight, where the effects increased constantly over time within the 21d time frame. As for stunting, the coefficients were not statistically significant during the 21d programme, although the level of significance started increasing in 2 weeks, indicating that stunting should also be alleviated in a slightly longer time horizon. The study clearly suggests that comprehensive training immediately guides mothers into improved dietary and hygiene practices, and that improved practices take immediate and progressive effects in ameliorating children's undernutrition.

  15. Safety in transports of civil radioactive substances on the French territory. Lessons learned by the IRSN from the analysis of significant events declared in 2012 and 2013. Safety of transports of civil radioactive substances in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-11-01

    After a presentation of some general elements regarding transports of radioactive substances in France, this report proposes a synthetic overview of the main lessons learned by the IRSN from the analysis of transport-related events in 2012 and 2013. Then, the body of this report presents the context of transports of radioactive substances: legal framework, main safety elements, nature and flows of these transports in France, transports per activity sector. It proposes a global analysis of significant events, with a comparison with previous years. The four main significant events are described. Some transverse issues are finally addressed: return on experience on crisis management in relationship with transport events, IRSN study on the behaviour of packagings during long duration fire

  16. Regulatory oversight report 2007 concerning nuclear safety in Swiss nuclear installations; Aufsichtsbericht 2007 ueber die nukleare Sicherheit in den schweizerischen Kernanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-04-15

    This annual report issued by the Swiss Federal Nuclear Inspectorate (HSK) reports on the work carried out by the Inspectorate in 2007. This report reviews the regulatory activities in the four Swiss nuclear power stations and in four further nuclear installations in various Swiss research facilities. It deals with topics such as operational details, technologies in use, radiation protection, radioactive wastes, emergency dispositions and personnel and provides an assessment of operations from the point of view of safety. Also, the transportation of nuclear materials - both nuclear fuels and nuclear wastes - is reported on. General topics discussed include probabilistic safety analyses and accident management. Finally, the disposal of nuclear wastes and work done in the rock laboratories in Switzerland is commented on.

  17. Concern for older parts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Titus, E.; Spink, T.; Cookson, B.; Tenera, L.P.

    1992-01-01

    For the last half decade, regulatory expectations of the procurement process for nuclear commercial-grade safety-related materials have increase. The changes have been driven by concern for fraudulent or misrepresented parts and the loss of original equipment manufacturers. The industry responded to these concerns by developing improved procurement programs that changed how parts were specified and received and provided for verification of attributes that were critical to the successful performance of safety functions(s). Like its counterparts, Duquesne Light Company (DLCo), Beaver Valley power station began applying these enhanced requirements to procurements initiated after January 1, 1990, in response to the Nuclear Management and Resources Council initiative on dedication. Procurements prior to this data were not subject to the new requirements

  18. Multiple system responses program: Identification of concerns related to a number of specific regulatory issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, G.A.; Casada, M.L.; Palko, L.E.; Roberts, M.W.

    1989-10-01

    This document describes the activities and results of the Multiple System Responses (MSR) program conducted by the Nuclear Operations Analysis Center (NOAC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The objective of the MSR program was to gather and review documentation for several unresolved safety issues and related programs of interest, and from that documentation, describe any additional potential safety concerns. The MSR program provides information that will aid the NRC staff in making an assessment of the relative safety significance of the concerns through the established prioritization process. Judgments were not made regarding the validity of the concerns expressed by others. Rather, the concerns were documented and potential safety issues were developed and defined as specifically as possible. Twenty-one potential safety issues were developed from the documented concerns. Additional information was gathered to support the NRC efforts in reviewing these issues for prioritization. 73 refs., 2 tabs

  19. An Autologous Anti-Inflammatory Protein Solution Yielded a Favorable Safety Profile and Significant Pain Relief in an Open-Label Pilot Study of Patients with Osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Hix

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Osteoarthritis (OA is a progressive and degenerative disease, which may result in significant pain and decreased quality of life. Recent updates in our understanding of OA have demonstrated that it is a whole joint disease that has many similarities to an unhealed wound containing inflammatory cytokines. The nSTRIDE Autologous Protein Solution (APS Kit is a medical device under development for the treatment of OA. The APS Kit processes a patient's own blood at the point of care to contain high concentrations of anti-inflammatory cytokines and anabolic growth factors. This study assessed the safety and treatment effects of a single intra-articular injection of APS. Eleven patients were enrolled in this study. Sufficient blood could not be drawn from one patient who was subsequently withdrawn, leaving 10 patients treated. Minor adverse events (AEs were experienced by seven subjects (63.6%. There was one serious AE (diverticulitis unrelated to the device or procedure. One subject experienced AEs that were judged “likely” to be procedure related (arthralgia/musculoskeletal discomfort and all resolved within 6 days of injection. All other AEs were unrelated to the device or procedure. Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC pain scores improved significantly over time (ANOVA, p < 0.0001, 12.0 ± 1.2 preinjection, 3.3 ± 2.9 one year postinjection, and 72.5% WOMAC pain improvement. There was significant positive correlation between white blood cell concentration in APS and improvement in WOMAC pain scores.

  20. An Autologous Anti-Inflammatory Protein Solution Yielded a Favorable Safety Profile and Significant Pain Relief in an Open-Label Pilot Study of Patients with Osteoarthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hix, Jason; Klaassen, Mark; Foreman, Ryan; Cullen, Edith; Toler, Krista; King, William; Woodell-May, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Osteoarthritis (OA) is a progressive and degenerative disease, which may result in significant pain and decreased quality of life. Recent updates in our understanding of OA have demonstrated that it is a whole joint disease that has many similarities to an unhealed wound containing inflammatory cytokines. The nSTRIDE Autologous Protein Solution (APS) Kit is a medical device under development for the treatment of OA. The APS Kit processes a patient's own blood at the point of care to contain high concentrations of anti-inflammatory cytokines and anabolic growth factors. This study assessed the safety and treatment effects of a single intra-articular injection of APS. Eleven patients were enrolled in this study. Sufficient blood could not be drawn from one patient who was subsequently withdrawn, leaving 10 patients treated. Minor adverse events (AEs) were experienced by seven subjects (63.6%). There was one serious AE (diverticulitis) unrelated to the device or procedure. One subject experienced AEs that were judged “likely” to be procedure related (arthralgia/musculoskeletal discomfort) and all resolved within 6 days of injection. All other AEs were unrelated to the device or procedure. Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) pain scores improved significantly over time (ANOVA, p < 0.0001, 12.0 ± 1.2 preinjection, 3.3 ± 2.9 one year postinjection, and 72.5% WOMAC pain improvement). There was significant positive correlation between white blood cell concentration in APS and improvement in WOMAC pain scores. PMID:29279807

  1. The significance of the human factor in the safety of nuclear reactors: the French experience and the lessons of Three Mile Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houze, C.; Oury, J.M.

    1982-05-01

    The importance of the human factor to French nuclear safety policy and the application of human fallibility as a parameter of safety analysis are described. The impact of reactor operating experience on future theoretical and practical application considerations is discussed. Particular reference is given to the lessons of Three Mile Island

  2. On thin ice: the fight over health and safety concerns, Inuit birthright quotas and allegations of a cover-up at the Arctic's most toxic waste site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vitello, C.

    2000-01-01

    An account is given of working conditions and occupational safety hazards in decontaminating the most toxic waste site in the Canadian Arctic at Resolution Island in Nunavut which was the site of a former American military base. Its peacetime legacy is a mix of hazardous chemicals and contaminated soil, including the highest polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) levels in the north of the 69th Parallel - up to 8,000 parts per million. The US military abandoned the site and left behind huge diesel tanks, residential buildings, equipment, furniture, electrical capacitors and transformers. The plans for decontamination were to remove the contaminants that are leaching into the soil and water, especially those that contain PCBs. The island contains approximately 4,000 cubic m of soil contaminated with PCBs at concentrations above the federal limit of 50 ppm. There was an emphasis on hiring native Inuit staff and disagreements occurred about numerous health and safety violations as well as questions concerning the qualifications of management personnel to oversee the cleanup. Examples of such violations are cited in relation to charges about inadequate employee qualifications. A critical safety report stated that the on-site communications methods were not sufficiently systematic, effective or understood, and that improvements were needed. Incidents of safety accidents and hazards are cited, as well as allegations of a federal government report as an attempt to cover up the problems.

  3. Environmental Concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alma, Peter

    1995-04-01

    This series of A-level social biology topic books responds to the changing demands of social biology syllabuses, with each text dealing with a particular area of interest. Although the series is primarily intended for students of A-level social biology, the books will appeal to students studying a wide range of biological subjects at A-level. Environmental Concerns covers topics common to several A-level human and social biology syllabuses. It is particularly relevant to the human ecology and conservation options. The text focuses on the social and economic implications of current ecological issues as well as the basic biological concepts involved. It deals with the causes, effects and prevention of atmospheric and water pollution as well as with the disruption of ecosystems by changes in land use. The conflict of interests between conservation and exploitation is discussed, along with management techniques including the controversial method of culling to maintain diversity. The moral and aesthetic aspects of conservation and management are emphasised throughout, in addition to the scientific background of these techniques.

  4. Questions concerning safety and risk after the nuclear accidents in Japan. Deepened accident analysis for the Fukushima Daiichi power plant; Sicherheits- und Risikofragen im Nachgang zu den nuklearen Stoer- und Unfaellen in Japan. Vertiefte Ereignisanalyse zur Anlage Fukushima-Daini

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pistner, Christoph; Englert, Matthias [Oeko-Institut e.V. - Institut fuer Angewandte Oekologie, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2015-02-25

    The study questions concerning safety and risk in Japanese power plants following the disastrous nuclear accident covers the following issues: the nuclear facility Fukushima Daiichi, site characterization, important technical equipment, important electro-technical equipment, personal; description of the accident progression in the Fukushima nuclear power plant: impact of the earthquake, impact of the tsunami, short-term measures of the operating personnel, pressure and temperature situation in the containments, restoration of the after-heat cooling system in the units 1/2 and 4, fuel element storage pool, summarized parameters during the accident progress; comparative analysis of the accident progression at the Fukushima Daiichi site.

  5. The U.S. weapon-grade plutonium shipment. Safety and security concern for the ''Eurofab'' operation in France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marignac, Y.; Coeytaux, X

    2004-09-15

    The present report is a comprehensive update based on a briefing published by W.I.S.E.-Paris in July 2003 on the US plan-also known as Eurofab- to have M.O.X. lead test assemblies fabricated in the French plant of ATPu, Cadarache. Based on recent developments, it discussed the specific risks raised by the unprecedented operation, in particular at the transport and fabrication stages. This analysis includes a joint assessment, by W.I.S.E.-Paris and Large and Associates, in response to the French Institute of radiation protection and nuclear safety (I.R.S.N.) criticism over the independent reports they previously published on this issue. (author)

  6. Long-term safety of growth hormone replacement therapy after childhood medulloblastoma and PNET: it is time to set aside old concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indini, Alice; Schiavello, Elisabetta; Biassoni, Veronica; Bergamaschi, Luca; Magni, Maria Chiara; Puma, Nadia; Chiaravalli, Stefano; Pallotti, Federica; Seregni, Ettore; Diletto, Barbara; Pecori, Emilia; Gandola, Lorenza; Poggi, Geraldina; Massimino, Maura

    2017-01-01

    To assess the long-term safety of administering growth hormone (GH) in patients with GH deficiency due to treatment for childhood medulloblastoma and primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET). Data were retrospectively retrieved on children receiving GH supplementation, assessing their disease-free and overall survival outcomes and risk of secondary malignancies using Kaplan-Meier and Cox models. Overall 65 children were consecutively collected from May 1981 to April 2013. All patients had undergone craniospinal irradiation (total dose 18-39 Gy), and subsequently received GH for a median (interquartile range, IQR) of 81 (50.6-114.9) months. At a median (IQR) of 122.4 months (74.4-149.5) after the end of their adjuvant cancer treatment, two patients (3 %) experienced recurrent disease and 8 (12.3 %) developed secondary malignancies, all but one of them (an osteosarcoma) related to radiation exposure and occurring within the radiation fields. There was no apparent correlation between the administration of GH replacement therapy (or its duration) and primary tumor relapse or the onset of secondary malignancies [HR: 1.01 (95 % CI: 0.98, 1.03) for every additional 12 months of GH supplementation; p = 0.36). At univariate analysis, the large cell or anaplastic medulloblastoma subtype, metastases and myeloablative chemotherapy correlated with a higher risk of secondary malignancies (p < 0.1), but multivariate analysis failed to identify any factors independently associated with this risk. Our data supports once more the safety of long-term GH replacement therapy in children treated for medulloblastoma/PNET, previously reported in larger data sets. The neurooncology community now need to warrant large-scale meta-analyses or international prospective trials in order to consolidate our knowledge of factors other than GH, such as genetic predisposition, high-grade/metastatic disease, high-dose chemotherapy and era of treatment, in promoting the occurrence of

  7. Instruction of 27 March 1973 concerning implementation of Decree No 73-278 of 13 March 1973 setting up a Higher Council for Nuclear Safety and a Central Service for the Safety of Nuclear Installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1973-01-01

    This Instruction specifies, on the basis of the 1973 Decree, the duties, in particular regarding licensing, of the Central Service for the Safety of Nuclear Installations. The Service is assisted in its work by the Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) and advisory groups.(NEA) [fr

  8. Evaluation of the Safety Issue Concerning the Potential for Loss of Decay Heat Removal Function due to Crude Oil Spill in the Ultimate Heat Sink of Nuclear Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, Jong Chull; Roh, Kyung Wan; Yune, Young Gill; Kang, Dong Gu; Kim, Hho Jhung

    2008-01-01

    A barge crashed into a moored oil tanker at about 7:15 a.m., Dec. 12, 2007, dumping around 10,500 tons of crude oil into the sea in Korea. The incident took place about 15 kilometers northwest of Manripo beach in South Chungcheong where is Korea's west coast in the Yellow Sea. In a few days, the oil slicks spread to the northern and southern tips of the Taean Peninsula by strong winds and tides. As time went the spilled oil floating on the surface of sea water was volatilized to become tar-balls and lumps and drifted far away in the southern direction. 13 days after the incident, some of oil slicks and tar lumps were observed to flow in the service water intake at the Younggwang nuclear power plants (NPPs) operating 6 reactors, which are over 150 km away from the incident spot in the southeastern direction. According to the report by the Younggwang NPPs, a total weight 83 kg of tar lumps was removed for about 3 days. Oil spills in the sea can happen in any country or anytime due to human errors or mistakes, wars, terrors, intentional dumping of waste oils, and natural disasters like typhoon and tsunami. In fact, there have been 7 major oil spills over 10,000 tons that have occurred around the world since 1983. As such serious oil spill incidents may happen near the operating power plants using the sea water as ultimate heat sink. To ensure the safe operation of nuclear reactors it is required to evaluate the potential for loss of decay heat removal function of nuclear reactors due to the spilled oils flowing in the service water intake, from which the service water is pumped. Thus, Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety identified this problem as one of the important safety. When an incident of crude oil spill from an oil carrier occurs in the sea near the nuclear power plants, the spilled oil can be transported to the intake pit, where all service water pumps locate, by sea current and wind drift (induced) current. The essential service water pumps take the service

  9. Evaluation of the Safety Issue Concerning the Potential for Loss of Decay Heat Removal Function due to Crude Oil Spill in the Ultimate Heat Sink of Nuclear Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Jong Chull; Roh, Kyung Wan; Yune, Young Gill; Kang, Dong Gu; Kim, Hho Jhung [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-05-15

    A barge crashed into a moored oil tanker at about 7:15 a.m., Dec. 12, 2007, dumping around 10,500 tons of crude oil into the sea in Korea. The incident took place about 15 kilometers northwest of Manripo beach in South Chungcheong where is Korea's west coast in the Yellow Sea. In a few days, the oil slicks spread to the northern and southern tips of the Taean Peninsula by strong winds and tides. As time went the spilled oil floating on the surface of sea water was volatilized to become tar-balls and lumps and drifted far away in the southern direction. 13 days after the incident, some of oil slicks and tar lumps were observed to flow in the service water intake at the Younggwang nuclear power plants (NPPs) operating 6 reactors, which are over 150 km away from the incident spot in the southeastern direction. According to the report by the Younggwang NPPs, a total weight 83 kg of tar lumps was removed for about 3 days. Oil spills in the sea can happen in any country or anytime due to human errors or mistakes, wars, terrors, intentional dumping of waste oils, and natural disasters like typhoon and tsunami. In fact, there have been 7 major oil spills over 10,000 tons that have occurred around the world since 1983. As such serious oil spill incidents may happen near the operating power plants using the sea water as ultimate heat sink. To ensure the safe operation of nuclear reactors it is required to evaluate the potential for loss of decay heat removal function of nuclear reactors due to the spilled oils flowing in the service water intake, from which the service water is pumped. Thus, Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety identified this problem as one of the important safety. When an incident of crude oil spill from an oil carrier occurs in the sea near the nuclear power plants, the spilled oil can be transported to the intake pit, where all service water pumps locate, by sea current and wind drift (induced) current. The essential service water pumps take the

  10. The work of the High Commission for transparency and information on nuclear safety concerning the management of radioactive materials and waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Revol, H.

    2011-01-01

    Created by law in June 2006, the High Committee for Transparency and Information about Nuclear Security (HCTISN) is a pluralist instance dedicated to information, consultation and debates on issues related to nuclear activities and their impacts on environment and health. Currently chaired by a honorary senator, the High committee is composed of about forty persons who meet at least every three months. The subject of sustainable management of radioactive materials and waste is one of the main topical issues examined by the High committee. Since 2009, a dedicated think-tank has been set up to deal with questions of information, consultation and transparency all along the decision making process for the creation of a new storage installation for radioactive waste. In 2010, the High committee has been mandated by the Ministry in charge of nuclear safety to draw up a report on the transparency in the field of management of waste and materials produced at each stage of fuel cycle. Management of radioactive waste continues to raise discussion and rich debates within the High committee. In 2011, the High committee's intentions are to organize public information, consultations and debates about sustainable management of radioactive materials and waste. (author)

  11. A New Safety Concern for Glaucoma Treatment Demonstrated by Mass Spectrometry Imaging of Benzalkonium Chloride Distribution in the Eye, an Experimental Study in Rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brignole-Baudouin, Françoise; Desbenoit, Nicolas; Hamm, Gregory; Liang, Hong; Both, Jean-Pierre; Brunelle, Alain; Fournier, Isabelle; Guerineau, Vincent; Legouffe, Raphael; Stauber, Jonathan; Touboul, David; Wisztorski, Maxence; Salzet, Michel; Laprevote, Olivier; Baudouin, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    We investigated in a rabbit model, the eye distribution of topically instilled benzalkonium_(BAK) chloride a commonly used preservative in eye drops using mass spectrometry imaging. Three groups of three New Zealand rabbits each were used: a control one without instillation, one receiving 0.01%BAK twice a day for 5 months and one with 0.2%BAK one drop a day for 1 month. After sacrifice, eyes were embedded and frozen in tragacanth gum. Serial cryosections were alternately deposited on glass slides for histological (hematoxylin-eosin staining) and immunohistological controls (CD45, RLA-DR and vimentin for inflammatory cell infiltration as well as vimentin for Müller glial cell activation) and ITO or stainless steel plates for MSI experiments using Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight. The MSI results were confirmed by a round-robin study on several adjacent sections conducted in two different laboratories using different sample preparation methods, mass spectrometers and data analysis softwares. BAK was shown to penetrate healthy eyes even after a short duration and was not only detected on the ocular surface structures, but also in deeper tissues, especially in sensitive areas involved in glaucoma pathophysiology, such as the trabecular meshwork and the optic nerve areas, as confirmed by images with histological stainings. CD45-, RLA-DR- and vimentin-positive cells increased in treated eyes. Vimentin was found only in the inner layer of retina in normal eyes and increased in all retinal layers in treated eyes, confirming an activation response to a cell stress. This ocular toxicological study confirms the presence of BAK preservative in ocular surface structures as well as in deeper structures involved in glaucoma disease. The inflammatory cell infiltration and Müller glial cell activation confirmed the deleterious effect of BAK. Although these results were obtained in animals, they highlight the importance of the safety-first principle for

  12. A new safety concern for glaucoma treatment demonstrated by mass spectrometry imaging of benzalkonium chloride distribution in the eye, an experimental study in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brignole-Baudouin, Françoise; Desbenoit, Nicolas; Hamm, Gregory; Liang, Hong; Both, Jean-Pierre; Brunelle, Alain; Fournier, Isabelle; Guerineau, Vincent; Legouffe, Raphael; Stauber, Jonathan; Touboul, David; Wisztorski, Maxence; Salzet, Michel; Laprevote, Olivier; Baudouin, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    We investigated in a rabbit model, the eye distribution of topically instilled benzalkonium_(BAK) chloride a commonly used preservative in eye drops using mass spectrometry imaging. Three groups of three New Zealand rabbits each were used: a control one without instillation, one receiving 0.01%BAK twice a day for 5 months and one with 0.2%BAK one drop a day for 1 month. After sacrifice, eyes were embedded and frozen in tragacanth gum. Serial cryosections were alternately deposited on glass slides for histological (hematoxylin-eosin staining) and immunohistological controls (CD45, RLA-DR and vimentin for inflammatory cell infiltration as well as vimentin for Müller glial cell activation) and ITO or stainless steel plates for MSI experiments using Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight. The MSI results were confirmed by a round-robin study on several adjacent sections conducted in two different laboratories using different sample preparation methods, mass spectrometers and data analysis softwares. BAK was shown to penetrate healthy eyes even after a short duration and was not only detected on the ocular surface structures, but also in deeper tissues, especially in sensitive areas involved in glaucoma pathophysiology, such as the trabecular meshwork and the optic nerve areas, as confirmed by images with histological stainings. CD45-, RLA-DR- and vimentin-positive cells increased in treated eyes. Vimentin was found only in the inner layer of retina in normal eyes and increased in all retinal layers in treated eyes, confirming an activation response to a cell stress. This ocular toxicological study confirms the presence of BAK preservative in ocular surface structures as well as in deeper structures involved in glaucoma disease. The inflammatory cell infiltration and Müller glial cell activation confirmed the deleterious effect of BAK. Although these results were obtained in animals, they highlight the importance of the safety-first principle for

  13. A new safety concern for glaucoma treatment demonstrated by mass spectrometry imaging of benzalkonium chloride distribution in the eye, an experimental study in rabbits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Françoise Brignole-Baudouin

    Full Text Available We investigated in a rabbit model, the eye distribution of topically instilled benzalkonium_(BAK chloride a commonly used preservative in eye drops using mass spectrometry imaging. Three groups of three New Zealand rabbits each were used: a control one without instillation, one receiving 0.01%BAK twice a day for 5 months and one with 0.2%BAK one drop a day for 1 month. After sacrifice, eyes were embedded and frozen in tragacanth gum. Serial cryosections were alternately deposited on glass slides for histological (hematoxylin-eosin staining and immunohistological controls (CD45, RLA-DR and vimentin for inflammatory cell infiltration as well as vimentin for Müller glial cell activation and ITO or stainless steel plates for MSI experiments using Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight. The MSI results were confirmed by a round-robin study on several adjacent sections conducted in two different laboratories using different sample preparation methods, mass spectrometers and data analysis softwares. BAK was shown to penetrate healthy eyes even after a short duration and was not only detected on the ocular surface structures, but also in deeper tissues, especially in sensitive areas involved in glaucoma pathophysiology, such as the trabecular meshwork and the optic nerve areas, as confirmed by images with histological stainings. CD45-, RLA-DR- and vimentin-positive cells increased in treated eyes. Vimentin was found only in the inner layer of retina in normal eyes and increased in all retinal layers in treated eyes, confirming an activation response to a cell stress. This ocular toxicological study confirms the presence of BAK preservative in ocular surface structures as well as in deeper structures involved in glaucoma disease. The inflammatory cell infiltration and Müller glial cell activation confirmed the deleterious effect of BAK. Although these results were obtained in animals, they highlight the importance of the safety

  14. Cosmetic Concerns Among Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handler, Marc Zachary; Goldberg, David J

    2018-01-01

    Men are interested in reducing signs of aging, while maintaining a masculine appearance. A chief concern among men is maintenance of scalp hair. Men are also concerned with reducing under eye bags and dark circles. The concern of feminization is of significant importance. Neuromodulators remain the most common cosmetic procedure performed in men. Men often prefer a reduction in facial rhytids, as opposed to elimination of the lines. Softening facial lines in men is meant to maintain an appearance of wisdom, without appearing fragile. Men also wish to maintain a taut jawline and a slim waist and reduce breast tissue. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. AGI Safety Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Everitt, Tom; Lea, Gary; Hutter, Marcus

    2018-01-01

    The development of Artificial General Intelligence (AGI) promises to be a major event. Along with its many potential benefits, it also raises serious safety concerns (Bostrom, 2014). The intention of this paper is to provide an easily accessible and up-to-date collection of references for the emerging field of AGI safety. A significant number of safety problems for AGI have been identified. We list these, and survey recent research on solving them. We also cover works on how best to think of ...

  16. Safety analysis of final disposal of nuclear waste - significance, development and challenges; Saekerhetsanalys av slutfoervaring av kaernavfall - roll, utveckling och utmaning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Kjell; Norrby, Soeren; Simic, Eva; Wene, Clas-Otto

    2007-05-15

    The report starts with a review of the role and development of safety assessments from the middle of the 70's up until today. Then follows a section on how the assessment is performed today. The demands from the licensing authorities is then described. The report ends with a chapter on conclusions and reflections.

  17. Management of safety culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kavsek, D.

    2004-01-01

    The strengthening of safety culture in an organization has become an increasingly important issue for nuclear industry. A high level of safety performance is essential for business success in intensely competitive global environment. This presentation offers a discussion of some principles and activities used in enhancing safety performance and appropriate safety behaviour at the Krsko NPP. Over the years a number of events have occurred in nuclear industry that have involved problems in human performance. A review of these and other significant events has identified recurring weaknesses in plant safety culture and policy. Focusing attention on the strengthening of relevant processes can help plants avoid similar undesirable events. The policy of the Krsko NPP is that all employees concerned shall constantly be alert to opportunities to reduce risks to the lowest practicable level and to achieve excellence in plant safety. The most important objective is to protect individuals, society and the environment by establishing and maintaining an effective defense against radiological hazard in the nuclear power plant. It is achieved through the use of reliable structures, components, systems, and procedures, as well as plant personnel committed to a strong safety culture. The elements of safety culture include both organizational and individual aspects. Elements commonly included at the organizational level are senior management commitment to safety, organizational effectiveness, effective communication, organizational learning, and a culture that encourages identification and resolution of safety issues. Elements identified at the individual level include personal accountability, a questioning attitude, communication, procedural adherence, etc.(author)

  18. Perceptions of safety in the workplace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voelz, G.L.

    1980-01-01

    The concept of safety in the workplace is changing. Safety First was a slogan generated at a time when life and limb were at significant risk in many industries. Now much more subtle effects, such as late health effects due to industrial exposure and trauma, including mental stress, have become a concern to the safety specialists. Despite the changes in the concepts of safety today, the principles of safety in the workplace remain the same. They are management leadership, procedures, safe work conditions, safety training for supervisors and employees, medical surveillance, and careful accident reporting, investigation and record keeping

  19. Safety report concerning the reactor Pegase - volume 1 - Description of the installation - volume 2 - Safety of the installations; Rapport de surete du reacteur pegase - tome 1 - Description des installations - tome 2 - Surete des installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacour, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Legoin, P. [S.E.M. Hispano-Suiza, 92 - Colombes (France)

    1964-07-01

    In the first volume: This report is a description of the reactor Pegase, given with a view to examine the safety of the installations. The Cadarache site at which they are situated is briefly described, in particular because of the consequences on the techniques employed for building Pegase. A description is also given of the original aspects of the reactor. The independent loops which are designed for full-scale testing of fuel elements used in natural uranium-gas-graphite reactor systems are described in this report, together with their operational and control equipment. In the second volume: In the present report are examined the accidents which could cause damage to the Pegase reactor installation. Among possible causes of accidents considered are the seismicity of the region, an excessive power excursion of the reactor and a fracture in the sealing of an independent loop. Although all possible precautions have been taken to offset the effects of such accidents, their ultimate consequences are considered here. The importance is stressed of the security action and regulations which, added to the precautions taken for the construction, ensure the safety of the installations. (authors) [French] Dans le volume 1: Ce rapport est une description du reacteur Pegase, afin d'examiner la surete des installations. Le site de CADARACHE ou elles sont situees, a ete sommairement decrit, en particulier, a cause des consequences sur les techniques mises en oeuvre pour la realisation de Pegase. Nous nous sommes egalement attache a decrire les aspects originaux du reacteur. Les boucles autonomes destinees a tester en vraie grandeur des elements combustibles de la filiere uranium naturel graphite-gaz, ainsi que leurs dispositifs de controle et d'exploitation, figurent egalement dans ce rapport. Dans le volume 2: Dans le present rapport, nous examinons des accidents pouvant endommager des installations du reacteur Pegase. Les origines d'accidents examines

  20. Safety report concerning the reactor Pegase - volume 1 - Description of the installation - volume 2 - Safety of the installations; Rapport de surete du reacteur pegase - tome 1 - Description des installations - tome 2 - Surete des installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacour, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Legoin, P [S.E.M. Hispano-Suiza, 92 - Colombes (France)

    1964-07-01

    In the first volume: This report is a description of the reactor Pegase, given with a view to examine the safety of the installations. The Cadarache site at which they are situated is briefly described, in particular because of the consequences on the techniques employed for building Pegase. A description is also given of the original aspects of the reactor. The independent loops which are designed for full-scale testing of fuel elements used in natural uranium-gas-graphite reactor systems are described in this report, together with their operational and control equipment. In the second volume: In the present report are examined the accidents which could cause damage to the Pegase reactor installation. Among possible causes of accidents considered are the seismicity of the region, an excessive power excursion of the reactor and a fracture in the sealing of an independent loop. Although all possible precautions have been taken to offset the effects of such accidents, their ultimate consequences are considered here. The importance is stressed of the security action and regulations which, added to the precautions taken for the construction, ensure the safety of the installations. (authors) [French] Dans le volume 1: Ce rapport est une description du reacteur Pegase, afin d'examiner la surete des installations. Le site de CADARACHE ou elles sont situees, a ete sommairement decrit, en particulier, a cause des consequences sur les techniques mises en oeuvre pour la realisation de Pegase. Nous nous sommes egalement attache a decrire les aspects originaux du reacteur. Les boucles autonomes destinees a tester en vraie grandeur des elements combustibles de la filiere uranium naturel graphite-gaz, ainsi que leurs dispositifs de controle et d'exploitation, figurent egalement dans ce rapport. Dans le volume 2: Dans le present rapport, nous examinons des accidents pouvant endommager des installations du reacteur Pegase. Les origines d'accidents examines comprennent la seismicite

  1. Developing patient safety in dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pemberton, M N

    2014-10-01

    Patient safety has always been important and is a source of public concern. Recent high profile scandals and subsequent reports, such as the Francis report into the failings at Mid Staffordshire, have raised those concerns even higher. Mortality and significant morbidity associated with the practice of medicine has led to many strategies to help improve patient safety, however, with its lack of associated mortality and lower associated morbidity, dentistry has been slower at systematically considering how patient safety can be improved. Recently, several organisations, researchers and clinicians have discussed the need for a patient safety culture in dentistry. Strategies are available to help improve patient safety in healthcare and deserve further consideration in dentistry.

  2. Response to ONS/EH-OA concerns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice, P.D.

    1991-01-01

    The DOE's independent Office of Nuclear Safety (ONS) conducted an independent assessment of WSRC's readiness for K-Reactor restart. DOE-ONS identified six areas of concern, with specific findings in each area. The six concerns deal with: (1) Technical Specification surveillance, (2) human factors issues, (3) emergency lighting, (4) fire protection issues, (5) the Unreviewed Safety Question process, and (6) the critique process. This report addresses each of these six concerns and Westinghouse's actions to resolve them

  3. Safety; Avertissement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This annual report of the Senior Inspector for the Nuclear Safety, analyses the nuclear safety at EDF for the year 1999 and proposes twelve subjects of consideration to progress. Five technical documents are also provided and discussed concerning the nuclear power plants maintenance and safety (thermal fatigue, vibration fatigue, assisted control and instrumentation of the N4 bearing, 1300 MW reactors containment and time of life of power plants). (A.L.B.)

  4. Regulatory oversight report 2009 concerning nuclear safety in Swiss nuclear installations; Aufsichtsbericht 2009 zur nuklearen Sicherheit in den schweizerischen Kernanlagen/Rapport de surveillance 2009 sur la securite nucleaire dans les installations nucleaires en Suisse/Regulatory oversight report 2009 concerning nuclear safety in Swiss nuclear installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-04-15

    ENSI, the regulatory body of the Swiss Confederation, assesses and monitors the nuclear safety of nuclear facilities in Switzerland. These include the five nuclear power plants (NPPs), the plant-based interim storage facilities, the Central Interim Storage Facility (ZWILAG) at Wuerenlingen, as well as the nuclear facilities at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) and the two universities of Basel and Lausanne (EPFL). Its regulatory obligations also include the transport of radioactive materials from and to nuclear facilities and the preparation of a deep geological repository for radioactive waste. ENSI maintains its own emergency organisation that would be activated in case of a serious incident at a nuclear facility in Switzerland. The legislative framework for ENSI's regulatory functions are the Nuclear Energy Act (KEG), the Nuclear Energy Ordinance (KEV), the Radiological Protection Act (StSG), the Radiological Protection Ordinance (StSV), as well as other ordinances and regulations related to reactor safety, the training of operating personnel, the organisation of the emergency response to increases in radioactivity, the transport of radioactive materials, and the deep geological repository. ENSI formulates and updates guidelines that stipulate the criteria by which it evaluates the activities and plans put forward by the operators of nuclear facilities. It regularly publishes reports and provides the public with information on events and findings at nuclear facilities. Chapters 1 to 4 of this Surveillance Report are devoted to the five Swiss NPPs. For each plant, the ENSI evaluation concludes with a safety ranking: high, good, satisfactory and unsatisfactory. Chapter 5 deals with ZWILAG for the processing and interim storage of radioactive waste from Swiss nuclear facilities. Chapters 6 and 7 deal with the nuclear facilities at PSI and with the research reactors at Basel and at EPFL. Chapter 8 deals with the transport of radioactive materials from and to

  5. Fairness and nanotechnology concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McComas, Katherine A; Besley, John C

    2011-11-01

    Research suggests that fairness perceptions matter to people who are asked to evaluate the acceptability of risks or risk management. Two separate national random surveys (n = 305 and n = 529) addressed Americans' concerns about and acceptance of nanotechnology risk management in the context of the degree to which they view scientists and risk managers as fair. The first survey investigated general views about scientists across four proposed dimensions of fairness (distributional, procedural, interpersonal, and informational). The results show that respondents who believe that the outcomes of scientific research tend to result in unequal benefits (distributional fairness) and that the procedures meant to protect the public from scientific research are biased (procedural fairness) were more concerned about nanotechnology. Believing scientists would treat them with respect (interpersonal fairness) and ensure access to information (informational fairness) were not significant predictors of concern. The second study also looked at these four dimensions of fairness but focused on perceptions of risk managers working for government, universities, and major companies. In addition to concern, it also examined acceptance of nanotechnology risk management. Study 2 results were similar to those of study 1 for concern; however, only perceived informational fairness consistently predicted acceptance of nanotechnology risk management. Overall, the study points to the value of considering fairness perceptions in the study of public perceptions of nanotechnology. © 2011 Society for Risk Analysis.

  6. Most significant preliminary results of the probabilistic safety analysis on the Juragua nuclear power plant; Resultados preliminares mas significativos del analysis probabilista de seguridad de la Central Nuclear de Juragua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perdomo, Manuel [Instituto Superior de Ciencia y Tecnologia Nuclear (ISCTN), La Habana (Cuba)

    1995-12-31

    Since 1990 the Group for PSA Development and Applications (GDA/APS) is working on the Level-1 PSA for the Juragua-1 NPP, as a part of an IAEA Technical Assistance Project. The main objective of this study, which is still under way, is to assess, in a preliminary way, the Reactor design safety to find its potential `weak points` at the construction stage, using a eneric data base. At the same time, the study allows the PSA team to familiarize with the plant design and analysis techniques for the future operational PSA of the plant. This paper presents the most significant preliminary results of the study, which reveal some advantages of the safety characteristics of the plant design in comparison with the homologous VVER-440 reactors and some areas, where including slight modifications would improve the plant safety, considering the level of detail at which the study is carried out. (author). 13 refs, 1 fig, 2 tabs.

  7. Nuclear Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-09-01

    In this short paper it has only been possible to deal in a rather general way with the standards of safety used in the UK nuclear industry. The record of the industry extending over at least twenty years is impressive and, indeed, unique. No other industry has been so painstaking in protection of its workers and in its avoidance of damage to the environment. Headings are: introduction; how a nuclear power station works; radiation and its effects (including reference to ICRP, the UK National Radiological Protection Board, and safety standards); typical radiation doses (natural radiation, therapy, nuclear power programme and other sources); safety of nuclear reactors - design; key questions (matters of concern which arise in the public mind); safety of operators; safety of people in the vicinity of a nuclear power station; safety of the general public; safety bodies. (U.K.)

  8. Nuclear Reactor RA Safety Report, Vol. 15, Analysis of significant accidents; Izvestaj o sigurnosti nuklearnog reaktora RA, Knjiga 15, Analiza znacajnih akcidenata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1986-11-01

    Power excursions of the RA reactor a mathematical model of reactor kinetic behaviour was formulated to describe power and temperature coefficients for both reactor fuel and moderator. Computer code TM-1 was written for analysis of possible reactor accidents. Power excursions caused by uncontrolled control rod removal and heavy water flow into the central vertical experimental channel were analyzed. Accidents caused by fuel elements handling were discussed including possible fuel element damage. Although the probability for uncontrolled radioactive materials release into the environment is very low, this type of accidents are analyzed as well including the impact on the personnel and the environment. A separate chapter describes analysis of the loss of flow accident. Safety analysis covers the possible damage of the outer steel Ra reactor vessel and the water screens which are part of the water biological shield. [Serbo-Croat] Radi analize dinamickog ponasanja reaktora RA u toku ekskurzije snage formulisan je matematicki model koji opisuje promene snage i temperature goriva i moderatora. Za analizu predpostavljenih akcidenata realizovan je racunarski program TM-1. Analizirane su ekskurzije snage usled nekontrolisanog izvlacenja kontrolnih sipki i punjenja centralnog vertikalnog eksperimentalnog kanala teskom vodom. Analizirani su akcidenti pri rukovanju nuklearnim gorivom ukljucujuci ostecenje nuklearnog goriva. Iako je verovatnoca za nekontrolisano rasturanje radioaktivnog materijala mala, analizirani su i ovakvi moguci akcidenti koji mogu uticati kako na osoblje reaktora tako i na okolinu. Posebno poglavlje obuhvata analizu akcidenta u slucaju prestanka cirkulacije primarnog hladioca. Analiza sigurnosti reaktora obuhvata i moguce ostecenje spoljasnjeg celicnog suda reaktora RA kao i vodenih ekrana koji su deo vodenog bioloskog stita.

  9. 49 CFR 1580.203 - Reporting significant security concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION SECURITY Passenger Rail Including Passenger Railroad Carriers, Rail Transit Systems, Tourist... railroad carrier hosting an operation described in paragraph (a)(1) of this section. (3) Each tourist... transit line, and route, as applicable. (4) Origination and termination locations for the affected...

  10. Food irradiation: benefits and concerns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thayer, D.W.

    1990-01-01

    The benefits and concerns about treating foods with ionizing radiation are reviewed. Radioactivity cannot be induced in foods by treatment with gamma rays from 137 Cs or 60 Co, X-ray sources of 5 MeV or lower energy, or electrons of 10 MeV or lower energy. The evidence supports the safety and efficacy of using ionizing radiation for insect disinfestation of grains; dried spices, vegetables and fruits; and fresh fruit. Species and dose dependent phytotoxic and vitamin changes may occur in some fruits at greater doses than currently approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Irradiation can inactivate protozoan or helminth parasites and significantly decrease the probability of viable food-borne bacterial pathogens in fish, poultry, and red meats. The titers of amino acids, fatty acids, and vitamins of chicken meat sterilized by thermal, electron-beam, or gamma radiation are presented. On the whole, the data support the safely and efficacy of the process

  11. Oh β s concerns surface after spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    A spill of uranium- and radium-contaminated water from a reservoir at the Key Lake Mine in northern Saskatchewan in early January 1984 created extensive public concern. Now attention is being focussed on the issue of worker safety

  12. Applying Systems Thinking to Law Enforcement Safety: Recommendation for a Comprehensive Safety Management Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    injuries can also lead to other significant health concerns such as depression and absenteeism , which impact organizational productivity and safety...injuries is important: (1) to determine the impact of costs such as lost wages, medical expenses and insurance claims, as well as productivity ... production and operational safety; and a sustaining institutional culture.53 Safety is often not the primary goal of organizations, as other business or

  13. Safety report concerning Melusine (after power increase to 4 MW). Descriptive part. Volumes 1 and 2; Rapport de surete de ''melusine'' (apres augmentation de puissance a 4 MW). Partie descriptive. Tomes 1 et 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baas, C; Delcroix, V; Jacquemain, M; Marouby, R; Meunier, C; De Robien, E; Rossillon, F [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-03-01

    Construction of Melusine was started in January 1957, It first diverged on July 1, 1958. It operated at: 1 MW from March 1959; 1.4 MW from April 1960; 2 MW from September 1961; 4 MW from December 1965. Various modifications have been made since the reactor was built. They concern: - the addition of a hot cell. - the effluents: 2 reservoirs of 15 m{sup 3} for liquid waste have been installed. The resin regeneration equipment has been completely modified. - the building: offices have been added - experimental zones have been set up in the hall - the electrical supply. - the cooling and purification circuits (installation of a second exchanger, replacement of the primary pumps, creation of a hot layer, etc... ). - the fuel elements (at the moment of the MTR type enriched to 90 per cent). - the swimming-pool (which has been partially equipped with a stainless steel coating). - the core (placing of 'stools', of a diving-board, etc...). - the ventilation: the hall has been de-pressurized during normal working in the event of an accident, the hall can be isolated and a safety circuit can be started up. A chimney has been installed. - the hall (which has been strengthened and sealed more effectively). - the control electronics (modification of the principle, and which are now entirely transistorized). So many changes have been made that the reactor now bears only a slight resemblance to the initial model. It has appeared necessary to make a brief review of these improvements in order to be able to judge more effectively the installations present safety characteristics; these latter are furthermore fairly well known as a result of the experiments carried out not only by the Thermal Transfer Service in Grenoble but also at Cadarache (Cabri) and Toulon (the work of Mr. PASCOUET). (authors) [French] MELUSINE a ete construite a partir de janvier 1957. Sa premiere divergence a eu lieu le 1er juillet 1958. Elle a fonctionne a: 1 MW a partir de mars 1959; 1,4 MW a partir d

  14. Safety report concerning Melusine (after power increase to 4 MW). Descriptive part. Volumes 1 and 2; Rapport de surete de ''melusine'' (apres augmentation de puissance a 4 MW). Partie descriptive. Tomes 1 et 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baas, C.; Delcroix, V.; Jacquemain, M.; Marouby, R.; Meunier, C.; De Robien, E.; Rossillon, F. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-03-01

    Construction of Melusine was started in January 1957, It first diverged on July 1, 1958. It operated at: 1 MW from March 1959; 1.4 MW from April 1960; 2 MW from September 1961; 4 MW from December 1965. Various modifications have been made since the reactor was built. They concern: - the addition of a hot cell. - the effluents: 2 reservoirs of 15 m{sup 3} for liquid waste have been installed. The resin regeneration equipment has been completely modified. - the building: offices have been added - experimental zones have been set up in the hall - the electrical supply. - the cooling and purification circuits (installation of a second exchanger, replacement of the primary pumps, creation of a hot layer, etc... ). - the fuel elements (at the moment of the MTR type enriched to 90 per cent). - the swimming-pool (which has been partially equipped with a stainless steel coating). - the core (placing of 'stools', of a diving-board, etc...). - the ventilation: the hall has been de-pressurized during normal working in the event of an accident, the hall can be isolated and a safety circuit can be started up. A chimney has been installed. - the hall (which has been strengthened and sealed more effectively). - the control electronics (modification of the principle, and which are now entirely transistorized). So many changes have been made that the reactor now bears only a slight resemblance to the initial model. It has appeared necessary to make a brief review of these improvements in order to be able to judge more effectively the installations present safety characteristics; these latter are furthermore fairly well known as a result of the experiments carried out not only by the Thermal Transfer Service in Grenoble but also at Cadarache (Cabri) and Toulon (the work of Mr. PASCOUET). (authors) [French] MELUSINE a ete construite a partir de janvier 1957. Sa premiere divergence a eu lieu le 1er juillet 1958. Elle a fonctionne a: 1 MW a partir de mars 1959; 1,4 MW a partir

  15. Report of the ASSET (Assessment of Safety Significant Events Team) mission to the Khmelnitsky nuclear power plant in Ukraine 8-19 March 1993. Root cause analysis of operational events with a view to enhancing the prevention of accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This IAEA Assessment of Safety Significant Events Team (ASSET) Report presents the result of an ASSET team's assessment of their investigation of the effectiveness of the plant policy for prevention of incidents since 1988 at Khmelnitsky nuclear power plant. The plant's one WWER 1000 MW(e) type unit has been in commercial operation since 1987. The results, conclusions and suggestions presented herein reflect the views of the ASSET experts. They are provided for consideration by the responsible authorities in Ukraine. The ASSET team's views presented in this report are based on visits to the plant, on review of documentation made available by the operating organization and on discussion with utility personnel. The report is intended to enhance operational safety at Khmelnitsky by proposing improvements to the policy for the prevention of incidents at the plant. The report includes, as a usual practices, the official responses of the regulatory body operating organization to the ASSET recommendations. Figs, tabs

  16. Implementing the Comprehensive Unit-Based Safety Program (CUSP) to Improve Patient Safety in an Academic Primary Care Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitts, Samantha I; Maruthur, Nisa M; Luu, Ngoc-Phuong; Curreri, Kimberly; Grimes, Renee; Nigrin, Candace; Sateia, Heather F; Sawyer, Melinda D; Pronovost, Peter J; Clark, Jeanne M; Peairs, Kimberly S

    2017-11-01

    While there is growing awareness of the risk of harm in ambulatory health care, most patient safety efforts have focused on the inpatient setting. The Comprehensive Unit-based Safety Program (CUSP) has been an integral part of highly successful safety efforts in inpatient settings. In 2014 CUSP was implemented in an academic primary care practice. As part of CUSP implementation, staff and clinicians underwent training on the science of safety and completed a two-question safety assessment survey to identify safety concerns in the practice. The concerns identified by team members were used to select two initial safety priorities. The impact of CUSP on safety climate and teamwork was assessed through a pre-post comparison of results on the validated Safety Attitudes Questionnaire. Ninety-six percent of staff completed science of safety training as part of CUSP implementation, and 100% of staff completed the two-question safety assessment. The most frequently identified safety concerns were related to medications (n = 11, 28.2), diagnostic testing (n = 9, 25), and communication (n = 5, 14). The CUSP team initially prioritized communication and infection control, which led to standardization of work flows within the practice. Six months following CUSP implementation, large but nonstatistically significant increases were found for the percentage of survey respondents who reported knowledge of the proper channels for questions about patient safety, felt encouraged to report safety concerns, and believed that the work setting made it easy to learn from the errors of others. CUSP is a promising tool to improve safety climate and to identify and address safety concerns within ambulatory health care. Copyright © 2017 The Joint Commission. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. French concepts of ''passive safety''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dennielou, Y.; Serret, M.

    1990-01-01

    N 4 model, the French 1400 MW PWR of the 90's, exhibits many advanced features. As far as safety is concerned, the fully computerized control room design takes advantage of the operating experience feedback and largely improves the man machine interface. New post-accident procedures have been developed (the so-called ''physical states oriented procedures''). A complete consistent set of ''Fundamental Safety Rules'' have been issued. This however doesn't imply any significant modification of standard PWR with regard to the passive aspects of safety systems or functions. Nevertheless, traditional PWR safety systems largely use passive aspects: natural circulation, reactivity coefficients, gravity driven control rods, injection accumulators, so on. Moreover, probability calculations allow for comparison between the respective contributions of passive and of active failures. In the near future, eventual options of future French PWRs to be commissioned after 2000 will be evaluated; simplification, passive and forgiving aspects of safety systems will be thoroughly considered. (author)

  18. Enhancing operational safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiebe, J S

    1997-09-01

    The presentation briefly considers the following aspects concerning enhancing operational safety of NPP: licensed control room supervision, reactivity changes, personnel access to control room, simulator training.

  19. The Impact of Transformational Leadership on Safety Climate and Individual Safety Behavior on Construction Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuzhong Shen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Unsafe acts contribute dominantly to construction accidents, and increasing safety behavior is essential to reduce accidents. Previous research conceptualized safety behavior as an interaction between proximal individual differences (safety knowledge and safety motivation and distal contextual factors (leadership and safety climate. However, relatively little empirical research has examined this conceptualization in the construction sector. Given the cultural background of the sample, this study makes a slight modification to the conceptualization and views transformational leadership as an antecedent of safety climate. Accordingly, this study establishes a multiple mediator model showing the mechanisms through which transformational leadership translates into safety behavior. The multiple mediator model is estimated by the structural equation modeling (SEM technique, using individual questionnaire responses from a random sample of construction personnel based in Hong Kong. As hypothesized, transformational leadership has a significant impact on safety climate which is mediated by safety-specific leader–member exchange (LMX, and safety climate in turn impacts safety behavior through safety knowledge. The results suggest that future safety climate interventions should be more effective if supervisors exhibit transformational leadership, encourage construction personnel to voice safety concerns without fear of retaliation, and repeatedly remind them about safety on the job.

  20. The Impact of Transformational Leadership on Safety Climate and Individual Safety Behavior on Construction Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yuzhong; Ju, Chuanjing; Koh, Tas Yong; Rowlinson, Steve; Bridge, Adrian J

    2017-01-05

    Unsafe acts contribute dominantly to construction accidents, and increasing safety behavior is essential to reduce accidents. Previous research conceptualized safety behavior as an interaction between proximal individual differences (safety knowledge and safety motivation) and distal contextual factors (leadership and safety climate). However, relatively little empirical research has examined this conceptualization in the construction sector. Given the cultural background of the sample, this study makes a slight modification to the conceptualization and views transformational leadership as an antecedent of safety climate. Accordingly, this study establishes a multiple mediator model showing the mechanisms through which transformational leadership translates into safety behavior. The multiple mediator model is estimated by the structural equation modeling (SEM) technique, using individual questionnaire responses from a random sample of construction personnel based in Hong Kong. As hypothesized, transformational leadership has a significant impact on safety climate which is mediated by safety-specific leader-member exchange (LMX), and safety climate in turn impacts safety behavior through safety knowledge. The results suggest that future safety climate interventions should be more effective if supervisors exhibit transformational leadership, encourage construction personnel to voice safety concerns without fear of retaliation, and repeatedly remind them about safety on the job.

  1. The Impact of Transformational Leadership on Safety Climate and Individual Safety Behavior on Construction Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yuzhong; Ju, Chuanjing; Koh, Tas Yong; Rowlinson, Steve; Bridge, Adrian J.

    2017-01-01

    Unsafe acts contribute dominantly to construction accidents, and increasing safety behavior is essential to reduce accidents. Previous research conceptualized safety behavior as an interaction between proximal individual differences (safety knowledge and safety motivation) and distal contextual factors (leadership and safety climate). However, relatively little empirical research has examined this conceptualization in the construction sector. Given the cultural background of the sample, this study makes a slight modification to the conceptualization and views transformational leadership as an antecedent of safety climate. Accordingly, this study establishes a multiple mediator model showing the mechanisms through which transformational leadership translates into safety behavior. The multiple mediator model is estimated by the structural equation modeling (SEM) technique, using individual questionnaire responses from a random sample of construction personnel based in Hong Kong. As hypothesized, transformational leadership has a significant impact on safety climate which is mediated by safety-specific leader–member exchange (LMX), and safety climate in turn impacts safety behavior through safety knowledge. The results suggest that future safety climate interventions should be more effective if supervisors exhibit transformational leadership, encourage construction personnel to voice safety concerns without fear of retaliation, and repeatedly remind them about safety on the job. PMID:28067775

  2. A literature review of safety culture.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, Kerstan Suzanne; Stevens-Adams, Susan Marie; Wenner, Caren A.

    2013-03-01

    Workplace safety has been historically neglected by organizations in order to enhance profitability. Over the past 30 years, safety concerns and attention to safety have increased due to a series of disastrous events occurring across many different industries (e.g., Chernobyl, Upper Big-Branch Mine, Davis-Besse etc.). Many organizations have focused on promoting a healthy safety culture as a way to understand past incidents, and to prevent future disasters. There is an extensive academic literature devoted to safety culture, and the Department of Energy has also published a significant number of documents related to safety culture. The purpose of the current endeavor was to conduct a review of the safety culture literature in order to understand definitions, methodologies, models, and successful interventions for improving safety culture. After reviewing the literature, we observed four emerging themes. First, it was apparent that although safety culture is a valuable construct, it has some inherent weaknesses. For example, there is no common definition of safety culture and no standard way for assessing the construct. Second, it is apparent that researchers know how to measure particular components of safety culture, with specific focus on individual and organizational factors. Such existing methodologies can be leveraged for future assessments. Third, based on the published literature, the relationship between safety culture and performance is tenuous at best. There are few empirical studies that examine the relationship between safety culture and safety performance metrics. Further, most of these studies do not include a description of the implementation of interventions to improve safety culture, or do not measure the effect of these interventions on safety culture or performance. Fourth, safety culture is best viewed as a dynamic, multi-faceted overall system composed of individual, engineered and organizational models. By addressing all three components of

  3. Nuclear Safety. 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    A quick review of the nuclear safety at EDF may be summarized as follows: - the nuclear safety at EDF maintains at a rather good standard; - none of the incidents that took place has had any direct impact upon safety; - the availability remained good; - initiation of the floor 4 reactor generation (N4 unit - 1450 MW) ensued without major difficulties (the Civaux 1 NPP has been coupled to the power network at 24 december 1997); - the analysis of the incidents interesting from the safety point of view presents many similarities with earlier ones. Significant progress has been recorded in promoting actively and directly a safe operation by making visible, evident and concrete the exertion of the nuclear operation responsibility and its control by the hierarchy. The report develops the following chapters and subjects: 1. An overview on 1997; 1.1. The technical issues of the nuclear sector; 1.2. General performances in safety; 1.3. The main incidents; 1.4. Wastes and radiation protection; 2. Nuclear safety management; 2.1. Dynamics and results; 2.2. Ameliorations to be consolidated; 3. Other important issues in safety; 3.1. Probabilistic safety studies; 3.2. Approach for safety re-evaluation; 3.3. The network safety; 3.4. Crisis management; 3.5. The Lifetime program; 3.6. PWR; 3.7. Documentation; 3.8. Competence; 4. Safety management in the future; 4.1. An open future; 4.2. The fast neutron NPP at Creys-Malville; 4.3. Stabilization of the PWR reference frame; 4.4. Implementing the EURATOM directive regarding the radiation protection standards; 4.5. Development of biomedical research and epidemiological studies; 4.6. New regulations concerning the liquid and gaseous effluents; 5. Visions of an open future; 5.1. Alternative views upon safety ay EDF; 5.2. Safety authority; 5.3. International considerations; 5.4. What happens abroad; 5.5. References from non-nuclear domain. Four appendices are added referring to policy of safety management, policy of human factors in NPPs

  4. A symmetric safety valve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burtraw, Dallas; Palmer, Karen; Kahn, Danny

    2010-01-01

    How to set policy in the presence of uncertainty has been central in debates over climate policy. Concern about costs has motivated the proposal for a cap-and-trade program for carbon dioxide, with a 'safety valve' that would mitigate against spikes in the cost of emission reductions by introducing additional emission allowances into the market when marginal costs rise above the specified allowance price level. We find two significant problems, both stemming from the asymmetry of an instrument that mitigates only against a price increase. One is that most important examples of price volatility in cap-and-trade programs have occurred not when prices spiked, but instead when allowance prices collapsed. Second, a single-sided safety valve may have unintended consequences for investment. We illustrate that a symmetric safety valve provides environmental and welfare improvements relative to the conventional one-sided approach.

  5. Institute for safety technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    In the area of nuclear reactor safety studies, the Institute for Safety Technology (STI) concentrated its efforts in analysing experimentally and numerically phenomena which characterize highly-improbable but very severe accidents either for light water or for sodium cooled reactors. In the STI nuclear isle, three new laboratories for waste (PETRA), fusion (ETHEL) and safeguards, (PERLA) activities are approaching completion and have made substantial progress in their licensing procedure. The Institute started activities in the non-nuclear safety research area only a few years ago and has been able this year to present its first significant experimental and theoretical results in the areas of runaway reactions, accidental release of products and their deflagration/detonation. Concerning Reference Methods for the Evaluation of Structure Reliability a better understanding was gained of the nonlinear cyclic and dynamic behaviour of materials and structures by performing experiments and developing constitutive and structural member models leading to the computer simulation of complete structures

  6. Significant events caused by extraneous acts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verlaeken, J.

    1987-01-01

    The operating experience feedback system of VINCOTTE, called ARIANE, consists, among others, of preparing synthesis reports on specific safety concerns. A recent report deals with significant events caused by extranous acts. Events attributable to human error are numerous. Confusion errors have already been analysed in several publications (NES IRS 664 etc.). However, are described here some ten incidents where extranous acts occurred: ZION 2 (September 76), OYSTER CREEK (May 79), PALISADES (January 81), CATAWBA (August 85), etc. The contributing factors for these unfortunate initiatives are explained; several resort to psychological influences. Corrective actions are discussed, and some general lessons are drawn. (author)

  7. Recommandations essentielles de sécurité relatives au travail du personnel des laboratoires géologiques de chantier Essential Safety Recommendations Concerning Work by Personnel in Well Site Mud Logging Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chambre Syndicale du Pétrole

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Le personnel travaillant dans les cabines géologiques sur chantiers de forage doit respecter des règles de sécurité pour la prévention des accidents et doit connaître nécessairement les consignes à suivre en cas de danger. Ces recommandations sont relatives à l'installation des cabines géologiques et aux problèmes créés par leur équipement très diversifié, comprenant notamment de nombreux capteurs dispersés sur le chantier et leur réseau de câbles de liaison. Huit annexes rappellent les risques inhérents à la présence d'hydrogène sulfuré et les conditions d'utilisation des appareils de protection, les problèmes liés aux fours à micro-ondes éventuellement installés, ceux liés à la présence de sources radioactives. Une large part de ces recommandations est consacrée au stockage, à la manipulation et à l'élimination des produits chimiques couramment présents dans les cabines. Dix-neuf fiches de prévention simplifiées rappellent les risques que ces produits chimiques font courir au personnel et précisent les premiers soins à appliquer. Les deux dernières annexes traitent de la définition des zones classées pour les forages à terre et les forages en mer. The personnel working in mud logging units at well sites must respect safety rules for the prevention of accidents and must know the instructions to be followed in case of danger. These recommendations concern the installation of logging units and the problems created by the highly diversified equipment in such units, including in particular numerous sensors scattered around the site and the network of cables linking the sensors to the unit. Eight appendixes review the risks inherent in the presence of hydrogen sulfide and the conditions for using protective equipment, the problems linked to any microwave ovens that may be installed, and the problems linked to the presence of radioactive sources. A large portion of these recommen-dations is devoted to

  8. Measuring Safety Culture on Ships Using Safety Climate: A Study among Indian Officers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogendra Bhattacharya

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Workplace safety continues to be an area of concern in the maritime industry due to the international nature of the operations. The effectiveness of extensive legislation to manage shipboard safety remains in doubt. The focus must therefore shift towards the human element - seafarers and their perceptions of safety. The study aims to understand the alignment that exists between safety culture and safety climate on board ships as perceived by seafarers. The underlying factors of safety climate were identified using factor analysis which isolated seven factors - Support on Safety, Organizational Support, Resource Availability, Work Environment, Job Demands, ‘Just’ Culture, and Safety Compliance. The perception of safety level of seafarers was found to be low indicating the existence of misalignments between safety culture values and the actual safety climate. The study also reveals that the safety perceptions of officers employed directly by ship owners and those by managers do not differ significantly, nor do they differ between senior and junior officers. A shift in perspective towards how seafarers themselves feel towards safety might provide more effective solutions – instead of relying on regulations - and indeed aid in reducing incidents on board. This paper details practical suggestions on how to identify the factors that contribute towards a better safety climate on board ships.

  9. Position adopted by the government about the safety options of the EPR reactor project; Prise de position du gouvernement concernant les options de surete du projet de reacteur EPR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-10-01

    On September 28, 2004, on behalf of the French ministers in charge of nuclear safety, the general director of nuclear safety and radiation protection addressed to the president of Electricite de France (EdF) a letter presenting the government's position about the safety options of the EPR (European Pressurized Reactor) project. On the basis of the examination carried out by the nuclear safety authority (ASN) and by the permanent group of reactor experts, the government has considered these options as satisfactory with respect to the safety improvement objectives. Therefore, the government requested EdF to comply with these technical rules for any future reactor development. This dossier includes: the letter of the government, the technical directives for the design and construction of the next generation of PWR-type reactors, the technical rules relative to the design of the main primary and secondary coolant circuits of PWR-type reactors, and the technical file about the safety of the EPR project reprinted from the 2003 report of nuclear safety and radiation protection authority. (J.S.)

  10. Current statistical tools, systems and bodies concerned with safety and accident statistics. Contribution to the OECD seminar `International Road Traffic and Accident Databases IRTAD', Helsinki, Finland, September 19, 1995.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koornstra, M.J.

    1996-01-01

    The current use of road safety information systems and the few systems for international use are discussed. Recommendations are formulated for a more efficient, less costly and improved accident registration on the local, national and international levels.

  11. Phytotoxins: environmental micropollutants of concern?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucheli, Thomas D

    2014-11-18

    Natural toxins such as mycotoxins or phytotoxins (bioactive compounds from fungi and plants, respectively) have been widely studied in food and feed, where they are stated to out-compete synthetic chemicals in their overall human and animal toxicological risk. A similar perception and awareness is yet largely missing for environmental safety. This article attempts to raise concern in this regard, by providing (circumstantial) evidence that phytotoxins in particular can be emitted into the environment, where they may contribute to the complex mixture of organic micropollutants. Exposures can be orders-of-magnitude higher in anthropogenically managed/affected (agro-)ecosystems than in the pristine environment.

  12. Regulatory Expectations for Safety Culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Su Jin; Oh, Jang Jin; Choi, Young Sung [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    The oversight of licensee's safety culture becomes an important issue that attracts great public and political concerns recently in Korea. Beginning from the intended violation of rules, a series of corruptions, documents forgery and disclosure of wrong-doings made the public think that the whole mindset of nuclear workers has been inadequate. Thus, they are demanding that safety culture shall be improved and that regulatory body shall play more roles and responsibilities for the improvements and oversight for them. This paper introduces, as an effort of regulatory side, recent changes in the role of regulators in safety culture, regulatory expectations on the desired status of licensee's safety culture, the pilot inspection program for safety culture and research activity for the development of oversight system. After the Fukushima accident in Japan 2011, many critics has searched for cultural factors that caused the unacceptable negligence pervaded in Japan nuclear society and the renewed emphasis has been placed on rebuilding safety culture by operators, regulators, and relevant institutions globally. Significant progress has been made in how to approach safety culture and led to a new perspective different from the existing normative assessment method both in operators and regulatory side. Regulatory expectations and oversight of them are based on such a new holistic concept for human, organizational and cultural elements to maintain and strengthen the integrity of defense in depth and consequently nuclear safety.

  13. Regulatory Expectations for Safety Culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Su Jin; Oh, Jang Jin; Choi, Young Sung

    2014-01-01

    The oversight of licensee's safety culture becomes an important issue that attracts great public and political concerns recently in Korea. Beginning from the intended violation of rules, a series of corruptions, documents forgery and disclosure of wrong-doings made the public think that the whole mindset of nuclear workers has been inadequate. Thus, they are demanding that safety culture shall be improved and that regulatory body shall play more roles and responsibilities for the improvements and oversight for them. This paper introduces, as an effort of regulatory side, recent changes in the role of regulators in safety culture, regulatory expectations on the desired status of licensee's safety culture, the pilot inspection program for safety culture and research activity for the development of oversight system. After the Fukushima accident in Japan 2011, many critics has searched for cultural factors that caused the unacceptable negligence pervaded in Japan nuclear society and the renewed emphasis has been placed on rebuilding safety culture by operators, regulators, and relevant institutions globally. Significant progress has been made in how to approach safety culture and led to a new perspective different from the existing normative assessment method both in operators and regulatory side. Regulatory expectations and oversight of them are based on such a new holistic concept for human, organizational and cultural elements to maintain and strengthen the integrity of defense in depth and consequently nuclear safety

  14. Great Basin wildlife disease concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russ Mason

    2008-01-01

    In the Great Basin, wildlife diseases have always represented a significant challenge to wildlife managers, agricultural production, and human health and safety. One of the first priorities of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Division of Fish and Wildlife Services was Congressionally directed action to eradicate vectors for zoonotic disease, particularly rabies, in...

  15. Research for enhancing reactor safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-05-01

    Recent research for enhanced reactor safety covers extensive and numerous experiments and computed modelling activities designed to verify and to improve existing design requirements. The lectures presented at the meeting report GRS research results and the current status of reactor safety research in France. The GRS experts present results concerning expert systems and their perspectives in safety engineering, large-scale experiments and their significance in the development and verification of computer codes for thermohydraulic modelling of safety-related incidents, the advanced system code ATHLET for analysis of thermohydraulic processes of incidents, the analysis simulator which is a tool for fast evaluation of accident management measures, and investigations into event sequences and the required preventive emergency measures within the German Risk Study. (DG) [de

  16. Nuclear power: Siting and safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Openshaw, S.

    1986-01-01

    By 2030, half, or even two-thirds, of all electricity may be generated by nuclear power. Major reactor accidents are still expected to be rare occurrences, but nuclear safety is largely a matter of faith. Terrorist attacks, sabotage, and human error could cause a significant accident. Reactor siting can offer an additional, design-independent margin of safety. Remote geographical sites for new plants would minimize health risks, protect the industry from negative changes in public opinion concerning nuclear energy, and improve long-term public acceptance of nuclear power. U.K. siting practices usually do not consider the contribution to safety that could be obtained from remote sites. This book discusses the present trends of siting policies of nuclear power and their design-independent margin of safety

  17. Concerned with computer games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chimiri, Niklas Alexander; Andersen, Mads Lund; Jensen, Tine

    2018-01-01

    In this chapter, we focus on a particular matter of concern within computer gaming practices: the concern of being or not being a gamer. This matter of concern emerged from within our collective investigations of gaming practices across various age groups. The empirical material under scrutiny...... was generated across a multiplicity of research projects, predominantly conducted in Denmark. The question of being versus not being a gamer, we argue, exemplifies interesting enactments of how computer game players become both concerned with and concerned about their gaming practices. As a collective...... of researchers writing from the field of psychology and inspired by neo-materialist theories, we are particularly concerned with (human) subjectivity and processes of social and subjective becoming. Our empirical examples show that conerns/worries about computer games and being engaged with computer game...

  18. Gait characteristics in women's safety shoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Kanako; Abe, Kaoru

    2017-11-01

    Although workers in Japan are required to wear safety footwear, there is concern about occupational accidents that occur when wearing safety shoes. This study aimed to analyze the effect of wearing hardsoled safety shoes on both spatiotemporal gait characteristics and the muscle activity in the lower extremities. Seventeen young women participated in this study. A 5-m gait trial and a surface electromyography trial were conducted while the women walked in either safety shoes or sports shoes. Paired t-tests were performed to analyze the differences in gait characteristics when walking in the two different pairs of shoes. Walking in safety shoes was associated with a significant increase in vastus lateralis, biceps femoris and tibialis anterior activity. This increased muscle activity in the lower extremities is likely compensating for the lower flexibility of the safety shoes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Prioritization of generic safety issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emrit, R.; Minners, W.; VanderMolen, H.

    1983-12-01

    This report presents the priority rankings for generic safety issues related to nuclear power plants. The purpose of these rankings is to assist in the timely and efficient allocation of NRC resources for the resolution of those safety issues that have a significant potential for reducing risk. The report focuses on the prioritization of generic safety issues. Issues primarily concerned with the licensing process or environmental protection and not directly related to safety have been excluded from prioritization. The prioritized issues include: TMI Action Plan items under development; previously proposed issues covered by Task Action Plans, except issues designated at Unresolved Safety Issues (USIs) which had already been assigned high priority; and newly-proposed issues. Future supplements to this report will include the prioritization of additional issues. The safety priority rankings are HIGH, MEDIUM, LOW, and DROP and have been assigned on the basis of risk significance estimates, the ratio of risk to costs and other impacts estimated to result if resolutions of the safety issues were implemented, and the consideration of uncertainties and other quantitative or qualitative factors. To the extent practical, estimates are quantitative

  20. Safety of transport of radioactive substances for civil use on the French territory. Lessons learned by the IRSN from the analysis of significant events reported in 2012 and 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The first part of this report proposes an overview of significant aspects and events related to the transport of radioactive substances in France, and a comment on lessons learned by the IRSN. The second and main part first presents some aspects of this specific transport: regulatory framework, main safety issues, nature and flow of these transports, transports of radioactive substances per sector. The second part proposes an analysis of significant events: elements related to the reporting of an event, assessment of events and analysis of main trends noticed in 2012 and 2013 with respect to previous years, analysis of the main types of events which occurred in 2013 and 2013 with respect with those which occurred during the previous years. The next chapter describes significant events: damage of a parcel during its handling, a non conformal content, loss of a parcel on a public road, derailment of a car in Le Bourget. Some transverse topics are finally addressed: return on experience of crisis management in relationship with events in radioactive substance transport, IRSN study on the behaviour of packaging during long duration fires

  1. Nuclear safety culture and nuclear safety supervision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chai Jianshe

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the author reviews systematically and summarizes up the development process and stage characteristics of nuclear safety culture, analysis the connotation and characteristics of nuclear safety culture, sums up the achievements of our country's nuclear safety supervision, dissects the challenges and problems of nuclear safety supervision. This thesis focused on the relationship between nuclear safety culture and nuclear safety supervision, they are essential differences, but there is a close relationship. Nuclear safety supervision needs to introduce some concepts of nuclear safety culture, lays emphasis on humanistic care and improves its level and efficiency. Nuclear safety supervision authorities must strengthen nuclear safety culture training, conduct the development of nuclear safety culture, make sure that nuclear safety culture can play significant roles. (author)

  2. Safety organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutz, M.

    1984-06-01

    After a rapid definition of a nuclear basis installation, the national organization of nuclear safety in France is presented, as also the main organizations concerned and their functions. This report shows how the licensing procedure leading to the construction and exploitation of such installations is applied in the case of nuclear laboratories of research and development: examinations of nuclear safety problems are carried out at different levels: - centralized to define the frame out of which the installation has not to operate, - decentralized to follow in a more detailed manner its evolution [fr

  3. International views on nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birkhofer, A.

    2002-01-01

    Safety has always been an important objective in nuclear technology. Starting with a set of sound physical principles and prudent design approaches, safety concepts have gradually been refined and cover now a wide range of provisions related to design, quality and operation. Research, the evaluation of operating experiences and probabilistic risk assessments constitute an essential basis and international co-operation plays a significant role in that context. Concerning future developments a major objective for new reactor concepts, such as the EPR, is to practically exclude a severe core damage accident with large scale consequences outside the plant. (author)

  4. Safety considerations of PWR's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, W.H. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    The safety of the central station pressurized water reactor is well established and substantiated by its excellent operating record. Operating data from 55 reactors of this type have established a record of safe operating history unparalleled by any modern large scale industry. The 186 plants under construction require a continuing commitment to maintain this outstanding record. The safety of the PWR has been further verified by the recently completed Reactor Safety Study (''Rasmussen'' Report). Not only has this study confirmed the exceptionally low risk associated with PWR operation, it has also introduced a valuable new tool in the decision making process. PWR designs, utilizing the philosophy of defense in depth, provide the bases for evaluating margins of safety. The design of the reactor coolant system, the containment system, emergency core cooling system and other related systems and components provide substantial margins of safety under both normal and postulated accident conditions even considering simultaneous effects of earthquakes and other environmental phenomena. Margins of safety in the assessment of various postulated accident conditions, with emphasis on the postulated loss of reactor coolant accident (LOCA), have been evaluated in depth as exemplified by the comprehensive ECCS rulemaking hearings followed by imposition of very conservative Nuclear Regulatory Commission requirements. When evaluated on an engineering best estimate approach, the significant margins to safety for a LOCA become more apparent. Extensive test programs have also substantiated margins to safety limits. These programs have included both separate effects and systems tests. Component testing has also been performed to substantiate performance levels under adverse combinations of environmental stress. The importance of utilizing past experience and of optimizing the deployment of incremental resources is self evident. Recent safety concerns have included specific areas such

  5. Nuclear power plant safe operation principles and some topics concerning systems reliability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borsky, M.; Kreim, R.; Stanicek, J.

    1997-01-01

    General safety criteria are specified, and nuclear power plant equipment is classified into systems either important or unimportant for nuclear safety. The former class is subdivided into safety systems and safety related systems. The safety requirements concern earthquakes, storms, fires, floods, man-induced events, and equipment failures. The actual state of systems important for safety is described. (M.D.)

  6. Traffic legislation and safety in Europe concerning the moped and the A1 category (125 cc) motorcycle : a literature and questionnaire study commissioned by the Swedish National Road Administration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoon, C.C.

    2004-01-01

    A study, commissioned by the Swedish National Road Administration, of the safety aspects of mopeds and the light motorcycle A1 category (max. 125 cc) has been carried out. The study consists of a comparison of European countries. An important part of the information was gathered using questionnaires

  7. Art as Social Concern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, Stephanie

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how her eleventh- and twelfth-grade portfolio class used art as a social concern through a sketchbook and a linoleum print. Students thumbed through copies of the "New York Times" to find an article that described a modern-day social concern. Students were assigned to choose an article, summarize it, and come…

  8. Report of the ASSET (Assessment of Safety Significant Events Team) mission to the Zaporozhe nuclear power plant in Ukraine 13-24 June 1994 Division of Nuclear Safety. Root cause analysis of operational events with a view to enhancing the prevention of incidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The IAEA Assessment of Safety Significant Events Team (ASSET) report presents the results of an ASSET team's assessment of their investigation of the effectiveness of the plant for prevention of incidents since 1990 at Zaporozhe nuclear power plant. The results, conclusions and suggestions presented herein reflect the views of the ASSET experts. They are provided for consideration by the responsible authorities in Ukraine. The ASSET team's views presented in this report are based on visits to the plant, on review of documentation made available by the operating organization and on discussions with utility personnel. The report is intended to enhance operational safety at Zaporozhe by proposing improvements to the policy for the prevention of incidents at the plant. The report includes, as a usual practice, the official response of the operating organization as well as of the regulatory body to the ASSET recommendations. Figs

  9. Promotion of nuclear safety culture in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eun, Youngsoo

    1996-01-01

    The term 'nuclear safety culture' was first introduced by the IAEA after the Chernobyl accident in the former USSR and subsequently defined in the IAEA's Safety Series No. 75-IMSAG-4 'Safety Culture' as follows : 'Safety culture is that assembly of characteristics and attitudes in organizations and individuals which establish that establish that, as an overriding priority, nuclear plant safety issues receive the attention warranted by their significance.' INSAG-4 deals with the concept of 'Safety Culture' as it relates to organizations and individuals engaged in nuclear power activities, and is intended for use by governmental authorities and by the nuclear industry and its supporting organizations. The IAEA's Assessment of Safety Culture in Organizations Team (ASCOT) developed ASCOT Guidelines that can be used in the assessment of the safety culture level of the organizations and their individual workers concerned, with a view to the tangible manifestations of safety culture that has intangible characteristics in nature. The IAEA provides the nuclear safety culture assessment service on the request of the Member States. Safety culture can not be achieved by the effort of the nuclear industry and its involved individuals alone. Rather, it requires a well concerted effort among various organizations engaged in nuclear activities including regulatory organizations

  10. Fire safety of wood construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert H. White; Mark A. Dietenberger

    2010-01-01

    Fire safety is an important concern in all types of construction. The high level of national concern for fire safety is reflected in limitations and design requirements in building codes. These code requirements and related fire performance data are discussed in the context of fire safety design and evaluation in the initial section of this chapter. Because basic data...

  11. Nuclear safety cooperation for Soviet designed reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reisman, A.W.; Horak, W.C.

    1995-01-01

    The nuclear accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in 1986 first alerted the West to the significant safety risks of Soviet designed reactors. Five years later, this concern was reaffirmed when the IAEA, as a result of a review by an international team of nuclear safety experts, announced that it did not believe the Kozloduy nuclear power plants in Bulgaria could be operated safely. To address these safety concerns, the G-7 summit in Munich in July 1992 outlined a five point program to address the safety problems of Soviet Designed Reactors: operational safety improvement; near-term technical improvements to plants based on safety assessment; enhancing regulatory regimes; examination of the scope for replacing less safe plants by the development of alternative energy sources and the more efficient use of energy; and upgrading of the plants of more recent design. As of early 1994, over 20 countries and international organizations have pledged hundreds of millions of dollars in financial assistance to improve safety. This paper summarizes these assistance efforts for Soviet designed reactors, draws lessons learned from these activities, and offers some options for better addressing these concerns

  12. report transparency and nuclear safety 2007- CISBIO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    This report presents the activities of CISBIO, nuclear base installation, for the year 2007. CISBIO realizes at Saclay most of the radiopharmaceuticals and drugs distributed in France for the nuclear medicine. The actions concerning the safety, the radiation protection, the significant events, the release control and the environmental impacts and the wastes stored on the center are discussed. (A.L.B.)

  13. Safety at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    2009-01-01

    Safety is an integral part of our working lives, and should be in our minds whatever job we do at CERN. Ultimately, safety is the responsibility of the Director General – your safety is my concern. That’s why I have this week appointed a new Safety Policy Committee (SAPOCO) that reflects the new Organizational structure of CERN. CERN’s Staff Rules and Regulations clearly lay out in chapter 3 the scope of safety at CERN as well as my responsibilities and yours in safety matters. At CERN, safety is considered in the broadest sense, encompassing occupational Health and Safety, environmental protection, and the safety of equipment and installations. It is my responsibility to put appropriate measures in place to ensure that these conditions are met. And it is the responsibility of us all to ensure that we are fully conversant with safety provisions applicable in our areas of work and that we comply with them. The appointment of a n...

  14. Disposal safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartlett, J.W.

    International consensus does not seem to be necessary or appropriate for many of the issues concerned with the safety of nuclear waste disposal. International interaction on the technical aspects of disposal has been extensive, and this interaction has contributed greatly to development of a consensus technical infrastructure for disposal. This infrastructure provides a common and firm base for regulatory, political, and social actions in each nation

  15. Positional Concerns and Institutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landes, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    that invoking envy or subjective well-being is not fully satisfying for regulating positional concerns. More compelling reasons seem, in complement with efficiency, to be related to considerations for equality. In other words, if institutions could have strong reasons to pay attention to and regulate positional...... their implications for economics, positional concerns imply important normative dimensions. There have been presumed to be a symptom of envy, reduce people’s happiness, and create problems of social interaction or economic inefficiencies. Individuals are, for instance, prone to pick states of the world that improve...... concerns, it would be in virtue of their impact on the social product and individuals’ conditions of living....

  16. Realistic design principles of nuclear power plants against earthquakes in the FRG - present stage of discussion of the new concept for a KTA-safety-standard concerning earthquake design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hintergraeber, M.; Wittmann, R.

    1985-01-01

    A new concept for the seismic design of npp was drafted in Germany. This new concept is thought to be a substitute of the existing safety standard KTA 2201.1 'Basic principles of the design of npp against seismic events' (issued 6/75). The aim of this presentation is to give a survey of the present stage of the relevant discussions within the regulatory committees. (orig.)

  17. Analysis of the prevailing standard and technical documents for their applicability under conditions of the 'Ukrytie' operation and technical proposals relating to the elaboration of new ones concerning fire safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazarenko, B.S.; Emets, V.G.

    1998-01-01

    An analysis of the prevailing laws and standards and technical documents (STD) to ensure safe operation of nuclear power installations, with requirements of nuclear, radiation and fire safety taken into account, has been performed. Proposals on application of some items of prevailing STD under conditions of the 'Ukrytie' operation are presented. Also given are technical proposals on correction of the prevailing operational standard documents and elaboration of special STD

  18. Patient safety culture in Norwegian nursing homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondevik, Gunnar Tschudi; Hofoss, Dag; Husebø, Bettina Sandgathe; Deilkås, Ellen Catharina Tveter

    2017-06-20

    Patient safety culture concerns leader and staff interaction, attitudes, routines, awareness and practices that impinge on the risk of patient-adverse events. Due to their complex multiple diseases, nursing home patients are at particularly high risk of adverse events. Studies have found an association between patient safety culture and the risk of adverse events. This study aimed to investigate safety attitudes among healthcare providers in Norwegian nursing homes, using the Safety Attitudes Questionnaire - Ambulatory Version (SAQ-AV). We studied whether variations in safety attitudes were related to professional background, age, work experience and mother tongue. In February 2016, 463 healthcare providers working in five nursing homes in Tønsberg, Norway, were invited to answer the SAQ-AV, translated and adapted to the Norwegian nursing home setting. Previous validation of the Norwegian SAQ-AV for nursing homes identified five patient safety factors: teamwork climate, safety climate, job satisfaction, working conditions and stress recognition. SPSS v.22 was used for statistical analysis, which included estimations of mean values, standard deviations and multiple linear regressions. P-values safety factors teamwork climate, safety climate, job satisfaction and working conditions. Not being a Norwegian native speaker was associated with a significantly higher mean score for job satisfaction and a significantly lower mean score for stress recognition. Neither professional background nor work experience were significantly associated with mean scores for any patient safety factor. Patient safety factor scores in nursing homes were poorer than previously found in Norwegian general practices, but similar to findings in out-of-hours primary care clinics. Patient safety culture assessment may help nursing home leaders to initiate targeted quality improvement interventions. Further research should investigate associations between patient safety culture and the occurrence

  19. Existential concerns about death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moestrup, Lene

    2014-01-01

    Background Research suggests that addressing dying patients’ existential concerns can help improve their quality of life. Common existential conditions, such as a search for meaning and considerations about faith, are probably intensified in a palliative setting and existential concerns about death...... are likewise intensified when patients face their impending death. Knowledge of modern, secular existential concerns about death is under-researched, and therefore, it is difficult to develop and implement specifically targeted support to dying patients. Aim The aim of this paper is to present the results from...... a qualitative field study illuminating the variety of dying patients´ existential concerns about their impending death. Method Data was generated through ethnographic fieldwork comprising 17 semi-structured interviews with dying patients and 38 days of participant observation at three Danish hospices. Results...

  20. Hydrologic Areas of Concern

    Data.gov (United States)

    University of New Hampshire — A Hydrologic Area of Concern (HAC) is a land area surrounding a water source, which is intended to include the portion of the watershed in which land uses are likely...

  1. LGBT Caregiver Concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    LGBT CAREGIVER CONCERNS IMPORTANT CONSIDERATIONS FOR LGBT CAREGIVERS LGBT CAREGIVER CONSIDERATIONS As a caregiver for someone with Alzheimer’s disease, you will face various challenges. Some are common among all ...

  2. Domestic hygienic legislation concerning population radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marej, A.N.

    1984-01-01

    Problems and principles of domestic sanitary legislation, concerning population radiation protection, are considered. The legislation envisages preventive measures, directed to contamination preventation of the main environmental objects, it regulates their content in the objects, their human intake and ionizing radiation doses, which might affect population. Existing domestic hygienic guides and safety standards for personnel and population are enumerated and characterized

  3. Nanotoxicity: Dimensional and Morphological Concerns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohmmad Younus Wani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology deals with the construction of new materials, devices, and different technological systems with a wide range of potential applications at the atomic and molecular level. Nanomaterials have attracted great attention for numerous applications in chemical, biological, and industrial world because of their fascinating physicochemical properties. Nanomaterials and nanodevices are being produced intentionally, unintentionally, and manufactured or engineered by different methods and released into the environment without any safety test. Nantoxicity has become the subject of concern in nanoscience and nanotechnology because of the increasing toxic effects of nanomaterials on the living organisms. Nanomaterials can move freely as compared to the large-sized particles; therefore, they can be more toxic than bulky materials. This review article delineates the toxic effects of different types of nanomaterials on the living organisms through different sources, like water, air, contact with skin, and the methods of determinations of these toxic effects.

  4. Nuclear Safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silver, E G [ed.

    1989-01-01

    This document is a review journal that covers significant developments in the field of nuclear safety. Its scope includes the analysis and control of hazards associated with nuclear energy, operations involving fissionable materials, and the products of nuclear fission and their effects on the environment. Primary emphasis is on safety in reactor design, construction, and operation; however, the safety aspects of the entire fuel cycle, including fuel fabrication, spent-fuel processing, nuclear waste disposal, handling of radioisotopes, and environmental effects of these operations, are also treated.

  5. Overview of the environmental concerns of coal transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertram, K.; Dauzvardis, P.; Fradkin, L.; Surles, T.

    1980-02-01

    More than 30 environmental concerns were analyzed for the transportation of coal by rail, roads (trucks), high voltage transmission lines (that is, from mine-mouth generating plants to distribution networks), coal slurry pipelines, and barges. The following criteria were used to identify these problems: (1) real physical environmetal impacts for which control technologies must be developed, or regulation made effective where control technologies presently exist; (2) the level of impact is uncertain, although the potential impact may be moderate to high; (3) the concerns identified by the first two criteria are specific to or exacerbated by coal transportation. Generic transportation problems are not included. The significant environmental problems identified as a result of this study are: (1) rail transport - community traffic disruption and human health, safety, and habitat destruction; (2) coal haul roads - road degradation, traffic congestion and safety, air quality, and noise; (3) high voltage transmission lines - changed land use without local benefits, biological health and safety effects, and disruption of world weather patterns; (4) slurry pipelines - water availability, water quality, and possible spills from non-water slurry pipelines; and (5) barge transport - impacts common to all barge traffic. (DMC)

  6. Phenomenology of men with body dysmorphic disorder concerning penis size compared to men anxious about their penis size and to men without concerns: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veale, David; Miles, Sarah; Read, Julie; Troglia, Andrea; Carmona, Lina; Fiorito, Chiara; Wells, Hannah; Wylie, Kevan; Muir, Gordon

    2015-03-01

    Men with body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) may be preoccupied with the size or shape of the penis, which may be causing significant shame or impairment. Little is known about the characteristics and phenomenology of such men and whether they can be differentiated from men with small penis anxiety (SPA) (who do not have BDD), and men with no penile concerns. Twenty-six men with BDD, 31 men with SPA, and 33 men without penile concerns were compared on psychopathology, experiences of recurrent imagery, avoidance and safety-seeking behaviours. Men with BDD had significantly higher scores than both the SPA group and no penile concern group for measures of imagery, avoidance, safety seeking and general psychopathology. The groups differed on the phenomenology of BDD specific to penile size preoccupation clearly from the worries of SPA, which in turn were different to those of the men without concerns. The common avoidance and safety seeking behaviours were identified in such men that may be used clinically. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Safety sans Frontières: An International Safety Culture Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reader, Tom W; Noort, Mark C; Shorrock, Steven; Kirwan, Barry

    2015-05-01

    The management of safety culture in international and culturally diverse organizations is a concern for many high-risk industries. Yet, research has primarily developed models of safety culture within Western countries, and there is a need to extend investigations of safety culture to global environments. We examined (i) whether safety culture can be reliably measured within a single industry operating across different cultural environments, and (ii) if there is an association between safety culture and national culture. The psychometric properties of a safety culture model developed for the air traffic management (ATM) industry were examined in 17 European countries from four culturally distinct regions of Europe (North, East, South, West). Participants were ATM operational staff (n = 5,176) and management staff (n = 1,230). Through employing multigroup confirmatory factor analysis, good psychometric properties of the model were established. This demonstrates, for the first time, that when safety culture models are tailored to a specific industry, they can operate consistently across national boundaries and occupational groups. Additionally, safety culture scores at both regional and national levels were associated with country-level data on Hofstede's five national culture dimensions (collectivism, power distance, uncertainty avoidance, masculinity, and long-term orientation). MANOVAs indicated safety culture to be most positive in Northern Europe, less so in Western and Eastern Europe, and least positive in Southern Europe. This indicates that national cultural traits may influence the development of organizational safety culture, with significant implications for safety culture theory and practice. © 2015 Society for Risk Analysis.

  8. Conceptions of safety and their lawful realisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindackers, K.H.

    1978-01-01

    Firstly the paper will demonstrate which safety regulations currently apply specifically to power stations. On closer inspection of these safety regulations, it becomes evident that full comprehension of their significance and effects requires specialised knowledge which it is not possible for a layman to have. An attempt will be made to describe in concrete terms a layman's conceptions of safety. In the last part of the paper proposals will be made as to how congruence may be attained in the future between layman's conceptions of safety and their lawful realisation. In this connection the course of the licensing procedure will be considered and also the extent to which the people concerned are involved in it. In the coming years we must work towards an understanding of and trust in the lawful safety regulations by the public. Only in this way can the existing emotions be eradicated and the basis for the agitators' activities be removed. (orig./HP) [de

  9. Myths concerning alpine skiing injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Robert J; Ettlinger, Carl F; Shealy, Jasper E

    2009-11-01

    There are many commonly discussed myths about ski safety that are propagated by industry, physicians, and skiers. Through a review of the literature concerning 12 such topics, this article demonstrates that the following are untrue: (1) Broken legs have been traded for blown-out knees. (2) If you know your DIN (a slang term for release indicator value), you can adjust your own bindings. (3) Toe and heel piece settings must be the same to function properly. (4) Formal ski instruction will make you safer. (5) Very short skis do not need release bindings. (6) Spending a lot of money on children's equipment is not worth the cost. (7) Children need plenty of room in ski boots for their growing feet. (8) If you think you are going to fall, just relax. (9) Exercise can prevent skiing injuries. (10) Lower release settings can reduce the risk of anterior cruciate ligament injury. (11) Buying new ski equipment is safer than renting. (12) Skiing is among the most dangerous of activities. It is important for the skiing public, physicians, and all those interested in improving skiing safety to verify the measures they advocate. The statements analyzed here are simply untrue and have the potential to cause harm if taken as fact by those exposed to these unsupported opinions.

  10. Safety Climate of Commercial Vehicle Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    Enhancing the safety culture within trucking and motor coach industries has become a key area of concern given the potential impact it has on crashes and overall safety. Many organizations recognize that safety is compromised if the culture within th...

  11. Parental concerns towards children and adolescents with epilepsy in Sri Lanka--Qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugupillai, Roshini; Wanigasinghe, Jithangi; Muniyandi, Ravi; Arambepola, Carukshi

    2016-01-01

    Social, cultural, psychological and many other factors significantly impact the lives of epileptic children and their families. Parental concerns towards their children are less known in south Asian children with epilepsy. We aimed to identify the parental concerns regarding their children and adolescents with epilepsy in Sri Lanka. We carried out qualitative study in 3 districts of Sri Lanka, comprising 16 in-depth interviews with parents of children and adolescents with epilepsy and 3 focus group discussions with primary caregivers of epileptic children and key informants (schoolteachers, public health staffs). Content analysis of the interview data was performed. Parental concerns were spread among seven themes that emerged from the content analysis. These concerns were about the child's functioning in areas such as physical, behavioural, psychological and social, education, concerns related to anti-epileptic therapy and epilepsy as a disease. Parents were more concerned about their child's safety, educational achievements and future prospects in terms of employment and marriage. Unpredictability of seizures, fear of stigma and unawareness of epilepsy were the main reasons voiced by the parents for having such concerns. Increased concern and perception of vulnerability was seen among parents whose children had epilepsy and co-morbid illness. Parental concerns towards their children and adolescents show a multidimensional construct. Unpredictability of seizures, fear of stigma and unawareness of epilepsy were identified as key influential factors in moulding the parental concerns. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Food biotechnology: benefits and concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Michael C; Chassy, Bruce M; Harlander, Susan K; Hoban, Thomas J; McGloughlin, Martina N; Akhlaghi, Amin R

    2002-06-01

    Recent advances in agricultural biotechnology have highlighted the need for experimental evidence and sound scientific judgment to assess the benefits and risks to society. Nutrition scientists and other animal biologists need a balanced understanding of the issues to participate in this assessment. To date most modifications to crop plants have benefited producers. Crops have been engineered to decrease pesticide and herbicide usage, protect against stressors, enhance yields and extend shelf life. Beyond the environmental benefits of decreased pesticide and herbicide application, consumers stand to benefit by development of food crops with increased nutritional value, medicinal properties, enhanced taste and esthetic appeal. There remains concern that these benefits come with a cost to the environment or increased risk to the consumer. Most U.S. consumers are not aware of the extent that genetically modified foods have entered the marketplace. Consumer awareness of biotechnology seems to have increased over the last decade, yet most consumers remain confused over the science. Concern over the impact on the safety of the food supply remains low in the United States, but is substantially elevated in Europe. Before a genetically engineered crop is introduced into commerce it must pass regulatory scrutiny by as many as four different federal regulatory bodies to ensure a safe food supply and minimize the risk to the environment. Key areas for more research are evaluation of the nutritional benefits of new crops, further investigation of the environmental impact, and development of better techniques to identify and track genetically engineered products.

  13. Playground Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prevention Fall Prevention Playground Safety Poisoning Prevention Road Traffic Safety Sports Safety Get Email Updates To receive ... at the Consumer Product Safety Commission’s Playground Safety website . References U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission. Injuries and ...

  14. Safety upgrading of the PAKS Nuclear Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vamos, G.; Vigassy, J.

    1993-01-01

    In the last several years the net electricity from the Paks NPP represents almost half of the Hungarian total. The 4 units of Paks belong to the latest generation of the VVER-440 units, the small-sized Russian designed PWRs. Reviewing the main design features of them, the safety merits and safety concerns are summarized. Due to the conservative design and the extensive operating experience the safety merits appear to be more significant than generally believed. The VVER-440 type has two models, the 230 and 213, which have a large number of distinctive safety features. These are highlighted in the section comparisons. A quality assurance program was initiated in Paks very early. A long-term safety upgrading program was also initiated, originating from vendor recommendations, regulatory decisions, in-house operating experience and safety concerns, and independent reviews. The main areas and some examples of the measures are described. This program, like all other activities related to nuclear safety, has been under regulatory control. The specific features of the Hungarian regulatory system are described. For advanced, general and new evaluation of the safety of the units in Paks in accordance with the internationally recommended criteria of the 90's, the project AGNES has been launched with international participation. The scope of this project is summarized. International efforts as the IAEA Regional Project on safety assessment of VVER-440/213 and VVER-440/230 units are underway. Since safety is not only a question of design, but it can be significantly influenced by operations and maintenance practices, the Paks NPP has invited LAEA's OSART and ASSET missions, WANO's Pilot Peer Review

  15. Sexual concerns among kidney transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muehrer, Rebecca J; Lanuza, Dorothy M; Brown, Roger L; Djamali, Arjang

    2014-11-01

    Little is known about the specific sexual concerns of kidney transplant (KTx) recipients. The primary objectives of this study were to: (i) describe the importance of sexuality to KTx recipients; (ii) investigate the sexual concerns of KTx recipients; and (iii) examine the relationship between sexual concerns and quality of life (QOL). A secondary objective was to examine potential sexual concern differences by gender, pre-transplant dialysis status, and donor type. This study employed a cross-sectional, descriptive, correlational design. Sexual concerns were identified using the Sexual Concerns Questionnaire, which contains seven subscales. QOL was measured with the SF-8 and the QOL Uniscale. Nearly 73% of subjects rated sexuality as important. Subscales indicating highest area of sexual concerns were communication with healthcare providers about sexuality (Mean (M) = 2.70) and sexual pleasure concerns (M = 2.45). Higher concern ratings regarding health consequences of sexual activity, quality of sexual relationship, sexual pleasure, sexual functioning problems, and pessimistic beliefs about treatment were significantly, inversely related to QOL. Women had significantly higher scores on the Sexual Pleasure and Communication with Healthcare Providers subscales than men. This study reports the sexual concerns of KTx recipients' who are an average of four yr since surgery, and the relationship of these concerns to QOL. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Markets for Collective Concerns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frankel, Christian; Ossandón, José; Pallesen, Trine

    Despite the recent fall-out of finance, confidence in the market does not seem to be diminishing, but, on the contrary, market mechanisms are becoming key instruments to deal with core contemporary collective concerns, including global warming, education, environmental pollution, supply of energy......, quality of education, poverty and health care (Mirowski 2013). Recent research within STS has started to focus on such kind of arrangements and in this presentation we will critically engage with this literature. Our main results are twofold. On the one hand, we recognize there are important conceptual...... tools already available - such as 'matters of public concern' (Marres 2007) and 'hybrid forums' (Callon et al. 2001; Callon 2009)- that help in framing the particularity of these arrangements. On the other hand, previous STS-market research notions developed mostly in the field of finance studies cannot...

  17. The Question Concerning Thinking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Søren

    2008-01-01

    Martin Heidegger's thought-provoking essay "The Question Concerning Technology" (1977a) placed technology at the heart of philosophy. Heidegger tried to show that the essence of technology provokes humans to think about the world in a very dangerous way. Yet if we follow Heidegger's analysis...... of technology, what role does that ascribe to philosophy? To be able to understand the programmatic scope of Heidegger's question ‘concerning' technology, we need to see it as inseparable from his famous thesis about the end of philosophy (1977c) and what he considers to be the ideal kind of thinking. However......, by doing so, we will in the end realize two important things. First, that Heidegger's declaration of the end of philosophy in fact also means the end of anything we can meaningfully call thinking. Second, that Heidegger's own thinking is completely different from his own ideal of thinking. Our question...

  18. Existential Concerns About Death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moestrup, Lene; Hansen, Helle Ploug

    2015-01-01

    psychology or Kübler-Ross’ theory about death stages. The complex concerns might be explained using Martin Heidegger’s phenomenological thinking. We aimed to illuminate dying patients´ existential concerns about the impending death through a descriptive analysis of semi-structured interviews with 17 cancer...... patients in Danish hospices. The main findings demonstrated how the patients faced the forthcoming death without being anxious of death but sorrowful about leaving life. Furthermore, patients expressed that they avoided thinking about death. However, some had reconstructed specific and positive ideas about...... afterlife and made accurate decisions for practical aspects of their death. The patients wished to focus on positive aspects in their daily life at hospice. It hereby seems important to have ongoing reflections and to include different theoretical perspectives when providing existential support to dying...

  19. Career Concerns in Teams

    OpenAIRE

    Auriol, Emmanuelle; Friebel, Guido; Pechlivanos, Lambros

    2002-01-01

    We investigate how changes in the commitment power of a principal affect cooperation among agents who work in a team. When the principal and her agents are symmetrically uncertain about the agents' innate abilities, workers have career concerns. Then, unless the principal can commit herself to long-term wage contracts, an implicit sabotage incentive emerges. Agents become reluctant to help their teammates. Anticipating this risk, and in order to induce the desired level of cooperation, the pr...

  20. IMPORTANT CONCERN INVESTMENT MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SINTEA (ANGHEL LUCICA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The issue of probabilities, uncertainties and risks has concerned society since ancient times. By probability we can see the possible realization of an act or event under certain conditions. Uncertainty is caused by emotional status of the decision maker due to more subjective factors or to the knowledge to achieve an objective. Risk is a combination of the two elements characterized by a possible description of probabilities under insecurity uncertainty conditions.

  1. Lead toxicity: current concerns.

    OpenAIRE

    Goyer, R A

    1993-01-01

    Over the 20-year period since the first issue of Environmental Health Perspectives was published, there has been considerable progress in the understanding of the potential toxicity of exposure to lead. Many of these advances have been reviewed in published symposia, conferences, and review papers in EHP. This brief review identifies major advances as well as a number of current concerns that present opportunities for prevention and intervention strategies. The major scientific advance has be...

  2. Nuclear safety in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanguy, P.

    1979-01-01

    A brief description of the main safety aspects of the French nuclear energy programme and of the general safety organization is followed by a discussion on the current thinking in CEA on some important safety issues. As far as methodology is concerned, the use of probabilistic analysis in the licensing procedure is being extensively developed. Reactor safety research is aimed at a better knowledge of the safety margins involved in the present designs of both PWRs and LMFBRs. A greater emphasis should be put during the next years in the safety of the nuclear fuel cycle installations, including waste disposals. Finally, it is suggested that further international cooperation in the field of nuclear safety should be developed in order to insure for all countries the very high safety level which has been achieved up till now. (author)

  3. Measuring and benchmarking safety culture: application of the safety attitudes questionnaire to an acute medical admissions unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Relihan, E; Glynn, S; Daly, D; Silke, B; Ryder, S

    2009-12-01

    To assess the safety culture in an acute medical admissions unit (AMAU) of a teaching hospital in order to benchmark results against international data and guide a unit-based, integrated, risk management strategy. The safety attitudes questionnaire (SAQ), a validated instrument for the measurement of safety culture was applied to an AMAU. All AMAU healthcare staff (n = 92) were surveyed: doctors, nurses, healthcare assistants (HCAs) and allied healthcare professionals (AHPs). Safety attitude scores for the overall unit and individual caregiver types were assessed across six domains of safety culture. When compared against an international benchmark, the AMAU scored significantly higher for four of the six safety domains: p < 0.01 for 'teamwork climate', 'safety climate' and 'stress recognition' and p < 0.05 for 'job satisfaction'. The difference between nurse manager scores and the overall mean for the study group was statistically significant for the domains of 'teamwork climate' (p < 0.05) and 'safety climate' (p < 0.01). HCAs scored significantly lower relative to staff overall with regard to 'working conditions' (p < 0.05) and 'perceptions of management' (p < 0.01). The SAQ was successfully applied to an AMAU setting giving a valuable insight into staff issues of concern across the safety spectrum: employee and environmental safety, clinical risk management and medication safety.

  4. Aviation safety and ICAO

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, Jiefang

    2009-01-01

    The thesis addresses the issue of aviation safety under the rule of law. Aviation safety is a global concern. While air transport is considered a safe mode of travel, it is susceptible to inherent risks of flight, the use of force, and terrorist acts. Consequently, within the framework of the

  5. Development of Safety Analysis Technology for Integral Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sim, S. K. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea); Seul, K. W.; Kim, W. S.; Kim, W. K.; Yun, Y. G.; Ahn, H. J.; Lee, J. S.; Sin, A. D. [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Taejeon (Korea)

    2000-03-01

    The Nuclear Desalination Plant(NDP) is being developed to produce electricity and fresh water, and is expected to locate near population zone. In the aspect of safety, it is required to protect the public and environment from the possible releases of fission products and to prevent the fresh water from the contamination of radioactivity. Thus, in a present study, the safety characteristics of the integral reactor adopting passive and inherent safety features significantly different from existing nuclear power plants were investigated based on the design of foreign and domestic integral reactors. Also, safety requirements applicable to the NDP were analyzed based on the regulatory requirements for current and advanced reactor designs, and use requirements for small-medium size reactors. Based on these analyses, some safety concerns to be considered in the design stage have been identified. They includes the use of proven technology for new safety systems, the systematic classification and selection of design basis accidents, and the safety assurance of desalination-related systems. These efforts to identify and resolve the safety concerns in the design stage will provide the early confidence of SMART safety to designers, and the technical basis to evaluate the safety to reviewers in the future. 8 refs., 20 figs., 4 tabs. (Author)

  6. Thermal reactor safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-06-01

    Information is presented concerning new trends in licensing; seismic considerations and system structural behavior; TMI-2 risk assessment and thermal hydraulics; statistical assessment of potential accidents and verification of computational methods; issues with respect to improved safety; human factors in nuclear power plant operation; diagnostics and activities in support of recovery; LOCA transient analysis; unresolved safety issues and other safety considerations; and fission product transport

  7. Hydrogen Technologies Safety Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivkin, C. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Burgess, R. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Buttner, W. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this guide is to provide basic background information on hydrogen technologies. It is intended to provide project developers, code officials, and other interested parties the background information to be able to put hydrogen safety in context. For example, code officials reviewing permit applications for hydrogen projects will get an understanding of the industrial history of hydrogen, basic safety concerns, and safety requirements.

  8. Thermal reactor safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-06-01

    Information is presented concerning new trends in licensing; seismic considerations and system structural behavior; TMI-2 risk assessment and thermal hydraulics; statistical assessment of potential accidents and verification of computational methods; issues with respect to improved safety; human factors in nuclear power plant operation; diagnostics and activities in support of recovery; LOCA transient analysis; unresolved safety issues and other safety considerations; and fission product transport.

  9. Food Safety & Standards

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ An increasing number of people have realized that food safety is an important issue for public health. It not only concerns public health and safety, but also has direct influence on national economic progress and social development. The development and implementation of food safety standards play a vital role in protecting public health, as well as in standardizing and facilitating the sound development of food production and business.

  10. Gastrointestinal safety of celecoxib versus naproxen in patients with cardiothrombotic diseases and arthritis after upper gastrointestinal bleeding (CONCERN): an industry-independent, double-blind, double-dummy, randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Francis K L; Ching, Jessica Y L; Tse, Yee Kit; Lam, Kelvin; Wong, Grace L H; Ng, Siew C; Lee, Vivian; Au, Kim W L; Cheong, Pui Kuan; Suen, Bing Y; Chan, Heyson; Kee, Ka Man; Lo, Angeline; Wong, Vincent W S; Wu, Justin C Y; Kyaw, Moe H

    2017-06-17

    Present guidelines are conflicting for patients at high risk of both cardiovascular and gastrointestinal events who continue to require non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). We hypothesised that a cyclooxygenase-2-selective NSAID plus proton-pump inhibitor is superior to a non-selective NSAID plus proton-pump inhibitor for prevention of recurrent ulcer bleeding in concomitant users of aspirin with previous ulcer bleeding. For this industry-independent, double-blind, double-dummy, randomised trial done in one academic hospital in Hong Kong, we screened patients with arthritis and cardiothrombotic diseases who were presenting with upper gastrointestinal bleeding, were on NSAIDs, and require concomitant aspirin. After ulcer healing, an independent staff member randomly assigned (1:1) patients who were negative for Helicobacter pylori with a computer-generated list of random numbers to receive oral administrations of either celecoxib 100 mg twice per day plus esomeprazole 20 mg once per day or naproxen 500 mg twice per day plus esomeprazole 20 mg once per day for 18 months. All patients resumed aspirin 80 mg once per day. Both patients and investigators were masked to their treatments. The primary endpoint was recurrent upper gastrointestinal bleeding within 18 months. The primary endpoint and secondary safety endpoints were analysed in the modified intention-to-treat population. This study was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00153660. Between May 24, 2005, and Nov 28, 2012, we enrolled 514 patients, assigning 257 patients to each study group, all of whom were included in the intention-to-treat population. Recurrent upper gastrointestinal bleeding occurred in 14 patients in the celecoxib group (nine gastric ulcers and five duodenal ulcers) and 31 patients in the naproxen group (25 gastric ulcers, three duodenal ulcers, one gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer, and two bleeding erosions). The cumulative incidence of recurrent bleeding in 18 months

  11. 77 FR 2017 - Safety Zone; Ice Rescue Exercise; Green Bay, Dyckesville, WI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-13

    ... Environmental Health Risks and Safety Risks. This rule is not an economically significant rule and does not concern an environmental risk to health or risk to safety that may disproportionately affect children... the Port Sector Lake has determined that this ice rescue exercise will pose hazards to the public...

  12. 76 FR 78159 - Safety Zone; Submarine Cable Installation Project; Chicago River South Branch, Chicago, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-16

    ..., Protection of Children from Environmental Health Risks and Safety Risks. This rule is not an economically significant rule and does not concern an environmental risk to health or risk to safety that may... the Captain of the Port Sector Lake Michigan or a designated representative. DATES: This rule is...

  13. Review of activities concerning sodium water reaction in LMFBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajput, A.K.

    1984-01-01

    This paper presents a review of activities concerning safety engineering programme for steam generators of FBT reactor in India. Leak rate and its effect and leak detection system are briefly discussed

  14. Body Image Concerns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El Ansari, Walid; Dibba, Emily; Stock, Christiane

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: This cross-sectional study aimed to determine the socio-demographic, lifestyle and well-being variables that are associated with body image concerns (BIC) and whether these associations differed between female and male students. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey; 3,706 undergraduate students...... (2,699 females, 765 males) from seven universities in the UK completed a self-administered questionnaire that assessed socio-demographic, lifestyle, well-being and BIC based on the Body Shape Questionnaire developed by Cooper et al. Multifactorial logistic regression analysis examined the odds ratios...

  15. Health Data Concerning Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    1960-01-27

    from Machala to Piedras. A less-than-adequate road connects Piedras to Loja . The age of the automobile has not fully arrived in Ecuador and, although...virus from the arthropod and simian reservoirs is not known. 16. Plague. Plague occurs in two provinces of Ecuador : Lojas and Chim- borazo. The disease is...27-01-1960 1 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Health Data Concerning Ecuador 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d

  16. Concerning coal: an anthology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, M.; Hawse, M.L.; Maloney, P.J. [eds.

    1997-12-31

    The anthology takes a humanistic look at coal mining in Illinois. One of its goals is to increase public awareness of coal in American society; it also seeks to enhance understanding of the historical aspects of coal and to study the impact of coal on mining families. Many of the 25 selections in the anthology come from Coal Research Center publications, `Concerning coal` and `Mineral matters`. Articles are arranged in three parts entitled: life in the mining community; mining in folklore, story telling, literature, art and music; and technology as it affected the people of the coal fields. 117 refs., 25 photos. 1 map.

  17. Testing Significance Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachim I. Krueger

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The practice of Significance Testing (ST remains widespread in psychological science despite continual criticism of its flaws and abuses. Using simulation experiments, we address four concerns about ST and for two of these we compare ST’s performance with prominent alternatives. We find the following: First, the 'p' values delivered by ST predict the posterior probability of the tested hypothesis well under many research conditions. Second, low 'p' values support inductive inferences because they are most likely to occur when the tested hypothesis is false. Third, 'p' values track likelihood ratios without raising the uncertainties of relative inference. Fourth, 'p' values predict the replicability of research findings better than confidence intervals do. Given these results, we conclude that 'p' values may be used judiciously as a heuristic tool for inductive inference. Yet, 'p' values cannot bear the full burden of inference. We encourage researchers to be flexible in their selection and use of statistical methods.

  18. Significant Radionuclides Determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo A. Ziegler

    2001-07-31

    The purpose of this calculation is to identify radionuclides that are significant to offsite doses from potential preclosure events for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste expected to be received at the potential Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). In this calculation, high-level radioactive waste is included in references to DOE SNF. A previous document, ''DOE SNF DBE Offsite Dose Calculations'' (CRWMS M&O 1999b), calculated the source terms and offsite doses for Department of Energy (DOE) and Naval SNF for use in design basis event analyses. This calculation reproduces only DOE SNF work (i.e., no naval SNF work is included in this calculation) created in ''DOE SNF DBE Offsite Dose Calculations'' and expands the calculation to include DOE SNF expected to produce a high dose consequence (even though the quantity of the SNF is expected to be small) and SNF owned by commercial nuclear power producers. The calculation does not address any specific off-normal/DBE event scenarios for receiving, handling, or packaging of SNF. The results of this calculation are developed for comparative analysis to establish the important radionuclides and do not represent the final source terms to be used for license application. This calculation will be used as input to preclosure safety analyses and is performed in accordance with procedure AP-3.12Q, ''Calculations'', and is subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (DOE 2000) as determined by the activity evaluation contained in ''Technical Work Plan for: Preclosure Safety Analysis, TWP-MGR-SE-000010'' (CRWMS M&O 2000b) in accordance with procedure AP-2.21Q, ''Quality Determinations and Planning for Scientific, Engineering, and Regulatory Compliance Activities''.

  19. Concerned for Humanity club

    CERN Multimedia

    Concerned for humanity club

    2010-01-01

    Join the Comité International de Soutien à Adlène Hicheur Since October 8, 2009 our colleague Adlène Hicheur, a French-Algerian physicist working in LHCb has been arrested and then held in a French prison under suspicion of terrorism linked with AQMI. No material proof has been presented, only exchanges of messages on some forum sites suspected of Islamism have been mentioned. Adlène has continuously denied any link with AQMI and lives in a Kafkaesque situation since 14 mois. His lawyer has several times asked for his release and these requests have been turned down. As Adlène’s colleagues, we have been chocked by his arrest and are deeply concerned by the prolongation of his detention for his future in particle physics, even if he will be recognized innocent. Few Concerned-club members and colleagues have created an International committee to support Adlène in his defense presently having 65 members. We invite you t...

  20. Active Learning with Rationales for Identifying Operationally Significant Anomalies in Aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Manali; Das, Kamalika; Bilgic, Mustafa; Matthews, Bryan; Nielsen, David Lynn; Oza, Nikunj C.

    2016-01-01

    A major focus of the commercial aviation community is discovery of unknown safety events in flight operations data. Data-driven unsupervised anomaly detection methods are better at capturing unknown safety events compared to rule-based methods which only look for known violations. However, not all statistical anomalies that are discovered by these unsupervised anomaly detection methods are operationally significant (e.g., represent a safety concern). Subject Matter Experts (SMEs) have to spend significant time reviewing these statistical anomalies individually to identify a few operationally significant ones. In this paper we propose an active learning algorithm that incorporates SME feedback in the form of rationales to build a classifier that can distinguish between uninteresting and operationally significant anomalies. Experimental evaluation on real aviation data shows that our approach improves detection of operationally significant events by as much as 75% compared to the state-of-the-art. The learnt classifier also generalizes well to additional validation data sets.

  1. Annual Safety Report 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-09-01

    A safety report from Section K (Nuclear Physics) of the Dutch National Institute for Nuclear and High Energy Physics is presented for 1981. The report begins with general matters concerning safety policy at NIKHEF, licences and expenditure. Works accidents (none of them radiological) are detailed and accident prevention considered. The measurement programme for neutron radiation in the vicinity of the accelerator is described and the results are discussed. The means and results of personnel dosimetry are also presented. The report is concluded with a list of publications concerning safety aspects at NIKHEF. (C.F.)

  2. Fundamental Safety Principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelmalik, W.E.Y.

    2011-01-01

    This work presents a summary of the IAEA Safety Standards Series publication No. SF-1 entitled F UDAMENTAL Safety PRINCIPLES p ublished on 2006. This publication states the fundamental safety objective and ten associated safety principles, and briefly describes their intent and purposes. Safety measures and security measures have in common the aim of protecting human life and health and the environment. These safety principles are: 1) Responsibility for safety, 2) Role of the government, 3) Leadership and management for safety, 4) Justification of facilities and activities, 5) Optimization of protection, 6) Limitation of risks to individuals, 7) Protection of present and future generations, 8) Prevention of accidents, 9)Emergency preparedness and response and 10) Protective action to reduce existing or unregulated radiation risks. The safety principles concern the security of facilities and activities to the extent that they apply to measures that contribute to both safety and security. Safety measures and security measures must be designed and implemented in an integrated manner so that security measures do not compromise safety and safety measures do not compromise security.

  3. Issues affecting advanced passive light-water reactor safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beelman, R.J.; Fletcher, C.D.; Modro, S.M.

    1992-01-01

    Next generation commercial reactor designs emphasize enhanced safety through improved safety system reliability and performance by means of system simplification and reliance on immutable natural forces for system operation. Simulating the performance of these safety systems will be central to analytical safety evaluation of advanced passive reactor designs. Yet the characteristically small driving forces of these safety systems pose challenging computational problems to current thermal-hydraulic systems analysis codes. Additionally, the safety systems generally interact closely with one another, requiring accurate, integrated simulation of the nuclear steam supply system, engineered safeguards and containment. Furthermore, numerical safety analysis of these advanced passive reactor designs wig necessitate simulation of long-duration, slowly-developing transients compared with current reactor designs. The composite effects of small computational inaccuracies on induced system interactions and perturbations over long periods may well lead to predicted results which are significantly different than would otherwise be expected or might actually occur. Comparisons between the engineered safety features of competing US advanced light water reactor designs and analogous present day reactor designs are examined relative to the adequacy of existing thermal-hydraulic safety codes in predicting the mechanisms of passive safety. Areas where existing codes might require modification, extension or assessment relative to passive safety designs are identified. Conclusions concerning the applicability of these codes to advanced passive light water reactor safety analysis are presented

  4. Construction of the All-region Linkage System for Emergency Management of Agricultural Product Quality and Safety in West China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua; YU; Yanbin; QI; Yubao; YAN

    2013-01-01

    Quality and safety of agricultural products are significant for national socioeconomic development,sustainable development,and vital interests of people.To safeguard quality and safety of agricultural products in west China is to safeguard economic safety and ecological safety of the country,public health and social stability,of which an important task is to properly handle emergencies concerning quality and safety of agricultural products.Considering actual conditions of west China,suggestions are given to construct the all-region linkage system for emergency management of agricultural product quality and safety in the local area,enhance the all-region linkage,and improve the linkage efficiency.

  5. Global environmental concerns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddiqi, T.A.

    1990-01-01

    Increased concern about global climate change is leading to an examination of options for reducing the emissions of gases believed to be the principal contributors to the Greenhouse Effect. Carbon dioxide is believed to be the largest contributor to such an effect, and the use of fossil fuels is the largest source of carbon dioxide emissions. geothermal energy is likely to receive increased attention in the years ahead as a way to reduce emissions of CO 2 . Several countries in Asia and the Pacific already have active geothermal programs. The Philippines have the second-largest installed geothermal capacity in the world. Japan and New Zealand have used geothermal energy for several decades. The present and future contributions of geothermal energy to the overall energy supply and reductions in carbon dioxide emissions in Asia and the Pacific are discussed in this paper

  6. Aesthetics of Concern

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Line Marie

    2013-01-01

    In the wake of Hurricane Katrina in 2005 and the tsunami that hit Japan in 2011, several artists turned  their  practices  towards  the  subject  of  disaster  support.  Drawing on the philosophy of Bruno Latour, I argue that these artistic practices come  to articulate and  represent the multitude of concerns interwoven with disaster.  ...

  7. Public concerns and alternative nuclear power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayo, L.H.

    1980-02-01

    The basic task undertaken in this study was to assess the relative public acceptability of three general types of nuclear power systems as alternatives to the existing Light Water Reactor (LWR) system. Concerns registered toward nuclear power constituted the basic data for this assessment. The primary measure adopted for determining the significance of concerns was the degree of difficulty posed by the concern to the nuclear power decisional structure in the establishment and maintenance of norms to control risks or to advance intended energy objectives. Alleviations or exacerbations of concern resulting from particular attributes of alternative systems were measured from an LWR baseline

  8. Safety issues and their ranking for WWER-440 model 213 nuclear power plants. A publication of the extrabudgetary programme on the safety of WWER and RBMK nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-04-01

    The objective of this report is to present a consolidated list of generic safety concerns, called safety issues, ranked according to their safety significance and the corrective measures to improve safety. It is intended for use as a reference to facilitate the development of plant specific safety improvement programmes and to serve as a basis for reviewing their implementation. Section 2 provides and overview of the impact of all relevant issues on the main safety functions and other aspects important to overall plant safety. Section 3 presents safety issues identified in design according to the structure described below. Section 4 presents the safety issues in the area of operation, according to the same structure except that no ranking is given. At the end of Section 2, Tables 1 and 2 present a summary of all safety issues in a tabular form. 138 refs, tabs

  9. Public concern for nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bibb, W.R.

    1975-01-01

    Three principles that the U.S. must follow in order to maintain its present way of life are stated: practice of energy conservation; substitution of the more plentiful fuels for the scarce; and development of synthetic fuels and unconventional energy sources. After describing the organizing of the energy agencies and reviewing the history of the nuclear power program in the U.S., the author then discusses the public's concern for nuclear energy which includes radioactive discharges, reactor safety, high-level wastes, and shipment of radioactive materials. He refers to the study by Dr. Norman C. Rasmussen released in 1974, which indicates that the likelihood of a person living in the general vicinity of a reactor being injured in any one year in a reactor accident is one chance in 150 million as compared to his chance of being injured in an automobile accident in that same year as one in 130. On a broader societal viewpoint, if there were 100 reactors operating in the U.S., one individual of the 15 million inhabitants living in the vicinity of these reactors might be killed and two individuals might be injured every 25 years as compared to 1.5 million injuries and 55,000 fatalities in 1974 due to automobile accidents. The author concludes that public acceptance of nuclear power will depend on whether these plants, after a reasonable maturing period, deliver the reliable, economic, and safe power that has been proclaimed

  10. Sex differences in principal farm operators' tractor driving safety beliefs and behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, H P; Westneat, S C; Browning, S R; Piercy, L R; Struttmann, T

    2000-01-01

    To examine the widely accepted hypothesis that farm women are more concerned with safety issues and behaviors than their male counterparts are. A telephone survey was administered to a random sample of Kentucky principal farm operators, 90 of whom were women. Participants were questioned about their tractor safety beliefs and practices. No significant sex differences in tractor safety perceptions and behavior were observed. Socialization of women to the role of principal farm operator may override their typically greater sensitivity to safety issues, an important consideration when designing safety campaigns for this population.

  11. Nuclear safety in Eastern Europe, assessment of one year at the G7 presidency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The significant advances accomplished during 1996 by the G7 commission, presided by France, towards the closure of Chernobylsk nuclear plant and more generally the safety enhancement in nuclear facilities in Eastern Europe, are reviewed: the strategy was to impede the main accident risks through immediate technical enhancements on the least safe nuclear plants, intensification of operation safety and the implementation of efficient safety regulations through independent organizations; and secondly, through the implementation of a sustainable safety level by the means of strong reforms in the energy sector, investments and introduction of international safety practices. The main results achieved on these concerns in Ukraine are outlined

  12. Maturing safety in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debenham, A.; Kovan, D.

    1994-01-01

    AEA Technology provides UK nuclear industry with technical services and R+D support, concentrating on plant performance, safety and environmental issues. Today, safety has a new set of priorities, reflected by a more demanding regulatory regime which takes account of concerns such as human factors, severe accidents, risks during plant outages, the need for improving safety culture, etc

  13. A prioritization of generic safety issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emrit, R.; Riggs, R.; Milstead, W.; Pittman, J.

    1991-07-01

    This report presents the priority rankings for generic safety issues and related to nuclear power plants. The purpose of these rankings is to assist in the timely and efficient allocation of NRC resources for the resolution of those safety issues that have a significant potential for reducing risk. The report focuses on the prioritization of generic safety issues. Issues primarily concerned with the licensing process or environmental protection and not directly related to safety have been excluded from prioritization. The prioritized issues include: TMI Action Plan items under development; previously proposed issues covered by Task Action Plans, except issues designated as Un-resolved Safety Issues (USIs) which had already been assigned high priority; and newly-proposed issues. Future supplements to this report will include the prioritization of additional issues. The safety priority rankings are High, Medium, Low, and Drop and have been assigned on the basis of risk significance estimates, the ratio of risk to costs and other impacts estimated to result if resolutions of the safety issues were implemented, and the consideration of uncertainties and other quantitative or qualitative factors. To the extent practical, estimates are quantitative. 1310 refs

  14. 76 FR 411 - Regulatory Guidance Concerning Electronic Signatures and Documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-04

    ... guidance, including memoranda and letters, may no longer be relied upon to the extent they are inconsistent... Concerning Electronic Signatures and Documents AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of regulatory guidance. SUMMARY: FMCSA issues regulatory guidance concerning the...

  15. Safety culture as an element of contact and cooperation between utilities, research and safety authorities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoegberg, L.

    1994-01-01

    The safety culture approach may simply be seen as a recognition of the close interdependence between safety and organisational processes: achievement of technical safety objectives will largely depend on the quality of the implementation processes in the organisations concerned. With a slight modification of the original INSAG formulation, SKI defines safety culture as 'a consciously formulated and implemented set of values in an organisation, which establishes that, as an overriding priority, safety issues receive the attention warranted by their significance'. In practice, a high level of safety culture means the systematic organisation and implementation of a number of activities aimed at creating a high quality defence in depth against both technical and human failures that may cause accidents. An enquiring and learning attitude is a key element of such a safety culture. For example, to prevent accidents, the organisation always needs to be reactive to incidents, by performing proper root cause analysis of both technical and organisational factors, and taking appropriate corrective actions. The long term organisational objective should be to be proactive and identify deficiencies in technology and organisation that may lead to serious incidents or, at worst, accidents and take corrective action even before actual occurrence of incidents of substantial safety significance. (author) 13 refs

  16. Safety KPIs - Monitoring of safety performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Lališ

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to provide brief overview of aviation safety development focusing on modern trends represented by implementation of Safety Key Performance Indicators. Even though aviation is perceived as safe means of transport, it is still struggling with its complexity given by long-term growth and robustness which it has reached today. Thus nowadays safety issues are much more complex and harder to handle than ever before. We are more and more concerned about organizational factors and control mechanisms which have potential to further increase level of aviation safety. Within this paper we will not only introduce the concept of Key Performance Indicators in area of aviation safety as an efficient control mechanism, but also analyse available legislation and documentation. Finally we will propose complex set of indicators which could be applied to Czech Air Navigation Service Provider.

  17. Use of the Home Safety Self-Assessment Tool (HSSAT) within Community Health Education to Improve Home Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, Beverly P; Almonte, Tiffany; Vasil, Andrea

    2016-10-01

    This exploratory research examined the benefits of a health education program utilizing the Home Safety Self-Assessment Tool (HSSAT) to increase perceived knowledge of home safety, recognition of unsafe activities, ability to safely perform activities, and develop home safety plans of 47 older adults. Focus groups in two senior centers explored social workers' perspectives on use of the HSSAT in community practice. Results for the health education program found significant differences between reported knowledge of home safety (p = .02), ability to recognize unsafe activities (p = .01), safely perform activities (p = .04), and develop a safety plan (p = .002). Social workers identified home safety as a major concern and the HSSAT a promising assessment tool. Research has implications for reducing environmental fall risks.

  18. Concerning ethical risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeckle, F.

    1991-01-01

    After a fundamental consideration of the concept of responsibility and 'long-term responsibility' for late sequelae, the problems of an ehtical assessment of risks were illustrated: The concept of risk itself poses three problems - predicting the probability of occurrence, assessing the damage = subjective classification of the degree of damage, determining whether the advantages outweigh the risks. It is not possible to weigh the advantages and risks against each other without assessing the goals and the priorities which have been set. Here ethics is called for, because it concerns itself with the reasonableness of evaluative decisions. Its task is to enable us to become aware of and comprehend our system of values in all of its complexity in reference to real life. Ethics can only fulfill its task if it helps us to adopt an integral perspective, i.e. if it centers on the human being. 'One must assess all technical and economic innovations in terms of whether they are beneficial to the development of mankind on a long-term basis. They are only to be legitimized insofar as they prove themselves to be a means of liberating mankind and contributing to his sense of dignity and identity, as a means of bringing human beings together and encouraging them to care for one another, and as a means of protecting the natural basis of our existence. (orig./HSCH) [de

  19. Non-retrieval of inferior vena cava filters as a patient safety concern: evaluation of a new process improvement project to increase retrieval rates in a vascular and interventional radiology clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Joshua; Talbert, Jeffery; Pennington, Ryan; Han, Qiong; Raissi, Driss

    2018-01-01

    Retrieval of inferior vena cava filters (IVCFs) is important to decrease the long-term risk of complications associated with indwelling devices. Our hospital experienced low retrieval rates and implemented a low-cost intervention and evaluation for quality improvement. The working hypothesis was that a simple, mailed letter intervention could increase retrieval rates by increasing patient and primary care provider knowledge of the need for retrieval. For all prospective patients who received a retrievable IVCF during the intervention period from January 1, 2014 to February 29, 2016, patients and their primary care providers were mailed letters encouraging contact with the clinic for evaluation of eligibility for retrieval. The main outcome was retrieval of the IVCF if clinically indicated with a secondary outcome of time-to-retrieval. A pre-intervention control group from October 1, 2011 to December 31, 2013 was used to evaluate the impact of the intervention. Competing risks, time-to-event analysis was used to compare the pre- and post-intervention period retrieval rates correcting for patients who died during follow-up. Between the pre- and post-intervention periods, crude retrieval rates increased from 4.4% to 8.1% with a 12-fold change at comparable time points. The time-to-retrieval in the pre-intervention period was a mean (SD) of 503 (207) days with a median (IQR) of 505 (301-742). In the post-intervention period, time-to-retrieval was a mean (SD) of 119 (83) days and with median (IQR) of 128 (38-164) days. This low-cost intervention significantly increased retrieval rates in a single clinic. However, retrieval rates remain low and can be further improved. Ongoing interventions, including improved patient follow-up and physician education, are being implemented to further improve retrieval and use of inferior vena cava filters. Implanting clinics should implement quality improvement initiatives to improve patient care and follow-up with IVCFs to ensure

  20. Corporate financial decision-makers' perceptions of workplace safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yueng-Hsiang; Leamon, Tom B; Courtney, Theodore K; Chen, Peter Y; DeArmond, Sarah

    2007-07-01

    This study, through a random national survey, explored how senior financial executives or managers (those who determined high-level budget, resource allocation, and corporate priorities) of medium-to-large companies perceive important workplace safety issues. The three top-rated safety priorities in resource allocation reported by the participants (overexertion, repetitive motion, and bodily reaction) were consistent with the top three perceived causes of workers' compensation losses. The greatest single safety concerns reported were overexertion, repetitive motion, highway accidents, falling on the same level and bodily reaction. A majority of participants believed that the indirect costs associated with workplace injury were higher than the direct costs. Our participants believed that money spent improving workplace safety would have significant returns. The perceived top benefits of an effective workplace safety program were increased productivity, reduced cost, retention, and increased satisfaction among employees. The perceived most important safety modification was safety training. The top reasons senior financial executives gave for believing their safety programs were better than those at other companies were that their companies paid more attention to and emphasized safety, they had better classes and training focused on safety, and they had teams/individuals focused specifically on safety.

  1. Transportation safety training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, E.

    1990-01-01

    Over the past 25 years extensive federal legislation involving the handling and transport of hazardous materials/waste has been passed that has resulted in numerous overlapping regulations administered and enforced by different federal agencies. The handling and transport of hazardous materials/waste involves a significant number of workers who are subject to a varying degree of risk should an accident occur during handling or transport. Effective transportation training can help workers address these risks and mitigate them, and at the same time enable ORNL to comply with the federal regulations concerning the transport of hazardous materials/waste. This presentation will outline how the Environmental and Health Protection Division's Technical Resources and Training Section at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, working with transportation and waste disposal personnel, have developed and implemented a comprehensive transportation safety training program to meet the needs of our workers while satisfying appropriate federal regulations. 8 refs., 3 tabs

  2. Ethnic differences in ecological concerns: Spanish-speaking Hispanics are more concerned than others

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burger, Joanna; Greenberg, Michael

    2006-01-01

    We postulated that environmental concern encompasses a wide range of different issues, often lumping pollution with habitat loss (or land use) and ecological resources (fish and wildlife). In this paper, we compare perceptions about a range of environmental and ecological resource issues, and explore ethnic/racial differences. We surveyed 1513 residents of New Jersey about 'environmental concerns', using both general environmental questions (two questions: How serious are environmental problems in New Jersey? Are you concerned about the loss of open space?) and ecological resource questions (12 questions: e.g., how important is planting trees in your neighborhood, how concerned are you about loss of breeding and feeding habitat for fish and birds?) in New Jersey. Not all concerns were rated equally. For the ecological questions, there were no ethnic differences in concerns over preserving areas around water supplies, loss of places to hunt and fish, and loss of places for quiet walks and cycling, but there were for the other 9 ecological concerns. For eight of these nine concerns, Spanish-speaking Hispanics were more concerned than others (including English-speaking Hispanics). We divided the ecological resources into three categories: ecological services (clean water and safety), ecological resources (fish and wildlife), and recreational services. The strongest correlates of people's association with enlarging and enhancing recreational services were Spanish-speaking Hispanics, who are supportive of regulations and believe local government is not doing enough for environmental problems. People concerned about the loss of ecological resources and open space believe the federal government and the state are not doing enough for the environment, were non-Hispanic White, want continued environmental regulations, were longer-term residents, were high school graduates, and were older (45-54 years). People interested in ecological services were college-educated, non

  3. Controlled versus automatic processes: which is dominant to safety? The moderating effect of inhibitory control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaoshan Xu

    Full Text Available This study explores the precursors of employees' safety behaviors based on a dual-process model, which suggests that human behaviors are determined by both controlled and automatic cognitive processes. Employees' responses to a self-reported survey on safety attitudes capture their controlled cognitive process, while the automatic association concerning safety measured by an Implicit Association Test (IAT reflects employees' automatic cognitive processes about safety. In addition, this study investigates the moderating effects of inhibition on the relationship between self-reported safety attitude and safety behavior, and that between automatic associations towards safety and safety behavior. The results suggest significant main effects of self-reported safety attitude and automatic association on safety behaviors. Further, the interaction between self-reported safety attitude and inhibition and that between automatic association and inhibition each predict unique variances in safety behavior. Specifically, the safety behaviors of employees with lower level of inhibitory control are influenced more by automatic association, whereas those of employees with higher level of inhibitory control are guided more by self-reported safety attitudes. These results suggest that safety behavior is the joint outcome of both controlled and automatic cognitive processes, and the relative importance of these cognitive processes depends on employees' individual differences in inhibitory control. The implications of these findings for theoretical and practical issues are discussed at the end.

  4. Auto Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Auto Safety KidsHealth / For Parents / Auto Safety What's in this ... by teaching some basic rules. Importance of Child Safety Seats Using a child safety seat (car seat) ...

  5. Nuclear Safety Culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    Ethics is caring about people and Safety is caring that no physical harm comes to people.Therefore Safety is a type of Ethical Behavior. Culture: is The Way We Do Things Here.Safety Culture is mixture of organization traditions, values, attitudes and behaviors modeled by Its leaders and internalized by its members that serve to make nuclear safety the overriding priority. Safety Culture is that assembly of characteristics and attitudes in Organisations and individuals which established that, as an overriding priority, nuclear plant safety issues receive the attention warranted by their significance

  6. Alignment of concerns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Tariq Osman; Bansler, Jørgen P.; Kensing, Finn

    E-health promises to enable and support active patient participation in chronic care. However, these fairly recent innovations are complicated matters and emphasize significant challenges, such as patients’ and clinicians’ different ways of conceptualizing disease and illness. Informed by insight...... from medical phenomenology and our own empirical work in telemonitoring and medical care of heart patients, we propose a design rationale for e-health systems conceptualized as the ‘alignment of concerns’....

  7. Nuclear power safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency, the organization concerned with worldwide nuclear safety has produced two international conventions to provide (1) prompt notification of nuclear accidents and (2) procedures to facilitate mutual assistance during an emergency. IAEA has also expanded operational safety review team missions, enhanced information exchange on operational safety events at nuclear power plants, and planned a review of its nuclear safety standards to ensure that they include the lessons learned from the Chernobyl nuclear plant accident. However, there appears to be a nearly unanimous belief among IAEA members that may attempt to impose international safety standards verified by an international inspection program would infringe on national sovereignty. Although several Western European countries have proposed establishing binding safety standards and inspections, no specific plant have been made; IAEA's member states are unlikely to adopt such standards and an inspection program

  8. Material problems concerning the safety of light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bocek, M.; Dienst, W.; Hofmann, P.; Leistikow, S.

    The problems dealt with in this lecture and the corresponding investigations refer to the behavior of LWR fuel rods at loss-of-coolant accidents. In the foreground is the deformation of zircaloy 4 cladding until rupture will take place, the following aspects being pointed out: obstruction of emergency cooling of fuel assemblies by heavily deformed cladding tubes, release of radioactive fission products through cracks in the cladding, local fragmentation of the fuel rods caused by extensive embrittlement of the cladding tubes. (orig./IHOE) [de

  9. Materials of Criticality Safety Concern in Waste Packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, S.L.; Day, B.A.

    2006-01-01

    10 CFR 71.55 requires in part that the fissile material package remain subcritical when considering 'the most reactive credible configuration consistent with the chemical and physical form of the material'. As waste drums and packages may contain unlimited types of materials, determination of the appropriately bounding moderator and reflector materials to ensure compliance with 71.55 requires a comprehensive analysis. Such an analysis was performed to determine the materials or elements that produce the most reactive configuration with regards to both moderation and reflection of a Pu-239 system. The study was originally performed for the TRUPACT-II shipping package and thus the historical fissile mass limit for the package, 325 g Pu-239, was used [1]. Reactivity calculations were performed with the SCALE package to numerically assess the moderation or reflection merits of the materials [2]. Additional details and results are given in SAIC-1322-001 [3]. The development of payload controls utilizing process knowledge to determine the classification of special moderator and/or reflector materials and the associated fissile mass limit is also addressed. (authors)

  10. 3D Printing in Makerspaces: Health and Safety Concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharti, Neelam

    2017-01-01

    3D (three-dimensional) printing is included in makerspaces around the world and has become increasingly affordable and useful. Most makerspaces use Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM)-based 3D printers, using polylactic acid (PLA) and acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) as printing materials. However, heating PLA and ABS to high temperatures emits…

  11. Testing tool for software concerning nuclear power plant safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulc'h, J.; Le Meur, M.; Collart, J.M.; Segalard, J.; Uberschlag, J.

    1984-11-01

    In the present case, softwares to be analyzed are all written in assembler language. This paper presents the study and the realization of a tool to analyze softwares which have an important role for nuclear reactor protection and sauvegarde: principles of the tool design, working principle, realization and evolution of dynamic analyze tool [fr

  12. Road safety in India: A Public Health Concern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shradha S Parsekar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Road traffic accident (RTA is one of the major preventable public health problems and is on the rise which can be attributed to increase in the number of vehicles and lifestyle changes and risky attitudes. This paper is intended to search for available published information which in turn might help the policy makers as well as practitioners to make use of it. Methods: The information has been gathered from papers related to RTAs from various databases such as PubMed, Google scholar, government websites to get an overview in India for the last 15 years. Result and Conclusion: The burden of RTA was found to be considerably high globally as well as in India. RTA causes a number of effects which can be: economical, physical, psychological and social. The burden of RTA is on the rise which makes it necessary to take a multi-sectoral approach in its prevention and control

  13. Active and intelligent food packaging: legal aspects and safety concerns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dainelli, D.; Gontard, N.; Spyropoulos, D.; Zondervan-van den Beuken, E.; Tobback, P.

    2008-01-01

    'Active and intelligent' (A&I) food packaging is based on a deliberate interaction of the packaging with the food and/or its direct environment. This article presents: (i) the main types of materials developed for food contact; (ii) the global market and the future trends of active and intelligent

  14. Safety concerns with the Centers for Disease Control opioid calculator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fudin J

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Jeffrey Fudin,1–4 Mena Raouf,2 Erica L Wegrzyn,2–4 Michael E Schatman5,61Scientific and Clinical Affairs, Remitigate, LLC, Delmar, NY, USA; 2Stratton VA Medical Center, Albany, NY, USA; 3Western New England University College of Pharmacy, Springfield, MA, USA; 4Albany College of Pharmacy & Health Sciences, Albany, NY, USA; 5Research and Network Development, Boston Pain Care, Waltham, MA, USA; 6Department of Public Health & Community Medicine, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, USAMorphine milligram equivalence (MME and other comparable acronyms have been employed in federal pain guidelines and used by policy makers to limit opioid prescribing.1–5 On March 18, 2016, the Centers for Disease Control (CDC released its Guideline for Prescribing Opioids for Chronic Pain.1 The guidelines provided 12 recommendations for “primary care clinicians prescribing opioids for chronic pain outside of active cancer treatment, palliative care, and end-of-life care”. One of the CDC recommendations states that clinicians “should avoid increasing dosage to ≥90 MME/day or carefully justify a decision to titrate dosage to ≥90 MME/day”.1

  15. Concern as motivation for protection: an investigation of mothers' concern about daughters' breast cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuberger, Lindsay; Silk, Kami J; Yun, Doshik; Bowman, Nicholas David; Anderson, Jennifer

    2011-11-01

    The present study surveyed mothers with daughters (N = 386) to investigate how mothers' concern about their daughters' breast cancer risk influenced intentions to engage in preventive behaviors. Using protection motivation theory as a framework, self-efficacy, response efficacy, and level of concern were posited to influence protective behavioral intention in distinct ways. Results from regression analyses indicate that self-efficacy, response efficacy, and mothers' concern are significant predictors of intentions to engage in preventive behaviors with daughters. In addition, a content analysis of mothers' open-ended reasons for their concern about their daughters' breast cancer risk yield a list of specific concerns and trends that vary by concern level and individual comment valence. The authors discuss implications for incorporating mothers' concerns into breast cancer prevention messages as a novel strategy for campaign designers.

  16. Concern as Motivation for Protection: An Investigation of Mothers’ Concern About Daughters’ Breast Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    NEUBERGER, LINDSAY; SILK, KAMI J.; YUN, DOSHIK; BOWMAN, NICHOLAS DAVID; ANDERSON, JENNIFER

    2012-01-01

    The current study surveyed mothers with daughters (N=386) to investigate how mothers’ concern about their daughters’ breast cancer risk influenced intentions to engage in preventive behaviors. Using Protection Motivation Theory as a framework, self-efficacy, response efficacy and level of concern were posited to influence protective behavioral intention in distinct ways. Results from regression analyses indicate that self-efficacy, response efficacy, and mothers’ concern are significant predictors of intentions to engage in preventive behaviors with daughters. Additionally, a content analysis of mothers’ open-ended reasons for their concern about their daughters’ breast cancer risk yield a list of specific concerns as well as trends that vary by concern level and individual comment valence. Implications for incorporating mothers’ concerns into breast cancer prevention messages are discussed as a novel strategy for campaign designers. PMID:22070448

  17. The development of safety requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jorel, M.

    2009-01-01

    This document describes the safety approach followed in France for the design of nuclear reactors. This safety approach is based on safety principles from which stem safety requirements that set limiting values for specific parameters. The improvements in computerized simulation, the use of more adequate new materials, a better knowledge of the concerned physical processes, the changes in the reactor operations (higher discharge burnups for instance) have to be taken into account for the definition of safety criteria and the setting of limiting values. The developments of the safety criteria linked to the risks of cladding failure and loss of primary coolant are presented. (A.C.)

  18. Safety improvement of Paks nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vamos, G.

    1999-01-01

    Safety upgrading completed in the early nineties at the Paks NPP include: replacement of steam generator safety valves and control valves; reliability improvement of the electrical supply system; modification of protection logic; enhancement of the fire protection; construction of full scope Training Simulator. Design safety upgrading measures achieved in recent years were concerned with: relocation of steam generator emergency feed-water supply; emergency gas removal from the primary coolant system; hydrogen management in the containment; protection against sumps; preventing of emergency core cooling system tanks from refilling. Increasing seismic resistance, containment assessment, refurbishment of reactor protection system, improving reliability of emergency electrical supply, analysis of internal hazards are now being implemented. Safety upgrading measures which are being prepared include: bleed and feed procedures; reactor over-pressurisation protection in cold state; treatment of steam generator primary to secondary leak accidents. Operational safety improvements are dealing with safety culture, training measures and facilities; symptom based emergency operating procedures; in-service inspection; fire protection. The significance of international cooperation is emphasised in view of achieving nuclear safety standards recognised in EU

  19. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-03-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (October - December 1993) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  20. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-11-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (July - September 1992) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication