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Sample records for significant responsibilities related

  1. Determining Semantically Related Significant Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Kamal

    2014-01-01

    GO relation embodies some aspects of existence dependency. If GO term xis existence-dependent on GO term y, the presence of y implies the presence of x. Therefore, the genes annotated with the function of the GO term y are usually functionally and semantically related to the genes annotated with the function of the GO term x. A large number of gene set enrichment analysis methods have been developed in recent years for analyzing gene sets enrichment. However, most of these methods overlook the structural dependencies between GO terms in GO graph by not considering the concept of existence dependency. We propose in this paper a biological search engine called RSGSearch that identifies enriched sets of genes annotated with different functions using the concept of existence dependency. We observe that GO term xcannot be existence-dependent on GO term y, if x- and y- have the same specificity (biological characteristics). After encoding into a numeric format the contributions of GO terms annotating target genes to the semantics of their lowest common ancestors (LCAs), RSGSearch uses microarray experiment to identify the most significant LCA that annotates the result genes. We evaluated RSGSearch experimentally and compared it with five gene set enrichment systems. Results showed marked improvement.

  2. Statistically significant relational data mining :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, Jonathan W.; Leung, Vitus Joseph; Phillips, Cynthia Ann; Pinar, Ali; Robinson, David Gerald; Berger-Wolf, Tanya; Bhowmick, Sanjukta; Casleton, Emily; Kaiser, Mark; Nordman, Daniel J.; Wilson, Alyson G.

    2014-02-01

    This report summarizes the work performed under the project (3z(BStatitically significant relational data mining.(3y (BThe goal of the project was to add more statistical rigor to the fairly ad hoc area of data mining on graphs. Our goal was to develop better algorithms and better ways to evaluate algorithm quality. We concetrated on algorithms for community detection, approximate pattern matching, and graph similarity measures. Approximate pattern matching involves finding an instance of a relatively small pattern, expressed with tolerance, in a large graph of data observed with uncertainty. This report gathers the abstracts and references for the eight refereed publications that have appeared as part of this work. We then archive three pieces of research that have not yet been published. The first is theoretical and experimental evidence that a popular statistical measure for comparison of community assignments favors over-resolved communities over approximations to a ground truth. The second are statistically motivated methods for measuring the quality of an approximate match of a small pattern in a large graph. The third is a new probabilistic random graph model. Statisticians favor these models for graph analysis. The new local structure graph model overcomes some of the issues with popular models such as exponential random graph models and latent variable models.

  3. Significance of psychological stress response and health-related quality of life in spouses of cancer patients when given bad news

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toyoko Kugimoto

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study illuminates the degree of psychological stress response experienced by spouses of cancer patients when given bad news at three different times (notification of the name of the disease, notification of recurrence, and notification of terminality as well as the factors that influence the response and the health status of the spouse as measured by health-related quality of life (QOL. Methods: A total of 203 individuals (57 men and 146 women who had received the three types of news were surveyed using a self-report questionnaire on psychological stress response, marital satisfaction, and health-related QOL scales. Results: The degree of the psychological stress response was the highest for notification of terminality, followed by notification of the name of the disease, and notification of recurrence. The influencing factors varied depending on the notification period. Although no significant difference was observed for health-related QOL among the three notification types, significant differences were observed for certain items when compared with national standard values. Conclusions: When a notification of terminality, which produced the highest psychological stress response, is given, providing care that considers health-related QOL is necessary not only for patients but also for their spouses.

  4. Response to a spill of national significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, D.S.; Pond, R.; Johnson, M.H.

    1993-01-01

    Responding to a spill of national significance (SONS), such as the 1989 Exxon Valdez spill, requires an augmenting organization to support the local response organization. The US Coast Guard has developed SONS protocol to be better prepared to respond to these infrequent catastrophic spills. A flag-level Coast Guard officer assumes the role of national incident commander (NIC) and federal on-scene coordinator (OSC), and is supported by a national incident task force (NITF). The major role of the NITF is to develop a national response strategy, acquire response resources and allocate them efficiently, and effectively deal with many peripheral national issues. Unified command concepts have been incorporated into the NITF and its primary organizational elements. In addition, frequent training and exercising is essential to keep the SONS protocol's preparedness at an acceptable level

  5. Relational responsibilities in responsive evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visse, M.A.; Abma, T.A.; Widdershoven, G.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    This article explores how we can enhance our understanding of the moral responsibilities in daily, plural practices of responsive evaluation. It introduces an interpretive framework for understanding the moral aspects of evaluation practice. The framework supports responsive evaluators to better

  6. The significance of translation regulation in the stress response

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The stress response in bacteria involves the multistage control of gene expression but is not entirely understood. To identify the translational response of bacteria in stress conditions and assess its contribution to the regulation of gene expression, the translational states of all mRNAs were compared under optimal growth condition and during nutrient (isoleucine) starvation. Results A genome-scale study of the translational response to nutritional limitation was performed in the model bacterium Lactococcus lactis. Two measures were used to assess the translational status of each individual mRNA: the fraction engaged in translation (ribosome occupancy) and ribosome density (number of ribosomes per 100 nucleotides). Under isoleucine starvation, half of the mRNAs considered were translationally down-regulated mainly due to decreased ribosome density. This pattern concerned genes involved in growth-related functions such as translation, transcription, and the metabolism of fatty acids, phospholipids and bases, contributing to the slowdown of growth. Only 4% of the mRNAs were translationally up-regulated, mostly related to prophagic expression in response to stress. The remaining genes exhibited antagonistic regulations of the two markers of translation. Ribosome occupancy increased significantly for all the genes involved in the biosynthesis of isoleucine, although their ribosome density had decreased. The results revealed complex translational regulation of this pathway, essential to cope with isoleucine starvation. To elucidate the regulation of global gene expression more generally, translational regulation was compared to transcriptional regulation under isoleucine starvation and to other post-transcriptional regulations related to mRNA degradation and mRNA dilution by growth. Translational regulation appeared to accentuate the effects of transcriptional changes for down-regulated growth-related functions under isoleucine starvation although m

  7. The Significance of Community to Business Social Responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besser, Terry L.

    1998-01-01

    Interviews with 1008 business owners and managers in 30 small Iowa communities found that the majority were committed to their community and provided support to youth programs, local schools, or community development activities. Business social responsibility was related to operator age, education, success, and perceptions of community collective…

  8. Religiosity, health and happiness: significant relations in adolescents from Qatar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Khalek, Ahmed M

    2014-11-01

    Several studies have revealed positive associations between religiosity, health and happiness. However, the vast majority of these studies were carried out on native English-speaking participants. The objective of this study was to estimate the relations between religiosity, health and happiness among a sample (N = 372) of Qatari adolescents (M age = 15.2). The students responded to five self-rating scales to assess religiosity, mental health, physical health, happiness and satisfaction with life. Boys obtained a higher mean score on mental health than did their female counterparts. All the correlations between the rating scales were significant and positive. Principal component analysis disclosed one component and labelled 'Religiosity, health and happiness' in both sexes. The multiple stepwise regression indicated that the predictors of religiosity were the self-ratings of satisfaction with life and happiness in boys, whereas the predictors among girls were satisfaction with life and physical health. On the basis of the responses of the present sample, it was concluded that those who consider themselves as religious were more happy, satisfied with their life and healthy. © The Author(s) 2013.

  9. Safety significance of ATR passive safety response attributes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atkinson, S.A.

    1990-01-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory was designed with some passive safety response attributes which contribute to the safety of the facility. The three passive safety attributes being evaluated in the paper are: 1) In-core and in-vessel natural convection cooling, 2) a passive heat sink capability of the ATR primary coolant system (PCS) for the transfer of decay power from the uninsulated piping to the confinement, and 3) gravity feed of emergency coolant makeup. The safety significance of the ATR passive safety response attributes is that the reactor can passively respond to most transients, given a reactor scram, to provide adequate decay power removal and a significant time for operator action should the normal active heat removal systems and their backup systems both fail. The ATR Interim Level 1 Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) models and results were used to evaluate the significance to ATR fuel damage frequency (or probability) of the above three passive response attributes. The results of the evaluation indicate that the first attribute is a major safety characteristic of the ATR. The second attribute has a noticeable but only minor safety significance. The third attribute has no significant influence on the ATR firewater injection system (emergency coolant system)

  10. Do the Uncertainty Relations Really have Crucial Significances for Physics?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitru S.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available It is proved the falsity of idea that the Uncertainty Relations (UR have crucial significances for physics. Additionally one argues for the necesity of an UR-disconnected quantum philosophy.

  11. Single-trial event-related potentials to significant stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushby, Jacqueline A; Barry, Robert J

    2009-11-01

    The stimulus-response pattern of the skin conductance response (SCR) was used as a model of the Orienting Reflex (OR) to assess the P1, N1, P2, N2 and late positive complex (LPC/P300) components of the ERP in a simple habituation paradigm, in which a single series of 12 innocuous tones were presented at a very long interstimulus interval (2 min). To maintain their waking state during this boring task, participants were instructed to alternately close or open their eyes to each stimulus. None of the baseline-to-peak ERP measures showed trials effects comparable with the marked habituation over trials shown by the SCRs. Principal Components Analysis was used to decompose the ERP, yielding factors identified as the N1, N2, P3a, P3b and Novelty P3 components. An additional factor represented later eye-movement activity. No trial effects were apparent for the N1, N2, P3a or P3b components. The Novelty P3 showed marked response decrement over trials. These results are discussed in relation to current conceptualisations of the OR.

  12. The significance of translation regulation in the stress response

    OpenAIRE

    Picard, Flora; Loubière, Pascal; Girbal, Laurence; Bousquet, Muriel

    2013-01-01

    Background: The stress response in bacteria involves the multistage control of gene expression but is not entirely understood. To identify the translational response of bacteria in stress conditions and assess its contribution to the regulation of gene expression, the translational states of all mRNAs were compared under optimal growth condition and during nutrient (isoleucine) starvation. Results: A genome-scale study of the translational response to nutritional limitation was performed in t...

  13. Significance and nature of bystander responses induced by various agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Neha; Tiku, Ashu Bhan

    2017-07-01

    Bystander effects in a biological system are the responses shown by non-targeted neighbouring cells/tissues/organisms. These responses are triggered by factors released from targeted cells when exposed to a stress inducing agent. The biological response to stress inducing agents is complex, owing to the diversity of mechanisms and pathways activated in directly targeted and bystander cells. These responses are highly variable and can be either beneficial or hazardous depending on the cell lines tested, dose of agent used, experimental end points and time course selected. Recently non-targeted cells have even been reported to rescue the directly exposed cells by releasing protective signals that might be induced by non-targeted bystander responses. The nature of bystander signal/s is not yet clear. However, there are evidences suggesting involvement of ROS, RNS, protein factors and even DNA molecules leading to the activation of a number of signaling pathways. These can act independently or in a cascade, to induce events leading to changes in gene expression patterns that could elicit detrimental or beneficial effects. Many review articles on radiation induced bystander responses have been published. However, to the best of our knowledge, a comprehensive review on bystander responses induced by other genotoxic chemicals and stress inducing agents has not been published so far. Therefore, the aim of the present review is to give an overview of the literature on different aspects of bystander responses: agents that induce these responses, factors that can modulate bystander responses and the mechanisms involved. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Consecutive Acupuncture Stimulations Lead to Significantly Decreased Neural Responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yeo, S.; Choe, I.H.; Noort, M.W.M.L. van den; Bosch, M.P.C.; Lim, S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), in combination with block design paradigms with consecutive acupuncture stimulations, has often been used to investigate the neural responses to acupuncture. In this study, we investigated whether previous acupuncture stimulations can affect

  15. Biological significance of sperm whale responses to sonar: Comparison with anti-predator responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Curé, C.; Isojunno, S.; Visser, F.; Wensveen, P.J.; Sivle, L.D.; Kvadsheim, P.H.; Lam, F.A.; Miller, P.J.O.

    2016-01-01

    A key issue when investigating effects of anthropogenic noise on cetacean behavior is to identify the biological significance of the responses. Predator presence can be considered a natural high-level disturbance stimulus to which prey animals have evolved adaptive response strategies to reduce

  16. The Relative Importance of Low Significance Level and High Power in Multiple Tests of Significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westermann, Rainer; Hager, Willi

    1983-01-01

    Two psychological experiments--Anderson and Shanteau (1970), Berkowitz and LePage (1967)--are reanalyzed to present the problem of the relative importance of low Type 1 error probability and high power when answering a research question by testing several statistical hypotheses. (Author/PN)

  17. [Significance of expert-guided groups for relatives in psychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plessen, U; Postzich, M; Wilkmann, M

    1985-03-01

    Psychiatric interest in relatives of patients was concentrated in the past on their pathogenetic and etiological influence on mental illness. The medical paradigma of mental illness did not account for relatives affliction in psychic disturbance of their family member. Against this a community care oriented approach involves relatives into psychiatric care, particularly under the aspects of coping strategies and rehabilitative sources. Practicability and effects of this approach were explored in expert-guided relative groups at the Psychiatric Hospital Gütersloh (FRG). Results indicated that relatives are concerned with a series of problems. Participating in relative groups facilitates coping with these problems. Expert-guided and relative centered groups were found helpful, discharging and encouraging for relatives.

  18. Spontaneous Responses to Neoliberalism, and their Significance for Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes L van der Walt

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a sequel to the keynote address at the 2017 BCES Conference. The keynote address concluded with the thought that some educationists respond intuitively and spontaneously to neoliberalism and its impact on education whereas others reject neoliberalist precepts and their pedagogical implications on definite principled grounds. This paper deals with the former response; it offers pedagogical insights gleaned from an overview of intuitive, spontaneous reactions to neoliberalism.

  19. Corporate social responsibility and the significance of its promotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veljković Dobrinka

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Corporate Social Responsibility is today frequently used concept, as companies to a larger extent are held accountable for what is happening in the society. In their effort to make a contribution on the solution of various societal problems, the companies engage in different corporative social initiatives. To enjoy multiple benefits arising from implementation of CSR practices companies should reaffirm their commitment to issues of wide public interests as well as promote all the activities pursued in diminishing and solving different social and environmental problems. It is very important to make company's social involvement as transparent as possible, which can be, aparat from other ways, enhanced by proper and up-to-date use of the web site. Through the web site company can inform wide public (all relevant stakeholders about its CSR activities - programs, undertaken initiatives, partners involved, results achieved and future plans and goals in CSR domain. Placing these informating represents an efficient way of promoting company's CSR profile. Aparat from that, company can regulary place announcements on its web site about all other ways of promoting its CSR engagement.

  20. Broken home or drug using peers : "Significant relations"?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quensel, S; McArdle, P; Brinkley, A; Wiegersma, A; Blom, M; Fitzgerald, M; Johnson, R; Kolte, B; Michels, [No Value; Pierolini, A; Pos, R; Stoeckel, [No Value

    2002-01-01

    This study reports the results of a comparative survey with representative samples of 3,386 school attending youths, most of whom were 15 years of age and residing in five European cities. We found significant but low correlations between the type of family structure (intact family, model family,

  1. Relating Business Goals to Architecturally Significant Requirements for Software Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    must respond within five seconds” [ EPF 2010]. A major source of architecturally significant requirements is the set of business goals that led to the...Projects for Competitive Advantage, Center for Business Practices, 1999. [ EPF 2010] Eclipse Process Framework Project. Concept: Architecturally

  2. Significance of the NCA's "Dialogue on Public Relations Education" Conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruckeberg, Dean; Paluszek, John L.

    1999-01-01

    Contends that the 1998 Summer Conference of the National Communication Association, and the massive formative research in preparation for it, were seminal in examining current public-relations practice and education, in advocating education norms for the future, and in contributing to a much-needed ecumenism among the diverse public-relations…

  3. Spontaneous pneumomediastinum on CT : related condition and its clinical significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sung Hyun; Im, Jung Gi; Seo, Joon Beom; Park, Jae Hyung; Yeon, Kyung Mo; Han, Man Chung

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to tabulate underlying disease and to assess the clinical significance of CT-diagnosed spontaneous pneumomediastinum. We retrospectively reviewed CT scans and medical records of 11 consecutive patients with spontaneous pneumomediastinum, and analyzed their clinical history and course, and in five cases, pulmonary function. CT scans of 126 patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPE) collected while the 11 consecutive patients were being treated were analyzed for the prevalence of pneumomediastinum. We analyzed CT findings with respect to the amount and distribution of air in the mediastinum, and the presence of absence of air outside the mediastinum. Spontaneous pneumomediastinum might be associated with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and might be a poor prognostic factor in patients with IPE or BOOP. (author). 18 refs., 2 figs

  4. Spontaneous pneumomediastinum on CT : related condition and its clinical significance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung Hyun; Im, Jung Gi; Seo, Joon Beom; Park, Jae Hyung; Yeon, Kyung Mo; Han, Man Chung [Seoul National Univ. (Korea, Republic of). Coll. of Medicine

    1998-03-01

    The purpose of this paper is to tabulate underlying disease and to assess the clinical significance of CT-diagnosed spontaneous pneumomediastinum. We retrospectively reviewed CT scans and medical records of 11 consecutive patients with spontaneous pneumomediastinum, and analyzed their clinical history and course, and in five cases, pulmonary function. CT scans of 126 patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPE) collected while the 11 consecutive patients were being treated were analyzed for the prevalence of pneumomediastinum. We analyzed CT findings with respect to the amount and distribution of air in the mediastinum, and the presence of absence of air outside the mediastinum. Spontaneous pneumomediastinum might be associated with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and might be a poor prognostic factor in patients with IPE or BOOP. (author). 18 refs., 2 figs.

  5. The significance of age and sex for the absence of immune response to hepatitis B vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosić Ilija

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Seroepidemiological investigations after the administration of hepatitis B vaccine have shown that even 15% of vaccinated healthy persons do not generate immune response to the vaccines currently in use. OBJECTIVE The aim of the research is to test the immunogenicity of hepatitis B vaccine in different age groups on the adult vaccinated population sample in Serbia. METHOD The tested general population sample consisted of 154 adult subjects. Immunization was done using the recombinant fungal vaccine obtained by genetic engineering (Euvax B vaccine, manufacturer LG, distributor Sanofi Pasteur. All tested subjects in the research received 1 ml of hepatitis B vaccine administered intramuscularly into the deltoid muscle by 0, 1, 6 schedule. RESULTS In the tested sample, 3.13% of persons aged up to 29 years, 6.25% aged 30-35 year and 19.23% of the tested persons aged 40 years and older had no immune response. The relative risk of “no response" findings was twice higher in the group aged 30-39 as compared to the population aged up to 29 years. The detected risk was six times higher for the population of 40 years and older in comparison to the population aged up to 29 years. Also, the relative risk of “no response" findings for the population of 40 years and older was more than three times higher than for the group aged 30-39. Absent immune response in relation to sex was found to be higher in male subjects. CONCLUSION The rates of “no response" finding was the following: 3.13% in the group aged up to 29 years, 6.25% in the group aged 30-39, as well as in the group aged 40 years and older (19.23%. Immune response in relation to age groups was statistically significantly different (p<0.001, while there was a statistically significant correlation (C=0.473; p<0.001 between the age of the subjects and the immune response. In relation to sex, the “no response" finding was found to be increased in the males, but without any statistically

  6. Gene Expression Programs in Response to Hypoxia: Cell Type Specificity and Prognostic Significance in Human Cancers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Inadequate oxygen (hypoxia triggers a multifaceted cellular response that has important roles in normal physiology and in many human diseases. A transcription factor, hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF, plays a central role in the hypoxia response; its activity is regulated by the oxygen-dependent degradation of the HIF-1alpha protein. Despite the ubiquity and importance of hypoxia responses, little is known about the variation in the global transcriptional response to hypoxia among different cell types or how this variation might relate to tissue- and cell-specific diseases. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We analyzed the temporal changes in global transcript levels in response to hypoxia in primary renal proximal tubule epithelial cells, breast epithelial cells, smooth muscle cells, and endothelial cells with DNA microarrays. The extent of the transcriptional response to hypoxia was greatest in the renal tubule cells. This heightened response was associated with a uniquely high level of HIF-1alpha RNA in renal cells, and it could be diminished by reducing HIF-1alpha expression via RNA interference. A gene-expression signature of the hypoxia response, derived from our studies of cultured mammary and renal tubular epithelial cells, showed coordinated variation in several human cancers, and was a strong predictor of clinical outcomes in breast and ovarian cancers. In an analysis of a large, published gene-expression dataset from breast cancers, we found that the prognostic information in the hypoxia signature was virtually independent of that provided by the previously reported wound signature and more predictive of outcomes than any of the clinical parameters in current use. CONCLUSIONS: The transcriptional response to hypoxia varies among human cells. Some of this variation is traceable to variation in expression of the HIF1A gene. A gene-expression signature of the cellular response to hypoxia is associated with a significantly poorer prognosis

  7. Relational factors in psychopathological responses to childbirth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cigoli, Vittorio; Gilli, Gabriella; Saita, Emanuela

    2006-06-01

    Childbirth can represent for women the time of greatest vulnerability experience, often associated with being out of control, loneliness or sadness. One hundred and sixty women who had 'normal' births were assessed within 48 hours on potential predictive measures and at 3-6 months post-partum for PTSD. Symptoms of depression, anxiety, perceived and desired support by family members, friends, medical personnel were also assessed. t-Test and chi-square were used to analyze, differences between 'risk group' and 'non-risk group'. Few women (1.25%) showed questionnaire responses suggesting clinically significant levels on PTSD; other women (28.75%) reported clinically significant symptoms for at least one subscale. Being at the first delivery experience, together with perceptions of low levels of support from family members and medical personnel, were found to be related to experience of post-traumatic stress symptoms. Anxiety for the child and previous depression are also related to such symptoms. Moreover, anxiety and depression are related to a difficult recognition of the support received, as well as to the desire for more support, in the care of the newborn, from medical professionals.

  8. Relationally-responsive interaction in business

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars

    Interaction between active, individually significant and interdependent actors is a central concern for research within the IMP tradition, which emphasises that it is what happens between a company and others that constitutes the core of business. Nevertheless, it is also recognised that our...... understanding of the nature of interaction and its implications for business remains limited. This paper develops a theoretically grounded understanding of how business actors orient themselves towards each other in relationally-­‐responsive interaction. Amongst other things, this understanding offers a more...... satisfying conceptualisation of identity than that found in the IMP literature, which argues that identity is determined by resources and activities. Another important contribution is the distinction made between two kinds of challenges, which business actors face in their day-to-day activities: logical...

  9. Relative frequencies and significance of faecal coliforms as indicators related to water temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auban, E G; Ripolles, A A; Domarco, M J

    1983-01-01

    The faecal coliforms at different sites of a hypereutrophic lake near Valencia (Albufera) were identified and their relative amounts established along an annual cycle. Using lauryl tryptose broth at 35 degrees C, followed by incubation at 44.4 degrees C in 2% brilliant green bile, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae are practically the only coliforms present. A positive correlation was found between the water temperature and the relative amount of these two coliforms: K. pneumoniae predominates at high water temperatures, whereas E. coli shows preponderance during the cold period. The role of K. pneumoniae as the only faecal indicator under the circumstances described in the work is emphasized and discussed.

  10. Self-relation and relations with significant adults as factors of satisfaction with life in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golovey L.A.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the study of factors influencing life satisfaction of teenagers raised in families as well as those raised in orphanages. Both groups are studied with regard to their self-attitude, self-confidence and relationships with significant adults. Sample: 96 teenagers aged between 14 and 16 years (46 of them live in or- phanages. Methods: Self-attitude methodology by S.R. Pantileev, Trust questionnaire by T.P. Skripkina, Child-parent relationships questionnaire by O.A. Karabanova and P.V. Troyanskaya, Life Satisfaction scale by E. Diner. The research proved the level of trust in orphanage-raised teenagers to be considerably lower than that of family-raised teenagers. The way teenagers see their relationships with significant adults also turned out to be fairly different in case of orphanage-raised groups due to their caregivers' authoritarian attitude towards them and lack of empathy and communication. The study also shows that the level of life satisfaction in the orphanage group is significantly below the average and substantially lower than in the group from family-raised teenagers. Positive self-attitude, person’s approval of his/ her intellectual capacities, as well as the caregiver's understanding of his pupil's features, are predictors of life satisfaction in the group of teenagers from orphanages. Concerning the family-raised teenagers, much more factors are involved in maintaining their subjective well-being.

  11. Significance of novel bioinorganic anodic aluminum oxide nanoscaffolds for promoting cellular response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poinern, Gérrard Eddy Jai; Shackleton, Robert; Mamun, Shariful Islam; Fawcett, Derek

    2011-01-01

    Tissue engineering is a multidisciplinary field that can directly benefit from the many advancements in nanotechnology and nanoscience. This article reviews a novel biocompatible anodic aluminum oxide (AAO, alumina) membrane in terms of tissue engineering. Cells respond and interact with their natural environment, the extracellular matrix, and the landscape of the substrate. The interaction with the topographical features of the landscape occurs both in the micrometer and nanoscales. If all these parameters are favorable to the cell, the cell will respond in terms of adhesion, proliferation, and migration. The role of the substrate/scaffold is crucial in soliciting a favorable response from the cell. The size and type of surface feature can directly influence the response and behavior of the cell. In the case of using an AAO membrane, the surface features and porosity of the membrane can be dictated at the nanoscale during the manufacturing stage. This is achieved by using general laboratory equipment to perform a relatively straightforward electrochemical process. During this technique, changing the operational parameters of the process directly controls the nanoscale features produced. For example, the pore size, pore density, and, hence, density can be effectively controlled during the synthesis of the AAO membrane. In addition, being able to control the pore size and porosity of a biomaterial such as AAO significantly broadens its application in tissue engineering. PMID:24198483

  12. Significance of novel bioinorganic anodic aluminum oxide nanoscaffolds for promoting cellular response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poinern, Gérrard Eddy Jai; Shackleton, Robert; Mamun, Shariful Islam; Fawcett, Derek

    2011-01-14

    Tissue engineering is a multidisciplinary field that can directly benefit from the many advancements in nanotechnology and nanoscience. This article reviews a novel biocompatible anodic aluminum oxide (AAO, alumina) membrane in terms of tissue engineering. Cells respond and interact with their natural environment, the extracellular matrix, and the landscape of the substrate. The interaction with the topographical features of the landscape occurs both in the micrometer and nanoscales. If all these parameters are favorable to the cell, the cell will respond in terms of adhesion, proliferation, and migration. The role of the substrate/scaffold is crucial in soliciting a favorable response from the cell. The size and type of surface feature can directly influence the response and behavior of the cell. In the case of using an AAO membrane, the surface features and porosity of the membrane can be dictated at the nanoscale during the manufacturing stage. This is achieved by using general laboratory equipment to perform a relatively straightforward electrochemical process. During this technique, changing the operational parameters of the process directly controls the nanoscale features produced. For example, the pore size, pore density, and, hence, density can be effectively controlled during the synthesis of the AAO membrane. In addition, being able to control the pore size and porosity of a biomaterial such as AAO significantly broadens its application in tissue engineering.

  13. Significance of novel bioinorganic anodic aluminum oxide nanoscaffolds for promoting cellular response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gérrard Eddy Jai Poinern

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Gérrard Eddy Jai Poinern, Robert Shackleton, Shariful Islam Mamun, Derek FawcettMurdoch Applied Nanotechnology Research Group, Department of Physics, Energy Studies and Nanotechnology, School of Engineering and Energy, Murdoch University, Murdoch, Western Australia, AustraliaAbstract: Tissue engineering is a multidisciplinary field that can directly benefit from the many advancements in nanotechnology and nanoscience. This article reviews a novel biocompatible anodic aluminum oxide (AAO, alumina membrane in terms of tissue engineering. Cells respond and interact with their natural environment, the extracellular matrix, and the landscape of the substrate. The interaction with the topographical features of the landscape occurs both in the micrometer and nanoscales. If all these parameters are favorable to the cell, the cell will respond in terms of adhesion, proliferation, and migration. The role of the substrate/scaffold is crucial in soliciting a favorable response from the cell. The size and type of surface feature can directly influence the response and behavior of the cell. In the case of using an AAO membrane, the surface features and porosity of the membrane can be dictated at the nanoscale during the manufacturing stage. This is achieved by using general laboratory equipment to perform a relatively straightforward electrochemical process. During this technique, changing the operational parameters of the process directly controls the nanoscale features produced. For example, the pore size, pore density, and, hence, density can be effectively controlled during the synthesis of the AAO membrane. In addition, being able to control the pore size and porosity of a biomaterial such as AAO significantly broadens its application in tissue engineering.Keywords: anodic aluminum oxide, nanoscaffolds, cellular response, tissue engineering

  14. Significant Correlation Between the Infant Gut Microbiome and Rotavirus Vaccine Response in Rural Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Vanessa C; Armah, George; Fuentes, Susana; Korpela, Katri E; Parashar, Umesh; Victor, John C; Tate, Jacqueline; de Weerth, Carolina; Giaquinto, Carlo; Wiersinga, Willem Joost; Lewis, Kristen D C; de Vos, Willem M

    2017-01-01

     Rotavirus (RV) is the leading cause of diarrhea-related death in children worldwide and 95% of RV-associated deaths occur in Africa and Asia where RV vaccines (RVVs) have lower efficacy. We hypothesize that differences in intestinal microbiome composition correlate with the decreased RVV efficacy observed in poor settings.  We conducted a nested, case-control study comparing prevaccination, fecal microbiome compositions between 6-week old, matched RVV responders and nonresponders in rural Ghana. These infants' microbiomes were then compared with 154 age-matched, healthy Dutch infants' microbiomes, assumed to be RVV responders. Fecal microbiome analysis was performed in all groups using the Human Intestinal Tract Chip.  We analyzed findings in 78 Ghanaian infants, including 39 RVV responder and nonresponder pairs. The overall microbiome composition was significantly different between RVV responders and nonresponders (FDR, 0.12), and Ghanaian responders were more similar to Dutch infants than nonresponders (P = .002). RVV response correlated with an increased abundance of Streptococcus bovis and a decreased abundance of the Bacteroidetes phylum in comparisons between both Ghanaian RVV responders and nonresponders (FDR, 0.008 vs 0.003) and Dutch infants and Ghanaian nonresponders (FDR, 0.002 vs 0.009).  The intestinal microbiome composition correlates significantly with RVV immunogenicity and may contribute to the diminished RVV immunogenicity observed in developing countries. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  15. Treatment response in HCV related chronic hepatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, A.B.; Hussain, T.; Hussain, S.; Masood, A.; Kazmi, Y.; Tariq, W.Z.; Karamat, K.A.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the virological response to treatment with interferon and ribavirin in-patients with hepatitis C related liver disease. Material and Methods: Two hundred seventy-nine patients were included in the study. These patients had taken interferon and ribavirin treatment for HCV related chronic hepatitis, and were referred to AFIP for HCV RNA testing by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) between January 2002 and September 2002. Out of 279 cases, 229 had taken the treatment for 06 or 12 months and were tested for end-of-treatment response (ETR). Fifty patients had completed there treatment regimens of 6 or 12 months treatment, at least 24 weeks before their PCR test and were having follow-up testing for sustained viral response (SVR). The sera of these patients were tested for HCV RNA by PCR, using a commercial kit of Amplicor (Roche) for qualitative detection of HCV RNA. Results: Out of 229 cases tested for end-of-treatment response, 198 (86.5%) had no detectable HCV RNA (responders) and 31 (13.50%) were PCR positive (non-responders). Thirty-eight out of 50 cases, tested for a sustained viral response, had a negative result for HCV PCR thus showing sustained response rate of 76%. Conclusion: The viral remission/response to interferon and ribavirin combination therapy in our patients was better than that quoted in other regions. (author)

  16. The significance of environmental responsibility on airline customers' intention to purchase

    OpenAIRE

    Merilä, Outi

    2015-01-01

    Operating in an energy intensive industry, airlines’ environmental performance is under constant scrutiny of the regulators and authorities. By contrast, it seems that not many airlines have considered gaining competitive advantage in by differentiating as an environmentally responsible carrier. The commissioning company for this Master’s Thesis was Finnair, and the intention of this study was to find out whether factors related to environmental responsibility affect Swedish...

  17. How Often Is the Misfit of Item Response Theory Models Practically Significant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinharay, Sandip; Haberman, Shelby J.

    2014-01-01

    Standard 3.9 of the Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing ([, 1999]) demands evidence of model fit when item response theory (IRT) models are employed to data from tests. Hambleton and Han ([Hambleton, R. K., 2005]) and Sinharay ([Sinharay, S., 2005]) recommended the assessment of practical significance of misfit of IRT models, but…

  18. Safety significance of ATR [Advanced Test Reactor] passive safety response attributes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atkinson, S.A.

    1989-01-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory was designed with some passive safety response attributes which contribute to the safety posture of the facility. The three passive safety attributes being evaluated in the paper are: (1) In-core and in-vessel natural convection cooling, (2) a passive heat sink capability of the ATR primary coolant system (PCS) for the transfer of decay power from the uninsulated piping to the confinement, and (3) gravity feed of emergency coolant makeup. The safety significance of the ATR passive safety response attributes is that the reactor can passively respond for most transients, given a reactor scram, to provide adequate decay power removal and a significant time for operator action should the normal active heat removal systems and their backup systems both fail. The ATR Interim Level 1 Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) model ands results were used to evaluate the significance to ATR fuel damage frequency (or probability) of the above three passive response attributes. The results of the evaluation indicate that the first attribute is a major safety characteristic of the ATR. The second attribute has a noticeable but only minor safety significance. The third attribute has no significant influence on the ATR Level 1 PRA because of the diversity and redundancy of the ATR firewater injection system (emergency coolant system). 8 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  19. The clinical significance of thymidylate synthase expression in human papillomavirus-related oropharyngeal squamous carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Hisayuki; Yui, Takehiro; Okada, Tatsuyoshi; Urano, Makoto; Sakurai, Kazuo; Naito, Kensei; Yamamoto, Naoki

    2012-01-01

    The focus of human papilloma virus (HPV), particulary HPV 16 is on the role of carcinogenic and prognostic factors on oropharyngeal squamous carcinoma (OSCC). However, it remains unclear why patients with HPV-positive tumors have better outcomes than those with HPV-negative tumors. Thymidylate synthase (TS) is one of the initial key enzymes in the 5-fluouracil (5-FU) metabolic pathway. Clinical studies showed that intratumoural TS level was related to the response to 5-FU-based chemotherapy in patients with several types of cancer such as gastroenterological and head and neck cancers. We investigated the prevalence of HPV infection and TS expression in the patients with OSCC and evaluated the prognostic implications according to the HPV status and TS expression. We evaluated for high-risk HPV types (HPV 16, 18, 31, 33, 51, 52, 58) using a real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay on archival biopsies from 54 patients with OSCC. Immunohistochemical assessments for TS were also performed. HPV was positive in 22 (40.7%) of 54 samples. Of these positive cases, 21 (95%) carried HPV 16 and only 1 (5%) HPV58 sequences. TS was overexpressed in 25 (46.3%) of 54 samples. Of these, 19 (76.0%) had an HPV-negative status and 21 (84.0%) were heavy smokers. TS overexpression was associated with the patients with HPV-negative tumors (P=0.02) and heavy smokers (p=0.012). Univariate analysis revealed that HPV positive status (77.3% vs. 29.0%; p=0.006) significantly improved overall survival. Conversely, no remarkable prognostic difference was observed on immunohistochemical analysis of TS expression. A multivariate analysis using Cox's proportional hazard model showed that early T stage (T1-2), early N stage (N0-1), and positive HPV status were significantly independent predictors for superior overall survival. Our studies suggested that positive HPV status was most strongly associated with a favorable prognosis in the patients with OSCC. TS expression has an unusual aspect

  20. Perception and significance of an assistive technology intervention - the perspectives of relatives of persons with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alwin, Jenny; Persson, Jan; Krevers, Barbro

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to examine relatives' perception of an assistive technology intervention aimed at persons with dementia (PwDs) and their relatives, and to examine whether, and how, experiences of the intervention process differed between relatives valuing the intervention to be of high, and relatives perceiving it to be of low significance. A total of 47 relatives of PwDs within the Swedish Technology and Dementia project were interviewed telephonically using a modified version of the Patient perspective on Care and Rehabilitation process instrument. A total of 46 participants were divided into two groups depending on whether they valued the intervention to be of great significance (GS group; N = 33) or of some/no significance (SNS group; N = 13). Several aspects of the intervention were perceived as highly important, e.g. being shown consideration and respect, and having somewhere to turn. The results indicate that relatives in the GS group perceived certain aspects of the intervention process as highly fulfilled to a larger extent than did relatives in the SNS group. This study illustrates how process evaluations can be used to increase the understanding and to identify improvement aspects of interventions. Process evaluation is a good method for understanding how interventions can be improved - a keystone for quality work. Based on relatives' ratings, a high fulfilment of the AT intervention process was associated with the perception of a significant outcome of the intervention.

  1. Escherichia coli DinB inhibits replication fork progression without significantly inducing the SOS response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Tetsuya; Nakamura, Tatsuro; Okazaki, Naoto; Furukohri, Asako; Maki, Hisaji; Akiyama, Masahiro Tatsumi

    2012-01-01

    The SOS response is readily triggered by replication fork stalling caused by DNA damage or a dysfunctional replicative apparatus in Escherichia coli cells. E. coli dinB encodes DinB DNA polymerase and its expression is upregulated during the SOS response. DinB catalyzes translesion DNA synthesis in place of a replicative DNA polymerase III that is stalled at a DNA lesion. We showed previously that DNA replication was suppressed without exogenous DNA damage in cells overproducing DinB. In this report, we confirm that this was due to a dose-dependent inhibition of ongoing replication forks by DinB. Interestingly, the DinB-overproducing cells did not significantly induce the SOS response even though DNA replication was perturbed. RecA protein is activated by forming a nucleoprotein filament with single-stranded DNA, which leads to the onset of the SOS response. In the DinB-overproducing cells, RecA was not activated to induce the SOS response. However, the SOS response was observed after heat-inducible activation in strain recA441 (encoding a temperature-sensitive RecA) and after replication blockage in strain dnaE486 (encoding a temperature-sensitive catalytic subunit of the replicative DNA polymerase III) at a non-permissive temperature when DinB was overproduced in these cells. Furthermore, since catalytically inactive DinB could avoid the SOS response to a DinB-promoted fork block, it is unlikely that overproduced DinB takes control of primer extension and thus limits single-stranded DNA. These observations suggest that DinB possesses a feature that suppresses DNA replication but does not abolish the cell's capacity to induce the SOS response. We conclude that DinB impedes replication fork progression in a way that does not activate RecA, in contrast to obstructive DNA lesions and dysfunctional replication machinery.

  2. Multilevel linear modelling of the response-contingent learning of young children with significant developmental delays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raab, Melinda; Dunst, Carl J; Hamby, Deborah W

    2018-02-27

    The purpose of the study was to isolate the sources of variations in the rates of response-contingent learning among young children with multiple disabilities and significant developmental delays randomly assigned to contrasting types of early childhood intervention. Multilevel, hierarchical linear growth curve modelling was used to analyze four different measures of child response-contingent learning where repeated child learning measures were nested within individual children (Level-1), children were nested within practitioners (Level-2), and practitioners were nested within the contrasting types of intervention (Level-3). Findings showed that sources of variations in rates of child response-contingent learning were associated almost entirely with type of intervention after the variance associated with differences in practitioners nested within groups were accounted for. Rates of child learning were greater among children whose existing behaviour were used as the building blocks for promoting child competence (asset-based practices) compared to children for whom the focus of intervention was promoting child acquisition of missing skills (needs-based practices). The methods of analysis illustrate a practical approach to clustered data analysis and the presentation of results in ways that highlight sources of variations in the rates of response-contingent learning among young children with multiple developmental disabilities and significant developmental delays. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Dietary change: what are the responses and roles of significant others?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paisley, Judy; Beanlands, Heather; Goldman, Joanne; Evers, Susan; Chappell, Janet

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the impact of one person's dietary change on the experiences of a significant other with whom they regularly shared meals. Qualitative constant comparison approach using semistructured interviews. Community-based. Forty-two participants were recruited using a stratified purposive sampling strategy. Verbatim transcripts were analyzed using NUD*IST, version 4.0 software (Qualitative Solutions and Research, Melbourne, Australia, 1997) and manual coding. Most dietary changers had modified their diets in response to a disease diagnosis (eg, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer, hypoglycemia, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), ulcer, allergies). Others had changed their diets for personal reasons (eg, weight loss, vegetarian diets). The dietary changes included dietary fat reduction, conversion to vegetarian or vegan diets, restriction of total kilocalorie intake, and elimination or reduction of specific food items. Significant others described a range of emotional responses to the dietary change, including cooperation, encouragement, skepticism, and anger. Significant others' descriptions of the roles that they played in the dietary change were positive (enabling), neutral (neither enabling nor inhibiting), or negative (inhibiting). Most significant others played positive roles; few played neutral or negative roles. Understanding dietary change from the perspective of significant others can enable nutrition professionals to develop strategies to promote dietary modifications as a shared activity.

  4. Gender differences in binaural speech-evoked auditory brainstem response: are they clinically significant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalaei, Bahram; Azmi, Mohd Hafiz Afifi Mohd; Zakaria, Mohd Normani

    2018-05-17

    Binaurally evoked auditory evoked potentials have good diagnostic values when testing subjects with central auditory deficits. The literature on speech-evoked auditory brainstem response evoked by binaural stimulation is in fact limited. Gender disparities in speech-evoked auditory brainstem response results have been consistently noted but the magnitude of gender difference has not been reported. The present study aimed to compare the magnitude of gender difference in speech-evoked auditory brainstem response results between monaural and binaural stimulations. A total of 34 healthy Asian adults aged 19-30 years participated in this comparative study. Eighteen of them were females (mean age=23.6±2.3 years) and the remaining sixteen were males (mean age=22.0±2.3 years). For each subject, speech-evoked auditory brainstem response was recorded with the synthesized syllable /da/ presented monaurally and binaurally. While latencies were not affected (p>0.05), the binaural stimulation produced statistically higher speech-evoked auditory brainstem response amplitudes than the monaural stimulation (p0.80), substantive gender differences were noted in most of speech-evoked auditory brainstem response peaks for both stimulation modes. The magnitude of gender difference between the two stimulation modes revealed some distinct patterns. Based on these clinically significant results, gender-specific normative data are highly recommended when using speech-evoked auditory brainstem response for clinical and future applications. The preliminary normative data provided in the present study can serve as the reference for future studies on this test among Asian adults. Copyright © 2018 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  5. Serious fighting-related injuries produce a significant reduction in intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Joseph A; Beaver, Kevin M

    2013-10-01

    Fighting-related injuries are common among adolescents within the United States, but how such injuries relate to subsequent cognitive functioning remains unclear. In particular, the long-term effect of fighting-related injuries suffered during important developmental periods, such as adolescence, on subsequent cognitive functioning has been overlooked by previous studies. The purpose of this study is to examine the association between sustaining serious fighting-related injuries and changes in verbal intelligence (IQ) over a 5- to 6-year time period. Longitudinal multivariate statistical models were used to analyze data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health collected between 1994 and 2002 and analyzed in 2013. Even a single fighting-related injury resulted in a significant reduction in IQ over time even after controlling for age, race, sex, and changes in socioeconomic status (SES) over the study period. Additionally, females experienced a significantly greater reduction in IQ from each fighting-related injury than males. Fighting-related injuries have a significant impact on subsequent cognitive functioning and intelligence. The implications for future policies and research are discussed in more detail. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Habituation of the cold shock response may include a significant perceptual component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barwood, Martin J; Corbett, Jo; Wagstaff, Christopher R D

    2014-02-01

    Accidental immersion in cold water is a risk factor for many occupations. Habituation to cold-water immersion (CWI) is one practical means of reducing the cold shock response (CSR) on immersion. We investigated whether repeated thermoneutral water immersion (TWI) induced a perceptual habituation (i.e., could lessen perceived threat and anxiety) and consequently reduce the CSR on subsequent CWI. There were 12 subjects who completed seven 7-min head-out immersions. Immersions one and seven were CWls [15.0 (0.1) degrees C], and immersions two to six were TWI [34.9 (0.10) degrees C]. Anxiety 120-cm visual analogue scale) and the cardiorespiratory responses [heart rate (f(C)), respiratory frequency (f(R)), tidal volume (V(T)), and minute ventilation (V(E))] to immersion were measured throughout. Data were compared within subject between conditions using ANOVA to an alpha level of 0.05. Acute anxiety was significantly reduced after repeated exposure to the immersion scenario (i.e., TWI): CWI-1: 6.3 (4.4) cm; and CWI-2: 4.5 (4.0) cm [condition mean (SD)]. These differences did not influence the peak in the CSR. The f(C), f(R), and V(E) responses were similar between CWI-1 and CWI-2. V(T) response was significantly lower in CWI-2; mean (SD) across the immersion: CWI-1 1.27 (0.17) vs. CWI-2 1.11 0.21 L. Repeated TWI lessened the anxiety associated with CWI (perceptual habituation). This had a negligible effect on the primary components of the CSR, but did lower VT, which may reduce the volume of any aspirated water in an emergency situation. Reducing the threat appraisal of an environmental stressor may be a useful biproduct of survival training, thereby minimizing psychophysiological strain.

  7. Clinical, Radiologic, and Legal Significance of "Extensor Response" in Posttraumatic Coma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firsching, Raimund; Woischneck, Dieter; Langejürgen, Alexander; Parreidt, Andreas; Bondar, Imre; Skalej, Martin; Röhl, Friedrich; Voellger, Benjamin

    2015-11-01

    The timely detection of neurologic deterioration can be critical for the survival of a neurosurgical patient following head injury. Because little reliable evidence is available on the prognostic value of the clinical sign "extensor response" in comatose posttraumatic patients, we investigated the correlation of this clinical sign with outcome and with early radiologic findings from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This retrospective analysis of prospectively obtained data included 157 patients who had remained in a coma for a minimum of 24 hours after traumatic brain injury. All patients received a 1.5-T MRI within 10 days (median: 2 days) of the injury. The correlations between clinical findings 12 and 24 hours after the injury-in particular, extensor response and pupillary function, MRI findings, and outcome after 1 year-were investigated. Statistical analysis included contingency tables, Fisher exact test, odds ratios (ORs) with confidence intervals (CIs), and weighted κ values. There were 48 patients with extensor response within the first 24 hours after the injury. Patients with extensor response (World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies coma grade III) statistically were significantly more likely to harbor MRI lesions in the brainstem when compared with patients in a coma who had no further deficiencies (coma grade I; p = 0.0004 by Fisher exact test, OR 10.8 with 95% CI, 2.7-42.5) and patients with unilateral loss of pupil function (coma grade II; p = 0.0187, OR 2.8 with 95% CI, 1.2-6.5). The correlation of brainstem lesions as found by MRI and outcome according to the Glasgow Outcome Scale after 1 year was also highly significant (p ≤ 0.016). The correlation of extensor response and loss of pupil function with an unfavorable outcome and with brainstem lesions revealed by MRI is highly significant. Their sudden onset may be associated with the sudden onset of brainstem dysfunction and should therefore be regarded as one of the most

  8. Statistical determination of significant curved I-girder bridge seismic response parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Junwon

    2013-06-01

    Curved steel bridges are commonly used at interchanges in transportation networks and more of these structures continue to be designed and built in the United States. Though the use of these bridges continues to increase in locations that experience high seismicity, the effects of curvature and other parameters on their seismic behaviors have been neglected in current risk assessment tools. These tools can evaluate the seismic vulnerability of a transportation network using fragility curves. One critical component of fragility curve development for curved steel bridges is the completion of sensitivity analyses that help identify influential parameters related to their seismic response. In this study, an accessible inventory of existing curved steel girder bridges located primarily in the Mid-Atlantic United States (MAUS) was used to establish statistical characteristics used as inputs for a seismic sensitivity study. Critical seismic response quantities were captured using 3D nonlinear finite element models. Influential parameters from these quantities were identified using statistical tools that incorporate experimental Plackett-Burman Design (PBD), which included Pareto optimal plots and prediction profiler techniques. The findings revealed that the potential variation in the influential parameters included number of spans, radius of curvature, maximum span length, girder spacing, and cross-frame spacing. These parameters showed varying levels of influence on the critical bridge response.

  9. Categorization of safety related motor operated valve safety significance for Ulchin Unit 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, D. I.; Kim, K. Y.

    2002-03-01

    We performed a categorization of safety related Motor Operated Valve (MOV) safety significance for Ulchin Unit 3. The safety evaluation of MOV of domestic nuclear power plants affects the generic data used for the quantification of MOV common cause failure ( CCF) events in Ulchin Units 3 PSA. Therefore, in this study, we re-estimated the MGL(Multiple Greek Letter) parameter used for the evaluation of MOV CCF probabilities in Ulchin Units 3 Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) and performed a classification of the MOV safety significance. The re-estimation results of the MGL parameter show that its value is decreased by 30% compared with the current value in Ulchin Unit 3 PSA. The categorization results of MOV safety significance using the changed value of MGL parameter shows that the number of HSSCs(High Safety Significant Components) is decreased by 54.5% compared with those using the current value of it in Ulchin Units 3 PSA

  10. Prognostic significance of specific injury patterns in casualties of traffic-related accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calosevic, Srdjan; Lovric, Zvonimir

    2015-11-01

    Fatal triad and ipsilateral dyad are patterns of pedestrian injuries related to significant mortality in traffic-related accidents. The aim of this research was to investigate the correlation between specific injury patterns and fatal outcome in other participants of traffic-related accidents. This was a retrospective study of traffic-related accidents in the broader area of the city of Osijek in a five-year period from 1995 to 1999. Autopsy results from the Institute of Pathology and Forensic Medicine of the Clinical Hospital Centre Osijek were analysed of individuals who died after their accident. The total severity of injuries was measured using the ISS. Logistic regression analysis was used for assessing the correlation between specific injury patterns and an early outcome from the severe injury. There were 213 individuals included in the study: 72 pedestrians and 141 other participants (drivers, assistant drivers, passengers, cyclists and motorcyclists). A total of129 individuals died on the spot and 84 died in the hospital during the first 48h. Femoral and pelvic fracture, fatal triad and both variants of ipsilateral dyad were related to higher ISS values. Ipsilateral fracture of upper and lower extremities (ipsilateral dyad 1) was associated with a 4.59 times higher risk of an immediate fatal outcome in the total sample. In pedestrians, the risk was 5.99 higher, and in other participants, the risk was 4.11 times higher. Specific skeletal injuries and injury patterns are a significant indicator for total injury severity and related poor prognosis for all participants of traffic-related injuries, not only for pedestrians. In this study, the ipsilateral fracture of upper and lower extremity was related to the largest total severity of injuries and the poorest prognosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Activity in ventromedial prefrontal cortex during self-related processing: positive subjective value or personal significance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyungmi; Johnson, Marcia K

    2015-04-01

    Well-being and subjective experience of a coherent world depend on our sense of 'self' and relations between the self and the environment (e.g. people, objects and ideas). The ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vMPFC) is involved in self-related processing, and disrupted vMPFC activity is associated with disruptions of emotional/social functioning (e.g. depression and autism). Clarifying precise function(s) of vMPFC in self-related processing is an area of active investigation. In this study, we sought to more specifically characterize the function of vMPFC in self-related processing, focusing on two alternative accounts: (i) assignment of positive subjective value to self-related information and (ii) assignment of personal significance to self-related information. During functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), participants imagined owning objects associated with either their perceived ingroup or outgroup. We found that for ingroup-associated objects, vMPFC showed greater activity for objects with increased than decreased post-ownership preference. In contrast, for outgroup-associated objects, vMPFC showed greater activity for objects with decreased than increased post-ownership preference. Our findings support the idea that the function of vMPFC in self-related processing may not be to represent/evaluate the 'positivity' or absolute preference of self-related information but to assign personal significance to it based on its meaning/function for the self. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Variability of Neuronal Responses: Types and Functional Significance in Neuroplasticity and Neural Darwinism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chervyakov, Alexander V; Sinitsyn, Dmitry O; Piradov, Michael A

    2016-01-01

    HIGHLIGHTS We suggest classifying variability of neuronal responses as follows: false (associated with a lack of knowledge about the influential factors), "genuine harmful" (noise), "genuine neutral" (synonyms, repeats), and "genuine useful" (the basis of neuroplasticity and learning).The genuine neutral variability is considered in terms of the phenomenon of degeneracy.Of particular importance is the genuine useful variability that is considered as a potential basis for neuroplasticity and learning. This type of variability is considered in terms of the neural Darwinism theory. In many cases, neural signals detected under the same external experimental conditions significantly change from trial to trial. The variability phenomenon, which complicates extraction of reproducible results and is ignored in many studies by averaging, has attracted attention of researchers in recent years. In this paper, we classify possible types of variability based on its functional significance and describe features of each type. We describe the key adaptive significance of variability at the neural network level and the degeneracy phenomenon that may be important for learning processes in connection with the principle of neuronal group selection.

  13. Theorising international monetary relations: three questions about the significance of materiality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Leander

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This article engages a conversation with Benjamin Cohen by raising three questions about the significance of materiality. The paper's questions focus on how materiality can be included in theorizations so that its political import is not defined away from the outset. The article does this focussing on Cohen's treatment of electronic money and its significance for the Politics of International Monetary Relations. The first question posed is about ontology, the second about agency and the third about the scope of politics. The three questions are raised as a conversation in which arguments and counterarguments are advanced. The questions are therefore posed with Cohen's contributions to theorizing the political significance of materiality as their point of departure. They are formulated as a consequence of bringing these contributions in relation to insights from the Social Studies of Finance. From this perspective it would seem that a more far reaching engagement with materiality (in terms of ontology, agency and epistemology is necessary to capture its political significance for international monetary politics and currency hierarchies. The article does not conclude in conventional fashion but purposefully strives to leave these questions open for discussion.

  14. Space radiation-induced bystander effect: kinetics of biologic responses, mechanisms, and significance of secondary radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonon, Geraldine

    2011-01-01

    Widespread evidence indicates that exposure of cell cultures to a particles results in significant biological changes in both the irradiated and non-irradiated bystander cells in the population. The induction of non-targeted biological responses in cell cultures exposed to low fluences of high charge (Z) and high energy (E) particles is relevant to estimates of the health risks of space radiation and to radiotherapy. Here, we investigated the mechanisms underlying the induction of stressful effects in confluent normal human fibroblast cultures exposed to low fluences of 1000 MeV/u iron ions (linear energy transfer (LET) 151 keV/μm), 600 MeV/u silicon ions (LET 50 keV/μm) or 290 MeV/u carbon ions (LET 13 keV/μm). We compared the results with those obtained in cell cultures exposed, in parallel, to low fluences of 0.92 MeV/u a particles (LET 109 keV/μm). Induction of DNA damage, changes in gene expression, protein carbonylation and lipid peroxidation during 24 h after exposure of confluent cultures to mean doses as low as 0.2 cGy of iron or silicon ions strongly supported the propagation of stressful effects from irradiated to bystander cells. At a mean dose of 0.2 cGy, only 1 and 3 % of the cells would be targeted through the nucleus by an iron or silicon ion, respectively. Within 24 h post-irradiation, immunoblot analyses revealed significant increases in the levels of phospho-TP53 (serine 15), p21Waf1 (also known as CDKN1A), HDM2, phospho-ERK1/2, protein carbonylation and lipid peroxidation. The magnitude of the responses suggested participation of non-targeted cells in the response. Furthermore, when the irradiated cell populations were subcultured in fresh medium shortly after irradiation, greater than expected increases in the levels of these markers were also observed during 24 h. Together, the results imply a rapidly propagated and persistent bystander effect. In situ analyses in confluent cultures showed 53BP1 foci formation, a marker of DNA damage, in

  15. Sustained Magnetic Responses in Temporal Cortex Reflect Instantaneous Significance of Approaching and Receding Sounds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominik R Bach

    Full Text Available Rising sound intensity often signals an approaching sound source and can serve as a powerful warning cue, eliciting phasic attention, perception biases and emotional responses. How the evaluation of approaching sounds unfolds over time remains elusive. Here, we capitalised on the temporal resolution of magnetoencephalograpy (MEG to investigate in humans a dynamic encoding of perceiving approaching and receding sounds. We compared magnetic responses to intensity envelopes of complex sounds to those of white noise sounds, in which intensity change is not perceived as approaching. Sustained magnetic fields over temporal sensors tracked intensity change in complex sounds in an approximately linear fashion, an effect not seen for intensity change in white noise sounds, or for overall intensity. Hence, these fields are likely to track approach/recession, but not the apparent (instantaneous distance of the sound source, or its intensity as such. As a likely source of this activity, the bilateral inferior temporal gyrus and right temporo-parietal junction emerged. Our results indicate that discrete temporal cortical areas parametrically encode behavioural significance in moving sound sources where the signal unfolded in a manner reminiscent of evidence accumulation. This may help an understanding of how acoustic percepts are evaluated as behaviourally relevant, where our results highlight a crucial role of cortical areas.

  16. Orbitofrontal lesions eliminate signalling of biological significance in cue-responsive ventral striatal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooch, Nisha K; Stalnaker, Thomas A; Wied, Heather M; Bali-Chaudhary, Sheena; McDannald, Michael A; Liu, Tzu-Lan; Schoenbaum, Geoffrey

    2015-05-21

    The ventral striatum has long been proposed as an integrator of biologically significant associative information to drive actions. Although inputs from the amygdala and hippocampus have been much studied, the role of prominent inputs from orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) are less well understood. Here, we recorded single-unit activity from ventral striatum core in rats with sham or ipsilateral neurotoxic lesions of lateral OFC, as they performed an odour-guided spatial choice task. Consistent with prior reports, we found that spiking activity recorded in sham rats during cue sampling was related to both reward magnitude and reward identity, with higher firing rates observed for cues that predicted more reward. Lesioned rats also showed differential activity to the cues, but this activity was unbiased towards larger rewards. These data support a role for OFC in shaping activity in the ventral striatum to represent the biological significance of associative information in the environment.

  17. Weight-related stigma is a significant psychosocial stressor in developing countries: Evidence from Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackman, Joseph; Maupin, Jonathan; Brewis, Alexandra A

    2016-07-01

    Weight-related stigma is established as a major psychosocial stressor and correlate of depression among people living with obesity in high-income countries. Anti-fat beliefs are rapidly globalizing. The goal of the study is to (1) examine how weight-related stigma, enacted as teasing, is evident among women from a lower-income country and (2) test if such weight-related stigma contributes to depressive symptoms. Modeling data for 12,074 reproductive-age women collected in the 2008-2009 Guatemala National Maternal-Infant Health Survey, we demonstrate that weight-related teasing is (1) experienced by those both underweight and overweight, and (2) a significant psychosocial stressor. Effects are comparable to other factors known to influence women's depressive risk in lower-income countries, such as living in poverty, experiencing food insecurity, or suffering sexual/domestic violence. That women's failure to meet local body norms-whether they are overweight or underweight-serves as such a strong source of psychological distress is particularly concerning in settings like Guatemala where high levels of over- and under-nutrition intersect at the household and community level. Current obesity-centric models of weight-related stigma, developed from studies in high-income countries, fail to recognize that being underweight may create similar forms of psychosocial distress in low-income countries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Significances and meanings of the musical identity of patients and relatives receiving oncological palliative care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Araujo de Silva

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This phenomenological study was structured on Heidegger’s theoretical-philosophical framework, with the objective of unveiling the significances and meanings of the musical identity of patients and relatives under oncological palliative care. Individual interviews were performed with 12 clients (seven patients and five relatives staying at the support residence of the Maringa Female Network Against Cancer. A total of eight musical meetings were performed between January and February of 2011. I understood that the musical identity of the evidenced beings refers to the religious and country music styles, that their significances and meanings are connected to their spirituality and the significant events of their historicity, and that their mood and reflection intermediated by music can influence their musical choice. I gave evidence to the need to consider the music identity and empowerment in musical choices, which carries existential, social, cultural, spiritual and family aspects as qualifying elements of nursing in palliative care. Descriptors: Nursing Care; Oncology Nursing; Music; Music Therapy; Palliative Care.

  19. Correlation and clinical significance between glomerular filtration rate and age in living-related kidney donors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Xiuyi; Shao Yahui; Wang Yanming; Zhang Aimin; Hao Junwen; Tian Jun; Sun Ben; Han Jiankui

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To quantitatively investigate the effect of age on the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in living-related kidney donors. to analyze the clinical value and the dependence of GFR on age and to provide an objective basis for the selection of the living kidney donor. Methods: One hundred and sixty-one living-related kidney donors were divided into four age groups, namely 20-29 years (n=52), 30-39 years (n=44), 40-49 years (n=38) and ≥50 years (n=27). On the other hand, the total donors were divided into the groups older than 55 years (n=24) and younger than 55 years (n=137). To quantify GFR in all the subjects using the 99 Tc m -diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid ( 99 Tc m -DTPA) renography according to standard procedure and to evaluate the effects of age on renal function. Results: The total GFR in living-related kidney donors was calculated as (89.55±12.87) ml·min -1 ·(1.73 m 2 ) -1 . The GFR in the first to the four age groups were (88.27±12.29) ml·min -1 ·(1.73 m 2 ) -1 , (91.85±14.51) ml·min -1 ·(1.73 m 2 ) -1 , (98.25±11.26) ml·min -1 ·(1.73 m 2 ) -1 and (88.24±13.20) ml·min -1 ·(1.73 m 2 ) -1 . The difference of GFR were not significant between the four age groups (F=2.09, P=0.10). The GFR in the donors older than 55 years and younger than 55 years were (88.57±13.14) ml·min -1 ·(1.73 m 2 ) -1 and (89.44±10.34) ml·min -1 ·(1.73 m 2 ) -1 , there no significant difference in GFR between the two groups (F=1.31, P=0.25). When relating GFR to age in all the living-related kidney donors, there was no significant correlation (r=-0.033, P=0.69). No serious complications occurred after living kidney transplantation, serum creatinine values and blood urea nitrogen recovered to the normal levels in a short period, hepatic and renal functions were normal. Conclusion: This study indicated that the GFR values were not correlated with the change of age in living-related kidney donors, and the results were helpful for the selection of living

  20. Significance of categorization and the modeling of age related factors for radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuoka, Osamu

    1987-01-01

    It is proposed that the categorization and modelling are necessary with regard to age related factors of radionuclide metabolism for the radiation protection of the public. In order to utilize the age related information as a model for life time risk estimate of public, it is necessary to generalize and simplify it according to the categorized model patterns. Since the patterns of age related changes in various parameters of radionuclide metabolism seem to be rather simple, it is possible to categorize them into eleven types of model patterns. Among these models, five are selected as positively significant models to be considered. Examples are shown as to the fitting of representative parameters of both physiological and metabolic parameter of radionuclides into the proposed model. The range of deviation from adult standard value is also analyzed for each model. The fitting of each parameter to categorized models, and its comparative consideration provide the effective information as to the physiological basis of radionuclide metabolism. Discussions are made on the problems encountered in the application of available age related information to radiation protection of the public, i.e. distribution of categorized parameter, period of life covered, range of deviation from adult value, implication to other dosimetric and pathological models and to the final estimation. 5 refs.; 3 figs.; 4 tabs

  1. RISK FACTORS AND CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF PRECHOROIDAL CLEFT IN NEOVASCULAR AGE-RELATED MACULAR DEGENERATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong Min; Kang, Se Woong; Son, Dae Yong; Bae, Kunho

    2017-11-01

    To investigate the risk factors associated with prechoroidal cleft occurrence after treatment for neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) and to elucidate its clinical significance. Two hundred thirty-four subjects who were treated for neovascular age-related macular degeneration were assessed to identify prechoroidal cleft on optical coherence tomography. Clinical variables were compared between patients manifesting a cleft (cleft group) and patients who did not (control group). Prechoroidal cleft was detected in 29 of 234 patients (8.1%). Although the baseline visual acuity was not different between the 2 groups, logMAR visual acuity at final visit was 0.89 ± 0.74 (with approximate Snellen equivalent of 20/160) in the cleft group and 0.65 ± 0.69 (with approximate Snellen equivalent of 20/100) in controls (P age-related macular degeneration (P age-related macular degeneration, and a submacular hemorrhage treated by pneumatic displacement were the independent risk factors for development of prechoroidal cleft. Eyes with a cleft, especially clefts that develop early, generally had worse prognoses than eyes without clefts.

  2. Significance of fluid-structure interaction phenomena for containment response to ex-vessel steam explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almstroem, H.; Sundel, T. [National Defence Research Establishment, Stockholm (Sweden); Frid, W.; Engelbrektson, A.

    1998-01-01

    When studying the structural response of a containment building to ex-vessel steam explosion loads, a two-step procedure is often used. In the first step of this procedure the structures are treated as rigid and the pressure-time history generated by the explosion at the rigid wall is calculated. In the second step the calculated pressure is applied to the structures. The obvious weakness of the two-step procedure is that it does not correspond to the real dynamic behaviour of the fluid-structure system. The purpose of this paper is to identify and evaluate the relevant fluid-structure interaction phenomena. This is achieved through direct treatment of the explosion process and the structural response. The predictions of a direct and two-step treatment are compared for a BWR Mark II containment design, consisting of two concentric walls interacting with water masses in the central and annular pools. It is shown that the two-step approach leads to unrealistic energy transfer in the containment system studied, and to significant overestimation of the deflection of the containment wall. As regards the pedestal wall, the direct method analysis shows that the flexibility of this wall affects the pressure-time history considerably. Three load types have been identified for this wall namely shock load, water blow as a result of water cavitation, and hydrodynamic load. Reloading impulse due to cavitation phenomena plays an important role as it amounts to about 40% of the total impulse load. Investigation of the generality of the cavitation phenomena in the context of ex-vessel steam explosion loads was outside the scope of this work. (author)

  3. Significance of fluid-structure interaction phenomena for containment response to ex-vessel steam explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almstroem, H.; Sundel, T. (Nat. Defence Res. Establ., Tumba (Sweden)); Frid, W. (Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, SE-10658, Stockholm (Sweden)); Engelbrektson, A. (VBB/SWECO, Box 34044, SE-10026, Stockholm (Sweden))

    1999-05-01

    When studying the structural response of a containment building to ex-vessel steam explosion loads, a two-step procedure is often used. In the first step of this procedure the structures are treated as rigid and the pressure-time history generated by the explosion, at the rigid wall, is calculated. In the second step the calculated pressure is applied to the structures. The obvious weakness of the two-step procedure is that it does not correspond to the real dynamic behaviour of the fluid-structure system. The purpose of this paper is to identify and evaluate the relevant fluid-structure interaction phenomena. This is achieved through direct treatment of the explosion process and the structural response. The predictions of a direct and two-step treatment are compared for a BWR Mark II containment design, consisting of two concentric walls interacting with water masses in the central and annular pools. It is shown that the two-step approach leads to unrealistic energy transfer in the containment system studied and to significant overestimation of the deflection of the containment wall. As regards the pedestal wall, the direct method analysis shows that the flexibility of this wall affects the pressure-time history considerably. Three load types have been identified for this wall namely shock load, water blow as a result of water cavitation, and hydrodynamic load. Reloading impulse due to cavitation phenomena plays an important role as it amounts to [approx]40% of the total impulse load. Investigation of the generality of the cavitation phenomena in the context of ex-vessel steam explosion loads was outside the scope of this work. (orig.) 5 refs.

  4. Significance of fluid-structure interaction phenomena for containment response to ex-vessel steam explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almstroem, H.; Sundel, T.; Frid, W.; Engelbrektson, A.

    1999-01-01

    When studying the structural response of a containment building to ex-vessel steam explosion loads, a two-step procedure is often used. In the first step of this procedure the structures are treated as rigid and the pressure-time history generated by the explosion, at the rigid wall, is calculated. In the second step the calculated pressure is applied to the structures. The obvious weakness of the two-step procedure is that it does not correspond to the real dynamic behaviour of the fluid-structure system. The purpose of this paper is to identify and evaluate the relevant fluid-structure interaction phenomena. This is achieved through direct treatment of the explosion process and the structural response. The predictions of a direct and two-step treatment are compared for a BWR Mark II containment design, consisting of two concentric walls interacting with water masses in the central and annular pools. It is shown that the two-step approach leads to unrealistic energy transfer in the containment system studied and to significant overestimation of the deflection of the containment wall. As regards the pedestal wall, the direct method analysis shows that the flexibility of this wall affects the pressure-time history considerably. Three load types have been identified for this wall namely shock load, water blow as a result of water cavitation, and hydrodynamic load. Reloading impulse due to cavitation phenomena plays an important role as it amounts to ∼40% of the total impulse load. Investigation of the generality of the cavitation phenomena in the context of ex-vessel steam explosion loads was outside the scope of this work. (orig.)

  5. Identification of significant problems related to light water reactor piping systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-07-01

    Work on the project was divided into three tasks. In Task 1, past surveys of LWR piping system problems and recent Licensee Event Report summaries are studied to identify the significant problems of LWR piping systems and the primary causes of these problems. Pipe cracking is identified as the most recurring problem and is mainly due to the vibration of pipes due to operating pump-pipe resonance, fluid-flow fluctuations, and vibration of pipe supports. Research relevant to the identified piping system problems is evaluated. Task 2 studies identify typical LWR piping systems and the current loads and load combinations used in the design of these systems. Definitions of loads are reviewed. In Task 3, a comparative study is carried out on the use of nonlinear analysis methods in the design of LWR piping systems. The study concludes that the current linear-elastic methods of analysis may not predict accurately the behavior of piping systems under seismic loads and may, under certain circumstances, result in nonconservative designs. Gaps at piping supports are found to have a significant effect on the response of the piping systems

  6. Liver stiffness measurement-based scoring system for significant inflammation related to chronic hepatitis B.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Zhu Hong

    Full Text Available Liver biopsy is indispensable because liver stiffness measurement alone cannot provide information on intrahepatic inflammation. However, the presence of fibrosis highly correlates with inflammation. We constructed a noninvasive model to determine significant inflammation in chronic hepatitis B patients by using liver stiffness measurement and serum markers.The training set included chronic hepatitis B patients (n = 327, and the validation set included 106 patients; liver biopsies were performed, liver histology was scored, and serum markers were investigated. All patients underwent liver stiffness measurement.An inflammation activity scoring system for significant inflammation was constructed. In the training set, the area under the curve, sensitivity, and specificity of the fibrosis-based activity score were 0.964, 91.9%, and 90.8% in the HBeAg(+ patients and 0.978, 85.0%, and 94.0% in the HBeAg(- patients, respectively. In the validation set, the area under the curve, sensitivity, and specificity of the fibrosis-based activity score were 0.971, 90.5%, and 92.5% in the HBeAg(+ patients and 0.977, 95.2%, and 95.8% in the HBeAg(- patients. The liver stiffness measurement-based activity score was comparable to that of the fibrosis-based activity score in both HBeAg(+ and HBeAg(- patients for recognizing significant inflammation (G ≥3.Significant inflammation can be accurately predicted by this novel method. The liver stiffness measurement-based scoring system can be used without the aid of computers and provides a noninvasive alternative for the prediction of chronic hepatitis B-related significant inflammation.

  7. Noninvasive scoring system for significant inflammation related to chronic hepatitis B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Mei-Zhu; Ye, Linglong; Jin, Li-Xin; Ren, Yan-Dan; Yu, Xiao-Fang; Liu, Xiao-Bin; Zhang, Ru-Mian; Fang, Kuangnan; Pan, Jin-Shui

    2017-03-01

    Although a liver stiffness measurement-based model can precisely predict significant intrahepatic inflammation, transient elastography is not commonly available in a primary care center. Additionally, high body mass index and bilirubinemia have notable effects on the accuracy of transient elastography. The present study aimed to create a noninvasive scoring system for the prediction of intrahepatic inflammatory activity related to chronic hepatitis B, without the aid of transient elastography. A total of 396 patients with chronic hepatitis B were enrolled in the present study. Liver biopsies were performed, liver histology was scored using the Scheuer scoring system, and serum markers and liver function were investigated. Inflammatory activity scoring models were constructed for both hepatitis B envelope antigen (+) and hepatitis B envelope antigen (-) patients. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and area under the curve were 86.00%, 84.80%, 62.32%, 95.39%, and 0.9219, respectively, in the hepatitis B envelope antigen (+) group and 91.89%, 89.86%, 70.83%, 97.64%, and 0.9691, respectively, in the hepatitis B envelope antigen (-) group. Significant inflammation related to chronic hepatitis B can be predicted with satisfactory accuracy by using our logistic regression-based scoring system.

  8. The significance of relative density for particle damage in loaded and sheared gravels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fityus Stephen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available For granular assemblages of strong particles, an increase in the relative density usually leads to a significant increase in shear strength, which is evident as a peak strength, accompanied by significant dilation as the peak strength is attained. This paper describes an experimental study of shearing in assemblages of weak particles, where particle breakage offsets dilation for all but the lowest of confining stresses. In such materials, prone to particle breakage, the shear strengths of loose and dense assemblages rapidly converge to similar values as confining stress increases, and any benefit of greater relative density is lost. This is attributed to the densification effect associated with the loading under a high stress prior to shearing, which is characterised by widespread particle breakage and the formation of smaller particles to occupy space between coarser ones. Interestingly, under both low and high stresses, there was a tendency for greater particle breakage in the loose samples, as a result of both shearing and compression. This result suggests that, despite the denser assemblage having its particles more rigidly constrained and less able to rearrange to avoid direct loading, the influence of greater load-spreading capacity afforded by an increased number of particle contacts in a denser sample, is more dominant in controlling breakage.

  9. Relative significance of surgery and radiotherapy in treatment of brain metastases of lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, Junkoh; Ohtsuka, Sinichi; Yamasaki, Toshiki; Gi, Hidefuku; Ha, Young-Soo; Handa, Hajime

    1983-01-01

    One hundred and sixteen cases of brain metastases of lung cancer were retrospectively analysed with special reference to the relative significance of surgery and radiotherapy. The median survival time from diagnosis of brain metastases was 1.2 months in 27 cases without treatment, 2.5 months in 51 cases treated by surgery alone, 4.2 months in 31 cases treated by radiotherapy alone and 6.5 months in 7 cases treated by surgery and radiotherapy. The survival rate in patients treated by radiotherapy was significantly better than in those not treated by radiotherapy. However, the effect of surgery was not significant in prolongation of survival time. On the other hand, the rate of improvement in neurological symptoms assessed at one month after the initiation of treatment was 80.9% in 47 cases treated by surgery and 19.4 % in 31 cases treated by radiotherapy. The result suggested that surgery is superior to radiotherapy in alleviating neurological symptoms. It is important to understand the nature of effect of each treatment. A better result will be anticipated by proper selection or combination of these treatments. (author)

  10. Chemical and Biological Significance of Oenothein B and Related Ellagitannin Oligomers with Macrocyclic Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Yoshida

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In 1990, Okuda et al. reported the first isolation and characterization of oenothein B, a unique ellagitannin dimer with a macrocyclic structure, from the Oenothera erythrosepala leaves. Since then, a variety of macrocyclic analogs, including trimeric–heptameric oligomers have been isolated from various medicinal plants belonging to Onagraceae, Lythraceae, and Myrtaceae. Among notable in vitro and in vivo biological activities reported for oenothein B are antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, enzyme inhibitory, antitumor, antimicrobial, and immunomodulatory activities. Oenothein B and related oligomers, and/or plant extracts containing them have thus attracted increasing interest as promising targets for the development of chemopreventive agents of life-related diseases associated with oxygen stress in human health. In order to better understand the significance of this type of ellagitannin in medicinal plants, this review summarizes (1 the structural characteristics of oenothein B and related dimers; (2 the oxidative metabolites of oenothein B up to heptameric oligomers; (3 the distribution of oenotheins and other macrocyclic analogs in the plant kingdom; and (4 the pharmacological activities hitherto documented for oenothein B, including those recently found by our laboratory.

  11. Highly significant linkage to chromosome 3q13.31 for rhinitis and related allergic diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Charlotte Brasch; Haagerup, Annette; Børglum, Anders D.

    2006-01-01

    or all are still inconclusive. Following genome-wide scans on multiple phenotypes, we previously suggested that chromosome 3q13.12-q21.2 harbours an allergy locus. OBJECTIVE: To identify candidate loci in the Danish population, two additional independent sets of sib-pair families were fine-scale mapped......BACKGROUND: Allergic diseases such as asthma and rhinitis have closely related phenotypes and often occur with atopy. They show strong familial and intra-individual clustering, suggesting overlapping disease aetiology. Various loci and candidate genes have been suggested to underlie allergy. Many...... in candidate regions showing maximum likelihood scores (MLS) > or =1.5 in the genome-wide scans. RESULTS: Twenty eight microsatellite markers in a denser map on chromosome 3q were analysed in 236 allergy sib-pair families including 125 sib pairs with rhinitis. We report significant evidence for linkage...

  12. On the relative significance of lithospheric weakening mechanisms for sustained plate tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araceli Sanchez-Maes, Sophia

    2018-01-01

    Plate tectonics requires the bending of strong plates at subduction zones, which is difficult to achieve without a secondary weakening mechanism. Two classes of weakening mechanisms have been proposed for the generation of ongoing plate tectonics, distinguished by whether or not they require water. Here we show that the energy budget of global subduction zones offers a simple yet decisive test on their relative significance. Theoretical studies of mantle convection suggest bending dissipation to occupy only 10-20 % of total dissipation in the mantle, and our results indicate that the hydrous mechanism in the shallow part of plates is essential to satisfy the requirement. Thus, surface oceans are required for the long-term operation of plate tectonics on terrestrial worlds. Establishing this necessary and observable condition for sustained plate tectonics carries important implications for planetary habitability at large.

  13. Contextual Variability in Personality from Significant-Other Knowledge and Relational Selves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan M Andersen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We argue that the self is intrinsically embedded in an interpersonal context such that it varies in IF-THEN terms, as the relational self. We have demonstrated that representations of the significant other and the relationship with that other are automatically activated by situational cues and that this activation affects both experienced and expressed aspects of the self and personality. Here, we expand on developments of the IF–THEN cognitive-affective framework of personality (CAPS, Mischel & Shoda, 1995, by extending it to the domain of interpersonal relationships at the dyadic level (Andersen & Chen, 2002. Going beyond Mischel’s early research (Mischel, 1968, our framework combines social cognition and learning theory with a learning-based psychodynamic approach, which provides the basis for extensive research on the social-cognitive process of transference and the relational self as it arises in everyday social interactions (Andersen & Cole, 1990, evidence from which contributes to a modern conceptualization of personality that emphasizes the centrality of the situation.

  14. Concrete component aging and its significance relative to life extension of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naus, D.J.

    1986-09-01

    The objectives of this study are to (1) expand upon the work that was initiated in the first two Electric Power Research Institute studies relative to longevity and life extension considerations of safety-related concrete components in light-water reactor (LWR) facilities and (2) provide background that will logically lead to subsequent development of a methodology for assessing and predicting the effects of aging on the performance of concrete-based materials and components. These objectives are consistent with Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) Program goals: (1) to identify and characterize aging and service wear effects that, if unchecked, could cause degradation of structures, components, and systems and, thereby, impair plant safety; (2) to identify methods of inspection, surveillance, and monitoring or of evaluating residual life of structures, components, and systems that will ensure timely detection of significant aging effects before loss of safety function; and (3) to evaluate the effectiveness of storage, maintenance, repair, and replacement practices in mitigating the rate and extent of degradation caused by aging and service wear

  15. Contextual Variability in Personality From Significant-Other Knowledge and Relational Selves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Susan M; Tuskeviciute, Rugile; Przybylinski, Elizabeth; Ahn, Janet N; Xu, Joy H

    2015-01-01

    We argue that the self is intrinsically embedded in an interpersonal context such that it varies in IF-THEN terms, as the relational self. We have demonstrated that representations of the significant other and the relationship with that other are automatically activated by situational cues and that this activation affects both experienced and expressed aspects of the self and personality. Here, we expand on developments of the IF-THEN cognitive-affective framework of personality system (Mischel and Shoda, 1995), by extending it to the domain of interpersonal relationships at the dyadic level (Andersen and Chen, 2002). Going beyond Mischel's early research (Mischel, 1968), our framework combines social cognition and learning theory with a learning-based psychodynamic approach, which provides the basis for extensive research on the social-cognitive process of transference and the relational self as it arises in everyday social interactions (Andersen and Cole, 1990), evidence from which contributes to a modern conceptualization of personality that emphasizes the centrality of the situation.

  16. Study of stone composition changes in melamine-related urinary calculi and its clinical significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuan; Chen, YiRong; Zhang, Wei; Huang, XiaoGang; Li, WenHui; Ru, XiaoRui; Meng, Min; Xi, Xinsheng; Huang, Gang; Shi, BaoGuang; Liu, Gang; Li, WeiHua; Xu, Hui

    2011-08-01

    To investigate the composition changes in melamine-related urinary calculi and their clinical significance. A total of 49 melamine-related urinary calculi were included from 49 children (age 4-82 months, mean 22). The qualitative analysis of stone composition was determined using Fourier transform infrared. The quantitative analysis of the stone computed tomography (CT) attenuation value, stone uric acid level, and stone calcium level were measured using spiral CT, high-performance liquid chromatography, and flame atomic absorption spectrum, respectively. Fourier transform infrared showed that 41 (84%) of the 49 stones contained uric acid and 25 (51%) contained calcium compounds. The data from the qualitative and quantitative analysis were available for 15 stones because of sample consumption in the detection process (Fourier transform infrared, atomic absorption spectrum, and high-performance liquid chromatography). A negative correlation was observed between stone uric acid level and stone calcium level (n = 15, r = -0.629, P = .009). A positive correlation was observed between the stone calcium level and stone CT attenuation value (n = 25, r = 0.855, P = .000). Compared with the ≤1-year-age group and the 1-2-year-age group, the stone calcium level in the >2-year-age group was significantly greater (27.51% ± 12.65% vs 1.60% ± 1.68% or 10.12% ± 8.69%, P = .000 and P = .003, respectively). Compared with the alkalization-alone group, the stone calcium level in the nonalkalization-alone group was significant greater (19.83% ± 7.48% vs 1.25% ± 1.43%, n = 19, P = .000). The stones from children >2 years old were not amenable to medical treatment because they contained greater levels of calcium, which can be demonstrated by the radiologic "positive stone image" or stone CT attenuation value. We believe that surgical invention will be the best choice for such patients if extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy has failed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  17. Development and application of a methodology for the analysis of significant human related event trends in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, H.Y.

    1981-01-01

    A methodology is developed to identify and flag significant trends related to the safety and availability of U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. The development is intended to aid in reducing likelihood of human errors. To assure that the methodology can be easily adapted to various types of classification schemes of operation data, a data bank classified by the Transient Analysis Classification and Evaluation (TRACE) scheme is selected for the methodology. The significance criteria for human-initiated events affecting the systems and for events caused by human deficiencies were developed. Clustering analysis was used to verify the learning trend in multidimensional histograms. A computer code is developed based on the K-Means algorithm and applied to find the learning period in which error rates are monotonously decreasing with plant age. The Freeman-Tukey (F-T) deviates are used to select generic problems identified by a large positive value (here approximately over 2.0) for the deviate. The identified generic problems are: decision errors which are highly associated with reactor startup operations in the learning period of PWR plants (PWRs), response errors which are highly associated with Secondary Non-Nuclear Systems (SNS) in PWRs, and significant errors affecting systems and which are caused by response action are highly associated with startup reactor mode in BWRS

  18. Significance of breast boost volume changes during radiotherapy in relation to current clinical interobserver variations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurkmans, Coen; Admiraal, Marjan; Sangen, Maurice van der; Dijkmans, Ingrid

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose: Nowadays, many departments introduce CT images for breast irradiation techniques, aiming to obtain a better accuracy in the definition of the relevant target volumes. However, the definition of the breast boost volume based on CT images requires further investigation, because it may not only vary between observers, but it may also change during the course of treatment. This study aims to quantify the variability of the CT based visible boost volume (VBV) during the course of treatment in relation to the variability between observers. Materials and methods: Ten patients with stage T1-2 invasive breast cancer treated with breast conservative surgery and post surgical radiotherapy were included in this study. In addition to the regular planning CT which is obtained several days prior to radiotherapy, three additional CT scans were acquired 3, 5 and 7 weeks after the planning CT scan. Four radiation oncologists delineated the VBV in all scans. Conformity of the delineations was analysed both between observers, and between scans taken at different periods of the radiotherapy treatment. Results: The VBV averaged over all patients decreased during the course of the treatment from an initial 40 cm 3 to 28 cm 3 , 27 cm 3 and 25 cm 3 after 3, 5 and 7 weeks, respectively. Assuming the VBV to be spherical, this corresponds to a reduction in diameter of 5-6 mm. More detailed analysis revealed that this reduction was more pronounced when radiotherapy started within 30 days after surgery. These boost volume changes over time were found to be significant (p = 0.02) even in the presence of interobserver variations. Moreover, the conformity index (CI) for the volume changes was of the same magnitude as the conformity index for the interobserver variation (0.25 and 0.31, respectively). Conclusions: Breast boost volume variations during a course of radiotherapy are significant in relation to current clinical interobserver variations. This is an important

  19. Significant change of predictions related to the future of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumitrache, Ion

    2002-01-01

    During the last two decades of the 20th century, nuclear power contribution increased slowly in the world. This trend was mainly determined by the commissioning of new nuclear power plants, NPP, in the non-developed countries, except for Japan and South Korea. Almost all the forecasts offered the image of the stagnant nuclear power business. Sweden, Germany, Holland and Belgium Governments made clear the intention to stop the production of electricity based on fission. Recently, despite the negative effects on nuclear power of the terrorism events of September 11, 2001, the predictions related to the nuclear power future become much more optimistic. USA, Japan, South Korea and Canada made clear that new NPPs will offer their significant electricity contribution several decades, even after years 2020-2030. Moreover, several old NPP from USA obtained the license for an additional 20 years period of operation. The analysis indicated that most of the existing NPP in USA may increase the level of the maximum global power defined by the initial design. In the European Union the situation is much more complicated. About 35% of the electricity is based now on fission. Several countries, like Sweden and Germany, maintain the position of phasing out the NPPs, as soon as the licensed life-time is over. Finland decided to build a new power plant. France is very favorable to nuclear power, but does not need more energy. In the UK several very old NPP will be shut down, and companies like BNFL and British Energy intend to build new NPP, based on Westinghouse or AECL-Canada advanced reactors. Switzerland and Spain are favorable to the future use of nuclear power. In the eastern part of Europe, almost all the countries intend to base their electricity production on coal, fission, hydro and gas, nuclear contribution being significant. The most impressive increases of nuclear power output are related to Asia; in China, from 2.2 Gwe in 1999, to 18.7 Gwe in 2020, reference case, or 10

  20. Significance of experts' overall ratings for medical student competence in relation to history-taking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Ernesto de Almeida Troncon

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Overall ratings (ORs of competence, given by expert physicians, are increasingly used in clinical skills assessments. Nevertheless, the influence of specific components of competence on ORs is incompletely understood. The aim here was to investigate whether ORs for medical student history-taking competence are influenced by performance relating to communication skills, completeness of questioning and asking contentdriven key questions. DESIGN AND SETTING: Descriptive, quantitative study at Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo. METHODS: Thirty-six medical students were examined in a 15-station high-stake objective structured clinical examination (OSCE. At four stations devoted to history-taking, examiners filled out checklists covering the components investigated and independently rated students’ overall performance using a five-point scale from 1 (poor to 5 (excellent. Physician ratings were aggregated for each student. Nonparametric correlations were made between ORs. RESULTS: ORs presented significant correlations with checklist scores (Spearman’s rs = 0.38; p = 0.02 and OSCE general results (rs = 0.52; p < 0.001. Scores for "communication skills" tended to correlate with ORs (rs = 0.31, but without reaching significance (p = 0.06. Neither the scores for "completeness" (rs = 0.26; p = 0.11 nor those for "asking key questions" (rs = 0.07; p = 0.60 correlated with ORs. CONCLUSIONS: Experts’ overall ratings for medical student competence regarding history-taking is likely to encompass a particular dimension, since ratings were only weakly influenced by specific components of performance.

  1. The significance of coral reefs as global carbon sinks - response to Greenhouse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinsey, D W; Hopley, D [Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority, Townsville, Qld. (Australia)

    1991-03-01

    Coral reefs are net sinks for C, principally as CaCO{sub 3} accretion. For the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) net production (G) 1 (kg CaCO{sub 3} m{sup -2} yr{sup -1}) for fringing reefs, G 1.9 for planar (infilled platform) reefs, and G 3 for ribbon reefs and lagoonal reefs is suggested. GBR is estimated to produce approximately 50 million tonnes yr{sup -1}. In a 50-100 year Greenhouse scenario of rising sealevel, recolonisation of present reef flats will be extensive. Production will increase perhaps by {approximately} 40% to give 70 million tonnes yr{sup -1} given a sealevel rise of 6-8 mm yr{sup -1}. An estimated 115,000 km{sup 2} of oceanic atolls worldwide, produce 160 million tonnes yr{sup -1}. A similar increase could be possible. Global reef production, at present {approximately} 900 million tonnes yr{sup -1}, could almost double to within the next 100 years. Long term (several centuries), the trend of recolonisation could result in the production of {gt}3000 million tonnes yr{sup -1} given a sealevel rise of 6-8 mm yr{sup -1}. However, the reefs could 'drown' if the sealevel rise significantly exceeds 6-8 mm yr{sup -1}. Coral reefs are a sink for 111 million tonnes C yr{sup -1}, the equivalent of 2% of anthropogenic CO{sub 2} output. This could increase to {approximately} 4% in the short term (100 years) and {approximately} 9% in the longer term. The immediate effect of CaCO{sub 3} precipitation is to raise the P{sub CO{sub 2}} of the surface oceans, giving a negative value in alleviating Greenhouse effects. Other Greenhouse changes e.g. increases in seawater temperature, and changes in dissolved CO{sub 2} concentration circulation may complicate the reef response. However, during the next 100 years, sealevel rise will be the dominant influence. 45 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  2. Significance of glycolytic metabolism-related protein expression in colorectal cancer, lymph node and hepatic metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, Sandra Fernandes; Amorim, Ricardo; Viana-Pereira, Marta; Pinheiro, Céline; Costa, Ricardo Filipe Alves; Silva, Patrícia; Couto, Carla; Alves, Sara; Fernandes, Sara; Vilaça, Sónia; Falcão, Joaquim; Marques, Herlander; Pardal, Fernando; Rodrigues, Mesquita; Preto, Ana; Reis, Rui Manuel; Longatto-Filho, Adhemar; Baltazar, Fátima

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common malignancies and a leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Most cancer cells display high rates of glycolysis with production of lactic acid, which is then exported to the microenvironment by monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs). The main aim of this study was to evaluate the significance of MCT expression in a comprehensive series of primary CRC cases, lymph node and hepatic metastasis. Expressions of MCT1, MCT4, CD147 and GLUT1 were studied in human samples of CRC, lymph node and hepatic metastasis, by immunohistochemistry. All proteins were overexpressed in primary CRC, lymph node and hepatic metastasis, when compared with non-neoplastic tissue, with exception of MCT1 in lymph node and hepatic metastasis. MCT1 and MCT4 expressions were associated with CD147 and GLUT1 in primary CRC. These markers were associated with clinical pathological features, reflecting the putative role of these metabolism-related proteins in the CRC setting. These findings provide additional evidence for the pivotal role of MCTs in CRC maintenance and progression, and support the use of MCTs as biomarkers and potential therapeutic targets in primary and metastatic CRC

  3. [Significance of non-organ-specific autoantibodies in HCV-related chronic hepatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidi, Marcello; Muratori, Paolo; Granito, Alessandro; Muratori, Luigi; Pappas, Georgios; Bianchi, Francesco B

    2005-12-01

    The preliminary question regarding the clinical issue of the antiviral therapy in the HCV related chronic hepatitis patients is: is it mandatory the research for the autoantibodies in the eligible patients for the antiviral treatment? This issue is of particular interest at the light of the the reported cases of HCV positive patients with positivity for liver kidney microsome type 1 antibody who developed a hepatitic flare during the antiviral treatment. The data from literature about the efficacy and safety on the antiviral treatment in patients with autoantibodies are few and controversial, particularly if the ones regarding antiviral drugs and more recent treatment regimens are taking into account (peg-interferon, combined therapy of interferon and ribavirin). Large and prospective studies are needed for a thorough evaluation about the potential impact of autoantibodies reactivity on the therapeutic outcome. To date, it must be confirmed that a strict monitoring of hepatic parameters is to recommend during the whole treatment phase. This in the light of a potential appearance of significant flares of aminotransferases, particularly in subjects with anti LKM-1 autoantibodies, during interferon therapy.

  4. Significance of Alkali-Silica reaction in nuclear safety-related concrete structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Pape, Y.; Field, K.G.; Mattus, C.H.; Naus, D.J.; Busby, J.T.; Saouma, V.; Ma, Z.J.; Cabage, J.V.; Guimaraes, M.

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear Power Plant license renewal up to 60 years and possible life extension beyond has established a renewed focus on long-term aging of nuclear generating stations materials, and particularly, on concrete. Large irreplaceable sections of most nuclear generating stations include concrete components. The Expanded Materials Degradation Analysis, jointly performed by the Department of Energy, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the Academia and the Power Generation Industry, identified the need to develop a consistent knowledge base of alkali-silica reaction (ASR) within concrete as an urgent priority (Graves et al., 2014). ASR results in an expansion of Concrete produced by the reaction between alkali (generally from cement), reactive aggregate (like amorphous silica) and water absorption. ASR causes expansion, cracking and loss of mechanical properties. Considering that US commercial reactors in operation enter the age when ASR distress can be potentially observed and that numerous non-nuclear infrastructures (transportation, energy production) in a majority of the States have already experienced ASR-related concrete degradation, the susceptibility and significance of ASR for nuclear concrete structures must be addressed. This paper outlines an on-going research program including the investigation of the possibility of ASR in nuclear power plants, and the assessment of the residual shear bearing capacity of ASR-subjected nuclear structures. (authors)

  5. The significance of residual stresses in relation to the integrity of LWR pressure vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lidbury, D.P.G.

    1984-01-01

    The level and distribution of residual stresses in heavy section weldments and the factors affecting their relaxation with post-weld heat treatment (PWHT) are discussed; residual stresses are also considered in relation to the deposition of austenitic strip cladding and repair welding. A brief survey is made of currently available methods of measuring surface and sub-surface residual stresses in heavy section weldments; the effects of compressive residual stresses on the detection and sizing of planar defects are similarly considered. Available fracture mechanics methodologies with the capability of evaluation defect significance in the presence of residual and other secondary stresses are reviewed in some detail. On-going experimental investigations of the effects of residual stresses on structural integrity are also described. Following a general discussion, the desirability of internationally agreed Codes and Methods for assessing defects in the presence of residual and other self-limiting stresses is pointed out. It is argued that before such agreement could be achieved, however, further work is necessary, and a number of recommendations are given. (author)

  6. Meniscofibular Ligament: Morphology and Functional Significance of a Relatively Unknown Anatomical Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Natsis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. A relatively unknown ligamentous structure of the posterolateral corner of the knee joint, the so-called meniscofibular ligament (MFL, was investigated as regards its macroscopic morphology, its histological features, and its reaction to knee movements. Material and Methods. MFL was exposed on 21 fresh-frozen unpaired knee joints. Its microscopic morphology was examined utilizing for comparison the fibular collateral and the popliteofibular ligament. Results. MFL was encountered in 100% of the specimens as a thin striplike fibrous band extending between the lower border of the lateral meniscus and the head of the fibula. MFL was tense during knee extension and external rotation of the tibia, whereas its histological features were similar to those of fibular collateral and popliteofibular ligament. Discussion. Its precise histological nature is studied as well as its tension alterations during knee movements. The potential functional significance of the MFL with respect to its role in avoidance of lateral meniscus and lateral coronary ligament tears is discussed. Conclusions. MFL presumably provides an additional protection to the lateral meniscus during the last stages of knee extension, as well as to the lateral coronary ligament reducing the possibility of a potential rupture.

  7. Corporate social responsibility and aboriginal relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIntyre, J.; Cook, H.D.

    2002-01-01

    All of Canada's uranium mining activity occurs in the northern half of the province of Saskatchewan in western Canada. This region has a total population of 38 000 people living in many small communities scattered over 250 000 square kilometres. Demographically, the north's population is 75% aboriginal representing the Woodland Cree, Dene, and Metis Nations. The majority of the aboriginal population of northern Saskatchewan are treaty Indians (First Nations). The dominant first nations group in the north is The Lac La Ronge Indian Band, also Saskatchewan's largest Woodland Cree First Nation. Despite the fact that the Lac La Ronge Band and other First Nations of the region do not have surface or mineral rights, other than those on their reserve lands, they have significant influence in the development process. The extraction of the mineral resources of Canada are now undertaken with very considerable input from first nations groups and with sensitivity to their treaty rights and aboriginal traditional rights. Treaty rights in Canada include, among other things, hunting and fishing, access to post secondary education and special taxation considerations. This presentation will introduce participants to a unique perspective on northern Saskatchewan's uranium mining industry. This perspective will be provided by Harry Cook, Chief of the Lac La Ronge Indian Band.In his presentation, Chief Cook will provide a first nation's perspective on industrial development generally and uranium development specifically. He will begin by outlining the challenges facing aboriginal people in Canada and will provide an insightful view of the historical conflict between industrial developers and first nations people. He will describe the aspirations of his people and the importance they place on preservation of the natural environment. He will also speak to the critical need now emerging for aboriginal people to seek a balance between retaining traditional culture and participating in the

  8. Random Forest Segregation of Drug Responses May define Regions of Biological Significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qasim eBukhari

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The ability to assess brain responses in unsupervised manner based on fMRI measure has remained a challenge. Here we have applied the Random Forest (RF method to detect differences in the pharmacological MRI (phMRI response in rats to treatment with an analgesic drug (buprenorphine as compared to control (saline. Three groups of animals were studied: two groups treated with different doses of the opioid buprenorphine, low (LD and high dose (HD, and one receiving saline. PhMRI responses were evaluated in 45 brain regions and RF analysis was applied to allocate rats to the individual treatment groups. RF analysis was able to identify drug effects based on differential phMRI responses in the hippocampus, amygdala, nucleus accumbens, superior colliculus and the lateral and posterior thalamus for drug vs. saline. These structures have high levels of mu opioid receptors. In addition these regions are involved in aversive signaling, which is inhibited by mu opioids. The results demonstrate that buprenorphine mediated phMRI responses comprise characteristic features that allow an unsupervised differentiation from placebo treated rats as well as the proper allocation to the respective drug dose group using the RF method, a method that has been successfully applied in clinical studies.

  9. Difference in method of administration did not significantly impact item response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjorner, Jakob B; Rose, Matthias; Gandek, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    assistant (PDA), or personal computer (PC) on the Internet, and a second form by PC, in the same administration. Structural invariance, equivalence of item responses, and measurement precision were evaluated using confirmatory factor analysis and item response theory methods. RESULTS: Multigroup...... levels in IVR, PQ, or PDA administration as compared to PC. Availability of large item response theory-calibrated PROMIS item banks allowed for innovations in study design and analysis.......PURPOSE: To test the impact of method of administration (MOA) on the measurement characteristics of items developed in the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS). METHODS: Two non-overlapping parallel 8-item forms from each of three PROMIS domains (physical function...

  10. National Emergency Preparedness and Response: Improving for Incidents of National Significance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Clayton, Christopher M

    2006-01-01

    The national emergency management system has need of significant improvement in its contingency planning and early consolidation of effort and coordination between federal, state, and local agencies...

  11. Significantly enhanced visible light response in single TiO2 nanowire by nitrogen ion implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Pengcheng; Song, Xianyin; Si, Shuyao; Ke, Zunjian; Cheng, Li; Li, Wenqing; Xiao, Xiangheng; Jiang, Changzhong

    2018-05-01

    The metal-oxide semiconductor TiO2 shows enormous potential in the field of photoelectric detection; however, UV-light absorption only restricts its widespread application. It is considered that nitrogen doping can improve the visible light absorption of TiO2, but the effect of traditional chemical doping is far from being used for visible light detection. Herein, we dramatically broadened the absorption spectrum of the TiO2 nanowire (NW) by nitrogen ion implantation and apply the N-doped single TiO2 NW to visible light detection for the first time. Moreover, this novel strategy effectively modifies the surface states and thus regulates the height of Schottky barriers at the metal/semiconductor interface, which is crucial to realizing high responsivity and a fast response rate. Under the illumination of a laser with a wavelength of 457 nm, our fabricated photodetector exhibits favorable responsivity (8 A W-1) and a short response time (0.5 s). These results indicate that ion implantation is a promising method in exploring the visible light detection of TiO2.

  12. School Public Relations: Personnel Roles and Responsibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, M. Scott

    2008-01-01

    This article emphasizes the paramount importance of the human resources function in the school system--specifically, in the implementation of an effective school public relations program and in the quality of leadership given by the administrators and the professional and classified staffs. The article submits that school administrators at every…

  13. Functional significance of the electrocorticographic auditory responses in the premotor cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuyo eTanji

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Other than well-known motor activities in the precentral gyrus, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI studies have found that the ventral part of the precentral gyrus is activated in response to linguistic auditory stimuli. It has been proposed that the premotor cortex in the precentral gyrus is responsible for the comprehension of speech, but the precise function of this area is still debated because patients with frontal lesions that include the precentral gyrus do not exhibit disturbances in speech comprehension. We report on a patient who underwent resection of the tumor in the precentral gyrus with electrocorticographic recordings while she performed the verb generation task during awake brain craniotomy. Consistent with previous fMRI studies, high-gamma band auditory activity was observed in the precentral gyrus. Due to the location of the tumor, the patient underwent resection of the auditory responsive precentral area which resulted in the post-operative expression of a characteristic articulatory disturbance known as apraxia of speech (AOS. The language function of the patient was otherwise preserved and she exhibited intact comprehension of both spoken and written language. The present findings demonstrated that a lesion restricted to the ventral precentral gyrus is sufficient for the expression of AOS and suggest that the auditory-responsive area plays an important role in the execution of fluent speech rather than the comprehension of speech. These findings also confirm that the function of the premotor area is predominantly motor in nature and its sensory responses is more consistent with the ‘sensory theory of speech production’, in which it was proposed that sensory representations are used to guide motor-articulatory processes.

  14. TNFRSF14 aberrations in follicular lymphoma increase clinically significant allogeneic T-cell responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotsiou, Eleni; Okosun, Jessica; Besley, Caroline; Iqbal, Sameena; Matthews, Janet; Fitzgibbon, Jude; Gribben, John G; Davies, Jeffrey K

    2016-07-07

    Donor T-cell immune responses can eradicate lymphomas after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (AHSCT), but can also damage healthy tissues resulting in harmful graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Next-generation sequencing has recently identified many new genetic lesions in follicular lymphoma (FL). One such gene, tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily 14 (TNFRSF14), abnormal in 40% of FL patients, encodes the herpes virus entry mediator (HVEM) which limits T-cell activation via ligation of the B- and T-lymphocyte attenuator. As lymphoma B cells can act as antigen-presenting cells, we hypothesized that TNFRSF14 aberrations that reduce HVEM expression could alter the capacity of FL B cells to stimulate allogeneic T-cell responses and impact the outcome of AHSCT. In an in vitro model of alloreactivity, human lymphoma B cells with TNFRSF14 aberrations had reduced HVEM expression and greater alloantigen-presenting capacity than wild-type lymphoma B cells. The increased immune-stimulatory capacity of lymphoma B cells with TNFRSF14 aberrations had clinical relevance, associating with higher incidence of acute GVHD in patients undergoing AHSCT. FL patients with TNFRSF14 aberrations may benefit from more aggressive immunosuppression to reduce harmful GVHD after transplantation. Importantly, this study is the first to demonstrate the impact of an acquired genetic lesion on the capacity of tumor cells to stimulate allogeneic T-cell immune responses which may have wider consequences for adoptive immunotherapy strategies. © 2016 by The American Society of Hematology.

  15. 78 FR 77722 - Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact Related to an Alternative Disposal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-24

    ... (LLRW) in the form of concrete/asphalt, piping, miscellaneous equipment, soil and soil-like wastes... oversight of certain studies and response actions in accordance with the National Oil and Hazardous...-action alternative would include continued contamination of soil and water, which could further escalate...

  16. Music-related reward responses predict episodic memory performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreri, Laura; Rodriguez-Fornells, Antoni

    2017-12-01

    Music represents a special type of reward involving the recruitment of the mesolimbic dopaminergic system. According to recent theories on episodic memory formation, as dopamine strengthens the synaptic potentiation produced by learning, stimuli triggering dopamine release could result in long-term memory improvements. Here, we behaviourally test whether music-related reward responses could modulate episodic memory performance. Thirty participants rated (in terms of arousal, familiarity, emotional valence, and reward) and encoded unfamiliar classical music excerpts. Twenty-four hours later, their episodic memory was tested (old/new recognition and remember/know paradigm). Results revealed an influence of music-related reward responses on memory: excerpts rated as more rewarding were significantly better recognized and remembered. Furthermore, inter-individual differences in the ability to experience musical reward, measured through the Barcelona Music Reward Questionnaire, positively predicted memory performance. Taken together, these findings shed new light on the relationship between music, reward and memory, showing for the first time that music-driven reward responses are directly implicated in higher cognitive functions and can account for individual differences in memory performance.

  17. Evaluating clinically significant changes in health-related quality of life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norup, Anne; Kristensen, Karin Spangsberg; Poulsen, Ingrid

    2017-01-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate change and predictors of change in health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in relatives of patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) during rehabilitation, and to analyse associations between changes in HRQoL and symptoms of anxiety...

  18. The mathematical structure of the approximate linear response relation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasuda, Muneki; Tanaka, Kazuyuki

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we study the mathematical structures of the linear response relation based on Plefka's expansion and the cluster variation method in terms of the perturbation expansion, and we show how this linear response relation approximates the correlation functions of the specified system. Moreover, by comparing the perturbation expansions of the correlation functions estimated by the linear response relation based on these approximation methods with exact perturbative forms of the correlation functions, we are able to explain why the approximate techniques using the linear response relation work well

  19. The significance of the structural regularity for the seismic response of buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hampe, E.; Goldbach, R.; Schwarz, J.

    1991-01-01

    The paper gives an state-of-the-art report about the international design practice and submits fundamentals for a systematic approach to the solution of that problem. Different criteria of regularity are presented and discussed with respect to EUROCODE Nr. 8. Still remaining questions and the main topics of future research activities are announced and come into consideration. Frame structures with or without additional stiffening wall elements are investigated to illustrate the qualitative differences of the vibrational properties and the earthquake response of regular and irregular systems. (orig./HP) [de

  20. Comparison of 5 health care professionals’ratings of the clinical significance of drug related problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villesen, Christine; Hojsted, Jette; Kjeldsen, Lene Juel

    2014-01-01

    to a mutual agreement on the level of clinical significance. However, to what degree does the panel agree?Purpose To compare the agreement between different health care professionals who have evaluated the clinical significance of DRPs.Materials and methods DRPs were identified in 30 comprehensive medicines...... reviews conducted by a clinical pharmacist. Two hospital pharmacists, a general practitioner and two specialists in pain management from hospital care (the Panel) evaluated each DRP considering the potential clinical outcome for the patient. The DRPs were rated either nil, low, minor, moderate or highly...... clinically significant. Agreement was analysed using Kappa statistics. A Kappa value of 0.8 to 1.0 indicated nearly perfect agreement between ratings of the Panel members.Results The Panel rated 45 percent of the total 162 DRPs as of moderate clinical significance. However, the overall kappa score was 0...

  1. Significance of relative velocity in drag force or drag power estimation for a tethered float

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vethamony, P.; Sastry, J.S.

    There is difference in opinion regarding the use of relative velocity instead of particle velocity alone in the estimation of drag force or power. In the present study, a tethered spherical float which undergoes oscillatory motion in regular waves...

  2. Analysing the significance of silence in qualitative interviewing: questioning and shifting power relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bengtsson, Tea Torbenfeldt; Fynbo, Lars

    2017-01-01

    In this article we analyse the significance of silence in qualitative interviews with 36 individuals interviewed about high-risk, illegal activities. We describe how silence expresses a dynamic power relationship between interviewer and interviewee. In the analysis, we focus on two different types...... significant data. We conclude that silence constitutes possibilities for interviewees and interviewers to handle the complex power at play in qualitative interviewing either by maintaining or by losing control of the situation....

  3. The role and significance of nuclear power in China in response to climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou Huiqun; Wu Jin; Bai Yunsheng

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyzes international climate negotiations and the domestic situation. In accordance with the development goal of 2020, the emission reduction of nuclear power is measured as compared with thermal power from the sector of power generation and nuclear power chain respectively. It emphasized that nuclear power can play a significant role in the emission reduction with corresponding policy recommendations. (authors)

  4. Significant correlation between the infant gut microbiome and rotavirus vaccine response in rural Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harris, V.C.; Armah, G.; Fuentes, S.; Korpela, K.E.; Parashar, U.; Victor, J.C.; Tate, J.; Weerth, C. de; Giaquinto, C.; Wiersinga, W.J.; Lewis, K.D.C.; Vos, W.M. de

    2017-01-01

    Background. Rotavirus (RV) is the leading cause of diarrhea-related death in children worldwide and ninety-five percent of RV deaths occur in Africa and Asia where rotavirus vaccines (RVV) have lower efficacy. We hypothesize that differences in intestinal microbiome composition correlate with the

  5. Significant Correlation Between the Infant Gut Microbiome and Rotavirus Vaccine Response in Rural Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harris, Vanessa C.; Armah, George; Fuentes Enriquez de Salamanca, Susana; Korpela, Katri E.; Parashar, Umesh; Victor, John C.; Tate, Jacqueline; Weerth, de Carolina; Giaquinto, Carlo; Wiersinga, Willem Joost; Lewis, Kristen D.C.; Vos, de Willem M.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND:  Rotavirus (RV) is the leading cause of diarrhea-related death in children worldwide and 95% of RV-associated deaths occur in Africa and Asia where RV vaccines (RVVs) have lower efficacy. We hypothesize that differences in intestinal microbiome composition correlate with the decreased

  6. The nitrogen responsive transcriptome in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) reveals significant gene regulatory motifs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gálvez, José Héctor; Tai, Helen H; Lagüe, Martin; Zebarth, Bernie J; Strömvik, Martina V

    2016-05-19

    Nitrogen (N) is the most important nutrient for the growth of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.). Foliar gene expression in potato plants with and without N supplementation at 180 kg N ha(-1) was compared at mid-season. Genes with consistent differences in foliar expression due to N supplementation over three cultivars and two developmental time points were examined. In total, thirty genes were found to be over-expressed and nine genes were found to be under-expressed with supplemented N. Functional relationships between over-expressed genes were found. The main metabolic pathway represented among differentially expressed genes was amino acid metabolism. The 1000 bp upstream flanking regions of the differentially expressed genes were analysed and nine overrepresented motifs were found using three motif discovery algorithms (Seeder, Weeder and MEME). These results point to coordinated gene regulation at the transcriptional level controlling steady state potato responses to N sufficiency.

  7. Sweet waste extract uptake by a mosquito vector: Survival, biting, fecundity responses, and potential epidemiological significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieng, Hamady; Satho, Tomomitsu; Abang, Fatimah; Meli, Nur Khairatun Khadijah Binti; Ghani, Idris A; Nolasco-Hipolito, Cirilo; Hakim, Hafijah; Miake, Fumio; Ahmad, Abu Hassan; Noor, Sabina; Zuharah, Wan Fatma; Ahmad, Hamdan; Majid, Abdul Hafiz A; Morales Vargas, Ronald E; Morales, Noppawan P; Attrapadung, Siriluck; Noweg, Gabriel Tonga

    2017-05-01

    In nature, adult mosquitoes typically utilize nectar as their main energy source, but they can switch to other as yet unidentified sugary fluids. Contemporary lifestyles, with their associated unwillingness to consume leftovers and improper disposal of waste, have resulted in the disposal of huge amounts of waste into the environment. Such refuse often contains unfinished food items, many of which contain sugar and some of which can collect water from rain and generate juices. Despite evidence that mosquitoes can feed on sugar-rich suspensions, semi-liquids, and decaying fruits, which can be abundant in garbage sites, the impacts of sweet waste fluids on dengue vectors are unknown. Here, we investigated the effects of extracts from some familiar sweet home waste items on key components of vectorial capacity of Aedes aegypti. Adult mosquitoes were fed one of five diets in this study: water (WAT); sucrose (SUG); bakery product (remnant of chocolate cake, BAK); dairy product (yogurt, YOG); and fruit (banana (BAN). Differences in survival, response time to host, and egg production were examined between groups. For both males and females, maintenance on BAK extract resulted in marked survival levels that were similar to those seen with SUG. Sweet waste extracts provided better substrates for survival compared to water, but this superiority was mostly seen with BAK. Females maintained on BAK, YOG, and BAN exhibited shorter response times to a host compared to their counterparts maintained on SUG. The levels of egg production were equivalent in waste extract- and SUG-fed females. The findings presented here illustrate the potential of sweet waste-derived fluids to contribute to the vectorial capacity of dengue vectors and suggest the necessity of readdressing the issue of waste disposal, especially that of unfinished sweet foods. Such approaches can be particularly relevant in dengue endemic areas where rainfall is frequent and waste collection infrequent. Copyright

  8. Significance of earthquake and weapons-test ground motion to structure response and NRC licensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blume, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    The author feels that of all the problems to be resolved before a nuclear power plant can be licensed to operate, the earthquake problem is the most difficult from the emotional and public relations point of view, as well as technically. It is the one that intervenors and their lawyers thrive upon, as do the demonstrators. These earthquakes can be tectonic, reservoir induced, and/or imaginary. 9 references, 29 figures

  9. Health-related quality of life of patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Which factors are of significance?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linde, L.; Sørensen, J.; Ostergaard, M.

    2008-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease causing joint pain, loss of function and decreased health-related quality of life (HRQoL). HRQoL in RA patients is associated with several risk factors; in this paper the evidence relating to the most important risk factors is reviewed....... Modern medical therapy has improved HRQoL in RA patients, while demographic factors (female sex and older age), low socioeconomic status (in terms of education and position in the work force) and the presence of comorbid conditions appear to be associated with poorer HRQoL Udgivelsesdato: 2008/3/3...

  10. Relation between cognitive and hedonic responses to a meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciccantelli, B; Pribic, T; Malagelada, C; Accarino, A; Azpiroz, F

    2017-05-01

    Ingestion of a meal induces cognitive and hedonic sensations and our aim was to determine the relation between both dimensions. In three groups of healthy non-obese men (n=10 per group) three types of meals with equivalent levels of palatability were tested: a liquid meal, a solid-liquid low-calorie meal, and a solid-liquid high-calorie meal. The cognitive and hedonic responses were measured on 10-cm scales before and during the 30-minute postprandial period. The liquid meal induced a relatively strong cognitive response with satiation (4.7±0.7 score increment), fullness (3.3±0.7 score increment), and inhibition of desire of eating a food of choice; in contrast, its impact on sensation of digestive well-being and satisfaction was not significant (0.7±0.7 score increment). The high-calorie solid-liquid meal, with larger volume load and caloric content, induced much lower satiation (2.4±0.8 score increment; P=.041 vs liquid meal) and fullness sensation (1.3±0.6 score increment; P=.031 vs liquid meal), but a markedly higher level of satisfaction (2.7±0.4 score increment; P=.021 vs liquid meal); the low-calorie mixed meal had less prominent effects with significantly lower satisfaction (1.0±0.4 score increment; P=.039 vs high-calorie meal). The cognitive (satiation, fullness) and hedonic responses (satisfaction) to meals with equivalent levels of palatability, that is, equally likable, are dissociable. The characteristics of meals in terms of satiation and rewarding power could be adapted to specific clinical targets, whether nutritional supplementation or restriction. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. 76 FR 65753 - Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact Related to Exemption of Material...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-24

    ... determined that there is no significant difference in the environmental impacts that result from WEC decision... Environmental Quality, and is not an NRC-licensed facility. Pursuant to 10 CFR 30.11 and 70.17, WEC's... amendment request, the July 28, 2009, public meeting, the July 2009 WEC Environmental Report, and other...

  12. Xenobiotic-induced apoptosis: significance and potential application as a general biomarker of response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, Leonard I.; Passino-Reader, Dora R.; Meier, Peter G.; Omann, Geneva M.

    1999-01-01

    The process of apoptosis, often coined programmed cell death, involves cell injury induced by a variety of stimuli including xenobiotics and is morphologically, biochemically, and physiologically distinct from necrosis. Apoptotic death is characterized by cellular changes such as cytoplasm shrinkage, chromatin condensation, and plasma membrane asymmetry. This form of cell suicide is appealing as a general biomarker of response in that it is expressed in multiple cell systems (e.g. immune, neuronal, hepatal, intestinal, dermal, reproductive), is conserved phylogenetically (e.g. fish, rodents, birds, sheep, amphibians, roundworms, plants, humans), is modulated by environmentally relevant levels of chemical contaminants, and indicates a state of stress of the organism. Further, apoptosis is useful as a biomarker as it serves as a molecular control point and hence may provide mechanistic information on xenobiotic stress. Studies reviewed here suggest that apoptosis is a sensitive and early indicator of acute and chronic chemical stress, loss of cellular function and structure, and organismal health. Examples are provided of the application of this methodology in studies of health of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in the Laurentian Great Lakes.

  13. Clinical significance of SNP (rs2596542 in histocompatibility complex class I-related gene A promoter region among hepatitis C virus related hepatocellular carcinoma cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal A. Mohamed

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The major histocompatibility complex class I-related gene A (MICA is an antigen induced by stress and performs an integral role in immune responses as an anti-infectious and antitumor agent. This work was designed to investigate whether (SNP rs2596542C/T in MICA promoter region is predictive of liver cirrhosis (LC and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC or not. Forty-seven healthy controls and 94 HCV-infected patients, subdivided into 47 LC and 47 HCC subjects were enrolled in this study. SNP association was studied using real time PCR and soluble serum MICA concentration was measured using ELISA. Results showed that heterozygous genotype rs2596542CT was significantly (P = 0.022 distributed between HCC and LC related CHC patients. The sMICA was significantly higher (P = 0.0001 among HCC and LC. No significant association (P = 0.56 between rs2596542CT genotypes and sMICA levels was observed. Studying SNP rs2596542C/T association with HCC and LC susceptibility revealed that statistical significant differences (P = 0.013, P = 0.027 were only observed between SNP rs2596542C/T and each of HCC and LC, respectively, versus healthy controls, indicating that the rs2596542C/T genetic variation is not a significant contributor to HCC development in LC patients. Moreover, the T allele was considered a risk factor for HCC and LC vulnerability in HCV patients (OR = 1.93 and 2.1, respectively, while the C allele contributes to decreasing HCC risk. Therefore, SNP (rs2596542C/T in MICA promoter region and sMICA levels might be potential useful markers in the assessment of liver disease progression to LC and HCC.

  14. Urethral inflammatory response to ureaplasma is significantly lower than to Mycoplasma genitalium and Chlamydia trachomatis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moi, Harald; Reinton, Nils; Randjelovic, Ivana; Reponen, Elina J; Syvertsen, Line; Moghaddam, Amir

    2017-07-01

    A non-syndromic approach to treatment of people with non-gonococcal urethritis (NGU) requires identification of pathogens and understanding of the role of those pathogens in causing disease. The most commonly detected and isolated micro-organisms in the male urethral tract are bacteria belonging to the family of Mycoplasmataceae, in particular Ureaplasma urealyticum and Ureaplasma parvum. To better understand the role of these Ureaplasma species in NGU, we have performed a prospective analysis of male patients voluntarily attending a drop in STI clinic in Oslo. Of 362 male patients who were tested for NGU using microscopy of urethral smears, we found the following sexually transmissible micro-organisms: 16% Chlamydia trachomatis, 5% Mycoplasma genitalium, 14% U. urealyticum, 14% U. parvum and 5% Mycoplasma hominis. We found a high concordance in detecting in turn U. urealyticum and U. parvum using 16s rRNA gene and ureD gene as targets for nucleic acid amplification testing (NAAT). Whilst there was a strong association between microscopic signs of NGU and C. trachomatis infection, association of M. genitalium and U. urealyticum infections in turn were found only in patients with severe NGU (>30 polymorphonuclear leucocytes, PMNL/high powered fields, HPF). U. parvum was found to colonise a high percentage of patients with no or mild signs of NGU (0-9 PMNL/HPF). We conclude that urethral inflammatory response to ureaplasmas is less severe than to C. trachomatis and M. genitalium in most patients and that testing and treatment of ureaplasma-positive patients should only be considered when other STIs have been ruled out.

  15. Paraprotein–Related Kidney Disease: Diagnosing and Treating Monoclonal Gammopathy of Renal Significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosner, Mitchell H.; Edeani, Amaka; Yanagita, Motoko; Glezerman, Ilya G.

    2016-01-01

    Paraprotein–related kidney disease represents a complex group of diseases caused by an abnormal paraprotein secreted by a clone of B cells. The disease manifestations range from tubulopathies, such as the Fanconi syndrome, to a spectrum of glomerular diseases that can present with varying degrees of proteinuria and renal dysfunction. Diagnosis of these diseases can be challenging because of the wide range of manifestations as well as the relatively common finding of a serum paraprotein, especially in elderly patients. Thus, renal biopsy along with detailed hematologic workup is essential to link the presence of the paraprotein to the associated renal disease. Recent advances in treatment with more effective and targeted chemotherapies, as well as stem cell transplantation, have improved the renal and overall prognosis for many of these disorders. PMID:27526705

  16. Expression and Significance of gp96 and Immune-related Gene CTLA-4, CD8 in Lung Cancer Tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiyan ZHENG

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective It has been proven that gp96 plays an important role in specific cytotoxic immune response which is involved in anti-tumor effect in the body. The aim of this study is to investigate the biological significance of heat shock protein gp96 and immune-related gene CTLA-4, CD8 expressions in lung cancer tissues of different progressive stages. Methods We used Envision immunohistochemistry method to detect the levels of expression of gp96, CTLA-4, CD8 in tissue microarray, which contained 89 primary lung cancer tissues, 12 lymph node metastasis lung cancer tissues, 12 precancerous lesions and 10 normal lung tissues, and analyzed the relationship between their expressions and clinicopathological parameters. Results (1 The positive rate of gp96 in primary lung cancer was remarkably higher than that in precancerous lesion and normal lung tissue (P < 0.05. The positive rate of CTLA-4 in primary lung cancer tissue and precancerous lesion was significantly higher than that in normal lung tissue (P < 0.05. The positive rate of CD8 in primary lung cancer tissue was significantly higher than that in normal lung tissue (P < 0.05. The positive rate of gp96 in CD8-positive lymphocytes in the high expression group was less than that in the low group (P < 0.05. (2 The positive rate of gp96 was closely related to sex, differentiation and clinical stage (P < 0.05, but not to age, gross type, histological type and lymph node metastasis (P > 0.05. The positive rate of CTLA-4 was closely related to age and differentiation (P < 0.05, but not to sex, gross type, histological type, clinical stage and lymph node metastasis (P > 0.05. CD8 expression was related to clinical stage (P < 0.05, but not to sex, age, gross type, histological type, differentiation and lymph node metastasis (P > 0.05. The positive rates of gp96, CTLA-4 were higher than that of CD8 in squamous cell carcinoma and SCLC, respectively. (3 There was positive correlation between gp

  17. Relative Significance of Journals, Authors, and Articles Cited in Financial Research.

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander, John C; Mabry, Rodney H

    1994-01-01

    The authors evaluate journals based on their relative contributions to top-level finance research in a recent period. Journals are ranked according to the number of citations found in articles published in the Journal of Finance, Journal of Financial Economics, Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, and Review of Financial Studies. The analysis controls for both the average number of articles and average number of words published annually in each cited journal. The authors identify t...

  18. Crystalline lens paradoxes revisited: significance of age-related restructuring of the GRIN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheil, Conor J; Goncharov, Alexander V

    2017-09-01

    The accommodating volume-constant age-dependent optical (AVOCADO) model of the crystalline lens is used to explore the age-related changes in ocular power and spherical aberration. The additional parameter m in the GRIN lens model allows decoupling of the axial and radial GRIN profiles, and is used to stabilise the age-related change in ocular power. Data for age-related changes in ocular geometry and lens parameter P in the axial GRIN profile were taken from published experimental data. In our age-dependent eye model, the ocular refractive power shows behaviour similar to the previously unexplained "lens paradox". Furthermore, ocular spherical aberration agrees with the data average, in contrast to the proposed "spherical aberration paradox". The additional flexibility afforded by parameter m , which controls the ratio of the axial and radial GRIN profile exponents, has allowed us to study the restructuring of the lens GRIN medium with age, resulting in a new interpretation of the origin of the power and spherical aberration paradoxes. Our findings also contradict the conceptual idea that the ageing eye is similar to the accommodating eye.

  19. Clinical importance and significance of early evaluation of therapy response in lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griesinger, F.; Baum, R.P.

    2001-01-01

    In solid tumors, especially in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), the TNM staging is the only well defined pretherapeutic risk factor. TNM-staging has a significant impact on prognosis and survival and is used to determine therapeutic stratification. Although numerous molecular and immunologic pretherapeutic risk factors have been described in NSCLC, none of them has been translated into therapeutic stratification. Therefore, the identification of posttherapeutic risk factors in NSCLC is essential. Locally advanced NSCLC are currently treated with preoperative (neoadjuvant) induction regimens. It has been shown that systemic tumor control and long-term disease free survival is correlated with histologic tumor regression. First results are presented in this paper that PET may be highly predictive for histologic tumor regression and long term outcome in NSCLC stage III. These results may establish PET as the first noninvasive posttherapeutic risk factor in locally advanced NSCLC. (orig.) [de

  20. Interim Policy Determination Related to NSR/PSD Significance Level for ODS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  1. Significance of being kept informed of teachers in the problem of the Chernobyl accident response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majdan, V.A.; Novozhilov, G.N.; Greben'ko, S.V.; Lavrent'ev, I.A.

    1993-01-01

    Teachers as a social group are engaged in the formation of public opinion and it brings up the necessity to carry out studies concerning the reference level of the Bryansk region teachers as to the effect of the ionizing radiation on the health, the cause-and-effect relations between the level of their mental-and-emotional stress and information about the true risk for health in the present radiation situation in the region. The degree of the effect of chronical stress on the subjective estimation of people's health, on their manner of life and nature of nourishment was studied, as well. Anonymous questionnaire of teachers within the age brackets ranging from 18-60 was conducted. The obtained data were processed statistically with elaboration of the mathematical models and determination of the contribution of the main factors. The presented results demonstrate the necessity to introduce the course for the Fundamentals of the radiation hygienics and radioecology into the training system designed for students of teacher-training colleges

  2. Epidemiology and Clinical Significance of Secondary and Therapy-Related Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granfeldt Østgård, Lene Sofie; Medeiros, Bruno C; Sengeløv, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: Secondary and therapy-related acute myeloid leukemia (sAML and tAML, respectively) remain therapeutic challenges. Still, it is unclear whether their inferior outcome compared with de novo acute myeloid leukemia (AML) varies as a result of previous hematologic disease or can be explained...... leukemia and myeloproliferative neoplasia) versus de novo AML. Limited to intensive therapy patients, we compared chance of complete remission by logistic regression analysis and used a pseudo-value approach to compare relative risk (RR) of death at 90 days, 1 year, and 3 years, overall and stratified...... myeloid disorder or prior cytotoxic exposure was associated with decreased complete remission rates and inferior survival (3-year adjusted RR for MDS-sAML, non-MDS-sAML, and tAML: RR, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.02 to 1.32; RR, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.16 to 1.34; and RR, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.03 to 1.32, respectively) compared...

  3. Praxis induction. Definition, relation to epilepsy syndromes, nosological and prognostic significance. A focused review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yacubian, Elza Márcia; Wolf, Peter

    2014-04-01

    There is increasing awareness that reflex epileptic mechanisms provide unique insight into ictogenesis in human epilepsies. Several of the described triggers have in common that they imply complex visuomotor coordination and decision-making; they are today regarded as variations of one principle, i.e. praxis induction (PI). This focused review considers PI from the aspects of history and delineation, clinical and electroencephalographic presentation, syndromatic relations, prevalence, mechanisms of ictogenesis and nosological implications, treatment and prognosis. We reviewed a series of published articles and case reports on PI in order to clarify clinical and electroencephalographic findings, treatment and outcome. Findings of both induction and inhibition by the same stimuli suggest widening the reflex epilepsy concept into a broader one of epilepsies with exogenous modification of ictogenesis. PI is closely related to juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) where hyperexcitability and hyperconnectivity of the entire network of visuomotor coordination seem to provide the precondition for eliciting reflex myocloni in the musculature active in the precipitating task. The conclusions on ictogenesis derived from PI support the concept of JME as a system disorder of the brain. Copyright © 2014 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Significant Features of Warm Season Water Vapor Flux Related to Heavy Rainfall and Draught in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiyama, Koji; Iseri, Yoshihiko; Jinno, Kenji

    2009-11-01

    In this study, our objective is to reveal complicated relationships between spatial water vapor inflow patterns and heavy rainfall activities in Kyushu located in the western part of Japan, using the outcomes of pattern recognition of water vapor inflow, based on the Self-Organizing Map. Consequently, it could be confirmed that water vapor inflow patterns control the distribution and the frequency of heavy rainfall depending on the direction of their fluxes and the intensity of Precipitable water. Historically serious flood disasters in South Kyushu in 1993 were characterized by high frequency of the water vapor inflow patterns linking to heavy rainfall. On the other hand, severe draught in 1994 was characterized by inactive frontal activity that do not related to heavy rainfall.

  5. Clinicopathological and prognostic significance of epithelial mesenchymal transition-related protein expression in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao X

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Xing Yao,1,* Xiang Wang,1,* Zishu Wang,2,* Licheng Dai,1 Guolei Zhang,1 Qiang Yan,1 Weimin Zhou11Huzhou Central Hospital, Zhejiang Huzhou, 2Department of Medical Oncology, First Affiliated Hospital, Bengbu Medical College, Anhui, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: The aim of this study was to examine the patterns of expression of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT-related proteins in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. The clinicopathological and prognostic value of these markers was also evaluated.Methods: We detected the expression status of three EMT-related proteins, ie, E-cadherin, vimentin, and N-cadherin, by immunohistochemistry in consecutive intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma specimens from 96 patients.Results: The frequency of loss of the epithelial marker E-cadherin, and acquisition of mesenchymal markers, vimentin and N-cadherin, in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma was 43.8%, 37.5% and 57.3%, respectively. Altered expression of EMT markers was associated with aggressive tumor behavior, including lymph node metastasis, undifferentiated-type histology, advanced tumor stage, venous invasion, and shorter overall survival. Moreover, loss of E-cadherin was retained as an independent prognostic factor for patients with intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma in multivariate analysis.Conclusion: Our results suggest that the EMT process is associated with tumor progression and a poor outcome in patients with intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, and inhibition of EMT might offer novel promising molecular targets for the treatment of affected patients.Keywords: intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, expression, prognosis, immunohistochemistry

  6. Two significant experiences related to radon in a high risk area in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sainz, C.; Gutierrez-Villanueva, J.-L.; Fuente, I.; Quindos, L.; Soto, J.; Quindos-Poncela, L.S.; Arteche, J.-L.

    2010-01-01

    Radon is a natural radioactive gas and it is currently accepted as being responsible for lung cancer in some cases. One of the most important sources of indoor radon is from the soil. The RADON content of soil is also a very important factor to be taken into account. The natural radiation map of Spain (MARNA) classifies the country into three regions with different levels of natural gamma radiation. There are some areas in Spain with high levels of natural radiation one of those is the province of Salamanca. Western part of this province presents a population of 20 000 inhabitants and 7% of the houses have an indoor radon concentration above 400 Bq·m -3 . In this high risk area, the village of Villar de la Yegua is of special interest: 11% of the houses in this village have an indoor radon level below 400 Bq·m -3 , 89% have above 400 Bq·m -3 and 71% of the houses have a radon concentration above 1000 Bq·m -3 . An old uranium mine site close to this village has been selected for the construction of an experimental pilot house. It is a two story house located in the place with a very high 226 Ra concentration in soil. Radon in soil at 1 m depth has an average level of 250 kBq·m -3 . We present in this work the characteristics of the experimental unit located in this high risk area and we describe the zone where one of the Spanish villages with the highest radon concentration is located. This is a very interesting place for further research on indoor radon concentration and it is a unique opportunity of testing radon monitors, radon passive detectors and remedial actions for the mitigation of radon in real conditions. It is common to carry out intercomparison exercises under laboratory conditions. Nonetheless, it is not so common to develop these exercises in real conditions as we have in the experimental unit we present here. We offer in this work the possibility for other research groups of testing their equipment in this unit and we also show the evolution of

  7. Attachment Avoidance Is Significantly Related to Attentional Preference for Infant Faces: Evidence from Eye Movement Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yuncheng; Cheng, Gang; Zhang, Dajun; Ta, Na; Xia, Mu; Ding, Fangyuan

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To determine the influence of adult attachment orientations on infant preference. Methods: We adopted eye-tracking technology to monitor childless college women's eye movements when looking at pairs of faces, including one adult face (man or woman) and one infant face, with three different expressions (happy, sadness, and neutral). The participants ( N = 150; 84% Han ethnicity) were aged 18-29 years ( M = 19.22, SD = 1.72). A random intercepts multilevel linear regression analysis was used to assess the unique contribution of attachment avoidance, determined using the Experiences in Close Relationships scale, to preference for infant faces. Results: Women with higher attachment avoidance showed less infant preference, as shown by less sustained overt attentional bias to the infant face than the adult face based on fixation time and count. Conclusion: Adult attachment might be related to infant preference according to eye movement indices. Women with higher attachment avoidance may lack attentional preference for infant faces. The findings may aid the treatment and remediation of the interactions between children and mothers with insecure attachment.

  8. The Significance of Electronic Commerce to Firms' Operations in Relation to Business Location: an empirical investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uchenna Eze

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Globalization of production and increasing competition spurs greater business use of innovative information systems. As globalization extends its reach over cities and regions, the positions of those places within the emerging global paradigms of regional economies is changing. Only those regions and cities that can mobilize assets for local advantage would succeed. This research examines the implications of location for electronic commerce (EC role in firm operations through the lens of managerial perceptions of EC systems, EC activities, agglomeration economies, firm-specific features and outputs relative to industry. The input-based view and industrial development frameworks provide the theoretical underpinning for this research. Fully completed instruments from 106 firms in Singapore and Lagos financial services sector, respectively, are the basis of our analysis. Our findings reveal varying results between industries across the two cities, supporting our propositions. Firms with well-configured EC systems are more likely to experience efficiency in EC activities and outputs, given conducive operational conditions. However, firm-specific features were not linked to output, a finding inconsistent with prior studies. Finally, EC business models that focus on operational efficiency strongly complement the historically relevant location variable in industrial operations. These findings provide basis for recommendations to policymakers, practitioners, and researchers.

  9. Labour Mobility and Plant Performance in Denmark: The Significance of Related Inflows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timmermans, Bram; Boschma, Ron

    This paper investigates the impact of different types of labour mobility on plant performance, making use of the IDA-database that provides detailed information on all individuals and plants for the whole of Denmark. Our study shows that the effect of labour mobility can only be assessed when one...... performance. Moreover, intra-regional skilled labour mobility had a negative effect on plant performance in general, while the effect of inter-regional labour mobility depends on the type of skills that flow into the plant. We used a sophisticated indicator of revealed relatedness that measures the degree...... accounts for the type of skills that flow into the plant, and the degree to which these match the existing set of skills at the plant level. We found that the inflow of related skills has a positive impact on plant performance, while inflows of similar and unrelated skills have a negative effect on plant...

  10. High density renal medulla on unenhanced CT : significance and relation with hydration status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Eun Jung; Kim, Hyun Suk; Oh, Kyung Seung; Kim, Jong Min; Kim, Sung Min; Jung, Gyoo Sik; Huh, Jin Do; Joh, Young Duk

    1999-01-01

    To assess the effect of hydration status on renal medullary attenuation and to evaluate the incidence of dense renal medulla, as seen on unenhanced CT. We prospectively studied unenhanced CT scans of 12 healthy volunteers. Obtained done after 10 hours and 15 hours of dehydration and after oral intake of 2L of water. BUN/Cr, urine specific gravity, urine osmole and hematocrit were evaluated after 10 hours of dehydration. CT images were reviewed for the presence of dense renal medulla and differential attenuation of dense renal and isodense medulla and cortex at the same level. The density changes of renal medulla after hydration were evaluated. and CT findings were compared with the results of biochemical studies. In addition, we retrospectively reviewed the CT scans of 200 consecutive patients for evaluation of the incidence of dense renal medulla. In 8 of 12 volunteers, dense renal medulla was seen on CT scan after dehydration. Mean attenuation was 71.3±10.42HU after 10 hours of dehydration, 68.6±13.54HU after 15 hours, and 34.5±11.47HU after hydration. No significant attenuation differences were detected between 10 hours and 15 hours of dehydration, but significantly lower attenuation values were noted after hydration. For isodense medulla, the mean attenuation value was 35.7±7.9HU after 10 hours of dehydration, 39.58±9.66HU after 15 hours, and 36.58±7.77HU after hydration. The mean attenuation values of cortex were 35.9±5.95HU after 10 hours of dehydration. 37.58±5.95HU after 15 hours, and 37.08±9.75HU after hydration. With regard not only to duration of dehydration, but also ti hydration, no differences in attenuation values were noted for renal cortex or isodense renal medulla. However, higher density was noted in dense renal medulla than in isodense medulla or cortex for the same duration of dehydration. After hydration, complete resolution was seen at five of eight sites and incomplete resolution at three of eight sites. There was no correlation

  11. Relation of milrinone after surgery for congenital heart disease to significant postoperative tachyarrhythmias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrew H; Owen, Jill; Borgman, Kristie Y; Fish, Frank A; Kannankeril, Prince J

    2011-12-01

    Milrinone reduces the risk of low cardiac output syndrome for some pediatric patients after congenital heart surgery. Data from adults undergoing cardiac surgery suggest an association between milrinone and an increased risk of postoperative arrhythmias. We tested the hypothesis that milrinone is an independent risk factor for tachyarrhythmias after congenital heart surgery. Subjects undergoing congenital heart surgery at our institution were consecutively enrolled for 38 months, through September 2010. The data were prospectively collected, including a review of full-disclosure telemetry and the medical records. Within 38 months, 603 enrolled subjects underwent 724 operative procedures. The median age was 5.5 months (range 0.0 to 426), the median weight was 6.0 kg (range 0.7 to 108), and the cohort was 45% female. The overall arrhythmia incidence was 50%, most commonly monomorphic ventricular tachycardia (n = 85, 12%), junctional ectopic tachycardia (n = 69, 10%), accelerated junctional rhythm (n = 58, 8%), and atrial tachyarrhythmias (including atrial fibrillation, atrial flutter, and ectopic or chaotic atrial tachycardia, n = 58, 8%). Multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated that independent of age 3, and the use of epinephrine or dopamine, milrinone use on admission to the cardiac intensive care unit remained independently associated with an increase in the odds of postoperative tachyarrhythmia resulting in an intervention (odds ratio 2.8, 95% confidence interval 1.3 to 6.0, p = 0.007). In conclusion, milrinone use is an independent risk factor for clinically significant tachyarrhythmias in the early postoperative period after congenital heart surgery. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Relation of Milrinone Following Surgery for Congenital Heart Disease to Significant Postoperative Tachyarrhythmias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrew H.; Owen, Jill; Borgman, Kristie Y.; Fish, Frank A.; Kannankeril, Prince J.

    2011-01-01

    Milrinone reduces the risk of low cardiac output syndrome for some pediatric patients following congenital heart surgery. Data from adults undergoing cardiac surgery suggest an association between milrinone and increased risk for postoperative arrhythmias. We tested the hypothesis that milrinone is an independent risk factor for tachyarrhythmias following congenital heart surgery. Subjects undergoing congenital heart surgery at our institution were consecutively enrolled for 38 months, through September 2010. Data was prospectively collected, including review of full-disclosure telemetry and the medical record. Over 38 months, 603 enrolled subjects underwent 724 operative procedures. The median age was 5.5 months (0.0–426), weight was 6.0 kg (0.7–108), and the cohort was 45% female. Overall arrhythmia incidence was 50%, most commonly monomorphic ventricular tachycardia (n=85, 12%), junctional ectopic tachycardia (n=69, 10%), accelerated junctional rhythm (n=58, 8%), and atrial tachyarrhythmias (including atrial fibrillation, atrial flutter, and ectopic or chaotic atrial tachycardia, n=58, 8%). Multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated that independent of age less than 1 month, use of cardiopulmonary bypass, duration of cardiopulmonary bypass, RACHS-1 score greater than 3, and the use of epinephrine or dopamine, milrinone use on admission to the cardiac intensive care unit remained independently associated with an increase in the odds of postoperative tachyarrhythmia resulting in an intervention (OR 2.8 [95%CI 1.3–6.0], p=0.007). In conclusion, milrinone use is an independent risk factor for clinically significant tachyarrhythmias in the early postoperative period following congenital heart surgery. PMID:21890079

  13. Clinical significance of stress-related increase in blood pressure: current evidence in office and out-of-office settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munakata, Masanori

    2018-05-29

    High blood pressure is the most significant risk factor of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases worldwide. Blood pressure and its variability are recognized as risk factors. Thus, hypertension control should focus not only on maintaining optimal levels but also on achieving less variability in blood pressure. Psychosocial stress is known to contribute to the development and worsening of hypertension. Stress is perceived by the brain and induces neuroendocrine responses in either a rapid or long-term manner. Moreover, endothelial dysfunction and inflammation might be further involved in the modulation of blood pressure elevation associated with stress. White-coat hypertension, defined as high clinic blood pressure but normal out-of-office blood pressure, is the most popular stress-related blood pressure response. Careful follow-up is necessary for this type of hypertensive patients because some show organ damage or a worse prognosis. On the other hand, masked hypertension, defined as high out-of-office blood pressure but normal office blood pressure, has received considerable interest as a poor prognostic condition. The cause of masked hypertension is complex, but evidence suggests that chronic stress at the workplace or home could be involved. Chronic psychological stress could be associated with distorted lifestyle and mental distress as well as long-lasting allostatic load, contributing to the maintenance of blood pressure elevation. Stress issues are common in patients in modern society. Considering psychosocial stress as the pathogenesis of blood pressure elevation is useful for achieving an individual-focused approach and 24-h blood pressure control.

  14. Relative spectral response calibration using Ti plasma lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, FEI; Congyuan, PAN; Qiang, ZENG; Qiuping, WANG; Xuewei, DU

    2018-04-01

    This work introduces the branching ratio (BR) method for determining relative spectral responses, which are needed routinely in laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). Neutral and singly ionized Ti lines in the 250–498 nm spectral range are investigated by measuring laser-induced micro plasma near a Ti plate and used to calculate the relative spectral response of an entire LIBS detection system. The results are compared with those of the conventional relative spectral response calibration method using a tungsten halogen lamp, and certain lines available for the BR method are selected. The study supports the common manner of using BRs to calibrate the detection system in LIBS setups.

  15. Are Simulated and Observed Twentieth Century Tropical Pacific Sea Surface Temperature Trends Significant Relative to Internal Variability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coats, S.; Karnauskas, K. B.

    2017-10-01

    Historical trends in the tropical Pacific zonal sea surface temperature gradient (SST gradient) are analyzed herein using 41 climate models (83 simulations) and 5 observational data sets. A linear inverse model is trained on each simulation and observational data set to assess if trends in the SST gradient are significant relative to the stationary statistics of internal variability, as would suggest an important role for external forcings such as anthropogenic greenhouse gasses. None of the 83 simulations have a positive trend in the SST gradient, a strengthening of the climatological SST gradient with more warming in the western than eastern tropical Pacific, as large as the mean trend across the five observational data sets. If the observed trends are anthropogenically forced, this discrepancy suggests that state-of-the-art climate models are not capturing the observed response of the tropical Pacific to anthropogenic forcing, with serious implications for confidence in future climate projections. There are caveats to this interpretation, however, as some climate models have a significant strengthening of the SST gradient between 1900 and 2013 Common Era, though smaller in magnitude than the observational data sets, and the strengthening in three out of five observational data sets is insignificant. When combined with observational uncertainties and the possibility of centennial time scale internal variability not sampled by the linear inverse model, this suggests that confident validation of anthropogenic SST gradient trends in climate models will require further emergence of anthropogenic trends. Regardless, the differences in SST gradient trends between climate models and observational data sets are concerning and motivate the need for process-level validation of the atmosphere-ocean dynamics relevant to climate change in the tropical Pacific.

  16. Fasting Ghrelin Levels Are Decreased in Obese Subjects and Are Significantly Related With Insulin Resistance and Body Mass Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Papandreou

    2017-10-01

    CONCLUSION: Obese subjects have low fasting ghrelin levels that they are significantly related to insulin resistance and body mass index. More prospective studies are needed to establish the role of ghrelin in the pathogenesis of human obesity.

  17. Understanding the Relation between Attitude Involvement and Response Latitude Using Item Response Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lake, Christopher J.; Withrow, Scott; Zickar, Michael J.; Wood, Nicole L.; Dalal, Dev K.; Bochinski, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Adapting the original latitude of acceptance concept to Likert-type surveys, response latitudes are defined as the range of graded response options a person is willing to endorse. Response latitudes were expected to relate to attitude involvement such that high involvement was linked to narrow latitudes (the result of selective, careful…

  18. Brake response time is significantly impaired after total knee arthroplasty: investigation of performing an emergency stop while driving a car.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Maurice; Hofmann, Ulf-Krister; Rondak, Ina; Götze, Marco; Kluba, Torsten; Ipach, Ingmar

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate whether total knee arthroplasty (TKA) impairs the ability to perform an emergency stop. An automatic transmission brake simulator was developed to evaluate total brake response time. A prospective repeated-measures design was used. Forty patients (20 left/20 right) were measured 8 days and 6, 12, and 52 wks after surgery. Eight days postoperative total brake response time increased significantly by 30% in right TKA and insignificantly by 2% in left TKA. Brake force significantly decreased by 35% in right TKA and by 25% in left TKA during this period. Baseline values were reached at week 12 in right TKA; the impairment of outcome measures, however, was no longer significant at week 6 compared with preoperative values. Total brake response time and brake force in left TKA fell below baseline values at weeks 6 and 12. Brake force in left TKA was the only outcome measure significantly impaired 8 days postoperatively. This study highlights that categorical statements cannot be provided. This study's findings on automatic transmission driving suggest that right TKA patients may resume driving 6 wks postoperatively. Fitness to drive in left TKA is not fully recovered 8 days postoperatively. If testing is not available, patients should refrain from driving until they return from rehabilitation.

  19. Professional relations in sport healthcare: workplace responses to organisational change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malcolm, Dominic; Scott, Andrea

    2011-02-01

    This article examines the impact of organisational changes in UK elite sport on the professional relations among and between different healthcare providers. The article describes the processes by which demand for elite sport healthcare has increased in the UK. It further charts the subsequent response within medicine and physiotherapy and, in particular, the institutionalisation of sport-specific sub-disciplines through the introduction of specialist qualifications. Drawing on semi-structured interviews with 14 doctors and 14 physiotherapists, the article argues that organisational changes have led to intra-professional tensions within both professional groups but in qualitatively different forms reflecting the organisational traditions and professional identities of the respective disciplines. Organisational changes promoting multi-disciplinary healthcare teams have also fostered an environment conducive to high levels of inter-professional cooperation though significant elements of inter-professional conflict remain. This study illustrates how intra-professional relations are affected by specialisation, how legitimation discourses are used by different professions, and how intra- and inter-professional conflict and cooperation should be seen as highly interdependent processes. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Therapeutic Touch Has Significant Effects on Mouse Breast Cancer Metastasis and Immune Responses but Not Primary Tumor Size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronowicz, Gloria; Secor, Eric R; Flynn, John R; Jellison, Evan R; Kuhn, Liisa T

    2015-01-01

    Evidence-based integrative medicine therapies have been introduced to promote wellness and offset side-effects from cancer treatment. Energy medicine is an integrative medicine technique using the human biofield to promote well-being. The biofield therapy chosen for study was Therapeutic Touch (TT). Breast cancer tumors were initiated in mice by injection of metastatic 66cl4 mammary carcinoma cells. The control group received only vehicle. TT or mock treatments were performed twice a week for 10 minutes. Two experienced TT practitioners alternated treatments. At 26 days, metastasis to popliteal lymph nodes was determined by clonogenic assay. Changes in immune function were measured by analysis of serum cytokines and by fluorescent activated cells sorting (FACS) of immune cells from the spleen and lymph nodes. No significant differences were found in body weight gain or tumor size. Metastasis was significantly reduced in the TT-treated mice compared to mock-treated mice. Cancer significantly elevated eleven cytokines. TT significantly reduced IL-1-a, MIG, IL-1b, and MIP-2 to control/vehicle levels. FACS demonstrated that TT significantly reduced specific splenic lymphocyte subsets and macrophages were significantly elevated with cancer. Human biofield therapy had no significant effect on primary tumor but produced significant effects on metastasis and immune responses in a mouse breast cancer model.

  1. Blocking Avoidance and Escape Responses: Relations With Clinically Relevant Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Maria Bubna Popovitz

    Full Text Available Abstract: The current study aims to evaluate the possible effects of interrupting problematic clinically relevant behaviors on the percentage of these responses and of clinical improvement-related responses. Two clients were treated with Functional Analytic Psychotherapy (FAP, alternating two conditions (ABAB. On condition A, procedures to the therapist consisted of responding to the clinical improvement responses, and to description of outside of therapeutic setting behaviors, but therapists were advised to ignore problem behaviors emitted in session. During condition B, therapists followed the same procedures, but they were oriented to block (interrupt problematic responses emitted in session. Results suggest increase in the percentage of problem behaviors during condition B. Results are discussed, highlighting the viability of planning the contingent response the therapist emits to clinically relevant behaviors.

  2. Gamma-ray relative energy response of Ce: YAG crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jianhua; Zhang Chuanfei; Hu Mengchun; Peng Taiping; Wang Zhentong; Tang Dengpan; Zhao Guangjun

    2010-01-01

    Gamma-ray relative energy response of Ce: YAG crystal, which is important for pulsed γ-ray measurement, was studied in this work.The Ce: YAG crystal, which was developed at Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, was aligned point by point with γ-rays scattered from an industrial 60 Co line source. The γ-ray relative energy response was calculated using the mass attenuation coefficient. The results show that the numerical calculation method of γ-ray relative energy response is reliable, and the experimental method with multi-energy point γ-ray by Compton scattering is also feasible, that can be used for checking up correctness of the numerical calculation results. (authors)

  3. Dose-response relation between physical activity and sick leave

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Proper, K.I.; Heuvel, S.G. van den; Vroome, E.M. de; Hildebrandt, V.H.; Beek, A.J. van der

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the dose-response relation between moderate and vigorous physical activity and sick leave in a working population. Methods: Data were used from three large Dutch databases: two continuous, cross sectional surveys among a representative sample of the Dutch population and one

  4. Bacterial–viral load and the immune response in stable and exacerbated COPD: significance and therapeutic prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D’Anna SE

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Silvestro Ennio D’Anna,1 Bruno Balbi,2 Francesco Cappello,3,4 Mauro Carone,2 Antonino Di Stefano21Department of Rehabilitation, Cardiorespiratory Unit, Fondazione Istituto G. Giglio di Cefalù, 2Pneumology Unit and Laboratory of Cytoimmunopathology of Heart and Lung, Fondazione Salvatore Maugeri, IRCCS, Veruno (NO and Cassano delle Murge (BA, 3Human Anatomy Section, Department of Experimental Biomedicine and Clinical Neuroscience, University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy; 4Euro-Mediterranean Institute of Science and Technology, Palermo, ItalyAbstract: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is characterized by persistent airflow limitation and an abnormal inflammatory response of the lung. Bacteria and viruses are a major cause of COPD exacerbations and may contribute to COPD progression by perpetuating the inflammatory response in the airways. Bacterial variety diminishes with increasing COPD severity. Respiratory viruses can colonize the lower respiratory tract in stable COPD, altering the respiratory microbiome and facilitating secondary bacterial infections. In this review, we present the most updated information about the role of bacteria and viruses in stable and exacerbated COPD. In our opinion, to optimize therapeutic strategies, the dynamic events involving bacterial–viral infections and related immune response in COPD phenotypes need to be better clarified. Our paper would address these points that we consider of great importance for the clinical management of COPD.Keywords: COPD phenotype, biomarkers, exacerbations, severity of COPD, microbiome

  5. [Clinical significance of calcitonin gene-related peptide level before and after treatment in patients with chronic periodontitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Ying; Xiang, Xue-Rong; Wang, Chun; Ye, Guo; Fan, Xiao-Ping

    2016-08-01

    To explore the clinical significance of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) levels in patients with chronic periodontitis before and after treatment, and to detect the calcitonin gene-related peptide content in human venous blood. Thirty healthy controls and thirty patients with mild, moderate, severe periodontitis were enrolled from August 2014 to June 2015.CGRP level in the patients' peripheral blood was detected by ELISA. Three months after periodontal treatment, CGRP level in mild, moderate, severe periodontitis patients' peripheral blood was re-examined by ELISA. Then the correlation between calcitonin gene-related peptide and inflammation of chronic periodontitis was analyzed with SPSS 22.0 software package. The content of CGRP in healthy controls was significantly higher than that in patients with periodontitis. With the aggravation of periodontal inflammation, blood level of CGRP decreased gradually, and the lowest was in patients with severe periodontitis (Pperiodontal treatment, CGRP content was significantly higher compared with that before treatment (Pperiodontitis (P>0.05). The level of CGRP in venous blood decreased with the increasing severity of chronic periodontitis, and CGRP was negatively correlated with the degree of inflammation of chronic periodontitis. CGRP may be involved in the occurrence and development of chronic periodontitis. CGRP content in serum of patients with chronic periodontitis after treatment was significantly increased, CGRP may be used as the basis for clinical detection of chronic periodontitis.

  6. Personal significance is encoded automatically by the human brain: an event-related potential study with ringtones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roye, Anja; Jacobsen, Thomas; Schröger, Erich

    2007-08-01

    In this human event-related brain potential (ERP) study, we have used one's personal--relative to another person's--ringtone presented in a two-deviant passive oddball paradigm to investigate the long-term memory effects of self-selected personal significance of a sound on the automatic deviance detection and involuntary attention system. Our findings extend the knowledge of long-term effects usually reported in group-approaches in the domains of speech, music and environmental sounds. In addition to the usual mismatch negativity (MMN) and P3a component elicited by deviants in contrast to standard stimuli, we observed a posterior ERP deflection directly following the MMN for the personally significant deviant only. This specific impact of personal significance started around 200 ms after sound onset and involved neural generators that were different from the mere physical deviance detection mechanism. Whereas the early part of the P3a component was unaffected by personal significance, the late P3a was enhanced for the ERPs to the personal significant deviant suggesting that this stimulus was more powerful in attracting attention involuntarily. Following the involuntary attention switch, the personally significant stimulus elicited a widely-distributed negative deflection, probably reflecting further analysis of the significant sound involving evaluation of relevance or reorienting to the primary task. Our data show, that the personal significance of mobile phone and text message technology, which have developed as a major medium of communication in our modern world, prompts the formation of individual memory representations, which affect the processing of sounds that are not in the focus of attention.

  7. Event-related potentials dissociate perceptual from response-related age effects in visual search

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiegand, Iris; Müller, Hermann J.; Finke, Kathrin

    2013-01-01

    measures with lateralized event-related potentials of younger and older adults performing a compound-search task, in which the target-defining dimension of a pop-out target (color/shape) and the response-critical target feature (vertical/horizontal stripes) varied independently across trials. Slower...... responses in older participants were associated with age differences in all analyzed event-related potentials from perception to response, indicating that behavioral slowing originates from multiple stages within the information-processing stream. Furthermore, analyses of carry-over effects from one trial...

  8. Factors Related to Significant Improvement of Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rates in Chronic Hepatitis B Patients Receiving Telbivudine Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Te-Fu Lin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim. The improvement of estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFRs in chronic hepatitis B (CHB patients receiving telbivudine therapy is well known. The aim of this study was to clarify the kinetics of eGFRs and to identify the significant factors related to the improvement of eGFRs in telbivudine-treated CHB patients in a real-world setting. Methods. Serial eGFRs were calculated every 3 months using the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI equation. The patients were classified as CKD-1, -2, or -3 according to a baseline eGFR of ≥90, 60–89, or <60 mL/min/1.73 m2, respectively. A significant improvement of eGFR was defined as a more than 10% increase from the baseline. Results. A total of 129 patients were enrolled, of whom 36% had significantly improved eGFRs. According to a multivariate analysis, diabetes mellitus (DM (p=0.028 and CKD-3 (p=0.043 were both significantly related to such improvement. The rates of significant improvement of eGFR were about 73% and 77% in patients with DM and CKD-3, respectively. Conclusions. Telbivudine is an alternative drug of choice for the treatment of hepatitis B patients for whom renal safety is a concern, especially patients with DM and CKD-3.

  9. Clinical significance of changes of serum true insulin and proinsulin levels in relations of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Xiaoping; Huang Huijian; Huang Haibo; Wu Yan; He Haoming

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To explore the degree of insulin resistance and β-cell secretory function impairment in close (1st degree) relations of patients with type 2 diabetes (DMII). Methods: Serum true insulin (TI), pro-insulin (PI), immunoreactive insulin (IRI) levels at fasting and after oral 75g glucose loading were determined in: 1) patients with DM 2, n=65 2)relations of DM 2 patients with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), n=34 3) relations of DM 2 patients with normal glucose tolerance (NGT), n=66 and 4) controls, n=48. HOMA-IR and HOMA-β cell secretory indices were calculated from the data. Results: Fasting serum PI levels were significantly higher in DM 2 patients, relations with IGT and NGT than those in the controls (t=2.38, t=2.16, t=1.95, P 1 C percentages were significantly higher in DM 2 patients and IGT, NGT groups than those in controls (t=3.67, t=2.45, t=1.97, P 1 C percentage, fasting TI and IRI levels. Conclusion: Insulin resistance was already obvious in those relations of DM 2 patients with normal glucose tolerance and β-cell secretory function impairment was also present. Early intervention in these subjects might be beneficial. (authors)

  10. Myasthenia Gravis Impairment Index: Responsiveness, meaningful change, and relative efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Carolina; Bril, Vera; Kapral, Moira; Kulkarni, Abhaya V; Davis, Aileen M

    2017-12-05

    To study responsiveness and meaningful change of the Myasthenia Gravis Impairment Index (MGII) and its relative efficiency compared to other measures. We enrolled 95 patients receiving prednisone, IV immunoglobulin (IVIg), or plasma exchange (PLEX) and 54 controls. Patients were assessed with the MGII and other measures-including the Quantitative Myasthenia Gravis Score, Myasthenia Gravis Composite, and Myasthenia Gravis Activities of Daily Living-at baseline and 3-4 weeks after treatment. Statistical markers of responsiveness included between-groups and within-group differences, and we estimated the relative efficiency of the MGII compared to other measures. Patient-meaningful change was assessed with an anchor-based method, using the patient's impression of change. We determined the minimal detectable change (MDC) and the minimal important difference (MID) at the group and individual level. Treated patients had a higher change in MGII scores than controls (analysis of covariance p 1 favoring the MGII. The MGII demonstrated responsiveness to prednisone, IVIg, and PLEX in patients with myasthenia. There is a differential response in ocular and generalized symptoms to type of therapy. The MGII has higher relative efficiency than comparison measures and is viable for use in clinical trials. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. on behalf of the American Academy of Neurology.

  11. Conscientiousness and Extraversion relate to responsiveness to tempo in dance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Emily; Burger, Birgitta; London, Justin; Thompson, Marc R; Toiviainen, Petri

    2016-10-01

    Previous research has shown broad relationships between personality and dance, but the relationship between personality and specific structural features of music has not been explored. The current study explores the influence of personality and trait empathy on dancers' responsiveness to small tempo differences between otherwise musically identical stimuli, measured by difference in the amount in acceleration of key joints. Thirty participants were recorded using motion capture while dancing to excerpts from six popular songs that were time-stretched to be slightly faster or slower than their original tempi. Analysis revealed that higher conscientiousness and lower extraversion both correlated with greater responsiveness to tempo change. Partial correlation analysis revealed that conscientiousness remained significantly correlated with responsiveness when extraversion was controlled, but not vice versa. No effect of empathy was found. Implications are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Examining the Coping Response to Peer Relational Aggression Victimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa M. Gomes

    2011-01-01

    Methods. Grounded theory techniques were used to gain an understanding of the victimization experience and the coping responses used. Findings. A theory of coping after experiencing peer relational aggression victimization was generated. Girls voiced feelings of hurt and anger after the experience and expressed the following ways of coping as a result: distancing from others, retaliation against the aggressor, discussing their feelings with friends and family, writing their feelings down, and/or confronting the aggressor. Clinical Implications. Nurses should be aware of the phenomenon and asses, for incidences of relational aggression victimization so that they may provide strategies to assist the adolescent and her family with positive coping mechanisms in order to prevent maladaptive responses.

  13. What boxing-related stimuli reveal about response behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottoboni, Giovanni; Russo, Gabriele; Tessari, Alessia

    2015-01-01

    When two athletes meet inside the ropes of the boxing ring to fight, their cognitive systems have to respond as quickly as possible to a manifold of stimuli to assure victory. In the present work, we studied the pre-attentive mechanisms, which form the basis of an athlete's ability in reacting to an opponent's punches. Expert boxers, beginner boxers and people with no experience of boxing performed a Simon-like task where they judged the colour of the boxing gloves worn by athletes in attack postures by pressing two lateralised keys. Although participants were not instructed to pay attention to the direction of the punches, beginner boxers' responses resembled a defence-related pattern, expert boxers' resembled counterattacks, whereas non-athletes' responses were not influenced by the unrelated task information. Results are discussed in the light of an expertise-related action simulation account.

  14. Metabonomics-based analysis of Brachyspira pilosicoli's response to tiamulin reveals metabolic activity despite significant growth inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Roy, Caroline Ivanne; Passey, Jade Louise; Woodward, Martin John; La Ragione, Roberto Marcello; Claus, Sandrine Paule

    2017-06-01

    Pathogenic anaerobes Brachyspira spp. are responsible for an increasing number of Intestinal Spirochaetosis (IS) cases in livestock against which few approved treatments are available. Tiamulin is used to treat swine dysentery caused by Brachyspira spp. and recently has been used to handle avian intestinal spirochaetosis (AIS). The therapeutic dose used in chickens requires further evaluation since cases of bacterial resistance to tiamulin have been reported. In this study, we evaluated the impact of tiamulin at varying concentrations on the metabolism of B. pilosicoli using a 1 H-NMR-based metabonomics approach allowing the capture of the overall bacterial metabolic response to antibiotic treatment. Based on growth curve studies, tiamulin impacted bacterial growth even at very low concentration (0.008 μg/mL) although its metabolic activity was barely affected 72 h post exposure to antibiotic treatment. Only the highest dose of tiamulin tested (0.250 μg/mL) caused a major metabolic shift. Results showed that below this concentration, bacteria could maintain a normal metabolic trajectory despite significant growth inhibition by the antibiotic, which may contribute to disease reemergence post antibiotic treatment. Indeed, we confirmed that B. pilosicoli remained viable even after exposition to the highest antibiotic dose. This paper stresses the need to ensure new evaluation of bacterial viability post bacteriostatic exposure such as tiamulin to guarantee treatment efficacy and decrease antibiotic resistance development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Significance of ABO-Rh blood groups in response and prognosis in breast cancer patients treated with radiotherapy and chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cihan, Yasemin Benderli

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate whether ABO-Rh blood groups have significance in the treatment response and prognosis in patients with non-metastatic breast cancer. We retrospectively evaluated files of 335 patients with breast cancer who were treated between 2005 and 2010. Demographic data, clinic- pathological findings, treatments employed, treatment response, and overall and disease-free survivals were reviewed. Relationships between clinic-pathological findings and blood groups were evaluated. 329 women and 6 men were included to the study. Mean age at diagnosis was 55.2 years (range: 26-86). Of the cases, 95% received chemotherapy while 70% were given radiotherapy and 60.9% adjuvant hormone therapy after surgery. Some 63.0% were A blood group, 17.6% O, 14.3% B and 5.1% AB. In addition, 82.0% of the cases were Rh-positive. Mean follow-up was 24.5 months. Median overall and progression-free survival times were 83.9 and 79.5 months, respectively. Overall and disease-free survival times were found to be higher in patients with A and O blood groups (pgroup (p=0.226). In univariate and multivariate analyses, ABO blood groups were identified as factors that had significant effects on overall and disease-survival times (p=0.011 and p=0.002). It was seen that overall and disease-free survival times were higher in breast cancer patients with A and O blood groups when compared to those with other blood groups. It was seen that A and O blood groups had good prognostic value in patients with breast cancer.

  16. HOW TO DEAL WITH CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY RELATED TO EMPLOYEES

    OpenAIRE

    Stoian Ciprian-Dumitru

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to examine an area which was not thoroughly researched until present. We refer on how Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) practices are nowadays reflecting its actions to employees / labor force. This paper represents a theoretical research related to the latest developments in this field. We had documented our paper based on actual references on this matter. In order to make correct assessments, this material seeks firstly to examine the level of understanding in re...

  17. Transcriptional responses of Leptospira interrogans to host innate immunity: significant changes in metabolism, oxygen tolerance, and outer membrane.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Xue

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Leptospira interrogans is the major causative agent of leptospirosis. Phagocytosis plays important roles in the innate immune responses to L. interrogans infection, and L. interrogans can evade the killing of phagocytes. However, little is known about the adaptation of L. interrogans during this process. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To better understand the interaction of pathogenic Leptospira and innate immunity, we employed microarray and comparative genomics analyzing the responses of L. interrogans to macrophage-derived cells. During this process, L. interrogans altered expressions of many genes involved in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, energy production, signal transduction, transcription and translation, oxygen tolerance, and outer membrane proteins. Among them, the catalase gene expression was significantly up-regulated, suggesting it may contribute to resisting the oxidative pressure of the macrophages. The expressions of several major outer membrane protein (OMP genes (e.g., ompL1, lipL32, lipL41, lipL48 and ompL47 were dramatically down-regulated (10-50 folds, consistent with previous observations that the major OMPs are differentially regulated in vivo. The persistent down-regulations of these major OMPs were validated by immunoblotting. Furthermore, to gain initial insight into the gene regulation mechanisms in L. interrogans, we re-defined the transcription factors (TFs in the genome and identified the major OmpR TF gene (LB333 that is concurrently regulated with the major OMP genes, suggesting a potential role of LB333 in OMPs regulation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first report on global responses of pathogenic Leptospira to innate immunity, which revealed that the down-regulation of the major OMPs may be an immune evasion strategy of L. interrogans, and a putative TF may be involved in governing these down-regulations. Alterations of the leptospiral OMPs up interaction with host antigen

  18. Unit Risk Quotient (RQ) and Relative Significance of Radionuclide on Flora and Fauna to the EU-APR Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Keunsung [KHNP-CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sukhoon [FNC Technology Co., Ltd., Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Chonghui [KEPCO E and C, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    As part of the project for acquiring the certification from EUR organization, in accordance with Articles 4.8 and 5.5 specified in Section 2.20 of EUR Volume 2, the effects of ionizing radiation from the standard design of EU-APR on biota and ecosystems during operation and decommissioning phases shall be assessed. This assessment must be carried out according to the ERICA (i.e. Environmental Risk from Ionizing Contaminants: Assessment and management) integrated approach. This paper describes the evaluation results for unit risk quotient and relative significance by radionuclide derived from performing Tier 1 assessment on flora and fauna for the EU-APR design using ERICA Tool. As specified previously, Pa-231 and Th-228 are the most significant for the terrestrial and for the marine/freshwater ecosystems, respectively. And, in terms of environmental risk, those radionuclides having the most impact on flora and fauna are relatively more significant than isotope having the least impact by about 7 to 10 orders of magnitude.

  19. Unit Risk Quotient (RQ) and Relative Significance of Radionuclide on Flora and Fauna to the EU-APR Optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Keunsung; Kim, Sukhoon; Lee, Chonghui

    2015-01-01

    As part of the project for acquiring the certification from EUR organization, in accordance with Articles 4.8 and 5.5 specified in Section 2.20 of EUR Volume 2, the effects of ionizing radiation from the standard design of EU-APR on biota and ecosystems during operation and decommissioning phases shall be assessed. This assessment must be carried out according to the ERICA (i.e. Environmental Risk from Ionizing Contaminants: Assessment and management) integrated approach. This paper describes the evaluation results for unit risk quotient and relative significance by radionuclide derived from performing Tier 1 assessment on flora and fauna for the EU-APR design using ERICA Tool. As specified previously, Pa-231 and Th-228 are the most significant for the terrestrial and for the marine/freshwater ecosystems, respectively. And, in terms of environmental risk, those radionuclides having the most impact on flora and fauna are relatively more significant than isotope having the least impact by about 7 to 10 orders of magnitude

  20. Secukinumab Significantly Reduces Psoriasis-Related Work Impairment and Indirect Costs Compared With Ustekinumab and Etanercept in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, R B; Halliday, A; Graham, C N; Gilloteau, I; Miles, L; McBride, D

    2018-05-30

    Psoriasis causes work productivity impairment that increases with disease severity. Whether differential treatment efficacy translates into differential indirect cost savings is unknown. To assess work hours lost and indirect costs associated with secukinumab versus ustekinumab and etanercept in the United Kingdom (UK). This was a post hoc analysis of work impairment data collected in the CLEAR study (secukinumab vs. ustekinumab) and applied to the FIXTURE study (secukinumab vs. etanercept). Weighted weekly and annual average indirect costs per patient per treatment were calculated from (1) overall work impairment derived from Work Productivity and Activity Impairment data collected in CLEAR at 16 and 52 weeks by Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) response level; (2) weekly/annual work productivity loss by PASI response level; (3) weekly and annual indirect costs by PASI response level, based on hours of work productivity loss; and (4) weighted average indirect costs for each treatment. In the primary analysis, work impairment data for employed patients in CLEAR at Week 16 were used to compare secukinumab and ustekinumab. Secondary analyses were conducted at different timepoints and with patient cohorts, including FIXTURE. In CLEAR, 452 patients (67%) were employed at baseline. At Week 16, percentages of weekly work impairment/mean hours lost decreased with higher PASI: PASI hours; PASI 50-74: 13.3%/4.45 hours; PASI 75-89: 6.4%/2.14 hours; PASI ≥90: 4.9%/1.65 hours. Weighted mean weekly/annual work hours lost were significantly lower for secukinumab than ustekinumab (1.96/102.51 vs. 2.40/125.12; P=0.0006). Results were consistent for secukinumab versus etanercept (2.29/119.67 vs. 3.59/187.17; Ρreduced work impairment and associated indirect costs of psoriasis compared with ustekinumab and etanercept at Week 16 through 52 in the UK. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  1. Kluyveromyces marxianus and Saccharomyces boulardii Induce Distinct Levels of Dendritic Cell Cytokine Secretion and Significantly Different T Cell Responses In Vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida M Smith

    Full Text Available Interactions between members of the intestinal microbiota and the mucosal immune system can significantly impact human health, and in this context, fungi and food-related yeasts are known to influence intestinal inflammation through direct interactions with specialized immune cells in vivo. The aim of the present study was to characterize the immune modulating properties of the food-related yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus in terms of adaptive immune responses indicating inflammation versus tolerance and to explore the mechanisms behind the observed responses. Benchmarking against a Saccharomyces boulardii strain with probiotic effects documented in clinical trials, we evaluated the ability of K. marxianus to modulate human dendritic cell (DC function in vitro. Further, we assessed yeast induced DC modulation of naive T cells toward effector responses dominated by secretion of IFNγ and IL-17 versus induction of a Treg response characterized by robust IL-10 secretion. In addition, we blocked relevant DC surface receptors and investigated the stimulating properties of β-glucan containing yeast cell wall extracts. K. marxianus and S. boulardii induced distinct levels of DC cytokine secretion, primarily driven by Dectin-1 recognition of β-glucan components in their cell walls. Upon co-incubation of yeast exposed DCs and naive T cells, S. boulardii induced a potent IFNγ response indicating TH1 mobilization. In contrast, K. marxianus induced a response dominated by Foxp3+ Treg cells, a characteristic that may benefit human health in conditions characterized by excessive inflammation and positions K. marxianus as a strong candidate for further development as a novel yeast probiotic.

  2. Kluyveromyces marxianus and Saccharomyces boulardii Induce Distinct Levels of Dendritic Cell Cytokine Secretion and Significantly Different T Cell Responses In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ida M; Baker, Adam; Christensen, Jeffrey E; Boekhout, Teun; Frøkiær, Hanne; Arneborg, Nils; Jespersen, Lene

    2016-01-01

    Interactions between members of the intestinal microbiota and the mucosal immune system can significantly impact human health, and in this context, fungi and food-related yeasts are known to influence intestinal inflammation through direct interactions with specialized immune cells in vivo. The aim of the present study was to characterize the immune modulating properties of the food-related yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus in terms of adaptive immune responses indicating inflammation versus tolerance and to explore the mechanisms behind the observed responses. Benchmarking against a Saccharomyces boulardii strain with probiotic effects documented in clinical trials, we evaluated the ability of K. marxianus to modulate human dendritic cell (DC) function in vitro. Further, we assessed yeast induced DC modulation of naive T cells toward effector responses dominated by secretion of IFNγ and IL-17 versus induction of a Treg response characterized by robust IL-10 secretion. In addition, we blocked relevant DC surface receptors and investigated the stimulating properties of β-glucan containing yeast cell wall extracts. K. marxianus and S. boulardii induced distinct levels of DC cytokine secretion, primarily driven by Dectin-1 recognition of β-glucan components in their cell walls. Upon co-incubation of yeast exposed DCs and naive T cells, S. boulardii induced a potent IFNγ response indicating TH1 mobilization. In contrast, K. marxianus induced a response dominated by Foxp3+ Treg cells, a characteristic that may benefit human health in conditions characterized by excessive inflammation and positions K. marxianus as a strong candidate for further development as a novel yeast probiotic.

  3. Improvement of Fabry Disease-Related Gastrointestinal Symptoms in a Significant Proportion of Female Patients Treated with Agalsidase Beta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilcox, William R; Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla; Martins, Ana Maria

    2018-01-01

    of organ involvement. Although variable, gastrointestinal symptoms are among the most common and significant early clinical manifestations; they tend to persist into adulthood if left untreated. To further understand the effects of sustained enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) with agalsidase beta......Fabry disease, an X-linked inherited lysosomal storage disorder, is caused by mutations in the gene encoding α-galactosidase, GLA. In patients with Fabry disease, glycosphingolipids accumulate in various cell types, triggering a range of cellular and tissue responses that result in a wide spectrum...... on gastrointestinal symptoms in heterozygotes, a data analysis of female patients enrolled in the Fabry Registry was conducted. To be included, females of any age must have received agalsidase beta (average dose 1.0 mg/kg every 2 weeks) for at least 2.5 years. Measured outcomes were self-reported gastrointestinal...

  4. Stress-related cortisol responsivity modulates prospective memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glienke, K; Piefke, M

    2017-12-01

    It is known that there is inter-individual variation in behavioural and physiological stress reactions to the same stressor. The present study aimed to examine the impact of cortisol responsivity on performance in a complex real life-like prospective memory (PM) paradigm by a re-analysis of data published previously, with a focus on the taxonomy of cognitive dimensions of PM. Twenty-one male subjects were stressed with the Socially Evaluated Cold Pressor Test (SECPT) before the planning of intentions. Another group of 20 males underwent a control procedure. Salivary cortisol was measured to assess the intensity of the biological stress response. Additionally, participants rated the subjective experience of stress on a 5-point rating scale. Stressed participants were post-hoc differentiated in high (n = 11) and low cortisol responders (n = 10). Cortisol niveau differed significantly between the two groups, whereas subjective stress ratings did not. PM performance of low cortisol responders was stable across time and the PM performance of controls declined. High cortisol responders showed a nominally weaker PM retrieval across the early trails and significantly improved only on the last trial. The data demonstrate for the first time that participants with a low cortisol responsivity may benefit from stress exposure before the planning phase of PM. PM performance of high cortisol responders shows a more inconsistent pattern, which may be interpreted in the sense of a recency effect in PM retrieval. Alternatively, high cortisol responses may have a deteriorating effect on PM retrieval, which disappeared on the last trials of the task as a result of the decrease of cortisol levels across time. Importantly, the data also demonstrate that the intensity of cortisol responses does not necessarily correspond to the intensity of the mental experience of stress. © 2017 British Society for Neuroendocrinology.

  5. Response Monitoring and Adjustment: Differential Relations with Psychopathic Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bresin, Konrad; Finy, M. Sima; Sprague, Jenessa; Verona, Edelyn

    2014-01-01

    Studies on the relation between psychopathy and cognitive functioning often show mixed results, partially because different factors of psychopathy have not been considered fully. Based on previous research, we predicted divergent results based on a two-factor model of psychopathy (interpersonal-affective traits and impulsive-antisocial traits). Specifically, we predicted that the unique variance of interpersonal-affective traits would be related to increased monitoring (i.e., error-related negativity) and adjusting to errors (i.e., post-error slowing), whereas impulsive-antisocial traits would be related to reductions in these processes. Three studies using a diverse selection of assessment tools, samples, and methods are presented to identify response monitoring correlates of the two main factors of psychopathy. In Studies 1 (undergraduates), 2 (adolescents), and 3 (offenders), interpersonal-affective traits were related to increased adjustment following errors and, in Study 3, to enhanced monitoring of errors. Impulsive-antisocial traits were not consistently related to error adjustment across the studies, although these traits were related to a deficient monitoring of errors in Study 3. The results may help explain previous mixed findings and advance implications for etiological models of psychopathy. PMID:24933282

  6. Significant Factors Related to Failed Pediatric Dental General Anesthesia Appointments at a Hospital-based Residency Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emhardt, John R; Yepes, Juan F; Vinson, LaQuia A; Jones, James E; Emhardt, John D; Kozlowski, Diana C; Eckert, George J; Maupome, Gerardo

    2017-05-15

    The purposes of this study were to: (1) evaluate the relationship between appointment failure and the factors of age, gender, race, insurance type, day of week, scheduled time of surgery, distance traveled, and weather; (2) investigate reasons for failure; and (3) explore the relationships between the factors and reasons for failure. Electronic medical records were accessed to obtain data for patients scheduled for dental care under general anesthesia from May 2012 to May 2015. Factors were analyzed for relation to appointment failure. Data from 3,513 appointments for 2,874 children were analyzed. Bivariate associations showed statistically significant (Pgeneral anesthesia face specific barriers to care.

  7. Prepulse inhibition of auditory change-related cortical responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inui Koji

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prepulse inhibition (PPI of the startle response is an important tool to investigate the biology of schizophrenia. PPI is usually observed by use of a startle reflex such as blinking following an intense sound. A similar phenomenon has not been reported for cortical responses. Results In 12 healthy subjects, change-related cortical activity in response to an abrupt increase of sound pressure by 5 dB above the background of 65 dB SPL (test stimulus was measured using magnetoencephalography. The test stimulus evoked a clear cortical response peaking at around 130 ms (Change-N1m. In Experiment 1, effects of the intensity of a prepulse (0.5 ~ 5 dB on the test response were examined using a paired stimulation paradigm. In Experiment 2, effects of the interval between the prepulse and test stimulus were examined using interstimulus intervals (ISIs of 50 ~ 350 ms. When the test stimulus was preceded by the prepulse, the Change-N1m was more strongly inhibited by a stronger prepulse (Experiment 1 and a shorter ISI prepulse (Experiment 2. In addition, the amplitude of the test Change-N1m correlated positively with both the amplitude of the prepulse-evoked response and the degree of inhibition, suggesting that subjects who are more sensitive to the auditory change are more strongly inhibited by the prepulse. Conclusions Since Change-N1m is easy to measure and control, it would be a valuable tool to investigate mechanisms of sensory gating or the biology of certain mental diseases such as schizophrenia.

  8. The Significance of the Stromal Response in Breast Cancer: An Immunohistochemical Study of Myofibroblasts in Primary and Metastatic Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roozdar, Alale; Hayes, Malcolm M; Pourseyedei, Bahram; Zeinalinejad, Hamid; Shamsi Meymandi, Manzumeh; Dabiri, Bahram; Dabiri, Shahriar

    2018-05-01

    Gene expression profiling of breast cancer has demonstrated the importance of stromal response in determining the prognosis of invasive breast cancer. The host response to breast cancer is of increasing interest to pathologists and may be a future focus for novel pharmacological treatments. This study describes the pattern of distribution of stromal myofibroblasts using immunostains for CD10 and smooth muscle actin (SMA) in 50 primary breast cancers and their matched nodal metastases (68.6% nodes positive and 31.4% nodes negative). The stroma within the tumor (intratumoral) and at the advancing tumor edge (peri-tumoral) was studied in both primary and nodal sites. A simple quantitative scoring system was employed for both immunostains. The correlation between expression of these markers by stromal cells and standard pathological prognostic factors of stage, grade, hormone receptor and Her-2 status was analysed. SMA-positive stromal cells were more abundant in peri-tumoral stroma compared with intratumoral stroma in both primary and metastatic lesions. SMA expression in the lymph node metastases showed a significant correlation with tumor stage. SMA expression in peri-tumoral stroma correlated with Her-2 status. The results of this study suggest that myofibroblasts, particularly those expressing SMA, might potentiate the progression of the carcinomatous process especially in nodal metastases. Thus these cells may be a potential therapeutic target. © 2018 The Author(s). This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

  9. Dental responsibility loadings and the relative value of dental services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teusner, D N; Ju, X; Brennan, D S

    2017-09-01

    To estimate responsibility loadings for a comprehensive list of dental services, providing a standardized unit of clinical work effort. Dentists (n = 2500) randomly sampled from the Australian Dental Association membership (2011) were randomly assigned to one of 25 panels. Panels were surveyed by questionnaires eliciting responsibility loadings for eight common dental services (core items) and approximately 12 other items unique to that questionnaire. In total, loadings were elicited for 299 items listed in the Australian Dental Schedule 9th Edition. Data were weighted to reflect the age and sex distribution of the workforce. To assess reliability, regression models assessed differences in core item loadings by panel assignment. Estimated loadings were described by reporting the median and mean. Response rate was 37%. Panel composition did not vary by practitioner characteristics. Core item loadings did not vary by panel assignment. Oral surgery and endodontic service areas had the highest proportion (91%) of services with median loadings ≥1.5, followed by prosthodontics (78%), periodontics (76%), orthodontics (63%), restorative (62%) and diagnostic services (31%). Preventive services had median loadings ≤1.25. Dental responsibility loadings estimated by this study can be applied in the development of relative value scales. © 2017 Australian Dental Association.

  10. Significance of cytochrome P450 system responses and levels of bile fluorescent aromatic compounds in marine wildlife following oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, R.F.; Anderson, J.W.

    2005-01-01

    The relationships among cytochrome P450 induction in marine wildlife species, levels of fluorescent aromatic compounds (FAC) in their bile, the chemical composition of the inducing compounds, the significance of the exposure pathway, and any resulting injury, as a consequence of exposure to crude oil following a spill, are reviewed. Fish collected after oil spills often show increases in cytochrome P450 system activity, cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) and bile fluorescent aromatic compounds (FAC), that are correlated with exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in the oil. There is also some evidence for increases in bile FAC and induction of cytochrome P450 in marine birds and mammals after oil spills. However, when observed, increases in these exposure indicators are transitory and generally decrease to background levels within one year after the exposure. Laboratory studies have shown induction of cytochrome P450 systems occurs after exposure of fish to crude oil in water, sediment or food. Most of the PAH found in crude oil (dominantly 2- and 3-ring PAH) are not strong inducers of cytochrome P450. Exposure to the 4-ring chrysenes or the photooxidized products of the PAH may account for the cytochrome P450 responses in fish collected from oil-spill sites. The contribution of non-spill background PAH, particularly combustion-derived (pyrogenic) PAH, to bile FAC and cytochrome P450 system responses can be confounding and needs to be considered when evaluating oil spill effects. The ubiquity of pyrogenic PAH makes it important to fully characterize all sources of PAH, including PAH from natural resources, e.g. retene, in oil spill studies. In addition, such parameters as species, sex, age, ambient temperature and season need to be taken into account. While increases in fish bile FAC and cytochrome P450 system responses, can together, be sensitive general indicators of PAH exposure after an oil spill, there is little unequivocal evidence to suggest a linkage to

  11. Allergen-induced changes in airway responsiveness are related to baseline airway responsiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    deBruinWeller, MS; Weller, FR; RijssenbeekNouwens, LHM; Jansen, HM; deMonchy, JGR

    In the literature, bronchial allergen challenge is usually reported to result in an increase in histamine-induced airway responsiveness (AR). The present study investigated the relation between baseline AR and allergen-induced changes in AR. The effect of allergen challenge on AR was investigated in

  12. Evidence of significant central fatigue in patients with cancer-related fatigue during repetitive elbow flexions till perceived exhaustion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Cai

    Full Text Available To investigate whether fatigue induced by an intermittent motor task in patients with cancer-related fatigue (CRF is more central or peripheral.Ten patients with CRF who were off chemo and radiation therapies and 14 age-matched healthy controls were enrolled. Participants completed a Brief Fatigue Inventory (BFI and performed a fatigue task consisting of intermittent elbow-flexion contractions at submaximal (40% maximal voluntary contraction intensity till self-perceived exhaustion. Twitch force was elicited by an electrical stimulation applied to the biceps brachii muscle. The relative degree of peripheral (muscle vs. central contribution to fatigue induced by the intermittent motor task (IMT was assessed using twitch force ratio (TF ratio defined as post IMT twitch force to pre IMT twitch force. The total number of trials (intermittent contractions and total duration of all trials performed by each subject were also quantified.BFI scores were higher (p < 0.001 in CRF than controls, indicating greater feeling of fatigue in CRF patients than controls. A significantly smaller number of trials and shorter total duration of the trials (p < 0.05 were observed in CRF than control participants. The TF ratio (0.81 ± 0.05 in CRF was higher (p < 0.05 compared with that of controls (0.62 ± 0.05, suggesting CRF patients experienced a significantly lower degree of muscle (peripheral fatigue at the time of perceived exhaustion.Consistent with prior findings for fatigue under submaximal sustained contraction, our results indicate that motor fatigue in CRF is more of central than peripheral origin during IMT. Significant central fatigue in CRF patients limits their ability to prolong motor performance.

  13. Determination of vasculopathy-related indexes in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and its clinical significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue-bin MA

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective To determined the serum lipid profile, coagulation function and platelet parameters in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM, and provide a basis for the prevention of diabetes related complications. Methods Two-hundred and forty-six T2DM patients (113 males and 133 females, aged 60.2±15.3 years, disease course 5-22 years hospitalized in the Navy General Hospital of PLA from March to December, 2012, were involved in the present study. The patients were divided into complication group (n=140 and no complication group (n=106 according to whether there were diabetes related complications, and 120 healthy individuals were recruited as control group. The levels of serum total cholesterol (TC, triglyceride (TG, highdensity lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT, prothrombin time (PT, fibrinogen (FIB, platelet count (PLT, and platelet size distribution width (PDW, mean platelet volume (MPV, and platelet large cell ratio (P-LCR were determined and compared among the 3 groups. Results The levels of TG, TC, LDL-C, MPV, PDW, P-LCR and FIB were significantly higher in complication group than those in no complication group and control group (P<0.05, and PLT, APTT and PT were significantly lower than those in no complication group and control group (P<0.05. No significant difference of HDL-C levels was found among the 3 groups. Conclusions The blood of patients with T2DM was in hyperviscous and/or hypercoagulable states, and it is prone to induce vascular complications. Monitoring serum lipid profile, coagulation function and platelet parameters should be beneficial for the prevention and treatment of diabetes complications. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2013.10.015

  14. Clinical significance of fibromyalgia syndrome in different rheumatic diseases: Relation to disease activity and quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Rabbat M, Sarah; Mahmoud, Nermeen K; Gheita, Tamer A

    2017-04-11

    To describe the frequencies of fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) in various rheumatic diseases; rheumatoid arthritis (RA), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), systemic sclerosis (SSc) and Behçets disease (BD) patients and to study the relation to clinical manifestations and quality of life (QoL). 160 patients (50 RA, 50 SLE, 30 SSc and 30 BD) and matched corresponding healthy controls were included. Disease activity was assessed using disease activity score in 28 joints (DAS28) for RA, SLE Disease Activity index (SLEDAI), modified Rodnan skin score for SSc and BD Current Activity Form (BDCAF). The QoL was also recorded. Severity in FMS cases was estimated using the revised Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire score. In the RA, SLE, SSc and BD patients, FMS was found in 14%, 18%, 6.67% and 3.33% respectively compared to 2.1%, 3%, 3.3% and 0% in their corresponding controls. In RA patients, DAS28 was significantly higher in those with FMS (p=0.009) and significantly correlated with both Widespread Pain Index (WPI) (p=0.011) and Symptom Severity (SS) scale (p=0.012). The QoL scale in those with FMS was significantly worse (62.3±7.9) compared to those without (71.7±14.4) (p=0.023). In SLE patients, The WPI and SS both significantly correlated with the presence of thrombosis (r=0.28, p=0.049 and r=0.43, p=0.002 respectively). The SS scale tended to correlate with the SLEDAI (r=0.28, p=0.05). In BD patients, BDCAF and WPI significantly correlated (p=0.03). Fibromyalgia syndrome is more frequent in rheumatic diseases, could be related to the disease activity in RA and BD patients and to thrombosis in SLE and affected the QoL in RA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Reumatología y Colegio Mexicano de Reumatología. All rights reserved.

  15. Individuals with clinically significant insomnia symptoms are characterised by a negative sleep-related expectancy bias: Results from a cognitive-experimental assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtauld, Hannah; Notebaert, Lies; Milkins, Bronwyn; Kyle, Simon D; Clarke, Patrick J F

    2017-08-01

    Cognitive models of insomnia consistently suggest that negative expectations regarding the consequences of poor sleep contribute to the maintenance of insomnia. To date, however, no research has sought to determine whether insomnia is indeed characterised by such a negative sleep-related expectancy bias, using objective cognitive assessment tasks which are more immune to response biases than questionnaire assessments. Therefore, the current study employed a reaction-time task assessing biased expectations among a group with clinically significant insomnia symptoms (n = 30) and a low insomnia symptoms group (n = 40). The task involved the presentation of scenarios describing the consequences of poor sleep, and non-sleep related activities, which could be resolved in a benign or a negative manner. The results demonstrated that the high insomnia symptoms group were disproportionately fast to resolve sleep-related scenarios in line with negative outcomes, as compared to benign outcomes, relative to the low insomnia symptoms group. The two groups did not differ in their pattern of resolving non-sleep related scenarios. This pattern of findings is entirely consistent with a sleep-specific expectancy bias operating in individuals with clinically significant insomnia symptoms, and highlights the potential of cognitive-experimental assessment tasks to objectively index patterns of biased cognition in insomnia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. HOW TO DEAL WITH CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY RELATED TO EMPLOYEES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stoian Ciprian-Dumitru

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to examine an area which was not thoroughly researched until present. We refer on how Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR practices are nowadays reflecting its actions to employees / labor force. This paper represents a theoretical research related to the latest developments in this field. We had documented our paper based on actual references on this matter. In order to make correct assessments, this material seeks firstly to examine the level of understanding in respect of internal CSR actions related to employees. It is very important to understand and to briefly describe how previous studies described the link between CSR actions assigned to own employees. Secondly, this paper focuses on presenting and commenting an idea prescribing that pyramids (i.e. the pyramid of Maslow’s hierarchy of human needs and the pyramid of Carroll’s corporate social responsibility put together generate a clear feedback related to companies’ reactions in respect of CSR for their employees. In a practical manner, it is assumed that each level on the pyramid of Maslow has a correspondent in the pyramid of Carroll and vice-versa. This model is then precisely reflected when looking at the employees and their needs reflected through CSR actions. Thirdly, this paper also emphasizes the importance of the labor unions for employees’ CSR. We discuss about an out-of-the-box role for the labor unions, which should be engaged more and more in the employees updated wishes, one of them being about various CSR actions that need to be focused on employees. We assume that CSR efforts directed in the field of employees would make them more responsible, more eager to work and more productive in their day-to-day work.

  17. The significance of major and stable molecular responses in chronic myeloid leukemia in the tyrosine kinase inhibitor era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilana Zalcberg Renault

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Tyrosine kinase inhibitors have changed the management and outcomes of chronic myeloid leukemia patients. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction is used to monitor molecular responses to tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Molecular monitoring represents the most sensitive tool to judge chronic myeloid leukemia disease course and allows early detection of relapse. Evidence of achieving molecular response is important for several reasons: 1. early molecular response is associated with major molecular response rates at 18-24 months; 2. patients achieving major molecular response are less likely to lose their complete cytogenetic response; 3. a durable, stable major molecular response is associated with increased progression-free survival. However, standardization of molecular techniques is still challenging.

  18. The significance of major and stable molecular responses in chronic myeloid leukemia in the tyrosine kinase inhibitor era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renault, Ilana Zalcberg; Scholl, Vanesa; Hassan, Rocio; Capelleti, Paola; de Lima, Marcos; Cortes, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    Tyrosine kinase inhibitors have changed the management and outcomes of chronic myeloid leukemia patients. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction is used to monitor molecular responses to tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Molecular monitoring represents the most sensitive tool to judge chronic myeloid leukemia disease course and allows early detection of relapse. Evidence of achieving molecular response is important for several reasons: 1. early molecular response is associated with major molecular response rates at 18-24 months; 2. patients achieving major molecular response are less likely to lose their complete cytogenetic response; 3. a durable, stable major molecular response is associated with increased progression-free survival. However, standardization of molecular techniques is still challenging. PMID:23049363

  19. Factors significantly related to science achievement of Malaysian middle school students: An analysis of TIMSS 1999 data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokshein, Siti Eshah

    The importance of science and technology in the global economy has led to growing emphasis on math and science achievement all over the world. In this study, I seek to identify variables at the student-level and school-level that account for the variation in science achievement of the eighth graders in Malaysia. Using the Third International Math and Science Study (TIMSS) 1999 for Malaysia, a series of HLM analysis was performed. Results indicate that (1) variation in overall science achievement is greater between schools than within schools; (2) both the selected student-level and school-level factors are Important in explaining the variation in the eight graders' achievement In science; (3) the selected student-level variables explain about 13% of the variation in students' achievement within schools, but as an aggregate, they account for a much larger proportion of the between-school variance; (4) the selected school-level variables account for about 55% of the variation between schools; (5) within schools, the effects of self-concept In science, awareness of the social implications of science, gender, and home educational resources are significantly related to achievement; (6) the effects of self-concept in science and awareness of social implications of science are significant even after controlling for the effects of SES; (7) between schools, the effects of the mean of home educational resources, mean of parents' education, mean of awareness of the social implications of science, and emphasis on conducting experiments are significantly related to achievement; (8) the effects of SES variables explain about 50% of the variation in the school means achievement; and (9) the effects of emphasis on conducting experiments on achievement are significant even after controlling for the effects of SES. Since it is hard to change the society, it is recommended that efforts to Improve science achievement be focused more at the school-level, concentrating on variables that

  20. WHERE DOES CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY STAND IN RELATION TO SUSTAINABILITY?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Diana Panta

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The business competitive landscape of today is shaped by new challenges. In order to outperform their peers, companies seek to seize opportunities and manage the risks associated with the challenges that arise. To this adds the pressure of societies on organizations to be more transparent, ethical and responsible. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR and sustainability come in response to this increasing demand of societies by being a pivotal tool in the business area. Organizations of the 21st century can no longer ignore CSR and sustainability and should follow the steps of integrating them across all departments as part of their strategic policy. Sustainable organizations are required to direct their interest beyond the economical factor and extend their goals towards environmental and social aspects. By integrating environmental and social concerns in the daily operations of a company, new models of doing business emerge and a synergy with various stakeholder groups takes place. Although a significant amount of attention has been headed towards the conceptualisation of CSR and sustainability, they both remain contested concepts. Therefore, the present paper depicts the effort to follow the emergence and conceptualization of CSR and sustainability from their origins, to introduce the changing meaning of CSR and to bridge the gap between the two concepts. Through literature review, the paper will provide relevant theoretical underpinnings that link CSR and sustainability.

  1. Statewide ban on recreational fires resulted in a significant decrease in campfire-related summer burn center admissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, David Manh; Reid, Dixie; Lentz, Christopher William

    2013-01-01

    Every summer, there is an increase in the number of burn injuries caused by accidents around campfires. Because of the prevalence of drought, high winds, and uncontrolled wild fires, a statewide ban on recreational fires was instituted in New Mexico from June to July 2011. We hypothesized that this legislation would have a significant impact on burn admissions caused by campfire-related injuries. A retrospective review of summer admissions to a state burn center was conducted to assess the effect of this ban on recreational fire injuries, and these data were compared with that of the previous summer when no ban was in effect. All burn admissions to a state burn center were reviewed from Memorial Day to Labor Day in 2010 and 2011. Data collected included cause, % TBSA, age, days of hospitalization, intensive care unit days, and total surface area grafted. Nonparametric statistical analysis was performed with Fisher exact test for dichotomous data and Mann-Whitney test for continuous data with significance at P fires during the study period (n = 14 [17%] in 2010 and 4 [5%] in 2011; P = .02). This resulted in a decrease in the number of patient-days from 91 in 2010 to 25 in 2011. Half of the camp fire admissions required skin grafts to definitively close the wounds (6/14 in 2010 and 2/4 in 2011). Recreational fire bans targeted at controlling wildfires during conditions favoring rapid spread were associated with a 3- to 4-fold decrease in campfire-related burn admissions. Compared with a summer when no fire ban was in effect, the number of patient-days decreased from 91 to 25.

  2. Two Aspects of Activation: Arousal and Subjective Significance – Behavioral and Event-Related Potential Correlates Investigated by Means of a Modified Emotional Stroop Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil Imbir

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The arousal level of words presented in a Stroop task was found to affect their interference on the required naming of the words’ color. Based on a dual-processes approach, we propose that there are two aspects to activation: arousal and subjective significance. Arousal is crucial for automatic processing. Subjective significance is specific to controlled processing. Based on this conceptual model, we predicted that arousal would enhance interference in a Stroop task, as attention would be allocated to the meaning of the inhibited word. High subjective significance should have the opposite effect, i.e., it should enhance the controlled and explicit part of Stroop task processing, which is color naming. We found that response latencies were modulated by the interaction between the arousal and subjective significance levels of words. The longest reaction times were observed for highly arousing words of medium subjective significance level. Arousal shaped event related potentials in the 150–290 ms time range, while effects of subjective significance were found for 50–150, 150–290, and 290–530 ms time ranges.

  3. Combat-related intradural gunshot wound to the thoracic spine: significant improvement and neurologic recovery following bullet removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louwes, Thijs M; Ward, William H; Lee, Kendall H; Freedman, Brett A

    2015-02-01

    The vast majority of combat-related penetrating spinal injuries from gunshot wounds result in severe or complete neurological deficit. Treatment is based on neurological status, the presence of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) fistulas, and local effects of any retained fragment(s). We present a case of a 46-year-old male who sustained a spinal gunshot injury from a 7.62-mm AK-47 round that became lodged within the subarachnoid space at T9-T10. He immediately suffered complete motor and sensory loss. By 24-48 hours post-injury, he had recovered lower extremity motor function fully but continued to have severe sensory loss (posterior cord syndrome). On post-injury day 2, he was evacuated from the combat theater and underwent a T9 laminectomy, extraction of the bullet, and dural laceration repair. At surgery, the traumatic durotomy was widened and the bullet, which was laying on the dorsal surface of the spinal cord, was removed. The dura was closed in a water-tight fashion and fibrin glue was applied. Postoperatively, the patient made a significant but incomplete neurological recovery. His stocking-pattern numbness and sub-umbilical searing dysthesia improved. The spinal canal was clear of the foreign body and he had no persistent CSF leak. Postoperative magnetic resonance imaging of the spine revealed contusion of the spinal cord at the T9 level. Early removal of an intra-canicular bullet in the setting of an incomplete spinal cord injury can lead to significant neurological recovery following even high-velocity and/or high-caliber gunshot wounds. However, this case does not speak to, and prior experience does not demonstrate, significant neurological benefit in the setting of a complete injury.

  4. The Late Paleozoic relative gas fields of coal measure in China and their significances on the natural gas industry

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    Chenchen Fang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The coal measure gas sources of coal-derived gas fields in the Late Paleozoic China are the Lower Carboniferous Dishuiquan Formation, the Upper Carboniferous Batamayineishan Formation and Benxi Formation, the Lower Permian Taiyuan Formation and Shanxi Formation, and the Upper Permian Longtan Formation. The coal-derived gas accumulates in Ordovician, Carboniferous, Permian, and Paleocene reservoirs and are distributed in Ordos Basin, Bohai Bay Basin, Junggar Basin, and Sichuan Basin. There are 16 gas fields and 12 of them are large gas fields such as the Sulige large gas field which is China's largest reserve with the highest annual output. According to component and alkane carbon isotope data of 99 gas samples, they are distinguished to be coal-derived gas from coal-derived gas with δ13C2 > −28.5‰ and δ13C1 -δ13C2 -δ13C3 identification chart. The Late Paleozoic relative gas fields of coal measure are significant for the Chinese natural gas industry: proven natural gas geological reserves and annual output of them account for 1/3 in China, and the gas source of three significant large gas fields is coal-derived, which of five significant large gas fields supporting China to be a great gas producing country. The average reserves of the gas fields and the large gas fields formed from the late Paleozoic coal measure are 5.3 and 1.7 times that of the gas fields and the large gas fields in China.

  5. Relative response of the alanine dosimeter to medium energy x-rays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, M; Büermann, L

    2015-08-07

    The response of the alanine dosimeter to kilovoltage x-rays with respect to the dose to water was measured, relative to the response to Co-60 radiation.Two series of x-ray qualities were investigated, one ranging from 30 kV to 100 kV tube voltage (TW series), the other one ranging from 70 kV to 280 kV (TH series). Due to the use of the water calorimeter as a primary standard, the uncertainty of the delivered dose is significantly lower than for other published data. The alanine response was measured as described in a previous publication (Anton et al 2013 Phys. Med. Biol. 58 3259-82). The uncertainty component due to the alanine measurement and analysis is ⩽0.4%, the major part of the combined uncertainty of the relative response originates from the uncertainty of the delivered dose. The relative uncertainties of the relative response vary from ⩽2% for the TW series to ⩽1.1% for the TH series.Different from the behaviour of the alanine dosimeter for megavoltage x-rays or electrons, the relative response drops significantly from unity for Co-60 radiation to less than 64% for the TW quality with a tube voltage of 30 kV. In order to reproduce this behaviour through Monte Carlo simulations, not only the ratio of the absorbed dose to alanine to the absorbed dose to water has to be known, but also the intrinsic efficiency, i.e. the dependence of the number of free radicals generated per unit of absorbed dose on the photon energy. This quantity is not yet accessible for the TW series.For a possible use of the alanine dosimeter for kilovoltage x-rays, for example in electronic brachytherapy, users should rely on the measured data for the relative response which have become available with this publication.

  6. Response to Instruction in Preschool: Results of Two Randomized Studies with Children At Significant Risk of Reading Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonigan, Christopher J.; Phillips, Beth M.

    2015-01-01

    Although response-to-instruction (RTI) approaches have received increased attention, few studies have evaluated the potential impacts of RTI approaches with preschool populations. This manuscript presents results of two studies examining impacts of Tier II instruction with preschool children. Participating children were identified as substantially delayed in the acquisition of early literacy skills despite exposure to high-quality, evidence-based classroom instruction. Study 1 included 93 children (M age = 58.2 months; SD = 3.62) attending 12 Title I preschools. Study 2 included 184 children (M age = 58.2 months; SD = 3.38) attending 19 Title I preschools. The majority of children were Black/African American, and about 60% were male. In both studies, eligible children were randomized to receive either 11 weeks of need-aligned, small-group instruction or just Tier I. Tier II instruction in Study 1 included variations of activities for code- and language-focused domains with prior evidence of efficacy in non-RTI contexts. Tier II instruction in Study 2 included instructional activities narrower in scope, more intensive, and delivered to smaller groups of children. Impacts of Tier II instruction in Study 1 were minimal; however, there were significant and moderate-to-large impacts in Study 2. These results identify effective Tier II instruction but indicate that the context in which children are identified may alter the nature of Tier II instruction that is required. Children identified as eligible for Tier II in an RTI framework likely require more intensive and more narrowly focused instruction than do children at general risk of later academic difficulties. PMID:26869730

  7. Decreases in left atrial compliance during early-stage exercise are related to exercise intolerance in asymptomatic significant mitral stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Mi-Hyang; Jung, Hae Ok; Lee, Jung-Won; Youn, Ho-Joong

    2017-11-01

    Doppler-driven net atrioventricular compliance (C n ), which represents left atrial (LA) compliance, is an important determinant of pulmonary hypertension in mitral stenosis (MS). We hypothesized that decreases in C n during early-stage exercise underlie exercise intolerance in patients with MS. Thirty-three asymptomatic patients with significant MS (valve area 1.24 ± 0.16 cm 2 ) underwent resting and bicycle exercise echocardiography. LA compliance and conventional parameters were assessed at each workload. The patients were classified into two groups based on whether they developed dyspnea during exercise: an exercise-intolerance group (n = 22) and an exercise-tolerance group (n = 11). Moreover, "50 W" was defined as an early exercise stage. Although the groups had similar resting characteristics, there were striking differences in their echocardiographic parameters from the early stages of exercise. The relative C n decrease at 50 W (expressed as a percentage of the resting C n ) was significantly greater in the exercise-intolerance group (70.3 ± 15.4% vs 49.7 ± 9.7%, P intolerance group (P = .0005). Furthermore, differences in the trends in this parameter were observed between the two groups (P intolerance (adjusted OR 1.105, 95% CI 1.030-1.184) after adjustment for other conventional parameters. Decreases in C n during early-stage exercise are an important mechanism underlying exercise intolerance in MS. © 2017, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Prognostic significance of normal quantitative Tl-201 stress scintigraphy in relation to pretest likelihood of coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russo, D.J.; Russo, D.; Clements, J.; Wackers, F.

    1984-01-01

    A previous study reported an excellent prognosis and low cardiac event rate in patients(pts) with chest pain and normal quantitative T1-201 scintigraphy(SC). Such result would not be unexpected if the population under study had a predominance of pts with low pre-T1-201 likelihood(L) of significant coronary artery disease (CAD). Hence, the authors undertook telephone follow-up in pts with chest pain syndrome and normal quantitative T1-201 exercise SC, and related outcome to pretest L of CAD. Pretest L was determined by serial L analysis on the basis of: symptoms, age, sex, and exercise ECG. All pts had T1-201 SC immediately post exercise and 2 hrs later. After interpolative background correction, circumferential count and washout profiles were generated. All pts had unequivocally normal studies. Of a total of 96 pts studied in 1981-82, 20 pts were lost to follow-up. Of the remaining 76 pts, 45 were males and 31 females. The pretest L of CAD had an inverted Gaussian distribution: thirty-four pts(47%) had 66% L of CAD. Mean follow-up was 22+- 3 months. No deaths occurred. Two pts(3%) (with pretest L of 54% and 94%) had myocardial infarctions, 8 and 22 months respectively after T1-201 stress SC. One pt underwent percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) 16 months after T1-201 stress SC. These findings confirm excellent prognostic significance of normal quantitative T1-201 stress scintigraphy

  9. Social capital theory related to corporate social responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Abramuszkinová Pavlíková

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with corporate social responsibility and its relationship to strategic management dealing with acquisition, development and utilisation of essential inputs. They influence the design of processes related to the creation of products or services that satisfy customers’ needs. Authors claim that the successful securing, deployment and development of any input is of human origin or linked to human activity which means that the nature of relationships plays a crucial role. As businesses are not isolated, they operate on a global scale where the question of trust is very important. The concept of social capital stresses that trust in norms and reciprocity facilitate increased productivity in individuals, teams and organisations. Social capital promotes value-added collaboration including on-going and demonstrative transparency which can secure closer bonding among those group members. Business responsibility, CSR and Putnam’s definition of social capital is shown on real case studies as a sign of importance for credibility and effectiveness of any CSR efforts. It is evident that the good will and support garnered from CSR can be fragile and easily damaged.

  10. Emergency Response Imagery Related to Hurricanes Harvey, Irma, and Maria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthem, A. V.; Madore, B.; Imahori, G.; Woolard, J.; Sellars, J.; Halbach, A.; Helmricks, D.; Quarrick, J.

    2017-12-01

    NOAA's National Geodetic Survey (NGS) and Remote Sensing Division acquired and rapidly disseminated emergency response imagery related to the three recent hurricanes Harvey, Irma, and Maria. Aerial imagery was collected using a Trimble Digital Sensor System, a high-resolution digital camera, by means of NOAA's King Air 350ER and DeHavilland Twin Otter (DHC-6) Aircraft. The emergency response images are used to assess the before and after effects of the hurricanes' damage. The imagery aids emergency responders, such as FEMA, Coast Guard, and other state and local governments, in developing recovery strategies and efforts by prioritizing areas most affected and distributing appropriate resources. Collected imagery is also used to provide damage assessment for use in long-term recovery and rebuilding efforts. Additionally, the imagery allows for those evacuated persons to see images of their homes and neighborhoods remotely. Each of the individual images are processed through ortho-rectification and merged into a uniform mosaic image. These remotely sensed datasets are publically available, and often used by web-based map servers as well as, federal, state, and local government agencies. This poster will show the imagery collected for these three hurricanes and the processes involved in getting data quickly into the hands of those that need it most.

  11. Physiological and subjective responses to low relative humidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunwoo, Yujin; Chou, Chinmei; Takeshita, Junko; Murakami, Motoko; Tochihara, Yutaka

    2006-01-01

    In order to investigate the influence of low relative humidity, we measured saccharin clearance time (SCT), frequency of blinking, heart rate (HR), blood pressure, hydration state of skin, transepidermal water loss (TEWL), recovery sebum level and skin temperature as physiological responses. We asked subjects to judge thermal, dryness and comfort sensations as subjective responses using a rating scale. Sixteen non-smoking healthy male students were selected. The pre-room conditions were maintained at an air temperature (Ta) of 25 degrees C and a relative humidity (RH) of 50%. The test room conditions were adjusted to provide a Ta of 25 degrees C and RH levels of 10%, 30% and 50%.RH had no effect on the activity of the sebaceous gland and on cardiovascular reactions like blood pressure and HR. However, it was obvious that low RH affects SCT, the dryness of the ocular mucosa and the stratum corneum of the skin and causes a decrease in mean skin temperature. Under 30% RH, the eyes and skin become dry, and under 10% RH the nasal mucous membrane becomes dry as well as the eyes and skin, and the mean skin temperature decreases. These findings suggested that to avoid dryness of the eyes and skin, it is necessary to maintain an RH greater than 30%, and to avoid dryness of the nasal mucous membrane, it is necessary to maintain an RH greater than 10%. Subjects felt cold immediately after a change in RH while they had only a slight perception of dryness at the change of humidity.

  12. ENVIRONMENTAL RESPONSIBILITY OF SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED ENTERPRISES AND ITS SIGNIFICANCE FOR THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE CSR CONCEPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Kaźmierczak

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article attempts to assess the importance of the environmental dimension of the concept of corporate social responsibility (Social Corporate Responsibility - CSR in small and medium-sized enterprises. The first part describes the essence of corporate social responsibility. The second part is the basic pillar of CSR, which is an ecological area. The third part presents the environmental efforts undertaken by small and medium-sized enterprises in the field of CSR. The analysis was based on the literature available and data obtained from empirical research conducted by the writer. The results show that companies, however in different extent undertake ecological activities willingly. Furthermore, those activities benefit not only in terms of the environmental dimension of CSR, but also in other areas of the organization.

  13. Expression of estrogen-related gene markers in breast cancer tissue predicts aromatase inhibitor responsiveness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Moy

    Full Text Available Aromatase inhibitors (AIs are the most effective class of drugs in the endocrine treatment of breast cancer, with an approximate 50% treatment response rate. Our objective was to determine whether intratumoral expression levels of estrogen-related genes are predictive of AI responsiveness in postmenopausal women with breast cancer. Primary breast carcinomas were obtained from 112 women who received AI therapy after failing adjuvant tamoxifen therapy and developing recurrent breast cancer. Tumor ERα and PR protein expression were analyzed by immunohistochemistry (IHC. Messenger RNA (mRNA levels of 5 estrogen-related genes-AKR1C3, aromatase, ERα, and 2 estradiol/ERα target genes, BRCA1 and PR-were measured by real-time PCR. Tumor protein and mRNA levels were compared with breast cancer progression rates to determine predictive accuracy. Responsiveness to AI therapy-defined as the combined complete response, partial response, and stable disease rates for at least 6 months-was 51%; rates were 56% in ERα-IHC-positive and 14% in ERα-IHC-negative tumors. Levels of ERα, PR, or BRCA1 mRNA were independently predictive for responsiveness to AI. In cross-validated analyses, a combined measurement of tumor ERα and PR mRNA levels yielded a more superior specificity (36% and identical sensitivity (96% to the current clinical practice (ERα/PR-IHC. In patients with ERα/PR-IHC-negative tumors, analysis of mRNA expression revealed either non-significant trends or statistically significant positive predictive values for AI responsiveness. In conclusion, expression levels of estrogen-related mRNAs are predictive for AI responsiveness in postmenopausal women with breast cancer, and mRNA expression analysis may improve patient selection.

  14. Proceedings of preparing for a significant Central United States earthquake-Science needs of the response and recovery community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Emitt C.

    2010-01-01

    Preface Imagine waking up at 2 o'clock in the morning by a violent rumbling that causes ceilings to fall, furniture to topple over, and windows to break. Your home is crumbling, it is dark, and by the time you realize what is going on the shaking stops. You quickly determine that your family members are okay, but you also realize your power is out, all the windows are broken, and there is substantial damage to your home possibly making it unsafe to remain inside. The temperature outside is in the 20s, there is a heavy snow on the ground, and the flu season is at its peak with two of your family members affected. Unfortunately your family is one of thousands in a similar circumstance and the response to your needs may not be immediate, if at all. Could an earthquake like this happen unannounced? It did in the Central United States during the great New Madrid earthquake of 1811-12. A resident of New Madrid, Missouri writes (Martin, 1848 ): 'On the 16th of December 1811, about 2 o'clock, AM, we were visited by a violent shock of an earthquake accompanied by a very awful noise resembling loud but distant thunder, but more hoarse and vibrating, which was followed in a few minutes by the complete saturation of the atmosphere with sulphurious vapor, causing total darkness. The screams of the affrighted inhabitants running to and fro, not knowing where to go, or what to do-the cries of the fowls and beasts of every species-the crackling of trees falling, and the roar of the Mississippi-the current of which was retrograde for a few minutes, owing as is supposed to an irruption in its bed-formed a scene truly horrible.' Eliza Bryan, March 22, 1816 The residents of the Central United States during the great New Madrid earthquake were accustomed to living rugged life styles. Electrical power was not a reality, water was drawn from shallow hand-dug wells or retrieved from streams, food was hunted or grown, and the homes typically were log structures with dirt floors. Though

  15. Cryptosporidium and other intestinal parasitic infections among HIV patients in southern Ethiopia: significance of improved HIV-related care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimelis, Techalew; Tassachew, Yayehyirad; Lambiyo, Tariku

    2016-05-10

    Intestinal parasitic infections are known to cause gastroenteritis, leading to higher morbidity and mortality, particularly in people living with HIV/AIDS. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of Cryptosporidium and other intestinal parasitic infections among HIV patients receiving care at a hospital in Ethiopia where previous available baseline data helps assess if improved HIV-related care has reduced infection rates. A cross-sectional study was conducted at Hawassa University Hospital in southern Ethiopia from May, 2013 to March, 2014. A consecutive sample of 491 HIV- infected patients with diarrhea or a CD4 T cell count intestinal parasites. The study was approved by the Institutional Review Board of the College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Hawassa University. Physicians managed participants found to be infected with any pathogenic intestinal parasite. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among the study population was 35.8 %. The most prevalent parasites were Cryptosporidium (13.2 %), followed by Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (10.2 %), and Giardia lamblia (7.9 %). The rate of single and multiple infections were 25.5 and 10.3 %, respectively. Patients with a CD4 T cell count intestinal parasitic infection or cryptosporidiosis compared to those with counts ≥ 200 cells/μl, but with some type of diarrhea. The study shows high prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in the study population. However, the results in the current report are significantly lower compared to previous findings in the same hospital. The observed lower infection rate is encouraging and supports the need to strengthen and sustain the existing intervention measures in order to further reduce intestinal parasitic infections in people living with HIV/AIDS.

  16. A pilot study: Horticulture-related activities significantly reduce stress levels and salivary cortisol concentration of maladjusted elementary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min Jung; Oh, Wook; Jang, Ja Soon; Lee, Ju Young

    2018-04-01

    The effects of three horticulture-related activities (HRAs), including floral arranging, planting, and flower pressing were compared to see if they influenced changes on a stress scale and on salivary cortisol concentrations (SCC) in maladjusted elementary school children. Twenty maladjusted elementary school children were randomly assigned either to an experimental or control group. The control group carried out individual favorite indoor activities under the supervision of a teacher. Simultaneously, the ten children in the experimental group participated in a HRA program consisting of flower arrangement (FA), planting (P), and flower pressing (PF) activities, in which the other ten children in the control group did not take part. During nine sessions, the activities were completed as follows: FA-FA-FA, P-P-P, and PF-PF-PF; each session lasted 40 min and took place once a week. For the quantitative analysis of salivary cortisol, saliva was collected from the experimental group one week before the HRAs and immediately after the activities for 9 consecutive weeks at the same time each session. In the experimental group, stress scores of interpersonal relationship, school life, personal problems, and home life decreased after the HRAs by 1.3, 1.8, 4.2, and 1.3 points, respectively. In particular, the stress score of school life was significantly reduced (P < 0.01). In addition, from the investigation of the SCCs for the children before and after repeating HRAs three times, it was found that flower arrangement, planting, and flower pressing activities reduced the SCCs by ≥37% compared to the SCCs prior to taking part in the HRAs. These results indicate that HRAs are associated with a reduction in the stress levels of maladjusted elementary school children. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Cancer patients undertaking bone scans in a department of Nuclear Medicine have significant stress related to the examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sioka, C.; Manetou, M.; Dimakopoulos, N.; Christidi, S.; Kouraklis, G.

    2005-01-01

    Bone scanning is a standard screening procedure for evaluation of metastases in cancer patient. In addition to the staging procedures, bone scan is a valuable test for deciding palliative therapeutic options in selected patients. The aim of this study was to investigate if patients with cancer who were undertaking routine bone scans had any stress related to the test. We asked 83 consecutive patients with various types of cancer if they had anxiety just prior to undergoing the test. Overall, we found that 53 (64%) patients had increased anxiety related to the examination and 30 (36%) patients did not. Among the 53 patients who were anxious about the bone scan, 32 were concerned about the results of the examination, 13 worried about the effects of the radiation, 4 were anxious for both results/radiation, and 4 patients had stress but could not specify the reason. Among the 32 patients who were concerned about the results of the examination, 15 were having their first bone scans, while 17 had already undergone the procedure before. Among the 13 patients who were mainly concerned about the risks of the radiation exposure during the test, 9 were having bone scans for the first time. Out of the 4 patients who feared both the results and radiation, 3 were having bone scans for the first time and 1 had it for several times. Finally, out of the 4 patients who had anxiety about the test but could not identify the reason, 3 were having bone scans for the first time and one had the test before but was claustrophobic. Our findings indicate that most patients (64%) with cancer who underwent a routine bone scan to check for metastatic disease had intense stress related either to the results or the side effects of the examination. However, there were more patients who were concerned about the results of the test rather than the effects of radiation. Among the patients who feared the effects of radioactivity most were having the test for the first time. A previous study in a

  18. More is not Always Better: The Relation between Item Response and Item Response Time in Raven’s Matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Goldhammer

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The role of response time in completing an item can have very different interpretations. Responding more slowly could be positively related to success as the item is answered more carefully. However, the association may be negative if working faster indicates higher ability. The objective of this study was to clarify the validity of each assumption for reasoning items considering the mode of processing. A total of 230 persons completed a computerized version of Raven’s Advanced Progressive Matrices test. Results revealed that response time overall had a negative effect. However, this effect was moderated by items and persons. For easy items and able persons the effect was strongly negative, for difficult items and less able persons it was less negative or even positive. The number of rules involved in a matrix problem proved to explain item difficulty significantly. Most importantly, a positive interaction effect between the number of rules and item response time indicated that the response time effect became less negative with an increasing number of rules. Moreover, exploratory analyses suggested that the error type influenced the response time effect.

  19. Significant linkage to airway responsiveness on chromosome 12q24 in families of children with asthma in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celedón, Juan C; Soto-Quiros, Manuel E; Avila, Lydiana; Lake, Stephen L; Liang, Catherine; Fournier, Eduardo; Spesny, Mitzi; Hersh, Craig P; Sylvia, Jody S; Hudson, Thomas J; Verner, Andrei; Klanderman, Barbara J; Freimer, Nelson B; Silverman, Edwin K; Weiss, Scott T

    2007-01-01

    Although asthma is a major public health problem in certain Hispanic subgroups in the United States and Latin America, only one genome scan for asthma has included Hispanic individuals. Because of small sample size, that study had limited statistical power to detect linkage to asthma and its intermediate phenotypes in Hispanic participants. To identify genomic regions that contain susceptibility genes for asthma and airway responsiveness in an isolated Hispanic population living in the Central Valley of Costa Rica, we conducted a genome-wide linkage analysis of asthma (n = 638) and airway responsiveness (n = 488) in members of eight large pedigrees of Costa Rican children with asthma. Nonparametric multipoint linkage analysis of asthma was conducted by the NPL-PAIR allele-sharing statistic, and variance component models were used for the multipoint linkage analysis of airway responsiveness as a quantitative phenotype. All linkage analyses were repeated after exclusion of the phenotypic data of former and current smokers. Chromosome 12q showed some evidence of linkage to asthma, particularly in nonsmokers (P asthma (airway responsiveness) in Costa Ricans.

  20. Electronic prompts significantly increase response rates to postal questionnaires: a randomized trial within a randomized trial and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Laura; Ronaldson, Sarah; Dyson, Lisa; Hewitt, Catherine; Torgerson, David; Adamson, Joy

    2015-12-01

    To assess the effectiveness of sending electronic prompts to randomized controlled trial participants to return study questionnaires. A "trial within a trial" embedded within a study determining the effectiveness of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (DOC) screening on smoking cessation. Those participants taking part in DOC who provided a mobile phone number and/or an electronic mail address were randomized to either receive an electronic prompt or no electronic prompt to return a study questionnaire. The results were combined with two previous studies in a meta-analysis. A total of 437 participants were randomized: 226 to the electronic prompt group and 211 to the control group. A total of 285 (65.2%) participants returned the follow-up questionnaire: 157 (69.5%) in the electronic prompt group and 128 (60.7%) in the control group [difference 8.8%; 95% confidence interval (CI): -0.11%, 17.7%; P = 0.05]. The mean time to response was 23 days in the electronic prompt group and 33 days in the control group (hazard ratio = 1.27; 95% CI: 1.105, 1.47). The meta-analysis of all three studies showed an increase in response rate of 7.1% (95% CI: 0.8%, 13.3%). The use of electronic prompts increased response rates and reduces the time to response. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. On nonstationarity-related errors in modal combination rules of the response spectrum method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Shashank; Gupta, Vinay K.

    2017-10-01

    Characterization of seismic hazard via (elastic) design spectra and the estimation of linear peak response of a given structure from this characterization continue to form the basis of earthquake-resistant design philosophy in various codes of practice all over the world. Since the direct use of design spectrum ordinates is a preferred option for the practicing engineers, modal combination rules play central role in the peak response estimation. Most of the available modal combination rules are however based on the assumption that nonstationarity affects the structural response alike at the modal and overall response levels. This study considers those situations where this assumption may cause significant errors in the peak response estimation, and preliminary models are proposed for the estimation of the extents to which nonstationarity affects the modal and total system responses, when the ground acceleration process is assumed to be a stationary process. It is shown through numerical examples in the context of complete-quadratic-combination (CQC) method that the nonstationarity-related errors in the estimation of peak base shear may be significant, when strong-motion duration of the excitation is too small compared to the period of the system and/or the response is distributed comparably in several modes. It is also shown that these errors are reduced marginally with the use of the proposed nonstationarity factor models.

  2. Patient autonomy in home care: Nurses' relational practices of responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Gaby

    2018-01-01

    Over the last decade, new healthcare policies are transforming healthcare practices towards independent living and self-care of older people and people with a chronic disease or disability within the community. For professional caregivers in home care, such as nurses, this requires a shift from a caring attitude towards the promotion of patient autonomy. To explore how nurses in home care deal with the transformation towards fostering patient autonomy and self-care. Research design and context: A case study was conducted in a professional development course ('learning circle') for home care nurses, including participant observations and focus groups. The theoretical notion of 'relational agency' and the moral concept of 'practices of responsibility' were used to conduct a narrative analysis on the nurses' stories about autonomy. Eight nurses, two coaches and two university lecturers who participated in the learning circle. Ethical considerations: Informed consent was sought at the start of the course and again, at specific moments during the course of the learning circle. Three main themes were found that expressed the moral demands experienced and negotiated by the nurses: adapting to the person, activating patients' strengths and collaboration with patients and informal caregivers. On a policy and organisational level, the moral discourse on patient autonomy gets intertwined with the instrumental discourse on healthcare budget savings. This is manifested in the ambiguities the nurses face in fostering patient autonomy in their daily home care practice. To support nurses, critical thinking, moral sensitivity and trans-professional working should be part of their professional development. The turn towards autonomy in healthcare raises moral questions about responsibilities for care. Promoting patient autonomy should be a collaborative endeavour and deliberation of patients, professional and informal caregivers together.

  3. Empathy and Stress Related Neural Responses in Maternal Decision Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Shaun Ho

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Mothers need to make caregiving decisions to meet the needs of children, which may or may not result in positive child feedback. Variations in caregivers’ emotional reactivity to unpleasant child-feedback may be partially explained by their dispositional empathy levels. Furthermore, empathic response to the child’s unpleasant feedback likely helps mothers to regulate their own stress. We investigated the relationship between maternal dispositional empathy, stress reactivity, and neural correlates of child feedback to caregiving decisions. In Part 1 of the study, 33 female participants were recruited to undergo a lab-based mild stressor, the Social Evaluation Test (SET, and then in Part 2 of the study, a subset of the participants, fourteen mothers, performed a Parenting Decision Making Task (PDMT in an fMRI setting. Four dimensions of dispositional empathy based on the Interpersonal Reactivity Index were measured in all participants – Personal Distress, Empathic Concern, Perspective Taking, and Fantasy. Overall, we found that the Personal Distress and Perspective Taking were associated with greater and lesser cortisol reactivity, respectively. The four types of empathy were distinctly associated with the negative (versus positive child feedback activation in the brain. Personal Distress was associated with amygdala and hypothalamus activation, Empathic Concern with the left ventral striatum, ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC, and supplemental motor area (SMA activation, and Fantasy with the septal area, right SMA and VLPFC activation. Interestingly, hypothalamus-septal coupling during the negative feedback condition was associated with less PDMT-related cortisol reactivity. The roles of distinct forms of dispositional empathy in neural and stress responses are discussed.

  4. The normal limits, subclinical significance, related metabolic derangements and distinct biological effects of body site-specific adiposity in relatively healthy population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Ho Yun

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The accumulation of visceral adipose tissue that occurs with normal aging is associated with increased cardiovascular risks. However, the clinical significance, biological effects, and related cardiometabolic derangements of body-site specific adiposity in a relatively healthy population have not been well characterized. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, we consecutively enrolled 608 asymptomatic subjects (mean age: 47.3 years, 27% female from 2050 subjects undergoing an annual health survey in Taiwan. We measured pericardial (PCF and thoracic peri-aortic (TAT adipose tissue volumes by 16-slice multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT (Aquarius 3D Workstation, TeraRecon, San Mateo, CA, USA and related these to clinical characteristics, body fat composition (Tanita 305 Corporation, Tokyo, Japan, coronary calcium score (CCS, serum insulin, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (Hs-CRP level and circulating leukocytes count. Metabolic risk was scored by Adult Treatment Panel III guidelines. RESULTS: TAT, PCF, and total body fat composition all increased with aging and higher metabolic scores (all p<0.05. Only TAT, however, was associated with higher circulating leukocyte counts (ß-coef.:0.24, p<0.05, serum insulin (ß-coef.:0.17, p<0.05 and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (ß-coef.:0.24, p<0.05. These relationships persisted after adjustment in multivariable models (all p<0.05. A TAT volume of 8.29 ml yielded the largest area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC: 0.79, 95%CI: 0.74-0.83 to identify metabolic syndrome. TAT but not PCF correlated with higher coronary calcium score after adjustment for clinical variables (all p<0.05. CONCLUSION: In our study, we observe that age-related body-site specific accumulation of adipose tissue may have distinct biological effects. Compared to other adiposity measures, peri-aortic adiposity is more tightly associated with cardiometabolic risk profiles and

  5. Leader Style and Anxiety Level: Their Relation to Autonomic Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seemann, Daniel C.

    1982-01-01

    Studied effects of leader style and a group of people classified as either high-anxious or low-anxious. Measured participants' (N=71) responses to the leader styles using Galvanic Skin Response. Results indicated similar responses of participants to both autocratic and democratic leadership styles. (RC)

  6. Volcanic ash supply to the surface ocean – remote sensing of biological responses and their wider biogeochemical significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J. Browning

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Transient micronutrient enrichment of the surface ocean can enhance phytoplankton growth rates and alter microbial community structure with an ensuing spectrum of biogeochemical feedbacks. Strong phytoplankton responses to micronutrients supplied by volcanic ash have been reported recently. Here we: (i synthesize findings from these recent studies; (ii report the results of a new remote sensing study of ash fertilization; and (iii calculate theoretical bounds of ash-fertilized carbon export. Our synthesis highlights that phytoplankton responses to ash do not always simply mimic that of iron amendment; the exact mechanisms for this are likely biogeochemically important but are not yet well understood. Inherent optical properties of ash-loaded seawater suggest rhyolitic ash biases routine satellite chlorophyll-a estimation upwards by more than an order of magnitude for waters with 0.5 mg chlorophyll-a m-3. For this reason post-ash-deposition chlorophyll-a changes in oligotrophic waters detected via standard Case 1 (open ocean algorithms should be interpreted with caution. Remote sensing analysis of historic events with a bias less than a factor of 2 provided limited stand-alone evidence for ash-fertilization. Confounding factors were poor coverage, incoherent ash dispersal, and ambiguity ascribing biomass changes to ash supply over other potential drivers. Using current estimates of iron release and carbon export efficiencies, uncertainty bounds of ash-fertilized carbon export for 3 events are presented. Patagonian iron supply to the Southern Ocean from volcanic eruptions is less than that of windblown dust on thousand year timescales but can dominate supply at shorter timescales. Reducing uncertainties in remote sensing of phytoplankton response and nutrient release from ash are avenues for enabling assessment of the oceanic response to large-scale transient nutrient enrichment.

  7. Metabonomics-based analysis of Brachyspira pilosicoli's response to tiamulin reveals metabolic activity despite significant growth inhibition

    OpenAIRE

    Le Roy, Caroline Ivanne; Passey, Jade Louise; Woodward, Martin John; La Ragione, Roberto Marcello; Claus, Sandrine Paule

    2017-01-01

    Pathogenic anaerobes Brachyspira spp. are responsible for an increasing number of Intestinal Spirochaetosis (IS) cases in livestock against which few approved treatments are available. Tiamulin is used to treat swine dysentery caused by Brachyspira spp. and recently has been used to handle avian intestinal spirochaetosis (AIS). The therapeutic dose used in chickens requires further evaluation since cases of bacterial resistance to tiamulin have been reported. In this study, we evaluated the i...

  8. Perceptual Sensitivity and Response to Strong Stimuli Are Related

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna C. Bolders

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available To shed new light on the long-standing debate about the (independence of sensitivity to weak stimuli and overreactivity to strong stimuli, we examined the relation between these tendencies within the neurobehavioral framework of the Predictive and Reactive Control Systems (PARCS theory (Tops et al., 2010, 2014. Whereas previous studies only considered overreactivity in terms of the individual tendency to experience unpleasant affect (punishment reactivity resulting from strong sensory stimulation, we also took the individual tendency to experience pleasant affect (reward reactivity resulting from strong sensory stimulation into account. According to PARCS theory, these temperamental tendencies overlap in terms of high reactivity toward stimulation, but oppose each other in terms of the response orientation (approach or avoid. PARCS theory predicts that both types of reactivity to strong stimuli relate to sensitivity to weak stimuli, but that these relationships are suppressed due to the opposing relationship between reward and punishment reactivity. We measured punishment and reward reactivity to strong stimuli and sensitivity to weak stimuli using scales from the Adult Temperament Questionnaire (Evans and Rothbart, 2007. Sensitivity was also measured more objectively using the masked auditory threshold. We found that sensitivity to weak stimuli (both self-reported and objectively assessed was positively associated with self-reported punishment and reward reactivity to strong stimuli, but only when these reactivity measures were controlled for each other, implicating a mutual suppression effect. These results are in line with PARCS theory and suggest that sensitivity to weak stimuli and overreactivity are dependent, but this dependency is likely to be obscured if punishment and reward reactivity are not both taken into account.

  9. Predictors of responses to stress among families coping with poverty-related stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Catherine DeCarlo; Etter, Erica Moran; Wadsworth, Martha E; Raviv, Tali

    2012-05-01

    This study tested how poverty-related stress (PRS), psychological distress, and responses to stress predicted future effortful coping and involuntary stress responses one year later. In addition, we explored age, sex, ethnicity, and parental influences on responses to stress over time. Hierarchical linear modeling analyses conducted with 98 low-income families (300 family members: 136 adults, 82 school-aged children, 82 adolescents) revealed that primary control coping, secondary control coping, disengagement, involuntary engagement, and involuntary disengagement each significantly predicted future use of that response. Primary and secondary control coping also predicted less maladaptive future responses to stress, while involuntary responses to stress undermined the development of adaptive responding. Age, sex, and interactions among PRS and prior coping were also found to predict certain responses to stress. In addition, child subgroup analyses demonstrate the importance of parental modeling of coping and involuntary stress responses, and warmth/nurturance and monitoring practices. Results are discussed with regard to the implications for preventive interventions with families in poverty.

  10. Prognostic Significance of the Systemic Inflammatory and Immune Balance in Alcoholic Liver Disease with a Focus on Gender-Related Differences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Kasztelan-Szczerbińska

    Full Text Available Mechanisms of immune regulation in alcoholic liver disease (ALD are still unclear. The aim of our study was to determine an impact of Th17 / regulatory T (Treg cells balance and its corresponding cytokine profile on the ALD outcome. Possible gender-related differences in the alcohol-induced inflammatory response were also assessed.147 patients with ALD were prospectively recruited, assigned to subgroups based on their gender, severity of liver dysfunction and presence of ALD complications at admission, and followed for 90 days. Peripheral blood frequencies of Th17 and Treg cells together with IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-17A, IL-23, and TGF-beta1 levels were investigated. Flow cytometry was used to identify T cell phenotype and immunoenzymatic ELISAs for the corresponding cytokine concentrations assessment. Multivariable logistic regression was applied in order to select independent predictors of advanced liver dysfunction and the disease complications.IL-17A, IL-1beta, IL-6 levels were significantly increased, while TGF-beta1 decreased in ALD patients. The imbalance with significantly higher Th17 and lower Treg frequencies was observed in non-survivors. IL-6 and TGF-beta1 levels differed in relation to patient gender in ALD group. Concentrations of IL-6 were associated with the severity of liver dysfunction, development of ALD complications, and turned out to be the only independent immune predictor of 90-day survival in the study cohort.We conclude that IL-6 revealed the highest diagnostic and prognostic potential among studied biomarkers and was related to the fatal ALD course. Gender-related differences in immune regulation might influence the susceptibility to alcohol-associated liver injury.

  11. SigTree: A Microbial Community Analysis Tool to Identify and Visualize Significantly Responsive Branches in a Phylogenetic Tree

    OpenAIRE

    Stevens, John R.; Jones, Todd R.; Lefevre, Michael; Ganesan, Balasubramanian; Weimer, Bart C.

    2017-01-01

    Microbial community analysis experiments to assess the effect of a treatment intervention (or environmental change) on the relative abundance levels of multiple related microbial species (or operational taxonomic units) simultaneously using high throughput genomics are becoming increasingly common. Within the framework of the evolutionary phylogeny of all species considered in the experiment, this translates to a statistical need to identify the phylogenetic branches that exhibit a significan...

  12. Relations between Corporate Social Responsibility and Engineering Ethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasui, Itaru

    Environmental responsibility of corporations has been changed drastically in the last 20 years. In 1980s, pollution prevention was the main mandate for corporations and in 1990s global scale environmental issues such as global warming must be also considered by at least industries. In the year of 2000, United Nations decided to make a challenge towards sustainability of human activities on the Earth, and since then, every corporation must take this concept into account when policy for its own business is described. Within this framework, some companies have succeeded to be evaluated as “environmental conscious companies” and enjoyed success also in their business. The reality of sustainability is very complex and any company must consider rather long future, say more than 30 years, in the strategy of its operation. All engineers should watch the direction and the norm carefully, which their own company is now aiming at, with enough knowledge regarding the trend of total human activities in relation to the limitation of the Earth.

  13. Response to 'A relational approach to Saviour Siblings?' by Selgelid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor-Sands, Michelle

    2016-10-01

    In his concise argument, 'A relational approach to saviour siblings?', Selgelid reiterates some of the arguments raised in the author meets critics discussion of my book, Saviour Siblings In this response, I highlight an important misunderstanding in one of the arguments put forward by Selgelid, which forms the basis of a large portion of his analysis. Contrary to what Selgelid contends, I do not use the deafness case in my discussion of the non-identity problem to contend that the case of selecting for deafness is ethically different from the case of saviour siblings. As I state in my reply, I use the case of deafness not as a comparator for saviour siblings but rather to illustrate the different categories of risk that apply in selection cases Given this confusion, I restate my objection to relying on the non-identity problem in evaluating risk of harm associated with the embryo biopsy process for preimplantation genetic diagnosis. Finally, I reiterate that the individual interests of saviour siblings remain important in the decision-making matrix and emphasise that Saviour Siblings offers a more contextualised approach to the welfare of the child in selective reproduction, which includes both individual and collective interests. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  14. Prognostic significance of catalase expression and its regulatory effects on hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx) in HBV-related advanced hepatocellular carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Mi-Young; Cheong, Jae Youn; Lim, Wonchung; Jo, Sujin; Lee, Youngsoo; Wang, Hee-Jung; Han, Kyou-Hoon; Cho, Hyeseong

    2014-12-15

    Hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx) plays a role in liver cancer development. We previously showed that ROS increased HBx levels and here, we investigated the role of antioxidants in the regulation of HBx expression and their clinical relevance. We found that overexpression of catalase induced a significant loss in HBx levels. The cysteine null mutant of HBx (Cys-) showed a dramatic reduction in its protein stability. In clonogenic proliferation assays, Huh7-X cells produced a significant number of colonies whereas Huh7-Cys- cells failed to generate them. The Cys at position 69 of HBx was crucial to maintain its protein stability and transactivation function in response to ROS. Among 50 HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) specimens, 72% of HCCs showed lower catalase levels than those of surrounding non-tumor tissues. In advanced stage IV, catalase levels in non-tumor tissues were increased whereas those in tumors were further reduced. Accordingly, patients with a high T/N ratio for catalase showed significantly longer survival than those with a low T/N ratio. Together, catalase expression in HCC patients can be clinically useful for prediction of patient survival, and restoration of catalase expression in HCCs could be an important strategy for intervention in HBV-induced liver diseases.

  15. Prognostic significance of catalase expression and its regulatory effects on hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx) in HBV-related advanced hepatocellular carcinomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Mi-Young; Cheong, Jae Youn; Lim, Wonchung; Jo, Sujin; Lee, Youngsoo; Wang, Hee-Jung; Han, Kyou-Hoon; Cho, Hyeseong

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx) plays a role in liver cancer development. We previously showed that ROS increased HBx levels and here, we investigated the role of antioxidants in the regulation of HBx expression and their clinical relevance. We found that overexpression of catalase induced a significant loss in HBx levels. The cysteine null mutant of HBx (Cys−) showed a dramatic reduction in its protein stability. In clonogenic proliferation assays, Huh7-X cells produced a significant number of colonies whereas Huh7-Cys− cells failed to generate them. The Cys at position 69 of HBx was crucial to maintain its protein stability and transactivation function in response to ROS. Among 50 HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) specimens, 72% of HCCs showed lower catalase levels than those of surrounding non-tumor tissues. In advanced stage IV, catalase levels in non-tumor tissues were increased whereas those in tumors were further reduced. Accordingly, patients with a high T/N ratio for catalase showed significantly longer survival than those with a low T/N ratio. Together, catalase expression in HCC patients can be clinically useful for prediction of patient survival, and restoration of catalase expression in HCCs could be an important strategy for intervention in HBV-induced liver diseases. PMID:25361011

  16. Regulation of the endoplasmic reticulum calcium storage during the unfolded protein response--significance in tissue ischemia?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Treiman, Marek

    2002-01-01

    for the protein folding pathway require Ca(2+) binding for their activity. A number of factors, including Ca(2+) depletion, may interfere with the folding pathway within the ER, with a potential for cell injury through an accumulation of malfolded protein aggregates. The Unfolded Protein Response involves...... a transcriptional upregulation of a number of the ER-resident folding helper proteins and becomes triggered when the folding pathway is blocked. To be effective, these upregulated proteins require a sufficient supply of Ca(2+) cofactor within the ER lumen. In tissue ischemia, where the availablity of this cofactor...

  17. Clinical Significance of Long Non-Coding RNA CASC8 rs10505477 Polymorphism in Lung Cancer Susceptibility, Platinum-Based Chemotherapy Response, and Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Hu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Long non-coding RNA (lncRNA CASC8 rs10505477 polymorphism has been identified to be related to risk of many kinds of cancers, such as colorectal cancer, gastric cancer, and invasive ovarian cancer, and it may be involved in the prognosis of gastric cancer patients who have received platinum-based chemotherapy after surgical treatment. So far, there is no study investigating the clinical significance of lncRNA CASC8 rs10505477 in lung cancer susceptibility and treatment. In this study, we genotyped 498 lung cancer patients and 213 healthy control subjects to explore the correlation between the rs10505477 polymorphism and lung cancer risk in a Chinese population. Among the 498 patients, 467 were selected for the chemotherapy response and toxicity study. We found that the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP rs10505477 was greatly related to lung cancer risk in male and adenocarcinoma subgroups in recessive model (adjusted OR = 0.51, 95%CI = 0.29–0.90, p = 0.02; adjusted OR = 0.52, 95%CI = 0.30–0.89, p = 0.02, respectively. It was also closely correlated with platinum-based chemotherapy response in dominant model (adjusted OR = 1.58, 95%CI = 1.05–2.39, p = 0.03. Additionally, we observed that CASC8 rs10505477 polymorphism was significantly relevant to severe hematologic toxicity in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC subgroup in dominant model (adjusted OR = 0.59, 95%CI = 0.35–0.98, p = 0.04 and in additive model (adjusted OR = 0.62, 95%CI = 0.43–0.90, p = 0.01. Furthermore, it was found that rs10505477 polymorphism was greatly associated with gastrointestinal toxicity in SCLC and cisplatin subgroups in dominant model (adjusted OR = 7.82, 95%CI = 1.36–45.07, p = 0.02; adjusted OR = 1.94, 95%CI = 1.07–3.53, p = 0.03, respectively. Thus, lncRNA CASC8 rs10505477 could serve as a possible risk marker for diagnosing lung cancer, and could be used to forecast the response and toxicity of platinum-based treatment in lung cancer patients.

  18. Certification prerequisites for activities related to the trading of demand response resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcázar-Ortega, Manuel; Calpe, Carmen; Theisen, Thomas; Rodríguez-García, Javier

    2015-01-01

    Certification according to international standards brings many benefits to the society, including technical, economic and environmental aspects. In this context, this paper highlights the benefits of certification of Demand Response, including the additional credibility which provides to the trading of flexibility and higher confidence between different players. The consequence is a dynamic environment which facilitates the market acceptance of Demand Response services and products, providing significant benefits to providers and users of such services. A methodology for the systematic certification of different activities related to the transaction of Demand Response resources has been developed and it is presented here. In particular, three types of certificate have been specified, considering the certification of the entity providing the resource (Demand Response Provider), the contractual framework between the provider and the requester (Demand Response Product) and the physical platform to enable and guarantee such transaction (Demand Response Energy Service Trader). The results of this paper may help regulators and standardization bodies in the design and specification of a future norm to allow the certification of the above-mentioned activities, or a further development of existing regulation for certification of energy efficiency systems (like ISO (International Standard Organization) 50001), where certification of Demand Response activities could be complementary. - Highlights: • Inexistence of a standard on Demand Response limits the application of demand flexibility. • Demand flexibility is essential for the cost-effective integration of renewable generation technologies. • Benefits of certification of activities in the trading of Demand Response are highlighted. • Necessary activities for a standard interchange of Demand Response are identified. • The specifications of a new standard for Demand Response certification are given.

  19. Prostate cancer risk: the significance of differences in age related changes in serum conjugated and unconjugated steroid hormone concentrations between Arab and Caucasian men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehinde, E O; Akanji, A O; Memon, A; Bashir, A A; Daar, A S; Al-Awadi, K A; Fatinikun, T

    2006-01-01

    Factors responsible for the low incidence of clinical prostate cancer (3-8/100,000 men/year) in the Arab population remain unclear, but may be related to changes in steroid hormone metabolism. We compared the levels of serum conjugated and unconjugated steroids between Arab and Caucasian populations, to determine if these can provide a rational explanation for differences in incidence of prostate cancer between the two populations. Venous blood samples were obtained from 329 unselected apparently healthy indigenous Arab men (Kuwaitis and Omanis) aged 15-80 years. Samples were also obtained from similar Arab men with newly diagnosed prostate cancer or benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). The samples were taken between 8:00 am and 12:00 noon. Serum levels of total testosterone, (TT), sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), free androgen index (FAI); adrenal C19-steroids, dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS) and androstenedione (ADT) were determined using Immulite kits (Diagnostic Systems Laboratories Inc, Webster Texas, USA). The results obtained in Arab men were compared with those reported for similarly aged Chinese, German and White USA men. In all four ethnic groups, median TT and FAI declined with age, while SHBG increased with age. However, the mean TT and SHBG was significantly lower (p Arab men (p Arabs (p Arabs. There was no significant difference in mean serum levels of DHEAS between German and USA men. Similarly, there was no significant difference in the level of the hormones between Arab and Chinese men. Arab men with newly diagnosed prostate cancer had high serum TT, SHBG and DHEAS compared to those without the disease. The mean TT and SHBG was significantly lower in Arab men compared to Caucasian men especially in early adulthood. Caucasians have significantly higher serum levels of the precursor androgens DHEAS and ADT especially in early adulthood compared to Arab men. These observations of low circulating androgens and their adrenal precursors in

  20. A single bout of exercise with a flexible pole induces significant cardiac autonomic responses in healthy men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane M. Ogata

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Flexible poles can provide rapid eccentric and concentric muscle contractions. Muscle vibration is associated with a "tonic vibration reflex” that is stimulated by a sequence of rapid muscle stretching, activation of the muscle spindles and stimulation of a response that is similar to the myotatic reflex. Literature studies analyzing the acute cardiovascular responses to different exercises performed with this instrument are lacking. We investigated the acute effects of exercise with flexible poles on the heart period in healthy men. METHOD: The study was performed on ten young adult males between 18 and 25 years old. We evaluated the heart rate variability in the time and frequency domains. The subjects remained at rest for 10 min. After the rest period, the volunteers performed the exercises with the flexible poles. Immediately after the exercise protocol, the volunteers remained seated at rest for 30 min and their heart rate variability was analyzed. RESULTS: The pNN50 was reduced at 5-10 and 15-20 min after exercise compared to 25-30 min after exercise (p = 0.0019, the SDNN was increased at 25-30 min after exercise compared to at rest and 0-10 min after exercise (p = 0.0073 and the RMSSD was increased at 25-30 min after exercise compared to 5-15 min after exercise (p = 0.0043. The LF in absolute units was increased at 25-30 min after exercise compared to 5-20 min after exercise (p = 0.0184. CONCLUSION: A single bout of exercise with a flexible pole reduced the heart rate variability and parasympathetic recovery was observed approximately 30 min after exercise.

  1. Clinical significance of asymptomatic urogenital Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum in relation to seminal fluid parameters among infertile Jordanian males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hala I. Al-Daghistani

    2010-01-01

    Conclusion: The differences in the occurrence of M. hominis were statistically insignificant among infertility and control groups, but it was significant for U. urealyticum (p=0.046. M. hominis occurs more frequently in the semen of infertile-varicose male and normal seminal fluid quality. It seems to have no adverse effects on sperm motility but it might decline the fertility potential in such cases. U. urealyticum on the other hand have no clear significant impacts on sperm motility. The mean values for sperm motility, concentrations, and viscosity were not affected by the presence of the two species. Despite the significant presence of Ureaplasma among infertility, further studies were needed to clarify their potential effect on semen quality and infertility status.

  2. Responses of synchronous L5178Y S/S cells to heavy ions and their significance for radiobiological theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lett, J.T.; Cox, A.B.; Story, M.D.; Blakely, E.A.

    1989-01-01

    Synchronous suspensions of the radiosensitive S/S variant of the L5178Y murine leukaemic lymphoblast at different positions in the cell cycle were exposed aerobically to segments of heavy-ion beams 20 Ne, 28 Si, 40 Ar, 56 Fe and 93 Nb) in the Bragg plateau regions of energy deposition. The incident energies of the ion beams were in the range of 460±95 MeV u -1 , and the calculated values of linear energy transfer (LET ∞ for the primary nuclei in the irradiated samples were 33±3, 60±3, 95±5, 213±21 and 478±''36 keV ''mu''m -1 , respectively; 280 kVp X-rays were used as the base-line radiation. Generally, the maxima or inflections in relations between relative biological effectiveness (RBE) and LET ∞ were dependent upon the cycle position at which the cells were irradiated. Certain of those relations were influenced by post-irradiation hypothermia. (author)

  3. Italian Credit Mobility Students Significantly Increase Their Alcohol Intake, Risky Drinking and Related Consequences During the Study Abroad Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aresi, Giovanni; Moore, Simon; Marta, Elena

    2016-11-01

    To examine changes in alcohol intake and consequences in Italian students studying abroad. Italian exchange students planning to study abroad were invited to report on their drinking and alcohol-related negative consequences before and after their time abroad. After excluding those who abstained throughout, data on 121 students were analysed and showed that they tended to consume more alcohol and experience more alcohol-related negative consequences compared to their pre-departure levels. The added alcohol risk of study abroad for Italian students merits consideration of possible opportunities for intervention. © The Author 2016. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  4. Short separation regression improves statistical significance and better localizes the hemodynamic response obtained by near-infrared spectroscopy for tasks with differing autonomic responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yücel, Meryem A; Selb, Juliette; Aasted, Christopher M; Petkov, Mike P; Becerra, Lino; Borsook, David; Boas, David A

    2015-07-01

    Autonomic nervous system response is known to be highly task-dependent. The sensitivity of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) measurements to superficial layers, particularly to the scalp, makes it highly susceptible to systemic physiological changes. Thus, one critical step in NIRS data processing is to remove the contribution of superficial layers to the NIRS signal and to obtain the actual brain response. This can be achieved using short separation channels that are sensitive only to the hemodynamics in the scalp. We investigated the contribution of hemodynamic fluctuations due to autonomous nervous system activation during various tasks. Our results provide clear demonstrations of the critical role of using short separation channels in NIRS measurements to disentangle differing autonomic responses from the brain activation signal of interest.

  5. How to measure renal artery stenosis - a retrospective comparison of morphological measurement approaches in relation to hemodynamic significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Malin; Jägervall, Karl; Eriksson, Per; Persson, Anders; Granerus, Göran; Wang, Chunliang; Smedby, Örjan

    2015-01-01

    Although it is well known that renal artery stenosis may cause renovascular hypertension, it is unclear how the degree of stenosis should best be measured in morphological images. The aim of this study was to determine which morphological measures from Computed Tomography Angiography (CTA) and Magnetic Resonance Angiography (MRA) are best in predicting whether a renal artery stenosis is hemodynamically significant or not. Forty-seven patients with hypertension and a clinical suspicion of renovascular hypertension were examined with CTA, MRA, captopril-enhanced renography (CER) and captopril test (Ctest). CTA and MRA images of the renal arteries were analyzed by two readers using interactive vessel segmentation software. The measures included minimum diameter, minimum area, diameter reduction and area reduction. In addition, two radiologists visually judged the diameter reduction without automated segmentation. The results were then compared using limits of agreement and intra-class correlation, and correlated with the results from CER combined with Ctest (which were used as standard of reference) using receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis. A total of 68 kidneys had all three investigations (CTA, MRA and CER + Ctest), where 11 kidneys (16.2 %) got a positive result on the CER + Ctest. The greatest area under ROC curve (AUROC) was found for the area reduction on MRA, with a value of 0.91 (95 % confidence interval 0.82–0.99), excluding accessory renal arteries. As comparison, the AUROC for the radiologists’ visual assessments on CTA and MRA were 0.90 (0.82–0.98) and 0.91 (0.83–0.99) respectively. None of the differences were statistically significant. No significant differences were found between the morphological measures in their ability to predict hemodynamically significant stenosis, but a tendency of MRA having higher AUROC than CTA. There was no significant difference between measurements made by the radiologists and measurements made with

  6. The Relation between the Romanian Commercial Banking Companies and the Corporate Social Responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Mureşan

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The relatively recent legal regulation regarding the field of the banking service consumer protection has been determined by the abusive commercial activity of the commercial banking companies. If the commercial banking companies had been aware of the need to comply with certain ethical principles in their relation with consumers – having a socially responsible behavior – then these principles would not legally have been sanctioned. That is why we consider that the significant sanctions to which the banks expose themselves at present are a consequence of the flagrant and repeated breach of the ethical principles in the field of consumer protection.

  7. On the significance of contaminant plume-scale and dose-response models in defining hydrogeological characterization needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Barros, F.; Rubin, Y.; Maxwell, R.; Bai, H.

    2007-12-01

    Defining rational and effective hydrogeological data acquisition strategies is of crucial importance since financial resources available for such efforts are always limited. Usually such strategies are developed with the goal of reducing uncertainty, but less often they are developed in the context of the impacts of uncertainty. This paper presents an approach for determining site characterization needs based on human health risk factors. The main challenge is in striking a balance between improved definition of hydrogeological, behavioral and physiological parameters. Striking this balance can provide clear guidance on setting priorities for data acquisition and for better estimating adverse health effects in humans. This paper addresses this challenge through theoretical developments and numerical testing. We will report on a wide range of factors that affect the site characterization needs including contaminant plume's dimensions, travel distances and other length scales that characterize the transport problem, as well as health risk models. We introduce a new graphical tool that allows one to investigate the relative impact of hydrogeological and physiological parameters in risk. Results show that the impact of uncertainty reduction in the risk-related parameters decreases with increasing distances from the contaminant source. Also, results indicate that human health risk becomes less sensitive to hydrogeological measurements when dealing with ergodic plumes. This indicates that under ergodic conditions, uncertainty reduction in human health risk may benefit from better understanding of the physiological component as opposed to a detailed hydrogeological characterization

  8. Relating genes to function: identifying enriched transcription factors using the ENCODE ChIP-Seq significance tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auerbach, Raymond K; Chen, Bin; Butte, Atul J

    2013-08-01

    Biological analysis has shifted from identifying genes and transcripts to mapping these genes and transcripts to biological functions. The ENCODE Project has generated hundreds of ChIP-Seq experiments spanning multiple transcription factors and cell lines for public use, but tools for a biomedical scientist to analyze these data are either non-existent or tailored to narrow biological questions. We present the ENCODE ChIP-Seq Significance Tool, a flexible web application leveraging public ENCODE data to identify enriched transcription factors in a gene or transcript list for comparative analyses. The ENCODE ChIP-Seq Significance Tool is written in JavaScript on the client side and has been tested on Google Chrome, Apple Safari and Mozilla Firefox browsers. Server-side scripts are written in PHP and leverage R and a MySQL database. The tool is available at http://encodeqt.stanford.edu. abutte@stanford.edu Supplementary material is available at Bioinformatics online.

  9. Still a Special Relationship? The Significance of United States-United Kingdom Relations in the Twenty-First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    Anglo - Saxon ally over Nasser and the canal.55 In 2010, in a speech at Chatham House, Liberal Democrat Nick Clegg suggested that “what...strategic culture, and as an expression of shared values and institutions the character of which is vital for those charged with service in an Anglo ...American context as well as NATO. 14. SUBJECT TERMS United Kingdom, United States, Special Relationship, Anglo - American Relations, Iraq, Afghanistan

  10. Analyses between Reproductive Behavior, Genetic Diversity and Pythium Responsiveness in Zingiber spp. Reveal an Adaptive Significance for Hemiclonality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Geethu E.; Geetha, Kiran A.; Augustine, Lesly; Mamiyil, Sabu; Thomas, George

    2016-01-01

    Mode of reproduction is generally considered to have long-range evolutionary implications on population survival. Because sexual reproduction produces genetically diverse genotypes, this mode of reproduction is predicted to positively influence the success potential of offspring in evolutionary arms race with parasites (Red queen) whereas, without segregation and recombination, the obligate asexual multiplication may push a species into extinction due to the steady accumulation of deleterious mutations (Muller’s ratchet). However, the extent of linearity between reproductive strategies, genetic diversity and population fitness, and the contributions of different breeding strategies to population fitness are yet to be understood clearly. Genus Zingiber belonging to the pan-tropic family Zingiberaceae represents a good system to study contributions of different breeding behavior on genetic diversity and population fitness, as this genus comprises species with contrasting breeding systems. In this study, we analyzed breeding behavior, amplified fragment length polymorphism diversity and response to the soft-rot pathogen Pythium aphanidermatum in 18 natural populations of three wild Zingiber spp.: Z. neesanum, Z. nimmonii, and Z. zerumbet, together with the obligately asexual cultivated congener, ginger (Z. officinale). Ginger showed an exceptionally narrow genetic base, and adding to this, all the tested cultivars were uniformly susceptible to soft-rot. Concordant with the postulates of Muller’s ratchet, the background selection may be continuously pushing ginger into the ancestral state, rendering it inefficient in host-pathogen coevolution. Z. neesanum and Z. nimmonii populations were sexual and genetically diverse; however, contrary to Red Queen expectations, the populations were highly susceptible to soft-rot. Z. zerumbet showed a hemiclonal breeding behavior. The populations inhabiting forest understory were large and continuous, sexual and genetically

  11. An engineered Lactococcus lactis strain exerts significant immune responses through efficient expression and delivery of Helicobacter pylori Lpp20 antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rongguang; Peng, Xiaoyan; Duan, Guangcai; Shi, Qingfeng; Chen, Shuaiyin; Wang, Chen; Fan, Qingtang; Xi, Yuanlin

    2016-12-01

    To produce and deliver Helicobacter pylori lipoprotein Lpp20 via using Lactococcus lactis with aim of developing an efficient way to use this protective antigen in vaccine formulation. An engineered L. lactis strain carrying the lpp20 gene from H. pylori was constructed. The inducible expression of Lpp20 in L. lactis was detected as a 20 kDa intracellular protein by SDS-PAGE. Lpp20 constituted 10 % of the L. lactis cellular proteins. The expression product was highly immunoreactive, as demonstrated by western blot assays using mouse anti-H. pylori sera. Animal experimentation showed that oral vaccination with the engineered strain excited significantly elevated levels of serum Lpp20-specific IgG antibodies in BALB/c mice (P lactis, demonstrating an efficient utilization mode of Lpp20 in anti-H. pylori vaccination.

  12. Flavonol-rich dark cocoa significantly decreases plasma endothelin-1 and improves cognitive responses in urban children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian eCalderon-Garciduenas

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution exposures are linked to systemic inflammation, cardiovascular and respiratory morbidity and mortality, neuroinflammation and neuropathology in young urbanites. In particular, most Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA children exhibit subtle cognitive deficits, and neuropathology studies show 40% of them exhibiting frontal tau hyperphosphorylation and 51% amyloid-β diffuse plaques (compared to 0% in low pollution control children. We assessed whether a short cocoa intervention can be effective in decreasing plasma endothelin 1 (ET-1 and/or inflammatory mediators in MCMA children. Thirty g of dark cocoa with 680 mg of total flavonols were given daily for 10.11± 3.4 days (range 9 to 24 days to 18 children (10.55yrs, SD =1.45; 11F/7M. Key metabolite ratios in frontal white matter and in hippocampus pre and during cocoa intervention were quantified by magnetic resonance spectroscopy. ET-1 significantly decreased after cocoa treatment (p=0.0002. Fifteen children (83% showed a marginally significant individual improvement in one or both of the applied simple short memory tasks. Endothelial dysfunction is a key feature of exposure to particulate matter and decreased endothelin-1 bioavailability is likely useful for brain function in the context of air pollution. Our findings suggest that cocoa interventions may be critical for early implementation of neuroprotection of highly exposed urban children. Multi-domain nutraceutical interventions could limit the risk for endothelial dysfunction, cerebral hypoperfusion, neuroinflammation, cognitive deficits, structural volumetric detrimental brain effects, and the early development of the neuropathological hallmarks of Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases.

  13. Analyses between Reproductive Behaviour, Genetic Diversity and Pythium Responsiveness in Zingiber spp. reveal an adaptive significance for hemiclonality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geethu Elizabath Thomas

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available AbstractMode of reproduction is generally considered to have long-range evolutionary implications on population survival. Because sexual reproduction produces genetically diverse genotypes, this mode of reproduction is predicted to positively influence the success potential of offspring in evolutionary arms race with parasites (Red queen whereas, without segregation and recombination, the obligate asexual multiplication may push a species into extinction due to the steady accumulation of deleterious mutations (Muller’s ratchet. However, the extent of linearity between reproductive strategies, genetic diversity and population fitness, and the contributions of different breeding strategies to population fitness are yet to be understood clearly. Genus Zingiber belonging to the pan-tropic family Zingiberaceae represents a good system to study contributions of different breeding behaviour on genetic diversity and population fitness, as this genus comprises species with contrasting breeding systems. In this study, we analyzed breeding behaviour, amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP diversity and response to the soft-rot pathogen Pythium aphanidermatum in 18 natural populations of three wild Zingiber spp.: Z. neesanum, Z. nimmonii and Z. zerumbet, together with the obligately asexual cultivated congener, ginger (Z. officinale. Ginger showed an exceptionally narrow genetic base, and adding to this, all the tested cultivars were uniformly susceptible to soft-rot. Concordant with the postulates of Muller’s ratchet, the background selection may be continuously pushing ginger into the ancestral state, rendering it inefficient in host-pathogen coevolution. Z. neesanum and Z. nimmonii populations were sexual and genetically diverse; however, contrary to Red Queen expectations, the populations were highly susceptible to soft-rot. Z. zerumbet showed a hemiclonal breeding behaviour. The populations inhabiting forest understory were large and

  14. Determination of relative CMRO2 from CBF and BOLD changes: significant increase of oxygen consumption rate during visual stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, S.G.; Rostrup, Egill; Larsson, H.B.

    1999-01-01

    signal changes were measured simultaneously using the flow-sensitive alternating inversion recovery (FAIR) technique. During hypercapnia established by an end-tidal CO2 increase of 1.46 kPa, CBF in the visual cortex increased by 47.3 +/- 17.3% (mean +/- SD; n = 9), and deltaR2* was -0.478 +/- 0.147 sec......The blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) effect in functional magnetic resonance imaging depends on at least partial uncoupling between cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2) changes. By measuring CBF and BOLD simultaneously, the relative change in CMRO2 can...

  15. Closely related freshwater macrophyte species, Ceratophyllum demersum and C. submersum, differ in temperature response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldgaard, Benita; Sorrell, Brian Keith; Brix, Hans

    2014-01-01

    1. The importance of temperature responses of photosynthesis and respiration in determining species distributions was compared in two closely related freshwater macrophytes, Ceratophyllum demersum and C. submersum. The two species differed significantly in response to temperature in the short...... and distributional patterns corresponded well with the long-term (weeks) results obtained, but with some important deviations. The long-term responses of the two species to low temperature (12 °C) were more similar than expected. In contrast, high temperature (35 °C), which stimulated photosynthesis in C. submersum...... in the short term, inhibited photosynthesis in the long term and resulted in lower growth rates of C. submersum, both compared to C. demersum and to growth rates at intermediate temperatures (18 and 25 °C). 3. The long-term acclimation strategy differed between the two species. Ceratophyllum demersum achieved...

  16. The analysis of public relations role in improving corporate social responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đervida-Lekanić Ružica

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of modern business is achievement of business excellence and world-class of products and services. Companies which actively and continuously apply modern management methods and techniques, especially in marketing, have significantly better chance to strengthen their competitive capability on global market and to assume stable market position with perspective for further market development. Modern business philosophy implies that organization has to be responsible for its actions and steps towards all stakeholders in the environment. Attaining of business excellence goals of an organization presupposes built corporate social responsibility. The research results presented in this paper were used to analyze the possibilities of using modern methods and techniques of public relations in business organizations and improve corporate social responsibility on the market of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

  17. The significance of the host inflammatory response on the therapeutic efficacy of cell therapies utilising human adult stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navarro, Melba; Pu, Fanrong; Hunt, John A.

    2012-01-01

    Controlling the fate of implanted hMSCs is one of the major drawbacks to be overcome to realize tissue engineering strategies. In particular, the effect of the inflammatory environment on hMSCs behaviour is poorly understood. Studying and mimicking the inflammatory process in vitro is a very complex and challenging task that involves multiple variables. This research addressed the questions using in vitro co-cultures of primary derived hMSCs together with human peripheral blood mononucleated cells (PBMCs); the latter are key agents in the inflammatory process. This work explored the in vitro phenotypic changes of hMSCs in co-culture direct contact with monocytes and lymphocytes isolated from blood using both basal and osteogenic medium. Our findings indicated that hMSCs maintained their undifferentiated phenotype and pluripotency despite the contact with PBMCs. Moreover, hMSCs demonstrated increased proliferation and were able to differentiate specifically down the osteogenic lineage pathway. Providing significant crucial evidence to support the hypothesis that inflammation and host defence mechanisms could be utilised rather than avoided and combated to provide for the successful therapeutic application of stem cell therapies.

  18. Cultivar Differences in Plant Transpiration Rate at High Relative Air Humidity Are Not Related to Genotypic Variation in Stomatal Responsiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gebraegziabher, Habtamu Giday; Kjær, Katrine Heinsvig; Ottosen, Carl-Otto

    2015-01-01

    Plants grown at high relative air humidity (RH) often show disturbed water relations due to less responsive stomata. The attenuation of stomatal responsiveness as a result of high RH during leaf expansion depends on the cultivar. We hypothesized that tolerant cultivars to high RH experience a low...

  19. Pain-related psychological distress, self-rated health and significance of neuropathic pain in Danish soldiers injured in Afghanistan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duffy, J R; Warburg, Finn; Koelle, S-F T

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pain and mental health concerns are prevalent among veterans. While the majority of research has focused on chronic pain as an entity, there has been little work directed towards investigating the role of neuropathic pain in relation to psychological comorbidity. As such, we...... hypothesised that participants with signs of neuropathic pain would report higher levels of psychological distress and diminished self-rated health compared to those without a neuropathic component. METHODS: A retrospective review of standardised questionnaires (PainDETECT Questionnaire, Post-traumatic Stress...... pain. RESULTS: Fifty-three participants were included. The Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Checklist-Civilian score was in median (interquartile range) 26 (22-31), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale score was 4 (2-6.5) and 2 (1-5) for anxiety and depression respectively. Evidence of neuropathic...

  20. Work activity in food service: The significance of customer relations, tipping practices and gender for preventing musculoskeletal disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laperrière, Ève; Messing, Karen; Bourbonnais, Renée

    2017-01-01

    Some evidence shows that food servers are exposed to an elevated risk of musculoskeletal disorders and injuries, and that their work activity varies by gender. Interviews of servers and observations of food service in Québec, Canada, were carried out in three restaurants and a questionnaire was administered to 64 workers from 44 other restaurants. The relationship with the customer has specific effects on work activity and transforms the physical, emotional and cognitive work. Strategies intended to speed service or otherwise related to the customer relationship can involve health risks. Women reported more direct food service (p work per week (p < 0.01). Women workers reported experiencing more sites of pain (p < 0.003). This exploratory study suggests that managing the server-customer relationship could be important in preventing musculoskeletal disorders in this population and that women are at particular risk. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Magnetic fields are causing small, but significant changes of the radiochromic EBT3 film response to 6 MV photons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delfs, Björn; Schoenfeld, Andreas A; Poppinga, Daniela; Kapsch, Ralf-Peter; Jiang, Ping; Harder, Dietrich; Poppe, Björn; Looe, Hui Khee

    2018-01-31

    The optical density (OD) of EBT3 radiochromic films (Ashland Specialty Ingredients, Bridgewater, NJ, USA) exposed to absorbed doses to water up to D  =  20 Gy in magnetic fields of B  =  0.35 and 1.42 T was measured in the three colour channels of an Epson Expression 10000XL flatbed scanner. A 7 cm wide water phantom with fixed film holder was placed between the pole shoes of a constant-current electromagnet with variable field strength and was irradiated by a 6 MV photon beam whose axis was directed at right angles with the field lines. The doses at the film position at water depth 5 cm were measured with a calibrated ionization chamber when the magnet was switched off and were converted to the doses in presence of the magnetic field via the monitor units and by a Monte Carlo-calculated correction accounting for the slight change of the depth dose curves in magnetic fields. In the presence of the 0.35 and 1.42 T fields small negative changes of the OD values at given absorbed doses to water occurred and just significantly exceeded the uncertainty margin given by the stochastic and the uncorrected systematic deviations. This change can be described by a  +2.1% change of the dose values needed to produce a given optical density in the presence of a 1.42 T field. The thereby modified OD versus D function remained unchanged irrespective of whether the original short film side-the preference direction of the monomer crystals of the film-was directed parallel or orthogonal to the magnetic field. The 'orientation effect', the difference between the optical densities measured in the 'portrait' or 'landscape' film positions on the scanner bed caused by the reflection of polarised light in the scanner's mirror system, remained unaltered after EBT3 film exposure in magnetic fields. An independent optical bench investigation of EBT3 films exposed to doses of 10 and 20 Gy at 0.35 and 1.42 T showed that the direction of the electric vector of polarised

  2. Kluyveromyces marxianus and Saccharomyces boulardii induce distinct levels of dendritic cell cytokine secretion and significantly different T cell responses In Vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Ida Mosbech; Baker, Adam; Christensen, Jeffrey E

    2016-01-01

    induction of a Treg response characterized by robust IL-10 secretion. In addition, we blocked relevant DC surface receptors and investigated the stimulating properties of β-glucan containing yeast cell wall extracts. K. marxianus and S. boulardii induced distinct levels of DC cytokine secretion, primarily...... driven by Dectin-1 recognition of β-glucan components in their cell walls. Upon co-incubation of yeast exposed DCs and naive T cells, S. boulardii induced a potent IFNγ response indicating TH1 mobilization. In contrast, K. marxianus induced a response dominated by Foxp3+ Treg cells, a characteristic...... of the present study was to characterize the immune modulating properties of the food-related yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus in terms of adaptive immune responses indicating inflammation versus tolerance and to explore the mechanisms behind the observed responses. Benchmarking against a Saccharomyces boulardii...

  3. Significance of manipulating tumour hypoxia and radiation dose rate in terms of local tumour response and lung metastatic potential, referring to the response of quiescent cell populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masunaga, S; Matsumoto, Y; Kashino, G; Hirayama, R; Liu, Y; Tanaka, H; Sakurai, Y; Suzuki, M; Kinashi, Y; Maruhashi, A; Ono, K

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of manipulating intratumour oxygenation status and radiation dose rate on local tumour response and lung metastases following radiotherapy, referring to the response of quiescent cell populations within irradiated tumours. B16-BL6 melanoma tumour-bearing C57BL/6 mice were continuously given 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine (BrdU) to label all proliferating (P) cells. They received γ-ray irradiation at high dose rate (HDR) or reduced dose rate (RDR) following treatment with the acute hypoxia-releasing agent nicotinamide or local hyperthermia at mild temperatures (MTH). Immediately after the irradiation, cells from some tumours were isolated and incubated with a cytokinesis blocker. The responses of the quiescent (Q) and total (proliferating + Q) cell populations were assessed based on the frequency of micronuclei using immunofluorescence staining for BrdU. In other tumour-bearing mice, 17 days after irradiation, macroscopic lung metastases were enumerated. Following HDR irradiation, nicotinamide and MTH enhanced the sensitivity of the total and Q-cell populations, respectively. The decrease in sensitivity at RDR irradiation compared with HDR irradiation was slightly inhibited by MTH, especially in Q cells. Without γ-ray irradiation, nicotinamide treatment tended to reduce the number of lung metastases. With γ-rays, in combination with nicotinamide or MTH, especially the former, HDR irradiation decreased the number of metastases more remarkably than RDR irradiation. Manipulating both tumour hypoxia and irradiation dose rate have the potential to influence lung metastasis. The combination with the acute hypoxia-releasing agent nicotinamide may be more promising in HDR than RDR irradiation in terms of reducing the number of lung metastases. PMID:20739345

  4. Responses of peripheral endocannabinoids and endocannabinoid-related compounds to hedonic eating in obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteleone, A M; Di Marzo, V; Monteleone, P; Dalle Grave, R; Aveta, T; Ghoch, M El; Piscitelli, F; Volpe, U; Calugi, S; Maj, M

    2016-06-01

    Hedonic eating occurs independently from homeostatic needs prompting the ingestion of pleasurable foods that are typically rich in fat, sugar and/or salt content. In normal weight healthy subjects, we found that before hedonic eating, plasma levels of 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) were higher than before nonhedonic eating, and although they progressively decreased after food ingestion in both eating conditions, they were significantly higher in hedonic eating. Plasma levels of anandamide (AEA), oleoylethanolamide (OEA) and palmitoylethanolamide (PEA), instead, progressively decreased in both eating conditions without significant differences. In this study, we investigated the responses of AEA, 2-AG, OEA and PEA to hedonic eating in obese individuals. Peripheral levels of AEA, 2-AG, OEA and PEA were measured in 14 obese patients after eating favourite (hedonic eating) and non-favourite (nonhedonic eating) foods in conditions of no homeostatic needs. Plasma levels of 2-AG increased after eating the favourite food, whereas they decreased after eating the non-favourite food, with the production of the endocannabinoid being significantly enhanced in hedonic eating. Plasma levels of AEA decreased progressively in nonhedonic eating, whereas they showed a decrease after the exposure to the favourite food followed by a return to baseline values after eating it. No significant differences emerged in plasma OEA and PEA responses to favourite and non-favourite food. Present findings compared with those obtained in our previously studied normal weight healthy subjects suggest deranged responses of endocannabinoids to food-related reward in obesity.

  5. Magnetic fields are causing small, but significant changes of the radiochromic EBT3 film response to 6 MV photons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delfs, Björn; Schoenfeld, Andreas A.; Poppinga, Daniela; Kapsch, Ralf-Peter; Jiang, Ping; Harder, Dietrich; Poppe, Björn; Khee Looe, Hui

    2018-02-01

    The optical density (OD) of EBT3 radiochromic films (Ashland Specialty Ingredients, Bridgewater, NJ, USA) exposed to absorbed doses to water up to D  =  20 Gy in magnetic fields of B  =  0.35 and 1.42 T was measured in the three colour channels of an Epson Expression 10000XL flatbed scanner. A 7 cm wide water phantom with fixed film holder was placed between the pole shoes of a constant-current electromagnet with variable field strength and was irradiated by a 6 MV photon beam whose axis was directed at right angles with the field lines. The doses at the film position at water depth 5 cm were measured with a calibrated ionization chamber when the magnet was switched off and were converted to the doses in presence of the magnetic field via the monitor units and by a Monte Carlo-calculated correction accounting for the slight change of the depth dose curves in magnetic fields. In the presence of the 0.35 and 1.42 T fields small negative changes of the OD values at given absorbed doses to water occurred and just significantly exceeded the uncertainty margin given by the stochastic and the uncorrected systematic deviations. This change can be described by a  +2.1% change of the dose values needed to produce a given optical density in the presence of a 1.42 T field. The thereby modified OD versus D function remained unchanged irrespective of whether the original short film side—the preference direction of the monomer crystals of the film—was directed parallel or orthogonal to the magnetic field. The ‘orientation effect’, the difference between the optical densities measured in the ‘portrait’ or ‘landscape’ film positions on the scanner bed caused by the reflection of polarised light in the scanner’s mirror system, remained unaltered after EBT3 film exposure in magnetic fields. An independent optical bench investigation of EBT3 films exposed to doses of 10 and 20 Gy at 0.35 and 1.42 T showed that the direction of the electric

  6. The Hematologic Definition of Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance in Relation to Paraproteinemic Keratopathy (An American Ophthalmological Society Thesis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisch, Walter; Wasielica-Poslednik, Joanna; Kivelä, Tero; Schlötzer-Schrehardt, Ursula; Rohrbach, Jens M; Sekundo, Walter; Pleyer, Uwe; Lisch, Christina; Desuki, Alexander; Rossmann, Heidi; Weiss, Jayne S

    2016-08-01

    To determine if paraproteinemic keratopathy (PPK) in the setting of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) causes distinct patterns of corneal opacification that can be distinguished from hereditary, immunologic, or inflammatory causes. A retrospective, interventional study of patients showed distinct bilateral opacity patterns of the cornea at the eye clinics of Hanau, Mainz, Helsinki, Marburg, and Berlin between 1993 and 2015. Data on patient characteristics and clinical features on ophthalmic examination were collected, and serum protein profiles were evaluated. A literature review and analysis of all published studies of MGUS with PPK is also presented. The largest group of patients diagnosed with MGUS-induced PPK is analyzed in this study. We studied 22 eyes of 11 patients (6 male, aged 43 to 65, mean age 54; 5 female, aged 49 to 76, mean age 61) with distinct corneal opacities and visual impairment who were first suspected of having hereditary, inflammatory, or immunologic corneal entities. Subsequently, serum protein electrophoresis revealed MGUS to be the cause of the PPK. Literature review revealed 72 patients with bilateral PPK (34 male, mean age 57; 38 female, mean age 58) in 51 studies of MGUS published from 1934 to 2015 and disclosed six additional corneal opacity patterns. This thesis shows that MGUS is not always an asymptomatic disorder, in contrast to the hematologic definition, which has no hint of PPK. The MGUS-induced PPK can mimic many other diseases of the anterior layer of the eye. A new clinical classification for PPK in MGUS is proposed.

  7. Validation of DAB2IP methylation and its relative significance in predicting outcome in renal cell carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Liang-Yun; Kapur, Payal; Wu, Kai-Jie; Wang, Bin; Yu, Yan-Hong; Liao, Bing; He, Da-Lin; Chen, Wei; Margulis, Vitaly; Hsieh, Jer-Tsong; Luo, Jun-Hang

    2016-01-01

    We have recently reported tumor suppressive role of DAB2IP in RCC development. In this study, We identified one CpG methylation biomarker (DAB2IP CpG1) located UTSS of DAB2IP that was associated with poor overall survival in a cohort of 318 ccRCC patients from the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). We further validated the prognostic accuracy of DAB2IP CpG methylation by pyrosequencing quantitative methylation assay in 224 ccRCC patients from multiple Chinese centers (MCHC set), and 239 patients from University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas (UTSW set) by using FFPE samples. DAB2IP CpG1 can predict the overall survival of patients in TCGA, MCHC, and UTSW sets independent of patient age, Fuhrman grade and TNM stage (all p<0.05). DAB2IP CpG1 successfully categorized patients into high-risk and low-risk groups with significant differences of clinical outcome in respective clinical subsets, regardless of age, sex, grade, stage, or race (HR: 1.63-7.83; all p<0.05). The detection of DAB2IP CpG1 methylation was minimally affected by ITH in ccRCC. DAB2IP mRNA expression was regulated by DNA methylation in vitro. DAB2IP CpG1 methylation is a practical and repeatable biomarker for ccRCC, which can provide prognostic value that complements the current staging system. PMID:27129174

  8. Significance of oxidized low-density lipoprotein in body fluids as a marker related to diseased conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itabe, Hiroyuki; Kato, Rina; Sasabe, Naoko; Obama, Takashi; Yamamoto, Matsuo

    2018-03-06

    Oxidatively modified low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) is known to be involved in various diseases, including cardiovascular diseases. The presence of oxLDL in the human circulatory system and in atherosclerotic lesions has been demonstrated using monoclonal antibodies. Studies have shown the significance of circulating oxLDL in various systemic diseases, including acute myocardial infarction and diabetic mellitus. Several different enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) procedures to measure oxLDL were utilized. Evidence has been accumulating that reveals changes in oxLDL levels under certain pathological conditions. Since oxLDL concentration tends to correlate with low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, the ratio of oxLDL and LDL rather than oxLDL concentration alone has been focused attention. In addition to circulating plasma, LDL and oxLDL are found in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF), where the ratio of oxLDL to LDL in GCF is much higher than in plasma. LDL and oxLDL levels in GCF show an increase in diabetic patients and periodontal patients, suggesting that GCF might be useful in examining systemic conditions. GCF oxLDL increased when the teeth were affected by periodontitis. It is likely that oxLDL levels in plasma and GCF could reflect oxidative stress and transfer efficacy in circulatory system. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  9. Cottonwood Response to Nitrogen Related To Plantation Age and Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    B.G. Blackmon

    1977-01-01

    When applied at plantation age 4,336 kg N/ha increased diameter growth of cottonwood on Sharkey clay by 33 percent over unfertilized controls. Fertilizing at ages 2 and 3 resulted in no response, nor was there any benefit from applying nitrogen fertilizer to cottonwood on Commerce silt loam. On both sites, foliar N levels were increased by fertilization regardless of...

  10. Supervising Research in Maori Cultural Contexts: A Decolonizing, Relational Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryman, Mere; Glynn, Ted; Woller, Paul

    2017-01-01

    We have collaborated for 25 years as indigenous Maori and non-Maori researchers undertaking research with Maori families, their schools and communities. We have endeavored to meet our responsibilities to the Maori people (indigenous inhabitants of New Zealand) and communities with whom we have researched, as well as meet the requirements and…

  11. Positive and negative emotional responses to work-related trauma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data were gathered via the Professional Quality of Life Scale: Compassion Satisfaction and Fatigue Subscales – Revision IV (ProQOL – R-IV) and the Silencing Response Scale and were analysed according to descriptive statistics and correlation coefficients. Findings suggest a high risk for compassion fatigue, a moderate ...

  12. DNA-activated protein kinase (DNA-PK) and significance in its responses to radiation. The end is the beginning of the story

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Yoshihisa

    1996-01-01

    This review described findings hitherto and future perspective on the DNA-PK. The enzyme was activated by double-strand DNA, required the end of the DNA and was the major component of p350 protein. Ku-antigen (an autoimmune antigen) was found a subunit. It phosphorylated p53, c-Myc, RPAp34, DNA ligase I, DNA topoisomerase I and II. Therefore DNA-PK can be a trigger factor which recognizes DNA break induced by radiation, and phosphorylates proteins participating in the DNA repair, cell cycle regulation and cell death. Recently p350 was found to be a responsible gene product to SCID syndrome of mice hypersensitive to ionizing radiation. The review included; On the DNA-PK: Discovery, relation to Ku antigen and molecular properties. On the DNA-PK and radiation sensitivity, and V(D)J recombination: Ku80 was the product of X-ray repair cross-complementing (XRCC). p350 was found the gene product whose lack causing SCID syndrome of radiosensitive mice. On the significance of phosphorylation of DNA-PK and the substrate: p53. RPA (replication protein A, alias RF-A or SSB). P1/MCM3, a possible substrate. On the other properties of DNA-PK: DNA-helicase activity. Suppression of transcription by RNA polymerase. DNA-PKp350 and ATM (ataxia-telangiectasia). Family molecules of p53 and ATM (MEI-41, Tel1p and Mec1p, and Rad3). (H.O). 70 refs

  13. Oshkosh Logistic Management and Public Relations Responsibilities at NASA Langley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Danielle

    1995-01-01

    The central focus of my study for the summer of 1995 was to provide logistical support to Margaret Hunt, the logistics manager of the OSHKOSH airshow. In this capacity responsibilities included making arrangements for participants from NASA centers and SBIR companies for their stay in Wisconsin, while visiting the airshow, and managing staff for exhibits and the aerospace theater. A secondary purpose was to serve in other public service capacities by writing news releases, fact sheets, announcements, and articles for the Researcher News.

  14. Corporate social responsibility determinants: the relation with CSR disclosure

    OpenAIRE

    A. Pistoni; L. Songini

    2013-01-01

    This chapter intends to contribute to the debate on the determinants of corporate social responsibility (CSR) and their impact on performance measurement and communication systems. It aims at analyzing the relationship between the reasons why firms adopt CSR and the importance given to voluntary CSR disclosure. Two main categories of CSR determinants have been identified: the external ones, coming from the environment outside the firm, and the internal determinants, which are linked to som...

  15. Slow ventricular response atrial fibrillation related to mad honey poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osken, A.; Yaylacı, S.; Aydın, E.; Kocayigit, İ; Cakar, M.A.; Tamer, A.; Gündüz, H.

    2012-01-01

    Mad honey poisoning which is induced by Grayanotoxin (Andromedotoxin), is also known to have adverse effects in the cardiovascular system leading to different clinical entities. This toxin is produced by a member of the Rhododendron genus of plants of two R. Luteum and R. Panticum. In this article, we presented a case of slow ventricular response atrial fibrillation complaints with nausea, vomiting, dizziness and chest pain about an hour after eating honey produced in the Black Sea Region. PMID:22923947

  16. Slow ventricular response atrial fibrillation related to mad honey poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Osken, A.; Yaylacı, S.; Aydın, E.; Kocayigit, İ; Cakar, M.A.; Tamer, A.; Gündüz, H.

    2012-01-01

    Mad honey poisoning which is induced by Grayanotoxin (Andromedotoxin), is also known to have adverse effects in the cardiovascular system leading to different clinical entities. This toxin is produced by a member of the Rhododendron genus of plants of two R. Luteum and R. Panticum. In this article, we presented a case of slow ventricular response atrial fibrillation complaints with nausea, vomiting, dizziness and chest pain about an hour after eating honey produced in the Black Sea Region.

  17. Abnormal language-related oscillatory responses in primary progressive aphasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kielar

    Full Text Available Patients with Primary Progressive Aphasia (PPA may react to linguistic stimuli differently than healthy controls, reflecting degeneration of language networks and engagement of compensatory mechanisms. We used magnetoencephalography (MEG to evaluate oscillatory neural responses in sentence comprehension, in patients with PPA and age-matched controls. Participants viewed sentences containing semantically and syntactically anomalous words that evoke distinct oscillatory responses. For age-matched controls, semantic anomalies elicited left-lateralized 8–30 Hz power decreases distributed along ventral brain regions, whereas syntactic anomalies elicited bilateral power decreases in both ventral and dorsal regions. In comparison to controls, patients with PPA showed altered patterns of induced oscillations, characterized by delayed latencies and attenuated amplitude, which were correlated with linguistic impairment measured offline. The recruitment of right hemisphere temporo-parietal areas (also found in controls was correlated with preserved semantic processing abilities, indicating that preserved neural activity in these regions was able to support successful semantic processing. In contrast, syntactic processing was more consistently impaired in PPA, regardless of neural activity patterns, suggesting that this domain of language is particularly vulnerable to the neuronal loss. In addition, we found that delayed peak latencies of oscillatory responses were associated with lower accuracy for detecting semantic anomalies, suggesting that language deficits observed in PPA may be linked to delayed or slowed information processing. Keywords: MEG oscillations, Primary progressive aphasia (PPA, Sentence comprehension

  18. Avoidance response of Enchytraeus albidus in relation to carbendazim ageing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobeticova, Klara; Hofman, Jakub; Holoubek, Ivan

    2009-01-01

    In this study, avoidance response of Enchytraeus albidus to LUFA 2.2 soil contaminated with pesticide carbendazim was investigated. The aim was to clarify minimal test duration and temporal changes in avoidance response due to contamination ageing. Firstly, the concentration causing 50% avoidance (EC 50 ) was determined as 7.6 mg/kg. Then, test duration needed to reach this value (ET 50 = approximately 18 h) was identified. Finally, the capability of E. albidus avoidance test to reflect the changes of pollutant bioavailability was tested. The soil was spiked with carbendazim at the EC 50 concentration 1, 14, or 28 days before the test started and avoidance effects of fresh versus aged contamination were compared. The results indicated that enchytraeids preferred soil contaminated for 28 days prior to assay where carbendazim was probably less bioavailable than in freshly spiked soil. Our results open an interesting research area of potential use of avoidance tests for contaminant bioavailability assessment. - The results of this study show that avoidance response of Enchytraeus albidus might identify changes of contaminant bioavailability

  19. Prognostic significance of pathological response of primary tumor and metastatic axillary lymph nodes after neoadjuvant chemotherapy for locally advanced breast carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machiavelli, M R; Romero, A O; Pérez, J E; Lacava, J A; Domínguez, M E; Rodríguez, R; Barbieri, M R; Romero Acuña, L A; Romero Acuña, J M; Langhi, M J; Amato, S; Ortiz, E H; Vallejo, C T; Leone, B A

    1998-01-01

    The prognostic significance of pathological response of primary tumor and metastatic axillary lymph nodes after neoadjuvant chemotherapy was assessed in patients with noninflammatory locally advanced breast carcinoma. Between January 1989 and April 1995, 148 consecutive patients with locally advanced breast carcinoma participated in the study. Of these, 140 fully evaluable patients (67, stage IIIA; 73, stage IIIB) were treated with three courses of 5-fluorouracil, doxorubicin, and cyclophosphamide (FAC), followed by modified radical mastectomy when technically feasible or definitive radiation therapy. The median age was 53 years (range, 26 to 75 years); 55% of patients were postmenopausal. Objective response was recorded in 99 of 140 patients (71%; 95% confidence interval, 63% to 79%). Complete response occurred in 11 patients (8%), and partial response occurred in 88 patients (63%). No change was recorded in 37 patients (26%), and progressive disease occurred in 4 patients (3%). One hundred and thirty-six patients underwent the planned surgery. Maximal pathological response of the primary tumor (in situ carcinoma or minimal microscopic residual tumor) was observed in 24 (18%); 112 patients (82%) presented minimal pathological response of the primary tumor (gross residual tumor). The number of metastatic axillary nodes after neoadjuvant chemotherapy was as follows: N0, 39 patients (29%); N1-N3, 35 patients (26%); > N3, 62 patients (45%). Considering the initial TNM status, 75% of the patients had decreases in tumor compartment after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Also, 31% and 23% of patients with clinical N1 and N2, respectively, showed uninvolved axillary lymph nodes. A significant correlation was noted between pathological response of primary tumor and the number of metastatic axillary lymph nodes. Median disease-free survival was 34 months, whereas median overall survival was 66 months. Pathological responses of both primary tumor and metastatic axillary lymph nodes

  20. Airway inflammatory and atopy-related responses in athletes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    O3), sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), .... training may also cause positive adaptations at the airway ... Patients with mild asthma also had significantly ..... mones with immunosuppressive but neutrophil-priming potentials rise after.

  1. Reciprocal Rights and Responsibilities in Parent-Child Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumrind, Diana

    1978-01-01

    This article examines critically the case for protecting children's rights as against the case for protecting children's welfare. The principle of reciprocity in parent-child relations is rejected. (Author/AM)

  2. The prognostic significance of early treatment response in pediatric relapsed acute myeloid leukemia : results of the international study Relapsed AML 2001/01

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Creutzig, Ursula; Zimmermann, Martin; Dworzak, Michael N.; Gibson, Brenda; Tamminga, Rienk; Abrahamsson, Jonas; Ha, Shau-Yin; Hasle, Henrik; Maschan, Alexey; Bertrand, Yves; Leverger, Guy; von Neuhoff, Christine; Razzouk, Bassem; Rizzari, Carmelo; Smisek, Petr; Smith, Owen P.; Stark, Batia; Reinhardt, Dirk; Kaspers, Gertjan L.

    2014-01-01

    The prognostic significance of early response to treatment has not been reported in relapsed pediatric acute myeloid leukemia. In order to identify an early and easily applicable prognostic factor allowing subsequent treatment modifications, we assessed leukemic blast counts in the bone marrow by

  3. The relation of somatotypes and stress response to central serous chorioretinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Roy; Rozenberg, Assaf; Loewenstein, Anat; Goldstein, Michaella

    2017-12-01

    To investigate a possible relationship between central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC) and specific body types and compositions (somatotypes), and to examine the cortisol stress response among CSC patients of different somatotypes in comparison with healthy subjects. Prospective case-control study. A group of 28 patients with a previous or current diagnosis of CSC was compared with a group of 26 healthy subjects. Anthropometric measurements were used to estimate somatotype ratings in all subjects. Serum cortisol was measured at rest and following a stress-inducing computerized test in order to estimate response to stress in both groups. The main outcome measures included somatotype categorization and the change in serum cortisol following stress in both groups. No significant difference in somatotype composition was found between the groups. There was no statistically significant difference between the groups in the elevation of cortisol following the stress-inducing test. The sample size was too small to exclude or find any significant difference between the different 13 subgroups of somatotype composition in the elevation of cortisol. Our study did not show a typical somatotype related to CSC. While previous studies showed higher cortisol values in CSC patients, we did not see a higher elevation in blood cortisol following a stress response in this group in comparison with healthy subjects.

  4. Dynamics of brain responses to phobic-related stimulation in specific phobia subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caseras, Xavier; Mataix-Cols, David; Trasovares, Maria Victoria; López-Solà, Marina; Ortriz, Hector; Pujol, Jesus; Soriano-Mas, Carles; Giampietro, Vincent; Brammer, Michael J; Torrubia, Rafael

    2010-10-01

    Very few studies have investigated to what extent different subtypes of specific phobia share the same underlying functional neuroanatomy. This study aims to investigate the potential differences in the anatomy and dynamics of the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) responses associated with spider and blood-injection-injury phobias. We used an event-related paradigm in 14 untreated spider phobics, 15 untreated blood-injection-injury phobics and 17 controls. Phobic images successfully induced distress only in phobic participants. Both phobic groups showed a similar pattern of heart rate increase following the presentation of phobic stimuli, this being different from controls. The presentation of phobic images induced activity within the same brain network in all participants, although the intensity of brain responses was significantly higher in phobics. Only blood-injection-injury phobics showed greater activity in the ventral prefrontal cortex compared with controls. This phobia group also presented a lower activity peak in the left amygdala compared with spider phobics. Importantly, looking at the dynamics of BOLD responses, both phobia groups showed a quicker time-to-peak in the right amygdala than controls, but only spider phobics also differed from controls in this parameter within the left amygdala. Considering these and previous findings, both phobia subtypes show very similar responses regarding their immediate reaction to phobia-related images, but critical differences in their sustained responses to these stimuli. These results highlight the importance of considering complex mental processes potentially associated with coping and emotion regulation processes, rather than exclusively focusing on primary neural responses to threat, when investigating fear and phobias. © 2010 The Authors. European Journal of Neuroscience © 2010 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Relative flotation response of zinc sulfide: Mineral and precipitate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, S.R.; Finch, J.A. [McGill Univ., Montreal, Quebec (Canada). Dept. of Mining and Metallurgical Engineering; Zhou, Z.; Xu, Z. [Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada). Dept. of Chemical and Materials Engineering

    1998-04-01

    Flotation continues to extend to nonmineral applications, including recycling of materials, soil remediation, and effluent treatment. A study has been conducted to compare the floatability of fine zinc sulfide (ZnS) precipitates and sphalerite particles. The floatability of the precipitates was significantly poorer compared to sphalerite particles when xanthate was used as the collector. The floatability was improved by using dodecylamine as the collector, and the difference in floatability between the precipitates was further improved significantly by incorporating a hydrodynamic cavitation tube in a conventional (mechanical) flotation cell. The improved kinetics was attributed to in-situ gas nucleation on the precipitates.

  6. Management of Gender Relations and Response To Change at the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The establishment of the UDSM reflected the societal gender relations that influenced the perpetuation of gender inequalities in student's admission, academic and administrative recruitments, and management of staff through policies, directives and governance structures. Earlier initiatives directed by national politics and ...

  7. Dose-response and concentration-response relation of rocuronium infusion during propofol nitrous oxide and isoflurane nitrous oxide anaesthesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kansanaho, M; Olkkola, KT; Wierda, JMKH

    The dose-response and concentration-response relation of rocuronium infusion was studied in 20 adult surgical patients during proporfol-nitrous oxide and isoflurane (1 MAC) -nitrous oxide anaesthesia. Neuromuscular block was kept constant, initially at 90% and then at 50% with a closed-loop feedback

  8. Skeletal-related events significantly impact health-related quality of life in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer: data from PREVAIL and AFFIRM trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, F; Ivanescu, C; Phung, D; Loriot, Y; Abhyankar, S; Beer, T M; Tombal, B; Holmstrom, S

    2017-03-01

    We investigated the impact of skeletal-related events (SREs) on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) in phase III trials of enzalutamide versus placebo. Patients with mCRPC experiencing at least one SRE during AFFIRM and PREVAIL were assessed for trajectory-adjusted mean change in HRQoL by first SRE using Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Prostate (FACT-P; AFFIRM, three domains, and PREVAIL, nine domains) and EQ-5D (PREVAIL) instruments. First SREs caused HRQoL deterioration in both trials. Spinal cord compression had the largest impact, with clinically meaningful reductions in seven of nine FACT-P domains in PREVAIL and all three in AFFIRM (mean (95% confidence interval (CI)) change in FACT-P total score -16.95 (-26.47, -7.44) and -9.69 (-16.10, -3.27), respectively). In PREVAIL, first SREs caused clinically meaningful declines in EQ-5D utility index, irrespective of category; spinal cord compression had the largest impact (mean (95% CI) change -0.24 (-0.39, -0.08)). In AFFIRM, FACT-P and FACT-General total scores showed clinically meaningful declines after radiation/surgery to bone. SREs were associated with clinically meaningful functional declines in the daily lives of patients with mCRPC. Spinal cord compression had the largest impact on HRQoL.

  9. Clinical importance and significance of early evaluation of therapy response in lung cancer; Klinische Notwendigkeit und Bedeutung der Frueherfassung der Therapie-Response beim Bronchialkarzinom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griesinger, F. [Universitaetsklinik Goettingen (Germany). Abt. Haematologie und Onkologie; Baum, R.P. [Zentralklinik Bad Berka (Germany). Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin/PET-Zentrum

    2001-04-01

    In solid tumors, especially in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), the TNM staging is the only well defined pretherapeutic risk factor. TNM-staging has a significant impact on prognosis and survival and is used to determine therapeutic stratification. Although numerous molecular and immunologic pretherapeutic risk factors have been described in NSCLC, none of them has been translated into therapeutic stratification. Therefore, the identification of posttherapeutic risk factors in NSCLC is essential. Locally advanced NSCLC are currently treated with preoperative (neoadjuvant) induction regimens. It has been shown that systemic tumor control and long-term disease free survival is correlated with histologic tumor regression. First results are presented in this paper that PET may be highly predictive for histologic tumor regression and long term outcome in NSCLC stage III. These results may establish PET as the first noninvasive posttherapeutic risk factor in locally advanced NSCLC. (orig.) [German] Bei soliden Tumoren, insbesondere beim nichtkleinzelligen Bronchialkarzinom (NSCLC), sind praetherapeutische Risikofaktoren im Westlichen durch das Tumorstadium (TNM-Klassifikation) definiert. Diese Tumorstadien haben eine erhebliche prognostische Relevanz und sind entscheidend fuer die Therapiestratifikation. Obwohl eine Reihe praetherapeutischer molekularer und immunologischer Risikofaktoren beim NSCLC beschrieben wurden, hat keiner von ihnen Eingang in die prospektive Risikostratifikation oder Therapieplanung gefunden. Daher ist die Identifikation posttherapeutischer Risikofaktoren zur Therapiestratifikation des NSCLC essenziell wichtig. Ein innovativer Therapieansatz bei lokal fortgeschrittenen NSCLC ist die neoadjuvante (praeoperative) Induktionstherapie. Hier konnte gezeigt werden, dass die systemische Tumorkontrolle und das Langzeitueberleben mit dem histologischen Ansprechen korrelierte. Erste Untersuchungen zeigen jetzt, dass die FDG-PET vermutlich einen hohen

  10. RELATION BETWEEN BACKGROUND VARIABLES, VALUES AND CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria del Rosario González-Rodriguez

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Consumer perception of corporate social responsibility (CSR can be directly influenced by individual value structures. This research aims to provide new knowledge regarding the relationship between basic human values and the public’s perception of CSR. It focuses on the values of higher education students and their views regarding a particular corporate social initiative. The study reveals that social, educational, and economic circumstances influence human values. Those values in turn influence why different students perceive CSR differently. These findings are relevant to companies as they provide a more detailed understanding of why certain consumer groups perceive certain CSR initiatives the way that they do. They also suggest that universities should increase their awareness of the importance of integrating human values and CSR in the curricula of future business managers and social leaders.

  11. Predicting meaningful outcomes to medication and self-help treatments for binge-eating disorder in primary care: The significance of early rapid response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grilo, Carlos M; White, Marney A; Masheb, Robin M; Gueorguieva, Ralitza

    2015-04-01

    We examined rapid response among obese patients with binge-eating disorder (BED) in a randomized clinical trial testing antiobesity medication and self-help cognitive-behavioral therapy (shCBT), alone and in combination, in primary-care settings. One hundred four obese patients with BED were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments: sibutramine, placebo, shCBT + sibutramine, or shCBT + placebo. Treatments were delivered by generalist primary-care physicians and the medications were given double-blind. Independent assessments were performed by trained and monitored doctoral research clinicians monthly throughout treatment, posttreatment (4 months), and at 6- and 12-month follow-ups (i.e., 16 months after randomization). Rapid response, defined as ≥65% reduction in binge eating by the fourth treatment week, was used to predict outcomes. Rapid response characterized 47% of patients, was unrelated to demographic and baseline clinical characteristics, and was significantly associated, prospectively, with remission from binge eating at posttreatment (51% vs. 9% for nonrapid responders), 6-month (53% vs. 23.6%), and 12-month (46.9% vs. 23.6%) follow-ups. Mixed-effects model analyses revealed that rapid response was significantly associated with greater decreases in binge-eating or eating-disorder psychopathology, depression, and percent weight loss. Our findings, based on a diverse obese patient group receiving medication and shCBT for BED in primary-care settings, indicate that patients who have a rapid response achieve good clinical outcomes through 12-month follow-ups after ending treatment. Rapid response represents a strong prognostic indicator of clinically meaningful outcomes, even in low-intensity medication and self-help interventions. Rapid response has important clinical implications for stepped-care treatment models for BED. clinicaltrials.gov: NCT00537810 (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. In Dogs We Trust? Intersubjectivity, Response-Able Relations, and the Making of Mine Detector Dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Robert G W

    2014-01-01

    The utility of the dog as a mine detector has divided the mine clearance community since dogs were first used for this purpose during the Second World War. This paper adopts a historical perspective to investigate how, why, and to what consequence, the use of minedogs remains contested despite decades of research into their abilities. It explores the changing factors that have made it possible to think that dogs could, or could not, serve as reliable detectors of landmines over time. Beginning with an analysis of the wartime context that shaped the creation of minedogs, the paper then examines two contemporaneous investigations undertaken in the 1950s. The first, a British investigation pursued by the anatomist Solly Zuckerman, concluded that dogs could never be the mine hunter's best friend. The second, an American study led by the parapsychologist J. B. Rhine, suggested dogs were potentially useful for mine clearance. Drawing on literature from science studies and the emerging subdiscipline of “animal studies,” it is argued that cross-species intersubjectivity played a significant role in determining these different positions. The conceptual landscapes of Zuckerman and Rhine's disciplinary backgrounds are shown to have produced distinct approaches to managing cross-species relations, thus explaining how diverse opinions on minedog can coexist. In conclusion, it is shown that the way one structures relationships between humans and animals has profound impact on the knowledge and labor subsequently produced, a process that cannot be separated from ethical consequence. PMID:24318987

  13. Electrophysiological Evidence in Schizophrenia in Relation to Treatment Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuki Sueyoshi

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Several domains of cognitive function, e.g., verbal memory, information processing, fluency, attention, and executive function are impaired in patients with schizophrenia. Cognitive impairments in schizophrenia have attracted interests as a treatment target, because they are considered to greatly affect functional outcome. Electrophysiological markers, including electroencephalogram (EEG, particularly, event-related potentials, have contributed to psychiatric research and clinical practice. In this review, we provide a summary of studies relating electrophysiological findings to cognitive performance in schizophrenia. Electrophysiological indices may provide an objective marker of cognitive processes, contributing to the development of effective interventions to improve cognitive and social outcomes. Further efforts to understand biological mechanisms of cognitive disturbances, and develop effective therapeutics are warranted.

  14. I-131 dose response for incident thyroid cancers in Ukraine related to the Chornobyl accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Alina V; Tronko, Mykola D; Hatch, Maureen; Bogdanova, Tetyana I; Oliynik, Valery A; Lubin, Jay H; Zablotska, Lydia B; Tereschenko, Valery P; McConnell, Robert J; Zamotaeva, Galina A; O'Kane, Patrick; Bouville, Andre C; Chaykovskaya, Ludmila V; Greenebaum, Ellen; Paster, Ihor P; Shpak, Victor M; Ron, Elaine

    2011-07-01

    Current knowledge about Chornobyl-related thyroid cancer risks comes from ecological studies based on grouped doses, case-control studies, and studies of prevalent cancers. To address this limitation, we evaluated the dose-response relationship for incident thyroid cancers using measurement-based individual iodine-131 (I-131) thyroid dose estimates in a prospective analytic cohort study. The cohort consists of individuals radioactivity measurements taken within 2 months after the accident, environmental transport models, and interview data. Excess radiation risks were estimated using Poisson regression models. Sixty-five incident thyroid cancers were diagnosed during the second through fourth screenings and 73,004 person-years (PY) of observation. The dose-response relationship was consistent with linearity on relative and absolute scales, although the excess relative risk (ERR) model described data better than did the excess absolute risk (EAR) model. The ERR per gray was 1.91 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.43-6.34], and the EAR per 10⁴ PY/Gy was 2.21 (95% CI, 0.04-5.78). The ERR per gray varied significantly by oblast of residence but not by time since exposure, use of iodine prophylaxis, iodine status, sex, age, or tumor size. I-131-related thyroid cancer risks persisted for two decades after exposure, with no evidence of decrease during the observation period. The radiation risks, although smaller, are compatible with those of retrospective and ecological post-Chornobyl studies.

  15. Mangrove Sedimentation and Response to Relative Sea-Level Rise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodroffe, C D; Rogers, K; McKee, K L; Lovelock, C E; Mendelssohn, I A; Saintilan, N

    2016-01-01

    Mangroves occur on upper intertidal shorelines in the tropics and subtropics. Complex hydrodynamic and salinity conditions, related primarily to elevation and hydroperiod, influence mangrove distributions; this review considers how these distributions change over time. Accumulation rates of allochthonous and autochthonous sediment, both inorganic and organic, vary between and within different settings. Abundant terrigenous sediment can form dynamic mudbanks, and tides redistribute sediment, contrasting with mangrove peat in sediment-starved carbonate settings. Sediments underlying mangroves sequester carbon but also contain paleoenvironmental records of adjustments to past sea-level changes. Radiometric dating indicates long-term sedimentation, whereas measurements made using surface elevation tables and marker horizons provide shorter perspectives, indicating shallow subsurface processes of root growth and substrate autocompaction. Many tropical deltas also experience deep subsidence, which augments relative sea-level rise. The persistence of mangroves implies an ability to cope with moderately high rates of relative sea-level rise. However, many human pressures threaten mangroves, resulting in a continuing decline in their extent throughout the tropics.

  16. Mangrove sedimentation and response to relative sea-level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodroffe, CD; Rogers, K.; Mckee, Karen L.; Lovelock, CE; Mendelssohn, IA; Saintilan, N.

    2016-01-01

    Mangroves occur on upper intertidal shorelines in the tropics and subtropics. Complex hydrodynamic and salinity conditions influence mangrove distributions, primarily related to elevation and hydroperiod; this review considers how these adjust through time. Accumulation rates of allochthonous and autochthonous sediment, both inorganic and organic, vary between and within different settings. Abundant terrigenous sediment can form dynamic mudbanks; tides redistribute sediment, contrasting with mangrove peat in sediment-starved carbonate settings. Sediments underlying mangroves sequester carbon, but also contain paleoenvironmental records of adjustments to past sea-level changes. Radiometric dating indicates long-term sedimentation, whereas Surface Elevation Table-Marker Horizon measurements (SET-MH) provide shorter perspectives, indicating shallow subsurface processes of root growth and substrate autocompaction. Many tropical deltas also experience deep subsidence, which augments relative sea-level rise. The persistence of mangroves implies an ability to cope with moderately high rates of relative sea-level rise. However, many human pressures threaten mangroves, resulting in continuing decline in their extent throughout the tropics.

  17. Response-related potentials during semantic priming: the effect of a speeded button response task on ERPs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijn van Vliet

    Full Text Available This study examines the influence of a button response task on the event-related potential (ERP in a semantic priming experiment. Of particular interest is the N400 component. In many semantic priming studies, subjects are asked to respond to a stimulus as fast and accurately as possible by pressing a button. Response time (RT is recorded in parallel with an electroencephalogram (EEG for ERP analysis. In this case, the response occurs in the time window used for ERP analysis and response-related components may overlap with stimulus-locked ones such as the N400. This has led to a recommendation against such a design, although the issue has not been explored in depth. Since studies keep being published that disregard this issue, a more detailed examination of influence of response-related potentials on the ERP is needed. Two experiments were performed in which subjects pressed one of two buttons with their dominant hand in response to word-pairs with varying association strength (AS, indicating a personal judgement of association between the two words. In the first experiment, subjects were instructed to respond as fast and accurately as possible. In the second experiment, subjects delayed their button response to enforce a one second interval between the onset of the target word and the button response. Results show that in the first experiment a P3 component and motor-related potentials (MRPs overlap with the N400 component, which can cause a misinterpretation of the latter. In order to study the N400 component, the button response should be delayed to avoid contamination of the ERP with response-related components.

  18. The effects of verbal information and approach-avoidance training on children's fear-related responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Kathryn J; Lisk, Stephen C; Mikita, Nina; Mitchell, Sophie; Huijding, Jorg; Rinck, Mike; Field, Andy P

    2015-09-01

    This study examined the effects of verbal information and approach-avoidance training on fear-related cognitive and behavioural responses about novel animals. One hundred and sixty children (7-11 years) were randomly allocated to receive: a) positive verbal information about one novel animal and threat information about a second novel animal (verbal information condition); b) approach-avoidance training in which they repeatedly pushed away (avoid) or pulled closer (approach) pictures of the animals (approach-avoidance training), c) a combined condition in which verbal information was given prior to approach-avoidance training (verbal information + approach-avoidance training) and d) a combined condition in which approach-avoidance training was given prior to verbal information (approach-avoidance training + verbal information). Threat and positive information significantly increased and decreased fear beliefs and avoidance behaviour respectively. Approach-avoidance training was successful in training the desired behavioural responses but had limited effects on fear-related responses. Verbal information and both combined conditions resulted in significantly larger effects than approach-avoidance training. We found no evidence for an additive effect of these pathways. This study used a non-clinical sample and focused on novel animals rather than animals about which children already had experience or established fears. The study also compared positive information/approach with threat information/avoid training, limiting specific conclusions regarding the independent effects of these conditions. The present study finds little evidence in support of a possible causal role for behavioural response training in the aetiology of childhood fear. However, the provision of verbal information appears to be an important pathway involved in the aetiology of childhood fear. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Age-related slowing of response selection and production in a visual choice reaction time task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L Woods

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aging is associated with delayed processing in choice reaction time (CRT tasks, but the processing stages most impacted by aging have not been clearly identified. Here, we analyzed CRT latencies in a computerized serial visual feature-conjunction task. Participants responded to a target letter (probability 40% by pressing one mouse button, and responded to distractor letters differing either in color, shape, or both features from the target (probabilities 20% each, by pressing the other mouse button. Stimuli were presented randomly to the left and right visual fields and stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs were adaptively reduced following correct responses using a staircase procedure. In Experiment 1, we tested 1466 participants who ranged in age from 18 to 65 years. CRT latencies increased significantly with age (r = 0.47, 2.80 ms/year. Central processing time (CPT, isolated by subtracting simple reaction times (obtained in a companion experiment performed on the same day from CRT latencies, accounted for more than 80% of age-related CRT slowing, with most of the remaining increase in latency due to slowed motor responses. Participants were faster and more accurate when the stimulus location was spatially compatible with the mouse button used for responding, and this effect increased slightly with age. Participants took longer to respond to distractors with target color or shape than to distractors with no target features. However, the additional time needed to discriminate the more target-like distractors did not increase with age. In Experiment 2, we replicated the findings of Experiment 1 in a second population of 178 participants (ages 18-82 years. CRT latencies did not differ significantly in the two experiments, and similar effects of age, distractor similarity, and stimulus-response spatial compatibility were found. The results suggest that the age-related slowing in visual CRT latencies is largely due to delays in response selection and

  20. Heritability of brain activity related to response inhibition: a longitudinal genetic study in adolescent twins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anokhin, Andrey P.; Golosheykin, Simon; Grant, Julia D.; Heath, Andrew C.

    2017-01-01

    The ability to inhibit prepotent but context- or goal-inappropriate responses is essential for adaptive self-regulation of behavior. Deficits in response inhibition, a key component of impulsivity, have been implicated as a core dysfunction in a range of neuropsychiatric disorders such as ADHD and addictions. Identification of genetically transmitted variation in the neural underpinnings of response inhibition can help to elucidate etiological pathways to these disorders and establish the links between genes, brain, and behavior. However, little is known about genetic influences on the neural mechanisms of response inhibition during adolescence, a developmental period characterized by weak self-regulation of behavior. Here we investigated heritability of ERPs elicited in a Go/No-Go task in a large sample of adolescent twins assessed longitudinally at ages 12, 14, and 16. Genetic analyses showed significant heritability of inhibition-related frontal N2 and P3 components at all three ages, with 50 to 60% of inter-individual variability being attributable to genetic factors. These genetic influences included both common genetic factors active at different ages and novel genetic influences emerging during development. Finally, individual differences in the rate of developmental changes from age 12 to age 16 were significantly influenced by genetic factors. In conclusion, the present study provides the first evidence for genetic influences on neural correlates of response inhibition during adolescence and suggests that ERPs elicited in the Go/No-Go task can serve as intermediate neurophysiological phenotypes (endophenotypes) for the study of disinhibition and impulse control disorders. PMID:28300615

  1. Age-related immune response to experimental infection with Eimeria ninakohlyakimovae in goat kids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos, L; Muñoz, M C; Molina, J M; Rodríguez, F; Pérez, D; López, A M; Hermosilla, C; Taubert, A; Ruiz, A

    2018-06-01

    Both the immune response developed in ruminants against Eimeria spp. and the ability to bear patent infections seems to be dependent on the age of the host. In the present study we have evaluated the influence of the age in the development of protective immune responses against Eimeria ninakohlyakimovae. For this purpose, 3, 4 and 5-week-old goat kids were infected with sporulated oocysts and subjected to a homologous challenge 3 weeks later. Goat kids primary infected at 6, 7 and 8 weeks of age served as challenge controls, and uninfected animals were used as negative controls. The protective immunity was assessed by clinical, haematological, parasitological, immunological and pathological parameters. Altogether, the results demonstrate that goat kids of either 3, 4 or 5 weeks of age are able to develop patent infections and immunoprotective responses against E. ninakohlyakimovae, as all age groups: (i) released significantly less oocysts after challenge, which was associated to milder clinical signs; (ii) displayed a local immune response, with significant increase of numerous cellular populations; and (iii) had increased levels of IgG and IgM, and mainly of local IgA. Nevertheless, detailed analysis of the data showed some differences between the three age groups, related both to the Eimeria infection outcome and the resulting immune response, suggesting that youngest goat kids are not fully immunocompetent. This finding may be of interest for the design of immunoprophylactic approaches and/or prophylactic/methaphylactic treatments against goat coccidiosis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Behavioural and brain responses related to Internet search and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Guangheng; Potenza, Marc N

    2015-10-01

    The ready availability of data via searches on the Internet has changed how many people seek and perhaps store and recall information, although the brain mechanisms underlying these processes are not well understood. This study investigated brain mechanisms underlying Internet-based vs. non-Internet-based searching. The results showed that Internet searching was associated with lower accuracy in recalling information as compared with traditional book searching. During functional magnetic resonance imaging, Internet searching was associated with less regional brain activation in the left ventral stream, the association area of the temporal-parietal-occipital cortices, and the middle frontal cortex. When comparing novel items with remembered trials, Internet-based searching was associated with higher brain activation in the right orbitofrontal cortex and lower brain activation in the right middle temporal gyrus when facing those novel trials. Brain activations in the middle temporal gyrus were inversely correlated with response times, and brain activations in the orbitofrontal cortex were positively correlated with self-reported search impulses. Taken together, the results suggest that, although Internet-based searching may have facilitated the information-acquisition process, this process may have been performed more hastily and be more prone to difficulties in recollection. In addition, people appear less confident in recalling information learned through Internet searching and that recent Internet searching may promote motivation to use the Internet. © 2015 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Treatment and Response to Statins: Gender-related Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raparelli, Valeria; Pannitteri, Gaetano; Todisco, Tommaso; Toriello, Filippo; Napoleone, Laura; Manfredini, Roberto; Basili, Stefania

    2017-01-01

    Response to drug administration is a primary determinant for treatment success. Sex and gender disparities play a role in determining the efficacy and safety of the most commonly used medications suggesting the need for a sex-tailored approach in prescription. Statins are a cost-effective strategy for cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention. While statins are similarly effective in secondary CVD prevention, some concerns raised by conflicting data reported in primary CVD prevention clinical trials. The small representation of women in clinical trials and the fewer rates of events due to the lower female baseline CVD risk may have conditioned contradictory meta-analysis findings. Specifically, benefits outweigh disadvantages of statin therapy in women with a high CVD risk, while several doubts exist for the primary prevention of women at low-intermediate CVD risk. Furthermore, disparities between women and men in medication adherence may influence statin efficacy in CVD prevention. The sex-dependent impact of adverse side effects is one of the reasons advocated for explaining the gender gap, but it is not evidence-proved. The present review summarizes the sex and gender differences in the use of statins, pointing out new perspectives and opening issues in sex-tailored CVD prevention strategy. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  4. Age-related changes in compensatory stepping in response to unpredictable perturbations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIlroy, W E; Maki, B E

    1996-11-01

    Recent studies highlight the importance of compensatory stepping to preserve stability, and the spatial and temporal demands placed on the control of this reaction. Age-related changes in the control of stepping could greatly influence the risk of falling. The present study compares, in healthy elderly and young adults, the characteristics of compensatory stepping responses to unpredictable postural perturbations. A moving platform was used to unpredictably perturb the upright stance of 14 naive, active and mobile subjects (5 aged 22 to 28 and 9 aged 65 to 81). The first 10 randomized trials (5 forward and 5 backward) were evaluated to allow a focus on reactions to relatively novel perturbations. The behavior of the subjects was not constrained. Forceplate and kinematic measures were used to evaluate the responses evoked by the brief (600 msec) platform translation. Subjects stepped in 98% of the trials. Although the elderly were less likely to execute a lateral anticipatory postural adjustment prior to foot-lift, the onset of swing-leg unloading tended to begin at the same time in the two age groups. There was remarkable similarity between the young and elderly in many other characteristics of the first step of the response. In spite of this similarity, the elderly subjects were twice as likely to take additional steps to regain stability (63% of trials for elderly). Moreover, in elderly subjects, the additional steps were often directed so as to preserve lateral stability, whereas the young rarely showed this tendency. Given the functional significance of base-of-support changes as a strategy for preserving stability and the age-related differences presently revealed, assessment of the capacity to preserve stability against unpredictable perturbation, and specific measures such as the occurrence or placement of multiple steps, may prove to be a significant predictor of falling risk and an important outcome in evaluating or developing intervention strategies to

  5. Autonomic Nervous System Responses to Hearing-Related Demand and Evaluative Threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackersie, Carol L; Kearney, Lucia

    2017-10-12

    This paper consists of 2 parts. The purpose of Part 1 was to review the potential influence of internal (person-related) factors on listening effort. The purpose of Part 2 was to present, in support of Part 1, preliminary data illustrating the interactive effects of an external factor (task demand) and an internal factor (evaluative threat) on autonomic nervous system measures. For Part 1, we provided a brief narrative review of motivation and stress as modulators of listening effort. For Part 2, we described preliminary data from a study using a repeated-measures (2 × 2) design involving manipulations of task demand (high, low) and evaluative threat (high, low). The low-demand task consisted of repetition of sentences from a narrative. The high-demand task consisted of answering questions about the narrative, requiring both comprehension and recall. During the high evaluative threat condition, participants were filmed and told that their video recordings would be evaluated by a panel of experts. During the low evaluative threat condition, no filming occurred; participants were instructed to "do your best." Skin conductance (sympathetic nervous system activity) and heart rate variability (HRV, parasympathetic activity) were measured during the listening tasks. The HRV measure was the root mean square of successive differences of adjacent interbeat intervals. Twelve adults with hearing loss participated. Skin conductance increased and HRV decreased relative to baseline (no task) for all listening conditions. Skin conductance increased significantly with an increase in evaluative threat, but only for the more demanding task. There was no significant change in HRV in response to increasing evaluative threat or task demand. Listening effort may be influenced by factors other than task difficulty, as reviewed in Part 1. This idea is supported by the preliminary data indicating that the sympathetic nervous system response to task demand is modulated by social evaluative

  6. Responsive parenting is associated with improved type 1 diabetes-related quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botello-Harbaum, M; Nansel, T; Haynie, D L; Iannotti, R J; Simons-Morton, B

    2008-09-01

    Improved quality of life is an important treatment goal for children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes. While previous research supports a relationship between family environment and quality of life, little research has addressed the relationship of parenting style constructs to quality of life in children with chronic disease. The present investigation assesses the relationship of parent responsiveness and demandingness with diabetes-related quality of life among children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes. Baseline and 12-month follow-up self-report assessments were collected on a sample of 81 children with type 1 diabetes participating in an efficacy trial of a behavioural intervention to enhance adherence. The sample had a mean age of 13.3 years (SD=1.7) and duration of diabetes of 7.7 years (SD=3.7). Multiple regression analyses were conducted to determine the relationship of parent responsiveness and demandingness to diabetes-related quality of life at each time point. After adjusting for demographic and diabetes characteristics, as well as diabetes-specific parent-child behaviours, parent responsiveness was significantly associated with baseline diabetes-related quality of life (beta=0.23; P=0.04). This relationship was sustained at 12-month follow-up (beta=0.22; P=0.04) after adjusting for baseline quality of life and treatment group assignment, suggesting that parent responsiveness is associated with improved quality of life. Findings indicate the importance of a supportive and emotionally warm parenting style in promoting improved quality of life for children with type 1 diabetes. Appropriate parenting skills should be an element of diabetes family management health care.

  7. Response inhibition in borderline personality disorder: event-related potentials in a Go/Nogo task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruchsow, M; Groen, G; Kiefer, M; Buchheim, A; Walter, H; Martius, P; Reiter, M; Hermle, L; Spitzer, M; Ebert, D; Falkenstein, M

    2008-01-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) has been related to a dysfunction of anterior cingulate cortex, amygdala, and prefrontal cortex and has been associated clinically with impulsivity, affective instability, and significant interpersonal distress. We examined 17 patients with BPD and 17 age-, sex-, and education matched control participants with no history of Axis I or II psychopathology using event-related potentials (ERPs). Participants performed a hybrid flanker-Go/Nogo task while multichannel EEG was recorded. Our study focused on two ERP components: the Nogo-N2 and the Nogo-P3, which have been discussed in the context of response inhibition and response conflict. ERPs were computed on correct Go trials (button press) and correct Nogo trials (no button press), separately. Groups did not differ with regard to the Nogo-N2. However, BPD patients showed reduced Nogo-P3 amplitudes. For the entire group (n = 34) we found a negative correlation with the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-10) and Becks's depression inventory (BDI). The present study is the first to examine Nogo-N2 and Nogo-P3 in BPD and provides further evidence for impaired response inhibition in BPD patients.

  8. Selective attention modulates human auditory brainstem responses: relative contributions of frequency and spatial cues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Lehmann

    Full Text Available Selective attention is the mechanism that allows focusing one's attention on a particular stimulus while filtering out a range of other stimuli, for instance, on a single conversation in a noisy room. Attending to one sound source rather than another changes activity in the human auditory cortex, but it is unclear whether attention to different acoustic features, such as voice pitch and speaker location, modulates subcortical activity. Studies using a dichotic listening paradigm indicated that auditory brainstem processing may be modulated by the direction of attention. We investigated whether endogenous selective attention to one of two speech signals affects amplitude and phase locking in auditory brainstem responses when the signals were either discriminable by frequency content alone, or by frequency content and spatial location. Frequency-following responses to the speech sounds were significantly modulated in both conditions. The modulation was specific to the task-relevant frequency band. The effect was stronger when both frequency and spatial information were available. Patterns of response were variable between participants, and were correlated with psychophysical discriminability of the stimuli, suggesting that the modulation was biologically relevant. Our results demonstrate that auditory brainstem responses are susceptible to efferent modulation related to behavioral goals. Furthermore they suggest that mechanisms of selective attention actively shape activity at early subcortical processing stages according to task relevance and based on frequency and spatial cues.

  9. The significance of abnormal systolic blood pressure response during supine ergometer exercise and postexercise in ischemic heart disease, studied by exercise radionuclide ventriculography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajisaka, Ryuichi; Watanabe, Shigeyuki; Masuoka, Takeshi

    1989-01-01

    Abnormal response to blood pressure (BP) during exercise and postexercise was examined in 169 patients with ischemic heart disease. The patients underwent supine ergometer exercise gated equilibrium radionuclide ventriculography and coronary arteriography. When BP during exercise did not increase by at least 11 mmHg or initially increased but later decreased by more than 10 mmHg, the BP response was defined as abnormal during exercise. A postexercise BP increase of more than 10 mmHg above the peak exercise BP was defined as abnormal during postexercise. Fifteen-one patients (30%) were classified as abnormal (group 1) and the other 118 as normal (group 2). Abnormal BP response fell into three types: (1a) exercise hypotension (n=11), (1b) postexercise hypertension (n=30), and (1c) exercise hypotension with postexercise hypertension (n=10). Both average exercise duration and peak heart rate were significantly lower in groups 1a, 1b, and 1c than group 2. Exercise ST-segment depression was more noticeable in groups 1b and 1c than group 2. However, there was no significant difference in the severitiy of exercise ST-segment depression between groups 1a and 2. A decline in ejection fraction occurred more frequently in groups 1b and 1c than group 2. Patients in groups 1a, 1b, and 1c had more extensive coronary artery disease than did patients in group 2. Medically managed patients having an abnormal BP response had a poorer prognosis than those with a normal BP response. An abnormal BP response during both supine exercise and postexercise was infrequent. The abnormal BP during exercise may be usually associated with impaired exercise tolerance and severe coronary artery disease; and that during postexercise may be closely associated with myocardial ischemia and global left ventricular dysfunction. Postexercise hypertension may be of the same value as exercise hypotension in predicting poor prognosis. (Namekawa, K)

  10. Blind Separation of Event-Related Brain Responses into Independent Components

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Makeig, Scott

    1996-01-01

    .... We report here a method for the blind separation of event-related brain responses into spatially stationary and temporally independent subcomponents using an Independent Component Analysis algorithm...

  11. The LOV protein of Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri plays a significant role in the counteraction of plant immune responses during citrus canker.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Kraiselburd

    Full Text Available Pathogens interaction with a host plant starts a set of immune responses that result in complex changes in gene expression and plant physiology. Light is an important modulator of plant defense response and recent studies have evidenced the novel influence of this environmental stimulus in the virulence of several bacterial pathogens. Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri is the bacterium responsible for citrus canker disease, which affects most citrus cultivars. The ability of this bacterium to colonize host plants is influenced by bacterial blue-light sensing through a LOV-domain protein and disease symptoms are considerably altered upon deletion of this protein. In this work we aimed to unravel the role of this photoreceptor during the bacterial counteraction of plant immune responses leading to citrus canker development. We performed a transcriptomic analysis in Citrus sinensis leaves inoculated with the wild type X. citri subsp. citri and with a mutant strain lacking the LOV protein by a cDNA microarray and evaluated the differentially regulated genes corresponding to specific biological processes. A down-regulation of photosynthesis-related genes (together with a corresponding decrease in photosynthesis rates was observed upon bacterial infection, this effect being more pronounced in plants infected with the lov-mutant bacterial strain. Infection with this strain was also accompanied with the up-regulation of several secondary metabolism- and defense response-related genes. Moreover, we found that relevant plant physiological alterations triggered by pathogen attack such as cell wall fortification and tissue disruption were amplified during the lov-mutant strain infection. These results suggest the participation of the LOV-domain protein from X. citri subsp. citri in the bacterial counteraction of host plant defense response, contributing in this way to disease development.

  12. The LOV Protein of Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri Plays a Significant Role in the Counteraction of Plant Immune Responses during Citrus Canker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraiselburd, Ivana; Daurelio, Lucas D.; Tondo, María Laura; Merelo, Paz; Cortadi, Adriana A.; Talón, Manuel; Tadeo, Francisco R.; Orellano, Elena G.

    2013-01-01

    Pathogens interaction with a host plant starts a set of immune responses that result in complex changes in gene expression and plant physiology. Light is an important modulator of plant defense response and recent studies have evidenced the novel influence of this environmental stimulus in the virulence of several bacterial pathogens. Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri is the bacterium responsible for citrus canker disease, which affects most citrus cultivars. The ability of this bacterium to colonize host plants is influenced by bacterial blue-light sensing through a LOV-domain protein and disease symptoms are considerably altered upon deletion of this protein. In this work we aimed to unravel the role of this photoreceptor during the bacterial counteraction of plant immune responses leading to citrus canker development. We performed a transcriptomic analysis in Citrus sinensis leaves inoculated with the wild type X. citri subsp. citri and with a mutant strain lacking the LOV protein by a cDNA microarray and evaluated the differentially regulated genes corresponding to specific biological processes. A down-regulation of photosynthesis-related genes (together with a corresponding decrease in photosynthesis rates) was observed upon bacterial infection, this effect being more pronounced in plants infected with the lov-mutant bacterial strain. Infection with this strain was also accompanied with the up-regulation of several secondary metabolism- and defense response-related genes. Moreover, we found that relevant plant physiological alterations triggered by pathogen attack such as cell wall fortification and tissue disruption were amplified during the lov-mutant strain infection. These results suggest the participation of the LOV-domain protein from X. citri subsp. citri in the bacterial counteraction of host plant defense response, contributing in this way to disease development. PMID:24260514

  13. In dogs we trust? Intersubjectivity, response-able relations, and the making of mine detector dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Robert G W

    2014-01-01

    The utility of the dog as a mine detector has divided the mine clearance community since dogs were first used for this purpose during the Second World War. This paper adopts a historical perspective to investigate how, why, and to what consequence, the use of minedogs remains contested despite decades of research into their abilities. It explores the changing factors that have made it possible to think that dogs could, or could not, serve as reliable detectors of landmines over time. Beginning with an analysis of the wartime context that shaped the creation of minedogs, the paper then examines two contemporaneous investigations undertaken in the 1950s. The first, a British investigation pursued by the anatomist Solly Zuckerman, concluded that dogs could never be the mine hunter's best friend. The second, an American study led by the parapsychologist J. B. Rhine, suggested dogs were potentially useful for mine clearance. Drawing on literature from science studies and the emerging subdiscipline of "animal studies," it is argued that cross-species intersubjectivity played a significant role in determining these different positions. The conceptual landscapes of Zuckerman and Rhine's disciplinary backgrounds are shown to have produced distinct approaches to managing cross-species relations, thus explaining how diverse opinions on minedog can coexist. In conclusion, it is shown that the way one structures relationships between humans and animals has profound impact on the knowledge and labor subsequently produced, a process that cannot be separated from ethical consequence. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Warfarin dosage response related pharmacogenetics in Chinese population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siyue Li

    Full Text Available As the most frequently prescribed anticoagulant, warfarin has large inter-individual variability in dosage. Genetic polymorphisms could largely explain the differences in dosage requirement. rs9923231 (VKORC1, rs7294 (VKORC1, rs1057910 (CYP2C9, rs2108622 (CYP4F2, and rs699664 (GGCX involved in the warfarin action mechanism and the circulatory vitamin K were selected to investigate their polymorphism characteristics and their effects on the pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of warfarin in Chinese population.220 patients with cardiac valve replacement were recruited. International normalized ratio and plasma warfarin concentrations were determined. The five genetic polymorphisms were genotyping by pyro-sequencing. The relationships of maintenance dose, plasma warfarin concentration and INR were assessed among groups categorized by genotypes.rs9923231 and rs7294 in VKORC1 had the analogous genotype frequencies (D': 0.969. 158 of 220 recruited individuals had the target INR (1.5-2.5. Patients with AA of rs9923231 and CC of rs7294 required a significantly lower maintenance dose and plasma concentration than those with AG and TC, respectively. The mean weekly maintenance dose was also significantly lower in CYP2C9 rs1057910 mutated heterozygote than in patients with the wild homozygote. Eliminating the influence from environment factors (age, body weight and gender, rs9923231 and rs1057910 could explain about 32.0% of the variability in warfarin maintenance dose; rs7294 could explain 26.7% of the variability in plasma concentration. For patients with allele G of rs9923231 and allele T of rs7294, higher plasma concentration was needed to achieve the similar goal INR.A better understanding of the genetic variants in individuals can be the foundation of warfarin dosing algorithm and facilitate the reasonable and effective use of warfarin in Chinese.

  15. Whole-body MRI quantitative biomarkers are associated significantly with treatment response in patients with newly diagnosed symptomatic multiple myeloma following bortezomib induction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latifoltojar, Arash; Dikaios, Nikolaos [University College London, Centre for Medical Imaging, London (United Kingdom); Hall-Craggs, Margaret; Taylor, Stuart A.; Halligan, Steve; Punwani, Shonit [University College London, Centre for Medical Imaging, London (United Kingdom); University College London Hospital, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom); Bainbridge, Alan; Sokolska, Magdalena [University College London Hospital, Department of Medical Physics and Bioengineering, London (United Kingdom); Rabin, Neil; Popat, Rakesh; Rismani, Ali; D' Sa, Shirley; Yong, Kwee [University College London Hospital, Department of Haematology, London (United Kingdom); Antonelli, Michela; Ourselin, Sebastien [University College London, Translational Imaging Group, Centre for Medical Imaging Computing, London (United Kingdom)

    2017-12-15

    To evaluate whole-body MRI (WB-MRI) parameters significantly associated with treatment response in multiple myeloma (MM). Twenty-one MM patients underwent WB-MRI at diagnosis and after two cycles of chemotherapy. Scans acquired at 3.0 T included T2, diffusion-weighted-imaging (DWI) and mDixon pre- and post-contrast. Twenty focal lesions (FLs) matched on DWI and post-contrast mDixon were selected for each time point. Estimated tumour volume (eTV), apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), enhancement ratio (ER) and signal fat fraction (sFF) were derived. Clinical treatment response to chemotherapy was assessed using conventional criteria. Significance of temporal parameter change was assessed by the paired t test and receiver operating characteristics/area under the curve (AUC) analysis was performed. Parameter repeatability was assessed by interclass correlation (ICC) and Bland-Altman analysis of 10 healthy volunteers scanned at two time points. Fifteen of 21 patients responded to treatment. Of 254 FLs analysed, sFF (p < 0.0001) and ADC (p = 0.001) significantly increased in responders but not non-responders. eTV significantly decreased in 19/21 cases. Focal lesion sFF was the best discriminator of treatment response (AUC 1.0). Bone sFF repeatability was excellent (ICC 0.98) and better than bone ADC (ICC 0.47). WB-MRI derived focal lesion sFF shows promise as an imaging biomarker of treatment response in newly diagnosed MM. (orig.)

  16. Relational victimization, friendship, and adolescents’ hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis responses to an in vivo social stressor

    OpenAIRE

    CALHOUN, CASEY D.; HELMS, SARAH W.; HEILBRON, NICOLE; RUDOLPH, KAREN D.; HASTINGS, PAUL D.; PRINSTEIN, MITCHELL J.

    2014-01-01

    Adolescents’ peer experiences may have significant associations with biological stress-response systems, adding to or reducing allostatic load. This study examined relational victimization as a unique contributor to reactive hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis responses as well as friendship quality and behavior as factors that may promote HPA recovery following a stressor. A total of 62 adolescents (ages 12–16; 73% female) presenting with a wide range of life stressors and adjustment d...

  17. Is Fish Response related to Velocity and Turbulence Magnitudes? (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, C. A.; Hockley, F. A.; Cable, J.

    2013-12-01

    measure of turbulence and shear stress magnitude are low. These findings highlight the importance of heterogeneous flow conditions in river channel design due to behavioural variability within a species in terms of size and health status in response to velocity and turbulence.

  18. Multiple system responses program: Identification of concerns related to a number of specific regulatory issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, G.A.; Casada, M.L.; Palko, L.E.; Roberts, M.W.

    1989-10-01

    This document describes the activities and results of the Multiple System Responses (MSR) program conducted by the Nuclear Operations Analysis Center (NOAC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The objective of the MSR program was to gather and review documentation for several unresolved safety issues and related programs of interest, and from that documentation, describe any additional potential safety concerns. The MSR program provides information that will aid the NRC staff in making an assessment of the relative safety significance of the concerns through the established prioritization process. Judgments were not made regarding the validity of the concerns expressed by others. Rather, the concerns were documented and potential safety issues were developed and defined as specifically as possible. Twenty-one potential safety issues were developed from the documented concerns. Additional information was gathered to support the NRC efforts in reviewing these issues for prioritization. 73 refs., 2 tabs

  19. Maternal affect and quality of parenting experiences are related to amygdala response to infant faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Jennifer; Wonch, Kathleen E; Gonzalez, Andrea; Ali, Nida; Steiner, Meir; Hall, Geoffrey B; Fleming, Alison S

    2012-01-01

    We examined how individual differences in mood and anxiety in the early postpartum period are related to brain response to infant stimuli during fMRI, with particular focus on regions implicated in both maternal behavior and mood/anxiety, that is, the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC) and the amygdala. At approximately 3 months postpartum, 22 mothers completed an affect-rating task (ART) during fMRI, where their affective response to infant stimuli was explicitly probed. Mothers viewed/rated four infant face conditions: own positive (OP), own negative (ON), unfamiliar positive (UP), and unfamiliar negative (UN). Mood and anxiety were measured by the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EDPS) and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-Trait Version (STAI-T); maternal factors related to parental stress and attachment were also assessed. Brain-imaging data underwent a random-effects analysis, and cluster-based statistical thresholding was applied to the following contrasts: OP-UP, ON-UN, OP-ON, and UP-UN. Our main finding was that poorer quality of maternal experience was significantly related to reduced amygdala response to OP compared to UP infant faces. Our results suggest that, in human mothers, infant-related amygdala function may be an important factor in maternal anxiety/mood, in quality of mothering, and in individual differences in the motivation to mother. We are very grateful to the staff at the Imaging Research Center of the Brain-Body Institute for their contributions to this project. This work was supported by an Ontario Mental Health Foundation operating grant awarded to Alison Fleming and a postdoctoral fellowship awarded to Jennifer Barrett.

  20. The therapeutic use of the relaxation response in stress-related diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esch, Tobias; Fricchione, Gregory L; Stefano, George B

    2003-02-01

    The objective of this work was to investigate a possible (therapeutic) connection between the relaxation response (RR) and stress-related diseases. Further, common underlying molecular mechanisms and autoregulatory pathways were examined. For the question of (patho)physiology and significance of RR techniques in the treatment of stress-related diseases, we analyzed peer-reviewed references only. The RR has been shown to be an appropriate and relevant therapeutic tool to counteract several stress-related disease processes and certain health-restrictions, particularly in certain immunological, cardiovascular, and neurodegenerative diseases/mental disorders. Further, common underlying molecular mechanisms may exist that represent a connection between the stress response, pathophysiological findings in stress-related diseases, and physiological changes/autoregulatory pathways described in the RR. Here, constitutive or low-output nitric oxide (NO) production may be involved in a protective or ameliorating context, whereas inducible, high-output NO release may facilitate detrimental disease processes. In mild or early disease states, a high degree of biological and physiological flexibility may still be possible (dynamic balance). Here, the therapeutic use of RR techniques may be considered particularly relevant, and the observable (beneficial) effects may be exerted via activation of constitutive NO pathways. RR techniques, regularly part of professional stress management or mind/body medical settings, represent an important tool to be added to therapeutic strategies dealing with stress-related diseases. Moreover, as part of 'healthy' life-style modifications, they may serve primary (or secondary) prevention. Further studies are necessary to elucidate the complex physiology underlying the RR and its impact upon stress-related disease states.

  1. Comparing passive leg raising and suprasystolic ankle occlusion responses to quantify age-related microcirculatory status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Silva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The skin provides an easy accessible vascular network to assess microcirculation by laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF, and transcutaneous (tc gasometry, widely known techniques used for this purpose. the objective of this study was to assess and compare the microcirculation status of different age subjects, knowing that the ageing process progressively affects macro and microcirculatory vessels. We’ve chosen to compare dynamical responses to two provocation tests – passive leg raising (PLR and ankle occlusion - in 59 healthy subjects, 35 young (22.1 ± 3.7 years old. in Group 1, and 24 older (50.8 ± 7.6 years old. in Group 2, selected after informed consent. Local blood flow, tcpO2 and transepidermal water loss (TEWL were measured in distal locations of the lower limb. PLR and ankle occlusion significantly reduced blood flow and tcpO2 in both groups, while no changes were found for TEWL. While the magnitude of the hyperemic response was found to be significantly reduced in group 2, no differences were found during ankle occlusion. tcpO2-dependent parameters were also significantly different between groups. These results seem to confirm the usefulness of these experimental models to distinguish the microcirculatory function of subjects with different ages, with PLR being more sensible in detecting age-related changes.

  2. State and Community Responses to Drug-related Violence in Mexico

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Violent conflict related to drug trafficking in Mexico has had a profound impact on the ... mostly due to illegal drug trafficking and the government's response to it, ... security forces and drug traffickers or in executions related to the drug trade.

  3. Kluyveromyces marxianus and Saccharomyces boulardii Induce Distinct Levels of Dendritic Cell Cytokine Secretion and Significantly Different T Cell Responses In Vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, Ida M; Baker, Adam; Christensen, Jeffrey E; Boekhout, Teun; Frøkiær, Hanne; Arneborg, Nils; Jespersen, Lene

    2016-01-01

    Interactions between members of the intestinal microbiota and the mucosal immune system can significantly impact human health, and in this context, fungi and food-related yeasts are known to influence intestinal inflammation through direct interactions with specialized immune cells in vivo. The aim

  4. Temperature and relative humidity dependence of radiochromic film dosimeter response to gamma electron radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McLaughlin, W.L.; Puhl, J.M.; Miller, A.

    1995-01-01

    on some earlier studies, their response functions have been reported to be dependent on the temperature and relative humidity during irradiation. The present study investigates differences in response over practical ranges of temperature, relative humidity, dose, and for different recent batches of films...... humidity) and should be calibrated under environmental conditions (temperature) at which they will be used routinely....

  5. State and Community Responses to Drug-related Violence in Mexico

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Extrants. Études. State and community responses to drug-related violence in Mexico. Rapports. Respuestas estatales y comunitarias a la violencia asociada al narcotráfico en México : informe técnico. Rapports. State and community responses to drug-related violence in Mexico ...

  6. TIMP-1 Is Significantly Associated with Objective Response and Survival in Metastatic Colorectal Cancer Patients Receiving Combination of Irinotecan, 5-Fluorouracil, and Folinic Acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Nanna M; Byström, Per; Christensen, Ib Jarle

    2007-01-01

    that patients with low plasmaTIMP-1had higher probability of obtaining an objective response [odds ratio (OR), 3.5; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 1.4-8.5,P =0.007].CEAtreatedas a continuous variablewas also a statistically significantpredictorof no response (OR,1.3; 95%CI,1.0-1.7, P = 0.02, areaunder......Purpose: Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) is known to protect cells against apoptosis.We raisedth e hypothesis that elevatedtu mor tissue levels and thereby plasma levels of TIMP-1wouldp redict resistance to apoptosis-inducing chemotherapy. Experimental Design: Ninety patients...... includingTTP instead of OS showed that only plasmaTIMP-1was retained in the model (HR,1.5). CEA was not significantly associatedw ith TTP or OS when TIMP-1was included in the model. Conclusion: This study shows that plasmaTIMP-1 levels are significantly and independently associatedw ith objective response...

  7. Relative response of TL and component-resolved OSL to alpha and beta radiations in annealed sedimentary quartz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polymeris, George S.; Afouxenidis, Dimitrios; Raptis, Spyridoula; Liritzis, Ioannis; Tsirliganis, Nestor C.; Kitis, George

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge of the relative luminescence response to alpha and beta radiation is very important in TL and OSL dating. In the present study the relative alpha to beta response is studied in a sedimentary quartz sample, previously fired at 900 deg. C for 1 h, in the dose region between 1 and 128 Gy, for both thermoluminescence (TL) and linearly modulated optically stimulated luminescence (LM - OSL). The LM - OSL measurements were performed at room temperature and at 125 deg. C. All OSL signals were deconvolved into their individual components. Comparison of OSL curves after alpha and beta irradiation strongly supports that quartz OSL components follow first order kinetics in both cases. In the case of TL, the relative alpha to beta response is found to be very different for each TL glow-peak, but it does not depend strongly on irradiation dose. In the case of LM - OSL measurements, it is found that the relative behaviour of the alpha to beta response is different for three distinct regions, namely the fast OSL component, the region of medium OSL component originating from the TL glow-peak at 110 deg. C when stimulation takes place at room temperature and finally the region of slow OSL component. Following stimulation at ambient temperature, the relative alpha to beta response of all components was not observed to depend significantly on dose, with the value of ratio being 0.03 and a tendency to decrease with increasing dose. However, in the case of measurements performed at 125 deg. C, the relative response of the fast components is much enhanced, and for the remaining components it increases with increasing dose. Special care must be taken to examine the relative alpha to beta response of the fast component at 125 deg. C which contrasts the relative response of the TL peak at ca. 325 deg. C. The implications for the dating of annealed quartz are also briefly discussed. - Highlights: → Relative alpha to beta response for TL and LM-OSL is studied in annealed

  8. Unraveling uranium induced oxidative stress related responses in Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings. Part II: responses in the leaves and general conclusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhoudt, Nathalie; Cuypers, Ann; Horemans, Nele; Remans, Tony; Opdenakker, Kelly; Smeets, Karen; Bello, Daniel Martinez; Havaux, Michel; Wannijn, Jean; Van Hees, May; Vangronsveld, Jaco; Vandenhove, Hildegarde

    2011-06-01

    The cellular redox balance seems an important modulator under heavy metal stress. While for other heavy metals these processes are well studied, oxidative stress related responses are also known to be triggered under uranium stress but information remains limited. This study aimed to further unravel the mechanisms by which plants respond to uranium stress. Seventeen-day-old Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings, grown on a modified Hoagland solution under controlled conditions, were exposed to 0, 0.1, 1, 10 and 100 μM uranium for 1, 3 and 7 days. While in Part I of this study oxidative stress related responses in the roots were discussed, this second Part II discusses oxidative stress related responses in the leaves and general conclusions drawn from the results of the roots and the leaves will be presented. As several responses were already visible following 1 day exposure, when uranium concentrations in the leaves were negligible, a root-to-shoot signaling system was suggested in which plastids could be important sensing sites. While lipid peroxidation, based on the amount of thiobarbituric acid reactive compounds, was observed after exposure to 100 μM uranium, affecting membrane structure and function, a transient concentration dependent response pattern was visible for lipoxygenase initiated lipid peroxidation. This transient character of uranium stress responses in leaves was emphasized by results of lipoxygenase (LOX2) and antioxidative enzyme transcript levels, enzyme capacities and glutathione concentrations both in time as with concentration. The ascorbate redox balance seemed an important modulator of uranium stress responses in the leaves as in addition to the previous transient responses, the total ascorbate concentration and ascorbate/dehydroascorbate redox balance increased in a concentration and time dependent manner. This could represent either a slow transient response or a stable increase with regard to plant acclimation to uranium stress. Copyright

  9. Reduced object related negativity response indicates impaired auditory scene analysis in adults with autistic spectrum disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veema Lodhia

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Auditory Scene Analysis provides a useful framework for understanding atypical auditory perception in autism. Specifically, a failure to segregate the incoming acoustic energy into distinct auditory objects might explain the aversive reaction autistic individuals have to certain auditory stimuli or environments. Previous research with non-autistic participants has demonstrated the presence of an Object Related Negativity (ORN in the auditory event related potential that indexes pre-attentive processes associated with auditory scene analysis. Also evident is a later P400 component that is attention dependent and thought to be related to decision-making about auditory objects. We sought to determine whether there are differences between individuals with and without autism in the levels of processing indexed by these components. Electroencephalography (EEG was used to measure brain responses from a group of 16 autistic adults, and 16 age- and verbal-IQ-matched typically-developing adults. Auditory responses were elicited using lateralized dichotic pitch stimuli in which inter-aural timing differences create the illusory perception of a pitch that is spatially separated from a carrier noise stimulus. As in previous studies, control participants produced an ORN in response to the pitch stimuli. However, this component was significantly reduced in the participants with autism. In contrast, processing differences were not observed between the groups at the attention-dependent level (P400. These findings suggest that autistic individuals have difficulty segregating auditory stimuli into distinct auditory objects, and that this difficulty arises at an early pre-attentive level of processing.

  10. Weather is not significantly correlated with destination-specific transport-related physical activity among adults: A large-scale temporally matched analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, Casey P; Zhang, Kai; Salvo, Deborah

    2017-08-01

    Weather is an element of the natural environment that could have a significant effect on physical activity. Existing research, however, indicates only modest correlations between measures of weather and physical activity. This prior work has been limited by a failure to use time-matched weather and physical activity data, or has not adequately examined the different domains of physical activity (transport, leisure, occupational, etc.). Our objective was to identify the correlation between weather variables and destination-specific transport-related physical activity in adults. Data were sourced from the California Household Travel Survey, collected in 2012-3. Weather variables included: relative humidity, temperature, wind speed, and precipitation. Transport-related physical activity (walking) was sourced from participant-recorded travel diaries. Three-part hurdle models were used to analyze the data. Results indicate statistically or substantively insignificant correlations between the weather variables and transport-related physical activity for all destination types. These results provide the strongest evidence to date that transport-related physical activity may occur relatively independently of weather conditions. The knowledge that weather conditions do not seem to be a significant barrier to this domain of activity may potentially expand the universe of geographic locations that are amenable to environmental and programmatic interventions to increase transport-related walking. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Boosting of HIV-1 neutralizing antibody responses by a distally related retroviral envelope protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchtenhagen, Hannes; Schiffner, Torben; Bowles, Emma; Heyndrickx, Leo; LaBranche, Celia; Applequist, Steven E; Jansson, Marianne; De Silva, Thushan; Back, Jaap Willem; Achour, Adnane; Scarlatti, Gabriella; Fomsgaard, Anders; Montefiori, David; Stewart-Jones, Guillaume; Spetz, Anna-Lena

    2014-06-15

    Our knowledge of the binding sites for neutralizing Abs (NAb) that recognize a broad range of HIV-1 strains (bNAb) has substantially increased in recent years. However, gaps remain in our understanding of how to focus B cell responses to vulnerable conserved sites within the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env). In this article, we report an immunization strategy composed of a trivalent HIV-1 (clade B envs) DNA prime, followed by a SIVmac239 gp140 Env protein boost that aimed to focus the immune response to structurally conserved parts of the HIV-1 and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) Envs. Heterologous NAb titers, primarily to tier 1 HIV-1 isolates, elicited during the trivalent HIV-1 env prime, were significantly increased by the SIVmac239 gp140 protein boost in rabbits. Epitope mapping of Ab-binding reactivity revealed preferential recognition of the C1, C2, V2, V3, and V5 regions. These results provide a proof of concept that a distally related retroviral SIV Env protein boost can increase pre-existing NAb responses against HIV-1. Copyright © 2014 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  12. Adolescent RSA responses during an anger discussion task: Relations to emotion regulation and adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Lixian; Morris, Amanda Sheffield; Harrist, Amanda W; Larzelere, Robert E; Criss, Michael M; Houltberg, Benjamin J

    2015-06-01

    The current study examined associations between adolescent respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) during an angry event discussion task and adolescents' emotion regulation and adjustment. Data were collected from 206 adolescents (10-18 years of age, M age = 13.37). Electrocardiogram (ECG) and respiration data were collected from adolescents, and RSA values and respiration rates were computed. Adolescents reported on their own emotion regulation, prosocial behavior, and aggressive behavior. Multilevel latent growth modeling was employed to capture RSA responses across time (i.e., linear and quadratic changes; time course approach), and adolescent emotion regulation and adjustment variables were included in the model to test their links to RSA responses. Results indicated that high RSA baseline was associated with more adolescent prosocial behavior. A pattern of initial RSA decreases (RSA suppression) in response to angry event recall and subsequent RSA increases (RSA rebound) were related to better anger and sadness regulation and more prosocial behavior. However, RSA was not significantly linked to adolescent aggressive behavior. We also compared the time course approach with the conventional linear approach and found that the time course approach provided more meaningful and rich information. The implications of adaptive RSA change patterns are discussed. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Clinically significant changes in the emotional condition of relatives of patients with severe traumatic brain injury during sub-acute rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norup, Anne; Kristensen, Karin Spangsberg; Poulsen, Ingrid

    2013-01-01

    . On the depression scale the corresponding figures were 44.4% and 41.7%, respectively. When comparing relatives with and without CSC, we found that CSC in symptoms of anxiety was associated with significantly better functional improvement during rehabilitation and a shorter period of post-traumatic amnesia...

  14. A Newly Emergent Turkey Arthritis Reovirus Shows Dominant Enteric Tropism and Induces Significantly Elevated Innate Antiviral and T Helper-1 Cytokine Responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamer A Sharafeldin

    Full Text Available Newly emergent turkey arthritis reoviruses (TARV were isolated from tendons of lame 15-week-old tom turkeys that occasionally had ruptured leg tendons. Experimentally, these TARVs induced remarkable tenosynovitis in gastrocnemius tendons of turkey poults. The current study aimed to characterize the location and the extent of virus replication as well as the cytokine response induced by TARV during the first two weeks of infection. One-week-old male turkeys were inoculated orally with TARV (O'Neil strain. Copy numbers of viral genes were estimated in intestines, internal organs and tendons at ½, 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, 14 days Post inoculation (dpi. Cytokine profile was measured in intestines, spleen and leg tendons at 0, 4, 7 and 14 dpi. Viral copy number peaked in jejunum, cecum and bursa of Fabricius at 4 dpi. Copy numbers increased dramatically in leg tendons at 7 and 14 dpi while minimal copies were detected in internal organs and blood during the same period. Virus was detected in cloacal swabs at 1-2 dpi, and peaked at 14 dpi indicating enterotropism of the virus and its early shedding in feces. Elevation of IFN-α and IFN-β was observed in intestines at 7 dpi as well as a prominent T helper-1 response (IFN-γ at 7 and 14 dpi. IFN-γ and IL-6 were elevated in gastrocnemius tendons at 14 dpi. Elevation of antiviral cytokines in intestines occurred at 7dpi when a significant decline of viral replication in intestines was observed. T helper-1 response in intestines and leg tendons was the dominant T-helper response. These results suggest the possible correlation between viral replication and cytokine response in early infection of TARV in turkeys. Our findings provide novel insights which help elucidate viral pathogenesis in turkey tendons infected with TARV.

  15. Stress responses during aerobic exercise in relation to motivational dominance and state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thatcher, Joanne; Kuroda, Yusuke; Legrand, Fabien D; Thatcher, Rhys

    2011-02-01

    We examined the hypothesis that congruence between motivational dominance and state results in optimal psychological responses and performance during exercise. Twenty participants (10 telic dominant and 10 paratelic dominant) rated their stress at 5 min intervals as they cycled on an ergometer at gas exchange threshold for 30 min in both telic and paratelic state manipulated conditions. Participants then performed a test to exhaustion at a resistance equivalent to 110% of VO(2max). The hypothesized interaction between condition and dominance was significant for internal tension stress, as paratelic dominants were more stressed than telic dominants when exercising in the telic state and telic dominants were more stressed than paratelic dominants when exercising in the paratelic state. Similarly, the condition × dominance interaction for internal stress discrepancy was significant, as paratelic dominants reported greater internal stress discrepancy exercising in the telic compared with the paratelic state. Findings are discussed in relation to the application of reversal theory for understanding stress responses during aerobic exercise.

  16. Predictors of Visual Response to Intravitreal Bevacizumab for Treatment of Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Fang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To identify the predictors of visual response to the bevacizumab treatment of neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD. Design. A cohort study within the Neovascular AMD Treatment Trial Using Bevacizumab (NATTB. Methods. This was a multicenter trial including 144 participants from the NATTB study. Visual outcomes measured by change in visual acuity (VA score, proportion gaining ≥15 letters, and change in central retinal thickness (CRT were compared among groups according to the baseline, demographic, and ocular characteristics and genotypes. Results. Mean change in the VA score was 9.2 ± 2.3 SD letters with a total of 46 participants (31.9% gaining ≥15 letters. Change in median CRT was −81.5 μm. Younger age, lower baseline VA score, shorter duration of neovascular AMD, and TT genotype in rs10490924 were significantly associated with greater VA score improvement (P=0.028, P<0.001, P=0.02, and P=0.039, resp.. Lower baseline VA score and TT genotype in rs10490924 were significantly associated with a higher likelihood of gaining ≥15 letters (P=0.028, and P=0.021, resp.. Conclusions. Baseline VA and genotype of rs10490924 were both important predictors for visual response to bevacizumab at 6 months. This trial is registered with the Registration no. NCT01306591.

  17. Verbal memory functioning moderates psychotherapy treatment response for PTSD-Related nightmares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, J Cobb; Harb, Gerlinde; Brownlow, Janeese A; Greene, Jennifer; Gur, Ruben C; Ross, Richard J

    2017-04-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with cognitive deficits in attention, executive control, and memory, although few studies have investigated the relevance of cognitive difficulties for treatment outcomes. We examined whether cognitive functioning and history of traumatic brain injury (TBI) were associated with response to cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for PTSD-related sleep problems. In a randomized controlled trial of Imagery Rehearsal (IR) added to components of CBT for Insomnia (IR + cCBT-I) compared to cCBT-I alone for PTSD-related recurrent nightmares, 94 U.S. veterans completed a battery of cognitive tests. TBI was assessed via structured clinical interview. Mixed-effects models examined main effects of cognitive functioning and interactions with time on primary sleep and nightmare outcomes. Significant verbal immediate memory by time interactions were found for nightmare distress, nightmare frequency, and sleep quality, even after controlling for overall cognitive performance and depression. TBI exhibited main effects on outcomes but no interactions with time. Findings indicated that individuals with lower verbal memory performance were less likely to respond to treatment across two sleep interventions. Veterans with TBI displayed greater symptoms but no altered trajectories of treatment response. Together with prior literature, findings suggest that verbal memory functioning may be important to consider in PTSD treatment implementation. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Effective and responsible teaching of climate change in Earth Science-related disciplines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Z. P.; Greenhough, B. J.

    2009-04-01

    Climate change is a core topic within Earth Science-related courses. This vast topic covers a wide array of different aspects that could be covered, from past climatic change across a vast range of scales to environmental (and social and economic) impacts of future climatic change and strategies for reducing anthropogenic climate change. The Earth Science disciplines play a crucial role in our understanding of past, present and future climate change and the Earth system in addition to understanding leading to development of strategies and technological solutions to achieve sustainability. However, an increased knowledge of the occurrence and causes of past (natural) climate changes can lead to a lessened concern and sense of urgency and responsibility amongst students in relation to anthropogenic causes of climatic change. Two concepts integral to the teaching of climate change are those of scientific uncertainty and complexity, yet an emphasis on these concepts can lead to scepticism about future predictions and a further loss of sense of urgency. The requirement to understand the nature of scientific uncertainty and think and move between different scales in particular relating an increased knowledge of longer timescale climatic change to recent (industrialised) climate change, are clearly areas of troublesome knowledge that affect students' sense of responsibility towards their role in achieving a sustainable society. Study of the attitudes of university students in a UK HE institution on a range of Earth Science-related programmes highlights a range of different attitudes in the student body towards the subject of climate change. Students express varied amounts of ‘climate change saturation' resulting from both media and curriculum coverage, a range of views relating to the significance of humans to the global climate and a range of opinions about the relevance of environmental citizenship to their degree programme. Climate change is therefore a challenging

  19. Unraveling uranium induced oxidative stress related responses in Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings. Part II: responses in the leaves and general conclusions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanhoudt, Nathalie, E-mail: nvanhoud@sckcen.be [Belgian Nuclear Research Center (SCK-CEN), Biosphere Impact Studies, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Hasselt University, Environmental Biology, Centre for Environmental Sciences, Agoralaan Building D, 3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium); Cuypers, Ann [Hasselt University, Environmental Biology, Centre for Environmental Sciences, Agoralaan Building D, 3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium); Horemans, Nele [Belgian Nuclear Research Center (SCK-CEN), Biosphere Impact Studies, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Remans, Tony; Opdenakker, Kelly; Smeets, Karen [Hasselt University, Environmental Biology, Centre for Environmental Sciences, Agoralaan Building D, 3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium); Bello, Daniel Martinez [Hasselt University, Interuniversity Institute for Biostatistics and Statistical Bioinformatics, Agoralaan Building D, 3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium); Havaux, Michel [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique (CEA)/Cadarache, Direction des Sciences du Vivant, Departement d' Ecophysiologie Vegetale et de Microbiologie, Laboratoire d' Ecophysiologie de la Photosynthese, 13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Wannijn, Jean; Van Hees, May [Belgian Nuclear Research Center (SCK-CEN), Biosphere Impact Studies, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Vangronsveld, Jaco [Hasselt University, Environmental Biology, Centre for Environmental Sciences, Agoralaan Building D, 3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium); Vandenhove, Hildegarde [Belgian Nuclear Research Center (SCK-CEN), Biosphere Impact Studies, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium)

    2011-06-15

    The cellular redox balance seems an important modulator under heavy metal stress. While for other heavy metals these processes are well studied, oxidative stress related responses are also known to be triggered under uranium stress but information remains limited. This study aimed to further unravel the mechanisms by which plants respond to uranium stress. Seventeen-day-old Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings, grown on a modified Hoagland solution under controlled conditions, were exposed to 0, 0.1, 1, 10 and 100 {mu}M uranium for 1, 3 and 7 days. While in Part I of this study oxidative stress related responses in the roots were discussed, this second Part II discusses oxidative stress related responses in the leaves and general conclusions drawn from the results of the roots and the leaves will be presented. As several responses were already visible following 1 day exposure, when uranium concentrations in the leaves were negligible, a root-to-shoot signaling system was suggested in which plastids could be important sensing sites. While lipid peroxidation, based on the amount of thiobarbituric acid reactive compounds, was observed after exposure to 100 {mu}M uranium, affecting membrane structure and function, a transient concentration dependent response pattern was visible for lipoxygenase initiated lipid peroxidation. This transient character of uranium stress responses in leaves was emphasized by results of lipoxygenase (LOX2) and antioxidative enzyme transcript levels, enzyme capacities and glutathione concentrations both in time as with concentration. The ascorbate redox balance seemed an important modulator of uranium stress responses in the leaves as in addition to the previous transient responses, the total ascorbate concentration and ascorbate/dehydroascorbate redox balance increased in a concentration and time dependent manner. This could represent either a slow transient response or a stable increase with regard to plant acclimation to uranium stress

  20. Relations of perception of responsibility to intrinsic motivation and physical activity among Korean middle school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Okseon; Kim, Younhee; Kim, Oung Jun

    2012-12-01

    To validate the Personal and Social Responsibility Questionnaire, the relations between perceived responsibility and intrinsic motivation were examined among Korean middle school students. The relations of change in stages of physical activity and students' perceived responsibility were also examined. Participants were 357 middle school students (160 boys, 197 girls) from three schools in the Seoul metropolitan area. Exploratory factor analysis supported a three-factor structure with effort and self-direction merged into one factor and the responsibilities of respect and caring for others constituted separate factors. Pearson correlations among factors showed perceptions of personal responsibility were associated with more intrinsic motivation toward physical education and a higher stage of physical activity. A moderate or low association between perceived social responsibility and intrinsic motivation implied a need to develop strategies for Korean students to use social responsibility for promoting physical activity.

  1. astrophysical significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dartois E.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Clathrate hydrates, ice inclusion compounds, are of major importance for the Earth’s permafrost regions and may control the stability of gases in many astrophysical bodies such as the planets, comets and possibly interstellar grains. Their physical behavior may provide a trapping mechanism to modify the absolute and relative composition of icy bodies that could be the source of late-time injection of gaseous species in planetary atmospheres or hot cores. In this study, we provide and discuss laboratory-recorded infrared signatures of clathrate hydrates in the near to mid-infrared and the implications for space-based astrophysical tele-detection in order to constrain their possible presence.

  2. Equivalent linear and nonlinear site response analysis for design and risk assessment of safety-related nuclear structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolisetti, Chandrakanth; Whittaker, Andrew S.; Mason, H. Benjamin; Almufti, Ibrahim; Willford, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Performed equivalent linear and nonlinear site response analyses using industry-standard numerical programs. • Considered a wide range of sites and input ground motions. • Noted the practical issues encountered while using these programs. • Examined differences between the responses calculated from different programs. • Results of biaxial and uniaxial analyses are compared. - Abstract: Site response analysis is a precursor to soil-structure interaction analysis, which is an essential component in the seismic analysis of safety-related nuclear structures. Output from site response analysis provides input to soil-structure interaction analysis. Current practice in calculating site response for safety-related nuclear applications mainly involves the equivalent linear method in the frequency-domain. Nonlinear time-domain methods are used by some for the assessment of buildings, bridges and petrochemical facilities. Several commercial programs have been developed for site response analysis but none of them have been formally validated for large strains and high frequencies, which are crucial for the performance assessment of safety-related nuclear structures. This study sheds light on the applicability of some industry-standard equivalent linear (SHAKE) and nonlinear (DEEPSOIL and LS-DYNA) programs across a broad range of frequencies, earthquake shaking intensities, and sites ranging from stiff sand to hard rock, all with a focus on application to safety-related nuclear structures. Results show that the equivalent linear method is unable to reproduce the high frequency acceleration response, resulting in almost constant spectral accelerations in the short period range. Analysis using LS-DYNA occasionally results in some unrealistic high frequency acceleration ‘noise’, which can be removed by smoothing the piece-wise linear backbone curve. Analysis using DEEPSOIL results in abrupt variations in the peak strains of consecutive soil layers

  3. Consumer understanding, interpretation and perceived levels of personal responsibility in relation to satiety-related claims

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bilman, E.M.; Kleef, van E.; Mela, D.J.; Hulshof, T.; Trijp, van J.C.M.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore (a) whether and how consumers may (over-) interpret satiety claims, and (b) whether and to what extent consumers recognize that personal efforts are required to realize possible satiety-related or weight loss benefits. Following means-end chain theory, we

  4. Sex-related differences in the normal cardiac response to upright exercise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higginbotham, M.B.; Morris, K.G.; Coleman, R.E.; Cobb, F.R.

    1984-01-01

    In previous studies from this laboratory, it was found that approximately 30% of women with chest pain and normal coronary arteries demonstrated either a decrease in or a failure to increase radionuclide ejection fraction during exercise. To examine the hypothesis that this apparent abnormality in left ventricular function represents a physiologic difference between men and women, a prospective study was made of central and peripheral cardiovascular responses to exercise in 31 age-matched healthy volunteers (16 women and 15 men). A combination of quantitative radionuclide (technetium) angiography and expired-gas analysis was used to measure ejection fraction and relative changes in end-diastolic counts, stroke counts, count output, and arteriovenous oxygen difference during symptom-limited upright bicycle exercise. Normal male and female volunteers demonstrated comparable baseline left ventricular function and similar aerobic capacity, as determined by weight-adjusted peak oxygen consumption. However, their cardiac responses to exercise were significantly different. The ejection fraction increased by 5 points or more in 14 of 15 men, but in only seven of the 16 women. End-diastolic counts increased by 30% in women, but was unchanged in men. Because decreases in ejection fraction were matched by increases in end-diastolic counts, relative increases in stroke counts and count output were the same for men and women. These data demonstrate a basic difference between men and women with respect to the mechanism by which they achieve a normal response of stroke volume to exercise; these differences must be taken into account when measurements of cardiac function during exercise stress are used for diagnostic purposes

  5. Response to capacitating stimuli indicates extender-related differences in boar sperm function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, S; Henning, H; Petrunkina, A M; Weitze, K F; Waberski, D

    2013-10-01

    Spermatozoa, especially those of the porcine species, are highly susceptible to in vitro chilling and ageing. Extenders are continuously developed to protect boar spermatozoa from chilling injury. New semen extenders and other modified preservation strategies require sensitive testing for essential sperm functions. The key process on the pathway of fertilization is capacitation. The aim of the present study was to examine whether the specific response to capacitating stimuli is sensitive enough to indicate different preservation capacities of extenders during hypothermic storage of boar spermatozoa. Semen was diluted in Beltsville Thawing Solution (BTS) and Androstar Plus and kept for 3 h at 22°C or stored at 17°C, 10°C, and 5°C. Semen was analyzed at 24 and 96 h of storage. Motility and membrane integrity remained at high levels, except for lower values when stored in BTS at 5°C. Washed subsamples were incubated in capacitating medium (Tyrode) and control medium and were assessed for intracellular calcium concentration and integrity of plasma membranes using a flow cytometer. On the basis of the loss of low-calcium live cells in a kinetic approach, the specific response to capacitation stimuli was determined. There was a higher loss of response in semen stored hypothermically in the standard extender BTS compared to Androstar Plus. Assessment of the extent of phospholipid disorder under capacitating and control conditions by use of merocyanine staining did not reveal any significant extender-related differences. A field insemination trial with 778 sows was performed to relate in vitro results to fertility. Fertility parameters did not differ in semen stored up to 48 h at 10°C in Androstar Plus compared to controls stored at 17°C in BTS. In conclusion, assessment of specific reactivity to capacitating stimuli appears to be a sensitive tool for detection of extender-dependent alterations in functionality of chilled boar spermatozoa.

  6. Event-related potentials in response to emotional words in patients with major depressive disorder and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hong; Yin, Hui-fang; Wu, Da-xing; Xu, Shu-jing

    2014-01-01

    Dysfunctional cognitive processing and abnormal brain activation in response to emotional stimuli have long been recognized as core features of the major depressive disorder (MDD). The aim of this study was to examine how Chinese patients with MDD process Chinese emotional words presented to either the left (LH) or right hemisphere (RH). Reaction time (RT) and the late positive component of the event-related potential were measured while subjects judged the valence (positive or negative) of emotional words written in Chinese. Compared to healthy controls, patients with MDD exhibited slower RTs in response to negative words. In all subjects, the RTs in response to negative words were significantly faster than RTs in response to positive words presented to the LH, as well as significantly faster than responses to negative words presented to the RH. Compared to healthy controls, MDD patients exhibited reduced activation of the central and left regions of the brain in response to both negative and positive words. In healthy controls, the posterior brain areas were more active than the anterior brain areas when responding to negative words. All individuals showed faster RTs in response to negative words compared to positive words. In addition, MDD patients showed lateralization of brain activity in response to emotional words, whereas healthy individuals did not show this lateralization. Posterior brain areas appear to play an especially important role in discriminating and experiencing negative emotional words. This study provides further evidence in support of the negative bias hypothesis and the emotional processing theory.

  7. Rearing practices and impulsivity/hyperactivity symptoms in relation to inflated responsibility and obsessive-compulsive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smári, Jakob; Martinsson, Davíð Rúrik; Einarsson, Hjalti

    2010-10-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate potential precursors of inflated responsibility (responsibility attitudes) and obsessive-compulsive (OCD) symptoms. It was argued that both parental overprotection and impulsivity, separately and in interaction with each other, contribute to inflated responsibility and OCD symptoms. In a large sample of young adults (N = 570), self-report measures of OCD symptoms (OCI-R), responsibility attitudes (RAS), anxiety/depression (HADS), rearing practices (EMBU), present and past impulsivity/hyperactivity symptoms (IMP/HY) were administered. Overprotection as well as IMP/HY were found to predict OCD symptoms as well as inflated responsibility. Finally, a significant interaction was found between IMP/HY and overprotection with regard to both OCD symptoms and inflated responsibility. This effect reflected that IMP/HY was more strongly related to OCD symptoms and responsibility in people who had not been overprotected than in people who had been. Conversely overprotection was related to OCD symptoms and responsibility in people low but not in people high in IMP/HY. The results seem to indicate that the inadequacy between offer and need for parental control may play a role in the development of OCD symptoms. © 2010 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology © 2010 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.

  8. Significance of Fractionated Administration of Thalidomide Combined With γ-Ray Irradiation in Terms of Local Tumor Response and Lung Metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masunaga, Shin-ichiro; Sanada, Yu; Moriwaki, Takahiro; Tano, Keizo; Sakurai, Yoshinori; Tanaka, Hiroki; Suzuki, Minoru; Kondo, Natsuko; Narabayashi, Masaru; Watanabe, Tsubasa; Nakagawa, Yosuke; Maruhashi, Akira; Ono, Koji

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the significance of fractionated administration of thalidomide combined with γ-ray irradiation in terms of local tumor response and lung metastatic potential, referring to the response of intratumor quiescent (Q) cells. Methods B16-BL6 melanoma tumor-bearing C57BL/6 mice were continuously given 5-bromo-2’-deoxyuridine (BrdU) to label all proliferating (P) cells. The tumor-bearing mice then received γ-ray irradiation after thalidomide treatment through a single or two consecutive daily intraperitoneal administrations up to a total dose of 400 mg/kg in combination with an acute hypoxia-releasing agent (nicotinamide) or mild temperature hyperthermia (MTH). Immediately after the irradiation, cells from some tumors were isolated and incubated with a cytokinesis blocker. The responses of the Q and total (= P + Q) cell populations were assessed based on the frequency of micronuclei using immunofluorescence staining for BrdU. In other tumor-bearing mice, 17 days after irradiation, macroscopic lung metastases were enumerated. Results Thalidomide raised the sensitivity of the total cell population more remarkably than Q cells in both single and daily administrations. Daily administration of thalidomide elevated the sensitivity of both the total and Q cell populations, but especially the total cell population, compared with single administration. Daily administration, especially combined with MTH, decreased the number of lung metastases. Conclusion Daily fractionated administration of thalidomide in combination with γ-ray irradiation was thought to be more promising than single administration because of its potential to enhance local tumor response and repress lung metastatic potential. PMID:29147396

  9. Trait specific expression profiling of salt stress responsive genes in diverse rice genotypes as determined by modified Significance Analysis of Microarrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Rashed Hossain

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Stress responsive gene expression is commonly profiled in a comparative manner involving different stress conditions or genotypes with contrasting reputation of tolerance/resistance. In contrast, this research exploited a wide natural variation in terms of taxonomy, origin and salt sensitivity in eight genotypes of rice to identify the trait specific patterns of gene expression under salt stress. Genome wide transcptomic responses were interrogated by the weighted continuous morpho-physiological trait responses using modified Significance Analysis of Microarrays. More number of genes was found to be differentially expressed under salt stressed compared to that of under unstressed conditions. Higher numbers of genes were observed to be differentially expressed for the traits shoot Na+/K+, shoot Na+, root K+, biomass and shoot Cl-, respectively. The results identified around sixty genes to be involved in Na+, K+ and anion homeostasis, transport and transmembrane activity under stressed conditions. Gene Ontology (GO enrichment analysis identified 1.36% (578 genes of the entire transcriptome to be involved in the major molecular functions such as signal transduction (>150 genes, transcription factor (81 genes and translation factor activity (62 genes etc. under salt stress. Chromosomal mapping of the genes suggests that majority of the genes are located on chromosomes 1, 2, 3, 6 & 7. The gene network analysis showed that the transcription factors and translation initiation factors formed the major gene networks and are mostly active in nucleus, cytoplasm and mitochondria whereas the membrane and vesicle bound proteins formed a secondary network active in plasma membrane and vacuoles. The novel genes and the genes with unknown functions thus identified provide picture of a synergistic salinity response representing the potentially fundamental mechanisms that are active in the wide natural genetic background of rice and will be of greater use once

  10. The influence of mood on the perception of hearing-loss related quality of life in people with hearing loss and their significant others.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preminger, Jill E; Meeks, Suzanne

    2010-04-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the congruent/incongruent perceptions of hearing-loss related quality of life between members of couples and to determine how incongruence was affected by individual psychosocial characteristics, specifically measures of mood (negative affect and positive affect), stress, and communication in the marriage. An exploratory correlational analysis was performed on data for 52 couples in which only one member had a hearing loss. In the regression analyses the independent variables were hearing-loss related quality of life scores measured in people with hearing loss, measured in significant others, and differences in hearing-loss related quality of life among members of a couple. The results demonstrate that both in people with hearing loss and their significant others, perceptions of hearing-loss related quality of life is highly correlated with negative mood scores. Incongruence in hearing-loss related quality of life scores reported by members of a couple were highly correlated with negative affect measured within each individual. Future research evaluating the effectiveness of audiologic rehabilitation can use measures of mood as an outcome variable.

  11. RBC-choline: changes by lithium and relation to prophylactic response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haag, M.; Haag, H.; Eisenried, F.; Greil, W.

    1984-01-01

    Red blod cell (RBC)- and plasma-choline levels were measured in patients on lithium (n=96), antidepressants (n=32) and neuroleptics (n=51) and in 25 healthy drug-free controls. Lithium patients exhibited highly increased RBC- and slightly increased plasma-choline levels compared with controls (P<0.001 and P<0.05, respectively); the choline ratio (RBC-/plasma-choline) was elevated almost to the same extent as RBC-choline (P<0.001). With antidepressants RBC-choline and choline ratios were slightly reduced (P<0.05), whereas neuroleptics showed no effect on choline levels. 79% of lithium patients were responders (reduction in hospitalizations with lithium) 21% were non-responders (no reduction or increase in hospitalizations). Choline ratio exhibited a significant relation to prophylactic lithium response, but lithium ratio did not. The percentage of non-responders was significantly higher in patients with a choline ratio exceeding 100 than in patients with a choline ratio below this cut-off (P<0.01). Thus, the increase of RBC-choline and choline ratios appears to be an effect specific for lithium and might be related to the outcome of lithium prophylaxis. (author)

  12. Assessing responsiveness of generic and specific health related quality of life measures in heart failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson Jeffrey A

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Responsiveness, or sensitivity to clinical change, is an important consideration in selection of a health-related quality of life (HRQL measure for trials or clinical applications. Many approaches can be used to assess responsiveness, which may affect the interpretation of study results. We compared the relative responsiveness of generic and heart failure specific HRQL instruments, as measured both by common psychometric indices and by external clinical criteria. Methods We analyzed data collected at baseline and 6-weeks in 298 subjects with heart failure on the following HRQL measures: EQ-5D (US, UK, and VAS Scoring, Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire (KCCQ (Clinical and Overall Summary Score, and RAND12 (Physical and Mental Component Summaries. Three external indicators of clinical change were used to classify subjects as improved, deteriorated, or unchanged: 6-minute walk test, New York Heart Association (NYHA class, and physician global rating of change. Four responsiveness statistics (T-test, effect size, Guyatt's responsiveness statistic, and standardized response mean were used to evaluate the responsiveness of the select measures. The median rank of each HRQL measure across responsiveness indices and clinical criteria was then determined. Results Average age of subjects was 60 years, 75 percent were male, and had moderate to severe heart failure symptoms. Overall, the KCCQ Summary Scores had the highest relative ranking, irrespective of the responsiveness index or external criterion used. Importantly, we observed that the relative ranking of responsiveness of the generic measures (i.e. EQ-5D, RAND12 was influenced by both the responsive indices and external criterion used. Conclusion The disease specific KCCQ was the most responsive HRQL measure assessing change over a 6-week period, although generic measures provide information for which the KCCQ is not suitable. The responsiveness of generic HRQL measures may

  13. Age-related memory impairments due to reduced blood glucose responses to epinephrine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Ken A; Chang, Qing; Mohler, Eric G; Gold, Paul E

    2010-12-01

    Increases in blood glucose levels are an important component of the mechanisms by which epinephrine enhances memory formation. The present experiments addressed the hypothesis that a dysfunction in the blood glucose response to circulating epinephrine contributes to age-related memory impairments. Doses of epinephrine and glucagon that significantly increased blood glucose levels in young adult rats were far less effective at doing so in 2-year-old rats. In young rats, epinephrine and glucose were about equally effective in enhancing memory and in prolonging post-training release of acetylcholine in the hippocampus. However, glucose was more effective than epinephrine in enhancing both memory and acetylcholine release in aged rats. These results suggest that an uncoupling between circulating epinephrine and glucose levels in old rats may lead to an age-related reduction in the provision of glucose to the brain during training. This in turn may contribute to age-related changes in memory and neural plasticity. Copyright © 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Sex-Specific Muscular Maturation Responses Following Prenatal Exposure to Methylation-Related Micronutrients in Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Oster

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Supplementation of micronutrients involved in DNA methylation, particularly during pregnancy, is recommended because of its impacts on human health, but further evidence is needed regarding the effects of over-supplementation and differences between sexes. Here, a porcine model was used to assess effects of maternal supplementation with one-carbon-cycle compounds during prenatal and postnatal stages on offspring muscle development. Sows received either a standard diet (CON or a standard diet supplemented with folate, B6, B12, methionine, choline, and zinc (MET throughout gestation. Myogenesis-, growth-, and nutrient utilization-related transcript expression was assessed using quantitative PCR. Organismal phenotype and gene expression effects differed significantly between males and females. Male MET-offspring showed increased fetal weight during late pregnancy but decreased live weight postnatally, with compensatory transcriptional responses comprising myogenic key drivers (Pax7, MyoD1, myogenin. In contrast, female weights were unaffected by diet, and mRNA abundances corresponded to a phenotype of cellular reorganization via FABP3, FABP4, SPP1 and Insulin-like Growth Factor-signaling. These findings in an animal model suggest that supplementation during pregnancy with methylation-related micronutrients can promote sex-specific myogenic maturation processes related to organismal growth and muscle metabolism. The usage of maternal dietary supplements should be more carefully considered regarding its ability to promote fetal and postnatal health.

  15. The effects of cognitive-behavioural therapy on mood-related ruminative response style in depressed adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goodyer Ian M

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A mood-related ruminative response style increases the risk of onset and persistence of depression. This preliminary study investigated whether, in depressed adolescents, cognitive-behaviour therapy reduces mood-related ruminative response style. Whether specific factors within the rumination scale were differentially affected by CBT is also reported. Methods 26 depressed adolescents were randomised to receiving serotonin-specific reuptake inhibitor antidepressants (SSRI plus psychosocial treatment as usual or SSRI and psychosocial treatment as usual plus CBT. Ruminative response style and depressive symptoms were measured at baseline and after 30 weeks of treatment, with the Responses to Depression Questionnaire and Mood and Feelings Questionnaire. Results There were significantly greater reductions in ruminations in the CBT group compared to the non-CBT group (p = .002. There was no significant difference in the reduction in self-reported depressive symptoms between the groups. Rumination was reduced to levels of never-depressed controls in adolescents who had recovered from depression and received CBT. There were greater falls in the CBT group in the more pathological 'brooding' factor of rumination. Conclusion These findings suggest that adding CBT to SSRI medication in the presence of active clinical care causes a greater reduction in mood-related ruminative response style in depressed adolescents. This may reduce the risk of future relapse. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCNT83809224.

  16. Seismic response of base isolated auxiliary building with age related degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jun Hee; Choun, Young Sun; Choi, In Kil

    2012-01-01

    The aging of an isolator affects not only the mechanical properties of the isolator but also the dynamic properties of the upper structure, such as the change in stiffness, deformation capacity, load bearing capacity, creep, and damping. Therefore, the seismic response of base isolated structures will change with time. The floor response in the base isolated nuclear power plants (NPPs) can be particularly changed because of the change in stiffness and damping for the isolator. The increased seismic response due to the aging of isolator can cause mechanical problems for many equipment located in the NPPs. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate the seismic response of base isolated NPPs with age related degradation. In this study, the seismic responses for a base isolated auxiliary building of SHIN KORI 3 and 4 with age related degradation were investigated using a nonlinear time history analysis. Floor response spectrums (FRS) were presented with time for identifying the change in seismic demand under the aging of isolator

  17. Mental fatigue and impaired response processes: event-related brain potentials in a Go/NoGo task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Yuichiro; Endo, Hiroshi; Kizuka, Tomohiro

    2009-05-01

    The effects of mental fatigue on the availability of cognitive resources and associated response-related processes were examined using event-related brain potentials. Subjects performed a Go/NoGo task for 60 min. Reaction time, number of errors, and mental fatigue scores all significantly increased with time spent on the task. The NoGo-P3 amplitude significantly decreased with time on task, but the Go-P3 amplitude was not modulated. The amplitude of error-related negativity (Ne/ERN) also decreased with time on task. These results indicate that mental fatigue attenuates resource allocation and error monitoring for NoGo stimuli. The Go- and NoGo-P3 latencies both increased with time on task, indicative of a delay in stimulus evaluation time due to mental fatigue. NoGo-N2 latency increased with time on task, but NoGo-N2 amplitude was not modulated. The amplitude of response-locked lateralized readiness potential (LRP) significantly decreased with time on task. Mental fatigue appears to slows down the time course of response inhibition, and impairs the intensity of response execution.

  18. Clinically significant changes in the emotional condition of relatives of patients with severe traumatic brain injury during sub-acute rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norup, Anne; Kristensen, Karin Spangsberg; Poulsen, Ingrid

    2013-01-01

    .2% and 58.1% of relatives had scores above cut-off values on the anxiety and depression scales, respectively. On the anxiety scale 69.7% of these experienced a reliable improvement according to the Reliable Change Index (RCI) and 45.5% also obtained CSC, as their end-point was below the cut-off value...... the Symptom Checklist-90-R (SCL-90-R) when the patients were admitted to sub-acute rehabilitation and at discharge. Improvement in emotional condition was investigated using the following criteria: (i) statistically reliable improvement; and (ii) clinically significant change (CSC). Results: At admission, 53...... in the patients. Conclusion: Of the relatives who reported scores above cut-off values on the anxiety and depression scales at patient's admission, approximately 40% experienced CSC in anxiety and depression during the patient's rehabilitation. Relatives of patients experiencing improvement during inpatient...

  19. On testing the significance of atmospheric response to smoke from the Kuwaiti oil fires using the Los Alamos general circulation model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kao, C.J.; Glatzmaier, G.A.; Malone, R.C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    1994-07-01

    The response of the Los Alamos atmospheric general circulation model to the smoke from the Kuwaiti oil fires set in 1991 is examined. The model has an interactive soot transport module that uses a Lagrangian tracer particle scheme. The statistical significance of the results is evaluated using a methodology based on the classic Student`s t test. Among various estimated smoke emission rates and associated visible absorption coefficients, the worst- and best-case scenarios are selected. In each of the scenarios, an ensemble of 10 30-day June simulations are conducted with the smoke and are compared to the same 10 June simulations without the smoke. The results of the worst-case scneario show that a statistically significant wave train pattern propagates eastward-poleward downstream from the source. The signals favorably compare with the observed climate anomalies in summer 1991, albeit some possible El Nino-Southern Oscillation effects were involved in the actual climate. The results of the best-case (i.e., least-impact) scenario show that the significance is rather small but that its general pattern is quite similar to that in the worst-case scenario.

  20. On testing the significance of atmospheric response to smoke from the Kuwaiti oil fires using the Los Alamos general circulation model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chih-Yue Jim Kao; Glatzmaier, G.A.; Malone, R.C. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1994-07-20

    The response of the Los Alamos atmospheric general circulation model to the smoke from the Kuwaiti oil fires set in 1991 is examined. The model has an interactive soot transport module that uses a Lagrangian tracer particle scheme. The statistical significance of the results is evaluated using a methodology based on the classic Student`s t test. Among various estimated smoke emission rates and associated visible absorption coefficients, the worst- and best-case scenarios are selected. In each of the scenarios, an ensemble of 10, 30-day June simulations are conducted with the smoke, and are compared to the same 10 June simulations without the smoke. The results of the worst-case scenario show that a statistically significant wave train pattern propagates eastward-poleward downstream from the source. The signals favorably compare with the observed climate anomalies in summer 1991, albeit some possible El Nino-Southern Oscillation effects were involved in the actual climate. The results of the best-case (i.e., least-impact) scenario show that the significance is rather small but that its general pattern is quite similar to that in the worst-case scenario. 24 refs., 5 figs.

  1. Measuring the emotional response to beer and the relative impact of sensory and packaging cues

    OpenAIRE

    Chaya, C.; Pacoud, J.; Ng, May Ling; Fenton, A.; Hort, Joanne

    2015-01-01

    In today’s extremely competitive markets, recent studies have highlighted that using hedonic measurement alone is inadequate for evaluating consumer product experience. Measuring emotional response is suggested to provide a richer insight into consumer responses. The objectives of this study were to: (i) measure consumer emotional responses to beer; (ii) determine if a relationship exists between sensory and emotional attributes of products; and finally (iii) investigate the relative impact o...

  2. Parenting styles, parental response to child emotion, and family emotional responsiveness are related to child emotional eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topham, Glade L; Hubbs-Tait, Laura; Rutledge, Julie M; Page, Melanie C; Kennedy, Tay S; Shriver, Lenka H; Harrist, Amanda W

    2011-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the relations of parenting style, parent response to negative child emotion, and family emotional expressiveness and support to child emotional eating. Mothers (N=450) completed questionnaires and their 6-8-year-old children (N=450) were interviewed. Results showed that emotional eating was negatively predicted by authoritative parenting style and family open expression of affection and emotion, and positively predicted by parent minimizing response to child negative emotion. Results suggest the need for early prevention/intervention efforts directed to these parenting and family variables. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Autoshaping Chicks with Heat Reinforcement: The Role of Stimulus-Reinforcer and Response-Reinforcer Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserman, Edward A.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    The present series of experiments attempted to analyze more fully the contributions of stimulus-reinforcer and response-reinforcer relations to autoshaping within a single conditioning situation. (Author)

  4. Relations among child negative emotionality, parenting stress, and maternal sensitive responsiveness in early childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paulussen-Hoogeboom, M.C.; Stams, G.J.J.M.; Hermanns, J.M.A.; Peetsma, T.T.D.

    2008-01-01

    This short-term longitudinal study focuses on relations between preschool-aged childrens' perceived "difficult" temperament (defined as high negative emotionality) and observed maternal sensitive responsiveness in the context of maternal parenting stress. Design. Participants were fifty-nine

  5. HPA AXIS RELATED GENES AND RESPONSE TO PSYCHOLOGICAL THERAPIES: GENETICS AND EPIGENETICS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roberts, Susanna; Keers, Robert; Lester, Kathryn J.; Coleman, Jonathan R. I.; Breen, Gerome; Arendt, Kristian; Blatter-Meunier, Judith; Cooper, Peter; Creswell, Cathy; Fjermestad, Krister; Havik, Odd E.; Herren, Chantal; Hogendoorn, Sanne M.; Hudson, Jennifer L.; Krause, Karen; Lyneham, Heidi J.; Morris, Talia; Nauta, Maaike; Rapee, Ronald M.; Rey, Yasmin; Schneider, Silvia; Schneider, Sophie C.; Silverman, Wendy K.; Thastum, Mikael; Thirlwall, Kerstin; Waite, Polly; Eley, Thalia C.; Wong, Chloe C. Y.

    2015-01-01

    Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis functioning has been implicated in the development of stress-related psychiatric diagnoses and response to adverse life experiences. This study aimed to investigate the association between genetic and epigenetics in HPA axis and response to cognitive

  6. Deviance-Related Responses along the Auditory Hierarchy: Combined FFR, MLR and MMN Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiga, Tetsuya; Althen, Heike; Cornella, Miriam; Zarnowiec, Katarzyna; Yabe, Hirooki; Escera, Carles

    2015-01-01

    The mismatch negativity (MMN) provides a correlate of automatic auditory discrimination in human auditory cortex that is elicited in response to violation of any acoustic regularity. Recently, deviance-related responses were found at much earlier cortical processing stages as reflected by the middle latency response (MLR) of the auditory evoked potential, and even at the level of the auditory brainstem as reflected by the frequency following response (FFR). However, no study has reported deviance-related responses in the FFR, MLR and long latency response (LLR) concurrently in a single recording protocol. Amplitude-modulated (AM) sounds were presented to healthy human participants in a frequency oddball paradigm to investigate deviance-related responses along the auditory hierarchy in the ranges of FFR, MLR and LLR. AM frequency deviants modulated the FFR, the Na and Nb components of the MLR, and the LLR eliciting the MMN. These findings demonstrate that it is possible to elicit deviance-related responses at three different levels (FFR, MLR and LLR) in one single recording protocol, highlight the involvement of the whole auditory hierarchy in deviance detection and have implications for cognitive and clinical auditory neuroscience. Moreover, the present protocol provides a new research tool into clinical neuroscience so that the functional integrity of the auditory novelty system can now be tested as a whole in a range of clinical populations where the MMN was previously shown to be defective. PMID:26348628

  7. Characterizing Response-Reinforcer Relations in the Natural Environment: Exploratory Matching Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sy, Jolene R.; Borrero, John C.; Borrero, Carrie S. W.

    2010-01-01

    We assessed problem and appropriate behavior in the natural environment from a matching perspective. Problem and appropriate behavior were conceptualized as concurrently available responses, the occurrence of which was thought to be determined by the relative rates or durations of reinforcement. We also assessed whether response allocation could…

  8. Resisting temptation: decreasing alcohol-related affect and drinking behavior by training response inhibition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houben, K.; Nederkoorn, C.; Wiers, R.W.; Jansen, A.

    2011-01-01

    According to dual-process models, excessive alcohol use emerges when response inhibition ability is insufficient to inhibit automatic impulses to drink alcohol. This study examined whether strengthening response inhibition for alcohol-related cues decreases alcohol intake. Fifty-two heavy drinking

  9. Integrating Public Relations and Legal Responses during a Crisis: The Case of Odwalla, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinelli, Kathleen A.; Briggs, William

    1998-01-01

    Examines the crisis-communication strategies employed by Odwalla, Inc. during its juice contamination crisis, a crisis whose impact on public health and safety gave it the potential for developing into an issue that required public policy relief. Finds that public-relations response strategies dominated legal response strategies, followed by mixed…

  10. Combinations of response-reinforcer relations in periodic and aperiodic schedules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Toshikazu; Cançado, Carlos R X; Lattal, Kennon A; Elcoro, Mirari; Dickson, Chata A; Cook, James E

    2013-03-01

    Key pecking of 4 pigeons was studied under a two-component multiple schedule in which food deliveries were arranged according to a fixed and a variable interfood interval. The percentage of response-dependent food in each component was varied, first in ascending (0, 10, 30, 70 and 100%) and then in descending orders, in successive conditions. The change in response rates was positively related to the percentage of response-dependent food in each schedule component. Across conditions, positively accelerated and linear patterns of responding occurred consistently in the fixed and variable components, respectively. These results suggest that the response-food dependency determines response rates in periodic and aperiodic schedules, and that the temporal distribution of food determines response patterns independently of the response-food dependency. Running rates, but not postfood pauses, also were positively related to the percentage of dependent food in each condition, in both fixed and variable components. Thus, the relation between overall response rate and the percentage of dependent food was mediated by responding that occurred after postfood pausing. The findings together extend previous studies wherein the dependency was either always present or absent, and increase the generality of the effects of variations in the response-food dependency from aperiodic to periodic schedules. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  11. Opioid modulation of facial itch- and pain-related responses and grooming behavior in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spradley, Jessica M; Davoodi, Auva; Carstens, Mirela Iodi; Carstens, Earl

    2012-09-01

    Intradermal facial injections of pruritogens or algogens elicit distinct behavioral hindlimb scratch or forelimb wiping responses in rodents. We systematically investigated the parameters and opioid modulation of these evoked behaviors and spontaneous facial grooming in rats. Serotonin (5-HT) elicited hindlimb scratch bouts with few wipes. Scratching was attenuated by the µ-opiate antagonist naltrexone but not morphine. In contrast, cheek injection of mustard oil (allyl-isothiocyanate (AITC)) elicited ipsilateral forelimb wipes but little hindlimb scratching. AITC-evoked wiping was significantly attenuated by morphine but not naltrexone. Spontaneous facial grooming by the forepaws was attenuated by naltrexone, whereas morphine did not affect grooming behavior before or after cheek injections of 5-HT or AITC. These data validate that the rodent "cheek" model discriminates between itch- and pain-related behaviors. Naltrexone sensitivity of facial grooming and 5-HT-evoked scratch-ing suggests a common functionality. Forelimb wipes may represent a nocifensive response akin to rubbing an injury to relieve pain.

  12. An evolutionarily significant unicellular strategy in response to starvation stress in Dictyostelium social amoebae [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/3hg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darja Dubravcic

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum is widely studied for its multicellular development program as a response to starvation and constitutes a model of choice in microbial cooperation studies. Aggregates of up to 106 cells form fruiting bodies containing two cell types: (i dormant spores (~80% that can persist for months in the absence of nutrients, and (ii dead stalk cells (~20% that promote the dispersion of the spores towards nutrient-rich areas. It is often overlooked that not all cells aggregate upon starvation. Using a new quantitative approach based on time-lapse fluorescence microscopy and a low ratio of reporting cells, we have quantified this fraction of non-aggregating cells. In realistic starvation conditions, up to 15% of cells do not aggregate, which makes this third cell fate a significant component of the population-level response of social amoebae to starvation. Non-aggregating cells have an advantage over cells in aggregates since they resume growth earlier upon arrival of new nutrients, but have a shorter lifespan under prolonged starvation. We find that phenotypic heterogeneities linked to cell nutritional state bias the representation of cells in the aggregating vs. non-aggregating fractions, and thus regulate population partitioning. Next, we report that the fraction of non-aggregating cells depends on genetic factors that regulate the timing of starvation, signal sensing efficiency and aggregation efficiency. In addition, interactions between clones in mixtures of non-isogenic cells affect the partitioning of each clone into both fractions. We further test the evolutionary significance of the non-aggregating cell fraction. The partitioning of cells into aggregating and non-aggregating fractions is optimal in fluctuating environments with an unpredictable duration of starvation periods. D. discoideum thus constitutes a model system lying at the intersection of microbial cooperation and bet hedging, defining a new

  13. Significance of measurement of serum somatostatin (SS), growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and some related cytokines levels in patients with graves' disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Bao; Ma Yunbao; Zhang Xiaoyi

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the possible roles of the related hormones and cytokines in the pathogenesis of Graves' disease. Methods: Serum levels of SS, GH, IGF-1, IL-2, IL-4 and IL-6 were measured with RIA in 1) 36 patients with Graves' disease before any treatment 2) another 30 patients with Graves' disease after successful anti-thyroid drug therapy and 3) 35 controls. Results: In the untreated group, the serum levels of SS, GH, IGF-1, IL-4 and IL-6 were significantly higher but serum IL-2 levels were significantly lower than those in the controls (P<0.01). In the successfully treated group, the serum levels of SS, GH, IGF-1, IL-4 and IL-6 were significantly lower (P<0.05 or P<0.01), but serum IL-2 levels were significantly higher (P<0.01) than those in the untreated group. Conclusion: These parameters played significant roles in the pathogenesis of Graves' disease; however, the precise mechanism remained to be speculative and further studies required. (authors)

  14. Relational victimization, friendship, and adolescents’ hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis responses to an in vivo social stressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    CALHOUN, CASEY D.; HELMS, SARAH W.; HEILBRON, NICOLE; RUDOLPH, KAREN D.; HASTINGS, PAUL D.; PRINSTEIN, MITCHELL J.

    2014-01-01

    Adolescents’ peer experiences may have significant associations with biological stress-response systems, adding to or reducing allostatic load. This study examined relational victimization as a unique contributor to reactive hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis responses as well as friendship quality and behavior as factors that may promote HPA recovery following a stressor. A total of 62 adolescents (ages 12–16; 73% female) presenting with a wide range of life stressors and adjustment difficulties completed survey measures of peer victimization and friendship quality. Cortisol samples were collected before and after a lab-based interpersonally themed social stressor task to provide measures of HPA baseline, reactivity, and recovery. Following the stressor task, adolescents discussed their performance with a close friend; observational coding yielded measures of friends’ responsiveness. Adolescents also reported positive and negative friendship qualities. Results suggested that higher levels of adolescents’ relational victimization were associated with blunted cortisol reactivity, even after controlling for physical forms of victimization and other known predictors of HPA functioning (i.e., life stress or depressive symptoms). Friendship qualities (i.e., low negative qualities) and specific friendship behaviors (i.e., high levels of responsiveness) contributed to greater HPA regulation; however, consistent with theories of rumination, high friend responsiveness in the context of high levels of positive friendship quality contributed to less cortisol recovery. Findings extend prior work on the importance of relational victimization and dyadic peer relations as unique and salient correlates of adaptation in adolescence. PMID:25047287

  15. Relational victimization, friendship, and adolescents' hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis responses to an in vivo social stressor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoun, Casey D; Helms, Sarah W; Heilbron, Nicole; Rudolph, Karen D; Hastings, Paul D; Prinstein, Mitchell J

    2014-08-01

    Adolescents' peer experiences may have significant associations with biological stress-response systems, adding to or reducing allostatic load. This study examined relational victimization as a unique contributor to reactive hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis responses as well as friendship quality and behavior as factors that may promote HPA recovery following a stressor. A total of 62 adolescents (ages 12-16; 73% female) presenting with a wide range of life stressors and adjustment difficulties completed survey measures of peer victimization and friendship quality. Cortisol samples were collected before and after a lab-based interpersonally themed social stressor task to provide measures of HPA baseline, reactivity, and recovery. Following the stressor task, adolescents discussed their performance with a close friend; observational coding yielded measures of friends' responsiveness. Adolescents also reported positive and negative friendship qualities. Results suggested that higher levels of adolescents' relational victimization were associated with blunted cortisol reactivity, even after controlling for physical forms of victimization and other known predictors of HPA functioning (i.e., life stress or depressive symptoms). Friendship qualities (i.e., low negative qualities) and specific friendship behaviors (i.e., high levels of responsiveness) contributed to greater HPA regulation; however, consistent with theories of rumination, high friend responsiveness in the context of high levels of positive friendship quality contributed to less cortisol recovery. Findings extend prior work on the importance of relational victimization and dyadic peer relations as unique and salient correlates of adaptation in adolescence.

  16. Constitutive differences in glucocorticoid responsiveness to stress are related to variation in aggression and anxiety-related behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Sophie E; Zanoletti, Olivia; Guillot de Suduiraut, Isabelle; Sandi, Carmen

    2017-10-01

    Glucocorticoids coordinate responses that enable an individual to cope with stressful challenges and, additionally, mediate adaptation following cessation of a stressor. There are important individual differences in the magnitude of glucocorticoid responsiveness to stressors. However, whether individual differences in glucocorticoid responsiveness to stress are linked to different behavioral strategies in coping with social and non-social challenges is not easily studied, owing to the lack of appropriate animal models. To address this, we generated three lines of Wistar rats selectively bred for the magnitude of their glucocorticoid responses following exposure to a variety of stressors over three consecutive days at juvenility. Here, we present findings following observations of a high level of variation in glucocorticoid responsiveness to stress in outbred Wistar rats, and the strong response to selection for this trait over a few generations. When challenged with different stressful challenges, rats from the three lines differed in their coping behaviors. Strikingly, the line with high glucocorticoid responsiveness to stress displayed enhanced aggression and anxiety-like behaviors. In addition, these rats also showed alterations in the expression of genes within both central and peripheral nodes of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and enhanced reactivity to acute stress exposure. Together, these findings strongly link differences in glucocorticoid responsiveness to stress with marked differences in coping styles. The developed rat lines are thus a promising model with which to examine the relationship between variation in reactivity of the HPA axis and stress-related pathophysiology and could be employed to assess the therapeutic potential of treatments modulating stress habituation to ameliorate psychopathology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. [A sense of responsibility in health personnel as a cause of work-related stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedić, Olesja; Jocić, Neda; Filipović, Danka; Solak, Zdravko

    2002-01-01

    Job stress is a great problem in developed countries of the world, but in Yugoslavia, it is increased due to additional reasons associated with economic crisis in the society. Health services and health workers are in particularly difficult conditions. The aim of this paper was to examine sources and causes of job stress in health workers. The research was undertaken among health workers treated at Health Centre "Hospital" in Novi Sad. The study group included health workers--doctors, nurses and laboratory workers, and the control group included the rest of non-medical staff. Adapted Siegrist questionnaire was used. Three factors were examined: extrinsic efforts (disturbances at work, sense of great job responsibility and the need for overtime work); intrinsinc efforts (major criticism, thinking about the job from the early morning, getting nervous because of minor problems, discontentment because of unsolved problems at work, relaxation at home and so on), and low reward (respect from the superiors and colleagues, support and security at workplace). Answers were scored indicating intensity (high, moderate, low, not at all). Statistic analysis included testing the level of significance in health workers in relation to non-medical staff (t test and Fisher's exact test). Applying the scoring system it has been established that health workers are exposed to greater job stress, great sense of very high job responsibility and frequent overtime work (p stress increases absenteeism, reduces work productivity, causes higher expenses of medical treatment, rehabilitation and staff retraining. It is of great importance to identify factors which cause job dissatisfaction in order to decrease them to the lowest level. High sense of responsibility in health workers is a course of job stress.

  18. Increased reaction time variability in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder as a response-related phenomenon: evidence from single-trial event-related potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saville, Christopher W N; Feige, Bernd; Kluckert, Christian; Bender, Stephan; Biscaldi, Monica; Berger, Andrea; Fleischhaker, Christian; Henighausen, Klaus; Klein, Christoph

    2015-07-01

    Increased intra-subject variability (ISV) in reaction times (RTs) is a promising endophenotype for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and among the most robust hallmarks of the disorder. ISV has been assumed to represent an attentional deficit, either reflecting lapses in attention or increased neural noise. Here, we use an innovative single-trial event-related potential approach to assess whether the increased ISV associated with ADHD is indeed attributable to attention, or whether it is related to response-related processing. We measured electroencephalographic responses to working memory oddball tasks in patients with ADHD (N = 20, aged 11.3 ± 1.1) and healthy controls (N = 25, aged 11.7 ± 1.1), and analysed these data with a recently developed method of single-trial event-related potential analysis. Estimates of component latency variability were computed for the stimulus-locked and response-locked forms of the P3b and the lateralised readiness potential (LRP). ADHD patients showed significantly increased ISV in behavioural ISV. This increased ISV was paralleled by an increase in variability in response-locked event-related potential latencies, while variability in stimulus-locked latencies was equivalent between groups. This result held across the P3b and LRP. Latency of all components predicted RTs on a single-trial basis, confirming that all were relevant for speed of processing. These data suggest that the increased ISV found in ADHD could be associated with response-end, rather than stimulus-end processes, in contrast to prevailing conceptions about the endophenotype. This mental chronometric approach may also be useful for exploring whether the existing lack of specificity of ISV to particular psychiatric conditions can be improved upon. © 2014 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  19. Sleep disruption is related to poor response inhibition in individuals with obsessive-compulsive and repetitive negative thought symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nota, Jacob A; Schubert, Jessica R; Coles, Meredith E

    2016-03-01

    Obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptoms and repetitive negative thinking (RNT) are associated with poor inhibitory control. Sleep disruptions may partially mediate these relations and/or act as a "second hit" to individuals with OC symptoms and RNT. Models including habitual (past month) hours slept and bedtimes were tested. We employed a go/no-go task that allowed us to examine the relation between sleep and inhibition with various task contingencies. Sixty-seven unselected individuals were recruited from the participant pool at a public university. Bias-corrected bootstrap estimates did not show that sleep disruption mediated the relation between OC symptoms and response inhibition nor the relation between RNT and response inhibition. Multiple linear regression analyses found significant interactions between hours slept and OC symptom severity and between RNT and hours slept to predict poor response inhibition. Hours slept significantly negatively predicted commission errors when OC symptoms and RNT levels were relatively heightened but not when OC symptoms and RNT levels were relatively low. These effects were present in blocks where task contingencies were designed to shape a no-go bias. No significant relations were found with habitual bedtimes. The cross-sectional study design precludes testing the temporal precedence of symptoms in the "second hit" model. The unselected sample also limits generalization to clinical samples. These findings support a "second hit" model of interaction between sleep disruption and perseverative thoughts and behaviors. Further research on the mechanisms of the relation between sleep disruption and perseverative thought symptoms (OC and RNT) is warranted. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Motavizumab, A Neutralizing Anti-Respiratory Syncytial Virus (Rsv Monoclonal Antibody Significantly Modifies The Local And Systemic Cytokine Responses Induced By Rsv In The Mouse Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafri Hasan S

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Motavizumab (MEDI-524 is a monoclonal antibody with enhanced neutralizing activity against RSV. In mice, motavizumab suppressed RSV replication which resulted in significant reduction of clinical parameters of disease severity. We evaluated the effect of motavizumab on the local and systemic immune response induced by RSV in the mouse model. Balb/c mice were intranasally inoculated with 106.5 PFU RSV A2 or medium. Motavizumab was given once intraperitoneally (1.25 mg/mouse as prophylaxis, 24 h before virus inoculation. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL and serum samples were obtained at days 1, 5 (acute and 28 (long-term post inoculation and analyzed with a multiplex assay (Beadlyte Upstate, NY for simultaneous quantitation of 18 cytokines: IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-3, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, KC (similar to human IL-8, IL-10, IL-12p40, IL-12p70, IL-13, IL-17, TNF-α, MCP-1, RANTES, IFN-γ and GM-CSF. Overall, cytokine concentrations were lower in serum than in BAL samples. By day 28, only KC was detected in BAL specimens at low concentrations in all groups. Administration of motavizumab significantly reduced (p

  1. Differential relations between youth internalizing/externalizing problems and cortisol responses to performance vs. interpersonal stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Heidemarie; Vergara-Lopez, Chrystal; Stroud, Laura R

    2016-09-01

    Efforts to define hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis profiles conferring risk for psychopathology have yielded inconclusive results, perhaps in part due to limited assessment of the stress response. In particular, research has typically focused on HPA responses to performance tasks, while neglecting the interpersonal stressors that become salient during adolescence. In this study we investigated links between psychosocial adjustment - youth internalizing and externalizing problems, as well as competence - and HPA responses to both performance and interpersonal stressors in a normative sample of children and adolescents. Participants (n = 59) completed a set of performance (public speaking, mental arithmetic, mirror tracing) and/or interpersonal (peer rejection) tasks and gave nine saliva samples, which were assayed for cortisol. Hierarchical linear models of cortisol response trajectories in relation to child behavior checklist (CBCL) scores revealed stressor- and sex-specific associations. Whereas internalizing problems related to earlier peaking, less dynamic cortisol responses to interpersonal stress (across males and females), externalizing problems related to lower, earlier peaking and less dynamic cortisol responses to performance stress for males only, and competence-related to later peaking cortisol responses to interpersonal stress for females only. Implications for understanding contextual stress profiles underlying different forms of psychopathology are discussed.

  2. Inhibition of immune responses and related proteins in Rhamdia quelen exposed to diclofenac.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribas, João L C; Sherry, James P; Zampronio, Aleksander R; Silva de Assis, Helena C; Simmons, Denina B D

    2017-08-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are among the most widely detected pharmaceuticals in surface water worldwide. The nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac is used to treat many types of pain and inflammation. Diclofenac's potential to cause adverse effects in exposed wildlife is a growing concern. To evaluate the effects of waterborne diclofenac on the immune response in Rhamdia quelen (South American catfish), fish were exposed to 3 concentrations of diclofenac (0.2, 2.0, and 20.0 μg/L) for 14 d. Some of the exposed fish were also given an intraperitoneal injection on day 14 of 1 mg/kg of carrageenan to evaluate cell migration to the peritoneum. Total blood leukocyte count and carrageenan-induced leukocyte migration to the peritoneal cavity, particularly of polymorphonuclear cells, were significantly affected for all diclofenac exposure groups. Nitric oxide production was significantly reduced in the diclofenac-treated fish. Plasma and kidney proteins were analyzed by means of liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in a shotgun proteomic approach. In both plasma and kidney of diclofenac-exposed R. quelen, the expression of 20 proteins related to the inflammatory process, nitric oxide production, leukocyte migration, and the complement cascade was significantly altered. In addition, class I major histocompatibility complex was significantly decreased in plasma of diclofenac-treated fish. Thus, waterborne exposure to diclofenac could lead to suppression of the innate immune system in R. quelen. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:2092-2107. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  3. Relation of burnout with lack of time for being with significant others, role conflict, cohesion, and self-confidence among Norwegian Olympic athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjørmo, Odd; Halvari, Hallgeir

    2002-06-01

    We studied the relationship of burnout with environmental and personal characteristics such as lack of time for being with significant others outside sport, cohesion in training groups, role conflict, and self-confidence among 136 elite athletes. Analysis indicated that the mean Burnout scores were in the low range. Cohesion in training groups and Self-confidence were negatively associated with Burnout, whereas Lack of time to be with significant others and Role conflict were positively ssociated with Burnout scores. Results are in accordance with Coakley's 1992 conception of burnout explained as a social problem, Kahn's 1978 hypothesis that role conflict is positively correlated with stress and burnout, and Smith's 1986 hypothesis that personality factors such as self-confidence should be associated with cognitive appraisal of situational demands related to burnout.

  4. Increased superior frontal gyrus activation during working memory processing in psychosis: Significant relation to cumulative antipsychotic medication and to negative symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Tobias; Smieskova, Renata; Schmidt, André; Walter, Anna; Harrisberger, Fabienne; Eckert, Anne; Lang, Undine E; Riecher-Rössler, Anita; Graf, Marc; Borgwardt, Stefan

    2016-08-01

    Impairment in working memory (WM) is a core symptom in schizophrenia. However, little is known about how clinical features influence functional brain activity specific to WM processing during the development of first-episode psychosis (FEP) to schizophrenia (SZ). We compared functional WM-specific brain activity in FEP and SZ patients, including the effects of the duration of illness, psychopathological factors and antipsychotic medication. Cross-sectional study of male FEP (n=22) and SZ (n=20) patients performing an n-back task when undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Clinical features were collected by semi-structured interviews and medical records. The SZ group performed significantly worse than the FEP group in the 2-back condition. The SZ group also showed significantly higher activation in the left superior frontal gyrus in the 2-back versus 0-back condition (2-back>0-back). This frontal activation correlated positively with negative symptoms and with cumulative antipsychotic medication during the year before the fMRI examination. There were no significant correlations between activation and duration of illness. There was greater frontal neural activation in SZ than in FEP. This indicated differences in WM processing, and was significantly related to cumulative antipsychotic exposure and negative symptoms, but not to the duration of illness. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. On the Linear Relation between the Mean and the Standard Deviation of a Response Time Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagenmakers, Eric-Jan; Brown, Scott

    2007-01-01

    Although it is generally accepted that the spread of a response time (RT) distribution increases with the mean, the precise nature of this relation remains relatively unexplored. The authors show that in several descriptive RT distributions, the standard deviation increases linearly with the mean. Results from a wide range of tasks from different…

  6. Dress-Related Responses to the Columbine Shootings: Other-Imposed and Self-Designed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogle, Jennifer Paff; Eckman, Molly

    2002-01-01

    An inductive content analysis approach was used to examine 155 dress-related newspaper articles following the Columbine High School shootings in 1999. Analysis revealed two dress-related responses: (1) other-imposed regulation to protect students and deter them from expressing hatred and (2) self-designed acts of resistance for grieving. (Contains…

  7. Fruit response to water-scarcity and biochemical changes : Water relations and biochemical changes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodríguez, P.; Galindo Egea, Alejandro; Collado-González, J.; Medina, S.; Corell, M.; Memmi, H.; Girón, I.F.; Centeno, A.; Martín-Palomo, M.J.; Cruz, Z.N.; Carbonell-Barrachina, A.A.; Hernandez, F.; Torrecillas, A.; Moriana, A.; Pérez-López, D.; Garcia Tejero, Ivan Francisco; Duran Zuazo, Victor Hugo

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this chapter is to give a general idea of the fruit response to water-scarcity conditions, paying special attention to fruit water relations modification and fruit composition changes, which are key for fruit quality. The strengths and weaknesses of fruit water relations measurement

  8. Behavioral phenotype relates to physiological differences in immunological and stress responsiveness in reactive and proactive birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pusch, Elizabeth A; Navara, Kristen J

    2018-05-15

    It has now been demonstrated in many species that individuals display substantial variation in coping styles, generally separating into two major behavioral phenotypes that appear to be linked to the degree of physiological stress responsiveness. Laying hens are perfect examples of these dichotomous phenotypes; white laying hens are reactive, flighty, and exhibit large hormonal and behavioral responses to both acute and chronic stress, while brown laying hens are proactive, exploratory, and exhibit low hormonal and behavioral responses to stress. Given the linkages between stress physiology and many other body systems, we hypothesized that behavioral phenotype would correspond to additional physiological responses beyond the stress response, in this case, immunological responses. Because corticosterone is widely known to be immunosuppressive, we predicted that the reactive white hens would show more dampened immune responses than the proactive brown hens due to their exposure to higher levels of corticosterone throughout life. To assess immune function in white and brown hens, we compared febrile responses, corticosterone elevations, feed consumption, and egg production that occurred in response an injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or saline, inflammatory responses to phytohemagglutinin (PHA) injection in the toe web, innate phagocytic activity in whole blood, and antibody responses to an injection of Sheep Red Blood Cells (SRBCs). Contrary to our predictions, white hens had significantly greater swelling of the toe web in response to PHA and showed a greater inhibition of feeding and reproductive output in response to LPS. These results indicated that reactive individuals are more reactive in both stress and immunological responsiveness. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Modulation of ethylene responses by OsRTH1 overexpression reveals the biological significance of ethylene in rice seedling growth and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Zhou, Xin; Wen, Chi-Kuang

    2012-01-01

    Overexpression of Arabidopsis Reversion-To-ethylene Sensitivity1 (RTE1) results in whole-plant ethylene insensitivity dependent on the ethylene receptor gene Ethylene Response1 (ETR1). However, overexpression of the tomato RTE1 homologue Green Ripe (GR) delays fruit ripening but does not confer whole-plant ethylene insensitivity. It was decided to investigate whether aspects of ethylene-induced growth and development of the monocotyledonous model plant rice could be modulated by rice RTE1 homologues (OsRTH genes). Results from a cross-species complementation test in Arabidopsis showed that OsRTH1 overexpression complemented the rte1-2 loss-of-function mutation and conferred whole-plant ethylene insensitivity in an ETR1-dependent manner. In contrast, OsRTH2 and OsRTH3 overexpression did not complement rte1-2 or confer ethylene insensitivity. In rice, OsRTH1 overexpression substantially prevented ethylene-induced alterations in growth and development, including leaf senescence, seedling leaf elongation and development, coleoptile elongation or curvature, and adventitious root development. Results of subcellular localizations of OsRTHs, each fused with the green fluorescent protein, in onion epidermal cells suggested that the three OsRTHs were predominantly localized to the Golgi. OsRTH1 may be an RTE1 orthologue of rice and modulate rice ethylene responses. The possible roles of auxins and gibberellins in the ethylene-induced alterations in growth were evaluated and the biological significance of ethylene in the early stage of rice seedling growth is discussed. PMID:22451723

  10. Corporate Social Responsibility and Social Media Crises - How to ride off a CSR-related shitstorm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerdal-Hjermind, Annette; Schmeltz, Line

    , and the case of the Norwegian chocolate brand Freia is used to illustrate how CSR-related issues are particularly vulnerable and thus potentially responsible for creating a social media crisis. The case furthermore serves to illustrate the importance of social media readiness, responsiveness and not least......This paper aims to explore and offer insights into the phenomenon of social media crises in a CSR-related context by reflexively merging theoretical and case insights (Alvesson & Kärreman, 2007, p. 2011). The phenomenon and the components of a social media crisis are theoretically identified...... strategy and communicative skills during a CSR-related social media crisis....

  11. Corporate Social Responsibility and Social Media Crises - How to ride off a CSR-related shitstorm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmeltz, Line; Agerdal-Hjermind, Annette

    This paper aims to explore and offer insights into the phenomenon of social media crises in a CSR-related context by reflexively merging theoretical and case insights (Alvesson & Kärreman, 2007, p. 2011). The phenomenon and the components of a social media crisis are theoretically identified, and...... strategy and communicative skills during a CSR-related social media crisis......., and the case of the Norwegian chocolate brand Freia is used to illustrate how CSR-related issues are particularly vulnerable and thus potentially responsible for creating a social media crisis. The case furthermore serves to illustrate the importance of social media readiness, responsiveness and not least...

  12. Relative conservatisms of combination methods used in response spectrum analyses of nuclear piping systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, S.; Kustu, O.; Jhaveri, D.P.; Blume, J.A.

    1983-01-01

    The paper presents the conclusions of a comprehensive study that investigated the relative conservatisms represented by various combination techniques. Two approaches were taken for the study, producing mutually consistent results. In the first, 20 representative nuclear piping systems were systematically analyzed using the response spectrum method. The total response was obtained using nine different combination methods. One procedure, using the SRSS method for combining spatial components of response and the 10% method for combining the responses of different modes (which is currently acceptable to the U.S. NRC), was the standard for comparison. Responses computed by the other methods were normalized to this standard method. These response ratios were then used to develop cumulative frequency-distribution curves, which were used to establish the relative conservatism of the methods in a probabilistic sense. In the second approach, 30 single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) systems that represent different modes of hypothetical piping systems and have natural frequencies varying from 1 Hz to 30 Hz, were analyzed for 276 sets of three-component recorded ground motion. A set of hypothetical systems assuming a variety of modes and frequency ranges was developed. The responses of these systems were computed from the responses of the SDOF systems by combining the spatial response components by algebraic summation and the individual mode responses by the Navy method, or combining both spatial and modal response components using the SRSS method. Probability density functions and cumulative distribution functions were developed for the ratio of the responses obtained by both methods. (orig./HP)

  13. A novel heat shock protein alpha 8 (Hspa8) molecular network mediating responses to stress- and ethanol-related behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urquhart, Kyle R; Zhao, Yinghong; Baker, Jessica A; Lu, Ye; Yan, Lei; Cook, Melloni N; Jones, Byron C; Hamre, Kristin M; Lu, Lu

    2016-04-01

    Genetic differences mediate individual differences in susceptibility and responses to stress and ethanol, although, the specific molecular pathways that control these responses are not fully understood. Heat shock protein alpha 8 (Hspa8) is a molecular chaperone and member of the heat shock protein family that plays an integral role in the stress response and that has been implicated as an ethanol-responsive gene. Therefore, we assessed its role in mediating responses to stress and ethanol across varying genetic backgrounds. The hippocampus is an important mediator of these responses, and thus, was examined in the BXD family of mice in this study. We conducted bioinformatic analyses to dissect genetic factors modulating Hspa8 expression, identify downstream targets of Hspa8, and examined its role. Hspa8 is trans-regulated by a gene or genes on chromosome 14 and is part of a molecular network that regulates stress- and ethanol-related behaviors. To determine additional components of this network, we identified direct or indirect targets of Hspa8 and show that these genes, as predicted, participate in processes such as protein folding and organic substance metabolic processes. Two phenotypes that map to the Hspa8 locus are anxiety-related and numerous other anxiety- and/or ethanol-related behaviors significantly correlate with Hspa8 expression. To more directly assay this relationship, we examined differences in gene expression following exposure to stress or alcohol and showed treatment-related differential expression of Hspa8 and a subset of the members of its network. Our findings suggest that Hspa8 plays a vital role in genetic differences in responses to stress and ethanol and their interactions.

  14. Significance of measuring oxidative stress in lifestyle-related diseases from the viewpoint of correlation between d-ROMs and BAP in Japanese subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukui, Toshiki; Yamauchi, Kazuhiro; Maruyama, Mie; Yasuda, Tadashi; Abe, Youichi; Kohno, Masakazu

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, oxidative stress has been postulated to be an important factor in the pathogenesis and development of lifestyle-related diseases. In this study, we investigated the association between the derivatives of reactive oxygen metabolites (d-ROMs), as an index of products of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and biological antioxidant potential (BAP), as an index of antioxidant potential. We also investigated the associations between d-ROMs or BAP and the risk factors for lifestyle-related diseases or metabolic syndrome-associated factors to evaluate their usefulness in preventive medicine. There were 442 subjects who underwent health checkup examination in our facilities. In addition to standard medical checkup items, we analyzed d-ROMs, BAP, brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein level and visceral fat area (VFA) visualized on a computed tomography scan. The mean d-ROM value in females was significantly higher than that in males. There was a positive correlation between the d-ROM and VFA levels. On correlation analysis, there was a negative correlation between the d-ROM and creatinine levels. As factors that influence d-ROMs, the level of VFA was selected, suggesting the significance of oxidative stress measurement with d-ROMs. In addition, there was a positive correlation between d-ROMs and BAP values. Further research is required to resolve whether increased production of ROS or the antioxidant potential that can compensate for such an increase of ROS is more important in vivo. (author)

  15. Physiological and subjective responses to low relative humidity in young and elderly men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunwoo, Yujin; Chou, Chinmei; Takeshita, Junko; Murakami, Motoko; Tochihara, Yutaka

    2006-05-01

    In order to compare the physiological and the subjective responses to low relative humidity of elderly and young men, we measured saccharin clearance time (SCT), frequency of blinking, hydration state of the skin, transepidermal water loss (TEWL), sebum level recovery and skin temperatures as physiological responses. We asked subjects to evaluate thermal, dryness and comfort sensations as subjective responses using a rating scale. Eight non-smoking healthy male students (21.7+/-0.8 yr) and eight non-smoking healthy elderly men (71.1+/-4.1 yr) were selected. The pre-room conditions were maintained at an air temperature (Ta) of 25 degrees C and a relative humidity (RH) of 50%. The test-room conditions were adjusted to provide 25 degrees C Ta and RH levels of 10%, 30% and 50%. RH had no effect on the activity of the sebaceous gland or change of mean skin temperature. SCT of the elderly group under 10% RH was significantly longer than that of the young group. In particular, considering the SCT change, the nasal mucous membrane seems to be affected more in the elderly than in the young in low RH. Under 30% RH, the eyes and skin become dry, and under 10% RH the nasal mucous membrane becomes dry as well as the eyes and skin. These findings suggested that to avoid dryness of the eyes and skin, it is necessary to maintain greater than 30% RH, and to avoid dryness of the nasal mucous membrane, it is necessary to maintain greater than 10% RH. On the thermal sensation of the legs, at the lower humidity level, the elderly group felt cooler than the young group. On the dry sensation of the eyes and throat, the young group felt drier than the elderly group at the lower humidity levels. From the above results, the elderly group had difficulty in feeling dryness in the nasal mucous membrane despite being easily affected by low humidity. On the other hand, the young group felt the change of humidity sensitively despite not being severely affected by low humidity. Ocular mucosa and

  16. Arborvitae (Thuja plicata essential oil significantly inhibited critical inflammation- and tissue remodeling-related proteins and genes in human dermal fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuesheng Han

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Arborvitae (Thuja plicata essential oil (AEO is becoming increasingly popular in skincare, although its biological activity in human skin cells has not been investigated. Therefore, we sought to study AEO's effect on 17 important protein biomarkers that are closely related to inflammation and tissue remodeling by using a pre-inflamed human dermal fibroblast culture model. AEO significantly inhibited the expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1, intracellular cell adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1, interferon gamma-induced protein 10 (IP-10, interferon-inducible T-cell chemoattractant (I-TAC, monokine induced by interferon gamma (MIG, and macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF. It also showed significant antiproliferative activity and robustly inhibited collagen-I, collagen-III, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1, and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 and 2 (TIMP-1 and TIMP-2. The inhibitory effect of AEO on increased production of these protein biomarkers suggests it has anti-inflammatory property. We then studied the effect of AEO on the genome-wide expression of 21,224 genes in the same cell culture. AEO significantly and diversely modulated global gene expression. Ingenuity pathway analysis (IPA showed that AEO robustly affected numerous critical genes and signaling pathways closely involved in inflammatory and tissue remodeling processes. The findings of this study provide the first evidence of the biological activity and beneficial action of AEO in human skin cells.

  17. Significant differe nces in demographic, clinical, and pathological features in relation to smoking and alcohol consumption among 1,633 head and neck cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Ajub Moyses

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: As a lifestyle-related disease, social and cultural disparities may influence the features of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck in different geographic regions. We describe demographic, clinical, and pathological aspects of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck according to the smoking and alcohol consumption habits of patients in a Brazilian cohort. METHODS: We prospectively analyzed the smoking and alcohol consumption habits of 1,633 patients enrolled in five São Paulo hospitals that participated in the Brazilian Head and Neck Genome Project - Gencapo. RESULTS: The patients who smoked and drank were younger, and those who smoked were leaner than the other patients, regardless of alcohol consumption. The non-smokers/non-drinkers were typically elderly white females who had more differentiated oral cavity cancers and fewer first-degree relatives who smoked. The patients who drank presented significantly more frequent nodal metastasis, and those who smoked presented less-differentiated tumors. CONCLUSIONS: The patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck demonstrated demographic, clinical, and pathological features that were markedly different according to their smoking and drinking habits. A subset of elderly females who had oral cavity cancer and had never smoked or consumed alcohol was notable. Alcohol consumption seemed to be related to nodal metastasis, whereas smoking correlated with the degree of differentiation.

  18. Significance of the tropical fire ant Solenopsis geminata (hymenoptera: formicidae) as part of the natural enemy complex responsible for successful biological control of many tropical irrigated rice pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Way, M J; Heong, K L

    2009-10-01

    The tropical fire ant Solenopsis geminata (Fabricius) often nests very abundantly in the earthen banks (bunds) around irrigated rice fields in the tropics. Where some farmers habitually drain fields to the mud for about 3-4 days, the ants can quickly spread up to about 20 m into the fields where they collect food, including pest prey such as the eggs and young of the apple snail Pomacea caniculata (Lamarck) and insects such as lepidopterous larvae and hoppers, notably Nilaparvata lugens (Stäl) the brown planthopper (Bph) and green leafhoppers Nephotettix spp. Even in drained fields, the activity of S. geminata is restricted by rainfall in the wet season. The relatively few ant workers that forage characteristically into drained fields and on to the transplanted clumps of rice plants (hills) kill the normally few immigrant Bph adults but are initially slower acting than other species of the natural enemy complex. However, larger populations of Bph are fiercely attacked and effectively controlled by rapidly recruited ant workers; whereas, in the absence of the ant, the other natural enemies are inadequate. In normal circumstances, there is no ant recruitment in response to initially small populations of immigrant Bph and no evidence of incompatibility between ant foragers and other natural enemies such as spiders. However, when many ants are quickly and aggressively recruited to attack large populations of Bph, they temporarily displace some spiders from infested hills. It is concluded that, in suitable weather conditions and even when insecticides kill natural enemies within the rice field, periodic drainage that enables S. geminata to join the predator complex is valuable for ant-based control of pests such as snails and Lepidoptera, and especially against relatively large populations of Bph. Drainage practices to benefit ants are fully compatible with recent research, which shows that periodic drainage combats problems of 'yield decline' in intensively irrigated

  19. Improving significantly the failure strain and work hardening response of LPSO-strengthened Mg-Y-Zn-Al alloy via hot extrusion speed control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xinghe; Chee, Winston; Chan, Jimmy; Kwok, Richard; Gupta, Manoj

    2017-07-01

    The effect of hot extrusion speed on the microstructure and mechanical properties of MgY1.06Zn0.76Al0.42 (at%) alloy strengthened by the novel long-period stacking ordered (LPSO) phase was systematically investigated. Increase in the speed of extrusion accelerated dynamic recrystallization of α-Mg via particle-stimulated nucleation and grain growth in the alloy. The intensive recrystallization and grain growth events weakened the conventional basal texture and Hall-Petch strengthening in the alloy which led to significant improvement in its failure strain from 4.9% to 19.6%. The critical strengthening contribution from LPSO phase known for attributing high strength to the alloy was observed to be greatly undermined by the parallel competition from texture weakening and the adverse Hall-Petch effect when the alloy was extruded at higher speed. Absence of work hardening interestingly observed in the alloy extruded at lower speed was discussed in terms of its ultra-fine grained microstructure which promoted the condition of steady-state defect density in the alloy; where dislocation annihilation balances out the generation of new dislocations during plastic deformation. One approach to improve work hardening response of the alloy to prevent unstable deformation and abrupt failure in service is to increase the grain diameter in the alloy by judiciously increasing the extrusion speed.

  20. Child pain catastrophizing mediates the relation between parent responses to pain and disability in youth with functional abdominal pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Natoshia R; Lynch-Jordan, Anne; Barnett, Kimberly; Peugh, James; Sil, Soumitri; Goldschneider, Kenneth; Kashikar-Zuck, Susmita

    2014-12-01

    Functional abdominal pain (FAP) in youth is associated with substantial impairment in functioning, and prior research has shown that overprotective parent responses can heighten impairment. Little is known about how a range of parental behaviors (overprotection, minimizing, and/or encouragement) in response to their child's pain interact with child coping characteristics (eg, catastrophizing) to influence functioning in youth with FAP. In this study, it was hypothesized that the relation between parenting factors and child disability would be mediated by children's levels of maladaptive coping (ie, pain catastrophizing). Seventy-five patients with FAP presenting to a pediatric pain clinic and their caregivers participated in the study. Youth completed measures of pain intensity (Numeric Rating Scale), pain catastrophizing (Pain Catastrophizing Scale), and disability (Functional Disability Inventory). Caregivers completed measures of parent pain catastrophizing (Pain Catastrophizing Scale), and parent responses to child pain behaviors (Adult Responses to Child Symptoms: Protection, Minimizing, and Encouragement/Monitoring subscales). Increased functional disability was significantly related to higher child pain intensity, increased child and parent pain catastrophizing, and higher levels of encouragement/monitoring and protection. Parent minimization was not related to disability. Child pain catastrophizing fully mediated the relation between parent encouragement/monitoring and disability and partially mediated the relation between parent protectiveness and disability. The impact of parenting behaviors in response to FAP on child disability is determined, in part, by the child's coping style. Findings highlight a more nuanced understanding of the parent-child interaction in determining pain-related disability levels, which should be taken into consideration in assessing and treating youth with FAP.

  1. MaquiBright™ standardized maqui berry extract significantly increases tear fluid production and ameliorates dry eye-related symptoms in a clinical pilot trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitoe, S; Tanaka, J; Shimoda, H

    2014-09-01

    Dry eye symptoms, resulting from insufficient tear fluid generation, represent a considerable burden for a largely underestimated number of people. We concluded from earlier pre-clinical investigations that the etiology of dry eyes encompasses oxidative stress burden to lachrymal glands and that antioxidant MaquiBright™ Aristotelia chilensis berry extract helps restore glandular activity. In this pilot trial we investigated 13 healthy volunteers with moderately dry eyes using Schirmer test, as well as a questionnaire which allows for estimating the impact of dry eyes on daily routines. Study participants were assigned to one of two groups, receiving MaquiBright™ at daily dosage of either 30 mg (N.=7) or 60 mg (N.=6) over a period of 60 days. Both groups presented with significantly (Peye dryness on daily routines was evaluated employing the "Dry Eye-related Quality of life Score" (DEQS), with values spanning from zero (impact) to a maximum score of 60. Participants had comparable baseline values of 41.0±7.7 (30 mg) and 40.2±6.3 (60 mg). With 30 mg treatment the score significantly decreased to 21.8±3.9 and 18.9±3.9, after 30 and 60 days, respectively. With 60 mg treatment the DEQS significantly decreased to 26.9±5.3 and 11.1±2.7, after 30 and 60 days, respectively. Blood was drawn for safety analyses (complete blood rheology and -chemistry) at all three investigative time points without negative findings. In conclusion, while daily supplementation with 30 mg MaquiBright™ is effective, the dosage of 60 significantly increased tear fluid volume at all investigative time points and decreased dry eye symptoms to almost a quarter from initial values after two months treatment.

  2. Marital conflict and parental responses to infant negative emotions: Relations with toddler emotional regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankel, Leslie A; Umemura, Tomo; Jacobvitz, Deborah; Hazen, Nancy

    2015-08-01

    According to family systems theory, children's emotional development is likely to be influenced by family interactions at multiple levels, including marital, mother-child, and father-child interactions, as well as by interrelations between these levels. The purpose of the present study was to examine parents' marital conflict and mothers' and fathers' distressed responses to their infant's negative emotions, assessed when their child was 8 and 24 months old, in addition to interactions between parents' marital conflict and their distressed responses, as predictors of their toddler's negative and flat/withdrawn affect at 24 months. Higher marital conflict during infancy and toddlerhood predicted both increased negative and increased flat/withdrawn affect during toddlerhood. In addition, toddlers' negative (but not flat) affect was related to mothers' distressed responses, but was only related to father's distressed responses when martial conflict was high. Implications of this study for parent education and family intervention were discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Relationship Between Time Consumption and Quality of Responses to Drug-related Queries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amundstuen Reppe, Linda; Lydersen, Stian; Schjøtt, Jan

    2016-01-01

    in score, –0.05 per hour of work; 95% CI, –0.08 to –0.01; P = 0.005). No such associations were found for the internal experts’ assessment. Implications To our knowledge, this is the first study of the association between time consumption and quality of responses to drug-related queries in DICs......Purpose The aims of this study were to assess the quality of responses produced by drug information centers (DICs) in Scandinavia, and to study the association between time consumption processing queries and the quality of the responses. Methods We posed six identical drug-related queries to seven...... DICs in Scandinavia, and the time consumption required for processing them was estimated. Clinical pharmacologists (internal experts) and general practitioners (external experts) reviewed responses individually. We used mixed model linear regression analyses to study the associations between time...

  4. Application of multi response optimization with grey relational analysis and fuzzy logic method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winarni, Sri; Wahyu Indratno, Sapto

    2018-01-01

    Multi-response optimization is an optimization process by considering multiple responses simultaneously. The purpose of this research is to get the optimum point on multi-response optimization process using grey relational analysis and fuzzy logic method. The optimum point is determined from the Fuzzy-GRG (Grey Relational Grade) variable which is the conversion of the Signal to Noise Ratio of the responses involved. The case study used in this research are case optimization of electrical process parameters in electrical disharge machining. It was found that the combination of treatments resulting to optimum MRR and SR was a 70 V gap voltage factor, peak current 9 A and duty factor 0.8.

  5. Depersonalization experiences in undergraduates are related to heightened stress cortisol responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giesbrecht, Timo; Smeets, Tom; Merckelbach, Harald; Jelicic, Marko

    2007-04-01

    The relationship between dissociative tendencies, as measured with the Dissociative Experiences Scale and its amnesia, absorption/imaginative involvement, and depersonalization/derealization subscales, and HPA axis functioning was studied in 2 samples of undergraduate students (N = 58 and 67). Acute stress was induced by means of the Trier Social Stress Test. Subjective and physiological stress (i.e., cortisol) responses were measured. Individuals high on the depersonalization/derealization subscale of the Dissociative Experiences Scale exhibited more pronounced cortisol responses, while individuals high on the absorption subscale showed attenuated responses. Interestingly, subjective stress experiences, as indicated by the Tension-Anxiety subscale of the Profile of Mood States, were positively related to trait dissociation. The present findings illustrate how various types of dissociation (i.e., depersonalization/derealization, absorption) are differentially related to cortisol stress responses.

  6. Relations of nostalgia with music to emotional response and recall of autobiographical memory

    OpenAIRE

    小林, 麻美; 岩永, 誠; 生和, 秀敏

    2002-01-01

    Previous researches suggest that musical mood and preferences affects on emotional response, and that context of music also affects on musical-dependent memory. We often feel 'nostalgia' when listening to old familiar tunes. Nostalgia is related to eliciting positive emotions, recall of autobiographical memory and positive evaluations for recall contents. The present study aimed to examine effects of musical mood, preference and nostalgia on emotional responses, the amounts of recall of autob...

  7. Unraveling uranium induced oxidative stress related responses in Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings. Part I: responses in the roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhoudt, Nathalie; Vandenhove, Hildegarde; Horemans, Nele; Remans, Tony; Opdenakker, Kelly; Smeets, Karen; Bello, Daniel Martinez; Wannijn, Jean; Van Hees, May; Vangronsveld, Jaco; Cuypers, Ann

    2011-06-01

    When aiming to evaluate the environmental impact of uranium contamination, it is important to unravel the mechanisms by which plants respond to uranium stress. As oxidative stress seems an important modulator under other heavy metal stress, this study aimed to investigate oxidative stress related responses in Arabidopsis thaliana exposed to uranium concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 100 μM for 1, 3 and 7 days. Besides analyzing relevant reactive oxygen species-producing and -scavenging enzymes at protein and transcriptional level, the importance of the ascorbate-glutathione cycle under uranium stress was investigated. These results are reported separately for roots and leaves in two papers: Part I dealing with responses in the roots and Part II unraveling responses in the leaves and presenting general conclusions. Results of Part I indicate that oxidative stress related responses in the roots were only triggered following exposure to the highest uranium concentration of 100 μM. A fast oxidative burst was suggested based on the observed enhancement of lipoxygenase (LOX1) and respiratory burst oxydase homolog (RBOHD) transcript levels already after 1 day. The first line of defense was attributed to superoxide dismutase (SOD), also triggered from the first day. The enhanced SOD-capacity observed at protein level corresponded with an enhanced expression of iron SOD (FSD1) located in the plastids. For the detoxification of H(2)O(2), an early increase in catalase (CAT1) transcript levels was observed while peroxidase capacities were enhanced at the later stage of 3 days. Although the ascorbate peroxidase capacity and gene expression (APX1) increased, the ascorbate/dehydroascorbate redox balance was completely disrupted and shifted toward the oxidized form. This disrupted balance could not be inverted by the glutathione part of the cycle although the glutathione redox balance could be maintained. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A face a mother could love: depression-related maternal neural responses to infant emotion faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Heidemarie K; Ablow, Jennifer C

    2013-01-01

    Depressed mothers show negatively biased responses to their infants' emotional bids, perhaps due to faulty processing of infant cues. This study is the first to examine depression-related differences in mothers' neural response to their own infant's emotion faces, considering both effects of perinatal depression history and current depressive symptoms. Primiparous mothers (n = 22), half of whom had a history of major depressive episodes (with one episode occurring during pregnancy and/or postpartum), were exposed to images of their own and unfamiliar infants' joy and distress faces during functional neuroimaging. Group differences (depression vs. no-depression) and continuous effects of current depressive symptoms were tested in relation to neural response to own infant emotion faces. Compared to mothers with no psychiatric diagnoses, those with depression showed blunted responses to their own infant's distress faces in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex. Mothers with higher levels of current symptomatology showed reduced responses to their own infant's joy faces in the orbitofrontal cortex and insula. Current symptomatology also predicted lower responses to own infant joy-distress in left-sided prefrontal and insula/striatal regions. These deficits in self-regulatory and motivational response circuits may help explain parenting difficulties in depressed mothers.

  9. Relative accretion of /sup 99m/Tc-polyphosphate by forming and resorbing bone systems in rats: its significance in the pathologic basis of bone scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, D.A.; Tow, D.E.; Kapur, K.K.; Wells, H.

    1976-01-01

    The relative roles of osteogenesis and osteolysis in the production of positive radionuclide images of skeletal lesions were investigated. The uptake of /sup 99m/Tc-polyphosphate (Tc-PP) by each process was measured in an animal model that permitted bone formation and resorption to be studied independently. Ten rats received intramuscular implants of bone-forming demineralized matrix (DM) and resorbing devitalized bone (DV). Radiographs and Tc-PP scintiscans were made each week thereafter. At 6 to 10 weeks, the implants and normal bone samples were removed, counted for /sup 99m/Tc, and examined histologically. The uptake of Tc-PP by DM implants was first detected on images made 3 weeks after implantation, and by DV implants, 1 to 2 weeks later. Serial radiography showed progressive calcification of DM and resorption of DV implants. Microscopic examinations of undecalcified sections, stained with a modified Goldner preparation, revealed vital-bone formation in the DM implants and osteoclastic resorption in the DV. Activity counts per gram of DM and DV implants were, respectively, 200 percent and 90 percent that of normal bone. Since only the bone-forming system (DM) accumulated Tc-PP at greater than normal concentrations, this study indicates that positive bone images of osteolytic lesions solely reflect compensatory osteogenic responses

  10. Co-relation of variables as determined from panoramic radiograph and evaluating their significance in eruption of permanent mandibular third molar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kushal Amin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the Study: Purpose of the study is to investigate whether the variables associated with the permanent mandibular third molar (PMM3 and arch dimensions could be co-related and significantly differentiated between a fully erupted and mesially impacted PMM3 among a set of Indian population. Study Design: A standardized panoramic radiograph was taken of subjects of age 21 years and above. Patients with missing tooth from mandibular arch, subjects undergoing or having history of orthodontic treatment, subjects having disto-angular, horizontal or vertical impacted PMM3 were excluded from the study. Subjects were divided into 2 groups: (1 mesially impacted PMM3 and (2 vertically erupted PMM3. Following measurements were taken from acetate paper tracing of standardized panoramic radiograph: (1 Angulation of long axis of PMM3 to permanent mandibular second molar (theta (2 Angulation of PMM 3 to base of mandible (theta 2 (3 Gonial angle (theta 3 (4 Mesio-distal width of PMM 3 (5 Retro molar space. From these measurements Ganss ratio (retro molar space /PMM3 crown width. was calculated. Results and Conclusion: Results revealed that angle theta 1, angle theta 2, retro molar space and Ganss ratio were positively co-related and highly significant variables associated with the mesially and vertically erupted teeth as measured on panoramic radiograph. Using these variables a long-term study can be carried out to predict the ultimate position of lower third molar in the arch so that if there is a probability of the tooth being impacted at a later age, a prophylactic germectomy can be performed at an early age.

  11. Lateral hypothalamus contains two types of palatability-related taste responses with distinct dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jennifer X; Yoshida, Takashi; Monk, Kevin J; Katz, Donald B

    2013-05-29

    The taste of foods, in particular the palatability of these tastes, exerts a powerful influence on our feeding choices. Although the lateral hypothalamus (LH) has long been known to regulate feeding behavior, taste processing in LH remains relatively understudied. Here, we examined single-unit LH responses in rats subjected to a battery of taste stimuli that differed in both chemical composition and palatability. Like neurons in cortex and amygdala, LH neurons produced a brief epoch of nonspecific responses followed by a protracted period of taste-specific firing. Unlike in cortex, however, where palatability-related information only appears 500 ms after the onset of taste-specific firing, taste specificity in LH was dominated by palatability-related firing, consistent with LH's role as a feeding center. Upon closer inspection, taste-specific LH neurons fell reliably into one of two subtypes: the first type showed a reliable affinity for palatable tastes, low spontaneous firing rates, phasic responses, and relatively narrow tuning; the second type showed strongest modulation to aversive tastes, high spontaneous firing rates, protracted responses, and broader tuning. Although neurons producing both types of responses were found within the same regions of LH, cross-correlation analyses suggest that they may participate in distinct functional networks. Our data shed light on the implementation of palatability processing both within LH and throughout the taste circuit, and may ultimately have implications for LH's role in the formation and maintenance of taste preferences and aversions.

  12. Orientations and Relative Shear-strain Response Coefficients for PBO Gladwin Tensor Strainmeters from Teleseismic Love Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roeloffs, E. A.

    2016-12-01

    A Gladwin Tensor Strainmeter (GTSM) is designed to measure changes of the horizontal strain tensor, derived as linear combinations of radial elongations or contractions of the strainmeter's cylindrical housing measured at four azimuths. Each radial measurement responds to changes in the areal, horizontal shear and vertical components of the strain tensor in the surrounding formation. The elastic response coefficients to these components depend on the relative elastic moduli of the housing, formation, and cement. These coefficients must be inferred for each strainmeter after it is cemented into its borehole by analyzing the instrument response to well-characterized strain signals such as earth tides. For some GTSMs of the Earthscope Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO), however, reconciling observed earth-tide signals with modeled tidal strains requires response coefficients that differ substantially between the instrument's four gauges, and/or orientation corrections of tens of degrees. GTSM response coefficients can also be estimated from high-resolution records of teleseismic Love waves from great earthquakes around the world. Such records can be used in conjunction with apparent propagation azimuths from nearby broadband seismic stations to determine the GTSM's orientation. Knowing the orientation allows the ratios between the shear strain response coefficients of a GTSM's four gauges to be estimated. Applying this analysis to 14 PBO GTSMs confirms that orientations of some instruments differ significantly from orientations measured during installation. Orientations inferred from earth-tide response tend to agree with those inferred from Love waves for GTSMs far from tidal water bodies, but to differ for GTSMs closer to coastlines. Orientations derived from teleseismic Love waves agree with those estimated by Grant and Langston (2010) using strains from a broadband seismic array near Anza, California. PBO GTSM recordings of teleseismic Love waves show differences of

  13. Intensity and Pattern of Enhancement on CESM: Prognostic Significance and its Relation to Expression of Podoplanin in Tumor Stroma - A Preliminary Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luczynska, Elzbieta; Niemiec, Joanna; Heinze, Sylwia; Adamczyk, Agnieszka; Ambicka, Aleksandra; Marcyniuk, Paulina; Rudnicki, Wojciech; Mitus, Jerzy W; Dyczek, Sonia; Rys, Janusz; Sas-Korczynska, Beata

    2018-02-01

    It is possible that the degree of enhancement on contrast-enhanced spectral mammography (CESM), a new diagnostic method, might provide prognostic information for breast cancer patients. Therefore, in a group of 82 breast cancer patients, we analyzed the prognostic significance of degree and pattern of enhancement on CESM as well as its relation to: (a) breast cancer immunophenotype (based on ER/PR/HER2 status) (b) podoplanin expression in cancer stroma (lymphatic vessel density plus podoplanin-positivity of cancer-associated fibroblasts), and (c) other histological parameters. For each tumor the intensity of enhancement on CESM was qualitatively assessed as strong or weak/medium, while the pattern - as homogenous and heterogenous. Herein we report, for the first time, that strong and heterogenous enhancement on CESM was related to unfavorable disease-free survival of breast cancer patients (p=0.005). Moreover, the strong enhancement was more frequent in large and node-positive tumors (pT>1, pN>0) (p=0.002), as well as in carcinomas with podoplanin-sparse stroma (p=0.008). Intensity and pattern of enhancement on CESM might provide (together with the results of other diagnostic imaging methods) not only the confirmation of presence or absence of tumor, but also prognostic information. Copyright© 2018, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  14. Contingency awareness shapes acquisition and extinction of emotional responses in a conditioning model of pain-related fear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franziska eLabrenz

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available As a fundamental learning process, fear conditioning promotes the formation of associations between predictive cues and biologically-significant signals. In its application to pain, conditioning may provide important insight into mechanisms underlying pain-related fear, although knowledge especially in interoceptive pain paradigms remains scarce. Furthermore, while the influence of contingency awareness on excitatory learning is subject of ongoing debate, its role in pain-related acquisition is poorly understood and essentially unknown regarding extinction as inhibitory learning. Therefore, we addressed the impact of contingency awareness on learned emotional responses to pain- and safety-predictive cues in a combined dataset of two pain-related conditioning studies.In total, 75 healthy participants underwent differential fear acquisition, during which rectal distensions as interoceptive unconditioned stimuli (US were repeatedly paired with a predictive visual cue (conditioned stimulus; CS+ while another cue (CS- was presented unpaired. During extinction, both CS were presented without US. CS valence, indicating learned emotional responses, and CS-US contingencies were assessed on visual analogue scales. Based on an integrative measure of contingency accuracy, a median-split was performed to compare groups with low versus high contingency accuracy regarding learned emotional responses. To investigate predictive value of contingency accuracy, regression analyses were conducted. Highly accurate individuals revealed more pronounced negative emotional responses to CS+ and increased positive responses to CS- when compared to participants with low contingency accuracy. Following extinction, highly accurate individuals had fully extinguished pain-predictive cue properties, while exhibiting persistent positive emotional responses to safety signals. In contrast, individuals with low accuracy revealed equally positive emotional responses to both, CS+ and

  15. Contingency Awareness Shapes Acquisition and Extinction of Emotional Responses in a Conditioning Model of Pain-Related Fear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labrenz, Franziska; Icenhour, Adriane; Benson, Sven; Elsenbruch, Sigrid

    2015-01-01

    As a fundamental learning process, fear conditioning promotes the formation of associations between predictive cues and biologically significant signals. In its application to pain, conditioning may provide important insight into mechanisms underlying pain-related fear, although knowledge especially in interoceptive pain paradigms remains scarce. Furthermore, while the influence of contingency awareness on excitatory learning is subject of ongoing debate, its role in pain-related acquisition is poorly understood and essentially unknown regarding extinction as inhibitory learning. Therefore, we addressed the impact of contingency awareness on learned emotional responses to pain- and safety-predictive cues in a combined dataset of two pain-related conditioning studies. In total, 75 healthy participants underwent differential fear acquisition, during which rectal distensions as interoceptive unconditioned stimuli (US) were repeatedly paired with a predictive visual cue (conditioned stimulus; CS(+)) while another cue (CS(-)) was presented unpaired. During extinction, both CS were presented without US. CS valence, indicating learned emotional responses, and CS-US contingencies were assessed on visual analog scales (VAS). Based on an integrative measure of contingency accuracy, a median-split was performed to compare groups with low vs. high contingency accuracy regarding learned emotional responses. To investigate predictive value of contingency accuracy, regression analyses were conducted. Highly accurate individuals revealed more pronounced negative emotional responses to CS(+) and increased positive responses to CS(-) when compared to participants with low contingency accuracy. Following extinction, highly accurate individuals had fully extinguished pain-predictive cue properties, while exhibiting persistent positive emotional responses to safety signals. In contrast, individuals with low accuracy revealed equally positive emotional responses to both, CS(+) and CS

  16. Drought responses of three closely related Caragana species: implication for their vicarious distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Fei; Na, Xiaofan; Xu, Tingting

    2016-05-01

    Drought is a major environmental constraint affecting growth and distribution of plants in the desert region of the Inner Mongolia plateau. Caragana microphylla, C. liouana, and C. korshinskii are phylogenetically close but distribute vicariously in Mongolia plateau. To gain a better understanding of the ecological differentiation between these three species, we examined the leaf gas exchange, growth, water use efficiency, biomass accumulation and allocation by subjecting their seedlings to low and high drought treatments in a glasshouse. Increasing drought stress had a significant effect on many aspects of seedling performance in all species, but the physiology and growth varied with species in response to drought. C. korshinskii exhibited lower sensitivity of photosynthetic rate and growth, lower specific leaf area, higher biomass allocation to roots, higher levels of water use efficiency to drought compared with the other two species. Only minor interspecific differences in growth performances were observed between C. liouana and C. microphylla. These results indicated that faster seedling growth rate and more efficient water use of C. korshinskii should confer increased drought tolerance and facilitate its establishment in more severe drought regions relative to C. liouana and C. microphylla.

  17. HIF- and Non-HIF-Regulated Hypoxic Responses Require the Estrogen-Related Receptor in Drosophila melanogaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Padmanabha, Divya; Gentile, Luciana B.; Dumur, Catherine I.; Beckstead, Robert B.; Baker, Keith D.

    2013-01-01

    Low-oxygen tolerance is supported by an adaptive response that includes a coordinate shift in metabolism and the activation of a transcriptional program that is driven by the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) pathway. The precise contribution of HIF-1a in the adaptive response, however, has not been determined. Here, we investigate how HIF influences hypoxic adaptation throughout Drosophila melanogaster development. We find that hypoxic-induced transcriptional changes are comprised of HIF-dependent and HIF-independent pathways that are distinct and separable. We show that normoxic set-points of carbohydrate metabolites are significantly altered in sima mutants and that these animals are unable to mobilize glycogen in hypoxia. Furthermore, we find that the estrogen-related receptor (dERR), which is a global regulator of aerobic glycolysis in larvae, is required for a competent hypoxic response. dERR binds to dHIFa and participates in the HIF-dependent transcriptional program in hypoxia. In addition, dERR acts in the absence of dHIFa in hypoxia and a significant portion of HIF-independent transcriptional responses can be attributed to dERR actions, including upregulation of glycolytic transcripts. These results indicate that competent hypoxic responses arise from complex interactions between HIF-dependent and -independent mechanisms, and that dERR plays a central role in both of these programs. PMID:23382692

  18. Quantum work relations and response theory in parity-time-symmetric quantum systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Bo-Bo

    2018-01-01

    In this work, we show that a universal quantum work relation for a quantum system driven arbitrarily far from equilibrium extends to a parity-time- (PT -) symmetric quantum system with unbroken PT symmetry, which is a consequence of microscopic reversibility. The quantum Jarzynski equality, linear response theory, and Onsager reciprocal relations for the PT -symmetric quantum system are recovered as special cases of the universal quantum work relation in a PT -symmetric quantum system. In the regime of broken PT symmetry, the universal quantum work relation does not hold because the norm is not preserved during the dynamics.

  19. Assessment of Sexual Desire for Clinical Trials of Women With Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder: Measures, Desire-Related Behavior, and Assessment of Clinical Significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyke, Robert E; Clayton, Anita H

    2018-01-19

    The Female Sexual Function Index-desire subscale is the standard measure for clinical trials of hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD), but lacks items assessing sexually related behaviors and attitudes toward partner. Counting satisfying sexual events is criticized, but sexual behavior remains important. Mean treatment differences cannot define clinical significance; responder and remitter analyses help. We reviewed measures on sexual desire and sexual behavior relevant to HSDD, and how to assess clinical significance. We conducted a literature review of measures of sexual desire comparing expert-proposed criteria for dysfunctional desire, expert-developed scales, and scales from patient input. Commonly recognized symptoms of HSDD were identified. Results of HSDD trials and scale validation studies were evaluated to extract responder and remitter values. The utility of distribution-based measures of responders and remitters was assessed. Symptom relevance was evaluated as the proportion of symptom sets that included the item; responder and remitter cut points were determined by distribution-based methods. 12 Validated rating scales, 5 scales primarily derived from expert recommendations and 7 scales initially from patient input, and 5 sets of diagnostic criteria for conditions like HSDD were compared. Content varied highly between scales despite compliance with U.S. Food and Drug Administration recommendations for patient-reported outcomes. This disunity favors an expert-recommended scale such as the Elements of Desire Questionnaire with each of the common items, plus a measure of frequency of sexual activity, eg, item in the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System. Registrational drug trials, but not psychological treatment trials, usually give responder/remitter analyses, using dichotomized global impressions or anchor-based definitions. Distribution-based methods are more uniformly applicable to define responder and remitter status. The

  20. Dose-response relations for stricture in the proximal oesophagus from head and neck radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alevronta, Eleftheria; Ahlberg, Alexander; Mavroidis, Panayiotis; Al-Abany, Massoud; Friesland, Signe; Tilikidis, Aris; Laurell, Goeran; Lind, Bengt K.

    2010-01-01

    Background and purpose: Determination of the dose-response relations for oesophageal stricture after radiotherapy of the head and neck. Material and methods: In this study 33 patients who developed oesophageal stricture and 39 patients as controls are included. The patients received radiation therapy for head and neck cancer at Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden. For each patient the 3D dose distribution delivered to the upper 5 cm of the oesophagus was analysed. The analysis was conducted for two periods, 1992-2000 and 2001-2005, due to the different irradiation techniques used. The fitting has been done using the relative seriality model. Results: For the treatment period 1992-2005, the mean doses were 49.8 and 33.4 Gy, respectively, for the cases and the controls. For the period 1992-2000, the mean doses for the cases and the controls were 49.9 and 45.9 Gy and for the period 2001-2005 were 49.8 and 21.4 Gy. For the period 2001-2005 the best estimates of the dose-response parameters are D 50 = 61.5 Gy (52.9-84.9 Gy), γ = 1.4 (0.8-2.6) and s = 0.1 (0.01-0.3). Conclusions: Radiation-induced strictures were found to have a dose response relation and volume dependence (low relative seriality) for the treatment period 2001-2005. However, no dose response relation was found for the complete material.

  1. Work-related fatigue and recovery: the contribution of age, domestic responsibilities and shiftwork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winwood, Peter C; Winefield, Antony H; Lushington, Kurt

    2006-11-01

    This paper reports a study of the relationship between age, domestic responsibilities (being partnered and having dependents), recovery from shiftwork-related fatigue and the evolution of maladaptive health outcomes among full-time working female nurses. Several studies have suggested that full-time working women with family responsibilities are at greater risk of developing work-related fatigue problems than single women without these responsibilities. A questionnaire was distributed in 2004 to 2400 nurses at two hospitals in Australia, and 1280 responses were obtained (response rate 54%). The data from a purposive sample of 846 full-time working nurses are reported here. Domestic responsibilities were not related to differences in fatigue and recovery. Our results suggested that for full-time shiftworking nurses, being part of a family structure, may actually be protective against the development of maladaptive fatigue. The most important factor determining maladaptive fatigue outcome was shift pattern worked, particularly rotation including night duty. The effect of age was equivocal. The youngest age group reported the highest fatigue and poorest recovery compared to the oldest group, who reported the best characteristics. However, this latter group may represent a particularly well-adapted 'survivor cohort'. The relationship between age and fatigue was partly confounded by older, experienced, nurses with greater job responsibilities, working fewer multiple shifts including night duty. In general, increasing age was not associated with poorer recovery or higher maladaptive fatigue. Unpredictable internal shift rotations, including night duty, which are traditional and typical in nursing, are inimical to maintaining nurses' health. More creative approaches to rostering for nurses working multiple shifts are a necessary step towards reducing wastage from the profession due to chronic work-related fatigue. Younger nurses in particular, may need more support than

  2. Human rights responsibilities of pharmaceutical companies in relation to access to medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joo-Young; Hunt, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Although access to medicines is a vital feature of the right to the highest attainable standard of health ("right to health"), almost two billion people lack access to essential medicines, leading to immense avoidable suffering. While the human rights responsibility to provide access to medicines lies mainly with States, pharmaceutical companies also have human rights responsibilities in relation to access to medicines. This article provides an introduction to these responsibilities. It briefly outlines the new UN Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights and places the human rights responsibilities of pharmaceutical companies in this context. The authors draw from the work of the first UN Special Rapporteur on the right to the highest attainable standard of health, in particular the Human Rights Guidelines for Pharmaceutical Companies in Relation to Access to Medicines that he presented to the UN General Assembly in 2008, and his UN report on GlaxoSmithKline (GSK). While the Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights are general human rights standards applicable to all business entities, the Human Rights Guidelines for Pharmaceutical Companies consider the specific human rights responsibilities of one sector (pharmaceutical companies) in relation to one area of activity (access to medicines). The article signals the human rights responsibilities of all pharmaceutical companies, with particular attention to patent-holding pharmaceutical companies. Adopting a right-to-health "lens," the article discusses GSK and accountability. The authors argue that human rights should shape pharmaceutical companies' policies, and provide standards in relation to which pharmaceutical companies could, and should, be held accountable. They conclude that it is now crucial to devise independent, accessible, transparent, and effective mechanisms to monitor pharmaceutical companies and hold them publicly accountable for their human rights responsibilities. © 2012 American

  3. Neurophysiological mechanisms underlying sex- and maturation-related variation in pheromone responses in honey bees (Apis mellifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villar, Gabriel; Baker, Thomas C; Patch, Harland M; Grozinger, Christina M

    2015-07-01

    In the honey bee (Apis mellifera), social organization is primarily mediated by pheromones. Queen-produced 9-oxo-2-decenoic acid (9-ODA) functions as both a social and sex pheromone, eliciting attraction in both female workers and male drones, but also affecting other critical aspects of worker physiology and behavior. These effects are also maturation related, as younger workers and sexually mature drones are most receptive to 9-ODA. While changes in the peripheral nervous system drive sex-related differences in sensitivity to 9-ODA, the mechanisms driving maturation-related shifts in receptivity to 9-ODA remain unknown. Here, we investigate the hypothesis that changes at the peripheral nervous system may be mediating plastic responses to 9-ODA by characterizing expression levels of AmOR11 (the olfactory receptor tuned to 9-ODA) and electrophysiological responses to 9-ODA. We find that receptor expression correlates significantly with behavioral receptivity to 9-ODA, with nurses and sexually mature drones exhibiting higher levels of expression than foragers and immature drones, respectively. Electrophysiological responses to 9-ODA were not found to correlate with behavioral receptivity or receptor expression, however. Thus, while receptor expression at the periphery exhibits a level of plasticity that correlates with behavior, the mechanisms driving maturation-dependent responsiveness to 9-ODA appear to function primarily in the central nervous system.

  4. Cardiac responses predict decisions: an investigation of the relation between orienting response and decisions in the ultimatum game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osumi, Takahiro; Ohira, Hideki

    2009-10-01

    Emotion-based behaviors in humans cannot be fully explained by economic rationality. Particularly, in the ultimatum game, which incorporates conflict between self-interest and fairness, negative emotions evoked by an unfair offer seem to promote an economically irrational decision. In accordance with this suggestion, the previous studies have reported that physiological arousal is associated with rejecting unfair offers. In the present study, we investigated electrocardiogram and electrodermal activities in individuals which received fair, advantageously unfair, and disadvantageously unfair offers to specify the relations of the orienting and the defensive responses with these offers and with the decisions to accept and reject them. The results indicated that when an offer that would be rejected was presented, heart rate initially decelerated more than when an offer that would be accepted was presented. Additionally, there was a linear relationship between the deceleration and unfairness of offers. On the other hand, such different patterns were not seen in late cardiac acceleration or electrodermal response. The results suggest that because of perception of disadvantage and unpleasantness in a social context, the orienting response is evoked when an offer will be rejected. In addition, these results are discussed regarding the effect of the autonomic activity in decision-making.

  5. Antibody responses against xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus envelope in a murine model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Makarova

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV was recently discovered to be the first human gammaretrovirus that is associated with chronic fatigue syndrome and prostate cancer (PC. Although a mechanism for XMRV carcinogenesis is yet to be established, this virus belongs to the family of gammaretroviruses well known for their ability to induce cancer in the infected hosts. Since its original identification XMRV has been detected in several independent investigations; however, at this time significant controversy remains regarding reports of XMRV detection/prevalence in other cohorts and cell type/tissue distribution. The potential risk of human infection, coupled with the lack of knowledge about the basic biology of XMRV, warrants further research, including investigation of adaptive immune responses. To study immunogenicity in vivo, we vaccinated mice with a combination of recombinant vectors expressing codon-optimized sequences of XMRV gag and env genes and virus-like particles (VLP that had the size and morphology of live infectious XMRV.Immunization elicited Env-specific binding and neutralizing antibodies (NAb against XMRV in mice. The peak titers for ELISA-binding antibodies and NAb were 1:1024 and 1:464, respectively; however, high ELISA-binding and NAb titers were not sustained and persisted for less than three weeks after immunizations.Vaccine-induced XMRV Env antibody titers were transiently high, but their duration was short. The relatively rapid diminution in antibody levels may in part explain the differing prevalences reported for XMRV in various prostate cancer and chronic fatigue syndrome cohorts. The low level of immunogenicity observed in the present study may be characteristic of a natural XMRV infection in humans.

  6. Dose response and factors related to interstitial pneumonitis after bone marrow transplant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sampath, Sagus; Schultheiss, Timothy E.; Wong, Jeffrey

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Total body irradiation (TBI) and chemotherapy are common components of conditioning regimens for bone marrow transplantation. Interstitial pneumonitis (IP) is a known regimen-related complication. Using published data of IP in a multivariate logistic regression, this study sought to identify the parameters in the bone marrow transplantation conditioning regimen that were significantly associated with IP and to establish a radiation dose-response function. Methods and Materials: A retrospective review was conducted of articles that reported IP incidence along with lung dose, fractionation, dose rate, and chemotherapy regimen. In the final analysis, 20 articles (n = 1090 patients), consisting of 26 distinct TBI/chemotherapy regimens, were included in the analysis. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to determine dosimetric and chemotherapeutic factors that influenced the incidence of IP. Results: A logistic model was generated from patients receiving daily fractions of radiation. In this model, lung dose, cyclophosphamide dose, and the addition of busulfan were significantly associated with IP. An incidence of 3%-4% with chemotherapy-only conditioning regimens is estimated from the models. The α/β value of the linear-quadratic model was estimated to be 2.8 Gy. The dose eliciting a 50% incidence, D 50 , for IP after 120 mg/kg of cyclophosphamide was 8.8 Gy; in the absence of chemotherapy, the estimated D 50 is 10.6 Gy. No dose rate effect was observed. The use of busulfan as a substitute for radiation is equivalent to treating with 14.8 Gy in 4 fractions with 50% transmission blocks shielding the lung. The logistic regression failed to find a model that adequately fit the multiple-fraction-per-day data. Conclusions: Dose responses for both lung radiation dose and cyclophosphamide dose were identified. A conditioning regimen of 12 Gy TBI in 6 daily fractions induces an IP incidence of about 11% in the absence of lung shielding. Shielding the lung

  7. The Relation Between Policies concerning Corporate Social Responsibility and Philosophical Moral Theories

    OpenAIRE

    Frederiksen, Claus S.

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the relation between policies concerning Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) and philosophical moral theories. The objective is to determine which moral theories form the basis for CSR policies. Are they based on ethical egoism, libertarianism, utilitarianism or some kind of common-sense morality? To address this issue, I conducted an empirical investigation examining the relation between moral theories and CSR policies, in companies engaged in CSR. Based ...

  8. Decreased Taxon-Specific IgA Response in Relation to the Changes of Gut Microbiota Composition in the Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirosuke Sugahara

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Gut microbiota is known to change with aging; however, the underlying mechanisms have not been well elucidated. Immunoglobulin A (IgA is the dominant class of antibody secreted by the intestinal mucosa, and are thought to play a key role in the regulation of the gut microbiota. T cells regulate the magnitude and nature of microbiota-specific IgA responses. However, it is also known that T cells become senescent in elderly people. Therefore, we speculated that the age-related changes of IgA response against the gut microbiota might be one of the mechanisms causing the age-associated changes of gut microbiota composition. To prove our hypothesis, fecal samples from 40 healthy subjects (adult group: n = 20, an average of 35 years old; elderly group: n = 20, an average of 76 years old were collected, and the gut microbiota composition and the response of IgA to gut microbiota were investigated. The relative abundance of Bifidobacteriaceae was significantly lower, whereas those of Clostridiaceae, Clostridiales;f__ and Enterobacteriaceae were significantly higher in the elderly group than in the adult group. There was no significant difference in the fecal IgA concentration between the adult and elderly groups. However, the taxon-specific IgA response to some bacterial taxa was different between the adult and elderly groups. To evaluate inter-group differences in the taxon-specific IgA response to each bacterial taxon, the IgA-indices were calculated, and the IgA-indices of Clostridiaceae and Enterobacteriaceae were found to be significantly lower in the elderly group than the adult group. In addition, Clostridiales;f__ and Enterobacteriaceae were significantly enriched in the IgA+ fraction in the adult group but not in the elderly group, whereas Clostridiaceae was significantly enriched in the IgA- fraction in the elderly group but not in the adult group. Some species assigned to Clostridiaceae or Enterobacteriaceae are known to be pathogenic

  9. Facial EMG responses to emotional expressions are related to emotion perception ability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janina Künecke

    Full Text Available Although most people can identify facial expressions of emotions well, they still differ in this ability. According to embodied simulation theories understanding emotions of others is fostered by involuntarily mimicking the perceived expressions, causing a "reactivation" of the corresponding mental state. Some studies suggest automatic facial mimicry during expression viewing; however, findings on the relationship between mimicry and emotion perception abilities are equivocal. The present study investigated individual differences in emotion perception and its relationship to facial muscle responses - recorded with electromyogram (EMG--in response to emotional facial expressions. N° = °269 participants completed multiple tasks measuring face and emotion perception. EMG recordings were taken from a subsample (N° = °110 in an independent emotion classification task of short videos displaying six emotions. Confirmatory factor analyses of the m. corrugator supercilii in response to angry, happy, sad, and neutral expressions showed that individual differences in corrugator activity can be separated into a general response to all faces and an emotion-related response. Structural equation modeling revealed a substantial relationship between the emotion-related response and emotion perception ability, providing evidence for the role of facial muscle activation in emotion perception from an individual differences perspective.

  10. Facial EMG responses to emotional expressions are related to emotion perception ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Künecke, Janina; Hildebrandt, Andrea; Recio, Guillermo; Sommer, Werner; Wilhelm, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    Although most people can identify facial expressions of emotions well, they still differ in this ability. According to embodied simulation theories understanding emotions of others is fostered by involuntarily mimicking the perceived expressions, causing a "reactivation" of the corresponding mental state. Some studies suggest automatic facial mimicry during expression viewing; however, findings on the relationship between mimicry and emotion perception abilities are equivocal. The present study investigated individual differences in emotion perception and its relationship to facial muscle responses - recorded with electromyogram (EMG)--in response to emotional facial expressions. N° = °269 participants completed multiple tasks measuring face and emotion perception. EMG recordings were taken from a subsample (N° = °110) in an independent emotion classification task of short videos displaying six emotions. Confirmatory factor analyses of the m. corrugator supercilii in response to angry, happy, sad, and neutral expressions showed that individual differences in corrugator activity can be separated into a general response to all faces and an emotion-related response. Structural equation modeling revealed a substantial relationship between the emotion-related response and emotion perception ability, providing evidence for the role of facial muscle activation in emotion perception from an individual differences perspective.

  11. Striatal dopaminergic reward response relates to age of first drunkenness and feedback response in at-risk youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiland, Barbara J; Zucker, Robert A; Zubieta, Jon-Kar; Heitzeg, Mary M

    2017-03-01

    Dopamine receptor concentrations, primarily in the striatum, are hypothesized to contribute to a developmental imbalance between subcortical and prefrontal control systems in emerging adulthood potentially biasing motivation and increasing risky behaviors. Positron emission tomography studies have found significant reductions in striatal dopamine D2 receptors, and blunted amphetamine-induced dopamine release, in substance users compared with healthy controls. Extant literature is limited and inconsistent concerning vulnerability associated with having a family history of substance abuse (FH+). Some studies have reported familial liability associated with higher dopamine receptor levels, reduced dopamine response to stimulant challenges and decreased response to oral alcohol. However, other reports have failed to find group differences based on family history. We explored the interaction of familial liability and behavioral risk with multi-modal molecular and neural imaging of the dopaminergic system. Forty-four young adult male subjects performed monetary incentive delay tasks during both [ 11 C]raclopride positron emission tomography and functional magnetic resonance imaging scans. FH+ subjects were identified as low (n = 24) or high risk (n = 9) based on early initiation of drunkenness. FH+ high-risk subjects exhibited heightened striatal dopamine response to monetary reward but did not differ in neural activations compared with FH+ low risk subjects and controls with no familial loading (n = 11). Across all subjects, a negative relationship was found between dopamine release and age of first drunkenness and a positive relationship with neural response to reward receipt. These results suggest that in at-risk individuals, higher dopamine transmission associated with monetary reward may represent a particularly useful neurobiological phenotype. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  12. Daily Administration of Short-Acting Liothyronine Is Associated with Significant Triiodothyronine Excursions and Fails to Alter Thyroid-Responsive Parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonklaas, Jacqueline; Burman, Kenneth D

    2016-06-01

    Although most studies of levothyroxine-liothyronine combination therapy employ once-daily hormone administration, the kinetics of once-daily liothyronine have been studied infrequently. The aim of this study was to document both the peak and trough serum triiodothyronine (T3) levels that occur with once-daily liothyronine administration, along with changes in thyroid-responsive parameters. Participants with hypothyroidism were studied prospectively at an academic institution. Patients were switched from levothyroxine monotherapy to liothyronine monotherapy with 15 μg liothyronine for two weeks, and then continued liothyronine at doses of 30-45 μg for a further four weeks in an open-label, single-arm study. Weekly trough levels of T3 were documented. In addition, hourly T3 concentrations immediately following liothyronine tablet administration were documented for eight hours during the sixth week of therapy. Serum thyrotropin (TSH) and free thyroxine (fT4) concentrations were documented. Biochemical markers, markers of energy metabolism, anthropometric parameters, well-being, and hyperthyroid symptoms were also assessed. Mean serum TSH levels increased from 1.56 ± 0.81 mIU/L at baseline to 5.90 ± 5.74 mIU/L at two weeks and 3.84 ± 3.66 mIU/L at six weeks. Trough T3 levels decreased from 99.5 ± 22.9 to 91.9 ± 40.2 at two weeks and recovered to 96.1 ± 32.2 at six weeks. The peak T3 concentration after dosing of liothyronine during week 6 was 292.8 ± 152.3 ng/dL. fT4 levels fell once levothyroxine was discontinued and plateaued at 0.44 ng/dL at week 4. The sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) concentration decreased at week 2 (p = 0.002). Hyperthyroid symptoms and SF36-PCS scores increased significantly at weeks 4-5 of liothyronine therapy (p = 0.04-0.005). Preference for liothyronine therapy increased from 6% to 39% over the study period. Once-daily dosing of liothyronine at doses of 30-45 μg did not return serum

  13. The Effects of an Environmental Studies Course on Selected Variables Related To Environmentally Responsible Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Sebasto, N. J.

    1995-01-01

    Reports that students completing an environmental studies course displayed significant gains when compared with students not completing such a course. These gains were made in acquiring a more internally-oriented locus of control of reinforcement for environmentally responsible behavior, a higher perception of their knowledge of and skill in using…

  14. Prognostic significance of gastrointestinal symptoms and diagnosis in relation to the acute radiation syndrome. A retrospective analysis based on the data base SEARCH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoebbel, Mathias Niklaus Johannes

    2016-01-01

    The following thesis explores the prognostic significance of gastrointestinal symptoms and diagnoses in relation to acute radiation syndrome. This is a retrospective analysis based on the SEARCH (System of Evaluation and Archiving of Radiation Accidents based on Case Histories) database, which was created by a team of researchers in Ulm in 1998. The SEARCH database compiled health status data of individuals involved in a total of 78 ionized radiation accidents between 1945 and 2003. In the past changes in bloodbuilding systems were considered the defining factor in determining a prognosis regarding survival times. Treatment decisions were made in line with these findings, including stem-cell transplants. In recent history, especially after the nuclear disaster in Chernobyl in 1986, the focus shifted onto other organ systems. As a result it has been proven that significant cutaneous damages present an important influence on survival regardless of haematopoiesis. Several researchers have looked at changes in the gastrointestinal tract and possible correlations with radiation induced multiple organ failure. In this paper, all of the data recorded in SEARCH in regards to gastrointestinal symptoms have been analyzed. These include symptoms such as nausea, vomiting and changes in bowel movement as well as their onset and severity. Radiation-induced oral mucositis was also further investigated. Despite the occasional gaps in data in SEARCH, results from the analysis proved that the occurrence of certain symptoms, their severity and their onset were directly correlated to life expectancy, regardless of the dose estimation, and the pending blood test results. An immediate triage of these patients by skilled medical professionals is imperative to accurate categorization.

  15. Event-related fields evoked by vocal response inhibition: a comparison of younger and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Meneses, Leidy J; Johnson, Blake W; Sowman, Paul F

    2016-06-01

    The current study examined event-related fields (ERFs) evoked by vocal response inhibition in a stimulus-selective stop-signal task. We compared inhibition-related ERFs across a younger and an older group of adults. Behavioural results revealed that stop-signal reaction times (RTs), go-RTs, ignore-stop RTs and failed stop RTs were longer in the older, relative to the younger group by 38, 123, 149 and 116 ms, respectively. The amplitude of the ERF M2 peak (approximately 200 ms after the stop signal) evoked on successful stop trials was larger compared to that evoked on both failed stop and ignore-stop trials. The M4 peak (approximately 450 ms after stop signal) was of larger amplitude in both successful and failed stops compared to ignore-stop trials. In the older group, the M2, M3 and M4 peaks were smaller in amplitude and peaked later in time (by 24, 50 and 76 ms, respectively). We demonstrate that vocal response inhibition-related ERFs exhibit a similar temporal evolution to those previously described for manual response inhibition: an early peak at 200 ms (i.e. M2) that differentiates successful from failed stopping, and a later peak (i.e. M4) that is consistent with a neural marker of response checking and error processing. Across groups, our data support a more general decline of stimulus processing speed with age.

  16. Consumer response to healthy eating, physical activity and weight-related recommendations: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boylan, S; Louie, J C Y; Gill, T P

    2012-07-01

    Strong evidence linking poor diet and lack of physical activity to risk of obesity and related chronic disease has supported the development and promotion of guidelines to improve population health. Still, obesity continues to escalate as a major health concern, and so the impact of weight-related guidelines on behaviour is unclear. The aim of this review was to examine consumer response to weight-related guidelines. A systematic literature search was performed using Medline, PsycInfo, ProQuest Central and additional searches using Google and reference lists. Of the 1,765 articles identified, 46 relevant titles were included. Most studies examined attitudes towards content, source, tailoring and comprehension of dietary guidelines. Many respondents reported that guidelines were confusing, and that simple, clear, specific, realistic, and in some cases, tailored guidelines are required. Recognition of guidelines did not signify understanding nor did perceived credibility of a source guarantee utilization of guidelines. There was a lack of studies assessing: the impact of guidelines on behaviour; responses to physical activity guidelines; responses among males and studies undertaken in developing countries. Further research is needed, in particular regarding responses to physical activity guidelines and guidelines in different populations. Communication professionals should assist health professionals in the development of accurate and effective weight-related guidelines. © 2012 The Authors. obesity reviews © 2012 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  17. Visitation to Natural Areas on Campus and Its Relation to Place Identity and Environmentally Responsible Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Eva K.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined college students' visits to natural areas on campus and how these visits relate to place identity and environmentally responsible behaviors. The majority (76.5%) of the 115 participants visited the natural areas, and 55.7% of these students visited for a course requirement. Students who lived on campus, were younger, and…

  18. Beyond the Call of Duty: A Qualitative Study of Teachers' Additional Responsibilities Related to Sexuality Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Marla E.; Madsen, Nikki; Oliphant, Jennifer A.; Resnick, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Seven focus groups were conducted with sexuality educators in Minnesota to explore ways that teaching sexuality education differs from teaching other health education content and to determine if additional supports or resources are needed for sexuality educators. Teachers described many specific additional responsibilities or concerns related to…

  19. Heredity of stress-related response in androgenetic common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tanck, M.W.T.; Vermeulen, K.J.; Bovenhuis, H.; Komen, J.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to estimate the heritability for the intensity of the stress-related cortisol response in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) using androgenetic progeny groups. For this, 660 androgenetic individuals (age: 110 days) were subjected to a 9°C cold shock and blood sampled 20 min

  20. Relatively slow stochastic gene-state switching in the presence of positive feedback significantly broadens the region of bimodality through stabilizing the uninduced phenotypic state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Hao; Wu, Pingping; Qian, Hong; Xie, Xiaoliang Sunney

    2018-03-01

    Within an isogenic population, even in the same extracellular environment, individual cells can exhibit various phenotypic states. The exact role of stochastic gene-state switching regulating the transition among these phenotypic states in a single cell is not fully understood, especially in the presence of positive feedback. Recent high-precision single-cell measurements showed that, at least in bacteria, switching in gene states is slow relative to the typical rates of active transcription and translation. Hence using the lac operon as an archetype, in such a region of operon-state switching, we present a fluctuating-rate model for this classical gene regulation module, incorporating the more realistic operon-state switching mechanism that was recently elucidated. We found that the positive feedback mechanism induces bistability (referred to as deterministic bistability), and that the parameter range for its occurrence is significantly broadened by stochastic operon-state switching. We further show that in the absence of positive feedback, operon-state switching must be extremely slow to trigger bistability by itself. However, in the presence of positive feedback, which stabilizes the induced state, the relatively slow operon-state switching kinetics within the physiological region are sufficient to stabilize the uninduced state, together generating a broadened parameter region of bistability (referred to as stochastic bistability). We illustrate the opposite phenotype-transition rate dependence upon the operon-state switching rates in the two types of bistability, with the aid of a recently proposed rate formula for fluctuating-rate models. The rate formula also predicts a maximal transition rate in the intermediate region of operon-state switching, which is validated by numerical simulations in our model. Overall, our findings suggest a biological function of transcriptional "variations" among genetically identical cells, for the emergence of bistability and

  1. The distribution of FDG at PET examinations constitutes a relative mechanism: significant effects at activity quantification in patients with a high muscular uptake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindholm, Henry; Johansson, Ove; Jacobsson, Hans; Jonsson, Cathrine

    2012-01-01

    At 18 F-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) examinations a high tracer uptake of the skeletal muscles is sometimes encountered which can lead to reduced uptake in pathological lesions. This was evaluated in retrospect in patients being recalled for a repeat examination after reducing the muscular uptake. Ten patients with increased muscular tracer uptake were examined with FDG PET/CT on two occasions with a mean of 6 days. All patients showed at least one pathological lesion with increased tracer uptake. The muscular uptake was reduced at the second examination by informing the patient to refrain from physical activity together with pretreatment with diazepam. The maximum standardized uptake value (SUV max ) of the pathological lesion and SUV mean of certain skeletal muscles, liver, spleen, lungs, blood and certain bone marrow portions were calculated. In all patients, the muscular uptake was reduced to a normal level at visual evaluation as well as at comparison of SUVs with 25 consecutive clinical patients exhibiting a normal FDG distribution (p max increased from 2.4 to 3.7 (54 %) between the examinations (p max to the activity of any of the reference tissues/organs there was no significant difference between the studies. The distribution of FDG constitutes a relative mechanism. This must be especially considered at longitudinal examinations in the same patient at therapy evaluations. In examinations with a somehow distorted general distribution of the activity, it may be more relevant to relate the lesion activity to a reference tissue/organ than relying on SUV assessments. (orig.)

  2. Emotion-related hemisphere asymmetry: subjective emotional responses to laterally presented films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittling, W; Roschmann, R

    1993-09-01

    To investigate whether the cerebral hemispheres differ in their subjective emotional responses 54 adult subjects were presented two films of different emotion-related qualities (positive and negative film) either to their left or right hemisphere. The films were exposed by means of a technique for the lateralization of visual input that allows prolonged viewing while permitting free ocular scanning. Subjective emotional responses were assessed by means of a continuous rating of emotional arousal experienced during the movie as well as by retrospective ratings of ten different emotional qualities. Presenting both films to the right hemisphere resulted in stronger subjective responses in the continuous emotion rating as well as in some retrospectively assessed ratings compared to left-hemispheric presentation. The effects were more pronounced for the negative film. Taken together, the findings suggest a higher responsiveness of the right hemisphere in subjective emotional experience.

  3. The art of anger: reward context turns avoidance responses to anger-related objects into approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarts, Henk; Ruys, Kirsten I; Veling, Harm; Renes, Robert A; de Groot, Jasper H B; van Nunen, Anna M; Geertjes, Sarit

    2010-10-01

    Anger has a special status among the emotions in that it can elicit avoidance as well as approach motivation. This study tested the ignored role of reward context in potentiating approach rather than avoidance responses toward objects associated with anger. In Experiment 1, angry and neutral facial expressions were parafoveally paired with common objects, and responses to the objects were assessed by subjective reports of motivation to obtain them. In Experiment 2, objects were again paired with angry or neutral faces outside of participants' awareness, and responses toward the objects were indexed by physical effort expended in attempting to win them. Results showed that approach motivation toward anger-related objects can be observed when responding is framed in terms of rewards that one can obtain, whereas avoidance motivation occurs in the absence of such a reward context. These findings point to the importance of a reward context in modulating people's responses to anger.

  4. Fluctuation-Response Relation and modeling in systems with fast and slow dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Lacorata

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available We show how a general formulation of the Fluctuation-Response Relation is able to describe in detail the connection between response properties to external perturbations and spontaneous fluctuations in systems with fast and slow variables. The method is tested by using the 360-variable Lorenz-96 model, where slow and fast variables are coupled to one another with reciprocal feedback, and a simplified low dimensional system. In the Fluctuation-Response context, the influence of the fast dynamics on the slow dynamics relies in a non trivial behavior of a suitable quadratic response function. This has important consequences for the modeling of the slow dynamics in terms of a Langevin equation: beyond a certain intrinsic time interval even the optimal model can give just statistical prediction.

  5. Response shift in parents' assessment of health-related quality of life of children with new-onset epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajobi, Tolulope T; Speechley, Kathy N; Liang, Zhiying; Goodwin, Shane W; Ferro, Mark A; Wiebe, Samuel

    2017-10-01

    Diagnosis of epilepsy is known to impact health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of children with new-onset epilepsy and can also influence their conceptualization and valuation of HRQOL construct, also known as response shift. This study investigates the presence of response shift in a cohort of children with new-onset epilepsy. Data are from the HEalth-Related QUality of Life in children with Epilepsy Study, a prospective cohort study of 373 children with new-onset epilepsy. Hypotheses about the presence of reconceptualization, reprioritization, and recalibration response shift were tested in the Quality of Life in Childhood Epilepsy (QOLCE-55) Questionnaire, a parent-reported, disease-specific HRQOL measure, using Oort's structural equation model between baseline and 1-year follow-up. Model fit was assessed using log-likelihood ratio test, root mean square error of approximation, and comparative fit index. Small positive uniform recalibration response shift effects were observed on physical, emotional, and social functioning domains of the QOLCE-55, but negligibly small negative nonuniform recalibration response shift effect was observed on social functioning domain. There was no significant change in overall QOLCE-55 scores over time after adjusting for response shift effects. Parents of children with new-onset epilepsy are likely to positively recalibrate (upward bias) their assessments of their children's HRQOL over a 1-year period after diagnosis. This study highlights the potential benefits of response shift as a desired consequence in parents' perception of changes in HRQOL of children with new-onset epilepsy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Long-term culture change related to rapid response system implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Jennifer; Johansson, Anna; Lennes, Inga; Hsu, Douglas; Tess, Anjala; Howell, Michael

    2014-12-01

    Increasing attention to patient safety in training hospitals may come at the expense of trainee autonomy and professional growth. This study sought to examine changes in medical trainees' self-reported behaviour after the institution-wide implementation of a rapid response system. We conducted a two-point cross-sectional survey of medical trainees in 2006, during the implementation of a rapid response system, and in 2010, in a single academic medical centre. A novel instrument was used to measure trainee likelihood of calling for supervisory assistance, perception of autonomy, and comfort in managing decompensating patients. Non-parametric tests to assess for change were used and year of training was evaluated as an effect modifier. Response rates were 38% in 2006 and 70% in 2010. After 5 years of the full implementation of the rapid response system, residents were significantly more likely to report calling their attending physicians for assistance (rising from 40% to 65% of relevant situations; p autonomy at 5 years after the implementation of the rapid response system. These changes were mirrored in the actual use of the rapid response system, which increased by 41% during the 5-year period after adjustment for patient volume (p < 0.0001). A primary team-focused implementation of a rapid response system was associated with durable changes in resident physicians' reported behaviour, including increased comfort with involving more experienced physicians and managing unstable patients. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Hypoxia and inactivity related physiological changes precede or take place in absence of significant rearrangements in bacterial community structure: The PlanHab randomized trial pilot study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Šket

    Full Text Available We explored the assembly of intestinal microbiota in healthy male participants during the randomized crossover design of run-in (5 day and experimental phases (21-day normoxic bed rest (NBR, hypoxic bed rest (HBR and hypoxic ambulation (HAmb in a strictly controlled laboratory environment, with balanced fluid and dietary intakes, controlled circadian rhythm, microbial ambiental burden and 24/7 medical surveillance. The fraction of inspired O2 (FiO2 and partial pressure of inspired O2 (PiO2 were 0.209 and 133.1 ± 0.3 mmHg for NBR and 0.141 ± 0.004 and 90.0 ± 0.4 mmHg for both hypoxic variants (HBR and HAmb; ~4000 m simulated altitude, respectively. A number of parameters linked to intestinal environment such as defecation frequency, intestinal electrical conductivity (IEC, sterol and polyphenol content and diversity, indole, aromaticity and spectral characteristics of dissolved organic matter (DOM were measured (64 variables. The structure and diversity of bacterial microbial community was assessed using 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing. Inactivity negatively affected frequency of defecation and in combination with hypoxia increased IEC (p < 0.05. In contrast, sterol and polyphenol diversity and content, various characteristics of DOM and aromatic compounds, the structure and diversity of bacterial microbial community were not significantly affected over time. A new in-house PlanHab database was established to integrate all measured variables on host physiology, diet, experiment, immune and metabolic markers (n = 231. The observed progressive decrease in defecation frequency and concomitant increase in IEC suggested that the transition from healthy physiological state towards the developed symptoms of low magnitude obesity-related syndromes was dose dependent on the extent of time spent in inactivity and preceded or took place in absence of significant rearrangements in bacterial microbial community. Species B. thetaiotamicron, B. fragilis, B

  8. Report: EPA’s Information Systems and Data Are at Risk Due to Insufficient Training of Personnel With Significant Information Security Responsibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Report #14-P-0142, March 21, 2014. The EPA places its information systems and data at risk due to an organizational structure that has not specified required duties and responsibilities to ensure personnel are trained on key information security roles.

  9. Expressions and clinical significance of autophagy-related markers Beclin1, LC3, and EGFR in human cervical squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu YF

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Yun-Feng Hu,1 Xia Lei,2 Hong-Yi Zhang,3 Jun-wei Ma,1 Wei-wei Yang,1 Min-lin Chen,1 Jie Cui,1,4 Hong Zhao1 1Department of Oncology, 2Department of Gynecology, 3Department of Urology, Yan’an University Affiliated Hospital, Yan’an, Shaanxi Province, People’s Republic of China; 4Department of Oncology, the First Affiliated Hospital of Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, Shaanxi Province, People’s Republic of China Purpose: We aimed to investigate the expression of EGFR and the autophagy-related markers Beclin1 and LC3 in cervical cancer.Methods: Beclin1, LC3, and EGFR expression were analyzed in 80 samples of cervical squamous cell carcinoma (SCC, 40 samples of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN, and 40 samples of normal cervical tissues by immunohistochemistry. The protein expression rates were analyzed with χ2 and Fisher’s exact tests. Differences in overall survival (OS were determined using the Kaplan–Meier method and log-rank tests.Results: Cervical cancer, high-grade CIN, and normal cervical epithelial cells expressed Beclin1 in 26.2%, 77.5%, and 82.5% of patients, respectively, and expressed LC3 in 28.8%, 70.0%, and 75.0% of patients, respectively. There was a significant difference between cervical SCC and high-grade CIN or normal cervical epithelial cells (P=0.000. Cervical cancer cells, high-grade CIN cells, and normal cervical epithelial cells expressed EGFR in 68.8%, 62.5%, and 12.5% of patients, respectively. There was a significant difference between cervical SCC or high-grade CIN and normal cervical epithelial cells (P=0.000. No significant association between Beclin1 or LC3 or EGFR expression and various clinicopathological parameters was observed in cervical SCC. There was no significant correlation between Beclin1, LC3, EGFR expression, and 5-year OS rates of cervical SCC patients. Beclin1- or LC3-negativity with EGFR-positivity in cervical SCC was associated with a higher Federation International of

  10. Evaluation of Oxidative Stress Response Related Genetic Variants, Pro-oxidants, Antioxidants and Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Lavender

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oxidative stress and detoxification mechanisms have been commonly studied in Prostate Cancer (PCa due to their function in the detoxification of potentially damaging reactive oxygen species (ROS and carcinogens. However, findings have been either inconsistent or inconclusive. These mixed findings may, in part, relate to failure to consider interactions among oxidative stress response related genetic variants along with pro- and antioxidant factors. Methods: We examined the effects of 33 genetic and 26 environmental oxidative stress and defense factors on PCa risk and disease aggressiveness among 2,286 men from the Cancer Genetic Markers of Susceptibility project (1,175 cases, 1,111 controls. Single and joint effects were analyzed using a comprehensive statistical approach involving logistic regression, multi-dimensionality reduction, and entropy graphs. Results: Inheritance of one CYP2C8 rs7909236 T or two SOD2 rs2758331 A alleles was linked to a 1.3- and 1.4-fold increase in risk of developing PCa, respectively (p-value = 0.006-0.013. Carriers of CYP1B1 rs1800440GG, CYP2C8 rs1058932TC and, NAT2 (rs1208GG, rs1390358CC, rs7832071TT genotypes were associated with a 1.3 to 2.2-fold increase in aggressive PCa [p-value = 0.04-0.001, FDR 0.088-0.939]. We observed a 23% reduction in aggressive disease linked to inheritance of one or more NAT2 rs4646247 A alleles (p = 0.04, FDR = 0.405. Only three NAT2 sequence variants remained significant after adjusting for multiple hypotheses testing, namely NAT2 rs1208, rs1390358, and rs7832071. Lastly, there were no significant gene-environment or gene-gene interactions associated with PCa outcomes. Conclusions: Variations in genes involved in oxidative stress and defense pathways may modify PCa. Our findings do not firmly support the role of oxidative stress genetic variants combined with lifestyle/environmental factors as modifiers of PCa and disease progression. However, additional multi

  11. The significance of lower jaw position in relation to postural stability. Comparison of a premanufactured occlusal splint with the Dental Power Splint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlendorf, D; Riegel, M; Lin Chung, T; Kopp, S

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects on postural stability of two different lower jaw positions held in place by splints with eyes open and eyes closed. The postural stability in 21 healthy adult volunteers was investigated using two different sets of occlusal conditions with the lower jaw being at rest either with the eyes opened or closed. Two occlusal splints (standard splint and DPS splint) were used in order to maintain this lower jaw position. The balance behaviour was recorded using a balance platform. In a comparison of the habitual occlusion with the two occlusal splints, the balance posturographic values with the eyes opened fell between 7-9% and those for weight distribution with the eyes closed between 22-26% (with greater improvement being achieved with DPS) with the result that the variability in the range of fluctuations was reduced. The level of positioning accuracy deteriorated with the wearing of a splint between 13% with the DPS splint and 30% with the standard splint. Gender-specific differences of minor importance in relation to the positioning accuracy were recorded, with there being significant differences in the female participants (P≤0.00). An occlusal change in the stomatognathic system impacts on postural stability. Balance deficits seem to correlate with deteriorated body sway, which, according to the results, can be improved by a myocentric bite position using a DPS splint. This is more the case with the eyes closed than with the eyes opened.

  12. Female song rates in response to simulated intruder are positively related to reproductive success.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristal E Cain

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Bird song is well studied in males as a sexually selected behavior. However, although song is also common among females, it is infrequently examined and poorly understood. Research suggests that song is often used as a resource defense behavior and is important in female-female competition for limited resources, e.g. mates and territories. If so, song should be positively related to fitness and related to other resource defense behaviors, but this possibility has rarely been explored. Here we examine fitness estimates in relation to spontaneous song rates and song rates in response to a simulated intruder (playback, in the superb fairy-wren (Malurus cyaneus, a cooperatively breeding songbird. We also determine how song rates relate to other territorial defense behaviors. Song rate in response to playback, but not spontaneous song rate, was positively related to nest success and the number of fledglings produced by successful females. Further, response song rate was also correlated with other territorial defense behaviors (latency to respond and flights. This evidence supports the hypothesis that female song may be used in the context of female-female competition to improve access to limited reproductive resources, and suggests that song may provide direct fitness benefits.

  13. Right anterior cerebellum BOLD responses reflect age related changes in Simon task sequential effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aisenberg, D; Sapir, A; Close, A; Henik, A; d'Avossa, G

    2018-01-31

    Participants are slower to report a feature, such as color, when the target appears on the side opposite the instructed response, than when the target appears on the same side. This finding suggests that target location, even when task-irrelevant, interferes with response selection. This effect is magnified in older adults. Lengthening the inter-trial interval, however, suffices to normalize the congruency effect in older adults, by re-establishing young-like sequential effects (Aisenberg et al., 2014). We examined the neurological correlates of age related changes by comparing BOLD signals in young and old participants performing a visual version of the Simon task. Participants reported the color of a peripheral target, by a left or right-hand keypress. Generally, BOLD responses were greater following incongruent than congruent targets. Also, they were delayed and of smaller amplitude in old than young participants. BOLD responses in visual and motor regions were also affected by the congruency of the previous target, suggesting that sequential effects may reflect remapping of stimulus location onto the hand used to make a response. Crucially, young participants showed larger BOLD responses in right anterior cerebellum to incongruent targets, when the previous target was congruent, but smaller BOLD responses to incongruent targets when the previous target was incongruent. Old participants, however, showed larger BOLD responses to congruent than incongruent targets, irrespective of the previous target congruency. We conclude that aging may interfere with the trial by trial updating of the mapping between the task-irrelevant target location and response, which takes place during the inter-trial interval in the cerebellum and underlays sequential effects in a Simon task. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Clinical applicability and prognostic significance of molecular response assessed by fluorescent-PCR of immunoglobulin genes in multiple myeloma. Results from a GEM/PETHEMA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Lopez, Joaquin; Fernández-Redondo, Elena; García-Sánz, Ramón; Montalbán, María Angeles; Martínez-Sánchez, Pilar; Pavia, Bruno; Mateos, María Victoria; Rosiñol, Laura; Martín, Marisa; Ayala, Rosa; Martínez, Rafael; Blanchard, María Jesus; Alegre, Adrian; Besalduch, Joan; Bargay, Joan; Hernandez, Miguel T; Sarasquete, María Eugenia; Sanchez-Godoy, Pedro; Fernández, Manuela; Blade, Joan; San Miguel, Jesús F; Lahuerta, Juan Jose

    2013-12-01

    Minimal residual disease monitoring is becoming increasingly important in multiple myeloma (MM), but multiparameter flow cytometry (MFC) and allele-specific oligonucleotide polymerase chain reaction (ASO-PCR) techniques are not routinely available. This study investigated the prognostic influence of achieving molecular response assessed by fluorescent-PCR (F-PCR) in 130 newly diagnosed MM patients from Grupo Español Multidisciplinar de Melanoma (GEM)2000/GEM05 trials (NCT00560053, NCT00443235, NCT00464217) who achieved almost very good partial response after induction therapy. As a reference, we used the results observed with simultaneous MFC. F-PCR at diagnosis was performed on DNA using three different multiplex PCRs: IGH D-J, IGK V-J and KDE rearrangements. The applicability of F-PCR was 91·5%. After induction therapy, 64 patients achieved molecular response and 66 non-molecular response; median progression-free survival (PFS) was 61 versus 36 months, respectively (P = 0·001). Median overall survival (OS) was not reached (NR) in molecular response patients (5-year survival: 75%) versus 66 months in the non-molecular response group (P = 0·03). The corresponding PFS and OS values for patients with immunophenotypic versus non-immunophenotypic response were 67 versus 42 months (P = 0·005) and NR (5-year survival: 95%) versus 69 months (P = 0·004), respectively. F-PCR analysis is a rapid, affordable, and easily performable technique that, in some circumstances, may be a valid approach for minimal residual disease investigations in MM. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Is the response of coral calcification to seawater acidification related to nutrient loading?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauvin, Anne; Denis, Vianney; Cuet, Pascale

    2011-12-01

    The effect of decreasing aragonite saturation state (ΩArag) of seawater (elevated pCO2) on calcification rates of Acropora muricata was studied using nubbins prepared from parent colonies located at two sites of La Saline reef (La Réunion Island, western Indian Ocean): a back-reef site (BR) affected by nutrient-enriched groundwater discharge (mainly nitrate), and a reef flat site (RF) with low terrigenous inputs. Protein and chlorophyll a content of the nubbins, as well as zooxanthellae abundance, were lower at RF than BR. Nubbins were incubated at ~27°C over 2 h under sunlight, in filtered seawater manipulated to get differing initial pCO2 (1,440-340 μatm), ΩArag (1.4-4.0), and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) concentrations (2,100-1,850 μmol kg-1). Increasing DIC concentrations at constant total alkalinity (AT) resulted in a decrease in ΩArag and an increase in pCO2. AT at the beginning of the incubations was kept at a natural level of 2,193 ± 6 μmol kg-1 (mean ± SD). Net photosynthesis (NP) and calcification were calculated from changes in pH and AT during the incubations. Calcification decrease in response to doubling pCO2 relative to preindustrial level was 22% for RF nubbins. When normalized to surface area of the nubbins, (1) NP and calcification were higher at BR than RF, (2) NP increased in high pCO2 treatments at BR compared to low pCO2 treatments, and (3) calcification was not related to ΩArag at BR. When normalized to NP, calcification was linearly related to ΩArag at both sites, and the slopes of the relationships were not significantly different. The increase in NP at BR in the high pCO2 treatments may have increased calcification and thus masked the negative effect of low ΩArag on calcification. Removing the effect of NP variations at BR showed that calcification declined in a similar manner with decreased ΩArag (increased pCO2) whatever the nutrient loading.

  16. Different responses of spontaneous and stimulus-related alpha activity to ambient luminance changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetto, Alessandro; Lozano-Soldevilla, Diego; VanRullen, Rufin

    2017-12-04

    Alpha oscillations are particularly important in determining our percepts and have been implicated in fundamental brain functions. Oscillatory activity can be spontaneous or stimulus-related. Furthermore, stimulus-related responses can be phase- or non-phase-locked to the stimulus. Non-phase-locked (induced) activity can be identified as the average amplitude changes in response to a stimulation, while phase-locked activity can be measured via reverse-correlation techniques (echo function). However, the mechanisms and the functional roles of these oscillations are far from clear. Here, we investigated the effect of ambient luminance changes, known to dramatically modulate neural oscillations, on spontaneous and stimulus-related alpha. We investigated the effect of ambient luminance on EEG alpha during spontaneous human brain activity at rest (experiment 1) and during visual stimulation (experiment 2). Results show that spontaneous alpha amplitude increased by decreasing ambient luminance, while alpha frequency remained unaffected. In the second experiment, we found that under low-luminance viewing, the stimulus-related alpha amplitude was lower, and its frequency was slightly faster. These effects were evident in the phase-locked part of the alpha response (echo function), but weaker or absent in the induced (non-phase-locked) alpha responses. Finally, we explored the possible behavioural correlates of these modulations in a monocular critical flicker frequency task (experiment 3), finding that dark adaptation in the left eye decreased the temporal threshold of the right eye. Overall, we found that ambient luminance changes impact differently on spontaneous and stimulus-related alpha expression. We suggest that stimulus-related alpha activity is crucial in determining human temporal segmentation abilities. © 2017 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. The missing link: Mothers’ neural response to infant cry related to infant attachment behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Heidemarie K.; Ablow, Jennifer C.

    2012-01-01

    This study addresses a gap in the attachment literature by investigating maternal neural response to cry related to infant attachment classifications and behaviors. Twenty-two primiparous mothers and their 18-month old infants completed the Strange Situation Procedure (SS) to elicit attachment behaviors. During a separate functional MRI session, mothers were exposed to their own infant’s cry sound, as well as an unfamiliar infant’s cry and control sound. Maternal neural response to own infant cry related to both overall attachment security and specific infant behaviors. Mothers of less secure infants maintained greater activation to their cry in left parahippocampal and amygdala regions and the right posterior insula. consistent with a negative schematic response bias. Mothers of infants exhibiting more avoidant or contact maintaining behaviors during the SS showed diminished response across left prefrontal, parietal, and cerebellar areas involved in attentional processing and cognitive control. Mothers of infants exhibiting more disorganized behavior showed reduced response in bilateral temporal and subcallosal areas relevant to social cognition and emotion regulation. No differences by attachment classification were found. Implications for attachment transmission models are discussed. PMID:22982277

  18. The missing link: mothers' neural response to infant cry related to infant attachment behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Heidemarie K; Ablow, Jennifer C

    2012-12-01

    This study addresses a gap in the attachment literature by investigating maternal neural response to cry related to infant attachment classifications and behaviors. Twenty-two primiparous mothers and their 18-month old infants completed the Strange Situation (SS) procedure to elicit attachment behaviors. During a separate functional MRI session, mothers were exposed to their own infant's cry sound, as well as an unfamiliar infant's cry and control sound. Maternal neural response to own infant cry related to both overall attachment security and specific infant behaviors. Mothers of less secure infants maintained greater activation to their cry in left parahippocampal and amygdala regions and the right posterior insula consistent with a negative schematic response bias. Mothers of infants exhibiting more avoidant or contact maintaining behaviors during the SS showed diminished response across left prefrontal, parietal, and cerebellar areas involved in attentional processing and cognitive control. Mothers of infants exhibiting more disorganized behavior showed reduced response in bilateral temporal and subcallosal areas relevant to social cognition and emotion regulation. No differences by attachment classification were found. Implications for attachment transmission models are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Early myeloma-related death in elderly patients: development of a clinical prognostic score and evaluation of response sustainability role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Otero, Paula; Mateos, María Victoria; Martínez-López, Joaquín; Martín-Calvo, Nerea; Hernández, Miguel-Teodoro; Ocio, Enrique M; Rosiñol, Laura; Martínez, Rafael; Teruel, Ana-Isabel; Gutiérrez, Norma C; Bargay, Joan; Bengoechea, Enrique; González, Yolanda; de Oteyza, Jaime Pérez; Gironella, Mercedes; Encinas, Cristina; Martín, Jesús; Cabrera, Carmen; Palomera, Luis; de Arriba, Felipe; Cedena, María Teresa; Paiva, Bruno; Puig, Noemí; Oriol, Albert; Bladé, Joan; Lahuerta, Juan José; San Miguel, Jesús F

    2018-02-23

    Although survival of elderly myeloma patients has significantly improved there is still a subset of patients who, despite being fit and achieving optimal responses, will die within 2 years of diagnosis due to myeloma progression. The objective of this study was to define a scoring prognostic index to identify this group of patients. We have evaluated the outcome of 490 newly diagnosed elderly myeloma patients included in two Spanish trials (GEM2005-GEM2010). Sixty-eight patients (13.8%) died within 2 years of diagnosis (early deaths) due to myeloma progression. Our study shows that the use of simple scoring model based on 4 widely available markers (elevated LDH, ISS 3, high risk CA or >75 years) can contribute to identify up-front these patients. Moreover, unsustained response (<6 months duration) emerged as one important predictor of early myeloma-related mortality associated with a significant increase in the risk of death related to myeloma progression. The identification of these patients at high risk of early death is relevant for innovative trials aiming to maintain the depth of first response, since many of them will not receive subsequent lines of therapy.

  20. The effects of age, sex, and hormones on emotional conflict-related brain response during adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cservenka, Anita; Stroup, Madison L.; Etkin, Amit; Nagel, Bonnie J.

    2015-01-01

    While cognitive and emotional systems both undergo development during adolescence, few studies have explored top-down inhibitory control brain activity in the context of affective processing, critical to informing adolescent psychopathology. In this study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine brain response during an Emotional Conflict (EmC) Task across 10–15-year-old youth. During the EmC Task, participants indicated the emotion of facial expressions, while disregarding emotion-congruent and incongruent words printed across the faces. We examined the relationships of age, sex, and gonadal hormones with brain activity on Incongruent vs. Congruent trials. Age was negatively associated with middle frontal gyrus activity, controlling for performance and movement confounds. Sex differences were present in occipital and parietal cortices, and were driven by activation in females, and deactivation in males to Congruent trials. Testosterone was negatively related with frontal and striatal brain response in males, and cerebellar and precuneus response in females. Estradiol was negatively related with fronto-cerebellar, cingulate, and precuneus brain activity in males, and positively related with occipital response in females. To our knowledge, this is the first study reporting the effects of age, sex, and sex steroids during an emotion-cognition task in adolescents. Further research is needed to examine longitudinal development of emotion-cognition interactions and deviations in psychiatric disorders in adolescence. PMID:26175008

  1. Impact of age-related neuroglial cell responses on hippocampal deterioration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph O Ojo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aging is one of the greatest risk factors for the development of sporadic age-related neurodegenerative diseases and neuroinflammation is a common feature of this disease phenotype. In the immunoprivileged brain, neuroglial cells, which mediate neuroinflammatory responses, are influenced by the physiological factors in the microenvironment of the central nervous system (CNS. These physiological factors include but are not limited to cell-to-cell communication involving cell adhesion molecules, neuronal electrical activity and neurotransmitter and neuromodulator action. However, despite this dynamic control of neuroglial activity, in the healthy aged brain there is an alteration in the underlying neuroinflammatory response notably seen in the hippocampus, typified by astrocyte/microglia activation and increased pro-inflammatory cytokine production and signalling. Normally, these changes occur without any concurrent pathology, however, they can correlate with deteriorations in hippocampal or cognitive function. In this review we examine two important phenomenons, firstly the relationship between age-related brain deterioration (focusing on hippocampal function and underlying neuroglial response(s, and secondly how the latter affects molecular and cellular processes within the hippocampus that makes it vulnerable to age-related cognitive decline.

  2. Lymphatic filariasis-specific immune responses in relation to lymphoedema grade and infection status. I. Cellular responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, N. O.; Bloch, P.; Simonsen, P. E.

    2002-01-01

    leg lymphoedema of varying severity ranging from early to more advanced grades (pathology groups 1-5). Another group comprised individuals with mixed grades of lymphoedema and positive for mf and/or CFA (mixed pathology group). Three asymptomatic groups consisted of individuals without leg pathology...... in uninfected as compared to infected individuals. High levels of IL-10 were observed in asymptomatic individuals without infection and in asymptomatic CFA-positive but mf-negative individuals. Asymptomatic individuals with mf had relatively low IL-10 levels. Groups presenting with chronic pathology generally......The filariasis-specific cellular responsiveness was assessed in 109 adult individuals from a Wuchereria bancrofti-endemic area in north-east Tanzania. There were 9 study groups. Five groups of individuals were negative for microfilariae (mf) and specific circulating filarial antigen (CFA) and had...

  3. Sex-related differences in murine hepatic transcriptional and proteomic responses to TCDD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prokopec, Stephenie D.; Watson, John D.; Lee, Jamie; Pohjanvirta, Raimo; Boutros, Paul C.

    2015-01-01

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is an environmental contaminant that produces myriad toxicities in most mammals. In rodents alone, there is a huge divergence in the toxicological response across species, as well as among different strains within a species. But there are also significant differences between males and females animals of a single strain. These differences are inconsistent across model systems: the severity of toxicity is greater in female rats than males, while male mice and guinea pigs are more sensitive than females. Because the specific events that underlie this difference remain unclear, we characterized the hepatic transcriptional response of adult male and female C57BL/6 mice to 500 μg/kg TCDD at multiple time-points. The transcriptional profile diverged significantly between the sexes. Female mice demonstrated a large number of altered transcripts as early as 6 h following treatment, suggesting a large primary response. Conversely, male animals showed the greatest TCDD-mediated response 144 h following exposure, potentially implicating significant secondary responses. Nr1i3 was statistically significantly induced at all time-points in the sensitive male animals. This mRNA encodes the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), a transcription factor involved in the regulation of xenobiotic metabolism, lipid metabolism, cell cycle and apoptosis. Surprisingly though, changes at the protein level (aside from the positive control, CYP1A1) were modest, with only FMO3 showing clear induction, and no genes with sex-differences. Thus, while male and female mice show transcriptional differences in their response to TCDD, their association with TCDD-induced toxicities remains unclear. - Highlights: • Differences exist between the toxicity phenotypes to TCDD in male and female mice. • TCDD-mediated transcriptomic differences were identified between the sexes. • Resistant female mice displayed a large, early-onset, transcriptomic response.

  4. Sex-related differences in murine hepatic transcriptional and proteomic responses to TCDD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prokopec, Stephenie D.; Watson, John D. [Informatics and Bio-computing Program, Ontario Institute for Cancer Research, Toronto (Canada); Lee, Jamie [Informatics and Bio-computing Program, Ontario Institute for Cancer Research, Toronto (Canada); Department of Pharmacology & Toxicology, University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada); Pohjanvirta, Raimo [Laboratory of Toxicology, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Kuopio Finland (Finland); Department of Food Hygiene and Environmental Health, University of Helsinki, Helsinki (Finland); Boutros, Paul C., E-mail: Paul.Boutros@oicr.on.ca [Informatics and Bio-computing Program, Ontario Institute for Cancer Research, Toronto (Canada); Department of Pharmacology & Toxicology, University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada); Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada)

    2015-04-15

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is an environmental contaminant that produces myriad toxicities in most mammals. In rodents alone, there is a huge divergence in the toxicological response across species, as well as among different strains within a species. But there are also significant differences between males and females animals of a single strain. These differences are inconsistent across model systems: the severity of toxicity is greater in female rats than males, while male mice and guinea pigs are more sensitive than females. Because the specific events that underlie this difference remain unclear, we characterized the hepatic transcriptional response of adult male and female C57BL/6 mice to 500 μg/kg TCDD at multiple time-points. The transcriptional profile diverged significantly between the sexes. Female mice demonstrated a large number of altered transcripts as early as 6 h following treatment, suggesting a large primary response. Conversely, male animals showed the greatest TCDD-mediated response 144 h following exposure, potentially implicating significant secondary responses. Nr1i3 was statistically significantly induced at all time-points in the sensitive male animals. This mRNA encodes the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), a transcription factor involved in the regulation of xenobiotic metabolism, lipid metabolism, cell cycle and apoptosis. Surprisingly though, changes at the protein level (aside from the positive control, CYP1A1) were modest, with only FMO3 showing clear induction, and no genes with sex-differences. Thus, while male and female mice show transcriptional differences in their response to TCDD, their association with TCDD-induced toxicities remains unclear. - Highlights: • Differences exist between the toxicity phenotypes to TCDD in male and female mice. • TCDD-mediated transcriptomic differences were identified between the sexes. • Resistant female mice displayed a large, early-onset, transcriptomic response.

  5. Application of Item Response Theory to Tests of Substance-related Associative Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shono, Yusuke; Grenard, Jerry L.; Ames, Susan L.; Stacy, Alan W.

    2015-01-01

    A substance-related word association test (WAT) is one of the commonly used indirect tests of substance-related implicit associative memory and has been shown to predict substance use. This study applied an item response theory (IRT) modeling approach to evaluate psychometric properties of the alcohol- and marijuana-related WATs and their items among 775 ethnically diverse at-risk adolescents. After examining the IRT assumptions, item fit, and differential item functioning (DIF) across gender and age groups, the original 18 WAT items were reduced to 14- and 15-items in the alcohol- and marijuana-related WAT, respectively. Thereafter, unidimensional one- and two-parameter logistic models (1PL and 2PL models) were fitted to the revised WAT items. The results demonstrated that both alcohol- and marijuana-related WATs have good psychometric properties. These results were discussed in light of the framework of a unified concept of construct validity (Messick, 1975, 1989, 1995). PMID:25134051

  6. The Placebo Response in Pediatric Abdominal Pain-Related Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoekman, Daniël R; Zeevenhooven, Judith; van Etten-Jamaludin, Faridi S; Douwes Dekker, Iuke; Benninga, Marc A; Tabbers, Merit M; Vlieger, Arine M

    2017-03-01

    To investigate the magnitude and determinants of the placebo response in studies with pediatric abdominal pain-related functional gastrointestinal disorders. The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CINAHL were searched for systematic reviews and randomized placebo-controlled trials concerning children 4-18 years of age with an abdominal pain-related functional gastrointestinal disorder. The primary outcome was the pooled proportion of subjects assigned to placebo with improvement as defined by the authors. The effect of trial characteristics on the magnitude of the placebo response was investigated using univariate meta-regression analysis. Twenty-one trials were identified. The pooled proportion of subjects with improvement was 41% (95% CI, 34%-49%; 17 studies) and with no pain was 17% (95% CI, 8%-32%; 7 studies). The pooled standardized mean difference on the Faces Pain Scales compared with baseline was -0.73 (95% CI, -1.04 to -0.42; 8 studies). There was significant heterogeneity across studies with respect to both outcomes. Lower dosing frequency (P = .04), positive study (P = .03), longer duration of treatment (P pain. Response on Faces Pain Scales was greater in studies conducted in the Middle East (P = .002), in studies that did not report the randomization schedule (P = .02), and in studies with a higher percentage of females (P = .04). Approximately 41% of children with abdominal pain-related functional gastrointestinal disorders improve on placebo. Several trial characteristics are correlated significantly with the proportion of patients with no pain on placebo and with the magnitude of the placebo response on Faces Pain Scales. These data could be valuable for the design of future studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Validation of aspirin response-related transcripts in patients with coronary artery disease and preliminary investigation on CMTM5 function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J W; Liu, T F; Chen, X H; Liang, W Y; Feng, X R; Wang, L; Fu, Sidney W; McCaffrey, Timothy A; Liu, M L

    2017-08-15

    Aspirin is widely used in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases, but the antiplatelet responses vary from one patient to another. To validate aspirin response related transcripts and illustrate their roles in predicting cardiovascular events, we have quantified the relative expression of 14 transcripts previously identified as related to high on-aspirin platelet reactivity (HAPR) in 223 patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) on regular aspirin treatment. All patients were followed up regularly for cardiovascular events (CVE). The mean age of our enrolled population was 75.80±8.57years. HAPR patients showed no significant differences in terms of co-morbidities and combined drugs. Besides, the relative expression of HLA-DQA1 was significantly lower in low on-aspirin platelet reactivity (LAPR) patients, when compared with HAPR and high normal (HN) group (p=0.028). What's more, the number of arteries involved, HAPR status and the relative expression of CLU, CMTM5 and SPARC were independent risk factors for CVE during follow up (p<0.05). In addition, overexpression of CMTM5 attenuated endothelial cells (ECs) migration and proliferation, with significantly decreased phosphorylated-Akt levels, while its inhibition promoted these processes in vitro (p<0.05).Our study provides evidence that circulating transcripts might be potential biomarkers in predicting cardiovascular events. CMTM5 might exert anti-atherosclerotic effects via suppressing migration and proliferation in the vessel wall. Nevertheless, larger-scale and long-term studies are still needed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Is Baseline Cardiac Autonomic Modulation Related to Performance and Physiological Responses Following a Supramaximal Judo Test?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasco-Lafarga, Cristina; Martínez-Navarro, Ignacio; Mateo-March, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Little research exists concerning Heart Rate (HR) Variability (HRV) following supramaximal efforts focused on upper-body explosive strength-endurance. Since they may be very demanding, it seems of interest to analyse the relationship among performance, lactate and HR dynamics (i.e. HR, HRV and complexity) following them; as well as to know how baseline cardiac autonomic modulation mediates these relationships. The present study aimed to analyse associations between baseline and post-exercise HR dynamics following a supramaximal Judo test, and their relationship with lactate, in a sample of 22 highly-trained male judoists (20.70±4.56 years). A large association between the increase in HR from resting to exercise condition and performance suggests that individuals exerted a greater sympathetic response to achieve a better performance (Rating of Perceived Exertion: 20; post-exercise peak lactate: 11.57±2.24 mmol/L; 95.76±4.13 % of age-predicted HRmax). Athletes with higher vagal modulation and lower sympathetic modulation at rest achieved both a significant larger ∆HR and a faster post-exercise lactate removal. A enhanced resting parasympathetic modulation might be therefore related to a further usage of autonomic resources and a better immediate metabolic recovery during supramaximal exertions. Furthermore, analyses of variance displayed a persistent increase in α1 and a decrease in lnRMSSD along the 15 min of recovery, which are indicative of a diminished vagal modulation together with a sympathovagal balance leaning to sympathetic domination. Eventually, time-domain indices (lnRMSSD) showed no lactate correlations, while nonlinear indices (α1 and lnSaEn) appeared to be moderate to strongly correlated with it, thus pointing to shared mechanisms between neuroautonomic and metabolic regulation. PMID:24205273

  9. Age-related changes in gait adaptability in response to unpredictable obstacles and stepping targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caetano, Maria Joana D; Lord, Stephen R; Schoene, Daniel; Pelicioni, Paulo H S; Sturnieks, Daina L; Menant, Jasmine C

    2016-05-01

    A large proportion of falls in older people occur when walking. Limitations in gait adaptability might contribute to tripping; a frequently reported cause of falls in this group. To evaluate age-related changes in gait adaptability in response to obstacles or stepping targets presented at short notice, i.e.: approximately two steps ahead. Fifty older adults (aged 74±7 years; 34 females) and 21 young adults (aged 26±4 years; 12 females) completed 3 usual gait speed (baseline) trials. They then completed the following randomly presented gait adaptability trials: obstacle avoidance, short stepping target, long stepping target and no target/obstacle (3 trials of each). Compared with the young, the older adults slowed significantly in no target/obstacle trials compared with the baseline trials. They took more steps and spent more time in double support while approaching the obstacle and stepping targets, demonstrated poorer stepping accuracy and made more stepping errors (failed to hit the stepping targets/avoid the obstacle). The older adults also reduced velocity of the two preceding steps and shortened the previous step in the long stepping target condition and in the obstacle avoidance condition. Compared with their younger counterparts, the older adults exhibited a more conservative adaptation strategy characterised by slow, short and multiple steps with longer time in double support. Even so, they demonstrated poorer stepping accuracy and made more stepping errors. This reduced gait adaptability may place older adults at increased risk of falling when negotiating unexpected hazards. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Inactivation of basolateral amygdala specifically eliminates palatability-related information in cortical sensory responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piette, Caitlin E; Baez-Santiago, Madelyn A; Reid, Emily E; Katz, Donald B; Moran, Anan

    2012-07-18

    Evidence indirectly implicates the amygdala as the primary processor of emotional information used by cortex to drive appropriate behavioral responses to stimuli. Taste provides an ideal system with which to test this hypothesis directly, as neurons in both basolateral amygdala (BLA) and gustatory cortex (GC)-anatomically interconnected nodes of the gustatory system-code the emotional valence of taste stimuli (i.e., palatability), in firing rate responses that progress similarly through "epochs." The fact that palatability-related firing appears one epoch earlier in BLA than GC is broadly consistent with the hypothesis that such information may propagate from the former to the latter. Here, we provide evidence supporting this hypothesis, assaying taste responses in small GC single-neuron ensembles before, during, and after temporarily inactivating BLA in awake rats. BLA inactivation (BLAx) changed responses in 98% of taste-responsive GC neurons, altering the entirety of every taste response in many neurons. Most changes involved reductions in firing rate, but regardless of the direction of change, the effect of BLAx was epoch-specific: while firing rates were changed, the taste specificity of responses remained stable; information about taste palatability, however, which normally resides in the "Late" epoch, was reduced in magnitude across the entire GC sample and outright eliminated in most neurons. Only in the specific minority of neurons for which BLAx enhanced responses did palatability specificity survive undiminished. Our data therefore provide direct evidence that BLA is a necessary component of GC gustatory processing, and that cortical palatability processing in particular is, in part, a function of BLA activity.

  11. Plasticity in leaf-level water relations of tropical rainforest trees in response to experimental drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binks, Oliver; Meir, Patrick; Rowland, Lucy; da Costa, Antonio Carlos Lola; Vasconcelos, Steel Silva; de Oliveira, Alex Antonio Ribeiro; Ferreira, Leandro; Christoffersen, Bradley; Nardini, Andrea; Mencuccini, Maurizio

    2016-07-01

    The tropics are predicted to become warmer and drier, and understanding the sensitivity of tree species to drought is important for characterizing the risk to forests of climate change. This study makes use of a long-term drought experiment in the Amazon rainforest to evaluate the role of leaf-level water relations, leaf anatomy and their plasticity in response to drought in six tree genera. The variables (osmotic potential at full turgor, turgor loss point, capacitance, elastic modulus, relative water content and saturated water content) were compared between seasons and between plots (control and through-fall exclusion) enabling a comparison between short- and long-term plasticity in traits. Leaf anatomical traits were correlated with water relation parameters to determine whether water relations differed among tissues. The key findings were: osmotic adjustment occurred in response to the long-term drought treatment; species resistant to drought stress showed less osmotic adjustment than drought-sensitive species; and water relation traits were correlated with tissue properties, especially the thickness of the abaxial epidermis and the spongy mesophyll. These findings demonstrate that cell-level water relation traits can acclimate to long-term water stress, and highlight the limitations of extrapolating the results of short-term studies to temporal scales associated with climate change. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  12. Water relation response to soil chilling of six olive (Olea europaea L.) cultivars with different frost resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Lopez, D.; Gijon, M. C.; Marino, J.; Moriana, A.

    2010-07-01

    The relationship between the water relations of six olive cultivars exposed to different soil temperatures (14 0.1, 9.9 0.1 and 5.8 0.2 degree centigrade) and their inherent frost resistance (as determined by two different methods) was investigated. Soil chilling was achieved by introducing pots of olive plants into water baths. The water relations of these plants were compared to those of plants kept under conditions of room temperature. The cultivars Frantoio, Picual and Changlot Real began to show significant dehydration below 14 degree centigrade, while Cornicabra, Arbequina and Ascolana Tenera showed this below 10 degree centigrade. This response is probably due to delayed stomatal closure. Only Cornicabra and Picual showed a significant reduction in leaf conductance (below 10 degree centigrade and 6 degree centigrade respectively). This absence of stomatal control led to a significantly greater dehydration in Ascolana Tenera. These variations in response to the soil chilling temperature suggest that different mechanisms may be at work, and indicate that would be necessary to study the influence of rootstock in the frost resistance of olive plants. The variations recorded grouped the cultivars as either resistant (Cornicabra), tolerant (Picual, Ascolana Tenera and Arbequina), or sensitive (Frantoio and Changlot Real). This classification is in line with the frost resistance reported for these cultivars in the literature, and with the results obtained in the present work using the stomatal density and ion leakage methods of determining such resistance. (Author) 40 refs.

  13. Fear conditioned responses and PTSD symptoms in children: Sex differences in fear-related symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamwell, Kaitlyn; Nylocks, Maria; Cross, Dorthie; Bradley, Bekh; Norrholm, Seth D; Jovanovic, Tanja

    2015-11-01

    Fear conditioning studies in adults have found that posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with heightened fear responses and impaired discrimination. The objective of the current study was to examine the association between PTSD symptoms and fear conditioned responses in children from a highly traumatized urban population. Children between 8 and 13 years old participated in a fear conditioning study in addition to providing information about their trauma history and PTSD symptoms. Results showed that females showed less discrimination between danger and safety signals during conditioning compared to age-matched males. In boys, intrusive symptoms were predictive of fear responses, even after controlling for trauma exposure. However, in girls, conditioned fear to the danger cue was predictive of self-blame and fear of repeated trauma. This study suggests there are early sex differences in the patterns of fear conditioning and that these sex differences may translate to differential risk for trauma-related psychopathology. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Event-related brain responses while listening to entire pieces of music

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poikonen, H; Alluri, V; Brattico, E

    2016-01-01

    ERPs in human elicited by continuous music. The ERPs were recorded during listening to a Tango Nuevo piece, a deep techno track and an acoustic lullaby. Acoustic features related to timbre, harmony, and dynamics of the audio signal were computationally extracted from the musical pieces. Negative...... deflation occurring around 100 milliseconds after the stimulus onset (N100) and positive deflation occurring around 200 milliseconds after the stimulus onset (P200) ERP responses to peak changes in the acoustic features were distinguishable and were often largest for Tango Nuevo. In addition to large...... changes in these musical features, long phases of low values that precede a rapid increase – and that we will call Preceding Low-Feature Phases – followed by a rapid increase enhanced the amplitudes of N100 and P200 responses. These ERP responses resembled those to simpler sounds, making it possible...

  15. Donor impurity states and related optical response in a lateral coupled dot-ring system under applied electric field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correa, J.D. [Departamento de Ciencias Básicas, Universidad de Medellín, Medellín (Colombia); Mora-Ramos, M.E. [Centro de Investigación en Ciencias, Instituto de Ciencias Básicas y Aplicadas, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Morelos, Av. Universidad 1001, CP 62209 Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Duque, C.A., E-mail: cduque@fisica.udea.edu.co [Grupo de Materia Condensada-UdeA, Instituto de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Antioquia UdeA, Calle 70 No. 52-21, Medellín (Colombia)

    2015-09-01

    A study on the effects of an externally applied electric field on the linear optical absorption and relative refractive index change associated with transitions between off-center donor impurity states in laterally coupled quantum dot-ring system is reported. Electron states are calculated within the effective mass and parabolic band approximations by means of an exact diagonalization procedure. The states and the optical response in each case show significant sensitivity to the geometrical distribution of confining energies as well as to the strength of the applied field.

  16. Donor impurity states and related optical response in a lateral coupled dot-ring system under applied electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correa, J.D.; Mora-Ramos, M.E.; Duque, C.A.

    2015-01-01

    A study on the effects of an externally applied electric field on the linear optical absorption and relative refractive index change associated with transitions between off-center donor impurity states in laterally coupled quantum dot-ring system is reported. Electron states are calculated within the effective mass and parabolic band approximations by means of an exact diagonalization procedure. The states and the optical response in each case show significant sensitivity to the geometrical distribution of confining energies as well as to the strength of the applied field

  17. Age-Related Decrease in Stress Responsiveness and Proactive Coping in Male Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hee-Jin; Song, Minah; Kim, Young Ki; Bae, Jae Ryong; Cha, Seung-Yun; Bae, Ji Young; Kim, Yeongmin; You, Minsu; Lee, Younpyo; Shim, Jieun; Maeng, Sungho

    2018-01-01

    Coping is a strategic approach to dealing with stressful situations. Those who use proactive coping strategies tend to accept changes and act before changes are expected. In contrast, those who use reactive coping are less flexible and more likely to act in response to changes. However, little research has assessed how coping style changes with age. This study investigated age-related changes in coping strategies and stress responsiveness and the influence of age on the processing of conditioned fear memory in 2-, 12- and 23-month-old male mice. Coping strategy was measured by comparing the escape latency in an active avoidance test and by comparing responses to a shock prod. The results showed that proactivity in coping response gradually decreased with age. Stress responsiveness, measured by stress-induced concentration of corticosterone, was also highest in 2-month-old mice and decreased with age. Consolidation of fear memory was highest in 12-month-old mice and was negatively correlated with the degree of stress responsiveness and proactivity in coping. Fear extinction did not differ among age groups and was not correlated with stress responsiveness or the proactivity of coping. However, the maintenance of extinct fear memory, which was best in 2-month-old mice and worst in 12-month-old mice, was negatively correlated with stress responsiveness but not with coping style. Age-dependent changes in the expression of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and its regulatory co-chaperones, which are accepted mechanisms for stress hormone stimulation, were measured in the hippocampus. The expression of GR was increased at 12 months compared to other age groups. There were no differences in Hsp70 and BAG1 expression by age. These results can be summarized as follows: (1) stress responsiveness and proactivity in coping decreased with age class; (2) consolidation of fear memory was negatively correlated with both stress responsiveness and proactivity; however, maintenance of

  18. Stressor specificity of central neuroendocrine responses: implications for stress-related disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacák, K; Palkovits, M

    2001-08-01

    Despite the fact that many research articles have been written about stress and stress-related diseases, no scientifically accepted definition of stress exists. Selye introduced and popularized stress as a medical and scientific idea. He did not deny the existence of stressor-specific response patterns; however, he emphasized that such responses did not constitute stress, only the shared nonspecific component. In this review we focus mainly on the similarities and differences between the neuroendocrine responses (especially the sympathoadrenal and the sympathoneuronal systems and the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical axis) among various stressors and a strategy for testing Selye's doctrine of nonspecificity. In our experiments, we used five different stressors: immobilization, hemorrhage, cold exposure, pain, or hypoglycemia. With the exception of immobilization stress, these stressors also differed in their intensities. Our results showed marked heterogeneity of neuroendocrine responses to various stressors and that each stressor has a neurochemical "signature." By examining changes of Fos immunoreactivity in various brain regions upon exposure to different stressors, we also attempted to map central stressor-specific neuroendocrine pathways. We believe the existence of stressor-specific pathways and circuits is a clear step forward in the study of the pathogenesis of stress-related disorders and their proper treatment. Finally, we define stress as a state of threatened homeostasis (physical or perceived treat to homeostasis). During stress, an adaptive compensatory specific response of the organism is activated to sustain homeostasis. The adaptive response reflects the activation of specific central circuits and is genetically and constitutionally programmed and constantly modulated by environmental factors.

  19. Sex differences in the response to emotional distraction: an event-related fMRI investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iordan, Alexandru D; Dolcos, Sanda; Denkova, Ekaterina; Dolcos, Florin

    2013-03-01

    Evidence has suggested that women have greater emotional reactivity than men. However, it is unclear whether these differences in basic emotional responses are also associated with differences in emotional distractibility, and what the neural mechanisms that implement differences in emotional distractibility between women and men are. Functional MRI recording was used in conjunction with a working memory (WM) task, with emotional distraction (angry faces) presented during the interval between the memoranda and the probes. First, we found an increased impact of emotional distraction among women in trials associated with high-confidence responses, in the context of overall similar WM performance in women and men. Second, women showed increased sensitivity to emotional distraction in brain areas associated with "hot" emotional processing, whereas men showed increased sensitivity in areas associated with "cold" executive processing, in the context of overall similar patterns of response to emotional distraction in women and men. Third, a sex-related dorsal-ventral hemispheric dissociation emerged in the lateral PFC related to coping with emotional distraction, with women showing a positive correlation with WM performance in left ventral PFC, and men showing similar effects in the right dorsal PFC. In addition to extending to men results that have previously been reported in women, by showing that both sexes engage mechanisms that are similar overall in response to emotional distraction, the present study identifies sex differences in both the response to and coping with emotional distraction. These results have implications for understanding sex differences in the susceptibility to affective disorders, in which basic emotional responses, emotional distractibility, and coping abilities are altered.

  20. Changes in the Response Properties of Inferior Colliculus Neurons Relating to Tinnitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Joel I.; Coomber, Ben; Wells, Tobias T.; Wallace, Mark N.; Palmer, Alan R.

    2014-01-01

    Tinnitus is often identified in animal models by using the gap prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle. Impaired gap detection following acoustic over-exposure (AOE) is thought to be caused by tinnitus “filling in” the gap, thus, reducing its salience. This presumably involves altered perception, and could conceivably be caused by changes at the level of the neocortex, i.e., cortical reorganization. Alternatively, reduced gap detection ability might reflect poorer temporal processing in the brainstem, caused by AOE; in which case, impaired gap detection would not be a reliable indicator of tinnitus. We tested the latter hypothesis by examining gap detection in inferior colliculus (IC) neurons following AOE. Seven of nine unilaterally noise-exposed guinea pigs exhibited behavioral evidence of tinnitus. In these tinnitus animals, neural gap detection thresholds (GDTs) in the IC significantly increased in response to broadband noise stimuli, but not to pure tones or narrow-band noise. In addition, when IC neurons were sub-divided according to temporal response profile (onset vs. sustained firing patterns), we found a significant increase in the proportion of onset-type responses after AOE. Importantly, however, GDTs were still considerably shorter than gap durations commonly used in objective behavioral tests for tinnitus. These data indicate that the neural changes observed in the IC are insufficient to explain deficits in behavioral gap detection that are commonly attributed to tinnitus. The subtle changes in IC neuron response profiles following AOE warrant further investigation. PMID:25346722

  1. Implications for Gender Relations of Summons-Response and Address Forms in Dagbanli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salifu, Nantogma Alhassan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the structure and function of the summons and response in Dagbanli as well as address forms in the husband-wife relation. The Dagbanli language imposes different response forms on males and females and asymmetrical address terms between husband and wife. Drawing from my knowledge of the language as a native speaker and from observed practices of other speakers as well as from insights of key informants, I apply theories of sociolinguistics and pragmatics to analyze these simple conversational acts and I argue that they do not only reflect the sex differences of speakers but embed a larger gender ideology of unequal social relations between males and females in the Dagomba society.

  2. EXAMINATION OF THE EMERGENCY MEDICAL RESPONSE SYSTEM IN KOREA AND SUGGESTIONS FOR IMPROVEMENTS RELATING TO TRANSPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sei-Chang OH, Ph.D.

    2004-01-01

    This research focuses on the examination of current emergency medical response system related to the transport of emergency vehicles and suggests some transport-related ideas to improve the system in Korea. The study aimed to investigate the present emergency medical response system and identify problems, questionnaire survey and literature review were carried. The ideas include the improvement of emergency information flow and the development of preferential treatment methods for emergency vehicles. To improve the emergency information flow, this research studied the bridge between emergency medical information center and traffic information center and proposed the efficient utilization of traffic information for the better treatment of an emergency. When it comes to the movement of emergency vehicles, various preferential treatment methods were suggested.

  3. Brain activations related to saccadic response conflict are not sensitive to time on task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa eBeldzik

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Establishing a role of the dorsal medial frontal cortex in the performance monitoring and cognitive control has been a challenge to neuroscientists for the past decade. In light of recent findings, the conflict monitoring hypothesis has been elaborated to an action-outcome predictor theory. One of the findings that led to this re-evaluation was the fMRI study in which conflict-related brain activity was investigated in terms of the so-called time on task effect, i.e. a linear increase of the BOLD signal with longer response times. The aim of this study was to investigate brain regions involved in the processing of saccadic response conflict and to account for the time on task effect. A modified spatial cueing task was implemented in the event-related fMRI study with oculomotor responses. The results revealed several brain regions which show higher activity for incongruent trials in comparison to the congruent ones, including pre-supplementary motor area together with the frontal and parietal regions. Further analysis accounting for the effect of response time provided evidence that these brain activations were not sensitive to time on task but reflected purely the congruency effect.

  4. Brain Activations Related to Saccadic Response Conflict are not Sensitive to Time on Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beldzik, Ewa; Domagalik, Aleksandra; Oginska, Halszka; Marek, Tadeusz; Fafrowicz, Magdalena

    2015-01-01

    Establishing a role of the dorsal medial frontal cortex in the performance monitoring and cognitive control has been a challenge to neuroscientists for the past decade. In light of recent findings, the conflict monitoring hypothesis has been elaborated to an action-outcome predictor theory. One of the findings that led to this re-evaluation was the fMRI study in which conflict-related brain activity was investigated in terms of the so-called time on task effect, i.e., a linear increase of the BOLD signal with longer response times. The aim of this study was to investigate brain regions involved in the processing of saccadic response conflict and to account for the time on task effect. A modified spatial cueing task was implemented in the event-related fMRI study with oculomotor responses. The results revealed several brain regions which show higher activity for incongruent trials in comparison to the congruent ones, including pre-supplementary motor area together with the frontal and parietal regions. Further analysis accounting for the effect of response time provided evidence that these brain activations were not sensitive to time on task but reflected purely the congruency effect.

  5. Right mesial temporal lobe epilepsy impairs empathy-related brain responses to dynamic fearful faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toller, Gianina; Adhimoolam, Babu; Grunwald, Thomas; Huppertz, Hans-Jürgen; Kurthen, Martin; Rankin, Katherine P; Jokeit, Hennric

    2015-03-01

    Unilateral mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) has been associated with reduced amygdala responsiveness