WorldWideScience

Sample records for significant right-left foot

  1. What is Beyond Right/Left?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyrberg, Torben Bech

    2009-01-01

    The article looks at New Labour's move beyond right/left in the mid/late 1990s, which is an occasion to spell out the nature of right/left and what it means for democracy. In contrast to both defenders and critics of this move I argue in the first part that right/left is not an empty label bound up...... with the cleavage-lines of industrial society, but that it is an orientational metaphor which is articulated with others-in/out, up/down and front/back-and that we are in the process of moving beyond the industrial society right/left prototype. The second part looks at where New Labour is heading when moving beyond...... right/left. I argue that the new hegemonic orientation is that of front/back, which designs political renewal as a response to the social changes cutting across the outdated lines of contestation of partisan politics. The democratic problem of this move lies in squeezing politics between technocratic...

  2. Increased Mortality in Diabetic Foot Ulcer Patients: The Significance of Ulcer Type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chammas, N. K.; Hill, R. L. R.; Edmonds, M. E.

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic foot ulcer (DFU) patients have a greater than twofold increase in mortality compared with nonulcerated diabetic patients. We investigated (a) cause of death in DFU patients, (b) age at death, and (c) relationship between cause of death and ulcer type. This was an eleven-year retrospective study on DFU patients who attended King's College Hospital Foot Clinic and subsequently died. A control group of nonulcerated diabetic patients was matched for age and type of diabetes mellitus. The cause of death was identified from death certificates (DC) and postmortem (PM) examinations. There were 243 DFU patient deaths during this period. Ischaemic heart disease (IHD) was the major cause of death in 62.5% on PM compared to 45.7% on DC. Mean age at death from IHD on PM was 5 years lower in DFU patients compared to controls (68.2 ± 8.7 years versus 73.1 ± 8.0 years, P = 0.015). IHD as a cause of death at PM was significantly linked to neuropathic foot ulcers (OR 3.064, 95% CI 1.003–9.366, and P = 0.049). Conclusions. IHD is the major cause of premature mortality in DFU patients with the neuropathic foot ulcer patients being at a greater risk. PMID:27213157

  3. Clinical significance of the isolation of Staphylococcus epidermidis from bone biopsy in diabetic foot osteomyelitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Aragón-Sánchez

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Coagulase-negative staphylococci are considered as microorganisms with little virulence and usually as contaminants. In order to establish the role of Staphylococcus epidermidis as a pathogen in diabetic foot osteomyelitis, in addition to the isolation of the sole bacterium from the bone it will be necessary to demonstrate the histopathological changes caused by the infection. Methods: A consecutive series of 222 diabetic patients with foot osteomyelitis treated surgically in the Diabetic Foot Unit at La Paloma Hospital (Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Canary Islands, Spain between 1 October 2002 and 31 October 2008. From the entire series including 213 bone cultures with 241 isolated organisms, we have analyzed only the 139 cases where Staphylococci were found. We analyzed several variables between the two groups: Staphylococcus aureus versus Staphylococcus epidermidis. Results: Of the 134 patients included in this study, Staphlylococcus epidermidis was found as the sole bacterium isolated in 11 cases and accompanied by other bacteria in 12 cases. Staphlylococcus aureus was found as the sole bacterium isolated in 72 cases and accompanied by other bacteria in 39 cases. Histopathological changes were found in the cases of osteomyelitis where Staphylococcus epidermidis was the sole bacterium isolated. Acute osteomyelitis was found to a lesser extent when Staphylococcus epidermidis was the sole bacterium isolated but without significant differences with the cases where Staphylococcus aureus was the sole bacterium isolated. Conclusion: Staphylococcus epidermidis should be considered as a real pathogen, not only a contaminant, in diabetic patients with foot osteomyelitis when the bacterium is isolated from the bone. No differences in the outcomes of surgical treatment have been found with cases which Staphlylococcus aureus was isolated.

  4. Geckos significantly alter foot orientation to facilitate adhesion during downhill locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birn-Jeffery, Aleksandra V; Higham, Timothy E

    2014-10-01

    Geckos employ their adhesive system when moving up an incline, but the directionality of the system may limit function on downhill surfaces. Here, we use a generalist gecko to test whether limb modulation occurs on downhill slopes to allow geckos to take advantage of their adhesive system. We examined three-dimensional limb kinematics for geckos moving up and down a 45° slope. Remarkably, the hind limbs were rotated posteriorly on declines, resulting in digit III of the pes facing a more posterior direction (opposite to the direction of travel). No significant changes in limb orientation were found in any other condition. This pes rotation leads to a dramatic shift in foot function that facilitates the use of the adhesive system as a brake/stabilizer during downhill locomotion and, although this rotation is not unique to geckos, it is significant for the deployment of adhesion. Adhesion is not just advantageous for uphill locomotion but can be employed to help deal with the effects of gravity during downhill locomotion, highlighting the incredible multi-functionality of this key innovation. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  5. Accessory ossicles and sesamoid bones of the ankle and foot: imaging findings, clinical significance and differential diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mellado, J.M.; Ramos, A.; Salvado, E.; Camins, A.; Sauri, A.; Danus, M.

    2003-01-01

    Accessory ossicles and sesamoid bones are frequent findings in routine radiographs of the ankle and foot. They are commonly considered fortuitous and unrelated to the patient's complaint; however, they may eventually cause painful syndromes or degenerative changes in response to overuse and trauma. They may also suffer or simulate fractures. Our aim was to review, illustrate and discuss the imaging findings of some of the more frequent accessory ossicles and sesamoid bones of the ankle and foot region, with particular emphasis on those that may be of clinical significance or simulate fractures. (orig.)

  6. Right-left ambiguity resolution using field corrector readout in a large planar drift chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peyaud, B.; Rander, J.; Tarte, G.

    1980-02-01

    Induced signals on field corrector wires are used to resolve the right-left ambiguity in a large planar drift chamber. Efficient separation is obtained for +-3 cm drift cells, 4 meters long. Technical problems of the method, in particular the severe geometrical constraints, are discussed. Important features of the avalanche asymmetry can be inferred from the measurements

  7. Influence of auditory and audiovisual stimuli on the right-left prevalence effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vu, Kim-Phuong L; Minakata, Katsumi; Ngo, Mary Kim

    2014-01-01

    occurs when the two-dimensional stimuli are audiovisual, as well as whether there will be cross-modal facilitation of response selection for the horizontal and vertical dimensions. We also examined whether there is an additional benefit of adding a pitch dimension to the auditory stimulus to facilitate...... vertical coding through use of the spatial-musical association of response codes (SMARC) effect, where pitch is coded in terms of height in space. In Experiment 1, we found a larger right-left prevalence effect for unimodal auditory than visual stimuli. Neutral, non-pitch coded, audiovisual stimuli did...... not result in cross-modal facilitation, but did show evidence of visual dominance. The right-left prevalence effect was eliminated in the presence of SMARC audiovisual stimuli, but the effect influenced horizontal rather than vertical coding. Experiment 2 showed that the influence of the pitch dimension...

  8. Intelligent Automatic Right-Left Sign Lamp Based on Brain Signal Recognition System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winda, A.; Sofyan; Sthevany; Vincent, R. S.

    2017-12-01

    Comfort as a part of the human factor, plays important roles in nowadays advanced automotive technology. Many of the current technologies go in the direction of automotive driver assistance features. However, many of the driver assistance features still require physical movement by human to enable the features. In this work, the proposed method is used in order to make certain feature to be functioning without any physical movement, instead human just need to think about it in their mind. In this work, brain signal is recorded and processed in order to be used as input to the recognition system. Right-Left sign lamp based on the brain signal recognition system can potentially replace the button or switch of the specific device in order to make the lamp work. The system then will decide whether the signal is ‘Right’ or ‘Left’. The decision of the Right-Left side of brain signal recognition will be sent to a processing board in order to activate the automotive relay, which will be used to activate the sign lamp. Furthermore, the intelligent system approach is used to develop authorized model based on the brain signal. Particularly Support Vector Machines (SVMs)-based classification system is used in the proposed system to recognize the Left-Right of the brain signal. Experimental results confirm the effectiveness of the proposed intelligent Automatic brain signal-based Right-Left sign lamp access control system. The signal is processed by Linear Prediction Coefficient (LPC) and Support Vector Machines (SVMs), and the resulting experiment shows the training and testing accuracy of 100% and 80%, respectively.

  9. Spatial model of the gecko foot hair: functional significance of highly specialized non-uniform geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippov, Alexander E; Gorb, Stanislav N

    2015-02-06

    One of the important problems appearing in experimental realizations of artificial adhesives inspired by gecko foot hair is so-called clusterization. If an artificially produced structure is flexible enough to allow efficient contact with natural rough surfaces, after a few attachment-detachment cycles, the fibres of the structure tend to adhere one to another and form clusters. Normally, such clusters are much larger than original fibres and, because they are less flexible, form much worse adhesive contacts especially with the rough surfaces. Main problem here is that the forces responsible for the clusterization are the same intermolecular forces which attract fibres to fractal surface of the substrate. However, arrays of real gecko setae are much less susceptible to this problem. One of the possible reasons for this is that ends of the seta have more sophisticated non-uniformly distributed three-dimensional structure than that of existing artificial systems. In this paper, we simulated three-dimensional spatial geometry of non-uniformly distributed branches of nanofibres of the setal tip numerically, studied its attachment-detachment dynamics and discussed its advantages versus uniformly distributed geometry.

  10. Multiband Slot-Based Dual Composite Right/Left-Handed Transmission Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Abdo-Sanchez

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A dual Composite Right-/Left-Handed Transmission Line (CRLH TL implementation that presents multiband behaviour is proposed in this contribution. The artificial TL is realized by loading a host microstrip line with alternate rectangular stubs and slots. The required series and shunt immittances are respectively provided by the slot and the stub. Due to the distributed nature of these immittances, the resultant phase response presents theoretically infinite RH and LH alternate bands, thus being appropriate for multiband applications. The design methodology is described with the help of a proposed TLs-based equivalent circuit and highlights the simplicity for balance condition. Full wave simulated results of the dispersion characteristics and frequency response of a unit-cell and a three-cells structure are presented.

  11. Microstructural asymmetry of the corticospinal tracts predicts right-left differences in circle drawing skill in right-handed adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angstmann, Steffen; Madsen, Kathrine Skak; Skimminge, Arnold; Jernigan, Terry L; Baaré, William F C; Siebner, Hartwig Roman

    2016-12-01

    Most humans show a strong preference to use their right hand, but strong preference for the right hand does not necessarily imply a strong right-left asymmetry in manual proficiency (i.e., dexterity). Here we tested the hypothesis that intra-individual asymmetry of manual proficiency would be reflected in microstructural differences between the right and left corticospinal tract (CST) in a cohort of 52 right-handed typically-developing adolescents (11-16 years). Participants were asked to fluently draw superimposed circles with their right dominant and left non-dominant hand. Temporal regularity of circle drawing movements was assessed for each hand using a digitizing tablet. Although all participants were right-handed, there was substantial inter-individual variation regarding the relative right-hand advantage for fluent circle drawing. All subjects underwent whole-brain diffusion tensor imaging at 3 Tesla. The right and left CST were defined as regions-of-interest and mean fractional anisotropy (FA) and diffusivity values were calculated for right and left CST. On average, mean FA values were higher in the left CST relative to right CST. The degree of right-left FA asymmetry showed a linear relationship with right-left asymmetry in fluent circle drawing after correction for age and gender. The higher the mean FA values were in the left dominant CST relative to the right non-dominant CST, the stronger was the relative right-hand advantage for regular circle drawing. These findings show that right-left differences in manual proficiency are highly variable in right-handed adolescents and that this variation is associated with a right-left microstructural asymmetry of the CST.

  12. Vaccination of pigs two weeks before infection significantly reduces transmission of foot-and-mouth disease virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eble, P.L.; Bouma, A.; Bruin, de M.G.M.; Hemert-Kluitenberg, van F.; Oirschot, van J.T.; Dekker, A.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate whether and at what time interval could vaccination reduce transmission of foot-and-Mouth disease virus (FMDV) among pigs. Reduction of virus transmission by vaccination was determined experimentally. Transmission of FMDV was studied in three groups of

  13. Heat Transfer Enhancement Studies in a Circular Tube Fitted with Right-Left Helical Inserts with Spacer

    OpenAIRE

    P. K. Nagarajan; P. Sivashanmugam

    2011-01-01

    Experimental investigation of heat transfer and friction factor characteristics of circular tube fitted with 300 right-left helical screw inserts with 100 mm spacer of different twist ratio has been presented for laminar and turbulent flow.. The experimental data obtained were compared with those obtained from plain tube published data. The heat transfer coefficient enhancement for 300 RL inserts with 100 mm spacer is quite comparable with for 300 R-L inserts. Performance evalu...

  14. Right-left asymmetry of γ quanta yield in a neutron resonance of 117Sn with parity nonconservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfimenkov, V.P.; Borzakov, S.B.; Vo Van Tkhuan; Mareev, Yu.D.; Pikel'ner, L.B.; Frank, I.M.; Khrykin, A.S.; Sharapov, Eh.I.

    1984-01-01

    The right-left asymmetry was observed for the first time in the yield of γ quanta (esub(γ)=9.32 MeV) from radiative capture of polarized neutrons in the channel with total neutron momentum jsub(n)=lsub(n)+ssub(n)=1/2 was obtained d: GITAsub(psup(1/2))sup(n)=(0.27+-0.03)GITAsub(p)sup(n)

  15. Microstructural asymmetry of the corticospinal tracts predicts right-left differences in circle drawing skill in right-handed adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angstmann, Steffen; Madsen, Kathrine Skak; Skimminge, Arnold

    2016-01-01

    Most humans show a strong preference to use their right hand, but strong preference for the right hand does not necessarily imply a strong right-left asymmetry in manual proficiency (i.e., dexterity). Here we tested the hypothesis that intra-individual asymmetry of manual proficiency would...... be reflected in microstructural differences between the right and left corticospinal tract (CST) in a cohort of 52 right-handed typically-developing adolescents (11-16 years). Participants were asked to fluently draw superimposed circles with their right dominant and left non-dominant hand. Temporal regularity...... of circle drawing movements was assessed for each hand using a digitizing tablet. Although all participants were right-handed, there was substantial inter-individual variation regarding the relative right-hand advantage for fluent circle drawing. All subjects underwent whole-brain diffusion tensor imaging...

  16. A compact very wideband amplifying filter based on RTD loaded composite right/left-handed transmission lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Marasa, Mahmoud O Mahmoud; El-Khozondar, Hala Jarallah

    2015-01-01

    The composite right/left-handed (CRLH) transmission line (TL) is presented as a general TL possessing both left-handed (LH) and right-handed (RH) natures. RH materials have both positive permittivity and positive permeability, and LH materials have both negative permittivity and negative permeability. This paper aims to design and analyze nonlinear CRLH-TL transmission line loaded with resonant tunneling diode (RTD). The main application of this design is a very wideband and compact filter that amplifies the travelling signal. We used OrCAD and ADS software to analyze the proposed circuit. CRLH-TL consists of a microstrip line which is loaded with complementary split-rings resonators (CSRRs), series gaps, and shunt inductor connected parallel to the RTD. The designed structure possess a wide band that ranges from 5 to 10.5 GHz and amplifies signal up to 50 %. The proposed design is of interest to microwave compact component designers.

  17. Within-patient right-left blinded comparison of diode (810 nm) laser therapy and intense pulsed light therapy for hair removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, H; Ibbotson, S H; Dawe, R S; Ferguson, J; Moseley, H

    2008-10-01

    Excessive facial hair in women can cause significant psychological distress. A variety of treatment methods are available, including lasers and, more recently, intense pulsed light (IPL) sources. There are very few studies comparing laser and IPL devices. The purpose of our study was to compare a laser diode device with an IPL, using a within-patient, right-left, assessor-blinded, controlled, study design. Hair counts were made, using coded close-up photographs. Treatments were carried out on three occasions at 6-week intervals, and a final assessment was made 6 weeks following the third treatment. Patient self-assessment was also included. Nine women were recruited, and seven completed the study. Average hair counts in a 16 cm(2) area before and after treatment were, respectively, 42.4 and 10.4 (laser), 38.1 and 20.4 (IPL), 45.3 and 44.7 (control). Both laser and IPL reduced the hair count substantially; laser vs control was significant at P=0.028, but IPL vs control had P=0.13, suggesting that more subjects or more treatments were required if statistical significance were to be achieved. Despite subjecting the patients to higher pain scores and more inflammation, laser was preferred by five patients; two preferred IPL and one had no preference.

  18. A Compact Via-free Composite Right/Left Handed Low-pass Filter with Improved Selectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ashish; Choudhary, Dilip Kumar; Chaudhary, Raghvendra Kumar

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, a compact via-free low pass filter is designed based on composite right/left handed (CRLH) concept. The structure uses open ended concept. Rectangular slots are etched on signal transmission line (TL) to suppress the spurious band without altering the performance and size of filter. The filter is designed for low pass frequency band with cut-off frequency of 3.5 GHz. The proposed metamaterial structure has several prominent advantages in term of selectivity up to 34 dB/GHz and compactness with average insertion loss less than 0.4 dB. It has multiple applications in wireless communication (such as GSM900, global navigation satellite system (1.559-1.610 GHz), GSM1800, WLAN/WiFi (2.4-2.49 GHz) and WiMAX (2.5-2.69 GHz)). The design parameters have been measured and compared with the simulated results and found excellent agreement. The electrical size of proposed filter is 0.14λ0× 0.11λ0 (where λ0 is free space wavelength at zeroth order resonance (ZOR) frequency 2.7 GHz).

  19. Modelling foot height and foot shape-related dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Shuping; Goonetilleke, Ravindra S; Witana, Channa P; Lee Au, Emily Yim

    2008-08-01

    The application of foot anthropometry to design good-fitting footwear has been difficult due to the lack of generalised models. This study seeks to model foot dimensions so that the characteristic shapes of feet, especially in the midfoot region, can be understood. Fifty Hong Kong Chinese adults (26 males and 24 females) participated in this study. Their foot lengths, foot widths, ball girths and foot heights were measured and then evaluated using mathematical models. The results showed that there were no significant allometry (p > 0.05) effects of foot length on ball girth and foot width. Foot height showed no direct relationship with foot length. However, a normalisation with respect to foot length and foot height resulted in a significant relationship for both males and females with R(2) greater than 0.97. Due to the lack of a direct relationship between foot height and foot length, the current practice of grading shoes with a constant increase in height or proportionate scaling in response to foot length is less than ideal. The results when validated with other populations can be a significant way forward in the design of footwear that has an improved fit in the height dimension.

  20. Foot Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... straight across and not too short Your foot health can be a clue to your overall health. For example, joint stiffness could mean arthritis. Tingling ... foot checks are an important part of your health care. If you have foot problems, be sure ...

  1. Charcot Foot

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... damage (neuropathy). The bones are weakened enough to fracture, and with continued walking, the foot eventually changes ... difference. Advanced therapies for foot wounds are saving limbs, restoring ... in the feet come from the lower back. Pressure or chemical change in the nerve ...

  2. Foot Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... early. Start OverDiagnosisThe cause may be FEMORAL ANTEVERSION, TIBIAL TORSION or METATARSUS ADDUCTUS, commonly called intoeing. Self CareSee your doctor. Start OverDiagnosisYou may have a STRESS FRACTURE of the bones in your foot. The pain ...

  3. Foot pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that you were born with or develops later Injury Shoes that fit poorly or do not have much cushioning Too much walking or other sports activity Trauma The following can cause foot pain: Arthritis and gout . Common in the big toe, which becomes red, swollen, ...

  4. Pathophysiology diabetic foot ulcer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syafril, S.

    2018-03-01

    Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is known to have many complications. Diabetes and its complications are rapidly becoming the world’s most significant cause of morbidity and mortality, and one of the most distressing is Diabetic Foot Ulcer (DFU). Chronic wound complications are a growing concern worldwide, and the effect is a warning to public health and the economy. The etiology of a DFU is multifaceted, and several components cause added together create a sufficient impact on ulceration: neuropathy, vasculopathy, immunopathy, mechanical stress, and neuroarthropathy. There are many classifications of the diabetic foot. About 50% of patients with foot ulcers due to DM present clinical signs of infection. It is essential to manage multifactorial etiology of DFU to get a good outcome.

  5. Mycetoma foot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somnath Gooptu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycetoma is an uncommon chronic granulomatous infective disease of the skin, dermis and subcutaneous tissues predominantly seen in tropical countries. A patient presented to our hospital with the swelling of the left foot with a healed sinus and a painful nodule. He gave a history of sinuses in the left foot from which there was discharge of yellow granules. Culture of the ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration cytology of the nodule revealed growths of Nocardia species. The patient was treated with a multi-drug therapy along with debridement of the painful nodule. He experienced symptomatic relief and a regression of the swelling within the three months of follow-up so far. Due to the relatively slow progression of the disease, patients are diagnosed at a late stage. Hence, emphasis should be placed on health education and the importance of wearing footwear.

  6. Obese older adults suffer foot pain and foot-related functional limitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickle, Karen J; Steele, Julie R

    2015-10-01

    There is evidence to suggest being overweight or obese places adults at greater risk of developing foot complications such as osteoarthritis, tendonitis and plantar fasciitis. However, no research has comprehensively examined the effects of overweight or obesity on the feet of individuals older than 60 years of age. Therefore we investigated whether foot pain, foot structure, and/or foot function is affected by obesity in older adults. Three hundred and twelve Australian men and women, aged over 60 years, completed validated questionnaires to establish the presence of foot pain and health related quality of life. Foot structure (anthropometrics and soft tissue thickness) and foot function (ankle dorsiflexion strength and flexibility, toe flexor strength, plantar pressures and spatiotemporal gait parameters) were also measured. Obese participants (BMI >30) were compared to those who were overweight (BMI=25-30) and not overweight (BMI foot pain and scored significantly lower on the SF-36. Obesity was also associated with foot-related functional limitation whereby ankle dorsiflexion strength, hallux and lesser toe strength, stride/step length and walking speed were significantly reduced in obese participants compared to their leaner counterparts. Therefore, disabling foot pain and altered foot structure and foot function are consequences of obesity for older adults, and impact upon their quality of life. Interventions designed to reduce excess fat mass may relieve loading of the foot structures and, in turn, improve foot pain and quality of life for older obese individuals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Sexual dimorphism of the incidence of significant relationships between selected foot parameters and trunk parameters in children aged 7 – 13 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirosław Mrozkowiak

    2018-02-01

    2.                  The number of trunk parameters with which the features of feet correlated most significantly was found to be bigger in male subjects than in their female counterparts. The features in boys revealed a more frequent significant relationship whereas the differentiating features were observed only in the frontal plane.

  8. Combined diabetic foot infections treatment, complicated by foot phlegmon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yavruyan O.A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available the article shows the analysis of treatment results of 163 patients with diabetic foot infections, complicated by foot phlegmon. Patients were divided into 2 groups. The control group received traditional treatment and had an autopsy deep plantar space done and then, during the second phase, cytokine-rich autoplatelet concentrate had been applied. The research results confirmed a significant decrease in the duration of treatment and hospitalization of patients in the hospital.

  9. The diabetic foot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vestring, T.; Fiedler, R.; Greitemann, B.; Sciuk, J.; Peters, P.E.

    1995-01-01

    Familiarity with the spectrum of findings in the different imaging modalities appears essential. Radiographically, significant changes include Charcot joints of the tarsus (destructive type) and bone absorption of the forefoot (mutilating type). In diabetic foot problems, magnetic resonance imaging and leukocyte scintigraphy appear to be the most effective tools for detection of osteomyelitis, and a negative study makes osteomyelitis unlikely. However, the findings of both techniques in active, noninfected neuropathic osteoarthropathy may be indistinguishable from those of osteomyelitis. (orig.) [de

  10. An Attempt to Determine the Construct Validity of Measures Hypothesized to Represent an Orientation to Right, Left, or Integrated Hemispheric Brain Function for a Sample of Primary School Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumbrower, Jule; And Others

    1981-01-01

    This study attempts to obtain evidence of the construct validity of pupil ability tests hypothesized to represent orientation to right, left, or integrated hemispheric function, and of teacher observation subscales intended to reveal behaviors in school setting that were hypothesized to portray preference for right or left brain function. (Author)

  11. Evaluation of the interplay effect when using RapidArc to treat targets moving in the craniocaudal or right-left direction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Court, Laurence; Wagar, Matthew; Berbeco, Ross; Reisner, Adam; Winey, Brian; Schofield, Debbie; Ionascu, Dan; Allen, Aaron M.; Popple, Richard; Lingos, Tania

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: We have investigated the dosimetric errors caused by the interplay between the motions of the LINAC and the tumor during the delivery of a volume modulated arc therapy treatment. This includes the development of an IMRT QA technique, applied here to evaluate RapidArc plans of varying complexity. Methods: An IMRT QA technique was developed, which involves taking a movie of the delivered dose (0.2 s frames) using a 2D ion chamber array. Each frame of the movie is then moved according to a respiratory trace and the cumulative dose calculated. The advantage of this approach is that the impact of turning the beam on at different points in the respiratory trace, and of different types of motion, can be evaluated using data from a single irradiation. We evaluated this technique by comparing with the results when we actually moved the phantom during irradiation. RapidArc plans were created to treat a 62 cc spherical tumor in a lung phantom (16 plans) and a 454 cc irregular tumor in an actual patient (five plans). The complexity of each field was controlled by adjusting the MU (312-966 MU). Each plan was delivered to a phantom, and a movie of the delivered dose taken using a 2D ion chamber array. Patient motion was modeled by shifting each dose frame according to a respiratory trace, starting the motion at different phases. The expected dose distribution was calculated by blurring the static dose distribution with the target motion. The dose error due to the interplay effect was then calculated by comparing the delivered dose with the expected dose distribution. Peak-to-peak motion of 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 cm in the craniocaudal and right-left directions, with target periods of 3 and 5 s, were evaluated for each plan (252 different target motion/plan combinations). Results: The daily dose error due to the interplay effect was less than 10% for 98.4% of all pixels in the target for all plans investigated. The percentage of pixels for which the daily dose error could be

  12. Characterizing multisegment foot kinematics during gait in diabetic foot patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denti Paolo

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of diabetes mellitus has reached epidemic proportions, this condition may result in multiple and chronic invalidating long term complications. Among these, the diabetic foot, is determined by the simultaneous presence of both peripheral neuropathy and vasculopathy that alter the biomechanics of the foot with the formation of callosity and ulcerations. To diagnose and treat the diabetic foot is crucial to understand the foot complex kinematics. Most of gait analysis protocols represent the entire foot as a rigid body connected to the shank. Nevertheless the existing multisegment models cannot completely decipher the impairments associated with the diabetic foot. Methods A four segment foot and ankle model for assessing the kinematics of the diabetic foot was developed. Ten normal subjects and 10 diabetics gait patterns were collected and major sources of variability were tested. Repeatability analysis was performed both on a normal and on a diabetic subject. Direct skin marker placement was chosen in correspondence of 13 anatomical landmarks and an optoelectronic system was used to collect the data. Results Joint rotation normative bands (mean plus/minus one standard deviation were generated using the data of the control group. Three representative strides per subject were selected. The repeatability analysis on normal and pathological subjects results have been compared with literature and found comparable. Normal and pathological gait have been compared and showed major statistically significant differences in the forefoot and midfoot dorsi-plantarflexion. Conclusion Even though various biomechanical models have been developed so far to study the properties and behaviour of the foot, the present study focuses on developing a methodology for the functional assessment of the foot-ankle complex and for the definition of a functional model of the diabetic neuropathic foot. It is, of course, important to evaluate

  13. Foot morphometric phenomena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agić, Ante

    2007-06-01

    Knowledge of the foot morphometry is important for proper foot structure and function. Foot structure as a vital part of human body is important for many reasons. The foot anthropometric and morphology phenomena are analyzed together with hidden biomechanical descriptors in order to fully characterize foot functionality. For Croatian student population the scatter data of the individual foot variables were interpolated by multivariate statistics. Foot morphometric descriptors are influenced by many factors, such as life style, climate, and things of great importance in human society. Dominant descriptors related to fit and comfort are determined by the use 3D foot shape and advanced foot biomechanics. Some practical recommendations and conclusions for medical, sportswear and footwear practice are highlighted.

  14. Taiwanese adult foot shape classification using 3D scanning data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yu-Chi; Wang, Mao-Jiun

    2015-01-01

    This study classifies the foot shapes of Taiwanese using 3D foot scanning data from 2000 males and 1000 females. Nine foot dimensions relative to foot length and absolute measures in the common foot length categories were applied to compare the gender differences. Using foot breadth in % foot length (% FL), ball of foot length in % FL and arch height in % FL as feature parameters, three foot shape types for males and females can be classified. Significant gender differences were found in seven of the nine foot dimensions. Females had greater ball of foot length than males (0.2% FL). When comparing feet of the same foot length, males had greater breadth, girth and height dimensions than females, except for toe height. In addition, ethnic differences in foot shape were also observed. The findings can provide very useful information for building gender-specific shoe lasts and designing footwear insoles. 3D foot scanning data of 2000 males and 1000 females were classified into three different footshapes for males and females, respectively. Gender and ethnic differences on foot shape were also compared. The finding scan provide very useful information for gender-specific shoe last design and footwear production.

  15. Diabetic Foot - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Diabetic Foot URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Diabetic Foot - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  16. The role of foot morphology on foot function in diabetic subjects with or without neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiotto, Annamaria; Sawacha, Zimi; Guarneri, Gabriella; Cristoferi, Giuseppe; Avogaro, Angelo; Cobelli, Claudio

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the role of foot morphology, related with respect to diabetes and peripheral neuropathy in altering foot kinematics and plantar pressure during gait. Healthy and diabetic subjects with or without neuropathy with different foot types were analyzed. Three dimensional multisegment foot kinematics and plantar pressures were assessed on 120 feet: 40 feet (24 cavus, 20 with valgus heel and 11 with hallux valgus) in the control group, 80 feet in the diabetic (25 cavus 13 with valgus heel and 13 with hallux valgus) and the neuropathic groups (28 cavus, 24 with valgus heel and 18 with hallux valgus). Subjects were classified according to their foot morphology allowing further comparisons among the subgroups with the same foot morphology. When comparing neuropathic subjects with cavus foot, valgus heel with controls with the same foot morphology, important differences were noticed: increased dorsiflexion and peak plantar pressure on the forefoot (Pfoot morphology in altering both kinematics and plantar pressure in diabetic subjects, diabetes appeared to further contribute in altering foot biomechanics. Surprisingly, all the diabetic subjects with normal foot arch or with valgus hallux were no more likely to display significant differences in biomechanics parameters than controls. This data could be considered a valuable support for future research on diabetic foot function, and in planning preventive interventions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The total right/left-volume index: a new and simplified cardiac magnetic resonance measure to evaluate the severity of Ebstein anomaly of the tricuspid valve: a comparison with heart failure markers from various modalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hösch, Olga; Sohns, Jan Martin; Nguyen, Thuy-Trang; Lauerer, Peter; Rosenberg, Christina; Kowallick, Johannes Tammo; Kutty, Shelby; Unterberg, Christina; Schuster, Andreas; Faßhauer, Martin; Staab, Wieland; Paul, Thomas; Lotz, Joachim; Steinmetz, Michael

    2014-07-01

    The classification of clinical severity of Ebstein anomaly still remains a challenge. The aim of this study was to focus on the interaction of the pathologically altered right heart with the anatomically-supposedly-normal left heart and to derive from cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) a simple imaging measure for the clinical severity of Ebstein anomaly. Twenty-five patients at a mean age of 26±14 years with unrepaired Ebstein anomaly were examined in a prospective study. Disease severity was classified using CMR volumes and functional measurements in comparison with heart failure markers from clinical data, ECG, laboratory and cardiopulmonary exercise testing, and echocardiography. All examinations were completed within 24 hours. A total right/left-volume index was defined from end-diastolic volume measurements in CMR: total right/left-volume index=(RA+aRV+fRV)/(LA+LV). Mean total right/left-volume index was 2.6±1.7 (normal values: 1.1±0.1). This new total right/left-volume index correlated with almost all clinically used biomarkers of heart failure: brain natriuretic peptide (r=0.691; P=0.0003), QRS (r=0.432; P=0.039), peak oxygen consumption/kg (r=-0.479; P=0.024), ventilatory response to carbon dioxide production at anaerobic threshold (r=0.426; P=0.048), the severity of tricuspid regurgitation (r=0.692; P=0.009), tricuspid valve offset (r=0.583; P=0.004), and tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (r=0.554; P=0.006). Previously described severity indices ([RA+aRV]/[fRV+LA+LV]) and fRV/LV end-diastolic volume corresponded only to some parameters. In patients with Ebstein anomaly, the easily acquired index of right-sided to left-sided heart volumes from CMR correlated well with established heart failure markers. Our data suggest that the total right/left-volume index should be used as a new and simplified CMR measure, allowing more accurate assessment of disease severity than previously described scoring systems. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  18. Effects of ankle-foot orthoses on mediolateral foot-placement ability during post-stroke gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zissimopoulos, Angelika; Fatone, Stefania; Gard, Steven

    2015-10-01

    Accurate and precise mediolateral foot placement is important for balance during gait, but is impaired post stroke. Mediolateral foot placement may be improved with ankle-foot orthosis use. The purpose of this study was to determine whether an ankle-foot orthosis improves mediolateral foot-placement ability during post-stroke ambulation. Crossover trial with randomized order of conditions tested. The accuracy and precision of mediolateral foot placement was quantified while subjects targeted four different randomized step widths. Subjects were tested with and without their regular non-rigid ankle-foot orthosis in two separate visits (order randomized). While ankle-foot orthosis use corrected foot and ankle alignment (i.e. significantly decreased mid-swing plantar flexion, p = 0.000), effects of ankle-foot orthosis use on hip hiking (p = 0.545), circumduction (p = 0.179), coronal plane hip range of motion (p = 0.06), and mediolateral foot-placement ability (p = 0.537) were not significant. While ankle-foot orthosis-mediated equinovarus correction of the affected foot and ankle was not associated with improved biomechanics of walking (i.e. proximal ipsilateral hip kinematics or mediolateral foot-placement ability), it may affect other aspects of balance that were not tested in this study (e.g. proprioception, cerebellar, vestibular, and cognitive mechanisms). Studies that investigate the effect of ankle-foot orthosis on gait can help advance stroke rehabilitation by documenting the specific gait benefits of ankle-foot orthosis use. In this study, we investigated the effect of ankle-foot orthosis use on mediolateral foot-placement ability, an aspect of gait important for maintaining balance. © The International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics 2014.

  19. Foot problems in a group of patients with rheumatoid arthritis: an unmet need for foot care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borman, Pinar; Ayhan, Figen; Tuncay, Figen; Sahin, Mehtap

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the foot involvement in a group of RA patients in regard to symptoms, type and frequency of deformities, location, radiological changes, and foot care. A randomized selected 100 rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients were recruited to the study. Data about foot symptoms, duration and location of foot pain, pain intensity, access to services related to foot, treatment, orthoses and assistive devices, and usefulness of therapies were determined by the questionnaire. Radiological changes were assessed according to modified Larsen scoring system. The scores of disease activity scale of 28 joints and Health Assessment Questionnaire indicating the functional status of RA patients were collected from patient files. A total of 100 RA patients (90 female, 10 male) with a mean age of 52.5 ±10.9 years were enrolled to the study. Eighty-nine of the 100 patients had experienced foot complaints/symptoms in the past or currently. Foot pain and foot symptoms were reported as the first site of involvement in 14 patients. Thirty-six patients had ankle pain and the most common sites of the foot symptoms were ankle (36%) and forefoot (30%) followed by hindfoot (17%) and midfoot (7%) currently. Forty-nine of the patients described that they had difficulty in performing their foot care. Insoles and orthopedic shoes were prescribed in 39 patients, but only 14 of them continued to use them. The main reasons for not wearing them were; 17 not helpful (43%), 5 made foot pain worse (12.8%), and 3 did not fit (7.6%). Foot symptoms were reported to be decreased in 24 % of the subjects after the medical treatment and 6 patients indicated that they had underwent foot surgery. Current foot pain was significantly associated with higher body mass index and longer disease duration, and duration of morning stiffness. The radiological scores did not correlate with duration of foot symptoms and current foot pain (p>0.05) but the total number of foot deformities was

  20. CT guided diagnostic foot injections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saifuddin, A.; Abdus-Samee, M.; Mann, C.; Singh, D.; Angel, J.C.

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To describe a CT technique for guiding diagnostic and therapeutic injections in the hind- and mid-foot. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Over a period of 50 months, 28 individuals were referred for diagnostic and therapeutic hind- and mid-foot injections before possible arthrodesis. A CT technique was developed that allowed entry into the various joints using a vertical approach. Numbers of joints injected were as follows: posterior subtalar, 21; talonavicular, 4; calcaneonavicular, calcaneocuboid, navicular-cuneiform and 5th metatarsocuboid joints, 1 each. RESULTS: All injections but one were technically successful. Significant relief of symptoms was noted by 16 participants, whereas for 9 there was no improvement and for 3 a partial response was achieved. CONCLUSION: CT is a simple and safe alternative to fluoroscopy for guiding diagnostic and therapeutic foot injections, and may be the technique of choice in cases of disordered anatomy

  1. Foot preferences during resting in wildfowl and waders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randler, Christoph

    2007-03-01

    Footedness in birds has been reported, e.g., in parrots and chickens, but the direction of footedness remained unclear. Is a bird left-footed because it uses its left foot for holding and handling food, or is it right-footed because it uses the right foot for stabilisation and balancing while perching? In 2004 and 2006 I examined footedness in wildfowl and waders while the birds were performing a single task: roosting on the ground on one foot. Avocet (Recurvirostra avosetta), northern shoveller (Anas clypeata), oystercatcher (Haematopus ostralegus), and Eurasian curlew (Numenius arquata) were right-footed. Another 21 species did not show any significant foot preferences. This study provides some evidence that asymmetries in preferential foot use in birds may be triggered by a preference during postural control.

  2. Gender differences of foot characteristics in older Japanese adults using a 3D foot scanner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saghazadeh, Mahshid; Kitano, Naruki; Okura, Tomohiro

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of gender differences in foot shape assists shoe manufactures with designing appropriate shoes for men and women. Although gender differences in foot shapes are relatively known among young men and women, less is known about how the older men and women's feet differ in shape. A recent development in foot shape assessment is the use of 3D foot scanners. To our knowledge this technology has yet to be used to examine gender differences in foot shape of Japanese older adults. This cross-sectional study included 151 older men (74.5 ± 5.6 years) and 140 older women (73.9 ± 5.1 years) recruited in Kasama City, Japan. Foot variables were measured in sitting and standing positions using Dream GP Incorporated's 3D foot scanner, Footstep PRO (Osaka, Japan). Scores were analyzed as both raw and normalized to truncated foot length using independent samples t-test and analysis of covariance, respectively. In men, the measurement values for navicular height, first and fifth toe and instep heights, ball and heel width, ball girth, arch height index (just standing), arch rigidity index and instep girth were significantly greater than the women's, whereas the first toe angle, in both sitting and standing positions was significantly smaller. However, after normalizing, the differences in ball width, heel width, height of first and fifth toes in both sitting and standing and ball girth in sitting position were nonsignificant. According to Cohen's d, among all the foot variables, the following had large effect sizes in both sitting and standing positions: truncated foot length, instep, navicular height, foot length, ball girth, ball width, heel width and instep girth. This study provides evidence of anthropometric foot variations between older men and women. These differences need to be considered when manufacturing shoes for older adults.

  3. Is the foot elevation the optimal position for wound healing of a diabetic foot?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, D J; Han, S K; Kim, W K

    2010-03-01

    In managing diabetic foot ulcers, foot elevation has generally been recommended to reduce oedema and prevent other sequential problems. However, foot elevation may decrease tissue oxygenation of the foot more than the dependent position since the dependent position is known to increase blood flow within the arterial system. In addition, diabetic foot ulcers, which have peripheral vascular insufficiency, generally have less oedema than other wounds. Therefore, we argue that foot elevation may not be helpful for healing of vascularly compromised diabetic foot ulcers since adequate tissue oxygenation is an essential factor in diabetic wound healing. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of foot height on tissue oxygenation and to determine the optimal foot position to accelerate wound healing of diabetic foot ulcers. This study included 122 cases (73 males and 47 females; two males had bilateral disease) of diabetic foot ulcer patients aged 40-93 years. Trans-cutaneous partial oxygen tension (TcpO(2)) values of diabetic feet were measured before and after foot elevation (n=21). Elevation was achieved by placing a foot over four cushions. We also measured foot TcpO(2) values before and after lowering the feet (n=122). Feet were lowered to the patient's tibial height, approximately 30-35 cm, beside a bed handrail. Due to the large number of lowering measurements, we divided them into five sub-groups according to initial TcpO(2.) Tissue oxygenation values were compared. Foot-elevation-lowered TcpO(2) values before and after elevation were 32.5+/-22.2 and 23.8+/-23.1 mmHg (pFoot-lowering-augmented TcpO(2) values before and after lowering were 44.6+/-23.8 and 58.0+/-25.9 mmHg (pfoot lowering, rather than elevation, significantly augments TcpO(2) and may stimulate healing of diabetic foot ulcers. (c) 2008 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. In-hospital costs of diabetic foot disease treated by a multidisciplinary foot team

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rinkel, Willem D.; Luiten, Jacky; van Dongen, Jelle; Kuppens, Bram; Van Neck, Johan W.; Polinder, Suzanne; Castro Cabezas, Manuel; Coert, J. Henk

    2017-01-01

    Background The diabetic foot imposes significant burden on healthcare systems. Obtaining knowledge on the extent of the costs of diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs) is of value to health care researchers investigating cost-effectiveness of interventions that prevent these costly complications. Objectives To

  5. The foot and ankle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berquist, T.H.

    1985-01-01

    Imaging of the foot and ankle can be difficult because of the complex anatomy. Familiarity with the bony and ligamentous anatomy is essential for proper evaluation of radiographic findings. Therefore, pertinent anatomy is discussed as it applies to specific injuries. Special views, tomography, arthrography, and other techniques may be indicated for complete evaluation of foot and ankle trauma

  6. Foot Function, Foot Pain, and Falls in Older Adults: The Framingham Foot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awale, Arunima; Hagedorn, Thomas J; Dufour, Alyssa B; Menz, Hylton B; Casey, Virginia A; Hannan, Marian T

    2017-01-01

    Although foot pain has been linked to fall risk, contributions of pain severity, foot posture, or foot function are unclear. These factors were examined in a cohort of older adults. The purpose of this study was to examine the associations of foot pain, severity of foot pain, and measures of foot posture and dynamic foot function with reported falls in a large, well-described cohort of older adults from the Framingham Foot Study. Foot pain, posture, and function were collected from Framingham Foot Study participants who were queried about falls over the past year (0, 1, and ≥2 falls). Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the relation of falls with foot pain, pain severity, foot posture, and foot function adjusting for covariates. The mean age of the 1,375 participants was 69 years; 57% were female, and 21% reported foot pain (40% mild pain, 47% moderate pain, and 13% severe pain). One-third reported falls in the past year (1 fall: n = 263, ≥2 falls: n = 152). Foot pain was associated with a 62% increased odds of recurrent falls. Those with moderate and severe foot pain showed increased odds of ≥2 falls (OR 1.78, CI 1.06-2.99, and OR 3.25, CI 1.65-7.48, respectively) compared to those with no foot pain. Foot function was not associated with falls. Compared to normal foot posture, those with planus foot posture had 78% higher odds of ≥2 falls. Higher odds of recurrent falls were observed in individuals with foot pain, especially severe foot pain, as well as in individuals with planus foot posture, indicating that both foot pain and foot posture may play a role in increasing the risk of falls among older adults. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Diabetic foot syndrome as an interdisciplinary problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Rymkiewicz

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes is a metabolic disease of the growing maturity. Diabetic foot syndrome is a chronic complications of diabetes. In neuropathic sensory disorders, ischemia of the lower limbs, and improper alignment metabolic control may occur in minor injuries around the foot, giving rise to a difficult healing ulcers. Even minor wounds rapidly infection by pathogenic bacteria, which significantly hinders their treatment. Health and life-saving solution in situations of persistent symptoms of infection is amputation of the lower limb. Doing so, however, does not solve the problem of diabetic and should be the final proceedings after having exhausted all possible treatments for diabetic foot syndrome.

  8. Foot-and-Mouth Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Grubman, Marvin J.; Baxt, Barry

    2004-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals. The disease was initially described in the 16th century and was the first animal pathogen identified as a virus. Recent FMD outbreaks in developed countries and their significant economic impact have increased the concern of governments worldwide. This review describes the reemergence of FMD in developed countries that had been disease free for many years and the effect that this has had on disease control s...

  9. Foot morphology of Turkish football players according to foot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Football is the most popular sport in the world. Foot morphology and foot preference are important factors in football player's performance. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the foot morphology of elite football players with different foot preferences. 407 male football players participated in this study. 328 of ...

  10. Effect of ski mountaineering track on foot sole loading pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haselbacher, Matthias; Mader, Katharina; Werner, Maximiliane; Nogler, Michael

    2014-09-01

    Ski mountaineering is becoming a popular sport. The ascending techniques (tracks) can be divided into 3 different groups: flat field, direct ascent, and traversing. This study examines the relationship between different mechanical loads on the foot and the 4 different mountaineering ascending techniques. All subjects used the same pair of ski boots and the same skis while performing the 4 different ascending techniques. An in-shoe dynamic pressure measuring system was used to measure the mechanical load on the foot soles of each ski mountaineer. The foot sole was divided into 6 anatomic sections to measure the different loads in each section. Thirteen men with an average age of 29 years were enrolled in the study. The results showed small, not significant differences in the mechanical foot load in the flat field or in the direct ascent. The average mechanical foot load was highest on the valley side foot while traversing (179 kPa to 117 kPa). The higher load forces were in the medial ball of the foot and the longitudinal aspect of the foot side closer to the hill. The higher impact placed on the valley side foot and the concentration of force placed on the medial ball of the valley side foot suggested the influence of the track on the load pattern of the foot sole. This higher impact may result in upward forces that affect the force distribution in the ankle and knee joints. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. The diabetic foot

    OpenAIRE

    Nabuurs-Franssen, M.H.

    2005-01-01

    The diabetic foot presents a complex interplay of neuropathic, macrovascular, and microvascular disease on an abnormal metabolic background, complicated by an increased susceptibility to mechanical, thermal, and chemical injury and decreased healing ability. The abnormalities of diabetes, once present, are not curable. But most severe foot abnormalities in the diabetic are due to neglect of injury and are mostly preventable. The physician must ensure that the diabetic patient learns the princ...

  12. Athlete's Foot: Clinical Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, M L

    1989-10-01

    In brief: Athletes are particularly prone to athlete's foot because they are generally more exposed than others to conditions that encourage fungal growth, eg, communal showers and locker rooms. Diagnosis of athlete's foot rests on clinical suspicion and laboratory testing. Treatment may consist of topical antifungal agents and, for more resistant cases, oral griseofulvin. Preventive measures include keeping the feet dry, wearing nonocclusive leather shoes or sandals and absorbent cotton socks, and applying talcum or antifungal powder at least twice daily.

  13. Flip-flop footwear with a moulded foot-bed for the treatment of foot pain: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuter, Vivienne Helaine; Searle, Angela; Spink, Martin J

    2016-11-11

    Foot pain is a common problem affecting up to 1 in 5 adults and is known to adversely affect activities of daily living and health related quality of life. Orthopaedic footwear interventions are used as a conservative treatment for foot pain, although adherence is known to be low, in part due to the perception of poor comfort and unattractiveness of the footwear. The objective of this trial was to assess the efficacy of flip-flop style footwear (Foot Bio-Tec©) with a moulded foot-bed in reducing foot pain compared to participant's usual footwear. Two-arm parallel randomised controlled trial using computer generated random allocation schedule at an Australian university podiatry clinic. 108 volunteers with disabling foot pain were enrolled after responding to an advertisement and eligibility screening. Participants were randomly allocated to receive footwear education and moulded flip-flop footwear to wear as much as they were comfortable with for the next 12 weeks (n = 54) or footwear education and instructions to wear their normal footwear for the next 12 weeks (n = 54). Primary outcome was the pain domain of the Foot Health Status Questionnaire (FHSQ). Secondary outcomes were the foot function and general foot health domains of the FHSQ, a visual analogue scale (VAS) for foot pain and perceived comfort of the intervention footwear. Compared to the control group, the moulded flip-flop group showed a significant improvement in the primary outcome measure of the FHSQ pain domain (adjusted mean difference 8.36 points, 95 % CI 5.58 to 13.27, p footwear and six (footwear group = 4) were lost to follow up. Our results demonstrate that flip-flop footwear with a moulded foot-bed can have a significant effect on foot pain, function and foot health and might be a valuable adjunct therapy for people with foot pain. ACTRN12614000933651 . Retrospectively registered: 01/09/2014.

  14. [Minor foot amputations in diabetic foot syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biehl, C; Eckhard, M; Szalay, G; Heiss, C

    2016-10-01

    The treatment strategy for diabetic foot syndrome must take into account protective sensibility of the foot, open wounds, infection status, and the rules of septic bone surgery. Interventions are classified as elective, prophylactic, curative, or emergency. Amputations in the forefoot and midfoot region are performed as ray amputations (including metatarsal), which can often be carried out as "inner" amputations. Gentle tissue treatment mandatory because of greater risk of revision with re-amputation compared to classical amputation. Good demarcation of infection, acute osteomyelitis, osteolytic lesions, neurotropic ulcer, arterial and venous blood flow to the other toes, gangrene of other toes with metatarsal affection. Arterial occlusive disease, infection of neighboring areas, avoidable amputations, poorly healing ulcers on the lower leg. Primary dorsal approach; minimal incisional distance (5 cm) to minimize skin necrosis risk. Atraumatic preparation, minimize hemostasis to not compromise the borderline perfusion situation. In amputations, plantar skin preparation and longer seams placed as dorsal as possible, either disarticulated and maintain cartilage, or round the cortical metatarsal bone after resection. Diabetes control. Braun splint, mobilization in a shoe with forefoot decompression and hindfoot support, physiotherapy. Antibiotics based on resistance testing. If no complications, dressing change on postoperative day 1. Optimal wound drainage by lowering foot several times a day; drainage removal after 12-24 h. Insoles and footwear optimization. Amputations require continued attention and if necessary treatment to avoid sequelae. Insufficient treatment associated with recurrent ulceration and altered anatomy.

  15. Education for diabetic foot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Batista

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this investigation was to stratify the risk in a consecutive group of diabetic patients presenting, for the first time, in a diabetic foot clinic. Additional aims were to investigate the preventive measures in the local health system and to evaluate the level of patient’s awareness about diabetic foot-associated morbidity. Methods: Fifty consecutive adult diabetic patients referred to a Diabetic Foot Clinic of a Municipal Public Hospital comprised the sample for this observational study. The enrollment visit was considered as the first health-system intervention for potential foot morbidity. The average time elapsed since a diagnosis of diabetes among patients was five years. Rresults: At the time of presentation, 94% of sample was not using appropriate footwear. Pedal pulses (dorsalis pedis and/or posterior tibial arteries were palpable in 76% of patients. Thirty subjects (60% had signs of peripheral neuropathy. Twenty-one subjects (42% had clinical deformity. There was a positive correlation between a history of foot ulcer, the presence of peripheral neuropathy, and the presence of foot deformity (p < 0.004 in each correlation. Cconclusions: Informing and educating the patients and those interested in this subject and these problems is essential for favorable outcomes in this scenario.

  16. Starting off on the right foot: strong right-footers respond faster with the right foot to positive words and with the left foot to negative words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Vega, Irmgard; Graebe, Julia; Härtner, Leonie; Dudschig, Carolin; Kaup, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have provided evidence for an association between valence and left/right modulated by handedness, which is predicted by the body-specificity hypothesis (Casasanto, 2009) and also reflected in response times. We investigated whether such a response facilitation can also be observed with foot responses. Right-footed participants classified positive and negative words according to their valence by pressing a key with their left or right foot. A significant interaction between valence and foot only emerged in the by-items analysis. However, when dividing participants into two groups depending on the strength of their footedness, an interaction between valence and left/right was observed for strong right-footers, who responded faster with the right foot to positive words, and with the left foot to negative words. No interaction emerged for weak right-footers. The results strongly support the assumption that fluency lies at the core of the association between valence and left/right.

  17. The prevalence of diabetic foot disease in the Waikato region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shea, C; McClintock, J; Lawrenson, R

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to establish the prevalence of diabetic foot disease by utilising the retinal eye screening register in the Waikato region of New Zealand. Understanding both the prevalence and the degree of foot disease across the general diabetes population will help to determine what podiatry services are required for people with diabetes. 2192 people aged 15years and over, who attended the Waikato Regional Diabetes Service mobile retinal photo screening service for the six-month period between May and November 2014, consented to a foot screen including testing for sensation and pedal pulses. A digital image was taken of the dorsal and plantar aspect of each foot for review by a registered Podiatrist. Thirteen percent of the study sample was identified as having a high-risk foot including active foot complications. 65% were categorised as low risk and a further 22% at moderate risk of diabetic foot disease. Factors identified as significant included age, type of diabetes, duration of diabetes, and smoking. These factors placed people at greater risk of diabetic foot disease. A significant number of people with diabetes are at risk of diabetic foot disease. This study has highlighted the need for targeted podiatry services to address diabetic foot disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Imaging of Charcot foot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erlemann, Rainer; Schmitz, Annette

    2014-01-01

    The onset of a Charcot foot ist a feared complication of a long lasting diabetes mellitus. A peripheral neuropathy and continuous weight bearing of the foot subsequent to repeated traumas depict the conditions. There exist three types of a Charcot foot, an atrophic, a hypertophic and a mixed type. In early stages a differentiation from osteoarthritis is difficult. Subluxation or luxation within the Lisfranc's joint is typical. The joints of the foot could rapidly and extensively be destroyed or may present the morphology of a 'superosteoarthritis'. Often, soft tissue infections or osteomyelitis evolve from ulcers of the skin as entry points. Diagnosis of osteomyelitis necessitate MR imaging as plain radiography offers only low sensitivity for detection of an osteomyelitis. The existence of periosteal reactions is not a proof for osteomyelitis. Bone marrow edema and soft tissue edema also appear in a non infected Charcot foot. The range of soft tissue infections goes from cellulitis over phlegmon to abscesses. The ghost sign is the most suitable diagnostic criterion for osteomyelitis. In addition, the penumbra sign or the existence of a sinus tract between a skin ulcer and the affected bone may be helpful. (orig.)

  19. A study of dynamic foot pressure measurement in diabetic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milka D Madhale

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Diabetic foot ulcer is a major source of morbidity and a leading cause of hospitalization. It is estimated that approximately 20% of hospital admissions among patients with diabetes mellitus are due to diabetic foot ulcer. It can lead to infection, gangrene, amputation, and even death if appropriate care is not provided. Overall, the lower limb amputation in diabetic patients is 15 times higher than in non-diabetics. In the majority of cases, the cause for the foot ulcer is the altered architecture of the foot due to neuropathy resulting in abnormal pressure points on the soles. Purpose: The aim of this study is to develop low cost, lightweight foot pressure scanner and check its reliability and validity which can help to prevent foot ulceration. Design/Methodology/Approach: In the present study, a low cost, lightweight foot pressure scanner is developed, and dynamic plantar pressures in a group of 110 Indian patients with diabetes with or without neuropathy and foot ulcers are measured. Practical Implications: If these pressure points can be detected, ulcers can be prevented by providing offloading footwear. Originality/Value: Differences are found in dynamic foot pressures in different study groups, namely, diabetic patients, patients with diabetic peripheral neuropathy, patients with foot ulcers, and nondiabetics. The differences are significant (P < 0.01, which showed the validity of the tool. Reliability and consistency of the tool was checked by test–retest method. Paper Type: Original Research work. Conclusion: Based on the results of the present study, it is concluded that the scanner is successfully developed and it can measure foot pressures. It is a novel device to proactively monitor foot health in diabetics in an effort to prevent and reduce diabetic foot complications.

  20. Foot muscles strengthener

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris T. Glavač

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Previous experience in the correction of flat feet consisted of the use of insoles for shoes and exercises with toys, balls, rollers, inclined planes, etc. A device for strengthening foot muscles is designed for the correction of flat feet in children and, as its name suggests, for strengthening foot muscles in adults. The device is made of wood and metal, with a mechanism and technical solutions, enabling the implementation of specific exercises to activate muscles responsible for the formation of the foot arch. It is suitable for home use with controlled load quantities since it has calibrated springs. The device is patented with the Intellectual Property Office, Republic of Serbia, as a petty patent.

  1. [Effects of foot reflexology on essential hypertension patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyoung-Sook; Cho, Gyoo-Yeong

    2004-08-01

    This study was to evaluate the effects of foot reflexology on blood pressure, serum lipids level and life satisfaction in essential hypertension patients. The research design used was a nonequivalent control group pretest-posttest design. Foot Reflexology was used as the experimental treatment from June 23rd, 2003 until August 31st, 2003. Thirty-four subjects were assigned to an experimental group(18) and control group(16). Foot Reflexology was administered twice a week for 6 weeks and self foot Reflexology was administered twice a week for 4 weeks on the experimental group. There was a significant decrease in systolic blood pressure but no significant decrease in diastolic pressure in the experimental group compared to the control group. The total cholesterol level in the experimental group compared to the control group was not significantly decreased after foot reflexology. However, the triglyceride level in the experimental group compared to the control group was significantly decreased after foot reflexology. On the other hand, high density lipoprotein and low density lipoprotein levels in the experimental group compared to the control group was not significantly decreased after foot reflexology. Life satisfaction in the experimental group compared to the control group was significantly improved after foot reflexology. The results proved that foot reflexology was an effective nursing intervention to decrease systolic pressure, and triglyceride but not for the blood cholesterol and to improve life satisfaction. Therefore, blood cholesterol should be further evaluated in a larger group of subjects and for a longer period. Further research is regarded as necessary to evaluate and to compare effects of self-foot reflexology and foot reflexology.

  2. Foot, leg, and ankle swelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swelling of the ankles - feet - legs; Ankle swelling; Foot swelling; Leg swelling; Edema - peripheral; Peripheral edema ... Foot, leg, and ankle swelling is common when the person also: Is overweight Has a blood clot in the leg Is older Has ...

  3. What Is a Foot and Ankle Surgeon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A A | Print | Share What is a Foot & Ankle Surgeon? Foot and ankle surgeons are the surgical ... every age. What education has a foot and ankle surgeon received? After completing undergraduate education, the foot ...

  4. Unilateral Cleft Hand with Cleft Foot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Asif Nazir; Bhat, Yasmeen J.; Ahmed, Sheikh Mushtaq; Nazir, Abid

    2009-01-01

    Congenital anomalies of the hand form an important class of congenital malformations. They have a huge functional importance because of the part played by the hand in the daily activities of a person. The deformities also have significant cosmetic significance and may also be associated with other anomalies. Amongst the congenital anomalies, central deficiency or cleft hand is relatively rare. The association of cleft foot with cleft hand is an even more rare occurance. We present a case report of a 6 year old child, born of a non-consanginous marriage, having congenital central deficiency of ipsilateral hand and foot. PMID:21475543

  5. Diabetes and Foot Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... too much pressure on your toes. If your feet have changed shape, such as from Charcot’s foot, you may need ... care visit if you have changes in the shape of your feet loss of feeling in your feet peripheral artery ...

  6. Sesamoid Injuries in the Foot

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on the ball of the foot when walking, running and jumping. Sesamoid injuries can involve the bones, tendons and/or surrounding ... on the ball of the foot, such as running, basketball, football, golf, tennis and ballet. ... of Sesamoid Injuries in the Foot There are three types of ...

  7. Foot Health Facts for Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... common foot problems affecting athletes: Prevent Foot & Ankle Running Injuries (downloadable PDF) Back-to-School Soccer Season Surgeons ... and Ankle Soccer is hard on the feet! Injuries to the foot and ankle can occur from running and side-to-side cutting, sliding or tackling ...

  8. Foot ulcer risk and location in relation to prospective clinical assessment of foot shape and mobility among persons with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowley, Matthew S; Boyko, Edward J; Shofer, Jane B; Ahroni, Jessie H; Ledoux, William R

    2008-11-01

    We assessed baseline clinical foot shape for 2939 feet of diabetic subjects who were monitored prospectively for foot ulceration. Assessments included hammer/claw toes, hallux valgus, hallux limitus, prominent metatarsal heads, bony prominences, Charcot deformity, plantar callus, foot type, muscle atrophy, ankle and hallux mobility, and neuropathy. Risk factors were linked to ulcer occurrence and location via a Cox proportional hazards model. Hammer/claw toes (hazard ratio [HR] (95% confidence interval [CI])=1.43 (1.06, 1.94) p=0.02), marked hammer/claw toes (HR=1.77 (1.18, 2.66) p=0.006), bony prominences (HR=1.38 (1.02, 1.88), p=0.04), and foot type (Charcot or drop foot vs. neutrally aligned) (HR=2.34 (1.33, 4.10), p=0.003) were significant risk factors for ulceration adjusting for age, body mass index, insulin medication, ulcer history and amputation history. With adjustment for neuropathy only hammer/claw toes (HR=1.40 (1.03, 1.90), p=0.03) and foot type (HR=1.76 (1.04, 3.04), p=0.05) were significantly related to ulceration. However, there was no relationship between ulcer location and foot deformity. Certain foot deformities were predictive of ulceration, although there was no relationship between clinical foot deformity and ulcer location.

  9. Diabetic foot ulcers – evidence-based wound management: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diabetic foot ulcers have a significant impact on the individual patient's quality of life, potential morbidity and even mortality. Diabetic foot ulcers also consume a gradually increasing portion of our health care budget. Whenever possible the focus should be on prevention rather than cure. All diabetic patients must have both ...

  10. Foot anthropometry and morphology phenomena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agić, Ante; Nikolić, Vasilije; Mijović, Budimir

    2006-12-01

    Foot structure description is important for many reasons. The foot anthropometric morphology phenomena are analyzed together with hidden biomechanical functionality in order to fully characterize foot structure and function. For younger Croatian population the scatter data of the individual foot variables were interpolated by multivariate statistics. Foot structure descriptors are influenced by many factors, as a style of life, race, climate, and things of the great importance in human society. Dominant descriptors are determined by principal component analysis. Some practical recommendation and conclusion for medical, sportswear and footwear practice are highlighted.

  11. [Anlysis of foot biomechanics characteristic in 303 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen-Xia; Cao, Ying; Zou, Meng-Chen; Huang, Ying; Hu, Ping; Luo, Xiang-Rong; Jiang, Ya; Xue, Yao-Ming; Gao, Fang

    2016-10-20

    To investigate foot biomechanics characteristic of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. This study was conducted among 303 patients with type 2 diabetes. The whole foot was divided into 10 regions, namely the first toe (T1); the second to fifth toes (T2-5); the first, second, third, fourth, and fifth metatarsals (M1, M2, M3, M4, and M5, respectively); midfoot (MF), and the heel medial (HM). Foot arch index, foot angle and maximum peak pressure (MPP) of the 10 regions were measured using a Footscan gait system. The maximum peak pressure of 10 regions decreased in the order of M3>M2>HM>M4>HL>M1>M5>T1>ML>T2-5 for the left foot, and in the order of M3>M2>HM>M4>HL>M1>M5>T1>ML>T2-5 for the right foot. The MPP in M1 region was higher in the right than in the left foot (Ppatients. Foot flat phase was extended and forefoot push-off phase shortened in stance phase in the patients. Compared with the right foot, the left foot showed a significantly increased foot arch index and increased low and high arch rates with a decreased normal arch rate. Total plantar pressure was higher in of the left high arch foot than in normal arch foot. The foot angle was significantly larger on the right than on the left. The bilateral total plantar pressures were significantly greater in male patients (Ppatients have obvious alterations in foot biomechanics with abnormalities of the plantar pressure, and the percentage of high-risk foot increases in overweight and obese patients, suggesting the need of body weight control in these patients when administering offloading treatment for prevention of diabetic foot ulcer.

  12. The prevalence of foot ulceration in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firth, Jill; Hale, Claire; Helliwell, Philip; Hill, Jackie; Nelson, E Andrea

    2008-02-15

    To establish the prevalence of foot ulceration in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in secondary care. A postal survey of all patients with RA (n = 1,130) under the care of rheumatologists in Bradford, West Yorkshire, UK was performed. The prevalence data were validated through clinical examination, case-note review, and contact with health professionals. The false-negative rate was investigated in a subsample of patients (n = 70) who denied any history of ulceration. The postal survey achieved a 78% response rate. Following validation, the point prevalence of foot ulceration was 3.39% and the overall prevalence was 9.73%. The false-positive rate was initially high at 21.21%, but use of diagrammatic questionnaire data to exclude leg ulceration reduced the rate to 10.76%. The false-negative rate was 11.76%. The most common sites for ulceration were the dorsal aspect of hammer toes, the metatarsal heads, and the metatarsophalangeal joint in patients with hallux abducto valgus, with 33% of patients reporting multiple sites of ulceration. Patients with open-foot and healed-foot ulceration had significantly longer RA disease duration, reported significantly greater use of special footwear, and had a higher prevalence of foot surgery than ulcer-free patients. Foot ulceration affects a significant proportion of patients with RA. Further work is needed to establish risk factors for foot ulceration in RA and to target foot health provision more effectively.

  13. Foot placement strategy in pushing and pulling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tzu-Hsien

    2018-01-01

    Pushing and pulling tasks are very common in daily and industrial workplaces. They are one major source of musculoskeletal complaints. This study aimed to examine the foot placement strategy while pushing and pulling. Thirteen young males and ten young females were recruited as participants. A two (pushing and pulling) by four (48 cm, 84 cm, 120 cm, and 156 cm) factorial design was used. Exertion direction and exertion height significantly affected foot placement strategy. Pushing task needed more anteroposterior space than pulling task. The percentages of female/male for trailing foot position ranged from 77% to 90% (pushing) and from 80% to 93% (pulling) across the exertion heights. Practitioners should provide an anteroposterior space approximately to 70% body stature for workers to exert their maximum pulling and pushing strengths.

  14. Diagnostic value of newborn foot length to predict gestational age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutia Farah Fawziah

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background  Identification of gestational age, especially within 48 hours of birth, is crucial for newborns, as the earlier preterm status is detected, the earlier the child can receive optimal management. Newborn foot length is an anthropometric measurement which is easy to perform, inexpensive, and potentially efficient for predicting gestational age. Objective  To analyze the diagnostic value of newborn foot length in predicting gestational age. Methods  This diagnostic study was performed between October 2016 and February 2017 in the High Care Unit of Neonates at Dr. Moewardi General Hospital, Surakarta. A total of 152 newborns were consecutively selected and underwent right foot length measurements before 96 hours of age. The correlation between newborn foot length to classify as full term and gestational age was analyzed with Spearman’s correlation test because of non-normal data distribution. The cut-off point of newborn foot length was calculated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve and diagnostic values of newborn foot length were analyzed by 2 x 2 table with SPSS 21.0 software. Results There were no significant differences between male and female newborns in terms of gestational age, birth weight, choronological age, and newborn foot length (P>0.05. Newborn foot length and gestational age had a significant correlation (r=0.53; P=0.000. The optimal cut-off newborn foot length to predict full term status was 7.1 cm. Newborn foot length below 7.1 cm had sensitivity 75%, specificity 98%, positive predictive value 94.3%, negative predictive value 90.6%, positive likelihood ratio 40.5, negative likelihood ratio 0.25, and post-test probability 94.29%, to predict preterm status in newborns. Conclusion  Newborn foot length can be used to predict gestational age, especially for the purpose of differentiating between preterm and full term newborns.

  15. Biomechanically acquired foot types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weissman, S.D.

    1989-01-01

    Over the years, orthopedics of the foot has gone through many stages and phases, each of which has spawned a whole vocabulary of its own. According the author, today we are in the biomechanical age, which represents a step forward in understanding the mechanisms governing the functions of the lower extremity. A great deal of scientific research on the various foot types and pathological entities is now being performed. This paper discusses how, from a radiographic point of view, a knowledge of certain angular relationships must be achieved before one can perform a biomechanical evaluation. In order to validate the gross clinical findings, following an examination of a patient, a biomechanical evaluation can be performed on the radiographs taken. It must be remembered, however, that x-rays are never the sole means of making a diagnosis. They are just one of many findings that must be put together to arrive at a pertinent clinical assessment or diagnosis

  16. Normal foot and ankle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weissman, S.D.

    1989-01-01

    The foot may be thought of as a bag of bones tied tightly together and functioning as a unit. The bones re expected to maintain their alignment without causing symptomatology to the patient. The author discusses a normal radiograph. The bones must have normal shape and normal alignment. The density of the soft tissues should be normal and there should be no fractures, tumors, or foreign bodies

  17. Habitual Physical Activity, Peripheral Neuropathy, Foot Deformities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: Habitual physical activity index (3.2 ± 0.83) was highest in work-related activities; 69 (26.1 %) patients presented with peripheral neuropathy and 52 (19. 7%) had the lowest limb function. Pes planus was the most prevalent foot deformity (20.1%). Significant differences existed in physical activity indices across ...

  18. Impedance of Surface Footings on Layered Ground

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars; Clausen, Johan Christian

    2005-01-01

    is discussed. Based on the Green's function for a stratified half-space, the impedance of a surface footing with arbitrary shape is computed. A wind turbine foundation is analysed in the frequency range 0 to 3 Hz. Analyses show that soil stratification may lead to a significant changes in the impedance related...

  19. Impedance of Surface Footings on Layered Ground

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars; Clausen, Johan

    2008-01-01

    is discussed. Based on the Green's function for a stratified half-space, the impedance of a surface footing with arbitrary shape is computed. A wind turbine foundation is analysed in the frequency range 0-3 Hz. Analyses show that soil stratification may lead to significant changes in the impedance related...

  20. Health education programmes to improve foot self-care practices and foot problems among older people with diabetes: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad Sharoni, Siti Khuzaimah; Minhat, Halimatus Sakdiah; Mohd Zulkefli, Nor Afiah; Baharom, Anisah

    2016-09-01

    To assess the effectiveness of health education programmes to improve foot self-care practices and foot problems among older people with diabetes. The complications of diabetes among older people are a major health concern. Foot problems such as neuropathy, ulcer and ultimately amputation are a great burden on older people with diabetes. Diabetes foot education programmes can influence the behaviour of older people in practising foot self-care and controlling the foot problems. However, the educational approaches used by the educators are different. Therefore, it is important to assess the education programmes from various evidence-based practices. Six databases, EBSCOhost medical collections (MEDLINE, CINAHL, Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection), SAGE, Wiley Online Library, ScienceDirect, SpringerLink and Web of Science, were used to search for articles published from January 2000 to March 2015. The search was based on the inclusion criteria and keywords including 'foot', 'care' and 'diabetes'. Fourteen studies were assessed and reviewed in the final stage. Health education programmes varied according to their design, setting, approach, outcome measured and results. Foot assessment, verbal and written instructions and discussion were proved to improve the foot self-care and foot problems. Subsequent follow-ups and evaluations had a significant effect. An improvement was observed in foot self-care scores and foot problems (such as neuropathy, foot disability, lesion, ulcer, tinea pedis and callus grade) after implementation of the health education programme. The findings of this study support the claim that a health education programme increases the foot self-care scores and reduces the foot problems. However, there were certain methodological concerns in the reviewed articles, indicating the need for further evaluation. In future, researchers and practitioners must implement a vigorous education programme focusing on diabetes foot self-care among the

  1. Relationship between static foot posture and foot mobility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McPoil Thomas G

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is not uncommon for a person's foot posture and/or mobility to be assessed during a clinical examination. The exact relationship, however, between static posture and mobility is not known. Objective The purpose of this study was to determine the degree of association between static foot posture and mobility. Method The static foot posture and foot mobility of 203 healthy individuals was assessed and then analyzed to determine if low arched or "pronated" feet are more mobile than high arched or "supinated" feet. Results The study demonstrated that those individuals with a lower standing dorsal arch height and/or a wider standing midfoot width had greater mobility in their foot. In addition, those individuals with higher Foot Posture Index (FPI values demonstrated greater mobility and those with lower FPI values demonstrated less mobility. Finally, the amount of foot mobility that an individual has can be predicted reasonably well using either a 3 or 4 variable linear regression model. Conclusions Because of the relationship between static foot posture and mobility, it is recommended that both be assessed as part of a comprehensive evaluation of a individual with foot problems.

  2. Diabetic foot workshop: Improving technical and educational skills for nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aalaa, Maryam; Sanjari, Mahnaz; Shahbazi, Samimeh; Shayeganmehr, Zahra; Abooeirad, Maryam; Amini, Mohammad Reza; Adibi, Hossien; Mehrdad, Neda

    2017-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus as one of the most common metabolic disorders has some complications, one of the main ones is diabetic foot (DF). Appropriate care and education prevents 85% of diabetic foot amputations. An ideal management to prevent and treat diabetic foot necessitates a close collaboration between the health team members and the diabetic patient. Therefore, improving nurses' knowledge about DF care and advancement in the quality of care provided by the nurses could significantly improve diabetic foot prevention and management. Therefore, the aim of DF workshop was to improve technical and educational skills of the nurses to prevent and manage diabetic foot. Considering the vital role of the nurses in providing DF care, EMRI decided to conduct Diabetic foot workshop for them. The following five steps were designed for the 14 coordinating sessions in the workshop: Goals definition, deciding about attendees, location selection, creating agenda, and developing a follow-up plan. "Diabetic Foot Workshop for Nurses" provides appropriate training to DF nurses at the national level; and combining theory and practice in this workshop not only increases nurses' knowledge, but also improves their skills in the field of the diabetic foot. Providing education and care to patients by DF nurse specialists instead of general nurses could be an important output of this workshop, which may lead to DF prevention and amputation decrease in the long term.

  3. ESTIMATION OF STATURE BASED ON FOOT LENGTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidyullatha Shetty

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Stature is the height of the person in the upright posture. It is an important measure of physical identity. Estimation of body height from its segments or dismember parts has important considerations for identifications of living or dead human body or remains recovered from disasters or other similar conditions. OBJECTIVE : Stature is an important indicator for identification. There are numerous means to establish stature and their significance lies in the simplicity of measurement, applicability and accuracy in prediction. Our aim of the study was to review the relationship between foot length and body height. METHODS : The present study reviews various prospective studies which were done to estimate the stature. All the measurements were taken by using standard measuring devices and standard anthropometric techniques. RESULTS : This review shows there is a correlation between stature and foot dimensions it is found to be positive and statistically highly significant. Prediction of stature was found to be most accurate by multiple regression analysis. CONCLUSIONS : Stature and gender estimation can be done by using foot measurements and stud y will help in medico - legal cases in establishing identity of an individual and this would be useful for Anatomists and Anthropologists to calculate stature based on foot length

  4. Natural gaits of the non-pathological flat foot and high-arched foot.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yifang Fan

    Full Text Available There has been a controversy as to whether or not the non-pathological flat foot and high-arched foot have an effect on human walking activities. The 3D foot scanning system was employed to obtain static footprints from subjects adopting a half-weight-bearing stance. Based upon their footprints, the subjects were divided into two groups: the flat-footed and the high-arched. The plantar pressure measurement system was used to measure and record the subjects' successive natural gaits. Two indices were proposed: distribution of vertical ground reaction force (VGRF of plantar and the rate of change of footprint areas. Using these two indices to compare the natural gaits of the two subject groups, we found that (1 in stance phase, there is a significant difference (p<0.01 in the distributions of VGRF of plantar; (2 in a stride cycle, there is also a significant difference (p<0.01 in the rate of change of footprint area. Our analysis suggests that when walking, the VGRF of the plantar brings greater muscle tension to the flat-footed while a smaller rate of change of footprint area brings greater stability to the high-arched.

  5. Natural gaits of the non-pathological flat foot and high-arched foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yifang; Fan, Yubo; Li, Zhiyu; Lv, Changsheng; Luo, Donglin

    2011-03-18

    There has been a controversy as to whether or not the non-pathological flat foot and high-arched foot have an effect on human walking activities. The 3D foot scanning system was employed to obtain static footprints from subjects adopting a half-weight-bearing stance. Based upon their footprints, the subjects were divided into two groups: the flat-footed and the high-arched. The plantar pressure measurement system was used to measure and record the subjects' successive natural gaits. Two indices were proposed: distribution of vertical ground reaction force (VGRF) of plantar and the rate of change of footprint areas. Using these two indices to compare the natural gaits of the two subject groups, we found that (1) in stance phase, there is a significant difference (pplantar; (2) in a stride cycle, there is also a significant difference (pfootprint area. Our analysis suggests that when walking, the VGRF of the plantar brings greater muscle tension to the flat-footed while a smaller rate of change of footprint area brings greater stability to the high-arched.

  6. Inter-segment foot motion in girls using a three-dimensional multi-segment foot model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Woo Young; Lee, Dong Yeon; Jung, Hae Woon; Lee, Doo Jae; Yoo, Won Joon; Choi, In Ho

    2018-05-06

    Several multi-segment foot models (MFMs) have been introduced for in vivo analyses of dynamic foot kinematics. However, the normal gait patterns of healthy children and adolescents remain uncharacterized. We sought to determine normal foot kinematics according to age in clinically normal female children and adolescents using a Foot 3D model. Fifty-eight girls (age 7-17 years) with normal function and without radiographic abnormalities were tested. Three representative strides from five separate trials were analyzed. Kinematic data of foot segment motion were tracked and evaluated using an MFM with a 15-marker set (Foot 3D model). As controls, 50 symptom-free female adults (20-35 years old) were analyzed. In the hindfoot kinematic analysis, plantar flexion motion in the pre-swing phase was significantly greater in girls aged 11 years or older than in girls aged foot progression angle showed mildly increased internal rotation in the loading response phase and the swing phase in girls aged foot motion in girls aged 11 years or older showed low-arch kinematic characteristics, whereas those in girls aged 11 years or older were more similar to the patterns in young adult women. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Foot-strike pattern and performance in a marathon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasmer, Mark E; Liu, Xue-Cheng; Roberts, Kyle G; Valadao, Jason M

    2013-05-01

    To determine prevalence of heel strike in a midsize city marathon, if there is an association between foot-strike classification and race performance, and if there is an association between foot-strike classification and gender. Foot-strike classification (forefoot, midfoot, heel, or split strike), gender, and rank (position in race) were recorded at the 8.1-km mark for 2112 runners at the 2011 Milwaukee Lakefront Marathon. 1991 runners were classified by foot-strike pattern, revealing a heel-strike prevalence of 93.67% (n = 1865). A significant difference between foot-strike classification and performance was found using a Kruskal-Wallis test (P strike. No significant difference between foot-strike classification and gender was found using a Fisher exact test. In addition, subgroup analysis of the 126 non-heel strikers found no significant difference between shoe wear and performance using a Kruskal-Wallis test. The high prevalence of heel striking observed in this study reflects the foot-strike pattern of most mid-distance to long-distance runners and, more important, may predict their injury profile based on the biomechanics of a heel-strike running pattern. This knowledge can help clinicians appropriately diagnose, manage, and train modifications of injured runners.

  8. Foot placement modulation diminishes for perturbations near foot contact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlutters, Mark; Van Asseldonk, Edwin H.F.; van der Kooij, Herman

    2018-01-01

    Whenever a perturbation occurs during walking we have to maintain our balance using the recovery strategies that are available to us. Foot placement adjustment is often considered an important recovery strategy. However, because this strategy takes time it is likely a poor option if the foot is

  9. Mortality associated with acute Charcot foot and neuropathic foot ulceration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Baal, Juliette; Hubbard, Richard; Game, Fran; Jeffcoate, William

    2010-01-01

    To compare the mortality of patients with an acute Charcot foot with a matched population with uninfected neuropathic foot ulcers (NFUs). Data were extracted from a specialist departmental database, supplemented by hospital records. The findings were compared with the results of earlier populations

  10. VT Foote Brook Natural Channel Design Restoration 2001-2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The Foote Brook, located in Johnson, Vermont, is known to biologists and anglers as a high quality stream with significant natural reproduction of...

  11. VT Foote Brook Natural Channel Design Restoration 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The Foote Brook, located in Johnson, Vermont, is known to biologists and anglers as a high quality stream with significant natural reproduction of...

  12. Frequency of foot deformity in preschool girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihajlović Ilona

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. In order to determine the moment of creation of postural disorders, regardless of the causes of this problem, it is necessary to examine the moment of entry of children into a new environment, ie. in kindergarten or school. There is a weak evidence about the age period when foot deformity occurs, and the type of these deformities. The aim of this study was to establish the relationship between the occurrence of foot deformities and age characteristics of girls. Methods. The research was conducted in preschools 'Radosno detinjstvo' in the region of Novi Sad, using the method of random selection, on the sample of 272 girls, 4-7 years of age, classified into four strata according to the year of birth. To determine the foot deformities measurement technique using computerized digitized pedografy (CDP was applied. Results. In preschool population girls pes transversoplanus and calcanei valga deformities occurred in a very high percentage (over 90%. Disturbed longitudinal instep ie flat feet also appeared in a high percentage, but we noted the improvement of this deformity according to increasing age. Namely, there was a statistically significant correlation between the age and this deformity. As a child grows older, the deformity is lower. Conclusion. This study confirmed that the formation of foot arches probably does not end at the age of 3-4 years but lasts until school age.

  13. The immediate effects of foot orthoses on functional performance in individuals with patellofemoral pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, C J; Menz, H B; Crossley, K M

    2011-03-01

    Patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS) often results in reduced functional performance. There is growing evidence for the use of foot orthoses to treat this multifactorial condition. In this study, the immediate effects of foot orthoses on functional performance and the association of foot posture and footwear with improvements in function were evaluated. Fifty-two individuals with PFPS (18-35 years) were prescribed prefabricated foot orthoses (Vasyli Pro; Vasyli International, Labrador, Australia). Functional outcome measures evaluated included the change in (1) pain and (2) ease of a single-leg squat on a five-point Likert scale, and change in the number of (3) pain-free step downs and (4) single-leg rises from sitting. The association of foot posture using the Foot Posture Index, navicular drop and calcaneal angle relative to subtalar joint neutral; and the footwear motion control properties scale score with improved function were evaluated using Spearman's ρ statistics. Prefabricated foot orthoses produced significant improvements (psquat and improvements in the number of pain-free single-leg rises from sitting when wearing foot orthoses. In addition, a more pronated foot type was also found to be associated with improved ease of completing a single-leg squat when wearing foot orthoses. Prefabricated foot orthoses provide immediate improvements in functional performance, and these improvements are associated with a more pronated foot type and poorer footwear motion control properties.

  14. What is the diabetic foot?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    increase in the complications related to diabetes as a result of this increasing ... A number of contributory factors work together to cause foot ... neuropathy, peripheral vascular disease, foot deformities, external ... it is usually a combination of problems rather than a single risk ... This results in increased oxidative stress.

  15. Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Hand, foot, and mouth disease is a contagious illness that mainly affects children under five. In this podcast, Dr. Eileen Schneider talks about the symptoms of hand, foot, and mouth disease, how it spreads, and ways to help protect yourself and your children from getting infected with the virus.

  16. Avoiding foot complications in diabetes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    preceded by a foot ulcer.1,2 Every 30 seconds a lower limb or part of a lower limb is ... of foot ulcers are peripheral neuropathy, deformity, peripheral vascular disease and ... Repetitive stresses cause hyperkeratosis, followed by subcutaneous ...

  17. Foot-and-mouth disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belsham, Graham; Charleston, Bryan; Jackson, Terry

    2009-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease is an economically important, highly contagious, disease of cloven-hoofed animals characterized by the appearance of vesicles (blisters) on the feet and in and around the mouth. The causative agent, foot-and-mouth disease virus, was the first mammalian virus to be discovered...

  18. Foot Morphological Difference between Habitually Shod and Unshod Runners.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Shu

    Full Text Available Foot morphology and function has received increasing attention from both biomechanics researchers and footwear manufacturers. In this study, 168 habitually unshod runners (90 males whose age, weight & height were 23±2.4 years, 66±7.1 kg & 1.68±0.13 m and 78 females whose age, weight & height were 22±1.8 years, 55±4.7 kg & 1.6±0.11 m (Indians and 196 shod runners (130 males whose age, weight & height were 24±2.6 years, 66±8.2 kg & 1.72±0.18 m and 66 females whose age, weight & height were 23±1.5 years, 54±5.6 kg & 1.62±0.15 m (Chinese participated in a foot scanning test using the easy-foot-scan (a three-dimensional foot scanning system to obtain 3D foot surface data and 2D footprint imaging. Foot length, foot width, hallux angle and minimal distance from hallux to second toe were calculated to analyze foot morphological differences. This study found that significant differences exist between groups (shod Chinese and unshod Indians for foot length (female p = 0.001, width (female p = 0.001, hallux angle (male and female p = 0.001 and the minimal distance (male and female p = 0.001 from hallux to second toe. This study suggests that significant differences in morphology between different ethnicities could be considered for future investigation of locomotion biomechanics characteristics between ethnicities and inform last shape and design so as to reduce injury risks and poor performance from mal-fit shoes.

  19. Evaluation of foot static disturbances in patients with rheumatic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kuryliszyn-Moskal

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : Rheumatic diseases such as osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis constitute the most frequent pathological states leading to the development of foot deformities, which reduce quality of life and cause disability. The aim of the present study was to compare the results of plantoconturographic examinations, obtained by means of a computer podoscope, in osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis patients. Special attention was paid to the differences in the values of each parameter determining the level of foot function. Material and methods : The study was performed in 94 female patients divided into two groups according to the type of disease. There were 54 patients with rheumatoid arthritis and 40 with osteoarthritis. The control group consisted of 34 healthy women. The plantographic assessment of static foot structure was carried out by means of a device for computer-aided foot examination. Results : A fallen transverse arch of the right foot was statistically much more frequent in the rheumatoid arthritis patients than in osteoarthritis patients or the control group (p < 0.005 and p < 0.05, respectively. Significant differences in the values of the Wejsflog index were observed in the case of left foot between rheumatoid arthritis patients and the control group (p < 0.05. Similarly, there were statistically significant differences in the values of the hallux valgus angle ( for the right foot between rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis patients or control group (in both cases p < 0.05. Conclusions : Rheumatic diseases predispose patients to disturbances of static foot function. The obtained results highlight the importance of diagnosing foot static disturbances in the prevention of destructive changes affecting the functioning of osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis patients.

  20. The Diabetic Foot Attack: "'Tis Too Late to Retreat!"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vas, Prashanth R J; Edmonds, Michael; Kavarthapu, Venu; Rashid, Hisham; Ahluwalia, Raju; Pankhurst, Christian; Papanas, Nikolaos

    2018-03-01

    The "diabetic foot attack" is one of the most devastating presentations of diabetic foot disease, typically presenting as an acutely inflamed foot with rapidly progressive skin and tissue necrosis, at times associated with significant systemic symptoms. Without intervention, it may escalate over hours to limb-threatening proportions and poses a high amputation risk. There are only best practice approaches but no international protocols to guide management. Immediate recognition of a typical infected diabetic foot attack, predominated by severe infection, with prompt surgical intervention to debride all infected tissue alongside broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy is vital to ensure both limb and patient survival. Postoperative access to multidisciplinary and advanced wound care therapies is also necessary. More subtle forms exist: these include the ischemic diabetic foot attack and, possibly, in a contemporary categorization, acute Charcot neuroarthropathy. To emphasize the importance of timely action especially in the infected and ischemic diabetic foot attack, we revisit the concept of "time is tissue" and draw parallels with advances in acute myocardial infarction and stroke care. At the moment, international protocols to guide management of severe diabetic foot presentations do not specifically use the term. However, we believe that it may help increase awareness of the urgent actions required in some situations.

  1. Recurrent Admissions for Diabetic Foot Complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ang CL

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic foot complications are a significant source of morbidity and mortality. Patients who undergo recurrent admissions for the same diabetic foot problems represent a difficult subgroup to treat. From July 2007 to June 2008, there were 38 such patients who were admitted recurrently. Eighteen patients (47% were re-admitted because of previous refusal of surgical treatment. Eighteen patients (47% received treatment as necessary but were still readmitted for recurrent infection at the same wound site. Assessment of patients’ compliance to outpatient treatment was found to be generally lacking. As a significant proportion were re-admitted because of previous refusal of surgery, a trained counselor may be suitable in counselling patients for debridement or amputation surgery.

  2. Gait kinematics of subjects with ankle instability using a multisegmented foot model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Ridder, Roel; Willems, Tine; Vanrenterghem, Jos; Robinson, Mark; Pataky, Todd; Roosen, Philip

    2013-11-01

    Many patients who sustain an acute lateral ankle sprain develop chronic ankle instability (CAI). Altered ankle kinematics have been reported to play a role in the underlying mechanisms of CAI. In previous studies, however, the foot was modeled as one rigid segment, ignoring the complexity of the ankle and foot anatomy and kinematics. The purpose of this study was to evaluate stance phase kinematics of subjects with CAI, copers, and controls during walking and running using both a rigid and a multisegmented foot model. Foot and ankle kinematics of 77 subjects (29 subjects with self-reported CAI, 24 copers, and 24 controls) were measured during barefoot walking and running using a rigid foot model and a six-segment Ghent Foot Model. Data were collected on a 20-m-long instrumented runway embedded with a force plate and a six-camera optoelectronic system. Groups were compared using statistical parametric mapping. Both the CAI and the coper group showed similar differences during midstance and late stance compared with the control group (P foot segment showed a more everted position during walking compared with the control group. Based on the Ghent Foot Model, the rear foot also showed a more everted position during running. The medial forefoot showed a more inverted position for both running and walking compared with the control group. Our study revealed significant midstance and late stance differences in rigid foot, rear foot, and medial forefoot kinematics The multisegmented foot model demonstrated intricate behavior of the foot that is not detectable with rigid foot modeling. Further research using these models is necessary to expand knowledge of foot kinematics in subjects with CAI.

  3. Diabetic Foot Risk Factors in Patients with Diabetes at the

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Hosseini

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives Diabetic foot problems are one of the major causes of mortality and disability in diabetic patients. It is considered one of the costliest conditions for health care systems. This study is designed to identify diabetic foot risk factors in patients with diabetes mellitus at Kamkar Hospital diabetes clinic in Qom, Iran during 2006.MethodsThis study was performed on 140 diabetes mellitus patients at the Kamkar Hospital diabetic clinic. International working Group on the Diabetic Foot (IWGDF guidelines were used for physical exam of diabetic foot in these patients. The physical exam consisted of inspection of foot appearance for deformity, skin keratosis and ulcer, and neurological and arterial pulse exam of the lower extremities of these patients. Patients in this study were divided into four risk groups based on the IWGDF guidelines. ANOVA method was used for analysis and comparison of the results with P<0.05 considered as significant. ResultsMean age of the participants in this study was 52.4±11.2 years old from which 67.1% were female, 37.1% of patients were illiterate, and 10% were active smokers. Mean duration of diabetes in these patients was 8.9 years. Mean body mass index (BMI was 29.4± 4.4 and HbA1C was 9.3 ± 1.9. Percentages of the patients with retinopathy and nephropathy were 33.6% and 17.7% respectively. 95% of the patients did not know the correct way of nail clipping, 95.5% were wearing uncomfortable shoes, and 14.3% of patients had history of foot ulcer. None of the them had any education about foot care. Physical examination with monofilament, ankle reflex and vibration perception were defected in 28.6%, 52.5%, and 32.1% of patients respectively. 37.7% of patients had a decreased lower extremity pulse that was not felt by touch. Based on the IWGDF classifications, 70% of the patients were in the higher-risk group for diabetic foot ulcer. In the high risk group, age, duration of diabetes, illiteracy was

  4. Foot ulcers in the diabetic patient, prevention and treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Stephanie C; Driver, Vickie R; Wrobel, James S; Armstrong, David G

    2007-01-01

    Lower extremity complications in persons with diabetes have become an increasingly significant public health concern in both the developed and developing world. These complications, beginning with neuropathy and subsequent diabetic foot wounds frequently lead to infection and lower extremity amputation even in the absence of critical limb ischemia. In order to diminish the detrimental consequences associated with diabetic foot ulcers, a com-mon-sense-based treatment approach must be implemented. Many of the etiological factors contributing to the formation of diabetic foot ulceration may be identified using simple, inexpensive equipment in a clinical setting. Prevention of diabetic foot ulcers can be accomplished in a primary care setting with a brief history and screening for loss of protective sensation via the Semmes-Weinstein monofilament. Specialist clinics may quantify neuropathy, plantar foot pressure, and assess vascular status with Doppler ultrasound and ankle-brachial blood pressure indices. These measurements, in conjunction with other findings from the history and physical examination, may enable clinicians to stratify patients based on risk and help determine the type of intervention. Other effective clinical interventions may include patient education, optimizing glycemic control, smoking cessation, and diligent foot care. Recent technological advanced combined with better understanding of the wound healing process have resulted in a myriad of advanced wound healing modalities in the treatment of diabetic foot ulcers. However, it is imperative to remember the fundamental basics in the healing of diabetic foot ulcers: adequate perfusion, debridement, infection control, and pressure mitigation. Early recognition of the etiological factors along with prompt management of diabetic foot ulcers is essential for successful outcome. PMID:17583176

  5. "They just scraped off the calluses": a mixed methods exploration of foot care access and provision for people with rheumatoid arthritis in south-western Sydney, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendry, Gordon J; Gibson, Kathryn A; Pile, Kevin; Taylor, Luke; Du Toit, Verona; Burns, Joshua; Rome, Keith

    2013-08-13

    There is little indication that foot health services in Australia are meeting modern day recommendations for Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) patients. The overall objective of this study was to explore the current state of foot health services for patients with RA with an emphasis on identifying barriers to the receipt of appropriate foot care in South-West Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. A mixed (quantitative and qualitative) approach was adopted. Indications for appropriate access to foot care were determined by comparing the foot health, disease and socio-demographic characteristics of patients with unmet foot care demands, foot care users and patients with no demands for foot care. Perceptions of provision of, and access to, foot care were explored by conducting telephone-based interviews using an interpretative phenomenology approach with thematic analysis. Twenty-nine participants took part in the cross-sectional quantitative research study design, and 12 participants took part in the interpretative phenomenological approach (qualitative study). Foot care access appeared to be driven predominantly by the presence of rearfoot deformity, which was significantly worse amongst participants in the foot care user group (p = 0.02). Five main themes emerged from the qualitative data: 1) impact of disease-related foot symptoms, 2) footwear difficulties, 3) medical/rheumatology encounters, 4) foot and podiatry care access and experiences, and 5) financial hardship. Foot care provision does not appear to be driven by appropriate foot health characteristics such as foot pain or foot-related disability. There may be significant shortfalls in footwear and foot care access and provision in Greater Western Sydney. Several barriers to adequate foot care access and provision were identified and further efforts are required to improve access to and the quality of foot care for people who have RA. Integration of podiatry services within rheumatology centres could resolve unmet

  6. Priorities in offloading the diabetic foot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bus, Sicco A.

    2012-01-01

    Biomechanical factors play an important role in diabetic foot disease. Reducing high foot pressures (i.e. offloading) is one of the main goals in healing and preventing foot ulceration. Evidence-based guidelines show the strong association between the efficacy to offload the foot and clinical

  7. Criterion-related validity of the foot health status questionnaire regarding strength and plantar pressure measurements in elderly people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuesta-Vargas, Antonio I; Galan-Mercant, Alejandro; Martín-Borras, Maria Carmen; González-Sánchez, Manuel

    2012-12-01

    Criterion-related validity of a self-administered questionnaire listed as gold standard requires objective testing. The aim of this study was to analyze the Foot Health Status Questionnaire (FHSQ) using functional variable measures (dynamic plantar pressure and foot strength). A total of 22 elderly healthy participants (13 women and 9 men) were screened by interview and physical examination for foot or gait abnormalities. Foot strength, footprint pressure, and foot health status were measured. All the items of the FHSQ show significant correlation with functional variables, but general foot health shows the highest correlation with the 4 physical variables related to plantar pressure (R2 = 0.741), followed by foot pain (R2 = 0.652). A set of different, directly measured physical variables related to foot strength and plantar pressure significantly correlate with the FHSQ dimensions. Cross-sectional trial.

  8. Finite element analysis of a model scale footing on clean and oil contaminated sand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evgin, E.; Boulon, M.; Das, B.M.

    1995-01-01

    The effects of oil contamination on the behavior of a model scale footing is determined. Tests are carried out with both clean and oil contaminated sand. The data show that the bearing capacity of the footing is reduced significantly as a result of oil contamination. A finite element analysis is performed to calculate the bearing capacity of the footing and the results are compared with the experimental data. The significance of using an interface element in the analysis is discussed

  9. Imaging the diabetic foot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gold, R.H.; Tong, D.T.F.; Crim, J.R.; Seeger, L.L.

    1995-01-01

    Early and accurate diagnosis of infection or neuropathy of the diabetic foot is the key to successful management. Angiopathy leads to ischemia which, in combination with peripheral neuropathy, predisposes to pedal skin ulceration, the precursor of osteomyelitis. Chronic hyperglycemia promotes production of glycosylated end products which accumulate on endothelial proteins, causing ischemia of the vasa nervorum. When combined with axonal degeneration of the sensory nerves, the result is hypertrophic neuroarthropathy. Should the sympathetic nerve fibers also be damaged, the resultant loss of vasoconstrictive impulses leads to hyperemia and atrophic neuroarthropathy. Plain radiography, although less sensitive than radionuclide, magnetic resonance (MR), and computed tomographic examinations, should be the initial procedure for imaging suspected osteomyelitis in the diabetic patient. If the radiographs are normal but the clinical suspicion of osteomyelitis is strong, a three-phase 99m Tc-MDP scan or MR imaging is recommended. An equivocal 99m Tc-MDP scan should be followed by MR imaging. To exclude osteomyelitis at a site of neuroarthropathy, a 111 In white blood cell scan is preferable. To obtain a specimen of bone for bacteriological studies, percutaneous core biopsy is the procedure of choice, with the entrance of the needle well beyond the edge of the subjacent ulcer. (orig.)

  10. Imaging the diabetic foot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gold, R.H. [Dept. of Radiological Sciences, UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Tong, D.T.F. [Dept. of Radiological Sciences, UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Crim, J.R. [Durham Radiology Associates, Durham, NC (United States); Seeger, L.L. [Dept. of Radiological Sciences, UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Early and accurate diagnosis of infection or neuropathy of the diabetic foot is the key to successful management. Angiopathy leads to ischemia which, in combination with peripheral neuropathy, predisposes to pedal skin ulceration, the precursor of osteomyelitis. Chronic hyperglycemia promotes production of glycosylated end products which accumulate on endothelial proteins, causing ischemia of the vasa nervorum. When combined with axonal degeneration of the sensory nerves, the result is hypertrophic neuroarthropathy. Should the sympathetic nerve fibers also be damaged, the resultant loss of vasoconstrictive impulses leads to hyperemia and atrophic neuroarthropathy. Plain radiography, although less sensitive than radionuclide, magnetic resonance (MR), and computed tomographic examinations, should be the initial procedure for imaging suspected osteomyelitis in the diabetic patient. If the radiographs are normal but the clinical suspicion of osteomyelitis is strong, a three-phase {sup 99m}Tc-MDP scan or MR imaging is recommended. An equivocal {sup 99m}Tc-MDP scan should be followed by MR imaging. To exclude osteomyelitis at a site of neuroarthropathy, a {sup 111}In white blood cell scan is preferable. To obtain a specimen of bone for bacteriological studies, percutaneous core biopsy is the procedure of choice, with the entrance of the needle well beyond the edge of the subjacent ulcer. (orig.)

  11. Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-08-08

    Hand, foot, and mouth disease is a contagious illness that mainly affects children under five. In this podcast, Dr. Eileen Schneider talks about the symptoms of hand, foot, and mouth disease, how it spreads, and ways to help protect yourself and your children from getting infected with the virus.  Created: 8/8/2013 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 8/8/2013.

  12. Effects on foot external rotation of the modified ankle-foot orthosis on post-stroke hemiparetic gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ha Jeong; Chun, Min Ho; Kim, Hong Min; Kim, Bo Ryun

    2013-08-01

    To evaluate the effects of heel-opened ankle foot orthosis (HOAFO) on hemiparetic gait after stroke, especially on external foot rotation, and to compare the effects of HOAFO with conventional plastic-AFO (pAFO) and barefoot during gait. This cross-over observational study involved 15 hemiparetic patients with external rotation of the affected foot. All subjects were able to walk independently, regardless of their usual use of a single cane, and had a less than fair-grade in ankle dorsiflexion power. Each patient was asked to walk in three conditions with randomized sequences: 1) barefoot, 2) with a pAFO, and 3) with an HOAFO. Their gait patterns were analyzed using a motion analysis system. Fifteen patients consisted of nine males and six females. On gait analysis, hip and foot external rotation were significantly greater in pAFO (-3.35° and -23.68°) than in barefoot and HOAFO conditions (pexternal rotation compared with pAFO; although there was no significant difference between HOAFO and barefoot walking. Walking speed and percentage of single limb support were significantly greater for HOAFO than in barefoot walking. HOAFO was superior to pAFO in reducing hip and foot external rotation during the stance phase in patients with post-stroke hemiparesis. HOAFO may, therefore, be useful in patients with excessive external rotation of the foot during conventional pAFO.

  13. Effects of kinesiotaping on foot posture in participants with pronated foot: a quasi-randomised, double-blind study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luque-Suarez, Alejandro; Gijon-Nogueron, Gabriel; Baron-Lopez, Francisco Javier; Labajos-Manzanares, Maria Teresa; Hush, Julia; Hancock, Mark Jonathan

    2014-03-01

    To investigate whether kinesiotaping improves excessive foot pronation compared with sham kinesiotaping. Quasi-randomised, double-blind study. One primary care centre. One hundred and thirty participants were screened for inclusion. Sixty-eight participants with pronated feet [Foot Posture Index (FPI)≥ 6] were enrolled, and the follow-up rate was 100%. Participants were allocated into one of two groups: an experimental kinesiotaping group (KT1) and a sham taping group (KT2). Measures were collected by a blinded assessor at baseline, and 1 minute, 10 minutes, 60 minutes and 24 hours after taping. The primary outcome was total FPI score, and the secondary outcome was rear-foot FPI score. There were no significant differences in total FPI score between kinesiotaping and sham taping at any time point. Similarly, there were no significant differences in rear-foot FPI score, apart from at 60-minute follow-up when the difference between groups was significant (P=0.04) but the effect size was very small (0.85 points on the rear-foot FPI score between -6 and +6). Kinesiotaping does not correct foot pronation compared with sham kinesiotaping in people with pronated feet. Copyright © 2013 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. All rights reserved.

  14. The effect of gender on foot anthropometrics in older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiva de Castro, Alessandra; Rebelatto, Jose Rubens; Aurichio, Thais Rabiatti

    2011-08-01

    Some questions remain regarding the anthropometric differences between the feet of young men and women, but the gap is much greater when dealing with older adults. No studies were found concerning these differences in an exclusively older adult population, which makes it difficult to manufacture shoes based on the specific anthropometric measurements of the older adult population and according to gender differences. To identify differences between the anthropometric foot variables of older men and women. Cross-sectional. 154 older women (69.0 ± 6.8 y) and 131 older men (69.0 ± 6.5 y). The foot evaluations comprised the variables of width, perimeter, height, length, 1st and 5th metatarsophalangeal angles, the Arch Index (AI), and the Foot Posture Index (FPI). A data analysis was performed using t test and a post hoc power analysis. Women showed significantly higher values for the width and perimeter of the toes, width of the metatarsal heads, and width of the heel and presented significantly lower values for the height of the dorsal foot after normalization of the data to foot length. The 1st and 5th metatarsophalangeal angles were smaller in the men. There were no differences between men and women with respect to AI and FPI. Overall, the current study shows evidence of differences between some of the anthropometric foot variables of older men and women that must be taken into account for the manufacture of shoes for older adults.

  15. Foot posture in basketball players with history of the shin splint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Forghany

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Shin splint is one of the common injuries in most athletes. Although the relationship between abnormal foot posture and shin splint has been reported previously but, the relation between foot posture and shin splint has not been well documented. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between foot postures in basketball players and the history of shin splint. Materials and Methods: Thirty Iranian male basketball players who had experience of shin splint during last three months were participated in this study. Foot Posture Index (FPI-6 was used as the measure of foot posture. Talar head palpation, curvature at the lateral malleoli, inversion/eversion of the calcaneus, prominence in the region of the talonavicular joint, congruence of the medial longitudinal arch, abduction /adduction of the forefoot on the rear foot were 6 items which were assessed with FPI in the standing position. Foot posture was defined as ‘normal’, ‘supinated’ or ‘pronated. Data were collected and analyzed by SPSS, version16. Results: Most participants showed abnormal foot posture (%80. Fifty-three percent of subjects had pronated foot (%53 and 10% did hyper-pronation. The foot postures of 17% of participants were in supination. The results of this study did not show a significant difference in foot posture between right and left foot (P > 0.05. Conclusion: abnormal foot posture were common (%80 in basketball players with the history of shin splints. These findings could support this idea that the footwear and orthotic prescription both can prevent and treat basketball players with history of shin splints. Keywords: Foot posture, Shin splints, Basketball

  16. Patients With Diabetic Foot Disease Fear Major Lower-Extremity Amputation More Than Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wukich, Dane K; Raspovic, Katherine M; Suder, Natalie C

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the most-feared complications of diabetes mellitus (DM), comparing those with diabetic foot pathology with those without diabetic foot pathology. We determined the frequency of patients ranking major lower-extremity amputation (LEA) as their greatest fear in comparison to blindness, death, diabetic foot infection (DFI), or end-stage renal disease (ESRD) requiring dialysis. We further categorized the study group patients (N = 207) by their pathology such as diabetic foot ulcer (DFU), Charcot neuroarthropathy, foot infection, or acute neuropathic fractures and dislocations. The control group (N = 254) was comprised of patients with diabetes who presented with common non-diabetes-related foot pathology. A total of 461 patients were enrolled in this study and included 254 patients without diabetic foot complications and 207 patients with diabetic foot problems. When comparing patients with and without diabetic disease, no significant differences were observed with regard to their fear of blindness, DFI, or ESRD requiring dialysis. Patients with diabetic foot disease (61 of 207, 31.9%) were 136% more likely (odds ratio [OR] = 2.36; 95% CI = 1.51-3.70; P = .002] to rank major LEA as their greatest fear when compared with diabetic patients without foot disease (42 of 254, 16.5%) and were 49% less likely (OR = 0.51; 95% CI = 0.34-0.79; P = .002) to rank death as their greatest fear compared with patients without diabetic foot disease. Patients with diabetic foot pathology fear major LEA more than death, foot infection, or ESRD. Variables that were associated with ranking LEA as the greatest fear were the presence of a diabetic-related foot complication, duration of DM ≥10 years, insulin use, and the presence of peripheral neuropathy. Level II: Prospective, Case controlled study.

  17. Effects of thai foot massage on balance performance in diabetic patients with peripheral neuropathy: a randomized parallel-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatchawan, Uraiwan; Eungpinichpong, Wichai; Plandee, Piyawan; Yamauchi, Junichiro

    2015-04-20

    BACKGROUND Peripheral neuropathy is the most common complications of diabetic patients and leads to loss of plantar cutaneous sensation, movement perception, and body balance. Thai foot massage is an alternative therapy to improve balance. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of Thai foot massage on balance performance in diabetic patients with peripheral neuropathy. MATERIAL AND METHODS Sixty patients with type-2 diabetes were recruited and randomly assigned into either the Thai foot massage or control groups. The Thai foot massage group received a modified Thai traditional foot massage for 30 min, 3 days per week for 2 weeks. We measured timed up and go (TUG), one leg stance: OLS), the range of motion (ROM) of the foot, and foot sensation (SWMT) before treatment, after the first single session, and after the 2-week treatment. RESULTS After the single treatment session, only the Thai foot massage group showed a significant improvement in TUG. After the 2-week treatment, both Thai foot massage and control groups showed a significant improvement of TUG and OLS (Pfoot massage group showed better improvement in TUG than the control group (pfoot massage group also showed significant improvements in ROM and SWMT after the 2-week treatment. CONCLUSIONS The results of this study suggest that Thai foot massage is a viable alternative treatment for balance performance, ROM of the foot, and the foot sensation in diabetic patients with peripheral neuropathy.

  18. Nonlinear MHD Waves in a Prominence Foot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofman, L.; Knizhnik, K.; Kucera, T.; Schmieder, B.

    2015-11-01

    We study nonlinear waves in a prominence foot using a 2.5D MHD model motivated by recent high-resolution observations with Hinode/Solar Optical Telescope in Ca ii emission of a prominence on 2012 October 10 showing highly dynamic small-scale motions in the prominence material. Observations of Hα intensities and of Doppler shifts show similar propagating fluctuations. However, the optically thick nature of the emission lines inhibits a unique quantitative interpretation in terms of density. Nevertheless, we find evidence of nonlinear wave activity in the prominence foot by examining the relative magnitude of the fluctuation intensity (δI/I ˜ δn/n). The waves are evident as significant density fluctuations that vary with height and apparently travel upward from the chromosphere into the prominence material with quasi-periodic fluctuations with a typical period in the range of 5-11 minutes and wavelengths <2000 km. Recent Doppler shift observations show the transverse displacement of the propagating waves. The magnetic field was measured with the THEMIS instrument and was found to be 5-14 G. For the typical prominence density the corresponding fast magnetosonic speed is ˜20 km s-1, in qualitative agreement with the propagation speed of the detected waves. The 2.5D MHD numerical model is constrained with the typical parameters of the prominence waves seen in observations. Our numerical results reproduce the nonlinear fast magnetosonic waves and provide strong support for the presence of these waves in the prominence foot. We also explore gravitational MHD oscillations of the heavy prominence foot material supported by dipped magnetic field structure.

  19. NONLINEAR MHD WAVES IN A PROMINENCE FOOT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ofman, L. [Catholic University of America, Washington, DC 20064 (United States); Knizhnik, K.; Kucera, T. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 671, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Schmieder, B. [LESIA, Observatoire de Paris, PSL Research University, CNRS, Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ. Paris 06, Univ. Paris-Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cit, 5 place Jules Janssen, F-92195 Meudon (France)

    2015-11-10

    We study nonlinear waves in a prominence foot using a 2.5D MHD model motivated by recent high-resolution observations with Hinode/Solar Optical Telescope in Ca ii emission of a prominence on 2012 October 10 showing highly dynamic small-scale motions in the prominence material. Observations of Hα intensities and of Doppler shifts show similar propagating fluctuations. However, the optically thick nature of the emission lines inhibits a unique quantitative interpretation in terms of density. Nevertheless, we find evidence of nonlinear wave activity in the prominence foot by examining the relative magnitude of the fluctuation intensity (δI/I ∼ δn/n). The waves are evident as significant density fluctuations that vary with height and apparently travel upward from the chromosphere into the prominence material with quasi-periodic fluctuations with a typical period in the range of 5–11 minutes and wavelengths <2000 km. Recent Doppler shift observations show the transverse displacement of the propagating waves. The magnetic field was measured with the THEMIS instrument and was found to be 5–14 G. For the typical prominence density the corresponding fast magnetosonic speed is ∼20 km s{sup −1}, in qualitative agreement with the propagation speed of the detected waves. The 2.5D MHD numerical model is constrained with the typical parameters of the prominence waves seen in observations. Our numerical results reproduce the nonlinear fast magnetosonic waves and provide strong support for the presence of these waves in the prominence foot. We also explore gravitational MHD oscillations of the heavy prominence foot material supported by dipped magnetic field structure.

  20. Preliminary investigation of foot pressure distribution variation in men and women adults while standing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Periyasamy, R; Mishra, A; Anand, Sneh; Ammini, A C

    2011-09-01

    Women and men are anatomically and physiologically different in a number of ways. They differ in both shape and size. These differences could potentially mean foot pressure distribution variation in men and women. The purpose of this study was to analyze standing foot pressure image to obtain the foot pressure distribution parameter - power ratio variation between men and women using image processing in frequency domain. We examined 28 healthy adult subjects (14 men and 14 women) aged between 20 and 45 years was recruited for our study. Foot pressure distribution patterns while standing are obtained by using a PedoPowerGraph plantar pressure measurement system for foot image formation, a digital camera for image capturing, a TV tuner PC-add on card, a WinDvr software for still capture and Matlab software with dedicated image processing algorithms have been developed. Various PedoPowerGraphic parameters such as percentage medial impulse (PMI), fore foot to hind foot pressure distribution ratio (F/H), big toe to fore foot pressure distribution ratio (B/F) and power ratio (PR) were evaluated. In men, contact area was significantly larger in all regions of the foot compared with women. There were significant differences in plantar pressure distribution but there was no significant difference in F/H and B/F ratio. Mean PR value was significantly greater in men than women under the hind foot and fore foot. PMI value was greater in women than men. As compared to men, women have maximum PR variations in the mid foot. Hence there is significant difference at level pfeet can provide suitable guidelines to biomedical engineers and doctor for designing orthotic devices for reliving the area of excessively high pressure. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Depression and incident diabetic foot ulcers: a prospective cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Lisa H.; Rutter, Carolyn M.; Katon, Wayne J.; Reiber, Gayle E.; Ciechanowski, Paul; Heckbert, Susan R.; Lin, Elizabeth H.B.; Ludman, Evette J.; Oliver, Malia M.; Young, Bessie A.; Von Korff, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Objective To test whether depression is associated with an increased risk of incident diabetic foot ulcers. Methods The Pathways Epidemiologic Study is a population-based prospective cohort study of 4839 patients with diabetes in 2000–2007. The present analysis included 3474 adults with type 2 diabetes and no prior diabetic foot ulcers or amputations. Mean follow-up was 4.1 years. Major and minor depression assessed by the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) were the exposures of interest. The outcome of interest was incident diabetic foot ulcers. We computed the hazard ratio (HR) and 95% CI for incident diabetic foot ulcers, comparing patients with major and minor depression to those without depression and adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, medical comorbidity, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), diabetes duration, insulin use, number of diabetes complications, body mass index, smoking status, and foot self-care. Sensitivity analyses also adjusted for peripheral neuropathy and peripheral arterial disease as defined by diagnosis codes. Results Compared to patients without depression, patients with major depression by PHQ-9 had a two-fold increase in the risk of incident diabetic foot ulcers (adjusted HR 2.00, 95% CI: 1.24, 3.25). There was no statistically significant association between minor depression by PHQ-9 and incident diabetic foot ulcers (adjusted HR 1.37, 95% CI: 0.77, 2.44). Conclusion Major depression by PHQ-9 is associated with a two-fold higher risk of incident diabetic foot ulcers. Future studies of this association should include better measures of peripheral neuropathy and peripheral arterial disease, which are possible confounders and/or mediators. PMID:20670730

  2. Specificity of foot configuration during bipedal stance in ballet dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casabona, Antonino; Leonardi, Giuseppa; Aimola, Ettore; La Grua, Giovanni; Polizzi, Cristina Maria; Cioni, Matteo; Valle, Maria Stella

    2016-05-01

    Learning highly specialized upright postures may be of benefit for more common as well as for novel stances. In this study, we asked whether this generalization occurs with foot configurations previously trained or depends on a generic increase in balance difficulty. We also explored the possibility that the benefit may concern not only the level of postural performance but also the structural organization of the upright standing. Ten elite professional ballet dancers were compared to ten untrained subjects, measuring the motion of the center of pressure (COP) across a set of five stances with different foot configurations. The balance stability was measured computing the area, the sway path, and the root mean square of the COP motion, whereas the structure of the postural control was assessed by compute approximate entropy, fractal dimension and the mean power frequency. The foot position included common and challenging stances, with the level of difficulty changed across the configurations. Among these conditions, only one foot configuration was familiar to the dancers. Statistically significant differences between the two groups, for all the parameters, were observed only for the stance with the foot position familiar to the dancers. Stability and structural parameters exhibited comparable differences. We concluded that the benefit from classical ballet is limited to a specific foot configuration, regardless of the level of stance difficulty or the component of postural control. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The effect of foot reflexology on pain in patients with metastatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Nancy; Dalton, Jo Ann; Carlson, John

    2003-11-01

    Thirty-six oncology inpatients participated in this third pilot study investigating the effects of foot reflexology in which equianalgesic dosing was calculated. Foot reflexology was found to have a positive immediate effect for patients with metastatic cancer who report pain, although there was no statistically significant effect at 3 hours after intervention or at 24 hours after intervention. Further study is suggested for foot reflexology delivered by family in the homes for management of cancer pain.

  4. Comparison of plantar pressure on normal -footed vs. high arch-footed badminton players in two-way lunge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    parvane bazipoor

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Compared to the individuals with a normal arch structure, those with high or low arch can be at an increased risk of overuse injuries. The risk of overuse injury among athletes is high due, in part, to the repeated loading of the lower extremities. The current study aimed to determine if foot type (high-arched or normal results in differences in plantar pressure during two badminton-specific movements (right-reverse lunge and right-lateral lunge. Methods: Twenty badminton players (10 with normal feet and 10 with higharched feet completed five trials in both right-reverse and right-lateral lunge, while in-shoe pressure data were collected at 100 Hz. The peak pressure and mean pressure were analyzed among the subjects for five major anatomical regions of the foot, using the independent t test in SPSS version 20. The foot type was determined by the foot posture index (FPI (α<0.05. Results: Results showed that the plantar pressure characteristics of normal and high-arched feet were different; such that in high-arched feet, as compared to normal subjects, there were significantly fewer pressure strikes in the medial (P=0.010 and lateral (P=0.002 mid-foot in right-reverse lunge and this was significantly higher in forefoot (P=0.003 and toes (P=0.010. However, the peak (P=0.157 and mean (P=0.104 pressure in the heel was higher but not significant. In the right- lateral lunge, we found statistically lower peak pressure stroke for the lateral mid-foot (P=0.010 and forefoot (P=0.011; however, the mean pressure was lower in the lateral (P=0.010 and medial (P=0.040 mid-foot and forefoot (P=0.120, although it was not significant in the forefoot. Conclusion: Results showed that the medial longitudinal arch of the foot might cause pressure differences in the feet among the players with normal and higharched feet. As the results demonstrated, in high-arched feet, there are some regions where plantar pressure is higher and some where it is lower

  5. Foot burns: epidemiology and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemington-Gorse, S; Pellard, S; Wilson-Jones, N; Potokar, T

    2007-12-01

    This is a retrospective study of the epidemiology and management of isolated foot burns presenting to the Welsh Centre for Burns from January 1998 to December 2002. A total of 289 were treated of which 233 were included in this study. Approximately 40% were in the paediatric age group and the gender distribution varied dramatically for adults and children. In the adult group the male:female ratio was 3.5:1, however in the paediatric group the male:female ratio was more equal (1.6:1). Scald burns (65%) formed the largest group in children and scald (35%) and chemical burns (32%) in adults. Foot burns have a complication rate of 18% and prolonged hospital stay. Complications include hypertrophic scarring, graft loss/delayed healing and wound infection. Although isolated foot burns represent a small body surface area, over half require treatment as in patients to allow for initial aggressive conservative management of elevation and regular wound cleansing to avoid complications. This study suggests a protocol for the initial acute management of foot burns. This protocol states immediate referral of all foot burns to a burn centre, admission of these burns for 24-48 h for elevation, regular wound cleansing with change of dressings and prophylactic antibiotics.

  6. Self-efficacy of foot care behaviour of elderly patients with diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maizatul Nadwa Mohd Razi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Elderly patients with diabetes are at a high risk of contracting diabetic foot problems. Self-efficacy is essential to help improve foot care behaviour. Aim: To identify levels of self-efficacy and foot care behaviour and their relationship with demographic characteristics in elderly patients with diabetes Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in two general hospitals in Malaysia from May to June 2015. Diabetes patients aged 60 years with specific inclusion criteria were invited to participate in this study. The respondents were interviewed using a set of validated questionnaires. Data were analysed with descriptive and inferential statistics (multiple linear regression using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 20.0. Results: Levels of foot self-efficacy (mean+31.39; standard deviation=7.76 and foot care behaviour (mean=25.37; SD=5.88 were high. There was a positive significant relationship between foot selfefficacy (β = 0.41, p < 0.001 and gender (β = 0.30, p < 0.001 with foot care behaviour. Conclusion: Self-efficacy can be incorporated in diabetes education to improve foot care behaviour. High-risk patients should be taught proper foot inspection and protection as well as the merits of skin care to prevent the occurrence of diabetic foot problems.

  7. Validity and Reliability of Visual Analog Scale Foot and Ankle: The Turkish Version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gur, Gozde; Turgut, Elif; Dilek, Burcu; Baltaci, Gul; Bek, Nilgun; Yakut, Yavuz

    The present study tested the reliability and validity of the Turkish version of the visual analog scale foot and ankle (VAS-FA) among healthy subjects and patients with foot problems. A total of 128 participants, 65 healthy subjects and 63 patients with foot problems, were evaluated. The VAS-FA was translated into Turkish and administered to the 128 subjects on 2 separate occasions with a 5-day interval. The test-retest reliability and internal consistency were assessed with the intraclass correlation coefficient and Cronbach's α. The validity was assessed using the correlations with Turkish versions of the Foot Function Index, the Foot and Ankle Outcome Score, and the Short-Form 36-item Health Survey. A statistically significant difference was found between the healthy group and the patient group in the overall score and subscale scores of the VAS-FA (p Foot Function Index, Foot and Ankle Outcome Score, and Short-Form 36-item Health Survey scores in the healthy and patient groups both. The Turkish version of the VAS-FA is sensitive enough to distinguish foot and ankle-specific pathologic conditions from asymptomatic conditions. The Turkish version of the VAS-FA is a reliable and valid method and can be used for foot-related problems. Copyright © 2017 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Implementation of a quality improvement initiative in Belgian diabetic foot clinics: feasibility and initial results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doggen, Kris; Van Acker, Kristien; Beele, Hilde; Dumont, Isabelle; Félix, Patricia; Lauwers, Patrick; Lavens, Astrid; Matricali, Giovanni A; Randon, Caren; Weber, Eric; Van Casteren, Viviane; Nobels, Frank

    2014-07-01

    This article aims to describe the implementation and initial results of an audit-feedback quality improvement initiative in Belgian diabetic foot clinics. Using self-developed software and questionnaires, diabetic foot clinics collected data in 2005, 2008 and 2011, covering characteristics, history and ulcer severity, management and outcome of the first 52 patients presenting with a Wagner grade ≥ 2 diabetic foot ulcer or acute neuropathic osteoarthropathy that year. Quality improvement was encouraged by meetings and by anonymous benchmarking of diabetic foot clinics. The first audit-feedback cycle was a pilot study. Subsequent audits, with a modified methodology, had increasing rates of participation and data completeness. Over 85% of diabetic foot clinics participated and 3372 unique patients were sampled between 2005 and 2011 (3312 with a diabetic foot ulcer and 111 with acute neuropathic osteoarthropathy). Median age was 70 years, median diabetes duration was 14 years and 64% were men. Of all diabetic foot ulcers, 51% were plantar and 29% were both ischaemic and deeply infected. Ulcer healing rate at 6 months significantly increased from 49% to 54% between 2008 and 2011. Management of diabetic foot ulcers varied between diabetic foot clinics: 88% of plantar mid-foot ulcers were off-loaded (P10-P90: 64-100%), and 42% of ischaemic limbs were revascularized (P10-P90: 22-69%) in 2011. A unique, nationwide quality improvement initiative was established among diabetic foot clinics, covering ulcer healing, lower limb amputation and many other aspects of diabetic foot care. Data completeness increased, thanks in part to questionnaire revision. Benchmarking remains challenging, given the many possible indicators and limited sample size. The optimized questionnaire allows future quality of care monitoring in diabetic foot clinics. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. [Changes of renal blood flow during organ-associated foot reflexology measured by color Doppler sonography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudmeier, I; Bodner, G; Egger, I; Mur, E; Ulmer, H; Herold, M

    1999-06-01

    Using colour Doppler sonography blood flow changes of the right kidney during foot reflexology were determined in a placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomised study. 32 healthy young adults (17 women, 15 men) were randomly assigned to the verum or placebo group. The verum group received foot reflexology at zones corresponding to the right kidney, the placebo group was treated on other foot zones. Before, during and after foot reflexology the blood flow of three vessels of the right kidney was measured using colour Doppler sonography. Systolic peak velocity and end diastolic peak velocity were measured in cm/s, and the resistive index, a parameter of the vascular resistance, was calculated. The resistive index in the verum group showed a highly significant decrease (p foot reflexology. There was no difference between men and women and no difference between smokers and non-smokers. Verum and placebo group significantly differed concerning alterations of the resistive index both between the measuring points before versus during foot reflexology (p = 0.002) and those during versus after foot reflexology (p = 0.031). The significant decrease of the resistive index during foot reflexology in the verum group indicates a decrease of flow resistance in renal vessels and an increase of renal blood flow. These findings support the hypothesis that organ-associated foot reflexology is effective in changing renal blood flow during therapy.

  10. Selective dorsal rhizotomy opportunities with foot deformitiesin children with cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Markovich Kenis

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Foot deformities are the most common orthopedic condition in children with cerebral palsy. The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of selective dorsal rhizotomy (SDR on foot deformities in children with cerebral palsy. The results were assessed clinically by measurement of changes in muscle spaticity and foot posture. Percentage of resection of dorsal rootlets was from 40 to 90 % of total thickness. The degree of tone reduction had a tendency to be more pronounced in the more proximal muscles and was minimal in calf muscles. Nevertheless, foot posture improved more significantly. That can be explained by generalimprovement of pathological posture at the level of more proximal joints. Thus, SDR has insignificant direct effect on spastic foot deformity and can not be recommended as a basic method of treatment even in pure spasticity. However, SDR should be considered as a part of multidisciplinary management protocol if foot deformity reflects more complex postural disturbance due to generalized spasticity.

  11. The Charcot Foot in Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frykberg, Robert G.; Armstrong, David G.; Boulton, Andrew J.M.; Edmonds, Michael; Van, Georges Ha; Hartemann, Agnes; Game, Frances; Jeffcoate, William; Jirkovska, Alexandra; Jude, Edward; Morbach, Stephan; Morrison, William B.; Pinzur, Michael; Pitocco, Dario; Sanders, Lee; Wukich, Dane K.; Uccioli, Luigi

    2011-01-01

    The diabetic Charcot foot syndrome is a serious and potentially limb-threatening lower-extremity complication of diabetes. First described in 1883, this enigmatic condition continues to challenge even the most experienced practitioners. Now considered an inflammatory syndrome, the diabetic Charcot foot is characterized by varying degrees of bone and joint disorganization secondary to underlying neuropathy, trauma, and perturbations of bone metabolism. An international task force of experts was convened by the American Diabetes Association and the American Podiatric Medical Association in January 2011 to summarize available evidence on the pathophysiology, natural history, presentations, and treatment recommendations for this entity. PMID:21868781

  12. Diabetic gangrene of the foot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Junji; Hoshi, Makoto; Shinozaki, Tatsuyo; Kimura, Masakata; Ichinohe, Hitomoto.

    1983-01-01

    A case of severe diabetic gangrene was reported. Angiography showed no evidence of ischemic changes in the foot, except for mild atherosclerosis in the femoral and popliteal arteries. Tc-99m labelled macroagglugated albumine (MAA) was injected transcatheterally into the abdominal aorta to see the blood perfusion of the lower extremities, which showed increased blood flow of the foot as well as the presence of micro arteriovenous shuntings shown by the appearance of both lungs. Damages of the microcirculation are thought to have much influences on the formation of diabetic gangrene. Histopathological findings supported above. (author)

  13. Flat Foot in a Random Population and its Impact on Quality of Life and Functionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pita-Fernandez, Salvador; Gonzalez-Martin, Cristina; Alonso-Tajes, Francisco; Seoane-Pillado, Teresa; Pertega-Diaz, Sonia; Perez-Garcia, Sergio; Seijo-Bestilleiro, Rocio; Balboa-Barreiro, Vanesa

    2017-04-01

    Flat foot is a common deformity in adults. It is characterized by medial rotation and plantar flexion of the talus, eversion of the calcaneus, collapsed medial arch and abduction of the forefoot. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of flat foot and its impact on quality of life, dependence, foot pain, disability and functional limitation among random population of 40-year-old and above. A cross-sectional study in a random population sample from Cambre (A Coruña-Spain) (n=835) was performed (α =0.05; Precision=±3.4%). The diagnosis of flat foot was stablished by the study of the footprint obtained with a pedograph. Anthropometric variables were studied, Charlson's Comorbidity Index, function and state of foot (Foot Function Index (FFI), Foot Health Status Questionnaire (FHSQ)), quality of life (SF-36), and dependence for activities of daily living (Barthel and Lawton index). A logistic and linear multiple regression analysis was performed. The prevalence of flat foot was 26.62%. Patients with flat foot were significantly older (65.73±11.04 vs 61.03±11.45-year-old), showed a higher comorbidity index (0.92±1.49 vs 0.50±0.98), had a greater BMI (31.45±5.55 vs 28.40±4.17) and greater foot size (25.16±1.66 vs 24.82±1.65). The presence of flat foot diminishes the quality of life, as measured by the FHSQ, and foot function, measured by the FFI. The presence of flat foot does not alter the physical and mental dimension of the SF-36 or the degree of dependence. Flat foot was associated with age, Charlson's Comorbidity Index, BMI and foot size. The SF-36, Barthel and Lawton questionnaires remained unaltered by the presence of flat foot. The FHSQ and FFI questionnaires did prove to be sensitive to the presence of flat foot in a significant manner.

  14. Fleet of Foot: Adolescent Foot and Ankle Mobility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legacy, Kelly Bromley

    2018-01-01

    In today's world of advanced technologies, accessible transportation, and fingertip talking, adolescents are spending too many hours each day sedentary. The purpose of this article is to underscore the importance of foot and ankle mobility in an adolescent population that spends very little time on their feet. Physical educators and athletic…

  15. A musculoskeletal foot model for clinical gait analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraswat, Prabhav; Andersen, Michael S; Macwilliams, Bruce A

    2010-06-18

    Several full body musculoskeletal models have been developed for research applications and these models may potentially be developed into useful clinical tools to assess gait pathologies. Existing full-body musculoskeletal models treat the foot as a single segment and ignore the motions of the intrinsic joints of the foot. This assumption limits the use of such models in clinical cases with significant foot deformities. Therefore, a three-segment musculoskeletal model of the foot was developed to match the segmentation of a recently developed multi-segment kinematic foot model. All the muscles and ligaments of the foot spanning the modeled joints were included. Muscle pathways were adjusted with an optimization routine to minimize the difference between the muscle flexion-extension moment arms from the model and moment arms reported in literature. The model was driven by walking data from five normal pediatric subjects (aged 10.6+/-1.57 years) and muscle forces and activation levels required to produce joint motions were calculated using an inverse dynamic analysis approach. Due to the close proximity of markers on the foot, small marker placement error during motion data collection may lead to significant differences in musculoskeletal model outcomes. Therefore, an optimization routine was developed to enforce joint constraints, optimally scale each segment length and adjust marker positions. To evaluate the model outcomes, the muscle activation patterns during walking were compared with electromyography (EMG) activation patterns reported in the literature. Model-generated muscle activation patterns were observed to be similar to the EMG activation patterns. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Left, right, left, right, eyes to the front! Müller-Lyer bias in grasping is not a function of hand used, hand preferred or visual hemifield, but foveation does matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Kamp, John; de Wit, Matthieu M; Masters, Rich S W

    2012-04-01

    We investigated whether the control of movement of the left hand is more likely to involve the use of allocentric information than movements performed with the right hand. Previous studies (Gonzalez et al. in J Neurophys 95:3496-3501, 2006; De Grave et al. in Exp Br Res 193:421-427, 2009) have reported contradictory findings in this respect. In the present study, right-handed participants (N = 12) and left-handed participants (N = 12) made right- and left-handed grasps to foveated objects and peripheral, non-foveated objects that were located in the right or left visual hemifield and embedded within a Müller-Lyer illusion. They were also asked to judge the size of the object by matching their hand aperture to its length. Hand apertures did not show significant differences in illusory bias as a function of hand used, handedness or visual hemifield. However, the illusory effect was significantly larger for perception than for action, and for the non-foveated compared to foveated objects. No significant illusory biases were found for reach movement times. These findings are consistent with the two-visual system model that holds that the use of allocentric information is more prominent in perception than in movement control. We propose that the increased involvement of allocentric information in movements toward peripheral, non-foveated objects may be a consequence of more awkward, less automatized grasps of nonfoveated than foveated objects. The current study does not support the conjecture that the control of left-handed and right-handed grasps is predicated on different sources of information.

  17. Diabetic foot ulcers. Pathophysiology, assessment, and therapy.

    OpenAIRE

    Bowering, C. K.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review underlying causes of diabetic foot ulceration, provide a practical assessment of patients at risk, and outline an evidence-based approach to therapy for diabetic patients with foot ulcers. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: A MEDLINE search was conducted for the period from 1979 to 1999 for articles relating to diabetic foot ulcers. Most studies found were case series or small controlled trials. MAIN MESSAGE: Foot ulcers in diabetic patients are common and frequently lead to lower limb...

  18. X-Ray Exam: Foot

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español X-Ray Exam: Foot KidsHealth / For Parents / X-Ray Exam: ... Muscles, and Joints Broken Bones Getting an X-ray (Video) X-Ray (Video) View more Partner Message About Us ...

  19. Hyperbaric oxygen in the treatment of a diabetic foot ulcer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Davenport, Colin

    2011-02-01

    Although simultaneous pancreas and kidney transplant improves most complications of type 1 diabetes, suppression of the immune system increases the risk for infection. The authors report the case of a patient who, despite receiving a simultaneous pancreas and kidney transplant, subsequently developed neuro-ischemic ulcers of his right foot requiring repeated amputations. He then developed an infected ulcer of his remaining right big toe, with significant implications for his mobility. This ulcer proved resistant to multiple courses of antibiotics and care in a specialist foot clinic but resolved completely following a course of hyperbaric oxygen therapy. The role of hyperbaric oxygen in diabetic foot ulcers is not yet fully established but should be considered in resistant cases with vascular insufficiency and a significant infective component.

  20. Hyperbaric oxygen in the treatment of a diabetic foot ulcer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Davenport, Colin

    2012-02-01

    Although simultaneous pancreas and kidney transplant improves most complications of type 1 diabetes, suppression of the immune system increases the risk for infection. The authors report the case of a patient who, despite receiving a simultaneous pancreas and kidney transplant, subsequently developed neuro-ischemic ulcers of his right foot requiring repeated amputations. He then developed an infected ulcer of his remaining right big toe, with significant implications for his mobility. This ulcer proved resistant to multiple courses of antibiotics and care in a specialist foot clinic but resolved completely following a course of hyperbaric oxygen therapy. The role of hyperbaric oxygen in diabetic foot ulcers is not yet fully established but should be considered in resistant cases with vascular insufficiency and a significant infective component.

  1. Management of diabetic foot infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamil, M.; Amin, Z.; Chaudhary, T. H.; Shaheen, J.; Alvi, Z. R.

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To determine the infecting agent in diabetic food infection with the susceptibility pattern, and to evaluate the effect of wound infection, was culopathy, neuropathy and control of diabetes mellitus on the outcome of the patients. Design: A descriptive and observational study. Place and duration of study: Patients with diabetic foot, admitted in surgical unit 1, B.V. Hospital Bahawalpur, from April 1999 to April 2000, were included in this study. Subject and methods: A total of 60 known diabetic patients were studied, out of these 47 were males and 13 females. They were assessed for angiopathy, neuropathy and extend of foot involvement. Necessary investigations, including x-ray foot, ECG, serum urea and creatinine, pus culture and sensitivity were carried out. Diabetes was controlled on insulin of the basis of serum sugar and urine sugar chart and treated accordingly. Results: The most common age of foot involvement was between 40-70 years. Right side was involved more often than the left (67%: 37%). Most of the infections were due to staphylococcus (50%), pseudomonas (25%) and streptococci (8%). Antibiotic was started based on sensitivity report. Fluoro quinolone plus clindamycin was used in 50%, fluoro quinolone plus metronidazole in 20% and amoxicillin/clavulanate in 23%. Most of the patients (61.7%) were in grade iii or iv of Meggit wagner classification of diabetic foot. Three patients (5%) were treated by below knee amputations while 1.7% patient by above knee amputation. In twenty-four (40%) patients some form of to amputation/ray amputation had to be done,while 32(53.3%) patients had complete healing of would without any amputation. Mortality was 3.33% all the 4 patients (6.7%) who presented late, having uncontrolled diabetes, with angiopathy (absent foot pulses), neuropathy, infection of the foot (grade iii or above) resulted in major amputation sooner or latter. The 32 patients (53.3%) having controlled diabetes mellitus with no angiopathy or

  2. 49 CFR 214.115 - Foot protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Foot protection. 214.115 Section 214.115... protection. (a) The railroad or railroad contractor shall require railroad bridge workers to wear foot protection equipment when potential foot injury may result from impact, falling or flying objects, electrical...

  3. 24 CFR 3285.312 - Footings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... reinforcing steel in cast-in-place concrete footings. (2) Pressure-treated wood. (i) Pressure-treated wood footings must consist of a minimum of two layers of nominal 2-inch thick pressure-treated wood, a single... values listed have been reduced by the dead load of the concrete footing. 4. Concrete block piers must...

  4. Diabetes: foot ulcers and amputations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Dereck L

    2011-08-26

    Diabetic foot ulceration is full-thickness penetration of the dermis of the foot in a person with diabetes. Severity is classified using the Wagner system, which grades it from 1 to 5. The annual incidence of ulcers among people with diabetes is 2.5% to 10.7% in resource-rich countries, and the annual incidence of amputation for any reason is 0.25% to 1.8%. We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of interventions to prevent foot ulcers and amputations in people with diabetes? What are the effects of treatments in people with diabetes with foot ulceration? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to September 2010 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). We found 50 systematic reviews and RCTs that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. In this systematic review, we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: debridement, human cultured dermis, human skin equivalent, patient education, pressure off-loading with felted foam or pressure-relief half-shoe, pressure off-loading with total-contact or non-removable casts, screening and referral to foot-care clinics, systemic hyperbaric oxygen for non-infected ulcers, systemic hyperbaric oxygen in infected ulcers, therapeutic footwear, topical growth factors, and wound dressings.

  5. Age determination enhanced by embryonic foot bud and foot plate measurements in relation to Carnegie stages, and the influence of maternal cigarette smoking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lutterodt, M C; Rosendahl, M; Yding Andersen, C

    2009-01-01

    habits, and delivered a urine sample for cotinine analysis. Embryonic age was evaluated by vaginal ultrasound measurements and by post-termination foot length and compared with the Carnegie stages. RESULTS: Foot bud and foot plate were defined and measured as foot length in embryos aged 35-47 days p.......c. (range 0.8-2.1 mm). In embryos and fetuses aged 41-69 days p.c., heel-toe length was measured (range 2.5-7.5 mm). We found a significant linear correlation between foot length and age. Morphology of the feet was compared visually with the Carnegie collection, and we found that the mean ages of the two...

  6. Foot strike pattern in children during shod-unshod running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latorre Román, Pedro Ángel; Balboa, Fernando Redondo; Pinillos, Felipe García

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the foot strike patterns (FSPs) and neutral support (no INV/EVE and no foot rotation) in children, as well as to determine the influence of shod/unshod conditions and sex. A total of 713 children, aged 6 to 16 years, participated in this study (Age=10.28±2.71years, body mass index [BMI]=19.70±3.91kg/m 2 , 302 girls and 411 boys). A sagittal and frontal-plane video (240Hz) was recorded using a high-speed camcorder, to record the following variables: rearfoot strike (RFS), midfoot strike (MFS), forefoot strike (FFS), inversion/eversion (INV/EVE) and foot rotation on initial contact. RFS prevalence was similar between boys and girls in both shod and unshod conditions. In the unshod condition there was a significant reduction (p<0.001) of RFS prevalence both in boys (shod condition=83.95% vs. 62.65% unshod condition) and in girls (shod condition=87.85% vs. 62.70% unshod condition). No significant differences were found in INV/EVE and foot rotation between sex groups. In the unshod condition there was a significant increase (p<0.001) of neutral support (no INV/EVE) both in boys (shod condition=12.55% vs. 22.22% unshod condition) and in girls (shod condition=17.9% vs. 28.15% unshod condition). In addition, in the unshod condition there is a significant reduction (p<0.001) of neutral support (no foot rotation) both in boys (shod condition=21.55% vs. 11.10% unshod condition) and in girls (shod condition=21.05% vs. 11.95% unshod condition). In children, RFS prevalence is lower than adult's population. Additionally, barefoot running reduced the prevalence of RFS and INV/EVE, however increased foot rotation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The effect of ankle foot orthosis stiffness on the energy cost of walking: a simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bregman, D J J; van der Krogt, M M; de Groot, V; Harlaar, J; Wisse, M; Collins, S H

    2011-11-01

    In stroke and multiple sclerosis patients, gait is frequently hampered by a reduced ability to push-off with the ankle caused by weakness of the plantar-flexor muscles. To enhance ankle push-off and to decrease the high energy cost of walking, spring-like carbon-composite Ankle Foot Orthoses are frequently prescribed. However, it is unknown what Ankle Foot Orthoses stiffness should be used to obtain the most efficient gait. The aim of this simulation study was to gain insights into the effect of variation in Ankle Foot Orthosis stiffness on the amount of energy stored in the Ankle Foot Orthosis and the energy cost of walking. We developed a two-dimensional forward-dynamic walking model with a passive spring at the ankle representing the Ankle Foot Orthosis and two constant torques at the hip for propulsion. We varied Ankle Foot Orthosis stiffness while keeping speed and step length constant. We found an optimal stiffness, at which the energy delivered at the hip joint was minimal. Energy cost decreased with increasing energy storage in the ankle foot orthosis, but the most efficient gait did not occur with maximal energy storage. With maximum storage, push-off occurred too late to reduce the impact of the contralateral leg with the floor. Maximum return prior to foot strike was also suboptimal, as push-off occurred too early and its effects were subsequently counteracted by gravity. The optimal Ankle Foot Orthosis stiffness resulted in significant push-off timed just prior to foot strike and led to greater ankle plantar-flexion velocity just before contralateral foot strike. Our results suggest that patient energy cost might be reduced by the proper choice of Ankle Foot Orthosis stiffness. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Foot Type Biomechanics Part 2: are structure and anthropometrics related to function?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mootanah, Rajshree; Song, Jinsup; Lenhoff, Mark W; Hafer, Jocelyn F; Backus, Sherry I; Gagnon, David; Deland, Jonathan T; Hillstrom, Howard J

    2013-03-01

    Many foot pathologies are associated with specific foot types. If foot structure and function are related, measurement of either could assist with differential diagnosis of pedal pathologies. Biomechanical measures of foot structure and function are related in asymptomatic healthy individuals. Sixty-one healthy subjects' left feet were stratified into cavus (n=12), rectus (n=27) and planus (n=22) foot types. Foot structure was assessed by malleolar valgus index, arch height index, and arch height flexibility. Anthropometrics (height and weight), age, and walking speed were measured. Foot function was assessed by center of pressure excursion index, peak plantar pressure, maximum force, and gait pattern parameters. Foot structure and anthropometric variables were entered into stepwise linear regression models to identify predictors of function. Measures of foot structure and anthropometrics explained 10-37% of the model variance (adjusted R(2)) for gait pattern parameters. When walking speed was included, the adjusted R(2) increased to 45-77% but foot structure was no longer a factor. Foot structure and anthropometrics predicted 7-47% of the model variance for plantar pressure and 16-64% for maximum force parameters. All multivariate models were significant (pFoot structure and function are related in asymptomatic healthy individuals. The structural parameters employed are basic measurements that do not require ionizing radiation and could be used in a clinical setting. Further research is needed to identify additional predictive parameters (plantar soft tissue characteristics, skeletal alignment, and neuromuscular control) and to include individuals with pathology. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Age determination enhanced by embryonic foot bud and foot plate measurements in relation to Carnegie stages, and the influence of maternal cigarette smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutterodt, M C; Rosendahl, M; Yding Andersen, C; Skouby, S O; Byskov, A G

    2009-08-01

    Reliable age determination of first-trimester human embryos and fetuses is an important parameter for clinical use and basic science. Age determination by ultrasound or morphometric parameters of embryos 4-6 weeks post conception (p.c.) have been questioned, and more accurate methods are required. Data on whether and how maternal smoking and alcohol consumption influence embryonic and fetal foot growth is also lacking. Embryonic tissue from 102 first-trimester legal abortions (aged 35-69 days p.c.) were collected. All women answered a questionnaire concerning smoking and drinking habits, and delivered a urine sample for cotinine analysis. Embryonic age was evaluated by vaginal ultrasound measurements and by post-termination foot length and compared with the Carnegie stages. Foot bud and foot plate were defined and measured as foot length in embryos aged 35-47 days p.c. (range 0.8-2.1 mm). In embryos and fetuses aged 41-69 days p.c., heel-toe length was measured (range 2.5-7.5 mm). We found a significant linear correlation between foot length and age. Morphology of the feet was compared visually with the Carnegie collection, and we found that the mean ages of the two collections correlated well. Foot length was independent of gender, Environmental Tobacco Smoke, maternal smoking and alcohol consumption. Foot length correlated linearly to embryonic and foetal age, and was unaffected by gender, ETS, maternal smoking and alcohol consumption.

  10. Foot Problems in a Group of Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis: An Unmet Need for Foot Care

    OpenAIRE

    Borman, Pinar; Ayhan, Figen; Tuncay, Figen; Sahin, Mehtap

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the foot involvement in a group of RA patients in regard to symptoms, type and frequency of deformities, location, radiological changes, and foot care. Patients and Methods: A randomized selected 100 rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients were recruited to the study. Data about foot symptoms, duration and location of foot pain, pain intensity, access to services related to foot, treatment, orthoses and assistive devices, and usefulness of therapie...

  11. The ovulation pattern during three consecutive menstrual cycles has a significant impact on pregnancy rate and sex of the offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fukuda, Misao; Fukuda, Kiyomi; Tatsumi, Kenichi

    2011-01-01

    Identification of the ovary at the time of ovulation during three consecutive menstrual cycles results in one of eight ovulation patterns, left-left-right, right-left-right, left-right-right, and right-right-right of right-sided ovulation and right-right-left, left-right-left, right-left-left, an......Identification of the ovary at the time of ovulation during three consecutive menstrual cycles results in one of eight ovulation patterns, left-left-right, right-left-right, left-right-right, and right-right-right of right-sided ovulation and right-right-left, left-right-left, right...

  12. Body Weight Determination from Foot Outline Length among the Iban Population in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hairunnisa Bt Mohd Anas K

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Foot impressions form a valuable physical evidence to solve crime. Foot impression measurements provide valuable information in estimating stature, weight, gender and age in crime scene investigation. In Asian countries, many people living in rural places walk without footwear. The aim of this research is to generate regression equations to determine living body weight from foot outline length among the Iban population of Malaysia. The study involved 200 (100 males, 100 females adult Ibans, mostly living in Sarawak, a state in   Malaysia. Following the standard procedure, the foot outlines were collected followed by body weight measurements and were recorded for analysis. The collected data were analysed with PASW 20 computer software. The correlation coefficient (R between the foot outline lengths and body weight was determined for males, females and pooled sample. Based on the foot outline and body weight, 30 regression equations were generated, 10 for males, 10 for females and 10 for pooled samples/unknown gender. The correlation coefficient (R values were positive and statistically significant. It is concluded that the present investigation provided regression equations to determine body weight from foot outline anthropometry. These equations can be used to determine body weight even when partial foot impressions are available at crime scenes.   Keywords: Forensic Science, Body Weight, Foot Outline, Iban Population, Malaysia

  13. Identification of Foot Pathologies Based on Plantar Pressure Asymmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linah Wafai

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Foot pathologies can negatively influence foot function, consequently impairing gait during daily activity, and severely impacting an individual’s quality of life. These pathologies are often painful and correspond with high or abnormal plantar pressure, which can result in asymmetry in the pressure distribution between the two feet. There is currently no general consensus on the presence of asymmetry in able-bodied gait, and plantar pressure analysis during gait is in dire need of a standardized method to quantify asymmetry. This paper investigates the use of plantar pressure asymmetry for pathological gait diagnosis. The results of this study involving plantar pressure analysis in fifty one participants (31 healthy and 20 with foot pathologies support the presence of plantar pressure asymmetry in normal gait. A higher level of asymmetry was detected at the majority of the regions in the feet of the pathological population, including statistically significant differences in the plantar pressure asymmetry in two regions of the foot, metatarsophalangeal joint 3 (MPJ3 and the lateral heel. Quantification of plantar pressure asymmetry may prove to be useful for the identification and diagnosis of various foot pathologies.

  14. Sweat function in the diabetic foot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markendeya Nirmala

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Autonomic dysfunction, an early manifestation of diabetic neuropathy, presents with altered sweating patterns, leading to dryness and fissuring. We conducted a study to assess the sweat function in the diabetic foot and to determine the interrelation between the duration of diabetes, sensation, fissuring, and sweating. Methods: The sweat function was assessed in 30 diabetic patients, 28 of whom had fissuring of the feet, using Ninhydrin impregnated discs. Results: There was a significant association between fissuring and sensation, but not between the duration of diabetes and fissuring and between loss of sweating and fissuring. In 18 patients (60% there was impairment or absence of sweating in the presence of normal sensation. Conclusion: Although fissuring increases with long-standing diabetes and sweating is reduced in diabetic patients with fissures on the foot, the correlation between these entities was not statistically significant. Since 60% patients had altered sweating in the presence of normal sensations, the sweat test can be used as an early indicator of diabetic neuropathy.

  15. The effect of age and speed on foot and ankle kinematics assessed using a 4-segment foot model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hoeve, Sander; Leenstra, Bernard; Willems, Paul; Poeze, Martijn; Meijer, Kenneth

    2017-09-01

    The effects of age and speed on foot and ankle kinematics in gait studies using foot models are not fully understood, whereas this can have significant influence. We analyzed these variables with the 4-segment Oxford foot model. Twenty-one healthy subjects (aged 20-65 years) were recruited for gait analysis. The effect of speed on foot and ankle kinematics was assessed by comparing results during slow walking and fast walking. To assess the effect of age, a group of 13 healthy young adults (aged 20-24 years) were compared with a group of 8 older adults (aged 53-65 years). Also, the interaction between age and speed was analyzed. Regarding speed, there was a significant difference between forefoot/hindfoot motion in the sagittal plane (flexion/extension) during both loading- and push-off phase (P = .004, P < .001). Between hindfoot/tibia, there was a significant difference for all parameters except for motion in the sagittal plane (flexion/extension) during push-off phase (P = .5). Age did not significantly influence kinematics. There was no interaction between age and speed. Our analysis found that speed significantly influenced the kinematic outcome parameters. This was more pronounced in the ankle joint. In contrast, no significant differences were found between younger and older healthy subjects.

  16. [Therapeutic uses of ortho-podiatry in the diabetic foot].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Herranz, Marta; Bas Caro, Pedro; Carabantes Alarcón, David; Padín Galea, José Manuel

    2011-10-01

    The neuropathic diabetic foot ulcers are a major public health problem given by different situations: the chronic nature of the injury, a low response to treatment, relapse rates, etc. Therefore pose a serious personal, family health and social, with a significant expenditure of human and material resources. Treatment requires a multidisciplinary team which integrates a podiatrist as part of it. He will address especially the pre-ulcers, and have a singular care in diabetic foot by treatment with orthosis. Since your question can be seen changes in the feet of diabetic patients could be treated on an outpatient basis.

  17. Minimizing Hexapod Robot Foot Deviations Using Multilayer Perceptron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vytautas Valaitis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Rough-terrain traversability is one of the most valuable characteristics of walking robots. Even despite their slower speeds and more complex control algorithms, walking robots have far wider usability than wheeled or tracked robots. However, efficient movement over irregular surfaces can only be achieved by eliminating all possible difficulties, which in many cases are caused by a high number of degrees of freedom, feet slippage, frictions and inertias between different robot parts or even badly developed inverse kinematics (IK. In this paper we address the hexapod robot-foot deviation problem. We compare the foot-positioning accuracy of unconfigured inverse kinematics and Multilayer Perceptron-based (MLP methods via theory, computer modelling and experiments on a physical robot. Using MLP-based methods, we were able to significantly decrease deviations while reaching desired positions with the hexapod's foot. Furthermore, this method is able to compensate for deviations of the robot arising from any possible reason.

  18. Towards an efficient and robust foot classification from pedobarographic images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Francisco P M; Sousa, Andreia; Santos, Rubim; Tavares, João Manuel R S

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a new computational framework for automatic foot classification from digital plantar pressure images. It classifies the foot as left or right and simultaneously calculates two well-known footprint indices: the Cavanagh's arch index (AI) and the modified AI. The accuracy of the framework was evaluated using a set of plantar pressure images from two common pedobarographic devices. The results were outstanding, as all feet under analysis were correctly classified as left or right and no significant differences were observed between the footprint indices calculated using the computational solution and the traditional manual method. The robustness of the proposed framework to arbitrary foot orientations and to the acquisition device was also tested and confirmed.

  19. Foot ulcers in the diabetic patient, prevention and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie C Wu

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Stephanie C Wu1, Vickie R Driver1, James S Wrobel2, David G Armstrong21Center for Lower Extremity Ambulatory Research,William M. Scholl College of Podiatric Medicine at Rosalind Franklin University of Medicine and Science, and National Center of Limb Salvage, Advocate Lutheran General Hospital, Chicago, IL, USA; 2Center for Lower Extremity Ambulatory Research, Dr. William M. Scholl College of Podiatric Medicine at Rosalind Franklin University of Medicine, Chicago, IL, USAAbstract: Lower extremity complications in persons with diabetes have become an increasingly significant public health concern in both the developed and developing world. These complications, beginning with neuropathy and subsequent diabetic foot wounds frequently lead to infection and lower extremity amputation even in the absence of critical limb ischemia. In order to diminish the detrimental consequences associated with diabetic foot ulcers, a common-sense-based treatment approach must be implemented. Many of the etiological factors contributing to the formation of diabetic foot ulceration may be identified using simple, inexpensive equipment in a clinical setting. Prevention of diabetic foot ulcers can be accomplished in a primary care setting with a brief history and screening for loss of protective sensation via the Semmes-Weinstein monofilament. Specialist clinics may quantify neuropathy, plantar foot pressure, and assess vascular status with Doppler ultrasound and ankle-brachial blood pressure indices. These measurements, in conjunction with other findings from the history and physical examination, may enable clinicians to stratify patients based on risk and help determine the type of intervention. Other effective clinical interventions may include patient education, optimizing glycemic control, smoking cessation, and diligent foot care. Recent technological advanced combined with better understanding of the wound healing process have resulted in a myriad of advanced

  20. Effect of a steam foot spa on geriatric inpatients with cognitive impairment: a pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koike, Yoshihisa; Kondo, Hideki; Kondo, Satoshi; Takagi, Masayuki; Kano, Yoshio

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To investigate whether a steam foot spa improves cognitive impairment in geriatric inpatients. Methods Geriatric inpatients with cognitive impairment were given a steam foot spa treatment at 42°C for 20 minutes for 2 weeks (5 days/week). Physiological indicators such as blood pressure, percutaneous oxygen saturation, pulse, tympanic temperature, and sleep time and efficiency were assessed. Cognitive function and behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia were assessed using the Mini-Mental State Examination, Dementia Mood Assessment Scale, and Dementia Behavior Disturbance scale. Results Significant decreases in systolic (P steam foot spas. A significant improvement was seen in the Mini-Mental State Examination score (P steam foot baths. In this study, a control group was not used. Raters and enforcers were not blinded. Conclusion The results of this pilot study suggest that steam foot spas mitigate cognitive impairment in geriatric inpatients. PMID:23717038

  1. The effect of age and speed on foot and ankle kinematics assessed using a 4-segment foot model

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hoeve, Sander; Leenstra, Bernard; Willems, Paul; Poeze, Martijn; Meijer, Kenneth

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: The effects of age and speed on foot and ankle kinematics in gait studies using foot models are not fully understood, whereas this can have significant influence. We analyzed these variables with the 4-segment Oxford foot model. Methods: Twenty-one healthy subjects (aged 20–65 years) were recruited for gait analysis. The effect of speed on foot and ankle kinematics was assessed by comparing results during slow walking and fast walking. To assess the effect of age, a group of 13 healthy young adults (aged 20–24 years) were compared with a group of 8 older adults (aged 53–65 years). Also, the interaction between age and speed was analyzed. Results: Regarding speed, there was a significant difference between forefoot/hindfoot motion in the sagittal plane (flexion/extension) during both loading- and push-off phase (P = .004, P push-off phase (P = .5). Age did not significantly influence kinematics. There was no interaction between age and speed. Conclusion: Our analysis found that speed significantly influenced the kinematic outcome parameters. This was more pronounced in the ankle joint. In contrast, no significant differences were found between younger and older healthy subjects. PMID:28858109

  2. Ultraviolet irradiation initiates ectopic foot formation in regenerating ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    If the head or base piece of a bisected hydra is irradiated and recombined with the unirradiated missing part, regeneration proceeds normally indicating that exposure of a body part with either an intact head or foot to UVC does not influence pattern formation. Most significantly, in the middle piece, but not in the head or the ...

  3. [The benefits of foot reflexology in nursing homes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonnet, Karine

    2012-01-01

    Massages, following the foot reflexology method, were given to patients in a nursing home suffering from Alzheimer's disease or related disorders. A methodical assessment, on a small sample of patients, showed a significant reduction in neuropsychiatric manifestations, opening up new perspectives for non-medication based therapy for the care of elderly dependent people.

  4. Screening techniques to identify people at high risk for diabetic foot ulceration: a prospective multicenter trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, H; Armstrong, D G; Harvey, C; Harkless, L B; Giurini, J M; Veves, A

    2000-05-01

    Diabetic foot ulceration is a preventable long-term complication of diabetes. A multicenter prospective follow-up study was conducted to determine which risk factors in foot screening have a high association with the development of foot ulceration. A total of 248 patients from 3 large diabetic foot centers were enrolled in a prospective study. Neuropathy symptom score, neuropathy disability score (NDS), vibration perception threshold (VPT), Semmes-Weinstein monofilaments (SWFs), joint mobility, peak plantar foot pressures, and vascular status were evaluated in all patients at the beginning of the study. Patients were followed-up every 6 months for a mean period of 30 months (range 6-40), and all new foot ulcers were recorded. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value of each risk factor were evaluated. Foot ulcers developed in 95 feet (19%) or 73 patients (29%) during the study. Patients who developed foot ulcers were more frequently men, had diabetes for a longer duration, had nonpalpable pedal pulses, had reduced joint mobility, had a high NDS, had a high VPT, and had an inability to feel a 5.07 SWE NDS alone had the best sensitivity, whereas the combination of the NDS and the inability to feel a 5.07 SWF reached a sensitivity of 99%. On the other hand, the best specificity for a single factor was offered by foot pressures, and the best combination was that of NDS and foot pressures. Univariate logistical regression analysis yielded a statistically significant odds ratio (OR) for sex, race, duration of diabetes, palpable pulses, history of foot ulceration, high NDSs, high VPTs, high SWFs, and high foot pressures. In addition, 94 (99%) of the 95 ulcerated feet had a high NDS and/or SWF which resulted in the highest OR of 26.2 (95% CI 3.6-190). Furthermore, in multivariate logistical regression analysis, the only significant factors were high NDSs, VPTs, SWFs, and foot pressures. Clinical examination and a 5.07 SWF test are the two most sensitive

  5. Custom-Made Foot Orthoses Decrease Medial Foot Loading During Drop Jump in Individuals With Patellofemoral Pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rathleff, Michael S; Richter, Camilla; Brushøj, Christoffer

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of foot orthoses on medial-to-lateral plantar forces during drop jump and single leg squat, and second, to explore the self-reported change in symptoms after 12 weeks of wearing the orthoses in individuals with patellofemoral pain (PFP). DESIGN: Cohort study...... with 12 weeks of follow-up. SETTING: Hospital setting. PARTICIPANTS: 23 adults with PFP. INTERVENTIONS: Custom-made foot orthoses. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Foot loading (plantar pressure) was collected from the most painful side during drop jump and single leg squat using pressure sensitive Pedar insoles....... Primary outcome was the medial-to-lateral peak force under the forefoot during drop jump. The PFP syndrome severity score was used to measure self-reported improvement from baseline to follow-up. RESULTS: Orthoses were associated with a significant 2.9%-point (95% confidence intervals: 0.7-5.1) reduction...

  6. Increased foot-stretcher height improves rowing performance: evidence from biomechanical perspectives on water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Gao, Binghong; Li, Jiru; Ma, Zuchang; Sun, Yining

    2018-06-07

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether changes on foot-stretcher height were associated with characteristics of better rowing performance. Ten male rowers performed a 200 m rowing trial at their racing rate at each of three foot-stretcher heights. A single scull was equipped with an accelerometer to collect boat acceleration, an impeller with embedded magnets to collect boat speed, specially designed gate sensors to collect gate force and angle, and a compact string potentiometer to collect leg drive length. All sensor signals were sampled at 50 Hz. A one-way repeated measures ANOVA showed that raising foot-stretcher position had a significant reduction on total gate angle and leg drive length. However, a raised foot-stretcher position had a deeper negative peak of boat acceleration at the catch, a lower boat fluctuation, a faster leg drive speed, a larger gate force for the port and starboard side separately. This could be attributed to the optimisation of the magnitude and direction of the foot force with a raised foot-stretcher position. Although there was a significant negative influence of a raised foot-stretcher position on two kinematic variables, biomechanical evidence suggested that a raised foot-stretcher position could contribute to the improvement of rowing performance.

  7. Diagnostic imaging of the diabetic foot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranachowska, C.; Lass, P.; Korzon-Burakowska, A.; Dobosz, M.

    2010-01-01

    Diabetic foot syndrome is a significant complication of diabetes. Diagnostic imaging is a crucial factor determining surgical decision and extent of surgical intervention. At present the gold standard is MRI scanning, whilst the role of bone scanning is decreasing, although in some cases it brings valuable information. In particular, in early stages of osteitis and Charcot neuro-osteoarthropathy, radionuclide imaging may be superior to MRI. Additionally, a significant contribution of inflammation-targeted scintigraphy should be noted. Probably the role of PET scanning will grow, although its high cost and low availability may be a limiting factor. In every case, vascular status should be determined, at least with Doppler ultrasound, with following conventional angiography or MR angiography. (authors)

  8. Analysis of risk factors for neuropathic foot ulceration in diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, P J; Stocks, A E; Whittam, D J

    1996-03-01

    Diabetes mellitus affects about one in 25 Australians. Neuropathic foot ulceration is a frequent complication in persons with diabetes. This study evaluates the importance of different risk factors for the development of this condition. The role of nonenzymatic glycosylation and pressure beneath the sole of the foot in the pathogenesis of neuropathic foot ulcers was investigated. Twenty-seven subjects with diabetes with a recent history of neuropathic foot ulceration were matched by age and sex with a group of 50 control subjects without neuropathy or history of foot ulceration. The degree of nonenzymatic glycosylation was assessed by analyzing the average level of glycosylated hemoglobin in the 3 years prior to the development of the foot ulcer and a goniometer assessment of peripheral joint (hand and ankle) flexibility. Dynamic pressure of the plantar aspect of the foot was recorded using a Musgrave Footprint System pedobarograph during a normal gait cycle. There was no significant difference in age, sex, body mass index, and duration or type of diabetes between the ulcer and control groups. The pressure of the plantar aspect of the foot was significantly elevated (p < 0.01). Ankle joint flexibility was reduced (p < 0.01) in cases with neuropathic foot ulceration compared with the control group. There was a trend toward elevation of glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c fraction) or HbA1c in the ulcer group (p = 0.06). The results suggested that nonenzymatic glycosylation occurs at a more significant level in patients with diabetes with a history of neuropathic foot ulceration.

  9. The role of the reversed oblique radiograph in trauma of the foot and ankle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geusens, E.; Geyskens, W.; Brys, P.; Janzing, H.

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this study was to demonstrate the statistical significance of a reversed oblique radiograph of the foot in patients with ankle or foot trauma. In 100 consecutive patients a reversed oblique radiograph of the foot was taken in addition to the conventional plain films. Ten of 29 fractures were not visualised on the conventional films of foot and ankle and could only be diagnosed on the reversed oblique film. In 7 of these 10 cases an avulsion fracture at the anterolateral aspect of the calcaneus was present. This additional reversed oblique film of the foot seems to be of considerable importance, especially when an anterolateral avulsion fracture of the calcaneus is clinically suspected. (orig.)

  10. The role of the reversed oblique radiograph in trauma of the foot and ankle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geusens, E.; Geyskens, W.; Brys, P. [Dept. of Radiology, University Hospitals, Leuven (Belgium); Janzing, H. [Dept. of Traumatology, University Hospitals, Leuven (Belgium)

    2000-03-01

    The objective of this study was to demonstrate the statistical significance of a reversed oblique radiograph of the foot in patients with ankle or foot trauma. In 100 consecutive patients a reversed oblique radiograph of the foot was taken in addition to the conventional plain films. Ten of 29 fractures were not visualised on the conventional films of foot and ankle and could only be diagnosed on the reversed oblique film. In 7 of these 10 cases an avulsion fracture at the anterolateral aspect of the calcaneus was present. This additional reversed oblique film of the foot seems to be of considerable importance, especially when an anterolateral avulsion fracture of the calcaneus is clinically suspected. (orig.)

  11. Narrative review: Diabetic foot and infrared thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Contreras, D.; Peregrina-Barreto, H.; Rangel-Magdaleno, J.; Gonzalez-Bernal, J.

    2016-09-01

    Diabetic foot is one of the major complications experienced by diabetic patients. An early identification and appropriate treatment of diabetic foot problems can prevent devastating consequences such as limb amputation. Several studies have demonstrated that temperature variations in the plantar region can be related to diabetic foot problems. Infrared thermography has been successfully used to detect complication related to diabetic foot, mainly because it is presented as a rapid, non-contact and non-invasive technique to visualize the temperature distribution of the feet. In this review, an overview of studies that relate foot temperature with diabetic foot problems through infrared thermography is presented. Through this research, it can be appreciated the potential of infrared thermography and the benefits that this technique present in this application. This paper also presents the different methods for thermogram analysis and the advantages and disadvantages of each one, being the asymmetric analysis the method most used so far.

  12. Effectiveness of Foot Orthoses Versus Rocker-Sole Footwear for First Metatarsophalangeal Joint Osteoarthritis: Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menz, Hylton B; Auhl, Maria; Tan, Jade M; Levinger, Pazit; Roddy, Edward; Munteanu, Shannon E

    2016-05-01

    To compare the effectiveness of prefabricated foot orthoses to rocker-sole footwear in reducing foot pain in people with first metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joint osteoarthritis (OA). Participants (n = 102) with first MTP joint OA were randomly allocated to receive individualized, prefabricated foot orthoses or rocker-sole footwear. The primary outcome measure was the pain subscale on the Foot Health Status Questionnaire (FHSQ) at 12 weeks. Secondary outcome measures included the function, footwear, and general foot health subscales of the FHSQ; the Foot Function Index; severity of pain and stiffness at the first MTP joint; perception of global improvement; general health status; use of rescue medication and co-interventions to relieve pain; physical activity; and the frequency of self-reported adverse events. The FHSQ pain subscale scores improved in both groups, but no statistically significant difference between the groups was observed (adjusted mean difference 2.05 points, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] -3.61, 7.71; P = 0.477). However, the footwear group exhibited lower adherence (mean ± SD total hours worn 287 ± 193 versus 448 ± 234; P footwear are similarly effective at reducing foot pain in people with first MTP joint OA. However, prefabricated foot orthoses may be the intervention of choice due to greater adherence and fewer associated adverse events. © 2016 The Authors. Arthritis Care & Research published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Rheumatology.

  13. A survey of elephant husbandry and foot health in North American zoos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Karen D; Shepherdson, David J; Owens, Terrah M; Keele, Mike

    2010-01-01

    The foot health of elephants in human care is a longstanding concern. In 2001, the AZA Standards for Elephant Management and Care were published recommending husbandry to improve foot health. This article reports the results of a 2006 survey: basic statistics describing facility, husbandry, and foot health attributes are reported and relationships among variables are investigated. Median area available to elephants exceeded Standard recommendations (755 ft(2) per elephant indoor and 10,000 ft(2) outdoor). Concrete makes up 69% of indoor area and natural substrates account for 85% of outdzoor area. Elephants in AZA facilities received an average of 45.5 min/day of exercise, and facilities with a structured exercise plan provided significantly more exercise than did facilities without a structured exercise plan (z=-2.522, P=0.012). Enrichment is important to psychological health and may also stimulate activity beneficial to foot health; 95% of institutions had a structured enrichment program. Preventative foot care was nearly universal, and 100% of facilities performed routine nail and pad trimming. However, foot pathology has not been eradicated; 33% of institutions reported at least one pathology in the previous year. This study found a strong inverse relationship between foot pathology and exercise (chi(2)(3)=24.34, Pelephants seemed to experience lower rates of foot pathology and arthritis than Asian elephants; however, this was explained by differences in age.

  14. The effects of foot reflexology massage on anxiety in patients following coronary artery bypass graft surgery: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagheri-Nesami, Masoumeh; Shorofi, Seyed Afshin; Zargar, Nahid; Sohrabi, Maryam; Gholipour-Baradari, Afshin; Khalilian, Alireza

    2014-02-01

    To examine the effects of foot reflexology massage on anxiety in patients following CABG surgery. In this randomized controlled trial, 80 patients who met the inclusion criteria were conveniently sampled and randomly allocated to the experimental and control groups after they were matched on age and gender. On the days following surgery, the experimental group received foot reflexology massage on their left foot 20 min a day for 4 days, while the control group was given a gentle foot rub with oil for one minute. Anxiety was measured using the short-form of the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and the Visual Analogue Scale-Anxiety. Both measurement instruments confirmed a significant decrease in anxiety following the foot reflexology massage. The significant decrease in anxiety in the experimental group following the foot reflexology massage supports the use of this complementary therapy technique for the relief of anxiety. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Chinese cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Foot Function Index as tool to measure patients with foot and ankle functional limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Sánchez, Manuel; Ruiz-Muñoz, Maria; Li, Guang Zhi; Cuesta-Vargas, Antonio I

    2017-05-11

    To perform a cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Foot Function Index (FFI) questionnaire to develop the Chinese version. Three hundred and six patients with foot and ankle neuromusculoskeletal diseases participated in this observational study. Construct validity, internal consistency and criterion validity were calculated for the FFI Chinese version after the translation and transcultural adaptation process. Internal consistency ranged from 0.996 to 0.998. Test-retest analysis ranged from 0.985 to 0.994; minimal detectable change 90: 2.270; standard error of measurement: 0.973. Load distribution of the three factors had an eigenvalue greater than 1. Chi-square value was 9738.14 (p Foot Function Index (Taiwan Version), Short-Form 12 (Version 2) and EuroQol-5D were used for criterion validity. Factors 1 and 2 showed significant correlation with 15/16 and 14/16 scales and subscales, respectively. Foot Function Index Chinese version psychometric characteristics were good to excellent. Chinese researchers and clinicians may use this tool for foot and ankle assessment and monitoring. Implications for rehabilitation A cross-cultural adaptation of the FFI has been done from original version to Chinese. Consistent results and satisfactory psychometric properties of the Foot Function Index Chinese version have been reported. For Chinese speaking researcher and clinician FFI-Ch could be used as a tool to assess patients with foot disease.

  16. Comparing the Effect of Foot Reflexology Massage, Foot Bath and Their Combination on Quality of Sleep in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Rahmani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Many patients in coronary care unit (CCU suffer from decreased sleep quality caused by environmental and mental factors. This study compared the efficacy of foot reflexology massage, foot bath, and a combination of them on the quality of sleep of patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS. Methods: This quasi-experimental study was implemented on ACS patients in Iran. Random sampling was used to divide the patients into four groups of 35 subjects. The groups were foot reflexology massage, foot bath, a combination of the two and the control group. Sleep quality was measured using the Veran Snyder-Halpern questionnaire. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 13. Results: The mean age of the four groups was 61.22 (11.67 years. The mean sleep disturbance in intervention groups (foot reflexology massage and foot bath groups during the second and third nights was significantly less than before intervention. The results also showed a greater reduction in sleep disturbance in the combined group than in the other groups when compared to the control group. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the intervention of foot bath and massage are effective in reducing sleep disorders and there was a synergistic effect when used in combination. This complementary care method can be recommended to be implemented by CCU nurses.

  17. Comparing the Effect of Foot Reflexology Massage, Foot Bath and Their Combination on Quality of Sleep in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmani, Ali; Naseri, Mahdi; Salaree, Mohammad Mahdi; Nehrir, Batool

    2016-12-01

    Introduction: Many patients in coronary care unit (CCU) suffer from decreased sleep quality caused by environmental and mental factors. This study compared the efficacy of foot reflexology massage, foot bath, and a combination of them on the quality of sleep of patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Methods: This quasi-experimental study was implemented on ACS patients in Iran. Random sampling was used to divide the patients into four groups of 35 subjects. The groups were foot reflexology massage, foot bath, a combination of the two and the control group. Sleep quality was measured using the Veran Snyder-Halpern questionnaire. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 13. Results: The mean age of the four groups was 61.22 (11.67) years. The mean sleep disturbance in intervention groups (foot reflexology massage and foot bath groups) during the second and third nights was significantly less than before intervention. The results also showed a greater reduction in sleep disturbance in the combined group than in the other groups when compared to the control group. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the intervention of foot bath and massage are effective in reducing sleep disorders and there was a synergistic effect when used in combination. This complementary care method can be recommended to be implemented by CCU nurses.

  18. Diabetes: Good Diabetes Management and Regular Foot Care Help Prevent Severe Foot Sores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amputation and diabetes: How to protect your feet Good diabetes management and regular foot care help prevent severe foot sores that ... and may require amputation. By Mayo Clinic Staff Diabetes complications can include nerve damage and poor blood ...

  19. THE EFFECT OF STEP RATE MANIPULATION ON FOOT STRIKE PATTERN OF LONG DISTANCE RUNNERS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Darrell J; Heisler, Hollie; Mooney, Jennifer; Kring, Richard

    2016-02-01

    Running gait retraining to change foot strike pattern in runners from a heel strike pattern to a non heel- strike pattern has been shown to reduce impact forces and may help to reduce running related injuries. Step rate manipulation above preferred is known to help decrease step length, foot inclination angle, and vertical mass excursion, but has not yet been evaluated as a method to change foot strike pattern. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of step rate manipulation on foot strike pattern in shod recreational runners who run with a heel strike pattern. A secondary purpose was to describe the effect of step rate manipulation at specific percentages above preferred on foot inclination angle at initial contact. Forty volunteer runners, who were self-reported heel strikers and had a weekly running mileage of at least 10 miles, were recruited. Runners were confirmed to be heel strikers during the warm up period on the treadmill. The subject's step rate was determined at their preferred running pace. A metronome was used to increase step rate above the preferred step rate by 5%, 10% and 15%. 2D video motion analysis was utilized to determine foot strike pattern and to measure foot inclination angle at initial contact for each step rate condition. There was a statistically significant change in foot strike pattern from a heel strike pattern to a mid-foot or forefoot strike pattern at both 10% and 15% step rates above preferred. Seven of the 40 subjects (17.5%) changed from a heel- strike pattern to a non- heel strike pattern at +10% and 12 of the 40 subjects (30%) changed to a non-heel strike pattern at +15%. Mean foot inclination angle at initial contact showed a statistically significant change (reduction) as step rate increased. Step rate manipulation of 10% or greater may be enough to change foot strike pattern from a heel strike to a mid-foot or forefoot strike pattern in a small percentage of recreational runners who run in traditional

  20. Sex-related differences in foot shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, I; Grau, S; Mauch, M; Maiwald, C; Horstmann, T

    2008-11-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate sex-related differences in foot morphology. In total, 847 subjects were scanned using a 3-D-footscanner. Three different analysis methods were used: (1) comparisons were made for absolute foot measures within 250-270 mm foot length (FL); (2) and for averaged measures (% FL) across all sizes; (3) the feet were then classified using a cluster analysis. Within 250-270 mm FL, male feet were wider and higher (mean differences (MD) 1.3-5.9 mm). No relevant sex-related differences could be found in the comparison of averaged measures (MD 0.3-0.6% FL). Foot types were categorised into voluminous, flat-pointed and slender. Shorter feet were more often voluminous, longer feet were more likely to be narrow and flat. However, the definition of 'short' and 'long' was sex-related; thus, allometry of foot measures was different. For shoe design, measures should be derived for each size and sex separately. Different foot types should be considered to account for the variety in foot shape. Improper footwear can cause foot pain and deformity. Therefore, knowledge of sex-related differences in foot measures is important to assist proper shoe fit in both men and women. The present study supplements the field of knowledge within this context with recommendations for the manufacturing of shoes.

  1. Introduction of hind foot coronal alignment view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Il Bong; Jeon, Ju Seob; Yoon, Kang Cheol; Choi, Nam Kil; Kim, Seung Kook

    2006-01-01

    Accurate clinical evaluation of the alignment of the calcaneus relative to the tibia in the coronal plane is essential in the evaluation and treatment of hind foot pathologic condition. Previously described standard anteroposterior, lateral, and oblique radiographic methods of the foot or ankle do not demonstrate alignment of the tibia relation to the calcaneus in the coronal plane. The purpose of this study was to introduce hind foot coronal alignment view. Both feet were imaged simultaneously on an elevated, radiolucent foot stand equipment. Both feet stood on a radiolucent platform with equal weight on both feet. Both feet are located foot axis longitudinal perpendicular to the platform. Silhouette tracing around both feet are made, and line is then drawn to bisect the silhouette of the second toe and the outline of the heel. The x-ray beam is angled down approximately 15 .deg. to 20 .deg. This image described tibial axis and medial, lateral tuberosity of calcaneus. Calcaneus do not rotated. The view is showed by talotibial joint space. Although computed tomographic and magnetic resonance imaging techniques are capable of demonstrating coronal hind foot alignment, they lack usefulness in most clinical situations because the foot is imaged in a non-weight bearing position. But hind foot coronal alignment view is obtained for evaluating position changing of inversion, eversion of the hind foot and varus, valgus deformity of calcaneus

  2. The Glasgow-Maastricht foot model, evaluation of a 26 segment kinematic model of the foot

    OpenAIRE

    Oosterwaal, Michiel; Carbes, Sylvain; Telfer, Scott; Woodburn, James; T?rholm, S?ren; Al-Munajjed, Amir A.; van Rhijn, Lodewijk; Meijer, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    Background Accurately measuring of intrinsic foot kinematics using skin mounted markers is difficult, limited in part by the physical dimensions of the foot. Existing kinematic foot models solve this problem by combining multiple bones into idealized rigid segments. This study presents a novel foot model that allows the motion of the 26 bones to be individually estimated via a combination of partial joint constraints and coupling the motion of separate joints using kinematic rhythms. Methods ...

  3. A review of the biomechanics of the diabetic foot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Schie, C. H. M.

    2005-01-01

    In general, diabetic foot ulcers result from abnormal mechanical loading of the foot, such as repetitive moderate pressure applied to the plantar aspect of the foot while walking. Diabetic peripheral neuropathy causes changes in foot structure, affecting foot function and subsequently leading to

  4. One- and multi-segment foot models lead to opposite results on ankle joint kinematics during gait: Implications for clinical assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pothrat, Claude; Authier, Guillaume; Viehweger, Elke; Berton, Eric; Rao, Guillaume

    2015-06-01

    Biomechanical models representing the foot as a single rigid segment are commonly used in clinical or sport evaluations. However, neglecting internal foot movements could lead to significant inaccuracies on ankle joint kinematics. The present study proposed an assessment of 3D ankle kinematic outputs using two distinct biomechanical models and their application in the clinical flat foot case. Results of the Plug in Gait (one segment foot model) and the Oxford Foot Model (multisegment foot model) were compared for normal children (9 participants) and flat feet children (9 participants). Repeated measures of Analysis of Variance have been performed to assess the Foot model and Group effects on ankle joint kinematics. Significant differences were observed between the two models for each group all along the gait cycle. In particular for the flat feet group, opposite results between the Oxford Foot Model and the Plug in Gait were revealed at heelstrike, with the Plug in Gait showing a 4.7° ankle dorsal flexion and 2.7° varus where the Oxford Foot Model showed a 4.8° ankle plantar flexion and 1.6° valgus. Ankle joint kinematics of the flat feet group was more affected by foot modeling than normal group. Foot modeling appeared to have a strong influence on resulting ankle kinematics. Moreover, our findings showed that this influence could vary depending on the population. Studies involving ankle joint kinematic assessment should take foot modeling with caution. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Stress Fractures of the Foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Munier; Clutton, Juliet; Ridgewell, Mark; Lyons, Kathleen; Perera, Anthony

    2015-10-01

    Stress fractures of the foot and ankle may be more common among athletes than previously reported. A low threshold for investigation is warranted and further imaging may be appropriate if initial radiographs remain inconclusive. Most of these fractures can be treated conservatively with a period of non-weight-bearing mobilization followed by gradual return to activity. Early surgery augmented by bone graft may allow athletes to return to sports earlier. Risk of delayed union, nonunion, and recurrent fracture is high. Many of the patients may also have risk factors for injury that should be modified for a successful outcome. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Overuse syndromes of the foot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kainberger, F.; Peloschek, P.; Weidekamm, C.; Uffmann, M.

    2007-01-01

    Overuse syndromes due to lifestyle problems or sporting activities commonly lead to foot abnormalities. The tendons of the long flexor and extensor muscles are specifically prone to degeneration. The various disorders may be classified by a grading system that includes peritendinous inflammation, degenerative tendon disease, and ruptures. Bone marrow edema is another typical manifestation of overuse. It may be differentiated from inflammatory or traumatic forms of edema by its anatomic distribution. Systematic pattern recognition is based on the concept of musculotendinous and osseous kinetic chains. (orig.) [de

  7. Assessment of signs of foot infection in diabetes patients using photographic foot imaging and infrared thermography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hazenberg, Constantijn E. V. B.; van Netten, Jaap J.; van Baal, Sjef G.; Bus, Sicco A.

    2014-01-01

    Patients with diabetic foot disease require frequent screening to prevent complications and may be helped through telemedical home monitoring. Within this context, the goal was to determine the validity and reliability of assessing diabetic foot infection using photographic foot imaging and infrared

  8. A new method to normalize plantar pressure measurements for foot size and foot progression angle.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keijsers, N.L.; Stolwijk, N.M.; Nienhuis, B.; Duysens, J.E.J.

    2009-01-01

    Plantar pressure measurement provides important information about the structure and function of the foot and is a helpful tool to evaluate patients with foot complaints. In general, average and maximum plantar pressure of 6-11 areas under the foot are used to compare groups of subjects. However,

  9. Repeatability of the Oxford Foot Model in children with foot deformity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McCahill, Jennifer; Stebbins, Julie; Koning, Bart; Harlaar, Jaap; Theologis, Tim

    Introduction The Oxford Foot Model (OFM) is a multi-segment, kinematic model developed to assess foot motion. It has previously been assessed for repeatability in healthy populations. To determine the OFM's reliability for detecting foot deformity, it is important to know repeatability in

  10. The diabetic foot; Der diabetische Fuss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vestring, T. [Inst. fuer Klinische Radiologie, Univ. Muenster (Germany); Fiedler, R. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Technische Orthopaedie und Rehabilitation, Univ. Muenster (Germany); Greitemann, B. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Technische Orthopaedie und Rehabilitation, Univ. Muenster (Germany); Sciuk, J. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Univ. Muenster (Germany); Peters, P.E. [Inst. fuer Klinische Radiologie, Univ. Muenster (Germany)

    1995-07-01

    Familiarity with the spectrum of findings in the different imaging modalities appears essential. Radiographically, significant changes include Charcot joints of the tarsus (destructive type) and bone absorption of the forefoot (mutilating type). In diabetic foot problems, magnetic resonance imaging and leukocyte scintigraphy appear to be the most effective tools for detection of osteomyelitis, and a negative study makes osteomyelitis unlikely. However, the findings of both techniques in active, noninfected neuropathic osteoarthropathy may be indistinguishable from those of osteomyelitis. (orig.) [Deutsch] Da der diabetische Fuss zu einer der haeufigsten Komplikationen der Grunderkrankung zaehlt, muss das Befundspektrum bei den verschiedenen bildgebenden Verfahren bekannt sein. Bei der diabetischen Osteoarthropathie werden uebersichtsradiographisch 2 Formen unterschieden: der destruierende Typ, der die Tarsalknochen bevorzugt, und der mutilierende Typ, welcher sich an den Roehrenknochen des Fusses manifestiert. Die Magnetresonanztomographie und die Leukozytenszintigraphie sind zum Nachweis bzw. Ausschluss einer Osteomyelitis am besten geeignet. Aber auch diese Methoden koennen nicht sicher eine nicht infizierte, aktive Osteoarthropathie von einer Osteomyelitis differenzieren. (orig.)

  11. Quality of life in individuals with chronic foot conditions: a cross sectional observational study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Groarke, Patrick

    2012-06-01

    Chronic foot conditions have been reported to be a significant cause of impairment and disability to individuals affected. However, studies to date have particularly focussed on patient satisfaction with outcomes following surgery.

  12. Study on the foot shape characteristics of the elderly in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xiang Dong; Xue, Chao-Hua; Li, Yan

    2017-12-01

    With aging, the feet of the elderly above 60 years old in China present degenerative changes, deformities, and diseases, which significantly affect their daily activities. The authors aimed to study the morphological characteristics of the feet and identify the foot type according to size (length and width) and defect characteristics of elderly feet in China. A convenient sample of 1000 subjects above 60 years old was recruited mainly in the regions of Shanghai, Shaanxi, Henan, Hebei, and Sichuan in China. Foot images were collected, and 800 (male 398, female 402) valid questionnaires were recovered. A total of 800 elderly subjects as the test group were invited to measure their foot sizes by means of a Footprint Collector (Tong Yuan Tang Health Management Limited, Qingdao in Shandong province). The foot type of the elderly was compared with that of the general adult Chinese population as the control group using the t-test for independent samples. Hallux valgus (46.9%) and flat foot (50.0%) were the most common foot shape deformities. The most frequent foot diseases were foot scaling (91.2%) and calluses (96.3%). The medial width of the first metatarsal-toe joint of the elderly was significantly higher (elderly female, 44.95±4.86mm; elderly male, 48.55±4.94mm) than that of the general adult population (adult female, 40.18±3.43mm; adult male, 43.22±3.20mm) (p<0.01). The foot length of the elderly was not significantly different from that of the general adult Chinese population. The width of the first metatarsal-toe joint in the forefoot of the elderly was significantly higher than that of the general adult Chinese population, which was consistent with the result that a high proportion of elderly subjects presented hallux valgus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Classification of diabetic foot ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Game, Frances

    2016-01-01

    It is known that the relative importance of factors involved in the development of diabetic foot problems can vary in both their presence and severity between patients and lesions. This may be one of the reasons why outcomes seem to vary centre to centre and why some treatments may seem more effective in some people than others. There is a need therefore to classify and describe lesions of the foot in patients with diabetes in a manner that is agreed across all communities but is simple to use in clinical practice. No single system is currently in widespread use, although a number have been published. Not all are well validated outside the system from which they were derived, and it has not always been made clear the clinical purposes to which such classifications should be put to use, whether that be for research, clinical description in routine clinical care or audit. Here the currently published classification systems, their validation in clinical practice, whether they were designed for research, audit or clinical care, and the strengths and weaknesses of each are explored. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. A STUDY OF CORRELATION OF FOOT LENGTH AND GESTATIONAL MATURITY IN NEONATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bhuvaneswari

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Gestational age estimation at birth can be done by clinical estimation through careful history of LMP, ultrasonic estimation of gestational age, date of first recorded foetal activity “quickening” first felt at approximately 16-18 weeks, Date of first recorded foetal heart sounds. MATERIALS AND METHODS A study sample of 800 live newborns were selected by simple random sampling technique born at GVR hospital and Government General Hospital, Kurnool from April 2015 to May 2016. Data was collected using standard proforma meeting the objectives of the study. a Gestational age assessment was done using modified Bellard’s score and b Foot length was measured using sliding calipers which is having an accuracy of a millimeter. Following instruments are used: 1 Sliding calipers for measuring foot length, 2 Flexible, non-stretchable measuring tape for head circumference, 3 Infantometer for measuring crown heel length, 4 Electronic weighing scale for measuring weight. RESULTS The foot length of preterm neonates ranged from 4.5-7.8 cm with the mean foot length of 6.1571 cm and 6.6964 cm for preterm SGA and AGA, respectively. The foot length of term neonates ranged from 5.4-8.7 cm with a mean foot length of 7.0471 cm, 7.5703 cm, 8.0391 cm for term SGA, AGA, LGA respectively. The foot length for post term neonates ranged from 6.7-8.8 cm, with a mean foot length of 7.5688 cm, 8.0170 cm and 8.2667 cm for post term SGA, AGA and LGA, respectively. This shows that foot length increases as the gestational age increases. CONCLUSION Foot length can be correlated significantly with the gestational age, birth weight, head circumference and crown heel length.

  15. MRI spectrum of bone changes in the diabetic foot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roug, Inger K.; Pierre-Jerome, Claude

    2012-01-01

    Purposes: (1) To assess the prevalence of bone marrow changes in the diabetic foot and (2) to discuss the clinical significance of these changes. Methods: 85 patients with radiographic and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) foot examinations were selected. Inclusion criteria were clinical diagnosis of diabetes and bone changes on radiographs and MRI. The material was selected from the image storage (PACS) system. We searched for vascular (infarct and necrosis), traumatic (bruise and occult fractures), destruction and debris, dislocation, osteochondritis, osteomyelitis. Five patients had bilateral examinations. A total of 90 feet were evaluated. Results: From 90 feet, 17 (18.9%) presented with vascular changes, from them, 11 feet had infarct and 6 feet had necrosis. Twenty (22.2%) feet had traumatic changes; of them, 10 (50%) had edema on MRI. Five (25%) cases had occult fracture on MRI; and 5 (25%) had visible fracture on both X-ray and MRI. Bone destruction was detected in 8 (8.9%) feet. Bony debris was visualized in three of them. Bone dislocation was visualized in 11 (12.2%) feet. There was evidence of osteochondritis in twenty-four (26.7%) feet. Osteomyelitis was diagnosed in ten (11.1%) feet. Conclusion: Diabetic foot is a challenge for both clinicians and radiologists due to its complexity. The bone derangements inherent to the diabetic foot can be evaluated with high accuracy with MRI.

  16. Biofeedback for foot offloading in diabetic patients with peripheral neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pataky, Z; de León Rodriguez, D; Allet, L; Golay, A; Assal, M; Assal, J-P; Hauert, C-A

    2010-01-01

    The reduction of high plantar pressure in diabetic patients with peripheral neuropathy is mandatory for prevention of foot ulcers and amputations. We used a new biofeedback-based method to reduce the plantar pressure at an at-risk area of foot in diabetic patients with peripheral neuropathy. Thirteen diabetic patients (age 60.8 +/- 12.3 years, body mass index 29.0 +/- 5.0 kg/m(2)) with peripheral neuropathy of the lower limbs were studied. Patients with memory impairment were excluded. The portable in-shoe foot pressure measurement system (PEDAR) was used for foot offloading training by biofeedback. The learning procedure consisted in sequences of walking (10 steps), each followed by a subjective estimation of performance and objective feedback. The goal was to achieve three consecutive walking cycles of 10 steps, with a minimum of seven steps inside the range of 40-80% of the baseline peak plantar pressure. The peak plantar pressure was assessed during the learning period and at retention tests. A significant difference in peak plantar pressure was recorded between the beginning and the end of the learning period (when the target for plantar pressure was achieved) (262 +/- 70 vs. 191 +/- 53 kPa; P = 0.002). The statistically significant difference between the beginning of learning and all retention tests persisted, even at the 10-day follow-up. Terminal augmented feedback training may positively affect motor learning in diabetic patients with peripheral neuropathy and could possibly lead to suitable foot offloading. Additional research is needed to confirm the maintenance of offloading in the long term.

  17. Role of neuropathy and high foot pressures in diabetic foot ulceration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frykberg, R G; Lavery, L A; Pham, H; Harvey, C; Harkless, L; Veves, A

    1998-10-01

    High plantar foot pressures in association with peripheral neuropathy have been ascertained to be important risk factors for ulceration in the diabetic foot. Most studies investigating these parameters have been limited by their size and the homogeneity of study subjects. The objective of this study was therefore to ascertain the risk of ulceration associated with high foot pressures and peripheral neuropathy in a large and diverse diabetic population. We studied a cross-sectional group of 251 diabetic patients of Caucasian (group C) (n=121), black (group B) (n=36), and Hispanic (group H) (n=94) racial origins with an overall age of 58.5+/-12.5 years (range 20-83). There was an equal distribution of men and women across the entire study population. All patients underwent a complete medical history and lower extremity evaluation for neuropathy and foot pressures. Neuropathic parameters were dichotomized (0/1) into two high-risk variables: patients with a vibration perception threshold (VPT) > or =25 V were categorized as HiVPT (n=132) and those with Semmes-Weinstein monofilament tests > or =5.07 were classified as HiSWF (n=190). The mean dynamic foot pressures of three footsteps were measured using the F-scan mat system with patients walking without shoes. Maximum plantar pressures were dichotomized into a high-pressure variable (Pmax6) indicating those subjects with pressures > or =6 kg/cm2 (n=96). A total of 99 patients had a current or prior history of ulceration at baseline. Joint mobility was significantly greater in the Hispanic cohort compared with the other groups at the first metatarsal-phalangeal joint (C 67+/-23 degrees, B 69+/-23 degrees, H 82+/-23 degrees, P=0.000), while the subtalar joint mobility was reduced in the Caucasian group (C 21+/-8 degrees, B 26+/-7 degrees, H 27+/-11 degrees, P=0.000). Maximum plantar foot pressures were significantly higher in the Caucasian group (C 6.7+/-2.9 kg/cm2, B 5.7+/-2.8 kg/cm2, H 4.4+/-1.9 kg/cm2, P=0

  18. Gross Motor Skills in Children With Idiopathic Clubfoot and the Association Between Gross Motor Skills, Foot Involvement, Gait, and Foot Motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lööf, Elin; Andriesse, Hanneke; André, Marie; Böhm, Stephanie; Iversen, Maura D; Broström, Eva W

    2017-02-24

    Little is known regarding gross motor skills (GMS) in children with idiopathic clubfoot (IC). This study describes GMS, specifically foot involvement and asymmetries, and analyses the association between GMS, gait, and foot status in children with IC. Gross motor tasks and gait were analyzed in children with IC and typically developed (TD) children. GMS were assessed using videotapes and the Clubfoot Assessment Protocol (CAP). The Gait Deviation Index (GDI) and GDI-Kinetic were calculated from gait analyses. Children were divided into bilateral, unilateral clubfoot, or TD groups. To analyze asymmetries, feet within each group were further classified into superior or inferior foot, depending on their CAP scores. Correlations identified associations between CAP and GDI, GDI-Kinetic, passive foot motion, and Dimeglio Classification Scores at birth in the clubfeet. In total, 75 children (mean age, 5 years) were enrolled (bilateral n=22, unilateral clubfoot n=25, TD=28). Children with clubfeet demonstrated significantly lower GMS, gait, and foot motion compared with TD children. One leg standing and hopping deviated in 84% and 91%, respectively, in at least one foot in children with clubfoot. Gross motor asymmetries were evident in both children with bilateral and unilateral involvement. In children with unilateral clubfoot, contralateral feet showed few deviations in GMS compared with TD; however, differences existed in gait and foot motion. The association between GMS and gait, foot motion, and initial foot status varied between poor and moderate. Gross motor deficits and asymmetries are present in children with both bilateral and unilateral IC. Development of GMS of the contralateral foot mirrors that of TD children, but modifies to the clubfoot in gait and foot motion. The weak association with gait, foot motion, and initial clubfoot severity indicates that gross motor measurements represent a different outcome entity in clubfoot treatment. We therefore, recommend

  19. Preventative foot care in people with diabetes: Quality patient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: preventative foot care; diabetes; risk stratification: self care. Introduction ... diabetes is considered to be a key indicator of the quality of foot ... loss of protective sensation, the importance of foot monitoring on a daily basis, the proper ...

  20. Estimation of stature from hand and foot dimensions in a Korean population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Wonjoon; Kim, Yong Min; Yun, Myung Hwan

    2018-04-01

    The estimation of stature using foot and hand dimensions is essential in the process of personal identification. The shapes of feet and hands vary depending on races and gender, and it is of great importance to design an adequate equation in consideration of variances to estimate stature. This study is based on a total of 5,195 South Korean males and females, aged from 20 to 59 years. Body dimensions of stature, hand length, hand breadth, foot length, and foot breadth were measured according to standard anthropometric procedures. The independent t-test was performed in order to verify significant gender-induced differences and the results showed that there was significant difference between males and females for all the foot-hand dimensions (pfoot length showed highest correlation, whereas the hand breadth showed least correlation. The stepwise regression analysis was conducted, and the results showed that males had the highest prediction accuracy in the regression equation consisting of foot length and hand length (R 2 =0.532), whereas females had the highest accuracy in the regression model consisting of foot length and hand breadth (R 2 =0.437) The findings of this study indicated that hand and foot dimensions can be used to predict the stature of South Korean in the forensic science field. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  1. 29 CFR 1918.104 - Foot protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Foot protection. 1918.104 Section 1918.104 Labor... following consensus standards: (i) ASTM F-2412-2005, “Standard Test Methods for Foot Protection,” and ASTM F... footwear that is constructed in accordance with one of the above consensus standards will be deemed to be...

  2. VACUUM ASSISTED CLOSURE IN DIABETIC FOOT MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Moganakannan; `Prema; Arun Sundara Rajan

    2014-01-01

    Comparision of vacuum assisted closure vs conventional dressing in management of diabetic foot patients. 30 patients were taken in that 15 underwent vacuum therapy and remaining 15 underwent conventional dressing.They were analysed by the development of granulation tissue and wound healing.The study showed Vac therapy is the best modality for management of diabetic foot patients.

  3. Cosmetic Foot Surgery: Fashion's Pandora's Box

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fashion’s Pandora’s Box? A A A | Print | Share Cosmetic Foot Surgery: Fashion’s Pandora’s Box? Foot and ankle ... extreme and imprudent as it may sound, the cosmetic surgery craze is not just for faces anymore— ...

  4. Preventing Diabetic Foot Complications : Strategic Recommendations

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The diabetic foot is the commonest cause of non-traumatic lower extremity amputation in the developed and developing nations. Several risk factors predispose the diabetic patient to foot ulceration and peripheral neuropathy, with peripheral vascular disease are the commonest risk factors. Clinical examination for these risk ...

  5. Presence of chronic diabetic foot ulcers is associated with more frequent and more advanced retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellman, A; Katzman, P; Andreasson, S; Löndahl, M

    2018-05-23

    To clarify the frequency and severity of diabetic retinopathy in a group of people with Type 2 diabetes and chronic diabetic foot ulcers, and to compare visual acuity, levels of retinopathy and clinical significant macular oedema with a matched control group of people with Type 2 diabetes without a history of chronic diabetic foot ulcers. Visual acuity and fundus imaging were evaluated in 90 white people with at least 3 months' duration of full-thickness diabetic foot ulcers below the ankle and the results compared with those in 180 white people with Type 2 diabetes without a history of chronic diabetic foot ulcers (control group). Controls were matched for age, sex and duration of diabetes. Despite similar age and diabetes duration, severe non-proliferative or proliferative diabetic retinopathy was present in 41% of the people in the diabetic foot ulcer group as compared to 15% in the control group (Pdiabetic foot ulcer group was without any diabetic retinopathy as compared to 34% among controls. Proliferative diabetic retinopathy was more common in the diabetic foot ulcer group (31% vs 8%; Pdiabetic retinopathy did not differ between groups. Clinically significant macular oedema was more frequently present, and the diabetic foot ulcer group exhibited significantly worse results in best and worst eye visual acuity testing. In this northern European setting almost all people with Type 2 diabetes and chronic diabetic foot ulcers had diabetic retinopathy. Almost one-third had proliferative diabetic retinopathy as compared to diabetic retinopathy was linked to worse visual acuity. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  6. Foot loading with an ankle-foot orthosis: the accuracy of an integrated physical strain trainer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauser, Johannes; Jendrissek, Andreas; Brem, Matthias; Gelse, Kolja; Swoboda, Bernd; Carl, Hans-Dieter

    2012-07-01

    To investigate the value of a built-in physical strain trainer for the monitoring of partial weight bearing with an ankle-foot orthosis. 12 healthy volunteers were asked to perform three trials. Plantar peak pressure values from normal gait (trial one) were defined as 100% (baseline). The following trials were performed with the Vacoped® dynamic vacuum ankle orthosis worn in a neutral position with full weight bearing (trial two) and a restriction to 10% body weight (BW) (trial three), as monitored with an integrated physical strain trainer. Peak plantar pressure values were obtained using the pedar® X system. Peak pressure values were statistically significantly reduced wearing the Vacoped® shoe with full weight bearing for the hindfoot to 68% of the baseline (normal gait) and for the midfoot and forefoot to 83% and 60%, respectively. Limited weight bearing with 10% BW as controlled by physical strain trainer further reduced plantar peak pressure values for the hindfoot to 19%, for the midfoot to 43% of the baseline and the forefoot to 22% of the baseline. The Vacoped® vacuum ankle orthosis significantly reduces plantar peak pressure. The integrated physical strain trainer seems unsuitable to monitor a limitation to 10% BW adequately for the total foot. The concept of controlling partial weight bearing with the hindfoot-addressing device within the orthosis seems debatable but may be useful when the hindfoot in particular must be off-loaded.

  7. Reliability and normative values of the foot line test: a technique to assess foot posture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brushøj, C; Larsen, Klaus; Nielsen, MB

    2007-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: Test-retest reliability. OBJECTIVE: To examine the reliability and report normative values of a novel test, the foot line test (FLT), to describe foot morphology. BACKGROUND: Numerous foot examinations are performed each day, but most existing examination techniques have considerable...... limitations regarding reliability and validity. METHODS: One hundred thirty subjects with mean foot size 44 (41-50 European size) participated. Two examiners, blinded to each other's measurements, measured the right foot of the subjects twice and the left foot once. The position of the most medial aspect...... of the navicular in the mediolateral direction was projected vertically onto a piece of paper placed under the subject's foot, and compared to the position of the forefoot and hindfoot to obtain the FLT value. RESULTS: FLT values ranged from -8 to 14 mm, with a mean (+/-SD) of 3.7 +/- 3.4 mm. The intratester...

  8. Influence of slope steepness, foot position and turn phase on plantar pressure distribution during giant slalom alpine ski racing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Falda-Buscaiot

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the evolution of ground reaction force during alpine skiing turns. Specifically, this study investigated how turn phases and slope steepness affected the whole foot normal GRF pattern while performing giant slalom turns in a race-like setting. Moreover, the outside foot was divided into different plantar regions to see whether those parameters affected the plantar pressure distribution. Eleven skiers performed one giant slalom course at race intensity. Runs were recorded synchronously using a video camera in the frontal plane and pressure insoles under both feet's plantar surface. Turns were divided according to kinematic criteria into four consecutive phases: initiation, steering1, steering2 and completion; both steering phases being separated by the gate passage. Component of the averaged Ground Reaction Force normal to the ski's surface([Formula: see text], /BW, and Pressure Time Integral relative to the entire foot surface (relPTI, % parameters were calculated for each turn phases based on plantar pressure data. Results indicated that [Formula: see text] under the total foot surface differed significantly depending on the slope (higher in steep sections vs. flat sections, and the turn phase (higher during steering2 vs. three other phases, although such modifications were observable only on the outside foot. Moreover, [Formula: see text] under the outside foot was significantly greater than under the inside foot.RelPTI under different foot regions of the outside foot revealed a global shift from forefoot loading during initiation phase, toward heel loading during steering2 phase, but this was dependent on the slope studied. These results suggest a differentiated role played by each foot in alpine skiing turns: the outside foot has an active role in the turning process, while the inside foot may only play a role in stability.

  9. Growth factors for treating diabetic foot ulcers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martí-Carvajal, Arturo J; Gluud, Christian; Nicola, Susana

    2015-01-01

    following treatment for diabetic foot ulcers (RR 0.64, 95% CI 0.14 to 2.94; P value 0.56, low quality of evidence)Although 11 trials reported time to complete healing of the foot ulcers in people with diabetes , meta-analysis was not possible for this outcome due to the unique comparisons within each trial...... (minimum of one toe), complete healing of the foot ulcer, and time to complete healing of the diabetic foot ulcer as the primary outcomes. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Independently, we selected randomised clinical trials, assessed risk of bias, and extracted data in duplicate. We estimated risk ratios......BACKGROUND: Foot ulcers are a major complication of diabetes mellitus, often leading to amputation. Growth factors derived from blood platelets, endothelium, or macrophages could potentially be an important treatment for these wounds but they may also confer risks. OBJECTIVES: To assess...

  10. The Assessment of Social Support and Self-Care Requisites for Preventing Diabetic Foot Ulcer in Diabetic Foot Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Taher

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Diabetic foot as one of the most common complications of diabetes is involved in more than %25 of diabetic patients’ lives, and if not treated properly can lead to amputation up to %20. The lack of self-care is the underlying cause of mortality, morbidity and chronic complications of diabetes. Identification and rectifying of diabetic foot care needs of patients can additionally reduce readmission; also, %85 of diabetic foot problems can be prevented. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive study, 130patients with diabetic foot from Shahid Modarres hospital were selected using census method. Data in forms of demographic questionnaire, self-care requisites assessment tool for preventing diabetic foot ulcer, and Social Support Behavior Scale were completed by patients and then were collected. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 16. Results: In this study, a significant relationship was found between self-care and social support (P<0.05. This means that people with better social support reported better self-care than those with weaker social support. A significant relationship in level of education and monthly income with self-care was seen, as well as in level of education, monthly income and marital status with social support (P<0.001. Conclusions: The results showed that social support can be considered as an effective factor in individual self-care behaviors, and with regard to this factor in educational, treatment and care programs of patients, can improve their self-care, in addition to decreasing economic costs, and improve their qualities of lives as well.

  11. Hand, foot and mouth disease caused by coxsackievirus A6, Beijing, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongyan, Gu; Chengjie, Ma; Qiaozhi, Yang; Wenhao, Hua; Juan, Li; Lin, Pang; Yanli, Xu; Hongshan, Wei; Xingwang, Li

    2014-12-01

    Specimens and clinical data were collected from 243 hand, foot and mouth disease patients in Beijing in 2013. In total, 130 stool specimens were genotyped for enterovirus. Hand, foot and mouth disease was mainly detected in suburban areas and at the edges of urban areas between May and August. Coxsackievirus (CV) A6 replaced enterovirus (EV) 71 and CVA16, becoming the main causative agent of hand, foot and mouth disease. CVA6 infection led to significantly reduced fever duration and glucose levels compared with EV71 infection.

  12. Neuropathic Minimally Invasive Surgeries (NEMESIS):: Percutaneous Diabetic Foot Surgery and Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Roslyn J

    2016-09-01

    Patients with peripheral neuropathy associated with ulceration are the nemesis of the orthopedic foot and ankle surgeon. Diabetic foot syndrome is the leading cause of peripheral neuropathy, and its prevalence continues to increase at an alarming rate. Poor wound healing, nonunion, infection, and risk of amputation contribute to the understandable caution toward this patient group. Significant metalwork is required to hold these technically challenging deformities. Neuropathic Minimally Invasive Surgeries is an addition to the toolbox of management of the diabetic foot. It may potentially reduce the risk associated with large wounds and bony correction in this patient group. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The relationship between flat feet and cavus foot with body mass index in girl students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behnaz Hajirezaei

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between flat feet and cavus foot with body mass index in girl students. Methods: The study population consisted of the Mazandaran University students that their number was 260 (130 girl college students and 130 girl students of non-physical education formed. Sampling of participants over the two days. Height and weight of the subjects were measured, then they were placed on a mirror box and were taken the photographs of the Plantar foot. for picture Plantar foot was used of the mirror box (pedescope. data analyzed by Pearson and Spearman correlation coefficient. Results: The results of Pearson correlation coefficient test in physical education subjects showed there was no relationship the between BMI and flat feet (0.306. Also, the relationship between BMI and cavus foot was significant and direct (0.330. The results of Spearman correlation coefficient test in physical education subjects showed that the relationship between BMI and flat feet was significant (0.457. Also, there was no relationship between BMI and cavus foot (-0.026. The results in non-physical education subjects showed the relationship between BMI and flat feet was significant, but was in the opposite direction (-0.493. Also, the relationship between BMI and cavus foot was significant and direct (0.424. The results of Spearman correlation test showed that the relationship and flat feet was significant but was in the opposite direction (-0.648. Also, the relationship between BMI and cavus foot was significant (0.413. Conclusion: According to the results of this study, it seems to there was no relationship between flat feet and cavus foot with body mass index in girl students.

  14. Holistic management of diabetic foot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindarto, D.

    2018-03-01

    Diabetic foot ulcer (DFU) is the most costly and devastating complication of diabetes mellitus, which affect 15% of diabetic patients during their lifetime. DFUs are complex, chronic wounds, which have a major long-term impact on the morbidity, mortality and quality of patients’ lives. Individuals who develop a DFU are at greater risk of premature death, myocardial infarction and fatal stroke than those without a history of DFU. Unlike other chronic wounds, the development and progression of DFU is often complicated by wideranging diabetic changes, such as neuropathy and vascular disease. The management of DFU should be optimized by using a multidisciplinary team, due to a holistic approach to wound management is required. Based on studies, blood sugar control, wound debridement, advanced dressings and offloading modalities should always be a part of DFU management. Furthermore, surgery to heal chronic ulcer and prevent recurrence should be considered as an essential component of management in some cases.

  15. Hand and foot contamination monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakati, R.K.; Kaptral, R.S.; Ananthkrishnan, T.S.; Pansare, M.G.

    1989-01-01

    In order to make quick measurements of beta and gamma contaminations on hands and feet of personnel working in radioactive environments, hand and foot contamination monitors are widely used. This paper describes such a monitor system designed with Intel 8085 based microcomputer. The monitoring and warning system is designed to perform measurement of activity spread over surface of hands and soles of shoes or feet. Even though the system has many features to aid testing and maintainance operation, it is easy to use for unskilled persons. In order to check the contamination, the person stands on platform and inserts both his hands into detector assemblies thereby actuating the sensing switches. After a preset interval, annunciation of clean or contaminated status is declared by the system. (author)

  16. Relationship between sagittal plane kinematics, foot morphology and vertical forces applied to three regions of the foot

    OpenAIRE

    Hannah, I.; Sawacha, Z.; Guiotto, A.; Mazza, C.

    2016-01-01

    Kinetic analysis of human motion with a multi-segment musculoskeletal foot model requires the distribution of loading applied to the modeled foot segments to be determined. This work thus examines the existence of any correlation between intersegmental foot kinematics, foot morphology, and the distribution of vertical loading in a multi-segment foot model. Gait analysis trials were performed by 20 healthy subjects at a self-selected speed with intersegmental foot joint angles and the distribu...

  17. Multisegmental Foot and Ankle Motion Analysis After Hallux Valgus Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canseco, Karl; Long, Jason; Smedberg, Thomas; Tarima, Sergey; Marks, Richard M.; Harris, Gerald F.

    2015-01-01

    Background Gait changes in patients with hallux valgus, including altered kinematic and temporal-spatial parameters, have been documented in the literature. Although operative treatment can yield favorable clinical and radiographic results, restoration of normal gait in this population remains unclear. Segmental kinematic changes within the foot and ankle during ambulation after operative correction of hallux valgus have not been reported. The aim of this study was to analyze changes in multisegmental foot and ankle kinematics in patients who underwent operative correction of hallux valgus. Methods A 15-camera Vicon Motion Analysis System was used to evaluate 24 feet in 19 patients with hallux valgus preoperatively and postoperatively. The Milwaukee Foot Model was used to characterize segmental kinematics and temporal-spatial parameters (TSPs). Preoperative and postoperative kinematics and TSPs were compared using paired nonparametric methods; comparisons with normative data were performed using unpaired nonparametric methods. Outcomes were evaluated using the SF-36 assessment tool. Results Preoperatively, patients with hallux valgus showed significantly altered temporal-spatial and kinematic parameters. Postoperatively, kinematic analysis demonstrated restoration of hallux position to normal. Hallux valgus angles and intermetatarsal angles were significantly improved, and outcomes showed a significant increase in performance of physical activities. Temporal-spatial parameters and kinematics in the more proximal segments were not significantly changed postoperatively. Conclusion Postoperative results demonstrated significant improvement in foot geometry and hallux kinematics in the coronal and transverse planes. However, the analysis did not identify restoration of proximal kinematics. Clinical Relevance Further investigation is necessary to explore possible causes/clinical relevance and appropriate treatment interventions for the persistently altered kinematics

  18. The effect of foot reflexology on physiological parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Khalili

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Reflexology have a positive impact on stabilize the physiological parameters such as blood pressure and heart rate. This study aims to investigate the effects of foot reflexology on physiological parameters of patients before coronary angiography. This study is an interventional study performed in Kashan hospitals and 100 male patients undergoing angioplasty were randomly divided into two groups. In the intervention group for 30 minutes of foot reflexology massage and stimulate the soles of the feet in three points the solar plexus, the pituitary gland and the heart was performed, but in the control group was only Masazhmvmy feet. The vital signs 30 minutes before and after the intervention in both groups were measured. To analyze the data, t-test and ANOVA with repeated observations was used. The mean systolic blood pressure in both groups had significant difference compared to before [0010. = p]. Diastolic blood pressure in both groups had significant difference compared to before [420. = p]. Changes in heart rate before and after the intervention had no significant difference [090. = p]. The average number of breathing in both groups had significant difference compared to before [0010. = p and 0010.> P]. Foot reflexology can sustain physiological parameters such as systolic and diastolic pressure.

  19. Diabetic foot wound care practices among patients visiting a tertiary care hospital in north India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samreen Khan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetic foot syndrome is one of the most common and devastating preventable complications of diabetes resulting in major economic consequences for the patients, their families, and the society. Aims & Objectives: The present study was carried out to assess knowledge, attitude and practices of Diabetic Foot Wound Care among the patients suffering from Diabetic Foot and to correlate them with the socio-demographic parameters. Material & Methods: It was a Hospital based cross-sectional study involving clinically diagnosed adult (>18 years patients of Diabetic Foot visiting the Surgery and Medicine OPDs at Teerthankar Mahaveer Medical College & Research Centre, Moradabad, India. Results: Significant association KAP (Knowledge, Attitude and Practices score was seen with age of the patient, education, addiction, family history of Diabetes Mellitus, prior receipt of information regarding Diabetic foot-care practices, compliance towards the treatment and the type of foot wear used. Conclusions: The results highlight areas especially Health education, use of safe footwear and life style adjustments, where efforts to improve knowledge and practice may contribute to the prevention of development of Foot ulcers and amputation. 

  20. Accuracy of Plantar Electrodes Compared with Hand and Foot Electrodes in Fat-free-mass Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Y. Jaffrin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the measurement of fat-free mass (FFM by bioimpedance using foot-to-foot impedancemeters (FFI with plantar electrodes measuring the foot-to-foot resistance R34 and hand-to-foot medical impedancemeters. FFM measurements were compared with corresponding data using Dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA. Equations giving FFM were established using linear multiple regression on DXA data in a first group of 170 subjects. For validation, these equations were used on a second group of 86 subjects, and FFM were compared with DXA data; no significant difference was observed. The same protocol was repeated, but using electrodes on the right hand and foot in standing position to measure the hand to-foot resistance R13. Mean differences with DXA were higher for R13 than for R34. Effect of electrode size and feet position on resistance was also investigated. R34 decreased when electrode area increased or if feet were moved forward. It decreased if feet were moved backward. A proper configuration of contact electrodes can improve measurement accuracy and reproducibility of FFI.

  1. Translation and cultural adaptation of the Manchester-Oxford Foot Questionnaire (MOXFQ) into Persian language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavian, Alireza; Ebrahimzadeh, Mohammad H; Birjandinejad, Ali; Omidi-Kashani, Farzad; Kachooei, Amir Reza

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we aimed to translate and test the validity and reliablity of the Persian version of the Manchester-Oxford Foot Questionnaire in foot and ankle patients. We translated the Manchester-Oxford Foot Questionnaire to Persian language according to the accepted guidelines, then assessed the psychometric properties including the validity and reliability on 308 patients with long-standing foot and ankle problems. To test the reliability, we calculated the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) for test-retest reliability and measured Cronbach's alpha to test the internal consistency. To test the construct validity of the Manchester-Oxford Foot Questionnaire we also administered the Short-Form 36 to patients. Construct validity was supported by significant correlation with SF36 subscales except for pain subscale of the persian MOXFQ with mental health of the SF36 (r=0.207). Intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.79 for the total MOXFQ and ranged from 0.83 to 0.89 for the three subscales. Cronbach's alpha for pain, walking/standing, and social interaction was 0.86, 0.88, and 0.89, respectively, and was 0.79 for the total MOXFQ showing good internal consistency in each domain. The Persian Manchester-Oxford Foot Questionnaire health scoring system is a valid and reliable patient-reported instrument for foot and ankle problems. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Relationship of microalbuminuria with the diabetic foot ulcers in type II diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero-Romero, F; Rodríguez-Morán, M

    1998-01-01

    Microalbuminuria is a significant risk factor associated with nephropathy, retinopathy, and cardiovascular disease; however, there are no previous reports on the relationship of microalbuminuria with diabetic foot ulcers or stroke, despite the fact that microalbuminuria is a marker of vascular damage. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship of microalbuminuria with diabetic foot ulcers in type II diabetes patients. In this, cross-sectional clinical study, outpatients of the offices at first level medical care in Durango, Mexico, were included in one of two groups; (a) patients with diabetic foot ulcers and (b) control of group patients without diabetic foot ulcers. Diabetic foot diagnosis was established on the basis of clinical criteria and pletismography. Patients diagnosed with renal disease, urinary tract infection, acute febrile illness, or heart failure and those receiving angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors were excluded from the study. Microalbuminuria was measured, on a 24-h urine collection, by precipitation with sulfasalicylic acid, and turbidity was determined by measuring absorbance with a spectrophotometer. The study included 670 diabetic patients. Using both odds ratio and logistic regression analyses, diabetes duration, cigarette smoking, aging, and microalbuminuria showed a strong relationship with diabetic foot ulcers. Microalbuminuria should be considered as an independent risk factor for diabetic foot ulcers.

  3. Foot and Ankle Deformity in Young Acrobatic and Artistic Gymnasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sobera Anna

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of the paper was to determine the occurrence of feet and ankle deformities in trampoline and artistic gymnasts. Methods. Ten acrobatic gymnasts (trampolinists and 10 artistic gymnasts aged 6-14 years were recruited. The calcaneal-tibial (rearfoot angle was determined as the angle of the upper calcaneal tendon and the longitudinal heel axis while Clarke angles were determined by podoscopy. Results. The trampolinists showed significantly greater medial angulation (calcaneal valgus than the group of gymnasts. Right and left foot Clark’s angles in both the trampoline and artistic gymnasts were above 55°. Conclusions. Trampolinists exhibit significantly more pronounced calcaneal valgus than artistic gymnasts. The prevalence of foot and ankle deformities in both populations should be addressed by coaches in the gymnastics training of young children.

  4. Validity and reliability of Thai version of the Foot and Ankle Outcome Score in patients with arthritis of the foot and ankle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angthong, Chayanin

    2016-12-01

    Although the Foot and Ankle Outcome Score (FAOS) is commonly used in several languages for a variety of foot disorders, it has not been validated specifically for foot and ankle arthritic conditions. The aims of the present study were to translate the original English FAOS into Thai and to evaluate the validity and reliability of the Thai version of the FAOS for the foot and ankle arthritic conditions. The original FAOS was translated into Thai using forward-backward translation. The Thai FAOS and validated Thai Short Form-36 (SF-36 ® ) questionnaires were distributed to 44 Thai patients suffering from arthritis of the foot and ankle to complete. For validation, Thai FAOS scores were correlated with SF-36 scores. Test-retest reliability and internal consistency were also analyzed in this study. The Thai FAOS score demonstrated sufficient correlation with SF-36 total score in Pain (Pearson's correlation coefficient (r)=0.45, p=0.002), Symptoms (r=0.45, p=0.002), Activities of Daily Living (ADL) (r=0.47, p=0.001), and Quality of Life (QOL) (r=0.38, p=0.011) subscales. The Sports and Recreational Activities (Sports & Rec) subscale did not correlate significantly with the SF-36 ® (r=0.20, p=0.20). Cronbach's alpha, a measure of internal consistency, for the five subscales was as follows: Pain, 0.94 (pvalidity for the evaluation of foot and ankle arthritis. Although reliability was satisfactory for the major subscale ADL, it was not sufficient for the minor subscales. Our findings suggest that it can be used as a disease-specific instrument to evaluate foot and ankle arthritis and can complement other reliable outcome surveys. Copyright © 2015 European Foot and Ankle Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The effect of deep excavation-induced lateral soil movements on the behavior of strip footing supported on reinforced sand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa El Sawwaf

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of laboratory model tests on the influence of deep excavation-induced lateral soil movements on the behavior of a model strip footing adjacent to the excavation and supported on reinforced granular soil. Initially, the response of the strip footings supported on un-reinforced sand and subjected to vertical loads (which were constant during the test due to adjacent deep excavation-induced lateral soil movement were obtained. Then, the effects of the inclusion of geosynthetic reinforcement in supporting soil on the model footing behavior under the same conditions were investigated. The studied factors include the value of the sustained footing loads, the location of footing relative to the excavation, the affected depth of soil due to deep excavation, and the relative density of sand. Test results indicate that the inclusion of soil reinforcement in the supporting sand significantly decreases both vertical settlements and the tilts of the footings due to the nearby excavation. However, the improvements in the footing behavior were found to be very dependent on the location of the footing relative to excavation. Based on the test results, the variation of the footing measured vertical settlements with different parameters are presented and discussed.

  6. Process Modelling of Rapid Manufacturing Based Mass Customisation System for Fabrication of Custom Foot Orthoses: Review Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleh Jumani

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The need for custom-made devices, rehabilitation aids and treatments is explicit in the medical sector. Applications of rapid manufacturing techniques based on additive fabrication processes combined with medical digitising technologies can generate high quality solutions in situations where the need for custom-made devices and rehabilitation aids and low-lead times are very important factors. Foot orthoses are medical devices applied in the treatment of biomechanical foot disorders, foot injuries and foot diseases including rheumatoid arthritis and diabetes. The significant challenge in the treatment of foot related diseases is progressing pathological deterioration in the affected sites of the foot which requires quick provision of the orthoses. A process model is developed using the IDEF0 modelling technique in which a rapid manufacturing approach is integrated in the design and fabrication process of custom foot orthoses. The process model will be used in the development of rapid manufacturing based design and fabrication system for mass customisation of foot orthoses. The developed system is aimed at mass scale production of custom foot orthoses with the advantages of reduced cost, reduced lead-time and improved product in terms of increased fit, consistency and accuracy in the final product.

  7. Diabetic Foot Complications Despite Successful Pancreas Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Dong-Kyo; Lee, Ho Seong; Park, Jungu; Ryu, Chang Hyun; Han, Duck Jong; Seo, Sang Gyo

    2017-06-01

    It is known that successful pancreas transplantation enables patients with diabetes to maintain a normal glucose level without insulin and reduces diabetes-related complications. However, we have little information about the foot-specific morbidity in patients who have undergone successful pancreas transplantation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence and predisposing factors for foot complications after successful pancreas transplantation. This retrospective study included 218 patients (91 males, 127 females) who had undergone pancreas transplantation for diabetes. The mean age was 40.7 (range, 15-76) years. Diabetes type, transplantation type, body mass index, and diabetes duration before transplantation were confirmed. After pancreas transplantation, the occurrence and duration of foot and ankle complications were assessed. Twenty-two patients (10.1%) had diabetic foot complications. Fifteen patients (6.9%) had diabetic foot ulcer and 7 patients (3.2%) had Charcot arthropathy. Three patients had both diabetic foot ulcer and Charcot arthropathy. Three insufficiency fractures (1.4%) were included. Mean time of complications after transplantation was 18.5 (range, 2-77) months. Creatinine level 1 year after surgery was higher in the complication group rather than the noncomplication group ( P = .02). Complications of the foot and ankle still occurred following pancreas transplantation in patients with diabetes. Level III, comparative study.

  8. Monotonic Loading of Circular Surface Footings on Clay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Lars Bo; Barari, Amin

    2011-01-01

    Appropriate modeling of offshore foundations under monotonic loading is a significant challenge in geotechnical engineering. This paper reports experimental and numerical analyses, specifically investigating the response of circular surface footings during monotonic loading and elastoplastic...... behavior during reloading. By using the findings presented in this paper, it is possible to extend the model to simulate the vertical-load displacement response of offshore bucket foundations....

  9. Foot and ankle problems in Thai monks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaseenon, Tanawat; Wattanarojanaporn, Thongaek; Intharasompan, Piyapong; Theeraamphon, Nipon; Auephanviriyakul, Sansanee; Phisitkul, Phinit

    2015-01-01

    Foot and ankle problems in Thai monks have not been explored. This is an unshod population, and its members have a unique lifestyle living among others in our modern era. Beginning at their ordainment, they follow strict rules about barefoot walking, the amount of daily walking, and their sitting position, practices that theoretically can increase their risk of developing foot and ankle problems. To evaluate the prevalence ofcommon foot and ankle problems in Thai monks. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in combination with foot and ankle examinations of monks living in northern Thailand Foot morphology was examined using a Harris mat footprint. Results of the interviews and the foot and ankle examinations were evaluated. Two hundred and nine monks from 28 temples were included in this study. Common foot and ankle problems found included callosity (70.8%), toe deformities (18.2%), plantar fasciitis (13.4%), metatarsalgia (3.8%), and numbness (2.9%). Callosity and toe deformities were associated with prolonged barefoot walking over extended periods since ordainment (p < 0.05). The callosity was found on the forefoot (47.3%), lateral malleolus (40.7%), and heel (12%). Arch types were considered normal in 66.4% of cases, high in 21.6%, and low in 12%. No association was found between arch type and foot and ankle problems. Callosity and toe deformity were the most common foot and ankle problems found in Thai monks, especially those with prolonged period of barefoot walking and long-term duration ofordainment. The unique pattern of walking and sitting of Thai monks may have contributed to the development of those feet and ankle problems.

  10. Thyrotoxicosis Presenting as Unilateral Drop Foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Kenju; Miyata, Hajime; Motegi, Takahide; Shibano, Ken; Ishiguro, Hideaki

    2017-01-01

    Neuromuscular disorders associated with hyperthyroidism have several variations in their clinical phenotype, such as ophthalmopathy, periodic paralysis, and thyrotoxic myopathy. We herein report an unusual case of thyrotoxic myopathy presenting as unilateral drop foot. Histopathological examinations of the left tibialis anterior muscle showed marked variation in the fiber size, mild inflammatory cell infiltration, and necrotic and regenerated muscle fibers with predominantly type 1 fiber atrophy. Medical treatment with propylthiouracil resulted in complete improvement of the left drop foot. This case expands the phenotype of thyrotoxicosis and suggests that thyrotoxicosis be considered as a possible cause of unilateral drop foot.

  11. Foot care education and self management behaviors in diverse veterans with diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan M Olson

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Jonathan M Olson1, Molly T Hogan2, Leonard M Pogach3, Mangala Rajan3, Gregory J Raugi4, Gayle E Reiber51University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA, USA; 2Department of Internal Medicine, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA, USA; 3Department of Veterans Affairs, New Jersey Healthcare System, Center for Healthcare Knowledge Management, East Orange, NJ, USA; 4Division of Dermatology, VA Puget Sound Healthcare System, Department of Veterans Affairs, Seattle, WA, USA; 5Research and Development, VA Puget Sound Healthcare System, Department of Veterans Affairs, Seattle, WA, USAAbstract: The objective of this study was to examine differences in self-reported diabetes foot care education, self management behaviors, and barriers to good foot care among veterans with diabetes by race and ethnicity. Data was collected using the Veterans Health Administration Footcare Survey, a validated tool that assessed demographic, general health, diabetes and foot self-care information, barriers to foot self-care, receipt of professional foot care, and satisfaction with current care. We mailed surveys to a random sample of patients with diabetes from eight VA medical centers. Study participants were 81% White; 13% African American; 4% Asian, and 2% American Indian and Pacific Islanders. The majority of respondents felt that they did not know enough about foot self-care. There were large gaps between self-reported knowledge and actual foot care practices, even among those who reported “knowing enough” on a given topic. There were significant differences in self-reported foot care behaviors and education by race and ethnicity. These findings document the need for culturally-specific self-management education to address unique cultural preferences and barriers to care.Keywords: diabetes mellitus, diabetic foot, patient self-management, ethnic groups, education

  12. Validation of Foot Placement Locations from Ankle Data of a Kinect v2 Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geerse, Daphne; Coolen, Bert; Kolijn, Detmar; Roerdink, Melvyn

    2017-10-10

    The Kinect v2 sensor may be a cheap and easy to use sensor to quantify gait in clinical settings, especially when applied in set-ups integrating multiple Kinect sensors to increase the measurement volume. Reliable estimates of foot placement locations are required to quantify spatial gait parameters. This study aimed to systematically evaluate the effects of distance from the sensor, side and step length on estimates of foot placement locations based on Kinect's ankle body points. Subjects (n = 12) performed stepping trials at imposed foot placement locations distanced 2 m or 3 m from the Kinect sensor (distance), for left and right foot placement locations (side), and for five imposed step lengths. Body points' time series of the lower extremities were recorded with a Kinect v2 sensor, placed frontoparallelly on the left side, and a gold-standard motion-registration system. Foot placement locations, step lengths, and stepping accuracies were compared between systems using repeated-measures ANOVAs, agreement statistics and two one-sided t -tests to test equivalence. For the right side at the 2 m distance from the sensor we found significant between-systems differences in foot placement locations and step lengths, and evidence for nonequivalence. This distance by side effect was likely caused by differences in body orientation relative to the Kinect sensor. It can be reduced by using Kinect's higher-dimensional depth data to estimate foot placement locations directly from the foot's point cloud and/or by using smaller inter-sensor distances in the case of a multi-Kinect v2 set-up to estimate foot placement locations at greater distances from the sensor.

  13. Foot health and quality of life among university students: cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Rodríguez-Sanz

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Foot problems are believed to reduce quality of life and are increasingly present. Even among young adults of university age, untreated foot problems can lead to postural and mobility problems. Accordingly, our aim here was to determine the relationship between foot health and quality of life and general health among male and female university students. DESIGN AND SETTING: Observational cross-sectional quantitative study conducted at the Podiatric Medicine and Surgery Clinic of the University of Coruña, Ferrol, Spain. METHODS: A sample of 112 participants of median age 22 years came to a health center, where self-reported data were registered, including professional activity, and scores obtained through the Foot Health Status Questionnaire (FHSQ were compared. RESULTS: In Section One of the FHSQ, the university students recorded lower scores of 66.66 in the footwear domain and 60 in the general foot health domain and higher scores of 84.37 in the foot pain domain and 93.75 in the foot function domain. In Section Two, they obtained lower scores of 60 in the overall health domain and 62.50 in the vigor domain and higher scores of 100 in the physical activity and 87.50 in the social capacity domain. Differences between males and females were evaluated using the Wilcoxon rank-sum test, which showing statistical significance (P < 0.05 regarding the dimensions of footwear and general foot health. CONCLUSIONS: These university students’ quality of life relating to foot health was poor. This appears to be associated with the university period, regardless of gender.

  14. Foot shape and its relationship with somatic characteristics in pre-school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Puszczałowska-Lizis

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : The preschool period, characterised by high intensity of ontogenetic developmental changes, is considered to be the most important regarding formation of the foot. Getting to know the issue of the foot anatomy in children in this period is the main problem, which is the starting point towards proper prevention, examination, or correction of its deformities. Aim of the research: To analyse the shape of children’s feet and its relationship with chosen somatic characteristics in pre-school children. Material and methods : The study group comprised 80 five-year-old children recruited from randomly selected pre-schools in the Podkarpackie region. A CQ-ST podoscope was used as the research tool. In order to evaluate intersex differences at the average level of the tested variables, we used the Student’s t test or alternatively the Mann-Whitney U test. The relations between tested variables was assessed using Pearson’s linear correlation or Spearman’s rank correlation. Results : A low percentage of foot deformities in the children was found. In girls, statistically significant relationships were seen between Clarke’s angle in the right foot and body mass index as well as between Wejsflog index in the right foot and body weight and height. In the case of boys, Clarke’s angle and Wejsflog index in the left foot correlated with body mass index. Conclusions: We can therefore assume that most of the surveyed girls and boys had correctly longitudinally and transversely arched feet and toes positioned correctly. Excessive weight was a factor distorting the foot shape in children; it caused a deterioration of longitudinal and transverse arch of the right foot in girls, and left foot flattening occurred in boys.

  15. Social Media as a Platform for Information About Diabetes Foot Care: A Study of Facebook Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abedin, Tasnima; Al Mamun, Mohammad; Lasker, Mohammad A A; Ahmed, Syed Walid; Shommu, Nusrat; Rumana, Nahid; Turin, Tanvir C

    2017-02-01

    Diabetes is one of the most challenging chronic health conditions in the current era. Diabetes-related foot problems need proper patient education, and social media could a play role to disseminate proper information. A systematic search was performed on Facebook groups using the key words "diabetes foot care", "diabetes foot", "diabetes foot management" and "podiatric care". The search resulted in 57 groups and detailed activity information was collected from those groups. Usefulness of each relevant post was determined. Regression analysis was performed to explore the factors associated with the level of usefulness of diabetes foot care-related Facebook groups. Our search resulted in a total of 16 eligible diabetes foot care-related Facebook groups with a total of 103 eligible posts. The average number of group members for the selected groups were 265.75 with an interquartile range of 3.5-107.75. Of the total 103 timeline posts, 45.6% posts were categorized as useful, while the remaining posts were not useful. Top mentioned diabetes foot care practice was "Checking feet daily". Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that the level of usefulness of diabetes foot care-related Facebook groups were significantly associated with the type of posts and no association was found with presence of "likes" and presence of comment. Facebook being a widely used social networking system, patient welfare organizations, doctors, nurses and podiatrists could use this platform to provide support to educating diabetes patients and their caregivers by disseminating useful and authentic knowledge and information related to diabetes foot care. Copyright © 2016 Canadian Diabetes Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The predictors of foot ulceration in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firth, Jill; Waxman, Robin; Law, Graham; Nelson, E Andrea; Helliwell, Philip; Siddle, Heidi; Otter, Simon; Butters, Violet; Baker, Lesley; Hryniw, Rosemary; Bradley, Sarah; Loughrey, Lorraine; Alcacer-Pitarch, Begonya; Davies, Samantha; Tranter, Jennifer

    2014-05-01

    This study was conducted to determine the predictors of foot ulceration occurring in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) without diabetes. A multi-centre case control study was undertaken; participants were recruited from eight sites (UK). Cases were adults diagnosed with RA (without diabetes) and the presence of a validated foot ulcer, defined as a full thickness skin defect occurring in isolation on / below the midline of the malleoli and requiring > 14 days to heal. Controls met the same criteria but were ulcer naive. Clinical examination included loss of sensation (10g monofilament); ankle-brachial pressure index (ABPI); forefoot deformity (Platto); plantar pressures (PressureStat); RA disease activity (36 swollen/tender joint counts) and the presence of vasculitis. History taking included past ulceration/foot surgery; current medication and smoking status. Participants completed the Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) and Foot Impact Scale. A total of 83 cases with 112 current ulcers and 190 ulcer naïve controls participated. Cases were significantly older (mean age 71 years; 95 % confidence interval [CI], 69-73 vs. 62 years, 60-64) and had longer RA disease duration (mean 22 years; 19-25 vs. 15, 13-17). Univariate analysis showed that risk of ulceration increases with loss of sensation; abnormality of ABPI and foot deformity. Plantar pressures and joint counts were not significant predictors. HAQ score and history of foot surgery were strongly associated with ulceration (odds ratio [OR] = 1.704, 95 % CI 1.274-2.280 and OR = 2.256, 95 % CI 1.294-3.932). Three cases and two controls presented with suspected cutaneous vasculitis. In logistic regression modelling, ABPI (OR = 0.04; 95 % CI, 0.01-0.28) forefoot deformity (OR = 1.14; 95 % CI, 1.08-1.21) and loss of sensation (OR = 1.22; 95 % CI, 1.10-1.36) predicted risk of ulceration. In patients with RA, ABPI, forefoot deformity and loss of sensation predict risk of ulceration

  17. A cross-sectional observational study comparing foot and ankle characteristics in people with stroke and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunkel, Dorit; Potter, Julia; Mamode, Louis

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore and compare foot and ankle characteristics in people with stroke and healthy controls; and between stroke fallers and non-fallers. Participants were recruited from community groups and completed standardized tests assessing sensation, foot posture, foot function, ankle dorsiflexion and first metatarsal phalangeal joint range of motion (1st MPJ ROM), hallux valgus presence and severity. Twenty-three stroke participants (mean age 75.09 ± 7.57 years; 12 fallers) and 16 controls (mean age 73.44 ± 8.35 years) took part. Within the stroke group, reduced 1st MPJ sensation (p = 0.016) and 1st MPJ ROM (p = 0.025) were observed in the affected foot in comparison to the non-affected foot; no other differences were apparent. Pooled data (for both feet) was used to explore between stroke/control (n = 78 feet) and stroke faller/non-faller (n = 46 feet) group differences. In comparison to the control group, stroke participants exhibited reduced sensation of the 1st MPJ (p = 0.020), higher Foot Posture Index scores (indicating greater foot pronation, p = 0.008) and reduced foot function (p = 0.003). Stroke fallers exhibited significantly greater foot pronation in comparison to non-fallers (p = 0.027). Results indicated differences in foot and ankle characteristics post stroke in comparison to healthy controls. These changes may negatively impact functional ability and the ability to preserve balance. Further research is warranted to explore the influence of foot problems on balance ability and falls in people with stroke. Implications for Rehabilitation Foot problems are common post stroke. As foot problems have been linked to increased fall risk among the general population we recommend that it would be beneficial to include foot and ankle assessments or a referral to a podiatrist for people with stroke who report foot problems. Further research is needed to explore if we can improve functional

  18. Foot Complications in a Representative Australian Inpatient Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter A. Lazzarini

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the prevalence and factors independently associated with foot complications in a representative inpatient population (adults admitted for any reason with and without diabetes. We analysed data from the Foot disease in inpatients study, a sample of 733 representative inpatients. Previous amputation, previous foot ulceration, peripheral arterial disease (PAD, peripheral neuropathy (PN, and foot deformity were the foot complications assessed. Sociodemographic, medical, and foot treatment history were collected. Overall, 46.0% had a foot complication with 23.9% having multiple; those with diabetes had higher prevalence of foot complications than those without diabetes (p<0.01. Previous amputation (4.1% was independently associated with previous foot ulceration, foot deformity, cerebrovascular accident, and past surgeon treatment (p<0.01. Previous foot ulceration (9.8% was associated with PN, PAD, past podiatry, and past nurse treatment (p<0.02. PAD (21.0% was associated with older age, males, indigenous people, cancer, PN, and past surgeon treatment (p<0.02. PN (22.0% was associated with older age, diabetes, mobility impairment, and PAD (p<0.05. Foot deformity (22.4% was associated with older age, mobility impairment, past podiatry treatment, and PN (p<0.01. Nearly half of all inpatients had a foot complication. Those with foot complications were older, male, indigenous, had diabetes, cerebrovascular accident, mobility impairment, and other foot complications or past foot treatment.

  19. Effect of forward/backward standing posture on foot shape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daanen, H.A.M.; Tan, T.K.; Punte, P.A.J.

    2000-01-01

    Foot length and breadth are generally used to determine the correct shoe size. An important question is whether foot length and foot breadth are dependent upon body posture. Therefore, the effect of leaning forward/backward on foot length and breadth is investigated in this study. Seven subjects

  20. Isolation of a substance activating foot formation in hydra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimmelikhuijzen, C J; Schaller, H C

    1977-01-01

    -forming potential of the tissue (2) It does not accelerate head regeneration, nor do the head factors of hydra discovered by Schaller (1973) and Berking (1977) accelerate foot regeneration. We propose that the foot-activating substance is a morphogen responsible for foot formation in hydra. The foot activator can...

  1. Clinical and functional correlates of foot pain in diabetic patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijken, P.M.; Dekker, J.; Rauwerda, J.A.; Dekker, E.; Lankhorst, G.J.; Bakker, K.; Dooren, J.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: patients with diabetes mellitus frequently suffer from foot pain. This pain seems to be a neglected area in studies on the diabetic foot. The purpose of this study was to identify clinical variables associated with foot pain in diabetic patients. In addition, the relationships between foot

  2. Increased plantar foot pressure in persons affected by leprosy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slim, Frederik J.; van Schie, Carine H.; Keukenkamp, Renske; Faber, William R.; Nollet, Frans

    2012-01-01

    Although foot pressure has been reported to be increased in people affected by leprosy, studies on foot pressure and its determinants are limited. Therefore, the aim was to assess barefoot plantar foot pressure and to identify clinical determinants of increased plantar foot pressure in leprosy

  3. Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease (HFMD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... feature story, podcast, and other CDC resources about personal hygiene... Prevention People infected with hand, foot, and mouth ... these countries can protect themselves by practicing good personal hygiene. Learn more . To learn more about outbreaks occurring ...

  4. Radiographic examination of the equine foot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, R.D.

    1989-01-01

    A complete radiographic examination of the equine foot consists of properly exposed, processed, and positioned radiographs. For radiographic interpretation, in addition to knowing radiographic signs of disease, a knowledge of normal radiographic anatomy and possible insignificant anatomic variations is necessary

  5. Formal Design Review Foot Clamp Modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    OTEN, T.C.

    2000-01-01

    This report documents the Design Review performed for the foot clamp modification. The report documents the acceptability of the design, identifies the documents that were reviewed, the scope of the review and the members of the review team

  6. Glossary of Foot and Ankle Terms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... long bones of the fingers or toes. Plantar fascia - Plantar fascia is a thin layer of tough tissue supporting ... the foot. Plantar fasciitis - An inflammation of the plantar fascia. Symptoms are usually pain at the bottom of ...

  7. The chicken foot digital replant training model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athanassopoulos, Thanassi; Loh, Charles Yuen Yung

    2015-01-01

    A simple, readily available digital replantation model in the chicken foot is described. This high fidelity model will hopefully allow trainees in hand surgery to gain further experience in replant surgery prior to clinical application.

  8. On-the-Job Foot Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... improves your efficiency and keeps you on the job. Your podiatric physician and surgeon is a specialist ... 20814 FP-65M-4/96 2014 ON-THE-JOB FOOT HEALTH YOUR PODIATRIC PHYSICIAN TALKS ABOUT ON- ...

  9. 130 DIABETIC FOOT ULCERS: CURRENT TRENDS IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    drclement

    *Department of Orthopaedics and Trauma, University of Benin Teaching Hospital, ... well as patient education will markedly .... broad spectrum antibiotic therapy only .... Discuss any foot powders with a healthcare professional prior to use. 2.

  10. Angiography in the region of the foot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeitler, E.

    1984-06-01

    It is reported on technique, incidence and findings of angiography of the foot which provided magnifying angiography and non-ionic contrast media are used, is especially qualified for the differentiation of diabetic and non-diabetic angiopathies as well as for the identification of peripherical embolizations and digital arterial occlusions at thrombocytosis or polycythemia. The arteries of the foot represent the peripherical outflow at peripherical reconstructive performances at the lower leg and have to be studied prior to such reconstructive surgical interventions. The different localization of arterial obliterations and changes of the walls in diabetics of stage I-IV according to Fontaine shows the particularly large number of vascular-pathological findings in arteries of the lower leg and foot in diabetics with arterial occlusive diseases of stage III and IV. Therefore, the unfavourable prognoses of arterial occlusive diseases in diabetics have also to be made for peripherical arterial obliterations of the foot and lower leg.

  11. Angiography in the region of the foot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeitler, E.

    1984-01-01

    It is reported on technique, incidence and findings of angiography of the foot which provided magnifying angiography and non-ionic contrast media are used, is especially qualified for the differentiation of diabetic and non-diabetic angiopathies as well as for the identification of peripherical embolizations and digital arterial occlusions at thrombocytosis or polycythemia. The arteries of the foot represent the peripherical outflow at peripherical reconstructive performances at the lower leg and have to be studied prior to such reconstructive surgical interventions. The different localization of arterial obliterations and changes of the walls in diabetics of stage I-IV according to Fontaine shows the particularly large number of vascular-pathological findings in arteries of the lower leg and foot in diabetics with arterial occlusive diseases of stage III and IV. Therefore, the unfavourable prognoses of arterial occlusive diseases in diabetics have also to be made for peripherical arterial obliterations of the foot and lower leg. (orig.) [de

  12. Surgical Reconstruction of Charcot Foot Neuroarthropathy, a Case Based Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Kučera

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Our case-based review focuses on limb salvage through operative management of Charcot neuroarthropathy of the diabetic foot. We describe a case, when a below-knee amputation was considered in a patient with chronic Charcot foot with a rocker-bottom deformity and chronic plantar ulceration. Conservative treatment failed. Targeted antibiotic therapy and operative management (Tendo-Achilles lengthening, resectional arthrodesis of Lisfranc and midtarsal joints, fixation with large-diameter axial screws, and plaster cast were performed. On the basis of this case, we discuss options and drawbacks of surgical management. Our approach led to healing of the ulcer and correction of the deformity. Two years after surgery, we observed a significant improvement in patient’s quality of life. Advanced diagnostic and imaging techniques, a better understanding of the biomechanics and biology of Charcot neuroarthropathy, and suitable osteosynthetic material enables diabetic limb salvage.

  13. The foot in forensic human identification - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, C M; Hackman, L; Black, S M

    2014-03-01

    The identification of human remains is a process which can be attempted irrespective of the stage of decomposition in which the remains are found or the anatomical regions recovered. In recent years, the discovery of fragmented human remains has garnered significant attention from the national and international media, particularly the recovery of multiple lower limbs and feet from coastlines in North America. While cases such as these stimulate public curiosity, they present unique challenges to forensic practitioners in relation to the identification of the individual from whom the body part originated. There is a paucity of literature pertaining to the foot in forensic human identification and in particular, in relation to the assessment of the parameters represented by the biological profile. This article presents a review of the literature relating to the role of the foot in forensic human identification and highlights the areas in which greater research is required. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Natural gaits of the non-pathological flat foot and high-arched foot

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Yifang; Fan, Yubo; Li, Zhiyu; Lv, Changsheng; Luo, Donglin

    2010-01-01

    There has been a controversy as to whether or not the non-pathological flat foot and high-arched foot have an effect on human walking activities. The 3D foot scanning system was employed to obtain static footprints from subjects adopting a half-weight-bearing stance. Based upon their footprints, the subjects were divided into two groups: the flat-footed and the high-arched. The plantar pressure measurement system was used to measure and record the subjects' successive natural gaits. Two indic...

  15. The Glasgow-Maastricht foot model, evaluation of a 26 segment kinematic model of the foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosterwaal, Michiel; Carbes, Sylvain; Telfer, Scott; Woodburn, James; Tørholm, Søren; Al-Munajjed, Amir A; van Rhijn, Lodewijk; Meijer, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    Accurately measuring of intrinsic foot kinematics using skin mounted markers is difficult, limited in part by the physical dimensions of the foot. Existing kinematic foot models solve this problem by combining multiple bones into idealized rigid segments. This study presents a novel foot model that allows the motion of the 26 bones to be individually estimated via a combination of partial joint constraints and coupling the motion of separate joints using kinematic rhythms. Segmented CT data from one healthy subject was used to create a template Glasgow-Maastricht foot model (GM-model). Following this, the template was scaled to produce subject-specific models for five additional healthy participants using a surface scan of the foot and ankle. Forty-three skin mounted markers, mainly positioned around the foot and ankle, were used to capture the stance phase of the right foot of the six healthy participants during walking. The GM-model was then applied to calculate the intrinsic foot kinematics. Distinct motion patterns where found for all joints. The variability in outcome depended on the location of the joint, with reasonable results for sagittal plane motions and poor results for transverse plane motions. The results of the GM-model were comparable with existing literature, including bone pin studies, with respect to the range of motion, motion pattern and timing of the motion in the studied joints. This novel model is the most complete kinematic model to date. Further evaluation of the model is warranted.

  16. [Foot growth and foot types in children and adolescents: a narrative review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Miaomiao; Wang, Lin

    2017-08-01

    Foot shape and size are important for footwear design and production. Information about important foot characteristics helps not only to improve shoe comfort but to maintain the proper physiological development of the feet. What's more, plenty of studies have suggested that the shape of the shoe must closely resemble the shape of the foot to create a properly fitted shoe. This means that the differences between various populations should be considered and that footwear should be designed according to the measurements of users. Childhood and adolescent are important periods of human growth. During these periods, foot shape changes with human growth and can be influenced by extrinsic factors. Therefore, the foot shape characteristics of children and adolescents should be investigated. The results from these investigations can contribute to developing appropriate shoe for children and adolescents, improving perceived comfort of children shoes and preventing pedopathy among children and adolescents. This review aims to discuss measuring methods of foot shape, types of foot shape, and factors influencing foot shape. The results of the review can provide recommendations for investigating growth development of foot shape and useful information for consumers and shoe manufacturers.

  17. The effect of foot reflexology and back massage on hemodialysis patients' fatigue and sleep quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unal, Kevser Sevgi; Balci Akpinar, Reva

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the effectiveness of foot reflexology and back massage on optimizing the sleep quality and reducing the fatigue of hemodialysis patients. The study includes 105 volunteer patients who were registered at a private dialysis clinic and were receiving hemodialysis treatment. Foot reflexology and back massage were administered to the patients two times a week for four weeks. The Visual Analogue Scale for Fatigue and the Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index were used to collect data. The differences between the pretest and posttest score averages of the patients on the Visual Analogue Scale for Fatigue and the Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index were statistically significant (p Foot reflexology and back massage were shown to improve the sleep quality and reduce the fatigue of hemodialysis patients. Compared to back massage, foot reflexology was determined to be more effective. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Foot Marching, Load Carriage, and Injury Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Foot blisters: Though not a musculoskeletal injury , past studies and reviews have described foot blisters as one of the most common marching... injuries were the highest among all activities in these studies, ranging from 36 to 69 limited duty days per injury .23, 24 The top three most common ...Knapik, and J.J. 1994. Exercise, training and injuries . Sports Med 18(3): 202-1. 35. APHC (Prov) Blister Prevention Factsheet. 2015. Available at

  19. Postoperative infection in the foot and ankle.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Chan, Victoria O

    2012-07-01

    Our discussion highlights the commonly performed surgical procedures in the foot and ankle and reviews the various imaging modalities available for the detection of infection with graphic examples to better enable radiologists to approach the radiological evaluation of postoperative infection in the foot and ankle. Discrimination between infectious and noninfectious inflammation remains a diagnostic challenge usually needing a combination of clinical assessment, laboratory investigations, and imaging studies to increase diagnostic accuracy.

  20. CLINICOMICROBIOLOGICAL STUDY OF DIABETIC FOOT ULCERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirmal Kumar Palaniappan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease caused by a combination of lifestyle and genetic factors affecting all organs in the body. Foot ulcers are one of the common and serious long-term complications of diabetes leads to recurrent and chronic infections, which results in limb loss when treatment is delayed. The aim of this study is to find out the clinical outcome and microbiological profile in patients admitted with diabetic foot ulcers. MATERIALS AND METHODS The study conducted between November 2008 to November 2009 over 50 patients with history of foot ulceration and diabetes. 50 patients were admitted with diabetic foot ulcer over a period of one year between November 2008-2009. They were studied after getting written consent. A predesigned pro forma was used to get the parameters comprising age, gender, duration, type of diabetes mellitus, presence of neuropathy, nephropathy (serum creatinine, urine albumin, retinopathy (screening funduscopy by ophthalmologist. RESULTS Among 50 patients admitted and treated for diabetic foot ulcers with mean stay of 18 days, 29 (58% had complete healing on conservative management, 18 (36% underwent minor amputation (toes, 3 (6% had major amputation (below knee/above knee. No mortality among the study groups encountered. Gram-negative aerobes E. coli (36%, Pseudomonas (52%, Klebsiella (28%, Proteus vulgaris (20% and Acinetobacter (16% were most frequently isolated followed by gram-positive aerobes MRSA (14%, Enterococcus (6%, Strep pyogenes (4% and no anaerobic growth. CONCLUSION Diabetic foot infections are frequently polymicrobial and predominantly gram-negative aerobic bacteria at presentation. Multidrug resistance pseudomonas aeruginosa and MRSA in diabetic foot ulcer is at its emergence and life threatening. Initial aggressive multimodal approach with surgical intervention, culture specific and sensitive targeted combined broad-spectrum antibiotics decreases the morbidity and mortality

  1. Relationship between Nutritional Status and Flat Foot in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce Phua Pau Fung

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pediatric flatfoot has been reported as the highest clinical complains for foot problems in pediatric department. Nutritional status has showed great influence on the occurrence of flat foot. There are many debates regarding whether underweight or overweight children are more prone to flatfoot. The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between nutritional status and flatfoot in children. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted from July to October 2015 in 3 primary schools in Kecamatan Jatinangor. There were 259 children of grade 4 to 5 included in this study. Flatfoot screening was based on measurement of footprint and calculation using Chippaux-smirak index (CSI. The height and weight of children were measured to obtain their Body Mass Index (BMI. Nutritional status was classified based on CDC BMI-for-age growth charts. Analysis was done using chi-square test. Results: There was significant association between nutritional status and flatfoot with p value<0.001.The prevalence of flatfoot in children grade 4to5is40%. When compared to the normal weight children, the overweight children showed prevalence ratio of 1.97(95% CI:1.47 to 2.64 while the underweight children showed prevalence ratio of 1.34 (95% CI:1.78 to 2.25.This stated that the risk of developing flat foot was higher in overweight children. Conclusions: There is significant association between nutritional status with children grade4 to 5. Overweight children are more prone to flat foot.

  2. Morfologie dětské nohy Child's foot morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarmila Riegerová

    2005-02-01

    . Longitudinal foot vault was evaluated by Plantographic method by index method and processed by "Foot" software; the big toe and little toe axis in the sense of valgozity and varozity, the size of foot angle. Statistically significant differences were evaluated by means of Wilcoxon, Mann-Whitney tests, Scheffe test and chí-quadrate test (Statistica, vers. 6. The state of longitudinal foot vault appeared as relatively satisfactory. The normal foot of I. and II. degree was determined with highest frequency. The occurrence of flat foot and high foot did not signify any principal problem in these age categories. The deformation of big toe and little toe occurred in high frequency in both genders and in all age categories. In boys the valgoze angle reached the range 2.6–7.9°, in girls 4.3–8.1°. The average values of big toe varozity were higher. Little toe angle (valgozity in the group of boys reached the range of values 15.4° to 20.4°, in girls 14.4° to 18.6°. At the end we can evaluate the longitudinal foot vault in child's age categories as corresponding with the ontogenesis phase. The analysis of morphological parameters in the area of anterior part of foot proved the deformations in medial and lateral foot rays in high frequency. The foot angle in posterior part of the foot responds the reference values of established age categories.

  3. Comparison of dynamic balance ability in healthy university students according to foot shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyong, In Hyouk; Kang, Jong Ho

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to compare dynamic balance ability according to foot shape, defined as normal, pronated, or supinated on the basis of the height of the medial arch. [Subjects] In this study, 14 subjects for the pronated foot group, 14 for the supinated foot group, and 14 for the normal foot group were selected from among 162 healthy university students by using the navicular drop test proposed by Brody. To measure dynamic balance ability, a star excursion balance test (SEBT) was conducted for each group, in which a cross-shaped line and lines at 45° in eight directions were drawn on the floor. In this study, only three directions were used, namely anterior, posterolateral, and posteromedial. The mean of the SEBT was calculated by measuring three times for each group, and the values were standardized using the following equation: measured value/leg length × 100. [Results] No significant differences in dynamic balance ability were found between the normal, pronated, and supinated foot groups. [Conclusion] No significant differences in dynamic balance ability according to the foot shape were found among the healthy university students with normal, pronated, and supinated feet.

  4. Effects of a flat prosthetic foot rocker section on balance and mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Andrew; Nickel, Eric; Medvec, Joseph; Brielmaier, Steven; Pike, Alvin; Weber, Marilyn

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that the effective rocker shape of the physiologic ankle-foot system during standing and fore-aft swaying is much flatter than that used during walking, which indicates a more stable base of support for the standing/swaying activity. Previous work suggests that flat regions within the effective rocker shapes of prosthetic ankle-foot systems could provide enhanced stability for standing balance tasks. An experimental prosthetic foot was altered to provide three different flat region lengths within its effective rocker shape. It was hypothesized that longer flat regions of the effective rocker shape would lead to improved standing balance outcomes and reduced walking performance for unilateral transtibial prosthesis users. However, no significant changes were seen in the balance and mobility outcomes of 12 unilateral transtibial prosthesis users when using the three prosthetic foot conditions. Subjects in the study significantly preferred prosthetic feet with relatively low to moderate flat regions over those with long flat regions. All the subjects without loss of light touch or vibratory sensation selected the prosthetic foot with the shortest flat region. More work is needed to investigate the effects of prosthetic foot properties on balance and mobility of prosthesis users.

  5. Data-driven directions for effective footwear provision for the high-risk diabetic foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arts, M L J; de Haart, M; Waaijman, R; Dahmen, R; Berendsen, H; Nollet, F; Bus, S A

    2015-06-01

    Custom-made footwear is used to offload the diabetic foot to prevent plantar foot ulcers. This prospective study evaluates the offloading effects of modifying custom-made footwear and aims to provide data-driven directions for the provision of effectively offloading footwear in clinical practice. Eighty-five people with diabetic neuropathy and a recently healed plantar foot ulcer, who participated in a clinical trial on footwear effectiveness, had their custom-made footwear evaluated with in-shoe plantar pressure measurements at three-monthly intervals. Footwear was modified when peak pressure was ≥ 200 kPa. The effect of single and combined footwear modifications on in-shoe peak pressure at these high-pressure target locations was assessed. All footwear modifications significantly reduced peak pressure at the target locations compared with pre-modification levels (range -6.7% to -24.0%, P diabetic neuropathy and a recently healed plantar foot ulcer, significant offloading can be achieved at high-risk foot regions by modifying custom-made footwear. These results provide data-driven directions for the design and evaluation of custom-made footwear for high-risk people with diabetes, and essentially mean that each shoe prescribed should incorporate those design features that effectively offload the foot. © 2015 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2015 Diabetes UK.

  6. Prevalence of Flat Foot: Comparison between Male and Female Primary School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reihaneh Askary Kachoosangy

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of flat foot in a population of 7-12 year old students and to investigate the relationship between flat foot and age and sex. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, a total of 945 students (460 girls and 485 boys were examined. The presence of flatfoot and the degree of its severity according to Tachdjian's system of grading for flatfoot was assessed. Results: The data showed that the overall prevalence of flat foot was 74% out of which 23% were mild, 34% were moderate and 17% were severe. The prevalence of flat foot in girl and boy students were 75.2% and 72.6% respectively, but this difference was not significant. Moreover, no significant relationship was observed between the prevalence of flat foot and age. Discussion: This study showed that flat foot is a common problem among primary school students and should be addressed by responsible organizations.

  7. Overweight, obesity and foot posture in children: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gijon-Nogueron, Gabriel; Montes-Alguacil, Jesus; Martinez-Nova, Alfonso; Alfageme-Garcia, Pilar; Cervera-Marin, Jose A; Morales-Asencio, Jose M

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between obesity and foot posture in children. This cross-sectional study is based on a sample population of 1798 schoolchildren (873 boys and 925 girls) aged between 6 and 12 years. The height and weight of each subject was measured and the body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Foot posture was described by means of the foot posture index (FPI). The differences among various foot postures in relation to BMI, for the total sample, were tested using the Games-Howell test. In addition, cross tabulation for different gender groups and BMI categories was applied and tested using χ 2 . The mean BMI was 18.94 (standard deviation (SD) 3.65 kg/m 2 ) in the boys and 18.90 (SD 3.64 kg/m 2 ) in the girls, and the FPI was 3.97 (SD 2.98) in the boys and 3.68 (SD 2.86) in the girls. The FPI results show that among the boys aged 6 years, the right foot was more pronated than among the girls (FPI 4.8-4.1, P = 0.034), while among the boys aged 7 years, this was true for the left foot (4.4-3.7, P = 0.049). For the other ages, there were no significant differences in the FPI between the sexes. There were no significant differences between the value, or categories, of BMI and the FPI in the different age groups. In children aged between 6 and 12 years, body mass does not appear to have an important bearing on static foot posture. Furthermore, the variables gender and age are of scant importance in determining foot posture in children. © 2016 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  8. Ontogenetic convergence and evolution of foot morphology in European cave salamanders (Family: Plethodontidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nistri Annamaria

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A major goal in evolutionary biology is to understand the evolution of phenotypic diversity. Both natural and sexual selection play a large role in generating phenotypic adaptations, with biomechanical requirements and developmental mechanisms mediating patterns of phenotypic evolution. For many traits, the relative importance of selective and developmental components remains understudied. Results We investigated ontogenetic trajectories of foot morphology in the eight species of European plethodontid cave salamander to test the hypothesis that adult foot morphology was adapted for climbing. Using geometric morphometrics and other approaches, we found that developmental patterns in five species displayed little morphological change during growth (isometry, where the extensive interdigital webbing in adults was best explained as the retention of the juvenile morphological state. By contrast, three species exhibited significant allometry, with an increase in interdigital webbing during growth. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that multiple evolutionary transitions between isometry and allometry of foot webbing have occurred in this lineage. Allometric parameters of foot growth were most similar to those of a tropical species previously shown to be adapted for climbing. Finally, interspecific variation in adult foot morphology was significantly reduced as compared to variation among juveniles, indicating that ontogenetic convergence had resulted in a common adult foot morphology across species. Conclusions The results presented here provide evidence of a complex history of phenotypic evolution in this clade. The common adult phenotype exhibited among species reveals that selection plays an important part in generating patterns of foot diversity in the group. However, developmental trajectories arriving at this common morphology are distinct; with some species displaying developmental stasis (isometry, while others show an increase

  9. Contributions of foot muscles and plantar fascia morphology to foot posture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angin, Salih; Mickle, Karen J; Nester, Christopher J

    2018-03-01

    The plantar foot muscles and plantar fascia differ between different foot postures. However, how each individual plantar structure contribute to foot posture has not been explored. The purpose of this study was to investigate the associations between static foot posture and morphology of plantar foot muscles and plantar fascia and thus the contributions of these structures to static foot posture. A total of 111 participants were recruited, 43 were classified as having pes planus and 68 as having normal foot posture using Foot Posture Index assessment tool. Images from the flexor digitorum longus (FDL), flexor hallucis longus (FHL), peroneus longus and brevis (PER), flexor hallucis brevis (FHB), flexor digitorum brevis (FDB) and abductor hallucis (AbH) muscles, and the calcaneal (PF1), middle (PF2) and metatarsal (PF3) regions of the plantar fascia were obtained using a Venue 40 ultrasound system with a 5-13 MHz transducer. In order of decreasing contribution, PF3 > FHB > FHL > PER > FDB were all associated with FPI and able to explain 69% of the change in FPI scores. PF3 was the highest contributor explaining 52% of increases in FPI score. Decreased thickness was associated with increased FPI score. Smaller cross sectional area (CSA) in FHB and PER muscles explained 20% and 8% of increase in FPI score. Larger CSA of FDB and FHL muscles explained 4% and 14% increase in FPI score respectively. The medial plantar structures and the plantar fascia appear to be the major contributors to static foot posture. Elucidating the individual contribution of multiple muscles of the foot could provide insight about their role in the foot posture. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. All-cause mortality among diabetic foot patients and related risk factors in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almashouq, Mohammad K.; Youssef, Amira M.; Al-Qumaidi, Hamid; Al Derwish, Mohammad; Ouizi, Samir; Al-Shehri, Khalid; Masoodi, Saba N.

    2017-01-01

    Background Although Diabetes mellitus is a major public health problem in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region with high rates of diabetic foot complications, there are only limited data concerning mortality among such a high risk group. Therefore, the main aim of the current study was to assess all-cause mortality and its related predictors among diabetic patients with and without diabetic foot complications. Methods Using data from the Saudi National Diabetes Registry (SNDR), a total of 840 patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes aged ≥25 years with current or past history of diabetic foot ulcer (DFU) or diabetes related lower extremity amputation (LEA) were recruited in 2007 from active patients’ files and followed up to 2013. These patients were compared with an equal number of age and gender matched diabetic patients without foot complication recruited at the same period. All patients were subjected to living status verification at 31st December 2013. Results The all-cause mortality rate among patients with DFU was 42.54 per 1000 person-years and among LEA patients was 86.80 per 1000 person-years among LEA patients for a total of 2280 and 1129 person-years of follow up respectively. The standardized mortality ratio (SMR) (95% CI) was 4.39 (3.55–5.23) and 7.21 (5.70–8.72) for cases with foot ulcer and LEA respectively. The percentage of deceased patients increased by almost twofold (18.5%) among patients with diabetic foot ulcer and more than threefold (32.2%) among patients with LEA compared with patients without diabetic foot complications (10.7%). The worst survival was among patients with LEA at 0.679 and the presence of diabetic nephropathy was the only significant independent risk factor for all-cause mortality among patients with diabetic foot complications. On the other hand, obese patients have demonstrated significantly reduced all-cause mortality rate. Conclusions Diabetic patients with diabetic foot complications have an excess

  11. Is simulation training effective in increasing podiatrists' confidence in foot ulcer management?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Régo Patricia M

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Foot ulcers are a frequent reason for diabetes-related hospitalisation. Clinical training is known to have a beneficial impact on foot ulcer outcomes. Clinical training using simulation techniques has rarely been used in the management of diabetes-related foot complications or chronic wounds. Simulation can be defined as a device or environment that attempts to replicate the real world. The few non-web-based foot-related simulation courses have focused solely on training for a single skill or "part task" (for example, practicing ingrown toenail procedures on models. This pilot study aimed to primarily investigate the effect of a training program using multiple methods of simulation on participants' clinical confidence in the management of foot ulcers. Methods Sixteen podiatrists participated in a two-day Foot Ulcer Simulation Training (FUST course. The course included pre-requisite web-based learning modules, practicing individual foot ulcer management part tasks (for example, debriding a model foot ulcer, and participating in replicated clinical consultation scenarios (for example, treating a standardised patient (actor with a model foot ulcer. The primary outcome measure of the course was participants' pre- and post completion of confidence surveys, using a five-point Likert scale (1 = Unacceptable-5 = Proficient. Participants' knowledge, satisfaction and their perception of the relevance and fidelity (realism of a range of course elements were also investigated. Parametric statistics were used to analyse the data. Pearson's r was used for correlation, ANOVA for testing the differences between groups, and a paired-sample t-test to determine the significance between pre- and post-workshop scores. A minimum significance level of p Results An overall 42% improvement in clinical confidence was observed following completion of FUST (mean scores 3.10 compared to 4.40, p Conclusions This pilot study suggests simulation training

  12. The association of foot structure and footwear fit with disability in children and adolescents with Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Polly Qx; Shields, Nora; Nikolopoulos, Nikolaos; Barrett, Joanna T; Evans, Angela M; Taylor, Nicholas F; Munteanu, Shannon E

    2015-01-01

    Foot deformity, flat feet, and the use of ill-fitting footwear are common in children and adolescents with Down syndrome (DS). The aim of this study was to determine whether these observations are associated with foot-specific disability in this group. A cross-sectional study design. Foot structure (foot posture determined using the Arch Index, presence of hallux valgus and lesser toe deformities) and footwear fit (determined by length and width percentage differences between the participant's foot and footwear) were assessed in 50 participants with DS (22 females, 28 males) aged five to 18 with a mean (SD) age of 10.6 (3.9) years. Foot-specific disability was determined using the parent-reported Oxford Ankle Foot Questionnaire for Children (OxAFQ-C). Associations between foot structure and footwear fit with the four domains (Physical, School and play, Emotional and Footwear) of the OxAFQ-C were determined using multivariate regression modelling. The mean (SD) Arch Index was 0.29 (0.08), and the prevalence of flat feet, hallux valgus and lesser toe deformities was 76%, 10% and 12% respectively. Few participants wore footwear that was too short (10%), but the use of footwear that was too narrow was common (58%). The presence of hallux valgus was significantly associated with increased disability for the OxAFQ-C School and play domain scores. The use of narrow-fitting footwear was significantly associated with increased levels of disability for the OxAFQ-C Physical, School and play, and Emotional domains. However, these variables only explained between 10% to 14% of the variance in the OxAFQ-C domain scores. There were no significant associations between foot structure and footwear fit with the OxAFQ-C Footwear domain scores. Flatter feet and lesser toe deformities are not associated with foot-specific disability in children and adolescents with DS. Hallux valgus is associated with foot-specific disability during school and play activities. Ill-fitting footwear (too

  13. Total contact cast for neuropathic diabetic foot ulcers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, R.; Yaqoob, M.Y.

    2008-01-01

    To determine the outcome of diabetic neuropathic foot ulcers treated with Total Contact Cast (TCC) in terms of percentage of ulcers healed and time to heal. The study included diabetic patients with non-ischemic neuropathic foot ulcers of upto grade 2 of Wagner's classification. Ulcers were debrided off necrotic tissues and Total Contact Cast (TCC) was applied. TCC was renewed every 2 weeks till healing. Cases were labeled as cast failure when there was no reduction in wound size in 4 consecutive weeks or worsening to a higher grade. Main outcome measures were the percentage of ulcers healed and time to heal in the cast. Thirty four (87.17%) patients were males and 5(12.82%) were females. The mean age was 62 +- 13.05 years. All patients had NIDDM. Out of the 52 ulcers, 41(78.84%) healed with TCC in an average 2 casts duration (mean 32 days). There were 11(21.15%) cast failure. Majority (63.63%) of cast failure ulcers were located on pressure bearing area of heel. Most (90%) of the ulcers on forefoot and midsole region healed with TCC (p<0.001). Longer ulcer duration (mean 57.45 +- 29.64 days) significantly reduced ulcer healing (p<0.001). Total contact cast was an effective treatment modality for neuropathic diabetic foot ulcers of Wagner's grade 2, located on forefoot and midsole region. (author)

  14. Analysis of foot load during ballet dancers' gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochazkova, Marketa; Tepla, Lucie; Svoboda, Zdenek; Janura, Miroslav; Cieslarová, Miloslava

    2014-01-01

    Ballet is an art that puts extreme demands on the dancer's musculoskeletal system and therefore significantly affects motor behavior of the dancers. The aim of our research was to compare plantar pressure distribution during stance phase of gait between a group of professional ballet dancers and non-dancers. Thirteen professional dancers (5 men, 8 women; mean age of 24.1 ± 3.8 years) and 13 nondancers (5 men, 8 women; mean age of 26.1 ± 5.3 years) participated in this study. Foot pressure analysis during gait was collected using a 2 m pressure plate. The participants were instructed to walk across the platform at a self-selected pace barefoot. Three gait cycles were necessary for the data analysis. The results revealed higher (p < 0.05) pressure peaks in medial edge of forefoot during gait for dancers in comparison with nondancers. Furthermore, differences in total foot loading and foot loading duration of rearfoot was higher (p < 0.05) in dancers as well. We can attribute these differences to long-term and intensive dancing exercises that can change the dancer's gait stereotype.

  15. Characteristics of Selected Anthropometric Foot Indicators in Physically Active Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bac, Aneta; Bogacz, Gabriela; Ogrodzka-Ciechanowicz, Katarzyna; Kulis, Aleksandra; Szaporów, Tomasz; Woźniacka, Renata; Radlińska, Natalia

    2018-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the type of medial longitudinal arch (MLA) in students of Krakow universities, investigate the relationship between physical activity and the shaping of the feet, and examine the relationship between hallux valgus angle and the type of footwear chosen most often. The study group consisted of 120 students, of which 56 respondents were students of the University School of Physical Education in Krakow, whereas the remaining 64 respondents were students of the Pedagogical University of Krakow. To evaluate the MLA, a podoscope was used, which allowed us to determine the length and width of the foot, and calculation of the Clarke angle, heel angle γ, and the angle of hallux valgus. All students were also subjected to a measurement of body weight and height. There was a statistically significant relationship between physical activity and the Clarke angle in the group of women studying at the University School of Physical Education. There was no correlation between the hallux valgus angle and the type of footwear chosen most often in the research groups. The most frequently diagnosed type of longitudinal and transverse arch foot in the research group was normal MLA. There was no relationship between physical activity and transverse arch foot in any of the research groups.

  16. The forgotten foot - an assessment of foot and ankle radiograph pathology in final year medical students.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Groarke, P J

    2014-04-27

    It has been shown that doctors in Emergency Departments (EDs) have inconsistent knowledge of musculoskeletal anatomy. This is most likely due to a deficiency in focused musculoskeletal modules at undergraduate level in medical school. The aims of this study were to evaluate the knowledge of final year medical students on foot anatomy and common foot and ankle pathology as seen on radiographs.

  17. Repeatability of the Oxford Foot Model for Kinematic Gait Analysis of the Foot and Ankle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hoeve, S.; Vos, J.; Weijers, P.; Verbruggen, J.; Willems, P.; Poeze, M.; Meijer, K.

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Kinematic gait analysis via the multi-segmental Oxford foot model (OFM) may be a valuable addition to the biomechanical examination of the foot and ankle. The aim of this study is to assess the repeatability of the OFM in healthy subjects. METHODS: Nine healthy subjects, without a

  18. Magnitude and Spatial Distribution of Impact Intensity Under the Foot Relates to Initial Foot Contact Pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breine, Bastiaan; Malcolm, Philippe; Segers, Veerle; Gerlo, Joeri; Derie, Rud; Pataky, Todd; Frederick, Edward C; De Clercq, Dirk

    2017-12-01

    In running, foot contact patterns (rear-, mid-, or forefoot contact) influence impact intensity and initial ankle and foot kinematics. The aim of the study was to compare impact intensity and its spatial distribution under the foot between different foot contact patterns. Forty-nine subjects ran at 3.2 m·s -1 over a level runway while ground reaction forces (GRF) and shoe-surface pressures were recorded and foot contact pattern was determined. A 4-zone footmask (forefoot, midfoot, medial and lateral rearfoot) assessed the spatial distribution of the vertical GRF under the foot. We calculated peak vertical instantaneous loading rate of the GRF (VILR) per foot zone as the impact intensity measure. Midfoot contact patterns were shown to have the lowest, and atypical rearfoot contact patterns the highest impact intensities, respectively. The greatest local impact intensity was mainly situated under the rear- and midfoot for the typical rearfoot contact patterns, under the midfoot for the atypical rearfoot contact patterns, and under the mid- and forefoot for the midfoot contact patterns. These findings indicate that different foot contact patterns could benefit from cushioning in different shoe zones.

  19. COMPARISON OF GAIT USING A MULTIFLEX FOOT VERSUS A QUANTUM FOOT IN KNEE DISARTICULATION AMPUTEES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BOONSTRA, AM; FIDLER, [No Value; SPITS, GMA; HOF, AL; Tuil, P.

    The subjective responses and gait patterns of unilateral knee disarticulation amputees wearing prostheses fitted first with the Multiflex foot and then with the Quantum foot were studied. Nine amputees were included in the trial. A questionnaire asked the amputees about their preference for one of

  20. From the diabetic foot ulcer and beyond: how do foot infections spread in patients with diabetes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragón-Sánchez, Javier; Lázaro-Martínez, Jose Luis; Pulido-Duque, Juan; Maynar, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    A diabetic foot infection is usually the result of a pre-existing foot ulceration and is the leading cause of lower extremity amputation in patients with diabetes. It is widely accepted that diabetic foot infections may be challenging to treat for several reasons. The devastating effects of hyperglycemia on host defense, ischemia, multi-drug resistant bacteria and spreading of infection through the foot may complicate the course of diabetic foot infections. Understanding the ways in which infections spread through the diabetic foot is a pivotal factor in order to decide the best approach for the patient's treatment. The ways in which infections spread can be explained by the anatomical division of the foot into compartments, the tendons included in the compartments, the initial location of the point of entry of the infection and the type of infection that the patient has. The aim of this paper is to further comment on the existed and proposed anatomical principles of the spread of infection through the foot in patients with diabetes. PMID:23050067

  1. The validity and accuracy in foot-to-foot bioelectrical impedance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The validity and accuracy in foot-to-foot bioelectrical impedance analysis measuring models referenced by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in body composition in standing position. KC Hsieh, HK Lu, CH Chen, TR Jang, YY Chen, MF Kao ...

  2. Foot strike patterns of recreational and sub-elite runners in a long-distance road race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Peter; Higgins, Erin; Kaminski, Justin; Decker, Tamara; Preble, Janine; Lyons, Daniela; McIntyre, Kevin; Normile, Adam

    2011-12-01

    Although the biomechanical properties of the various types of running foot strike (rearfoot, midfoot, and forefoot) have been studied extensively in the laboratory, only a few studies have attempted to quantify the frequency of running foot strike variants among runners in competitive road races. We classified the left and right foot strike patterns of 936 distance runners, most of whom would be considered of recreational or sub-elite ability, at the 10 km point of a half-marathon/marathon road race. We classified 88.9% of runners at the 10 km point as rearfoot strikers, 3.4% as midfoot strikers, 1.8% as forefoot strikers, and 5.9% of runners exhibited discrete foot strike asymmetry. Rearfoot striking was more common among our sample of mostly recreational distance runners than has been previously reported for samples of faster runners. We also compared foot strike patterns of 286 individual marathon runners between the 10 km and 32 km race locations and observed increased frequency of rearfoot striking at 32 km. A large percentage of runners switched from midfoot and forefoot foot strikes at 10 km to rearfoot strikes at 32 km. The frequency of discrete foot strike asymmetry declined from the 10 km to the 32 km location. Among marathon runners, we found no significant relationship between foot strike patterns and race times.

  3. A metric study of insole foot impressions in footwear of identical twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirenberg, Michael S; Krishan, Kewal; Kanchan, Tanuj

    2017-11-01

    Foot impressions are of utmost importance in crime scene investigations. Foot impressions are available in the form of barefoot prints, sock-clad footprints, and as impressions within footwear. Sometimes suspects leave their footwear at the crime scene, and the insole of this footwear may contain the foot impression of the suspect which may be important evidence linking him or her to the crime. The task of identification based on the analysis of footprints can be challenging when the footprints belonging to one of the identical twin is available for examination. The present study is based on the quantitative measures of the foot impressions in the footwear of adult identical twins. The study was conducted on four sets of female monozygotic twins from the United States of America. A total of 17 length and breadth measurements were taken on each foot impression. A combination of Reel Method and Extended Gunn Method was utilized to produce the measurements. The measurements of the foot impressions were compared among the twins on the right and the left side. Differences were found in the various footprint measurements among the twins. The study's sample size was not large enough to apply robust statistical tests, but the study is significant in that it presents the first detailed comparative analysis of a large number of measurements of insole foot impressions of adult twins. The observations derived from the study are likely to assist forensic investigations in cases involving the foot impressions of the twins. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  4. Saving the limb in diabetic patients with ischemic foot lesions complicated by acute infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clerici, Giacomo; Faglia, Ezio

    2014-12-01

    Ischemia and infection are the most important factors affecting the prognosis of foot ulcerations in diabetic patients. To improve the outcome of these patients, it is necessary to aggressively treat 2 important pathologies--namely, occlusive arterial disease affecting the tibial and femoral arteries and infection of the ischemic diabetic foot. Each of these 2 conditions may lead to major limb amputation, and the presence of both critical limb ischemia (CLI) and acute deep infection is a major risk factor for lower-extremity amputation. Thus, the management of diabetic foot ulcers requires specific therapeutic approaches that vary significantly depending on whether foot lesions are complicated by infection and/or ischemia. A multidisciplinary team approach is the key to successful treatment of a diabetic foot ulcer: ischemic diabetic foot ulcers complicated by acute deep infection pose serious treatment challenges because high levels of skill, organization, accuracy, and timing of intervention are required to maximize the chances of limb salvage: these complex issues are better managed by a multidisciplinary clinical group. © The Author(s) 2014.

  5. The detailed measurement of foot clearance by young adults during stair descent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telonio, A; Blanchet, S; Maganaris, C N; Baltzopoulos, V; McFadyen, B J

    2013-04-26

    Foot clearance is an important variable for understanding safe stair negotiation, but few studies have provided detailed measures of it. This paper presents a new method to calculate minimal shoe clearance during stair descent and compares it to previous literature. Seventeen healthy young subjects descended a five step staircase with step treads of 300 mm and step heights of 188 mm. Kinematic data were collected with an Optotrak system (model 3020) and three non-colinear infrared markers on the feet. Ninety points were digitized on the foot sole prior to data collection using a 6 marker probe and related to the triad of markers on the foot. The foot sole was reconstructed using the Matlab (version 7.0) "meshgrid" function and minimal distance to each step edge was calculated for the heel, toe and foot sole. Results showed significant differences in minimum clearance between sole, heel and toe, with the shoe sole being the closest and the toe the furthest. While the hind foot sole was closest for 69% of the time, the actual minimum clearance point on the sole did vary across subjects and staircase steps. This new method, and the findings on healthy young subjects, can be applied to future studies of other populations and staircase dimensions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A simple field method to identify foot strike pattern during running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giandolini, Marlène; Poupard, Thibaut; Gimenez, Philippe; Horvais, Nicolas; Millet, Guillaume Y; Morin, Jean-Benoît; Samozino, Pierre

    2014-05-07

    Identifying foot strike patterns in running is an important issue for sport clinicians, coaches and footwear industrials. Current methods allow the monitoring of either many steps in laboratory conditions or only a few steps in the field. Because measuring running biomechanics during actual practice is critical, our purpose is to validate a method aiming at identifying foot strike patterns during continuous field measurements. Based on heel and metatarsal accelerations, this method requires two uniaxial accelerometers. The time between heel and metatarsal acceleration peaks (THM) was compared to the foot strike angle in the sagittal plane (αfoot) obtained by 2D video analysis for various conditions of speed, slope, footwear, foot strike and state of fatigue. Acceleration and kinematic measurements were performed at 1000Hz and 120Hz, respectively, during 2-min treadmill running bouts. Significant correlations were observed between THM and αfoot for 14 out of 15 conditions. The overall correlation coefficient was r=0.916 (Pstrike except for extreme forefoot strike during which the heel rarely or never strikes the ground, and for different footwears and states of fatigue. We proposed a classification based on THM: FFS<-5.49ms

  7. Physical activity and exercise on diabetic foot related outcomes: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos, Monica; Mendes, Romeu; Silva, André B; Sousa, Nelson

    2018-05-01

    Diabetic foot is one of the most common complications of diabetes. It has the potential risk of pathologic consequences including infection, ulceration and amputation, but a growing body of evidence suggests that physical activity and exercise may improve diabetic foot outcomes. To analyze de effects of exercise and physical activity interventions on diabetic foot outcomes. A comprehensive and systematic search was conducted according to PRISMA recommendations. Only controlled clinical trials with patients with diabetes were included. Six studies, involving 418 patients with diabetes, were included. Two studies used only aerobic exercise; two studies combined aerobic, resistance and balance exercise; and two studies combined aerobic and balance exercise by Thai Chin Chuan methods. Physical activity and exercise significantly improved nerve velocity conduction, peripheral sensory function and foot peak pressure distribution. Moreover, the ulcers incidence rate per year was lower in the intervention groups, compared with the controls [0.02 vs. 0.12]. This review suggests evidence that physical activity and exercise is an effective non-pharmacological intervention to improve diabetic foot related outcomes. Combined multi-disciplinary treatments are more effective in the prevention of foot complications in patients with diabetes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Smoking increases the risk of diabetic foot amputation: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Min; Zhang, Wei; Yan, Zhaoli; Yuan, Xiangzhen

    2018-02-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that smoking is associated with diabetic foot amputation. However, the currently available results are inconsistent and controversial. Therefore, the present study performed a meta-analysis to systematically review the association between smoking and diabetic foot amputation and to investigate the risk factors of diabetic foot amputation. Public databases, including PubMed and Embase, were searched prior to 29th February 2016. The heterogeneity was assessed using the Cochran's Q statistic and the I 2 statistic, and odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated and pooled appropriately. Sensitivity analysis was performed to evaluate the stability of the results. In addition, Egger's test was applied to assess any potential publication bias. Based on the research, a total of eight studies, including five cohort studies and three case control studies were included. The data indicated that smoking significantly increased the risk of diabetic foot amputation (OR=1.65; 95% CI, 1.09-2.50; Pdiabetic foot amputation. Smoking cessation appears to reduce the risk of diabetic foot amputation.

  9. Nineteen-Foot Diameter Explosively Driven Blast Simulator; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VIGIL, MANUEL G.

    2001-01-01

    This report describes the 19-foot diameter blast tunnel at Sandia National Laboratories. The blast tunnel configuration consists of a 6 foot diameter by 200 foot long shock tube, a 6 foot diameter to 19 foot diameter conical expansion section that is 40 feet long, and a 19 foot diameter test section that is 65 feet long. Therefore, the total blast tunnel length is 305 feet. The development of this 19-foot diameter blast tunnel is presented. The small scale research test results using 4 inch by 8 inch diameter and 2 foot by 6 foot diameter shock tube facilities are included. Analytically predicted parameters are compared to experimentally measured blast tunnel parameters in this report. The blast tunnel parameters include distance, time, static, overpressure, stagnation pressure, dynamic pressure, reflected pressure, shock Mach number, flow Mach number, shock velocity, flow velocity, impulse, flow duration, etc. Shadowgraphs of the shock wave are included for the three different size blast tunnels

  10. Foot roll-over evaluation based on 3D dynamic foot scan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, William; Van Hamme, Angèle; Sanchez, Stéphane; Chèze, Laurence; Van Sint Jan, Serge; Feipel, Véronique

    2014-01-01

    Foot roll-over is commonly analyzed to evaluate gait pathologies. The current study utilized a dynamic foot scanner (DFS) to analyze foot roll-over. The right feet of ten healthy subjects were assessed during gait trials with a DFS system integrated into a walkway. A foot sole picture was computed by vertically projecting points from the 3D foot shape which were lower than a threshold height of 15 mm. A 'height' value of these projected points was determined; corresponding to the initial vertical coordinates prior to projection. Similar to pedobarographic analysis, the foot sole picture was segmented into anatomical regions of interest (ROIs) to process mean height (average of height data by ROI) and projected surface (area of the projected foot sole by ROI). Results showed that these variables evolved differently to plantar pressure data previously reported in the literature, mainly due to the specificity of each physical quantity (millimeters vs Pascals). Compared to plantar pressure data arising from surface contact by the foot, the current method takes into account the whole plantar aspect of the foot, including the parts that do not make contact with the support surface. The current approach using height data could contribute to a better understanding of specific aspects of foot motion during walking, such as plantar arch height and the windlass mechanism. Results of this study show the underlying method is reliable. Further investigation is required to validate the DFS measurements within a clinical context, prior to implementation into clinical practice. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Beyond the Bottom of the Foot: Topographic Organization of the Foot Dorsum in Walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klarner, Taryn; Pearcey, Gregory E P; Sun, Yao; Barss, Trevor S; Kaupp, Chelsea; Munro, Bridget; Frank, Nick; Zehr, E Paul

    2017-12-01

    Sensory feedback from the foot dorsum during walking has only been studied globally by whole nerve stimulation. Stimulating the main nerve innervating the dorsal surface produces a functional stumble corrective response that is phase-dependently modulated. We speculated that effects evoked by activation of discrete skin regions on the foot dorsum would be topographically organized, as with the foot sole. Nonnoxious electrical stimulation was delivered to five discrete locations on the dorsal surface of the foot during treadmill walking. Muscle activity from muscles acting at the ankle, knee, hip, and shoulder were recorded along with ankle, knee, and hip kinematics and kinetic information from forces under the foot. All data were sorted on the basis of stimulus occurrence in 12 step cycle phases, before being averaged together within a phase for subsequent analysis. Results reveal dynamic changes in reflex amplitudes and kinematics that are site specific and phase dependent. Most responses from discrete sites on the foot dorsum were seen in the swing phase suggesting function to conform foot trajectory to maintain stability of the moving limb. In general, responses from lateral stimulation differed from medial stimulation, and effects were largest from stimulation at the distal end of the foot at the metatarsals; that is, in anatomical locations where actual impact with an object in the environment is most likely during swing. Responses to stimulation extend to include muscles at the hip and shoulder. We reveal that afferent feedback from specific cutaneous locations on the foot dorsum influences stance and swing phase corrective responses. This emphasizes the critical importance of feedback from the entire foot surface in locomotor control and has application for rehabilitation after neurological injury and in footwear development.

  12. The effectiveness of non-surgical interventions in the treatment of Charcot foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Caroline; Kumar, Saravana; Causby, Ryan

    2007-12-01

    trials evaluating bisphosphonates reported greater reduction in foot temperature and disease activity for intervention subjects compared with controls. Another outcome of this review indicated additional beneficial effects of bisphosphonates in reducing pain and discomfort. The trial evaluating palliative radiotherapy found no difference between groups on any outcome. A significant reduction in the amount of deformity and reduced healing time to consolidation was found after treatment in the group receiving magnetic therapy treatment. Discussion  There is a lack of clinical trials evaluating the effectiveness of non-operative interventions for the management of Charcot foot (immobilisation, removable cast walkers, advice/dispensing of footwear and prescribing of orthotics). Bisphosphonates may be useful adjuncts to standard management of Charcot foot by improved healing demonstrated by a reduction in disease activity indicated by skin temperature and bone destruction. Magnetic therapy may reduce deformity, joint destruction and improve mobility. Conclusion  There is a lack of evidence supporting the use of pharmacological or non-surgical interventions with reducing lesions, ulceration, rate of surgical intervention, hospital admissions and improving the quality of life of subjects with Charcot foot. Bisphosphonates may improve the healing of Charcot foot by reducing skin temperature and disease activity of Charcot foot, when applied in addition to standard interventions to control the position and shape of the foot.

  13. Three-dimensional simulations of low foot and high foot implosion experiments on the National Ignition Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, D. S.; Weber, C. R.; Milovich, J. L.; Salmonson, J. D.; Kritcher, A. L.; Haan, S. W.; Hammel, B. A.; Hinkel, D. E.; Hurricane, O. A.; Jones, O. S.; Marinak, M. M.; Patel, P. K.; Robey, H. F.; Sepke, S. M.; Edwards, M. J.

    2016-01-01

    In order to achieve the several hundred Gbar stagnation pressures necessary for inertial confinement fusion ignition, implosion experiments on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) [E. I. Moses et al., Phys. Plasmas 16, 041006 (2009)] require the compression of deuterium-tritium fuel layers by a convergence ratio as high as forty. Such high convergence implosions are subject to degradation by a range of perturbations, including the growth of small-scale defects due to hydrodynamic instabilities, as well as longer scale modulations due to radiation flux asymmetries in the enclosing hohlraum. Due to the broad range of scales involved, and also the genuinely three-dimensional (3D) character of the flow, accurately modeling NIF implosions remains at the edge of current simulation capabilities. This paper describes the current state of progress of 3D capsule-only simulations of NIF implosions aimed at accurately describing the performance of specific NIF experiments. Current simulations include the effects of hohlraum radiation asymmetries, capsule surface defects, the capsule support tent and fill tube, and use a grid resolution shown to be converged in companion two-dimensional simulations. The results of detailed simulations of low foot implosions from the National Ignition Campaign are contrasted against results for more recent high foot implosions. While the simulations suggest that low foot performance was dominated by ablation front instability growth, especially the defect seeded by the capsule support tent, high foot implosions appear to be dominated by hohlraum flux asymmetries, although the support tent still plays a significant role. For both implosion types, the simulations show reasonable, though not perfect, agreement with the data and suggest that a reliable predictive capability is developing to guide future implosions toward ignition.

  14. Three-dimensional simulations of low foot and high foot implosion experiments on the National Ignition Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, D. S.; Weber, C. R.; Milovich, J. L.; Salmonson, J. D.; Kritcher, A. L.; Haan, S. W.; Hammel, B. A.; Hinkel, D. E.; Hurricane, O. A.; Jones, O. S.; Marinak, M. M.; Patel, P. K.; Robey, H. F.; Sepke, S. M.; Edwards, M. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

    2016-05-15

    In order to achieve the several hundred Gbar stagnation pressures necessary for inertial confinement fusion ignition, implosion experiments on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) [E. I. Moses et al., Phys. Plasmas 16, 041006 (2009)] require the compression of deuterium-tritium fuel layers by a convergence ratio as high as forty. Such high convergence implosions are subject to degradation by a range of perturbations, including the growth of small-scale defects due to hydrodynamic instabilities, as well as longer scale modulations due to radiation flux asymmetries in the enclosing hohlraum. Due to the broad range of scales involved, and also the genuinely three-dimensional (3D) character of the flow, accurately modeling NIF implosions remains at the edge of current simulation capabilities. This paper describes the current state of progress of 3D capsule-only simulations of NIF implosions aimed at accurately describing the performance of specific NIF experiments. Current simulations include the effects of hohlraum radiation asymmetries, capsule surface defects, the capsule support tent and fill tube, and use a grid resolution shown to be converged in companion two-dimensional simulations. The results of detailed simulations of low foot implosions from the National Ignition Campaign are contrasted against results for more recent high foot implosions. While the simulations suggest that low foot performance was dominated by ablation front instability growth, especially the defect seeded by the capsule support tent, high foot implosions appear to be dominated by hohlraum flux asymmetries, although the support tent still plays a significant role. For both implosion types, the simulations show reasonable, though not perfect, agreement with the data and suggest that a reliable predictive capability is developing to guide future implosions toward ignition.

  15. Management of diabetic foot disease and amputation in the Irish health system: a qualitative study of patients' attitudes and experiences with health services.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Delea, Sarah

    2015-07-01

    Diabetes is an increasingly prevalent chronic illness that places a huge burden on the individual, the health system and society. Patients with active foot disease and lower limb amputations due to diabetes have a significant amount of interaction with the health care services. The purpose of this study was to explore the attitudes and experiences of foot care services in Ireland among people with diabetes and active foot disease or lower limb amputations.

  16. Treatment options for diabetic foot osteomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senneville, Eric; Robineau, Olivier

    2017-06-01

    Diabetic foot osteomyelitis therapeutical options are based on antibiotic therapy and surgical resection of the infected bone(s). Surgical and medical approaches of patients suffering from a diabetic foot osteomyelitis do not oppose but are complementary and need to be discussed as a tailored manner. Areas covered: The aim of the present article is to discuss data issued from the most recent guidelines of the Infectious Diseases Society of America and the International Working Group on the Diabetic Foot on the management of the diabetic foot infection and from a search in the current literature using the terms diabetic foot osteomyelitis and treatment/therapy/therapeutical in both PubMed and Medline, restricted to the last five years. Expert opinion: Surgical removal of the entire infected bone(s) has been considered in the past as the standard treatment but medical approach of these patients has now proven efficacy in selected situations. The current emergence of bacteria, especially among Gram negative rods, resistant to almost all the available antibiotics gradually augments the complexity of the management of these patients and is likely to decrease the place of the medical approach and to worsen the outcome of these infections in the next future.

  17. [Foot reflexology massage: a clinical study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesselring, A

    1999-02-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the possible usefulness of foot reflexology on the recovery after a surgical intervention. 130 patients participated in the study. They underwent abdominal surgery under full anesthesia for different, but exclusively gynecological reasons. Foot reflexology investigated in this study was applied only for a few days for each patient. The following parameters were recorded: the subjective, self-assessed, general condition, pain intensity, movement of the bowels, micturition and sleep, beginning on the day before operation until day 10. Two other treatments served as controls, a simple massage of the foot or a personal conversation. The simple massage turned out to be a relaxing, positive experience, whereas foot reflexology had various effects, some of them were even negative. The conclusion was that foot reflexology is not recommended for acute, abdominal postsurgical situations in gynecology because it can occasionally trigger abdominal pain. This project is one of the few studies planned, conducted and performed by the nursing staff.

  18. Flat feet, happy feet? Comparison of the dynamic plantar pressure distribution and static medial foot geometry between Malawian and Dutch adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niki M Stolwijk

    Full Text Available In contrast to western countries, foot complaints are rare in Africa. This is remarkable, as many African adults walk many hours each day, often barefoot or with worn-out shoes. The reason why Africans can withstand such loading without developing foot complaints might be related to the way the foot is loaded. Therefore, static foot geometry and dynamic plantar pressure distribution of 77 adults from Malawi were compared to 77 adults from the Netherlands. None of the subjects had a history of foot complaints. The plantar pressure pattern as well as the Arch Index (AI and the trajectory of the center of pressure during the stance phase were calculated and compared between both groups. Standardized pictures were taken from the feet to assess the height of the Medial Longitudinal Arch (MLA. We found that Malawian adults: (1 loaded the midfoot for a longer and the forefoot for a shorter period during roll off, (2 had significantly lower plantar pressures under the heel and a part of the forefoot, and (3 had a larger AI and a lower MLA compared to the Dutch. These findings demonstrate that differences in static foot geometry, foot loading, and roll off technique exist between the two groups. The advantage of the foot loading pattern as shown by the Malawian group is that the plantar pressure is distributed more equally over the foot. This might prevent foot complaints.

  19. Effect of a steam foot spa on geriatric inpatients with cognitive impairment: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koike Y

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Yoshihisa Koike,1 Hideki Kondo,2 Satoshi Kondo,1 Masayuki Takagi,1 Yoshio Kano31Department of Occupational Therapy, Prefectural University of Hiroshima, Mihara, Japan; 2Yoshiigawa Hospital, Okayama, Japan; 3Department of Occupational Therapy, Kibi International University, Takahashi, JapanPurpose: To investigate whether a steam foot spa improves cognitive impairment in geriatric inpatients.Methods: Geriatric inpatients with cognitive impairment were given a steam foot spa treatment at 42°C for 20 minutes for 2 weeks (5 days/week. Physiological indicators such as blood pressure, percutaneous oxygen saturation, pulse, tympanic temperature, and sleep time and efficiency were assessed. Cognitive function and behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia were assessed using the Mini-Mental State Examination, Dementia Mood Assessment Scale, and Dementia Behavior Disturbance scale.Results: Significant decreases in systolic (P < 0.01 and diastolic blood pressure (P < 0.05 along with a significant increase in tympanic temperature (P < 0.01 were observed after the steam foot spas. A significant improvement was seen in the Mini-Mental State Examination score (P < 0.01 and the overall dementia severity items in Dementia Mood Assessment Scale (P < 0.05.Limitations: Japanese people are very fond of foot baths. However, it is difficult to understand why inpatients cannot receive steam foot baths. In this study, a control group was not used. Raters and enforcers were not blinded.Conclusion: The results of this pilot study suggest that steam foot spas mitigate cognitive impairment in geriatric inpatients.Keywords: steam foot spa, geriatric inpatients, cognitive impairment, tympanic temperature

  20. The impact of obesity on foot morphology in women aged 48 years or older

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristína Tománková

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity is major risk factor for many diseases within society and represents extensive loads for the feet which lead to various foot disorders and deformities. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of obesity as represented by percent body fat (PBF on foot morphology. Methods: The study sample included 139 Czech women aged 48-69 years. The women were divided into two groups by PBF: non-obese women (NOW (n = 66; PBF < 35% and obese women (OW (n = 73; PBF > 35%. Measurements included % PBF and width, length and angle dimensions of foot. The Chippaux-Smirak index (CSI was calculated for each foot. Results: We found significant differences between OW and NOW in these parameters: direct forefoot width (sin. p = .02, rpb = .20, direct heel width (sin. p = .01, rpb = .22; dex. p < .01, rpb = .22, hallux angle (sin. p = .01, rpb = .25 and CSI (sin. p < .01, rpb = .26; dex. p < .01, rpb = .27. The results showed that the mean values of the heel width and CSI were significantly higher in OW on both feet, the mean values of forefoot width only on the left foot. Conclusions: Results proved that obesity impacts all parts of the foot (heel, longitudinal foot arch, forefoot. Despite significant differences of the CSI between NOW and OW, the number of subjects with flat feet was in both groups negligible.

  1. Iambic Feet in Paumari and the Theory of Foot Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel L. Everett

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes stress and moraic constituencies in Paumari, an endangered language of the Arawan family of the Brazilian Amazon. It argues that Paumari feet are quantity-insensitive iambs, built from right-to-left within the prosodic word. Both of these latter claims are theoretically important because they violate some proposed universals of foot structure. The paper also discusses more general implications of the Paumari data for theories of foot size and shape, proposing two constraints on foot size, Foot Maximality and Foot Minimality, to replace the less fine-tuned constraint Foot Binarity.

  2. Kinematic features of rear-foot motion using anterior and posterior ankle-foot orthoses in stroke patients with hemiplegic gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chih-Chi; Hong, Wei-Hsien; Wang, Chin-Man; Chen, Chih-Kuang; Wu, Katie Pei-Hsuan; Kang, Chao-Fu; Tang, Simon F

    2010-12-01

    To evaluate the kinematic features of rear-foot motion during gait in hemiplegic stroke patients, using anterior ankle-foot orthoses (AFOs), posterior AFOs, and no orthotic assistance. Crossover design with randomization for the interventions. A rehabilitation center for adults with neurologic disorders. Patients with hemiplegia due to stroke (n=14) and able-bodied subjects (n=11). Subjects with hemiplegia were measured walking under 3 conditions with randomized sequences: (1) with an anterior AFO, (2) with a posterior AFO, and (3) without an AFO. Control subjects were measured walking without an AFO to provide a normative reference. Rear-foot kinematic change in the sagittal, coronal, and transverse planes. In the sagittal plane, compared with walking with an anterior AFO or without an AFO, the posterior AFO significantly decreased plantar flexion to neutral at initial heel contact (P=.001) and the swing phase (PRehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The influence of a powered knee-ankle-foot orthosis on walking in poliomyelitis subjects: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arazpour, Mokhtar; Moradi, Alireza; Samadian, Mohammad; Bahramizadeh, Mahmood; Joghtaei, Mahmoud; Ahmadi Bani, Monireh; Hutchins, Stephen W; Mardani, Mohammad A

    2016-06-01

    Traditionally, the anatomical knee joint is locked in extension when walking with a conventional knee-ankle-foot orthosis. A powered knee-ankle-foot orthosis was developed to provide restriction of knee flexion during stance phase and active flexion and extension of the knee during swing phase of gait. The purpose of this study was to determine differences of the powered knee-ankle-foot orthosis compared to a locked knee-ankle-foot orthosis in kinematic data and temporospatial parameters during ambulation. Quasi-experimental design. Subjects with poliomyelitis (n = 7) volunteered for this study and undertook gait analysis with both the powered and the conventional knee-ankle-foot orthoses. Three trials per orthosis were collected while each subject walked along a 6-m walkway using a calibrated six-camera three-dimensional video-based motion analysis system. Walking with the powered knee-ankle-foot orthosis resulted in a significant reduction in both walking speed and step length (both 18%), but a significant increase in stance phase percentage compared to walking with the conventional knee-ankle-foot orthosis. Cadence was not significantly different between the two test conditions (p = 0.751). There was significantly higher knee flexion during swing phase and increased hip hiking when using the powered orthosis. The new powered orthosis permitted improved knee joint kinematic for knee-ankle-foot orthosis users while providing knee support in stance and active knee motion in swing in the gait cycle. Therefore, the new powered orthosis provided more natural knee flexion during swing for orthosis users compared to the locked knee-ankle-foot orthosis. This orthosis has the potential to improve knee joint kinematics and gait pattern in poliomyelitis subjects during walking activities. © The International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics 2015.

  4. NUMERICAL MODELLING OF CHICKEN-FOOT FOUNDATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vipman Tandjiria

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of the chicken-foot foundation using the finite element method. The foundation is considered as a reinforced concrete slab resting on a number of reinforced concrete pipes filled with and surrounded by in-situ soil. The soil and the pipes were modelled by isoparametric solid elements while the slab was modelled by isoparametric thick-plate elements. The study was intended to illustrate the basic mechanism of the chicken-foot foundation. Three cases have been considered for the parametric studies. The parameters investigated are thickness of slab, length of pipes and spacing between pipes. It is shown that such a foundation improves the behaviour of the raft foundation. It is also found that all the parameters used in the parametric studies influence the behaviour of the chicken-foot foundation.

  5. Impact of a diabetic foot care education program on lower limb amputation rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah M Al-Wahbi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abdullah M Al-WahbiDepartment of Surgery, King Abdulaziz Medical City and King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyahd, Kingdom of Saudi ArabiaBackground: Diabetic foot complications are a leading cause of lower extremity amputation. With the increasing incidence of diabetes mellitus in the Arab world, specifically in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, the rate of amputation will rise significantly. A diabetic foot care program was implemented at King Abdulaziz Medical City in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, in 2002. The program was directed at health care staff and patients to increase their awareness about diabetic foot care and prevention of complications. The purpose of this study was to perform a primary evaluation of the program’s impact on the rate of lower extremity amputation due to diabetic foot complications.Method: This pilot study was the first analysis of the diabetic foot care program and examined two groups of participants for comparison, ie, a “before” group having had diabetic foot ulcers managed between 1983, when the hospital was first established, and 2002 when the program began and an “after group” having had foot ulcers managed between 2002 and 2004, in the program’s initial phase. A total of 41 charts were randomly chosen retrospectively. A data sheet containing age, gender, medical data, and the presentation, management, and outcome of diabetic foot cases was used for the analysis.Results: The before group contained 20 patients (17 males and the after group contained 21 patients (16 males. There was no difference between the two groups with regard to age and comorbidities. The rate of amputation was 70% in the before group and 61.9% in the after group. There was a decrease in the percentage of toe amputation in the after group and an increase in the percentage of below-knee amputation in the before group. However, these changes were not significant.Conclusion: The program, although evaluated at an early

  6. WAGNER’S GRADING OF DIABETIC FOOT LESIONS-A TERTIARY CARE EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Mohan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE OF STUDY: Diabetic foot is the most common complication of diabetes. Amputation which is the end result of diabetic foot disease is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Since it is crucial to identify those at an increased risk of diabetic foot complications, a detailed study of the natural history of diabetic foot, various clinical characteristics, according to Wagner grading of lesions, their outcome and management protocol followed in our hospital was undertaken in our hospital. AIM AND OBJECTIVE: Evaluation of diabetic foot lesions based on Wagner grading system, outcome and management protocol followed in our hospital. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective study done on hundred diabetic foot patients in our own hospital over a period of one and half year. Data was obtained from a questionnaire developed to record the medical history, examination details, investigations reports, treatment details and final outcome at the end of stay. Infection was classified based on Meggitt-Wagner, classification/grading. RESULTS: Diabetic foot was very common in elderly age group (>55yrs 54% and male dominant (87%. Majority of them had diabetes for more than five years (47% and complications of diabetes were present on admission in 15% of them. Grade I(29%, Grade III (27% & Grade IV (24% lesions based on Wagner’s grading accounted for majority of diabetic foot lesions. Multiple toe disarticulation/ above knee / below knee amputation accounted for a quarter (23% of surgical interventions in our hospital. The glycemic control in most of patients was very poor with RBS>200 mg/dl (70% and glycosylated hemoglobin>7g% (74% of them. A quarter of the patients stayed for at least a month in the hospital (25%. CONCLUSION: It can be concluded that diabetic foot in various forms accounts for significant morbidity in the surgical wards. Wagner’s grade I (29% Grade III (27%, Grade IV (24% constituted majority of lesions. Factors contributing

  7. Metallic Foreign Body in the Foot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firat Ozan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: A foreign body injury of the foot is a frequently encountered problem. These foreign bodies can lead to various complications in the affected tissues, and their removal can be difficult and time consuming. Therefore, the removal of a foreign body requires good preoperative preparations. The surgical treatment results of patients with a foreign body, identified as a sewing needle, that had penetrated their foot were evaluated. Material and Method: Thirty-four patients (11 males, 23 females; mean age, 30.2 ± 18.6 years who were surgically treated between 2011 and 2013 were included. Data concerning the affected limb, placement of the needle, imaging techniques, season when the injury occurred, time between medical intervention and injury, anaesthesia type, fluoroscopy of use during surgery and surgical complications were analyzed. Results: A sewing needle had penetrated the right foot of 20 (58.8% patients and the left foot of 14 (41.1% patients. Broken needles were found in the toes of 14 (41.1% patients, in the middle of the foot of 12 (35.2% patients and in the heel area of 8 (23.5% patients. The injuries occurred in summer in 13 (38.2% patients, in winter in seven (20.6% patients, in spring in one (2.9% patient and in autumn in 13 (38.2% patients. Needle penetration had occurred in 28 (82.3% patients at home and 6 (17.6% patients outside of the home environment. The average follow-up time was 8.9 ± 2.8 months. Discussion: Removal of foreign bodies from the foot requires good preoperative preparations. Foreign bodies can lead to various complications in the affected tissues. It is important to perform detailed physical and radiological examinations to obtain good treatment results in these patients.

  8. Knowledge and Practice of Diabetic Foot Care in an InPatient Setting at a Tertiary Medical Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AR Muhammad-Lutfi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Good knowledge and practice regarding diabetic foot care will reduce the risk of diabetic foot complications and ultimately amputation. This study is conducted to assess patients’ knowledge and compliance of diabetic foot care. A cross sectional study performed on patients who were admitted to HSNZ from the 1st September 2013 to 30th April 2014 for diabetic foot infections. They were interviewed with a questionnaire of 15 ‘yes’ or ‘no’ questions on foot care knowledge and practice. Score of 1 was given for each ‘yes’ answer. The level of knowledge and practice, whether good or poor, was determined based on the median score of each category. The result was tested using a chi-square test in SPSS version 17. A total of 157 patients were included in this study with a mean age of 56.33 years (31-77. There were 72 male (45.9% and 85 female (54.1% patients with the majority of them being Malays (154 patients, 98.1%. Majority of the patients (58% had poor foot care knowledge while 97 patients (61.8% had poor diabetic foot care practice as compared to the median score. Based on the chi square test of relatedness, there was no significant association between knowledge and practice with any of the variables. In conclusion, the majority of patients admitted for diabetic foot infections had poor knowledge and practice of diabetic foot care. Education regarding foot care strategies should be emphasized and empowered within the diabetic population

  9. Topical propolis improves wound healing in patients with diabetic foot ulcer: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afkhamizadeh, Mozhgan; Aboutorabi, Robab; Ravari, Hassan; Fathi Najafi, Mohsen; Ataei Azimi, Sajad; Javadian Langaroodi, Adineh; Yaghoubi, Mohammad Ali; Sahebkar, Amirhossein

    2017-08-22

    In this randomized controlled trial, diabetic patients with foot ulcers (Wagner grades 1 and 2) were randomly assigned to conventional therapies for diabetic foot ulcer plus topical propolis ointment (5%; twice daily) or conventional therapies alone. The process of ulcer healing was observed during 4 weeks and compared between the two groups regarding the size, erythema, exudates, white blood cell (WBC) count and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR). The process of ulcer size reduction during the four-week period of study was significantly different between the groups. However, this difference was not significant between the third and fourth weeks. There was no significant difference between two groups regarding erythema and exudate reduction as well as WBC count and ESR. Administration of topical propolis ointment in addition to the conventional treatments of diabetic foot ulcer could reduce the size of ulcers with Wagner grades 1 and 2.

  10. Foot Conditions among Homeless Persons: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    To, Matthew J.; Brothers, Thomas D.; Van Zoost, Colin

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Foot problems are common among homeless persons, but are often overlooked. The objectives of this systematic review are to summarize what is known about foot conditions and associated interventions among homeless persons. Methods A literature search was conducted on MEDLINE (1966–2016), EMBASE (1947–2016), and CINAHL (1982–2016) and complemented by manual searches of reference lists. Articles that described foot conditions in homeless persons or associated interventions were included. Data were independently extracted on: general study characteristics; participants; foot assessment methods; foot conditions and associated interventions; study findings; quality score assessed using the Downs and Black checklist. Results Of 333 articles screened, 17 articles met criteria and were included in the study. Prevalence of any foot problem ranged from 9% to 65% across study populations. Common foot-related concerns were corns and calluses, nail pathologies, and infections. Foot pathologies related to chronic diseases such as diabetes were identified. Compared to housed individuals across studies, homeless individuals were more likely to have foot problems including tinea pedis, foot pain, functional limitations with walking, and improperly-fitting shoes. Discussion Foot conditions were highly prevalent among homeless individuals with up to two thirds reporting a foot health concern, approximately one quarter of individuals visiting a health professional, and one fifth of individuals requiring further follow-up due to the severity of their condition. Homeless individuals often had inadequate foot hygiene practices and improperly-fitting shoes. These findings have service provision and public health implications, highlighting the need for evidence-based interventions to improve foot health in this population. An effective interventional approach could include optimization of foot hygiene and footwear, provision of comprehensive medical treatment, and

  11. Foot Conditions among Homeless Persons: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    To, Matthew J; Brothers, Thomas D; Van Zoost, Colin

    2016-01-01

    Foot problems are common among homeless persons, but are often overlooked. The objectives of this systematic review are to summarize what is known about foot conditions and associated interventions among homeless persons. A literature search was conducted on MEDLINE (1966-2016), EMBASE (1947-2016), and CINAHL (1982-2016) and complemented by manual searches of reference lists. Articles that described foot conditions in homeless persons or associated interventions were included. Data were independently extracted on: general study characteristics; participants; foot assessment methods; foot conditions and associated interventions; study findings; quality score assessed using the Downs and Black checklist. Of 333 articles screened, 17 articles met criteria and were included in the study. Prevalence of any foot problem ranged from 9% to 65% across study populations. Common foot-related concerns were corns and calluses, nail pathologies, and infections. Foot pathologies related to chronic diseases such as diabetes were identified. Compared to housed individuals across studies, homeless individuals were more likely to have foot problems including tinea pedis, foot pain, functional limitations with walking, and improperly-fitting shoes. Foot conditions were highly prevalent among homeless individuals with up to two thirds reporting a foot health concern, approximately one quarter of individuals visiting a health professional, and one fifth of individuals requiring further follow-up due to the severity of their condition. Homeless individuals often had inadequate foot hygiene practices and improperly-fitting shoes. These findings have service provision and public health implications, highlighting the need for evidence-based interventions to improve foot health in this population. An effective interventional approach could include optimization of foot hygiene and footwear, provision of comprehensive medical treatment, and addressing social factors that lead to increased risk

  12. The effects of foot reflexology on anxiety and pain in patients with breast and lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, N L; Weinrich, S P; Tavakoli, A S

    2000-01-01

    To test the effects of foot reflexology on anxiety and pain in patients with breast and lung cancer. Quasi-experimental, pre/post, crossover. A medical/oncology unit in a 314-bed hospital in the southeastern United States. Twenty-three inpatients with breast or lung cancer. The majority of the sample were female, Caucasian, and 65 years or older; had 12 or fewer years of education and an annual income of $20,000 or more; and were receiving regularly scheduled opioids and adjuvant medications on the control and intervention day. Procedures included an intervention condition (foot reflexology to both feet for 30 minutes total by a certified reflexologist) and a control condition for each patient (with at least a two-day break). No changes were made in patients' regular schedule or medications. Anxiety and pain. Following the foot reflexology intervention, patients with breast and lung cancer experienced a significant decrease in anxiety. One of three pain measures showed that patients with breast cancer experienced a significant decrease in pain. The significant decrease in anxiety observed in this sample of patients with breast and lung cancer following foot reflexology suggests that this may be a self-care approach to decrease anxiety in this patient population. Professionals and lay people can be taught reflexology. Foot reflexology is an avenue for human touch, can be performed anywhere, requires no special equipment, is noninvasive, and does not interfere with patients' privacy.

  13. Louse (Insecta: Phthiraptera infestations of the Amur Falcon (Falco amurensis and the Red-footed Falcon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piross Imre Sándor

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the louse species harboured by Red-footed and Amur Falcons despite the fact that various life-history traits of these hosts make them good model species to study host-parasite interactions. We collected lice samples from fully grown Amur (n=20 and Red-footed Falcons (n=59, and from nestlings of Red-footed Falcons (n=179 in four countries: Hungary, India, Italy and South Africa. We identified 3 louse species on both host species, namely Degeeriella rufa, Colpocephalum subzerafae and Laembothrion tinnunculi. The latter species has never been found on these hosts. Comparing population parameters of lice between hosts we found significantly higher prevalence levels of D. rufa and C. subzerafae on Amur Falcons. Adult Red-footed Falcons had higher D. rufa prevalence compared to C. subzerafae. For the first time we also show inter-annual shift in prevalence and intensity levels of these species on Red-footed Falcons; in 2012 on adult hosts C. subzerafae had higher intensity levels than D. rufa, however in 2014 D. rufa had significantly higher intensity compared to C. subzerafae. In case of nestlings both louse species had significantly higher preva lence levels than in 2014. The exact causes of such inter-annual shifts are yet to be understood.

  14. MR Imaging of the Diabetic Foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Eoghan; Morrison, William B; Zoga, Adam C

    2017-02-01

    Abnormalities of the peripheral nervous, vascular, and immune systems contribute to the development of numerous foot and ankle pathologies in the diabetic population. Although radiographs remain the most practical first-line imaging tool, magnetic resonance (MR) is the tertiary imaging modality of choice, allowing for optimal assessment of bone and soft tissue abnormalities. MR allows for the accurate distinction between osteomyelitis/septic arthritis and neuropathic osteoarthropathy. Furthermore, it provides an excellent presurgical anatomic road map of involved tissues and devitalized skin to ensure successful limited amputations when required. Signal abnormality in the postoperative foot aids in the diagnosis of recurrent infection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Diabetic foot ulcers: Part II. Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavi, Afsaneh; Sibbald, R Gary; Mayer, Dieter; Goodman, Laurie; Botros, Mariam; Armstrong, David G; Woo, Kevin; Boeni, Thomas; Ayello, Elizabeth A; Kirsner, Robert S

    2014-01-01

    The management of diabetic foot ulcers can be optimized by using an interdisciplinary team approach addressing the correctable risk factors (ie, poor vascular supply, infection control and treatment, and plantar pressure redistribution) along with optimizing local wound care. Dermatologists can initiate diabetic foot care. The first step is recognizing that a loss of skin integrity (ie, a callus, blister, or ulcer) considerably increases the risk of preventable amputations. A holistic approach to wound assessment is required. Early detection and effective management of these ulcers can reduce complications, including preventable amputations and possible mortality. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Foot Pedals for Spacecraft Manual Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Stanley G.; Morin, Lee M.; McCabe, Mary

    2010-01-01

    Fifty years ago, NASA decided that the cockpit controls in spacecraft should be like the ones in airplanes. But controls based on the stick and rudder may not be best way to manually control a vehicle in space. A different method is based on submersible vehicles controlled with foot pedals. A new pilot can learn the sub's control scheme in minutes and drive it hands-free. We are building a pair of foot pedals for spacecraft control, and will test them in a spacecraft flight simulator.

  17. Glomerular epithelial foot processes in normal man and rats. Distribution of true width and its intra- and inter-individual variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundersen, H J; Seefeldt, T; Osterby, R

    1980-01-01

    The width of individual glomerular epithelial foot processes appears very different on electron micrographs. A method for obtainining distributions of the true width of foot processes from that of their apparent width on electron micrographs has been developed based on geometric probability theory pertaining to a specific geometric model. Analyses of foot process width in humans and rats show a remarkable interindividual invariance implying rigid control and therefore great biological significance of foot process width or a derivative thereof. The very low inter-individual variation of the true width, shown in the present paper, makes it possible to demonstrate slight changes in rather small groups of patients or experimental animals.

  18. Effect of self-administered foot reflexology for symptom management in healthy persons: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hyun Jin; Son, Heejeong; Seo, Hyun-Ju; Lee, Heeyoung; Choi, Sun Mi; Lee, Sanghun

    2015-02-01

    Self-administered foot reflexology is unrestricted by time and space, economical, and practical because it is easy to learn and apply. This study estimated the effectiveness of self-foot reflexology for symptom management in healthy persons through a systematic review and meta-analysis. The participants were healthy persons not diagnosed with a specific disease. The intervention was foot reflexology administered by participants, not by practitioners or healthcare providers. The comparative studies either between groups or within group comparison were included. Our search utilized core databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane, and CINAHL). We also searched Chinese (CNKI), Japanese (J-STAGE), and Korean databases (KoreaMed, KMbase, KISS, NDSL, KISTI, and OASIS). The search was used MeSH terminology and key words (foot reflexology, foot massage, and self). Analysis of three non-randomized trials and three before-and-after studies showed that self-administered foot reflexology resulted in significant improvement in subjective outcomes such as perceived stress, fatigue, and depression. However, there was no significant improvement in objective outcomes such as cortisol levels, blood pressure, and pulse rate. We did not find any randomized controlled trial. This study presents the effectiveness of self-administered foot reflexology for healthy persons' psychological and physiological symptoms. While objective outcomes showed limited results, significant improvements were found in subjective outcomes. However, owing to the small number of studies and methodological flaws, there was insufficient evidence supporting the use of self-performed foot reflexology. Well-designed randomized controlled trials are needed to assess the effect of self-administered foot reflexology in healthy people. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. “They just scraped off the calluses”: a mixed methods exploration of foot care access and provision for people with rheumatoid arthritis in south-western Sydney, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background There is little indication that foot health services in Australia are meeting modern day recommendations for Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) patients. The overall objective of this study was to explore the current state of foot health services for patients with RA with an emphasis on identifying barriers to the receipt of appropriate foot care in South-West Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. Methods A mixed (quantitative and qualitative) approach was adopted. Indications for appropriate access to foot care were determined by comparing the foot health, disease and socio-demographic characteristics of patients with unmet foot care demands, foot care users and patients with no demands for foot care. Perceptions of provision of, and access to, foot care were explored by conducting telephone-based interviews using an interpretative phenomenology approach with thematic analysis. Results Twenty-nine participants took part in the cross-sectional quantitative research study design, and 12 participants took part in the interpretative phenomenological approach (qualitative study). Foot care access appeared to be driven predominantly by the presence of rearfoot deformity, which was significantly worse amongst participants in the foot care user group (p = 0.02). Five main themes emerged from the qualitative data: 1) impact of disease-related foot symptoms, 2) footwear difficulties, 3) medical/rheumatology encounters, 4) foot and podiatry care access and experiences, and 5) financial hardship. Conclusions Foot care provision does not appear to be driven by appropriate foot health characteristics such as foot pain or foot-related disability. There may be significant shortfalls in footwear and foot care access and provision in Greater Western Sydney. Several barriers to adequate foot care access and provision were identified and further efforts are required to improve access to and the quality of foot care for people who have RA. Integration of podiatry services within

  20. Radionuclide imaging in diagnosis and therapy of the diabetic foot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Cansheng

    2000-01-01

    Early and accurate diagnosis of angiopathy or infection of the diabetic foot is the key to the successful management. Radionuclide imaging is very useful in detecting diabetic microangiopathy, assessing the prognosis of foot ulcers, and diagnosing the osteomyelitis

  1. Parents: Avoid Kids Foot Problems with the Right Shoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Print | Share Avoid Kids Foot Problems with the Right Shoes Before you head to the store to ... College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons (ACFAS), All Rights Reserved. Privacy Statement | Disclaimer | Terms and Conditions | Site ...

  2. Foot length is a functional parameter for assessment of height.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishan, Kewal; Kanchan, Tanuj

    2013-03-01

    Stature estimation is considered as an important parameter in the examination of unknown human remains and during the analysis of evidence in crime scene investigations. During mass disasters isolated foot can be found enclosed in the shoes while footprints may be recovered at the crime scenes. Foot length and footprint length can provide valuable estimates of stature. The present communication makes a few pertinent observations on a recently published article in 'The Foot' entitled 'Foot length-a functional parameter for assessment of height, The Foot 2012, 22(1):31-34' and presents an insight into the literature available on the subject which is likely to be of value to future researchers in the field of Forensic Podiatry. The foot length and the footprint length of individuals differ from each other and hence, the research observations made in a study on foot prints cannot be applied to foot dimensions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Comorbidities associated with Egyptian diabetic foot disease subtypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary N. Rizk

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion Special attention should be paid toward the identification of patients who are at risk of foot ulceration to help prevent foot problems. Comorbid conditions must also be identified early and managed aggressively.

  4. Recognizing the radiographic features of some common bovine foot problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebeid, M.; Steiner, A.

    1996-01-01

    Radiographs of an injured or infected bovine foot can be tricky to interpret - the anatomy is complex, and the signs may be subtle. This guide leads you through the classic radiographic features of several common foot conditions

  5. Principles of management of vascular problems in the diabetic foot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Principles of management of vascular problems in the diabetic foot: A multidisciplinary approach accounting for the complex pathobiology and biomechanics of the diabetic foot is crucial to decrease the rate of amputations.

  6. The Relationship Between Foot and Pelvic Alignment While Standing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khamis Sam

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A normal motion and segmental interrelationship has been determined as a significant factor in normal function. Yet, the relationship between distal segments and pelvic alignment needs further investigation. The aim of this study was to investigate the interrelationship between distal and proximal lower extremity segments while standing and during induced feet hyperpronation. Changes in alignment of the pelvis and lower extremities were measured at a gait laboratory using the VICON 612 computerized motion analysis system. Thirty-five healthy volunteer subjects were recruited. Four randomized repeated-measure standing modes were used: standing directly on the floor and then on three wedges angled at 10°, 15° and 20° to induce bilateral hyperpronation for 20 seconds. A significant (p<0.05 bi-variate relationship was found between the anterior pelvic tilt and thigh internal rotation, in all four standing positions (.41≤r≤.46, in all p<0.014. A combined effect of rotational alignment between segments and the cumulative effect of foot hyperpronation on pelvic tilt revealed that only the shank significantly affected pelvic alignment, acting as a mediator between a foot and a thigh with the thigh having a crude significant effect on the pelvis. When internal rotation of the shank occurs, calcaneal eversion couples with thigh internal rotation and anterior pelvic tilt. It can be concluded that in response to induced hyperpronation, the shank is a pivotal segment in postural adjustment.

  7. Lumped-Parameter Models for Windturbine Footings on Layered Ground

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars

    The design of modern wind turbines is typically based on lifetime analyses using aeroelastic codes. In this regard, the impedance of the foundations must be described accurately without increasing the overall size of the computationalmodel significantly. This may be obtained by the fitting...... of a lumped-parameter model to the results of a rigorous model or experimental results. In this paper, guidelines are given for the formulation of such lumped-parameter models and examples are given in which the models are utilised for the analysis of a wind turbine supported by a surface footing on a layered...

  8. Outcomes of Foot and Ankle Surgery in Diabetic Patients Who Have Undergone Solid Organ Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Richard H; Wukich, Dane K

    2015-01-01

    Foot and ankle problems are highly prevalent in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). Increased rates of surgical site infections and noninfectious complications, such as malunion, delayed union, nonunion, and hardware failure, have also been more commonly observed in diabetic patients who undergo foot and ankle surgery. DM is a substantial contributor of perioperative morbidity in patients with solid organ transplantation. To the best of our knowledge, postoperative foot and ankle complications have not been studied in a cohort of diabetic patients who previously underwent solid organ transplantation. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the outcomes of foot and ankle surgery in a cohort of diabetic transplant patients and to compare these outcomes with those of diabetic patients without a history of transplantation. We compared the rates of infectious and noninfectious complications after foot and ankle surgery in 28 diabetic transplant patients and 56 diabetic patients without previous transplantation and calculated the odds ratios (OR) for significant findings. The diabetic transplant patients who underwent foot and ankle surgery in the present cohort were not at an increased risk of overall complications (OR 0.83, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.33 to 2.08, p = .67), infectious complications (OR 0.54, 95% CI 0.09 to 3.09, p = .49), or noninfectious complications (OR 1.14, 95% CI 0.41 to 3.15, p = .81). Four transplant patients (14.3%) died of non-orthopedic surgery-related events during the follow-up period; however, no deaths occurred in the control group. Diabetic patients with previous solid organ transplantation were not at an increased risk of developing postoperative complications after foot and ankle surgery, despite being immunocompromised. The transplant patients had a greater mortality rate, but their premature death was unrelated to their foot and ankle surgery. Surgeons treating transplant patients can recommend foot and ankle surgery when

  9. Exercise therapy and custom-made insoles are effective in patients with excessive pronation and chronic foot pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Jane; Mølgaard, Carsten; Christensen, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    Background: Excessive foot pronation is a causal mechanisms described in relation to injuries of the lower extremities. Evidence to support an effective treatment is insufficient. Objective: To investigate the effect of exercise and custom-made insoles to patients with excessive pronation...... and posted. Pain was measured during walking, resting and running. Static and dynamic foot postures were measured as calcaneal angle, navicular drift, drop and height. Results: The average duration of foot pain was 7.3 years. There was a significant pain reduction during walking within all groups at 4 and 12...

  10. Measurement of first ray of foot with reference to hallux valgus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howale, Deepak S; Iyer, Kanaklata V; Shah, Jigesh V

    2012-06-01

    A study was carried out on 58 healthy volunteers. None of the volunteeres had any foot complaints. This was done to study Indian feet, as foot is an important part of human anatomy and its certain deformities eg, hallux valgus, can be very disabling. We have studied anatomical angles between 1st and 2nd rays of foot eg, angle of hallux valgus and angle of slant of distal facet of medial cuneiform and have shown significant correlation between them and development of hallux valgus. The coefficient of correlation (r) calculated between these two angles is significant, showing that this angle influences the angle of hallux valgus and hence development of hallux valgus. These are anatomical angles and indicate shapes of medial cuneiform and 1st metatarsal. Hence these seem to be inherited, making the feet anatomically predisposed to develop hallux valgus. This view is supported by Gray's Anatomy. The extrinsic factors such as narrow toes, closed, footwear worn for an extended period do increase the angle of hallux valgus. So, in predisposed feet, this is one of the extrinsic factor which can lead to development of hallux valgus. On studying these two angles, orthopaedicians should be on alert and should advise such individuals on wearing foot- friendly foot-wear.

  11. COMPARING 3D FOOT SHAPE MODELS BETWEEN TAIWANESE AND JAPANESE FEMALES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yu-Chi; Kouchi, Makiko; Mochimaru, Masaaki; Wang, Mao-Jiun

    2015-06-01

    This study compares foot shape and foot dimensions between Taiwanese and Japanese females. One hundred Taiwanese and 100 Japanese female 3D foot scanning data were used for comparison. To avoid the allometry effect, data from 23 Taiwanese and 19 Japanese with foot length between 233 to 237 mm were used for shape comparison. Homologous models created for the right feet of the 42 subjects were analyzed by Multidimensional Scaling. The results showed that there were significant differences in the forefoot shape between the two groups, and Taiwanese females had slightly wider feet with straighter big toe than Japanese females. The results of body and foot dimension comparison indicated that Taiwanese females were taller, heavier and had larger feet than Japanese females, while Japanese females had significantly larger toe 1 angle. Since some Taiwanese shoemakers adopt the Japanese shoe sizing system for making shoes, appropriateness of the shoe sizing system was also discussed. The present results provide very useful information for improving shoe last design and footwear fit for Taiwanese females.

  12. Do foot pad scores measure Turkey welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hocking, P.M.; Harkness, A.; Veldkamp, Teun; Vinco, L.J.

    2017-01-01

    The main aim of the project was to assess the painfulness of different levels of foot pad dermatitis (FPD) in turkeys. Three different analgesics (butorphanol, carprofen and meloxicam) were used to assess their effect on behaviour. Video recordings were taken when the birds were treated with either

  13. 29 CFR 1910.136 - Foot protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Foot protection. 1910.136 Section 1910.136 Labor... protective footwear. (1) Protective footwear must comply with any of the following consensus standards: (i... in accordance with one of the above consensus standards will be deemed to be in compliance with the...

  14. 29 CFR 1917.94 - Foot protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Foot protection. 1917.94 Section 1917.94 Labor Regulations... protective footwear complies with any of the following consensus standards: (i) ASTM F-2412-2005, “Standard... above consensus standards will be deemed to be in compliance with the requirements of this section. [62...

  15. 29 CFR 1915.156 - Foot protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Foot protection. 1915.156 Section 1915.156 Labor... comply with any of the following consensus standards: (i) ASTM F-2412-2005, “Standard Test Methods for... effective as protective footwear that is constructed in accordance with one of the above consensus standards...

  16. Patient education for preventing diabetic foot ulceration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorresteijn, J.A.; Kriegsman, D.M.; Assendelft, W.J.; Valk, G.D.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ulceration of the feet, which can result in loss of limbs and even death, is one of the major health problems for people with diabetes mellitus. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of patient education on the prevention of foot ulcers in patients with diabetes mellitus. SEARCH METHODS: We

  17. Patient education for preventing diabetic foot ulceration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorresteijn, J.A.; Kriegsman, D.M.; Assendelft, W.J.J.; Valk, G.D.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ulceration of the feet, which can result in loss of limbs and even death, is one of the major health problems for people with diabetes mellitus. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of patient education on the prevention of foot ulcers in patients with diabetes mellitus. SEARCH METHODS:

  18. Assessment of acute foot and ankle sprains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynam, Louise

    2006-07-01

    Acute ankle and foot trauma is a regular emergency presentation and prompt strategic assessment skills are required to enable nurses to categorise and prioritise these injuries appropriately. This article provides background information on the anatomy and physiology of the lower limb to help nurses to identify various grades of ankle sprain as well as injuries that are limb threatening

  19. 33 CFR 142.33 - Foot protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Foot protection. 142.33 Section 142.33 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER... protection. (a) Personnel working in areas or engaged in activities where there is a reasonable probability...

  20. Ambulatory assessment of ankle and foot dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepers, H. Martin; Koopman, Hubertus F.J.M.; Veltink, Petrus H.

    Ground reaction force (GRF) measurement is important in the analysis of human body movements. The main drawback of the existing measurement systems is the restriction to a laboratory environment. This paper proposes an ambulatory system for assessing the dynamics of ankle and foot, which integrates

  1. Ron Rash: One Foot in Eden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre, Thomas Ærvold

    2010-01-01

    An analysis of Ron Rash's novel One Foot in Eden, focusing on his attachment to place and his depiction of the internal conflicts between farmers and townspeople in a small Appalachian community. Rash depicts the contemporary Southerner’s struggle to maintain his or her roots in a time of rapid...

  2. Foot Structure in Boys with Down Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Puszczałowska-Lizis

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and Aim. Down syndrome (DS is associated with numerous developmental abnormalities, some of which cause dysfunctions of the posture and the locomotor system. The analysis of selected features of the foot structure in boys with DS versus their peers without developmental disorders is done. Materials and Methods. The podoscopic examination was performed on 30 boys with DS aged 14-15 years. A control group consisted of 30 age- and gender-matched peers without DS. Results. The feet of boys with DS are flatter compared to their healthy peers. The hallux valgus angle is not the most important feature differentiating the shape of the foot in the boys with DS and their healthy peers. In terms of the V toe setting, healthy boys had poorer results. Conclusions. Specialized therapeutic treatment in individuals with DS should involve exercises to increase the muscle strength around the foot joints, enhancing the stabilization in the joints and proprioception. Introducing orthotics and proper footwear is also important. It is also necessary to monitor the state of the foot in order to modify undertaken therapies.

  3. Complex Foot Injury: Early and Definite Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepers, Tim; Rammelt, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Complex foot injuries occur infrequently, but are life-changing events. They often present with other injuries as the result of a high-energy trauma. After initial stabilization, early assessment should be regarding salvagability. All treatment strategies are intensive. The initial treatment

  4. A Foot Operated Timeout Room Door Latch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foxx, R. M.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    This report describes the design and implementation of a foot operated timeout room door latch that permits staff members to maintain a misbehaving retarded individual in timeout without locking the door. Use of the latch also frees the staff member involved to record behavioral observations or reinforce appropriate behavior. (Author)

  5. Intraarterial tolazoline in angiography of the foot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neubauer, B.

    1978-01-01

    Foot angiography was performed in 32 diabetic patients with and without intraarterial injection of tolazoline (Priscoline). The angiographic quality was improved with tolazoline, manifested as an increased flow rate with acceleration of the arteriovenous transit time, a higher incidence of complete arterial filling with contrast medium in clinically important regions, and considerably longer arterial segments demonstrated within defined regions of measurement. (Auth.)

  6. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy and the diabetic foot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, D. J.

    2000-01-01

    Common causes for non-healing of diabetic foot ulcers are infection and/or ischaemia. Diabetic patients are compromised hosts as far as wound healing is concerned. Diabetes mellitus is associated with a defective cellular and humoral immunity. In particular, decreased chemotaxis, decreased

  7. Diabetic foot and PAD: the endovascular approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reekers, J. A.; Lammer, J.

    2012-01-01

    Diabetic foot ulceration (DFU) is recognized as one of the most serious complications of diabetes. Active revascularisation plays a crucial role in achieving ulcer healing. Non-surgical, minimally invasive, revascularisation options for DFU have expanded over the last decade and have become a

  8. A case of bilateral trench foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, S L; Leach, I H; Charnley, R M

    1993-12-01

    A case of severe bilateral trench foot is presented in a patient who lived rough for 3 weeks without removing his boots. Non-operative management yielded no clinical improvement and bilateral below-knee amputation was necessary. Histology revealed subcutaneous and muscle necrosis with secondary arterial thrombosis.

  9. Foot deformation during walking: differences between static and dynamic 3D foot morphology in developing feet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barisch-Fritz, Bettina; Schmeltzpfenning, Timo; Plank, Clemens; Grau, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    The complex functions of feet require a specific composition, which is progressively achieved by developmental processes. This development should take place without being affected by footwear. The aim of this study is to evaluate differences between static and dynamic foot morphology in developing feet. Feet of 2554 participants (6-16 years) were recorded using a new scanner system (DynaScan4D). Each foot was recorded in static half and full weight-bearing and during walking. Several foot measures corresponding to those used in last construction were calculated. The differences were identified by one-way ANOVA and paired Student's t-test. Static and dynamic values of each foot measure must be considered to improve the fit of footwear. In particular, footwear must account for the increase of forefoot width and the decrease of midfoot girth. Furthermore, the toe box should have a more rounded shape. The findings are important for the construction of footwear for developing feet.

  10. Ottawa Panel Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines for Foot Care in the Management of Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosseau, Lucie; Toupin-April, Karine; Wells, George; Smith, Christine A; Pugh, Arlanna G; Stinson, Jennifer N; Duffy, Ciarán M; Gifford, Wendy; Moher, David; Sherrington, Catherine; Cavallo, Sabrina; De Angelis, Gino; Loew, Laurianne; Rahman, Prinon; Marcotte, Rachel; Taki, Jade; Bisaillon, Jacinthe; King, Judy; Coda, Andrea; Hendry, Gordon J; Gauvreau, Julie; Hayles, Martin; Hayles, Kay; Feldman, Brian; Kenny, Glen P; Li, Jing Xian; Briggs, Andrew M; Martini, Rose; Feldman, Debbie Ehrmann; Maltais, Désirée B; Tupper, Susan; Bigford, Sarah; Bisch, Marg

    2016-07-01

    To create evidence-based guidelines evaluating foot care interventions for the management of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). An electronic literature search of the following databases from database inception to May 2015 was conducted: MEDLINE (Ovid), EMBASE (Ovid), Cochrane CENTRAL, and clinicaltrials.gov. The Ottawa Panel selection criteria targeted studies that assessed foot care or foot orthotic interventions for the management of JIA in those aged 0 to ≤18 years. The Physiotherapy Evidence Database scale was used to evaluate study quality, of which only high-quality studies were included (score, ≥5). A total of 362 records were screened, resulting in 3 full-text articles and 1 additional citation containing supplementary information included for the analysis. Two reviewers independently extracted study data (intervention, comparator, outcome, time period, study design) from the included studies by using standardized data extraction forms. Directed by Cochrane Collaboration methodology, the statistical analysis produced figures and graphs representing the strength of intervention outcomes and their corresponding grades (A, B, C+, C, C-, D+, D, D-). Clinical significance was achieved when an improvement of ≥30% between the intervention and control groups was present, whereas P>.05 indicated statistical significance. An expert panel Delphi consensus (≥80%) was required for the endorsement of recommendations. All included studies were of high quality and analyzed the effects of multidisciplinary foot care, customized foot orthotics, and shoe inserts for the management of JIA. Custom-made foot orthotics and prefabricated shoe inserts displayed the greatest improvement in pain intensity, activity limitation, foot pain, and disability reduction (grades A, C+). The use of customized foot orthotics and prefabricated shoe inserts seems to be a good choice for managing foot pain and function in JIA. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation

  11. COMPARISON OF FOOT TAPING VERSUS CUSTOM-MADE MEDIAL ARCH SUPPORT ON PRONATED FLATFOOT IN SCHOOL GOING CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Vadivelan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Flatfoot may exist as an isolated pathology or as part of a larger clinical entity. These entities include generalized ligamentous laxity, neurologic and muscular abnormalities, genetic conditions, collagen disorders and structural disorder. Flat foot is found to be associated with pronated foot. The objective of the study is to compare the effectiveness of foot taping versus custom-made medial arch support on pronated flatfoot in school going children. Methods: 60 students out of 130, aged 10 to 12 years were selected on the basis of inclusion criteria and divided into three groups from two different higher secondary schools at Srikalahasti, in Chittoor district, Andhra Pradesh. Group-A received custom-made medial arch support and foot strengthening exercises, Group-B received kinesio taping and foot strengthening exercises , Group-C received foot strengthening exercises for 4 weeks. The values of navicular drop test were taken after 4 weeks of study. The pre and post-test values were compared and results were tabulated. Results: All three groups showed significant improvement in navicular drop separately. No significant difference was found in the post-test values of group-A, group-B, group-C (p>0.05. However, the reduction of navicular drop was slightly more in group-B subjects treated with kinesio tape and foot strengthening exercises when compared with other two interventions. Conclusion: The study concluded that foot taping, custom-made medial arch support and foot strengthening exercises were found to be effective on pronated flatfoot in school going children aged 10 to 12 years.

  12. Find an Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle MD/DO

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... All Site Content AOFAS / FootCareMD / Find a Surgeon Find a Foot & Ankle Orthopaedic Surgeon Page Content Who ... your prescribed treatment (surgical and/or non-surgical) ​ Find a Surgeon ​ Click here to find a foot ...

  13. Preventative foot care in people with diabetes: Quality patient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Foot ulceration and amputation cause extensive burden on individuals and health care systems. One of the reasons for the poor outcome of foot complications in developing countries is the lack of patient education. Due to the multi-factorial pathology of diabetic foot ulceration, the person with diabetes should receive health ...

  14. Imaging diagnostics of the foot; Bildgebende Diagnostik des Fusses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szeimies, Ulrike; Staebler, Axel [Radiologie in Muenchen-Harlaching, Muenchen (Germany); Walther, Markus (eds.) [Schoen-Klinik Muenchen-Harlaching, Muenchen (Germany). Zentrum fuer Fuss- und Sprunggelenkchirurgie

    2012-11-01

    The book on imaging diagnostics of the foot contains the following chapters: (1) Imaging techniques. (2) Clinical diagnostics. (3) Ankle joint and hind foot. (4) Metatarsus. (5) Forefoot. (6) Pathology of plantar soft tissue. (7) Nervous system diseases. (8) Diseases without specific anatomic localization. (9) System diseases including the foot. (10) Tumor like lesions. (11) Normative variants.

  15. Quality and Toxicity Assessments of Foot and Mouth Disease Virus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The quality and toxicity assessment of foot and mouth disease virus vaccine was carried out in inoculated guinea pigs. ... could be used for the control and prevention of foot and mouth disease in Nigerian livestock. Keyword: Foot and Mouth Disease ... 2 blended with Incomplete. Seepic Adjuvant (ISA) montanide 206, which.

  16. Correlation between static radiographic measurements and intersegmental angular measurements during gait using a multisegment foot model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong Yeon; Seo, Sang Gyo; Kim, Eo Jin; Kim, Sung Ju; Lee, Kyoung Min; Farber, Daniel C; Chung, Chin Youb; Choi, In Ho

    2015-01-01

    Radiographic examination is a widely used evaluation method in the orthopedic clinic. However, conventional radiography alone does not reflect the dynamic changes between foot and ankle segments during gait. Multiple 3-dimensional multisegment foot models (3D MFMs) have been introduced to evaluate intersegmental motion of the foot. In this study, we evaluated the correlation between static radiographic indices and intersegmental foot motion indices. One hundred twenty-five females were tested. Static radiographs of full-leg and anteroposterior (AP) and lateral foot views were performed. For hindfoot evaluation, we measured the AP tibiotalar angle (TiTA), talar tilt (TT), calcaneal pitch, lateral tibiocalcaneal angle, and lateral talcocalcaneal angle. For the midfoot segment, naviculocuboid overlap and talonavicular coverage angle were calculated. AP and lateral talo-first metatarsal angles and metatarsal stacking angle (MSA) were measured to assess the forefoot. Hallux valgus angle (HVA) and hallux interphalangeal angle were measured. In gait analysis by 3D MFM, intersegmental angle (ISA) measurements of each segment (hallux, forefoot, hindfoot, arch) were recorded. ISAs at midstance phase were most highly correlated with radiography. Significant correlations were observed between ISA measurements using MFM and static radiographic measurements in the same segment. In the hindfoot, coronal plane ISA was correlated with AP TiTA (P foot motion indices at midstance phase during gait measured by 3D MFM gait analysis were correlated with the conventional radiographic indices. The observed correlation between MFM measurements at midstance phase during gait and static radiographic measurements supports the fundamental basis for the use of MFM in analysis of dynamic motion of foot segment during gait. © The Author(s) 2014.

  17. Foot segmental motion and coupling in stage II and III tibialis posterior tendon dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Velde, Maarten; Matricali, Giovanni Arnoldo; Wuite, Sander; Roels, Charlotte; Staes, Filip; Deschamps, Kevin

    2017-06-01

    Classification systems developed in the field of posterior tibialis tendon dysfunction omit to include dynamic measurements. Since this may negatively affect the selection of the most appropriate treatment modality, studies on foot kinematics are highly recommended. Previous research characterised the foot kinematics in patients with posterior tibialis tendon dysfunction. However, none of the studies analysed foot segmental motion synchrony during stance phase, nor compared the kinematic behaviour of the foot in presence of different posterior tibialis tendon dysfunction stages. Therefore, we aimed at comparing foot segmental motion and coupling in patients with posterior tibialis tendon dysfunction grade 2 and 3 to those of asymptomatic subjects. Foot segmental motion of 11 patients suffering from posterior tibialis tendon dysfunction stage 2, 4 patients with posterior tibialis tendon dysfunction stage 3 and 15 asymptomatic subjects was objectively quantified with the Rizzoli foot model using an instrumented walkway and a 3D passive motion capture system. Dependent variables were the range of motion occurring at the different inter-segment angles during subphases of stance and swing phase as well as the cross-correlation coefficient between a number of segments. Significant differences in range of motion were predominantly found during the forefoot push off phase and swing phase. In general, both patient cohorts demonstrated a reduced range of motion compared to the control group. This hypomobility occurred predominantly in the rearfoot and midfoot (pfoot which should be considered in the decision making process since it may help explaining the success and failure of certain conservative and surgical interventions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Procalcitonin and proinflammatory parameters in diabetic foot infection as new predictive factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raheem, Shler Gh.; Al-Barzinji, Ruqaya M.; Mansoor, Husham Y.; Al-Dabbagh, Ali A.

    2017-09-01

    Diabetic foot is a common complication of diabetes due to changes in blood vessels and nerves, often leads to ulceration and subsequent limb amputation if not treated early. A new diagnostic marker of bacterial infections is procalcitonin. C-reactive protein, Interleukin1β, Interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α as proinflammatory parameters increased in Diabetic foot infection. We evaluated above parameters in patients with diabetic foot infections in different grades. A total of 130 diabetic patients were enrolled in this case control study between June 2011 and March 2012 in Rizgary, Emergency and Hawler Teaching Hospitals, 90 of them with diabetic foot lesion as a patient group. 40 without foot lesion, as a patient control and 20 individuals as healthy control. Assessment of above parameters in sera of study groups and also bacteriological tests (bacterial isolation and identification) were done. Serum procalcitonin levels significantly increased in patients with diabetic foot with higher Wagner grades (III, IV and V) (0.28 ± 0.04, 0.30 ± 0.07 and 0.60 ± 0.11) respectively (Pfoot ulcer based on Wagner classification system was also associated with circulating levels of C-reactive protein, Interleukin1β, Interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α (G III, IV and V) (5.36 ± 0.70, 6.38 ± 0.65, and 9.13 ± 0.88), (1.21 ± 0.08, 1.56 ± 0.16 and 2.02 ± 0.07), (23.02 ± 2.98, 36.32 ± 5.75 and 43.36 ± 6.16), and (215.39 ± 16.8, 259.21 ± 40.7 and 398.45 ± 33.4) respectively (Pdiabetic foot patients may be a procalcitonin especially in those with higher Wagner grades and with polymicrobial infection.

  19. Differences in foot kinematics between young and older adults during walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, John B; Mackintosh, Shylie; Jones, Sara; Thewlis, Dominic

    2014-02-01

    Our understanding of age-related changes to foot function during walking has mainly been based on plantar pressure measurements, with little information on differences in foot kinematics between young and older adults. The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences in foot kinematics between young and older adults during walking using a multi-segment foot model. Joint kinematics of the foot and ankle for 20 young (mean age 23.2 years, standard deviation (SD) 3.0) and 20 older adults (mean age 73.2 years, SD 5.1) were quantified during walking with a 12 camera Vicon motion analysis system using a five segment kinematic model. Differences in kinematics were compared between older adults and young adults (preferred and slow walking speeds) using Student's t-tests or if indicated, Mann-Whitney U tests. Effect sizes (Cohen's d) for the differences were also computed. The older adults had a less plantarflexed calcaneus at toe-off (-9.6° vs. -16.1°, d = 1.0, p = range of motion (ROM) of the midfoot (11.9° vs. 14.8°, d = 1.3, p = young adults. Walking speed did not influence these differences, as they remained present when groups walked at comparable speeds. The findings of this study indicate that independent of walking speed, older adults exhibit significant differences in foot kinematics compared to younger adults, characterised by less propulsion and reduced mobility of multiple foot segments. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. A 640 foot per second impact test of a two foot diameter model nuclear reactor containment system without fracture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puthoff, R. L.

    1971-01-01

    An impact test was conducted on an 1142 pound 2 foot diameter sphere model. The purpose of this test was to determine the feasibility of containing the fission products of a mobile reactor in an impact. The model simulated the reactor core, energy absorbing gamma shielding, neutron shielding and the containment vessel. It was impacted against an 18,000 pound reinforced concrete block. The model was significantly deformed and the concrete block demolished. No leaks were detected nor cracks observed in the model after impact.

  1. Ankle and foot tuberculosis: A diagnostic dilemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biswaranjan Nayak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim and Objective: To know the biological behavior of ankle and foot tuberculosis (AFTB and to know the reasons for delay in diagnosis and treatment of AFTB in our population. Materials and Methods: Patients with non-healing ulcers/sinuses/swellings in the ankle and foot region are the subjects of present study. Detailed clinical history, physical examination and relevant investigations were done in all cases. Pus/wound discharge for acid fast bacillus (AFB study and biopsy from wound margin/sinus tract was taken in all the cases. Results: During the period from July 2007-June 2012, 20 cases of AFTB were treated. Out of them five cases were difficult to diagnose and a mean period of 6 month to 5year was elapsed before final diagnosis was established. Out of these five cases - three cases were diabetic with ulcers and sinuses in the heel and ankle region. One case was wrongly diagnosed as angiodysplasia with A-V malformation of foot and diagnosis was delayed for 5 year. In one case of rheumatoid arthritis with abscess in ankle joint, the diagnosis was delayed for 1year. Conclusion: AFTB is very rare condition. AFTB is suspected in cases with long standing pain/swelling/discharging sinus in the foot and thorough investigations is must to differentiate from other foot diseases. Diagnosis is delayed due to lack of clinical suspicion and non-confirmatory biopsy reports. Early diagnosis and ATT for 9-18 months is must in all cases of AFTB to prevent joint involvement and other complications.

  2. Trends in lumber processing in the western United States. Part I: board foot Scribner volume per cubic foot of timber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles E. Keegan; Todd A. Morgan; Keith A. Blatner; Jean M. Daniels

    2010-01-01

    This article describes trends in board foot Scribner volume per cubic foot of timber for logs processed by sawmills in the western United States. Board foot to cubic foot (BF/CF) ratios for the period from 2000 through 2006 ranged from 3.70 in Montana to 5.71 in the Four Corners Region (Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, and Utah). Sawmills in the Four Corners Region,...

  3. Age-related differences in foot mobility in individuals with patellofemoral pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jade M; Crossley, Kay M; Vicenzino, Bill; Menz, Hylton B; Munteanu, Shannon E; Collins, Natalie J

    2018-01-01

    Age-related changes in midfoot mobility have the potential to influence success with foot orthoses intervention in people with patellofemoral pain (PFP). The aim of this study was to determine whether older people with PFP demonstrate less foot mobility than younger adults with PFP. One hundred ninety four participants (113 (58%) women, age 32 ± 7 years, BMI 25 ± 4.9 kg/m 2 ) with PFP (≥ 6 weeks duration) were included, with foot mobility quantified using reliable and valid methods. K-means cluster analysis classified participants into three homogenous groups based on age. After cluster formation, univariate analyses of co-variance (covariates: sex, weight) were used to compare midfoot height mobility, midfoot width mobility, and foot mobility magnitude between age groups (significance level 0.05). Cluster analysis revealed three distinct age groups: 18-29 years ( n  = 70); 30-39 years ( n  = 101); and 40-50 years ( n  = 23). There was a significant main effect for age for midfoot height mobility ( p  mobility magnitude ( p  = 0.006). Post-hoc analyses revealed that midfoot height mobility differed across all three groups (moderate to large effect sizes), and that foot mobility magnitude was significantly less in those aged 40-50 years compared to those aged 18-25 years (moderate effect size). There were no significant main effects for age for midfoot width mobility ( p  > 0.05). Individuals with PFP aged 40-50 years have less foot mobility than younger adults with PFP. These findings may have implications for evaluation and treatment of older individuals with PFP.

  4. Estimation of stature from the foot and its segments in a sub-adult female population of North India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishan Kewal

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Establishing personal identity is one of the main concerns in forensic investigations. Estimation of stature forms a basic domain of the investigation process in unknown and co-mingled human remains in forensic anthropology case work. The objective of the present study was to set up standards for estimation of stature from the foot and its segments in a sub-adult female population. Methods The sample for the study constituted 149 young females from the Northern part of India. The participants were aged between 13 and 18 years. Besides stature, seven anthropometric measurements that included length of the foot from each toe (T1, T2, T3, T4, and T5 respectively, foot breadth at ball (BBAL and foot breadth at heel (BHEL were measured on both feet in each participant using standard methods and techniques. Results The results indicated that statistically significant differences (p p-value Conclusions The present study concluded that foot measurements have a strong relationship with stature in the sub-adult female population of North India. Hence, the stature of an individual can be successfully estimated from the foot and its segments using different regression models derived in the study. The regression models derived in the study may be applied successfully for the estimation of stature in sub-adult females, whenever foot remains are brought for forensic examination. Stepwise multiple regression models tend to estimate stature more accurately than linear regression models in female sub-adults.

  5. Are foot posture and functional health different in children with growing pains?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Angela Margaret; Scutter, Sheila Doreen

    2007-12-01

    The aim of the present paper was to investigate and compare findings of foot posture and functional health between groups of children aged 4-6 years with and without leg pain (described as "growing pains"). The null hypothesis: that there is no difference in measures of either foot posture or functional health between groups of children with and without leg pain. A stratified random sample of children was obtained. The children were identified with and without leg pain using a validated questionnaire for parents. The examiner was blind to the children's pain status. The schools and child care centers were from each geographical quadrant of metropolitan Adelaide and a northern rural region of South Australia. One hundred and eighty children (94 boys, 86 girls) entered and completed the study. Children whose parents returned a completed questionnaire and consent form were entered into the study. All participants were assessed by the one examiner. The foot posture measures used were those found to be most reliable in previous studies and for which the intra-rater reliability of the examiner was ascertained. Initial analysis of foot posture measures between the leg pain and no leg pains groups indicated a statistically significant result for the measure of navicular height, but only on the left side (P = 0.033). Logistic regression modeling showed that navicular height (left foot only) was positively yet weakly related to growing pains (odds ratio, 1.072; 95% confidence interval: 0.991-1.160) and the effect was not significant (P = 0.08). Measures of functional health returned many statistically significant yet weakly correlated relationships. The null hypothesis of the present study was supported in terms of clinical significance. While the foot posture measure of navicular height on the left foot was statistically significant it was not predictive for growing pains nor clinically significant as a measure between groups. The present study does not support the

  6. Research Paper: Effect of Custom-Molded Insole With New Technique on Pain and Function in Females With Flexible Flat Foot: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fateme Bahramian

    2017-02-01

    Conclusion According to our findings, there was a significant difference in pain and function in patients with a flat foot through medial heel skive technique. Therefore, it seems that the insoles can be an effective prescription for subjects with a flat foot.

  7. A survey of foot problems in community-dwelling older Greek Australians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menz Hylton B

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Foot problems are common in older people and are associated with impaired mobility and quality of life. However, the characteristics of foot problems in older Australians for whom English is a second language have not been evaluated. Methods One hundred and four community-dwelling people aged 64 to 90 years with disabling foot pain (according to the case definition of the Manchester Foot Pain and Disability Index, or MFPDI were recruited from four Greek elderly citizens clubs in Melbourne, Australia. All participants completed a Greek language questionnaire consisting of general medical history, the Medical Outcomes Study Short-Form 36 (SF-36 questionnaire, the MFPDI, and specific questions relating to foot problems and podiatry service utilisation. In addition, all participants underwent a brief clinical foot assessment. Results The MFPDI score ranged from 1 to 30 (median 14, out of a total possible score of 34. Women had significantly higher total MFPDI scores and MFPDI subscale scores. The MFPDI total score and subscale scores were significantly associated with most of the SF-36 subscale scores. The most commonly reported foot problem was difficulty finding comfortable shoes (38%, and the most commonly observed foot problem was the presence of hyperkeratotic lesions (29%. Only 13% of participants were currently receiving podiatry treatment, and 40% stated that they required more help looking after their feet. Those who reported difficulty finding comfortable shoes were more likely to be female, and those who required more help looking after their feet were more likely to be living alone and have osteoarthritis in their knees or back. Conclusions Foot problems appear to be common in older Greek Australians, have a greater impact on women, and are associated with reduced health-related quality of life. These findings are broadly similar to previous studies in English-speaking older people in Australia. However, only a small

  8. The Relationship with Balance, Foot Posture, and Foot Size in School of Physical Education and Sports Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irez, Gonul Babayigit

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship of foot posture and foot size with balance. A hundred and thirteen healthy volunteers were recruited from undergraduate students (Male = 74, Female = 37, age range 18-22). The Foot Posture Index (FPI-6), anthropometric measurements, dynamic balance and static balance measurements were done…

  9. Infrared thermal imaging for automated detection of diabetic foot complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Netten, Jaap J; van Baal, Jeff G; Liu, Chanjuan; van der Heijden, Ferdi; Bus, Sicco A

    2013-09-01

    Although thermal imaging can be a valuable technology in the prevention and management of diabetic foot disease, it is not yet widely used in clinical practice. Technological advancement in infrared imaging increases its application range. The aim was to explore the first steps in the applicability of high-resolution infrared thermal imaging for noninvasive automated detection of signs of diabetic foot disease. The plantar foot surfaces of 15 diabetes patients were imaged with an infrared camera (resolution, 1.2 mm/pixel): 5 patients had no visible signs of foot complications, 5 patients had local complications (e.g., abundant callus or neuropathic ulcer), and 5 patients had diffuse complications (e.g., Charcot foot, infected ulcer, or critical ischemia). Foot temperature was calculated as mean temperature across pixels for the whole foot and for specified regions of interest (ROIs). No differences in mean temperature >1.5 °C between the ipsilateral and the contralateral foot were found in patients without complications. In patients with local complications, mean temperatures of the ipsilateral and the contralateral foot were similar, but temperature at the ROI was >2 °C higher compared with the corresponding region in the contralateral foot and to the mean of the whole ipsilateral foot. In patients with diffuse complications, mean temperature differences of >3 °C between ipsilateral and contralateral foot were found. With an algorithm based on parameters that can be captured and analyzed with a high-resolution infrared camera and a computer, it is possible to detect signs of diabetic foot disease and to discriminate between no, local, or diffuse diabetic foot complications. As such, an intelligent telemedicine monitoring system for noninvasive automated detection of signs of diabetic foot disease is one step closer. Future studies are essential to confirm and extend these promising early findings. © 2013 Diabetes Technology Society.

  10. Reducing length of stay for acute diabetic foot episodes: employing an extended scope of practice podiatric high-risk foot coordinator in an acute foundation trust hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cichero, Matthew J; Bower, Virginia M; Walsh, Tom P; Yates, Ben J

    2013-12-11

    To enhance the acute management of people with diabetic foot disease requiring admission, an extended scope of practice, podiatric high-risk foot coordinator position, was established at the Great Western Hospital, Swindon in 2010. The focus of this new role was to facilitate more efficient and timely management of people with complex diabetic foot disease. The aim of this project was to investigate the impact of the podiatric high-risk foot coordinator role on length of stay, rate of re-admission and bed cost. This study evaluated the difference in length of stay and rate of re-admission between an 11- month pre-pilot period (November 2008 to October 2009) and a 10-month pilot period (August 2010 to June 2011). The estimated difference in bed cost between the pre-pilot and pilot audits was also calculated. Inclusion criteria were restricted to inpatients admitted with a diabetic foot ulcer, gangrene, cellulitis or infection as the primary cause for admission. Eligible records were retrieved using ICD-10 (V9) coding via the hospital clinical audit department for the pre-pilot period and a unique database was used to source records for the pilot phase. Following the introduction of the podiatric high-risk foot coordinator, the average length of stay reduced from 33.7 days to 23.3 days (mean difference 10.4 days, 95% CI 0.0 to 20.8, p = 0.050). There was no statistically significant difference in re-admission rate between the two study periods, 17.2% (95% CI 12.2% to 23.9%) in the pre-pilot phase and 15.4% (95% CI 12.0% to 19.5%) in the pilot phase (p = 0.820). The extrapolated annual cost saving following the implementation of the new coordinator role was calculated to be £234,000 for the 2010/2011 year. This audit found that the extended scope of practice coordinator role may have a positive impact on reducing length of stay for diabetic foot admissions. This paper advocates the role of a podiatric high-risk foot coordinator utilising an extended scope of

  11. Effects of prosthetic foot forefoot flexibility on oxygen cost and subjective preference rankings of unilateral transtibial prosthesis users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klodd, Elizabeth; Hansen, Andrew; Fatone, Stefania; Edwards, Mark

    2010-01-01

    The investigators conducted a double-blind randomized crossover study to determine the effects of prosthetic foot forefoot flexibility on oxygen cost and subjective preference rankings of 13 unilateral transtibial prosthesis users. Five experimental feet were fabricated for use in the study: F1, F2, F3, F4, and F5. F1 was most flexible, F5 was least flexible, and F3 was designed to conform to a biomimetic ankle-foot roll-over shape. The experimental feet were modeled after the Shape&Roll prosthetic foot (originally produced by Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois; now in public domain) but had different numbers of saw cuts within the forefoot members, allowing more or less flexibility during walking. Participants walked at the same comfortable, freely selected speed on the treadmill for 7 min with each foot while energy expenditure was measured. No significant difference was found in oxygen cost (mL O(2)/kg/m) between the different feet (p = 0.17), and the order of use was also not significant (p = 0.94). However, the preference ranking was significantly affected by the flexibility of the feet (p = 0.002), with the most flexible foot (F1) ranking significantly poorer than feet F3 (p = 0.003) and F4 (p = 0.004). Users may prefer prosthetic feet that match the flexibility of an intact ankle-foot system, even though we did not detect an energetic benefit at freely selected speeds.

  12. Holographic interferometry for early diagnosisof children flat foot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Petrovich Bolshakov

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the first experience ofthe use of holographic interferometr y for earlydiagnosis of the flat foot in 4-5 years old children.13 patients were examined. The results of the clinicalexamination, plantography, and of the graphicalreconstruction of the form of the foot arch basedon the interferogramms of the prints on Pedilen areanalyzed. We revealed typical differences betweenthe form of the foot arches in children with flat foot and children with normal status. The use of the proposed method for early detection of congenital pes valgus and of the signs of “flexible flat” foot is being suggested.

  13. Psychological factors and personality traits associated with patients in chronic foot and ankle pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivarathre, Deepak Gubbi; Howard, Nicholas; Krishna, Sowmya; Cowan, Chris; Platt, Simon R

    2014-11-01

    The impact of psychosocial factors and personality traits in chronic pain is well established. However, there has been limited literature analyzing the influence of psychological issues in chronic foot and ankle pain. The aim of our study was to identify the association of certain psychosocial factors and personality traits in individuals with chronic painful foot and ankle disorders. Patients with chronic foot and ankle pain were recruited from the specialist foot and ankle clinic. The Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Revised (EPQ-R), Dysfunctional Attitude Scale (DAS), and Hospital Anxiety Depression (HAD) scale were administered in the form of questionnaires. An age- and sex-matched cohort of healthy volunteers served as the control group. Sample size was determined after power calculation, and a total of 90 participants were recruited with informed consent with 45 participants in each arm. Results were analyzed and statistical analyses were performed using SPSS. Patients with chronic foot and ankle pain had significantly higher neuroticism scores than the control group (P pain (P pain. Clinicians should recognize the influence of these specific psychological issues to provide a more holistic approach to the clinical problem. Level III, case control study. © The Author(s) 2014.

  14. Differences in foot self-care and lifestyle between men and women with diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Angela Rossaneis

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: to investigate differences with regard to foot self-care and lifestyle between men and women with diabetes mellitus. Method: cross-sectional study conducted in a sample of 1,515 individuals with diabetes mellitus aged 40 years old or older. Poisson regression models were used to identity differences in foot self-care deficit and lifestyle between sexes, adjusting for socioeconomic and clinical characteristics, smoking and alcohol consumption. Results: foot self-care deficit, characterized by not regularly drying between toes; not regularly checking feet; walking barefoot; poor hygiene and inappropriately trimmed nails, was significantly higher among men, though men presented a lower prevalence of feet scaling and use of inappropriate shoes when compared to women. With regard to lifestyle, men presented less healthy habits, such as not adhering to a proper diet and taking laboratory exams to check for lipid profile at the frequency recommended. Conclusion: the nursing team should take into account gender differences concerning foot self-care and lifestyle when implementing educational activities and interventions intended to decrease risk factors for foot ulceration.

  15. Cyclic settlement behavior of strip footings resting on reinforced layered sand slope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa A. El Sawwaf

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a study of the behavior of model strip footings supported on a loose sandy slope and subjected to both monotonic and cyclic loads. The effects of the partial replacement of a compacted sand layer and the inclusion of geosynthetic reinforcement were investigated. Different combinations of the initial monotonic loads and the amplitude of cyclic loads were chosen to simulate structures in which loads change cyclically such as machine foundations. The affecting factors including the location of footing relative to the slope crest, the frequency of the cyclic load and the number of load cycles were studied. The cumulative cyclic settlement of the model footing supported on a loose sandy slope, un-reinforced and reinforced replaced sand deposits overlying the loose slope were obtained and compared. Test results indicate that the inclusion of soil reinforcement in the replaced sand not only significantly increases the stability of the sandy slope itself but also decreases much both the monotonic and cumulative cyclic settlements leading to an economic design of the footings. However, the efficiency of the sand–geogrid systems depends on the properties of the cyclic load and the location of the footing relative to the slope crest. Based on the test results, the variation of cumulative settlements with different parameters is presented and discussed.

  16. Features force between the foot and performance of special-based tests young basketball players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.V. Stroganov

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose . A quantitative analysis of biomechanical force interactions between the foot and the support when the athletes special tests. Material and methods . In the experiment involved 30 young athletes aged 7-8 years who are at the stage of initial training. Subjects performed four tests: jump up from their seats repulsion two feet, jump up and down with one foot repulsion run, stop step, jump stop. Results . As a result of studies to obtain quantitative values of reference indices interactions as the maximum reaction force impulse force, force gradient, the reference duration, and other interactions. Revealed that when jumping forward and upward to run and jump and step stops the horizontal component of force production is from 38 to 73 % of the resulting value. Conclusions . Significant power load on the musculoskeletal system and in particular the foot of young basketball players can lead to abnormalities in the foot. In connection with what the training process should include funds for the correction and prevention of foot function.

  17. Relationship between foot strike pattern, running speed, and footwear condition in recreational distance runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Roy T H; Wong, Rodney Y L; Chung, Tim K W; Choi, R T; Leung, Wendy W Y; Shek, Diana H Y

    2017-06-01

    Compared to competitive runners, recreational runners appear to be more prone to injuries, which have been associated with foot strike patterns. Surprisingly, only few studies had examined the foot strike patterns outside laboratories. Therefore, this study compared the foot strike patterns in recreational runners at outdoor tracks with previously reported data. We also investigated the relationship between foot strike pattern, speed, and footwear in this cohort. Among 434 recreational runners analysed, 89.6% of them landed with rearfoot strike (RFS). Only 6.9 and 3.5% landed with midfoot and forefoot, respectively. A significant shift towards non-RFS was observed in our cohort, when compared with previously reported data. When speed increased by 1 m/s, the odds of having forefoot strike and midfoot strike relative to RFS increased by 2.3 times and 2.6 times, respectively. Runners were 9.2 times more likely to run with a forefoot strike in minimalists compared to regular running shoes, although 70% of runners in minimalists continued to use a RFS. These findings suggest that foot strike pattern may differ across running conditions and runners should consider these factors in order to mitigate potential injury.

  18. Is the rearfoot pattern the most frequently foot strike pattern among recreational shod distance runners?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Matheus Oliveira; Saragiotto, Bruno Tirotti; Yamato, Tiê Parma; Lopes, Alexandre Dias

    2015-02-01

    To determine the distribution of the foot strike patterns among recreational shod runners and to compare the personal and training characteristics between runners with different foot strike patterns. Cross-sectional study. Areas of running practice in São Paulo, Brazil. 514 recreational shod runners older than 18 years and free of injury. Foot strike patterns were evaluated with a high-speed camera (250 Hz) and photocells to assess the running speed of participants. Personal and training characteristics were collected through a questionnaire. The inter-rater reliability of the visual foot strike pattern classification method was 96.7% and intra-rater reliability was 98.9%. 95.1% (n = 489) of the participants were rearfoot strikers, 4.1% (n = 21) were midfoot strikers, and four runners (0.8%) were forefoot strikers. There were no significant differences between strike patterns for personal and training characteristics. This is the first study to demonstrate that almost all recreational shod runners were rearfoot strikers. The visual method of evaluation seems to be a reliable and feasible option to classify foot strike pattern. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Predictive Role of Preventive Measures in Preventing the Progression of Diabetic Foot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zukic, Ejub; Gojak, Refet; Novakovic, Ana; Gazibera, Belma

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the most common endocrine disease of modern life. Diabetic foot (DF) is the term for a foot of a patient suffering from DM with the potential risk of a number of pathological sequels, including infection, ulceration and/or destruction of deep tissue. Goal: To determine the importance of preventive measures to prevent the development of diabetic foot. Results: The gender structure of respondents categorized by the complication of DF (yes/no) was uniform. The average age was 60.15±12.2 years. Respondents without DF, 63% had 2 visits to the doctor a month, while in the group of those with DF, 39% of them had 3 visits to a doctor and 33% four or more times. Wearing comfortable shoes and foot hygiene in relation to the development of the DF are interdependent: c2=4,409; c2 = 12.47 (p <0.0005). Also, recurrent foot injury, and slow healing of sores in comparison to the development of the DF are mutually dependent; c2=13,195; c2=14 (p <0.0005). Conclusion: We found that there is a significant statistical relationship between preventive measures and development of the DF. PMID:26543412

  20. Diabetic Foot and Exercise Therapy: Step by Step The Role of Rigid Posture and Biomechanics Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francia, Piergiorgio; Gulisano, Massimo; Anichini, Roberto; Seghieri, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Lower extremity ulcers represent a serious and costly complication of diabetes mellitus. Many factors contribute to the development of diabetic foot. Peripheral neuropathy and peripheral vascular disease are the main causes of foot ulceration and contribute in turn to the growth of additional risk factors such as limited joint mobility, muscular alterations and foot deformities. Moreover, a deficit of balance, posture and biomechanics can be present, in particular in patients at high risk for ulceration. The result of this process may be the development of a vicious cycle which leads to abnormal distribution of the foot's plantar pressures in static and dynamic postural conditions. This review shows that some of these risk factors significantly improve after a few weeks of exercise therapy (ET) intervention. Accordingly it has been suggested that ET can be an important weapon in the prevention of foot ulcer. The aim of ET can relate to one or more alterations typically found in diabetic patients, although greater attention should be paid to the evaluation and possible correction of body balance, rigid posture and biomechanics. Some of the most important limitations of ET are difficult access to therapy, patient compliance and the transitoriness of the results if the training stops. Many proposals have been made to overcome such limitations. In particular, it is important that specialized centers offer the opportunity to participate in ET and during the treatment the team should work to change the patient’s lifestyle by improving the execution of appropriate daily physical activity. PMID:24807636

  1. Automatic detection of diabetic foot complications with infrared thermography by asymmetric analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chanjuan; van Netten, Jaap J.; van Baal, Jeff G.; Bus, Sicco A.; van der Heijden, Ferdi

    2015-02-01

    Early identification of diabetic foot complications and their precursors is essential in preventing their devastating consequences, such as foot infection and amputation. Frequent, automatic risk assessment by an intelligent telemedicine system might be feasible and cost effective. Infrared thermography is a promising modality for such a system. The temperature differences between corresponding areas on contralateral feet are the clinically significant parameters. This asymmetric analysis is hindered by (1) foot segmentation errors, especially when the foot temperature and the ambient temperature are comparable, and by (2) different shapes and sizes between contralateral feet due to deformities or minor amputations. To circumvent the first problem, we used a color image and a thermal image acquired synchronously. Foot regions, detected in the color image, were rigidly registered to the thermal image. This resulted in 97.8%±1.1% sensitivity and 98.4%±0.5% specificity over 76 high-risk diabetic patients with manual annotation as a reference. Nonrigid landmark-based registration with B-splines solved the second problem. Corresponding points in the two feet could be found regardless of the shapes and sizes of the feet. With that, the temperature difference of the left and right feet could be obtained.

  2. Unilateral Rolling of the Foot did not Affect Non-Local Range of Motion or Balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena Grabow, James D. Young, Jeannette M. Byrne, Urs Granacher, David G. Behm

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Non-local or crossover (contralateral and non-stretched muscles increases in range-of-motion (ROM and balance have been reported following rolling of quadriceps, hamstrings and plantar flexors. Since there is limited information regarding plantar sole (foot rolling effects, the objectives of this study were to determine if unilateral foot rolling would affect ipsilateral and contralateral measures of ROM and balance in young healthy adults. A randomized within-subject design was used to examine non-local effects of unilateral foot rolling on ipsilateral and contralateral limb ankle dorsiflexion ROM and a modified sit-and-reach-test (SRT. Static balance was also tested during a 30 s single leg stance test. Twelve participants performed three bouts of 60 s unilateral plantar sole rolling using a roller on the dominant foot with 60 s rest intervals between sets. ROM and balance measures were assessed in separate sessions at pre-intervention, immediately and 10 minutes post-intervention. To evaluate repeated measures effects, two SRT pre-tests were implemented. Results demonstrated that the second pre-test SRT was 6.6% higher than the first pre-test (p = 0.009, d = 1.91. There were no statistically significant effects of foot rolling on any measures immediately or 10 min post-test. To conclude, unilateral foot rolling did not produce statistically significant increases in ipsilateral or contralateral dorsiflexion or SRT ROM nor did it affect postural sway. Our statistically non-significant findings might be attributed to a lower degree of roller-induced afferent stimulation due to the smaller volume of myofascia and muscle compared to prior studies. Furthermore, ROM results from studies utilizing a single pre-test without a sufficient warm-up should be viewed critically.

  3. Compressed air massage hastens healing of the diabetic foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mars, M; Desai, Y; Gregory, M A

    2008-02-01

    The management of diabetic foot ulcers remains a problem. A treatment modality that uses compressed air massage has been developed as a supplement to standard surgical and medical treatment. Compressed air massage is thought to improve local tissue oxygenation around ulcers. The aim of this study was to determine whether the addition of compressed air massage influences the rate of healing of diabetic ulcers. Sixty consecutive patients with diabetes, admitted to one hospital for urgent surgical management of diabetic foot ulcers, were randomized into two groups. Both groups received standard medical and surgical management of their diabetes and ulcer. In addition, one group received 15-20 min of compressed air massage, at 1 bar pressure, daily, for 5 days a week, to the foot and the tissue around the ulcer. Healing time was calculated as the time from admission to the time of re-epithelialization. Fifty-seven patients completed the trial; 28 received compressed air massage. There was no difference in the mean age, Wagner score, ulcer size, pulse status, or peripheral sensation in the two groups. The time to healing in the compressed air massage group was significantly reduced: 58.1 +/- 22.3 days (95% confidence interval: 49.5-66.6) versus 82.7 +/- 30.7 days (95% confidence interval: 70.0-94.3) (P = 0.001). No adverse effects in response to compressed air massage were noted. The addition of compressed air massage to standard medical and surgical management of diabetic ulcers appears to enhance ulcer healing. Further studies with this new treatment modality are warranted.

  4. Relationship between running speed and initial foot contact patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breine, Bastiaan; Malcolm, Philippe; Frederick, Edward C; De Clercq, Dirk

    2014-08-01

    This study assessed initial foot contact patterns (IFCP) in a large group of distance runners and the effect of speed on the IFCP. We determined the strike index to classify the runners in IFCP groups, at four speeds (3.2, 4.1, 5.1, and 6.2 m·s), by measuring center of pressure (COP) with a 2-m plantar pressure plate. Such a system allows a direct localization of the COP on the plantar footprint and has a low threshold value (2.7 N·cm), resulting in more accurate COP data at low ground reaction forces than when obtained from force plate. The IFCP distribution evolves from mostly initial rearfoot contact (IRFC) (82%) at 3.2 m·s to more anterior foot contacts with an approximately equal distribution of IRFC (46%) and initial midfoot or forefoot contact (54%) at 6.2 m·s. Approximately 44% of the IRFC runners showed atypical COP patterns with a fast anterior displacement of the COP along the lateral shoe margin. Apart from the different COP patterns, these atypical IRFC were also characterized by a significantly higher instantaneous vertical loading rate than the typical IRFC patterns. The IFCP distribution changes were due to intraindividual alterations in IFCP at higher speeds. That is, 45% of the runners made one or even two "transitions" toward a more anterior IFCP (and 3% shows some other type of transition between initial foot contact styles as speed increases). However, 52% of the runners remained with the same IFCP.

  5. What has finite element analysis taught us about diabetic foot disease and its management? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telfer, Scott; Erdemir, Ahmet; Woodburn, James; Cavanagh, Peter R

    2014-01-01

    Over the past two decades finite element (FE) analysis has become a popular tool for researchers seeking to simulate the biomechanics of the healthy and diabetic foot. The primary aims of these simulations have been to improve our understanding of the foot's complicated mechanical loading in health and disease and to inform interventions designed to prevent plantar ulceration, a major complication of diabetes. This article provides a systematic review and summary of the findings from FE analysis-based computational simulations of the diabetic foot. A systematic literature search was carried out and 31 relevant articles were identified covering three primary themes: methodological aspects relevant to modelling the diabetic foot; investigations of the pathomechanics of the diabetic foot; and simulation-based design of interventions to reduce ulceration risk. Methodological studies illustrated appropriate use of FE analysis for simulation of foot mechanics, incorporating nonlinear tissue mechanics, contact and rigid body movements. FE studies of pathomechanics have provided estimates of internal soft tissue stresses, and suggest that such stresses may often be considerably larger than those measured at the plantar surface and are proportionally greater in the diabetic foot compared to controls. FE analysis allowed evaluation of insole performance and development of new insole designs, footwear and corrective surgery to effectively provide intervention strategies. The technique also presents the opportunity to simulate the effect of changes associated with the diabetic foot on non-mechanical factors such as blood supply to local tissues. While significant advancement in diabetic foot research has been made possible by the use of FE analysis, translational utility of this powerful tool for routine clinical care at the patient level requires adoption of cost-effective (both in terms of labour and computation) and reliable approaches with clear clinical validity for

  6. Effect of litter quality on foot pad dermatitis, hock burns and breast blisters in broiler breeders during the production period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaukonen, Eija; Norring, Marianna; Valros, Anna

    2016-12-01

    Foot pad dermatitis and hock burn lesions are a form of contact dermatitis, a condition affecting skin areas in contact with unsuitable or irritating material. Contact dermatitis is a common problem, reducing the welfare of broilers, and is believed to also affect broiler breeders. However, there is very little research on contact dermatitis in breeders. This study followed the severity of foot pad lesions in broiler breeders throughout the production period. At slaughter the presence of hock burns and breast blisters was also determined. In addition, changes in litter condition over time and the impact of litter quality on foot pads were evaluated. The study was performed on 10 broiler breeder farms, including altogether 18 flocks. Foot pads of 100 hens per flock were assessed at the end of rearing period, three times during the production period, and at slaughter. Foot pad and hock lesions, as well as litter condition were scored on a 5-point scale. Litter quality was evaluated as pH, moisture and ammonia content. The condition of foot pads deteriorated towards slaughter age, with the occurrence of severe lesions reaching a maximum of 64% on average at slaughter. Hock lesions and breast blisters were rare. The litter layer became drier over time. Although poorer litter condition and wetness influenced foot pad health negatively, the effect on severe lesions was not significant. We also observed a negative effect on foot pad condition of larger slat areas. In conclusion, maintaining good litter quality alone is not enough to ensure healthy foot pads in broiler breeders.

  7. Prevalence of foot eczema and associated occupational and non-occupational factors in patients with hand eczema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brans, Richard; Hübner, Anja; Gediga, Günther; John, Swen M

    2015-08-01

    Foot eczema often occurs in combination with hand eczema. However, in contrast to the situation with hand eczema, knowledge about foot eczema is scarce, especially in occupational settings. To evaluate the prevalence of foot eczema and associated factors in patients with hand eczema taking part in a tertiary individual prevention programme for occupational skin diseases. In a retrospective cohort study, the medical records of 843 patients taking part in the tertiary individual prevention programme were evaluated. Seven hundred and twenty-three patients (85.8%) suffered from hand eczema. Among these, 201 patients (27.8%) had concomitant foot eczema, mainly atopic foot eczema (60.4%). An occupational irritant component was possible in 38 patients with foot eczema (18.9%). In the majority of patients, the same morphological features were found on the hands and feet (71.1%). The presence of foot eczema was significantly associated with male sex [odds ratio (OR) 1.78, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.29-2.49], atopic hand eczema (OR 1.60, 95%CI: 1.15-2.22), hyperhidrosis (OR 1.73, 95%CI: 1.33-2.43), and the wearing of safety shoes/boots at work (OR 2.04, 95%CI: 1.46-2.87). Tobacco smoking was associated with foot eczema (OR 1.79, 95%CI: 1.25-2.57), in particular with the vesicular subtype. Foot eczema is common in patients with hand eczema, and is related to both occupational and non-occupational factors. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. A protocol for classifying normal- and flat-arched foot posture for research studies using clinical and radiographic measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menz Hylton B

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are several clinical and radiological methods available to classify foot posture in research, however there is no clear strategy for selecting the most appropriate measurements. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop a foot screening protocol to distinguish between participants with normal- and flat-arched feet who would then subsequently be recruited into a series of laboratory-based gait studies. Methods The foot posture of ninety-one asymptomatic young adults was assessed using two clinical measurements (normalised navicular height and arch index and four radiological measurements taken from antero-posterior and lateral x-rays (talus-second metatarsal angle, talo-navicular coverage angle, calcaneal inclination angle and calcaneal-first metatarsal angle. Normative foot posture values were taken from the literature and used to recruit participants with normal-arched feet. Data from these participants were subsequently used to define the boundary between normal- and flat-arched feet. This information was then used to recruit participants with flat-arched feet. The relationship between the clinical and radiographic measures of foot posture was also explored. Results Thirty-two participants were recruited to the normal-arched study, 31 qualified for the flat-arched study and 28 participants were classified as having neither normal- or flat-arched feet and were not suitable for either study. The values obtained from the two clinical and four radiological measurements established two clearly defined foot posture groups. Correlations among clinical and radiological measures were significant (p r = 0.24 to 0.70. Interestingly, the clinical measures were more strongly associated with the radiographic angles obtained from the lateral view. Conclusion This foot screening protocol provides a coherent strategy for researchers planning to recruit participants with normal- and flat-arched feet. However, further research is

  9. Wound bed preparation for ischemic diabetic foot ulcer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhaoxin; Lv, Lei; Guan, Sheng

    2015-01-01

    This study is to evaluate the effect of allograft skin on wound angiogenesis and wound bed preparation of ischemic diabetic foot ulcer. A total of 60 cases of patients with diabetic foot ulcer were randomly divided into the experimental group (n = 30) and the control group (n = 30). After debridement, in the experimental group, allograft skin was used to cover the wound while in the control group, vaseline and gauze was used to cover the wound. The wound was opened and dressed at 3, 5, 7, 14 days after operation and the growth condition of the granulation tissue was observed and recorded. The wound bed preparation time of the experimental group was 14.37 ± 1.06 days, compared with the control group 25.99 ± 4.03 days, there was statistically significant difference (t = 14.78, P cure time of the experimental group was 32 ± 1.93 days and this time was significantly shortened than the control group 39.73 ± 2.55 days (t = 12.521, P ulcer and shorten the wound bed preparation time and treatment cycle.

  10. A methodological framework for detecting ulcers' risk in diabetic foot subjects by combining gait analysis, a new musculoskeletal foot model and a foot finite element model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarton, Alessandra; Guiotto, Annamaria; Malaquias, Tiago; Spolaor, Fabiola; Sinigaglia, Giacomo; Cobelli, Claudio; Jonkers, Ilse; Sawacha, Zimi

    2018-02-01

    Diabetic foot is one of the most debilitating complications of diabetes and may lead to plantar ulcers. In the last decade, gait analysis, musculoskeletal modelling (MSM) and finite element modelling (FEM) have shown their ability to contribute to diabetic foot prevention and suggested that the origin of the plantar ulcers is in deeper tissue layers rather than on the plantar surface. Hence the aim of the current work is to develop a methodology that improves FEM-derived foot internal stresses prediction, for diabetic foot prevention applications. A 3D foot FEM was combined with MSM derived force to predict the sites of excessive internal stresses on the foot. In vivo gait analysis data, and an MRI scan of a foot from a healthy subject were acquired and used to develop a six degrees of freedom (6 DOF) foot MSM and a 3D subject-specific foot FEM. Ankle kinematics were applied as boundary conditions to the FEM together with: 1. only Ground Reaction Forces (GRFs); 2. OpenSim derived extrinsic muscles forces estimated with a standard OpenSim MSM; 3. extrinsic muscle forces derived through the (6 DOF) foot MSM; 4. intrinsic and extrinsic muscles forces derived through the 6 DOF foot MSM. For model validation purposes, simulated peak pressures were extracted and compared with those measured experimentally. The importance of foot muscles in controlling plantar pressure distribution and internal stresses is confirmed by the improved accuracy in the estimation of the peak pressures obtained with the inclusion of intrinsic and extrinsic muscle forces. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Clinical management of acute diabetic Charcot foot in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, Rasmus Bo; Svendsen, Ole Lander; Kirketerp-Møller, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Charcot foot is a severe complication to diabetes mellitus and treatment involves several different clinical specialities. Our objective was to describe the current awareness, knowledge and treatment practices of Charcot foot among doctors who handle diabetic foot disorders. METHODS......: This study is based on a questionnaire survey sent out to healthcare professionals, primarily doctors, working with diabetic foot ulcers and Charcot feet in the public sector of the Danish healthcare system. RESULTS: The survey obtained a 52% response rate. A temperature difference of > 2 °C between the two...... and treatment practices of acute diabetic Charcot foot at diabetes foot clinics in Denmark. The responders seem to follow the international recommendations and guidelines on management of the acute diabetic Charcot foot, despite a lack of Danish guidelines. FUNDING: none. TRIAL REGISTRATION: not relevant....

  12. Management of sports injuries of the foot and ankle: An update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, C C; Pearce, C J; Ballal, M S; Calder, J D F

    2016-10-01

    Injuries to the foot in athletes are often subtle and can lead to a substantial loss of function if not diagnosed and treated appropriately. For these injuries in general, even after a diagnosis is made, treatment options are controversial and become even more so in high level athletes where limiting the time away from training and competition is a significant consideration. In this review, we cover some of the common and important sporting injuries affecting the foot including updates on their management and outcomes. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2016;98-B:1299-1311. ©2016 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  13. The Multi-Functional Foot in Athletic Movement: Extraordinary Feats by Our Extraordinary Feet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Jennifer

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The unique architecture of the foot system provides a sensitive, multi-tensional method of communicating with the surrounding environment. Within the premise of the paper, we discuss three themes: complexity, degeneracy and bio-tensegrity. Complex structures within the foot allow the human movement system to negotiate strategies for dynamic movement during athletic endeavours. We discuss such complex structures with particular attention to properties of a bio-tensegrity system. Degeneracy within the foot structure offers a distinctive solution to the problems posed by differing terrains and uneven surfaces allowing lower extremity structures to overcome perturbation as and when it occurs. This extraordinary structure offers a significant contribution to bipedalism through presenting a robust base of support and as such, should be given more consideration when designing athletic development programmes.

  14. Temporal changes and risk factors for foot-pad dermatitis in Danish broilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyvsgaard, Niels Chr; Jensen, Henrik Bang; Ambrosen, Thorkil

    2013-01-01

    Foot-pad dermatitis is a major welfare concern of broilers caused by ammonia irritation from the bedding material. In Denmark, an action plan to control the condition was implemented in 2002 with monitoring through a foot scoring system at slaughter and with predefined limits that trigger sanctions....... The database had a record for each flock and variables containing information on both flock foot-pad scores and a range of management factors. We observed a dramatic decline in flock lesion scores between the years 2002 and 2005 followed by a minimal decline hereafter. Mean flock lesion scores differed between...... abattoirs, and subsequent analysis was performed in a mixed effect model where abattoir was considered a random effect. The analysis showed that flock lesion scores increased when the litter quality was evaluated as poor during the on-site antemortem evaluation. Other significant risk factors were winter...

  15. Meta-analysis on the efficacy of foot-and-mouth disease emergency vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq; Boklund, Anette; Cox, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    the results. Peer-reviewed, symposium, and unpublished studies were considered in the analysis. Clinical protection and virological protection against foot and mouth disease were used as parameters to assess the efficacy of emergency vaccination. The clinical protection was estimated based on the appearance...... publication bias tests. In total, 31 studies were included in the analyses, of which 26 were peer-reviewed studies, 1 was a symposium study and 4 were unpublished studies. Cattle, swine and sheep were well protected against clinical disease and foot and mouth disease infection following the use of emergency...... vaccine. Fortunately, no significant bias that would alter the conclusions was encountered in the analysis. Meta-analysis can be a useful tool to summarize literature results from a systematic review of the efficacy of foot and mouth disease emergency vaccination....

  16. SPECT/CT in imaging foot and ankle pathology-the demise of other coregistration techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Hosahalli K; Gnanasegaran, Gopinath; Vijayanathan, Sanjay; Fogelman, Ignac

    2010-01-01

    Disorders of the ankle and foot are common and given the complex anatomy and function of the foot, they present a significant clinical challenge. Imaging plays a crucial role in the management of these patients, with multiple imaging options available to the clinician. The American College of radiology has set the appropriateness criteria for the use of the available investigating modalities in the management of foot and ankle pathologies. These are broadly classified into anatomical and functional imaging modalities. Recently, single-photon emission computed tomography and/or computed tomography scanners, which can elegantly combine functional and anatomical images have been introduced, promising an exciting and important development. This review describes our clinical experience with single-photon emission computed tomography and/or computed tomography and discusses potential applications of these techniques.

  17. Maggot debridement therapy promotes diabetic foot wound healing by up-regulating endothelial cell activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xinjuan; Chen, Jin'an; Zhang, Jie; Wang, Wei; Sun, Jinshan; Wang, Aiping

    2016-03-01

    To determine the role of maggot debridement therapy (MDT) on diabetic foot wound healing, we compared growth related factors in wounds before and after treatment. Furthermore, we utilized human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) to explore responses to maggot excretions/secretions on markers of angiogenesis and proliferation. The results showed that there was neo-granulation and angiogenesis in diabetic foot wounds after MDT. Moreover, significant elevation in CD34 and CD68 levels was also observed in treated wounds. In vitro, ES increased HUVEC proliferation, improved tube formation, and increased expression of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 in a dose dependent manner. These results demonstrate that MDT and maggot ES can promote diabetic foot wound healing by up-regulating endothelial cell activity. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. The paediatric flat foot and general anthropometry in 140 Australian school children aged 7 - 10 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evans Angela M

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many studies have found a positive relationship between increased body weight and flat foot posture in children. Methods From a study population of 140 children aged seven to 10 years, a sample of 31 children with flat feet was identified by screening with the FPI-6. Basic anthropometric measures were compared between subjects with and without flat feet as designated. Results The results of this study, in contrast to many others, question the association of flat feet and heavy children. A significant relationship between foot posture and weight (FPI (L r = -0.186 (p Conclusions This study presents results which conflict with those of many previous investigations addressing the relationship between children's weight and foot posture. In contrast to previous studies, the implication of these results is that heavy children have less flat feet. Further investigation is warranted using a standardized approach to assessment and a larger sample of children to test this apparent contradiction.

  19. A prospective study of risk factors for foot ulceration: The West of Ireland Diabetes Foot Study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hurley, L

    2013-09-25

    BackgroundThis is the first study to examine risk factors for diabetic foot ulceration in Irish general practice.AimTo determine the prevalence of established risk factors for foot ulceration in a community-based cohort, and to explore the potential for estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) to act as a novel risk factor.DesignA prospective observational study.MethodsPatients with diabetes attending 12 (of 17) invited general practices were invited for foot screening. Validated clinical tests were carried out at baseline to assess for vascular and sensory impairment and foot deformity. Ulcer incidence was ascertained by patient self-report and medical record. Patients were re-assessed 18 months later. ResultsOf 828 invitees, 563 (68%) attended screening. On examination 23-25% had sensory dysfunction and 18-39% had evidence of vascular impairment. Using the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network risk stratification system we found the proportion at moderate and high risk of future ulceration to be 25% and 11% respectively. At follow-up 16\\/383 patients (4.2%) developed a new foot ulcer (annual incidence rate of 2.6%). We observed an increasing probability of abnormal vascular and sensory test results (pedal pulse palpation, doppler waveform assessment, 10g monofilament, vibration perception and neuropathy disability score) with declining eGFR levels. We were unable to show an independent association between new ulceration and reduced eGFR [Odds ratio 1.01; p=0.64].ConclusionsOur data show the extent of foot complications in a representative sample of diabetes patients in Ireland. Use of eGFR did not improve identification of patients at risk of foot ulceration.

  20. Repeatability of the Oxford Foot Model in children with foot deformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCahill, Jennifer; Stebbins, Julie; Koning, Bart; Harlaar, Jaap; Theologis, Tim

    2018-03-01

    The Oxford Foot Model (OFM) is a multi-segment, kinematic model developed to assess foot motion. It has previously been assessed for repeatability in healthy populations. To determine the OFM's reliability for detecting foot deformity, it is important to know repeatability in pathological conditions. The aim of the study was to assess the repeatability of the OFM in children with foot deformity. Intra-tester repeatability was assessed for 45 children (15 typically developing, 15 hemiplegic, 15 clubfoot). Inter-tester repeatability was assessed in the clubfoot population. The mean absolute differences between testers (clubfoot) and sessions (clubfoot and hemiplegic) were calculated for each of 15 clinically relevant, kinematic variables and compared to typically developing children. Children with clubfoot showed a mean difference between visits of 2.9° and a mean difference between raters of 3.6° Mean absolute differences were within one degree for the intra and inter-rater reliability in 12/15 variables. Hindfoot rotation, forefoot/tibia abduction and forefoot supination were the most variable between testers. Overall the clubfoot data were less variable than the typically developing population. Children with hemiplegia demonstrated slightly higher differences between sessions (mean 4.1°), with the most reliable data in the sagittal plane, and largest differences in the transverse plane. The OFM was designed to measure different types of foot deformity. The results of this study show that it provides repeatable results in children with foot deformity. To be distinguished from measurement artifact, changes in foot kinematics as a result of intervention or natural progression over time must be greater than the repeatability reported here. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Analysis of foot kinematics wearing high heels using the Oxford foot model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meizi; Gu, Yaodong; Baker, Julien Steven

    2018-04-29

    Wearing high heels is thought to lead to various foot disorders and injuries such as metatarsal pain, Achilles tendon tension, plantar fasciitis and Haglund malformation. However, there is little available information explaining the specific mechanisms and reasons why wearing high heels causes foot deformity. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the foot kinematics of high heel wearers and compare any differences with barefoot individuals using the Oxford Foot Model (OFM). Fifteen healthy women aged 20-25 years were measured while walking barefoot and when wearing high heels. The peak value of angular motion for the hallux with respect to the forefoot, the forefoot with respect to the hind foot, and the hind foot with respect to the tibia were all analyzed. Compared to the barefoot, participants wearing high heels demonstrated larger hallux dorsiflexion (22.55∘± 1.62∘ VS 26.6∘± 2.33∘ for the barefoot; P= 0.001), and less hallux plantarflexion during the initial stance phase (-4.86∘± 2.32∘ VS -8.68∘± 1.13∘; Pfoot demonstrated a larger dorsiflexion in the horizontal plane (16.59∘± 1.69∘ VS 12.08∘± 0.9∘; Pfoot extension rotation (-5.49∘± 0.69∘ VS -10.73∘± 0.42∘; P= 0.001). These findings complement existing kinematic evidence that wearing high heels can lead to foot deformities and injuries.

  2. Characteristics of the Foot Static Alignment and the Plantar Pressure Associated with Fifth Metatarsal Stress Fracture History in Male Soccer Players: a Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Sho; Fukubayashi, Toru; Hirose, Norikazu

    2017-12-01

    There is a large amount of information regarding risk factors for fifth metatarsal stress fractures; however, there are few studies involving large numbers of subjects. This study aimed to compare the static foot alignment and distribution of foot pressure of athletes with and without a history of fifth metatarsal stress fractures. The study participants comprised 335 collegiate male soccer players. Twenty-nine with a history of fifth metatarsal stress fractures were in the fracture group and 306 were in the control group (with subgroups as follows: 30 in the fracture foot group and 28 in the non-fracture group). We measured the foot length, arch height, weight-bearing leg-heel alignment, non-weight-bearing leg-heel alignment, forefoot angle relative to the rearfoot, forefoot angle relative to the horizontal axis, and foot pressure. The non-weight-bearing leg-heel alignment was significantly smaller and the forefoot angle relative to the rearfoot was significantly greater in the fracture foot group than in the control foot group (P = 0.049 and P = 0.038, respectively). With regard to plantar pressure, there were no significant differences among the groups. Midfield players had significantly higher rates of fifth metatarsal stress fracture in their histories, whereas defenders had significantly lower rates (chi-square = 13.2, P stress fractures according to the type of foot (kicking foot vs. pivoting foot) or the severity of ankle sprain. Playing the midfield position and having an everted rearfoot and inverted forefoot alignment were associated with fifth metatarsal stress fractures. This information may be helpful for preventing fifth metatarsal stress fracture recurrence. More detailed load evaluations and a prospective study are needed in the future.

  3. A preliminary study of the effect of restricted gastrocnemius length on foot kinematics and plantar pressure patterns during gait in children with Cerebral Palsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Curtis, Derek

    2008-01-01

      Summary/conclusion Kinematic foot modelling and pedobarography are complementary measurement methods for measuring foot biomechanics in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Pedobarography appears to be the most sensitive instrument measuring significantly decreased hindfoot and increased lateral......, range, 9-18 yrs) was tested twice using an EMED pedobarograph and a Vicon motion analysis system using the Oxford kinematic foot model to test the repeatability of the measurement methods and generate normal data. 8 children (4 girls, 4 boys, mean ± SD, 12 ± 2 yrs, range 8-15yr) with spastic CP...... forefoot mean plantar pressure and force in the children with gastrocnemius contracture, whilst the corresponding changes in foot kinematics were non-significant.   Introduction Foot deformity is common in CP and is often due to hypertonia and contracture in spastic muscles. The aim of this study...

  4. Stress fractures of the foot and ankle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welck, M J; Hayes, T; Pastides, P; Khan, W; Rudge, B

    2017-08-01

    Stress fractures occur as a result of microscopic injuries sustained when bone is subjected to repeated submaximal stresses. Overtime, with repeated cycles of loading, accumulation of such injuries can lead to macro-structural failure and frank fracture. There are numerous stress fractures about the foot and ankle of which a trauma and orthopaedic surgeon should be aware. These include: metatarsal, tibia, calcaneus, navicular, fibula, talus, medial malleolus, sesamoid, cuneiform and cuboid. Awareness of these fractures is important as the diagnosis is frequently missed and appropriate treatment delayed. Late identification can be associated with protracted pain and disability, and may predispose to non-union and therefore necessitate operative intervention. This article outlines the epidemiology and risk factors, aetiology, presentation and management of the range of stress fractures in the foot and ankle. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Innovations in diabetic foot reconstruction using supermicrosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Hyun Suk; Oh, Tae Suk; Hong, Joon Pio

    2016-01-01

    The treatment of diabetic foot ulceration is complex with multiple factors involved, and it may often lead to limb amputation. Hence, a multidisciplinary approach is warranted to cover the spectrum of treatment for diabetic foot, but in complex wounds, surgical treatment is inevitable. Surgery may involve the decision to preserve the limb by reconstruction or to amputate it. Reconstruction involves preserving the limb with secure coverage. Local flaps usually are able to provide sufficient coverage for small or moderate sized wound, but for larger wounds, soft tissue coverage involves flaps that are distantly located from the wound. Reconstruction of distant flap usually involves microsurgery, and now, further innovative methods such as supermicrosurgery have further given complex wounds a better chance to be reconstructed and limbs salvaged. This article reviews the microsurgery involved in reconstruction and introduces the new method of supermicrosurgery. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Nuclear medicine applications for the diabetic foot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartshorne, M.F.; Peters, V.

    1987-01-01

    Although not frequently described in the podiatric literature, nuclear medicine imaging may be of great assistance to the clinical podiatrist. This report reviews in detail the use of modern nuclear medicine approaches to the diagnosis and management of the diabetic foot. Nuclear medicine techniques are helpful in evaluating possible osteomyelitis, in determining appropriate amputation levels, and in predicting response to conservative ulcer management. Specific indications for bone, gallium, and perfusion imaging are described

  7. Nuclear medicine imaging of diabetic foot infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capriotti, Gabriela; D'Alessandria, Calogero; Signore, Alberto; Chianelli, Marco; Prandini, Napoleone

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Osteomyelitis of the foot is the most frequent complication in diabetic patients. Nuclear medicine plays an important role in diagnosis and for therapy follow-up, using different tracers. We reviewed 57 papers on diabetic foot imaging (published from 1982 to 2004, 50 original papers and 7 reviews), for a total of 2889 lesions. Data analysis has been carried out to establish which imaging technique could be used as a 'gold standard' for diagnosis of infection and to evaluate the extent of disease and to monitor the efficacy of therapy. Data analysis revealed that three-phase bone-scan is sensitive but not specific whereas specificity and diagnostic accuracy of 99m Tc-WBC scintigraphy is higher than 111 In- WBC scintigraphy. In the forefoot leukocyte scintigraphy may be useful for diagnosis of osteomyelitis and for monitoring the response to medical treatment. In the mid/hind foot the leukocytes uptake is not related only to the presence of infected region, but it is attributed to inflammation, fractures and reparative processes. Other radiopharmaceuticals such as 99m Tc/ 111 In-HIG, radiolabelled antibody and their fragments, showed high sensibility, but lower specificity than WBC (96.8/66.5, 95.8/70.2, 91.3/62 vs 85.8/84.5). Conclusion: It emerged that in the forefoot when clinical suspicious of osteomyelitis is low and medical treatment is contemplated, three-phase bon scan is the procedure of choice. A positive test is not diagnostic for osteomyelitis, and radiolabelled WBC scintigraphy is necessary. In the mid/hind foot, diagnosis of neuropathic joint with infection is problematic. Radiolabelled WBC imaging is probably the most accurate test for determining the presence of infection. Although a negative study strongly indicate the absence of osteomyelitis, it is important to note that a positive result requires a complementary study with marrow agent. (author)

  8. Diagnostic dilemmas in foot and ankle injuries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keene, J.S.; Lange, R.H.

    1986-07-11

    Differential diagnosis of foot and ankle injuries should include (1) stress fractures of the great toe sesamoids, the shaft of the fifth metatarsal, and the tarsal navicular bone; (2) transchondral talar-dome fractures; (3) fractures of the os trigonum; and (4) dislocating peroneal tendons. Diagnosis of these injuries is challenging because the initial roentgenograms often are normal, and special clinical tests and ancillary studies are required.

  9. Conservative management of diabetic foot osteomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, S; Soliman, M; Egun, A; Rajbhandari, S M

    2013-09-01

    In this retrospective study, 130 patients with diabetic foot osteomyelitis were analysed. 66.9% of these healed with antibiotic treatment alone and 13.9% needed amputation, of which 1.5% were major. Presence of MRSA was associated with adverse outcome (53.3% vs 21.1%, p=0.04) which was defined as death, amputation and failure to heal. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Diagnostic dilemmas in foot and ankle injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keene, J.S.; Lange, R.H.

    1986-01-01

    Differential diagnosis of foot and ankle injuries should include (1) stress fractures of the great toe sesamoids, the shaft of the fifth metatarsal, and the tarsal navicular bone; (2) transchondral talar-dome fractures; (3) fractures of the os trigonum; and (4) dislocating peroneal tendons. Diagnosis of these injuries is challenging because the initial roentgenograms often are normal, and special clinical tests and ancillary studies are required

  11. Neuro-osteoarthropathy of the Foot-Radiologist: Friend or Foe?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoots, Ivo G.; Slim, Frederik J.; Busch-Westbroek, Tessa E.; Maas, Mario

    2010-01-01

    Charcot neuro-osteoarthropathy is a significant problem with a rapid devastating nature. If not recognized it may lead to progressive foot deformity, ulceration or osteomyelitis, or eventually to amputation. The diagnosis is challenging, and imaging plays a pivotal role. Rapid and accurate diagnosis

  12. Geriatric Foot Care: A Model Educational Program for Mid-Level Practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suggs, Patricia K.; Krissak, Ruth; Caruso, Frank; Teasdall, Robert

    2002-01-01

    An educational program on geriatric foot care was completed by 59 nurse practitioners, 12 physicians' assistants, and 1 physician. The 3 1/2 day program included interactive sessions, observation, and hands-on patient care. Posttest results and 6-month follow-up showed significant knowledge increases and incorporation of learning into practice.…

  13. The ambidextrous potential in soccer, and the trainability of the non-preferred foot of young elite soccer players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koertz, Rune; Andersen, T. Bull

    2014-01-01

    . METHODS: Participants were 23 male elite soccer players, 13-16 years of age. They trained 6 times a week. The participants, who were randomly divided into a training group (N.=12) and a control group (N.=11), completed a pre and post test, which for each player consisted of 16 shots with their non......AIM: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate if players and coaches should focus more on the non-preferred foot. The hypothesis of this study is that a small amount of training focusing on the non-preferred foot will improve the performance of the non-preferred foot for young elite players......-preferred foot towards a goal corner in a soccer goal. Velocity and accuracy were measured. The training intervention for the training group consisted of 7-13 training sessions. RESULTS: The result showed only few statistic significant differences (P

  14. The role of the Pirani scoring system in the management of club foot by the Ponseti method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, P J; Davis, N

    2006-08-01

    The Pirani scoring system, together with the Ponseti method of club foot management, was assessed for its predictive value. The data on 70 idiopathic club feet successfully treated by the Ponseti method and scored by Pirani's system between February 2002 and May 2004 were analysed. There was a significant positive correlation between the initial Pirani score and number of casts required to correct the deformity. A foot scoring 4 or more is likely to require at least four casts, and one scoring less than 4 will require three or fewer. A foot with a hindfoot score of 2.5 or 3 has a 72% chance of requiring a tenotomy. The Pirani scoring system is reliable, quick, and easy to use, and provides a good forecast about the likely treatment for an individual foot but a low score does not exclude the possibility that a tenotomy may be required.

  15. Risk factors for developing diabetic foot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Estela Willrich Boell

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the present study is to identify the risk factors for developing diabetic foot. A cross-sectional study, with a convenience sample, developed with 70 individuals with diabetes mellitus (DM, registered in three basic health units in the municipality of Florianópolis/SC, Brazil, in the period from November 2010 to May 2011. Biometric data was collected regarding their sociodemographic, health and illness conditions. An assessment of the feet was also carried out. The average participant age was 66.17 years and time with diagnosed disease was under ten years (61.42%. The following risk factors were identified: advanced age; time of DM diagnosis; few years of schooling; overweight/obesity; inadequate diet; physical inactivity; inadequate metabolic control; lack of proper and specific foot care; and arterial hypertension. We conclude that the majority of the population presented one or more risk factors that favor the appearance of foot-related complications. doi: 10.5216/ree.v16i2.20460.

  16. Settlement Prediction of Footings Using VS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyung Ik CHO

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The shear wave velocity (VS is a key parameter for estimating the deformation characteristics of soil. In order to predict the settlement of shallow footings in granular soil, the VS and the concept of Schmertmann’s framework were adopted. The VS was utilized to represent soil stiffness instead of cone tip resistance (qc because the VS can be directly related to the small-strain shear modulus. By combining the VS measured in the field and the modulus reduction curve measured in the laboratory, the deformation characteristics of soil can be reliably estimated. Vertical stress increments were determined using two different profiles of the strain influence factor (Iz proposed in Schmertmann’s method and that calculated from the theory of elasticity. The corresponding modulus variation was determined by considering the stress level and strain at each depth. This state-dependent stress-strain relationship was utilized to calculate the settlement of footings based on the theory of elasticity. To verify the developed method, geotechnical centrifuge tests were carried out. The VS profiles were measured before each loading test, and the load-settlement curves were obtained during the tests. Comparisons between the measured and estimated load-settlement curves showed that the developed method adequately predicts the settlement of footings, especially for over-consolidated ground conditions.

  17. Diabetic foot infection treatment and care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cigna, Emanuele; Fino, Pasquale; Onesti, Maria G; Amorosi, Vittoria; Scuderi, Nicolò

    2016-04-01

    Foot infections in diabetic patients are a common, complex and costly problem. They are potentially adverse with progression to deeper spaces and tissues and are associated with severe complications. The management of diabetic foot infection (DFI) requires a prompt and systematic approach to achieve more successful outcomes and to ultimately avoid amputations. This study reviews a multi-step treatment for DFIs. Between September 2010 and September 2012, a total of about 37 patients were consulted for DFI. The treatment algorithm included four steps, that is, several types of debridement according to the type of wound, the application of negative pressure therapy (NPT), other advanced dressings, a targeted antibiotic therapy local or systemic as the case may, and, if necessary, reconstructive surgery. This treatment protocol showed excellent outcomes, allowing us to avoid amputation in most difficult cases. Only about 8% of patients require amputation. This treatment protocol and a multidisciplinary approach with a specialised team produced excellent results in the treatment of DFI and in the management of diabetic foot in general, allowing us to improve the quality of life of diabetic patients and also to ensure cost savings. © 2014 The Authors. International Wound Journal © 2014 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. A large extraskeletal osteochondroma of the foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estil, Jose Carlos C; Yeo, Eui-Dong; Kim, Hak Jun; Cho, Won Tae; Lee, Jeong-Ju

    2013-01-01

    Osteochondromas are very common benign tumors composed of cartilage and bone. They are usually found at the end of the growth plate of long bones, most often at the area of the joints, and are contiguous with the medullary cavity. Extraskeletal osteochondromas, the same as their namesake, are composed of cartilage and bone. However, unlike typical osteochondromas, extraskeletal osteochondromas are not contiguous with bone, as their name implies. They usually arise from the synovial tissue and tendon sheaths. Although rare, extraskeletal osteochondromas have been reported to occur within the knee and around the hip; however, they are more commonly reported to occur in the hands and feet. When found in the hands or feet, these new growths are often very small and only occasionally symptomatic. We present the case of a 49-year-old female who had a slow-growing mass of 4 years' duration, located on the plantar aspect of her left foot. The mass was slowly becoming more palpable as it increased in size and was progressively causing pain and discomfort during ambulation. Imaging studies revealed an ossified mass bearing no connection to any other structure on the plantar aspect of her foot. An excision biopsy was performed, and the easily dissectible mass, although much larger than its usual presentation, proved to be an extraskeletal osteochondroma. Copyright © 2013 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Off-label prescriptions in diabetic foot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Jesuíno de Oliveira Andrade

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Prescription of a drug outside of the indications for which it was originally approved by regulators is internationally known as "off-label" prescription. We describe off-label treatments for the diabetic foot reported in international scientific literature. This is a qualitative and descriptive bibliographical review based on the results of a search of the Medline international database. The criteria for review were publication between January 1985 and November 2013, and the MeSH (Medical Subject Heading keywords "off-label use" OR "off-label" OR "off-label prescribing" plus "diabetic foot" were input on the search form. Nine studies were selected that contained information about off-label treatments for the diabetic foot. We conclude that the practice of off-label prescribing has potential benefits. In some situations an off-label prescription is the only treatment available for patients, either because a more targeted drug does not exist, or because other methods of treatment are ineffective or unavailable due to patient intolerance.

  20. The physiological cost index of walking with a powered knee-ankle-foot orthosis in subjects with poliomyelitis: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arazpour, Mokhtar; Ahmadi Bani, Monireh; Samadian, Mohammad; Mousavi, Mohammad E; Hutchins, Stephen W; Bahramizadeh, Mahmood; Curran, Sarah; Mardani, Mohammad A

    2016-08-01

    A powered knee-ankle-foot orthosis was developed to provide restriction of knee flexion during stance phase and active flexion and extension of the knee during swing phase of gait. The purpose of this study was to determine its effect on the physiological cost index, walking speed and the distance walked in people with poliomyelitis compared to when walking with a knee-ankle-foot orthosis with drop lock knee joints. Quasi experimental study. Seven subjects with poliomyelitis volunteered for the study and undertook gait analysis with both types of knee-ankle-foot orthosis. Walking with the powered knee-ankle-foot orthosis significantly reduced walking speed (p = 0.015) and the distance walked (p = 0.004), and also, it did not improve physiological cost index values (p = 0.009) compared to walking with the locked knee-ankle-foot orthosis. Using a powered knee-ankle-foot orthosis did not significantly improve any of the primary outcome measures during walking for poliomyelitis subjects. This powered knee-ankle-foot orthosis design did not improve the physiological cost index of walking for people with poliomyelitis when compared to walking with a knee-ankle-foot orthosis with drop lock knee joints. This may have been due to the short training period used or the bulky design and additional weight of the powered orthosis. Further research is therefore warranted. © The International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics 2015.

  1. Acute neuropathic joint in diabetic foot: Plain radiographic findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Dae Young; Kang, Heung Sik; Sim, Jung Suk; Yoon, Yong Kyu; Kim, Chu Wan

    1994-01-01

    To determine the plain film findings of acute neuropathic joint in diabetic foot. Acute neuropathic joint in diabetic foot was considered when fragmentation of the articular ends of bone and subluxation of the affected joint developed within eight weeks after clinical onset of diabetic gangrene. Eight toes of six diabetics were satisfactory to our criteria. We analyzed plain radiographic findings of the affected joint and soft tissue, interval changes in followed-up radiographs, and deformities after healing. The time interval between clinical onset of gangrene and bone destruction ranges from 2 weeks to 4 weeks(mean 2.6 weeks). Plane radiographs showed fragmentation of the articular ends, subluxation, and soft tissue swelling of the metatarsophalangeal joint or interphalangeal joint. The significant feature of these patients was rapid progression of the lesions. Clinically, all patients had diabetic gangrene in affected toes, however, there was no evidence of osteomyelitis in our series. Amputation was done in 2 cases, and lesions in 3 of the remaining 4 cases were repaired spontaneously with regression of gangrene, leaving radiological residua such as pointed-end, tapered-end, and ball and socket deformity. Rapid disorganisation of the joint with associated evidence of soft tissue gangrene in plain radiograph is believed to be valuable for the diagnosis of diabetic osteoarthropathy

  2. Predicting infection risk of airborne foot-and-mouth disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schley, David; Burgin, Laura; Gloster, John

    2009-05-06

    Foot-and-mouth disease is a highly contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals, the control and eradication of which is of significant worldwide socio-economic importance. The virus may spread by direct contact between animals or via fomites as well as through airborne transmission, with the latter being the most difficult to control. Here, we consider the risk of infection to flocks or herds from airborne virus emitted from a known infected premises. We show that airborne infection can be predicted quickly and with a good degree of accuracy, provided that the source of virus emission has been determined and reliable geo-referenced herd data are available. A simple model provides a reliable tool for estimating risk from known sources and for prioritizing surveillance and detection efforts. The issue of data information management systems was highlighted as a lesson to be learned from the official inquiry into the UK 2007 foot-and-mouth outbreak: results here suggest that the efficacy of disease control measures could be markedly improved through an accurate livestock database incorporating flock/herd size and location, which would enable tactical as well as strategic modelling.

  3. Foot strike patterns after obstacle clearance during running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholten, Shane D; Stergiou, Nicholas; Hreljac, Alan; Houser, Jeremy; Blanke, Daniel; Alberts, L Russell

    2002-01-01

    Running over obstacles of sufficient height requires heel strike (HS) runners to make a transition in landing strategy to a forefoot (FF) strike, resulting in similar ground reaction force patterns to those observed while landing from a jump. Identification of the biomechanical variables that distinguish between the landing strategies may offer some insight into the reasons that the transition occurs. The purpose of this study was to investigate the difference in foot strike patterns and kinetic parameters of heel strike runners between level running and running over obstacles of various heights. Ten heel strike subjects ran at their self-selected pace under seven different conditions: unperturbed running (no obstacle) and over obstacles of six different heights (10%, 12.5%, 15%, 17.5%, 20%, and 22.5% of their standing height). The obstacle was placed directly before a Kistler force platform. Repeated measures ANOVAs were performed on the subject means of selected kinetic parameters. The statistical analysis revealed significant differences (P strike patterns were affected by the increased obstacle height. Between the 12.5% and 15% obstacle conditions, the group response changed from a heel strike to a forefoot strike pattern. At height > 15%, the pattern was more closely related to the foot strike patterns found in jumping activities. This strategy change may represent a gait transition effected as a mechanism to protect against increased impact forces. Greater involvement of the ankle and the calf muscles could have assisted in attenuating the increased impact forces while maintaining speed after clearing the obstacle.

  4. Does footprint depth correlate with foot motion and pressure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, K T; Savage, R; Pataky, T C; Morse, S A; Webster, E; Falkingham, P L; Ren, L; Qian, Z; Collins, D; Bennett, M R; McClymont, J; Crompton, R H

    2013-06-06

    Footprints are the most direct source of evidence about locomotor biomechanics in extinct vertebrates. One of the principal suppositions underpinning biomechanical inferences is that footprint geometry correlates with dynamic foot pressure, which, in turn, is linked with overall limb motion of the trackmaker. In this study, we perform the first quantitative test of this long-standing assumption, using topological statistical analysis of plantar pressures and experimental and computer-simulated footprints. In computer-simulated footprints, the relative distribution of depth differed from the distribution of both peak and pressure impulse in all simulations. Analysis of footprint samples with common loading inputs and similar depths reveals that only shallow footprints lack significant topological differences between depth and pressure distributions. Topological comparison of plantar pressures and experimental beach footprints demonstrates that geometry is highly dependent on overall print depth; deeper footprints are characterized by greater relative forefoot, and particularly toe, depth than shallow footprints. The highlighted difference between 'shallow' and 'deep' footprints clearly emphasizes the need to understand variation in foot mechanics across different degrees of substrate compliance. Overall, our results indicate that extreme caution is required when applying the 'depth equals pressure' paradigm to hominin footprints, and by extension, those of other extant and extinct tetrapods.

  5. An observational study of foot lifts asymmetry during obstacle avoidance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ujjawal Singh Tomar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Specific information regarding obstacle-clearance strategies used by community-dwelling young and elderly is scant in the literature, and physical barriers encountered in real-life situations have not been used in most of the studies. Aim: The aim of this study is to determine foot lift asymmetry during obstacle avoidance in young and elderly subjects. Settings and Design: This was an observational study. Materials and Methods: Thirty elderly and 30 young individuals were taken for the study. All the subjects were evaluated using different scales and foot lift asymmetry was measured on a walkway using three obstacles of different heights. Results: The mean and standard deviation (SD value of the asymmetric index of the young was 3.25±0.28 and the mean and SD value of the asymmetric index of the elderly was 3.53±0.47. The asymmetric index of the elderly population was found to be higher than that of the younger population. Conclusion: The asymmetric index of the elderly population was found to be higher than that of the younger population, though it is not clinically significant.

  6. Quality of life of people with diabetic foot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Martins Lima Neto

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: evaluate the quality of life of people with diabetic foot and its association with age and gender. Methods: cross-sectional study conducted with people with diabetic foot seen in the vascular clinic of a municipal hospital. Sociodemographic, clinical, lifestyle and evaluation of quality of life SF-36 questionnaires were used. Results: sample was consisted of 48 people. The majority was elderly (58.4%, female (56.3%, non-smoker (93.7%, non-alcoholic (83.4%, with recurrence of ulcers (50.0%, with present secretion (54.2% and absent fetid odor (81.3%. Regarding quality of life, the best result was in the domain vitality and the worse, in the domain physical aspects. All domains, except the vitality, had a score below 50 in the measurement of quality of life. There was no significant difference in the comparison of quality of life between age groups and gender. Conclusion: participants presented domains of quality of life that tend to a poorer health status.

  7. Acute neuropathic joint in diabetic foot: Plain radiographic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Dae Young; Kang, Heung Sik; Sim, Jung Suk; Yoon, Yong Kyu; Kim, Chu Wan [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-05-15

    To determine the plain film findings of acute neuropathic joint in diabetic foot. Acute neuropathic joint in diabetic foot was considered when fragmentation of the articular ends of bone and subluxation of the affected joint developed within eight weeks after clinical onset of diabetic gangrene. Eight toes of six diabetics were satisfactory to our criteria. We analyzed plain radiographic findings of the affected joint and soft tissue, interval changes in followed-up radiographs, and deformities after healing. The time interval between clinical onset of gangrene and bone destruction ranges from 2 weeks to 4 weeks(mean 2.6 weeks). Plane radiographs showed fragmentation of the articular ends, subluxation, and soft tissue swelling of the metatarsophalangeal joint or interphalangeal joint. The significant feature of these patients was rapid progression of the lesions. Clinically, all patients had diabetic gangrene in affected toes, however, there was no evidence of osteomyelitis in our series. Amputation was done in 2 cases, and lesions in 3 of the remaining 4 cases were repaired spontaneously with regression of gangrene, leaving radiological residua such as pointed-end, tapered-end, and ball and socket deformity. Rapid disorganisation of the joint with associated evidence of soft tissue gangrene in plain radiograph is believed to be valuable for the diagnosis of diabetic osteoarthropathy.

  8. Plantar pressures are higher in cases with diabetic foot ulcers compared to controls despite a longer stance phase duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, Malindu E; Crowther, Robert G; Lazzarini, Peter A; Sangla, Kunwarjit S; Wearing, Scott; Buttner, Petra; Golledge, Jonathan

    2016-09-15

    Current international guidelines advocate achieving at least a 30 % reduction in maximum plantar pressure to reduce the risk of foot ulcers in people with diabetes. However, whether plantar pressures differ in cases with foot ulcers to controls without ulcers is not clear. The aim of this study was to assess if plantar pressures were higher in patients with active plantar diabetic foot ulcers (cases) compared to patients with diabetes without a foot ulcer history (diabetes controls) and people without diabetes or a foot ulcer history (healthy controls). Twenty-one cases with diabetic foot ulcers, 69 diabetes controls and 56 healthy controls were recruited for this case-control study. Plantar pressures at ten sites on both feet and stance phase duration were measured using a pre-established protocol. Primary outcomes were mean peak plantar pressure, pressure-time integral and stance phase duration. Non-parametric analyses were used with Holm's correction to correct for multiple testing. Binary logistic regression models were used to adjust outcomes for age, sex and body mass index. Median differences with 95 % confidence intervals and Cohen's d values (standardised mean difference) were reported for all significant outcomes. The majority of ulcers were located on the plantar surface of the hallux and toes. When adjusted for age, sex and body mass index, the mean peak plantar pressure and pressure-time integral of toes and the mid-foot were significantly higher in cases compared to diabetes and healthy controls (p diabetic foot ulcers despite having a longer stance phase duration which would be expected to lower plantar pressure. Whether plantar pressure changes can predict ulcer healing should be the focus of future research. These results highlight the importance of offloading feet during active ulceration in addition to before ulceration.

  9. The value of debridement and Vacuum-Assisted Closure (V.A.C.) Therapy in diabetic foot ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eneroth, Magnus; van Houtum, William H

    2008-01-01

    Treatment of diabetic foot ulcers includes a number of different regimes such as glycaemic control, re-vascularization, surgical, local wound treatment, offloading and other non-surgical treatments. Although considered the standard of care, the scientific evidence behind the various debridements used is scarce. This presentation will focus on debridement and V.A.C. Therapy, two treatments widely used in patients with diabetes and foot ulcers. A review of existing literature on these treatments in diabetic foot ulcers, with focus on description of the various types of debridements used, the principles behind negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) using the V.A.C. Therapy system and level of evidence. Five randomized controlled trials (RCT) of debridement were identified; three assessed the effectiveness of a hydrogel as a debridement method, one evaluated surgical debridement and one evaluated larval therapy. Pooling the three hydrogel RCTs suggested that hydrogels are significantly more effective than gauze or standard care in healing diabetic foot ulcers. Surgical debridement and larval therapy showed no significant benefit. Other debridement methods such as enzyme preparations or polysaccharide beads have not been evaluated in RCTs of people with diabetes. More than 300 articles have been published on negative pressure wound therapy, including several small RCTs and a larger multi-centre RCT of diabetic foot ulcers. Negative pressure wound therapy seems to be a safe and effective treatment for complex diabetic foot wounds, and could lead to a higher proportion of healed wounds, faster healing rates, and potentially fewer re-amputations than standard care. Although debridement of the ulcer is considered a prerequisite for healing of diabetic foot ulcers, the grade of evidence is quite low. This may be due to a lack of studies rather than lack of effect. Negative pressure wound therapy seems to be safe and effective in the treatment of some diabetic foot ulcers

  10. Hallux valgus and plantar pressure loading: the Framingham foot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Hallux valgus (HV), a common structural foot deformity, can cause foot pain and lead to limited mobility. The purpose of this study was to evaluate differences in plantar pressure and force during gait by HV status in a large population-based cohort of men and women. Methods A trained examiner performed a validated physical examination on participants’ feet and recorded the presence of hallux valgus and other specific foot disorders. Each foot was classified into one of four mutually exclusive groups based on the foot examination. Foot groups were: (i) HV only, (ii) HV and at least one additional foot disorder (FD), (iii) no HV but at least one other FD, and (iv) neither HV nor FD (referent). Biomechanical data for both feet were collected using Tekscan Matscan. Foot posture during quiet standing, using modified arch index (MAI), and foot function during gait, using center of pressure excursion index (CPEI), were calculated per foot. Further, walking scans were masked into eight sub-regions using Novel Automask, and peak pressure and maximum force exerted in each region were calculated. Results There were 3205 participants, contributing 6393 feet with complete foot exam data and valid biomechanical measurements. Participants with HV had lower hallucal loading and higher forces at lesser toes as well as higher MAI and lower CPEI values compared to the referent. Participants with HV and other FDs were also noted to have aberrant rearfoot forces and pressures. Conclusions These results suggest that HV alters foot loading patterns and pressure profiles. Future work should investigate how these changes affect the risk of other foot and lower extremity ailments. PMID:24138804

  11. [Experience with the Hind Foot Relaxation Boot].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwipp, Hans; Borrmann, Michael; Walter, Eberhard

    2017-06-01

    The goal of this paper is to report our experience with hindfoot fractures using our specially developed boot, with a follow-up of 557 cases. This boot works like the well-known Allgöwer-Röck ortheses (ARO), but is a hybrid between a boot and an orthesis. It allows full weightbearing without using crutches and completely protects an acutely operated hind foot fracture, hind foot arthrodesis or a hind foot fracture which is suitable for conservative treatment. In its first generation, this boot was custom made and used in 408 cases, from March 1999 to February 2011. This study was performed exclusively at the Department of Traumatology and Reconstructive Surgery in the University Centre of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, since 2013 at the Carl Gustav Carus University Hospital of the Technical University of Dresden (since 2013). The new improved second generation of this boot has been used in 149 patients between March 2011 and February 2016. This model is lighter and safer, due to an aluminium U-profile which is produced in one piece and interposed and fixed with 4 screws into the sole of the boot. The ground reaction forces are transported to the tibial head by this U-profile, to which the dorsal acryl shell for the calf of the Röck system is fixed with 2 screws on both sides, including the free ventral patellar shell. This is closed individually by two quick fastener buckles. This modular system of the second generation boot is now available for all patients in Dresden. These new boots have replaced the use of a wheel-chair for 3 months and are especially useful in bilateral calcaneus fractures - which occur in about 18% of all cases. In these new boots, the whole sole of the boot is in contact with the ground, rather than a surface of 9 × 3 cm as in the Allgöwer-Röck ortheses. As a result, these boots are considered to be superior to the ARO because standing and walking without crutches is much more easier - even for elderly patients. In contrast to

  12. Effects of intravenous Semelil (ANGIPARSTM on diabetic foot ulcers healing: A multicenter clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larijani B

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Some diabetic foot ulcers, which are notoriously difficult to cure, are one of the most common health problems in diabetic patients .There are several surgical and medical options which already have been introduced for treatment of diabetic foot ulcers, so some patient will require amputation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of intravenous Semelil (ANGIPARSTM, a naive herbal extract to accelerate healing of diabetic foot ulcers. A multi-centric randomized controlled trial was conducted to evaluate intravenous Semelil for healing of diabetic foot ulcers. Sixteen diabetic patients were treated with intravenous Semelil, and nine other patients were treated with placebo as control group. Both groups were otherwise treated by wound debridement and irrigation with normal saline solution, systemic antibiotic therapy and daily wound dressing. Before and after intervention, the foot ulcer surface area was measured, by digital photography, mapping and planimetry. After 4 weeks, the mean foot ulcer surface area decreased from 479.93±379.75 mm2 to 198.93±143.75 mm2 in the intervention group (p = 0.000 and from 766.22±960.50 mm2 to 689.11±846.74 mm2 in the control group (p = 0.076. Average wound closure in the treatment group was significantly greater than placebo group (64% vs. 25%, p= 0.015. This herbal extract by intravenous rout in combination with conventional therapy is more effective than conventional therapy by itself probably without side effect. However, further studies are required in the future to confirm these results in larger population.

  13. Anatomical masking of pressure footprints based on the Oxford Foot Model: validation and clinical relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacomozzi, Claudia; Stebbins, Julie A

    2017-03-01

    Plantar pressure analysis is widely used in the assessment of foot function. In order to assess regional loading, a mask is applied to the footprint to sub-divide it into regions of interest (ROIs). The most common masking method is based on geometric features of the footprint (GM). Footprint masking based on anatomical landmarks of the foot has been implemented more recently, and involves the integration of a 3D motion capture system, plantar pressure measurement device, and a multi-segment foot model. However, thorough validation of anatomical masking (AM) using pathological footprints has not yet been presented. In the present study, an AM method based on the Oxford Foot Model (OFM) was compared to an equivalent GM. Pressure footprints from 20 young healthy subjects (HG) and 20 patients with clubfoot (CF) were anatomically divided into 5 ROIs using a subset of the OFM markers. The same foot regions were also identified by using a standard GM method. Comparisons of intra-subject coefficient of variation (CV) showed that the OFM-based AM was at least as reliable as the GM for all investigated pressure parameters in all foot regions. Clinical relevance of AM was investigated by comparing footprints from HG and CF groups. Contact time, maximum force, force-time integral and contact area proved to be sensitive parameters that were able to distinguish HG and CF groups, using both AM and GM methods However, the AM method revealed statistically significant differences between groups in 75% of measured variables, compared to 62% using a standard GM method, indicating that the AM method is more sensitive for revealing differences between groups. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Foot pain and functional limitation in healthy adults with hallux valgus: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nix Sheree E

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hallux valgus (HV is a very common deformity of the first metatarsophalangeal joint that often requires surgical correction. However, the association between structural HV deformity and related foot pain and disability is unclear. Furthermore, no previous studies have investigated concerns about appearance and difficulty with footwear in a population with HV not seeking surgical correction. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate foot pain, functional limitation, concern about appearance and difficulty with footwear in otherwise healthy adults with HV compared to controls. Methods Thirty volunteers with HV (radiographic HV angle >15 degrees and 30 matched controls were recruited for this study (50 women, 10 men; mean age 44.4 years, range 20 to 76 years. Differences between groups were examined for self-reported foot pain and disability, satisfaction with appearance, footwear difficulty, and pressure-pain threshold at the first metatarsophalangeal joint. Functional measures included balance tests, walking performance, and hallux muscle strength (abduction and plantarflexion. Mean differences (MD and 95% confidence intervals (CI were calculated. Results All self-report measures showed that HV was associated with higher levels of foot pain and disability and significant concerns about appearance and footwear (p Conclusions These findings show that HV negatively impacts on self-reported foot pain and function, and concerns about foot appearance and footwear in otherwise healthy adults. There was also evidence of impaired hallux muscle strength and increased postural sway in HV subjects compared to controls, although general physical functioning and participation in physical activity were not adversely affected.

  15. Maintenance of longitudinal foot arch after different mid/hind-foot arthrodesis procedures in a cadaveric model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yanxi; Zhang, Kun; Qiang, Minfei; Hao, Yini

    2014-02-01

    Currently, the optimal treatment of flatfoot remains inconclusive. Our objectives were to understand the effect of different arthrodeses on maintenance of foot arch and provide experimental basis for rational selection in treatment of flatfoot. Sixteen fresh-frozen cadaver feet amputated above the ankle along with a section of leg were studied from ten males and six females. We used standard clinical techniques and hardware for making the arthrodeses. Plantar pressure in the medial and lateral longitudinal arch distribution was measured with a plantar pressure mapping system under different loading conditions. Values of plantar pressure reaction, mean and maximum dynamic peak pressure between all group pairs were statistically significant (Pfoot, compared with 1080 N after subtalar arthrodesis, 1200 N after talonavicular arthrodesis, 1080 N after calcaneocuboid arthrodesis, 1320 N after double arthrodesis, and 1560 N after triple arthrodesis. The plantar pressure reaction appeared at the load of 360 N in the lateral arch of the unoperated foot, compared with 600 N after subtalar arthrodesis, 600 N after talonavicular arthrodesis, 840 N after calcaneocuboid arthrodesis, 960 N after double arthrodesis, and 1440 N after triple arthrodesis. The triple arthrodesis provided the highest support to both arches; the double arthrodesis appeared to be similar to talonavicular arthrodesis in supporting the medial arch and similar to calcaneocuboid arthrodesis in supporting the lateral arch; subtalar arthrodesis was less effective in supporting both arches. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Diabetic foot disease: From the evaluation of the “foot at risk” to the novel diabetic ulcer treatment modalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Noha; Doupis, John

    2016-01-01

    The burden of diabetic foot disease (DFD) is expected to increase in the future. The incidence of DFD is still rising due to the high prevalence of DFD predisposing factors. DFD is multifactorial in nature; however most of the diabetic foot amputations are preceded by foot ulceration. Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is a major risk factor for foot ulceration. DPN leads to loss of protective sensation resulting in continuous unconscious traumas. Patient education and detection of high risk foot are essential for the prevention of foot ulceration and amputation. Proper assessment of the diabetic foot ulceration and appropriate management ensure better prognosis. Management is based on revascularization procedures, wound debridement, treatment of infection and ulcer offloading. Management and type of dressing applied are tailored according to the type of wound and the foot condition. The scope of this review paper is to describe the diabetic foot syndrome starting from the evaluation of the foot at risk for ulceration, up to the new treatment modalities. PMID:27076876

  17. Etiology, pathophysiology and classifications of the diabetic Charcot foot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papanas, Nikolaos; Maltezos, Efstratios

    2013-01-01

    In people with diabetes mellitus, the Charcot foot is a specific manifestation of peripheral neuropathy that may involve autonomic neuropathy with high blood flow to the foot, leading to increased bone resorption. It may also involve peripheral somatic polyneuropathy with loss of protective sensation and high risk of unrecognized acute or chronic minor trauma. In both cases, there is excess local inflammatory response to foot injury, resulting in local osteoporosis. In the Charcot foot, the acute and chronic phases have been described. The former is characterized by local erythema, edema, and marked temperature elevation, while pain is not a prominent symptom. In the latter, signs of inflammation gradually recede and deformities may develop, increasing the risk of foot ulceration. The most common anatomical classification describes five patterns, according to the localization of bone and joint pathology. This review article aims to provide a brief overview of the diabetic Charcot foot in terms of etiology, pathophysiology, and classification. PMID:23705058

  18. Metronome rate and walking foot contact time in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickstein, Ruth; Plax, Michael

    2012-02-01

    It is assumed that when people walk guided by an audible constant rate, they match foot contact to the external pace. The purpose of this preliminary study was to test that assumption by examining the temporal relationship between audible signals generated by a metronome and foot contact time during gait. Ten healthy young women were tested in walking repetitions guided by metronome rates of 60, 110, and 150 beats/min. Metronome beats and foot contact times were collected in real time. The findings indicated that foot contact was not fully synchronized with the auditory signals; the shortest time interval between the metronome beat and foot contact time was at the prescribed rate of 60 beats/min., while the longest interval was at the rate of 150 beats/min. The correlation between left and right foot contact times was highest with the slowest rate and lowest with the fastest rate.

  19. Painful Lytic Lesions of the Foot : A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Vaishya

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The presence of lytic lesions in the bones of foot raises a number of diagnostic possibilities ranging from infection, inflammatory pathology to neoplastic conditions. Although the radiological picture is not pathognomonic of any pathology, clinical history and histopathological examination can help to clinch the diagnosis. We present a case of multiple lytic lesions of the foot and discuss possible differential diagnoses. The patient was diagnosed as a case of madura foot and the lesions responded to surgical debridement and anti-fungal treatment with a good functional outcome. Madura foot is an uncommon, chronic granulomatous fungal or bacterial infection with a predilection in people who walk barefoot. Although known for a specific geographical distribution, madura foot should be kept as a possible diagnosis in patients presenting with lytic lesions of the foot due to population emigration across the world.

  20. Care of Patients with Diabetic Foot Disease in Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Busaidi, Ibrahim S.; Abdulhadi, Nadia N.; Coppell, Kirsten J.

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a major public health challenge and causes substantial morbidity and mortality worldwide. Diabetic foot disease is one of the most debilitating and costly complications of diabetes. While simple preventative foot care measures can reduce the risk of lower limb ulcerations and subsequent amputations by up to 85%, they are not always implemented. In Oman, foot care for patients with diabetes is mainly provided in primary and secondary care settings. Among all lower limb amputations performed in public hospitals in Oman between 2002–2013, 47.3% were performed on patients with diabetes. The quality of foot care among patients with diabetes in Oman has not been evaluated and unidentified gaps in care may exist. This article highlights challenges in the provision of adequate foot care to Omani patients with diabetes. It concludes with suggested strategies for an integrated national diabetic foot care programme in Oman. PMID:27606104

  1. Genetics of club foot in Maori and Pacific people

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, C.; Stott, N; Port, R. V.; Nicol, R.

    2000-01-01

    The role of major gene and multifactorial inheritance in the aetiology of club foot in the New Zealand Polynesian population was studied using 287 New Zealand Maori and Pacific club foot families. The club foot family data were analysed by complex segregation analysis under the mixed model using the computer program POINTER. This analysis shows that the best genetic model for club foot in this population is a single dominant gene with a penetrance of 33% and a predicted gene frequency of 0.9%. These data provide a scientific foundation for molecular studies in the Maori and Polynesian population to identify putative club foot genes.


Keywords: club foot; New Zealand Maori; complex segregation analysis PMID:10978359

  2. Weight transfer analysis in adults with hemiplegia using ankle foot orthosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Karen J; Yarossi, Mathew

    2011-03-01

    Identifying and understanding the changes in transfer of momentum that are directly affected by orthotic intervention are significant factors related to the improvement of mobility in individuals with hemiplegia. The purpose of this investigation was to use a novel analysis technique to objectively measure weight transfer during double support (DS) in healthy individuals and individuals with hemiplegia secondary to stroke with and without an ankle foot orthosis. Prospective, Repeated measures, case-controlled trial. Participants included 25 adults with stroke-related hemiplegia >6 months using a prescribed ankle foot orthosis and 12 age-matched healthy controls. Main outcome measures included the weight transfer point timing (WTP, %DS), maximum total force timing (MTF, %DS), timing difference between WTP and MTF (MTF-WTP, %DS) and the linearity of loading (LOL, R(2)) during the DS phase of the gait cycle. The WTP and LOL were significantly different between conditions with and without the ankle foot orthosis for the affected and unaffected limb in post-stroke individuals, p ≤ 0.01. The MTF and difference in timing between MTF-WTP were significantly different during affected limb loading with and without the ankle foot orthosis in the stroke group, p ≤ 0.0001 and p = 0.03, respectively. MTF, MTF-WTP and LOL were significantly different between individuals with stroke (during affected limb loading) and healthy controls (during right limb loading). This research established a systematic method for analysing weight transfer during walking to evaluate the effect of an ankle foot orthosis on loading during double support in hemiplegic gait. This novel method can be used to elucidate biomechanical mechanisms behind orthosis-mediated changes in gait patterns and quantify functional mobility outcomes in rehabilitation. This novel approach to orthotic assessment will provide the clinician with needed objective evidence to select the most effective orthotic

  3. Vitamin D deficiency is associated with inflammatory cytokine concentrations in patients with diabetic foot infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Shalbha; Pratyush, Daliparthy Devi; Gupta, Sanjeev Kumar; Singh, Surya Kumar

    2014-12-28

    Vitamin D has been recognised as a potent immunomodulator and its deficiency is common in different population groups including patients with diabetic foot infection. Diabetic foot infection reflects the altered immune status of the host. As cytokine regulation plays a significant role in infection and wound-healing processes, the present study aimed to evaluate the association between vitamin D status and inflammatory cytokine profiles in patients with diabetic foot infection. The serum concentrations of vitamin D (25-hydroxyvitamin D), IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) were measured in 112 diabetic foot infection cases and 109 diabetic controls. Severe vitamin D deficiency (25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration diabetes, HbA1C (glycosylated Hb) concentration and BMI were similar, cases had significantly higher concentrations of IL-6 (P≤ 0.001), IL-1β (P≤ 0.02) and TNF-α (P≤ 0.006) than controls. A significant negative correlation was also observed between 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration and circulating concentrations of IL-1β (r -0.323; P≤ 0.001) as well as IL-6 (r -0.154; P≤ 0.04), but not between 25-hydroxyvitamin D and TNF-α and IFN-γ concentrations. Furthermore, a significant difference in IL-1β (P≤ 0.007) and IL-6 (P≤ 0.02) concentrations was observed in patients with severe 25-hydroxyvitamin D deficiency compared with patients with 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration ≥ 25 nmol/l, and this difference was remarkable for TNF-α. In conclusion, severe vitamin D deficiency is associated with elevated inflammatory cytokine concentrations in diabetic patients, particularly in those with foot infection. A 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration value diabetes mellitus.

  4. Clinical management of acute diabetic Charcot foot in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, Rasmus Bo; Svendsen, Ole Lander; Kirketerp-Møller, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Charcot foot is a severe complication to diabetes mellitus and treatment involves several different clinical specialities. Our objective was to describe the current awareness, knowledge and treatment practices of Charcot foot among doctors who handle diabetic foot disorders. METHODS...... for offloading (83%). All centres use some form of a multidisciplinary team, with the most common permanent members being orthopaedic surgeons (71%), wound specialist nurses (76%), podiatrists (65%), endocrinologists (47%) and diabetes specialist nurses (41%). CONCLUSION: We conducted a survey of the diagnosis...

  5. Are we telling the diabetic patients adequately about foot care

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, R.; Din, M.J.U.; Jadoon, R.J.; Farooq, U.; Alam, M.A.; Qureshi, A.; Shah, S.U.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Diabetes mellitus affects more than 285 million people worldwide. The prevalence is expected to rise to 439 million by the year 2030. Diabetic foot ulcers precede 84 percentage of non-traumatic amputations in diabetics. One lower limb is lost every 30 seconds around the world because of diabetic foot ulceration. Apart from being lengthy, the treatment of diabetic foot is also very expensive. There is very limited emphasis on foot care in diabetic patients. Even in developed countries patients feel that they do not have adequate knowledge about foot care. This study was conducted to find out how much information is imparted by doctors to diabetic patients about foot care. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in admitted patients of the Department of Medicine, DHQ Hospital, Abbottabad from May 2014 to June 2015. 139 diabetic patients more than 25 years of age were included by non-probability consecutive sampling. Results: The mean age was 57.17 ( percentage 11.1) years. 35.3 percentage of patients were male and 64.7 percentage were female. The mean duration of diabetes in patients was 8.3 (±6) years. Only 36.7 percentage of patients said that their doctor told them about foot care. Less than 40 percentage of patients knew that they should daily inspect their feet, wash them with gentle warm water, and dry them afterwards. Only 25.2 percentage of the participants knew how to manage corns or calluses on feet. 66.5 percentage of patients knew that they should not walk bare foot. Overall, 63 percentage of our patients had less than 50 percentage knowledge of the 11 points regarding foot care that the investigators asked them. Conclusion: Diabetic foot problems are the one of the costliest, most disabling and disheartening complication of diabetes mellitus. Doctors are not properly telling diabetic patients about foot care. There is a deficiency of knowledge among the diabetic patients regarding foot care. (author)

  6. Nonplantigrade Foot Posture: A Constraint on Dinosaur Body Size

    OpenAIRE

    Kubo, Tai; Kubo, Mugino O.

    2016-01-01

    Dinosaurs had functionally digitigrade or sub-unguligrade foot postures. With their immediate ancestors, dinosaurs were the only terrestrial nonplantigrades during the Mesozoic. Extant terrestrial mammals have different optimal body sizes according to their foot posture (plantigrade, digitigrade, and unguligrade), yet the relationship of nonplantigrade foot posture with dinosaur body size has never been investigated, even though the body size of dinosaurs has been studied intensively. Accordi...

  7. Painful ulceration and quality of life of patients with the diabetic foot syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radka Vymětalová

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of pain on quality of life of patients with diabetic foot syndrome. Design: Cross-sectional study. Methods: Quality of life was assessed using a Czech version of the Diabetic Foot Ulcer Scale (DFS, a standardized questionnaire. The sample consisted of 247 patients with diabetic foot syndrome. The intensity of pain in diabetic ulcers was measured using a visual analogue scale (VAS from 0 (no pain to 10 (maximum pain. Data was collected between April 2014 and December 2014 in 18 podiatric and chronic wound outpatient clinics throughout the Czech Republic. Results: Quality of life in patients with permanent pain was lower in all domains of the DFS questionnaire in comparison with patients who reported no pain. For patients who attended chronic wound outpatient clinics quality of life was significantly lower in four domains of the DFS (Leisure, Physical health, Emotions, and Friends than for patients who did not attend chronic pain outpatient clinics. A statistically significant moderate negative correlation was found between intensity of pain and quality of life in the following domains: Physical health (r = -0.592, Daily activities (r = -0.456, Emotions (r = -0.503, and Treatment (r = -0.434. Conclusion: Pain ulceration affects quality of life of patients with diabetic foot syndrome.

  8. Aescin-based topical formulation to prevent foot wounds and ulcerations in diabetic microangiopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, S; Belcaro, G; Dugall, M; Hosoi, M; Togni, S; Maramaldi, G; Giacomelli, L

    2016-10-01

    Impairment of the peripheral microcirculation in diabetic patients often leads to severe complications in the lower extremities, such as foot infections and ulcerations. In this study, a novel aescin-based formulation has been evaluated as a potential approach to prevent skin breaks and ulcerations by improving the peripheral microcirculation and skin hydration. In this registry study, 63 patients with moderate diabetic microangiopathy were recruited. Informed participants freely decided to follow either a standard management (SM) to prevent diabetic foot diseases (n = 31) or SM associated with topical application of the aescin-based cream (n = 32). Peripheral microcirculatory parameters such as resting skin flux, venoarteriolar response and transcutaneous gas tension were evaluated at inclusion and after 8 weeks. In addition, several skin parameters of the foot area, such as integrity (as number of skin breaks/patients), hydration and content of dead cells were assessed at the defined observational study periods. Improvements in cutaneous peripheral microcirculation parameters were observed at 8 weeks in both groups; however, a remarkable and significant beneficial effect resulted to be exerted by the aescin-based cream treatment. In fact, the microcirculatory parameters evaluated significantly improved in the standard management + aescin-based cream group, compared with baseline and with the standard management group. Similar findings were reported for skin parameters of the foot area. The topical formulation containing aescin could represent a valid approach to manage skin wounds and prevent skin ulcerations in patients affected by moderate diabetic microangiopathy.

  9. Advanced glycation end products assessed by skin autofluorescence: a new marker of diabetic foot ulceration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vouillarmet, Julien; Maucort-Boulch, Delphine; Michon, Paul; Thivolet, Charles

    2013-07-01

    Accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) may contribute to diabetic foot ulceration (DFU). Our goal was to determine whether AGEs measurement by skin autofluorescence (SAF) would be an additional marker for DFU management. We performed SAF analysis in 66 patients with a history of DFU prospectively included and compared the results with those of 84 control patients with diabetic peripheral neuropathy without DFU. We then assessed the prognostic value of SAF levels on the healing rate in the DFU group. Mean SAF value was significantly higher in the DFU group in comparison with the control group, even after adjustment for other diabetes complications (3.2±0.6 arbitrary units vs. 2.9±0.6 arbitrary units; P=0.001). In the DFU group, 58 (88%) patients had an active wound at inclusion. The mean DFU duration was 14±13 weeks. The healing rate was 47% after 2 months of appropriate foot care. A trend for a correlation between SAF levels and healing time in DFU subjects was observed but was not statistically significant (P=0.06). Increased SAF levels are associated with neuropathic foot complications in diabetes. Use of SAF measurement to assess foot vulnerability and to predict DFU events in high-risk patients appears to be promising.

  10. Anthropometric Data of Hand, Foot and Ear of University Students in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olasunkanmi Salami ISMAILA

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Anthropometric data is needed in the design of products as it varies between individuals and nations. These data for Nigerians is presently scant and this study is an attempt to provide data on hand, foot and ear for the improvements of hand gloves, handles, shoes, pedal dimensions, ear-phones and other related products.A random sample of 500 students was taken and their ages were between 18 and 29 years (mean of 21.7 years. Two hundred and fifty of the samples were males and the same numbers were females. The dimensions measured were ▪ hand: length and breadth; ▪ foot: length, breadth and height; ▪ ear: height and breadth. The study presents the anthropometric data for the 5th, 50th and 95th percentiles for the above-presented variables.The study established that foot breadths of the females were larger than those of the males while the males had larger foot lengths. There were no significant differences between the hand dimensions of the males and those of the females. Similarly, there were no significant differences between the ear dimensions of males and the females

  11. Factors associated with nonunion, delayed union, and malunion in foot and ankle surgery in diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibuya, Naohiro; Humphers, Jon M; Fluhman, Benjamin L; Jupiter, Daniel C

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of bone healing complications in diabetic patients is believed to be high after foot and ankle surgery. Although the association of hyperglycemia with bone healing complications has been well documented, little clinical information is available to show which diabetes-related comorbidities directly affect bone healing. Our goal was to better understand the risk factors associated with poor bone healing in the diabetic population through an exploratory, observational, retrospective, cohort study. To this end, 165 diabetic patients who had undergone arthrodesis, osteotomy, or fracture reduction were enrolled in the study to assess the risk factors associated with nonunion, delayed union, and malunion after elective and nonelective foot and/or ankle surgery. Bivariate analyses showed that a history of foot ulcer, peripheral neuropathy, and surgery duration were statistically significantly associated with bone healing complications. After adjusting for other covariates, only peripheral neuropathy, surgery duration, and hemoglobin A1c levels >7% were significantly associated statistically with bone healing complications. Of the risk factors we considered, peripheral neuropathy had the strongest association with bone healing complications. Copyright © 2013 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Studies on the Estimation of Stature from Hand and Foot Length of an Individual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Saka

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies on the estimation of stature from hand and foot length of an individual are essential study in personal identification. Aim and Objectives: This study is to find out correlation between statures with hand and foot dimensions in both sexes and gender comparison from an individual in Lautech Staff College in Ogbomoso and College ogbomoso and College of Health Sciences, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Material and Methods: A sample of 140 students and staff; 70 male and 70 female Students and staff of Lautech Staff College in Ogbomoso and College ogbomoso and College of Health Sciences, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, between 16-35years were considered and measurements were taken for each of the parameters. Gender differences for the two parameters were determined using Student t-test. Pearson's correlation coefficient (r was used to examine the relationship between two anthropometric parameters and standing height (stature. All these measurements were done by using standard anthropometric instruments and standard anthropometric techniques. Results: The findings of the study indicated that the males mean values are not significantly difference when compared with females mean values in all measured parameters. The study showed significant (p<0.001 positive correlation between the stature with hand lengths and foot lengths. The hand and foot length provide accurate and reliable means in establishing the height of an individual. Conclusion: This study will be useful for forensic scientists and anthropologists as well as anatomists in ascertain medico-legal cases

  13. [The effects of foot reflexology on nausea, vomiting and fatigue of breast cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jin-Hyang

    2005-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the effects of foot reflexology on nausea, vomiting and fatigue in breast cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. The research was a quasi-experimental study using a non-equivalent pre-post design and was conducted from Jan. 26, to Mar. 20, 2004. The subjects consisted of 34 patients with 18 in the experimental group and 16 in control group. A pretest and 2 posttests were conducted to measure nausea, vomiting and fatigue. For the experimental group, foot reflexology, which was consisted of 4 phases for 40 minutes, was given by a researcher and 4 research assistants. The collected data were analyzed by repeated measures ANOVA using the SPSS WIN 10.0 program. There was a statistically significant decrease in nausea, and vomiting in the experimental group compared to the control group over two different times. In addition, there was a statistically significant decrease in fatigue in the experimental group compared to the control group over two different times. Foot reflexology was effective on nausea, vomiting and fatigue in breast cancer patients receiving chemotherapy in this study. Therefore, foot reflexology can be usefully utilized as a nursing intervention in the field of cancer nursing for breast cancer patients receiving chemotherapy.

  14. Effect of negative pressure wound therapy on molecular markers in diabetic foot ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karam, Rehab A; Rezk, Noha A; Abdel Rahman, Tamer M; Al Saeed, Mohamed

    2018-08-15

    Diabetic foot ulcers are one of the most common complications of diabetes with high morbidity and mortality. Negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) is one of the treatment modalities that facilitates the wound healing process; however, its molecular mechanism remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism of action of NPWT in the treatment of diabetic foot ulcers via measuring the tissue expression of genes related to the wound healing process. The study included 40 patients with diabetic foot ulceration, 20 of them received NPWT and the other 20 were a control group treated with advanced moist therapy. Granulation tissue biopsies were obtained before and 10 days after treatment in both groups and subjected to real-time polymerase chain reaction to measure the mRNA expression of TGF-β1, VEGF, TNF-α, IL-1β, MMP-1, MMP-9 and TIMP-1 which are involved in the wound healing pathway. After 10 days of treatment with NPWT, the mRNA levels of IL-1β, TNF-α, MMP-1, and MMP-9 were significantly downregulated, while the levels of VEGF, TGF-β1 and TIMP-1 were significantly increased. Our study demonstrated that NPWT promotes wound healing in diabetic foot ulcers possibly by affecting growth factors, inflammatory cytokines, and matrix metalloproteinases. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. CRIO-INFLUENCE IN SURGICAL TREATMENT OF BENIGN TUMOURS OF FOOT BONES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Dianov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The material of investigation was the results of treatment of 131 patients with foot bones tumours. The largest number of patients referred, to age interval from 11 to 30 years (69,6%. More than half of cases were osteochondromas (54%, then solitary bone cyst (14,5% and chondromas (13%. Other nosologic forms were met significantly seldom. Two groups of patients were examined: the main group (with crio-influence - 44 patients and group of comparison (without crio-influence - 87 patients. The plot of operation was in flat, border-line, intrafocusal or segmental resection of damaged section, crio-instillation or contact curio-processing of bone and auto- or allopathic of respected defect. The results of treatment were estimated in a year after operation. After usage of curio-surgical method there were observed positive results in 41 patients, satisfactory - in 2 and unsatisfactory - in 1. The results of treatment with traditional method were positive in 79 cases, satisfactory - in 2, unsatisfactory - in 6. The worked-out method of curio-surgical treatment of foot bone tumours includes resection of pathological focus, itraoperative crio-influence on bone tissue and bone plastic transplantation of resected, defect. The analysis of criosurgical operations of foot gave the foundation to consider such interventions significant and perspective in treatment of patients with tumours and tumour similar damages of foot bone.

  16. Does obesity influence foot structure and plantar pressure patterns in prepubescent children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, A M; Steele, J R; Baur, L A

    2001-06-01

    This study examined the effects of obesity on plantar pressure distributions in prepubescent children. Field-based, experimental data on BMI (body mass index), foot structure and plantar pressures were collected for 13 consenting obese children and 13 non-obese controls. Thirteen obese (age 8.1+/-1.2 y; BMI 25.5+/-2.9 kg/m(2)) and 13 non-obese (age 8.4+/-0.9 y; BMI 16.9+/-1.2 kg/m(2)) prepubescent children, matched to the obese children for gender, age and height. Height and weight were measured to calculate BMI. Static weight-bearing footprints for the right and left foot of each subject were recorded using a pedograph to calculate the footprint angle and the Chippaux-Smirak index as representative measures of the surface area of the foot in contact with the ground. Right and left foot plantar pressures were then obtained using a mini-emed(R) pressure platform to calculate the force and pressure experienced under each child's foot during static and dynamic loaded and unloaded conditions. Obese subjects displayed significantly lower footprint angle (t=4.107; P=plantar pressures between the two subject groups. That is, although rearfoot dynamic forces generated by the obese subjects were significantly higher than those generated by the non-obese subjects, these forces were experienced over significantly higher mean peak areas of contact with the mini-emed(R) system. Therefore, rearfoot pressures experienced by the two subject groups did not differ. However, the mean peak dynamic forefoot pressures generated by the obese subjects (39.3+/-15.7 N.cm(-2); q=3.969) were significantly higher than those generated by the non-obese subjects (32.3+/-9.2 N.cm(-2)). It is postulated that foot discomfort-associated structural changes and increased forefoot plantar pressures in the obese foot may hinder obese children from participating in physical activity and therefore warrants immediate further investigation.

  17. Preoperative motor strength and time to surgery are the most important predictors of improvement in foot drop due to degenerative lumbar disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macki, Mohamed; Syeda, Sbaa; Kerezoudis, Panagiotis; Gokaslan, Ziya L; Bydon, Ali; Bydon, Mohamad

    2016-02-15

    Palsy of dorsiflexion, or foot drop, may be due to degenerative lumbar disease and amenable to posterior spinal decompression. The objective of this study is to measure prognostic factors of and time to foot drop improvement after posterior lumbar decompression. We retrospectively reviewed 71 patients undergoing first-time, posterior lumbar decompression for foot drop due to degenerative spinal disease. Patient sex, age, comorbidities (Charlson Comorbidity Index), preoperative anterior tibialis strength (manual muscle testing, MMT), and duration of foot drop were ascertained from clinical notes. Prognostic factors affecting foot drop improvement were calculated with a discrete time proportional hazards model, in which follow-up times and outcome measures were binned into six time intervals: 1 week, 6 weeks, 3 months, 6 months, 1 year, and ≥ 1 year. Of the 71 patients, the mean age was 54.6 ± 16.0 years, and 66.2% (n=47) were males. The mean Charlson Comorbidity Index was 2.42. During a mean follow-up of 30.4 months, dorsiflexion function improved postoperatively in 73.2% (n=52) of patients. The median time to surgery from onset of foot drop was within 6 weeks, and the median preoperative MMT strength of patients with foot drop improvement was 3. Following a discrete-time proportional hazards model, duration of anterior tibialis palsy (HR=0.67, P=0.004) and preoperative muscle strength (HR=1.10, P=0.010) were significant predictors of foot drop improvement. Following an adjusted Kaplan-Meier analysis, the median time to foot drop improvement was within 6 weeks of surgical intervention. Preoperative muscle strength and palsy duration were statistically significant predictors of foot drop improvement. Furthermore, the median time to improvement was 6 weeks. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Congenital hypertrophy of multiple intrinsic muscles of the foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraishi, Tomohiro; Park, Susam; Niu, Atushi; Hasegawa, Hiromi

    2014-12-01

    Congenital hypertrophy of a single intrinsic muscle of the foot is rare, and as far as we know, only six cases have been reported. We describe a case of congenital anomaly that showed hypertrophy of multiple intrinsic muscles of the foot; the affected muscles were all the intrinsic muscles of the foot except the extensor digitorum brevis or extensor hallucis. Other tissues such as adipose tissue, nervous tissue, or osseous tissue showed no abnormalities. To reduce the volume of the foot we removed parts of the enlarged muscles.

  19. Benign and malignant tumors of the foot and ankle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singer, Adam D.; Datir, Abhijit; Langley, Travis [Emory University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Section of Musculoskeletal Imaging, Atlanta, GA (United States); Tresley, Jonathan [University of Wisconsin, Department of Radiology, Madison, WI (United States); Clifford, Paul D.; Jose, Jean; Subhawong, Ty K. [University of Miami, Department of Radiology, Miami, FL (United States)

    2016-03-15

    Pain and focal masses in the foot and ankle are frequently encountered and often initiate a workup including imaging. It is important to differentiate benign lesions from aggressive benign or malignant lesions. In this review, multiple examples of osseous and soft tissue tumors of the foot and ankle will be presented. Additionally, the compartmental anatomy of the foot and ankle will be discussed in terms of its relevance for percutaneous biopsy planning and eventual surgery. Finally, a general overview of the surgical management of benign, benign aggressive and malignant tumors of the foot and ankle will be discussed. (orig.)

  20. DESIGN OPTIMIZATION OF A FOOT VALVE BY USING ANSYS®

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serdar KARAOĞLU

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, main components of a foot valve, being produced by casting, were optimized for minimum weight. The study was focused on the minimization of casting costs by reducing the volumes of two main parts of the foot valve. ANSYS® finite elements package was used in the study. In the optimization stage, parametrical dimensions were determined according to manufacturer's design criteria and related standards. Final design of the foot valve was completed by using the calculated values of optimum dimensions of the main components. Design optimization procedure gave about 8.5% of weight reductions in the main foot valve components.

  1. Changes in Foot Shape after Long-Distance Running

    OpenAIRE

    Fukano, Mako; Iso, Shigeo

    2015-01-01

    Changes in foot shape during long-distance running may lead to alteration in shoe fit. However, little information is available on changes in foot shape following long-distance running. The purpose of this study was to assess changes in foot shape in experienced runners after a single long-distance run. Data from the right feet of 21 subjects were obtained using a foot scanner before and after running 35 km on an asphalt road. After the run, the dorsal height, navicular height, and arch heigh...

  2. Prospective study of ankle and foot fractures in elderly women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadagiri Surender Rao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The epidemiology of ankle fractures in old people is changing as time passes on. The incidence of ankle fractures increases with advancing age. The study conducted was among a rural popula-tion which comprised of 68 women (32 women with ankle fractures & 36 women with foot fractures. Patients studied were in the age group more than 50 years. The study highlights the etiological & risk factors for fractures of ankle & foot. The commonest ankle fracture was the lateral malleolar fracture & the commonest foot fracture was the 5th Metatarsal fracture. Diabetes is a risk factor which increases the occurrence of ankle and foot injuries.

  3. Clinical workflow for personalized foot pressure ulcer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucki, M; Luboz, V; Perrier, A; Champion, E; Diot, B; Vuillerme, N; Payan, Y

    2016-09-01

    Foot pressure ulcers are a common complication of diabetes because of patient's lack of sensitivity due to neuropathy. Deep pressure ulcers appear internally when pressures applied on the foot create high internal strains nearby bony structures. Monitoring tissue strains in persons with diabetes is therefore important for an efficient prevention. We propose to use personalized biomechanical foot models to assess strains within the foot and to determine the risk of ulcer formation. Our workflow generates a foot model adapted to a patient's morphology by deforming an atlas model to conform it to the contours of segmented medical images of the patient's foot. Our biomechanical model is composed of rigid bodies for the bones, joined by ligaments and muscles, and a finite element mesh representing the soft tissues. Using our registration algorithm to conform three datasets, three new patient models were created. After applying a pressure load below these foot models, the Von Mises equivalent strains and "cluster volumes" (i.e. volumes of contiguous elements with strains above a given threshold) were measured within eight functionally meaningful foot regions. The results show the variability of both location and strain values among the three considered patients. This study also confirms that the anatomy of the foot has an influence on the risk of pressure ulcer. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Complex Foot Injury: Early and Definite Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schepers, Tim; Rammelt, Stefan

    2017-03-01

    Complex foot injuries occur infrequently, but are life-changing events. They often present with other injuries as the result of a high-energy trauma. After initial stabilization, early assessment should be regarding salvagability. All treatment strategies are intensive. The initial treatment includes prevention of progression ischemia/necrosis, prevention of infection, and considering salvage or amputation. Definitive treatment for salvage includes anatomic reconstruction with stable internal fixation and early soft tissue coverage followed by aggressive rehabilitation. Prognosis after complex injuries is hard to predict. The various stages of the treatment are reviewed and recommendations are made. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Ewing sarcoma of the foot. Radiological findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albisinni, U.; Capanna, R.; Nigrisoli, M.

    1987-01-01

    Ewing's Sarcoma (ES) is the most frequent malignant bone tumor of the foot. The radiological picture is characterized, in 14 patients, by a pure osteolytic lesion (9 cases) or by a mixed one (5 cases); the interruption of the cortical bone and swelling of the soft tissues were always present; the periostal reaction was occasional. The radiological aspects cannot be considered typical of the ES and it is suggested that biopsies should always be performed in the presence of structural alteration of the bone

  6. A shift in priority in diabetic foot care and research: 75% of foot ulcers are preventable

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bus, Sicco A.; van Netten, Jaap J.

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic foot ulceration poses a heavy burden on the patient and the healthcare system, but prevention thereof receives little attention. For every euro spent on ulcer prevention, ten are spent on ulcer healing, and for every randomized controlled trial conducted on prevention, ten are conducted on

  7. The reliability and validity of a three-camera foot image system for obtaining foot anthropometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Meara, Damien; Vanwanseele, Benedicte; Hunt, Adrienne; Smith, Richard

    2010-08-01

    The purpose was to develop a foot image capture and measurement system with web cameras (the 3-FIS) to provide reliable and valid foot anthropometric measures with efficiency comparable to that of the conventional method of using a handheld anthropometer. Eleven foot measures were obtained from 10 subjects using both methods. Reliability of each method was determined over 3 consecutive days using the intraclass correlation coefficient and root mean square error (RMSE). Reliability was excellent for both the 3-FIS and the handheld anthropometer for the same 10 variables, and good for the fifth metatarsophalangeal joint height. The RMSE values over 3 days ranged from 0.9 to 2.2 mm for the handheld anthropometer, and from 0.8 to 3.6 mm for the 3-FIS. The RMSE values between the 3-FIS and the handheld anthropometer were between 2.3 and 7.4 mm. The 3-FIS required less time to collect and obtain the final variables than the handheld anthropometer. The 3-FIS provided accurate and reproducible results for each of the foot variables and in less time than the conventional approach of a handheld anthropometer.

  8. THE FEASIBILITY OF HIND FOOT AMPUTATION IN SELECTED SARCOMAS OF THE FOOT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HAM, SJ; HOEKSTRA, HJ; EISMA, WH; OLDHOFF, J; KOOPS, HS

    The treatment of foot sarcomas is generally a below knee amputation. In selected sarcomas of the forefoot, however, a transtarsal amputation according to Chopart, a calcaneotibial arthrodesis according to Pirogoff, or a supramalleolar amputation according to Syme can be considered the treatment of

  9. How common are foot problems among individuals with diabetes? Diabetic foot ulcers in the Dutch population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoekenbroek, Robert M.; Lokin, Joost L. C.; Nielen, Mark M.; Stroes, Erik S. G.; Koelemay, Mark J. W.

    2017-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis Contemporary data on diabetic foot ulcer prevalence are scarce. Most studies were conducted in the 1990s, reporting incidence rates of 1.9-2.6%. Since then the prevalence of diabetes has doubled and the organisation of diabetes care has undergone major changes. Up-to-date data that

  10. Repeatability of a 3D multi-segment foot model protocol in presence of foot deformities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deschamps, Kevin; Staes, Filip; Bruyninckx, Herman; Busschots, Ellen; Matricali, Giovanni A; Spaepen, Pieter; Meyer, Christophe; Desloovere, Kaat

    2012-07-01

    Repeatability studies on 3D multi-segment foot models (3DMFMs) have mainly considered healthy participants which contrasts with the widespread application of these models to evaluate foot pathologies. The current study aimed at establishing the repeatability of the 3DMFM described by Leardini et al. in presence of foot deformities. Foot kinematics of eight adult participants were analyzed using a repeated-measures design including two therapists with different levels of experience. The inter-trial variability was higher compared to the kinematics of healthy subjects. Consideration of relative angles resulted in the lowest inter-session variability. The absolute 3D rotations between the Sha-Cal and Cal-Met seem to have the lowest variability in both therapists. A general trend towards higher σ(sess)/σ(trial) ratios was observed when the midfoot was involved. The current study indicates that not only relative 3D rotations and planar angles can be measured consistently in patients, also a number of absolute parameters can be consistently measured serving as basis for the decision making process. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. [Vacuum-assisted therapy for various wound types including diabetic foot ulcer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farah, Raymond; Gantus, Maher; Kogan, Leonid

    2011-03-01

    Vacuum is a noninvasive system that creates a localized controlled negative pressure environment. In this study, vacuum was provided by the V.A.C. Therapy system, which promotes wound healing by delayed primary or secondary intention through creating a moist wound environment, preparing the wound bed for closure, reducing edema, and promoting formation and perfusion of granulation tissue. Vacuum-assisted closure therapy is indicated for use in all care settings and for a variety of wound types including diabetic foot ulcers. The purpose of this study was to evaluate safety and clinical efficacy of negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) compared with advanced moist wound therapy and standard treatment to treat foot ulcers in diabetic patients. This trial enrolled 43 patients; most of them were diabetic patients at any age with various skin ulcers and diabetic foot. These patients were divided into two groups, 17 patients were treated with vacuum and the 26 patients in the control group were treated with standard therapy including debridement. A greater proportion of foot and skin ulcers achieved complete ulcer closure with vacuum-assisted therapy p<0.001 compared with the standard therapy. Vacuum therapy significantly decreased the duration and frequency of admission p=0.032 and decreased the rate of amputation p<0.001. Results of our trial support other studies and demonstrate that vacuum is as safe as and more efficacious than standard therapy in the treatment of diabetic foot ulcers. A significantly greater number of patients achieved complete ulcer closure and granulation tissue formation with this therapy. The study group showed a significant reduction in the median time needed to heal ulcers, reduction of the number of admissions and amputation frequency.

  12. Factors Associated With Quality of Life in Patients With Diabetic Foot Ulcers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasiriziba

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Diabetic foot ulcer (DFU is a serious and costly complication in diabetes which affects approximately 15% of patients with diabetes and affects their quality of life (QOL. Objectives The purpose of this study was to investigate the factors associated with QOL in patients with DFU. Patients and Methods This cross-sectional study was performed on 60 patients (32 males and 28 females hospitalized for DFU, performed through convenience sampling. Data related factors and the QOL questionnaire for patients with DFU were abridged. This questionnaire has 29 questions in six dimensions of enjoying life, physical health, daily activities dependence, negative emotions, concern about wound, and wound caring, which evaluate the QOL in patients with DFU. The scoring method for this tool is five optional Likert. Descriptive and analytic statistical methods were used to analyze the data. Results Of the 60 patients with DFU, 53% were male and 47% female with an average age of 58.08 ± 11.95 years and average QOL of 41.1 ± 9.15. Statistical analysis showed that age (P = 0.002, employment (P ≤ 0001, socioeconomic status (P = 0.016, leg ulcer (P ≤ 0001, and the number of foot ulcer (P = 0.017 had a statistically significant relationship with QOL and its dimensions. Other variables did not have a significant relationship with QOL, but some of them such as smoking during negative emotions (P = 0.046 and marital status affecting the foot care difficulties (P = 0.03 had significant statistical relationships with QOL. Conclusions Diabetic foot ulcer affects different aspects of life and can reduce patient’s QOL. To improve the care behaviors and have a better control of foot ulcers and improve the QOL for these patients, taking into account factors such as age, occupation, marital status, number of wounds, and economic status is essential to plan for care and health needs in these patients.

  13. A review of the foot function index and the foot function index – revised

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The Foot Function Index (FFI) is a self-report, foot-specific instrument measuring pain and disability and has been widely used to measure foot health for over twenty years. A revised FFI (FFI-R) was developed in response to criticism of the FFI. The purpose of this review was to assess the uses of FFI and FFI-R as were reported in medical and surgical literature and address the suggestions found in the literature to improve the metrics of FFI-R. Methods A systematic literature search of PubMed/Medline and Embase databases from October 1991 through December 2010 comprised the main sources of literature. To enrich the bibliography, the search was extended to BioMedLib and Scopus search engines and manual search methods. Search terms included FFI, FFI scores, FFI-R. Requirements included abstracts/full length articles, English-language publications, and articles containing the term "foot complaints/problems." Articles selected were scrutinized; EBM abstracted data from literature and collected into tables designed for this review. EBM analyzed tables, KJC, JM, RMS reviewed and confirmed table contents. KJC and JM reanalyzed the original database of FFI-R to improve metrics. Results Seventy-eight articles qualified for this review, abstracts were compiled into 12 tables. FFI and FFI-R were used in studies of foot and ankle disorders in 4700 people worldwide. FFI Full scale or the Subscales and FFI-R were used as outcome measures in various studies; new instruments were developed based on FFI subscales. FFI Full scale was adapted/translated into other cultures. FFI and FFI-R psychometric properties are reported in this review. Reanalysis of FFI-R subscales' confirmed unidimensionality, and the FFI-R questionnaires' response categories were edited into four responses for ease of use. Conclusion This review was limited to articles published in English in the past twenty years. FFI is used extensively worldwide; this instrument pioneered a quantifiable measure

  14. Metabolic Foot- and Fingerprinting of Lactobacillus paracasei

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jäpelt, Kristina Bak

    of lactobacilli has suggested bile response mechanisms such as efflux of bile acids/salts, bile salt hydrolysis, modified sugar metabolism, change in a number of transport systems, and cell membrane or cell wall composition modification. A number of these effects are expected to cause alterations...... in the metabolome, and an increased understanding of bile response mechanisms could be obtained by analysis of the response by tools within metabolomics. Therefore, the aim of this PhD thesis was to develop a platform for metabolic foot- and fingerprinting of L. paracasei subsp. paracasei strain (L. casei CRL-431...... picture of changes in the metabolome. It was shown that the L. paracasei cell membrane was significantly damaged by quenching in buffered methanol. In contrast minimal damage of the cell membrane and better recovery of intracellular metabolites were observed with glycerol saline quenching. Furthermore...

  15. The Influence of Foot-Strike Technique on the Neuromechanical Function of the Foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Luke A; Farris, Dominic J; Lichtwark, Glen A; Cresswell, Andrew G

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of foot-strike technique on longitudinal arch mechanics and intrinsic foot muscle function during running. Thirteen healthy participants ran barefoot on a force-instrumented treadmill at 2.8 ms with a forefoot (FFS) and rearfoot (RFS; habitual) running technique, whereas kinetic, kinematic, and electromyographic data from the intrinsic foot muscles were collected simultaneously. The longitudinal arch was modeled as a single "midfoot" joint representing motion of the rearfoot (calcaneus) relative to the forefoot (metatarsals). An inverse dynamic analysis was performed to estimate joint moments generated about the midfoot, as well as mechanical work and power. The midfoot was more plantar flexed (higher arch) at foot contact when running with a forefoot running technique (RFS 0.2 ± 1.8 vs FFS 6.9 ± 3.0°, effect size (ES) = 2.7); however, there was no difference in peak midfoot dorsiflexion in stance (RFS -11.6 ± 3.0 vs FFS -11.4 ± 3.4°, ES = 0.63). When running with a forefoot technique, participants generated greater moments about the midfoot (27% increase, ES = 1.1) and performed more negative work (240% increase, ES = 2.2) and positive work (42% increase, ES = 1.1) about the midfoot. Average stance-phase muscle activation was greater for flexor digitorum brevis (20% increase, ES = 0.56) and abductor hallucis (17% increase, ES = 0.63) when running with a forefoot technique. Forefoot running increases loading about the longitudinal arch and also increases the mechanical work performed by the intrinsic foot muscles. These findings have substantial implications in terms of injury prevention and management for runners who transition from a rearfoot to a forefoot running technique.

  16. A pneumatic power harvesting ankle-foot orthosis to prevent foot-drop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin Robin

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A self-contained, self-controlled, pneumatic power harvesting ankle-foot orthosis (PhAFO to manage foot-drop was developed and tested. Foot-drop is due to a disruption of the motor control pathway and may occur in numerous pathologies such as stroke, spinal cord injury, multiple sclerosis, and cerebral palsy. The objectives for the prototype PhAFO are to provide toe clearance during swing, permit free ankle motion during stance, and harvest the needed power with an underfoot bellow pump pressurized during the stance phase of walking. Methods The PhAFO was constructed from a two-part (tibia and foot carbon composite structure with an articulating ankle joint. Ankle motion control was accomplished through a cam-follower locking mechanism actuated via a pneumatic circuit connected to the bellow pump and embedded in the foam sole. Biomechanical performance of the prototype orthosis was assessed during multiple trials of treadmill walking of an able-bodied control subject (n = 1. Motion capture and pressure measurements were used to investigate the effect of the PhAFO on lower limb joint behavior and the capacity of the bellow pump to repeatedly generate the required pneumatic pressure for toe clearance. Results Toe clearance during swing was successfully achieved during all trials; average clearance 44 ± 5 mm. Free ankle motion was observed during stance and plantarflexion was blocked during swing. In addition, the bellow component repeatedly generated an average of 169 kPa per step of pressure during ten minutes of walking. Conclusion This study demonstrated that fluid power could be harvested with a pneumatic circuit built into an AFO, and used to operate an actuated cam-lock mechanism that controls ankle-foot motion at specific periods of the gait cycle.

  17. Healing ulcers and preventing their recurrences in the diabetic foot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Raja Sabapathy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fifteen percent of people with diabetes develop an ulcer in the course of their lifetime. Eighty-five percent of the major amputations in diabetes mellitus are preceded by an ulcer. Management of ulcers and preventing their recurrence is important for the quality of life of the individual and reducing the cost of care of treatment. The main causative factors of ulceration are neuropathy, vasculopathy and limited joint mobility. Altered bio-mechanics due to the deformities secondary to neuropathy and limited joint mobility leads to focal points of increased pressure, which compromises circulation leading to ulcers. Ulcer management must not only address the healing of ulcers but also should correct the altered bio-mechanics to reduce the focal pressure points and prevent recurrence. An analysis of 700 patients presenting with foot problems to the Diabetic Clinic of Ganga Hospital led to the stratification of these patients into four classes of incremental severity. Class 1 – the foot at risk, Class 2 – superficial ulcers without infection, Class 3 – the crippled foot and Class 4 – the critical foot. Almost 77.5% presented in either Class 3 or 4 with complicated foot ulcers requiring major reconstruction or amputation. Class 1 foot can be managed conservatively with foot care and appropriate foot wear. Class 2 in addition to measures for ulcer healing would need surgery to correct the altered bio-mechanics to prevent the recurrence. The procedures called surgical offloading would depend on the site of the ulcer and would need an in-depth clinical study of the foot. Class 3 would need major reconstructive procedures and Class 4 would need amputation since it may be life-threatening. As clinicians, our main efforts must be focused towards identifying patients in Class 1 and offer advice on foot care and Class 2 where appropriate surgical offloading procedure would help preserve the foot.

  18. Foot and ankle problems in Muay Thai kickboxers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaseenon, Tanawat; Intharasompan, Piyapong; Wattanarojanapom, Thongaek; Theeraamphon, Nipon; Auephanviriyakul, Sansanee; Phisitkul, Phinit

    2015-01-01

    Muay Thai kickboxing is a common sport that uses the foot and ankle in fighting. Muay Thai kickboxing trainees usually receive training in Thailand Foot and ankle problems in this group ofpeople who usually train barefoot remain unexplored To evaluate the prevalence of common foot and ankle problems in Muay Thai kick boxers. The present study is a cross-sectional survey of Muay Thai kick boxers practicing in northern Thailand. Interviews were conducted and foot and ankle examinations were evaluated Foot morphology was examined using a Harris mat footprint. One hundred and twenty-three Muay Thai kickbox ersinnine training gyms were included in this study. Common foot and ankle problems found in the Muay Thai kick boxers were callosity (59%), gastrocnemius contracture (57%), toe deformities (49.3%), wounds (10%) and heel pain (9%). Callosity was most commonly found on the forefoot (77.5%), on the plantar first metatarsal (55.3%) and on the big toe (33.3%). An association was found between a tight heel cord and a history of foot injury with prolonged periods of weekly training. Toe deformities such as hallux rigidus (37.6%) were also associated with prolonged periods of training (p = 0.001). No correlation was found between type of foot arch and foot and ankle problems. Plantar forefoot callosities and wounds as well as toe deformities including tight heel cords are some of the foot and ankle problems commonly found in Muay Thai kick boxers. They are associated with prolonged periods of barefoot training. The unique pattern of training and of the kicks in Muay Thai might be a path mechanism, leading to the development of foot and ankle problems.

  19. Diagnosis and Management of Common Foot Fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bica, David; Sprouse, Ryan A; Armen, Joseph

    2016-02-01

    Foot fractures are among the most common foot injuries evaluated by primary care physicians. They most often involve the metatarsals and toes. Patients typically present with varying signs and symptoms, the most common being pain and trouble with ambulation. Diagnosis requires radiographic evaluation, although emerging evidence demonstrates that ultrasonography may be just as accurate. Management is determined by the location of the fracture and its effect on balance and weight bearing. Metatarsal shaft fractures are initially treated with a posterior splint and avoidance of weight-bearing activities; subsequent treatment consists of a short leg walking cast or boot for four to six weeks. Proximal fifth metatarsal fractures have different treatments depending on the location of the fracture. A fifth metatarsal tuberosity avulsion fracture can be treated acutely with a compressive dressing, then the patient can be transitioned to a short leg walking boot for two weeks, with progressive mobility as tolerated after initial immobilization. A Jones fracture has a higher risk of nonunion and requires at least six to eight weeks in a short leg non-weight-bearing cast; healing time can be as long as 10 to 12 weeks. Great toe fractures are treated with a short leg walking boot or cast with toe plate for two to three weeks, then a rigid-sole shoe for an additional three to four weeks. Lesser toe fractures can be treated with buddy taping and a rigid-sole shoe for four to six weeks.

  20. Traumatic Foot Fractures in Hard Working Donkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Semieka

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out on 45 hard working donkeys suffering from different types of traumatic foot fractures. These animals were selected from the clinical cases admitted to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital, Assiut University during the period of 2007-2010. Based on history, clinical signs and radiographic examination, various types of traumatic foot fractures were diagnosed and recorded. These fractures were affect metacarpal bones (N. =16, metatarsal bones (N. =9, proximal phalanx (N. = 13, middle phalanx (N. = 3, distal phalanx (N. = 2 and proximal sesamoid bones (N. = 2. It could be concluded that fractures of the large metacarpal bones are the most common types followed by fractures of the proximal phalanx of the thoracic limb then fractures of the metatarsal bones. Fractures of the middle phalanx, distal phalanx and proximal sesamoid bone are less common in donkeys. Single fractures of the metacarpal and metatarsal bones are more common than comminuted one, in addition diaphyseal fractures of these bones are more common than metaphyseal or epiphyseal fractures. In the proximal phalanx, comminuted fractures are more common than single fractures.

  1. Imaging osteomyelitis and the diabetic foot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, W.

    1999-01-01

    The clinical diagnosis of osteomyelitis and the diabetic foot is in most of the patients not possible without imaging the bone. The clinical problem is to diagnose infection as early, as reliable and as cheap as possible to prevent the possible longstanding and life-threatening complications. For imaging a lot of different radiological and nuclear medicine methods are available. This article focuses on the possible results of conventional plain radiography and tomography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging as radiological and on bone scan, autologous white blood cell scintigraphy with 111 In-oxin or 99m Tc-HMPAO, antigranulocyte antibodies, 99m Tc/ 111 In-human immunoglobulin, 67 Ga-citrate and 99m Tc-nanocelloids. Different methods after different answers. Radiological methods give detailed pathological answers, nuclear medicine methods answer questions of specificity such as leukocyte infiltration. If osteomyelitis is suspected, plain radiography should be the first, three phase bone scintigraphy the second and infection specific radiopharmaceuticals the third step of examination. Only in negative images with high clinical suspicion CT or MRI should be the final imaging procedure. In the diabetic foot imaging cascade should also start with plain radiography, followed by three phase bone scintigraphy or MRI. If clinically neuropathy is present specific nuclear medicine imaging should be performed

  2. The diabetic foot: Magnetic resonance imaging evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beltran, J.; Campanini, D.S.; Knight, C.; McCalla, M.

    1990-01-01

    Fourteen diabetic patients with suspected foot infection and/or neuropathic joint (Charcot Joint) were evaluated with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in an attempt to assess the extent of the infection and also to distinguish infection from the changes seen with neuroarthropathy. The majority of patients with infection had more than one site of involvement and the following diagnoses were made by MRI evaluation: Osteomyelitis (n=8), abscess (n=7), neuropathic joint (n=5), septic arthritis (n=4), and tenosynovitis (n=4). Clinical or surgical/pathological confirmation of the MRI diagnoses was obtained in all but nine sites of infection or cases of neuropathic joint. If the two diagnostic categories of septic arthritis and tenosynovitis are excluded, all but four of the MRI diagnoses were confirmed. A distinctive pattern for neuroarthropathy was identified in five cases, consisting of low signal intensity on T1- and T2-weighted images within the bone marrow space adjacent to the involved joint. We conclude that MRI is a valuable adjunct in the evaluation of the diabetic foot, and that it provides accurate information regarding the presence and extent of infection in this subset of patients. MRI has proven particularly helpful in differentiating neuroarthropathy from osteomyelitis. (orig.)

  3. Radiographic evaluation of the diabetic foot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, A.M.

    1989-01-01

    Radiographic evaluation of the foot in the patient with diabetes mellitus is discussed in this paper. According to the author, it can only be of value when the soft tissue and bony and joint pathologic conditions, which occur more frequently in the diabetic patient are also considered and understood. Although not pathognomic for diabetes mellitus, neuroarthopathy, osteomyelitis, soft tissue infection, and some rheumatic disorders are present with greater frequency in diabetic populations than in non-diabetic populations. Frequently, edema, erythema, hyperthermia, and tenderness are present as nonspecific clinical findings, in which case radiographic evaluation is called upon to define the specific etiology of a particular patient's pathology. Unfortunately, many radiographic, computerized tomographic, and radionuclide studies demonstrate less than optimal positive and negative predictive values unless interpreted in view of clinical history and examination and integrated with the results of other laboratory data. Radiographic evaluation of the diabetic foot may be utilized to establish the presence of disease, the extent of pedal involvement, and the response to therapy. The establishment of the nature of disease processes from radiographic findings alone, however, may be problematic. The diagnosis of osteomyelitis, for example, rests on the recovery of the offending microorganisms from bone aspiration or culture

  4. Imaging osteomyelitis and the diabetic foot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, W. (Gottingen Univ. (Germany). Dep. of Nuclear Medicine)

    1999-03-01

    The clinical diagnosis of osteomyelitis and the diabetic foot is in most of the patients not possible without imaging the bone. The clinical problem is to diagnose infection as early, as reliable and as cheap as possible to prevent the possible longstanding and life-threatening complications. For imaging a lot of different radiological and nuclear medicine methods are available. This article focuses on the possible results of conventional plain radiography and tomography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging as radiological and on bone scan, autologous white blood cell scintigraphy with [sup 111]In-oxin or [sup 99m]Tc-HMPAO, antigranulocyte antibodies, [sup 99m]Tc/[sup 111]In-human immunoglobulin,[sup 67] Ga-citrate and [sup 99m]Tc-nanocelloids. Different methods after different answers. Radiological methods give detailed pathological answers, nuclear medicine methods answer questions of specificity such as leukocyte infiltration. If osteomyelitis is suspected, plain radiography should be the first, three phase bone scintigraphy the second and infection specific radiopharmaceuticals the third step of examination. Only in negative images with high clinical suspicion CT or MRI should be the final imaging procedure. In the diabetic foot imaging cascade should also start with plain radiography, followed by three phase bone scintigraphy or MRI. If clinically neuropathy is present specific nuclear medicine imaging should be performed.

  5. Foot Problems in Older Adults Associations with Incident Falls, Frailty Syndrome, and Sensor-Derived Gait, Balance, and Physical Activity Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muchna, Amy; Najafi, Bijan; Wendel, Christopher S; Schwenk, Michael; Armstrong, David G; Mohler, Jane

    2018-03-01

    Research on foot problems and frailty is sparse and could advance using wearable sensor-based measures of gait, balance, and physical activity (PA). This study examined the effect of foot problems on the likelihood of falls, frailty syndrome, motor performance, and PA in community-dwelling older adults. Arizona Frailty Cohort Study participants (community-dwelling adults aged ≥65 years without baseline cognitive deficit, severe movement disorders, or recent stroke) underwent Fried frailty and foot assessment. Gait, balance (bipedal eyes open and eyes closed), and spontaneous PA over 48 hours were measured using validated wearable sensor technologies. Of 117 participants, 41 (35%) were nonfrail, 56 (48%) prefrail, and 20 (17%) frail. Prevalence of foot problems (pain, peripheral neuropathy, or deformity) increased significantly as frailty category worsened (any problem: 63% in nonfrail, 80% in prefrail [odds ratio (OR) = 2.0], and 95% in frail [OR = 8.3]; P = .03 for trend) due to associations between foot problems and both weakness and exhaustion. Foot problems were associated with fear of falling but not with fall history or incident falls over 6 months. Foot pain and peripheral neuropathy were associated with lower gait speed and stride length; increased double support time; increased mediolateral sway of center of mass during walking, age adjusted; decreased eyes open sway of center of mass and ankle during quiet standing, age adjusted; and lower percentage walking, percentage standing, and total steps per day. Foot problems were associated with frailty level and decreased motor performance and PA. Wearable technology is a practical way to screen for deterioration in gait, balance, and PA that may be associated with foot problems. Routine assessment and management of foot problems could promote earlier intervention to retain motor performance and manage fear of falling in older adults, which may ultimately improve healthy aging and reduce risk of frailty.

  6. Vacuum assisted closure improves the quality of life in patients with diabetic foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatepe, O; Eken, I; Acet, E; Unal, O; Mert, M; Koc, B; Karahan, S; Filizcan, U; Ugurlucan, M; Aksoy, M

    2011-01-01

    Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is the most common endocrine disease worldwide. One of the most important chronic complications of this disease is the development of diabetic foot. The management of diabetic foot wounds is quite important with respect to public health. To determine the effect of Vacuum Assisted Closure (VAC) therapy on the quality of life in the treatment of diabetic foot ulcers and compare it with standart wound care. Between May 2007 to December 2008, 67 consecutive patients with diabetic foot ulcers were randomly assigned to VAC therapy (Group 1, n : 30) or standart wound care (Group 2, n : 37). The SF-36 questionnaire was administered the day before and in the month following wound healing. Global analyses of the 8 domains and 2 comprehensive indexes of SF-36, Physical Component Summary (PCS) and Mental Component Summary (MCS) were performed. Clinical measures included standard antidiabetic treatment, daily wound care including antiseptic bath, debridement, toe removal for gangrene when necessary, and wound care with conventional methods or VAC. Healing time was calculated as the time from hospital admission to the time of re-epithelization. There were no differences in the mean age, ulcer size and pulse status of the patients in both groups. Healing time in the VAC group was significantly reduced (p VAC therapy. Vacuum Assisted Closure therapy was found to be effective in the treatment of chronic diabetic ulcers. The improvement of quality of life demonstrates a clear-cut indication in this particular group of patients.

  7. Effect of Infrared Radiation on the Healing of Diabetic Foot Ulcer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakim, Ashrafalsadat; Sadeghi Moghadam, Ali; Shariati, Abdalali; karimi, Hamid; Haghighizadeh, Mohamad Hossien

    2016-01-01

    Background Diabetic foot ulcer is a worldwide health care concern affecting tens of thousands of patients. If these ulcers left untreated, they can create severe complications. Objectives This study was designed to examine the effect of infrared radiation on the healing of diabetic foot ulcer. Patients and Methods This clinical trial was performed on 50 patients referred to Dr. Ganjavian hospital in Dezful city, Iran, with diabetic foot ulcer degree 1 and 2 (based on Wegener Scale). Sample size was determined based on relevant studies of the recent decade. Patients were classified into the intervention and control groups (n = 25 in each group) in terms of age, gender, degree of ulcer, ulcer site and body mass index. In this study, work progress was evaluated according to the checklist of diabetic foot ulcer healing evaluation. Results The results of the current study showed that there was a statistically significant difference in healing ulcers (P < 0.05) and mean healing time (P < 0.05) between the two groups. Conclusions Using the infrared plus routine dressing is more effective than using merely routine dressing. PMID:27942260

  8. Educational strategies for diabetic people at risk for foot neuropathy: synthesis of good evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Catunda Gomes de Menezes

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to identify the best evidence concerning health education strategies used in teaching-learning for people with diabetes mellitus who are at risk for foot neuropathy. An integrative review was conducted in the databases PubMed, LILACS, CINAHL and SCOPUS in January 2015; a total of 14 papers was analyzed in detail. The results are shown in a summary table and categories are discussed, covering various health education strategies for prevention and management with patients at risk of foot neuropathy (group; individual in face-to-face visits or via telephone; and using interactive technologies, and a synthesis of the best evidence for the effectiveness of these interventions in reducing diabetic foot complications. It was concluded that all the educational strategies are effective in promoting diabetic foot self-care. However, the group strategies showed greater effectiveness, enabling significant improvements in the knowledge, attitude, and practices of care for feet and general health of diabetic patients.

  9. Foot length measurements of newborns of high and low risk pregnancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Karina Marques Salge

    Full Text Available Abstract OBJECTIVE Comparing foot length measurements of newborns in high and low risk pregnancies at a public hospital in Goiânia, GO, Brazil. METHOD A cross-sectional study carried out between April, 2013 and May, 2015, with a sample consisting of 180 newborns; 106 infants of women from high-risk pregnancies and 74 of women from low-risk pregnancies. Data were descriptively analyzed. Foot length measurement was performed using a stiff transparent plastic ruler, graduated in millimeters. The length of both feet was measured from the tip of the hallux (big toe to the end of the heel. RESULTS A statistically significant relationship was found between the foot length and newborn’s weight, between the cephalic and thoracic perimeters in the high-risk group and between the cephalic perimeter in the control group. CONCLUSION There is a need for creating cut-off points to identify newborns with intrauterine growth disorders using foot length.

  10. Incidence of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome I Following Foot and Ankle Fractures Using the Budapest Criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullen, Michael; Lang, Coran; Tran, Phong

    2016-12-01

    OBJECTIVE : Fractures are a well-recognized inciting event in the development of complex regional pain syndrome. This study aimed to prospectively determine the incidence of complex regional pain syndrome following foot and ankle fractures. METHODS : A prospective study was conducted of patients presenting to two metropolitan hospitals with plain radiograph diagnosis of fractures to the foot or ankle. Patients were initially screened by phone 3 months after injury using the validated International Association for the Study of Pain Budapest criteria. Patients who fulfilled the screening criteria were then physically examined by a pain specialist to assess clinical signs as part of the Budapest criteria. RESULTS : A total of 306 consecutive eligible patients were included. One hundred and ten patients reported at least one symptom of complex regional pain syndrome; however, only three fulfilled the minimum requirements to necessitate clinical review. Of these three, only one patient fulfilled the combination of symptom and sign criteria for a positive diagnosis according to the validated Budapest criteria. The incidence of complex regional pain syndrome following foot and ankle fracture in this study was 0.3%. CONCLUSION : Although many patients may experience vasomotor, sensory, and sudomotor disturbance following a fracture to the foot and ankle, the observed incidence of complex regional pain syndrome using a prospectively collected validated criteria is significantly lower than previously published. © 2016 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Independent effects of step length and foot strike pattern on tibiofemoral joint forces during running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowersock, Collin D; Willy, Richard W; DeVita, Paul; Willson, John D

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of step length and foot strike pattern along with their interaction on tibiofemoral joint (TFJ) and medial compartment TFJ kinetics during running. Nineteen participants ran with a rear foot strike pattern at their preferred speed using a short (-10%), preferred, and long (+10%) step length. These step length conditions were then repeated using a forefoot strike pattern. Regardless of foot strike pattern, a 10% shorter step length resulted in decreased peak contact force, force impulse per step, force impulse per kilometre, and average loading rate at the TFJ and medial compartment, while a 10% increased step length had the opposite effects (all P forefoot strike pattern significantly lowered TFJ and medial compartment TFJ average loading rates compared with a rear foot strike pattern (both forefoot strike pattern produced the greatest reduction in peak medial compartment contact force (P < 0.05). Knowledge of these running modification effects may be relevant to the management or prevention of TFJ injury or pathology among runners.

  12. Variation in Foot Strike Patterns among Habitually Barefoot and Shod Runners in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Daniel E; Castillo, Eric R; Otarola-Castillo, Erik; Sang, Meshack K; Sigei, Timothy K; Ojiambo, Robert; Okutoyi, Paul; Pitsiladis, Yannis

    2015-01-01

    Runners are often categorized as forefoot, midfoot or rearfoot strikers, but how much and why do individuals vary in foot strike patterns when running on level terrain? This study used general linear mixed-effects models to explore both intra- and inter-individual variations in foot strike pattern among 48 Kalenjin-speaking participants from Kenya who varied in age, sex, body mass, height, running history, and habitual use of footwear. High speed video was used to measure lower extremity kinematics at ground contact in the sagittal plane while participants ran down 13 meter-long tracks with three variables independently controlled: speed, track stiffness, and step frequency. 72% of the habitually barefoot and 32% of the habitually shod participants used multiple strike types, with significantly higher levels of foot strike variation among individuals who ran less frequently and who used lower step frequencies. There was no effect of sex, age, height or weight on foot strike angle, but individuals were more likely to midfoot or forefoot strike when they ran on a stiff surface, had a high preferred stride frequency, were habitually barefoot, and had more experience running. It is hypothesized that strike type variation during running, including a more frequent use of forefoot and midfoot strikes, used to be greater before the introduction of cushioned shoes and paved surfaces.

  13. Relationship between Achilles tendon properties and foot strike patterns in long-distance runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, Keitaro; Miyazaki, Daisuke; Tanaka, Shigeharu; Shimoju, Shozo; Tsunoda, Naoya

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between Achilles tendon properties and foot strike patterns in long-distance runners. Forty-one highly trained male long-distance runners participated in this study. Elongation of the Achilles tendon and aponeurosis of the medial gastrocnemius muscle were measured using ultrasonography, while the participants performed ramp isometric plantar flexion up to the voluntary maximum. The relationship between the estimated muscle force and tendon elongation during the ascending phase was fit to a linear regression, the slope of which was defined as stiffness. In addition, the cross-sectional area of the Achilles tendon was measured using ultrasonography. Foot strike patterns (forefoot, midfoot and rearfoot) during running were determined at submaximal velocity (18 km · h(-1)) on a treadmill. The number of each foot strike runner was 12 for the forefoot (29.3%), 12 for the midfoot (29.3%) and 17 for the rearfoot (41.5%). No significant differences were observed in the variables measured for the Achilles tendon among the three groups. These results suggested that the foot strike pattern during running did not affect the morphological or mechanical properties of the Achilles tendon in long-distance runners.

  14. Variation in Foot Strike Patterns among Habitually Barefoot and Shod Runners in Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel E Lieberman

    Full Text Available Runners are often categorized as forefoot, midfoot or rearfoot strikers, but how much and why do individuals vary in foot strike patterns when running on level terrain? This study used general linear mixed-effects models to explore both intra- and inter-individual variations in foot strike pattern among 48 Kalenjin-speaking participants from Kenya who varied in age, sex, body mass, height, running history, and habitual use of footwear. High speed video was used to measure lower extremity kinematics at ground contact in the sagittal plane while participants ran down 13 meter-long tracks with three variables independently controlled: speed, track stiffness, and step frequency. 72% of the habitually barefoot and 32% of the habitually shod participants used multiple strike types, with significantly higher levels of foot strike variation among individuals who ran less frequently and who used lower step frequencies. There was no effect of sex, age, height or weight on foot strike angle, but individuals were more likely to midfoot or forefoot strike when they ran on a stiff surface, had a high preferred stride frequency, were habitually barefoot, and had more experience running. It is hypothesized that strike type variation during running, including a more frequent use of forefoot and midfoot strikes, used to be greater before the introduction of cushioned shoes and paved surfaces.

  15. Changes in foot posture during pregnancy and their relation with musculoskeletal pain: A longitudinal cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vico Pardo, Francisco Javier; López Del Amo, Andres; Pardo Rios, Manuel; Gijon-Nogueron, Gabriel; Yuste, Cristina Castro

    2018-04-01

    To examine foot posture changes during the three trimesters of pregnancy and to determine whether there is a relationship between these changes and the pain experienced in this period. The study sample consisted of 62 pregnant women who attended the Gynaecology Service at Hospital ​Santa María del Puerto (Cádiz, Spain), between January 2013 and May 2014. In their first visit, the following sociodemographic and anthropometric data were recorded: age, weight, height and foot size. In addition, information was obtained regarding pain in the lower back, knees, ankles and feet. In this first visit, too, the Foot Posture Index (FPI) was assessed, and three subsequent controls were performed during the first, second and third months of pregnancy (termed Stages 1, 2 and 3, respectively). In Stage 1, the average foot size (i.e., shoe size) was 38.3 (SD 1.5). This size did not change between Stages 1, 2 and 3. However, body weight and BMI did present statistically significant changes during this period (ppregnancy but no relation was observed between these changes and the onset of pain. During pregnancy, pronation increases but this does not appear to influence the onset of pain in the lower limbs. Copyright © 2017 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Estimation of Stature from Foot Dimensions and Stature among South Indian Medical Students Using Regression Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh D. R

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: At times fragments of soft tissues are found disposed off in the open, in ditches at the crime scene and the same are brought to forensic experts for the purpose of identification and such type of cases pose a real challenge. Objectives: This study was aimed at developing a methodology which could help in personal identification by studying the relation between foot dimensions and stature among south subjects using regression models. Material and Methods: Stature and foot length of 100 subjects (age range 18-22 years were measured. Linear regression equations for stature estimation were calculated. Result: The correlation coefficients between stature and foot lengths were found to be positive and statistically significant. Height = 98.159 + 3.746 × FLRT (r = 0.821 and Height = 91.242 + 3.284 × FLRT (r = 0.837 are the regression formulas from foot lengths for males and females respectively. Conclusion: The regression equation derived in the study can be used reliably for estimation of stature in a diverse population group thus would be of immense value in the field of personal identification especially from mutilated bodies or fragmentary remains.

  17. Possibilities of combined surgical treatment of pyonecrotic lesions in the neuroischemic form of diabetic foot syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriy Afanas'evich Mitish

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To present results of combined surgical treatment of the ischemic form of diabetic foot syndrome complicated by pyonecrotic process. To show thatthe use of modern diagnostic tools and the choice of adequate treatment strategy permits to substantially reduce the number of above-the-knee amputations. Materials and methods. A total of 140 patients with diabetes mellitus and critical ischemia of lower extremities were under observation during 2004-2008.All of them had purulent and/or necrotic foot lesions. The patients were examined by X-ray, computed and magneto-resonance tomography of the feet,duplex scanning of lower leg vasculature, transcutaneous measurement of PO2, pelvic and lower leg arterial angiography. Results. A strategy of surgical treatment was developed to be used depending on the patients health status, clinical features and severity of pyonecroticprocesses in the foot, and the degree of involvement of the main blood vessels of lower extremities. Conclusion. Combination of endovascular surgery with various methods for plastic wound closure permits to extend the range of possibilities for the treatmentof high-risk patients, such as those with pyonecrotic lesions and neuroischemic form of diabetic foot syndrome. This approach opens up prospects fora significant decrease of percentage of above-the-knee amputations and improves the quality of life in these patients.

  18. A cohort of new adhesive proteins identified from transcriptomic analysis of mussel foot glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMartini, Daniel G; Errico, John M; Sjoestroem, Sebastian; Fenster, April; Waite, J Herbert

    2017-06-01

    The adaptive attachment of marine mussels to a wide range of substrates in a high-energy, saline environment has been explored for decades and is a significant driver of bioinspired wet adhesion research. Mussel attachment relies on a fibrous holdfast known as the byssus, which is made by a specialized appendage called the foot. Multiple adhesive and structural proteins are rapidly synthesized, secreted and moulded by the foot into holdfast threads. About 10 well-characterized proteins, namely the mussel foot proteins (Mfps), the preCols and the thread matrix proteins, are reported as representing the bulk of these structures. To explore how robust this proposition is, we sequenced the transcriptome of the glandular tissues that produce and secrete the various holdfast components using next-generation sequencing methods. Surprisingly, we found around 15 highly expressed genes that have not previously been characterized, but bear key similarities to the previously defined mussel foot proteins, suggesting additional contribution to byssal function. We verified the validity of these transcripts by polymerase chain reaction, cloning and Sanger sequencing as well as confirming their presence as proteins in the byssus. These newly identified proteins greatly expand the palette of mussel holdfast biochemistry and provide new targets for investigation into bioinspired wet adhesion. © 2017 The Author(s).

  19. Data Mining for Identifying Novel Associations and Temporal Relationships with Charcot Foot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael E. Munson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Charcot foot is a rare and devastating complication of diabetes. While some risk factors are known, debate continues regarding etiology. Elucidating other associated disorders and their temporal occurrence could lead to a better understanding of its pathogenesis. We applied a large data mining approach to Charcot foot for elucidating novel associations. Methods. We conducted an association analysis using ICD-9 diagnosis codes for every patient in our health system (n=1.6 million with 41.2 million time-stamped ICD-9 codes. For the current analysis, we focused on the 388 patients with Charcot foot (ICD-9 713.5. Results. We found 710 associations, 676 (95.2% of which had a P value for the association less than 1.0×10−5 and 603 (84.9% of which had an odds ratio > 5.0. There were 111 (15.6% associations with a significant temporal relationship P<1.0×10−3. The three novel associations with the strongest temporal component were cardiac dysrhythmia, pulmonary eosinophilia, and volume depletion disorder. Conclusion. We identified novel associations with Charcot foot in the context of pathogenesis models that include neurotrophic, neurovascular, and microtraumatic factors mediated through inflammatory cytokines. Future work should focus on confirmatory analyses. These novel areas of investigation could lead to prevention or earlier diagnosis.

  20. Foot reflexology in feet impairment of people with type 2 diabetes mellitus: randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Chantal Magalhães da Silva

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstractObjective: to evaluate the effect of foot reflexology on feet impairment of people with type 2 diabetes mellitus.Method: this is a randomized, controlled and blind clinical trial. The sample was comprised by people with type 2 diabetes mellitus who, after being randomized into Treated group (n = 21 and Control group (n = 24, received guidelines on foot self-care. To the Treated Group it was also provided 12 sessions of foot reflexology. The scores of impairment indicators related to skin and hair, blood circulation, tissue sensitivity and temperature were measured by means of the instrument for assessing tissue integrity of the feet of people with diabetes mellitus. Chi-square test, Fisher exact test, Mann-Whitney test and regression analyzes were applied to the data, considering a significance level of 5% (P value <0.05.Results: participants who received the therapy showed better scores in some impairment indicators related to skin and hair (hair growth, elasticity/turgor, hydration, perspiration, texture and integrity of the skin/ skin peeling.Conclusion: the foot reflexology had a beneficial effect on feet impairment of people with type 2 diabetes mellitus, which makes it a viable therapy, deserving investment. This study was registered in the Brazilian Registry of Clinical Trials - RBR-8zk8sz.