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Sample records for significant residual differences

  1. Significance of Lead Residues in Mallard Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longcore, J.R.; Locke, L.N.; Bagley, George E.; Andrews, R.

    1974-01-01

    Tissues of adult, lead-dosed mallards that either died or were sacrificed were analyzed for lead. Lead levels in brains, tibiae, and breast muscle of ducks that died and in tibiae of ducks that were sacrificed increased significantly from dosage until death. Lead in the heart, lung, and blood from sacrificed ducks decreased significantly from dosage until death. Lead concentrations in tissues from ducks in the two groups were not significantly different except for the liver, kidney, and lung. Average lead levels in the livers and kidneys of ducks that died were significantly higher than those in ducks that were sacrificed. The mean concentration of lead in the lungs of the ducks sacrificed was significantly higher than the mean level in the lungs of ducks that died. Measurements of the lead concentrations in this study, when compared with lead levels reported in the literature for avian and non-avian species, showed that arbitrary diagnostic levels indicating lead poisoning could be set. In mallard ducks, lead levels exceeding 3 ppm in the brain, 6 to 20 ppm in the kidney or liver, or 10 ppm in clotted blood from the heart indicated acute exposure to lead.

  2. Significance of residual stress on fatigue properties of welded pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohta, A.; Maeda, Y.; Kanao, M.

    1984-01-01

    The mean stress effect on the fatigue properties of two kinds of welded pipes was investigated in cantilever bending. The fatigue strength changed with the mean stress on fillet welded pipes, but did not change on butt welded pipes. The fatigue crack initiated from the toe of weld on the outer surface of fillet welded pipes and from the undercut on the inner surface of butt welded pipes. The measurement of the fatigue crack propagation rate and the residual stress distribution through the thickness of pipe revealed that the difference in the fatigue properties between fillet and butt welded pipes arose from the weld-induced residual stress, tension on the inner surface and compression on the outer surface. It is suggested that the production of compressive residual stress along the inner surface would be an effective means for improving the fatigue strength of butt welded pipes. (author)

  3. Minimal residual disease in breast cancer. Clinical significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kvalheim, G.

    2004-01-01

    Previously we have reported our results on minimal residual disease in breast cancer. Briefly, B M-aspirates were collected from 817 patients at primary surgery. Tumor cells in B M were detected by immunocytochemistry using anticytokeratin-antibodies (A E1/ A E3). Analyses of the primary tumor included histological grading, vascular invasion and immunohistochemical detection of cerbB2, cathepsin D, p53 and ER/PgRexpression. These analyses were compared to clinical outcome. Median follow-up was 49 months. ITC were detected in 13.2% of the patients. The detection rate rose with increasing tumor size (p=0.011) and lymph node involvement (p<0.001). Systemic relapse and death from breast cancer occurred in 31.7% and 26.9% of the B M-positive versus 13.7% and 10.9% of B M-negative patients, respectively (p<0.001). Analyzing node-positive and node-negative patients separately, ITC-positivity was associated with poor prognosis in the node-positive group and in node-negative patients not receiving adjuvant therapy (T1N0). In multivariate analysis, ITC in B M was an independent prognostic factor together with N-, T-, ER/Pg R-status, histological grade and vascular invasion. Combination of several independent prognostic factors can classify subgroups of patients into excellent and high-risk prognosis groups. Like other groups we have investigated the clinical role of monitoring minimal residual disease before and after adjuvant therapy in breast cancer. One hundred and eighteen high risk stage II breast cancer patients entering the Scandinavian Study Group multicenter trial were randomized to 9 cycles of dose escalated and tailored FEC (5-flurouracil, epirubicin, cyclophosphamide) or standard FEC followed by high dose chemotherapy. B M samples at diagnosis and 6 months after completion of chemotherapy were assessed for the presence of I CT. Median observation time for patients was 68 months. ITC positivity in bone marrow was evaluated as a prognostic and predictive marker and

  4. Residual Wage Differences by Gender: Bounding the Estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakellariou, Chris N.; Patrinos, Harry A.

    1996-01-01

    Uses data from the 1986 Canadian labor market activity survey file to derive estimates of residual gender wage gap differences. Investigates these estimates' dependence on experimental design and on assumptions about discrimination-free wage structures. Residual differences persist, even after restricting the sample to a group of highly motivated,…

  5. The significance of residual stresses in relation to the integrity of LWR pressure vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lidbury, D.P.G.

    1984-01-01

    The level and distribution of residual stresses in heavy section weldments and the factors affecting their relaxation with post-weld heat treatment (PWHT) are discussed; residual stresses are also considered in relation to the deposition of austenitic strip cladding and repair welding. A brief survey is made of currently available methods of measuring surface and sub-surface residual stresses in heavy section weldments; the effects of compressive residual stresses on the detection and sizing of planar defects are similarly considered. Available fracture mechanics methodologies with the capability of evaluation defect significance in the presence of residual and other secondary stresses are reviewed in some detail. On-going experimental investigations of the effects of residual stresses on structural integrity are also described. Following a general discussion, the desirability of internationally agreed Codes and Methods for assessing defects in the presence of residual and other self-limiting stresses is pointed out. It is argued that before such agreement could be achieved, however, further work is necessary, and a number of recommendations are given. (author)

  6. Decomposition of sugar cane crop residues under different nitrogen rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Costa Potrich

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The deposition of organic residues through mechanical harvesting of cane sugar is a growing practice in sugarcane production system. The maintenance of these residues on the soil surface depends mainly on environmental conditions. Nitrogen fertilization on dry residues tend to retard decomposition of these, providing benefits such as increased SOM. Thus, the object of this research was to evaluate the effect of different doses of nitrogen on sugar cane crop residues, as its decomposition and contribution to carbon sequestration in soil. The experiment was conducted in Dourados-MS and consisted of a randomized complete block design. Dried residues were placed in litter bags and the treatments were arranged in a split plot, being the four nitrogen rates (0, 50, 100 and 150 kg ha-1 N the plots, and the seven sampling times (0, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 the spit plots. Decomposition rates of residues, total organic carbon and labile carbon on soil were analysed. The application of increasing N doses resulted in an increase in their decomposition rates. Despite this, note also the mineral N application as a strategy to get higher levels of labile carbon in soil.

  7. Discharge of residual debt: Do private and institutional lenders differ?

    OpenAIRE

    Kirchkamp, Oliver; Prömpers, Henning

    2013-01-01

    With the help of lab experiments we study the impact of discharging insolvent debtors of their residual debt. We investigate the impact of different participation rules and the impact of different types of lenders. We find that higher participation rates encourage risk taking behaviour of borrowers. Higher participation rates also reduce the amount of moonlighting. Most importantly, institutional lenders can suffer more from moonlighting than private lenders.

  8. Effects of Adopting Different Kinds of Collecting Method for Years on Film Residual Coefficient and Maize Yields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TANG Wen-xue

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Wide usage of mulching technology has increased crop yields, but the large amounts of mulching film residue resulting from widespread use of plastic film in China has brought about a series of pollution hazards. Based on a 4-year (2011-2014 long-term experiment, the effects of different kinds of collecting mothod (zero plastic film residues, conventional plastic film residues, whole plastic film residues remainded on plastic film residues, residual coefficient and maize yield were explored. Plastic film residues mainly remained in 0~10 cm, 10~20 cm soil layers. In 0~30 cm soil layers, the two types of mulch residues (>25 cm2, 4~25 cm2 under zero plastic film residues treatment were much less than conventional plastic film residues and whole plastic film residues remainded treatments, no significant differences were observed in the mulch residues (2 among 3 treatments. After maize harvest, the amount of plastic film residues under zero plastic film residues, conventional plastic film residues and whole plastic film residues remainded treatments were 52.71, 80.85 kg·hm-2 and 152.65 kg·hm-2, respectively, the residual coefficient for zero plastic film residues, conventional plastic film residues and whole plastic film residues remainded treatments were -9.45%, 8.53% and 54.42%, respectively. The stem diameter, ear length, ear width, ear row number, grain number per row and 100-grain weight of maize decreased with the increase of residual film amount. Compared with the conventional plastic film residues, the mean grain yield of whole plastic film residues remainded treatment decreased by 15.08%, whereas the zero plastic film residues treatment increased by 4.70%. The plastic film residues, residual coefficient and maize yield were comprehensively analyzed, the conventional plastic film residues practice should be adopted currently without appropriate plastic film residues collector. But from the long-term development, we should speed up the

  9. Adaptive Tests of Significance Using Permutations of Residuals with R and SAS

    CERN Document Server

    O'Gorman, Thomas W

    2012-01-01

    Provides the tools needed to successfully perform adaptive tests across a broad range of datasets Adaptive Tests of Significance Using Permutations of Residuals with R and SAS illustrates the power of adaptive tests and showcases their ability to adjust the testing method to suit a particular set of data. The book utilizes state-of-the-art software to demonstrate the practicality and benefits for data analysis in various fields of study. Beginning with an introduction, the book moves on to explore the underlying concepts of adaptive tests, including:Smoothing methods and normalizing transforma

  10. Different strategies for recovering metals from CARON process residue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabrera, G.; Gomez, J.M.; Hernandez, I.; Coto, O.; Cantero, D.

    2011-01-01

    The capacity of Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans DMS 11478 to recover the heavy metals contained in the residue obtained from the CARON process has been evaluated. Different bioreactor configurations were studied: a two-stage batch system and two semi-continuous systems (stirred-tank reactor leaching and column leaching). In the two-stage system, 46.8% Co, 36.0% Mg, 26.3% Mn and 22.3% Ni were solubilised after 6 h of contact between the residue and the bacteria-free bioacid. The results obtained with the stirred-tank reactor and the column were similar: 50% of the Mg and Co and 40% of the Mn and Ni were solubilised after thirty one days. The operation in the column reactor allowed the solid-liquid ratio to be increased and the pH to be kept at low values (<1.0). Recirculation of the leachate in the column had a positive effect on metal removal; at sixty five days (optimum time) the solubilisation levels were as follows: 86% Co, 83% Mg, 72% Mn and Ni, 62% Fe and 23% Cr. The results corroborate the feasibility of the systems studied for the leaching of metals from CARON process residue and these methodologies can be considered viable for the recovery of valuable metals.

  11. Logging residues under different stand and harvesting conditions, Rocky Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert E. Benson; Cameron M. Johnston

    1976-01-01

    Volume and characteristics of logging residues from 34 harvest areas are presented. Clearcuts and partial cuts logged to conventional utilization levels and to close utilization levels are included. Residue volumes ranged from almost 3, 600 ft3 /acre of wood 3-inches-plus down to about 550 ft3 /acre, depending on treatment. More than 60 percent of the residues were...

  12. Significance of residual abdominal masses in children with abdominal Burkitt's lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karmazyn, B.; Horev, G.; Kornreich, L.; Ash, S.; Goshen, Y.; Yaniv, I.

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the natural history of children with abdominal Burkitt's lymphoma who had complete clinical remission and residual abdominal mass after treatment. Material and methods: The charts and imaging findings of all children with abdominal Burkitt's lymphoma treated and followed at our medical center between 1988 and 1999 were reviewed for the presence, management, clinical course, and prognosis of residual mass. Results: Only children who achieved complete clinical remission were included. The study group consisted of 33 children (20 boys and 13 girls) aged 2.6-17.6 years (mean 7.2 years). Of these, seven (20.6 %) were found to have a residual abdominal mass. Two underwent second-look operation with no evidence of viable tumor on histology. The remaining five were followed by imaging studies for 2.2-9.1 years (mean 6.1 years); none relapsed. Conclusion: Residual mass is not uncommon in children with abdominal Burkitt's lymphoma. The presence of residual mass in a child with complete clinical remission does not alter the long-term prognosis. Therefore, in children with Burkitt's lymphoma and residual mass with no other signs of disease activity, expectant watching may be appropriate. (orig.)

  13. Galvanic replacement mediated synthesis of hollow Pt nanocatalysts: Significance of residual Ag for the H{sub 2} evolution reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bansal, Vipul; O' Mullane, Anthony P.; Bhargava, Suresh K. [School of Applied Sciences, RMIT University, GPO Box 2476V, Melbourne VIC 3001 (Australia)

    2009-08-15

    With the increasing popularity of the galvanic replacement approach towards the development of bimetallic nanocatalysts, special emphasis has been focused on minimizing the use of expensive metal (e.g. Pt), in the finally formed nanomaterials (e.g. Ag/Pt system as a possible catalyst for fuel cells). However, the complete removal of the less active sacrificial template is generally not achieved during galvanic replacement, and its residual presence may significantly impact on the electrocatalytic properties of the final material. Here, we investigate the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) activity of Ag nanocubes replaced with different amounts of Pt, and demonstrate how the bimetallic composition significantly affects the activity of the alloyed nanomaterial. (author)

  14. AQP4 plasma membrane trafficking or channel gating is not significantly modulated by phosphorylation at C-terminal serine residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assentoft, Mette; Larsen, Brian R; Olesen, Emma T B

    2014-01-01

    heterologous expression in Xenopus laevis oocytes (along with serine-to-aspartate mutants of the same residues to mimic a phosphorylation). None of the mutant AQP4 constructs displayed alterations in the unit water permeability. Thus phosphorylation of six different serine residues in the COOH terminus of AQP4....... Phosphorylation of aquaporins can regulate plasma membrane localization and, possibly, the unit water permeability via gating of the AQP channel itself. In vivo phosphorylation of six serine residues in the COOH terminus of AQP4 has been detected by mass spectrometry: Ser(276), Ser(285), Ser(315), Ser(316), Ser...

  15. Holstein-Friesian calves selected for divergence in residual feed intake during growth exhibited significant but reduced residual feed intake divergence in their first lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, K A; Pryce, J E; Spelman, R J; Davis, S R; Wales, W J; Waghorn, G C; Williams, Y J; Marett, L C; Hayes, B J

    2014-03-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI), as a measure of feed conversion during growth, was estimated for around 2,000 growing Holstein-Friesian heifer calves aged 6 to 9 mo in New Zealand and Australia, and individuals from the most and least efficient deciles (low and high RFI phenotypes) were retained. These animals (78 New Zealand cows, 105 Australian cows) were reevaluated during their first lactation to determine if divergence for RFI observed during growth was maintained during lactation. Mean daily body weight (BW) gain during assessment as calves had been 0.86 and 1.15 kg for the respective countries, and the divergence in RFI between most and least efficient deciles for growth was 21% (1.39 and 1.42 kg of dry matter, for New Zealand and Australia, respectively). At the commencement of evaluation during lactation, the cows were aged 26 to 29 mo. All were fed alfalfa and grass cubes; it was the sole diet in New Zealand, whereas 6 kg of crushed wheat/d was also fed in Australia. Measurements of RFI during lactation occurred for 34 to 37 d with measurements of milk production (daily), milk composition (2 to 3 times per week), BW and BW change (1 to 3 times per week), as well as body condition score (BCS). Daily milk production averaged 13.8 kg for New Zealand cows and 20.0 kg in Australia. No statistically significant differences were observed between calf RFI decile groups for dry matter intake, milk production, BW change, or BCS; however a significant difference was noted between groups for lactating RFI. Residual feed intake was about 3% lower for lactating cows identified as most efficient as growing calves, and no negative effects on production were observed. These results support the hypothesis that calves divergent for RFI during growth are also divergent for RFI when lactating. The causes for this reduced divergence need to be investigated to ensure that genetic selection programs based on low RFI (better efficiency) are robust. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy

  16. Formation of non-extractable pesticide residues: observations on compound differences, measurement and regulatory issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mordaunt, Catriona J.; Gevao, Bondi; Jones, Kevin C.; Semple, Kirk T

    2005-01-01

    Six major use pesticides (Atrazine, Dicamba, Isoproturon, Lindane, Paraquat and Trifluralin) with differing physico-chemical properties were evaluated for the significance of 'bound' or non extractable residue formation. Investigations were carried out in purpose-built microcosms where mineralization, volatilisation, 'soil water' extractable and organic solvent extractable residues could be quantified. Extractable residues were defined as those accessible by sequential extraction where the solvent used became increasingly non-polar. Dichloromethane was the 'harshest' solvent used at the end of the sequential extraction procedure. {sup 14}C-labelled volatilised and {sup 14}CO{sub 2} fractions were trapped on exit from the microcosm. The pesticides were categorised into 3 classes based on their behaviour. (i) Type A (Atrazine, Lindane and Trifluralin) in which ring degradation was limited as was the formation of non-extractable residues; the remainder of the {sup 14}C-activity was found in the extractable fraction. (ii) Type B (Dicamba and Isoproturon) in which approximately 25% of the {sup 14}C-activity was mineralised and a large portion was found in the non-extractable fraction after 91 days. Finally, Type C (Paraquat) in which almost all of the {sup 14}C-activity was quickly incorporated into the non-extractable fraction. The implications of the data are discussed, with respect to the variability and significance of regulatory aspects of non-extractable residues.

  17. Formation of non-extractable pesticide residues: observations on compound differences, measurement and regulatory issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mordaunt, Catriona J.; Gevao, Bondi; Jones, Kevin C.; Semple, Kirk T.

    2005-01-01

    Six major use pesticides (Atrazine, Dicamba, Isoproturon, Lindane, Paraquat and Trifluralin) with differing physico-chemical properties were evaluated for the significance of 'bound' or non extractable residue formation. Investigations were carried out in purpose-built microcosms where mineralization, volatilisation, 'soil water' extractable and organic solvent extractable residues could be quantified. Extractable residues were defined as those accessible by sequential extraction where the solvent used became increasingly non-polar. Dichloromethane was the 'harshest' solvent used at the end of the sequential extraction procedure. 14 C-labelled volatilised and 14 CO 2 fractions were trapped on exit from the microcosm. The pesticides were categorised into 3 classes based on their behaviour. (i) Type A (Atrazine, Lindane and Trifluralin) in which ring degradation was limited as was the formation of non-extractable residues; the remainder of the 14 C-activity was found in the extractable fraction. (ii) Type B (Dicamba and Isoproturon) in which approximately 25% of the 14 C-activity was mineralised and a large portion was found in the non-extractable fraction after 91 days. Finally, Type C (Paraquat) in which almost all of the 14 C-activity was quickly incorporated into the non-extractable fraction. The implications of the data are discussed, with respect to the variability and significance of regulatory aspects of non-extractable residues

  18. Testing the Difference of Correlated Agreement Coefficients for Statistical Significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwet, Kilem L.

    2016-01-01

    This article addresses the problem of testing the difference between two correlated agreement coefficients for statistical significance. A number of authors have proposed methods for testing the difference between two correlated kappa coefficients, which require either the use of resampling methods or the use of advanced statistical modeling…

  19. Identification of chemical signatures of gunshot residues in different fabrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freitas, Joao Carlos Dias de

    2010-01-01

    The modern forensic science goes hand in hand with scientific research. The forensic scientists are faced every day with many cases requiring the analysis of residues from firing gun (gunshot residues). This works describes the development of a methodology to determine chemical signatures of shots from a firearm, by measuring the concentrations of Pb, Ba e Sb in the residues from these shots deposited near the entrance hole of bullets, based on the technique with high resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HRICP-MS). Shots were performed on five types of target-fabrics and collected testimonies from regions close to the entrance hole of projectiles. The results showed that the method enabled us to identify and distinguish the residues of the .38 caliber revolver and pistols .40 and 9mm caliber. The use of ternary graphs as a tool for data analysis helped to identify specific patterns of distribution of blank samples and gunshot residues deposited after firing revolvers and pistols. The methodology enabled the assignment of the origin of the shot through the confirmation of the residues collected also from the hands of shooters. As a result the methodology in police procedures and aims to add a valuable contribution to forensic investigations. (author)

  20. Possible reasons for differences in residual feed intake: An overview

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    marcelle

    2013-09-05

    Sep 5, 2013 ... The difference in methane production in high and low RFI ... feed, protein turnover and overall tissue metabolism (mitochondrial .... 2007) and is influenced significantly by genetics and diets (Bottje et al., ... From Figure 1 it can be seen that protein turnover, tissue metabolism and stress explain 37% of the.

  1. Function and significance of bell beaker pottery according to data from residue analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guerra Doce, Elisa

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, Bell Beakers have been thought to contain alcoholic beverages which were consumed in the course of male feasting ceremonies. Recent residue analyses have shed some light on the question of their function. However, whilst beer and mead have been identified from certain examples, not all Beakers were drinking cups. Some were used as reduction pots to smelt copper ores, others have some organic residues associated with food, and still others were employed as funerary urns. Yet, while the evidence points to a diversity of uses, it is argued that an ideological connection can be observed. Beakers were probably a special form of pottery with a ritual character, related to activities that imply some kind of transformation.

    Los vasos campaniformes suelen relacionarse con el consumo de bebidas alcohólicas durante la celebración de banquetes ceremoniales de exaltación masculina. Si bien las analíticas de residuos han identificado cerveza e hidromiel en unos cuantos ejemplares, no todos los campaniformes desempeñaron esta misma función. Algunos hicieron las veces de vasijas-horno para reducir el mineral de cobre, en otros se han detectado restos de alimentos y también se emplearon como urnas funerarias. A pesar de esta diversidad de usos, creemos que existe una conexión ideológica entre ellos, de tal manera que habría que considerar a los campaniformes como una cerámica singular con un carácter ritual, destinada a actividades que conllevan algún tipo de transformación.

  2. Electrodialytic remediation of municipal solid waste incineration residues using different membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parés Viader, Raimon; Jensen, Pernille Erland; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2017-01-01

    In the present work, three different commercial membrane brands were used in an identical electrodialytic cell setup and operating conditions, in order to reduce the leaching of metals and salt anions of two types of municipal solid waste incineration residues: air pollution control residues...... as a technology to upgrade municipal solid waste incineration residues....

  3. Test for the statistical significance of differences between ROC curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metz, C.E.; Kronman, H.B.

    1979-01-01

    A test for the statistical significance of observed differences between two measured Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves has been designed and evaluated. The set of observer response data for each ROC curve is assumed to be independent and to arise from a ROC curve having a form which, in the absence of statistical fluctuations in the response data, graphs as a straight line on double normal-deviate axes. To test the significance of an apparent difference between two measured ROC curves, maximum likelihood estimates of the two parameters of each curve and the associated parameter variances and covariance are calculated from the corresponding set of observer response data. An approximate Chi-square statistic with two degrees of freedom is then constructed from the differences between the parameters estimated for each ROC curve and from the variances and covariances of these estimates. This statistic is known to be truly Chi-square distributed only in the limit of large numbers of trials in the observer performance experiments. Performance of the statistic for data arising from a limited number of experimental trials was evaluated. Independent sets of rating scale data arising from the same underlying ROC curve were paired, and the fraction of differences found (falsely) significant was compared to the significance level, α, used with the test. Although test performance was found to be somewhat dependent on both the number of trials in the data and the position of the underlying ROC curve in the ROC space, the results for various significance levels showed the test to be reliable under practical experimental conditions

  4. One arm exercise induces significant interarm diastolic blood pressure difference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Dezhi; Wang, Jiwei; Su, Hai; Xu, Jingsong; Liu, Yanna; Peng, Qiang; Wang, Lijuan

    2011-06-01

    This study is designed to investigate the inducing effect of one arm exercise on interarm difference (IAD) in the blood pressure (BP). Fifty healthy young participants were included in the study. Three-minute exercises of the right arm elbow flexion and extension were performed. The bilateral brachial BP was simultaneously measured with two automatic BP measurement devices before (basic) and immediately 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 30 min after exercise. The absolute difference in the systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) between the left and right BP of at least 10 mmHg was recognized as sIAD and dIAD. The baseline data of the SBP and DBP in left and right arms revealed no significant difference (SBP: 110 ± 10 vs. 111 ± 11 mmHg; DBP: 66 ± 8 vs. 66 ± 9 mmHg, both not significant). The prevalence of dIAD was 2% at the baseline. However, this prevalence increased to 80% at 0 min, as right arm exercise induced the right DBP decrease and left DBP increase, and then the prevalence decreased gradually within a 30-min recovery period. The prevalence of sIAD was zero at the baseline and the maximal prevalence was 8% during the 20-min postexercise period. One arm exercise can lead to a significant IAD in DBP. Any arm exercise should be avoided before BP measurement.

  5. Significance of perfectionism in understanding different forms of insomnia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Totić-Poznanović Sanja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Studies consistently show a connection between perfectionism as a multidimensional construct with various psychological and psychopathological states and characteristics. However, studies that analyze the connection between this concept and sleep disturbances, especially modalities of insomnia, are rare. Objective. The aim of this study was to examine whether dimensions of perfectionism can explain different forms of insomnia; difficulties initiating sleep (insomnia early, difficulties during the sleep (insomnia middle, waking in early hours of the morning (insomnia late and dissatisfaction with sleep quality (subjective insomnia. Methods. The sample consisted of 254 students of the School of Medicine in Belgrade. Predictive significance of nine perfectionism dimensions, measured by Frost’s and Hewitt’s and Flett’s scales of multi-dimensional perfectionism, related to four modalities of insomnia, measured by a structured questionnaire, was analyzed by multiple linear regression method. Results. Perfectionism dimensions are significant predictors of each of the tested forms of insomnia. Doubt about actions significantly predicts initial insomnia; to other-oriented perfectionism in the negative pole and socially prescribed perfectionism underlie the difficulties during the sleep, while organization and parental criticism underlie late insomnia. Significant predictors of subjective insomnia are personal standards and organization and to other-oriented perfectionism on the negative pole. Three of nine analyzed dimensions were not confirmed as significant; concern over mistakes, parental expectations and self-oriented perfectionism. Conclusion. Various aspects of perfectionism can be considered as a vulnerability factor for understanding some forms of insomnia. Out of all forms of insomnia tested, perfectionism as the personality trait proved to be the most significant for understanding subjective insomnia.

  6. Determination of crop residues and the physical and mechanical properties of soil in different tillage systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Ahmadi Moghaddam

    2016-04-01

    transects method, the experiments were replicated three times in each block due to increasing the accuracy and mean of datawas calculated. The tests were randomly performed in each block. Then, the number of nodes, which are located on crop residues of size 25 mm, longitudinally, was counted. So the percentage of crop residue in each block was calculated through the percentage of nodes. The experiments of rolling resistance were also performed in three levels, 10, 50, and 90% of crop residues, inside the soil bin. Results and Discussion: Result showed that, in comparison with control treatment, tillage operation significantly decreased bulk density (p<0.01, penetration resistance (p<0.01, and aggregates stability (p<0.01, in the soil surface (0-10 cm. Also, the results showed that penetration resistance of soil was increased by depth. The results of variance analysis in crop residue dataset showed that there were significant differences among the treatments in the terms of crop residues (P<0.05. Because of increasing the intensity of tillage and also the different performance of various tillage tools would mix crop residues with the soil and lead to reduce the crop residues. The consequences revealed that the treatments had significant differences in the terms of mechanical resistance of soil at the confidence level of 5%. The mechanical resistance of soil in three levels of depth had the most and the least contents in chisel and disk plows treatments, respectively. Because of disk plows can powder soil more than other treatments and chisel plows can only make narrow in the soil. The results of investigating the effect of crop residues on rolling resistance of wheels showed that there were not any significant differences between the treatments. Conclusions: It can be concluded that increasing the tillage intensity would reduce the stability of aggregates. Thus, the least stability of aggregates was obtained when using moldboard plows. However, the most stability was

  7. Residual pathological stage at radical cystectomy significantly impacts outcomes for initial T2N0 bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isbarn, Hendrik; Karakiewicz, Pierre I; Shariat, Shahrokh F; Capitanio, Umberto; Palapattu, Ganesh S; Sagalowsky, Arthur I; Lotan, Yair; Schoenberg, Mark P; Amiel, Gilad E; Lerner, Seth P; Sonpavde, Guru

    2009-08-01

    We hypothesized that in patients with T2N0 stage disease at transurethral bladder tumor resection a lower residual cancer stage (P1N0 or less) at radical cystectomy may correlate with improved outcomes relative to those with residual P2N0 disease. We analyzed 208 patients with T2N0 stage disease at transurethral bladder tumor resection whose tumors were organ confined at radical cystectomy (P2 or lower, pN0). None received perioperative chemotherapy. Kaplan-Meier as well as univariable and multivariable Cox regression models addressed the effect of residual pT stage at radical cystectomy on recurrence and cancer specific mortality rates. Covariates consisted of age, gender, grade, lymphovascular invasion, carcinoma in situ, number of lymph nodes removed and year of surgery. Residual pT stage at radical cystectomy was P0 in 24 (11.5%) patients, Pa in 9 (4.3%), PCIS in 22 (10.6%), P1 in 35 (16.8%) and P2 in 118 (56.7%). Median followup of censored patients was 55.7 months for recurrence and 52.1 months for cancer specific mortality analyses. The 5-year recurrence-free survival rates of patients with P0/Pa/PCIS, P1 and P2 stage disease were 100%, 85% and 75%, respectively. The 5-year cancer specific survival rates for the same cohorts were 100%, 93% and 81%, respectively. On multivariable analysis the effect of residual stage P1 or lower at radical cystectomy achieved independent predictor status for recurrence (adjusted HR 0.20, p = 0.002) and cancer specific mortality (adjusted HR 0.24, p = 0.02). Down staging from initial T2N0 bladder cancer at transurethral bladder tumor resection to lower stage at radical cystectomy significantly reduces recurrence and cancer specific mortality. Further validation of this finding is warranted.

  8. Explanation of significant differences for the TNX groundwater operable unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, E.R.

    1997-01-01

    This Explanation of Significant Differences (ESD) is being issued by the Department of Energy (DOE), the lead agency for the Savannah River Site (SRS), with concurrence by the Environmental Protection Agency-Region IV (EPA) and South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) to announce changes in the interim remediation strategy selected for the TNX Groundwater Operable Unit. The TNX Area is located adjacent to the Savannah River in the southwestern portion of SRS. The remedy selected in the Interim Record of Decision (IROD) to achieve the interim action goals was the Hybrid Groundwater Corrective Action (HGCA). The HGCA consisted of a recirculation well system and an air stripper with a series of groundwater extraction wells. The original remediation strategy needs to be modified because the recirculation well system was determined to be ineffective in this area due to geological factors and the nature of the contamination

  9. Plant Residual Management in different Crop Rotations System on Potato Tuber Yield Loss Affected by Wireworms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Zarea Feizabadi

    2016-07-01

    in each plot in 2011. At the harvest time tuber yield and also percent and severity of infection was determined. All data was analyzed statistically and Duncan test was used for comparison of means. Results and Discussion: Analysis of variance results showed that, potato tuber yield was affected by the crop rotation, the rate of returning residues, and also interaction between rotation × returning residues statistically (P≤0.01.When 1000 tuber was considered, analysis of variance results showed, crop rotation had a very significant effect (P≤0.01 on number and percent of infected tubers to wireworm and its holes. The most infected tubers ie.42.34 and holed i.e. 61.4 and totally 4.24% of tubers were belonged to the rotation 2, where in the rapeseed crop was preceding plant. The least one was achieved in rotation 1, with the rates of 27, 37 and 2.8% where in potato crop was not planted previously. The most infection to wireworm was found in 100% residue returning to the soil with 3.8% and the least one in no residue returning to the soil, i.e. 3.4 %. Results showed with increasing residue returning to the soil, the damage of wireworms is increased too. Conclusion: Generally applying crop rotation using different crops and residue returning to the soil is resulted in higher potato tuber yield. This increasing rate for tuber yield was 116% and 57 % when the preceding crops were wheat and rapeseed respectively compared to the mean of rotations 3 and 4. For the aim of sustainable production of potato and reducing of wireworm damage it is necessary we focus on other crop rotation and the importance of C:N ratio and the rate of residue returning to the soil. So we need to conduct new experiments with these purposes.

  10. Differences in sialic acid residues among bone alkaline phosphatase isoforms: a physical, biochemical, and immunological characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnusson, P; Farley, J R

    2002-12-01

    High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) separates three human bone alkaline phosphatase (BALP) isoforms in serum; two major BALP isoforms, B1 and B2, and a minor fraction, B/I, which is composed on average of 70% bone and 30% intestinal ALP. The current studies were intended to identify an in vitro source of the BALP isoforms for physical, biochemical, and immunological characterizations. The three BALP isoforms were identified in extracts of human osteosarcoma (SaOS-2) cells, by HPLC, after separation by anion-exchange chromatography. All three BALP isoforms were similar with respect to freeze-thaw stability, solubility, heat inactivation, and inhibition by L-phenylalanine, L-homoarginine, and levamisole. The isoforms were also kinetically similar (i.e., maximal velocity and KM at pH 8.8 and pH 10.0). The isoforms differed, however, with respect to sensitivity to precipitation with wheat germ agglutinin (WGA), P acid residues was estimated to be 29 and 45, for each B1 and B2 homodimer, respectively. Apparent discrepancies between these estimates of molecular weight and estimates based on gel filtration chromatography were attributed to nonspecific interactions between carbohydrate residues and the gel filtration beads. All three BALP isoforms showed similar dose-dependent linearity in the commercial Alkphase-B and Tandem-MP Ostase immunoassays, r = 0.944 and r = 0.985, respectively (P acid residues compared with B/I, which mainly explains the apparent differences in molecular weight. Future investigations will focus on the clinical and functional significance of the revealed differences in sialic acid residues.

  11. Significance of a negative exercise thallium test in the presence of a critical residual stenosis after thrombolysis for acute myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutton, J.M.; Topol, E.J.

    1991-01-01

    After thrombolytic therapy for acute myocardial infarction, increasing emphasis is placed on early submaximal exercise testing, with further intervention advocated only for demonstrable ischemia. Although significant residual coronary artery lesions after successful thrombolysis are common, many patients paradoxically have no corresponding provokable ischemia. The relation between significant postthrombolytic residual coronary artery disease and a negative early, submaximal exercise thallium-201 tomogram was studied among 101 consecutive patients with uncomplicated myocardial infarction and at least 70% residual stenosis of the infarct artery. A negative test occurred in 49 (48.5%) patients with a mean 88% residual infarct artery stenosis. Further characteristics of the group were as follows: mean time to treatment was 3.1 hours; mean age was 54 +/- 10 years; 80% were male; 47% had anterior infarction; 39% had multivessel disease; mean left ventricular ejection fraction was 53 +/- 14%; and mean peak creatine kinase level was 3,820 +/- 3,123 IU/ml. A similar group of 52 (51.5%) patients, treated within 3.3 hours from symptom onset, with a mean postthrombolysis stenosis of 90%, had a positive exercise test. Characteristics of this group were as follows: age was 58 +/- 10 years; 92% were male; 56% had anterior infarction; 40% had multivessel disease; and mean left ventricular ejection fraction was 54 +/- 15%. The peak creatine kinase level associated with the infarction, however, was lower: 2,605 +/- 1,805 IU/ml (p = 0.04). There was no difference in performance at exercise testing with respect to peak systolic pressure, peak heart rate, or time tolerated on the treadmill between the two groups. By multivariate logistic regression, only peak creatine kinase level predicted a negative stress result in the presence of a significant residual stenosis

  12. Clinical Significance of Diffuse {sup 18F} FDG Uptake in Residual Thyroid Gland after Unilateral Thyroid Lobectomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Hee Sung; Lee, Su Jin; Yoon, Seok Ho; Lee, Jandee; Soh, Euy Young; An, Young Sil; Yoon, Joon Kee [Ajou Univ. School of Medicine, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-09-15

    We investigated the clinical significance of diffuse uptake in remaining thyroid after unilateral lobectomy for thyroid cancer. A total of 144 thyroid cancer patients who underwent {sup 18F} FDG PET/CT after lobectomy were evaluated for the presence of diffuse {sup 18F} FDG uptake with maximum SUV (SUVmax)>2.0 in the residual thyroid and placed into one of two groups: with diffuse uptake and without diffuse uptake group. Clinical, laboratory, and PET/CT parameters in both groups were compared. Correlations between SUVmax of thyroid and available parameters were analyzed. Forty two of 144 patients (29.2%) had diffuse thyroid uptake (mean SUVmax: 3.2{+-}1.1). All patients with diffuse uptake and 96 (94.1%) without diffuse uptake were receiving thyroxine therapy (P=0.09). Thyroid function tests showed that most patients were euthyroid status (78.6 vs. 85.3%, P=0.36). TgAb levels were significantly higher in patients with diffuse uptake (338.0{+-}664.6 vs. 57.3{+-}46.4, P<0.0001). Mean attenuation values in the diffuse uptake group were significantly lower (72.2{+-}15. vs. 97.0{+-}16.0, P<0.0001). An inverse correlation was found between SUVmax and mean attenuation values of residual thyroid in all patients (r=-0.57, P<0.0001) and subgroup with diffuse uptake (r=-0.31, P<0.05). In this study, diffuse {sup 18F} FDG uptake in the residual thyroid after unilateral lobectomy was a relatively frequent finding and may be associated with chronic thyroiditis. This uptake is not influenced by thyroid status or thyroxine therapy. The {sup 18F} FDG uptake is inversely correlated with mean attenuation value of thyroid.

  13. Minimization of Residual Stress in an Al-Cu Alloy Forged Plate by Different Heat Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Ya-Bo; Shao, Wen-Zhu; Jiang, Jian-Tang; Zhang, Bao-You; Zhen, Liang

    2015-06-01

    In order to improve the balance of mechanical properties and residual stress, various quenching and aging treatments were applied to Al-Cu alloy forged plate. Residual stresses determined by the x-ray diffraction method and slitting method were compared. The surface residual stress measured by x-ray diffraction method was consistent with that measured by slitting method. The residual stress distribution of samples quenched in water with different temperatures (20, 60, 80, and 100 °C) was measured, and the results showed that the boiling water quenching results in a 91.4% reduction in residual stress magnitudes compared with cold water quenching (20 °C), but the tensile properties of samples quenched in boiling water were unacceptably low. Quenching in 80 °C water results in 75% reduction of residual stress, and the reduction of yield strength is 12.7%. The residual stress and yield strength level are considerable for the dimensional stability of aluminum alloy. Quenching samples into 30% polyalkylene glycol quenchants produced 52.2% reduction in the maximum compressive residual stress, and the reduction in yield strength is 19.7%. Moreover, the effects of uphill quenching and thermal-cold cycling on the residual stress were also investigated. Uphill quenching and thermal-cold cycling produced approximately 25-40% reduction in residual stress, while the effect on tensile properties is quite slight.

  14. Morphology and composition of pyrotechnic residues formed at different levels of confinement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeij, E.; Duvalois, W.; Webb, R.; Koeberg, M.

    2009-01-01

    Post explosion residues (PER) are residues from pyrotechnic compositions or explosives that are generated during an explosion. In the recent past SEM/EDX was used several times to analyze PER from pyrotechnic compositions. The results from these studies suggest that there might be a difference in

  15. Parent socialization effects in different cultures: significance of directive parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorkhabi, Nadia

    2012-06-01

    In this article, the controversy of divergent findings in research on parental socialization effects in different cultures is addressed. Three explanations intended to address divergent findings of socialization effects in different cultures, as advanced by researchers who emphasize cultural differences, are discussed. These include cultural differences in socialization values and goals of parents, parental emotional and cognitive characteristics associated with parenting styles, and adolescents' interpretations or evaluations of their parents' parenting styles. The empirical evidence for and against each of these arguments is examined and an alternative paradigm for understanding and empirical study of developmental outcomes associated with parenting styles in different cultures is suggested. Baumrind's directive parenting style is presented as an alternative to the authoritarian parenting style in understanding the positive developmental effects associated with "strict" parenting in cultures said to have a collectivist orientation. Directions for research on the three explanations are mentioned.

  16. Effects of Adopting Different Kinds of Collecting Method for Years on Film Residual Coefficient and Maize Yields

    OpenAIRE

    TANG Wen-xue; MA Zhong-ming; WEI Tao

    2017-01-01

    Wide usage of mulching technology has increased crop yields, but the large amounts of mulching film residue resulting from widespread use of plastic film in China has brought about a series of pollution hazards. Based on a 4-year (2011-2014) long-term experiment, the effects of different kinds of collecting mothod (zero plastic film residues, conventional plastic film residues, whole plastic film residues remainded) on plastic film residues, residual coefficient and maize yield were explored....

  17. Prognostic significance of between-arm blood pressure differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Rajiv; Bunaye, Zerihun; Bekele, Dagim M

    2008-03-01

    Blood pressure (BP) recordings often differ between arms, but the extent to which these differences are reproducible and whether the differences have prognostic importance is unknown. We enrolled 421 consecutive patients from a medicine and a renal clinic at a veterans' hospital. Three BP recordings were obtained in each arm using an oscillometric device in a sequential manner and repeated in 1 week. Patients were followed for all-cause mortality arm had 5.1-mm Hg higher systolic BP that attenuated by approximately 2.2 mm Hg a week later. Systolic BP dropped 6.9 mm Hg over 1 week and by an additional 5.3 mm Hg in patients with chronic kidney disease. Accounting for the visit and arm effect improved the reproducibility of the BP measurements. The intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.74, which improved to 0.88 after accounting for visit and 0.93 after accounting for arm. The crude mortality rate was 6.33 per 100 patient-years. Every 10-mm Hg difference in systolic BP between the arms conferred a mortality hazard of 1.24 (95% CI: 1.01 to 1.52) after adjusting for average systolic BP and chronic kidney disease. BP differences between arms are reproducible and carry prognostic information. Patients should have evaluation of BP in both arms at the screening visit.

  18. Conducting tests for statistically significant differences using forest inventory data

    Science.gov (United States)

    James A. Westfall; Scott A. Pugh; John W. Coulston

    2013-01-01

    Many forest inventory and monitoring programs are based on a sample of ground plots from which estimates of forest resources are derived. In addition to evaluating metrics such as number of trees or amount of cubic wood volume, it is often desirable to make comparisons between resource attributes. To properly conduct statistical tests for differences, it is imperative...

  19. Significance of perfectionism in understanding different forms of insomnia

    OpenAIRE

    Totić-Poznanović Sanja; Šaula-Marojević Biljana; Zebić Mirjana

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. Studies consistently show a connection between perfectionism as a multidimensional construct with various psychological and psychopathological states and characteristics. However, studies that analyze the connection between this concept and sleep disturbances, especially modalities of insomnia, are rare. Objective. The aim of this study was to examine whether dimensions of perfectionism can explain different forms of insomnia; difficulties initiating sleep (insomnia early)...

  20. Fate and possible nutritional and toxicological significance of methylbromide residues in fumigated cocoa beans. Coordinated programme on isotopic tracer-aided studies on foreign chemical residues in food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adomako, D.

    1975-03-01

    Methyl bromide residues in cocoa as a result of fumigation under practical conditions have been studied. Cocoa beans were exposed to 14 C-labelled CH 3 Br for 24 hours at 20-32degC and dosage 23.5 to 28mg/1 of fumigants (moisture content of 6-7%). Whole unroasted beans and their shells and nibs as well as shells and nibs of roasted (105degC for 30 min) beans were extracted separately with toluene (for free CH 3 Br) and the dried residues wet combusted. 14 C-activities were determined by liquid scintillation counting. Total methyl bromide (bound and free) was equivalent 83-98ppm in whole unroasted beans 35 hours after treatment and aeration, and 31, 15 and 10ppm after 7, 42 and 70 days respectively in one set of experiments and 37, 53 and 42ppm after 76, 60 and 51 days in another set. Approximately 80% of the residue occurred in the shells which constitute only 12 to 13% of unroasted beans. 99% of the total residues appeared to be in chemically-bound form. Roasting reduced the total residues by 32 to 62% in nibs and 3.6 to 14% in shells. A striking effect of roasting was the occurrence in roasted nibs of residues as (extractable) carbon-14 (62-82% of the total residues compared to 16.5 - 27% in unroasted nibs). The bound residues behaved as methylated derivatives whilst the volatile fraction behaved as volatile aroma compounds formed by Maillard type reactions from the 14 C-labelled amino acides and sugars

  1. Observation of different isoscaling behavior between emitted fragments and residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youngs, M., E-mail: mdyoungs@comp.tamu.edu [Cyclotron Institute, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); McIntosh, A.B.; Hagel, K. [Cyclotron Institute, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Heilborn, L. [Cyclotron Institute, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Chemistry Department, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Huang, M. [Cyclotron Institute, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Jedele, A.; Kohley, Z.; May, L.W. [Cyclotron Institute, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Chemistry Department, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); McCleskey, E. [Cyclotron Institute, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Zarrella, A.; Yennello, S.J. [Cyclotron Institute, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Chemistry Department, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States)

    2017-06-15

    The traditional isoscaling technique has been used to analyze all isotopically identified particles from {sup 70}Zn+{sup 70}Zn and {sup 64}Zn+{sup 64}Zn collisions at 35 MeV/u. Two additional techniques, using an energy-averaged ratio and using the data present in the tail of energy spectra, are compared to the traditional method and show similar results. Isoscaling fit parameters α and β are found both globally and for each individual series of constant Z and N. The data are then split up between emitted fragments and projectile-like fragments. Isoscaling values for the two different types of fragments are shown to be different, emphasizing the importance of experimentally distinguishing between projectile-like fragments and emitted fragments in order to achieve accurate isoscaling parameters.

  2. Significant Differences in Nurses’ Knowledge of Basic Wound Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zarchi, Kian; Latif, Seemab; Haugaard, Vibeke B

    2014-01-01

    Wounds represent a growing healthcare problem due to an aging population. Nurses play a key role in wound management and their theoretical understanding of basic wound management may be expected to influence the quality of wound therapy fundamentally. In this study, we evaluated the level...... of knowledge of wound management in 136 Danish nurses working in 3 different settings: advanced wound care clinics, home care and general hospital departments. We found that hospital nurses had less theoretical knowledge than home care nurses and nurses working at advanced wound care clinics. We also found...... of wound management in Denmark and suggests how improvements might be achieved....

  3. Investigation into Variations of Welding Residual Stresses and Redistribution Behaviors for Different Repair Welding Widths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Chiyong; Lee, Hweesueng; Huh, Namsu

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the variations in welding residual stresses in dissimilar metal butt weld due to width of repair welding and re-distribution behaviors resulting from similar metal welding (SMW) and mechanical loading. To this end, detailed two-dimensional axi-symmetric finite element (FE) analyses were performed considering five different repair welding widths. Based on the FE results, we first evaluated the welding residual stress distributions in repair welding. We then investigated the re-distribution behaviors of the residual stresses due to SMW and mechanical loads. It is revealed that large tensile welding residual stresses take place in the inner surface and that its distribution is affected, provided repair welding width is larger than certain value. The welding residual stresses resulting from repair welding are remarkably reduced due to SMW and mechanical loading, regardless of the width of the repair welding

  4. Electroacoustic isoelectric point determinations of bauxite refinery residues: different neutralization techniques and minor mineral effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, Tiago S S; Clark, Malcolm W; Comarmond, M Josick; Payne, Timothy E; Reichelt-Brushett, Amanda J; Thorogood, Gordon J

    2012-08-14

    Bauxite refinery residue (BRR) is a highly caustic, iron hydroxide-rich byproduct from alumina production. Some chemical treatments of BRR reduce soluble alkalinity and lower residue pH (to values work shows that minor mineral components in complex mineral systems may have a disproportionate effect on the observable bulk IEP. Furthermore, this work shows the appropriateness of electroacoustic techniques in investigating samples with significant soluble mineral components (e.g., ANC).

  5. Temperature-dependent dynamical transitions of different classes of amino acid residue in a globular protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Yinglong; Yi, Zheng; Glass, Dennis C; Hong, Liang; Tyagi, Madhusudan; Baudry, Jerome; Jain, Nitin; Smith, Jeremy C

    2012-12-05

    The temperature dependences of the nanosecond dynamics of different chemical classes of amino acid residue have been analyzed by combining elastic incoherent neutron scattering experiments with molecular dynamics simulations on cytochrome P450cam. At T = 100-160 K, anharmonic motion in hydrophobic and aromatic residues is activated, whereas hydrophilic residue motions are suppressed because of hydrogen-bonding interactions. In contrast, at T = 180-220 K, water-activated jumps of hydrophilic side chains, which are strongly coupled to the relaxation rates of the hydrogen bonds they form with hydration water, become apparent. Thus, with increasing temperature, first the hydrophobic core awakens, followed by the hydrophilic surface.

  6. Liquefied Residue of Kenaf Core Wood Produced at Different Phenol-Kenaf Ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saiful Bahari Bakarudin; Sarani Zakaria; Chia, C.H.; Jani, S.M.

    2012-01-01

    Liquefactions of kenaf core wood were carried out at different phenol-kenaf (P/ k) ratios. Characterizations of kenaf core wood liquefied residue were carried out to measure the degree of liquefaction. This provides a new approach to understand some fundamental aspects of the liquefaction reaction. Functional groups on the raw kenaf core wood and liquefied residue were examined using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The crystallinity index of the kenaf wood liquefied residue, which represents crystallinity changes of the cellulose component after the liquefaction process, was studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD). The surface morphology of the wood residue was observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The thermal behavior of the residues was analyzed using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Abroad peak around 3450-3400 cm -1 representing OH stretching in lignin start to disappear as P/K ratio increases. The results showed that the higher the P/K ratio the greater the liquefaction of the lignin component in the kenaf core wood. The crystallinity index (CrI) on the kenaf liquefied residues increased with the increase in P/K ratio. SEM images showed that the small fragments attached on the liquefied kenaf residue surface were gradually removed as the P/K ratio was increased from 1.5/ 1.0 to 2.5/ 1.0, which is mainly attributed to the greater chemical penetration toward reactive site of the kenaf fibres. Residue content decreased as the P/K ratio increased from 1.5/ 1.0 to 2.5/ 1.0. TGA results showed the increase of heat resistance in the residue as the P/K ratio was increased. (author)

  7. NMR and Chemometric Characterization of Vacuum Residues and Vacuum Gas Oils from Crude Oils of Different Origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Parlov Vuković

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available NMR spectroscopy in combination with statistical methods was used to study vacuum residues and vacuum gas oils from 32 crude oils of different origin. Two chemometric metodes were applied. Firstly, principal component analysis on complete spectra was used to perform classification of samples and clear distinction between vacuum residues and vacuum light and heavy gas oils were obtained. To quantitatively predict the composition of asphaltenes, principal component regression models using areas of resonance signals spaned by 11 frequency bins of the 1H NMR spectra were build. The first 5 principal components accounted for more than 94 % of variations in the input data set and coefficient of determination for correlation between measured and predicted values was R2 = 0.7421. Although this value is not significant, it shows the underlying linear dependence in the data. Pseudo two-dimensional DOSY NMR experiments were used to assess the composition and structural properties of asphaltenes in a selected crude oil and its vacuum residue on the basis of their different hydrodynamic behavior and translational diffusion coefficients. DOSY spectra showed the presence of several asphaltene aggregates differing in size and interactions they formed. The obtained results have shown that NMR techniques in combination with chemometrics are very useful to analyze vacuum residues and vacuum gas oils. Furthermore, we expect that our ongoing investigation of asphaltenes from crude oils of different origin will elucidate in more details composition, structure and properties of these complex molecular systems.

  8. Residual Strength Characterization of Unitized Structures Fabricated Using Different Manufacturing Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seshadri, B. R.; Smith, S. W.; Johnston, W. M.

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes residual strength analysis of integral structures fabricated using different manufacturing procedures. The topics include: 1) Built-up and Integral Structures; 2) Development of Prediction Methodology for Integral Structures Fabricated using different Manufacturing Procedures; 3) Testing Facility; 4) Fracture Parameters Definition; 5) Crack Branching in Integral Structures; 6) Results and Discussion; and 7) Concluding Remarks.

  9. Preferency of soil macrofauna to crops residue at different light intensity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUGIYARTO

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Every species of soil macrofauna prefer specific food and environment to be establish in it's habitat. Their diversity depend on variation of food and environmental condition. The aim of this research was to study the effect of different crop residue and light intensity on population of several soil macrofauna specieses. Mycrocosmos experiment was arranged in split-plot design with two treatments factor, i.e.: (1 crop residue (albizia, papaya, elephant grass, maize, sweet potato and without crop residue input, and (2 light intensities (0, 5, 15 and 25 Watt/day. The soil macrofauna were earthworms, millipedes, scarabids larvae and cocroachs. Results of the study showed that: (1 crop residues apllication increased soil macrofauna population, especially maize residue ( by 113%, respectively, compare to control tretment, (2 on higher light intensity, population of earthworms, scarabids larvae and cocroach decreased, but population of millipedes increased, (3 the highest macrofauna population was on maize residue and 5 Watt/day light intensity treatment.

  10. The difference of acrylic resin residual monomer levels with various polymerization method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherman Salim

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: After polymerization process, heat cured acrylic resin denture base actually still contains residual monomers that can become potential irritants later in oral cavity. Polymerization process is essential to obtain acrylic resin which can meet the requirements of the biocompatible and good physical properties. To meet the requirements, there are several methods of polymerization process used. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the differences of the residual monomer levels of acrylic resin processed by various polymerization methods. Methods: Acrylic resin powder and liquid were mixed based on the rules of factory, and sample was made with size of 30 mm × 50 mm × 3 mm and then polymerized by using microwave at 70° C for 24 hours based on the methods of Japan Industrial Standard (JIS. Each group of samples was cut with weight of ± 0.2 g, dissolved in 5 ml of methyl ethyl ketone in test tubes, and then stored at ± 5° C for four days. Residual monomer level was conducted by using gas chromatograph mass spectrometer. Data obtained were then analyzed by using One-Way ANOVA test with p < 0.05. Results: After the level of polymerizing residual monomer with JIS method was compared to that at 70° C for 24 hours using microwave, it is known that there were significant differences (p < 0.05. Conclusion: The highest level of residual monomer of acrylic resin was that polymerized at 70° C for 24 hours.Latar belakang: Basis gigi tiruan yang berbahan dasar resin akrilik jenis heat cured setelah proses polimerisasi selesai masih mengandung monomer sisa yang berpotensi sebagai bahan iritan dalam rongga mulut. Proses polimerisasi sangat penting untuk mendapatkan resin akrilik yang memenuhi persyaratan biokompatibilitas dan fisik yang baik. Untuk persyaratan tersebut digunakan berbagai macam proses polimerisasi. Tujuan: Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menentukan kadar monomer sisa resin akrilik yang diproses dengan metode

  11. Transformation kinetics of corn and clover residues in mineral substrates of different composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinskii, D. L.; Maltseva, A. N.; Zolotareva, B. N.; Dmitrieva, E. D.

    2017-06-01

    Mineralization kinetics of corn and clover residues in quartz sand, loam, sand + 15% bentonite, and sand + 30% kaolinite have been studied. A scheme has been proposed for the transformation of plant residues in mineral substrates. Kinetic parameters of mineralization have been calculated with the use of a first-order two-term exponential polynomial. It has been shown that the share of labile organic carbon pool in the clover biomass is higher (57-63%) than in the corn biomass (47-49%), which is related to the biochemical composition of plant residues. The mineralization constants of clover residues generally significantly exceed those of corn because of the stronger stabilization of the decomposition products of corn residues. The turnover time of the labile clover pool (4-9 days) in all substrates and that of the labile corn pool (8-10 days) in sands and substrates containing kaolinites and bentonite are typical for organic acids, amino acids, and simple sugars. In the loamy substrate, the turnover time of labile corn pool is about 46 days due to the stronger stabilization of components of the labile pool containing large amounts of organic acids. The turnover time of the stable clover pool (0.95 years) is significantly lower than that of the stable corn pool (1.60 years) and largely corresponds to the turnover time of plant biomass.

  12. Influence of different disease control pesticide strategies on multiple pesticide residue levels in apple

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mette Erecius; Naef, A.; Gasser, S.

    2009-01-01

    Seven pesticide application strategies were investigated to control apple scab (Venturia inaequalis) and powdery mildew (Podosphaera leucotricha) and, at the same time.. fulfil the new quality standards implemented by some German retailers. These demand that pesticide residues should be below 80....... The trials were conducted at two sites in Switzerland, in 2007, and all strategies and applications were in accordance with actual practice. Four replicates of apple samples from each strategy were then analysed for pesticide residues. The incidence of infection with apple scab and powdery mildew were...... monitored during the season in order to evaluate the efficacy of the different strategies. The efficacies of the different strategies against apple scab and powdery mildew were between 84% and 100% successful. In general, the level of pesticide residues found correlated with application rate and time...

  13. Effects of the application of different particle sizes of mill scale (residue) in mass red ceramic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnt, A.B.C.; Rocha, M.R.; Meller, J.G.

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the influence of particle size of mill scale, residue, when added to a mass ceramic. This residue rich in iron oxide may be used as pigment in the ceramics industry. The use of pigments in ceramic products is related to the characteristics of non-toxicity, chemical stability and determination of tone. The tendency to solubilize the pigment depends on the specific surface area. The residue study was initially subjected to physical and chemical characterization and added in a proportion of 5% at a commercial ceramic white burning, with different particle sizes. Both formulations were sintered at a temperature of 950 ° C and evaluated for: loss on ignition, firing linear shrinkage, water absorption, flexural strength and difference of tone. Samples with finer particles of mill scale 0.038 μ showed higher mechanical strength values in the order of 18 MPa. (author)

  14. Morphology and composition of pyrotechnic residues formed at different levels of confinement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeij, Erwin; Duvalois, Willem; Webb, Rutger; Koeberg, Mattijs

    2009-04-15

    Post explosion residues (PER) are residues from pyrotechnic compositions or explosives that are generated during an explosion. In the recent past SEM/EDX was used several times to analyze PER from pyrotechnic compositions. The results from these studies suggest that there might be a difference in morphology and composition of pyrotechnic residues formed at different levels of confinement. Also because of general thermodynamic principles it is believed that at higher levels of confinement the final pressure and temperature during the explosion is probably (but not necessarily) higher, eventually resulting in smaller and more spherical particles and a more homogeneous elemental composition. If there is a relation between morphology and composition of pyrotechnic residues and the level of confinement at which these are formed, it would be possible to draw conclusions about the conditions at which pyrotechnic residues were formed and the kind and construction of the device used. This may aid forensic scientists not only in the determination of the original explosive composition, but also of the explosive device. To perform controlled experiments with pyrotechnic charges at, at least, two pre-set levels of confinement a test vessel was built by TNO Defence, Security and Safety. For this study, three different flash powder compositions and black powder were selected. The generated residues were sampled on collecting plates and Nucleopore filters connected to a pump system in the immediate vicinity of the venting area for further analyses by SEM/EDX and XRD. From the results it follows that in the pressure range studied, the level of confinement seems to have a minor effect on the features of the generated residue particles. Because passive sampling by means of collector plates seemed doubtful and because the number of experiments had to be limited it is impossible to draw definitive conclusions. In addition to the level of confinement several other variables may affect

  15. Different histopathological subtypes of Hodgkin lymphoma show significantly different levels of FDG uptake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hutchings, Martin; Loft, Annika; Hansen, Mads

    2006-01-01

    ) patients, 20.8 g/ml in 11 mixed cellularity (MC) patients, and 19.5 g/ml in four patients with unclassified classical HL (CHL-NOS), (ANOVA, p = 0.011). Out of 780 sites (600 lymph node regions plus 180 organs), 208 sites were found to be affected with HL. Mean SUV(max) was 8.3 g/ml in the 12 sites with NLP......, 11.2 g/ml in the 147 sites affected with NS, 14.6 g/ml in the 36 sites with MC, and 13.1 g/ml in the 13 sites with CHL-NOS (ANOVA, p = 0.002). There is a significant difference in FDG/glucose uptake between the different histopathological subtypes of HL....

  16. The Effect of Crop Residue and Different NPK Fertilizer Rates on yield Components and Yield of Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    fatemeh khamadi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Integrated nutrient management involving crop residue/green manures and chemical fertilizer is potential alternative to provide a balanced supply of nutrients, enhance soil quality and thereby sustain higher productivity. The present experiment was undertaken to evaluate the effect of different crop residue management practices and NPK levels on yield components and yield of wheat. Materials and methods Field experiments were conducted during 2012-2014 at department of agronomy, Chamran University. Experiment was laid out in a randomized block designs in split plot arrangement. With three replications. Crop residues were assigned to main plot consistent CR1: wheat residue; CR2: rape residue; CR3: barley residue; CR4: barley residue + vetch; CR5: wheat straw + mungbean; CR6: vetch residue; CR7: mungbean residue; CR8: No residue incorporation as main plot and three NPK fertilizer rates: F1: (180N-120P-100K kg.ha-1; F2: (140N-90P-80K kg.ha-1; F3: (90N-60P-40K kg.ha-1 as sub plots. Twelve hills were collected at physiological maturity for measuring yield components from surrounding area of grain yield harvest area. Yield components, viz. number of spike per m2, seed per spike, 1000- grain weight, plant height were measured. Grain and straw yields were recorded from the central 5 m2 grain yield harvest area of each treatment and harvest index was calculated. Data were subjected to analysis by SAS and mean companions were performed using the Duncan multiple range test producer. Also, graphs were drawn in Excel software. Results and discussion The result of analysis variance showed significant difference between crop residues for evaluated traits. The result indicated that the highest biological and grain yield was obtained when wheat treated with CR5: wheat straw + mungbean (green manure and CR4: barley straw + vetch (green manure. Biological and grain yield increased 31 and 26% respectively by CR5 comparing with control. The highest

  17. Effect of Residue Nitrogen Concentration and Time Duration on Carbon Mineralization Rate of Alfalfa Residues in Regions with Different Climatic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    saeid shafiei

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Various factors like climatic conditions, vegetation, soil properties, topography, time, plant residue quality and crop management strategies affect the decomposition rate of organic carbon (OC and its residence time in soil. Plant residue management concerns nutrients recycling, carbon recycling in ecosystems and the increasing CO2 concentration in the atmosphere. Plant residue decomposition is a fundamental process in recycling of organic matter and elements in most ecosystems. Soil management, particularly plant residue management, changes soil organic matter both qualitatively and quantitatively. Soil respiration and carbon loss are affected by soil temperature, soil moisture, air temperature, solar radiation and precipitation. In natural agro-ecosystems, residue contains different concentrations of nitrogen. It is important to understand the rate and processes involved in plant residue decomposition, as these residues continue to be added to the soil under different weather conditions, especially in arid and semi-arid climates. Material and methods Organic carbon mineralization of alfalfa residue with different nitrogen concentrations was assessed in different climatic conditions using split-plot experiments over time and the effects of climate was determined using composite analysis. The climatic conditions were classified as warm-arid (Jiroft, temperate arid (Narab and cold semi-arid (Sardouiyeh using cluster analysis and the nitrogen (N concentrations of alfalfa residue were low, medium and high. The alfalfa residue incubated for four different time periods (2, 4, 6 and 8 months. The dynamics of organic carbon in different regions measured using litter bags (20×10 cm containing 20 g alfalfa residue of 2-10 mm length which were placed on the soil surface. Results and discussion The results of this study showed that in a warm-arid (Jiroft, carbon loss and the carbon decomposition rate constant were low in a cold semi

  18. Widespread occurrence of chemical residues in beehive matrices from apiaries located in different landscapes of Western France.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Lambert

    Full Text Available The honey bee, Apis mellifera, is frequently used as a sentinel to monitor environmental pollution. In parallel, general weakening and unprecedented colony losses have been reported in Europe and the USA, and many factors are suspected to play a central role in these problems, including infection by pathogens, nutritional stress and pesticide poisoning. Honey bee, honey and pollen samples collected from eighteen apiaries of western France from four different landscape contexts during four different periods in 2008 and in 2009 were analyzed to evaluate the presence of pesticides and veterinary drug residues.A multi-residue analysis of 80 compounds was performed using a modified QuEChERS method, followed by GC-ToF and LC-MS/MS. The analysis revealed that 95.7%, 72.3% and 58.6% of the honey, honey bee and pollen samples, respectively, were contaminated by at least one compound. The frequency of detection was higher in the honey samples (n = 28 than in the pollen (n = 23 or honey bee (n = 20 samples, but the highest concentrations were found in pollen. Although most compounds were rarely found, some of the contaminants reached high concentrations that might lead to adverse effects on bee health. The three most frequent residues were the widely used fungicide carbendazim and two acaricides, amitraz and coumaphos, that are used by beekeepers to control Varroa destructor. Apiaries in rural-cultivated landscapes were more contaminated than those in other landscape contexts, but the differences were not significant. The contamination of the different matrices was shown to be higher in early spring than in all other periods.Honey bees, honeys and pollens are appropriate sentinels for monitoring pesticide and veterinary drug environmental pollution. This study revealed the widespread occurrence of multiple residues in beehive matrices and suggests a potential issue with the effects of these residues alone or in combination on honey bee health.

  19. Emission of Carbon Dioxide Influenced by Different Water Levels from Soil Incubated Organic Residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, M. B.; Puteh, A. B.

    2013-01-01

    We studied the influence of different organic residues and water levels on decomposition rate and carbon sequestration in soil. Organic residues (rice straw, rice root, cow dung, and poultry litter) including control were tested under moistened and flooding systems. An experiment was laid out as a complete randomized design at 25°C for 120 days. Higher CO2-C (265.45 mg) emission was observed in moistened condition than in flooding condition from 7 to 120 days. Among the organic residues, poultry litter produced the highest CO2-C emission. Poultry litter with soil mixture increased 121% cumulative CO2-C compared to control. On average, about 38% of added poultry litter C was mineralized to CO2-C. Maximum CO2-C was found in 7 days after incubation and thereafter CO2-C emission was decreased with the increase of time. Control produced the lowest CO2-C (158.23 mg). Poultry litter produced maximum cumulative CO2-C (349.91 mg). Maximum organic carbon was obtained in cow dung which followed by other organic residues. Organic residues along with flooding condition decreased cumulative CO2-C, k value and increased organic C in soil. Maximum k value was found in poultry litter and control. Incorpored rice straw increased organic carbon and decreased k value (0.003 g d−1) in soil. In conclusion, rice straw and poultry litter were suitable for improving soil carbon. PMID:24163626

  20. Correlation Between the Microstructural Defects and Residual Stress in a Single Crystal Nickel-Based Superalloy During Different Creep Stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Fangjie; Wu, Erdong; Zhang, Changsheng; Wang, Hong; Zhong, Zhengye; Zhang, Jian; Chen, Bo; Hofmann, Michael; Gan, Weimin; Sun, Guangai

    2018-03-01

    The present work attempts to reveal the correlation between the microstructural defects and residual stress in the single crystal nickel-based superalloy, both of which play the significant role on properties and performance. Neutron diffraction was employed to investigate the microstructural defects and residual stresses in a single crystal (SC) nickel-based superalloy, which was subjected to creeping under 220 MPa and 1000 °C for different times. The measured superlattice and fundamental lattice reflections confirm that the mismatch and tetragonal distortions with c/a > 1 exist in the SC superalloy. At the initially unstrained state, there exists the angular distortion between γ and γ' phases with small triaxial compressive stresses, ensuring the structural stability of the superalloy. After creeping, the tetragonal distortion for the γ phase is larger than that for the γ' phase. With increasing the creeping time, the mismatch between γ and γ' phases increases to the maximum, then decreases gradually and finally remains unchanged. The macroscopic residual stress shows a similar behavior with the mismatch, indicating the correlation between them. Based on the model of shear and dislocations, the evolution of microstructural defects and residual stress are reasonably explained. The effect of shear is dominant at the primary creep stage, which greatly enlarges the mismatch and the residual stress. The dislocations weaken the effect of shear for the further creep stage, resulting in the decrease of the mismatch and relaxation of the residual stress. Those findings add some helpful understanding into the microstructure-performance relationship in the SC nickel-based superalloy, which might provide the insight to materials design and applications.

  1. EFFECT OF DIFFERENT COVER CROP RESIDUES, MANAGEMENT PRACTICES ON SOIL MOISTURE CONTENT UNDER A TOMATO CROP (LYCOPERSICON ESCULENTUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Njomo Karuku

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARYThe soil water storage, soil water content, available water content and soil water balance under various cover crop residue management practices in a Nitisol were evaluated in a field experiment at the Kabete Field Station, University of Nairobi. The effects of surface mulching, above and below ground biomass and roots only incorporated of (mucuna pruriens, Tanzanian sunnhemp (Crotalaria ochroleuca and Vetch (Vicia benghalensis cover crops, fertilizer and non fertilized plots on soil water balance were studied. Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum was used as the test crop. Since water content was close to field capacity, the drainage component at 100 cm soil depth was negligible and evapotranspiration was therefore derived from the change in soil moisture storage and precipitation. Residue management showed that above and below ground biomass incorporated optimized the partitioning of the water balance components, increasing moisture storage, leading to increased tomato yields and water use efficiency. Furthermore, vetch above and below ground biomass incorporated significantly improved the quantity and frequency of deep percolation. Soil fertilization (F and non fertilization (NF caused the most unfavourable partitioning of water balance, leading to the lowest yield and WUE. Tomato yields ranged from 4.1 in NF to 7.4 Mg ha-1 in Vetch treated plots. Vetch above and belowground biomass incorporated had significant (p ≤ 0.1 yields of 11.4 Mg ha-1 compared to all other residue management systems. Vetch residue treatment had the highest WUE (22.7 kg mm-1 ha-1 followed by mucuna treated plots (20.7 kg mm-1 ha-1 and both were significantly different (p ≤ 0.05 compared to the others irrespective of residue management practices.

  2. Effective sorption of atrazine by biochar colloids and residues derived from different pyrolysis temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan; Gao, Yan; Sun, Lili; Zhang, Shuaishuai; Li, Jiaojiao; Zhang, Ying

    2018-04-26

    Biochar has attracted much attention, which owns many environmental and agronomic benefits, including carbon sequestration, improvement of soil quality, and immobilization of environmental contaminants. Biochar has been also investigated as an effective sorbent in recent publications. Generally, biochar particles can be divided into colloids and residues according to particle sizes, while understanding of adsorption capacities towards organic pollutants in each section is largely unknown, representing a critical knowledge gap in evaluations on the effectiveness of biochar for water treatment application. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectra, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) method are used to examine the structures and surface properties of biochar colloids and residues derived from corn straws prepared at different pyrolysis temperatures. Also, their roles in atrazine (a typical organic pollutant) removal are investigated by batch adsorption experiments and fitted by different kinetic and thermodynamic models, respectively. The adsorption capacities of biochar colloids are much more than those of residues, resulting from the colloids containing abundant oxygen functional groups and mineral substances, and the adsorption capacities of biochar colloids and residues increase with the increase of pyrolysis temperatures. The highest adsorption performance of 139.33 mg g -1 can be obtained in biochar colloids prepared at 700 °C, suggesting the important functions of biochar colloids in the application of atrazine removal by biochar.

  3. Factors correlating with significant differences between X-ray structures of myoglobin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashin, Alexander A.; Domagalski, Marcin J.; Zimmermann, Michael T.; Minor, Wladek; Chruszcz, Maksymilian; Jernigan, Robert L.

    2014-01-01

    Conformational differences between myoglobin structures are studied. Most structural differences in whale myoglobin beyond the uncertainty threshold can be correlated with a few specific structural factors. There are always exceptions and a search for additional factors is needed. The results might have serious implications for biological insights from conformational differences. Validation of general ideas about the origins of conformational differences in proteins is critical in order to arrive at meaningful functional insights. Here, principal component analysis (PCA) and distance difference matrices are used to validate some such ideas about the conformational differences between 291 myoglobin structures from sperm whale, horse and pig. Almost all of the horse and pig structures form compact PCA clusters with only minor coordinate differences and outliers that are easily explained. The 222 whale structures form a few dense clusters with multiple outliers. A few whale outliers with a prominent distortion of the GH loop are very similar to the cluster of horse structures, which all have a similar GH-loop distortion apparently owing to intermolecular crystal lattice hydrogen bonds to the GH loop from residues near the distal histidine His64. The variations of the GH-loop coordinates in the whale structures are likely to be owing to the observed alternative intermolecular crystal lattice bond, with the change to the GH loop distorting bonds correlated with the binding of specific ‘unusual’ ligands. Such an alternative intermolecular bond is not observed in horse myoglobins, obliterating any correlation with the ligands. Intermolecular bonds do not usually cause significant coordinate differences and cannot be validated as their universal cause. Most of the native-like whale myoglobin structure outliers can be correlated with a few specific factors. However, these factors do not always lead to coordinate differences beyond the previously determined uncertainty

  4. Factors correlating with significant differences between X-ray structures of myoglobin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rashin, Alexander A., E-mail: alexander-rashin@hotmail.com [BioChemComp Inc., 543 Sagamore Avenue, Teaneck, NJ 07666 (United States); Iowa State University, 112 Office and Lab Bldg, Ames, IA 50011-3020 (United States); Domagalski, Marcin J. [University of Virginia, 1340 Jefferson Park Avenue, Jordan Hall, Room 4223, Charlottesville, VA 22908 (United States); Zimmermann, Michael T. [Iowa State University, 112 Office and Lab Bldg, Ames, IA 50011-3020 (United States); Minor, Wladek [University of Virginia, 1340 Jefferson Park Avenue, Jordan Hall, Room 4223, Charlottesville, VA 22908 (United States); Chruszcz, Maksymilian [University of Virginia, 1340 Jefferson Park Avenue, Jordan Hall, Room 4223, Charlottesville, VA 22908 (United States); University of South Carolina, 631 Sumter Street, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States); Jernigan, Robert L. [Iowa State University, 112 Office and Lab Bldg, Ames, IA 50011-3020 (United States); BioChemComp Inc., 543 Sagamore Avenue, Teaneck, NJ 07666 (United States)

    2014-02-01

    Conformational differences between myoglobin structures are studied. Most structural differences in whale myoglobin beyond the uncertainty threshold can be correlated with a few specific structural factors. There are always exceptions and a search for additional factors is needed. The results might have serious implications for biological insights from conformational differences. Validation of general ideas about the origins of conformational differences in proteins is critical in order to arrive at meaningful functional insights. Here, principal component analysis (PCA) and distance difference matrices are used to validate some such ideas about the conformational differences between 291 myoglobin structures from sperm whale, horse and pig. Almost all of the horse and pig structures form compact PCA clusters with only minor coordinate differences and outliers that are easily explained. The 222 whale structures form a few dense clusters with multiple outliers. A few whale outliers with a prominent distortion of the GH loop are very similar to the cluster of horse structures, which all have a similar GH-loop distortion apparently owing to intermolecular crystal lattice hydrogen bonds to the GH loop from residues near the distal histidine His64. The variations of the GH-loop coordinates in the whale structures are likely to be owing to the observed alternative intermolecular crystal lattice bond, with the change to the GH loop distorting bonds correlated with the binding of specific ‘unusual’ ligands. Such an alternative intermolecular bond is not observed in horse myoglobins, obliterating any correlation with the ligands. Intermolecular bonds do not usually cause significant coordinate differences and cannot be validated as their universal cause. Most of the native-like whale myoglobin structure outliers can be correlated with a few specific factors. However, these factors do not always lead to coordinate differences beyond the previously determined uncertainty

  5. Acceptability and perceived side effects of insecticide indoor residual spraying under different resistance management strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez Américo David

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess household acceptability and perceived side effects of residual indoor pyrethroid (PYR, carbamate and organophosphate insecticides sprayed by annual rotation (ROT, spatial mosaic (MOS, and a single insecticide (DDT or PYR in communities of the coastal plain of Chiapas, Mexico. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A questionnaire to assess the acceptability and perceived side effects of indoor insecticides was administered to one member of 30% of the families in eight villages of Chiapas. The association of different insecticide treatments with their responses was evaluated (Chi-square. The intensity of side effects indicated under different treatments was compared in an ordered logistic model, using a severity index as the response variable. RESULTS: Insecticide spraying as a probable cause of symptoms was identified by 2.1% of interviewees. A significantly high percentage of persons with blurred vision, dizziness, sneezing, coughing, numbness, watery eyes, and itching lived in villages under MOS and ROT and a high severity index was significantly associated with ROT treatment. Reduction of mosquito bites and cockroaches were the perceived main benefits, and most villagers that perceived no benefits lived in DDT treated villages. Most of the interviewees welcomed spraying (83.7%, but the smell and having to remove furniture from houses were the main arguments against it. CONCLUSIONS: Acceptability correlated with insecticide spray coverage, although the most frequent suggestion for improvement was to increase the understanding of the objectives of spraying in the communities. The frequency of side effects was low, but higher in localities where a combination of insecticides was applied. This is a limitation for the use of this type of resistance management strategy in public health.

  6. NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF RESIDUAL STRESSES GENERATED IN THE WIRE DRAWING PROCESS FOR DIFFERENT PROCESS PARAMETERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Zottis

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The drawing process of steel bars is usually used to check better dimensional accuracy and mechanical properties to the material. In the other hand, the major concern found in manufacturing axes through this process is the appearance of distortion of shape. Such distortions are directly linked to the accumulation of residual stresses generated during the processes. As a result, this paper aims to study the influence of process parameters such as shape of puller, speed and lubrication used in wire drawing analyzing the accumulation of residual stress after the process. The stress analysis was performed by FEM being used two simulation software: Simufact.formingGP and DeformTM. Through these analyzes, it was found that the shape of how the bar is pulled causes a reduction of up to 100 MPa in residual stresses in the center of the bar, which represents an important factor in the study of the possible causes of the distortion. As well as factors speed and homogeneity of lubrication significantly altered the profile of residual stresses in the bar.

  7. Square baler field test under different sugar cane crop residue conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mello, Arthur Miola de; Ripoli, Tomaz Caetano Cannavan; Gadanha Junior, Casimiro [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ-USP), Piracicaba (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Rural], E-mail: ammello@esalq.usp.br; Ripoli, Marco Lorezzo Cunali [John Deere, Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The energy demand increase of the country allows the sugar cane business sector to be a major player in production and commercialization areas of electric energy using cogeneration powered by bagasse and sugar cane residues. The objective of the study was to evaluate some of the performance parameters of an Express 5040 baler, brand Nogueira, used to collect residues. The tests were conducted in a sugar cane mechanized harvest area. The baler was submitted to three different conditions of residues windrowing: 'in natura', under single and double raking operations. For all treatments soil sampling analyzes were done to find out ground homogeneity conditions were the test took place. The simple raking operation offered better conditions for the machine: Effective Capacity of 8.21 t.{sup h}-{sup 1} and 0.88 ha.h{sup -1}; average bale weight of 22.33 kg (SD=3.58, CV=16.01 %); costs of 7.45 R$.t{sup -1} of baled residue; 0.17 R$.fardo{sup -1} and 69.47 R$.ha{sup -1}. (author)

  8. Effects of different levels of sunflower residue silage replacement with alfalfa hay on Azari male buffalo calves fattening performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Razzagzadeh

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to study the effects of replacing alfalfa hay with different levels of sunflower residual silage (SRS on fattening performance of Azari male buffalo calves. Thirty calves with 138.33 Kg of BW fed experimental diets in a completely randomized design with 5 groups and 6 replicates. The five groups (1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 included 0 (control, 25, 50, 75 and 100 percent replacement of alfalfa hay with SRS, respectively in basal diet. The results showed that dry matter intake (DMI was significantly different between the groups (p<0.05. The highest and the lowest DMI were shown at the groups 1 and 5, respectively, however there was no significant difference between the groups 2, 3, and 4 with control. Daily weight gain (DWG was significantly different between the groups (p<0.05. Group 5 had significantly lower DWG than groups 1, 2 and 3, furthermore there were no significant difference between groups 1, 2, 3 and 4. Feed conversion ratio (FCR was significantly different among the groups (p<0.05. There was no significant difference among the groups 1, 2, 3 and 4. But these groups had significantly better FCR than the group 5. The best FCR was obtained for group3. It may conclude that alfalfa hay can be substituted with SRS at 50 % level with no negative effects on Azari male buffalo calves fattening performance.

  9. Nitrous oxide emissions from yellow brown soil as affected by incorporation of crop residues with different carbon-to-nitrogen ratios: a case study in central China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shan; Iqbal, Javed; Hu, Ronggui; Shaaban, Muhammad; Cai, Jianbo; Chen, Xi

    2013-08-01

    To investigate the influence of crop residues decomposition on nitrous oxide (N2O) emission, a field study was performed with application of crop residues with different C:N ratios in a bare yellow brown soil at the experimental station of Zhangjiachong at Zigui, China. We set up six experimental treatments: no crop residue (CK), rapeseed cake (RC), potato stalk (PS), rice straw (RS), wheat straw (WS), and corn straw (CS). The carbon (C) to nitrogen (N) ratios of these crop residues were 7.5, 32.9, 40.4, 65.7, and 90.9, respectively. Nitrous oxide fluxes were measured using a static closed chamber method. N2O emissions were significantly enhanced by incorporation of crop residues. Cumulative N2O emissions negatively correlated with C:N ratio (R (2) = 0.9821) of the crop residue, but they were positively correlated with average concentrations of dissolved organic carbon and microbial biomass carbon. Nitrogen emission fraction, calculated as N2O-N emissions originated from the crop residues N, positively correlated with C:N ratio of the residues (P emissions because a significant correlation (P emissions in all treatments except the control. In contrast, a significant relationship between soil moisture and N2O emissions was found in the control only. Furthermore, N2O emission significantly correlated (P carbon and nitrogen contents can significantly alter soil N2O flux rates; and (2) soil biotic as well as abiotic variables are critical in determining soil-atmospheric N2O emissions after crop residue incorporation into soil.

  10. Residual antibiofilm effects of various concentrations of double antibiotic paste used during regenerative endodontics after different application times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenks, Daniel B; Ehrlich, Ygal; Spolnik, Kenneth; Gregory, Richard L; Yassen, Ghaeth H

    2016-10-01

    We investigated the residual antibiofilm effects of different concentrations of double antibiotic paste (DAP) applied on radicular dentin for 1 or 4 weeks. Dentin samples were prepared (n=120), sterilized and pretreated for 1 or 4 weeks with the clinically used concentration of DAP (500mg/mL), low concentrations of DAP (1, 5 or 50mg/mL) loaded into a methylcellulose system, calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH) 2 ), or placebo paste. After the assigned treatment time, treatment pastes were rinsed off and the samples were kept independently in phosphate buffered saline for 3 weeks. Pretreated dentin samples were then inoculated with Enterococcus faecalis and bacterial biofilms were allowed to grow for an additional 3 weeks. Biofilms were then retrieved from dentin using biofilm disruption assays, diluted, spiral plated, and quantified. Fisher's Exact and Wilcoxon rank sum tests were used for statistical comparisons (α=0.05). Dentin pretreatment for 4 weeks with 5, 50 or 500mg/mL of DAP demonstrated significantly higher residual antibiofilm effects and complete eradication of E. faecalis biofilms in comparison to a 1 week pretreatment with similar concentrations. However, dentin pretreated with 1mg/mL of DAP or Ca(OH) 2 did not provide a substantial residual antibiofilm effect regardless of the application time. Dentin pretreatment with 5mg/mL of DAP or higher for 4 weeks induced significantly higher residual antibiofilm effects in comparison to a 1 week pretreatment with the same concentrations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of different soil washing solutions on bioavailability of residual arsenic in soils and soil properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Jinwoo; Yang, Kyung; Jho, Eun Hea; Nam, Kyoungphile

    2015-11-01

    The effect of soil washing used for arsenic (As)-contaminated soil remediation on soil properties and bioavailability of residual As in soil is receiving increasing attention due to increasing interest in conserving soil qualities after remediation. This study investigates the effect of different washing solutions on bioavailability of residual As in soils and soil properties after soil washing. Regardless of washing solutions, the sequential extraction revealed that the residual As concentrations and the amount of readily labile As in soils were reduced after soil washing. However, the bioassay tests showed that the washed soils exhibited ecotoxicological effects - lower seed germination, shoot growth, and enzyme activities - and this could largely be attributed to the acidic pH and/or excessive nutrient contents of the washed soils depending on washing solutions. Overall, this study showed that treated soils having lower levels of contaminants could still exhibit toxic effects due to changes in soil properties, which highly depended on washing solutions. This study also emphasizes that data on the As concentrations, the soil properties, and the ecotoxicological effects are necessary to properly manage the washed soils for reuses. The results of this study can, thus, be utilized to select proper post-treatment techniques for the washed soils. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Bio-energy conversion performance, biodegradability, and kinetic analysis of different fruit residues during discontinuous anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chen; Yan, Hu; Liu, Yan; Huang, Yan; Zhang, Ruihong; Chen, Chang; Liu, Guangqing

    2016-06-01

    Huge amounts of fruit residues are produced and abandoned annually. The high moisture and organic contents of these residues makes them a big problem to the environment. Conversely, they are a potential resource to the world. Anaerobic digestion is a good way to utilize these organic wastes. In this study, the biomethane conversion performances of a large number of fruit residues were determined and compared using batch anaerobic digestion, a reliable and easily accessible method. The results showed that some fruit residues containing high contents of lipids and carbohydrates, such as loquat peels and rambutan seeds, were well fit for anaerobic digestion. Contrarily, residues with high lignin content were strongly recommended not to be used as a single substrate for methane production. Multiple linear regression model was adopted to simulate the correlation between the organic component of these fruit residues and their experimental methane yield, through which the experimental methane yield could probably be predicted for any other fruit residues. Four kinetic models were used to predict the batch anaerobic digestion process of different fruit residues. It was shown that the modified Gompertz and Cone models were better fit for the fruit residues compared to the first-order and Fitzhugh models. The first findings of this study could provide useful reference and guidance for future studies regarding the applications and potential utilization of fruit residues. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Phenolic Compositions and Antioxidant Activities Differ Significantly among Sorghum Grains with Different Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuyu Shen

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Sorghum grains with different applications had different phenolic profiles, which were corresponded to various antioxidant capacities. In this study, total phenolic, proanthocyanidins and flavonoids contents, as well as contents of individual phenolic compounds from sorghum grains with various applications were determined, and their antioxidant capacities were evaluated. Total phenolic contents (TPC and total proanthocyanidins contents (TPAC showed strong correlation with antioxidant activities (r > 0.95, p < 0.01. Hongyingzi (S-1, one of the brewing sorghums, showed the highest level of TPC and TPAC, while white grain sorghum (S-8 had the lowest. Except for black grain sorghum (S-7, that contained the highest contents of ferulic acid, brewing sorghum grains contained the higher contents of the most individual phenolic compounds, especially the variety S-1. The correlation among individual phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities indicated that the free forms of protocatechuic acid (r = 0.982 of FRAPassay, p < 0.01 and taxifolin (r = 0.826 of FRAP assay, p < 0.01 may be the main functional compounds. These results indicate that brewing sorghum grains can also be utilized as effective materials for functional foods.

  14. Modelling of different enzyme productions by solid-state fermentation on several agro-industrial residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Ana Belen; Blandino, Ana; Webb, Colin; Caro, Ildefonso

    2016-11-01

    A simple kinetic model, with only three fitting parameters, for several enzyme productions in Petri dishes by solid-state fermentation is proposed in this paper, which may be a valuable tool for simulation of this type of processes. Basically, the model is able to predict temporal fungal enzyme production by solid-state fermentation on complex substrates, maximum enzyme activity expected and time at which these maxima are reached. In this work, several fermentations in solid state were performed in Petri dishes, using four filamentous fungi grown on different agro-industrial residues, measuring xylanase, exo-polygalacturonase, cellulose and laccase activities over time. Regression coefficients after fitting experimental data to the proposed model turned out to be quite high in all cases. In fact, these results are very interesting considering, on the one hand, the simplicity of the model and, on the other hand, that enzyme activities correspond to different enzymes, produced by different fungi on different substrates.

  15. Pesticide residues in fruit samples: comparison of different QuEChERS methods using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christia, C; Bizani, E; Christophoridis, C; Fytianos, K

    2015-09-01

    Acetate- and citrate-buffered quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, safe (QuEChERS) pretreatment methods were evaluated for the determination of various pesticides in peaches, grapes, apples, bananas, pears, and strawberries from various regions of Greece, using LC-MS/MS. The purposes of this study were (i) to evaluate which type of QuEChERS method was the most appropriate and effective for each matrix; (ii) to apply the selected QuEChERS method for each matrix, in order to detect and quantify pesticide residues in various fruit samples using UPLC-MS/MS; (iii) to examine the concentration distribution of pesticide classes among fruit originating from various areas; and (iv) to assess pesticide concentration distribution between peel and flesh of fruit in order to evaluate the penetration of pesticide residues in the fruit flesh. Acetate-buffered QuEChERS was found to be the most suitable technique for most of the fruit matrices. According to the recovery values at two different concentration levels, peaches should preferably be treated by the citrate-buffered type, whereas grapes, bananas, apples, pears, and strawberries are best treated by the acetate-buffered version, although the differences in efficiency were small. The addition of graphitized carbon black significantly decreases the recovery of specific pesticides in all matrices except for strawberries. The majority of values do not exceed the official maximum residue levels set by the European Commission. Organophosphates proved to be the most commonly detected category along with triazines-triazoles-conazoles group and by carbamates. Apples and pears seem to be the most contaminated fruit matrices among those tested. Distribution of pesticide classes shows variations between different regions, suggesting different pesticide application practices. In the case of peaches and pears, there is an equal distribution of detected pesticides between peel and flesh, indicating penetration of contaminants into the

  16. Degradation kinetics and safety evaluation of buprofezin residues in grape (Vitis vinifera L.) and three different soils of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oulkar, Dasharath P; Banerjee, Kaushik; Patil, Sangram H; Upadhyay, Ajay K; Taware, Praveen B; Deshmukh, Madhukar B; Adsule, Pandurang G

    2009-02-01

    This work was undertaken to determine the preharvest interval (PHI) of buprofezin to minimize its residues in grapes and thereby ensure consumer safety and avoid possible non-compliance in terms of residue violations in export markets. Furthermore, the residue dynamics in three grapevine soils of India was explored to assess its environmental safety. Residues dissipated following non-linear two-compartment first + first-order kinetics. In grapes, the PHI was 31 days at both treatments (312.5 and 625 g a.i. ha(-1)), with the residues below the maximum permissible intake even 1 h after foliar spraying. Random sampling of 5 kg comprising small bunchlets (8-10 berries) collected from a 1 ha area gave satisfactory homogeneity and representation of the population. A survey on the samples harvested after the PHI from supervised vineyards that received treatment at the recommended dose showed residues below the maximum residue limit (MRL) of 0.02 mg kg(-1) applicable for the European Union. In soil, the degradation rate was fastest in clay soil, followed by sandy loam and silty clay, with a half-life within 16 days in all the soils. The recommendation of the PHI proved to be effective in minimizing buprofezin residues in grapes. Thus, this work is of high practical significance to the domestic and export grape industry of India to ensure safety compliance in respect of buprofezin residues, keeping in view the requirements of international trade.

  17. Assessing the Effect of Prometryn Soil Residue on Soil Microbial Biomass and Different Crops using Bioassay Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mohamad taghi alebrahim

    2016-09-01

    after germination. The pots were kept for 30 days under controlled conditions. Shoot and root biomass production was measured 30 days after emergence. At harvest, growth parameters including the dry weight of shoots and roots were determined. The data were subjected to analysis of variance by computer facilities, using Mstatc software. Plant response to prometryn residues was fitted with sigmoidal 3 and 4 parametric equations to the shoot biomass data as a function of the herbicide residue concentrations and was used to calculate the doses for 50% inhibition of shoot growth (ED50. In another experiment the effect of prometryn concentrations (0, 0.0033, 0.0166, 0.033, 0.066, 0.1 and 0.166 mg. kg-1soil on soil microbial activity was determined using titration method in controlled conditions. Results and Discussion: Plant response to increasing concentration of prometryn, in general, followed a classical dose response relationship. The logistic model fitted well to the root and shoot plants response herbicide concentrations. Results showed that the shoot and root dry matter were significantly affected by increasing prometryn soil residue in all crops (plettuce>beet>barely. Based on the mechanism of action of prometryn and its best efficiency on board leaf plants control, the least biomass reduction obtained for barley is understandable. In general, this is safe to plant a susceptible species if the plant-available residue were less than the species ED10 value, and there would be a great risk for different levels of crop damage if the plant-available residue were higher than ED50 values of the species. Comparisons between species allow the safe selection of a crop that has a critical ED50 level lower than the residue level in the soil. Alternatively, planting a sensitive species could be delayed until the residue level in the soil is less than the critical level. In the Southwest areas of Iran, these crops are often sown few months after the application of a residual

  18. Biochar from different residues on soil properties and common bean production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isley Cristiellem Bicalho da Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The production of biochar from organic residues promises to be an interesting strategy for the management of organic waste. To assess the effect of biochar on soil properties and the production and nutrition of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L., three simultaneous experiments were conducted in a greenhouse with different biochar from organic residues (rice husk, sawdust, and sorghum silage used as filtration material for swine biofertilizer. In each experiment the treatments consisted of five different biochar concentrations (0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 L m−3, arranged in a completely randomized design, with four repetitions. In the experiments, the use of biochar increased soil pH, cation exchange capacity, nutrient availability in the soil, and nutrient accumulation in grains. The biochar concentrations corresponding to the maximum production of grain dry matter of bean plants were 100, 68, and 71 L m−3 for biochar from rice husk filter (BRHF, biochar from sawdust filter (BSF, and biochar from sorghum silage filter (BSSF, respectively.

  19. Characterization of virgin walnut oils and their residual cakes produced from different varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojeda-Amador, Rosa M; Salvador, María Desamparados; Gómez-Alonso, Sergio; Fregapane, Giuseppe

    2018-06-01

    This study addresses the composition and properties of different walnut varieties (Chandler, Hartley and Lara), in particular their virgin oils and residual cakes obtained by screw pressing employing different cultivars. Among nuts, walnut (Juglans regia L.) exhibits interesting nutritional value, mainly due to their high content in linoleic acid, phenolic and tocopherol compounds, which show antioxidant and other healthy properties. Valuable results related to fatty acid profile and minor components were observed. Virgin walnut oil is a rich source in linoleic acid (60-62%) and γ-tocopherol (517-554 mg/kg). Moreover, walnuts show a very high content in total phenolic compounds (10,045-12,474 mg/kg; as gallic acid), which contribute to a great antioxidant activity (105-170 mmol/kg for DPPH, and 260-393 mmol/kg for ORAC), being the hydrolysable tannins (2132-4204 mg/kg) and flavanols (796-2433 mg/kg) their main phenolic groups. Aldehydes account for the highest contribution to aromatic volatiles in virgin walnut oil (about 35% of total). As expected, polar phenolic compounds concentrate in the residual cake, after the separation of the oily phase, reaching a content of up to 19,869 mg/kg, leading to potential added value and applications as source of bioactive compounds to this by-product. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Residues and risks of veterinary antibiotics in protected vegetable soils following application of different manures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haibo; Zhou, Yang; Huang, Yujuan; Wu, Longhua; Liu, Xinghua; Luo, Yongming

    2016-06-01

    The protected vegetable farming is a style of high frequent rotation farming which requires a huge amount of fertilizers to maintain soil fertility. A total of 125 surface soils covering from east to west of China were sampled for the analysis of 17 antibiotics in order to identify antibiotics contamination caused by long-term manures application. The results indicate that the agricultural land has accumulated a statistically significantly higher antibiotics concentration than conventional open croplands. The maximum oxytetracycline concentration was 8400 μg kg(-1), the highest level that has ever been reported for oxytetracycline in soils. The residual concentration is decided by both plant duration and manure type. Short-term (antibiotics residue in the soils on the whole. Principal component analysis suggests that the various combinations of antibiotic compounds in the soil may be used to trace the manure source. The antibiotics in soil may threaten water quality through contamination by diffusion. Ciprofloxacin and sulfachinoxalin are calculated to be a higher migration risk to surface waters, hence their environmental fate requires further study. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Comparative analysis of different methods of extraction of present hydrocarbons in industrial residual waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santa, Judith Rocio; Serrano, Martin; Stashenko, Elena

    2002-01-01

    A comparison among four extraction techniques such as: liquid - liquid (LLE) continuous and for lots, solid phase extraction (SPE), solid phase micro extraction (SPME) and static headspace (S-HS) was carried out. The main purpose of this research was to determine the highest recovery efficiencies and how reproducible the tests are while varying parameters such as time, extraction technique, type of solvents and others. Chromatographic parameters were optimized in order to carry out the analyses. Hydrocarbon's quantification of residual waters was achieved by using a high-resolution gas chromatography with a gas flame ionization detector (HRGC-FID). Validation of the method was carried out by analyzing real samples taken in different sampling places of the residual waters treatment plant of Ecopetrol - Barrancabermeja. The use of extraction methods that require big solvent quantities and long time for analysis are losing validity day by day. Techniques such as the HS-SPME and static HS are offered as alternatives for quantifying hydrocarbons. They show total lack of solvents, high sensibility, selectivity and the techniques are reproducible. Solid phase micro extraction (SPME) and static headspace (static HS) techniques were chosen as the extraction techniques to validate the method in real samples. Both techniques showed similar results for the determination of total hydrocarbons (in the gasoline range)

  2. Significant relaxation of residual negative carrier in polar Alq3 film directly detected by high-sensitivity photoemission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinjo, Hiroumi; Lim, Hyunsoo; Sato, Tomoya; Noguchi, Yutaka; Nakayama, Yasuo; Ishii, Hisao

    2016-02-01

    Tris(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum (Alq3) has been widely applied as a good electron-injecting layer (EIL) in organic light-emitting diodes. High-sensitivity photoemission measurement revealed a clear photoemission by visible light, although its ionization energy is 5.7 eV. This unusual photoemission is ascribed to Alq3 anions captured by positive polarization charges. The observed electron detachment energy of the anion was about 1 eV larger than the electron affinity reported by inverse photoemission. This difference suggests that the injected electron in the Alq3 layer is energetically relaxed, leading to the reduction in injection barrier. This nature is one of the reasons why Alq3 worked well as the EIL.

  3. Comparison of different agar diffusion methods for the detection of residues in the kidneys of pigs treated with antimicrobial drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkeala, H; Sorvettula, O; Mäki-Petäys, O; Hirn, J

    1983-01-01

    Residue analyses of the kidneys of twenty-six pigs treated with various antimicrobial drugs 20 h before slaughter and of eleven untreated pigs were performed. The effects of storage temperature of the kidneys, and of sampling location, on the residue analysis were also studied. No method alone was sufficient for the detection of residues. Oxytetracycline residues could be detected at pH 6, dihydrostreptomycin residues at pH 8, and sulphonamide residues if trimethoprim was present in the medium. Chloramphenicol, penicillin G procaine, tylosin and lincomycin residues were not detectable with the methods used. The concentration of ampicillin decreased during the storage of samples at +4°C. Most methods also yielded zones of inhibition for the frozen kidneys from untreated pigs. It seems necessary to use agar media of two different pH values: the addition of trimethoprim to the medium is also needed. The use of fresh pig kidneys, and samples containing both kidney medulla and kidney cortex, is recommended in residue analysis. Copyright © 1983. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Prognostic Significance of Creatinine Increases During an Acute Heart Failure Admission in Patients With and Without Residual Congestion: A Post Hoc Analysis of the PROTECT Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metra, Marco; Cotter, Gad; Senger, Stefanie; Edwards, Christopher; Cleland, John G; Ponikowski, Piotr; Cursack, Guillermo C; Milo, Olga; Teerlink, John R; Givertz, Michael M; O'Connor, Christopher M; Dittrich, Howard C; Bloomfield, Daniel M; Voors, Adriaan A; Davison, Beth A

    2018-05-01

    The importance of a serum creatinine increase, traditionally considered worsening renal function (WRF), during admission for acute heart failure has been recently debated, with data suggesting an interaction between congestion and creatinine changes. In post hoc analyses, we analyzed the association of WRF with length of hospital stay, 30-day death or cardiovascular/renal readmission and 90-day mortality in the PROTECT study (Placebo-Controlled Randomized Study of the Selective A1 Adenosine Receptor Antagonist Rolofylline for Patients Hospitalized With Acute Decompensated Heart Failure and Volume Overload to Assess Treatment Effect on Congestion and Renal Function). Daily creatinine changes from baseline were categorized as WRF (an increase of 0.3 mg/dL or more) or not. Daily congestion scores were computed by summing scores for orthopnea, edema, and jugular venous pressure. Of the 2033 total patients randomized, 1537 patients had both available at study day 14. Length of hospital stay was longer and 30-day cardiovascular/renal readmission or death more common in patients with WRF. However, these were driven by significant associations in patients with concomitant congestion at the time of assessment of renal function. The mean difference in length of hospital stay because of WRF was 3.51 (95% confidence interval, 1.29-5.73) more days ( P =0.0019), and the hazard ratio for WRF on 30-day death or heart failure hospitalization was 1.49 (95% confidence interval, 1.06-2.09) times higher ( P =0.0205), in significantly congested than nonsignificantly congested patients. A similar trend was observed with 90-day mortality although not statistically significant. In patients admitted for acute heart failure, WRF defined as a creatinine increase of ≥0.3 mg/dL was associated with longer length of hospital stay, and worse 30- and 90-day outcomes. However, effects were largely driven by patients who had residual congestion at the time of renal function assessment. URL: https

  5. Methane emissions, body composition, and rumen fermentation traits of beef heifers differing in residual feed intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzsimons, C; Kenny, D A; Deighton, M H; Fahey, A G; McGee, M

    2013-12-01

    This study examined the relationship of residual feed intake (RFI) and performance with methane emissions, rumen fermentation, and digestion in beef heifers. Individual DMI and growth performance were measured for 22 Simmental heifers (mean initial BW 449 kg, SD = 46.2 kg) offered grass silage ad libitum for 120 d. Ultrasonically scanned muscle and fat depth, BCS, muscularity score, skeletal measurements, blood variables, rumen fermentation (via stomach tube), and total tract digestibility (indigestible marker) were measured. Methane production was estimated using the sulfur hexafluoride tracer gas technique over two 5-d periods beginning on d 20 and 75 of the RFI measurement period. Phenotypic RFI was calculated as actual DMI minus expected DMI. The residuals of the regression of DMI on ADG and midtest metabolic body weight, using all heifers, were used to compute individual RFI coefficients. Heifers were ranked by RFI and assigned to low (efficient), medium, or high (inefficient) groupings. Overall ADG and DMI were 0.58 kg (SD = 0.18) and 7.40 kg (SD = 0.72), respectively. High-RFI heifers consumed 9 and 15% more (P composition traits did not differ (P > 0.05) between low- and high-RFI groups. High-RFI heifers had higher concentrations of plasma glucose (6%) and urea (13%) and lower concentrations of plasma creatinine (9%) than low-RFI heifers (P 0.05) between RFI groups, although acetate:propionate ratio was lowest (P = 0.07) for low-RFI (3.5) and highest for high-RFI (4.6) heifers. Methane production expressed as grams per day or grams per kilogram metabolic body weight was greater (P methane emissions. Results suggest that improved RFI will reduce methane emissions without affecting productivity of growing beef cattle.

  6. Annealing dependence of residual stress and optical properties of TiO2 thin film deposited by different deposition methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsi-Chao; Lee, Kuan-Shiang; Lee, Cheng-Chung

    2008-05-01

    Titanium oxide (TiO(2)) thin films were prepared by different deposition methods. The methods were E-gun evaporation with ion-assisted deposition (IAD), radio-frequency (RF) ion-beam sputtering, and direct current (DC) magnetron sputtering. Residual stress was released after annealing the films deposited by RF ion-beam or DC magnetron sputtering but not evaporation, and the extinction coefficient varied significantly. The surface roughness of the evaporated films exceeded that of both sputtered films. At the annealing temperature of 300 degrees C, anatase crystallization occurred in evaporated film but not in the RF ion-beam or DC magnetron-sputtered films. TiO(2) films deposited by sputtering were generally more stable during annealing than those deposited by evaporation.

  7. Estimating significances of differences between slopes: A new methodology and software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasco M. N. C. S. Vieira

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Determining the significance of slope differences is a common requirement in studies of self-thinning, ontogeny and sexual dimorphism, among others. This has long been carried out testing for the overlap of the bootstrapped 95% confidence intervals of the slopes. However, the numerical random re-sampling with repetition favours the occurrence of re-combinations yielding largely diverging slopes, widening the confidence intervals and thus increasing the chances of overlooking significant differences. To overcome this problem a permutation test simulating the null hypothesis of no differences between slopes is proposed. This new methodology, when applied both to artificial and factual data, showed an enhanced ability to differentiate slopes.

  8. Clinical significance of changes of serum osteocalcin (BGP) levels in subjects of different age-groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Lihua; Zhang Jin; Han Cuihua; Ouyang Qiaohong

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the changes of serum BGP levels in different age-groups. Methods: Serum BGP levels were determined with RIA in 306 subjects of different age-groups. Results: The serum BGP levels were highest in subjects of the pre-adolescent group (age5-15, n=60, vs other groups, all P 50, n=80, P<0.001). Levels in the middle age group were the lowest and were significantly lower than those in the old age group (P<0.001). No sex related differences were observed in the pre-adolescent and middle age groups, but in the youth group, serum BGP levels were significantly higher in the males than those in the females (P<0.05). However, in the old age group, the reverse was true i.e. values being significantly higher in the females (vs males, P<0.01). Conclusion: Serum BGP levels varied greatly among the different age groups. (authors)

  9. The Ability of Different Imputation Methods to Preserve the Significant Genes and Pathways in Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Aghdam

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Deciphering important genes and pathways from incomplete gene expression data could facilitate a better understanding of cancer. Different imputation methods can be applied to estimate the missing values. In our study, we evaluated various imputation methods for their performance in preserving significant genes and pathways. In the first step, 5% genes are considered in random for two types of ignorable and non-ignorable missingness mechanisms with various missing rates. Next, 10 well-known imputation methods were applied to the complete datasets. The significance analysis of microarrays (SAM method was applied to detect the significant genes in rectal and lung cancers to showcase the utility of imputation approaches in preserving significant genes. To determine the impact of different imputation methods on the identification of important genes, the chi-squared test was used to compare the proportions of overlaps between significant genes detected from original data and those detected from the imputed datasets. Additionally, the significant genes are tested for their enrichment in important pathways, using the ConsensusPathDB. Our results showed that almost all the significant genes and pathways of the original dataset can be detected in all imputed datasets, indicating that there is no significant difference in the performance of various imputation methods tested. The source code and selected datasets are available on http://profiles.bs.ipm.ir/softwares/imputation_methods/.

  10. The Ability of Different Imputation Methods to Preserve the Significant Genes and Pathways in Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghdam, Rosa; Baghfalaki, Taban; Khosravi, Pegah; Saberi Ansari, Elnaz

    2017-12-01

    Deciphering important genes and pathways from incomplete gene expression data could facilitate a better understanding of cancer. Different imputation methods can be applied to estimate the missing values. In our study, we evaluated various imputation methods for their performance in preserving significant genes and pathways. In the first step, 5% genes are considered in random for two types of ignorable and non-ignorable missingness mechanisms with various missing rates. Next, 10 well-known imputation methods were applied to the complete datasets. The significance analysis of microarrays (SAM) method was applied to detect the significant genes in rectal and lung cancers to showcase the utility of imputation approaches in preserving significant genes. To determine the impact of different imputation methods on the identification of important genes, the chi-squared test was used to compare the proportions of overlaps between significant genes detected from original data and those detected from the imputed datasets. Additionally, the significant genes are tested for their enrichment in important pathways, using the ConsensusPathDB. Our results showed that almost all the significant genes and pathways of the original dataset can be detected in all imputed datasets, indicating that there is no significant difference in the performance of various imputation methods tested. The source code and selected datasets are available on http://profiles.bs.ipm.ir/softwares/imputation_methods/. Copyright © 2017. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Stability of tetrachlorvinphos residues in faba beans and soya bean oil towards different processing procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zayed, S.M.A.D.; Farghaly, M.

    1987-01-01

    Cooking of contaminated faba beans did not degrade the originally present potentially toxic residues, namely, tetrachlorvinphos and its desmethyl derivative to any appreciable extent. Processing of contaminated soya bean oil, on the other hand, led to degradation of tetrachlorvinphos and its metabolites to give mono and dimethyl phosphates. Feeding of mice with bound residues of tetrachlorvinphos in beans for 90 days led to an apparent decrease in the rate of body weight gain. (author)

  12. Hydrodesulfurization and hydrodemetallization of different origin vacuum residues : new modeling approach.

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira , Cristina; Tayakout-Fayolle , Melaz; Guibard , Isabelle; Lemos , Francisco

    2014-01-01

    International audience; In order to be able to upgrade the heaviest part of the crude oil one needs to remove several impurities, such as sulfur or metals. Residue hydrotreatment in fixed beds, under high hydrogen pressure can achieve high removal performances, with an industrial catalysts optimized staging. Despite the recent improvements, petroleum residues remain very difficult to describe and characterize in detail. Several kinetic models have been developed, but mostly they are feed depe...

  13. Biographical Narratives of Encounter: The Significance of Mobility and Emplacement in Shaping Attitudes towards Difference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadgrove, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    This paper is located within work in urban studies about the significance of contact with difference as a means for reducing prejudice and achieving social change. Recent approaches, influenced by theories of affect, have emphasised non-conscious everyday negotiations of difference in the city. In this paper it is argued that such approaches lose sight of the significance of the subject: of the reflective judgements of ‘others’ made by individuals; of our ability to make decisions around the control of our feelings and identifications; and of the significance of personal pasts and collective histories in shaping the ways we perceive and react to encounters. Rather, this paper uses a biographical approach focusing on interviewees’ narratives of encounter. Through its attention to processes of mobility and emplacement, it contributes to debates about when contact with difference matters by highlighting the importance of everyday social normativities in the production of moral dispositions. PMID:26300566

  14. Potential Causes of Significant Inventory Differences at Bulk Handling Facilities and the Importance of Inventory Difference Action Levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homer, Alan; O’Hagan, Brendan

    2015-01-01

    Accountancy for nuclear material can be split into two categories. Firstly, where possible, accountancy should be in terms of items that can be transferred as discrete packages and their contents fixed at the time of their creation. All items must remain accounted for at all times, and a single missing item is considered significant. Secondly, where nuclear material is unconstrained, for example in a reprocessing plant where it can change form, there is an uncertainty that relates to the amount of material present in any location. Cumulatively, these uncertainties can be summed and provide a context for any estimate of material in a process. Any apparent loss or gain between what has been physically measured within a facility during its physical inventory take and what is reported within its nuclear material accounts is known as an inventory difference. The cumulative measurement uncertainties can be used to set an action level for the inventory difference so that if an inventory difference is observed outside of such action levels, the difference is classified as significant and an investigation to find the root cause(s) is required. The purpose of this paper is to explore the potential causes of significant inventory differences and to provide a framework within which an inventory difference investigation can be carried out.

  15. Current estimate of functional vision in patients with bifocal pseudophakia after correction of residual defocus by different methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri V Takhtaev

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article we evaluated the influence of different surgical methods for correction of residual ametropia on contrast sensitivity at different light conditions and high-order aberrations in patients with bifocal pseudophakia. The study included 45 eyes (30 people after cataract surgery, which studied dependence between contrast sensitivity and aberrations level before and after surgical correction of residual ametropia by of three methods - LASIK, Sulcoflex IOL implantation or IOL exchange. Contrast sensitivity was measured by Optec 6500 and aberration using Pentacam «OCULUS». We processed the results using the Mann-Whitney U-test. This study shows correlation between each method and residual aberrations level and their influence on contrast sensitivity level.

  16. Different finite element techniques to predict welding residual stresses in aluminum alloy plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moein, Hadi; Sattari-Far, Iradj

    2014-01-01

    This study is a 3D thermomechanical finite element (FE) analysis of a single-pass and butt-welded work-hardened aluminum (Al) 5456 plates. It aims to validate the use of FE welding simulations to predict residual stress states in assessing the integrity of welded components. The predicted final residual stresses in the plate from the FE simulations are verified through comparison with experimental measurements. Three techniques are used to simulate the welding process. In the first two approaches, welding deposition is applied by using element birth and interaction techniques. In the third approach, the entire weld zone is simultaneously deposited. Results show a value at approximately the yield strength for longitudinal residual stresses of the welded center of the butt-welded Al alloy plates with a thickness of 2 mm. Considering the application of a comprehensive heat source, along with heat loss modeling and the temperature dependent properties of the material, the approach without deposition predicts a reasonable distribution of residual stresses. However, the element birth and interaction techniques, compared with the no-deposit technique, provide more accurate results in calculating residual stresses. Furthermore, the element interaction technique, compared with the element birth technique, exhibits higher efficiency and flexibility in modeling the deposition of welded metals as well as less modeling cost.

  17. The different influence of the residual layer on the development of the summer convective boundary layer in two deserts in northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhao; Bo, Han; Shihua, Lv; Lijuan, Wen; Xianhong, Meng; Zhaoguo, Li

    2018-02-01

    The development of the atmospheric boundary layer is closely connected with the exchange of momentum, heat, and mass near the Earth's surface, especially for a convective boundary layer (CBL). Besides being modulated by the buoyancy flux near the Earth's surface, some studies point out that a neutrally stratified residual layer is also crucial for the appearance of a deep CBL. To verify the importance of the residual layer, the CBLs over two deserts in northwest China (Badan Jaran and Taklimakan) were investigated. The summer CBL mean depth over the Taklimakan Desert is shallower than that over the Badan Jaran Desert, even when the sensible heat flux of the former is stronger. Meanwhile, the climatological mean residual layer in the Badan Jaran Desert is much deeper and neutrally stratified in summer. Moreover, we found a significant and negative correlation between the lapse rate of the residual layer and the CBL depth over the Badan Jaran Desert. The different lapse rates of the residual layer in the two regions are partly connected with the advection heating from large-scale atmospheric circulation. The advection heating tends to reduce the temperature difference in the 700 to 500-hPa layer over the Badan Jaran Desert, and it increases the stability in the same atmospheric layer over the Taklimakan Desert. The advection due to climatological mean atmospheric circulation is more effective at modulating the lapse rate of the residual layer than from varied circulation. Also, the interannual variation of planetary boundary layer (PBL) height over two deserts was found to covary with the wave train.

  18. The Residual Setup Errors of Different IGRT Alignment Procedures for Head and Neck IMRT and the Resulting Dosimetric Impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graff, Pierre; Kirby, Neil; Weinberg, Vivian; Chen, Josephine; Yom, Sue S.; Lambert, Louise; Pouliot, Jean

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To assess residual setup errors during head and neck radiation therapy and the resulting consequences for the delivered dose for various patient alignment procedures. Methods and Materials: Megavoltage cone beam computed tomography (MVCBCT) scans from 11 head and neck patients who underwent intensity modulated radiation therapy were used to assess setup errors. Each MVCBCT scan was registered to its reference planning kVCT, with seven different alignment procedures: automatic alignment and manual registration to 6 separate bony landmarks (sphenoid, left/right maxillary sinuses, mandible, cervical 1 [C1]-C2, and C7-thoracic 1 [T1] vertebrae). Shifts in the different alignments were compared with each other to determine whether there were any statistically significant differences. Then, the dose distribution was recalculated on 3 MVCBCT images per patient for every alignment procedure. The resulting dose-volume histograms for targets and organs at risk (OARs) were compared to those from the planning kVCTs. Results: The registration procedures produced statistically significant global differences in patient alignment and actual dose distribution, calling for a need for standardization of patient positioning. Vertically, the automatic, sphenoid, and maxillary sinuses alignments mainly generated posterior shifts and resulted in mean increases in maximal dose to OARs of >3% of the planned dose. The suggested choice of C1-C2 as a reference landmark appears valid, combining both OAR sparing and target coverage. Assuming this choice, relevant margins to apply around volumes of interest at the time of planning to take into account for the relative mobility of other regions are discussed. Conclusions: Use of different alignment procedures for treating head and neck patients produced variations in patient setup and dose distribution. With concern for standardizing practice, C1-C2 reference alignment with relevant margins around planning volumes seems to be a valid

  19. Grazing behavior and production characteristics among cows differing in residual feed intake while grazing late season Idaho rangeland

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives were to determine if cows classified as either low- or high-residual feed intake (LRFI or HRFI) differed in BW, BCS, and winter grazing activity over time. Thirty Hereford x Angus (LRFI = 16; HRFI = 14) 2-year-old cows grazed sagebrush-steppe for 78 d beginning 29 September 2016. Body...

  20. Inversion tillage, high residue covers, and different herbicide regimes for palmer amaranth control in liberty link systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glyphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth is adversely affecting cotton production in the Southeast US. A field experiment was established in fall 2008 at the E.V. Smith Research Center, Field Crops Unit near Shorter, AL, to investigate the role of inversion tillage, high residue cover crops, and differ...

  1. Bioaccessibility and health risk of heavy metals in ash from the incineration of different e-waste residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Xiao-Qing; Shen, Dong-Sheng; Shentu, Jia-Li; Long, Yu-Yang; Feng, Yi-Jian; Shen, Chen-Chao

    2015-03-01

    Ash from incinerated e-waste dismantling residues (EDR) may cause significant health risks to people through ingestion, inhalation, and dermal contact exposure pathways. Ashes of four classified e-waste types generated by an incineration plant in Zhejiang, China were collected. Total contents and the bioaccessibilities of Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn in ashes were measured to provide crucial information to evaluate the health risks for incinerator workers and children living in vicinity. Compared to raw e-waste in mixture, ash was metal-enriched by category incinerated. However, the physiologically based extraction test (PBET) indicates the bioaccessibilities of Ni, Pb, and Zn were less than 50 %. Obviously, bioaccessibilities need to be considered in noncancer risk estimate. Total and PBET-extractable contents of metal, except for Pb, were significantly correlated with the pH of the ash. Noncancer risks of ash from different incinerator parts decreased in the order bag filter ash (BFA) > cyclone separator ash (CFA) > bottom ash (BA). The hazard quotient for exposure to ash were decreased as ingestion > dermal contact > inhalation. Pb in ingested ash dominated (>80 %) noncancer risks, and children had high chronic risks from Pb (hazard index >10). Carcinogenic risks from exposure to ash were under the acceptable level (incinerated ash are made.

  2. Residual stresses generated in F-522 steel by different machining processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gracia-Navas, V.; Ferreres, I.; Maranon, J. A.; Garcia-Rosales, C.; Gil-Sevillano, J.

    2005-01-01

    Machining operations induce plastic deformation and heat generation in the near surface area of the machined part, giving rise to residual stresses. Depending on their magnitude and sign, these stresses can be detrimental or beneficial to the service life of the part. The final stress state depends on the machining process applied, as well as on the machining parameters. Therefore, the establishment of adequate machining guidelines requires the measurement of the residual stresses generated both at the surface and inside the material. in this work, the residual stresses generated in F-522 steel by two hard turning (conventional and laser assisted) and two grinding (production and finishing) processes were measured by X-ray diffraction. Additionally, depth profiles of the volume fraction of retained austenite, microstructure and nano hardness were obtained in order to correlate those results with the residual stress state obtained for each machining process. It has been observed that turning generates tensile stresses in the surface while grinding causes compressive stresses. Below the surface grinding generates weak tensile or nearly null stresses whereas turning generates strong compressive stresses. These results show that the optimum mechanising process (disregarding economical considerations) implies the combination of turning plus elimination of a small thickness by final grinding. (Author) 19 refs

  3. Comparison of the level of residual coagulant activity in different cheese varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Nidhi; Fox, Patrick F; McSweeney, Paul L H

    2009-08-01

    The coagulant retained in cheese curd is a major contributor to proteolysis during ripening. The objective of this study was to quantify residual coagulant in 9 cheese varieties by measuring its activity on a synthetic heptapeptide (Pro-Thr-Glu-Phe-[NO2-Phe]-Arg-Leu) assayed using reversed-phase HPLC. The level of residual coagulant activity was highest in Camembert cheese, probably due to its low pH at whey drainage and the high moisture content of the cheese, followed in order by Feta=Port du Salut=Cheddar>Gouda>Emmental=Parmigiano Reggiano=low-moisture part-skim Mozzarella=Mozzarella di Bufala Campana. The high cooking temperature (50-54 degrees C) used during the manufacture of Emmental and Parmigiano Reggiano cheeses and the cooking and stretching step in hot water during the manufacture of Mozzarella cheese may be the reasons for the lowest residual coagulant activity in these cheeses. The level of residual coagulant activity was higher in Feta cheese made from milk concentrated by ultrafiltration than in conventional Feta.

  4. Significance analysis of the regional differences on icing time of water onto fire protective clothing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, L. Z.; Jing, L. S.; Zhang, X. Z.; Xia, J. J.; Chen, Y.; Chen, T.; Hu, C.; Bao, Z. M.; Fu, X. C.; Wang, R. J.; Wang, Y.; Wang, Y. J.

    2017-09-01

    The object of this work was to determine the icing temperature in icing experiment. Firstly, a questionnaire investigation was carried out on 38 fire detachments in different regions. These Statistical percentage results were divided into northern east group and northern west group. Secondly, a significance analysis between these two results was made using Mann-Whitney U test. Then the icing temperature was determined in different regions. Thirdly, the icing experiment was made in the environment of -20°C in Daxing’an Mountain. The anti-icing effect of new fire protective clothing was verified in this icing.

  5. THE IMPORTANCE OF ‘SIGNIFICANT OTHERS’ IN BRIDGING THE GAPS BETWEEN DIFFERENT READING CONTEXTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Karin Svensson

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The current research is an in-depth study of four pre-service teachers’ own experience of reading in various contexts and for different reasons. The aim is to analyse what has been significant regarding reading in a life history perspective by the use of narratives. A socio-cultural perspective on reading is used as analysis tool. The over-arching result from analysing pre-service teachers’ narratives is that reading is a relational process regardless of the context reading takes place in. The emerging themes allow a deeper understanding on critical aspects for developing reading in various contexts and at different levels. Significant others seem important in every reading practice, from new readers in primary school to pre-service teachers’ reading at university level. The narratives reveal a need for bridging the gaps that arise between the reading practices in the various contexts that students meet in school and university.

  6. Significant differences in physicochemical properties of human immunoglobulin kappa and lambda CDR3 regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine L Townsend

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Antibody variable regions are composed of a heavy and a light chain and in humans there are two light chain isotypes: kappa and lambda. Despite their importance in receptor editing, the light chain is often overlooked in the antibody literature, with the focus being on the heavy chain CDR-H3 region. In this paper, we set out to investigate the physicochemical and structural differences between human kappa and lambda light chain CDR regions. We constructed a dataset containing over 29,000 - light chain variable region sequences from IgM-transcribing, newly formed B cells isolated from human bone marrow and peripheral blood. We also used a published human naïve dataset to investigate the CDR-H3 properties of heavy chains paired with kappa and lambda light chains, and probed the Protein Data Bank (PDB to investigate the structural differences between kappa and lambda antibody CDR regions. We found that kappa and lambda light chains have very different CDR physicochemical and structural properties, whereas the heavy chains with which they are paired do not differ significantly. We also observed that the mean CDR3 N nucleotide addition in the kappa, lambda and heavy chain gene rearrangements are correlated within donors, but can differ between donors. This indicates that TdT may work with differing efficiencies between different people, but the same efficiency in the different classes of immunoglobulin chain within one person. We have observed large differences in the physicochemical and structural properties of kappa and lambda light chain CDR regions. This may reflect different roles in the humoral immune response.

  7. Significant Differences in Physicochemical Properties of Human Immunoglobulin Kappa and Lambda CDR3 Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Catherine L; Laffy, Julie M J; Wu, Yu-Chang Bryan; Silva O'Hare, Joselli; Martin, Victoria; Kipling, David; Fraternali, Franca; Dunn-Walters, Deborah K

    2016-01-01

    Antibody variable regions are composed of a heavy and a light chain, and in humans, there are two light chain isotypes: kappa and lambda. Despite their importance in receptor editing, the light chain is often overlooked in the antibody literature, with the focus being on the heavy chain complementarity-determining region (CDR)-H3 region. In this paper, we set out to investigate the physicochemical and structural differences between human kappa and lambda light chain CDR regions. We constructed a dataset containing over 29,000 light chain variable region sequences from IgM-transcribing, newly formed B cells isolated from human bone marrow and peripheral blood. We also used a published human naïve dataset to investigate the CDR-H3 properties of heavy chains paired with kappa and lambda light chains and probed the Protein Data Bank to investigate the structural differences between kappa and lambda antibody CDR regions. We found that kappa and lambda light chains have very different CDR physicochemical and structural properties, whereas the heavy chains with which they are paired do not differ significantly. We also observed that the mean CDR3 N nucleotide addition in the kappa, lambda, and heavy chain gene rearrangements are correlated within donors but can differ between donors. This indicates that terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase may work with differing efficiencies between different people but the same efficiency in the different classes of immunoglobulin chain within one person. We have observed large differences in the physicochemical and structural properties of kappa and lambda light chain CDR regions. This may reflect different roles in the humoral immune response.

  8. Magnetic resonance imaging detects significant sex differences in human myocardial strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reynolds Lina M

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The pathophysiology responsible for the significant outcome disparities between men and women with cardiac disease is largely unknown. Further investigation into basic cardiac physiological differences between the sexes is needed. This study utilized magnetic resonance imaging (MRI-based multiparametric strain analysis to search for sex-based differences in regional myocardial contractile function. Methods End-systolic strain (circumferential, longitudinal, and radial was interpolated from MRI-based radiofrequency tissue tagging grid point displacements in each of 60 normal adult volunteers (32 females. Results The average global left ventricular (LV strain among normal female volunteers (n = 32 was significantly larger in absolute value (functionally better than in normal male volunteers (n = 28 in both the circumferential direction (Male/Female = -0.19 ± 0.02 vs. -0.21 ± 0.02; p = 0.025 and longitudinal direction (Male/Female = -0.14 ± 0.03 vs. -0.16 ± 0.02; p = 0.007. Conclusions The finding of significantly larger circumferential and longitudinal LV strain among normal female volunteers suggests that baseline contractile differences between the sexes may contribute to the well-recognized divergence in cardiovascular disease outcomes. Further work is needed in order to determine the pathologic changes that occur in LV strain between women and men with the onset of cardiovascular disease.

  9. Significant interarm blood pressure difference predicts cardiovascular risk in hypertensive patients: CoCoNet study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Su-A; Kim, Jang Young; Park, Jeong Bae

    2016-06-01

    There has been a rising interest in interarm blood pressure difference (IAD), due to its relationship with peripheral arterial disease and its possible relationship with cardiovascular disease. This study aimed to characterize hypertensive patients with a significant IAD in relation to cardiovascular risk. A total of 3699 patients (mean age, 61 ± 11 years) were prospectively enrolled in the study. Blood pressure (BP) was measured simultaneously in both arms 3 times using an automated cuff-oscillometric device. IAD was defined as the absolute difference in averaged BPs between the left and right arm, and an IAD ≥ 10 mm Hg was considered to be significant. The Framingham risk score was used to calculate the 10-year cardiovascular risk. The mean systolic IAD (sIAD) was 4.3 ± 4.1 mm Hg, and 285 (7.7%) patients showed significant sIAD. Patients with significant sIAD showed larger body mass index (P < 0.001), greater systolic BP (P = 0.050), more coronary artery disease (relative risk = 1.356, P = 0.034), and more cerebrovascular disease (relative risk = 1.521, P = 0.072). The mean 10-year cardiovascular risk was 9.3 ± 7.7%. By multiple regression, sIAD was significantly but weakly correlated with the 10-year cardiovascular risk (β = 0.135, P = 0.008). Patients with significant sIAD showed a higher prevalence of coronary artery disease, as well as an increase in 10-year cardiovascular risk. Therefore, accurate measurements of sIAD may serve as a simple and cost-effective tool for predicting cardiovascular risk in clinical settings.

  10. Significant interarm blood pressure difference predicts cardiovascular risk in hypertensive patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Su-A; Kim, Jang Young; Park, Jeong Bae

    2016-01-01

    Abstract There has been a rising interest in interarm blood pressure difference (IAD), due to its relationship with peripheral arterial disease and its possible relationship with cardiovascular disease. This study aimed to characterize hypertensive patients with a significant IAD in relation to cardiovascular risk. A total of 3699 patients (mean age, 61 ± 11 years) were prospectively enrolled in the study. Blood pressure (BP) was measured simultaneously in both arms 3 times using an automated cuff-oscillometric device. IAD was defined as the absolute difference in averaged BPs between the left and right arm, and an IAD ≥ 10 mm Hg was considered to be significant. The Framingham risk score was used to calculate the 10-year cardiovascular risk. The mean systolic IAD (sIAD) was 4.3 ± 4.1 mm Hg, and 285 (7.7%) patients showed significant sIAD. Patients with significant sIAD showed larger body mass index (P < 0.001), greater systolic BP (P = 0.050), more coronary artery disease (relative risk = 1.356, P = 0.034), and more cerebrovascular disease (relative risk = 1.521, P = 0.072). The mean 10-year cardiovascular risk was 9.3 ± 7.7%. By multiple regression, sIAD was significantly but weakly correlated with the 10-year cardiovascular risk (β = 0.135, P = 0.008). Patients with significant sIAD showed a higher prevalence of coronary artery disease, as well as an increase in 10-year cardiovascular risk. Therefore, accurate measurements of sIAD may serve as a simple and cost-effective tool for predicting cardiovascular risk in clinical settings. PMID:27310982

  11. Two amino acid residues confer different binding affinities of Abelson family kinase SRC homology 2 domains for phosphorylated cortactin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gifford, Stacey M; Liu, Weizhi; Mader, Christopher C; Halo, Tiffany L; Machida, Kazuya; Boggon, Titus J; Koleske, Anthony J

    2014-07-11

    The closely related Abl family kinases, Arg and Abl, play important non-redundant roles in the regulation of cell morphogenesis and motility. Despite similar N-terminal sequences, Arg and Abl interact with different substrates and binding partners with varying affinities. This selectivity may be due to slight differences in amino acid sequence leading to differential interactions with target proteins. We report that the Arg Src homology (SH) 2 domain binds two specific phosphotyrosines on cortactin, a known Abl/Arg substrate, with over 10-fold higher affinity than the Abl SH2 domain. We show that this significant affinity difference is due to the substitution of arginine 161 and serine 187 in Abl to leucine 207 and threonine 233 in Arg, respectively. We constructed Abl SH2 domains with R161L and S187T mutations alone and in combination and find that these substitutions are sufficient to convert the low affinity Abl SH2 domain to a higher affinity "Arg-like" SH2 domain in binding to a phospho-cortactin peptide. We crystallized the Arg SH2 domain for structural comparison to existing crystal structures of the Abl SH2 domain. We show that these two residues are important determinants of Arg and Abl SH2 domain binding specificity. Finally, we expressed Arg containing an "Abl-like" low affinity mutant Arg SH2 domain (L207R/T233S) and find that this mutant, although properly localized to the cell periphery, does not support wild type levels of cell edge protrusion. Together, these observations indicate that these two amino acid positions confer different binding affinities and cellular functions on the distinct Abl family kinases. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  12. Residual DNA double strand breaks in perfused but not in unperfused areas determine different radiosensitivity of tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menegakis, Apostolos; Eicheler, Wolfgang; Yaromina, Ala; Thames, Howard D.; Krause, Mechthild; Baumann, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Micromilieu-dependent quantification of γH2AX after irradiation in vivo and correlation with local tumour control. Materials and methods: Local tumour control was evaluated after irradiation of FaDu and SKX xenografts with ambient single doses. γH2AX foci were quantified in perfused and unperfused regions after different irradiation doses and at different time points. Results: The TCD 50 of FaDu was 2-times higher compared to SKX (28.0 Gy [95% C.I. 24.6; 31.3 Gy] for FaDu; 14.9 Gy [10.9; 18.9] for SKX, p < 0.001). The induction of foci did not differ between the tumour models. Residual foci were twice higher in perfused SKX regions compared to FaDu, no difference was observed in the non-perfused region between both tumour models. The number of residual foci increased with a 2-times higher slope in perfused SKX-regions compared to FaDu, while no difference was detected in unperfused regions. Already within the perfused regions, this slope decreased with distance from perfused vessels. Conclusion: The dose-response of residual γH2AX foci is highly dependent on tumour cell oxygenation in well perfused areas. This dependence decreases further away from tumour vessels. Only γH2AX evaluation in perfused tumour areas can distinguish between the different radiocurability of the two tumour models.

  13. An Investigation on In-Vessel Composting of Pistachio Residuals with Different Additions

    OpenAIRE

    M Jalili; M Mokhtari; AA Ebrahimi; F Boghri

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective: About 1.35×105 tons of pistachio waste are produced in annually Iran that can result in environmental problems if managed improperly. . The purpose of this study was to investigate in-vessel composting of pistachio residuals with addition of cow manure and dewatered sludge as a recycling alternative. Materials and Methods: Pistachios wastes were combined with weight ratio of 5.5:10 (dewatered sludge: pistachio waste) and weight ratio of 1:10 (Cow manure: pi...

  14. Decomposition of 14C-labelled plant residues in different soils and climates of Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez A, M.A.; Sauerbeck, D.R.

    1982-01-01

    The decomposition of 14 C-labelled wheat straw has been studied under field and laboratory conditions since 1975 in 13 Orthents, Andepts, Tropepts, Ustolls, and other soils of Costa Rica, representing its most important groups and production zones. No reliable predictions about the degradation rate of plant residues in field soils at their natural locations can be made from data obtained under controlled laboratory studies. Although, in some cases the decomposition rates of the laboratory experiment corresponded fairly well with the ones obtained in the field, there were instances where the laboratory decomposition lags behind. The reasons for this discrepancy have not yet been clearly interpreted, but will certainly have to do with the natural climatic conditions prevailing at the particular location. It is important to do such experiments in the open field, no matter how complicated this may be. It was found after a year, that from 23 to 36 per cent of the 14 C added in the wheat straw remained in the soils under field conditions. Four years later, the residual 14 C was from 11 to 23 per cent. From this information it is assumed that a considerable fraction of the organic carbon in the plant residues ramains undecomposed during several years in these tropical soils, as it occurs in other soils from temperate areas of the world. (Author) [pt

  15. Using the Bootstrap Method for a Statistical Significance Test of Differences between Summary Histograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Kuan-Man

    2006-01-01

    A new method is proposed to compare statistical differences between summary histograms, which are the histograms summed over a large ensemble of individual histograms. It consists of choosing a distance statistic for measuring the difference between summary histograms and using a bootstrap procedure to calculate the statistical significance level. Bootstrapping is an approach to statistical inference that makes few assumptions about the underlying probability distribution that describes the data. Three distance statistics are compared in this study. They are the Euclidean distance, the Jeffries-Matusita distance and the Kuiper distance. The data used in testing the bootstrap method are satellite measurements of cloud systems called cloud objects. Each cloud object is defined as a contiguous region/patch composed of individual footprints or fields of view. A histogram of measured values over footprints is generated for each parameter of each cloud object and then summary histograms are accumulated over all individual histograms in a given cloud-object size category. The results of statistical hypothesis tests using all three distances as test statistics are generally similar, indicating the validity of the proposed method. The Euclidean distance is determined to be most suitable after comparing the statistical tests of several parameters with distinct probability distributions among three cloud-object size categories. Impacts on the statistical significance levels resulting from differences in the total lengths of satellite footprint data between two size categories are also discussed.

  16. Two distinct groups within the Bacillus subtilis group display significantly different spore heat resistance properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berendsen, Erwin M; Zwietering, Marcel H; Kuipers, Oscar P; Wells-Bennik, Marjon H J

    2015-02-01

    The survival of bacterial spores after heat treatment and the subsequent germination and outgrowth in a food product can lead to spoilage of the food product and economical losses. Prediction of time-temperature conditions that lead to sufficient inactivation requires access to detailed spore thermal inactivation kinetics of relevant model strains. In this study, the thermal inactivation kinetics of spores of fourteen strains belonging to the Bacillus subtilis group were determined in detail, using both batch heating in capillary tubes and continuous flow heating in a micro heater. The inactivation data were fitted using a log linear model. Based on the spore heat resistance data, two distinct groups (p subtilis group could be identified. One group of strains had spores with an average D120 °C of 0.33 s, while the spores of the other group displayed significantly higher heat resistances, with an average D120 °C of 45.7 s. When comparing spore inactivation data obtained using batch- and continuous flow heating, the z-values were significantly different, hence extrapolation from one system to the other was not justified. This study clearly shows that heat resistances of spores from different strains in the B. subtilis group can vary greatly. Strains can be separated into two groups, to which different spore heat inactivation kinetics apply. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Grazing behavior and intake of goats rotationally grazing Tanzania-grass pasture with different post-grazing residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia H.M.R. Fernandes

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate intake and ingestive behavior of goats rotationally grazing Tanzania (Panicum maximum cv. Tanzânia 1 pastures with 2 levels of post-grazing residue. The experimental area consisted of 1.2 ha of Tanzania pasture divided into 12 paddocks (24 areas, managed under 2 post-grazing residues: low green (leaf + stem herbage mass (GHM post-grazing (LR, approximately 1,500 kg/ha GHM; and high GHM post-grazing (HR, approximately 3,000 kg/ha GHM. Each paddock was grazed for 3 consecutive days (D1, D2, D3 followed by 33 days rest and evaluated from October 2005 to April 2006. Animal behavior (grazing time, bite rate and bite size/weight was evaluated on each grazing day. While goats spent more time grazing on LR than HR (P=0.02, bite rate did not differ between treatments or among days (P=0.31 and averaged 26.5 bites/min. In contrast, bite weight was greater in HR (0.15 g/bite than in LR (0.12 g/bite, and decreased from D1 to D3 (P<0.001. Absolute dry matter intake of goats was greater in the HR (2.19 kg/d than the LR (1.89 kg/d treatment; however, differences were not significant (P>0.05 when intake was determined on a body weight or metabolic weight basis. Our findings are consistent with the general assumption that bite weight is a trade-off between quantity and quality of the herbage mass and is the main determinant of animal performance. More studies are needed to determine animal performance on the various treatments and to determine management strategies to provide a desirable balance between animal weight gain and pasture stability.Keywords: Animal behavior, foraging, grazing systems, Megathyrsus maximus, plant - animal relations.DOI: 10.17138/TGFT(491-100

  18. Biofiltration of composting gases using different municipal solid waste-pruning residue composts: monitoring by using an electronic nose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, R; Cabeza, I O; Giráldez, I; Díaz, M J

    2011-09-01

    The concentration of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) during the composting of kitchen waste and pruning residues, and the abatement of VOCs by different compost biofilters was studied. VOCs removal efficiencies greater than 90% were obtained using composts of municipal solid waste (MSW) or MSW-pruning residue as biofilter material. An electronic nose identified qualitative differences among the biofilter output gases at very low concentrations of VOCs. These differences were related to compost constituents, compost particle size (2-7 or 7-20mm), and a combination of both factors. The total concentration of VOCs determined by a photoionization analyser and inferred from electronic nose data sets were correlated over an ample range of concentrations of VOCs, showing that these techniques could be specially adapted for the monitoring of these processes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Mechanical and interfacial properties of poly(vinyl chloride) based composites reinforced by cassava stillage residue with different surface treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanjuan; Gan, Tao; Li, Qian; Su, Jianmei; Lin, Ye; Wei, Yongzuo; Huang, Zuqiang; Yang, Mei

    2014-09-01

    Cassava stillage residue (CSR), a kind of agro-industrial plant fiber, was modified by coupling agent (CA), mechanical activation (MA), and MA-assisted CA (MACA) surface treatments, respectively. The untreated and different surface treated CSRs were used to prepare plant fibers/polymer composites (PFPC) with poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) as polymer matrix, and the properties of these CSR/PVC composites were compared. Surface treated CSR/PVC composites possessed better mechanical properties, water resistance and dimensional stability compared with the untreated CSR/PVC composite, attributing to the improvement of interfacial properties between CSR and PVC matrix. MACA-treated CSR was the best reinforcement among four types of CSRs (untreated, MA-treated, CA-treated, and MACA-treated CSRs) because MACA treatment led to the significant improvement of dispersion, interfacial adhesion and compatibility between CSR and PVC. MACA treatment could be considered as an effective and green method for enhancing reinforcement efficiency of plant fibers and the properties of PFPC.

  20. Significant clinical differences in primary hyperparathyroidism between patients with and those without concomitant thyroid disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masatsugu, Toshihiro; Kuroki, Syoji; Tanaka, Masao

    2005-01-01

    We evaluated the differences in diagnosis and treatment for primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT) in patients with and those without concomitant thyroid disease. One hundred and ten patients with pHPT underwent parathyroid localization and thyroid examination by ultrasonography (US) and sestamibi scintigraphy (MIBI). The clinical and biochemical findings, parathyroid localization, and operations performed were compared in 49 patients without thyroid disease and 61 patients with thyroid disease. Asymptomatic hypercalcemia was significantly more prevalent in patients with concomitant thyroid disease (88.5%) than in those without thyroid disease (49.0%) (P<0.01). The mean serum calcium was significantly higher and the inorganic phosphate level was significantly lower in patients without concomitant thyroid disease than in those with concomitant thyroid disease (P<0.05, P<0.01, respectively). The pathologic parathyroid gland was identified significantly more often in patients without concomitant thyroid disease than in those with concomitant thyroid disease both by US and MIBI (P<0.05). Unilateral exploration was performed more often in patients without thyroid disease than in those with thyroid disease (P<0.01). Primary hyperparathyroidism was diagnosed at an earlier stage in patients with concomitant thyroid disease. Thyroid disease concomitant with pHPT influenced parathyroid localization as well as the indication for minimally invasive parathyroidectomy. (author)

  1. Small airway function changes and its clinical significance of asthma patients in different clinical phases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Hui Zhou

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To observe the small airways function changes of asthmatic patients in different clinical phases and to discuss its clinical significance. Methods: A total of 127 patients diagnosed as asthma were selected randomly and pulmonary function (PF of them was determined by conventional method. Then they were divided into A, B and C group based on PF results. All 34 patients in A group suffered from acute asthma attack for the first time. All 93 patients in B group had been diagnosed as asthma but in remission phase. C Group was regarded as Control group with 20 healthy volunteers. Then FEV1, FEF50%, FEF75% levels of patients in each group were analyzed, and ΔFEV1, ΔFEF75% and ΔFEF50% levels of patients in each group were compared after bronchial dilation test. Results: It was found that most patients in group A and B had abnormal small airways function, and their small airways function was significantly different compared with that of group C (P<0.01. In addition, except for group C, ΔFEF75%,ΔFEF50% levels in A and B group were improved more significantly than ΔFEV1 levels (P<0.01. Conclusions: Asthma patients in acute phase all have abnormal small airways function. Most asthma patients in remission phase also have abnormal small airways function. After bronchial dilation test, whether patients in acute phase or in remission phase, major and small airways function of them are improved, but improvement of small airways function is weaker than that of major airways. This indicates that asthma respiratory tract symptoms in different phases exists all the time and so therapeutic process is needed to perform step by step.

  2. Increased frequency of retinopathy of prematurity over the last decade and significant regional differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmström, Gerd; Tornqvist, Kristina; Al-Hawasi, Abbas; Nilsson, Åsa; Wallin, Agneta; Hellström, Ann

    2018-03-01

    Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) causes childhood blindness globally in prematurely born infants. Although increased levels of oxygen supply lead to increased survival and reduced frequency of cerebral palsy, increased incidence of ROP is reported. With the help of a Swedish register for ROP, SWEDROP, national and regional incidences of ROP and frequencies of treatment were evaluated from 2008 to 2015 (n = 5734), as well as before and after targets of provided oxygen changed from 85-89% to 91-95% in 2014. Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) was found in 31.9% (1829/5734) of all infants with a gestational age (GA) of <31 weeks at birth and 5.7% of the infants (329/5734) had been treated for ROP. Analyses of the national data revealed an increased incidence of ROP during the 8-year study period (p = 0.003), but there was no significant increase in the frequency of treatment. There were significant differences between the seven health regions of Sweden, regarding both incidence of ROP and frequency of treatment (p < 0.001). Comparison of regional data before and after the new oxygen targets revealed a significant increase in treated ROP in one region [OR: 2.24 (CI: 1.11-4.49), p = 0.024] and a borderline increase in one other [OR: 3.08 (CI: 0.99-9.60), p = 0.052]. The Swedish national ROP register revealed an increased incidence of ROP during an 8-year period and significant regional differences regarding the incidence of ROP and frequency of treatment. © 2017 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Process of Judging Significant Modifications for Different Transportation Systems compared to the Approach for Nuclear Installations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Petrek

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of the CSM regulation by the European Commission in 2009 which harmonizes the risk assessment process and introduces a rather new concept of judging changes within the European railway industry. This circumstance has risen the question how other technology sectors handle the aspect of modifications and alterations. The paper discusses the approaches for judging the significance of modifications within the three transport sectors of European railways, aviation and maritime transportation and the procedure which is used in the area of nuclear safety. We will outline the similarities and differences between these four methods and discuss the underlying reasons. Finally, we will take into account the role of the European legislator and the fundamental idea of a harmonization of the different approaches.

  4. Combined cycle power plants: A comparison between two different dynamic models to evaluate transient behaviour and residual life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benato, Alberto; Stoppato, Anna; Bracco, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Two procedures aimed at simulating the dynamic behaviour of power plants are compared. • They both are aimed at predicting the residual life of plant devices. • A single pressure gas-steam combined plant has been modelled. • A good correspondence has been found despite the different approaches used. - Abstract: The deregulated energy market and the increasing quota of electrical capacity covered by non-predictable renewable sources require strongly irregular and discontinuous operation of thermoelectric plants to satisfy users demand and compensate the variability of renewable sources. As a consequence, due to thermo-mechanical fatigue, creep and corrosion, a lifetime reduction of the most critical components occurs. The availability of a procedure able to predict the residual life of plant devices is necessary to assist the management decisions about power plants’ operation and maintenance scheduling. The first step of this procedure is the capability of simulating the plant behaviour versus time by evaluating the trends of the main thermodynamic parameters that describe the plant operation during different transient periods. In this context, the main contribution of the present paper is to propose a complete procedure able to simulate the plant dynamic behaviour and estimate the residual life reduction of some components. Indeed, two different models, developed by two different research groups, of the same single pressure heat recovery steam generator unit are presented and utilized to characterize the dynamic behaviour of the above mentioned power plant. The main thermodynamic variables during different transient operation conditions are predicted and good correspondence between the two methods is obtained. It can be also noted that, when the geometry and size of the devices are considered, the thermal inertia related to heat exchangers tubes, pipes and other physical masses causes a delay in the system response. Moreover, a residual life

  5. DNA entropy reveals a significant difference in complexity between housekeeping and tissue specific gene promoters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, David; Finan, Chris; Newport, Melanie J; Jones, Susan

    2015-10-01

    The complexity of DNA can be quantified using estimates of entropy. Variation in DNA complexity is expected between the promoters of genes with different transcriptional mechanisms; namely housekeeping (HK) and tissue specific (TS). The former are transcribed constitutively to maintain general cellular functions, and the latter are transcribed in restricted tissue and cells types for specific molecular events. It is known that promoter features in the human genome are related to tissue specificity, but this has been difficult to quantify on a genomic scale. If entropy effectively quantifies DNA complexity, calculating the entropies of HK and TS gene promoters as profiles may reveal significant differences. Entropy profiles were calculated for a total dataset of 12,003 human gene promoters and for 501 housekeeping (HK) and 587 tissue specific (TS) human gene promoters. The mean profiles show the TS promoters have a significantly lower entropy (pentropy distributions for the 3 datasets show that promoter entropies could be used to identify novel HK genes. Functional features comprise DNA sequence patterns that are non-random and hence they have lower entropies. The lower entropy of TS gene promoters can be explained by a higher density of positive and negative regulatory elements, required for genes with complex spatial and temporary expression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Super-resolution structure of DNA significantly differs in buccal cells of controls and Alzheimer's patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Angeles; Huang, David; Righolt, Amanda; Righolt, Christiaan; Kalaw, Maria Carmela; Mathur, Shubha; McAvoy, Elizabeth; Anderson, James; Luedke, Angela; Itorralba, Justine; Mai, Sabine

    2017-09-01

    The advent of super-resolution microscopy allowed for new insights into cellular and physiological processes of normal and diseased cells. In this study, we report for the first time on the super-resolved DNA structure of buccal cells from patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) versus age- and gender-matched healthy, non-caregiver controls. In this super-resolution study cohort of 74 participants, buccal cells were collected and their spatial DNA organization in the nucleus examined by 3D Structured Illumination Microscopy (3D-SIM). Quantitation of the super-resolution DNA structure revealed that the nuclear super-resolution DNA structure of individuals with AD significantly differs from that of their controls (p structure of AD significantly differs in mild, moderate, and severe disease with respect to the DNA-containing and DNA-free/poor spaces. We conclude that whole genome remodeling is a feature of buccal cells in AD. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Cellular Physiology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Subgroups of Paediatric Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia Might Differ Significantly in Genetic Predisposition to Asparaginase Hypersensitivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nóra Kutszegi

    Full Text Available L-asparaginase (ASP is a key element in the treatment of paediatric acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL. However, hypersensitivity reactions (HSRs to ASP are major challenges in paediatric patients. Our aim was to investigate genetic variants that may influence the risk to Escherichia coli-derived ASP hypersensitivity. Sample and clinical data collection was carried out from 576 paediatric ALL patients who were treated according to protocols from the Berlin-Frankfurt-Münster Study Group. A total of 20 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in GRIA1 and GALNT10 genes were genotyped. Patients with GRIA1 rs4958351 AA/AG genotype showed significantly reduced risk to ASP hypersensitivity compared to patients with GG genotype in the T-cell ALL subgroup (OR = 0.05 (0.01-0.26; p = 4.70E-04, while no such association was found in pre-B-cell ALL. In the medium risk group two SNPs of GRIA1 (rs2055083 and rs707176 were associated significantly with the occurrence of ASP hypersensitivity (OR = 0.21 (0.09-0.53; p = 8.48E-04 and OR = 3.02 (1.36-6.73; p = 6.76E-03, respectively. Evaluating the genders separately, however, the association of rs707176 with ASP HSRs was confined only to females. Our results suggest that genetic variants of GRIA1 might influence the risk to ASP hypersensitivity, but subgroups of patients can differ significantly in this respect.

  8. Determination of tylosin residues in different animal tissues by high performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prats, C; Francesch, R; Arboix, M; Pérez, B

    2002-01-05

    A HPLC method to determine and quantify tylosin residues from calves, pigs and poultry is reported. This procedure permitted tylosin to be separated from muscle, liver, kidney and fat after a simple extraction with chloroform or ethyl acetate under basic conditions. The analytical methodology showed a high specificity and sensitivity and an adequate precision and accuracy with a limit of quantification of 50 microg/kg. Eight calves were administered 20 mg/kg/day of tylosin for 5 days and slaughtered at 7 and 14 days post-administration. Results showed that at the 14th day tylosin levels were lower than the MRL in all target tissues.

  9. Visceral organ weights, digestion and carcass characteristics of beef bulls differing in residual feed intake offered a high concentrate diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzsimons, C; Kenny, D A; McGee, M

    2014-06-01

    This study examined the relationship of residual feed intake (RFI) with digestion, body composition, carcass traits and visceral organ weights in beef bulls offered a high concentrate diet. Individual dry matter (DM) intake (DMI) and growth were measured in a total of 67 Simmental bulls (mean initial BW 431 kg (s.d.=63.7)) over 3 years. Bulls were offered concentrates (860 g/kg rolled barley, 60 g/kg soya bean meal, 60 g/kg molasses and 20 g/kg minerals per vitamins) ad libitum plus 0.8 kg grass silage DM daily for 105 days pre-slaughter. Ultrasonic muscle and fat depth, body condition score (BCS), muscularity score, skeletal measurements, blood metabolites, rumen fermentation and total tract digestibility (indigestible marker) were determined. After slaughter, carcasses and perinephric and retroperitoneal fat were weighed, carcasses were graded for conformation and fat score and weight of non-carcass organs, liver, heart, kidneys, lungs, gall bladder, spleen, reticulo-rumen full and empty and intestines full, were determined. The residuals of the regression of DMI on average daily gain (ADG), mid-test metabolic BW (BW0.75) and the fixed effect of year, using all animals, were used to compute individual RFI coefficients. Animals were ranked on RFI and assigned to high (inefficient), medium or low groupings. Overall mean ADG and daily DMI were 1.6 kg (s.d.=0.36) and 9.4 kg (s.d.=1.16), respectively. High RFI bulls consumed 7 and 14% more DM than medium and low RFI bulls, respectively (P0.05) for ADG, BW, BCS, skeletal measurements, muscularity scores, ultrasonic measurements, carcass weight, perinephric and retroperitoneal fat weight, kill-out proportion and carcass conformation and fat score. However, regression analysis indicated that a 1 kg DM/day increase in RFI was associated with a decrease in kill-out proportion of 20 g/kg (Pcarcass conformation of 0.74 units (Pcarcass organs did not differ (P>0.05) between RFI groups except for the empty weight of reticulo

  10. Modeling of the residue transport of lambda cyhalothrin, cypermethrin, malathion and endosulfan in three different environmental compartments in the Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Senoro, Delia B.; Maravillas, Sharon L.; Ghafari, Nima; Rivera, Clarissa C.; Quiambao, Erwin C.; Lorenzo, Maria Carmina M.

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to determine the environmental transport and fate of the residue of four Philippines priority chemicals; i.e., lambda cyhalothrin (L-cyhalothrin), cypermethrin, endosulfan and malathion, in three different environmental compartments (air, water and soil). In the Philippines, pesticide application is the most common method of controlling pests and weeds in rice and vegetable farming. This practice aided the agricultural industry to minimize losses and increase yield. However, i...

  11. Intrapartum caesarean rates differ significantly between ethnic groups--relationship to induction.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ismail, Khadijah I

    2012-01-31

    OBJECTIVE: Given international variation in obstetric practices and outcomes, comparison of labour outcomes in different ethnic groups could provide important information regarding the underlying reasons for rising caesarean delivery rates. Increasing numbers of women from Eastern European countries are now delivering in Irish maternity hospitals. We compared labour outcomes between Irish and Eastern European (EE) women in a large tertiary referral center. STUDY DESIGN: This was a prospective consecutive cohort study encompassing a single calendar year. The cohort comprised 5550 Irish and 867 EE women delivered in a single institution in 2009. Women who had multiple pregnancies, breech presentation, and elective or pre-labour caesarean sections (CS) were excluded. Data obtained from birth registers included maternal age, nationality, parity, gestation, onset of labour, mode of delivery and birth weight. RESULTS: The overall intrapartum CS rate was 11.4% and was significantly higher in Irish compared to EE women (11.8% vs. 8.8%; p=0.008). The proportion of primiparas was lower in Irish compared to EE women (44.8% vs. 63.6%; p<0.0001). The intrapartum CS rate was almost doubled in Irish compared to EE primiparas (20.7% vs. 11.0%; p<0.0001). Analysis of primiparas according to labour onset revealed a higher intrapartum CS rate in Irish primiparas in both spontaneous (13.5% vs. 7.2%; p<0.0001) and induced labour (29.5% vs. 19.3%; p=0.005). Irish women were older with 19.7% of primiparas aged more than 35, compared to 1.6% of EE women (p<0.0001). The primigravid CS rate in Irish women was significantly higher in women aged 35 years or older compared women aged less than 35 (30.6% vs. 18.3%; p<0.0001) consistent in both spontaneous and induced labour. The primiparous induction rate was 45.4% in Irish women compared to 32% in EE women, and more Irish women were induced before 41 weeks gestation. CONCLUSION: The results highlight that primigravid intrapartum CS rates were

  12. Significant differences in parameters of glucose metabolism in children of hypertensive and normotensive parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gryko, Anna; Głowińska-Olszewska, Barbara; Płudowska, Katarzyna; Smithson, W Henry; Owłasiuk, Anna; Żelazowska-Rutkowska, Beata; Wojtkielewicz, Katarzyna; Milewski, Robert; Chlabicz, Sławomir

    2017-01-01

    In the recent years, alterations in the carbohydrate metabolism, including insulin resistance, are considered as risk factors in the development of hypertension and its complications in young age. Hypertension is associated with significant cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The onset of pathology responsible for the development of hypertension, as well as levels of biomarkers specific for early stages of atherosclerosis are poorly understood. To compare a group of children whose parents have a history of hypertension (study group) with a group of children with normotensive parents (reference group), with consideration of typical risk factors for atherosclerosis, parameters of lipid and carbohydrate metabolism, anthropometric data and new biomarkers of early cardiovascular disease (hsCRP, adiponectin, sICAM-1). The study population consists of 84 children. Of these, 40 children (mean age 13.6±2.7 years) had a parental history of hypertension, and 44 aged 13.1±3.7 yrs were children of normotensive parents. Anthropometric measurements were taken, and measurements of blood pressure, lipid profile, glucose and insulin levels were carried out. The insulin resistance index (HOMA IR) was calculated. Levels of hsCRP, soluble cell adhesion molecules (sICAM) and adiponectin were measured. There were no statistically significant differences in anthropometric parameters (body mass, SDS BMI, skin folds) between groups. Values of systolic blood pressure were statistically significantly higher in the study group (Me 108 vs. 100 mmHg, p= 0.031), as were glycaemia (Me 80 vs. 67 mg/dl pchildren of hypertensive parents) (Me 1.68 vs. 0.80 mmol/l × mU/l, p=0.007). Lower adiponectin levels (Me 13959.45 vs. 16822 ng/ml, p=0.020) were found in children with a family history of hypertension. No significant differences were found in the levels of sICAM, hsCRP, and parameters of lipid metabolism. Family history of hypertension is correlated with higher values of systolic blood

  13. Gender differences in binaural speech-evoked auditory brainstem response: are they clinically significant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalaei, Bahram; Azmi, Mohd Hafiz Afifi Mohd; Zakaria, Mohd Normani

    2018-05-17

    Binaurally evoked auditory evoked potentials have good diagnostic values when testing subjects with central auditory deficits. The literature on speech-evoked auditory brainstem response evoked by binaural stimulation is in fact limited. Gender disparities in speech-evoked auditory brainstem response results have been consistently noted but the magnitude of gender difference has not been reported. The present study aimed to compare the magnitude of gender difference in speech-evoked auditory brainstem response results between monaural and binaural stimulations. A total of 34 healthy Asian adults aged 19-30 years participated in this comparative study. Eighteen of them were females (mean age=23.6±2.3 years) and the remaining sixteen were males (mean age=22.0±2.3 years). For each subject, speech-evoked auditory brainstem response was recorded with the synthesized syllable /da/ presented monaurally and binaurally. While latencies were not affected (p>0.05), the binaural stimulation produced statistically higher speech-evoked auditory brainstem response amplitudes than the monaural stimulation (p0.80), substantive gender differences were noted in most of speech-evoked auditory brainstem response peaks for both stimulation modes. The magnitude of gender difference between the two stimulation modes revealed some distinct patterns. Based on these clinically significant results, gender-specific normative data are highly recommended when using speech-evoked auditory brainstem response for clinical and future applications. The preliminary normative data provided in the present study can serve as the reference for future studies on this test among Asian adults. Copyright © 2018 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  14. Classification of different kinds of pesticide residues on lettuce based on fluorescence spectra and WT-BCC-SVM algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xin; Jun, Sun; Zhang, Bing; Jun, Wu

    2017-07-01

    In order to improve the reliability of the spectrum feature extracted by wavelet transform, a method combining wavelet transform (WT) with bacterial colony chemotaxis algorithm and support vector machine (BCC-SVM) algorithm (WT-BCC-SVM) was proposed in this paper. Besides, we aimed to identify different kinds of pesticide residues on lettuce leaves in a novel and rapid non-destructive way by using fluorescence spectra technology. The fluorescence spectral data of 150 lettuce leaf samples of five different kinds of pesticide residues on the surface of lettuce were obtained using Cary Eclipse fluorescence spectrometer. Standard normalized variable detrending (SNV detrending), Savitzky-Golay coupled with Standard normalized variable detrending (SG-SNV detrending) were used to preprocess the raw spectra, respectively. Bacterial colony chemotaxis combined with support vector machine (BCC-SVM) and support vector machine (SVM) classification models were established based on full spectra (FS) and wavelet transform characteristics (WTC), respectively. Moreover, WTC were selected by WT. The results showed that the accuracy of training set, calibration set and the prediction set of the best optimal classification model (SG-SNV detrending-WT-BCC-SVM) were 100%, 98% and 93.33%, respectively. In addition, the results indicated that it was feasible to use WT-BCC-SVM to establish diagnostic model of different kinds of pesticide residues on lettuce leaves.

  15. Seed metabolomic study reveals significant metabolite variations and correlations among different soybean cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hong; Rao, Jun; Shi, Jianxin; Hu, Chaoyang; Cheng, Fang; Wilson, Zoe A; Zhang, Dabing; Quan, Sheng

    2014-09-01

    Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] is one of the world's major crops, and soybean seeds are a rich and important resource for proteins and oils. While "omics" studies, such as genomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics, have been widely applied in soybean molecular research, fewer metabolomic studies have been conducted for large-scale detection of low molecular weight metabolites, especially in soybean seeds. In this study, we investigated the seed metabolomes of 29 common soybean cultivars through combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. One hundred sixty-nine named metabolites were identified and subsequently used to construct a metabolic network of mature soybean seed. Among the 169 detected metabolites, 104 were found to be significantly variable in their levels across tested cultivars. Metabolite markers that could be used to distinguish genetically related soybean cultivars were also identified, and metabolite-metabolite correlation analysis revealed some significant associations within the same or among different metabolite groups. Findings from this work may potentially provide the basis for further studies on both soybean seed metabolism and metabolic engineering to improve soybean seed quality and yield. © 2014 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  16. Seed metabolomic study reveals significant metabolite variations and correlations among different soybean cultivars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Lin; Jun Rao; Jianxin Shi; Chaoyang Hu; Fang Cheng; Zoe AWilson; Dabing Zhang; Sheng Quan

    2014-01-01

    Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] is one of the world’s major crops, and soybean seeds are a rich and important resource for proteins and oils. While “omics”studies, such as genomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics, have been widely applied in soybean molecular research, fewer metabolomic studies have been conducted for large-scale detection of low molecular weight metabolites, especial y in soybean seeds. In this study, we investigated the seed metabolomes of 29 common soybean cultivars through combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. One hundred sixty-nine named metabolites were identified and subsequently used to construct a metabolic network of mature soybean seed. Among the 169 detected metabolites, 104 were found to be significantly variable in their levels across tested cultivars. Metabolite markers that could be used to distinguish genetical y related soybean cultivars were also identified, and metabolite-metabolite correlation analysis revealed some significant associations within the same or among different metabolite groups. Findings from this work may potentially provide the basis for further studies on both soybean seed metabolism and metabolic engineering to improve soybean seed quality and yield.

  17. Functional significance of genetically different symbiotic algae Symbiodinium in a coral reef symbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loram, J E; Trapido-Rosenthal, H G; Douglas, A E

    2007-11-01

    The giant sea anemone Condylactis gigantea associates with members of two clades of the dinoflagellate alga Symbiodinium, either singly or in mixed infection, as revealed by clade-specific quantitative polymerase chain reaction of large subunit ribosomal DNA. To explore the functional significance of this molecular variation, the fate of photosynthetically fixed carbon was investigated by (14)C radiotracer experiments. Symbioses with algae of clades A and B released ca. 30-40% of fixed carbon to the animal tissues. Incorporation into the lipid fraction and the low molecular weight fraction dominated by amino acids was significantly higher in symbioses with algae of clade A than of clade B, suggesting that the genetically different algae in C. gigantea are not functionally equivalent. Symbioses with mixed infections yielded intermediate values, such that this functional trait of the symbiosis can be predicted from the traits of the contributing algae. Coral and sea anemone symbioses with Symbiodinium break down at elevated temperature, a process known as 'coral bleaching'. The functional response of the C. gigantea symbiosis to heat stress varied between the algae of clades A and B, with particularly depressed incorporation of photosynthetic carbon into lipid of the clade B algae, which are more susceptible to high temperature than the algae of clade A. This study provides a first exploration of how the core symbiotic function of photosynthate transfer to the host varies with the genotype of Symbiodinium, an algal symbiont which underpins corals and, hence, coral reef ecosystems.

  18. MR first pass perfusion of benign and malignant cardiac tumours - significant differences and diagnostic accuracy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauner, K.U.; Picciolo, M.; Theisen, D.; Sandner, T.A.; Reiser, M.F.; Huber, A.M.; Sourbron, S.; Schmitz, C.

    2012-01-01

    To determine the diagnostic value of magnetic resonance (MR) first pass perfusion in the differentiation of benign and malignant cardiac tumours. 24 patients with cardiac tumours (11 malignant, histopathological correlation present in all cases) were examined using MRI. In addition to morphological sequences a saturation-recovery T1w-GRE technique was implemented for tumour perfusion. The maximum relative signal enhancement (RSE[%]) and the slope of the RSE t -curve (slopeRSE[%/s]) of tumour tissue were assessed. A t-test was used to identify significant differences between benign and malignant tumours. Sensitivities and specificities were calculated for detection of malignant lesions and were compared with the sensitivity and specificity based on solely morphological image assessment. The RSE and slopeRSE of malignant cardiac tumours were significantly higher compared with benign lesions (p < 0.001 and p < 0.001). The calculated sensitivities and specificities of RSE and slopeRSE for identification of malignant lesions were 100% and 84.6% and 100% and 92.3%, respectively with cut-off values of 80% and 6%/s. The sensitivity and specificity for identification of malignant lesions on the basis of morphological imaging alone were 90.9% and 69.2%. With first pass perfusion, malignant cardiac masses can be identified with higher sensitivity and specificity compared with morphological image assessment alone. (orig.)

  19. Effects of tropical ecosystem engineers on soil quality and crop performance under different tillage and residue management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulleman, Mirjam; Paul, Birthe; Fredrick, Ayuke; Hoogmoed, Marianne; Hurisso, Tunsisa; Ndabamenye, Telesphore; Saidou, Koala; Terano, Yusuke; Six, Johan; Vanlauwe, Bernard

    2014-05-01

    Feeding a future global population of 9 billion will require a 70-100% increase in food production, resulting in unprecedented challenges for agriculture and natural resources, especially in Sub-saharan Africa (SSA). Agricultural practices that contribute to sustainable intensification build on beneficial biological interactions and ecosystem services. Termites are the dominant soil ecosystem engineers in arid to sub-humid tropical agro-ecosystems. Various studies have demonstrated the potential benefits of termites for rehabilitation of degraded and crusted soils and plant growth in semi-arid and arid natural ecosystems. However, the contribution of termites to agricultural productivity has hardly been experimentally investigated, and their role in Conservation Agriculture (CA) systems remains especially unclear. Therefore, this study aimed to quantify the effects of termites and ants on soil physical quality and crop productivity under different tillage and residue management systems in the medium term. A randomized block trial was set up in sub-humid Western Kenya in 2003. Treatments included a factorial combination of residue retention and removal (+R/-R) and conventional and reduced tillage (+T/-T) under a maize (Zea mays L.) and soybean (Glyxine max. L.) rotation. A macrofauna exclusion experiment was superimposed in 2005 as a split-plot factor (exclusion +ins; inclusion -ins) by regular applications of pesticides (Dursban and Endosulfan) in half of the plots. Macrofauna abundance and diversity, soil aggregate fractions, soil carbon contents and crop yields were measured between 2005 and 2012 at 0-15 cm and 15-30 cm soil depths. Termites were the most important macrofauna species, constituting between 48-63% of all soil biota, while ants were 13-34%, whereas earthworms were present in very low numbers. Insecticide application was effective in reducing termites (85-56% exclusion efficacy) and earthworms (87%), and less so ants (49-81%) at 0-15 cm soil depth

  20. Statistically significant faunal differences among Middle Ordovician age, Chickamauga Group bryozoan bioherms, central Alabama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crow, C.J.

    1985-01-01

    Middle Ordovician age Chickamauga Group carbonates crop out along the Birmingham and Murphrees Valley anticlines in central Alabama. The macrofossil contents on exposed surfaces of seven bioherms have been counted to determine their various paleontologic characteristics. Twelve groups of organisms are present in these bioherms. Dominant organisms include bryozoans, algae, brachiopods, sponges, pelmatozoans, stromatoporoids and corals. Minor accessory fauna include predators, scavengers and grazers such as gastropods, ostracods, trilobites, cephalopods and pelecypods. Vertical and horizontal niche zonation has been detected for some of the bioherm dwelling fauna. No one bioherm of those studied exhibits all 12 groups of organisms; rather, individual bioherms display various subsets of the total diversity. Statistical treatment (G-test) of the diversity data indicates a lack of statistical homogeneity of the bioherms, both within and between localities. Between-locality population heterogeneity can be ascribed to differences in biologic responses to such gross environmental factors as water depth and clarity, and energy levels. At any one locality, gross aspects of the paleoenvironments are assumed to have been more uniform. Significant differences among bioherms at any one locality may have resulted from patchy distribution of species populations, differential preservation and other factors.

  1. Clinical Significance and Characteristic Clinical Differences of Cytolytic Vaginosis in Recurrent Vulvovaginitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shuhua; Zhang, Yuexiang; Liu, Ying; Wang, Jianhong; Chen, Shuqin; Li, Shuxia

    2017-01-01

    The study aimed to evaluate whether cytolytic vaginosis (CV) has important clinical implications for recurrent vulvovaginitis and to identify clinical differences between CV and vulvovaginal candidosis (VVC). Medical histories, physical examinations and laboratory findings were used to diagnose and assess the prevalence rates of various vulvovaginal infections among 536 women with recurrent vulvovaginitis. Chi-square and Fisher exact tests were used to compare age, menstrual cycle phase at episode onset, symptoms/signs of infection and discharge characteristics between CV and VVC with single infection. Among the 484 women with a single-infection recurrent vulvovaginitis, the prevalence of CV (n = 143; 26.7%) was second only to VVC (n = 196; 36.6%). CV symptoms occurred predominantly during the ovulatory and luteal phases. Meanwhile, VVC episodes were not concentrated premenstrually, but rather occurred throughout the menstrual cycle. Significant differences were found in the vaginal pH, discharge characteristics and frequency of inflammatory symptoms between the 2 groups. CV is clinically important, because it is a common cause of recurrent vulvovaginitis. To distinguish CV from VVC, gynecologists should consider the patient's medical history, physical and laboratory findings, vaginal pH and vaginal discharge characteristics. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Significant profile differences among male and female adventure tourists in Pretoria, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Jeanette Lötter

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Different adventure activities/experiences evolve because individuals, their motives, behaviours, and experiences differ and change over time. This notion illustrates the broad nature of adventure tourism and its links with other forms of tourism. In turn, adventure tourism companies are compelled to promote/sell an array of activities/experiences to a diverse range of markets as novel and exclusive experiences to facilitate the growth of adventure holidays (Swarbrooke et al., 2003. To assist adventure tourism companies in achieving effective marketing strategies, the study’s objective is to identify significant sociopsychological profile differences among male and female adventure tourists in Pretoria, South Africa. Furthermore, to facilitate the comparison of adventure tourists’ profiles, an equal number of respondents were male (117 and female (117, which provided a 93.6% response rate. In comparison to female respondents, male respondents prefer winter as a season to participate in hard/high-risk adventure activities when they are with or without their family, and they participate in adventure activities for travelling and socialising purposes. Whereas, female respondents predominantly regard scuba-diving, abseiling, and helicopter flights as a hard/high-risk adventure activity, although these activities are generally regarded by the overall sample as being soft/low-risk adventure activities. Furthermore, even though females’ participation in adventure activities is sponsored, they did not participate or only participated in adventure activities once over the past year due to fear/risk and/or lack of skill. This study established that there is a need to further research adventure tourists’ profiles before it could be equally accepted and interpreted.

  3. Multi-country assessment of residual bio-efficacy of insecticides used for indoor residual spraying in malaria control on different surface types: results from program monitoring in 17 PMI/USAID-supported IRS countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dengela, Dereje; Seyoum, Aklilu; Lucas, Bradford; Johns, Benjamin; George, Kristen; Belemvire, Allison; Caranci, Angela; Norris, Laura C; Fornadel, Christen M

    2018-01-30

    comparisons of mosquito mortality rates were then made to determine any significant differences when comparing insecticide formulation, country, year, surface type, and the source of the mosquitoes used in testing. The residual efficacy of alpha-cypermethrin ranged from 4 to 10 months (average = 6.4 months), with no reported incidents of underperformance when compared to the efficacy range provided in WHO guidelines. Deltamethrin residual efficacy results reported a range of 1 to 10 months (average = 4.9 months), with two instances of underperformance. The residual efficacy of bendiocarb ranged from 2 weeks to 7 months (average = 2.8 months) and failed to achieve proposed minimum efficacy on 14 occasions. Lastly, long-lasting pirimiphos-methyl efficacy ranged from 2 months to 9 months (average = 5.3 months), but reported 13 incidents of underperformance. Much of the data used to determine application rate and expected efficacy of insecticides approved for use in IRS programs are collected in controlled laboratory or pilot field studies. However, the generalizability of the results obtained under controlled conditions are limited and unlikely to account for variation in locally sourced housing materials, climate, and the myriad other factors that may influence the bio-efficacy of insecticides. Here, data are presented that confirm the variation in residual efficacy observed when monitoring household surfaces sprayed during PMI/USAID-supported IRS campaigns. All insecticides except alpha-cypermethrin showed evidence of failing to meet the minimum range of residual efficacy proposed in WHO criteria at least once. However, this initial effort in characterizing program-wide insecticide bio-efficacy indicates that some insecticides, such as bendiocarb and pirimiphos-methyl, may be vulnerable to variations in the local environment. Additionally, the comparative analysis performed in this study provides evidence that mosquito mortality rates differ with

  4. Nutrient utilisation and methane emissions in Sahiwal calves differing in residual feed intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Vimlesh C; Mahesh, Munnurpal S; Mohini, Madhu; Datt, Chander; Nampoothiri, Vinu M

    2014-01-01

    The presented study aimed at investigating the residual feed intake (RFI) of Sahiwal calves, nutrient utilisation as affected by RFI and its relationship with methane (CH4) emissions and some blood metabolites. Eighteen male Sahiwal calves (10-18 months of age; mean body weight 133 kg) were fed ad libitum with a total mixed ration. After calculating RFI for individual calves (-0.40 to +0.34 kg DM/d), they were divided into three groups with low, medium and high RFI, respectively. Dry matter intake (DMI) was higher (p feed conversion ratio were similar among the groups. With exception of glucose, concentrations of all measured blood metabolites were higher in Group High RFI (p feed efficiency and less CH4 production were observed in Group Low RFI, it was concluded that RFI can be used as a measure of feed efficiency, which has a potential to select Sahiwal calves for lowered CH4 emissions.

  5. Oral challenges with four apple cultivars result in significant differences in oral allergy symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nybom, Hilde; Cervin-Hoberg, Charlotte; Andersson, Morgan

    2013-01-01

    We analyzed the hypoallergenic potential of a recently bred apple selection with unusually low content of Mal d 1, using an oral challenge model with three additional apple cultivars for comparison. Sixty-six birch pollen-allergic individuals with a history of oral allergy syndrome after apple intake were subjected to a double-blind oral provocation with two apple cultivars (B:0654 and 'Discovery'). Thirteen also tested two other apple cultivars ('Ingrid Marie' and 'Gloster'). Three doses were given consecutively, 30 min apart: 10 g without peel, and 10 and 50 g with peel. A final assessment was conducted 30 min after the last intake. Oral symptoms were graded from 0 to 5. Total oral symptom score (TOS) included all scores for each cultivar at all time points. B:0654 induced significantly higher TOS than 'Discovery' when tested by 66 individuals, in spite of its lower Mal d 1 content. TOS values were higher in females and increased with increasing age of the individuals when challenged with 'Discovery'. Among the 13 individuals who tested all four cultivars, B:0654 produced a higher score after the second dose compared to 'Ingrid Marie'. This was also the case after the third dose compared to 'Ingrid Marie' and 'Gloster', and again 30 min after the last intake compared to each of the other three cultivars, as well as a higher TOS compared to each of the other three cultivars (all p safe and well tolerated, and produced significant differences among the apple cultivars. Contrary to expectations, B:0654 was less well tolerated than the other three cultivars. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Cost Minimization Analysis of Different Strategies of Management of Clinically Significant Scorpion Envenomation Among Pediatric Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Madhumita; Quan, Dan; McDonald, Fred W; Valdez, André

    2016-12-01

    Scorpion antivenom was recently approved for use in patients with clinically significant scorpion envenomation in the United States; no formal economic analysis on its impact on cost of management has been performed. Three different strategies of management of scorpion envenomation with systemic neurotoxic symptoms in children were compared for cost minimization from a societal perspective. In strategy I, patients were managed with supportive care only without antivenom. In strategy II, an aggressive strategy of full-dose antivenom (initial dose of 3 vials with the use of additional vials administered 1 vial at a time) was considered. In strategy III, a single-vial serial antivenom dosing strategy titrated to clinical response was considered. Clinical probabilities for the different strategies were obtained from retrospective review of medical records of patients with scorpion envenomation over a 10-year period at our institution. Baseline cost values were obtained from patient reimbursement data from our institution. In baseline analysis, strategy I of supportive care only with no antivenom was least costly at US $3466.50/patient. Strategy III of single-vial serial dosing was intermediate but less expensive than strategy II of full-dose antivenom, with an incremental cost of US $3171.08 per patient. In a 1-way sensitivity analysis, at a threshold antivenom cost of US $1577.87, strategy III of single-vial serial dosing became the least costly strategy. For children with scorpion envenomation, use of a management strategy based on serial dosing of antivenom titrated to clinical response is less costly than a strategy of initial use of full-dose antivenom.

  7. [Different aluminum adjuvants significantly enhances the effect of immunization on Brucella Omp31].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qing, Rui; Xiang, Qingke; Liu, Zhongqi; Xiao, Fei; Yang, Fan

    2018-02-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of aluminum phosphate (AP) and aluminum hydroxide (AH) as adjuvants on Brucella outer membrane protein 31 (Omp31) in inducing humoral and cellular immune responses and immune protection. Methods AP and AH adjuvants were prepared and separately mixed with Brucella Omp31 protein to measure the adsorption rates. The AP- and AH-absorbed Omp31 protein were intraperitoneally injected into BLAB/c mice at 0, 2, and 4 weeks, and meanwhile, unabsorbed Omp31 protein and PBS were used as controls. The levels of serum IgG, IgG1, IgG2a and genital tract secretion sIgA were determined by ELISA at 0, 2, 4 and 6 weeks. Spleen cells were collected for culture at 6 weeks, and the cells were stimulated by Omp31 for 48 hours followed by the analysis of IFN-γ and IL-10 levels in the supernatants by ELISA, and the determination of lymphocyte proliferation by CCK-8 assay. The mice were challenged with Brucella at 6 weeks, and bacterial content in spleen tissue was determined 1 and 2 weeks later. Results AP and AH could absorb over 70% and 85% of the Omp31 protein, respectively, for solutions at all the tested concentrations. ELISA suggested that serum IgG, IgG1, IgG2a and genital tract sIgA levels peaked 2 weeks after the last immunization for both AP and AH groups, and antibody level was higher in the AP and AH groups than the control groups, and higher in the AH group than in the AP group. CCK-8 assay showed that the proliferating rate of lymphocytes induced by the AH group was significantly higher than that by the AP group, and the AH group also showed significantly higher IFN-γ level in the supernatant than the AP group, but no significant difference in IL-10 level. The AH group had remarkably lower bacterial load in the spleen than the AP group 2 weeks after challenged by Brucella 16M strain. Conclusion Both AP and AH adjuvants effectively enhanced immunogenicity and immune protection of the Brucella Omp31 protein, and AH was superior to AP in

  8. TNF-α in CRPS and 'normal' trauma--significant differences between tissue and serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krämer, Heidrun H; Eberle, Tatiana; Uçeyler, Nurcan; Wagner, Ina; Klonschinsky, Thomas; Müller, Lars P; Sommer, Claudia; Birklein, Frank

    2011-02-01

    Posttraumatic TNF-alpha signaling may be one of the factors responsible for pain and hyperalgesia in complex regional pain syndromes (CRPS). In order to further specify the role of TNF-alpha we investigated tissue (skin) and serum concentrations in three different patient groups: patients with osteoarthritis and planned surgery, with acute traumatic upper limb bone fracture waiting for surgery, and with CRPS I. Thirty patients (10 in each group) were recruited. Mean CRPS duration was 36.1 ± 8.1 weeks (range 8- 90 weeks). Skin punch biopsies were taken at the beginning of the surgery in osteoarthritis and fracture patients and from the affected side in CRPS patients. Blood samples were taken before the respective procedures. Skin and serum TNF-alpha levels were quantified by ELISA. Compared to patients with osteoarthritis, skin TNF-alpha was significantly elevated in CRPS (pCRPS patients was higher than in patients with acute bone fracture (pCRPS, and lower in fracture patients (pCRPS patients. This increase persists for months after limb trauma and may offer the opportunity for targeted treatment. Copyright © 2010 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Scratch deformation behavior of thermoplastic materials with significant differences in ductility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadal, R.S.; Misra, R.D.K.

    2005-01-01

    A comparative study of the scratch deformation behavior of neat ethylene-propylene copolymers and polypropylene with significant differences in ductility is made by combining morphological examination by electron microscopy and scratch deformation parameters by atomic force microscopy. Also, the deformation behavior during scratch tests is examined for their respective long and short chain polymers. The ability of polymeric materials to resist scratch deformation under identical scratch test conditions follows the sequence (from maximum resistance to minimum resistance): short chain polypropylene > long chain polypropylene > short chain ethylene-propylene > long chain ethylene-propylene. The scratch tracks in ethylene-propylene copolymers were characterized by a consecutive parabolic pattern containing voids, while polypropylenes exhibited zig-zag periodic scratch tracks. The greater plastic flow in ethylene-propylene copolymers is encouraged by the high ductility of the copolymer and the ability to nucleate microvoids. The quasi-static periodic scratch tracks are a consequence of sequential accumulation and release of tangential force and represents the stick-slip process. The susceptibility to scratch deformation is discussed in terms of modulus, elastic recovery, scratch hardness, and entanglement density of polymeric materials. A higher effective entanglement density and percentage crystallinity of short chain polymers is helpful in enhancing scratch resistance as compared to their respective long chain polymers

  10. No gender differences in prognosis and preventive treatment in patients with AMI without significant stenoses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kim; Hvelplund, Anders; Abildstrøm, Steen Zabell

    2011-01-01

    : By compiling data from Danish registries, we identified 20,800 patients hospitalized with AMI during 2005-2007. We included the 834 women and 761 men without significant stenoses on CAG who were discharged and alive after 60 days. Main outcome measures: All-cause mortality, recurrent AMI, and redeeming...... a prescription for a lipid-lowering drug, beta-blocker, clopidogrel, or aspirin within 60 days of discharge. Results: During follow-up, 97 women and 60 men died, resulting in a crude female/male hazard ratio (HR) of 1.51 (95% CI 1.09-2.08). After adjustment for age, time-period, and comorbidity, the gender...... difference was attenuated (HR 1.22, 95% CI 0.86-1.72). AMI recurrence was experienced by 28 women and 29 men with a female/male HR 0.88 (95% CI 0.52-1.48). After multivariable adjustment results were similar (HR 0.84, 95% CI 0.50-1.43). More women than men redeemed a prescription for lipid-lowering drugs...

  11. Gender differences in quality of life and functional disability for depression outpatients with or without residual symptoms after acute phase treatment in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Na; Wang, Xiaohong; Wu, Wenyuan; Hu, Yongdong; Niu, Yajuan; Wang, Xueyi; Gao, Chengge; Zhang, Ning; Fang, Yiru; Huang, Jizhong; Liu, Tiebang; Jia, Fujun; Zhu, Xuequan; Hu, Jian; Wang, Gang

    2017-09-01

    Depression is associated with substantial personal suffering and reduced quality of life and functioning. The aim of this study was to investigate gender differences on quality of life and functional impairment of outpatients with depression after acute phase treatment. 1503 depression outpatients were recruited from eleven hospitals in China. Subjects were evaluated with sociodemographic characteristics, history and self-report instruments, related to severity of symptoms, function and quality of life. All data were analyzed to determine the gender differences. Men had a younger age at onset and the first onset age, higher education compared to women in total patients and with or without residual symptoms group. Using regression analysis, it was found that gender was significantly statistically related to severity scores of SDS and had no correlation with Q-LES-Q-SF total scores. In the residual symptoms group, greater functional impairment was noted by men in the area of work and social life. Significant gender differences of mood, work and sexual life in quality of life were observed. This is a cross-sectional study of depressed outpatients and duration of acute phase treatment may not an adequate time to measure changes. Depression appears to affect men more seriously than women after acute phase treatment. Men had a younger age at onset and the first onset age, higher education, more functional impairment and lower satisfaction of quality of life in mood, work and sexual life. Gender differences affect acute treatment, remission and recovery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Faculty Decisions on Serials Subscriptions Differ Significantly from Decisions Predicted by a Bibliometric Tool.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sue F. Phelps

    2016-03-01

    of the faculty choices. The p-value for this relationship was less than 0.0001, also indicating that the result was not by chance. A quadratic model plotted alongside the previous linear model follows a similar pattern. The p-value of the comparison is 0.0002, which indicates the quadratic model’s fit cannot be explained by random chance. Main Results – The authors point out three outstanding findings. First, the match rate between faculty valuations and bibliometric scores for serials is 65%. This exceeds the 50% rate that would indicate random association, but also indicates a statistically significant difference between faculty and bibliometric valuations. Secondly, the match rate with the bibliometric scores for titles that faculty chose to keep (73% was higher than those they chose to cancel (54%. Thirdly, the match rate increased with higher bibliometric scores. Conclusions – Though the authors identify only a modest degree of similarity between faculty and bibliometric valuations of serials, it is noted that there is more agreement in the higher valued serials than the lower valued serials. With that in mind, librarians might focus faculty review on the lower scoring titles in the future, taking into consideration that unique faculty interests may drive selection at that level and would need to be balanced with the mission of the library.

  13. Significant regional differences in Denmark in outcome after cochlear implants in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Percy-Smith, Lone; Busch, Georg Walter; Sandahl, Minna

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were to study regional differences in outcome for a paediatric cochlear implant (CI) population after the introduction of universal neonatal hearing screening (UNHS) and bilateral implantation in Denmark....

  14. The differences between emission, waste, and a good, and their significance to waste management policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holm-Mueller, K.

    1994-01-01

    This paper defines the transportability of solid waste as its major difference compared to emissions. Several specific possibilities for politics dealing with the problems of solid waste are deduced from this characteristic. The difference between solid waste and good lies in the valuation of objects. As is shown the negative valuation of waste has a great influence on the effect of possible politics derived in part one of this paper. (orig.) [de

  15. Field Dependence/Independence Cognitive Styles: Are They Significant at Different Levels of Vocabulary Knowledge?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostampour, Mohammad; Niroomand, Seyyedeh Mitra

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive styles influence the performance of language learners and can predict their success in the process of language learning. Considering field dependence/independence cognitive styles, this study aims at determining if they are significant in English vocabulary knowledge. A number of EFL university students took part in the study. The…

  16. Efeito residual de herbicidas aplicados em pré-emergência em diferentes solos Residual effect of herbicides applied in pre-emergence in different soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.H. Inoue

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi monitorar o efeito residual dos herbicidas ametryne, clomazone e diuron, aplicados em pré-emergência, utilizando amostras de um Neossolo Quartzarênico e de um Latossolo Vermelho, com texturas e composições contrastantes. Para isso, foram conduzidos seis bioensaios em casa de vegetação, com amostras de um Neossolo Quartzarênico (textura arenosa e de um Latossolo Vermelho (textura argilosa. Foi avaliado o efeito residual de ametryne (0, 1,60 e 2,40 kg ha-1, clomazone (0, 0,90 e 1,10 kg ha-1 e diuron (0, 1,60 e 3,20 kg ha-1, por meio de semeadura de bioindicador previamente selecionado (Cucumis sativus ou Brachiaria decumbens aos 0, 25, 50, 75 e 100 dias após a aplicação (DAA. Verificou-se que ametryne proporcionou 80% de controle até os 40 DAA, independentemente do solo e da dose. O clomazone apresentou efeito residual satisfatório quando aplicado na dose recomendada em solo argiloso, mantendo o controle acima de 80% até os 71 DAA. Em solo arenoso, o controle não foi satisfatório já aos 25 DAA, mesmo na dose recomendada para solo argiloso. Diuron apresentou alta estabilidade em solo argiloso, observando-se controle superior a 91% até os 100 DAA na dose recomendada e controle acima de 80% até os 54 DAA na dose recomendada para solo arenoso. No entanto, em solo arenoso não houve aumento do efeito residual, mesmo com a aplicação da dose recomendada para solo argiloso.The objective of this work was to monitor the residual effect of the herbicides ametryne, clomazone and diuron, applied in pre-emergence, using Psament and Red Latosol with contrasting texture and composition. Thus, six experiments were conducted under greenhouse conditions with samples of Psament (sandy texture and Red Latosol (clay texture. The residual effect of ametryne (0, 1.60 and 2.40 kg ha-1, clomazone (0, 0.90 and 1.10 kg ha-1 and diuron (0, 1.60 and 3.20 kg ha 1 was evaluated by sowing the test plant (Cucumis sativus or

  17. Studies on the effects of application of different foliar fertilizer materials, crop residue and inter cropping on Banana plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassan, Yusuf Munim [Faculty of Agriculture, University of Khartoum, Khartoum (Sudan)

    1997-12-31

    Five separate experiments were conducted at university of Khartoum demonstration farm during 1993 to 1995 under both orchard and nursery conditions to evaluate the effect of foliar application of different fertilizers, use of crop residue and intercropping on banana (dwarf cavendish). In the first experiment, the effects of foliar application of different concentrations of potassium solution (38%) were studied. The results indicated that application of all concentrations resulted in greater increases in overall growth parameters, higher leaf-N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Mn, Fe, Zn and Cu contents, higher values of yield and yield components , finger length of both plant crop and the first ratoon crop and reduction of time from planting to flowering and from flowering to harvesting of both plant crop and the first crop compared to the control. In the second experiment, the effects of three different foliar fertilizers, namely, compound cryst, fetrilon comb-2 and x-garden were investigated. The results revealed that all fertilizers gave greater values of all growth parameters, higher leaf-N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Mn, Fe, Zn and Cu contents, higher values of yield and yield components , finger length of both plant crop and the first ratoon crop and reduction of time from planting to flowering and from flowering to harvesting of both plant crop and the first crop compared to the control. In the third experiment, the effect of four different fertilizer materials containing different combinations of NPK on growth parameters and nutrient elements contents of leaves of banana suckers grown under nursery conditions was evaluated. The results revealed that all fertilizer materials gave greater increases of growth parameters over the control as well as higher leaf-N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Mn, Fe, Zn and Cu contents. In the fourth experiment, the effect of different concentrations of N{sub 19}, P{sub 19}, K{sub 19} fertilizers on growth characteristics and nutrient elements contents of leaves of banana

  18. Studies on the effects of application of different foliar fertilizer materials, crop residue and inter cropping on Banana plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, Yusuf Munim

    1996-01-01

    Five separate experiments were conducted at university of Khartoum demonstration farm during 1993 to 1995 under both orchard and nursery conditions to evaluate the effect of foliar application of different fertilizers, use of crop residue and intercropping on banana (dwarf cavendish). In the first experiment, the effects of foliar application of different concentrations of potassium solution (38%) were studied. The results indicated that application of all concentrations resulted in greater increases in overall growth parameters, higher leaf-N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Mn, Fe, Zn and Cu contents, higher values of yield and yield components , finger length of both plant crop and the first ratoon crop and reduction of time from planting to flowering and from flowering to harvesting of both plant crop and the first crop compared to the control. In the second experiment, the effects of three different foliar fertilizers, namely, compound cryst, fetrilon comb-2 and x-garden were investigated. The results revealed that all fertilizers gave greater values of all growth parameters, higher leaf-N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Mn, Fe, Zn and Cu contents, higher values of yield and yield components , finger length of both plant crop and the first ratoon crop and reduction of time from planting to flowering and from flowering to harvesting of both plant crop and the first crop compared to the control. In the third experiment, the effect of four different fertilizer materials containing different combinations of NPK on growth parameters and nutrient elements contents of leaves of banana suckers grown under nursery conditions was evaluated. The results revealed that all fertilizer materials gave greater increases of growth parameters over the control as well as higher leaf-N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Mn, Fe, Zn and Cu contents. In the fourth experiment, the effect of different concentrations of N 19 , P 19 , K 19 fertilizers on growth characteristics and nutrient elements contents of leaves of banana suckers was

  19. Effect of leaching residual methyl methacrylate concentrations on in vitro cytotoxicity of heat polymerized denture base acrylic resin processed with different polymerization cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canan Bural

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Residual methyl methacrylate (MMA may leach from the acrylic resin denture bases and have adverse effects on the oral mucosa. This in vitro study evaluated and correlated the effect of the leaching residual MMA concentrations ([MMA]r on in vitro cytotoxicity of L-929 fibroblasts. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 144 heat-polymerized acrylic resin specimens were fabricated using 4 different polymerization cycles: (1 at 74ºC for 9 h, (2 at 74ºC for 9 h and terminal boiling (at 100ºC for 30 min, (3 at 74ºC for 9 h and terminal boiling for 3 h, (4 at 74ºC for 30 min and terminal boiling for 30 min. Specimens were eluted in a complete cell culture medium at 37ºC for 1, 2, 5 and 7 days. [MMA]r in eluates was measured using high-performance liquid chromatography. In vitro cytotoxicity of eluates on L-929 fibroblasts was evaluated by means of cell proliferation using a tetrazolium salt XTT (sodium 3´-[1-phenyl-aminocarbonyl-3,4-tetrazolium]bis(4-methoxy-6-nitrobenzenesulphonic acid assay. Differences in [MMA]r of eluates and cell proliferation values between polymerization cycles were statistically analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis, Friedman and Dunn's multiple comparison tests. The correlation between [MMA]r of eluates and cell proliferation was analyzed by Pearson's correlation test (p<0.05. RESULTS: [MMA]r was significantly (p<0.001 higher in eluates of specimens polymerized with cycle without terminal boiling after elution of 1 and 2 days. Cell proliferation values for all cycles were significantly (p<0.01 lower in eluates of 1 day than those of 2 days. The correlation between [MMA]r and cell proliferation values was negative after all elution periods, showing significance (p<0.05 for elution of 1 and 2 days. MMA continued to leach from acrylic resin throughout 7 days and leaching concentrations markedly reduced after elution of 1 and 2 days. CONCLUSION: Due to reduction of leaching residual MMA concentrations, use of terminal boiling in

  20. What Makes Your Writing Style Unique? Significant Differences Between Two Famous Romanian Orators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dascalu, Mihai; Gifu, Daniela; Trausan-Matu, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel, in-depth approach of analyzing the differences in writing style between two famous Romanian orators, based on automated textual complexity indices for Romanian language. The considered authors are: (a) Mihai Eminescu, Romania’s national poet and a

  1. Do Age and Sex of School Students Make Significant Difference in Their Multiple Intelligences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravi, R.; Vedapriya, S. Gethsi

    2009-01-01

    Multiple Intelligences are a new educational theory proposed by Howard Gardner in 1983. Multiple intelligences describe an array of different kinds of intelligences exhibited by human beings. This theory consists of verbal-linguistic, logical and mathematics, visual and spatial, bodily kinesthetic, musical-rhythmic, intrapersonal, interpersonal,…

  2. Assay of serum ferritin by two different radioimmunometric methods and its clinical significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaltwasser, J.P.; Werner, E.; Gesellschaft fuer Strahlen- und Umweltforschung m.b.H., Frankfurt am Main

    1977-01-01

    Serum ferritin was measured by two different radioimmunometric methods a) the Addison assay, b) a commercial radioimmunoassay. Iron storage in the body was determined using 59 Fe. A dose correlation was found between serum ferritin and iron storage in the body. (AJ) [de

  3. Conventions of Courtship: Gender and Race Differences in the Significance of Dating Rituals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Pamela Braboy; Kleiner, Sibyl; Geist, Claudia; Cebulko, Kara

    2011-01-01

    Dating rituals include dating--courtship methods that are regularly enacted. This study explores gender and race differences in the relative importance placed on certain symbolic activities previously identified by the dating literature as constituting such rituals. Using information collected from a racially diverse sample of college students (N…

  4. Significance of normalized residual activity value (Nora) - the new parameter of isotopic renography - for the diagnosis of patients with obstructive uropathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juszczyk-Gontaszewska, M.; Gontaszewski, W.; Rogowski, F.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this research was to establish NORA values typical of patients with compensated and uncompensated obstructive uropathy. 147 results of renoscintigraphies carried out after the application of Tc-99m DTPA with furosemide diuretic test were analyzed. The patients were divided into three groups: the group with compensated obstructive uropathy, the group with uncompensated obstructive uropathy, and the controlled group. NORA-1 and NORA-2 values were calculated in each patient, for each kidney separately. It was established that the mean NORA-1 values in the three groups (the controlled group, the compensated uropathy group, and the uncompensated uropathy group) were significantly different, thus enabling differentiation between them. Based on the examination described above, the following conclusions wee drawn: 1. NORA is an effective differentiation index for compensated and uncompensated uropathy. 2. NORA values should be routinely calculated in every case of isotopic diuretic renography. (author)

  5. Reuse of residual sludge from stone-processing: differences and similarities between sludge coming from carbonate and silicate stones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Careddu, Nicola; Antonella Dino, Giovanna

    2015-04-01

    Residual sludge coming from dimension stone working activities represents a serious environmental and economic problem both for Stone Industry and citizens. Indeed, most of time, residual sludge is landfilled because of the difficulties to recover it; such difficulties are mainly connected to local legislation and a lack of proper protocols. In general, it is possible to individuate two different categories of sludge: residual sludge coming from carbonate rocks (CS) and those coming from silicate rocks (SS). Both of them are characterised by a very fine size distribution. CS is composed mainly by the same compounds of the processed stones (marble, limestone, travertine). The reason of this is related to the very slow wear of diamond tools during processing which entails a negligible content of heavy metals. CS becomes very interesting, from an economic point of view, when it has a CaCO3 grade > 95 %. On the contrary, SS is characterised by high heavy metal and TPH content. Residual sludge from the processing of silicate rocks can be split in three different sub-categories, depending on the way they are produced, and in particular: sludge from gangsaw using abrasive steel shot (GSS), sludge from multi diamond-saw block cutter (DBC), and mixed sludge (MS) from gangsaw and block cutter. These three sub-categories show different problems connected to heavy metal content, indeed on the one hand GSS is characterised by a high percentage of Ni, Cr, Cu, etc., on the other hand DBC is characterised by Co and Cu high content. In general, sludge, management of which in Italy is administered in accordance with the Italian Legislative Decree 152/06, can be used as waste from for environmental restoration or for cement plants. Several researches investigate the possible reuse of these materials but, at present time, there is no evidence of its systematic recovery as "recycled product" or "by-product". On the basis of the results of these researches it is possible to highlight

  6. The significance of different diacylgycerol synthesis pathways on plant oil composition and bioengineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip David Bates

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The unique properties of vegetable oils from different plants utilized for food, industrial feedstocks, and fuel is dependent on the fatty acid (FA composition of triacylglycerol (TAG. Plants can use two main pathways to produce diacylglycerol (DAG, the immediate precursor molecule to TAG synthesis: 1 De novo DAG synthesis, and 2 conversion of the membrane lipid phosphatidylcholine (PC to DAG. The FA esterified to PC are also the substrate for FA modification (e.g. desaturation, hydroxylation, etc., such that the FA composition of PC-derived DAG can be substantially different than that of de novo DAG. Since DAG provides two of the three FA in TAG, the relative flux of TAG synthesis from de novo DAG or PC-derived DAG can greatly affect the final oil FA composition. Here we review how the fluxes through these two alternate pathways of DAG/TAG synthesis are determined and present evidence that suggests which pathway is utilized in different plants. Additionally, we present examples of how the endogenous DAG synthesis pathway in a transgenic host plant can produce bottlenecks for engineering of plant oil FA composition, and discuss alternative strategies to overcome these bottlenecks to produce crop plants with designer vegetable oil compositions.

  7. 'It's Made a Huge Difference': Recognition, Rights and the Personal Significance of Civil Partnership

    OpenAIRE

    Beccy Shipman; Carol Smart

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we map briefly some of the arguments around the meaning and significance of the introduction of Civil Partnership in England and Wales, and in this way show how contested these meanings are with some groups profoundly against this legal reform and others supporting it, but for a mixture of reasons. We then turn to our empirical data based on interviews with same-sex couples to explore the extent to which these arguments and issues are part of the everyday decision making process...

  8. Significant Differences Characterise the Correlation Coefficients between Biocide and Antibiotic Susceptibility Profiles in Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oggioni, Marco R; Coelho, Joana Rosado; Furi, Leonardo; Knight, Daniel R; Viti, Carlo; Orefici, Graziella; Martinez, Jose-Luis; Freitas, Ana Teresa; Coque, Teresa M; Morrissey, Ian

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing concern by regulatory authorities for the selection of antibiotic resistance caused by the use of biocidal products. We aimed to complete the detailed information on large surveys by investigating the relationship between biocide and antibiotic susceptibility profiles of a large number of Staphylococcus aureus isolates using four biocides and antibiotics commonly used in clinical practice. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) for most clinically-relevant antibiotics was determined according to the standardized methodology for over 1600 clinical S. aureus isolates and compared to susceptibility profiles of benzalkonium chloride, chlorhexidine, triclosan, and sodium hypochlorite. The relationship between antibiotic and biocide susceptibility profiles was evaluated using non-linear correlations. The main outcome evidenced was an absence of any strong or moderate statistically significant correlation when susceptibilities of either triclosan or sodium hypochlorite were compared for any of the tested antibiotics. On the other hand, correlation coefficients for MICs of benzalkonium chloride and chlorhexidine were calculated above 0.4 for susceptibility to quinolones, beta-lactams, and also macrolides. Our data do not support any selective pressure for association between biocides and antibiotics resistance and furthermore do not allow for a defined risk evaluation for some of the compounds. Importantly, our data clearly indicate that there does not involve any risk of selection for antibiotic resistance for the compounds triclosan and sodium hypochlorite. These data hence infer that biocide selection for antibiotic resistance has had so far a less significant impact than feared.

  9. Postexercise Glycogen Recovery and Exercise Performance is Not Significantly Different Between Fast Food and Sport Supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Michael J; Dumke, Charles L; Hailes, Walter S; Cuddy, John S; Ruby, Brent C

    2015-10-01

    A variety of dietary choices are marketed to enhance glycogen recovery after physical activity. Past research informs recommendations regarding the timing, dose, and nutrient compositions to facilitate glycogen recovery. This study examined the effects of isoenergetic sport supplements (SS) vs. fast food (FF) on glycogen recovery and exercise performance. Eleven males completed two experimental trials in a randomized, counterbalanced order. Each trial included a 90-min glycogen depletion ride followed by a 4-hr recovery period. Absolute amounts of macronutrients (1.54 ± 0.27 g·kg-1 carbohydrate, 0.24 ± 0.04 g·kg fat-1, and 0.18 ±0.03g·kg protein-1) as either SS or FF were provided at 0 and 2 hr. Muscle biopsies were collected from the vastus lateralis at 0 and 4 hr post exercise. Blood samples were analyzed at 0, 30, 60, 120, 150, 180, and 240 min post exercise for insulin and glucose, with blood lipids analyzed at 0 and 240 min. A 20k time-trial (TT) was completed following the final muscle biopsy. There were no differences in the blood glucose and insulin responses. Similarly, rates of glycogen recovery were not different across the diets (6.9 ± 1.7 and 7.9 ± 2.4 mmol·kg wet weight- 1·hr-1 for SS and FF, respectively). There was also no difference across the diets for TT performance (34.1 ± 1.8 and 34.3 ± 1.7 min for SS and FF, respectively. These data indicate that short-term food options to initiate glycogen resynthesis can include dietary options not typically marketed as sports nutrition products such as fast food menu items.

  10. Different extraction pretreatments significantly change the flavonoid contents of Scutellaria baicalensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chunhao; Qu, Fengyun; Mao, Yanyong; Li, Dong; Zhen, Zhong; Nass, Rachael; Calway, Tyler; Wang, Yunwei; Yuan, Chun-Su; Wang, Chong-Zhi

    2014-01-01

    Context Scutellaria baicalensis is one of the most commonly used medicinal herbs, especially in traditional Chinese medicine. However, compared to many pharmacological studies of this botanical, much less attention has been paid to the quality control of the herb’s pretreatment prior to extract preparation, an issue that may affect therapeutic outcomes. Objective The current study was designed to evaluate whether different pretreatment conditions change the contents of its four major flavonoids in the herb, i.e., two glycosides (baicalin and wogonoside) and two aglycons (baicalein and wogonin). Materials and methods An HPLC assay was used to quantify the contents of these four flavonoids. The composition changes of four flavonoids by different pretreatment conditions including solvent, treatment time, temperature, pH value, and herb/solvent ratio were evaluated. Results After selection of the first order time-curve kinetics, our data showed that at 50°C, 1:5 herb/water (in w/v) ratio and pH 6.67 yielded an optimal conversion rate from flavonoid glycosides to their aglycons. In this optimized condition, the contents of baicalin and wogonoside were decreased to 1/70 and 1/13, while baicalein and wogonin were increased 3.5 and 3.1 folds, respectively, compared to untreated herb. Discussion and conclusion The markedly variable conversion rates by different pretreatment conditions complicated the quality control of this herb, mainly due to the high amount of endogenous enzymes of S. baicalensis. Optimal pretreatment conditions obtained from this study could be used obtain the highest level of desired constituents to achieve better pharmacological effects. PMID:23738852

  11. Null hypothesis significance tests. A mix-up of two different theories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Jesper Wiborg

    2015-01-01

    criticisms raised against NHST. As practiced, NHST has been characterized as a ‘null ritual’ that is overused and too often misapplied and misinterpreted. NHST is in fact a patchwork of two fundamentally different classical statistical testing models, often blended with some wishful quasi......-Bayesian interpretations. This is undoubtedly a major reason why NHST is very often misunderstood. But NHST also has intrinsic logical problems and the epistemic range of the information provided by such tests is much more limited than most researchers recognize. In this article we introduce to the scientometric community...

  12. Biomedical research in france and brazil: an analysis of significant differences and ethical issues

    OpenAIRE

    Hervé Moizan

    2016-01-01

    At first sight, Brazil and France seem pretty distant from one another, but on the map, they are not separated by the Atlantic Ocean, but by the Oyapock River, located between the state of Amapa and French Guiana (French overseas department), creating a 730 km long international border. If the distance does exist, it is very different when we finely analyze some similarities in the field of biomedical research. France is the biggest country of Western Europe and covers 1/5 of the European ...

  13. Residual effect of mixture of glyphosate and 2,4-D in winter maize in different soil textures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schaianne A. Gomes

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT To increase the efficiency in the control of weeds, it is common the use of a mixture of the herbicides glyphosate and 2,4-D in the desiccation. This paper aimed to evaluate the residual effect of these two herbicides on the development of maize plants, in soils of different textures. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse, in 2015, in a completely randomized design in a 2 x 2 x 7 factorial scheme, corresponding to two soils (Red Yellow Latosol and Quartzarenic Neosol, two herbicide application times (5 and 10 days before maize sowing and seven doses of herbicides (recommended dose of glyphosate, recommended dose of 2,4-D; mixing the recommended doses of glyphosate and 2,4-D; two, ten and fifty times the recommended doses in admixture; and one control, with 4 replicates. After emergence of maize plants, the following variables were evaluated: phytotoxicity, plant height, chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b, shoot fresh and dry matter and root dry matter. In general, there was lower residual effect on the Red Yellow Latosol at all the doses of the herbicides and in the interval of 10 days between the desiccation and sowing.

  14. Thermodynamic study of three pharmacologically significant drugs: Density, viscosity, and refractive index measurements at different temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, Muhammad Javed; Chaudhry, Mansoora Ahmed

    2009-01-01

    Measurements of density, viscosity, and refractive index of three pharmacologically significant drugs, i.e. diclofenac sodium, cetrizine, and doxycycline have been carried in aqueous medium at T = (293.15 to 313.15) K. An automated vibrating-tube densimeter, viscometer, and refractometer are used in a concentration range from (7.5) . 10 -3 to 25 . 10 -3 ) mol . kg -1 . The precise density results are used to evaluate the apparent molar volume, partial molar volume, thermal expansion coefficient, partial molar expansivity, and the Hepler's constant. Viscosity results are used to calculate the Jones-Dole viscosity B-coefficient, free energy of activation of the solute and solvent, activation enthalpy, and activation entropy. The molar refractive indices of the drug solutions can be employed to calculate molar refraction. It is inferred from these results that the above mentioned drugs act as structure-making compounds due to hydrophobic hydration of the molecules in the drugs

  15. Significant gender difference in serum levels of fibroblast growth factor 21 in Danish children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Amalie; Sørensen, Kaspar; Johannsen, Trine Holm

    2014-01-01

    children (21%) had levels below detection limit of assay. Baseline levels of FGF21 showed positive correlation with triglycerides, but no significant correlations were found between FGF21-concentration and body mass index (BMI), DXA-derived fat percentage, LDL- HDL- and non-HDL cholesterol, leptin......INTRODUCTION: Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 (FGF21) is a novel metabolic factor with effect on glucose and lipid metabolism, and shown to be elevated in diseases related to metabolic syndrome. Due to the increasing frequency of metabolic syndrome in the pediatric population, and as FGF21 studies...... in children are limited, we investigated baseline serum levels of FGF21 in healthy children during an oral glucose tolerance test. METHODS: A total of 179 children and adolescents from the COPENHAGEN Puberty Study were included. An OGTT with glucose and insulin measurements, a dual energy X-ray absorptiometry...

  16. Harvesting yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) at different physiological phases significantly affects its functionality in bread dough fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, Mohammad N; Dornez, Emmie; Jacobs, Pieter; Parsi, Anali; Verstrepen, Kevin J; Courtin, Christophe M

    2014-05-01

    Fermentation of sugars into CO2, ethanol and secondary metabolites by baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) during bread making leads to leavening of dough and changes in dough rheology. The aim of this study was to increase our understanding of the impact of yeast on dough related aspects by investigating the effect of harvesting yeast at seven different points of the growth profile on its fermentation performance, metabolite production, and the effect on critical dough fermentation parameters, such as gas retention potential. The yeast cells harvested during the diauxic shift and post-diauxic growth phase showed a higher fermentation rate and, consequently, higher maximum dough height than yeast cells harvested in the exponential or stationary growth phase. The results further demonstrate that the onset of CO2 loss from fermenting dough is correlated with the fermentation rate of yeast, but not with the amount of CO2 that accumulated up to the onset point. Analysis of the yeast metabolites produced in dough yielded a possible explanation for this observation, as they are produced in different levels depending on physiological phase and in concentrations that can influence dough matrix properties. Together, our results demonstrate a strong effect of yeast physiology at the time of harvest on subsequent dough fermentation performance, and hint at an important role of yeast metabolites on the subsequent gas holding capacity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Variation of different humification parameters during two composting types with lignicellulosics residual of roses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farias Camero, Diana Maria; Ballesteros G, Maria Ines; Bendeck L, Myriam

    2000-01-01

    Two composting processes were carried out; they lasted for about 165 days. In one of the processes only microorganisms performed the decomposition of the material only (direct composting) and in the other one by microorganisms and earthworms -Eisenia foetida- (indirect composting) Periodical samples were taken from different places of the pile and a temperature control was made weekly. Organic total carbon was analyzed in each sample, an organic matter extraction and fractionation was carried out with a mixture 1 M sodium hydroxide and 1M-sodium pyrophosphate in each sample too. Organic total carbon was quantified in the separated fractions, humic extract, humic acids, fulvic acids and humines; different humification parameters were calculated as of those results: Humification ratio, humification index, polymerization ratio, percentage of humic acids and no extractable organic carbon -extractable carbon ratio. E4/E6 ratio, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen and carbon content, C/H, C/O and C/N ratios were analyzed on humic acids. Humification parameters variation allows us to analyze the humic substances transformation and formation dynamics are limited by composting system and temperature generated and maintained. It was established that extractable carbon percent and CNoExt/Cext ratio cannot be considered as satisfactory parameters in order to evaluate the stabilization compost degree; polymerization ratio and humification index are the most adequate parameters to determinate the material humification degree

  18. Physical and chemical characterizations of biochars derived from different agricultural residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jindo, K.; Mizumoto, H.; Sawada, Y.; Sanchez-Monedero, M. A.; Sonoki, T.

    2014-08-01

    Biochar has received large attention as a strategy to tackle against carbon emission. Not only carbon fixation has been carried out but also other merits for agricultural application due to unique physical and chemical character such as absorption of contaminated compounds in soil, trapping ammonia and methane emission from compost, and enhancement of fertilizer quality. In our study, different local waste feed stocks (rice husk, rice straw, wood chips of apple tree (Malus Pumila) and oak tree (Quercus serrata)), in Aomori, Japan, were utilized for creating biochar with different temperature (400-800 °C). Concerning to the biochar production, the pyrolysis of lower temperature had more biochar yield than higher temperature pyrolysis process. On the contrary, surface areas and adsorption characters have been increased as increasing temperature. The proportions of carbon content in the biochars also increased together with increased temperatures. Infrared-Fourier spectra (FT-IR) and 13C-NMR were used to understand carbon chemical compositions in our biochars, and it was observed that the numbers of the shoulders representing aromatic groups, considered as stable carbon structure appeared as the temperature came closer to 600 °C, as well as in FT-IR. In rice materials, the peak assigned to SiO2, was observed in all biochars (400-800 °C) in FT-IR. We suppose that the pyrolysis at 600 °C creates the most recalcitrant character for carbon sequestration, meanwhile the pyrolysis at 400 °C produces the superior properties as a fertilizer by retaining volatile and easily labile compounds which promotes soil microbial activities.

  19. Thermodynamic study of three pharmacologically significant drugs: Density, viscosity, and refractive index measurements at different temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iqbal, Muhammad Javed [Department of Chemistry, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan)], E-mail: mjiqauchem@yahoo.com; Chaudhry, Mansoora Ahmed [Department of Chemistry, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan)

    2009-02-15

    Measurements of density, viscosity, and refractive index of three pharmacologically significant drugs, i.e. diclofenac sodium, cetrizine, and doxycycline have been carried in aqueous medium at T = (293.15 to 313.15) K. An automated vibrating-tube densimeter, viscometer, and refractometer are used in a concentration range from (7.5) . 10{sup -3} to 25 . 10{sup -3}) mol . kg{sup -1}. The precise density results are used to evaluate the apparent molar volume, partial molar volume, thermal expansion coefficient, partial molar expansivity, and the Hepler's constant. Viscosity results are used to calculate the Jones-Dole viscosity B-coefficient, free energy of activation of the solute and solvent, activation enthalpy, and activation entropy. The molar refractive indices of the drug solutions can be employed to calculate molar refraction. It is inferred from these results that the above mentioned drugs act as structure-making compounds due to hydrophobic hydration of the molecules in the drugs.

  20. Antimicrobial Resistance Patterns in Women with Positive Urine Culture: Does Menopausal Status Make a Significant Difference?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawel Miotla

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Urinary tract infection (UTI is considered one of the most common bacterial infections in women. The aim of this study was to investigate the types of uropathogens present, as well as the degree of antimicrobial drug resistance seen among premenopausal (n=2748 and postmenopausal (n=1705 women with uncomplicated UTI. Methods. Urinary samples (n=4453 collected from women with UTI were analyzed in terms of uropathogens present. These were considered as positive if bacterial growth was ≥105 colony forming units (CFUs/mL. Susceptibility and resistance testing for commonly used antibiotics was subsequently assessed. Results. The most common uropathogens cultured from urine samples were Escherichia coli (65.5%, followed by Enterococcus faecalis (12.2%, Klebsiella pneumoniae (4.7%, and Proteus mirabilis (4.2%. The resistance to ampicillin exceeded 40%, independently of menopausal status. Of note, resistance to ciprofloxacin exceeded 25% among postmenopausal patients. Moreover, resistance of all uropathogens to commonly used antimicrobials was significantly higher in postmenopausal women. Conclusion. Due to the high resistance rate, ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, and the trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole combination should be avoided in treating postmenopausal women affected by UTI without being indicated by initial urine culture report. Finally, cephalexin and cefuroxime are promising alternatives as initial treatment in postmenopausal women.

  1. Bile ductal injury and ductular reaction are frequent phenomena with different significance in autoimmune hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdonk, Robert C; Lozano, Mallaki F; van den Berg, Aad P; Gouw, Annette S H

    2016-09-01

    The significance of bile duct injury and ductular reaction in biopsies from autoimmune hepatitis patients is not clear. We aim to establish the prevalence and clinical relevance of both phenomena in autoimmune hepatitis. Cases of newly diagnosed, untreated autoimmune hepatitis without overlap syndrome were selected. Pretreatment and follow up biopsies were scored for inflammation, fibrosis, bile ductal injury and ductular reaction. Thirty-five cases were studied of whom 14 cases had follow up biopsies. Bile duct injury was present in 29 cases (83%), mostly in a PBC-like pattern and was not correlated with demographical or laboratory findings. Ductular reaction, observed in 25 of 35 cases (71%) using conventional histology and in 30 of 32 cases (94%) using immunohistochemistry, was correlated with portal and lobular inflammation, interface hepatitis and centrilobular necrosis as well as bile duct injury and fibrosis. In 11 of 14 cases (79%) ductular reaction remained present on post-treatment biopsy whereas bile duct injury persisted in six of 14 (43%) of cases. Bile duct injury and ductular reaction are very common in newly diagnosed autoimmune hepatitis and cannot be predicted biochemically. Bile duct injury may subside in the majority of treated AIH cases while DR tends to persist during follow up. These findings show that the two phenomena are part of the spectrum of AIH with dissimilar responses to treatment and do not necessarily point towards an overlap syndrome. Persistence of ductular reaction after treatment supports the notion that it represents a regenerative response. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Different reasons for one significant choice: Factors influencing homeschooling choice in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guterman, Oz; Neuman, Ari

    2017-06-01

    Homeschooling is an alternative to conventional education in many countries all over the world, though legal regulations vary. This article examines why parents opt for homeschooling. The large body of research on the topic (especially from the United States) points to a variety of reasons for making the choice to homeschool. The most common reasons are of a pedagogical nature, but in many cases they are also family-related. What has not yet been investigated in depth is the relationship between the different reasons for choosing homeschooling and the way in which homeschooling is practised. There is also a lack of research on the relationship between the reasons for choosing homeschooling and the parents' personalities, educational background and attitudes towards both homeschooling in particular and the education system in general. Using a mixed methods design in order to examine these relationships, the authors of this article questioned 62 homeschooling families in Israel. The findings indicate that some parents chose to homeschool for pedagogical reasons only and others for both pedagogical and family-related reasons. Furthermore, the latter group held more positive views of the effect of homeschooling on children - and the mothers in that group, on average, were more educated compared with those who cited pedagogical reasons alone. The reasons for choosing homeschooling were also found to be associated with the character of the homeschooling practice, with families whose reasons were pedagogical only devoting more hours, on average, specifically to studying.

  3. The forms of alkalis in the biochar produced from crop residues at different temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jin-Hua; Xu, Ren-Kou; Zhang, Hong

    2011-02-01

    The forms of alkalis of the biochars produced from the straws of canola, corn, soybean and peanut at different temperatures (300, 500 and 700°C) were studied by means of oxygen-limited pyrolysis. The alkalinity and pH of the biochars increased with increased pyrolysis temperature. The X-ray diffraction spectra and the content of carbonates of the biochars suggested that carbonates were the major alkaline components in the biochars generated at the high temperature; they were also responsible for the strong buffer plateau-regions on the acid-base titration curves at 500 and 700°C. The data of FTIR-PAS and zeta potentials indicated that the functional groups such as -COO(-) (-COOH) and -O(-) (-OH) contained by the biochars contributed greatly to the alkalinity of the biochar samples tested, especially for those generated at the lower temperature. These functional groups were also responsible for the negative charges of the biochars. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Thermal Behaviour of Five Different Date Palm Residues of Algeria by Thermogravimetric Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siham AMIROU

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energy has become moreimportant globally especially with the current fuel andeconomic crisis. Date palm biomasses are highlypotential materials for energy resources. The factthat they are renewable and abundantly availableare amongst the attractive reasons of employingthem as the major source for renewable energy. Thepurpose of this research was to investigate thethermal behavior of date palm biomass in order toevaluate their usefulness for energy production. Inmicroparticular scale, the thermogravimetric analysis(TGA is one of the techniques used to determinethe thermal properties of five different date palmresidues that were studied: (date palm rachis (DPR,date palm trunk (DPT, leaf base (Petiole (LB,fruitstalk prunings (FP and liff (LP. The TGAtechnique consists to record the lost weight duringthe increase in temperature from 20°C until 600°Cwith a 10°C/min heating rate. The thermogramspresented a departure phase of free water (fromroom temperature to 110°C before the degradationprocess of the lignocellulosic constituents. The ligninand hemicellulose play an important role on thedegradation of lignocellulosic materials at thetemperature under 250°C. The degradation ofcellulose begins at 250°C and overlaps to that oflignin until 450°C.

  5. Biomedical research in france and brazil: an analysis of significant differences and ethical issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hervé Moizan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available At first sight, Brazil and France seem pretty distant from one another, but on the map, they are not separated by the Atlantic Ocean, but by the Oyapock River, located between the state of Amapa and French Guiana (French overseas department, creating a 730 km long international border. If the distance does exist, it is very different when we finely analyze some similarities in the field of biomedical research. France is the biggest country of Western Europe and covers 1/5 of the European Union. Apart from Metropolitan France, the country contains overseas territories, remnants of its colonial past. Over the centuries, France has known several political systems, from Ancient History to the current Republic. According to Ernest Renan, the French nation is more an ideology than a reality, primarily based on “the desire of living together and the wish to highlight our legacy”(1. The tragic attacks of November 2015 and all the reactions over the next days illustrate this. Brazil, discovered by the Portuguese explorer Pedro Alvares during the 16th century, is established on half of South America and is about 16 times bigger than France. This giant does not look to the past but is always moving forward. The concept of nation is really strong throughout the country, as shown by the enthusiasm of soccer players wearing the national auriverde jersey and the National Team supporters. Furthermore, they possess a strong culture of entrepreneurship defined by Stefan Zweig as the legacy of the early colonial era(2. Biomedical research is a human activity which aims to give expected solutions, and sometimes unexpected ones too, to a major and insoluble problem at a given time. This research is based on knowledge and will question it with a scientific approach, spread between what is known today and what will be known tomorrow. Ideally, the point of getting new knowledge is to improve a group of people or the entire population’s health. The researcher is a

  6. Measuring the phase difference in network and residual voltages under the GTsN-195M pump self-starting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Druba, V.V.; Druba, T.A.; Reznik, V.R.

    1989-01-01

    Determination of time dependence of phase difference of residual voltage on motor windings of the main circulation pumps (MCP) and voltage of power supply section under MCP self-starting under conditions of short-time breaks in electric power supply is one of the main problems to which reliability and safety of NPP operation is related. A method to measure this dependence in real conditions in case of MCP free run-out and run-out in generating mode is suggested. The method considered is used for tests of the Kalinin NPP-2 MCP-195M self-starting. Analysis of run-out curves in the case of a break in MCP power supply for 1.8 s shows that the most favourable conditions for MCP self-starting are 0.63±0.03 s after de-energizing. 2 refs.; 3 figs.; 1 tab

  7. Effect of different extracting solvents on antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds of a fruit and vegetable residue flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica C. P. Santos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to quantify antioxidant capacity in food products, several methods have been proposed over the years. Among them, DPPH radical is widely used to determine the antioxidant capacity of different substrates. However, it is known that different types of extractants, providing different responses, can extract a variety of bioactive compounds. Besides, storage time seems to interfere in the stability of these substances. Integral use of fruits and vegetables has been proposed along the years as a means of reducing environmental pollution and give a better destination to by-products from food industries. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the antioxidant potential of a fruit and vegetables residue flour (FVR with sequential and non-sequential extraction, in order to evaluate its antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds. And these compounds stability during storage of 180 days. It was observed that in non-sequential extraction, water was able to reduce by 74% the radical; however, at sequential extraction process, using six different extractors, each one was able to reduce at least 40% of DPPH. The total soluble phenolic contents in sequential extraction were 22.49 ± 1.59 mg GAE/g FVR on the first day and 5.35 ± 0.32 mg GAE/g FVR after 180 days.

  8. Effect of conditioning by PAM polymers with different charges on the structural and characteristic evolutions of water treatment residuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, W L; Wang, Y L; Chen, Y J

    2013-11-01

    Three types of polyacrylamide (PAM) flocculants with different charges (cationic PAM WD4960, nonionic PAM M351, and anionic PAM WDA110) were used for water treatment residuals (WTRs) conditioning, and the physicochemical, morphological and structural characteristics of raw and conditioned WTRs were investigated. Rheological methods were employed to analyze the internal structural transition between the raw and conditioned WTRs under a typical dosage of WD4960. Results showed that when the raw WTRs were conditioned with the polymers, the optimum dosage of WD4960 was 4.82 g/kg total suspended solid (TSS) while that of both M351 and WDA110 was 7.24 g/kg TSS. The residual PAM content in the supernatant of the WTR matrix conditioned at the optimum WD4960 dosage was 5.59 mg/L, which is the least among the supernatants obtained with the three types of PAM. Furthermore, the visible fulvic acid (FA) in the supernatant disappeared and the intensity of the ultraviolet FA decreased. The average diameter of irregularly shaped aggregates in the WTR suspensions increased from 35.73 μm to several hundred micrometers with increasing PAM dosage. The size of WTR aggregates conditioned at the optimum WD4960 dosage was much larger than that of aggregates obtained at the optimum M351 or WDA110 dosages. Two-dimensional fractal dimension (D2) values presented an increasing trend with increasing PAM dosage. D2 values of the conditioned WTR aggregates were 1.87, 1.76, and 1.83 at optimum WD4960, M351, and WDA110 dosages, respectively. The cationic PAM (CPAM) WD4960 thus appears to be a more ideal conditioner for WTRs. Consistent relationships were observed among the capillary suction time (CST), average particle size, and D2 values of the conditioned WTR aggregates at the optimum WD4960 dosage. Mass fractal dimensions (D(f)) indicated that both the raw and WD4960-conditioned WTRs behave like weak-link flocs/aggregates. D(f) values (log G'-log TSS) of the WTR aggregates before and after

  9. Residual stresses and mechanical properties of Si3N4/SiC multilayered composites with different SiC layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liua, S.; Lia, Y.; Chena, P.; Lia, W.; Gaoa, S.; Zhang, B.; Yeb, F.

    2017-01-01

    The effect of residual stresses on the strength, toughness and work of fracture of Si3N4/SiC multilayered composites with different SiC layers has been investigated. It may be an effective way to design and optimize the mechanical properties of Si3N4/SiC multilayered composites by controlling the properties of SiC layers. Si3N4/SiC multilayered composites with different SiC layers were fabricated by aqueous tape casting and pressureless sintering. Residual stresses were calculated by using ANSYS simulation, the maximum values of tensile and compressive stresses were 553.2MPa and −552.1MPa, respectively. Step-like fracture was observed from the fracture surfaces. Fraction of delamination layers increased with the residual stress, which can improve the reliability of the materials. Tensile residual stress was benefit to improving toughness and work of fracture, but the strength of the composites decreased. [es

  10. Residue behavior and risk assessment of imidacloprid applied on greenhouse-cultivated strawberries under different application conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cang, Tao; Sun, Caixia; Zhao, Hua; Tang, Tao; Zhang, Changpeng; Yu, Ruixian; Wang, Xinquan; Wang, Qiang; Dai, Fen; Zhao, Xueping

    2018-02-01

    A risk assessment for imidacloprid applied on strawberries under different conditions was performed after residue determination using the quick, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) method. The application conditions were varied according to the applied dosage, addition of a plant oil or organosilicon surfactant, water volume, and sprayer type. The degradation dynamics of imidacloprid on strawberries followed first-order kinetics. At applied doses of 30-60 g a.i. ha -1 , the half-lives of imidacloprid were 2.89-3.46, 1.98-3.65, and 2.57-2.77 days after application without a surfactant or with a plant oil or organosilicon surfactant, respectively. For water volumes of 112.5, 225, 450, 675, and 900 L ha -1 , the half-lives of imidacloprid applied in the presence of the plant oil surfactant were 3.30, 7.70, 5.33, 7.70, and 6.30 days, respectively. The half-lives after application with a knapsack mist duster, electric sprayer, and manual sprayer were 2.16, 5.77, and 7.70 days, respectively. The health risk assessment revealed risk quotients less than 1 in all cases, indicating that the application of imidacloprid poses a low health risk to humans after a pre-harvest interval of 10 days under our application conditions. The risk assessment results can provide reference data for setting a reasonable maximum residue limit for imidacloprid on strawberries in China.

  11. Simultaneous saccharification and cofermentation of lignocellulosic residues from commercial furfural production and corn kernels using different nutrient media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristhian Carrasco

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As the supply of starch grain and sugar cane, currently the main feedstocks for bioethanol production, become limited, lignocelluloses will be sought as alternative materials for bioethanol production. Production of cellulosic ethanol is still cost-inefficient because of the low final ethanol concentration and the addition of nutrients. We report the use of simultaneous saccharification and cofermentation (SSCF of lignocellulosic residues from commercial furfural production (furfural residue, FR and corn kernels to compare different nutritional media. The final ethanol concentration, yield, number of live yeast cells, and yeast-cell death ratio were investigated to evaluate the effectiveness of integrating cellulosic and starch ethanol. Results Both the ethanol yield and number of live yeast cells increased with increasing corn-kernel concentration, whereas the yeast-cell death ratio decreased in SSCF of FR and corn kernels. An ethanol concentration of 73.1 g/L at 120 h, which corresponded to a 101.1% ethanol yield based on FR cellulose and corn starch, was obtained in SSCF of 7.5% FR and 14.5% corn kernels with mineral-salt medium. SSCF could simultaneously convert cellulose into ethanol from both corn kernels and FR, and SSCF ethanol yield was similar between the organic and mineral-salt media. Conclusions Starch ethanol promotes cellulosic ethanol by providing important nutrients for fermentative organisms, and in turn cellulosic ethanol promotes starch ethanol by providing cellulosic enzymes that convert the cellulosic polysaccharides in starch materials into additional ethanol. It is feasible to produce ethanol in SSCF of FR and corn kernels with mineral-salt medium. It would be cost-efficient to produce ethanol in SSCF of high concentrations of water-insoluble solids of lignocellulosic materials and corn kernels. Compared with prehydrolysis and fed-batch strategy using lignocellulosic materials, addition of starch

  12. Logging damage to residual trees following commercial harvesting to different overstory retention levels in a mature hardwood stand in Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayne K. Clatterbuck

    2006-01-01

    Partial cutting in mature hardwood stands often causes physical damage to residual stems through felling and skidding resulting in a decline in bole quality and subsequent loss of tree value. This study assessed the logging damage to residual trees following commercial harvesting in a fully stocked, mature oak-hickory stand cut to three overstory basal area retention...

  13. Single-particle characterization of ice-nucleating particles and ice particles residuals sampled by three different techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandler, Konrad; Worringen, Annette; Benker, Nathalie; Dirsch, Thomas; Mertes, Stephan; Schenk, Ludwig; Kästner, Udo; Frank, Fabian; Nillius, Björn; Bundke, Ulrich; Rose, Diana; Curtius, Joachim; Kupiszewski, Piotr; Weingartner, Ernest; Vochezer, Paul; Schneider, Johannes; Schmidt, Susan; Weinbruch, Stephan; Ebert, Martin

    2015-04-01

    During January/February 2013, at the High Alpine Research Station Jungfraujoch a measurement campaign was carried out, which was centered on atmospheric ice-nucleating particles (INP) and ice particle residuals (IPR). Three different techniques for separation of INP and IPR from the non-ice-active particles are compared. The Ice Selective Inlet (ISI) and the Ice Counterflow Virtual Impactor (Ice-CVI) sample ice particles from mixed phase clouds and allow for the analysis of the residuals. The combination of the Fast Ice Nucleus Chamber (FINCH) and the Ice Nuclei Pumped Counterflow Virtual Impactor (IN-PCVI) provides ice-activating conditions to aerosol particles and extracts the activated INP for analysis. Collected particles were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis to determine size, chemical composition and mixing state. All INP/IPR-separating techniques had considerable abundances (median 20 - 70 %) of instrumental contamination artifacts (ISI: Si-O spheres, probably calibration aerosol; Ice-CVI: Al-O particles; FINCH+IN-PCVI: steel particles). Also, potential sampling artifacts (e.g., pure soluble material) occurred with a median abundance of separated by all three techniques. Soot was a minor contributor. Lead was detected in less than 10 % of the particles, of which the majority were internal mixtures with other particle types. Sea-salt and sulfates were identified by all three methods as INP/IPR. Most samples showed a maximum of the INP/IPR size distribution at 400 nm geometric diameter. In a few cases, a second super-micron maximum was identified. Soot/carbonaceous material and metal oxides were present mainly in the submicron range. ISI and FINCH yielded silicates and Ca-rich particles mainly with diameters above 1 µm, while the Ice-CVI also separated many submicron IPR. As strictly parallel sampling could not be performed, a part of the discrepancies between the different techniques may result from

  14. [Determination of acetanilide herbicide residues in tea by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with two different ionization techniques].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Weijian; Xu, Jinzhong; Yang, Wenquan; Shen, Chongyu; Zhao, Zengyun; Ding, Tao; Wu, Bin

    2007-09-01

    An analytical method of solid phase extraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with two different ionization techniques was established for simultaneous determination of 12 acetanilide herbicide residues in tea-leaves. Herbicides were extracted from tea-leaf samples with ethyl acetate. The extract was cleaned-up on an active carbon SPE column connected to a Florisil SPE column. Analytical screening was determined by the technique of gas chromatography (GC)-mass spectrometry (MS) in the selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode with either electron impact ionization (EI) or negative chemical ionization (NCI). It is reliable and stable that the recoveries of all herbicides were in the range from 50% to 110% at three spiked levels, 10 microg/kg, 20 microg/kg and 40 microg/kg, and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) were no more than 10.9%. The two different ionization techniques are complementary as more ion fragmentation information can be obtained from the EI mode while more molecular ion information from the NCI mode. By comparison of the two techniques, the selectivity of NCI-SIM was much better than that of EI-SIM method. The sensitivities of the both techniques were high, the limit of quantitative (LOQ) for each herbicide was no more than 2.0 microg/kg, and the limit of detection (LOD) with NCI-SIM technique was much lower than that of EI-SIM when analyzing herbicides with several halogen atoms in the molecule.

  15. Non-invasive prediction of hemodynamically significant coronary artery stenoses by contrast density difference in coronary CT angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hell, Michaela M., E-mail: michaela.hell@uk-erlangen.de [Department of Cardiology, University of Erlangen (Germany); Dey, Damini [Department of Biomedical Sciences, Biomedical Imaging Research Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Taper Building, Room A238, 8700 Beverly Boulevard, Los Angeles, CA 90048 (United States); Marwan, Mohamed; Achenbach, Stephan; Schmid, Jasmin; Schuhbaeck, Annika [Department of Cardiology, University of Erlangen (Germany)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • Overestimation of coronary lesions by coronary computed tomography angiography and subsequent unnecessary invasive coronary angiography and revascularization is a concern. • Differences in plaque characteristics and contrast density difference between hemodynamically significant and non-significant stenoses, as defined by invasive fractional flow reserve, were assessed. • At a threshold of ≥24%, contrast density difference predicted hemodynamically significant lesions with a specificity of 75%, sensitivity of 33%, PPV of 35% and NPV of 73%. • The determination of contrast density difference required less time than transluminal attenuation gradient measurement. - Abstract: Objectives: Coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) allows the detection of obstructive coronary artery disease. However, its ability to predict the hemodynamic significance of stenoses is limited. We assessed differences in plaque characteristics and contrast density difference between hemodynamically significant and non-significant stenoses, as defined by invasive fractional flow reserve (FFR). Methods: Lesion characteristics of 59 consecutive patients (72 lesions) in whom invasive FFR was performed in at least one coronary artery with moderate to high-grade stenoses in coronary CTA were evaluated by two experienced readers. Coronary CTA data sets were acquired on a second-generation dual-source CT scanner using retrospectively ECG-gated spiral acquisition or prospectively ECG-triggered axial acquisition mode. Plaque volume and composition (non-calcified, calcified), remodeling index as well as contrast density difference (defined as the percentage decline in luminal CT attenuation/cross-sectional area over the lesion) were assessed using a semi-automatic software tool (Autoplaq). Additionally, the transluminal attenuation gradient (defined as the linear regression coefficient between intraluminal CT attenuation and length from the ostium) was determined

  16. The Effect of Different Methods of Fermentation on the Detection of Milk Protein Residues in Retail Cheese by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivens, Katherine O; Baumert, Joseph L; Hutkins, Robert L; Taylor, Steve L

    2017-11-01

    Milk and milk products are among the most important allergenic food ingredients, both in the United States and throughout the world; cheeses are among the most important of these milk products. Milk contains several major antigenic proteins, each with differing susceptibilities to proteolytic enzymes. The extent of proteolysis in cheese varies as a result of conditions during manufacture and ripening. Proteolysis has the potential to degrade antigenic and allergenic epitopes that are important for residue detection and elicitation of allergic reactions. Commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) are not currently validated for use in detecting residues in hydrolyzed or fermented food products. Eighteen retail cheeses produced using 5 different styles of fermentation were investigated for detectable milk protein residues with 4 commercial ELISA kits. Mozzarella, Swiss, Blue, Limburger, and Brie cheeses were assessed. The Neogen Veratox® Casein and Neogen Veratox® Total Milk kits were capable of detecting milk residues in most cheeses evaluated, including blue-veined cheeses that exhibit extensive proteolysis. The other 2 ELISA kits evaluated, r-Biopharm® Fast Casein and ELISA Systems™ Casein, can detect milk residues in cheeses other than blue-veined varieties. ELISA results cannot be quantitatively compared among kits. The quantitative reliability of ELISA results in detection of cheese residues is questionable, but some methods are sufficiently robust to use as a semi-quantitative indication of proper allergen control for the validation of cleaning programs in industry settings. Many commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) are not validated for detection of allergenic residues in fermented or hydrolyzed products. This research seeks to determine if commercial milk ELISAs can detect milk residues in varieties of cheese that have undergone different styles of fermentation and different degrees of proteolysis. Only certain

  17. Modeling of the residue transport of lambda cyhalothrin, cypermethrin, malathion and endosulfan in three different environmental compartments in the Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delia B. Senoro

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the environmental transport and fate of the residue of four Philippines priority chemicals; i.e., lambda cyhalothrin (L-cyhalothrin, cypermethrin, endosulfan and malathion, in three different environmental compartments (air, water and soil. In the Philippines, pesticide application is the most common method of controlling pests and weeds in rice and vegetable farming. This practice aided the agricultural industry to minimize losses and increase yield. However, indiscriminate use of pesticides resulted to adverse effects to public health and environment. Studies showed that 95% of the applied pesticides went to non-target species. Data from previous studies in Pagsanjan Laguna, Philippines were used as input data. Dispersion, Gaussian plume, and regression equations were employed to simulate the behavior of L-cyhalothrin, cypermethrin, endosulfan and malathion in air, water and soil. Substance decay was calculated using first order reaction. This study showed how L-cyhalothrin, cypermethrin, endosulfan, and malathion behaved in the environment after release from nozzle spray, and its possible duration of stay in the environment. It will also show a tool in determining the percolation depth through soil by endosulfan. This tool can be utilized in determining the depth of contaminated soil during remediation strategic planning and project implementation of similar environmental condition.

  18. Dissipation kinetics and effect of different decontamination techniques on the residues of emamectin benzoate and spinosad in cowpea pods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayasree, V; Bai, Hebsy; Mathew, Thomas Biju; George, Thomas; Xavier, George; Kumar, N Pratheesh; Visalkumar, S

    2014-07-01

    Dissipation and decontamination of the semisynthetic macrolide emamectin benzoate and the natural insecticide spinosad on cowpea pods were studied following field application at single and double doses of 11.0 and 22 and 73 and 146 g ai ha(-1), respectively. Residues of these naturalytes were estimated using LC-MS/MS. The initial deposit of 0.073 and 0.153 mg kg(-1) of emamectin benzoate dissipated below quantitation level on the fifth and seventh day at single and double dosage, respectively. For spinosad, the initial deposits of 0.94 and 1.90 mg kg(-1) reached below quantitation level on the 7th day and 15th day at single and double dosage, respectively. The half-life of emamectin benzoate and spinosad was 1.13-1.49 and 1.05-1.39 days with the calculated safe waiting period of 2.99-6.12 and 1.09-3.25 days, respectively, for single and double dosage. Processing of the harvestable pods with different decontamination techniques resulted in 33.82 to 100 % removal 2 h after the application of emamectin benzoate and 100 % removal 3 days after spraying, while the removal was 42.05 to 87.46 % 2 h after the application of spinosad and 38.05 to 68.08 % 3 days after application.

  19. Variations of insecticide residual bio-efficacy on different types of walls: results from a community-based trial in south Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etang Josiane

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Determination of residual activity of insecticides is essential information for the selection of appropriate indoor spraying operation. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the residual effect of three candidate insecticide formulations on different indoor surfaces in order to guide future interventions, in the context of Cameroon and other African countries. Methods The study was conducted in the Ntougou neighbourhood in Yaoundé (capital city of Cameroon. Bendiocarb WP, lambda-cyhalothrin CS and deltamethrin WG were sprayed on the indoor wall surfaces of local cement, wood and mud houses. Their effects on the knockdown and mortality of the Kisumu susceptible strain of Anopheles gambiae s.s were assessed each month from March to September 2009, using the WHO plastic cones test. Knockdown and mortality rates were compared between different surfaces using Chi-square test. A Kaplan-Meir model was used to estimate the time of treatment failure. Results With bendiocarb WP, the knockdown rates were frequently above 98% during 13 weeks after spraying, except on mud walls where it significantly decreased at the 13th week (P th (83% and the 20th (88% weeks respectively (P 98%; while it varied between 60 and 100% on wood or mud surfaces. The survival estimates of bendiocarb WP treatments remaining effective in killing An. gambiae s.s. (mortality rate ≥ 80% was > 13 weeks on cement and wood surfaces and 13 weeks on mud surfaces. Those of lambda-cyhalothrin CS were > 26 weeks on wood surfaces, and 20 weeks on concrete and mud surfaces. By contrast, those of deltamethrin WG were 26 weeks on concrete, 20 weeks on mud surfaces and 15 weeks on wood surfaces. Conclusion Current data suggest variable durations of spray cycles for each product, according to the type of wall surfaces, highlighting the importance of testing candidate products in local context before using them in large scale.

  20. Single-particle characterization of ice-nucleating particles and ice particle residuals sampled by three different techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worringen, A.; Kandler, K.; Benker, N.; Dirsch, T.; Mertes, S.; Schenk, L.; Kästner, U.; Frank, F.; Nillius, B.; Bundke, U.; Rose, D.; Curtius, J.; Kupiszewski, P.; Weingartner, E.; Vochezer, P.; Schneider, J.; Schmidt, S.; Weinbruch, S.; Ebert, M.

    2015-04-01

    In the present work, three different techniques to separate ice-nucleating particles (INPs) as well as ice particle residuals (IPRs) from non-ice-active particles are compared. The Ice Selective Inlet (ISI) and the Ice Counterflow Virtual Impactor (Ice-CVI) sample ice particles from mixed-phase clouds and allow after evaporation in the instrument for the analysis of the residuals. The Fast Ice Nucleus Chamber (FINCH) coupled with the Ice Nuclei Pumped Counterflow Virtual Impactor (IN-PCVI) provides ice-activating conditions to aerosol particles and extracts the activated particles for analysis. The instruments were run during a joint field campaign which took place in January and February 2013 at the High Alpine Research Station Jungfraujoch (Switzerland). INPs and IPRs were analyzed offline by scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis to determine their size, chemical composition and mixing state. Online analysis of the size and chemical composition of INP activated in FINCH was performed by laser ablation mass spectrometry. With all three INP/IPR separation techniques high abundances (median 20-70%) of instrumental contamination artifacts were observed (ISI: Si-O spheres, probably calibration aerosol; Ice-CVI: Al-O particles; FINCH + IN-PCVI: steel particles). After removal of the instrumental contamination particles, silicates, Ca-rich particles, carbonaceous material and metal oxides were the major INP/IPR particle types obtained by all three techniques. In addition, considerable amounts (median abundance mostly a few percent) of soluble material (e.g., sea salt, sulfates) were observed. As these soluble particles are often not expected to act as INP/IPR, we consider them as potential measurement artifacts. Minor types of INP/IPR include soot and Pb-bearing particles. The Pb-bearing particles are mainly present as an internal mixture with other particle types. Most samples showed a maximum of the INP/IPR size distribution at 200

  1. Different Analytical Procedures for the Study of Organic Residues in Archeological Ceramic Samples with the Use of Gas Chromatography-mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kałużna-Czaplińska, Joanna; Rosiak, Angelina; Kwapińska, Marzena; Kwapiński, Witold

    2016-01-01

    The analysis of the composition of organic residues present in pottery is an important source of information for historians and archeologists. Chemical characterization of the materials provides information on diets, habits, technologies, and original use of the vessels. This review presents the problem of analytical studies of archeological materials with a special emphasis on organic residues. Current methods used in the determination of different organic compounds in archeological ceramics are presented. Particular attention is paid to the procedures of analysis of archeological ceramic samples used before gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Advantages and disadvantages of different extraction methods and application of proper quality assurance/quality control procedures are discussed.

  2. Improving the Mechanical and Electrical Properties of Ceramizable Silicone Rubber/Halloysite Composites and Their Ceramic Residues by Incorporation of Different Borates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhua Guo

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Ceramizable silicone rubber (MVQ/halloysite (HNT composites were fabricated by incorporation of three different borates, including sodium tetraborate decahydrate, ammonium pentaborate, and zinc borate into MVQ matrix, respectively. The composites without any borates were also prepared as control. The effect of the borates on the mechanical and electrical properties of MVQ/HNT composites was investigated. The ceramic residues were obtained from the decomposition of the composites after sintering at 1000 °C. The effect of the borates on the linear shrinkage, weight loss, and flexural and impact strength of the residues was also studied. The fracture surfaces of the composites and their corresponding residues were observed by SEM. The proposed ceramizable mechanism of the composites by incorporation of different borates was revealed by XRD analysis.

  3. Carbaryl residues in maize and processed products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, M.J.; Sattar, A. Jr.; Naqvi, M.H.

    1981-01-01

    Carbaryl residues in two local maize varieties were determined using a colorimetric method. No significant differences were observed for residues of the two varieties which ranged between 12.0 to 13.75 mg/kg in the crude oil, and averaged 1.04 and 0.67 mg/kg in the flour and cake respectively. In whole maize plants, carbaryl residues declined to approximately 2 mg/kg 35 days after treatment. Cooking in aqueous, oil or aqueous-oil media led to 63-83% loss of carbaryl residues, after 30 minutes. (author)

  4. Significant difference in p53 and p21 protein immunoreactivity in HPV 16 positive and HPV negative breast carcinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hennig, E.M.; Norwegian Radium Hospital, Oslo; Kvinnsland, S.; Holm, R.; Nesland, J.M.

    1999-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) 16 has previously been found in 19/41 breast carcinomas (46%) in women with a history of HPV 16 positive CIN III lesions. There was no significant difference in distribution of histological subtypes, mean or median tumour diameter or number of regional lymph node metastases in the HPV positive and HPV negative breast carcinoma groups. P53, p21 and c-erbB-2 proteins were analyzed by immunohistochemistry in the HPV 16 positive and HPV negative breast carcinomas. There was a significant difference in p53 and p21 protein immunoreactivity between HPV 16 positive and HPV negative breast carcinomas (p=0.0091 and p=0.0040), with a significant less detectable p53 and p21 protein immunoreactivity in the HPV 16 positive cases. There was also a significant difference in the coexpression of p53/p21 between the HPV 16 positive and HPV 16 negative breast carcinomas (p=0.002). No significant difference in immunostaining for c-erbB-2 protein in the two groups was found (p=0.15), or for the coexpression of p53/c-erbB-2 (p=0.19). The significantly lower expression of p53 and p21 proteins in HPV 16 positive than in HPV 16 negative breast carcinomas supports the hypothesis of inactivation and degradation of wild-type p53 proteins by HPV 16 E6 and that p53 mutation is not necessary for transformation in the HPV 16 positive cases. (orig.)

  5. Rate of fatigue crack growth in residual stress fields of welded titanium joints with different contents of embrittling impurities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troshchenko, V.T.; Pokrovskij, V.V.; Yarusevich, V.L.; Mikhajlov, V.I.; Sher, V.A.

    1990-01-01

    Resistance to fatigue crack growth (FCG) has been studied in welded joints of structural titanium alloys contaminated by embrittling impurities. Besides, effect of crack closing has been taken into account what makes it possible to determine the effective coefficient of the stress intensity. The rate of fatigue crack growth is proved to considerably depend on the value and direction of residual stresses. The rate dependence of FCG in welded joints of structural titanium alloys on the swing of effective coefficient of stress intensity is invariant to the value and direction of weld residual stresses

  6. Residual efficacy of methoprene for control of Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) larvae at different temperatures on varnished wood, concrete, and wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    The residual efficacy of the juvenile hormone analogue, methoprene (Diacon II), was evaluated in bioassays using larvae of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) exposed on varnished wood or unsealed concrete treated with a liquid formulation and held at different temperatures. When these surfaces were stored...

  7. Ovarian follicular dynamics and plasma steroid concentrations are not significantly different in ewes given intravaginal sponges containing either 20 or 40 mg of fluorogestone acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letelier, C A; Contreras-Solis, I; García-Fernández, R A; Ariznavarreta, C; Tresguerres, J A F; Flores, J M; Gonzalez-Bulnes, A

    2009-03-01

    Although various progestagens are often used to induce and synchronize estrus and ovulation in ruminants, concerns regarding residues are the impetus to develop alternative approaches, including reduced doses of progestagens. Therefore, the objective was to determine whether ovarian function was affected by halving the dose of fluorogestone acetate in intravaginal sponges for synchronizing ovulation in sheep during the physiologic breeding season. Twenty Manchega ewes, 4-6-year-old, were randomly allocated to receive an intravaginal sponge containing either 20mg (P20, n=10) or 40 mg of fluorogestone acetate (P40, n=10). Cloprostenol (125 microg) was given at sponge insertion, and all sponges were removed after 6d. Ovarian follicular dynamics (monitored by daily ultrasonography) and other aspects of ovarian function did not differ significantly between the two groups. Ovulatory follicles (OF) grew at a similar growth rate (r=0.62; Pprogesterone concentrations (3.8+/-0.35 ng/mL for P20 and 3.9+/-0.38 ng/mL for P40) were similar. In conclusion, reducing the dose of fluorogestone acetate from 40 to 20mg did not affect significantly ovarian follicular dynamics or other aspects of ovarian function.

  8. Illness perceptions in the context of differing work participation outcomes: exploring the influence of significant others in persistent back pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brooks Joanna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous research has demonstrated that the significant others of individuals with persistent back pain may have important influences on work participation outcomes. The aim of this study was to extend previous research by including individuals who have remained in work despite persistent back pain in addition to those who had become incapacitated for work, along with their significant others. The purpose of this research was to explore whether the illness beliefs of significant others differed depending on their relative’s working status, and to make some preliminary identification of how significant others may facilitate or hinder work participation for those with persistent back pain. Methods Interviews structured around the Illness Perception Questionnaire (chronic pain version were conducted with back pain patients recruited from a hospital pain management clinic along with their significant others. Some patients had remained in work despite their back pain; others had ceased employment. Data were analysed using template analysis. Results There were clear differences between beliefs about, and reported responses to, back pain symptoms amongst the significant others of individuals who had remained in employment compared with the significant others of those who had ceased work. Three overarching themes emerged: perceived consequences of back pain, specific nature of employment and the impact of back pain on patient identity. Conclusions Significant others of employed individuals with back pain focused on the extent to which activity could still be undertaken despite back pain symptoms. Individuals out of work due to persistent back pain apparently self-limited their activity and were supported in their beliefs and behaviours by their significant others. To justify incapacity due to back pain, this group had seemingly become entrenched in a position whereby it was crucial that the individual with back pain was perceived

  9. Human papillomavirus detection with genotyping by the cobas and Aptima assays: Significant differences in HPV 16 detection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chorny, Joseph A; Frye, Teresa C; Fisher, Beth L; Remmers, Carol L

    2018-03-23

    The primary high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) assays in the United States are the cobas (Roche) and the Aptima (Hologic). The cobas assay detects hrHPV by DNA analysis while the Aptima detects messenger RNA (mRNA) oncogenic transcripts. As the Aptima assay identifies oncogenic expression, it should have a lower rate of hrHPV and genotype detection. The Kaiser Permanente Regional Reference Laboratory in Denver, Colorado changed its hrHPV assay from the cobas to the Aptima assay. The rates of hrHPV detection and genotyping were compared over successive six-month periods. The overall hrHPV detection rates by the two platforms were similar (9.5% versus 9.1%) and not statistically different. For genotyping, the HPV 16 rate by the cobas was 1.6% and by the Aptima it was 1.1%. These differences were statistically different with the Aptima detecting nearly one-third less HPV 16 infections. With the HPV 18 and HPV 18/45, there was a slightly higher detection rate of HPV 18/45 by the Aptima platform (0.5% versus 0.9%) and this was statistically significant. While HPV 16 represents a low percentage of hrHPV infections, it was detected significantly less by the Aptima assay compared to the cobas assay. This has been previously reported, although not highlighted. Given the test methodologies, one would expect the Aptima to detect less HPV 16. This difference appears to be mainly due to a significantly increased number of non-oncogenic HPV 16 infections detected by the cobas test as there were no differences in HPV 16 detection rates in the high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions indicating that the two tests have similar sensitivities for oncogenic HPV 16. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Significant factors for work attractiveness and how these differ from the current work situation among operating department nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björn, Catrine; Lindberg, Magnus; Rissén, Dag

    2016-01-01

    The aim was to examine significant factors for work attractiveness and how these differ from the current work situation among operating department nurses. A second objective was to examine the associations between age, gender, length of employment, work engagement, work ability, self-rated health indicators and attractiveness of the current work situation. The attractiveness of work is rarely taken into account in research on nurse retention. To expand this knowledge, it is relevant to examine factors that make work attractive and their associations with related concepts. Correlational, cross-sectional survey using a convenience sample. Questionnaires were answered by 147 nurses in four operating departments in Sweden. Correlation and regression analyses were conducted. The nurses rated the significance of all factors of work attractiveness higher than they rated those factors in their current work situation; salary, organisation and physical work environment had the largest differences. The most significant attractive factors were relationships, leadership and status. A statistically significant positive correlation between work engagement and attractive work was found. In the multiple regression model, the independent variables work engagement and older age significantly predicted work attractiveness. Several factors should be considered in the effort to increase work attractiveness in operating departments and thereby to encourage nurse retention. Positive aspects of work seem to unite work engagement and attractive work, while work ability and self-rated health indicators are other important dimensions in nurse retention. The great discrepancies between the significance of attractive factors and the current work situation in salary, organisation and physical work environment suggest ways in which work attractiveness may be increased. To discover exactly what needs to be improved may require a deeper look into the construct of the examined factors. © 2015 John

  11. Survival of Diaporthe phaseolorum var. caulivora (causal agent of soybean stem canker) artificially inoculated in different crop residues

    OpenAIRE

    Grijalba, Pablo; Ridao, Azucena del C.

    2012-01-01

    Stem canker caused by Diaporthe phaseolorum var. caulivora is an important disease of soybean in Argentina. The objective of this study was to determine its survival ability in artificially infested straw under laboratory and field conditions. In laboratory, stem pieces of soybean, maize, sorghum, sunflower, potato and wheat were autoclaved, placed in petri dishes on Potato Dextrose Agar and Water Agar, and inoculated with a 7-day-old pathogen culture. All crop residues were colonized and pro...

  12. [The expression and significance of VIP and its receptor in the cochlea of different degrees of chronic alcoholism rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jing; Liu, Haibing

    2015-07-01

    To determine whether chronic alcoholism alters the expression levels of Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) and its receptor (VIPR1) in the cochlea of chronic alcoholism rats. We measured their expression levels in 30 SD rats, in which we created models of different degrees of chronic alcoholism. We investigated the presence of the mRNA of VIP in the cochlea of chronic alcoholism rats and controls by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method. We investigated the presence of proteins of VIPR1 in poisoned rats and controls by western blot. We also evaluated the local distribution of VIP cells by immunohistochemistry. We found that the levels of VIP and VIPR1 were downregulated in the chronic alcoholism groups compared to the controls group. The differences in some expression levels were significant different between chronic alcoholism rats and control rats. Moreover, at different degrees of alcohol poisoning in rats, the contents of VIP and VIPR1 differed. Decreased levels of VIP and VIPR1 were detected in the deep chronic alcoholism group compared to the group with low-degree poisoning (P 0.05). These results suggest that VIP and VIPR1 play an important role in the auditory function in rats with chronic alcoholism. Chronic alcoholism may cause a peptide hormone secretion imbalance in the auditory system, eventually leading to hearing loss.

  13. Commonly used bowel preparations have significant and different effects upon cell proliferation in the colon: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riley Stuart A

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Markers of crypt cell proliferation are frequently employed in studies of the impact of genetic and exogenous factors on human colonic physiology. Human studies often rely on the assessment of tissue acquired at endoscopy. Modulation of cell proliferation by bowel preparation with oral laxatives may confound the findings of such studies, but there is little data on the impact of commonly used bowel preparations on markers of cell proliferation. Methods Crypt length, crypt cellularity and crypt cell proliferation were assessed in biopsies acquired after preparation with either Klean-Prep or Picolax. Crypt cell proliferation was assessed by whole-mount mitotic figure count, and by two different immunohistochemical (IHC labelling methods (Ki-67 and pHH3. Subsequent biopsies were obtained from the same patients without bowel preparation and similarly assessed. Parameters were compared between groups using analysis of variance and paired t-tests. Results There were significant differences in labelling indices (LI between biopsies taken after Klean-prep and those taken after Picolax preparation, for both Ki67 (p = 0.019 and pHH3 (p = 0.017. A similar trend was seen for whole-mount mitotic figure counts. Suppression or elevation of proliferation parameters by bowel preparation may mask any effect due to an intervention or disease. Conclusion Commonly used bowel preparations may have significant and different effects on crypt cell proliferation. This should be taken into account when designing studies and when considering the findings of existing studies.

  14. Different features of the MHC class I heterodimer have evolved at different rates. Chicken B-F and beta 2-microglobulin sequences reveal invariant surface residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaufman, J; Andersen, R; Avila, D

    1992-01-01

    molecules and the MHC-encoded nonclassical molecules more than CD1 or the class I-like FcR. In contrast, the chicken alpha 3 domain is equally homologous to all alpha 3 domains, to beta 2m and to class II beta 2 domains. For each pair of extracellular domains (alpha 1 vs alpha 2, alpha 3 vs beta 2m...... of small exons in the cytoplasmic region. The cDNA sequences were compared to turkey beta 2m, the apparent allele B-F12 alpha and other vertebrate homologs, using the 2.6 A structure of the human HLA-A2 molecule as a model. Both chicken alpha 1 and alpha 2 domains resemble mammalian classical class I...... the ends of the peptide, two residues that bind CD8, and three residues that are phosphorylated. The positions of the allelic residues are conserved. There are other patches of invariant residues on alpha 1, alpha 2, and beta 2m; these might bind TCR or other molecules involved in class I function...

  15. In vitro cell culture pO2 is significantly different from incubator pO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bambrick, L L; Kostov, Y; Rao, G

    2011-07-01

    Continuous noninvasive monitoring of peri-cellular liquid phase pO2 in adherent cultures is described. For neurons and astrocytes, this approach demonstrates that there is a significant difference between predicted and observed liquid phase pO2. Particularly at low gas phase pO2s, cell metabolism shifts liquid phase pO2 significantly lower than would be predicted from the O2 gas/air equilibrium coefficient, indicating that the cellular oxygen uptake rate exceeds the oxygen diffusion rate. The results demonstrate the need for direct pO2 measurements at the peri-cellular level, and question the widely adopted current practice of relying on setting the incubator gas phase level as means of controlling pericellular oxygen tension, particularly in static culture systems that are oxygen mass transfer limited. Copyright © 2011 American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE).

  16. Expression and significance of MMP3 in synovium of knee joint at different stage in osteoarthritis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jun-Jie; Huang, Jie-Feng; Du, Wen-Xi; Tong, Pei-Jian

    2014-04-01

    To investigate the expression and significance of MMP-3 in synovium of knee joint at different stage in osteoarthritis (OA) patients. Knee synovial tissue were collected in 90 OA patients (the OA group). Patients in the OA group was divided into 3 subgroups: grade I subgroup (n=30), grade II subgroup (n=30), grade III; subgroup (n=30). Thirty patients served as control group. Immunohistochemical assay was used to detect the expression of MMP-3 protein in the knee synovial tissue. MMP-3 protein was detected in all knee synovial tissue. The expression of MMP-3 protein in the OA group was significantly higher that in the normal synovium (Posteoarthritis. Copyright © 2014 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Superfund explanation of significant difference for the record of decision (EPA Region 8): Lowry Landfill, Aurora, CO, October 24, 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-03-01

    Please be advised that there is an error within Attachment E (Technical Evaluation of Proposed Ground-Water Treatment and Disposal Alternatives) of the ''Responsiveness Summary for the Second Explanation of Significant Differences, Lowry Landfill Superfund Site'' document. The evaluation table, which summarizes the rankings of the two cleanup alternatives, failed to include numerical values for State Acceptance and Community Acceptance. Enclosed is a copy of the table as it should have appeared in Attachment E. Copies of this errata sheet are being mailed to all recipients of the Responsiveness Summary

  18. Global genomic analysis of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas reveals significant molecular differences compared to ductal adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Stefan; Fernandez-del Castillo, Carlos; Mino-Kenudson, Mari; Crippa, Stefano; Deshpande, Vikram; Lauwers, Gregory Y; Warshaw, Andrew L; Thayer, Sarah P; Iafrate, A John

    2009-03-01

    To determine whether intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas (IPMNs) have a different genetic background compared with ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). The biologic and clinical behavior of IPMNs and IPMN-associated adenocarcinomas is different from PDAC in having a less aggressive tumor growth and significantly improved survival. Up to date, the molecular mechanisms underlying the clinical behavior of IPMNs are incompletely understood. 128 cystic pancreatic lesions were prospectively identified during the course of 2 years. From the corresponding surgical specimens, 57 IPMNs were separated and subdivided by histologic criteria into those with low-grade dysplasia, moderate dysplasia, high-grade dysplasia, and invasive cancer. Twenty specimens were suitable for DNA isolation and subsequent performance of array CGH. While none of the IPMNs with low-grade dysplasia displayed detectable chromosomal aberrations, IPMNs with moderate and high-grade dysplasia showed frequent copy number alterations. Commonly lost regions were located on chromosome 5q, 6q, 10q, 11q, 13q, 18q, and 22q. The incidence of loss of chromosome 5q, 6q, and 11q was significantly higher in IPMNs with high-grade dysplasia or invasion compared with PDAC. Ten of 13 IPMNs with moderate dysplasia or malignancy had loss of part or all of chromosome 6q, with a minimal deleted region between linear positions 78.0 and 130.0. This study is the first to use array CGH to characterize IPMNs. Recurrent cytogenetic alterations were identified and were different than those described in PDAC. Array CGH may help distinguish between these 2 entities and give insight into the differences in their biology and prognosis.

  19. Modelos de regressão aleatória com diferentes estruturas de variância residual para descrever o tamanho da leitegada Random regression models with different residual variance structures for describing litter size in swine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aderbal Cavalcante-Neto

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se comparar modelos de regressão aleatória com diferentes estruturas de variância residual, a fim de se buscar a melhor modelagem para a característica tamanho da leitegada ao nascer (TLN. Utilizaram-se 1.701 registros de TLN, que foram analisados por meio de modelo animal, unicaracterística, de regressão aleatória. As regressões fixa e aleatórias foram representadas por funções contínuas sobre a ordem de parto, ajustadas por polinômios ortogonais de Legendre de ordem 3. Para averiguar a melhor modelagem para a variância residual, considerou-se a heterogeneidade de variância por meio de 1 a 7 classes de variância residual. O modelo geral de análise incluiu grupo de contemporâneo como efeito fixo; os coeficientes de regressão fixa para modelar a trajetória média da população; os coeficientes de regressão aleatória do efeito genético aditivo-direto, do comum-de-leitegada e do de ambiente permanente de animal; e o efeito aleatório residual. O teste da razão de verossimilhança, o critério de informação de Akaike e o critério de informação bayesiano de Schwarz apontaram o modelo que considerou homogeneidade de variância como o que proporcionou melhor ajuste aos dados utilizados. As herdabilidades obtidas foram próximas a zero (0,002 a 0,006. O efeito de ambiente permanente foi crescente da 1ª (0,06 à 5ª (0,28 ordem, mas decrescente desse ponto até a 7ª ordem (0,18. O comum-de-leitegada apresentou valores baixos (0,01 a 0,02. A utilização de homogeneidade de variância residual foi mais adequada para modelar as variâncias associadas à característica tamanho da leitegada ao nascer nesse conjunto de dado.The objective of this work was to compare random regression models with different residual variance structures, so as to obtain the best modeling for the trait litter size at birth (LSB in swine. One thousand, seven hundred and one records of LSB were analyzed. LSB was analyzed by means of a

  20. Initial Effects of Differently Treated Biogas Residues from Municipal and Industrial Wastes on Spring Barley Yield Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prays, Nadia; Kaupenjohann, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Soil application of biogas residues (BGRs) is important for closing nutrient cycles. This study examined the efficiency and impact on yields and yield formation of solid-liquid separated residues from biodegradable municipal and industrial wastes (bio-waste) in comparison to complete BGRs, nitrification inhibitor, agricultural BGRs, mineral fertilizer and unfertilized plots as control. The experiment was set up as a randomized block design on silt loam Cambisol. Biogas residues from four biogas plants were evaluated. Plants per m², ears per plant, grains per ear and thousand grain weight (TGW) were measured at harvest. Fertilization with BGRs resulted in similar biomass yields compared with mineral fertilizer. Mineral fertilizer (71 dt/ha) and plots fertilized with liquid fraction (59–62 dt/ha) indicated a trend to higher yields than solid fraction or complete BGR due to its high ammonia content. Liquid fractions and fraction with nitrification inhibitor induced fewer plants per m² than corresponding solid and complete variants due to a potential phytotoxicity of high NH4-N concentration during germination. However, barley on plots fertilized with liquid fraction compensated the disadvantages at the beginning during the vegetation period and induced higher grain yields than solid fraction. This was attributable to a higher number of ears per plant and grains per ear. In conclusion, BGRs from biodegradable municipal and industrial wastes can be used for soil fertilization and replace considerable amounts of mineral fertilizer. Our study showed that direct application of the liquid fraction of BGR is the most suitable strategy to achieve highest grain yields. Nevertheless potential phytotoxicity of the high NH4-N concentration in the liquid fraction should be considered. PMID:27116355

  1. Full investigation of patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) presenting to four different clinical specialties reveals significant differences and undiagnosed morbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivayoganathan, Dhakshana; Maruthini, Deivanayagam; Glanville, Julie M; Balen, Adam H

    2011-12-01

    This study aimed to compare the spectrum of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) symptoms in patients from four different specialist clinics. A prospective cross-sectional observational study. The study was conducted at the infertility, gynaecology, endocrine and dermatology clinics at Leeds General Infirmary, U.K. Seventy women presenting with features of PCOS: 20 from infertility, 17 from gynaecology, 17 from dermatology and 16 from endocrine clinics. Participants were assessed for symptoms and signs of PCOS and underwent a full endocrine and metabolic profile and a pelvic ultrasound scan. All subjects had experienced menstrual problems, 81% were overweight, 86% had polycystic ovaries on ultrasound, 56% had hirsutism, 53% had acne, 23% had acanthosis nigricans, 16% had alopecia and 38% had previously undiagnosed impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) or diabetes. A significant difference between the four clinic groups existed with regard to menstrual patterns (p = 0.0234), frequency distribution of presenting symptoms and the percentages of patients with PCOS who had already been diagnosed as having PCOS (p = 0.0088). This study emphasizes the importance of understanding the full spectrum of PCOS as presented to different specialty clinics. Not only is the syndrome under diagnosed but also are the significant associated morbidities such as IGT and type 2 diabetes. Different specialists need to appreciate the spectrum of health problems for women with PCOS that may extend beyond the specific symptoms that precipitated the initial referral.

  2. THE PROGNOSIS SIGNIFICANCE OF CATHEPSIN-D EXPRESSION IN THE DIFFERENT LOCATIONS IN AXILLARY NODES NEGATIVE CARCINOMA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate Cathepsin-D (Cath-D) expression in different location and its relationship with prognosis in the axillary lymph nodes negative (ANN) breast cancer patients. Methods: Cath-D expression in 192 cases of breast carcinoma were examined by immunohistochemistry. Depending on different parts of expression, three evaluating methods were used, compared and analysed. Results: The positive rate of Cath-D expression in ANN breast cancer with poor prognosis group and axillary nodes positive (ANP) group were significantly higher than that in ANN breast cancer with good prognosis group (x2=23.20, P0.05). Cath-D expression in stromal cells had no statistical difference among the three groups (x2=1.56, P>0.05). When the Cath-D expression in cancer and stromal cells were counted into the positive rate, it was near the same (u1=0.47, u2=1.41, P>0.05). Conclusion: These results suggest that Cath-D expression is one of the powerful prognostic markers in ANN breast cancer. It's a reliable, practical, and convenient method to observe and evaluate Cath-D expression in cancer cells.

  3. DIFFERENCES IN WATER VAPOR RADIATIVE TRANSFER AMONG 1D MODELS CAN SIGNIFICANTLY AFFECT THE INNER EDGE OF THE HABITABLE ZONE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jun; Wang, Yuwei [Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing (China); Leconte, Jérémy; Forget, François [Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique, Institut Pierre Simon Laplace, CNRS, Paris (France); Wolf, Eric T. [Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, University of Colorado in Boulder, CO (United States); Goldblatt, Colin [School of Earth and Ocean Sciences, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC (Canada); Feldl, Nicole [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, CA (United States); Merlis, Timothy [Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences at McGill University, Montréal (Canada); Koll, Daniel D. B.; Ding, Feng; Abbot, Dorian S., E-mail: junyang@pku.edu.cn, E-mail: abbot@uchicago.edu [Department of the Geophysical Sciences, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2016-08-01

    An accurate estimate of the inner edge of the habitable zone is critical for determining which exoplanets are potentially habitable and for designing future telescopes to observe them. Here, we explore differences in estimating the inner edge among seven one-dimensional radiative transfer models: two line-by-line codes (SMART and LBLRTM) as well as five band codes (CAM3, CAM4-Wolf, LMDG, SBDART, and AM2) that are currently being used in global climate models. We compare radiative fluxes and spectra in clear-sky conditions around G and M stars, with fixed moist adiabatic profiles for surface temperatures from 250 to 360 K. We find that divergences among the models arise mainly from large uncertainties in water vapor absorption in the window region (10 μ m) and in the region between 0.2 and 1.5 μ m. Differences in outgoing longwave radiation increase with surface temperature and reach 10–20 W m{sup 2}; differences in shortwave reach up to 60 W m{sup 2}, especially at the surface and in the troposphere, and are larger for an M-dwarf spectrum than a solar spectrum. Differences between the two line-by-line models are significant, although smaller than among the band models. Our results imply that the uncertainty in estimating the insolation threshold of the inner edge (the runaway greenhouse limit) due only to clear-sky radiative transfer is ≈10% of modern Earth’s solar constant (i.e., ≈34 W m{sup 2} in global mean) among band models and ≈3% between the two line-by-line models. These comparisons show that future work is needed that focuses on improving water vapor absorption coefficients in both shortwave and longwave, as well as on increasing the resolution of stellar spectra in broadband models.

  4. DIFFERENCES IN WATER VAPOR RADIATIVE TRANSFER AMONG 1D MODELS CAN SIGNIFICANTLY AFFECT THE INNER EDGE OF THE HABITABLE ZONE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Jun; Wang, Yuwei; Leconte, Jérémy; Forget, François; Wolf, Eric T.; Goldblatt, Colin; Feldl, Nicole; Merlis, Timothy; Koll, Daniel D. B.; Ding, Feng; Abbot, Dorian S.

    2016-01-01

    An accurate estimate of the inner edge of the habitable zone is critical for determining which exoplanets are potentially habitable and for designing future telescopes to observe them. Here, we explore differences in estimating the inner edge among seven one-dimensional radiative transfer models: two line-by-line codes (SMART and LBLRTM) as well as five band codes (CAM3, CAM4-Wolf, LMDG, SBDART, and AM2) that are currently being used in global climate models. We compare radiative fluxes and spectra in clear-sky conditions around G and M stars, with fixed moist adiabatic profiles for surface temperatures from 250 to 360 K. We find that divergences among the models arise mainly from large uncertainties in water vapor absorption in the window region (10 μ m) and in the region between 0.2 and 1.5 μ m. Differences in outgoing longwave radiation increase with surface temperature and reach 10–20 W m 2 ; differences in shortwave reach up to 60 W m 2 , especially at the surface and in the troposphere, and are larger for an M-dwarf spectrum than a solar spectrum. Differences between the two line-by-line models are significant, although smaller than among the band models. Our results imply that the uncertainty in estimating the insolation threshold of the inner edge (the runaway greenhouse limit) due only to clear-sky radiative transfer is ≈10% of modern Earth’s solar constant (i.e., ≈34 W m 2 in global mean) among band models and ≈3% between the two line-by-line models. These comparisons show that future work is needed that focuses on improving water vapor absorption coefficients in both shortwave and longwave, as well as on increasing the resolution of stellar spectra in broadband models.

  5. Comparison between asphaltenes fractions extracted from different asphaltic residue; Comparacao de fracoes de asfaltenos obtidas a partir de residuos asfalticos distintos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barreira, Fabio R.; Lucas, Elizabete F., E-mail: fabiorbarreira@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Ferreira, Silas R. [Clariant S/A, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Asphaltenes are blamed for various problems in the petroleum industry, especially formation of solid deposits and stabilization of water-in-oil emulsions. Due to the diversity and complexity of these structures, there is still much to be investigated in terms of characterization and stability. In this study, asphaltene subfractions were extracted from an asphaltic residue (AR02), characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), elemental analysis (CHN), X-ray fluorescence and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MS-TOF), and compared to previous results obtained for another asphaltic residue. The precipitation onset of (sub)fractions was assessed by optical microscopy. The results obtained indicate there are more differences than similarities between the asphaltene fractions obtained from the asphaltic residues of distinct origins, with respect to aromaticity, elemental composition (CHN), presence and content of hetero elements and average molar mass. On the matter of stability, it seems that small differences in molecules polarity provoke great differences on phase behavior of every isolated asphaltenes fractions. (author)

  6. Different Techniques of Respiratory Support Do Not Significantly Affect Gas Exchange during Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation in a Newborn Piglet Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendler, Marc R; Maurer, Miriam; Hassan, Mohammad A; Huang, Li; Waitz, Markus; Mayer, Benjamin; Hummler, Helmut D

    2015-01-01

    There are no evidence-based recommendations on the use of different techniques of respiratory support and chest compressions (CC) during neonatal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). We studied the short-term effects of different ventilatory support strategies along with CC representing clinical practice on gas exchange [arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2), arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2) and arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2)], hemodynamics and cerebral oxygenation. We hypothesized that in newborn piglets with cardiac arrest, use of a T-piece resuscitator (TPR) providing positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) improves gas exchange as measured by SaO2 during CPR as compared to using a self-inflating bag (SIB) without PEEP. Furthermore, we explored the effects of a mechanical ventilator without synchrony to CC. Thirty newborn piglets with asystole were randomized into three groups and resuscitated for 20 min [fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) = 0.21 for 10 min and 1.0 thereafter]. Group 1 received ventilation using a TPR [peak inspiratory pressure (PIP)/PEEP of 20/5 cm H2O, rate 30/min] with inflations interposed between CC (3:1 ratio). Group 2 received ventilation using a SIB (PIP of 20 cm H2O without PEEP, rate 30/min) with inflations interposed between CC (3:1 ratio). Group 3 received ventilation using a mechanical ventilator (PIP/PEEP of 20/5 cm H2O, rate 30/min). CC were applied with a rate of 120/min without synchrony to inflations. We found no significant differences in SaO2 between the three groups. However, there was a trend toward a higher SaO2 [TPR: 28.0% (22.3-40.0); SIB: 23.7% (13.4-52.3); ventilator: 44.1% (39.2-54.3); median (interquartile range)] and a lower PaCO2 [TPR: 95.6 mm Hg (82.1-113.6); SIB: 100.8 mm Hg (83.0-108.0); ventilator: 74.1 mm Hg (68.5-83.1); median (interquartile range)] in the mechanical ventilator group. We found no significant effect on gas exchange using different respiratory support strategies

  7. Do the levels of selected metals differ significantly between the roots of carious and non-carious teeth?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malara, Piotr; Kwapulinski, Jerzy; Malara, Beata

    2006-01-01

    Since the metals deposited in teeth during formation and mineralization processes are to a large extent retained, human teeth receive a considerable attention as the indicators of the heavy metal exposure. The use of permanent teeth is limited because the extraction of healthy permanent teeth just for this purpose is hardly acceptable. As the issue of the loss of elements from a carious lesion in the coronal part of a tooth remains controversial, the valuable material could only be the root of carious and fractured permanent teeth. However, to ensure the validity of the results, it should be ascertained that the levels of certain toxic and essential elements do not differ significantly between the roots of non-carious and carious teeth, and therefore this is the aim of this project. The levels of cadmium, chromium, copper, iron, manganese, lead, zinc, potassium, sodium, calcium and magnesium were determined in the roots of 344 permanent teeth (189 carious and 155 caries-free teeth) from the residents of Ruda Slaska, Poland, aged 18 to 34. No statistically significant difference between the concentration of these metals in the roots of non-carious and carious teeth was found. This finding applies to both the general population and after the grouping by donor's gender and tooth type. The concentration of lead, iron, calcium and manganese in the roots of non-carious and carious teeth exhibited dependence upon tooth type, as well as the concentration of potassium in the roots of carious teeth. Since the mineral composition of the roots of permanent teeth is similar for the non-carious, as well as the carious teeth, they can be indiscriminately selected for the tests required by a research project, as they will produce the comparable results. However, in the case of lead, iron, calcium, potassium and manganese, the comparison should be made after grouping by tooth type

  8. A cation-π interaction at a phenylalanine residue in the glycine receptor binding site is conserved for different agonists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pless, Stephan Alexander; Hanek, Ariele P; Price, Kerry L

    2011-01-01

    . In the current study, we investigated whether the lower efficacy agonists of the human GlyR β-alanine and taurine also form cation-π interactions with Phe159. By incorporating a series of unnatural amino acids, we found cation-π interactions between Phe159 and the amino groups of β-alanine and taurine....... The strengths of these interactions were significantly weaker than for glycine. Modeling studies suggest that β-alanine and taurine are orientated subtly differently in the binding pocket, with their amino groups further from Phe159 than that of glycine. These data therefore show that similar agonists can have...... similar but not identical orientations and interactions in the binding pocket and provide a possible explanation for the lower potencies of β-alanine and taurine....

  9. Quantifying Forest Spatial Pattern Trends at Multiple Extents: An Approach to Detect Significant Changes at Different Scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludovico Frate

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We propose a procedure to detect significant changes in forest spatial patterns and relevant scales. Our approach consists of four sequential steps. First, based on a series of multi-temporal forest maps, a set of geographic windows of increasing extents are extracted. Second, for each extent and date, specific stochastic simulations that replicate real-world spatial pattern characteristics are run. Third, by computing pattern metrics on both simulated and real maps, their empirical distributions and confidence intervals are derived. Finally, multi-temporal scalograms are built for each metric. Based on cover maps (1954, 2011 with a resolution of 10 m we analyze forest pattern changes in a central Apennines (Italy reserve at multiple spatial extents (128, 256 and 512 pixels. We identify three types of multi-temporal scalograms, depending on pattern metric behaviors, describing different dynamics of natural reforestation process. The statistical distribution and variability of pattern metrics at multiple extents offers a new and powerful tool to detect forest variations over time. Similar procedures can (i help to identify significant changes in spatial patterns and provide the bases to relate them to landscape processes; (ii minimize the bias when comparing pattern metrics at a single extent and (iii be extended to other landscapes and scales.

  10. The clinical significance of axillary sentinel lymph node biopsy in different clinical stages breast cancer patients after neoadjuvant chemotherapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juan Xu; Xinhong Wu; Yaojun Feng; Feng Yuan; Wei Fan

    2013-01-01

    Objective:We aimed to study the success and false negative rate of sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) in dif-ferent clinical stages breast cancer patients being carried out with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC), and the clinical signifi-cance of SLNB, we conducting this trial. Methods:One hunderd and thirty-seven cases were enrol ed in this clinical research from March 2003 to March 2007. Al of the patients’ sentinel lymph nodes were detected with 99mTc-Dx and methylene blue. There were 61 patients with stage T1-2N0M0 carried SLNB without NAC (group A), 76 cases were carried out NAC 3-4 cycles before SLNB, including 39 T2-4N0-1M0 cases (group B) and 27 T2-4N2-3M0 cases (group C). The success and false negative rate of SLNB were analysed with chi-square test. Results:In group A, the successful and false negative rate of SLNB were 92.31%(36/39), 8.57%(3/35), and in group B and C were 92.31%(36/39), 8.57%(3/35) and 74.07%(20/27), 18.52%(5/27), respectively. The successful rate of group C decreased and false negative rate increased significantly compared with group A and B (P0.05). Conclusion:The SLNB can accurately predict lymph node status of axil ary lymph node in N0-1 stage patients with NAC, but in N2-3 stage patients the success rate decreased and false rate increased negative significantly.

  11. Difference of ore-bearing and non-ore-bearing pegmatite in the Guangshigou area and its research significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuo Wenqian; Zhang Zhanshi; Sha Yazhou; Rao Chaojun

    2011-01-01

    Guangshigou uranium deposit is one of the typical granite-pegmatite uranium deposits in China, the ore-body are located in the density zone of the outside contact zone of granite pluton. To distinguish the ore-bearing and Non-ore-bearing pegmatite is one of the most practices and have great significance for the effect of mineral exploration. Based on the field investigation and former research results, contrast research on the characteristics of the pegmatite on petrology, geophysical, geochemistry and stable isotopes have been carried out. It is pointed out that the ore-bearing pegmatite differ from the non-ore-bearing one from macro-and-micro-view in Guangshigou Uranium deposits, the main characteristics are summarized; the macro-and-micro signs are established, the genetic difference between the ore-bearing and non-ore-bearing pegmatite are discussed primarily. The achievements would be helpful for prospecting and researching of this type uranium deposits in China. (authors)

  12. The Urinary Microbiome Differs Significantly Between Patients With Chronic Prostatitis/Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome and Controls as Well as Between Patients With Different Clinical Phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoskes, Daniel A; Altemus, Jessica; Polackwich, Alan S; Tucky, Barbara; Wang, Hannah; Eng, Charis

    2016-06-01

    To study the urinary microbiome of patients with Chronic Prostatitis/Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome (CP/CPPS) compared with controls. We identified 25 patients with CP/CPPS and 25 men who were either asymptomatic or only had urinary symptoms. Midstream urine was collected. Symptom severity was measured with the National Institutes of Health Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index and clinical phenotype with UPOINT. Total DNA was extracted from the urine pellet and bacterial-specific 16Sr-DNA-capture identified by MiSeq sequencing. Taxonomic and functional bioinformatic analyses used principal coordinate analysis (PCoA)/MacQIIME, LEfSe, and PiCRUSt algorithms. Patients and controls were similar ages (52.3 vs 57.0 years, P = .27). For patients, median duration was 48 months, mean Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index was 26.0, and mean UPOINT domains was 3.6. Weighted 3D UniFrac PCoA revealed tighter clustering of controls distinct from the wider clustering of cases (P = .001; α-diversity P = .005). Seventeen clades were overrepresented in patients, for example, Clostridia, and 5 were underrepresented, eg, Bacilli, resulting in predicted perturbations in functional pathways. PiCRUSt inferred differentially regulated pathways between cases and controls that may be of relevance including sporulation, chemotaxis, and pyruvate metabolism. PCoA-derived microbiomic differences were noted for neurologic/systemic domains (P = .06), whereas LEfSe identified differences associated with each of the 6 clinical features. Urinary microbiomes from patients with CP/CPPS have significantly higher alpha(phylogenetic) diversity which cluster differently from controls, and higher counts of Clostridia compared with controls, resulting in predicted perturbations of functional pathways which could suggest metabolite-specific targeted treatment. Several measures of severity and clinical phenotype have significant microbiome differences. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  13. A survey of 17α-ethinylestradiol and mestranol residues in Hawkesbury River, Australia, using a highly specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) demonstrates the levels of potential biological significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uraipong, Chatchaporn; Allan, Robin D; Li, Chunhua; Kennedy, Ivan R; Wong, Victor; Lee, Nanju Alice

    2017-10-01

    This study reports on the potential status of 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) and mestranol (MeEE2) residues in aquatic environments in New South Wales (NSW), Australia, based on the analysis by a specific ELISA we developed. Polyclonal antibodies were raised against the EE2 hapten with a linker attached at the C3-position to direct the antibody binding towards the ring D of EE2/MeEE2. Using this approach, an ELISA highly specific to EE2 and MeEE2 was successfully developed, showing less than 3.1% cross-reactivity (% CR) with other major steroidal sex hormones and their derivatives. The assay performed with the limit of detection (LOD) of 0.04 ± 0.01µg/L for both EE2 and MeEE2, and the limit of quantitation (LOQ) of 0.05 ± 0.01ng/L when it was coupled with the SM2-Biobeads solid phase extraction. Prior to conducting the survey study, it was validated against the gas chromatography-mass spectrophotometry (GC-MS) method, which showed high correlation with R 2 of 0.934. Fresh surface water samples collected at different sites along Hawkesbury River in New South Wales (NSW) were analyzed for the EE2/ MeEE2 residues using the developed ELISA. The EE2/MeEE2 levels were found to range between 4.1 and 8.3ng/L in Emigrant Creek, NSW, where the primary activity was macadamia plantation, and higher levels between 15 and 29ng/L in South Creek, NSW, Greater Western Sydney at sites upstream and downstream of the municipal sewage treatment plants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. A Comparison of Curing Process-Induced Residual Stresses and Cure Shrinkage in Micro-Scale Composite Structures with Different Constitutive Laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dongna; Li, Xudong; Dai, Jianfeng; Xi, Shangbin

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, three kinds of constitutive laws, elastic, "cure hardening instantaneously linear elastic (CHILE)" and viscoelastic law, are used to predict curing process-induced residual stress for the thermoset polymer composites. A multi-physics coupling finite element analysis (FEA) model implementing the proposed three approaches is established in COMSOL Multiphysics-Version 4.3b. The evolution of thermo-physical properties with temperature and degree of cure (DOC), which improved the accuracy of numerical simulations, and cure shrinkage are taken into account for the three models. Subsequently, these three proposed constitutive models are implemented respectively in a 3D micro-scale composite laminate structure. Compared the differences between these three numerical results, it indicates that big error in residual stress and cure shrinkage generates by elastic model, but the results calculated by the modified CHILE model are in excellent agreement with those estimated by the viscoelastic model.

  15. Residual stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahotra, I.M.

    2006-01-01

    The principal effect of unloading a material strained into the plastic range is to create a permanent set (plastic deformation), which if restricted somehow, gives rise to a system of self-balancing within the same member or reaction balanced by other members of the structure., known as residual stresses. These stresses stay there as locked-in stresses, in the body or a part of it in the absence of any external loading. Residual stresses are induced during hot-rolling and welding differential cooling, cold-forming and extruding: cold straightening and spot heating, fabrication and forced fitting of components constraining the structure to a particular geometry. The areas which cool more quickly develop residual compressive stresses, while the slower cooling areas develop residual tensile stresses, and a self-balancing or reaction balanced system of residual stresses is formed. The phenomenon of residual stresses is the most challenging in its application in surface modification techniques determining endurance mechanism against fracture and fatigue failures. This paper discusses the mechanism of residual stresses, that how the residual stresses are fanned and what their behavior is under the action of external forces. Such as in the case of a circular bar under limit torque, rectangular beam under limt moment, reclaiming of shafts welds and peening etc. (author)

  16. Evaluation of residue-residue contact predictions in CASP9

    KAUST Repository

    Monastyrskyy, Bohdan; Fidelis, Krzysztof; Tramontano, Anna; Kryshtafovych, Andriy

    2011-01-01

    This work presents the results of the assessment of the intramolecular residue-residue contact predictions submitted to CASP9. The methodology for the assessment does not differ from that used in previous CASPs, with two basic evaluation measures

  17. Impact of inter- and intrafraction deviations and residual set-up errors on PTV margins. Different alignment techniques in 3D conformal prostate cancer radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langsenlehner, T.; Doeller, C.; Winkler, P.; Kapp, K.S.; Galle, G.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work was to analyze interfraction and intrafraction deviations and residual set-up errors (RSE) after online repositioning to determine PTV margins for 3 different alignment techniques in prostate cancer radiotherapy. The present prospective study included 44 prostate cancer patients with implanted fiducials treated with three-dimensional (3D) conformal radiotherapy. Daily localization was based on skin marks followed by marker detection using kilovoltage (kV) imaging and subsequent patient repositioning. Additionally, in-treatment megavoltage (MV) images were obtained for each treatment field. In an off-line analysis of 7,273 images, interfraction prostate motion, RSE after marker-based prostate localization, prostate position during each treatment session, and the effect of treatment time on intrafraction deviations were analyzed to evaluate PTV margins. Margins accounting for interfraction deviation, RSE and intrafraction motion were 14.1, 12.9, and 15.1 mm in anterior-posterior (AP), superior-inferior (SI), and left-right (LR) direction for skin mark alignment and 9.6, 8.7, and 2.6 mm for bony structure alignment, respectively. Alignment to implanted markers required margins of 4.6, 2.8, and 2.5 mm. As margins to account for intrafraction motion increased with treatment prolongation PTV margins could be reduced to 3.9, 2.6, and 2.4 mm if treatment time was ≤ 4 min. With daily online correction and repositioning based on implanted fiducials, a significant reduction of PTV margins can be achieved. The use of an optimized workflow with faster treatment techniques such as volumetric modulated arc techniques (VMAT) could allow for a further decrease. (orig.)

  18. Religious Freedom and Equality as Celebration of Difference: A Significant Development in Recent South African Constitutional Case-Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L du Plessis

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This contribution focuses on the way in which the South African Constitutional Court has, since 1997, been dealing with the (seemingly eccentric claims of (assumedly idiosyncratic 'religious Others'. Developments in this regard have, for the time being at least, culminated in the Constitutional Court's landmark judgment in MEC for Education: KwaZulu Natal v Pillay 2008 (2 BCLR 99 (CC, 2008 (1 SA 474 (CC (hereafter Pillay. Constitutional Court judgments since 1997 manifesting the adjudication of such unconventional claims are assessed, eventually getting to Pillay as benchmark. This remarkable judgment, dealing with a deceptively mundane issue, has played a considerable role in fleshing out a jurisprudence of difference, putting an adherent of a vulnerable, minority religion in the right. This is not just a high point in the adjudication of constitutional entitlements of the religious (and cultural Other in South Africa, but also a significant contribution to the growth of a jurisprudence sensitive to the predicaments and constitutional entitlements of unconventional, 'non-mainstream' claimants of religious (and cultural rights. Finally Pillay illustrates that the constitutional guarantee of the right to freedom of religion, conscience, belief and opinion (entrenched in section 15(1 of the Constitution of Republic of South Africa 1996 can be crucially dependent upon due effect being given to the proscription of unfair discrimination on the grounds of religion, conscience, belief and opinion elsewhere (namely in section 9(3 of the Constitution.

  19. Determination of radon partition coefficients between water and different kinds of NAPLs for use in analysis of residual soil NAPLs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonfim, Sarah Andresa; Ferreira, Ângela Fortini Macedo, E-mail: sarah_andresa@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal de Migas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear; Franklin, Mariza Ramalho; Ferreira, Paulo Roberto Rocha [Instituto de Radioproteção e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Rocha, Zildete, E-mail: zildeter7@gmail.com [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Different studies indicate the applicability of natural radon as a tracer in the determination of contaminated environments by Non-Aqueous Phase Liquids (NAPLs). Such use being due to the non-homogeneous distribution of this element between water, air and NAPL. Thus, it is known that the concentration of radon in a given soil / aquifer and in a given area may indicate that such site is contaminated by NAPL. However, the simple measurement of radon concentration activity allows only a qualitative evaluation of the area contaminated in study. For a quantitative estimate of the NAPL saturation in the pore space, it is necessary to know the radon partition coefficients between the coexisting phases, considering the kind of NAPL present. The present study, the radon partitioning coefficients between air, water and diverse types of NAPL mixtures, such as gasoline, diesel fuel, alcohol, kerosene and olive oil was measured. In a closed system, was applied an analytical method based on the distribution of the radon between the present phases with the use of a system of Flow Injection Analysis (FIA). The measurement of the specific activity of radon was performed by using an AlphaGUARD monitor. It is observed that, in the presence of NAPL, the concentration of radon in water and air is significantly lower than in its absence, indicating a negative correlation and allowing the evaluation of the contamination of the area by NAPL. (author)

  20. Determination of radon partition coefficients between water and different kinds of NAPLs for use in analysis of residual soil NAPLs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonfim, Sarah Andresa; Ferreira, Ângela Fortini Macedo; Rocha, Zildete

    2017-01-01

    Different studies indicate the applicability of natural radon as a tracer in the determination of contaminated environments by Non-Aqueous Phase Liquids (NAPLs). Such use being due to the non-homogeneous distribution of this element between water, air and NAPL. Thus, it is known that the concentration of radon in a given soil / aquifer and in a given area may indicate that such site is contaminated by NAPL. However, the simple measurement of radon concentration activity allows only a qualitative evaluation of the area contaminated in study. For a quantitative estimate of the NAPL saturation in the pore space, it is necessary to know the radon partition coefficients between the coexisting phases, considering the kind of NAPL present. The present study, the radon partitioning coefficients between air, water and diverse types of NAPL mixtures, such as gasoline, diesel fuel, alcohol, kerosene and olive oil was measured. In a closed system, was applied an analytical method based on the distribution of the radon between the present phases with the use of a system of Flow Injection Analysis (FIA). The measurement of the specific activity of radon was performed by using an AlphaGUARD monitor. It is observed that, in the presence of NAPL, the concentration of radon in water and air is significantly lower than in its absence, indicating a negative correlation and allowing the evaluation of the contamination of the area by NAPL. (author)

  1. Residual stress determination in oxide layers at different length scales combining Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction: Application to chromia-forming metallic alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerain, Mathieu; Grosseau-Poussard, Jean-Luc; Geandier, Guillaume; Panicaud, Benoit; Tamura, Nobumichi; Kunz, Martin; Dejoie, Catherine; Micha, Jean-Sebastien; Thiaudière, Dominique; Goudeau, Philippe

    2017-11-01

    In oxidizing environments, the protection of metals and alloys against further oxidation at high temperature is provided by the oxide film itself. This protection is efficient only if the formed film adheres well to the metal (substrate), i.e., without microcracks and spalls induced by thermomechanical stresses. In this study, the residual stresses at both macroscopic and microscopic scales in the oxide film adhering to the substrate and over the damaged areas have been rigorously determined on the same samples for both techniques. Ni-30Cr and Fe-47Cr alloys have been oxidized together at 900 and 1000 °C, respectively, to create films with a thickness of a few microns. A multi-scale approach was adopted: macroscopic stress was determined by conventional X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy, while microscopic residual stress mappings were performed over different types of bucklings using Raman micro-spectroscopy and synchrotron micro-diffraction. A very good agreement is found at macro- and microscales between the residual stress values obtained with both techniques, giving confidence on the reliability of the measurements. In addition, relevant structural information at the interface between the metallic substrate and the oxide layer was collected by micro-diffraction, a non-destructive technique that allows mapping through the oxide layer, and both the grain size and the crystallographic orientation of the supporting polycrystalline metal located either under a buckling or not were measured.

  2. Identification of residues of FpvA involved in the different steps of Pvd-Fe uptake in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nader, Mirella; Dobbelaere, Wim; Vincent, Michel; Journet, Laure; Adams, Hendrik; Cobessi, David; Gallay, Jacques; Schalk, Isabelle J

    2007-10-23

    FpvA is an outer membrane transporter involved in iron uptake by the siderophore pyoverdine (Pvd) in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This transporter, like all other proteins of the same family, consists of a transmembrane 22 beta-stranded barrel occluded by a plug domain. The beta-strands of the barrel are connected by large extracellular loops and short periplasmic turns. Site-directed mutagenesis was carried out on FpvA to identify the extracellular loops or parts of these loops involved in the various stages of Pvd-Fe uptake. The G286C, W362C, and W434C mutations in loops L1, L3, and L4, respectively, disturbed the binding of the apo siderophore, as shown by time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. Iron uptake experiments followed by fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) or using 55Fe indicated that residues W434 and G701 and, therefore, loops L4 and L9 must be involved in Pvd-Fe uptake by FpvA. The two corresponding mutants incorporated smaller than normal amounts of 55Fe into cells, and no Pvd recycling on FpvA was observed after iron release. Surprisingly, the S603C mutation in loop L7 increased the amount of Pvd-Fe transported. Our results suggest that W434 (L4), S603 (L7), and G701 (L9) are involved in the mechanism of Pvd-Fe uptake.

  3. Residual stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macherauch, E.

    1978-01-01

    Residual stresses are stresses which exist in a material without the influence of external powers and moments. They come into existence when the volume of a material constantly changes its form as a consequence of mechanical, thermal, and/or chemical processes and is hindered by neighbouring volumes. Bodies with residual stress are in mechanical balance. These residual stresses can be manifested by means of all mechanical interventions disturbing this balance. Acoustical, optical, radiological, and magnetical methods involving material changes caused by residual stress can also serve for determining residual stress. Residual stresses have an ambivalent character. In technical practice, they are feared and liked at the same time. They cause trouble because they can be the cause for unexpected behaviour of construction elements. They are feared since they can cause failure, in the worst case with catastrophical consequences. They are appreciated, on the other hand, because, in many cases, they can contribute to improvements of the material behaviour under certain circumstances. But they are especially liked for their giving convenient and (this is most important) mostly uncontrollable explanations. For only in very few cases we have enough knowledge and possibilities for the objective evaluation of residual stresses. (orig.) [de

  4. Evidence for the different physiological significance of the 6- and 2-minute walk tests in multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motl Robert W

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Researchers have recently advocated for the 2-minute walk (2MW as an alternative for the 6-minute walk (6MW to assess long distance ambulation in persons with multiple sclerosis (MS. This recommendation has not been based on physiological considerations such as the rate of oxygen consumption (V·O2 over the 6MW range. Objective This study examined the pattern of change in V·O2 over the range of the 6MW in a large sample of persons with MS who varied as a function of disability status. Method Ninety-five persons with clinically-definite MS underwent a neurological examination for generating an Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS score, and then completion of the 6MW protocol while wearing a portable metabolic unit and an accelerometer. Results There was a time main effect on V·O2 during the 6MW (p = .0001 such that V·O2 increased significantly every 30 seconds over the first 3 minutes of the 6MW, and then remained stable over the second 3 minutes of the 6MW. This occurred despite no change in cadence across the 6MW (p = .84. Conclusions The pattern of change in V·O2 indicates that there are different metabolic systems providing energy for ambulation during the 6MW in MS subjects and steady state aerobic metabolism is reached during the last 3 minutes of the 6MW. By extension, the first 3 minutes would represent a test of mixed aerobic and anaerobic work, whereas the second 3 minutes would represent a test of aerobic work during walking.

  5. Analysis of binding properties and specificity through identification of the interface forming residues (IFR for serine proteases in silico docked to different inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    da Silveira Carlos H

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Enzymes belonging to the same super family of proteins in general operate on variety of substrates and are inhibited by wide selection of inhibitors. In this work our main objective was to expand the scope of studies that consider only the catalytic and binding pocket amino acids while analyzing enzyme specificity and instead, include a wider category which we have named the Interface Forming Residues (IFR. We were motivated to identify those amino acids with decreased accessibility to solvent after docking of different types of inhibitors to sub classes of serine proteases and then create a table (matrix of all amino acid positions at the interface as well as their respective occupancies. Our goal is to establish a platform for analysis of the relationship between IFR characteristics and binding properties/specificity for bi-molecular complexes. Results We propose a novel method for describing binding properties and delineating serine proteases specificity by compiling an exhaustive table of interface forming residues (IFR for serine proteases and their inhibitors. Currently, the Protein Data Bank (PDB does not contain all the data that our analysis would require. Therefore, an in silico approach was designed for building corresponding complexes The IFRs are obtained by "rigid body docking" among 70 structurally aligned, sequence wise non-redundant, serine protease structures with 3 inhibitors: bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI, ecotine and ovomucoid third domain inhibitor. The table (matrix of all amino acid positions at the interface and their respective occupancy is created. We also developed a new computational protocol for predicting IFRs for those complexes which were not deciphered experimentally so far, achieving accuracy of at least 0.97. Conclusions The serine proteases interfaces prefer polar (including glycine residues (with some exceptions. Charged residues were found to be uniquely prevalent at the

  6. Analysis of binding properties and specificity through identification of the interface forming residues (IFR) for serine proteases in silico docked to different inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Cristina; Togawa, Roberto C; Neshich, Izabella A P; Mazoni, Ivan; Mancini, Adauto L; Minardi, Raquel C de Melo; da Silveira, Carlos H; Jardine, José G; Santoro, Marcelo M; Neshich, Goran

    2010-10-20

    Enzymes belonging to the same super family of proteins in general operate on variety of substrates and are inhibited by wide selection of inhibitors. In this work our main objective was to expand the scope of studies that consider only the catalytic and binding pocket amino acids while analyzing enzyme specificity and instead, include a wider category which we have named the Interface Forming Residues (IFR). We were motivated to identify those amino acids with decreased accessibility to solvent after docking of different types of inhibitors to sub classes of serine proteases and then create a table (matrix) of all amino acid positions at the interface as well as their respective occupancies. Our goal is to establish a platform for analysis of the relationship between IFR characteristics and binding properties/specificity for bi-molecular complexes. We propose a novel method for describing binding properties and delineating serine proteases specificity by compiling an exhaustive table of interface forming residues (IFR) for serine proteases and their inhibitors. Currently, the Protein Data Bank (PDB) does not contain all the data that our analysis would require. Therefore, an in silico approach was designed for building corresponding complexes. The IFRs are obtained by "rigid body docking" among 70 structurally aligned, sequence wise non-redundant, serine protease structures with 3 inhibitors: bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI), ecotine and ovomucoid third domain inhibitor. The table (matrix) of all amino acid positions at the interface and their respective occupancy is created. We also developed a new computational protocol for predicting IFRs for those complexes which were not deciphered experimentally so far, achieving accuracy of at least 0.97. The serine proteases interfaces prefer polar (including glycine) residues (with some exceptions). Charged residues were found to be uniquely prevalent at the interfaces between the "miscellaneous-virus" subfamily

  7. Long-term C-CO2 emissions and carbon crop residue mineralization in an oxisol under different tillage and crop rotation systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben-Hur Costa de Campos

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Soil C-CO2 emissions are sensitive indicators of management system impacts on soil organic matter (SOM. The main soil C-CO2 sources at the soil-plant interface are the decomposition of crop residues, SOM turnover, and respiration of roots and soil biota. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the impacts of tillage and cropping systems on long-term soil C-CO2 emissions and their relationship with carbon (C mineralization of crop residues. A long-term experiment was conducted in a Red Oxisol in Cruz Alta, RS, Brazil, with subtropical climate Cfa (Köppen classification, mean annual precipitation of 1,774 mm and mean annual temperature of 19.2 ºC. Treatments consisted of two tillage systems: (a conventional tillage (CT and (b no tillage (NT in combination with three cropping systems: (a R0- monoculture system (soybean/wheat, (b R1- winter crop rotation (soybean/wheat/soybean/black oat, and (c R2- intensive crop rotation (soybean/ black oat/soybean/black oat + common vetch/maize/oilseed radish/wheat. The soil C-CO2 efflux was measured every 14 days for two years (48 measurements, by trapping the CO2 in an alkaline solution. The soil gravimetric moisture in the 0-0.05 m layer was determined concomitantly with the C-CO2 efflux measurements. The crop residue C mineralization was evaluated with the mesh-bag method, with sampling 14, 28, 56, 84, 112, and 140 days after the beginning of the evaluation period for C measurements. Four C conservation indexes were used to assess the relation between C-CO2 efflux and soil C stock and its compartments. The crop residue C mineralization fit an exponential model in time. For black oat, wheat and maize residues, C mineralization was higher in CT than NT, while for soybean it was similar. Soil moisture was higher in NT than CT, mainly in the second year of evaluation. There was no difference in tillage systems for annual average C-CO2 emissions, but in some individual evaluations, differences between

  8. Analysis of copy number variations in Holstein cows identify potential mechanisms contributing to differences in residual feed intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Yali; Bickhart, Derek M; Chung, Hoyoung; Hutchison, Jana L; Norman, H Duane; Connor, Erin E; Liu, George E

    2012-11-01

    Genomic structural variation is an important and abundant source of genetic and phenotypic variation. In this study, we performed an initial analysis of copy number variations (CNVs) using BovineHD SNP genotyping data from 147 Holstein cows identified as having high or low feed efficiency as estimated by residual feed intake (RFI). We detected 443 candidate CNV regions (CNVRs) that represent 18.4 Mb (0.6 %) of the genome. To investigate the functional impacts of CNVs, we created two groups of 30 individual animals with extremely low or high estimated breeding values (EBVs) for RFI, and referred to these groups as low intake (LI; more efficient) or high intake (HI; less efficient), respectively. We identified 240 (~9.0 Mb) and 274 (~10.2 Mb) CNVRs from LI and HI groups, respectively. Approximately 30-40 % of the CNVRs were specific to the LI group or HI group of animals. The 240 LI CNVRs overlapped with 137 Ensembl genes. Network analyses indicated that the LI-specific genes were predominantly enriched for those functioning in the inflammatory response and immunity. By contrast, the 274 HI CNVRs contained 177 Ensembl genes. Network analyses indicated that the HI-specific genes were particularly involved in the cell cycle, and organ and bone development. These results relate CNVs to two key variables, namely immune response and organ and bone development. The data indicate that greater feed efficiency relates more closely to immune response, whereas cattle with reduced feed efficiency may have a greater capacity for organ and bone development.

  9. The differences in hadronic cross-sections and the residues of secondary reggeons in the quark-gluon model for strong interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaidalov, A.B.; Volkovitsky, P.E.

    1981-01-01

    In the framework of the quark-gluon picture for strong interactions based on the topological expansion and the string model, the relations between t differences of hadronic cross- section are obtained. The system of equations for the contribution of secondary reggeons (rho, ω, f, A 2 and phi and f' poles) to the elastic scattering amplitudes for arbitrary hadrons is derived. It is shown that this system has a factorized solution and the secondary reggeon residues for all hadrons are expressed in terms of the universal function g(t). The model predictions are in a good agreement with experimental data [ru

  10. Quarter-Sweep Iteration Concept on Conjugate Gradient Normal Residual Method via Second Order Quadrature - Finite Difference Schemes for Solving Fredholm Integro-Differential Equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aruchunan, E.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we have examined the effectiveness of the quarter-sweep iteration concept on conjugate gradient normal residual (CGNR) iterative method by using composite Simpson's (CS) and finite difference (FD) discretization schemes in solving Fredholm integro-differential equations. For comparison purposes, Gauss- Seidel (GS) and the standard or full- and half-sweep CGNR methods namely FSCGNR and HSCGNR are also presented. To validate the efficacy of the proposed method, several analyses were carried out such as computational complexity and percentage reduction on the proposed and existing methods. (author)

  11. Acceptability and perceived side effects of insecticide indoor residual spraying under different resistance management strategies Aceptabilidad y efectos secundarios percibidos del rociado residual intradomiciliario de insecticidas bajo diferentes esquemas de manejo de resistencia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Américo David Rodríguez

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess household acceptability and perceived side effects of residual indoor pyrethroid (PYR, carbamate and organophosphate insecticides sprayed by annual rotation (ROT, spatial mosaic (MOS, and a single insecticide (DDT or PYR in communities of the coastal plain of Chiapas, Mexico. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A questionnaire to assess the acceptability and perceived side effects of indoor insecticides was administered to one member of 30% of the families in eight villages of Chiapas. The association of different insecticide treatments with their responses was evaluated (Chi-square. The intensity of side effects indicated under different treatments was compared in an ordered logistic model, using a severity index as the response variable. RESULTS: Insecticide spraying as a probable cause of symptoms was identified by 2.1% of interviewees. A significantly high percentage of persons with blurred vision, dizziness, sneezing, coughing, numbness, watery eyes, and itching lived in villages under MOS and ROT and a high severity index was significantly associated with ROT treatment. Reduction of mosquito bites and cockroaches were the perceived main benefits, and most villagers that perceived no benefits lived in DDT treated villages. Most of the interviewees welcomed spraying (83.7%, but the smell and having to remove furniture from houses were the main arguments against it. CONCLUSIONS: Acceptability correlated with insecticide spray coverage, although the most frequent suggestion for improvement was to increase the understanding of the objectives of spraying in the communities. The frequency of side effects was low, but higher in localities where a combination of insecticides was applied. This is a limitation for the use of this type of resistance management strategy in public health.OBJETIVO: Evaluar la aceptabilidad y los efectos secundarios del rociado intradomiciliar de insecticidas pyrethroides (PYR, carbamato y organophosphato rociados

  12. Cytogenetical and morphological features reveal significant differences among Venezuelan and Brazilian samples of Mugil curema (Teleostei: Mugilidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Nirchio

    Full Text Available Karyotype of M. curema from the Gulf of Mexico and Brazil have been reported as possessing chromosome complement with 2n=28 and FN=48, whereas specimens from Venezuela has been reported as possessing a diploid number 2n=24 and a conserved FN (48. Although at first sight this variation suggests the presence of a chromosomal intraspecific (interpopulational variability, the possibility that we are dealing with two different species was examined. This work revisit the karyotypes of M. curema from Venezuela and Brazil, including new data on C-banding, and NOR localization, and compares morphologic characteristics of samples from both localities. Thus, besides diploid number, the constitutive heterochromatin distribution and NORs location, mark other differences between M. curema Cytotype 1 (2n=28; FN=48 and Cytotype 2 (2n=24; NF=48. Moreover, morphologic comparison revealed differences in the scale counts and pectoral fin rays: 35 scales in the middle body line and 15 pectoral fin rays in specimens possessing the karyotype 2n=28, compared with 37-39 scales in the middle body line and 17 pectoral fin rays in specimens with the karyotype 2n=24. These differences lead us to suggest that both cytotypes are not related merely to geographic polytipic variations but could correspond to different species.

  13. [Different explanatory models for addictive behavior in Turkish and German youths in Germany: significance for prevention and treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penka, S; Krieg, S; Hunner, Ch; Heinz, A

    2003-07-01

    Due to cultural and social barriers, immigrants seldom frequent centers for information, counseling, and treatment of addictive disorders. We examine cultural differences in the explanatory models of addictive behavior among Turkish and German youths in Germany with statistical devices that map the concepts associated with problems of addiction. Relevant differences were found between the disorder concepts of Turkish and German youth. German but not Turkish youths classified eating disorders among severe addictive disorders and associated them with embarrassment and shame. Concerning substance abuse, German but not Turkish youths clearly differentiated between illegal drug abuse and the abuse of alcohol and nicotine. Nearly half of all Turkish youths rejected central medical concepts such as "physical dependence" or "reduced control of substance intake" as completely inadequate to characterize problems of addictive behavior. Preventive information programs must consider these differences and use concepts that are accepted and clearly associated with addictive behavior by immigrant populations.

  14. Kir6.2 activation by sulfonylurea receptors: a different mechanism of action for SUR1 and SUR2A subunits via the same residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Principalli, Maria A; Dupuis, Julien P; Moreau, Christophe J; Vivaudou, Michel; Revilloud, Jean

    2015-01-01

    ATP-sensitive potassium channels (K-ATP channels) play a key role in adjusting the membrane potential to the metabolic state of cells. They result from the unique combination of two proteins: the sulfonylurea receptor (SUR), an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) protein, and the inward rectifier K+ channel Kir6.2. Both subunits associate to form a heterooctamer (4 SUR/4 Kir6.2). SUR modulates channel gating in response to the binding of nucleotides or drugs and Kir6.2 conducts potassium ions. The activity of K-ATP channels varies with their localization. In pancreatic β-cells, SUR1/Kir6.2 channels are partly active at rest while in cardiomyocytes SUR2A/Kir6.2 channels are mostly closed. This divergence of function could be related to differences in the interaction of SUR1 and SUR2A with Kir6.2. Three residues (E1305, I1310, L1313) located in the linker region between transmembrane domain 2 and nucleotide-binding domain 2 of SUR2A were previously found to be involved in the activation pathway linking binding of openers onto SUR2A and channel opening. To determine the role of the equivalent residues in the SUR1 isoform, we designed chimeras between SUR1 and the ABC transporter multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (MRP1), and used patch clamp recordings on Xenopus oocytes to assess the functionality of SUR1/MRP1 chimeric K-ATP channels. Our results reveal that the same residues in SUR1 and SUR2A are involved in the functional association with Kir6.2, but they display unexpected side-chain specificities which could account for the contrasted properties of pancreatic and cardiac K-ATP channels. PMID:26416970

  15. Organizational Citizenship Behavior, Job Satisfaction and Commitment to School: Is There Any Significant Difference between Male and Female Teachers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenaabadi, Hossein; Okati, Ehsan; Sarhadi, Aliyavar

    2013-01-01

    This research investigated the gender differences in job satisfaction, organizational commitment and organizational citizenship behavior in sample included 200 male and 200 female teachers and 80 male managers in boy elementary schools in Zahedan. Data was collected by means of questionnaires and was analyzed through Factorial Analysis of…

  16. Monitoring of organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticide residues in water during different seasons of Tighra reservoir Gwalior, Madhya Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamta; Rao, R J; Wani, Khursheed Ahmad

    2015-11-01

    Analysis of pesticides during different seasons for pesticidal contamination in water samples of Tighra reservoir was carried out on gas chromatograph-electron capture detector with capillary columns following multiresidual analytical technique. Organochlorine pesticides, viz., hexachlorobenzene (HCB), alpha-benzene hexachloride (BHC), beta-BHC, γ-BHC, heptachlor, aldrin, alpha-endosulfan, beta-endosulfan, p,p-DDE, dieldrin, o,p-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (DDD), p,p-DDD, p,p-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), and endrin, and organophosphorus pesticides, viz., choloropyrifos, methyl parathion, diazion, dicholorovos, ethion, malathion, and parathion, were detected in water samples during different seasons. However, the pesticide concentration varied during different seasons at different sites. The prominent reason of contamination is the use of pesticides (both organochlorine and organophosphorus) in the agricultural fields near Tighra reservoir. On the basis of our observations, more extensive monitoring studies need to be carried out, covering all wetlands of Madhya Pradesh to enforce the policies for the restricted application of pesticides in agricultural fields adjacent to wetlands.

  17. Soil carbon storage and stratification under different tillage/residue-management practices in double rice cropping system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Z.; Zhang, H.; dikgwatlhe, S.B.; Xue, J.; Qiu, K.; Tang, H.; Chen, F.

    2015-01-01

    The importance of soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration in agricultural soils as climate-change-mitigating strategy has become an area of focus by the scientific community in relation to soil management. This study was conducted to determine the temporal effect of different tillage systems and

  18. Clinical significance of fibromyalgia syndrome in different rheumatic diseases: Relation to disease activity and quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Rabbat M, Sarah; Mahmoud, Nermeen K; Gheita, Tamer A

    2017-04-11

    To describe the frequencies of fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) in various rheumatic diseases; rheumatoid arthritis (RA), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), systemic sclerosis (SSc) and Behçets disease (BD) patients and to study the relation to clinical manifestations and quality of life (QoL). 160 patients (50 RA, 50 SLE, 30 SSc and 30 BD) and matched corresponding healthy controls were included. Disease activity was assessed using disease activity score in 28 joints (DAS28) for RA, SLE Disease Activity index (SLEDAI), modified Rodnan skin score for SSc and BD Current Activity Form (BDCAF). The QoL was also recorded. Severity in FMS cases was estimated using the revised Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire score. In the RA, SLE, SSc and BD patients, FMS was found in 14%, 18%, 6.67% and 3.33% respectively compared to 2.1%, 3%, 3.3% and 0% in their corresponding controls. In RA patients, DAS28 was significantly higher in those with FMS (p=0.009) and significantly correlated with both Widespread Pain Index (WPI) (p=0.011) and Symptom Severity (SS) scale (p=0.012). The QoL scale in those with FMS was significantly worse (62.3±7.9) compared to those without (71.7±14.4) (p=0.023). In SLE patients, The WPI and SS both significantly correlated with the presence of thrombosis (r=0.28, p=0.049 and r=0.43, p=0.002 respectively). The SS scale tended to correlate with the SLEDAI (r=0.28, p=0.05). In BD patients, BDCAF and WPI significantly correlated (p=0.03). Fibromyalgia syndrome is more frequent in rheumatic diseases, could be related to the disease activity in RA and BD patients and to thrombosis in SLE and affected the QoL in RA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Reumatología y Colegio Mexicano de Reumatología. All rights reserved.

  19. Solid residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulder, E.; Duin, P.J. van; Grootenboer, G.J.

    1995-01-01

    A summary is presented of the many investigations that have been done on solid residues of atmospheric fluid bed combustion (AFBC). These residues are bed ash, cyclone ash and bag filter ash. Physical and chemical properties are discussed and then the various uses of residues (in fillers, bricks, gravel, and for recovery of aluminium) are summarised. Toxicological properties of fly ash and stack ash are discussed as are risks of pneumoconiosis for workers handling fly ash, and contamination of water by ashes. On the basis of present information it is concluded that risks to public health from exposure to emissions of coal fly ash from AFBC appear small or negligible as are health risk to workers in the coal fly ash processing industry. 35 refs., 5 figs., 12 tabs

  20. NPPD: A Protein-Protein Docking Scoring Function Based on Dyadic Differences in Networks of Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Amino Acid Residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward S. C. Shih

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Protein-protein docking (PPD predictions usually rely on the use of a scoring function to rank docking models generated by exhaustive sampling. To rank good models higher than bad ones, a large number of scoring functions have been developed and evaluated, but the methods used for the computation of PPD predictions remain largely unsatisfactory. Here, we report a network-based PPD scoring function, the NPPD, in which the network consists of two types of network nodes, one for hydrophobic and the other for hydrophilic amino acid residues, and the nodes are connected when the residues they represent are within a certain contact distance. We showed that network parameters that compute dyadic interactions and those that compute heterophilic interactions of the amino acid networks thus constructed allowed NPPD to perform well in a benchmark evaluation of 115 PPD scoring functions, most of which, unlike NPPD, are based on some sort of protein-protein interaction energy. We also showed that NPPD was highly complementary to these energy-based scoring functions, suggesting that the combined use of conventional scoring functions and NPPD might significantly improve the accuracy of current PPD predictions.

  1. QuEChERS GC-MS validation and monitoring of pesticide residues in different foods in the tomato classification group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez Restrepo, Andrés; Gallo Ortiz, Andrés Fernando; Hoyos Ossa, Duvan Esteban; Peñuela Mesa, Gustavo Antonio

    2014-09-01

    The objective of this study was to validate (SANCO/12495/2011 and NTC-ISO/IEC 17025) multi-residue multi-class methods using QuEChERS sample preparation and GC-MS for the analysis of regulated pesticides in tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum), tamarillos (Solanum betaceum) and goldenberries (Physalis peruviana). These Latin American products are representative and widely produced in Antioquia (Colombia). Sample preparation followed the UNE-EN 15662 method (150 mg MgSO4, 25mg primary secondary amines and 25mg of octadecylsiloxane for cleanup; graphitized carbon black was added for tomatoes). Extracts were injected using a programmed temperature-vaporizing injector. The residues were validated over a range from 0.02 mg/kg to 0.20 mg/kg, with 24 analytes validated in tomatoes, 33 in tamarillos and 28 in goldenberries. An initial risk assessment was enabled by monitoring 24 samples in the municipalities of El Peñol, Marinilla and San Vicente Ferrer. Risks were found for tomatoes, but no significant risks were found for tamarillos or goldenberries. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Diagnostic significance of measurements of specific IgG antibodies to Pseudomonas aeruginosa by three different serological methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pressler, T.; Karpati, F.; Granstrom, M.

    2008-01-01

    to characterize patients with different infection status. Elevated levels of specific anti-Pseudomonas antibodies showed to be the risk factor for developing chronic Pa infection. Due to the specificity of the tests, antibiotic treatment based on serology might be considered in selected cases. There is a window...... of opportunity for suppression and eradication of initial P. aeruginosa infection making measurement of specific anti-Pseudomonas antibodies helpful Udgivelsesdato: 2009/1...

  3. Differences in radiosensitivity among cells in culture and in experimental tumours: Significance for the effectiveness of human cancer therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barendsen, G.W.; Amsterdam Univ.

    1987-01-01

    Problems in the application of radiobiological data on various types of models, cell in vitro, experimental tumours, and clinical models, to the prediction of tumour radiocurability are discussed. On the basis of observations on cells in culture and experimental tumours it is suggested that heterogeneity in responsiveness of tumours in patients is caused in a large part by differences in intrinsic cellular radiosensitivity. Methods and developments are reviewed, which may yield better assays for the prediction of tumour responsiveness to treatments. (Auth.)

  4. The Expression of miR-192 and Its Significance in Diabetic Nephropathy Patients with Different Urine Albumin Creatinine Ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyu Ma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate the expression of miR-192 and its significance in diabetic nephropathy (DN patients. Methods. 464 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM were divided into normal albuminuria group (NA, n=157, microalbuminuria group (MA, n=159, and large amount of albuminuria group (LA, n=148. 127 healthy persons were selected as the control group (NC, n=127. The serum miR-192 levels were detected by Real-Time PCR and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1 and fibronectin (FN were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The relationships among these parameters were analyzed by Pearson correlation analysis and multiple linear regression analysis. Results. The miR-192 in the LA group was significantly lower than other groups, which was lower in the MA group than in the NA group (P<0.01. The TGF-β1 and FN in the LA group were significantly higher than other groups, which were higher in the MA group than in the NA group (P<0.01. The expression of miR-192 was negatively correlated with TGF-β1, FN, and Ln (UACR and miR-192, TGF-β1, and FN were independent relevant factors affecting Ln (UACR in T2DM (P<0.01. Conclusions. These findings indicate that the levels of miR-192 were lower accompanied by the decrease of urine albumin creatinine ratio (UACR and the association between miR-192 and nephritic fibrosis in DN.

  5. Significant contribution of stacking faults to the strain hardening behavior of Cu-15%Al alloy with different grain sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Y Z; Zhao, L J; Chen, S; Shibata, A; Zhang, Z F; Tsuji, N

    2015-11-19

    It is commonly accepted that twinning can induce an increase of strain-hardening rate during the tensile process of face-centered cubic (FCC) metals and alloys with low stacking fault energy (SFE). In this study, we explored the grain size effect on the strain-hardening behavior of a Cu-15 at.%Al alloy with low SFE. Instead of twinning, we detected a significant contribution of stacking faults (SFs) irrespective of the grain size even in the initial stage of tensile process. In contrast, twinning was more sensitive to the grain size, and the onset of deformation twins might be postponed to a higher strain with increasing the grain size. In the Cu-15 at.%Al alloy with a mean grain size of 47 μm, there was a stage where the strain-hardening rate increases with strain, and this was mainly induced by the SFs instead of twinning. Thus in parallel with the TWIP effect, we proposed that SFs also contribute significantly to the plasticity of FCC alloys with low SFE.

  6. Activated sludge mass reduction and biodegradability of the endogenous residues by digestion under different aerobic to anaerobic conditions: Comparison and modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-García, C G; Fall, C; Olguín, M T

    2016-03-01

    This study was performed to identify suitable conditions for the in-situ reduction of excess sludge production by intercalated digesters in recycle-activated sludge (RAS) flow. The objective was to compare and model biological sludge mass reduction and the biodegradation of endogenous residues (XP) by digestion under hypoxic, aerobic, anaerobic, and five intermittent-aeration conditions. A mathematical model based on the heterotrophic endogenous decay constant (bH) and including the biodegradation of XP was used to fit the long-term data from the digesters to identify and estimate the parameters. Both the bH constant (0.02-0.05 d(-1)) and the endogenous residue biodegradation constant (bP, 0.001-0.004 d(-1)) were determined across the different mediums. The digesters with intermittent aeration cycles of 12 h-12 h and 5 min-3 h (ON/OFF) were the fastest, compared to the aerobic reactor. The study provides a basis for rating RAS-digester volumes to avoid the accumulation of XP in aeration tanks. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Detection and assignment of phosphoserine and phosphothreonine residues by {sup 13}C-{sup 31}P spin-echo difference NMR spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McIntosh, Lawrence P., E-mail: mcintosh@chem.ubc.ca; Kang, Hyun-Seo; Okon, Mark [University of British Columbia, Department of Biochemistry (Canada); Nelson, Mary L.; Graves, Barbara J. [University of Utah, Department of Oncological Sciences, Huntsman Cancer Institute (United States); Brutscher, Bernhard [CNRS, CEA, UJF, Institut de Biologie Structurale Jean-Pierre Ebel (France)], E-mail: bernhard.brutscher@ibs.fr

    2009-01-15

    A simple NMR method is presented for the identification and assignment of phosphorylated serine and threonine residues in {sup 13}C- or {sup 13}C/{sup 15}N-labeled proteins. By exploiting modest ({approx}5 Hz) 2- and 3-bond {sup 13}C-{sup 31}P scalar couplings, the aliphatic {sup 1}H-{sup 13}C signals from phosphoserines and phosphothreonines can be detected selectively in a {sup 31}P spin-echo difference constant time {sup 1}H-{sup 13}C HSQC spectrum. Inclusion of the same {sup 31}P spin-echo element within the {sup 13}C frequency editing period of an intraHNCA or HN(CO)CA experiment allows identification of the amide {sup 1}H{sup N} and {sup 15}N signals of residues (i) for which {sup 13}C{sup {alpha}}(i) or {sup 13}C{sup {alpha}}(i - 1), respectively, are coupled to a phosphate. Furthermore, {sup 31}P resonance assignments can be obtained by applying selective low power cw {sup 31}P decoupling during the spin-echo period. The approach is demonstrated using a PNT domain containing fragment of the transcription factor Ets-1, phosphorylated in vitro at Thr38 and Ser41 with the MAP kinase ERK2.

  8. No significant difference in depression rate in employed and unemployed in a pair-matched study design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihai, Adriana; Ricean, Alina; Voidazan, Septimiu

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to evaluate the differences of depression rate in employed and unemployed persons in the period of financial and economic crisis in Romania, in a pair-matched study design. The cross-sectional study uses a pair match design (395 pairs) of two groups of employed and unemployed persons. Other socio-demographic risk factors of depression (gender, age, marital status, residence, ethnicity, educational level, and profession) were controlled. The study was done in a historical period of economic crisis, 2009-2010. For the screening of depression we used the patient health questionnaire-9. There were no statistical differences (p = 0.054) between the depression rates in the employed (17.98%) and unemployed (23.80%) samples. The depression rate in both groups was higher in females, age (51-55), marital status (divorced), living in the rural area, with a low level of education and poverty. Suicidal ideas are more frequent in men, employed persons with low level of education and in unemployed persons with medium level of education. The exposure to short term unemployment status was not associated with change in depression rate in the period of financial and economic crisis in Romania, comparing with controls pair-matched. Unemployment status increases the depression rate only in vulnerable groups such as single or divorced women; and suicidal ideas were associated with the unemployment status (longer than 8 months) in men from rural area with medium level of education.

  9. Handling of Solid Residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina Bermudez, Clara Ines

    1999-01-01

    The topic of solid residues is specifically of great interest and concern for the authorities, institutions and community that identify in them a true threat against the human health and the atmosphere in the related with the aesthetic deterioration of the urban centers and of the natural landscape; in the proliferation of vectorial transmitters of illnesses and the effect on the biodiversity. Inside the wide spectrum of topics that they keep relationship with the environmental protection, the inadequate handling of solid residues and residues dangerous squatter an important line in the definition of political and practical environmentally sustainable. The industrial development and the population's growth have originated a continuous increase in the production of solid residues; of equal it forms, their composition day after day is more heterogeneous. The base for the good handling includes the appropriate intervention of the different stages of an integral administration of residues, which include the separation in the source, the gathering, the handling, the use, treatment, final disposition and the institutional organization of the administration. The topic of the dangerous residues generates more expectation. These residues understand from those of pathogen type that are generated in the establishments of health that of hospital attention, until those of combustible, inflammable type, explosive, radio-active, volatile, corrosive, reagent or toxic, associated to numerous industrial processes, common in our countries in development

  10. No significant difference in depression rate in employed and unemployed in a pair-matched study design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana eMihai

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to evaluate the differences of depression rate in employed and unemployed persons in the period of financial and economic crisis in Romania, in a pair-matched study design.Method: The cross sectional study uses a pair match design (395 pairs of two groups of employed and unemployed persons. Other socio-demographic risk factors of depression (gender, age, marital status, residence, ethnicity, educational level and profession were controlled. The study was done in a historical period of economic crisis, 2009-2010. For the screening of depression we used the Patient Health Questionnaire PHQ – 9.Results: There were no statistical differences (p=0.054 between the depression rates in the employed (17.98% and unemployed (23.80% samples. The depression rate in both groups was higher in females, age (51-55, marital status (divorced, living in the rural area, with a low level of education, poverty. Suicidal ideas are more frequent in men, employed persons with low level of education and in unemployed persons with medium level of education.Conclusion: The exposure to short term unemployment status was not associated with change in depression rate in the period of financial and economic crisis in Romania, comparing with controls pair-matched. Unemployment status increases the depression rate only in vulnerable groups such as single or divorced women; and suicidal ideas were associated with the unemployment status (longer than 8 months in men from rural area with medium level of education.

  11. Human microRNA oncogenes and tumor suppressors show significantly different biological patterns: from functions to targets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Wang

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small noncoding RNAs which play essential roles in many important biological processes. Therefore, their dysfunction is associated with a variety of human diseases, including cancer. Increasing evidence shows that miRNAs can act as oncogenes or tumor suppressors, and although there is great interest in research into these cancer-associated miRNAs, little is known about them. In this study, we performed a comprehensive analysis of putative human miRNA oncogenes and tumor suppressors. We found that miRNA oncogenes and tumor suppressors clearly show different patterns in function, evolutionary rate, expression, chromosome distribution, molecule size, free energy, transcription factors, and targets. For example, miRNA oncogenes are located mainly in the amplified regions in human cancers, whereas miRNA tumor suppressors are located mainly in the deleted regions. miRNA oncogenes tend to cleave target mRNAs more frequently than miRNA tumor suppressors. These results indicate that these two types of cancer-associated miRNAs play different roles in cancer formation and development. Moreover, the patterns identified here can discriminate novel miRNA oncogenes and tumor suppressors with a high degree of accuracy. This study represents the first large-scale bioinformatic analysis of human miRNA oncogenes and tumor suppressors. Our findings provide help for not only understanding of miRNAs in cancer but also for the specific identification of novel miRNAs as miRNA oncogenes and tumor suppressors. In addition, the data presented in this study will be valuable for the study of both miRNAs and cancer.

  12. Significant differences in the use of healthcare resources of native-born and foreign born in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco-Garrido, Pilar; Jiménez-García, Rodrigo; Barrera, Valentin Hernández; de Andrés, Ana López; de Miguel, Ángel Gil

    2009-01-01

    Background In the last decade, the number of foreign residents in Spain has doubled and it has become one of the countries in the European Union with the highest number of immigrants There is no doubt that the health of the immigrant population has become a relevant subject from the point of view of public healthcare. Our study aimed at describing the potential inequalities in the use of healthcare resources and in the lifestyles of the resident immigrant population of Spain. Methods Cross-sectional, epidemiological study from the Spanish National Health Survey (NHS) in 2006, from the Ministry of Health and Consumer Affairs. We have worked with individualized secondary data, collected in the Spanish National Health Survey carried out in 2006 and 2007 (SNHS-06), from the Ministry of Health and Consumer Affairs. The format of the SNHS-06 has been adapted to the requirements of the European project for the carrying out of health surveys. Results The economic immigrant population resident in Spain, present diseases that are similar to those of the indigenous population. The immigrant population shows significantly lower values in the consumption of alcohol, tobacco and physical activity (OR = 0.76; CI 95%: 0.65–0.89, they nonetheless perceive their health condition as worse than that reported by the autochthonous population (OR = 1.63, CI 95%: 1.34–1.97). The probability of the immigrant population using emergency services in the last 12 months was significantly greater than that of the autochthonous population (OR = 1.31, CI 95%: 1.12–1.54). This situation repeats itself when analyzing hospitalization data, with values of probability of being hospitalized greater among immigrants (OR = 1.39, CI 95%: 1.07–1.81). Conclusion The economic immigrants have better parameters in relation to lifestyles, but they have a poor perception of their health. Despite the fact that immigrant population shows higher percentages of emergency attendance and hospitalization than

  13. Peripheral arterial volume distensibility: significant differences with age and blood pressure measured using an applied external pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Dingchang; Murray, Alan

    2011-01-01

    A new arterial distensibility measurement technique was assessed in 100 healthy normotensive subjects. Arterial transmural pressures on the whole right arm were reduced with a 50 cm long cuff inflated to 10, 20, 30 and 40 mmHg. The electrocardiogram, and finger and ear photoplethysmograms were recorded simultaneously. Arm pulse propagation time, pulse wave velocity (PWV) and arterial volume distensibility were determined. With a 40 mmHg reduction in transmural pressure, arm pulse propagation time increased from 61 to 83 ms, PWV decreased from 12 to 8 m s −1 and arterial distensibility increased from 0.102% to 0.232% per mmHg (all P < 0.0001). At all cuff pressures, arterial distensibility was significantly related to resting mean arterial pressure (MAP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and age, and for systolic blood pressure at 30 and 40 mmHg (all P < 0.05). At 40 mmHg cuff pressure, arterial distensibility fell by 54% for a MAP increase from 75 to 105 mmHg, 57% for a DBP increase from 60 to 90 mmHg and 47% for an age increase from 20 to 70 years. These changes were more than double than those without cuff pressure. Our technique showed that systemic volume distensibility of the peripheral arm artery reduced with age, with a greater effect at higher external and lower transmural pressures

  14. Influence of affective significance on different levels of processing using pupil dilation in an analogical reasoning task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prehn, Kristin; Heekeren, Hauke R; van der Meer, Elke

    2011-02-01

    The present study investigates the interaction of cognition and emotion in decision making, using an analogical reasoning task. In this task, two word pairs were presented simultaneously. Each word pair could be characterized by an associative conceptual relation (object, actor, or location relation) as well as an emotional relation (negative, neutral, or positive valence). Both types of relations were equally task-relevant: Participants had to identify both types of relations, to compare them, and to decide whether or not the word pairs were analogous, i.e., corresponding in both conceptual and emotional relations. Behavioral data showed that emotional relations were identified preferentially and faster than conceptual relations. Pupil dilations reflected the descending difficulty of the conditions and were greatest in amplitude when both conceptual and emotional correspondence was shown, intermediate when only one type of relation (either the emotional or the conceptual) corresponded, and least when neither correspondence existed. Additionally, a negative valence of the word material slowed down response times and increased pupil dilation relative to positive and neutral items. In summary, pupil and response time data together support recent (neurobiological) models concerning the interaction of emotion and cognition by showing that affective significance leads to a processing advantage at a cognitively lower level of information processing (here, identification or retrieval of relations from long-term memory) but can also distract people from higher level cognitive processes (here, from the controlled comparison of retrieved relations). Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Differences in self-regulatory skills among talented athletes: the significance of competitive level and type of sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonker, Laura; Elferink-Gemser, Marije T; Visscher, Chris

    2010-06-01

    Research has shown that talented athletes outscore their mainstream peers on the basis of self-regulation. Although valuable, this does not tell us more about the distinction between good athletes and the best, which is a prerequisite in talent development. Therefore, we examined the self-regulatory skills of 222 male and female talented athletes aged 12-16 years as a function of competitive sport level (junior international or junior national athletes) and type of sport (individual or team sports). Multivariate analyses of covariance in combination with a discriminant function analysis revealed that "reflection" distinguishes between athletes at the highest levels of excellence. Furthermore, athletes playing individual sports had higher scores on "planning" and "effort" than team sport athletes, highlighting the importance of differences between types of sport. In conclusion, we emphasize the importance of reflection as a self-regulatory skill. Reflection facilitates the development of sport-specific characteristics, which may vary by type of sport. This means that an advanced sense of reflection may help talented athletes to acquire desirable characteristics during their "talent" years to ultimately reach adult elite levels of competition.

  16. Characteristic differences in essential oil composition of six Zanthoxylum bungeanum Maxim. (Rutaceae) cultivars and their biological significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shu-Ming; Wang, Shi-Jun; Song, Si-Yao; Zou, Yong; Wang, Jun-Ru; Sun, Bing-Yin

    Great variations have been found in composition and content of the essential oil of Zanthoxylum bungeanum Maxim. (Rutaceae), resulting from various factors such as harvest time, drying and extraction methods (Huang et al., 2006; Shao et al., 2013), solvent and herbal parts used (Zhang, 1996; Cao and Zhang, 2010; Wang et al., 2011). However, in terms of artificial introduction and cultivation, there is little research on the chemical composition of essential oil extracted from Z. bungeanum Maxim. cultivars, which have been introduced from different origins. In this study, the composition and content of essential oil from six cultivars (I-VI) have been investigated. They were introduced and cultivated for 11 years in the same cultivation conditions. Cultivars were as followings: Qin'an (I) cultivar originally introduced from Qin'an City in Gansu Province; Dahongpao A (II) from She County in Hebei Province; Dahongpao B (III) from Fuping County; Dahongpao C (IV) from Tongchuan City; Meifengjiao (V) from Feng County; and, Shizitou (VI) from Hancheng City, in Shaanxi Province, China. This research is expected to provide a theoretical basis for further introduction, cultivation, and commercial development of Z. bungeanum Maxim.

  17. Making a difference? Societal entrepreneurship and its significance for a practical theological ecclesiology in a local Western Cape context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignatius Swart

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This article is concerned with the question of whether and how a local church or congregation can, as indissoluble dimension of its vocation as a Christian faith agent, make a difference by influencing the dynamics of social and economic change that are transforming the face and structures of ‘traditional’ social and religious life in its community. Based upon the authors’ own interest in the specific context of the Dutch Reformed congregation of Simondium in the Western Cape and the case study work that they have conducted in this context, an argument about the potential role of this congregation is developed through the conceptual lens of ‘societal entrepreneurship’. After exploring some recent thoughts on this concept in the literature, the authors use the results of their recently conducted case study work to show how the dynamics of a new entrepreneurial drive amongst long-established residents and newcomers in the Simondium region shape the social reality of both the region and the congregation in a forceful way. This insight leads the authors to develop a sociologically and theologically motivated argument about the way in which this changing reality offers newfound opportunities to the Simondium congregation to fulfil its Christian calling. As such, the notion of becoming an ‘entrepreneurial church’ is introduced and a more detailed perspective is offered on those factors that a contextually orientated practical theological ecclesiology should take into account in building the entrepreneurial model in the congregation.

  18. Garden and Landscape-Scale Correlates of Moths of Differing Conservation Status: Significant Effects of Urbanization and Habitat Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Adam J.; Sadler, Jon P.; Grundy, Dave; Lowe, Norman; Davis, George; Baker, David; Bridge, Malcolm; Freestone, Roger; Gardner, David; Gibson, Chris; Hemming, Robin; Howarth, Stephen; Orridge, Steve; Shaw, Mark; Tams, Tom; Young, Heather

    2014-01-01

    Moths are abundant and ubiquitous in vegetated terrestrial environments and are pollinators, important herbivores of wild plants, and food for birds, bats and rodents. In recent years, many once abundant and widespread species have shown sharp declines that have been cited by some as indicative of a widespread insect biodiversity crisis. Likely causes of these declines include agricultural intensification, light pollution, climate change, and urbanization; however, the real underlying cause(s) is still open to conjecture. We used data collected from the citizen science Garden Moth Scheme (GMS) to explore the spatial association between the abundance of 195 widespread British species of moth, and garden habitat and landscape features, to see if spatial habitat and landscape associations varied for species of differing conservation status. We found that associations with habitat and landscape composition were species-specific, but that there were consistent trends in species richness and total moth abundance. Gardens with more diverse and extensive microhabitats were associated with higher species richness and moth abundance; gardens near to the coast were associated with higher richness and moth abundance; and gardens in more urbanized locations were associated with lower species richness and moth abundance. The same trends were also found for species classified as increasing, declining and vulnerable under IUCN (World Conservation Union) criteria. However, vulnerable species were more strongly negatively affected by urbanization than increasing species. Two hypotheses are proposed to explain this observation: (1) that the underlying factors causing declines in vulnerable species (e.g., possibilities include fragmentation, habitat deterioration, agrochemical pollution) across Britain are the same in urban areas, but that these deleterious effects are more intense in urban areas; and/or (2) that urban areas can act as ecological traps for some vulnerable species of

  19. Different surgical strategies for chronic pancreatitis significantly improve long-term outcome: a comparative single center study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hildebrand P

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective In general, chronic pancreatitis (CP primarily requires conservative treatment. The chronic pain syndrome and complications make patients seek surgical advice, frequently after years of progression. In the past, surgical procedures involving drainage as well as resection have been employed successfully. The present study compared the different surgical strategies. Patients and Methods From March 2000 until April 2005, a total of 51 patients underwent surgical treatment for CP at the Department of surgery, University of Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Lübeck. Out of those 51 patients, 39 (76.5% were operated according to the Frey procedure, and in 12 cases (23.5% the Whipple procedure was performed. Patient data were documented prospectively throughout the duration of the hospital stay. The evaluation of the postoperative pain score was carried out retrospectively with a validated questionnaire. Results Average operating time was 240 minutes for the Frey group and 411 minutes for the Whipple group. The medium number of blood transfusions was 1 in the Frey group and 4.5 in the Whipple group. Overall morbidity was 21% in the Frey group and 42% in the Whipple group. 30-day mortality was zero for all patients. During the median follow-up period of 50 months, an improvement in pain score was observed in 93% of the patients of the Frey group and 67% of the patients treated according to the Whipple procedure. Conclusion The results show that both the Frey procedure as well as partial pancreaticoduodenectomy are capable of improving chronic pain symptoms in CP. As far as later endocrine and exocrine pancreatic insufficiency is concerned, however, the extended drainage operation according to Frey proves to be advantageous compared to the traditional resection procedure by Whipple. Accordingly, the Frey procedure provides us with an organ-preserving surgical procedure which treats the complications of CP sufficiently, thus being an

  20. Garden and landscape-scale correlates of moths of differing conservation status: significant effects of urbanization and habitat diversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam J Bates

    Full Text Available Moths are abundant and ubiquitous in vegetated terrestrial environments and are pollinators, important herbivores of wild plants, and food for birds, bats and rodents. In recent years, many once abundant and widespread species have shown sharp declines that have been cited by some as indicative of a widespread insect biodiversity crisis. Likely causes of these declines include agricultural intensification, light pollution, climate change, and urbanization; however, the real underlying cause(s is still open to conjecture. We used data collected from the citizen science Garden Moth Scheme (GMS to explore the spatial association between the abundance of 195 widespread British species of moth, and garden habitat and landscape features, to see if spatial habitat and landscape associations varied for species of differing conservation status. We found that associations with habitat and landscape composition were species-specific, but that there were consistent trends in species richness and total moth abundance. Gardens with more diverse and extensive microhabitats were associated with higher species richness and moth abundance; gardens near to the coast were associated with higher richness and moth abundance; and gardens in more urbanized locations were associated with lower species richness and moth abundance. The same trends were also found for species classified as increasing, declining and vulnerable under IUCN (World Conservation Union criteria. However, vulnerable species were more strongly negatively affected by urbanization than increasing species. Two hypotheses are proposed to explain this observation: (1 that the underlying factors causing declines in vulnerable species (e.g., possibilities include fragmentation, habitat deterioration, agrochemical pollution across Britain are the same in urban areas, but that these deleterious effects are more intense in urban areas; and/or (2 that urban areas can act as ecological traps for some

  1. Significance and function of different spinal collateral compartments following thoracic aortic surgery: immediate versus long-term flow compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meffert, Philipp; Bischoff, Moritz S; Brenner, Robert; Siepe, Matthias; Beyersdorf, Friedhelm; Kari, Fabian A

    2014-05-01

    Iatrogenic paraplegia has been accompanying cardiovascular surgery since its beginning. As a result, surgeons have been developing many theories about the exact mechanisms of this devastating complication. Thus, the impact of single arteries that contribute to the spinal perfusion is one of the most discussed subjects in modern surgery. The subsequent decision of reattachment or the permanent disconnection of these intercostal arteries divides the surgical community. On the one hand, the anatomical or vascular approach pleads for the immediate reimplantation to reconstruct the anatomical situation. On the other hand, the decision of the permanent disconnection aims at avoiding stealing phenomenon away from the spinal vascular network. This spinal collateral network can be described as consisting of three components-the intraspinal and two paraspinal compartments-that feed the nutrient arteries of the spinal cord. The exact functional impact of the different compartments of the collateral network remains poorly understood. In this review, the function of the intraspinal compartment in the context of collateral network principle as an immediate emergency backup system is described. The exact structure and architectural principles of the intraspinal compartment are described. The critical parameters with regard to the risk of postoperative spinal cord ischaemia are the number of anterior radiculomedullary arteries (ARMAs) and the distance between them in relation to the longitudinal extent of aortic disease. The paraspinal network as a sleeping reserve is proposed as the long-term backup system. This sleeping reserve has to be activated by arteriogenic stimuli. These are presented briefly, and prior findings regarding arteriogenesis are discussed in the light of the collateral network concept. Finally, the role of preoperative visualization of the ARMAs in order to evaluate the risk of postoperative paraplegia is emphasized.

  2. The differences in esophageal motility and its clinical significance between the patients with typical and atypical symptoms of non-erosive reflux disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling LIN

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To study the characteristics of esophageal motility in the patients with different symptoms of nonerosive reflux disease (non-erosive reflux disease, NERD. Methods  Eighty-six patients with NERD who visited the Department of Gastroenterology in our hospital from August 2012 to December 2014 were selected. They were all evaluated with upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and high resolution esophageal manometry. Those who had neither definite esophageal mucosal erosion nor Barrett's esophagus at endoscopy were diagnosed as NERD. According to the presence or absence of typical acid reflux and/or heartburn symptoms, patients with NERD were divided into two groups: the typical symptom group (47 cases, and the atypical symptom group (39 cases. High resolution measurement of esophageal pressure was used to evaluate the differences in esophageal dynamic characteristics between patients with different symptoms of NERD. The final results were analyzed with t test and chi-square test. Results  Compared with atypical symptom group, both the resting pressure (20.68±1.64mmHg vs 15.79±1.21mmHg respectively, P0.05. Conclusion  There is a difference in esophageal motility characteristics between the patients with typical and atypical symptoms of NERD, and the main differences are changes in the resting pressure and residual pressure of LES. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2015.12.12

  3. Electrodialytic upgrading of three different municipal solid waste incineration residue types with focus on Cr, Pb, Zn, Mn, Mo, Sb, Se, V, Cl and SO4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille Erland; Kirkelund, Gunvor Marie; Pedersen, Kristine B.

    2015-01-01

    a material feasible for substitution of cement in mortar. In this work results of 23 pilot-scale experiments (5-8kg APC residue each) in electrodialysis stack designed to investigate the leaching properties as a function of time and current density for APC residue from semi-dry and wet flue-gas cleaning...... retention times and higher current densities. Cr and SO4 leaching increased during ED treatment, with lower increase at higher current. Washing or carbonation in combination with ED significantly reduced leaching of Pb and Zn from semidry residue. An indication of a similar effect to carbonation...

  4. Trained and consumer panel evaluation of sparkling wines sweetened to brut or demi sec residual sugar levels with three different sugars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Kenneth M; Diako, Charles; Aplin, Jesse; Mattinson, D Scott; Culver, Caleb; Ross, Carolyn F

    2017-09-01

    The dosage liquid, added at the final stage of sparkling wine production, imparts residual sweetness to the wine. No study has yet analyzed the influence of dosage composition on the final wine's sensory profile or consumer acceptance. In this study, dosage composition was altered through the addition of different sugar types (ST; fructose, glucose, or sucrose) to produce seven sparkling wines of varying residual sugar levels (RSL), including no sugar added, brut (5.3-8.4gST/L) or demi sec (34.9-37.8gST/L). As evaluated by a trained panel (n=9), the interaction between ST and RSL influenced the perception of caramelized/vanilla/honey (CVH) flavor, sweet taste, and sour taste attributes (pConsumers (n=126) also evaluated the sparkling wines and ST, RSL, and their interaction influenced consumer acceptance of different attributes, as well as the perception of the "refreshing" aspect of the wine (pconsumer acceptance of sparkling wines was highly correlated (r 2 ≤0.88) to CVH, floral, and fruity flavors, as well as sweet taste and creamy mouthfeel. External preference mapping revealed two clusters of consumers. Both consumer clusters liked wines sweetened with fructose, but Cluster 1 liked the demi sec sparkling wine sweetened with fructose (32.8g/L fructose) while Cluster 2 preferred the brut wine sweetened with fructose (8.4g/L fructose). These results suggest that consumer preference for sparkling wine was segmented based on sweetness preference. The results of this study offer winemakers knowledge about the influence of dosage composition on the sensory profile of sparkling wine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Superfund explanation of significant difference for the record of decision (EPA Region 3): Westinghouse Elevator Company Plant, Gettysburg, PA, August 3, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    The document explains significant differences to the remedy selected in the Record of Decision (ROD) for the Site signed by the Regional Administrator on June 30, 1992 (PB93-963911) for Operable Unit 1. The Significant Difference between the remedy presented in the June 30, 1992 ROD and the changes to the ROD that will be implemented are explained.

  6. Use of isotope tracer techniques for studying pesticide residues in meat with particular reference to the effects of processing. Part of a coordinated programme on the fate and significance of foreign chemical substances in food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirna, A.

    1976-03-01

    The possibility of reducing DDT, BHC and monolinuron (MLN) residues in meat products by microbial activity and other methods was investigated. Muscle and fat tissue of rabbits fed with 14 C-labelled pesticides were used. In culture media micrococci and moulds metabolized DDT mainly to DDD within two weeks. Reductive dechlorination from DDT to DDD was frequently observed under anaerobic conditions; in aerobic media as e.g. in sausage mixtures this reaction was ineffective. γ-BHC was biodegraded by 30% and MLN by 10 to 20%, mainly to unidentified products. Two strains of labtobacilli tested were ineffective in degrading DDT and degraded γ-BHC only by about 10%. The enzymic degradation of DDT and γ-BHC in muscle mitochondria (released after freezing) was insignificant, while MLN was metabolized by about 15%. In well-homogenized, enzyme-rich liver sausage mixtures with sodium chloride, DDT and γ-BHC were metabolized generally to a greater extent, (40% and 30% respectively after 2 days) than in mixtures with NPS or NPS and NaASC (10% and 20% respectively). In sterilized liver sausage the corresponding figures were 31% and 22 to 11% for DDT and 84% and 39 to 12% for γ-BHC. In culture media the formation of nitrite from nitrate was retarded by as little as 1.0 ppm DDT which may cause disturbances in the production of fermented meats. The most effective treatment to eliminate DDT from meat was curing with 10% sodium chloride and 0.015% KNO (residues decreased by 39%) followed by hot smoking (25%) and cooking (6%). In case of γ-BHC cooking reduced the residues by 65% while curing by 20% and hot smoking by 12%. Decrease of γ-BHC residues in sausages appeared to be due mainly to volatilization through the casings. For MLN about 50% of the radioactivity was removed by curing, smoking or cooking

  7. Residual basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Elboux, C.V.; Paiva, I.B.

    1980-01-01

    Exploration for uranium carried out over a major portion of the Rio Grande do Sul Shield has revealed a number of small residual basins developed along glacially eroded channels of pre-Permian age. Mineralization of uranium occurs in two distinct sedimentary units. The lower unit consists of rhythmites overlain by a sequence of black shales, siltstones and coal seams, while the upper one is dominated by sandstones of probable fluvial origin. (Author) [pt

  8. Propensity-score matching in economic analyses: comparison with regression models, instrumental variables, residual inclusion, differences-in-differences, and decomposition methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crown, William H

    2014-02-01

    This paper examines the use of propensity score matching in economic analyses of observational data. Several excellent papers have previously reviewed practical aspects of propensity score estimation and other aspects of the propensity score literature. The purpose of this paper is to compare the conceptual foundation of propensity score models with alternative estimators of treatment effects. References are provided to empirical comparisons among methods that have appeared in the literature. These comparisons are available for a subset of the methods considered in this paper. However, in some cases, no pairwise comparisons of particular methods are yet available, and there are no examples of comparisons across all of the methods surveyed here. Irrespective of the availability of empirical comparisons, the goal of this paper is to provide some intuition about the relative merits of alternative estimators in health economic evaluations where nonlinearity, sample size, availability of pre/post data, heterogeneity, and missing variables can have important implications for choice of methodology. Also considered is the potential combination of propensity score matching with alternative methods such as differences-in-differences and decomposition methods that have not yet appeared in the empirical literature.

  9. [Cognitive performance in schizophrenia (paranoid vs residual subtype)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Carol; Taragano, Fernando; Sarasola, Diego; Iturry, Mónica; Serrano, Cecilia; Raczkowski, Amalia; Allegri, Ricardo

    2007-01-01

    Several studies refer to the relationship between schizophrenia and cognitive dysfunctions. The most frequent disturbances accepted are the deficits in the executive, memory and verbal tests. However, there are few comparative data about the cognitive functioning of the different subtypes of schizophrenia. Analyze and compare the neuropsychological disturbances present in patients with paranoid and residual schizophrenia. Eleven patients with paranoid schizophrenia, eleven patients with residual schizophrenia (DSM-IV criteria), and thirty one normal subjects matched by age, educational level, and general cognitive level (Mini Mental State Examination (Folstein, 1975), were assessed with a semistructured psychiatric examination and an extensive neuropsychological battery. Significant differences were found in memory, language, and executive functions when schizophrenics were compared with normal subjects. Differences in similarities were found between paranoid and residual schizophrenics. Residual schizophrenics had more disturbances in neuropsychological tests in comparison with paranoid schizophrenics. Schizophrenics demonstrated disturbances in memory, language, executive functions and attention. Residual schizophrenics had more impairment in neuropsychological tests than paranoid schizophrenics.

  10. Comparison of different types of coatings in headspace solid phase micro extraction for the analysis of pesticide residues in vegetables and fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chai, Mee Kin; Tan, Guan Huat

    2008-01-01

    Despite the continuing development of solid-phase micro extraction (SPME) fiber coatings, their selection presents some difficulties for analytes in choosing the appropriate fiber for a particular application. There are many types of SPME coatings available commercially. The most widely used for determination of pesticide residues in vegetable and fruits are polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and polyacrylate (PA). A headspace solid phase micro extraction (HS-SPME) procedure using these two commercialized fibers (PDMS and PA) is presented for the determination of selected groups of organo chlorine and organophosphorus pesticides. The extraction performances of these compounds were compared using these two fibers. The optimal experimental procedures for the adsorption and desorption of pesticides were determined. An explanation for the extraction differences is suggested based on the different thickness, polarity of the polymeric film of fibers and the different extracting matrices. In addition, the higher detector response of the pesticides after addition of aliquots of water and an organic solvent to the vegetable and fruit samples are also discussed. The SPME fibers were reusable until a maximum of 120 extractions. Finally, the optimized procedures were applied successfully for the determination of these compounds in vegetable and fruits samples. Mean recoveries for all pesticides were between 75.0-97 % with RSD below 7 %. (author)

  11. Characteristics and metal leachability of incinerated sewage sludge ash and air pollution control residues from Hong Kong evaluated by different methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiang-Shan; Xue, Qiang; Fang, Le; Poon, Chi Sun

    2017-06-01

    The improper disposal of incinerated sewage sludge ash (ISSA) and air pollution control residues (APCR) from sewage sludge incinerators has become an environmental concern. The physicochemical, morphological and mineralogical characteristics of ISSA and APCR from Hong Kong, and the leachability and risk of heavy metals, are presented in this paper. The results showed that a low hydraulic and pozzolanic potential was associated with the ISSA and APCR due to the presence of low contents of SiO 2 , Al 2 O 3 and CaO and high contents of P, S and Cl (especially for APCR). Although high concentrations of Zn and Cu (especially for ISSA) followed by Ni, Pb and As, Se were detected, a low leaching rate of these metals (especially at neutral and alkaline pH) rendered them classifiable as non-hazardous according to the U.S. EPA and Chinese national regulatory limits. The leached metals concentrations from ISSA and APCR were mainly pH dependent, and metals solubilization occurred mainly at low pH. Different leaching tests should be adopted based on the simulated different environmental conditions and exposure scenarios for assessing the leachability as contrasting results could be obtained due to the differences in complexing abilities and final pH of the leaching solutions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Dietary analysis of Late Cenozoic Mexican equids from three different geographic/geologic settings using stable carbon isotopes: Coincidences, differences and paleobiologic significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Crespo, Víctor Adrian; Ferrusquía-Villafranca, Ismael; Bravo-Cuevas, Víctor Manuel; Morales-Puente, Pedro; Ruiz-González, José E.

    2016-03-01

    The development of Vertebrate Paleontology in Mexico is uneven, so that there is a strong bias in favor of Neogene/Quaternary mammals largely collected in the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt (TMVB hereafter) and Central Plateau (CeP hereafter) Morphotectonic Provinces [MP hereafter]; however, the time is ripe for pursuing research in other than taxonomic areas. Here we investigate C3/C4 plant consumption in the equid lineage in three such provinces, which provide different geographic/geologic and paleoecologic scenarios during the Barstovian, Hemphillian and Rancholabrean times. Our results show that the Barstovian equids from Oaxaca, Sierra Madre del Sur MP Cormohipparion aff. C. quinni, Merychippus cf. M. sejunctus and Pliohippus sp. largely fed on C3 plants, which were the chief food stuff of horses in Mexico, particularly in the Southeast. On the other hand, the Hemphillian equid from Guanajuato, CeP Astrohippus stocki, was an unbalanced C3/C4 mixed feeders in favor of C4 plants, a fact that indicates a profound plant diversification due to the inception and rapid diversification of C4 plants that occurred there at this time, as it occurred in temperate North America, resulting in the differential consumption of C4 plants over that of C3 plants. Such trend prevailed until the Rancholabrean, as born out by the inferred diet for Equus conversidens and Equus sp. from Hidalgo, TMVB. Clearly then, the coeval diet change observed in Mexico and temperate North America implies a correlative vegetation change resulting in the appearance and rapid diversification of C4 plants, which largely formed the preferred food stuff of equids since the Hemphillian, although some C3 plant consumption was maintained till the Rancholabrean. It should be noted that the development of hypsodonty in equids and many artiodactyls, has long been interpreted as the adaptive mammalian response to the new feeding conditions.

  13. Loss of residual monomer from resilient lining materials processed by different methods = Perda de monômero residual de reembasadores resilientes processados por diferentes métodos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    León, Blanca Liliana Torres

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Avaliar o monômero residual liberado de materiais resilientes para reembasamento polimerizados por diferentes métodos. Metodologia: Dois materiais foram testados: Ever-Soft polymerizado por banho quente de água ou por energia de microondas, e Light Liner polimerizado quimicamente e por luz visível (polimerização dual. O monômero residual liberado foi mensurado em 12 espécimes (40x10x0,3mm fabricados com cada material e método de polimerização. Os espécimes foram armazenados em água destilada por 168 horas a 37ºC, e analisados diariamente por espectrometria ultravioleta (Light Liner: 204nm, Ever-Soft: 206nm. Os dados foram analisados por ANOVA de fator único e teste de Bonferroni (a=0,05. O monômero residual liberado em relação ao tempo foi determinado por análise de regressão polinomial. Resultados: O monômero residual liberado em 168 horas do teste (µg/cm2 em espécimes polimerizados por banho de água quente (0,27±0,01µg/cm2 foi significativamente maior (P < 0,05 que em espécimes processados por energia de microondas (0,25±0,02µg/cm2. Ever-Soft mostrou uma redução na liberação de monomer residual com o tempo, tendendo a se estabilizar em 96 horas. Light Liner continuou a liberar monômero com o tempo. Conclusão: Ever-Soft pode ser polimerizado por energia de microondas. Os valores de monômero residual liberado foram baixos, e os níveis de monômero diminuíram com o tempo

  14. Plasma Beta-Trace Protein as a Marker of Residual Renal Function: The Effect of Different Hemodialysis Modalities and Intra-Individual Variability over Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amaryllis H. van Craenenbroeck

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Beta-trace protein (BTP is a low-molecular-weight molecule, which may be used to assess residual renal function (RRF in dialysis patients. Here we evaluated the influence of hemodialysis (HD and hemodiafiltration (HDF on plasma BTP, and analyzed the inter- and intra-individual variability of plasma BTP over time in HD and peritoneal dialysis (PD patients. Methods: In 12 prevalent HD patients, the effect of a single session of low-flux HD, high-flux HD and HDF on plasma BTP was studied. Blood samples were taken at baseline, after 120 and 240 minutes, and at the start of the next dialysis session. In 13 HD patients and 10 PD patients, inter- and intra-individual variability over three months was studied (monthly and weekly, respectively. Plasma BTP was measured using a nephelometric method. Results: No significant decrease in plasma BTP was seen following a session of low-flux HD. Both high-flux HD and HDF resulted in a significant decrease immediately after dialysis (22% and 61% median decrease, respectively. A significant reduction of the molecule persisted only in HDF and a significant decrease (-15% was still found immediately before the start of the next dialysis session. In both HD and PD patients, the reproducibility over time was excellent with intra-class correlation coefficient of 0.96 (0.93-0.99 and 0.92 (0.86-0.99 respectively. In a small cohort of PD patients, fair agreement existed between mGFR (average of renal urea and creatinine clearance from a 24 hours urine collection and the BTP-based GFR estimation. Conclusion: BTP is a stable marker and a promising tool for RRF estimations in PD and HD patients. In patients receiving HDF, plasma levels of BTP should be interpreted with caution.

  15. Determination of Pesticide Residues in Cannabis Smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Sullivan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted in order to quantify to what extent cannabis consumers may be exposed to pesticide and other chemical residues through inhaled mainstream cannabis smoke. Three different smoking devices were evaluated in order to provide a generalized data set representative of pesticide exposures possible for medical cannabis users. Three different pesticides, bifenthrin, diazinon, and permethrin, along with the plant growth regulator paclobutrazol, which are readily available to cultivators in commercial products, were investigated in the experiment. Smoke generated from the smoking devices was condensed in tandem chilled gas traps and analyzed with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Recoveries of residues were as high as 69.5% depending on the device used and the component investigated, suggesting that the potential of pesticide and chemical residue exposures to cannabis users is substantial and may pose a significant toxicological threat in the absence of adequate regulatory frameworks.

  16. Clinical impact of minimal residual disease in children with different subtypes of acute lymphoblastic leukemia treated with Response-Adapted therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pui, C-H; Pei, D; Raimondi, S C; Coustan-Smith, E; Jeha, S; Cheng, C; Bowman, W P; Sandlund, J T; Ribeiro, R C; Rubnitz, J E; Inaba, H; Gruber, T A; Leung, W H; Yang, J J; Downing, J R; Evans, W E; Relling, M V; Campana, D

    2017-02-01

    To determine the clinical significance of minimal residual disease (MRD) in patients with prognostically relevant subtypes of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), we analyzed data from 488 patients treated in St Jude Total Therapy Study XV with treatment intensity based mainly on MRD levels measured during remission induction. MRD levels on day 19 predicted treatment outcome for patients with hyperdiploid >50 ALL, National Cancer Institute (NCI) standard-risk B-ALL or T-cell ALL, while MRD levels on day 46 were prognostic for patients with NCI standard-risk or high-risk B-ALL. Patients with t(12;21)/(ETV6-RUNX1) or hyperdiploidy >50 ALL had the best prognosis; those with a negative MRD on day 19 had a particularly low risk of relapse: 1.9% and 3.8%, respectively. Patients with NCI high-risk B-ALL or T-cell ALL had an inferior outcome; even with undetectable MRD on day 46, cumulative risk of relapse was 12.7% and 15.5%, respectively. Among patients with NCI standard-risk B-ALL, the outcome was intermediate overall but was poor if MRD was ⩾1% on day 19 or MRD was detectable at any level on day 46. Our results indicate that the clinical impact of MRD on treatment outcome in childhood ALL varies considerably according to leukemia subtype and time of measurement.

  17. Assessment of pesticide residues on selected vegetables of Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.S.; Shah, M.M.

    2011-01-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the pesticide residues on selected summer vegetables. Five vegetables were grown with three replicates in a split plot randomized complete block design. Pesticides were sprayed on vegetables thrice at regular intervals each after 15 days. At maturity the pesticides residues were extracted from edible and leaf portions using anhydrous sodium sulfate and ethyl acetate while adsorption chromatography technique was used for cleanup. The extracts were subjected to high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for separation and analysis of the compounds. Significant differences (p<0.05) were found in the pesticides residues on edible portions whereas highly significant differences (p<0.001) were observed for the leafy portions. The residual level of cypermethrin was highest (16.2 mg kg/sup -1/) in edible portion of bitter gourd, while Lambdacyhalothrin and Mancozeb residues were detected high (4.50 mg kg/sup -1/, 6.26 mg kg/sup -1/) in edible portion of bitter gourd and Cucumber respectively. Cypermethrin residues were high (1.86 mg kg/sup -1/) in Okra leaves. Mancozeb and Lambdacyhalothrin residual level was high (1.23 mg kg/sup -1/, and 0.0002 mg kg/sup -1/) in chili and tomato leaves. Cypermethrin residues were readily detected in edible and leaf portion of the selected vegetables. (author)

  18. Qualidade da silagem de resíduo de manga com diferentes aditivos Quality of mango residue silage with different additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristovão Colombo de Carvalho Couto Filho

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar a qualidade da silagem de resíduo de manga (Mangifera indica L. em mistura com diferentes aditivos, em níveis crescentes de adição, foi conduzido este estudo. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com três repetições, sendo os tratamentos dispostos em um esquema fatorial do tipo (4 x 3 + 1, sendo quatro aditivos (milho desintegrado com palha e sabugo (MDPS, palha de feijão (PF, sabugo de milho (SM e casca de café (CC em três níveis de adição (10, 20 e 30% e um tratamento testemunha (resíduo de manga puro ensilado. O material experimental foi ensilado em silos de PVC adaptados com válvula tipo "Bunsen" com capacidade para aproximadamente 3 kg cada. Todos os aditivos utilizados elevaram os teores de MS. À medida que se aumentou os níveis de adição dos aditivos, houve uma redução nos valores de poder tampão (PT. Os valores de pH e nitrogênio amoniacal (N-NH3 /%N total mantiveram-se dentro dos padrões indicativos de um bom processo fermentativo. O padrão de fermentação das silagens aditivadas foi satisfatório, sem haver comprometimento na qualidade destas. Os aditivos milho desintegrado com palha e sabugo, palha de feijão ou casca de café podem ser adicionados ao processo de ensilagem do resíduo de manga nos níveis de adição de 20 ou 30%, melhorando seu padrão fermentativo.With the objective to evaluate the quality of mango (Mangifera indica L. residue silage in mixture with different additives at growing levels of addition, this study was undertaken. The experimental design utilized was the completely randomized, with three replicates. The treatments were arranged in a factorial scheme (4 x 3 + 1 type and the additives being four (ground ears with husks (GEWH, bean straw (BS, corn cob (CC and coffee hull (CH at three levels of addition (10, 20 and 30% and a control treatment (ensiled unmixed mango residue. The experimental material was ensiled in PVC silos

  19. Management of NORM Residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-06-01

    The IAEA attaches great importance to the dissemination of information that can assist Member States in the development, implementation, maintenance and continuous improvement of systems, programmes and activities that support the nuclear fuel cycle and nuclear applications, and that address the legacy of past practices and accidents. However, radioactive residues are found not only in nuclear fuel cycle activities, but also in a range of other industrial activities, including: - Mining and milling of metalliferous and non-metallic ores; - Production of non-nuclear fuels, including coal, oil and gas; - Extraction and purification of water (e.g. in the generation of geothermal energy, as drinking and industrial process water; in paper and pulp manufacturing processes); - Production of industrial minerals, including phosphate, clay and building materials; - Use of radionuclides, such as thorium, for properties other than their radioactivity. Naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) may lead to exposures at some stage of these processes and in the use or reuse of products, residues or wastes. Several IAEA publications address NORM issues with a special focus on some of the more relevant industrial operations. This publication attempts to provide guidance on managing residues arising from different NORM type industries, and on pertinent residue management strategies and technologies, to help Member States gain perspectives on the management of NORM residues

  20. Optimization of heat-liberating batches for ash residue stabilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlina, O.K.; Varlackova, G.A.; Ojovan, M.I.; Tivansky, V.M.; Dmitriev, S.A.

    1999-01-01

    The ash residue obtained after incineration of solid radioactive waste is a dusting poly-dispersed powder like material that contains radioactive nuclides ( 137 Cs, 90 Sr, 239 Pu, hor ( ellipsis)). Specific radioactivity of the ash can be about 10 5 --10 7 Bq/kg. In order to dispose of the ash, residue shall be stabilized by producing a monolith material. The ash residue can be either vitrified or stabilized into a ceramic matrix. For this purpose the ash residue is mixed with fluxing agents followed by melting of obtained composition in the different type melters. As a rule this requires both significant energy consumption and complex melting equipment. A stabilization technology of ash residue was proposed recently by using heat liberating batches-compositions with redox properties. The ash residue is melted due to exothermic chemical reactions in the mixture with heat-liberating batch that occur with considerable release of heat. Stabilization method has three stages: (1) preparation of a mixture of heating batch and ash residue with or without glass forming batch (frit); (2) ignition and combustion of mixed composition; (3) cooling (quenching) of obtained vitreous material. Combustion of mixed composition occurs in the form of propagation of reacting wave. The heat released during exothermic chemical reactions provides melting of ash residue components and production of glass-like phase. The final product consists of a glass like matrix with embedded crystalline inclusions of infusible ash residue components

  1. Residual nilpotence and residual solubility of groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhailov, R V

    2005-01-01

    The properties of the residual nilpotence and the residual solubility of groups are studied. The main objects under investigation are the class of residually nilpotent groups such that each central extension of these groups is also residually nilpotent and the class of residually soluble groups such that each Abelian extension of these groups is residually soluble. Various examples of groups not belonging to these classes are constructed by homological methods and methods of the theory of modules over group rings. Several applications of the theory under consideration are presented and problems concerning the residual nilpotence of one-relator groups are considered.

  2. Analysis of the prevalence of different topographical characteristics of the residual ridge in mandibular free-end arches Análise da prevalência de diferentes características topográficas do rebordo residual em arcos mandibulares com extremidades livres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Gramani Guedes

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available This study observed the prevalence of different types of residual ridge inclination in free-ends of mandibles and reported possible correlative factors that may affect resorption. For this purpose, periapical radiographs and individual data collected from a sample of 64 hemiarches were used. Two radiographs were taken of each free-end, and tracing was employed to determine the angles formed by the resorption configuration in the area of the 1st mandibular molar. The following conclusions were drawn: 1 the great majority of alveolar ridges were distally descending; 2 the average angle was wider for users of mandibular removable partial dentures; 3 the results obtained suggest that the type of opposing maxillary arch affects the inclination of mandibular ridges; 4 greater inclination was observed when the 2nd bicuspids of the mandible were the abutment teeth; 5 no significant correlation was established between age, sex and residual ridge resorption.Esta pesquisa constatou a prevalência dos tipos de rebordos residuais no sentido ântero-posterior em extremidades livres inferiores, além de correlacionar alguns fatores que possam influenciar as suas reabsorções. Para isso, utilizamos radiografias periapicais e dados individuais colhidos na amostra de 64 hemiarcos; foram obtidas 2 radiografias de cada área de extremidade livre e, a partir de traçados, determinamos os ângulos formados pela reabsorção na altura do 1º molar inferior. Podemos constatar que: 1º a grande maioria de inclinação encontrada foi de rebordos descendentes para distal; 2º a média de angulação foi maior para usuários de prótese parcial removível inferior; 3º os resultados sugeriram existir influência do tipo de arco antagônico superior na inclinação dos rebordos inferiores; 4º observou-se aumento de inclinação quando os segundos pré-molares inferiores eram os dentes adjacentes ao espaço protético; e 5º não foram encontradas correla

  3. Residual determination and risk assessment of buprofezin in plum (Prunus domestica) grown in open-field conditions following the application of three different formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, Md Humayun; Abd El-Aty, A M; Kim, Sung-Woo; Lee, Han Sol; Rahman, Md Musfiqur; Lee, Young-Jun; Chung, Hyung Suk; Lieu, Truong; Choi, Jeong-Heui; Shin, Ho-Chul; Im, Geon-Jae; Hong, Su Myeong; Shim, Jae-Han

    2016-11-01

    This study was conducted to characterize the residual level and perform a risk assessment on buprofezin formulated as an emulsifiable concentrate, wettable powder, and suspension concentrate over various treatment schedules in plum (Prunus domestica). The samples were extracted with an AOAC quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe, 'QuEChERS', method after major modifications. As intrinsic interferences were observed in blank plum samples following dispersive-solid phase extraction (consisting of primary secondary amine and C 18 sorbents), amino cartridges were used for solid-phase extraction. Analysis was carried out using liquid chromatography with diode array detection and confirmed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The method showed excellent linearity with determination coefficient (R 2  = 1) and satisfactory recoveries (at two spiking levels, 0.5 and 2.5 mg/kg) between 90.98 and 94.74% with relative standard deviation (RSD) ≤8%. The limit of quantification (0.05 mg/kg) was considerably lower than the maximum residue limit (2 mg/kg) set by the Codex Alimentarius. Absolute residue levels for emulsifiable concentrates were highest, perhaps owing to the dilution rate and adjuvant. Notably, all formulation residues were lower than the maximum residue limit, and safety data proved that the fruits are safe for consumers. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Evaluation of residue-residue contact predictions in CASP9

    KAUST Repository

    Monastyrskyy, Bohdan

    2011-01-01

    This work presents the results of the assessment of the intramolecular residue-residue contact predictions submitted to CASP9. The methodology for the assessment does not differ from that used in previous CASPs, with two basic evaluation measures being the precision in recognizing contacts and the difference between the distribution of distances in the subset of predicted contact pairs versus all pairs of residues in the structure. The emphasis is placed on the prediction of long-range contacts (i.e., contacts between residues separated by at least 24 residues along sequence) in target proteins that cannot be easily modeled by homology. Although there is considerable activity in the field, the current analysis reports no discernable progress since CASP8.

  5. Fungal leaching of valuable metals from a power plant residual ash using Penicillium simplicissimum: Evaluation of thermal pretreatment and different bioleaching methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasoulnia, P; Mousavi, S M; Rastegar, S O; Azargoshasb, H

    2016-06-01

    Each year a tremendous volume of V-Ni rich ashes is produced by fuel oil consuming power plants throughout the world. Recovery of precious metals existing in these ashes is very important from both economic and environmental aspects. The present research was aimed at investigating bioleaching potential of Penicillium simplicissimum for the recovery of metals from power plant residual ash (PPR ash) using different bioleaching methods such as one-step, two-step, and spent-medium bioleaching at 1% (w/v) pulp density. Furthermore, the effects of thermal pretreatment on leaching of V, Ni, and Fe, as major elements present in PPR ash, were studied. Thermal pretreatment at various temperatures removed the carbonaceous and volatile fraction of the ash and affected the fungal growth and metal leachability. The highest extraction yields of V and Ni were achieved for the original PPR ash, using spent-medium bioleaching in which nearly 100% of V and 40% of Ni were extracted. The maximum extraction yield of Fe (48.3%) was obtained for the pretreated PPR ash at 400°C by spent-medium bioleaching. In addition, the fungal growth in pure culture was investigated through measurement of produced organic acids via high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Chemical leaching experiments were performed, using commercial organic acids at the same concentrations as those produced under optimum condition of fungal growth (5237ppm citric, 3666ppm gluconic, 1287ppm oxalic and 188ppm malic acid). It was found that in comparison to chemical leaching, bioleaching improved V and Ni recovery up to 19% and 12%, respectively. Moreover, changes in physical and chemical properties as well as morphology of the samples utilizing appropriate analytical methods such as XRF, XRD, FTIR, and FE-SEM were comprehensively investigated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Simultaneous stabilization/solidification of Mn2+ and NH4+-N from electrolytic manganese residue using MgO and different phosphate resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Jiancheng; Wu, Haiping; Liu, Renlong; Liu, Zuohua; Li, Bing; Chen, Mengjun; Tao, Changyuan

    2018-02-01

    This study examined simultaneous stabilization and solidification (S/S) of Mn 2+ and NH 4 + -N from electrolytic manganese residue (EMR) using MgO and different phosphate resource. The characteristics of EMR NH 4 + -N and Mn 2+ S/S behavior, S/S mechanisms, leaching test and economic analysis, were investigated. The results show that the S/S efficiency of Mn 2+ and NH 4 + -N could reach 91.58% and 99.98%, respectively, and the pH value is 8.75 when the molar ratio of Mg:P is 3:1 and the dose of PM (MgO and Na 3 PO 4 ·12H 2 O) is 8wt%. In this process, Mn 2+ could mainly be stabilized in the forms of Mn(H 2 PO 4 ) 2 ·2H 2 O, Mn 3 (PO 4 ) 2 ·3H 2 O, Mn(OH) 2 , and MnOOH, and NH 4 + -N in the form of NH 4 MgPO 4 ·6H 2 O. Economic evaluation indicates that using PM process has a lower cost than HPM and HOM process for the S/S of Mn 2+ and NH 4 + -N from EMR at the same stabilization agent dose. Leaching test values of all the measured metals are within the permitted level for the GB8978-1996 test suggested when the dose of PM, HPM and HOM is 8wt%. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Identifying inter-residue resonances in crowded 2D {sup 13}C-{sup 13}C chemical shift correlation spectra of membrane proteins by solid-state MAS NMR difference spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miao Yimin; Cross, Timothy A. [Florida State University, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry (United States); Fu Riqiang, E-mail: rfu@magnet.fsu.edu [National High Magnet Field Lab (United States)

    2013-07-15

    The feasibility of using difference spectroscopy, i.e. subtraction of two correlation spectra at different mixing times, for substantially enhanced resolution in crowded two-dimensional {sup 13}C-{sup 13}C chemical shift correlation spectra is presented. With the analyses of {sup 13}C-{sup 13}C spin diffusion in simple spin systems, difference spectroscopy is proposed to partially separate the spin diffusion resonances of relatively short intra-residue distances from the longer inter-residue distances, leading to a better identification of the inter-residue resonances. Here solid-state magic-angle-spinning NMR spectra of the full length M2 protein embedded in synthetic lipid bilayers have been used to illustrate the resolution enhancement in the difference spectra. The integral membrane M2 protein of Influenza A virus assembles as a tetrameric bundle to form a proton-conducting channel that is activated by low pH and is essential for the viral lifecycle. Based on known amino acid resonance assignments from amino acid specific labeled samples of truncated M2 sequences or from time-consuming 3D experiments of uniformly labeled samples, some inter-residue resonances of the full length M2 protein can be identified in the difference spectra of uniformly {sup 13}C labeled protein that are consistent with the high resolution structure of the M2 (22-62) protein (Sharma et al., Science 330(6003):509-512, 2010)

  8. Quality of Life for Individuals with Hearing Impairment Who Have Not Consulted for Services and Their Significant Others: Same- and Different-Sex Couples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Rebecca J.; Atcherson, Samuel R.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory study was to assess perceptions of quality of life for individuals with hearing impairment who have not consulted for services and their significant others who are in same-sex relationships vs. those who are in different-sex relationships. Data were collected on a total of 20 older couples: 10 in same-sex…

  9. SU-E-T-327: Dosimetric Impact of Beam Energy for Intrabeam Breast IORT with Different Residual Cancer Cell Distributions After Surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwid, M; Zhang, H

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the dosimetric impact of beam energy to the IORT treatment of residual cancer cells with different cancer cell distributions after breast-conserving surgery. Methods: The three dimensional (3D) radiation doses of IORT using a 4-cm spherical applicator at the energy of 40 keV and 50 keV were separately calculated at different depths of the postsurgical tumor bed. The modified linear quadratic model (MLQ) was used to estimate the radiobiological response of the tumor cells assuming different radio-sensitivities and density distributions. The impact of radiation was evaluated for two types of breast cancer cell lines (α /β=10, and α /β =3.8) at 20 Gy dose prescribed at the applicator surface. Cancer cell distributions in the postsurgical tissue field were assumed to be a Gaussian with the standard deviations of 0.5, 1 and 2 mm respectively, namely the cancer cell infiltrations of 1.5, 3, and 6 mm respectively. The surface cancer cell percentage was assumed to be 0.01%, 0.1%, 1% and 10% separately. The equivalent uniform doses (EUD) for all the scenarios were calculated. Results: The EUDs were found to be dependent on the distributions of cancer cells, but independent of the cancer cell radio-sensitivities and the density at the surface. EUDs of 50 keV are 1% larger than that of 40 keV. For a prescription dose of 20 Gy, EUDs of 50 keV beam are 17.52, 16.21 and 13.14 Gy respectively for 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 mm of the standard deviation of cancer cell Gaussian distributions. Conclusion: The impact by selected energies of IORT beams is very minimal. When energy is changed from 50 keV to 40 keV, the EUDs are almost the same for the same cancer cell distribution. 40 keV can be safely used as an alternative of 50 keV beam in IORT

  10. SU-E-T-327: Dosimetric Impact of Beam Energy for Intrabeam Breast IORT with Different Residual Cancer Cell Distributions After Surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwid, M; Zhang, H [Department of Radiation Oncology, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern Memorial Hospital, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the dosimetric impact of beam energy to the IORT treatment of residual cancer cells with different cancer cell distributions after breast-conserving surgery. Methods: The three dimensional (3D) radiation doses of IORT using a 4-cm spherical applicator at the energy of 40 keV and 50 keV were separately calculated at different depths of the postsurgical tumor bed. The modified linear quadratic model (MLQ) was used to estimate the radiobiological response of the tumor cells assuming different radio-sensitivities and density distributions. The impact of radiation was evaluated for two types of breast cancer cell lines (α /β=10, and α /β =3.8) at 20 Gy dose prescribed at the applicator surface. Cancer cell distributions in the postsurgical tissue field were assumed to be a Gaussian with the standard deviations of 0.5, 1 and 2 mm respectively, namely the cancer cell infiltrations of 1.5, 3, and 6 mm respectively. The surface cancer cell percentage was assumed to be 0.01%, 0.1%, 1% and 10% separately. The equivalent uniform doses (EUD) for all the scenarios were calculated. Results: The EUDs were found to be dependent on the distributions of cancer cells, but independent of the cancer cell radio-sensitivities and the density at the surface. EUDs of 50 keV are 1% larger than that of 40 keV. For a prescription dose of 20 Gy, EUDs of 50 keV beam are 17.52, 16.21 and 13.14 Gy respectively for 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 mm of the standard deviation of cancer cell Gaussian distributions. Conclusion: The impact by selected energies of IORT beams is very minimal. When energy is changed from 50 keV to 40 keV, the EUDs are almost the same for the same cancer cell distribution. 40 keV can be safely used as an alternative of 50 keV beam in IORT.

  11. Prognostic significance of flow-cytometry evaluation of minimal residual disease in children with acute myeloid leukaemia treated according to the AIEOP-AML 2002/01 study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buldini, Barbara; Rizzati, Frida; Masetti, Riccardo; Fagioli, Franca; Menna, Giuseppe; Micalizzi, Concetta; Putti, Maria Caterina; Rizzari, Carmelo; Santoro, Nicola; Zecca, Marco; Disarò, Silvia; Rondelli, Roberto; Merli, Pietro; Pigazzi, Martina; Pession, Andrea; Locatelli, Franco; Basso, Giuseppe

    2017-04-01

    In children with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML), assessment of initial treatment response is an essential prognostic factor; methods more sensitive than morphology are still under evaluation. We report on the measurement of minimal residual disease (MRD), by multicolour flow-cytometry in one centralized laboratory, in 142 children with newly diagnosed AML enrolled in the Associazione Italiana di EmatoOncologia Pediatrica-AML 2002/01 trial. At the end of the first induction course, MRD was 1% in 51 patients. The 8-year disease-free survival (DFS) of 125 children in morphological complete remission and with MRD <0·1%, 0·1-1% and ≥1% was 73·1 ± 5·6%, 37·8 ± 12·1% and 34·1 ± 8·8%, respectively (P < 0·01). MRD was also available after the second induction course in 92/142 patients. MRD was ≥0·1% at the end of the first induction course in 36 patients; 13 reached an MRD <0·1% after the second one and their DFS was 45·4 ± 16·7% vs. 22·8 ± 8·9% in patients with persisting MRD ≥0·1% (P = 0·037). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that MRD ≥0·1% after first induction course was, together with a monosomal karyotype, an independent adverse prognostic factor for DFS. Our results show that MRD detected by flow-cytometry after induction therapy predicts outcome in patients with childhood AML and can help stratifying post-remission treatment. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Measured residual stresses in overlay pipe weldments removed from service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shack, W.J.

    1985-02-01

    Surface and throughwall residual stresses were measured on an elbow-to-pipe weldment that had been removed from the Hatch-2 reactor about a year after the application of a weld overlay. The results were compared with experimental measurements on three mock-up weldments and with finite-element calculations. The comparison shows that there are significant differences in the form and magnitude of the residual stress distributions. However, even after more than a year of service, the residual stresses over most of the inner surface of the actual plant weldment with an overlay were strongly compressive. 3 refs., 7 figs

  13. Finite Element Residual Stress Analysis of Planetary Gear Tooth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jungang Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A method to simulate residual stress field of planetary gear is proposed. In this method, the finite element model of planetary gear is established and divided to tooth zone and profile zone, whose different temperature field is set. The gear's residual stress simulation is realized by the thermal compression stress generated by the temperature difference. Based on the simulation, the finite element model of planetary gear train is established, the dynamic meshing process is simulated, and influence of residual stress on equivalent stress of addendum, pitch circle, and dedendum of internal and external meshing planetary gear tooth profile is analyzed, according to non-linear contact theory, thermodynamic theory, and finite element theory. The results show that the equivalent stresses of planetary gear at both meshing and nonmeshing surface are significantly and differently reduced by residual stress. The study benefits fatigue cracking analysis and dynamic optimization design of planetary gear train.

  14. Variability of matrix effects in liquid and gas chromatography - mass spectrometry analysis of pesticide residues after QuEChERS sample preparation of different food crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gas and liquid chromatography (GC and LC) coupled to sophisticated mass spectrometry (MS) instruments are among the most powerful analytical tools currently available to monitor pesticide residues in food, among other applications. However, both GC-MS and LC-MS are susceptible to matrix effects whi...

  15. Quantifying biological nitrogen fixation of different catch crops, and residual effects of roots and tops on nitrogen uptake in barley using in-situ 15N labelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xiaoxi; Sørensen, Peter; Li, F C

    2015-01-01

    –46 % in macro-roots (0–18 cm soil). Macro-roots represented 31–50 % of total plant N. LBCCs showed similar capacity for soil N extraction as non-LBCCs. After incorporation of LBCC residues, the dry matter and N yields of spring barley were comparable to the effect of 50 kg N fertilisation ha−1, whereas no extra...

  16. Clinical significance of determination of changes of serum SF, folic acid and vitamin B12 levels in pregnant women of different gestational stages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Hua

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To explore the changes of serum SF, FA and Vitamin Bn levels in pregnant women of different gestational stages. Methods: Levels of serum SF, fore acid and Vitamin B 12 were detected with RIA in 132 pregnant women of different gestational stages and 35 controls (non-pregant women). Results: Serum SF, folic acid and VitB 12 levels were significantly lower in pregnant women of 2nd and 3rd trimester than those in controls (P l2 levels were low in late pregnancy predisposing to development anemia. (authors)

  17. Residual symptoms and functioning in depression, does the type of residual symptom matter? A post-hoc analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romera Irene

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The degrees to which residual symptoms in major depressive disorder (MDD adversely affect patient functioning is not known. This post-hoc analysis explored the association between different residual symptoms and patient functioning. Methods Patients with MDD who responded (≥50% on the 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression; HAMD-17 after 3 months of treatment (624/930 were included. Residual core mood-symptoms (HAMD-17 core symptom subscale ≥1, residual insomnia-symptoms (HAMD-17 sleep subscale ≥1, residual anxiety-symptoms (HAMD-17-anxiety subscale ≥1, residual somatic-symptoms (HAMD-17 Item 13 ≥1, pain (Visual Analogue Scale ≥30, and functioning were assessed after 3 months treatment. A stepwise logistic regression model with normal functioning (Social and Occupational Functioning Assessment Scale ≥80 as the dependent variable was used. Results After 3 months, 59.5% of patients (371/624 achieved normal functioning and 66.0% (412/624 were in remission. Residual symptom prevalence was: core mood symptoms 72%; insomnia 63%; anxiety 78%; and somatic symptoms 41%. Pain reported in 18%. Factors associated with normal functioning were absence of core mood symptoms (odds ratio [OR] 8.7; 95% confidence interval [CI], 4.6–16.7, absence of insomnia symptoms (OR 1.8; 95% CI, 1.2–2.7, episode length (4–24 weeks vs. ≥24 weeks [OR 2.0; 95% CI, 1.1–3.6] and better baseline functioning (OR 1.0; 95% CI, 1.0–1.1. A significant interaction between residual anxiety symptoms and pain was found (p = 0.0080. Conclusions Different residual symptoms are associated to different degrees with patient functioning. To achieve normal functioning, specific residual symptoms domains might be targeted for treatment.

  18. Biofertilizer potential of residual biomass of Akk (alotropis procera (Ait.))

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, N.

    2016-01-01

    The biofertilizer potential of residual biomass, derived from two parts that is flowers and leaves of Akk,was investigated in terms of its applications as a substrate for phyto-beneficial bacterial growth and subsequent inorganic phosphate solubilizing agent. The residual biomass was obtained after the extraction of antioxidants from the leaves and flowers of Akk using different solvent systems. The treatment with residual biomass of Akk (RBA) significantly (p<0.05) enhanced the growth of Enterobacter sp. Fs-11 and Rhizobium sp. E-11 as compared to control (without residual biomass). Maximum microbial growth in terms of optical density (0.92-1.22) was observed for residual biomass sample extracted with aqueous acetone against the control (0.58-0.68). On the other hand, maximum phosphate solubilization (589.27-611.32 mu g mL-1) was recorded for aqueous ethanol extracted residual biomass while the minimum (246.31-382.15 micro g) for aqueous acetone extracted residual biomass against the control (576.65 micro g mL-1). The present study revealed that the tested RBA can be explored as an effective bio-inoculant to supplement synthetic inorganic phosphate fertilizers. However, some appropriate in-vitro assays should be conducted to optimize and standardize the quantity and mesh size of residual biomass prior to use in biofertilizer production as carrier material. (author)

  19. Prostate cancer risk: the significance of differences in age related changes in serum conjugated and unconjugated steroid hormone concentrations between Arab and Caucasian men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehinde, E O; Akanji, A O; Memon, A; Bashir, A A; Daar, A S; Al-Awadi, K A; Fatinikun, T

    2006-01-01

    Factors responsible for the low incidence of clinical prostate cancer (3-8/100,000 men/year) in the Arab population remain unclear, but may be related to changes in steroid hormone metabolism. We compared the levels of serum conjugated and unconjugated steroids between Arab and Caucasian populations, to determine if these can provide a rational explanation for differences in incidence of prostate cancer between the two populations. Venous blood samples were obtained from 329 unselected apparently healthy indigenous Arab men (Kuwaitis and Omanis) aged 15-80 years. Samples were also obtained from similar Arab men with newly diagnosed prostate cancer or benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). The samples were taken between 8:00 am and 12:00 noon. Serum levels of total testosterone, (TT), sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), free androgen index (FAI); adrenal C19-steroids, dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS) and androstenedione (ADT) were determined using Immulite kits (Diagnostic Systems Laboratories Inc, Webster Texas, USA). The results obtained in Arab men were compared with those reported for similarly aged Chinese, German and White USA men. In all four ethnic groups, median TT and FAI declined with age, while SHBG increased with age. However, the mean TT and SHBG was significantly lower (p Arab men (p Arabs (p Arabs. There was no significant difference in mean serum levels of DHEAS between German and USA men. Similarly, there was no significant difference in the level of the hormones between Arab and Chinese men. Arab men with newly diagnosed prostate cancer had high serum TT, SHBG and DHEAS compared to those without the disease. The mean TT and SHBG was significantly lower in Arab men compared to Caucasian men especially in early adulthood. Caucasians have significantly higher serum levels of the precursor androgens DHEAS and ADT especially in early adulthood compared to Arab men. These observations of low circulating androgens and their adrenal precursors in

  20. THE EFFECT OF COOKING AND STORAGE ON FLORFENICOL AND FLORFENICOL AMINE RESIDUES IN EGGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayhan Filazi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of storage conditions (room temperature, refrigerator and cooking methods (frying, boiling on florfenicol (FF and florfenicol amine (FFA residue levels in eggs. Without any significant difference between storage conditions at 20˚C and +4˚C, residue levels decreased within days, but were still present on day 28. Frying and boiling for 1 and 5 min yielded similar results to the storage conditions just described; there was a significant decrease in residue levels, but still not enough for decomposing. These findings indicate that FF and FFA residues are heat-labile.

  1. Clinical significance of inter-arm pressure difference and ankle-brachial pressure index in patients with suspected coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igarashi, Yuko; Chikamori, Taishiro; Tomiyama, Hirofumi; Usui, Yasuhiro; Hida, Satoshi; Tanaka, Hirokazu; Nagao, Tadashi; Yamashina, Akira

    2007-01-01

    Although measuring blood pressure at the bilateral brachia is common in medical practice, its clinical significance in patients with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD) has not been fully clarified. The method of this study was to define the significance of inter-arm systolic blood pressure difference in patients with suspected CAD, and to assess the relationship between inter-arm pressure difference and CAD, simultaneous brachial and ankle blood pressure measurements and stress myocardial single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) were performed in 386 consecutive patients with suspected CAD, excluding those with previous myocardial infarction or coronary revascularization. Subclavian artery stenosis, defined as ≥15 mmHg inter-arm systolic blood pressure difference, was found in 27 patients (7%). Age (65±12 vs 65±11 years), male sex (21/27 vs 244/359), prevalence of hypertension (63% vs 56%), hypercholesterolemia (63% vs 62%), diabetes mellitus (33% vs 38%), cigarette smoking (44% vs 41%) and family history of CAD (15% vs 12%) were similar between patients with subclavian artery stenosis and those without. The incidence of decreased ankle-brachial pressure index (ABI) was higher (37% vs 12%, p=0.001), and percentage ischemic myocardium as assessed by SPECT was greater (9.0±8.5% vs 5.6±6.6%, p=0.05) in patients with subclavian artery stenosis than in those without. Furthermore, significant correlations were observed between inter-arm pressure difference and percentage ischemic myocardium (r=0.13; p=0.01), and ABI (r=-0.26, p<0.0001). Among 386 patients, 283 underwent coronary angiography, and 63% of those who had inter-arm blood pressure difference had CAD. Furthermore, 83% of those CAD patients had multi-vessel CAD, which is regarded as a high-risk subset for subsequent cardiac events. Inter-arm pressure difference is often found in patients with suspected CAD, and is associated with significant CAD and peripheral artery disease. Thus, inter

  2. Biological significance of dead biomass retention trait in Mediterranean Basin species: an analysis between different successional niches and regeneration strategies as functional groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeza, M J; Santana, V M

    2015-11-01

    Standing dead biomass retention is considered one of the most relevant fuel structural traits to affect plant flammability. However, very little is known about the biological significance of this trait and its distribution between different functional groups. Our aim was to analyse how the proportion of dead biomass produced in Mediterranean species is related to the successional niche of species (early-, mid- and late-successional stages) and the regeneration strategy of species (seeders and resprouters). We evaluated biomass distribution by size classes and standing dead biomass retention in nine dominant species from the Mediterranean Basin in different development stages (5, 9, 14 and 26 years since the last fire). The results revealed significant differences in the standing dead biomass retention of species that presented a distinct successional niche or regeneration strategy. These differences were restricted to the oldest ages studied (>9 years). Tree and small tree resprouters, typical in late-successional stages, presented slight variations with age and a less marked trend to retain dead biomass, while seeder shrubs and dwarf shrubs, characteristic of early-successional stages, showed high dead biomass loads. Our results suggest that the species that tend to retain more dead branches are colonising species that may promote fire in early-successional stages. © 2015 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  3. Comparison of bacterial community structure and dynamics during the thermophilic composting of different types of solid wastes: anaerobic digestion residue, pig manure and chicken manure

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Caihong; Li, Mingxiao; Jia, Xuan; Wei, Zimin; Zhao, Yue; Xi, Beidou; Zhu, Chaowei; Liu, Dongming

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of composting substrate types on the bacterial community structure and dynamics during composting processes. To this end, pig manure (PM), chicken manure (CM), a mixture of PM and CM (PM + CM), and a mixture of PM, CM and anaerobic digestion residue (ADR) (PM + CM + ADR) were selected for thermophilic composting. The bacterial community structure and dynamics during the composting process were detected and analysed by polymerase chain reaction–denaturing gra...

  4. Different distribution patterns of lymphocytes and microglia in the hippocampus of patients with residual versus paranoid schizophrenia: further evidence for disease course-related immune alterations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busse, Stefan; Busse, Mandy; Schiltz, Kolja; Bielau, Hendrik; Gos, Tomasz; Brisch, Ralf; Mawrin, Christian; Schmitt, Andrea; Jordan, Wolfgang; Müller, Ulf J; Bernstein, Hans-Gert; Bogerts, Bernhard; Steiner, Johann

    2012-11-01

    Certain cytokines have been identified in the peripheral blood as trait markers of schizophrenia, while others are considered relapse-related state markers. Furthermore, data from peripheral blood, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and nuclear imaging studies suggest that (1) blood-brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction (e.g., immigration of lymphocytes into brain tissue and intrathecal antibody production) correlates with the development of negative symptoms, while (2) the brain's mononuclear phagocyte system (microglial cells) is activated during acute psychosis. Based on these neuroinflammatory hypotheses, we have quantified the numerical density of immunostained CD3+ T-lymphocytes, CD20+ B-lymphocytes, and HLA-DR+ microglial cells in the posterior hippocampus of 17 schizophrenia patients and 11 matched controls. Disease course-related immune alterations were considered by a separate analysis of residual (prevailing negative symptoms, n=7) and paranoid (prominent positive symptoms, n=10) schizophrenia cases. Higher densities of CD3+ and CD20+ lymphocytes were observed in residual versus paranoid schizophrenia (CD 3: left: P=0.047, right: P=0.038; CD20: left: P=0.020, right: P=0.010) and controls (CD3: left: P=0.057, right: P=0.069; CD20: left: P=0.008, right: P=0.006). In contrast, HLA-DR+ microglia were increased in paranoid schizophrenia versus residual schizophrenia (left: P=0.030, right: P=0.012). A similar trend emerged when this group was compared to controls (left: P=0.090, right: P=0.090). BBB impairment and infiltration of T cells and B cells may contribute to the pathophysiology of residual schizophrenia, while microglial activation seems to play a role in paranoid schizophrenia. The identification of diverse immune endophenotypes may facilitate the development of distinct anti-inflammatory schizophrenia therapies to normalize BBB function, (auto)antibody production or microglial activity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Significant genotype difference in the CYP2E1 PstI polymorphism of indigenous groups in Sabah, Malaysia with Asian and non-Asian populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Lucky Poh Wah; Chong, Eric Tzyy Jiann; Chua, Kek Heng; Chuah, Jitt Aun; Lee, Ping-Chin

    2014-01-01

    CYP2E1 PstI polymorphism G-1259C (rs3813867) genotype distributions vary significantly among different populations and are associated with both diseases, like cancer, and adverse drug effects. To date, there have been limited genotype distributions and allele frequencies of this polymorphism reported in the three major indigenous ethnic groups (KadazanDusun, Bajau, and Rungus) in Sabah, also known as North Borneo. The aim of this study was to investigate the genotype distributions and allele frequencies of the CYP2E1 PstI polymorphism G-1259C in these three major indigenous peoples in Sabah. A total of 640 healthy individuals from the three dominant indigenous groups were recruited for this study. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) at G-1259C polymorphic site of CYP2E1 gene was performed using the Pst I restriction enzyme. Fragments were analyzed using agarose gel electrophoresis and confirmed by direct sequencing. Overall, the allele frequencies were 90.3% for c1 allele and 9.7% for c2 allele. The genotype frequencies for c1/c1, c1/c2 and c2/c2 were observed as 80.9%, 18.8%, and 0.3%, respectively. A highly statistical significant difference (ppopulations. However, among these three indigenous groups, there was no statistical significant difference (p>0.001) in their genotype distributions. The three major indigenous ethnic groups in Sabah show unique genotype distributions when compared with other populations. This finding indicates the importance of establishing the genotype distributions of CYP2E1 PstI polymorphism in the indigenous populations.

  6. Arterio-venous concentration difference of [51Cr]EDTA after a single injection in man. Significance of renal function and local blood flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehling, M; Hyldstrup, L; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl

    1989-01-01

    , whereas the difference was very sensitive to even small changes in forearm blood flow within the physiological range. For measurement of renal plasma clearance it is recommended to use one long period: from the time of injection until 300 min p.i. or longer. If the clearance period is too short, the use...... introduced in the measurement of renal plasma clearance and total plasma clearance by using venous blood samples instead of arterial. In 13 patients with GFR ranging from 29 to 150 ml min-1, Ca was higher than Cv immediately after the injection. After mean 38 min (range 12-82 min) the two curves crossed...... of venous samples will overestimate the true renal clearance. Plasma clearance determined by venous and arterial blood samples does not differ significantly as long as the concentration is followed from the time of injection and a long period is applied. When simplified plasma clearance techniques are used...

  7. Clinical significance of determination of changes of serum SF, folic acid and vitamin B{sub 12} levels in pregnant women of different gestational stages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hua, Jiang [Taizhou City Women and Children Health Station, Jiangsu, Taizhou (China)

    2007-10-01

    Objective: To explore the changes of serum SF, FA and Vitamin Bn levels in pregnant women of different gestational stages. Methods: Levels of serum SF, fore acid and Vitamin B{sub 12} were detected with RIA in 132 pregnant women of different gestational stages and 35 controls (non-pregant women). Results: Serum SF, folic acid and VitB{sub 12} levels were significantly lower in pregnant women of 2nd and 3rd trimester than those in controls (P<0.01), but expect in pregnant women of 1st trimester. Conclusion: Serum SF, folio acid and Vitamin B{sub l2} levels were low in late pregnancy predisposing to development anemia. (authors)

  8. Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging: a non-invasive method to evaluate significant differences between malignant and normal tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudisch, Ansgar; Kremser, Christian; Judmaier, Werner; Zunterer, Hildegard; DeVries, Alexander F.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: An ever recurring challenge in diagnostic radiology is the differentiation between non-malignant and malignant tissue. Based on evidence that microcirculation of normal, non-malignant tissue differs from that of malignant tissue, the goal of this study was to assess the reliability of dynamic contrast-enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging (dcMRI) for differentiating these two entities. Materials and methods: DcMRI data of rectum carcinoma and gluteus maximus muscles were acquired in 41 patients. Using an fast T1-mapping sequence on a 1.5-T whole body scanner, T1-maps were dynamically retrieved before, during and after constant rate i.v. infusion of a contrast medium (CM). On the basis of the acquired data sets, PI-values were calculated on a pixel-by-pixel basis. The relevance of spatial heterogeneities of microcirculation was investigated by relative frequency histograms of the PI-values. Results: A statistically significant difference between malignant and normal tissue was found for the mean PI-value (P < 0.001; 8.95 ml/min/100 g ± 2.45 versus 3.56 ml/min/100 g ± 1.20). Additionally relative frequency distributions of PI-values with equal class intervals of 2.5 ml/min/100 g revealed significant differences between the histograms of muscles and rectum carcinoma. Conclusion: We could show that microcirculation differences between malignant and normal, non-malignant tissue can be reliably assessed by non-invasive dcMRI. Therefore, dcMRI holds great promise in the aid of cancer assessment, especially in patients where biopsy is contraindicated

  9. Clinical significance of determination of changes of immuno-function parameters in patients with acute severe brain lnjury on different froms of nutritional support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Jun; Qian Quanan; Ma Yunbao; Zhang Xiaoyi; Zhu Jin

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To study the relationship between different forms of nutritional support and changes of serum nutritional as well as immuno-function parameters in patients with acute severe brain injury. Methods: Serum levels of total protein, albumin, hemoglobin, transferrin (with biochemistry), immunoglobulins IgA, IgG, IgM (with immuno-turbidimetry) and cytokines IL-2, IL-6, IL-8 (with RIA) were determined in 64 patients with acute severe brain injury both before and after 7 ∼ 10ds' nutritional support. The 64 patients were divided into two groups:1) experimental group, n=30, receiving parentral (70%) plus partial enteral (30%) feedings 2) control group, n=34, receiving total parenteral untritional support exclusively with equal mitrogen and calorie intake in all the 64 patients. Results: The serum levels of total protein, albumin, Hb and transferrin as well as other parameter in both groups before nutritional support were about the same. After the course of nutritional support, the serum levels of total protein and albumin changed little in both groups, but the Hb and transferritin levels in both groups increased significantly (P<0.05) with the levels significantly higher in the experimental group than those in the control group (P also <0.05). The serum immunoglobulins IgA, IgM levels changed verd littel, except that the IgG levels increased significantly in the experimental group after treatment (P<0.05) and were significantly higher than those in control group (P also <0.05). The serum cytokins levels in the control group changed little after the course of nutritional support, but the levels in the experimental group were greatly normalized and decreased significantly after treatment (P also <0.05). Conclusion: Parenteral combined with partial enteral nutritional support could improve the nutritional as well as immuno-function status better than exclusive TPN did in patients with acute severe brain injury. (authors)

  10. DNA Methylation Profiling of Human Prefrontal Cortex Neurons in Heroin Users Shows Significant Difference between Genomic Contexts of Hyper- and Hypomethylation and a Younger Epigenetic Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Kozlenkov

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available We employed Illumina 450 K Infinium microarrays to profile DNA methylation (DNAm in neuronal nuclei separated by fluorescence-activated sorting from the postmortem orbitofrontal cortex (OFC of heroin users who died from heroin overdose (N = 37, suicide completers (N = 22 with no evidence of heroin use and from control subjects who did not abuse illicit drugs and died of non-suicide causes (N = 28. We identified 1298 differentially methylated CpG sites (DMSs between heroin users and controls, and 454 DMSs between suicide completers and controls (p < 0.001. DMSs and corresponding genes (DMGs in heroin users showed significant differences in the preferential context of hyper and hypo DM. HyperDMSs were enriched in gene bodies and exons but depleted in promoters, whereas hypoDMSs were enriched in promoters and enhancers. In addition, hyperDMGs showed preference for genes expressed specifically by glutamatergic as opposed to GABAergic neurons and enrichment for axonogenesis- and synaptic-related gene ontology categories, whereas hypoDMGs were enriched for transcription factor activity- and gene expression regulation-related terms. Finally, we found that the DNAm-based “epigenetic age” of neurons from heroin users was younger than that in controls. Suicide-related results were more difficult to interpret. Collectively, these findings suggest that the observed DNAm differences could represent functionally significant marks of heroin-associated plasticity in the OFC.

  11. Significant differences in gene expression and key genetic components associated with high growth vigor in populus section tacamahaca as revealed by comparative transcriptome analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, S.; Chen, M.; Li, Y.; Wang, J.; Sun, X.; Wang, J.

    2017-01-01

    To identify genetic components involved in high growth vigor in F1 Populus section Tacamahaca hybrid plants, high and low vigor plants showing significant differences in apical dominance during a rapid growth period were selected. Apical bud transcriptomes of high and low-growth-vigor hybrids and their parents were analyzed using high-throughput RNA sequencing on an Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform. A total of 5,542 genes were differently expressed between high growth vigor hybrid and its parents, the genes were significantly enriched in pathways related to processes such as photosynthesis, pyrimidine ribonucleotide biosynthetic processes and nucleoside metabolic processes. There were 1410 differentially expressed genes between high and low growth vigor hybrid, the genes were mainly involved in photosynthesis, chlorophyll biosynthetic process, carbon fixation in photosynthetic organisms, porphyrin and chlorophyll metabolism and nitrogen metabolism. Moreover, a k-core of a gene co-expression network analysis was performed to identify the potential functions of genes related to high growth vigor. The functions of 8 selected candidate genes were associated mainly with circadian rhythm, water transport, cellulose catabolic processes, sucrose biosynthesis, pyrimidine ribonucleotide biosynthesis, purine nucleotide biosynthesis, meristem maintenance, and carbohydrate metabolism. Our results may contribute to a better understanding of the molecular basis of high growth vigor in hybrids and its regulation. (author)

  12. Development of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for seven sulfonamide residues and investigation of matrix effects from different food samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongyan; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Yan; Fang, Guozhen; Zheng, Wenjie; Wang, Shuo

    2007-03-21

    Direct competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) were developed to detect a broad range of sulfonamides in various matrices. Screening for this class of antibiotics in pig muscle, chicken muscle, fish, and egg extracts was accomplished by simple, rapid extraction methods carried out with only phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) buffer. Twenty milliliters of extract solution was added to 4 g of sample to extract the sulfonamide residues, and sample extracts diluted with assay buffer were directly analyzed by ELISA; matrix effects could be avoided with 1:5 dilution of pig muscle, chicken muscle, and egg extracts with PBS and 1:5 dilution of fish extract with 1% bovine serum albumin (BSA)-PBS. For liver sample, the extraction method was a little more complicated; 2 g of sample was added to 20 mL of ethanol, mixed, and then centrifuged. The solvent of 10 mL of the upper liquid was removed, and the residues were dissolved in 10 mL of PBS and then filtered; the filtrate was diluted two-fold with 0.5% BSA-PBS for ELISA. These common methods were able to detect seven sulfonamide residues such as sulfisozole, sulfathiazole, sufameter, sulfamethoxypyridazine, sulfapyridine, sulfamethizole, and sulfachlorpyridazine in pig muscle, liver, chicken muscle, egg, and fish. The assay's detection limits for these compounds were less than 100 microg kg-1. Various extraction methods were tested, and the average recovery (n=3) of 100 microg kg-1 for the matrices was found to range from 77.3 to 123.7%.

  13. Is the prognostic significance of O6-methylguanine- DNA methyltransferase promoter methylation equally important in glioblastomas of patients from different continents? A systematic review with meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Wei; Jiang, Yangyang; Ma, Jie

    2017-01-01

    O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) is an independent predictor of therapeutic response and potential prognosis in patients with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). However, its significance of clinical prognosis in different continents still needs to be explored. To explore the effects of MGMT promoter methylation on both progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) among GBM patients from different continents, a systematic review of published studies was conducted. A total of 5103 patients from 53 studies were involved in the systematic review and the total percentage of MGMT promoter methylation was 45.53%. Of these studies, 16 studies performed univariate analyses and 17 performed multivariate analyses of MGMT promoter methylation on PFS. The pooled hazard ratio (HR) estimated for PFS was 0.55 (95% CI 0.50, 0.60) by univariate analysis and 0.43 (95% CI 0.38, 0.48) by multivariate analysis. The effect of MGMT promoter methylation on OS was explored in 30 studies by univariate analysis and in 30 studies by multivariate analysis. The combined HR was 0.48 (95% CI 0.44, 0.52) and 0.42 (95% CI 0.38, 0.45), respectively. In each subgroup divided by areas, the prognostic significance still remained highly significant. The proportion of methylation in each group was in inverse proportion to the corresponding HR in the univariate and multivariate analyses of PFS. However, from the perspective of OS, compared with data from Europe and the US, higher methylation rates in Asia did not bring better returns.

  14. Prognostic Significance of the Systemic Inflammatory and Immune Balance in Alcoholic Liver Disease with a Focus on Gender-Related Differences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Kasztelan-Szczerbińska

    Full Text Available Mechanisms of immune regulation in alcoholic liver disease (ALD are still unclear. The aim of our study was to determine an impact of Th17 / regulatory T (Treg cells balance and its corresponding cytokine profile on the ALD outcome. Possible gender-related differences in the alcohol-induced inflammatory response were also assessed.147 patients with ALD were prospectively recruited, assigned to subgroups based on their gender, severity of liver dysfunction and presence of ALD complications at admission, and followed for 90 days. Peripheral blood frequencies of Th17 and Treg cells together with IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-17A, IL-23, and TGF-beta1 levels were investigated. Flow cytometry was used to identify T cell phenotype and immunoenzymatic ELISAs for the corresponding cytokine concentrations assessment. Multivariable logistic regression was applied in order to select independent predictors of advanced liver dysfunction and the disease complications.IL-17A, IL-1beta, IL-6 levels were significantly increased, while TGF-beta1 decreased in ALD patients. The imbalance with significantly higher Th17 and lower Treg frequencies was observed in non-survivors. IL-6 and TGF-beta1 levels differed in relation to patient gender in ALD group. Concentrations of IL-6 were associated with the severity of liver dysfunction, development of ALD complications, and turned out to be the only independent immune predictor of 90-day survival in the study cohort.We conclude that IL-6 revealed the highest diagnostic and prognostic potential among studied biomarkers and was related to the fatal ALD course. Gender-related differences in immune regulation might influence the susceptibility to alcohol-associated liver injury.

  15. Young Mania Rating Scale: how to interpret the numbers? Determination of a severity threshold and of the minimal clinically significant difference in the EMBLEM cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukasiewicz, Michael; Gerard, Stephanie; Besnard, Adeline; Falissard, Bruno; Perrin, Elena; Sapin, Helene; Tohen, Mauricio; Reed, Catherine; Azorin, Jean-Michel

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this analysis was to identify Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) meaningful benchmarks for clinicians (severity threshold, minimal clinically significant difference [MCSD]) using the Clinical Global Impressions Bipolar (CGI-BP) mania scale, to provide a clinical perspective to randomized clinical trials (RCTs) results. We used the cohort of patients with acute manic/mixed state of bipolar disorders (N = 3459) included in the European Mania in Bipolar Longitudinal Evaluation of Medication (EMBLEM) study. A receiver-operating characteristic analysis was performed on randomly selected patients to determine the YMRS optimal severity threshold with CGI-BP mania score ≥ "Markedly ill" defining severity. The MCSD (clinically meaningful change in score relative to one point difference in CGI-BP mania for outcome measures) of YMRS, was assessed with a linear regression on baseline data. At baseline, YMRS mean score was 26.4 (±9.9), CGI-BP mania mean score was 4.8 (±1.0) and 61.7% of patients had a score ≥ 5. The optimal YMRS severity threshold of 25 (positive predictive value [PPV] = 83.0%; negative predictive value [NPV] = 66.0%) was determined. In this cohort, a YMRS score of 20 (typical cutoff for RCTs inclusion criteria) corresponds to a PPV of 74.6% and to a NPV of 77.6%, meaning that the majority of patients included would be classified as severely ill. The YMRS minimal clinically significant difference was 6.6 points. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Geographical and genetic factors do not account for significant differences in the clinical spectrum of giant cell arteritis in southern europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Gay, Miguel A; Boiardi, Luigi; Garcia-Porrua, Carlos; Macchioni, Pierluigi; Amor-Dorado, Juan C; Salvarani, Carlo

    2004-03-01

    To investigate whether genetic and geographical differences may influence the clinical spectrum of giant cell arteritis (GCA), we compared the demographic and clinical features of patients with biopsy-proven GCA from Reggio Emilia (Northern Italy) and Lugo (Northwest Spain) during a 15-year period. We performed a retrospective review of the case records of all patients diagnosed with biopsy-proven GCA at Hospital Xeral-Calde (Lugo, Spain) and Hospital Santa Maria Nuova (Reggio Emilia, Italy) between 1 January 1986 and 31 December 2001. Both hospitals are the only referral centers for populations living in central Galicia and central Emilia Romagna, respectively. During the period of study, 194 Lugo residents and 126 Reggio Emilia residents were diagnosed with biopsy proven GCA. Reggio Emilia patients were more likely to be female (74% vs 54%; p = 0.0001). Although Lugo patients complained of headache (86%) more commonly than did those from Reggio Emilia (77%), the difference was only marginally significant (p = 0.05). The proportion of patients with visual manifestations or visual loss was remarkably similar (22% for visual manifestations and 17% for visual loss in Lugo and 29% and 21% for Reggio Emilia residents). The mean erythrocyte sedimentation rate prior to the onset of therapy was also similar. Apart from differences in sex, the clinical spectrum of GCA in these 2 Southern European regions was similar.

  17. Residual number processing in dyscalculia ?

    OpenAIRE

    Cappelletti, Marinella; Price, Cathy J.

    2013-01-01

    Developmental dyscalculia – a congenital learning disability in understanding numerical concepts – is typically associated with parietal lobe abnormality. However, people with dyscalculia often retain some residual numerical abilities, reported in studies that otherwise focused on abnormalities in the dyscalculic brain. Here we took a different perspective by focusing on brain regions that support residual number processing in dyscalculia. All participants accurately performed semantic and ca...

  18. Alkali activation processes for incinerator residues management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancellotti, Isabella; Ponzoni, Chiara; Barbieri, Luisa; Leonelli, Cristina

    2013-08-01

    Incinerator bottom ash (BA) is produced in large amount worldwide and in Italy, where 5.1 millionstons of municipal solid residues have been incinerated in 2010, corresponding to 1.2-1.5 millionstons of produced bottom ash. This residue has been used in the present study for producing dense geopolymers containing high percentage (50-70 wt%) of ash. The amount of potentially reactive aluminosilicate fraction in the ash has been determined by means of test in NaOH. The final properties of geopolymers prepared with or without taking into account this reactive fraction have been compared. The results showed that due to the presence of both amorphous and crystalline fractions with a different degree of reactivity, the incinerator BA geopolymers exhibit significant differences in terms of Si/Al ratio and microstructure when reactive fraction is considered. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Significant differences in maternal child-feeding style between ethnic groups in the UK: the role of deprivation and parenting styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korani, M; Rea, D M; King, P F; Brown, A E

    2018-04-03

    Nonresponsive maternal child-feeding interactions, such as restricting, pressurising and emotional feeding, can affect the ability of a child to self-regulate intake and increase the risk of becoming overweight. However, despite findings that South Asian and Black children living in the UK are more likely to be overweight, UK research has not considered how maternal child-feeding style might differ between ethnic groups. The present study aimed to explore variations in maternal child-feeding style between ethnic groups in the UK, taking into account associated factors such as deprivation and parenting style. Six hundred and fifty-nine UK mothers with a child who was aged 5-11 years old completed a questionnaire. Items included ethnicity and demographic data, as well as copies of the Child Feeding Questionnaire, Parental Feeding Styles Questionnaire and Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire. Significant differences in perceived responsibility (P = 0.002), restriction (P = 0.026), pressure to eat (P = 0.045), instrumental feeding (P = 0.000) and emotional feeding (P = 0.000) were found between the groups. Mothers from South Asian backgrounds reported higher levels of pressure to eat, emotional feeding and indulgent feeding styles, whereas mothers from Chinese backgrounds reported greater perceived responsibility and restriction. Mothers from Black and White British backgrounds were not significantly higher with respect to any behaviour. Maternal child-feeding style was also associated with deprivation and parenting style, although these did not fully explain the data. Understanding cultural factors behind maternal child-feeding style, particularly around pressurising and indulgent feeding behaviours, may play an important part in reducing levels of children who are overweight and obese in the UK. © 2018 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  20. A proposed residual stress model for oblique turning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elkhabeery, M. M.

    2001-01-01

    A proposed mathematical model is presented for predicting the residual stresses caused by turning. Effects of change in tool free length, cutting speed, feed rate, and the tensile strength of work piece material on the maximum residual stress are investigated. The residual stress distribution in the surface region due to turning under unlubricated condition is determined using a deflection etching technique. To reduce the number of experiments required and build the mathematical model for these variables, Response Surface Methodology (RSM) is used. In addition, variance analysis and an experimental check are conducted to determine the prominent parameters and the adequacy of the model. The results show that the tensile stress of the work piece material, cutting speed, and feed rate have significant effects on the maximum residual stresses. The proposed model, that offering good correlation between the experimental and predicted results, is useful in selecting suitable cutting parameters for the machining of different materials. (author)

  1. Race and Sex Differences in the Incidence and Prognostic Significance of Silent Myocardial Infarction in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhu-Ming; Rautaharju, Pentti M; Prineas, Ronald J; Rodriguez, Carlos J; Loehr, Laura; Rosamond, Wayne D; Kitzman, Dalane; Couper, David; Soliman, Elsayed Z

    2016-05-31

    Race and sex differences in silent myocardial infarction (SMI) are not well established. The analysis included 9498 participants from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study who were free of cardiovascular disease at baseline (visit 1, 1987-1989). Incident SMI was defined as ECG evidence of MI without clinically documented MI (CMI) after the baseline until ARIC visit 4 (1996-1998). Coronary heart disease and all-cause deaths were ascertained starting from ARIC visit 4 until 2010. During a median follow-up of 8.9 years, 317 participants (3.3%) developed SMI and 386 (4.1%) developed CMI. The incidence rates of both SMI and CMI were higher in men (5.08 and 7.96 per 1000-person years, respectively) than in women (2.93 and 2.25 per 1000-person years, respectively; Prace were detected. SMI represents >45% of incident MIs and is associated with poor prognosis. Race and sex differences in the incidence and prognostic significance of SMI exist that may warrant considering SMI in personalized assessments of coronary heart disease risk. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  2. Compositional Similarities and Differences between Transparent Exopolymer Particles (TEP) from two Marine Bacteria and two Marine Algae: Significance to Surface Biofouling

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Sheng

    2015-06-12

    Transparent-exopolymer-particles (TEP) have been recently identified as a significant contributor to surface biofouling, such as on reverse osmosis (RO) membranes. TEP research has mainly focused on algal TEP/TEP precursors while limited investigations have been conducted on those released by bacteria. In this study, TEP/TEP precursors derived from both algae and bacteria were isolated and then characterized to investigate their similarities and/or differences using various advanced analytical techniques, thus providing a better understanding of their potential effect on biofouling. Bacterial TEP/TEP precursors were isolated from two species of marine bacteria (Pseudidiomarina homiensis and Pseudoalteromonas atlantica) while algal TEP/TEP precursors were isolated from two marine algae species (Alexandrium tamarense and Chaetoceros affinis). Results indicated that both isolated bacterial and algal TEP/TEP precursors were associated with protein-like materials, and most TEP precursors were high-molecular-weight biopolymers. Furthermore all investigated algal and bacterial TEP/TEP precursors showed a lectin-like property, which can enable them to act as a chemical conditioning layer and to agglutinate bacteria. This property may enhance surface biofouling. However, both proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra and the nitrogen/carbon (N/C) ratios suggested that the algal TEP/TEP precursors contained much less protein content than the bacterial TEP/TEP precursors. This difference may influence their initial deposition and further development of surface biofouling.

  3. Comparative study of carbonic anhydrase activity in waters among different geological eco-environments of Yangtze River basin and its ecological significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nzung'a, Sila Onesmus; Pan, Weizhi; Shen, Taiming; Li, Wei; Qin, Xiaoqun; Wang, Chenwei; Zhang, Liankai; Yu, Longjiang

    2018-04-01

    This study provides the presence of carbonic anhydrase (CA) activity in waters of the Yangtze River basin, China, as well as the correlation of CA activity with HCO 3 - concentration and CO 2 sink flux. Different degrees of CA activity could be detected in almost all of the water samples from different geological eco-environments in all four seasons. The CA activity of water samples from karst areas was significantly higher than from non-karst areas (PP3 - concentration (r=0.672, P2 sink flux (r=0.602, P=0.076) in karst areas. This suggests that CA in waters might have a promoting effect on carbon sinks for atmospheric CO 2 in karst river basins. In conditions of similar geological type, higher CA activity was generally detected in water samples taken from areas that exhibited better eco-environments, implying that the CA activity index of waters could be used as an indicator for monitoring ecological environments and protection of river basins. These findings suggest that the role of CA in waters in the karst carbon sink potential of river basins is worthy of further in-depth studies. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Imparting improvements in electrochemical sensors: evaluation of different carbon blacks that give rise to significant improvement in the performance of electroanalytical sensing platforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vicentini, Fernando Campanhã; Ravanini, Amanda E.; Figueiredo-Filho, Luiz C.S.; Iniesta, Jesús; Banks, Craig E.; Fatibello-Filho, Orlando

    2015-01-01

    Three different carbon black materials have been evaluated as a potential modifier, however, only one demonstrated an improvement in the electrochemical properties. The carbon black structures were characterised with SEM, XPS and Raman spectroscopy and found to be very similar to that of amorphous graphitic materials. The modifications utilised were constructed by three different strategies (using ultrapure water, chitosan and dihexadecylphosphate). The fabricated sensors are electrochemically characterised using N,N,N',N'-tetramethyl-para-phenylenediamine and both inner-sphere and outer-sphere redox probes, namely potassium ferrocyanide(II) and hexaammineruthenium(III) chloride, in addition to the biologically relevant and electroactive analytes, dopamine (DA) and acetaminophen (AP). Comparisons are made with an edge-plane pyrolytic graphite and glassy-carbon electrode and the benefits of carbon black implemented as a modifier for sensors within electrochemistry are explored, as well as the characterisation of their electroanalytical performances. We reveal significant improvements in the electrochemical performance (excellent sensitivity, faster heterogeneous electron transfer rate (HET)) over that of a bare glassy-carbon and edge-plane pyrolytic graphite electrode and thus suggest that there are substantial advantages of using carbon black as modifier in the fabrication of electrochemical based sensors. Such work is highly important and informative for those working in the field of electroanalysis where electrochemistry can provide portable, rapid, reliable and accurate sensing protocols (bringing the laboratory into the field), with particular relevance to those searching for new electrode materials

  5. Significant differe nces in demographic, clinical, and pathological features in relation to smoking and alcohol consumption among 1,633 head and neck cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Ajub Moyses

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: As a lifestyle-related disease, social and cultural disparities may influence the features of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck in different geographic regions. We describe demographic, clinical, and pathological aspects of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck according to the smoking and alcohol consumption habits of patients in a Brazilian cohort. METHODS: We prospectively analyzed the smoking and alcohol consumption habits of 1,633 patients enrolled in five São Paulo hospitals that participated in the Brazilian Head and Neck Genome Project - Gencapo. RESULTS: The patients who smoked and drank were younger, and those who smoked were leaner than the other patients, regardless of alcohol consumption. The non-smokers/non-drinkers were typically elderly white females who had more differentiated oral cavity cancers and fewer first-degree relatives who smoked. The patients who drank presented significantly more frequent nodal metastasis, and those who smoked presented less-differentiated tumors. CONCLUSIONS: The patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck demonstrated demographic, clinical, and pathological features that were markedly different according to their smoking and drinking habits. A subset of elderly females who had oral cavity cancer and had never smoked or consumed alcohol was notable. Alcohol consumption seemed to be related to nodal metastasis, whereas smoking correlated with the degree of differentiation.

  6. Patient-specific positioning guides for total knee arthroplasty: no significant difference between final component alignment and pre-operative digital plan except for tibial rotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonen, Bert; Schotanus, Martijn G M; Kerens, Bart; Hulsmans, Frans-Jan; Tuinebreijer, Wim E; Kort, Nanne P

    2017-09-01

    To assess whether there is a significant difference between the alignment of the individual femoral and tibial components (in the frontal, sagittal and horizontal planes) as calculated pre-operatively (digital plan) and the actually achieved alignment in vivo obtained with the use of patient-specific positioning guides (PSPGs) for TKA. It was hypothesised that there would be no difference between post-op implant position and pre-op digital plan. Twenty-six patients were included in this non-inferiority trial. Software permitted matching of the pre-operative MRI scan (and therefore calculated prosthesis position) to a pre-operative CT scan and then to a post-operative full-leg CT scan to determine deviations from pre-op planning in all three anatomical planes. For the femoral component, mean absolute deviations from planning were 1.8° (SD 1.3), 2.5° (SD 1.6) and 1.6° (SD 1.4) in the frontal, sagittal and transverse planes, respectively. For the tibial component, mean absolute deviations from planning were 1.7° (SD 1.2), 1.7° (SD 1.5) and 3.2° (SD 3.6) in the frontal, sagittal and transverse planes, respectively. Absolute mean deviation from planned mechanical axis was 1.9°. The a priori specified null hypothesis for equivalence testing: the difference from planning is >3 or plan in all planes, except for the tibial rotation in the transverse plane. Possible explanations for outliers are discussed and highlight the importance for adequate training surgeons before they start using PSPG in their day-by-day practise. Prospective cohort study, Level II.

  7. No significant effect of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) found on simple motor reaction time comparing 15 different simulation protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Jared Cooney; Carter, Olivia; Forte, Jason D

    2016-10-01

    Research exploring the behavioral impact of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over M1 has produced homogenous results. The most common explanations to address this homogeneity concerns the differential impact of varied tDCS parameters (such as stimulation intensity or electrode montage). To explore this, we systematically examined the effects of 15 different tDCS protocols on a well-elucidated neurobehavioral system: simple visual motor reaction time (smRT). For the initial phase of this study, 150 healthy participants were randomly assigned to one of 5 experimental groups (2mA anodal, 2mA cathodal, 1mA anodal, 1mA cathodal, or sham) across 3 different conditions (orbitofrontal, bilateral, or extracephalic reference electrode location). The active electrode was always placed over M1 and tDCS lasted for 20min. Starting ~5min prior to stimulation and running continuously for ~30min, participants were repeatedly presented with a visual cue centered on a computer monitor and asked to press a response button as quickly as possible at stimulus onset (stimuli number: 100 pre-, 400 during-, and 100-post stimulation - interstimulus interval: 1-3s). Ex-gaussian distribution curves, miss, and error rates were determined for each normalized batch of 100 RTs and compared using a two-way ANOVA. As the largest group differences were seen with 2mA anodal (compared to sham) stimulation using an orbitofrontal montage, an additional 60 healthy participants were recruited to further test for significance in this condition. No significant impact of tDCS was seen on any parameter of smRT distribution, error rate, or miss rate, regardless of polarity, stimulation intensity, electrode montage, or stimulation-to-task relationship. Our results suggest that tDCS over M1 might not have a predictable or reliable effect on short duration smRT. Our results raise interesting questions regarding the mechanisms by which tDCS might modulate more complex motor behaviors. Additional

  8. Soil biogeochemistry properties vary between two boreal forest ecosystems in Quebec: significant differences in soil carbon, available nutrients and iron and aluminium crystallinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastianelli, Carole; Ali, Adam A.; Beguin, Julien; Bergeron, Yves; Grondin, Pierre; Hély, Christelle; Paré, David

    2017-04-01

    At the northernmost extent of the managed forest in Quebec, the boreal forest is currently undergoing an ecological transition from closed-canopy black spruce-moss forests towards open-canopy lichen woodlands, which spread southward. Our study aim was to determine whether this shift could impact soil properties on top of its repercussions on forest productivity or carbon storage. We studied the soil biogeochemical composition of three pedological layers in moss forests (MF) and lichen woodlands (LW) north of the Manicouagan crater in Quebec. The humus layer (FH horizons) was significantly thicker and held more carbon, nitrogen and exchangeable Ca and Mg in MF plots than in LW plots. When considering mineral horizons, we found that the deep C horizon had a very close composition in both ecosystem plots, suggesting that the parent material was of similar geochemical nature. This was expected as all selected sites developed from glacial deposit. Multivariate analysis of surficial mineral B horizon showed however that LW B horizon displayed higher concentrations of Al and Fe oxides than MF B horizon, particularly for inorganic amorphous forms. Conversely, main exchangeable base cations (Ca, Mg) were higher in B horizon of MF than that of LW. Ecosystem types explained much of the variations in the B horizon geochemical composition. We thus suggest that the differences observed in the geochemical composition of the B horizon have a biological origin rather than a mineralogical origin. We also showed that total net stocks of carbon stored in MF soils were three times higher than in LW soils (FH + B horizons, roots apart). Altogether, we suggest that variations in soil properties between MF and LW are linked to a cascade of events involving the impacts of natural disturbances such as wildfires on forest regeneration that determines the of vegetation structure (stand density) and composition (ground cover type) and their subsequent consequences on soil environmental

  9. A study of probabilistic fatigue crack propagation models in Mg Al Zn alloys under different specimen thickness conditions by using the residual of a random variable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Seon Soon

    2012-01-01

    The primary aim of this paper was to evaluate several probabilistic fatigue crack propagation models using the residual of a random variable, and to present the model fit for probabilistic fatigue behavior in Mg Al Zn alloys. The proposed probabilistic models are the probabilistic Paris Erdogan model, probabilistic Walker model, probabilistic Forman model, and probabilistic modified Forman models. These models were prepared by applying a random variable to the empirical fatigue crack propagation models with these names. The best models for describing fatigue crack propagation models with these names. The best models for describing fatigue crack propagation models with these names. The best models for describing fatigue crack propagation models with these names. The best models vor describing fatigue crack propagation behavior in Mg Al Zn alloys were generally the probabilistic Paris Erdogan and probabilistic Walker models. The probabilistic Forman model was a good model only for a specimen with a thickness of 9.45mm

  10. Residual stress measurement of large scaled welded pipe using neutron diffraction method. Effect of SCC crack propagation and repair weld on residual stress distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Hiroshi; Katsuyama, Jinya; Tobita, Tohru; Morii, Yukio

    2011-01-01

    The RESA-1 neutron engineering diffractometer in the JRR-3 (Japan Research Reactor No.3) at the Japan Atomic Energy Agency, which is used for stress measurements, was upgraded to realize residual stress measurements of large scaled mechanical components. A series of residual stress measurements was made to obtain through-thickness residual stress distributions in a Type 304 stainless steel butt-welded pipe of 500A-sch.80 using the upgraded RESA-1 diffractometer. We evaluated effects of crack propagation such as stress corrosion cracking (SCC) and a part-circumference repair weld on the residual stress distributions induced by girth welding. Measured residual stress distributions near original girth weld revealed good agreement with typical results shown in some previous works using finite element method, deep hole drilling as well as neutron diffraction. After introducing a mock crack with 10 mm depth in the heat affected zone on the inside wall of the pipe by electro discharge machining, the axial residual stresses were found to be released in the part of the mock crack. However, changes in the through-wall bending stress component and the self-equilibrated stress component were negligible and hence the axial residual stress distribution in the ligament was remained in the original residual stresses near girth weld without the mock crack. Furthermore, changes in hoop and radial residual stress were also small. The residual stress distributions after a part repair welding on the outer circumference of the girth weld were significantly different from residual stress distributions near the original girth weld. The through-thickness average axial residual stress was increased due to increase of the tensile membrane stress and mitigation of the bending stress after repair welding. Throughout above studies, we evidenced that the neutron diffraction technique is useful and powerful tool for measuring residual stress distributions in large as well as thick mechanical

  11. Validation of a Five Plate Test, the STAR protocol, for the screening of antibiotic residues in muscle from different animal species according to European Decision 2002/657/EC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudin, V; Hedou, C; Rault, A; Verdon, E

    2010-07-01

    The STAR protocol is a Five Plate Test (FPT) developed several years ago at the Community Reference Laboratory (CRL) for the screening of antimicrobial residues in milk and muscle. This paper presents the validation of this method according to European Decision 2002/657/EC and to an internal guideline for validation. A validation protocol based on 'simulated tissues' and on a list of 16 representative antimicrobials to be validated was implemented in our laboratory during several months for the STAR protocol. The performance characteristics of the method were determined (specificity, detection capabilities CCbeta, applicability, ruggedness). In conclusion, the STAR protocol is applicable to the broad-spectrum detection of antibiotic residues in muscles of different animal species (pig, cattle, sheep, poultry). The method has good specificity (false-positive rate = 4%). The detection capabilities were determined for 16 antibiotics from different families in relation to their respective maximum residue limit (MRL): beta-lactams (penicillins and cephalosporins 8 MRL) and florfenicol (MRL). The two objectives of this study were met: firstly, to validate the STAR protocol according to European Decision 2002/657/EC, then to demonstrate that the validation guideline developed to implement this decision is applicable to microbiological plate tests even for muscle. The use of simulated tissue appeared a good compromise between spiked discs with antibiotic solutions and incurred tissues. In addition, the choice of a list of representative antibiotics allowed the reduction of the scope of the validation, which was already costly in time and effort.

  12. Nitrogen availability of biogas residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Sayed Fouda, Sara

    2011-09-07

    The objectives of this study were to characterize biogas residues either unseparated or separated into a liquid and a solid phase from the fermentation of different substrates with respect to their N and C content. In addition, short and long term effects of the application of these biogas residues on the N availability and N utilization by ryegrass was investigated. It is concluded that unseparated or liquid separated biogas residues provide N at least corresponding to their ammonium content and that after the first fertilizer application the C{sub org}:N{sub org} ratio of the biogas residues was a crucial factor for the N availability. After long term application, the organic N accumulated in the soil leads to an increased release of N.

  13. Persistence and degradation of pesticide residues in different agricultural soils, related to biological activity. Part of a coordinated programme on isotopic-tracer-aided studies of agrochemical residue - soil biota interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flores-Ruegg, E.

    1982-07-01

    Laboratory studies and small-scale field experiments were conducted involving pesticides extensively used in agricultural practice in Brazil (the insecticides aldrin, carbaryl and parathion, and the fungicides carbendazim and metalaxyl) with emphasis on biological activity and soil organic matter content. The ability of fungi isolated from soils of southern, centre and northern regions of Brazil to degrade 14 C-aldrin and its metabolites was assayed in culture growth medium. Results showed that the microorganism Penicilium sp. was able to metabolize the parent compound or one of its metabolites added to the medium. Field studies performed with soils packed into PVC tubes showed that added 14 C-aldrin leached fastest in the soil poor in organic matter. 14 C-carbaryl was used to evaluate the effects of addition of carbon sources on its persistence and degradation in soils rich and poor in organic matter. It was found that cellulose can influence the behaviour of carbaryl in soil low in organic matter by interfering with microorganismal population. Studies on the degradation of 14 C-parathion by soil kept moist with and without repeated applications demonstrated that microbial population was modified by the repeated treatment. The adsorption, movement and persistence of the fungicide 14 C-carbendazim was examined in Brazilian soils differing in organic matter content. Soils with highest levels of organic matter showed higher sorption coefficients and lower mobility. Carbendazim was very persistent in all soils. The metabolite 2-benzimidazolecarbamate was the main degradation product detected. Experiments with 14 C-metalaxyl showed that sorption coefficients in the Humic Gley soil were 0.8 and in the Dark Red Latosol soil 0.3. Data are in agreement with the high mobility of 14 C-metalaxyl in soil thin-layers. Also, a metabolite was detected in percentages varying from 3 to 10% specially in the Humic Gley soil samples

  14. Characterization of TiN, TiC and Ti(C,N) in titanium-alloyed ferritic chromium steels focusing on the significance of different particle morphologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michelic, S.K., E-mail: susanne.michelic@unileoben.ac.at [Chair of Ferrous Metallurgy, Montanuniversitaet Leoben, Franz-Josef-Straße 18, 8700 Leoben (Austria); Loder, D. [Chair of Ferrous Metallurgy, Montanuniversitaet Leoben, Franz-Josef-Straße 18, 8700 Leoben (Austria); Reip, T.; Ardehali Barani, A. [Outokumpu Nirosta GmbH, Essener Straße 244, 44793 Bochum (Germany); Bernhard, C. [Chair of Ferrous Metallurgy, Montanuniversitaet Leoben, Franz-Josef-Straße 18, 8700 Leoben (Austria)

    2015-02-15

    Titanium-alloyed ferritic chromium steels are a competitive option to classical austenitic stainless steels owing to their similar corrosion resistance. The addition of titanium significantly influences their final steel cleanliness. The present contribution focuses on the detailed metallographic characterization of titanium nitrides, titanium carbides and titanium carbonitrides with regard to their size, morphology and composition. The methods used are manual and automated Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy as well as optical microscopy. Additional thermodynamic calculations are performed to explain the precipitation procedure of the analyzed titanium nitrides. The analyses showed that homogeneous nucleation is decisive at an early process stage after the addition of titanium. Heterogeneous nucleation gets crucial with ongoing process time and essentially influences the final inclusion size of titanium nitrides. A detailed investigation of the nuclei for heterogeneous nucleation with automated Scanning Electron Microscopy proved to be difficult due to their small size. Manual Scanning Electron Microscopy and optical microscopy have to be applied. Furthermore, it was found that during solidification an additional layer around an existing titanium nitride can be formed which changes the final inclusion morphology significantly. These layers are also characterized in detail. Based on these different inclusion morphologies, in combination with thermodynamic results, tendencies regarding the formation and modification time of titanium containing inclusions in ferritic chromium steels are derived. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • The formation and modification of TiN in the steel 1.4520 was examined. • Heterogeneous nucleation essentially influences the final steel cleanliness. • In most cases heterogeneous nuclei in TiN inclusions are magnesium based. • Particle morphology provides important information

  15. Cross-national differences in clinically significant cannabis problems: epidemiologic evidence from 'cannabis-only' smokers in the United States, Mexico, and Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Posada-Villa Jose

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiological studies show wide variability in the occurrence of cannabis smoking and related disorders across countries. This study aims to estimate cross-national variation in cannabis users' experience of clinically significant cannabis-related problems in three countries of the Americas, with a focus on cannabis users who may have tried alcohol or tobacco, but who have not used cocaine, heroin, LSD, or other internationally regulated drugs. Methods Data are from the World Mental Health Surveys Initiative and the National Latino and Asian American Study, with probability samples in Mexico (n = 4426, Colombia (n = 5,782 and the United States (USA; n = 8,228. The samples included 212 'cannabis only' users in Mexico, 260 in Colombia and 1,724 in the USA. Conditional GLM with GEE and 'exact' methods were used to estimate variation in the occurrence of clinically significant problems in cannabis only (CO users across these surveyed populations. Results The experience of cannabis-related problems was quite infrequent among CO users in these countries, with weighted frequencies ranging from 1% to 5% across survey populations, and with no appreciable cross-national variation in general. CO users in Colombia proved to be an exception. As compared to CO users in the USA, the Colombia smokers were more likely to have experienced cannabis-associated 'social problems' (odds ratio, OR = 3.0; 95% CI = 1.4, 6.3; p = 0.004 and 'legal problems' (OR = 9.7; 95% CI = 2.7, 35.2; p = 0.001. Conclusions This study's most remarkable finding may be the similarity in occurrence of cannabis-related problems in this cross-national comparison within the Americas. Wide cross-national variations in estimated population-level cumulative incidence of cannabis use disorders may be traced to large differences in cannabis smoking prevalence, rather than qualitative differences in cannabis experiences. More research is needed to identify conditions that

  16. Surveillance of veterinary drug residues in pork meat in Madagascar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Rakotoharinome

    2015-06-01

    Table I presents the results of the percentage of positive samples in the various regions of Madagascar. On average 37.2% sam­ples were contaminated by antimicrobial residues. A significant increase from 32 to 39% was observed between 2010 and 2011, respectively. No significant differences were found between samples according to sex, breed or age class in individual ani­mals. No differences between pig farm origins were found either (Figure 1. However, Amoron’i Mania Region, and particularly suburban Ambositra, was the most contaminated area in 2010 (67%; n = 9 and Melaky region (Western Madagascar in 2011. Pork meat samples originating from the same production area were less contaminated by drug residues when the animals were slaughtered in urban abattoirs compared to provincial abat­toirs. In this first step toward a national surveillance system, we confirm that drug residues in animal products are a serious public health concern for Madagascar.

  17. Bile salt receptor TGR5 is highly expressed in esophageal adenocarcinoma and precancerous lesions with significantly worse overall survival and gender differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pang CH

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Chunhong Pang,1,2 Amy LaLonde,3 Tony E Godfrey,4 Jianwen Que,5,6 Jun Sun,7 Tong Tong Wu,3 Zhongren Zhou2 1Department of Pathology, China-Japan Friendship Hospital, 2Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, 3Department of Biostatistics and Computational Biology, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY, 4Department of Surgery, Boston University Medical Center, Boston, MA, 5Center for Human Development, 6Division of Digestive and Liver Diseases, Columbia University, New York, NY, 7Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University of Illinois College of Medicine, Chicago, IL, USA Abstract: Bile acid reflux in the esophagus plays an important role in the carcinogenesis of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC. The G-protein coupled bile acid receptor (TGR5 has been associated with the development of gastrointestinal cancer. However, little is known regarding the role of TGR5 in esophageal carcinoma and precancerous lesions. We analyzed genomic DNA from 116 EACs for copy number aberrations via Affymetrix SNP6.0 microarrays. The TGR5 gene locus was amplified in 12.7% (14/116 of the EACs. The TGR5 protein expression was also assessed using immunohistochemistry from tissue microarrays, including Barrett’s esophagus (BE, low- (LGD and high-grade dysplasia (HGD, columnar cell metaplasia (CM, squamous epithelium (SE, EAC and squamous cell carcinoma. The TGR5 protein was highly expressed in 71% of EAC (75/106, 100% of HGD (11/11, 72% of LGD (13/18, 66% of BE (23/35, 84% of CM (52/62, and 36% of SE (30/83. The patients with high expression of TGR5 exhibited significantly worse overall survival compared to the patients with nonhigh expression. TGR5 high expression was significantly increased in the males compared to the females in all cases with an odds ratio of 1.9 times. The vitamin D receptor (VDR was significantly correlated with TGR5 expression. Our findings indicated that TGR5 may play an important role in the development and prognosis of EAC

  18. Residues and accumulation of molinate in rice crops and aquatic weeds in the MUDA rice agroecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nashriyah Mat; Sabri Junoh; Nuriati Nurdin; Ramli Ishak

    2002-01-01

    Plant and soil residue levels and its accumulation in rice crops and rice aquatic weed plants were studied. Molinate residue levels in rice, weeds and soil were not significantly different between the recycled and the non-recycled area, even though they were higher in the non-recycled area. In the rice plant, the residue level at 10 DAT (days after treatment) was significantly higher than 30 DAT in the recycled area. In rice aquatic weed plants, the residue level was significantly higher at 10 DAT as compared to 30 DAT in the non-recycled area. Molinate residue levels in soil at 10 DAT and 30 DAT were similar. Molinate accumulated (ratio of molinate concentration in plant over soil) more in the rice crop as compared to rice aquatic weeds at 10 DAT, in both the recycled and the non-recycled areas. (Author)

  19. The temporoammonic input to the hippocampal CA1 region displays distinctly different synaptic plasticity compared to the Schaffer collateral input in vivo: significance for synaptic information processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayla eAksoy Aksel

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In terms of its sub-regional differentiation, the hippocampal CA1 region receives cortical information directly via the perforant (temporoammonic path (pp-CA1 synapse and indirectly via the tri-synaptic pathway where the last relay station is the Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapse (Sc-CA1 synapse. Research to date on pp-CA1 synapses has been conducted predominantly in vitro and never in awake animals, but these studies hint that information processing at this synapse might be distinct to processing at the Sc-CA1 synapse. Here, we characterized synaptic properties and synaptic plasticity at the pp-CA1 synapse of freely behaving adult rats. We established that field excitatory postsynaptic potentials at the pp-CA1 have longer onset latencies and a shorter time-to-peak compared to the Sc-CA1 synapse. LTP (> 24h was successfully evoked by tetanic afferent stimulation of pp-CA1 synapses. Low frequency stimulation evoked synaptic depression at Sc-CA1 synapses, but did not elicit LTD at pp-CA1 synapses unless the Schaffer collateral afferents to the CA1 region had been severed. Paired-pulse responses also showed significant differences. Our data suggest that synaptic plasticity at the pp-CA1 synapse is distinct from the Sc-CA1 synapse and that this may reflect its specific role in hippocampal information processing.

  20. The allelopathic effects of three crop residues on the germination ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... maize inflorescences showed significant differences when compared to the control. No growth was recorded in the radicle until 96 hrs of the experiment in all the extract – treated seeds from the three crop residues while the control germinated at 72 hours. Keywords: Allelopathy, allelochemical, biomolecules, Sphenostylis ...

  1. Evaluation of gunshot residue (GSR) evidence: Surveys of prevalence of GSR on clothing and frequency of residue types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannigan, Thomas J; McDermott, Sean D; Greaney, Claire M; O'Shaughnessy, John; O'Brien, Cliona M

    2015-12-01

    The evaluative approach is a logical approach to interpreting scientific findings in criminal cases, applying knowledge regarding the transfer, persistence and recovery of particulate material. The application of this approach to interpreting the finding of gunshot residue on the clothing of a suspect requires knowledge of background levels of GSR on clothing and on the frequency of different residue types in a particular environment. The cuffs of 100 upper outer garments submitted to a forensic laboratory in connection with non-firearms offences were sampled for gunshot residue. No 3-component lead/antimony/barium particles were found on 98 of them. Two 3-component particles were found on one of them and one 3-component particle was found on another. The frequency of occurrence of various particle types regarded as consistent with GSR was also explored. The findings show that, while 3-component particles were somewhat more likely to be encountered by chance on clothing than on hands, they are still relatively uncommon events. To investigate the frequency of occurrence of particular residue types, 100 discharged rounds of ammunition recovered at crime scenes were sampled and the types of residue present were determined. The results show that some residue types are significantly more common than others. Both sets of data will be of value in evaluating the significance of finding GSR on clothing of suspects in criminal cases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparison of bacterial community structure and dynamics during the thermophilic composting of different types of solid wastes: anaerobic digestion residue, pig manure and chicken manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Caihong; Li, Mingxiao; Jia, Xuan; Wei, Zimin; Zhao, Yue; Xi, Beidou; Zhu, Chaowei; Liu, Dongming

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of composting substrate types on the bacterial community structure and dynamics during composting processes. To this end, pig manure (PM), chicken manure (CM), a mixture of PM and CM (PM + CM), and a mixture of PM, CM and anaerobic digestion residue (ADR) (PM + CM + ADR) were selected for thermophilic composting. The bacterial community structure and dynamics during the composting process were detected and analysed by polymerase chain reaction–denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) coupled with a statistic analysis. The physical-chemical analyses indicated that compared to single-material composting (PM, CM), co-composting (PM + CM, PM + CM + ADR) could promote the degradation of organic matter and strengthen the ability of conserving nitrogen. A DGGE profile and statistical analysis demonstrated that co-composting, especially PM + CM + ADR, could improve the bacterial community structure and functional diversity, even in the thermophilic stage. Therefore, co-composting could weaken the screening effect of high temperature on bacterial communities. Dominant sequencing analyses indicated a dramatic shift in the dominant bacterial communities from single-material composting to co-composting. Notably, compared with PM, PM + CM increased the quantity of xylan-degrading bacteria and reduced the quantity of human pathogens. PMID:24963997

  3. Disponibilidad de agua, nitrógeno y azufre en barbechos con y sin control de malezas en distintos niveles de residuos Water, nitrogen and sulphur availability in fallows with and without weed control and different residue levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romina Fernández

    2009-06-01

    presence, ten experiments with different levels of residue (A: 10,000 kg MS ha-1, M: 5,000 kg MS ha-1, B: less than 2,000 kg MS ha-1 were set up in Haplustolls of the tosca and dune plains in La Pampa and south of Córdoba. Each residue treatment was divided into sub-plots with different weed management: without weed control (malezas and with control (barbecho. Soil texture, bulk density, permanent wilting pint, and organic matter were determined in each site. At the beginning and end of fallow soil water contents, nitrate (N and soluble and adsorbed sulphates (S were measured in samples from 0 -0.2m depth. At all sites the water content at the beginning of fallow was high (between 51 and 100% available water. Despite this, our results showed a positive effect of residue level on water contents at the end of fallow, with a mean difference between A and B of 33%. In weed treatments no effect of residue was observed, and the difference between A and B was 10%. Water contents were more strongly affected by the presence of weeds than by residue level. Available N and S contents showed no effect of residue level, but were strongly affected by weed presence. In weed treatments sunflower seeding would be severely limited by lower available water contents, and the expectable yields would be diminished by 200 kg ha-1 or 600 kg ha-1 due to the lower availability of N and S respectively.

  4. Explanation of Significant Differences for the Record of Decision for Interim Actions in Zone 1, East Tennessee Technology Park, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bechtel Jacobs

    2011-02-01

    Zone 1 is a 1400-acre area outside the fence of the main plant at The East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The Record of Decision for Interim Actions in Zone, ETTP (Zone 1 Interim ROD) (DOE 2002) identifies the remedial actions for contaminated soil, buried waste, and subsurface infrastructure necessary to protect human health and to limit further contamination of groundwater. Since the Zone 1 Interim Record of Decision (ROD) was signed, new information has been obtained that requires the remedy to be modified as follows: (1) Change the end use in Contractor's Spoil Area (CSA) from unrestricted industrial to recreational; (2) Remove Exposure Units (EU5) ZI-50, 51, and 52 from the scope of the Zone I Interim ROD; (3) Change the end use of the duct bank corridor from unrestricted industrial to restricted industrial; and (4) Remove restriction for the disturbance of soils below 10 feet in Exposure Unit (EU) Z1-04. In accordance with 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 300.435, these scope modifications are a 'significant' change to the Zone 1 Interim ROD. In accordance with CERCLA Sect. 117 (c) and 40 CFR 300.435 (c)(2)(i), such a significant change is documented with an Explanation of Significant Differences (ESD). The purpose of this ESD is to make the changes listed above. This ESD is part of the Administrative Record file, and it, and other information supporting the selected remedy, can be found at the DOE Information Center, 475 Oak Ridge Turnpike, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37830, from 8:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m., Monday through Friday. The ORR is located in Roane and Anderson counties, within and adjacent to the corporate city limits of Oak Ridge, Tennessee. ETTP is located in Roane County near the northwest corner of the ORR. ETTP began operation during World War II as part of the Manhattan Project. The original mission of ETTP was to produce enriched uranium for use in atomic weapons. The plant produced enriched uranium from

  5. The influence of quench sensitivity on residual stresses in the aluminium alloys 7010 and 7075

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, J.S.; Tanner, D.A.; Truman, C.E.; Paradowska, A.M.; Wimpory, R.C.

    2012-01-01

    The most critical stage in the heat treatment of high strength aluminium alloys is the rapid cooling necessary to form a supersaturated solid solution. A disadvantage of quenching is that the thermal gradients can be sufficient to cause inhomogeneous plastic deformation which in turn leads to the development of large residual stresses. Two 215 mm thick rectilinear forgings have been made from 7000 series alloys with widely different quench sensitivity to determine if solute loss in the form of precipitation during quenching can significantly affect residual stress magnitudes. The forgings were heat treated and immersion quenched using cold water to produce large magnitude residual stresses. The through thickness residual stresses were measured by neutron diffraction and incremental deep hole drilling. The distribution of residual stresses was found to be similar for both alloys varying from highly triaxial and tensile in the interior, to a state of biaxial compression in the surface. The 7010 forging exhibited larger tensile stresses in the interior. The microstructural variation from surface to centre for both forgings was determined using optical and transmission electron microscopy. These observations were used to confirm the origin of the hardness variation measured through the forging thickness. When the microstructural changes were accounted for in the through thickness lattice parameter, the residual stresses in the two forgings were found to be very similar. Solute loss in the 7075 forging appeared to have no significant effect on the residual stress magnitudes when compared to 7010. - Highlights: ► Through thickness residual stress measurements made on large Al alloy forgings. ► Residual stress characterised using neutron diffraction and deep hole drilling. ► Biaxial compressive surface and triaxial subsurface residual stresses. ► Quench sensitivity of 7075 promotes significant microstructural differences to 7010. ► When precipitation is

  6. Effect of Filament Fineness on Composite Yarn Residual Torque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarıoğlu Esin

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Yarn residual torque or twist liveliness occurs when the twist is imparted to spin the fibers during yarn formation. It causes yarn snarling, which is an undesirable property and can lead the problems for further processes such as weaving and knitting. It affects the spirality of knitted fabrics and skewness of woven fabrics. Generally, yarn residual torque depends on yarn twist, yarn linear density, and fiber properties used. Composite yarns are widely produced to exploit two yarns with different properties such on optimum way at the same time and these yarns can be produced by wrapping sheath fibers around filament core fiber with a certain twist. In this study, the effect of filament fineness used as core component of composite yarn on residual torque was analyzed. Thus, the false twist textured polyester filament yarns with different filament fineness were used to produce composite yarns with different yarn count. The variance analysis was performed to determine the significance of twist liveliness of filament yarns and yarn count on yarn twist liveliness. Results showed that there is a statistically significant differences at significance level of α=0.05 between filament fineness and yarn residual torque of composite yarns.

  7. Evaluation of residue-residue contact prediction in CASP10

    KAUST Repository

    Monastyrskyy, Bohdan

    2013-08-31

    We present the results of the assessment of the intramolecular residue-residue contact predictions from 26 prediction groups participating in the 10th round of the CASP experiment. The most recently developed direct coupling analysis methods did not take part in the experiment likely because they require a very deep sequence alignment not available for any of the 114 CASP10 targets. The performance of contact prediction methods was evaluated with the measures used in previous CASPs (i.e., prediction accuracy and the difference between the distribution of the predicted contacts and that of all pairs of residues in the target protein), as well as new measures, such as the Matthews correlation coefficient, the area under the precision-recall curve and the ranks of the first correctly and incorrectly predicted contact. We also evaluated the ability to detect interdomain contacts and tested whether the difficulty of predicting contacts depends upon the protein length and the depth of the family sequence alignment. The analyses were carried out on the target domains for which structural homologs did not exist or were difficult to identify. The evaluation was performed for all types of contacts (short, medium, and long-range), with emphasis placed on long-range contacts, i.e. those involving residues separated by at least 24 residues along the sequence. The assessment suggests that the best CASP10 contact prediction methods perform at approximately the same level, and comparably to those participating in CASP9.

  8. Different continuous cropping spans significantly affect microbial community membership and structure in a vanilla-grown soil as revealed by deep pyrosequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Wu; Zhao, Qingyun; Zhao, Jun; Xun, Weibing; Li, Rong; Zhang, Ruifu; Wu, Huasong; Shen, Qirong

    2015-07-01

    In the present study, soil bacterial and fungal communities across vanilla continuous cropping time-series fields were assessed through deep pyrosequencing of 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions. The results demonstrated that the long-term monoculture of vanilla significantly altered soil microbial communities. Soil fungal diversity index increased with consecutive cropping years, whereas soil bacterial diversity was relatively stable. Bray-Curtis dissimilarity cluster and UniFrac-weighted principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) revealed that monoculture time was the major determinant for fungal community structure, but not for bacterial community structure. The relative abundances (RAs) of the Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Basidiomycota phyla were depleted along the years of vanilla monoculture. Pearson correlations at the phyla level demonstrated that Actinobacteria, Armatimonadetes, Bacteroidetes, Verrucomicrobia, and Firmicutes had significant negative correlations with vanilla disease index (DI), while no significant correlation for fungal phyla was observed. In addition, the amount of the pathogen Fusarium oxysporum accumulated with increasing years and was significantly positively correlated with vanilla DI. By contrast, the abundance of beneficial bacteria, including Bradyrhizobium and Bacillus, significantly decreased over time. In sum, soil weakness and vanilla stem wilt disease after long-term continuous cropping can be attributed to the alteration of the soil microbial community membership and structure, i.e., the reduction of the beneficial microbes and the accumulation of the fungal pathogen.

  9. Monitoring of Benomyl Residue in Mushroom Marketed in Hamadan City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Abdi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Pesticide residues in environment and food have a negative impact on the health of living organisms. Therefore, this study was carried out for evaluation of benomyl residues in mushroom marketed in Hamadan city in 2014 using spectrophotometry. Materials & Methods: 10 specimens of mushroom were collected from greenhouses and market basket of Hamadan city. After preparation and processing the samples in the laboratory, be-nomyl residues in samples were determined using a spectrophotometric method in 3 replica-tions. All statistical analyses were performed using the SPSS statistical package. Results: The mean concentration of benomyl residues in samples were 5.90±0.75, 2.10± 0.487, 40.04±1.346, 0.32±0.044, 14.0±0.785, 1.54±0.304, 40.0±0.45, 0.87±0.055, 0.66± 0.032 and 49.60±0.303 µg kg-1 and more than the maximum residue limit (MRL provided by the World Health Organization (10 ppb. The results of the comparison of the mean concentration of pesticide residues among samples revealed significant differences in most of the samples (P<0.05. Conclusion: The results showed that mean concentrations of benomyl residues in mushroom samples were exceeding that of the MRL. Therefore, it is essential to impart proper education to the farming community about hazards involved in the overuse of toxic pesticides. Also, codification of laws and their enforcement and implementation of programs for the regular periodic monitoring of pesticide residues in foodstuffs especially in vegetables cultivated un-der greenhouse conditions at the national level to protect consumers’ health are recom-mended.(Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2015; 22 (2: 137-143

  10. Residual stress in sprayed Ni+5%Al coatings determined by neutron diffraction

    CERN Document Server

    Matejicek, J; Gnaeupel-Herold, T; Prask, H J

    2002-01-01

    Coatings of nickel-based alloys are used in numerous high-performance applications. Their properties and lifetimes are influenced by factors such as residual stress. Neutron diffraction is a powerful tool for nondestructive residual stress determination. In this study, through-thickness residual stress profiles in Ni+5%Al coatings on steel substrates were determined. Two examples of significantly different spraying techniques - plasma spraying and cold spraying - are highlighted. Different stress-generation mechanisms are discussed with respect to process parameters and material properties. (orig.)

  11. Kluyveromyces marxianus and Saccharomyces boulardii Induce Distinct Levels of Dendritic Cell Cytokine Secretion and Significantly Different T Cell Responses In Vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, Ida M; Baker, Adam; Christensen, Jeffrey E; Boekhout, Teun; Frøkiær, Hanne; Arneborg, Nils; Jespersen, Lene

    2016-01-01

    Interactions between members of the intestinal microbiota and the mucosal immune system can significantly impact human health, and in this context, fungi and food-related yeasts are known to influence intestinal inflammation through direct interactions with specialized immune cells in vivo. The aim

  12. Nitrous oxide and N-leaching losses from agricultural soil: Influence of crop residue particle size, quality and placement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambus, P.; Jensen, E.S.; Robertson, G.P.

    2001-01-01

    protection of the crop residue material against microbial attack. Leaching of N tended to be reduced about 40 % with barley and 20 % with pea, but the numbers were not significantly different from residue-free soil, which leached 4.7-4.9 g N m(-2). When wheat and alfalfa residues were mixed into the soil N2O...... emissions increased 6.5 and 1.6 times, respectively, compared with residue placed in a layer. Wheat residue in a layer evolved 3.4-times less N2O than alfalfa in a layer, whereas when mixed the two residue types evolved similar amounts of N2O. This difference was probably due to N-limitations in localised...

  13. Residual stresses around Vickers indents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pajares, A.; Guiberteau, F.; Steinbrech, R.W.

    1995-01-01

    The residual stresses generated by Vickers indentation in brittle materials and their changes due to annealing and surface removal were studied in 4 mol% yttria partially stabilized zirconia (4Y-PSZ). Three experimental methods to gain information about the residual stress field were applied: (i) crack profile measurements based on serial sectioning, (ii) controlled crack propagation in post indentation bending tests and (iii) double indentation tests with smaller secondary indents located around a larger primary impression. Three zones of different residual stress behavior are deduced from the experiments. Beneath the impression a crack free spherical zone of high hydrostatic stresses exists. This core zone is followed by a transition regime where indentation cracks develop but still experience hydrostatic stresses. Finally, in an outward third zone, the crack contour is entirely governed by the tensile residual stress intensity (elastically deformed region). Annealing and surface removal reduce this crack driving stress intensity. The specific changes of the residual stresses due to the post indentation treatments are described and discussed in detail for the three zones

  14. Comparative environmental evaluation of three different waste treating methods for bio-degradable organic waste and residual waste from the six municipalities cooperating in Biogasanlaeg I/S and I/S Nordforbraending

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cour Jansen, J. la.

    1997-03-01

    A comparative environmental evaluation has been made for three systems for processing household refuse. The first system (1) comprises thermofilic treatment of the organic waste. The inorganic parts of the waste from both systems is combusted in a cogeneration plant. The third system (3) is a cogeneration plant combusting all the wastes. The most essential issue in comparing the three waste processing systems is the possibility to use the residual products from the bio-gasification system (1) and the composting system in the agriculture as fertilizers. Without such a use it is estimated that the systems (1) and (2) will be very unfeasible, both environmentally and economically. The contents of heavy metals, organic chemicals, and plasticizers in the residual products are at present above the Danish threshold values. This problem can only be solved by reducing the contents of these pollutants in the household wastes. Based on these findings it is therefore very doubtful whether the residual waste products from bio-gasification and probably also from composting can be used in the agriculture in the future. However, it is for the other parts of the environmental analysis assumed that the problem will eventually be solved. Differences in resource utilization in the waste processing are very small in the three systems. When comparing the net energy production system (1) and (3) show the best results. The three systems are almost equal related to emissions of HC1, NO x , and SO 2 , the composting system performing the best. The three systems emit the same amount of CO 2 and other greenhouse gases. Composting, however, results in a smaller energy susbstituion and is therefore marginally a poorer solution. For reducing the heavy metals and plasticizers in the environment combustion of the organic wastes is the best system. (LN)

  15. CXCR4 expression varies significantly among different subtypes of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) and its low expression or hypermethylation might predict favorable overall survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xinlong; Shang, Feng; Zhu, Weidong; Lin, Qingtang

    2017-09-01

    CXCR4 is an oncogene in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) but the mechanism of its dysregulation and its prognostic value in GBM have not been fully understood. Bioinformatic analysis was performed by using R2 and the UCSC Xena browser based on data from GSE16011 in GEO datasets and in GBM cohort in TCGA database (TCGA-GBM). Kaplan Meier curves of overall survival (OS) were generated to assess the association between CXCR4 expression/methylation and OS in patients with GBM. GBM patients with high CXCR4 expression had significantly worse 5 and 10 yrs OS (p GBM subtypes, there was an inverse relationship between overall DNA methylation and CXCR4 expression. CXCR4 expression was significantly lower in CpG island methylation phenotype (CIMP) group than in non CIMP group. Log rank test results showed that patients with high CXCR4 methylation (first tertile) had significantly better 5 yrs OS (p = 0.038). CXCR4 expression is regulated by DNA methylation in GBM and its low expression or hypermethylation might indicate favorable OS in GBM patients.

  16. Residual gas analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berecz, I.

    1982-01-01

    Determination of the residual gas composition in vacuum systems by a special mass spectrometric method was presented. The quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) and its application in thin film technology was discussed. Results, partial pressure versus time curves as well as the line spectra of the residual gases in case of the vaporization of a Ti-Pd-Au alloy were demonstrated together with the possible construction schemes of QMS residual gas analysers. (Sz.J.)

  17. Celebrating diversity: the significance of cultural differences on reading comprehension processes of the young adult EFL learner in a matriculation preparation programme in Israel

    OpenAIRE

    Hellerstein-Yehezkel, Devora

    2013-01-01

    Reading comprehension in English as a foreign language (EFL) is a key to success in academic studies in Israel. As Israel is a cultural melting pot, adult students come from widely diverse educational backgrounds, often determined by their cultural environment. They arrive at the university or college classroom with vastly different approaches to learning and reading, in general, and to reading in EFL, in particular. The challenge for the EFL teacher is to help students draw from their cultur...

  18. Using cotton plant residue to produce briquettes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coates, W. [University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States). Bioresources Research Facility

    2000-07-01

    In Arizona, cotton (Gossypium) plant residue left in the field following harvest must be buried to prevent it from serving as an overwintering site for insects such as the pink bollworm. Most tillage operations employed to incorporate the residue into the soil are energy intensive and often degrade soil structure. Trials showed that cotton plant residue could be incorporated with pecan shells to produce commercially acceptable briquettes. Pecan shell briquettes containing cotton residue rather than waste paper were slightly less durable, when made using equivalent weight mixtures and moisture contents. Proximate and ultimate analyses showed the only difference among briquette samples to be a higher ash content in those made using cotton plant residue. Briquettes made with paper demonstrated longer flame out time, and lower ash percentage, compared to those made with cotton plant residue. (author)

  19. Biological significance of [14C]phenol accumulation in different organs of a murrel, Channa punctatus, and the common carp, Cyprinus carpio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, D.; Bhattacharya, S.; Kumar, V.; Moitra, J.

    1990-01-01

    Phenol, a ubiquitous component of industrial effluents, is a common pollutant of water resources and a serious threat to fish. The present work demonstrates that a significant amount of phenol is retained by various tissues of the common carp, Cyprinus carpio, and the snake-headed murrel, Channa punctatus. The rate of [ 14 C]phenol accumulation was higher carp than in the murrel. It is suggested that retention of phenol in the brain and ovary may seriously affect the reproductive potential of the fish

  20. Crop residue decomposition in Minnesota biochar-amended plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyers, S. L.; Spokas, K. A.

    2014-06-01

    Impacts of biochar application at laboratory scales are routinely studied, but impacts of biochar application on decomposition of crop residues at field scales have not been widely addressed. The priming or hindrance of crop residue decomposition could have a cascading impact on soil processes, particularly those influencing nutrient availability. Our objectives were to evaluate biochar effects on field decomposition of crop residue, using plots that were amended with biochars made from different plant-based feedstocks and pyrolysis platforms in the fall of 2008. Litterbags containing wheat straw material were buried in July of 2011 below the soil surface in a continuous-corn cropped field in plots that had received one of seven different biochar amendments or a uncharred wood-pellet amendment 2.5 yr prior to start of this study. Litterbags were collected over the course of 14 weeks. Microbial biomass was assessed in treatment plots the previous fall. Though first-order decomposition rate constants were positively correlated to microbial biomass, neither parameter was statistically affected by biochar or wood-pellet treatments. The findings indicated only a residual of potentially positive and negative initial impacts of biochars on residue decomposition, which fit in line with established feedstock and pyrolysis influences. Overall, these findings indicate that no significant alteration in the microbial dynamics of the soil decomposer communities occurred as a consequence of the application of plant-based biochars evaluated here.

  1. Crop residue decomposition in Minnesota biochar amended plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyers, S. L.; Spokas, K. A.

    2014-02-01

    Impacts of biochar application at laboratory scales are routinely studied, but impacts of biochar application on decomposition of crop residues at field scales have not been widely addressed. The priming or hindrance of crop residue decomposition could have a cascading impact on soil processes, particularly those influencing nutrient availability. Our objectives were to evaluate biochar effects on field decomposition of crop residue, using plots that were amended with biochars made from different feedstocks and pyrolysis platforms prior to the start of this study. Litterbags containing wheat straw material were buried below the soil surface in a continuous-corn cropped field in plots that had received one of seven different biochar amendments or a non-charred wood pellet amendment 2.5 yr prior to start of this study. Litterbags were collected over the course of 14 weeks. Microbial biomass was assessed in treatment plots the previous fall. Though first-order decomposition rate constants were positively correlated to microbial biomass, neither parameter was statistically affected by biochar or wood-pellet treatments. The findings indicated only a residual of potentially positive and negative initial impacts of biochars on residue decomposition, which fit in line with established feedstock and pyrolysis influences. Though no significant impacts were observed with field-weathered biochars, effective soil management may yet have to account for repeat applications of biochar.

  2. Pesticide Residues in Food: Attitudes, Beliefs, and Misconceptions among Conventional and Organic Consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Severine; Epp, Astrid; Lohmann, Mark; Böl, Gaby-Fleur

    2017-12-01

    Pesticide use and pesticide residues in foods have been the subject of controversial public discussions and media coverage in Germany. Against this background, a better understanding of public risk perceptions is needed to promote efficient public health communication. To this end, this study captures the German public's perception of pesticide residues in foods. A representative sample of the population aged 14 years and older (n = 1,004) was surveyed via computer-assisted telephone interviewing on their attitudes and knowledge with regard to pesticide residues. Based on questions regarding their typical consumer behavior, respondents were classified into conventional and organic consumers to identify differences as well as similarities between these two consumer types. As assessed with an open-ended question, both organic and conventional consumers viewed pesticides, chemicals, and toxins as the greatest threats to food quality and safety. Evaluating the risks and benefits of pesticide use, more than two-thirds of organic consumers (70%) rated the risks as greater than the benefits, compared with just over one-half of conventional consumers (53%). Concern about the detection of pesticide residues in the food chain and bodily fluids was significantly higher among organic compared with conventional consumers. Only a minority of respondents was aware that legal limits for pesticide residues (referred to as maximum residue levels) exist, with 69% of organic and 61% of conventional consumers believing that the presence of pesticide residues in foods is generally not permitted. A lack of awareness of maximum residue levels was associated with heightened levels of concern about pesticide residues. Finally, general exposure to media reporting on pesticide residues was associated with more frequent knowledge of legal limits for pesticide residues, whereas actively seeking information on pesticide residues was not. The possible mechanisms underlying these findings are

  3. Leaching from municipal solid waste incineration residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyks, J.

    2008-02-15

    Leaching of pollutants from Municipal Solid Waste Incineration (MSWI) residues has been investigated combining a range of laboratory leaching experiments with geochemical modeling. Special attention was paid to assessing the applicability of laboratory data for subsequent modeling with respect to presumed full-scale conditions; both sample pretreatment and actual influence of leaching conditions on the results of laboratory experiments were considered. It was shown that sample pretreatment may have large impact on leaching test data. In particular, a significant fraction of Pb was shown mobile during the washing of residues with water. In addition, drying of residues (i.e. slow oxidation) prior to leaching experiments increased the leaching of Cr significantly. Significant differences regarding the leaching behavior of individual elements with respect to (non)equilibrium conditions in column percolation experiments were observed in the study. As a result, three groups of elements were identified based on the predominant leaching control and the influence of (non)equilibrium on the results of the laboratory column experiments: I. Predominantly availability-controlled elements (e.g. Na, K, Cl) II. Solubility-controlled elements (e.g. Ca, S, Si, Al, Ba, and Zn) III. Complexation-controlled elements (e.g. Cu and Ni) With respect to the above groups it was suggested that results of laboratory column experiments can, with consideration, be used to estimate full-scale leaching of elements from Group I and II. However, in order to avoid large underestimations in the assessment of leaching from Group III, it is imperative to describe the time-dependent transport of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the tested system or to minimize the physical non-equilibrium during laboratory experiments (e.g. bigger column, slower flow velocity). Forward geochemical modeling was applied to simulate long-term release of elements from a MSWI air-pollution-control residue. Leaching of a

  4. Difference in prognostic significance of maximum standardized uptake value on [18F]-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography between adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma of the lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsutani, Yasuhiro; Miyata, Yoshihiro; Misumi, Keizo; Ikeda, Takuhiro; Mimura, Takeshi; Hihara, Jun; Okada, Morihito

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluates the prognostic significance of [18F]-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography findings according to histological subtypes in patients with completely resected non-small cell lung cancer. We examined 176 consecutive patients who had undergone preoperative [18F]-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography imaging and curative surgical resection for adenocarcinoma (n=132) or squamous cell carcinoma (n=44). Maximum standardized uptake values for the primary lesions in all patients were calculated as the [18F]-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose uptake and the surgical results were analyzed. The median values of maximum standardized uptake value for the primary tumors were 2.60 in patients with adenocarcinoma and 6.95 in patients with squamous cell carcinoma (P 6.95 (P=0.83) among patients with squamous cell carcinoma, 2-year disease-free survival rates were 93.9% for maximum standardized uptake value ≤3.7 and 52.4% for maximum standardized uptake value >3.7 (P<0.0001) among those with adenocarcinoma, and notably, 100 and 57.2%, respectively, in patients with Stage I adenocarcinoma (P<0.0001). On the basis of the multivariate Cox analyses of patients with adenocarcinoma, maximum standardized uptake value (P=0.008) was a significantly independent factor for disease-free survival as well as nodal metastasis (P=0.001). Maximum standardized uptake value of the primary tumor was a powerful prognostic determinant for patients with adenocarcinoma, but not with squamous cell carcinoma of the lung. (author)

  5. The significance of a uniform definition of pathological lymph nodes in Hodgkin lymphoma: Impact of different thresholds for positive lymph nodes in CT imaging on staging and therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vorwerk, Hilke; Obenauer, Silvia; Schmidberger, Heinz; Hess, Clemens F.; Weiss, Elisabeth

    2008-01-01

    Background and Purpose: The most commonly used approach for the assessment for differentiating malignant versus reactive lymph nodes is the measurement of the cross-section diameter of the lymph nodes in the transversal CT-planes. The intention of this article is to assess the impact of varying definitions of pathological lymph node size in CT-imaging in patients with Hodgkin lymphoma and to evaluate its effect on staging, chemotherapy regimes and radiation field size. Materials and methods: Pretherapeutic CT-scans of 10 consecutive patients with Hodgkin lymphoma have been evaluated based on two different definitions for malignant lymph node size; the classification of the German study group for Hodgkin lymphoma (1.0 cm) and the classification according to the results of the Cotswold consensus meeting 1989 (1.5 cm). Results: Applying the definitions of the DHSG and the Cotswold meeting we found more affected lymph node regions compared to the evaluation of the referring institutions in 9/10 and 6/10 patients, higher stages in 2/10 and 1/10 patients, more intense chemotherapy regimes in 3/10 and 1/10 and larger radiation fields in 10/10 and 6/10 patients, respectively. Conclusions: Varying definitions of pathologic lymph node size and inconsequent application of definitions reduce the comparability between different studies and within each study

  6. Residual volume in vials of antibiotics used in pediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, Caroline Magna Pessoa; Bezerra, Carolina Martins; Lima, Francisca Elisângela Teixeira; Cardoso, Maria Vera Lúcia Moreira Leitão; Fonseca, Said Gonçalves da Cruz; Silva, Viviane Martins da

    2017-06-12

    Quantifying residual volume contained in vials of antibiotics used in pediatrics. This is an experiment involving samples from vials of antibiotics used in a pediatric hospital. Residual volume was identified by calculating the difference in weight measurement before and after the vials were washed. Evaluation of the residual volume difference in the vials was determined by the Wilcoxon non-parametric test for a sample and established at a significance level of 5%. 105 samples of antibiotics were selected. The correct use of the antibiotics oxacillin (88.57%) and ceftriaxone (94.28%) predominated with low residual values. The same did not occur for procaine benzylpenicillin + potassium benzylpenicillin, since a greater residual volume was discarded in 74.28% of the vials. We highlight the need for improvements in managing antibiotics in the institution under study, so that the excess volume of the antibiotics in the vials is used within the acceptable stable time. It is also necessary that the disposal of the residual volume be adequately disposed, since it presents a risk to public health and the environment. Quantificar o volume residual contido em frascos-ampola de antibióticos utilizados na pediatria. Trata-se de um experimento com amostras de frascos-ampola de antibióticos utilizados em hospital pediátrico. O volume residual foi identificado calculando-se a diferença da aferição do peso antes e após a lavagem do frasco-ampola. A avaliação da diferença dos volumes residuais nos frascos-ampola foi determinada pelo teste não paramétrico de Wilcoxon para uma amostra e estabelecido o nível de significância de 5%. Foram selecionadas 105 amostras de antibióticos. Predominou o correto aproveitamento dos antibióticos oxacilina (88,57%) e ceftriaxona (94,28%), com baixos valores residuais. O mesmo não ocorreu com a benzilpenicilina procaína + potássica, pois em 74,28% dos frascos houve descarte de volume residual superior. Destaca-se a necessidade de

  7. Effects of Different Water Seasons on the Residual Characteristics and Ecological Risk of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Sediments from Changdang Lake, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javid Hussain

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The sediments’ samples were collected from Changdang Lake for the concentration of fourteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in March (dry season, June (wet season, and September (temperate season 2013. The highest average value of ∑PAHs was detected as 295.28 ng/g dw in March, followed by 240.91 ng/g dw in June and 165.81 ng/g dw in September. Source characterization studies based on the analysis of diagnostic ratio (triangular plot method suggested that the PAHs in sediments from Changdang Lake were mainly from the mixed combustion source of biomass and petroleum, and the origins of PAHs in different sampling sites have a great deal of temporal and spatial variability during different water seasons. Redundancy analysis was applied to identify the impact factors and the possible relationship between PAHs and environmental parameters. The predicted results showed that the main factors impacting PAHs temporal distribution were temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, and oxidation-reduction potential, while conductivity showed secondary impacts on the PAHs distribution. Risk assessment of PAHs in sediments was carried out based on the US Sediments Quality Guidelines (SQGs. By comparing the present study results with SQGs standard values results showed that the adverse effects are not expected at the present levels of PAHs contamination observed in the sediments from Changdang Lake.

  8. Short separation regression improves statistical significance and better localizes the hemodynamic response obtained by near-infrared spectroscopy for tasks with differing autonomic responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yücel, Meryem A; Selb, Juliette; Aasted, Christopher M; Petkov, Mike P; Becerra, Lino; Borsook, David; Boas, David A

    2015-07-01

    Autonomic nervous system response is known to be highly task-dependent. The sensitivity of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) measurements to superficial layers, particularly to the scalp, makes it highly susceptible to systemic physiological changes. Thus, one critical step in NIRS data processing is to remove the contribution of superficial layers to the NIRS signal and to obtain the actual brain response. This can be achieved using short separation channels that are sensitive only to the hemodynamics in the scalp. We investigated the contribution of hemodynamic fluctuations due to autonomous nervous system activation during various tasks. Our results provide clear demonstrations of the critical role of using short separation channels in NIRS measurements to disentangle differing autonomic responses from the brain activation signal of interest.

  9. Compositional Similarities and Differences between Transparent Exopolymer Particles (TEP) from two Marine Bacteria and two Marine Algae: Significance to Surface Biofouling

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Sheng; Winters, Harvey; Villacorte, L.O.; Ekowati, Y.; Emwas, Abdul-Hamid M.; Kennedy, M.D.; Amy, Gary L.

    2015-01-01

    indicated that both isolated bacterial and algal TEP/TEP precursors were associated with protein-like materials, and most TEP precursors were high-molecular-weight biopolymers. Furthermore all investigated algal and bacterial TEP/TEP precursors showed a lectin-like property, which can enable them to act as a chemical conditioning layer and to agglutinate bacteria. This property may enhance surface biofouling. However, both proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra and the nitrogen/carbon (N/C) ratios suggested that the algal TEP/TEP precursors contained much less protein content than the bacterial TEP/TEP precursors. This difference may influence their initial deposition and further development of surface biofouling.

  10. Blastocystis Isolates from Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome and from Asymptomatic Carriers Exhibit Similar Parasitological Loads, but Significantly Different Generation Times and Genetic Variability across Multiple Subtypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gie-Bele Vargas-Sanchez

    Full Text Available Blastocystis spp is a common intestinal parasite of humans and animals that has been associated to the etiology of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS; however, some studies have not found this association. Furthermore, many biological features of Blastocystis are little known. The objective of present study was to assess the generation times of Blastocystis cultures, from IBS patients and from asymptomatic carriers. A total of 100 isolates were obtained from 50 IBS patients and from 50 asymptomatic carriers. Up to 50 mg of feces from each participant were cultured in Barret's and in Pavlova's media during 48 h. Initial and final parasitological load were measured by microscopy and by quantitative PCR. Amplicons were purified, sequenced and submitted to GenBank; sequences were analysed for genetic diversity and a Bayesian inference allowed identifying genetic subtypes (ST. Generation times for Blastocystis isolates in both media, based on microscopic measures and molecular assays, were calculated. The clinical symptoms of IBS patients and distribution of Blastocystis ST 1, 2 and 3 in both groups was comparable to previous reports. Interestingly, the group of cases showed scarce mean nucleotide diversity (π as compared to the control group (0.011±0.016 and 0.118±0.177, respectively, whilst high gene flow and small genetic differentiation indexes between different ST were found. Besides, Tajima's D test showed negative values for ST1-ST3. No statistical differences regarding parasitological load between cases and controls in both media, as searched by microscopy and by qPCR, were detected except that parasites grew faster in Barret's than in Pavlova's medium. Interestingly, slow growth of isolates recovered from cases in comparison to those of controls was observed (p<0.05. We propose that generation times of Blastocystis might be easily affected by intestinal environmental changes due to IBS probably because virulent strains with slow growth may be

  11. Avoiding delayed diagnosis of significant blunt bowel and mesenteric injuries: Can a scoring tool make the difference? A 7-year retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zingg, Tobias; Agri, Fabio; Bourgeat, Mylène; Yersin, Bertrand; Romain, Benoît; Schmidt, Sabine; Keller, Nathalie; Demartines, Nicolas

    2018-01-01

    Significant blunt bowel and mesenteric injuries (sBBMI) are frequently missed despite the widespread use of computed tomography (CT). Early treatment improves the outcome related to these injuries. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of sBBMI, the incidence of delayed diagnosis and to test the performance of the Bowel Injury Prediction Score (BIPS), determined by the white blood cell (WBC) count, presence or absence of abdominal tenderness and CT grade of mesenteric injury. Single-centre, registry-based retrospective cohort study, screening all consecutive trauma patients admitted to Lausanne University Hospital Trauma Centre from 2008 to 2015 after a road traffic accident. All patients with reliable information about the presence or absence of sBBMI who underwent abdominal CT and for whom calculation of the BIPS was possible were included for analysis. The incidence of delayed (>24h after admission) diagnosis in the patient group with sBBMI was determined and the diagnostic performance of the BIPS for sBBMI was assessed. For analysis, 766 patients with reliable information about the presence or absence of sBBMI were included. The prevalence of sBBMI was 3.1% (24/766). In 24% (5/21) of stable trauma patients undergoing CT, a diagnostic delay of more than 24h occurred. Abdominal tenderness (p<0.0001) and CT grade ≥4 (p<0.0001) were associated with sBBMI, whereas CT grade 4 alone (p=0.93) and WBC count ≥17G/l (p=0.30) were not. A BIPS ≥2 had a sensitivity of 89% (95% CI, 67-99), specificity of 89% (95% CI, 86-91), positive likelihood ratio of 8 (95% CI, 6.1-10), negative likelihood ratio of 0.12 (95% CI, 0.03-0.44), positive predictive value (PPV) of 19% (95% CI, 15-24) and negative predictive value (NPV) of 99.7% (95% CI, 98.7-99.9). CT alone identified 79% (15/19) and the BIPS 89% (17/19) of patients with sBBMI (p=0.66). Diagnostic delays in patients with sBBMI are common (24%), despite the routine use of abdominal CT. Application of the BIPS

  12. Clinical Significance of Lymph Node Metastasis in the Mesentery of the Terminal Ileum in Patients With Right-sided Colon Tumors at Different Locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Sung Il; Kim, Duck-Woo; Shin, Eun; Kim, Myung Jo; Son, Il Tae; Oh, Heung-Kwon; Kang, Sung-Bum

    2018-06-01

    There are limited reports on peri-ileal lymph node metastasis in patients with right-sided colon cancer, and little is known about their clinical significance. This study aimed to examine the role of tumor location in the prevalence and clinical significance of peri-ileal lymph node metastasis in patients with right-sided colon cancer. This is a retrospective study from a prospective cohort database. The study was conducted at a tertiary referral hospital. Patients with right-sided colon cancer treated with radical surgery in a hospital between May 2006 and September 2016 were included. The frequency of peri-ileal lymph node metastasis in the study cohort and the role of tumor location and the clinical characteristics of patients with peri-ileal lymph node metastasis were determined. We examined 752 cases with right-sided colon cancer including 82 cecal, 554 ascending colon, and 116 hepatic flexure cancer. Twenty patients (2.7%) had peri-ileal lymph node metastasis. The incidence of metastasis to peri-ileal lymph nodes was 7.3% (6/82) in patients with cecal cancer, 2.2% (12/554) in patients with ascending colon cancer, and 1.7% (2/116) in patients with hepatic flexure cancer. Three patients had stage III cancer and 17 had stage IV. All 3 patients with positive peri-ileal lymph nodes and stage III cancer had cecal tumors. In contrast, all patients with ascending colon or hepatic flexure cancer and positive peri-ileal lymph nodes had stage IV cancer. The results were limited by the retrospective design of the study and the small number of patients with peri-ileal lymph node metastasis. Peri-ileal lymph node metastasis was rare even in right-sided colon cancer and occurred mainly in stage IV. However, it occurred in some patients with locally advanced cecal cancer. These results suggest that optimal resection of the mesentery of the terminal ileum might have clinical benefit, especially in curative surgery for cecal cancer. See Video Abstract at http

  13. Irradiation and modified atmosphere packaging effects on residual nitrite, ascorbic acid, nitrosomyoglobin, and color in sausage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Hyun-Joo; Jo, Cheorun; Lee, Ju-Woon; Kim, Jae-Hyun; Kim, Kee-Hyuk; Byun, Myung-Woo

    2003-02-26

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the irradiation and modified atmosphere packaging effects on emulsion-type cooked pork sausage during storage for 4 weeks. CO(2) (100%), N(2) (100%), or 25% CO(2)/75% N(2) packaged sausage were irradiated at 0, 5, and 10 kGy, and residual nitrite, residual ascorbic acid, nitrosomyoglobin (NO-Mb), color values, and their correlation were observed. Irradiation significantly reduced the residual nitrite content and caused partial reduction of NO-Mb during storage. No difference was observed in ascorbic acid content by irradiation. Irradiation decreased the Hunter color a value of sausage. CO(2) or CO(2)/N(2) packaging were more effective for reducing residual nitrite and inhibiting the loss of the red color of sausage compared to N(2) packaging. Results indicated that the proper combination of irradiation and modified atmosphere packaging could reduce the residual nitrite in sausage with minimization of color change.

  14. Comparison of Glycomacropeptide with Phenylalanine Free-Synthetic Amino Acids in Test Meals to PKU Patients: No Significant Differences in Biomarkers, Including Plasma Phe Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten K. Ahring

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Management of phenylketonuria (PKU is achieved through low-phenylalanine (Phe diet, supplemented with low-protein food and mixture of free-synthetic (FS amino acid (AA. Casein glycomacropeptide (CGMP is a natural peptide released in whey during cheese-making and does not contain Phe. Lacprodan® CGMP-20 used in this study contained a small amount of Phe due to minor presence of other proteins/peptides. Objective. The purpose of this study was to compare absorption of CGMP-20 to FSAA with the aim of evaluating short-term effects on plasma AAs as well as biomarkers related to food intake. Methods. This study included 8 patients, who had four visits and tested four drink mixtures (DM1–4, consisting of CGMP, FSAA, or a combination. Plasma blood samples were collected at baseline, 15, 30, 60, 120, and 240 minutes (min after the meal. AA profiles and ghrelin were determined 6 times, while surrogate biomarkers were determined at baseline and 240 min. A visual analogue scale (VAS was used for evaluation of taste and satiety. Results. The surrogate biomarker concentrations and VAS scores for satiety and taste were nonsignificant between the four DMs, and there were only few significant results for AA profiles (not Phe. Conclusion. CGMP and FSAA had the overall same nonsignificant short-term effect on biomarkers, including Phe. This combination of FSAA and CGMP is a suitable supplement for PKU patients.

  15. Non-invasive markers of bone turnover and plasma cytokines differ in osteoporotic patients with multiple myeloma and monoclonal gammopathies of undetermined significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diamond, T.; Levy, S.; Smith, A.; Day, P.; Manoharan, A.

    2001-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is a common malignancy manifest by bone marrow infiltration with malignant plasma cells, the production of a paraprotein and lytic bone lesions. Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) is assumed to be the precursor of clinically apparent myeloma, with one or more additional genetic events being required for progression to MM. Elderly patients presenting with osteoporosis and skeletal fractures are not infrequently found to have elevated serum paraprotein concentrations suggestive of either MM or MGUS. Differentiating between these two clinical disorders may prove challenging, despite bone marrow biopsy evidence of plasmacytosis. The underlying pathogenesis of bone loss in these conditions is complex and may be attributed to cytokine-induced osteoclastogenesis coupled with increased osteoclastic bone resorption. In the present study, various markers of bone turnover and plasma cytokines were measured in order to determine whether they may be of value in differentiating between these two disorders. It is concluded that the urinary deoxypyridinoline excretion rate is a sensitive marker of bone resorption and of underlying bone disease activity. It may also help to differentiate between MM and MGUS

  16. A new method of discriminating different types of post-Archean ophiolitic basalts and their tectonic significance using Th-Nb and Ce-Dy-Yb systematics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Saccani

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new discrimination diagram using absolute measures of Th and Nb is applied to post-Archean ophiolites to best discriminate a large number of different ophiolitic basalts. This diagram was obtained using >2000 known ophiolitic basalts and was tested using ∼560 modern rocks from known tectonic settings. Ten different basaltic varieties from worldwide ophiolitic complexes have been examined. They include two basaltic types that have never been considered before, which are: (1 medium-Ti basalts (MTB generated at nascent forearc settings; (2 a type of mid-ocean ridge basalts showing garnet signature (G-MORB that characterizes Alpine-type (i.e., non volcanic rifted margins and ocean-continent transition zones (OCTZ. In the Th-Nb diagram, basalts generated in oceanic subduction-unrelated settings, rifted margins, and OCTZ can be distinguished from subduction-related basalts with a misclassification rate <1%. This diagram highlights the chemical variation of oceanic, rifted margin, and OCTZ basalts from depleted compositions to progressively more enriched compositions reflecting, in turn, the variance of source composition and degree of melting within the MORB-OIB array. It also highlights the chemical contributions of enriched (OIB-type components to mantle sources. Enrichment of Th relative to Nb is particularly effective for highlighting crustal input via subduction or crustal contamination. Basalts formed at continental margin arcs and island arc with a complex polygenetic crust can be distinguished from those generated in intra-oceanic arcs in supra-subduction zones (SSZ with a misclassification rate <1%. Within the SSZ group, two sub-settings can be recognized with a misclassification rate <0.5%. They are: (1 SSZ influenced by chemical contribution from subduction-derived components (forearc and intra-arc sub-settings characterized by island arc tholeiitic (IAT and boninitic basalts; (2 SSZ with no contribution from subduction

  17. Kluyveromyces marxianus and Saccharomyces boulardii Induce Distinct Levels of Dendritic Cell Cytokine Secretion and Significantly Different T Cell Responses In Vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida M Smith

    Full Text Available Interactions between members of the intestinal microbiota and the mucosal immune system can significantly impact human health, and in this context, fungi and food-related yeasts are known to influence intestinal inflammation through direct interactions with specialized immune cells in vivo. The aim of the present study was to characterize the immune modulating properties of the food-related yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus in terms of adaptive immune responses indicating inflammation versus tolerance and to explore the mechanisms behind the observed responses. Benchmarking against a Saccharomyces boulardii strain with probiotic effects documented in clinical trials, we evaluated the ability of K. marxianus to modulate human dendritic cell (DC function in vitro. Further, we assessed yeast induced DC modulation of naive T cells toward effector responses dominated by secretion of IFNγ and IL-17 versus induction of a Treg response characterized by robust IL-10 secretion. In addition, we blocked relevant DC surface receptors and investigated the stimulating properties of β-glucan containing yeast cell wall extracts. K. marxianus and S. boulardii induced distinct levels of DC cytokine secretion, primarily driven by Dectin-1 recognition of β-glucan components in their cell walls. Upon co-incubation of yeast exposed DCs and naive T cells, S. boulardii induced a potent IFNγ response indicating TH1 mobilization. In contrast, K. marxianus induced a response dominated by Foxp3+ Treg cells, a characteristic that may benefit human health in conditions characterized by excessive inflammation and positions K. marxianus as a strong candidate for further development as a novel yeast probiotic.

  18. A novel method for RNA extraction from FFPE samples reveals significant differences in biomarker expression between orthotopic and subcutaneous pancreatic cancer patient-derived xenografts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Malachia; Adamian, Yvess; Brown, Mark; Maawy, Ali; Chang, Alexander; Lee, Jacqueline; Gharibi, Armen; Katz, Matthew H; Fleming, Jason; Hoffman, Robert M; Bouvet, Michael; Doebler, Robert; Kelber, Jonathan A

    2017-01-24

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) can identify and validate new biomarkers of cancer onset, progression and therapy resistance. Substantial archives of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) cancer samples from patients represent a rich resource for linking molecular signatures to clinical data. However, performing NGS on FFPE samples is limited by poor RNA purification methods. To address this hurdle, we developed an improved methodology for extracting high-quality RNA from FFPE samples. By briefly integrating a newly-designed micro-homogenizing (mH) tool with commercially available FFPE RNA extraction protocols, RNA recovery is increased by approximately 3-fold while maintaining standard A260/A280 ratios and RNA quality index (RQI) values. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the mH-purified FFPE RNAs are longer and of higher integrity. Previous studies have suggested that pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) gene expression signatures vary significantly under in vitro versus in vivo and in vivo subcutaneous versus orthotopic conditions. By using our improved mH-based method, we were able to preserve established expression patterns of KRas-dependency genes within these three unique microenvironments. Finally, expression analysis of novel biomarkers in KRas mutant PDAC samples revealed that PEAK1 decreases and MST1R increases by over 100-fold in orthotopic versus subcutaneous microenvironments. Interestingly, however, only PEAK1 levels remain elevated in orthotopically grown KRas wild-type PDAC cells. These results demonstrate the critical nature of the orthotopic tumor microenvironment when evaluating the clinical relevance of new biomarkers in cells or patient-derived samples. Furthermore, this new mH-based FFPE RNA extraction method has the potential to enhance and expand future FFPE-RNA-NGS cancer biomarker studies.

  19. Kluyveromyces marxianus and Saccharomyces boulardii Induce Distinct Levels of Dendritic Cell Cytokine Secretion and Significantly Different T Cell Responses In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ida M; Baker, Adam; Christensen, Jeffrey E; Boekhout, Teun; Frøkiær, Hanne; Arneborg, Nils; Jespersen, Lene

    2016-01-01

    Interactions between members of the intestinal microbiota and the mucosal immune system can significantly impact human health, and in this context, fungi and food-related yeasts are known to influence intestinal inflammation through direct interactions with specialized immune cells in vivo. The aim of the present study was to characterize the immune modulating properties of the food-related yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus in terms of adaptive immune responses indicating inflammation versus tolerance and to explore the mechanisms behind the observed responses. Benchmarking against a Saccharomyces boulardii strain with probiotic effects documented in clinical trials, we evaluated the ability of K. marxianus to modulate human dendritic cell (DC) function in vitro. Further, we assessed yeast induced DC modulation of naive T cells toward effector responses dominated by secretion of IFNγ and IL-17 versus induction of a Treg response characterized by robust IL-10 secretion. In addition, we blocked relevant DC surface receptors and investigated the stimulating properties of β-glucan containing yeast cell wall extracts. K. marxianus and S. boulardii induced distinct levels of DC cytokine secretion, primarily driven by Dectin-1 recognition of β-glucan components in their cell walls. Upon co-incubation of yeast exposed DCs and naive T cells, S. boulardii induced a potent IFNγ response indicating TH1 mobilization. In contrast, K. marxianus induced a response dominated by Foxp3+ Treg cells, a characteristic that may benefit human health in conditions characterized by excessive inflammation and positions K. marxianus as a strong candidate for further development as a novel yeast probiotic.

  20. Significance of Haemodynamic and Haemostatic Factors in the Course of Different Manifestations of Cerebral Small Vessel Disease: The SHEF-CSVD Study—Study Rationale and Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Staszewski

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Rationale. This paper describes the rationale and design of the SHEF-CSVD Study, which aims to determine the long-term clinical and radiological course of cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD and to evaluate haemostatic and haemodynamic prognostic factors of the condition. Design. This single-centre, prospective, non-interventional cohort study will follow 150 consecutive patients with different clinical manifestations of CSVD (lacunar ischaemic stroke, vascular dementia, vascular parkinsonism or spontaneous deep, intracerebral haemorrhage and 50 age- and sex-matched controls over a period of 24 months. The clinical and radiological course will be evaluated basing on a detailed neurological, neuropsychological and MRI examinations. Haemodynamic (cerebral vasoreactivity, 24 h blood pressure control and haemostatic factors (markers of endothelial and platelet dysfunction, brachial artery flow-mediated dilatation test will be determined. Discussion. The scheduled study will specifically address the issue of haemodynamic and haemostatic prognostic factors and their course over time in various clinical manifestations of CSVD. The findings may aid the development of prophylactic strategies and individualised treatment plans, which are critical during the early stages of the disease.

  1. Evolution of microstructure and residual stress on L1{sub 0} ordering in FePt thin films with different initial stress states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsiao, S.N., E-mail: pmami.hsiao@gmail.com [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Feng Chia University, Taichung 407, Taiwan (China); Yuan, F.T. [iSentek Ltd., Advanced Sensor Laboratory, New Taipei City 221, Taiwan (China); Chen, S.K. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Feng Chia University, Taichung 407, Taiwan (China); Sun, A.C. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Yuan Ze University, Jungli 320, Taiwan (China); Su, S.H.; Chiu, K.F. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Feng Chia University, Taichung 407, Taiwan (China)

    2016-01-15

    We have characterized the dependence of microstructure, and internal strain/stress on L1{sub 0} ordering in 40 nm thick FePt films with different initial stresses. The microstructural and crystallographic results indicate that defect annihilation and grain growth induced an increase in tensile stress of ~1 GPa before extensive L1{sub 0} ordering. The induced tensile stress can efficiently facilitate the nucleation of L1{sub 0} phase owing to that the volume expansion of L1{sub 0} ordering and atomic rearrangement neutralizes the tensile stress. If the as-deposited FePt film has a highly compressive state, the induced tensile stress will be canceled out and ordering is retarded, which results in a higher ordering temperature. - Highlights: • Microstructure-stress connection in FePt films was studied. • Initial stress alters microstructure and stress evolution during annealing. • Densification induces tensile stress of ~1 GPa before extensive L1{sub 0} ordering. • Induced tensile stress can efficiently facilitate the nucleation of L1{sub 0} phase. • Compressively initial stress results in a higher ordering temperature .

  2. Testing the potential significance of different scion/rootstock genotype combinations on the ecology of old cultivated olive trees in the southeast Mediterranean area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barazani, Oz; Waitz, Yoni; Tugendhaft, Yizhar; Dorman, Michael; Dag, Arnon; Hamidat, Mohammed; Hijawi, Thameen; Kerem, Zohar; Westberg, Erik; Kadereit, Joachim W

    2017-02-06

    A previous multi-locus lineage (MLL) analysis of SSR-microsatellite data of old olive trees in the southeast Mediterranean area had shown the predominance of the Souri cultivar (MLL1) among grafted trees. The MLL analysis had also identified an MLL (MLL7) that was more common among rootstocks than other MLLs. We here present a comparison of the MLL combinations MLL1 (scion)/MLL7 (rootstock) and MLL1/MLL1 in order to investigate the possible influence of rootstock on scion phenotype. A linear regression analysis demonstrated that the abundance of MLL1/MLL7 trees decreases and of MLL1/MLL1 trees increases along a gradient of increasing aridity. Hypothesizing that grafting on MLL7 provides an advantage under certain conditions, Akaike information criterion (AIC) model selection procedure was used to assess the influence of different environmental conditions on phenotypic characteristics of the fruits and oil of the two MLL combinations. The most parsimonious models indicated differential influences of environmental conditions on parameters of olive oil quality in trees belonging to the MLL1/MLL7 and MLL1/MLL1 combinations, but a similar influence on fruit characteristics and oil content. These results suggest that in certain environments grafting of the local Souri cultivar on MLL7 rootstocks and the MLL1/MLL1 combination result in improved oil quality. The decreasing number of MLL1/MLL7 trees along an aridity gradient suggests that use of this genotype combination in arid sites was not favoured because of sensitivity of MLL7 to drought. Our results thus suggest that MLL1/MLL7 and MLL1/MLL1 combinations were selected by growers in traditional rain-fed cultivation under Mediterranean climate conditions in the southeast Mediterranean area.

  3. Low residual diet and hydration improving double contrast examination of the colon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Virkki, R.; Maekelae, P.

    1983-01-01

    Light food diet and low residual diet with hydration, both combined with Proctosal and Bisacodyl cleansing, were compared in 268 patients in the preparation of the colon for double contrast examination. Low residual diet with hydration resulted in significantly less residual fecal material, no flocculation of the barium coating and significantly denser mucosal coating. The examination had to be repeated more often (8.6%) after light food diet than after low residual diet with hydration (1.7%), but there was no statistically significant difference in the diagnostic accuracy. The hydration is important in avoiding patient discomforts and flocculation of the barium coating. Despite the use of laxatives, a strict diet restriction is needed to obtain consistently clean colon. (orig.)

  4. Impacts of channel morphology on residues and ecological risks of polychlorinated biphenyls in water and sediment in Chahe River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen-hua Zhao

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The impacts of channel morphology on the residues and ecological risks of 14 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB congeners in water and sediment were investigated in summer (July and autumn (September in the Chahe River, in Nanjing, China. The residual concentrations of tri-chlorobiphenyls (tri-CBs, PCB 18 and tetra-CBs (PCB 52 in water were significantly higher than those of penta-CBs to deca-CBs, and the average residual concentration of ∑PCBs (sum of 14 PCB congeners in summer was about six times higher than in autumn. However, the residues in sediment did not change significantly. Redundancy analysis (RDA indicated that channel morphology and the corresponding environmental indices had significant impacts on PCB residues and their composition profiles in water and sediment. The overflow weir and lake-type watercourse may remarkably reduce the residual concentration and ecological risks of PCBs in water. The highest reduction percentages of the residual concentration and ecological risks of ∑PCBs induced by an overflow weir were 78% and 67%, respectively, and those induced by a lake-type watercourse were 36% and 70%, respectively. The watercourses with different channel morphologies were ranked by residual ∑PCBs concentrations in the following descending order: the natural ecological watercourse, vertical concrete watercourse, and vegetation-type riprap watercourse. However, they were ranked by residual ∑PCBs concentrations in sediment in the following descending order: the vertical concrete watercourse, vegetation-type riprap watercourse, and natural ecological watercourse.

  5. Characterization of biomass residues and their amendment effects on water sorption and nutrient leaching in sandy soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Letian; Tong, Zhaohui; Liu, Guodong; Li, Yuncong

    2014-07-01

    In this study, we evaluated the efficiency of two types of biomass residues (fermentation residues from a bioethanol process, FB; brown mill residues from a papermaking process, BM) as amendments for a sandy soil. The characteristics of these residues including specific surface areas, morphologies and nutrient sorption capacity were measured. The effects of biorefinery residues on water and nutrient retention were investigated in terms of different particle sizes and loadings. The results indicated that bio-based wastes FB and BM were able to significantly improve water and nutrient retention of sandy soil. The residues with larger surface areas had better water and nutrient retention capability. Specifically, in the addition of 10% loading, FB and BM was able to improve water retention by approximately 150% and 300%, while reduce 99% of ammonium and phosphate concentration in the leachate compare to the soil control, respectively. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Environmental impacts of the extraction of forestry residues. Project report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brierley, E.; Truckell, I.; Brewer, T.; Towers, W.; Malcolm, A.; Walker, W.

    2004-07-01

    The environmental implications of the changes in forestry operations and practices necessary to remove significant quantities of forest residues for use as a fuel were investigated in this study commissioned by the UK Department of Trade and Industry. The project involved: a review of current practices for the treatment of residues and the production of wood fuels in Great Britain; an assessment of the impact of these practices on soils, landscape, water, flora, fauna and air; and the modelling of scenarios to identify the quantity of forestry land from which residues could be obtained to help meet UK targets for the use of renewable energy. This allowed an assessment of how practices may develop and how environmental impacts may change as a result of increased removal of forestry residues. The study included a literature review, discussions with the forestry and biomass industries and the selection of case study areas with a range of soil types. Differences in opportunities for residue harvesting between upland forestry in the north and west of the UK and lowland forestry in the south of the UK were highlighted by the model outputs.

  7. Quantification of Drive-Response Relationships Between Residues During Protein Folding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Yifei; Im, Wonpil

    2013-08-13

    Mutual correlation and cooperativity are commonly used to describe residue-residue interactions in protein folding/function. However, these metrics do not provide any information on the causality relationships between residues. Such drive-response relationships are poorly studied in protein folding/function and difficult to measure experimentally due to technical limitations. In this study, using the information theory transfer entropy (TE) that provides a direct measurement of causality between two times series, we have quantified the drive-response relationships between residues in the folding/unfolding processes of four small proteins generated by molecular dynamics simulations. Instead of using a time-averaged single TE value, the time-dependent TE is measured with the Q-scores based on residue-residue contacts and with the statistical significance analysis along the folding/unfolding processes. The TE analysis is able to identify the driving and responding residues that are different from the highly correlated residues revealed by the mutual information analysis. In general, the driving residues have more regular secondary structures, are more buried, and show greater effects on the protein stability as well as folding and unfolding rates. In addition, the dominant driving and responding residues from the TE analysis on the whole trajectory agree with those on a single folding event, demonstrating that the drive-response relationships are preserved in the non-equilibrium process. Our study provides detailed insights into the protein folding process and has potential applications in protein engineering and interpretation of time-dependent residue-based experimental observables for protein function.

  8. No Significant Difference in Service Learning Online

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGorry, Sue Y.

    2012-01-01

    Institutions of higher education are realizing the importance of service learning initiatives in developing awareness of students' civic responsibilities, leadership and management skills, and social responsibility. These skills and responsibilities are the foundation of program outcomes in accredited higher education business programs at…

  9. The Cauchy method of residues

    CERN Document Server

    Mitrinović, Dragoslav S

    1993-01-01

    Volume 1, i. e. the monograph The Cauchy Method of Residues - Theory and Applications published by D. Reidel Publishing Company in 1984 is the only book that covers all known applications of the calculus of residues. They range from the theory of equations, theory of numbers, matrix analysis, evaluation of real definite integrals, summation of finite and infinite series, expansions of functions into infinite series and products, ordinary and partial differential equations, mathematical and theoretical physics, to the calculus of finite differences and difference equations. The appearance of Volume 1 was acknowledged by the mathematical community. Favourable reviews and many private communications encouraged the authors to continue their work, the result being the present book, Volume 2, a sequel to Volume 1. We mention that Volume 1 is a revised, extended and updated translation of the book Cauchyjev raeun ostataka sa primenama published in Serbian by Nau~na knjiga, Belgrade in 1978, whereas the greater part ...

  10. Harvesting and handling agricultural residues for energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins, B.M.; Summer, H.R.

    1986-05-01

    Significant progress in understanding the needs for design of agricultural residue collection and handling systems has been made but additional research is required. Recommendations are made for research to (a) integrate residue collection and handling systems into general agricultural practices through the development of multi-use equipment and total harvest systems; (b) improve methods for routine evaluation of agricultural residue resources, possibly through remote sensing and image processing; (c) analyze biomass properties to obtain detailed data relevant to engineering design and analysis; (d) evaluate long-term environmental, social, and agronomic impacts of residue collection; (e) develop improved equipment with higher capacities to reduce residue collection and handling costs, with emphasis on optimal design of complete systems including collection, transportation, processing, storage, and utilization; and (f) produce standard forms of biomass fuels or products to enhance material handling and expand biomass markets through improved reliability and automatic control of biomass conversion and other utilization systems. 118 references.

  11. Computational prediction of protein hot spot residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, John Kenneth; Zhang, Shuxing

    2012-01-01

    Most biological processes involve multiple proteins interacting with each other. It has been recently discovered that certain residues in these protein-protein interactions, which are called hot spots, contribute more significantly to binding affinity than others. Hot spot residues have unique and diverse energetic properties that make them challenging yet important targets in the modulation of protein-protein complexes. Design of therapeutic agents that interact with hot spot residues has proven to be a valid methodology in disrupting unwanted protein-protein interactions. Using biological methods to determine which residues are hot spots can be costly and time consuming. Recent advances in computational approaches to predict hot spots have incorporated a myriad of features, and have shown increasing predictive successes. Here we review the state of knowledge around protein-protein interactions, hot spots, and give an overview of multiple in silico prediction techniques of hot spot residues.

  12. Computational Prediction of Hot Spot Residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, John Kenneth; Zhang, Shuxing

    2013-01-01

    Most biological processes involve multiple proteins interacting with each other. It has been recently discovered that certain residues in these protein-protein interactions, which are called hot spots, contribute more significantly to binding affinity than others. Hot spot residues have unique and diverse energetic properties that make them challenging yet important targets in the modulation of protein-protein complexes. Design of therapeutic agents that interact with hot spot residues has proven to be a valid methodology in disrupting unwanted protein-protein interactions. Using biological methods to determine which residues are hot spots can be costly and time consuming. Recent advances in computational approaches to predict hot spots have incorporated a myriad of features, and have shown increasing predictive successes. Here we review the state of knowledge around protein-protein interactions, hot spots, and give an overview of multiple in silico prediction techniques of hot spot residues. PMID:22316154

  13. Residues from waste incineration. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Astrup, T.; Juul Pedersen, A.; Hyks, J.; Frandsen, F.J.

    2009-08-15

    The overall objective of the project was to improve the understanding of the formation and characteristics of residues from waste incineration. This was done focusing on the importance of the waste input and the operational conditions of the furnace. Data and results obtained from the project have been discussed in this report according to the following three overall parts: i) mass flows and element distribution, ii) flue gas/particle partitioning and corrosion/deposition aspects, and iii) residue leaching. This has been done with the intent of structuring the discussion while tacitly acknowledging that these aspects are interrelated and cannot be separated. Overall, it was found that the waste input composition had significant impact of the characteristics of the generated residues. A similar correlation between operational conditions and residue characteristics could not be observed. Consequently, the project recommend that optimization of residue quality should focus on controlling the waste input composition. The project results showed that including specific waste materials (and thereby also excluding the same materials) may have significant effects on the residue composition, residue leaching, aerosol and deposit formation.It is specifically recommended to minimize Cl in the input waste. Based on the project results, it was found that a significant potential for optimization of waste incineration exist. (author)

  14. Characterization of Hospital Residuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanco Meza, A.; Bonilla Jimenez, S.

    1997-01-01

    The main objective of this investigation is the characterization of the solid residuals. A description of the handling of the liquid and gassy waste generated in hospitals is also given, identifying the source where they originate. To achieve the proposed objective the work was divided in three stages: The first one was the planning and the coordination with each hospital center, in this way, to determine the schedule of gathering of the waste can be possible. In the second stage a fieldwork was made; it consisted in gathering the quantitative and qualitative information of the general state of the handling of residuals. In the third and last stage, the information previously obtained was organized to express the results as the production rate per day by bed, generation of solid residuals for sampled services, type of solid residuals and density of the same ones. With the obtained results, approaches are settled down to either determine design parameters for final disposition whether for incineration, trituration, sanitary filler or recycling of some materials, and storage politics of the solid residuals that allow to determine the gathering frequency. The study concludes that it is necessary to improve the conditions of the residuals handling in some aspects, to provide the cleaning personnel of the equipment for gathering disposition and of security, minimum to carry out this work efficiently, and to maintain a control of all the dangerous waste, like sharp or polluted materials. In this way, an appreciable reduction is guaranteed in the impact on the atmosphere. (Author) [es

  15. Residual stress concerns in containment analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costantini, F.; Kulak, R. F.; Pfeiffer, P. A.

    1997-01-01

    The manufacturing of steel containment vessels starts with the forming of flat plates into curved plates. A steel containment structure is made by welding individual plates together to form the sections that make up the complex shaped vessels. The metal forming and welding process leaves residual stresses in the vessel walls. Generally, the effect of metal forming residual stresses can be reduced or virtually eliminated by thermally stress relieving the vesseL In large containment vessels this may not be practical and thus the residual stresses due to manufacturing may become important. The residual stresses could possibly tiect the response of the vessel to internal pressurization. When the level of residual stresses is significant it will affect the vessel's response, for instance the yielding pressure and possibly the failure pressure. The paper will address the effect of metal forming residual stresses on the response of a generic pressure vessel to internal pressurization. A scoping analysis investigated the effect of residual forming stresses on the response of an internally pressurized vessel. A simple model was developed to gain understanding of the mechanics of the problem. Residual stresses due to the welding process were not considered in this investigation

  16. Relative contribution of residual renal function and different measures of adequacy to survival in hemodialysis patients: an analysis of the Netherlands Cooperative Study on the Adequacy of Dialysis (NECOSAD)-2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Termorshuizen, Fabian; Dekker, Friedo W.; van Manen, Jeannette G.; Korevaar, Johanna C.; Boeschoten, Elisabeth W.; Krediet, Raymond T.

    2004-01-01

    A high delivered Kt/V(urea) (dKt/V(urea)) is advocated in the U.S. National Kidney Foundation Dialysis Outcomes Quality Initiative guidelines on hemodialysis (HD) adequacy, irrespective of the presence of residual renal function. The contribution of treatment adequacy and residual renal function to

  17. Trends and advances in pesticide residue analysis | Yeboah ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The nature, origin and the economic significance of pesticide residues are reviewed to underscore the need for countries to develop the ability and capacity to monitor pesticide residues. An overview of pesticide residues analytical procedures is also presented with emphasis on thin layer chromatography (TLC) as an ...

  18. 40 CFR 721.9635 - Terpene residue distillates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Terpene residue distillates. 721.9635... Substances § 721.9635 Terpene residue distillates. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as terpene residue distillates (PMN P-96-897...

  19. Eficiência de uso da água e produção de repolho sobre diferentes quantidades de palhada em plantio direto Water use efficiency and cabbage production under no-tillage using different rates of crop residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldir Aparecido Marouelli

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do sistema de plantio direto (PD sobre diferentes quantidades de palhada, na eficiência de uso da água e na produção de repolho. Foram utilizadas quatro quantidades de palhada de milho sobre um Latossolo Vermelho de textura argilosa (0,0, 4,5, 9,0, 13,5 Mg ha-1 de matéria seca, com o sistema de plantio convencional (PC como controle. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos ao acaso com três repetições. O estande de plantas, a produtividade, a massa de matéria fresca, o diâmetro, a altura e a compacidade de cabeças de repolho não foram afetados significativamente pelos tratamentos. Houve uma redução de até 13% na lâmina líquida de água aplicada durante o ciclo do repolho cultivado em sistema de PD com palhada, quando comparada à utilizada em tratamentos sem palhada. Durante os primeiros 30 dias após o transplante de mudas, a economia de água chegou a 28%. O índice de produtividade da água em sistema de PD apresentou incremento linear com o aumento da quantidade de palhada utilizada, e foi até 21% maior que no sistema de PC.The objective of this work was to assess the effect of no-tillage production system (PD using different rates of crop residues on cabbage water use efficiency and yield. Four rates of corn crop residues (0.0, 4.5, 9.0, 13.5 Mg ha-1 of dry matter were tested in a clayed Latossolo Vermelho (Rhodic Haplustox, using the conventional tillage system (PC as control. A completely randomized block design, with three replications was used. Cabbage stand, yield, fresh matter mass, diameter, height, and head compactness were not significantly affected by treatments. The total water depth applied along the entire crop cycle in PD treatments was up to 13% smaller than the treatments without residues. Water savings during the 30 days following transplanting reached 28%. The water productivity index increased linearly with crop residue rates under PD

  20. Influence of turkey meat on residual nitrite in cured meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, B; Cassens, R G; Borchert, L L

    2001-02-01

    A response surface experimental design was employed to estimate residual nitrite level at various initial nitrite concentrations, percent turkey meat in the formula, and heat quantity (F) values using a typical wiener as the test system. Pork and mechanically separated turkey were used as the meat ingredients. Residual nitrite and pH were measured at day 1, 7 days, 14 days, and 49 days after processing. Protein, fat, salt, moisture, and CIE (L*a*b*) color values were also determined. Results showed that the effect of turkey meat on residual nitrite level was significant (P meat in the formula resulted in lower residual nitrite levels at a fixed pH. The residual nitrite level was initially proportional to initial nitrite concentration, but it became a nonsignificant factor during longer storage time. Differences in heat quantity had a significant effect (P nitrite level initially. Greater heat quantity decreased residual nitrite level in finished cured meat products at a fixed pH. However, this effect became nonsignificant during longer storage. Reduction of residual nitrite in wieners because of turkey meat addition at a fixed pH was due to characteristics of the turkey tissue, but the mechanism of action remains unknown. It was also established that commercial wieners had a higher pH if poultry meat was included in the formulation.

  1. MRI of Residual Red Bone Marrow in the Distal Femur of Healthy Subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arslan, Gozde; Ozmen, Evrim; Soyturk, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of our study is to examine the correlation of the residual red bone marrow areas of distal femoral metaphysis with the age, gender, weight and hemoglobin (hgb) values; evaluate the results, and comprehend the importance of these residual areas in the light of the results. 140 nonsmoking patients between the ages of 26 and 72 (92 women, 48 men) who had knee MR examinations were included in the study. The residual red bone marrow areas in the distal femoral metaphysis in MR images were examined by a radiologist. The areas were separated into grades according to their sizes. The hemoglobin values of the cases were measured. The size of the residual red bone marrow area and the age, gender, weight and hemoglobin values of the cases were compared by using the Tukey and Chi-Square Tests. Although no significant differences were observed between the mean ages, weights and hemoglobin values of the grades, a significant difference was detected between the gender distribution The male group had less residual red bone marrow in the distal femoral metaphysis than the female group (p=0.003). We observed that the hypointensities due to residual red bone marrow observed in the T1WS of the distal femoral metaphysis are not related with the age, weight and hemoglobin values. No grade 2 and grade 3 patient was detected in male group. We observed that these hypointense areas showed difference according to the gender variable; however, were not affected by the hemoglobin values over certain levels

  2. Cover crop residue management for optimizing weed control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruidhof, H.M.; Bastiaans, L.; Kropff, M.J.

    2009-01-01

    Although residue management seems a key factor in residue-mediated weed suppression, very few studies have systematically compared the influence of different residue management strategies on the establishment of crop and weed species. We evaluated the effect of several methods of pre-treatment and

  3. Radiotracer studies of fungicide residues in food plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-04-01

    Agricultural fungicides are chemicals used on seeds, crops and in soils throughout the growing season. Fungicide treatments may lead to various levels of chemical residues in food commodities. Primary emphasis has been placed on ethylenebisdithiocarbamates (EBDCs), an important group of agrofungicides used in preparations for spraying or dusting major crops such as apples, pears, broccoli, cabbages, egg plants, cauliflower, grapes, lettuce, peppers, celery, cucumbers and tomatoes. Treatments with EBDCs result in terminal residues containing ethylenthiourea (ETU). This is a toxicologically significant decomposition product which has attracted considerable attention in recent years due to indications of its potential goitrogenic and carcinogenic properties. In recognition of the need for a coordinated examination of ETU levels in food, particularly under tropical conditions, the program of radiotracer techniques as a tool for studying fungicide residue problems on food was initiated in 1984. In current studies, three EBDCs, maneb, zineb and mancozeb from different manufacturers in different countries were analysed. This report describes the model protocols (Annexes I, II and III) as they were set up for determination of residues in commodities and soil, using radiotracer and conventional chromatographic techniques . In the 16 papers presented in this report C 14 -labelled EBDCs are determined in plants, vegetables, and soils, before and after cooking, as a function of time and of other agricultural parameters. Refs, figs and tabs

  4. The Effects of Rape Residue Mulching on Net Global Warming Potential and Greenhouse Gas Intensity from No-Tillage Paddy Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi-Sheng; Cao, Cou-Gui; Guo, Li-Jin; Li, Cheng-Fang

    2014-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted to provide a complete greenhouse gas (GHG) accounting for global warming potential (GWP), net GWP, and greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI) from no-tillage (NT) paddy fields with different amounts of oilseed rape residue mulch (0, 3000, 4000, and 6000 kg dry matter (DM) ha−1) during a rice-growing season after 3 years of oilseed rape-rice cultivation. Residue mulching treatments showed significantly more organic carbon (C) density for the 0–20 cm soil layer at harvesting than no residue treatment. During a rice-growing season, residue mulching treatments sequestered significantly more organic C from 687 kg C ha−1 season−1 to 1654 kg C ha−1 season−1 than no residue treatment. Residue mulching significantly increased emissions of CO2 and N2O but decreased CH4 emissions. Residue mulching treatments significantly increased GWP by 9–30% but significantly decreased net GWP by 33–71% and GHGI by 35–72% relative to no residue treatment. These results suggest that agricultural economic viability and GHG mitigation can be achieved simultaneously by residue mulching on NT paddy fields in central China. PMID:25140329

  5. The effects of rape residue mulching on net global warming potential and greenhouse gas intensity from no-tillage paddy fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi-Sheng; Cao, Cou-Gui; Guo, Li-Jin; Li, Cheng-Fang

    2014-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted to provide a complete greenhouse gas (GHG) accounting for global warming potential (GWP), net GWP, and greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI) from no-tillage (NT) paddy fields with different amounts of oilseed rape residue mulch (0, 3000, 4000, and 6000 kg dry matter (DM) ha(-1)) during a rice-growing season after 3 years of oilseed rape-rice cultivation. Residue mulching treatments showed significantly more organic carbon (C) density for the 0-20 cm soil layer at harvesting than no residue treatment. During a rice-growing season, residue mulching treatments sequestered significantly more organic C from 687 kg C ha(-1) season(-1) to 1654 kg C ha(-1) season(-1) than no residue treatment. Residue mulching significantly increased emissions of CO2 and N2O but decreased CH4 emissions. Residue mulching treatments significantly increased GWP by 9-30% but significantly decreased net GWP by 33-71% and GHGI by 35-72% relative to no residue treatment. These results suggest that agricultural economic viability and GHG mitigation can be achieved simultaneously by residue mulching on NT paddy fields in central China.

  6. Eviromental Economic and Technological Residues Management Demands: An Optimization Tool.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa Soares Borges

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Industrial residues management is a very demanding task since many different goals must be achieved. The combination of different approaches used by people from different stuff is very challenging activity that can misuse the residues potential value and applicability. An interactive WEB base tool, to integrate different sectors and overcome residues management difficulties will be presented. The system must be loaded with all data concerning the residue life cycle, and through data integration and modeling routine will give the best alternative as output. As wider and complete the system data becomes, by information loading from differen t segment, more efficient the residues management becomes. The user friendly tool will encourage the participation of industries, labs and research institutions to obtain qualified information about industrial residues inventory, raw materials recovery, characteristics, treatment and alternative uses, to achieve residues management sustainability.

  7. Responses of Pea (Pisum sativum Growth and Yield to Residual Effects of Organic and Urea Fertilizers from Previous Crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Fallah

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Application of organic manure in organic farming and long-term mineralization may lead to residual effects on the succeeding crop. So, residual effects of combined cattle manure and urea fertilizer of previous crop (black cumin on growth and yield of pea were examined in a randomized complete block design. Treatments included of  cattle manure (CM, urea (U, three ratios of CM+U full dose application (2:1; 1:1; 1:2 and three ratios of CM+U split application (2:1; 1:1; 1:2, and unfertilized control to previous crop (black cumin in 2012. Pea planted without any fertilizer in 2013. There was no significant difference between control and residual of urea treatment for some parameters including dry matter in flowering stage, plant nitrogen and phosphorus concentration, plant height, yield components, grain yield and biological yield of pea. Biological and grain yields were greater under both residual of cattle manure treatment and integrated treatments compared to residual of urea treatment. The highest grain yield (4000 kg ha-1 was observed in residual of CM:U full dosed application treatment, to the extent that grain yield in this treatment indicated a 1.5-fold increase in comparison with residual of urea treatment. The highest biological yield (8325 kg ha-1 was obtained in residual of CM treatment, though it was not significant different from that of residual of CM:U (1:2 treatments. In general, although residual of urea fertilizer did not leave a notable effect on pea production, but production of this crop relying on residual of cattle manure deems effective to lowering of fertilization cost and ameliorating environmental contaminations.

  8. Combining specificity determining and conserved residues improves functional site prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gelfand Mikhail S

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Predicting the location of functionally important sites from protein sequence and/or structure is a long-standing problem in computational biology. Most current approaches make use of sequence conservation, assuming that amino acid residues conserved within a protein family are most likely to be functionally important. Most often these approaches do not consider many residues that act to define specific sub-functions within a family, or they make no distinction between residues important for function and those more relevant for maintaining structure (e.g. in the hydrophobic core. Many protein families bind and/or act on a variety of ligands, meaning that conserved residues often only bind a common ligand sub-structure or perform general catalytic activities. Results Here we present a novel method for functional site prediction based on identification of conserved positions, as well as those responsible for determining ligand specificity. We define Specificity-Determining Positions (SDPs, as those occupied by conserved residues within sub-groups of proteins in a family having a common specificity, but differ between groups, and are thus likely to account for specific recognition events. We benchmark the approach on enzyme families of known 3D structure with bound substrates, and find that in nearly all families residues predicted by SDPsite are in contact with the bound substrate, and that the addition of SDPs significantly improves functional site prediction accuracy. We apply SDPsite to various families of proteins containing known three-dimensional structures, but lacking clear functional annotations, and discusse several illustrative examples. Conclusion The results suggest a better means to predict functional details for the thousands of protein structures determined prior to a clear understanding of molecular function.

  9. Dissipation and residue of clothianidin in granules and pesticide fertilizers used in cabbage and soil under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, P W; Wang, S Y; Huang, C L; Fu, J T; Huang, R L; Li, Z H; Zhang, Z X

    2018-01-01

    The single application of 0.5 % clothianidin granules, a novel formulation, was used to control pests in vegetables under a high dose. In this article, residues of clothianidin in cabbage and soil samples under field conditions from Guangzhou, Nanning, and Qianjiang were determined by HPLC. The terminal residues of clothianidin in cabbage were less than the limit of detection (clothianidin residual, clothianidin granules and fertilizers of chicken manure, urea, and organic fertilizer were mixed into different pesticide fertilizers through their normal field using dosage and evaluate residual influence of clothianidin in different formula. After analysis of variance of the effect factors, the effect of different pesticide types on half-life was not significant, but the effect of sample types was significant. Clothianidin granules and pesticide fertilizers could be safely applied in cabbage under a single high-dose administration.

  10. Residual-stress measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ezeilo, A N; Webster, G A [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Webster, P J [Salford Univ. (United Kingdom)

    1997-04-01

    Because neutrons can penetrate distances of up to 50 mm in most engineering materials, this makes them unique for establishing residual-stress distributions non-destructively. D1A is particularly suited for through-surface measurements as it does not suffer from instrumental surface aberrations commonly found on multidetector instruments, while D20 is best for fast internal-strain scanning. Two examples for residual-stress measurements in a shot-peened material, and in a weld are presented to demonstrate the attractive features of both instruments. (author).

  11. Calcination/dissolution residue treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knight, R.C.; Creed, R.F.; Patello, G.K.; Hollenberg, G.W.; Buehler, M.F.; O'Rourke, S.M.; Visnapuu, A.; McLaughlin, D.F.

    1994-09-01

    Currently, high-level wastes are stored underground in steel-lined tanks at the Hanford site. Current plans call for the chemical pretreatment of these wastes before their immobilization in stable glass waste forms. One candidate pretreatment approach, calcination/dissolution, performs an alkaline fusion of the waste and creates a high-level/low-level partition based on the aqueous solubilities of the components of the product calcine. Literature and laboratory studies were conducted with the goal of finding a residue treatment technology that would decrease the quantity of high-level waste glass required following calcination/dissolution waste processing. Four elements, Fe, Ni, Bi, and U, postulated to be present in the high-level residue fraction were identified as being key to the quantity of high-level glass formed. Laboratory tests of the candidate technologies with simulant high-level residues showed reductive roasting followed by carbonyl volatilization to be successful in removing Fe, Ni, and Bi. Subsequent bench-scale tests on residues from calcination/dissolution processing of genuine Hanford Site tank waste showed Fe was separated with radioelement decontamination factors of 70 to 1,000 times with respect to total alpha activity. Thermodynamic analyses of the calcination of five typical Hanford Site tank waste compositions also were performed. The analyses showed sodium hydroxide to be the sole molten component in the waste calcine and emphasized the requirement for waste blending if fluid calcines are to be achieved. Other calcine phases identified in the thermodynamic analysis indicate the significant thermal reconstitution accomplished in calcination

  12. Evaluation of an anti-p185{sup HER2} (scFv-C{sub H}2-C{sub H}3){sub 2} fragment following radioiodination using two different residualizing labels: SGMIB and IB-Mal-D-GEEEK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaidyanathan, Ganesan [Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710 (United States)], E-mail: ganesan.v@duke.edu; Jestin, Emmanuelle [Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710 (United States); Olafsen, Tove; Wu, Anna M. [Department of Molecular and Medical Pharmacology, Crump Institute for Molecular Imaging, David Geffen School of Medicine at University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Zalutsky, Michael R. [Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710 (United States)

    2009-08-15

    Introduction: A 105-kDa double mutant single-chain Fv-Fc fragment (scFv-Fc DM) derived from the anti-p185{sup HER2} hu4D5v8 antibody (trastuzumab; Herceptin) has been described recently. The goal of this study was to investigate whether improved tumor targeting could be achieved with this fragment through the use of residualizing radioiodination methods. Methods: The scFv-Fc DM fragment was radioiodinated using N-succinimidyl 4-guanidinomethyl 3-[{sup 131}I]iodobenzoate ([{sup 131}I]SGMIB) and N{sup {epsilon}}-(3-[{sup 131}I]iodobenzoyl)-Lys{sup 5}-N{sup {alpha}}- maleimido-Gly{sup 1}-GEEEK ([{sup 131}I]IB-Mal-D-GEEEK), two residualizing radioiodination agents that have been used successfully with intact antibodies. Paired-label internalization assays of the labeled fragments were performed in vitro using MCF7 human breast cancer cells transfected to express HER2 (MCF7-HER2); comparisons were made to scFv-Fc DM directly radioiodinated using Iodogen. The tissue distribution of the scFv-Fc DM labeled with [{sup 125}I]IB-Mal-D-GEEEK and [{sup 131}I]SGMIB was compared in athymic mice bearing MCF7-HER2 xenografts. Results: The scFv-Fc DM fragment was labeled with [{sup 131}I]SGMIB and [{sup 131}I]IB-Mal-D-GEEEK in conjugation yields of 53% and 25%, respectively, with preservation of immunoreactivity for HER2. Internalization assays indicated that labeling via SGMIB resulted in a 1.6- to 3.5-fold higher (P<.05) retention of radioactivity, compared to that from the directly labeled fragment, in HER2-expressing cells during a 24-h observation period. Likewise, the amount of radioactivity retained in cells from the IB-Mal-D-GEEEK-labeled fragment was 1.4- to 3.3-fold higher (P<.05). Tumor uptake of radioiodine activity in athymic mice bearing MCF7-HER2 xenografts in vivo was significantly higher for the [{sup 125}I]IB-Mal-D-GEEEK-labeled scFv-Fc DM fragment compared with that of the [{sup 131}I]SGMIB-labeled fragment, particularly at later time points. The uptake of {sup

  13. Use of ultrasound in petroleum residue upgradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawarkar, A.N.; Pandit, A.B.; Samant, S.D.; Joshi, J.B. [Mumbai Univ., Mumbai (India). Inst. of Chemical Technology

    2009-06-15

    The importance of bottom-of-the barrel upgrading has increased in the current petroleum refining scenario because of the progressively heavier nature of crude oil. Heavy residues contain large concentrations of metals such as vanadium and nickel which foul catalysts and reduce the potential effect of residue fluidized catalytic cracking. This study showed that the cavitational energy induced by ultrasound be be successfully used to upgrade hydrocarbon mixtures. Conventional processes for the upgrading of residual feedstocks, such as thermal cracking and catalytic cracking, were carried out in the temperature range of 400-520 degrees C. Experiments were performed on 2 vacuum residues, Arabian mix vacuum residue (AMVR) and Bombay high vacuum residue (BHVR) and 1 Haldia asphalt (HA). These were subjected to acoustic cavitation for different reaction times from 15 to 120 minutes at ambient temperature and pressure. Two acoustic cavitation devices were compared, namely the ultrasonic bath and ultrasonic horn. In particular, this study compared the ability of these 2 devices to upgrade the petroleum residues to lighter, more value-added products. Different surfactants were used to examine the effect of ultrasound on upgrading the residue when emulsified in water. In order to better understand the reaction mechanism, a kinetic model was developed based on the constituents of the residue. The ultrasonic horn was found to be more effective in bringing about the upgrading than ultrasonic bath. The study also showed that the acoustic cavitation of the aqueous emulsified hydrocarbon mixture could reduce the asphaltenes content to a greater extent than the acoustic cavitation of non-emulsified hydrocarbon mixture. 20 refs., 11 tabs., 17 figs.

  14. Quantitative analysis of residual protein contamination of podiatry instruments reprocessed through local and central decontamination units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Gordon Wg; Goldie, Frank; Long, Steven; Lappin, David F; Ramage, Gordon; Smith, Andrew J

    2011-01-10

    The cleaning stage of the instrument decontamination process has come under increased scrutiny due to the increasing complexity of surgical instruments and the adverse affects of residual protein contamination on surgical instruments. Instruments used in the podiatry field have a complex surface topography and are exposed to a wide range of biological contamination. Currently, podiatry instruments are reprocessed locally within surgeries while national strategies are favouring a move toward reprocessing in central facilities. The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of local and central reprocessing on podiatry instruments by measuring residual protein contamination of instruments reprocessed by both methods. The residual protein of 189 instruments reprocessed centrally and 189 instruments reprocessed locally was determined using a fluorescent assay based on the reaction of proteins with o-phthaldialdehyde/sodium 2-mercaptoethanesulfonate. Residual protein was detected on 72% (n = 136) of instruments reprocessed centrally and 90% (n = 170) of instruments reprocessed locally. Significantly less protein (p podiatry instruments when protein contamination is considered, though no significant difference was found in residual protein between local decontamination unit and central decontamination unit processes for Blacks files. Further research is needed to undertake qualitative identification of protein contamination to identify any cross contamination risks and a standard for acceptable residual protein contamination applicable to different instruments and specialities should be considered as a matter of urgency.

  15. Quantitative analysis of residual protein contamination of podiatry instruments reprocessed through local and central decontamination units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramage Gordon

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cleaning stage of the instrument decontamination process has come under increased scrutiny due to the increasing complexity of surgical instruments and the adverse affects of residual protein contamination on surgical instruments. Instruments used in the podiatry field have a complex surface topography and are exposed to a wide range of biological contamination. Currently, podiatry instruments are reprocessed locally within surgeries while national strategies are favouring a move toward reprocessing in central facilities. The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of local and central reprocessing on podiatry instruments by measuring residual protein contamination of instruments reprocessed by both methods. Methods The residual protein of 189 instruments reprocessed centrally and 189 instruments reprocessed locally was determined using a fluorescent assay based on the reaction of proteins with o-phthaldialdehyde/sodium 2-mercaptoethanesulfonate. Results Residual protein was detected on 72% (n = 136 of instruments reprocessed centrally and 90% (n = 170 of instruments reprocessed locally. Significantly less protein (p Conclusions Overall, the results show the superiority of central reprocessing for complex podiatry instruments when protein contamination is considered, though no significant difference was found in residual protein between local decontamination unit and central decontamination unit processes for Blacks files. Further research is needed to undertake qualitative identification of protein contamination to identify any cross contamination risks and a standard for acceptable residual protein contamination applicable to different instruments and specialities should be considered as a matter of urgency.

  16. Mutational properties of amino acid residues: implications for evolvability of phosphorylatable residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Creixell, Pau; Schoof, Erwin M.; Tan, Chris Soon Heng

    2012-01-01

    in terms of their mutational activity. Moreover, we highlight the importance of the genetic code and physico-chemical properties of the amino acid residues as likely causes of these inequalities and uncover serine as a mutational hot spot. Finally, we explore the consequences that these different......; it is typically assumed that all amino acid residues are equally likely to mutate or to result from a mutation. Here, by reconstructing ancestral sequences and computing mutational probabilities for all the amino acid residues, we refute this assumption and show extensive inequalities between different residues...... mutational properties have on phosphorylation site evolution, showing that a higher degree of evolvability exists for phosphorylated threonine and, to a lesser extent, serine in comparison with tyrosine residues. As exemplified by the suppression of serine's mutational activity in phosphorylation sites, our...

  17. Designing with residual materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walhout, W.; Wever, R.; Blom, E.; Addink-Dölle, L.; Tempelman, E.

    2013-01-01

    Many entrepreneurial businesses have attempted to create value based on the residual material streams of third parties. Based on ‘waste’ materials they designed products, around which they built their company. Such activities have the potential to yield sustainable products. Many of such companies

  18. Effects of Bio-char on Soil Microbes in Herbicide Residual Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Gen-lin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Effects of biological carbon (bio-char on soil microbial community were studied by pot experiments simulating long residual herbicide residues in soil environment, which clarifed the improvement of biochar and its structural properties on soil microenvironment. The results showed that fungi and actinomycetes had the same effect tendency within 0~0.72 mg·kg-1 in clomazone residue which increased the role of stimulation with crop growth process prolonged, especially in high residue treatment, but strong inhibitory effect on bacteria community was occured early which returned to normal until sugar beet growth to fiftieth day. Soil fungi community decreased with bio-char adding, but had no significant difference with the control. When clomazone residue in soil was below 0.24 mg·kg-1, soil actinomycetes community was higher than control without bio-char, bacteria increased first and then reduced after adding carbon as below 0.12 mg·kg-1. Biochar was ‘deep hole’ structure containing C, O, S and other elements. The results showed that a certain concentration clomazone residue in soil would stimulate soil fungi and actinomycetes to grow. After adding the biochar, the inhibition effect of high herbicides residual on bacterial would be alleviated.

  19. The effect of tensioning and sectioning on residual stresses in aluminium AA7749 friction stir welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altenkirch, J.; Steuwer, A.; Peel, M.; Richards, D.G.; Withers, P.J.

    2008-01-01

    Using synchrotron X-ray diffraction the residual stress distribution has been measured in a series of AA7449-W51 aluminium friction stir welds that had been tensioned to different loads during welding. By modifying the stress accumulation path, the application of a tensioning stress has reduced the tensile magnitude of the final residual weld stresses. In the present case the residual stresses were minimised when the applied load is ∼35% of the room temperature yield stress of the parent material. Subsequent sectioning of the weld into shorter test lengths, as might be necessary for weld testing, resulted in a progressive and significant relaxation of the residual stress field. The effect of tensioning on the weld component distortion also has been investigated

  20. Annatto seed residue (Bixa orellana L.: nutritional quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Alessandra Valério

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Considering that annatto seeds are rich in protein, the present work aimed to evaluate the biological quality of this nutrient in the meal residue originating from annatto seed processing. We determined the general composition, mineral levels, amino acid composition and chemical scores, antinutritional factors, and protein quality using biological assays. The following values were obtained: 11.50% protein, 6.74% moisture, 5.22% ash, 2.22% lipids, 42.19% total carbohydrates and 28.45% fiber. The residue proved to be a food rich in fiber and also a protein source. Antinutritional factors were not detected. The most abundant amino acids were lysine, phenylalanine + tyrosine, leucine and isoleucine. Valine was the most limiting amino acid (chemical score 0.22. The protein quality of the seed residue and the isolated protein showed no significant differences. The biological value was lower than that of the control protein but higher than that found in other vegetables. Among the biochemical analyses, only creatinine level was decreased in the two test groups compared to the control group. Enzyme tests did not indicate liver toxicity. The results showed favorable aspects for the use of annatto seed residue in the human diet, meriting further research.

  1. Nitrogen Released From Organic Residues Using 15N

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galal, Y.G.M.; Gadalla, A.M.; Abdel Aziz, H.A.; Abdel Salam, A.A.; El-Degwy, S.M.A.

    2008-01-01

    Incubation technique was followed under laboratory condition to evaluate and determine the rate of organic residues decomposition as well as N released in media. Rice straw, soybean straw, and leuceana cutting residue were used. These materials were incubated on virgin sandy soil up to 90 days intervals. Cups with mixture of sand and organic residues were inoculated with fungi, bacteria and mixture of them. Un inoculated treatment was also included. Results showed that N released from the different organic materials was significant at 30 days of incubation. It seems that presence of Azotobacter was associated with enhanced demand on soluble N at this stage. Superiority of leucaena over the other two sources of rice straw and soybean straw occurred particularly during the 15 to 30.day period. In greenhouse experiment, the results indicated that N derived from organic materials was high and easily released from compost as mediated materials comparing to leucaena as undigested raw materials. In the same time, barley had more benefits from organic residues than lupine crop

  2. Flow analysis of heavy metals in a pilot-scale incinerator for residues from waste electrical and electronic equipment dismantling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Yu-Yang; Feng, Yi-Jian; Cai, Si-Shi; Ding, Wei-Xu; Shen, Dong-Sheng, E-mail: shends@zju.edu.cn

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • Cu, Zn, Pb, and Ni are enriched in bottom ash from WEEE dismantling residues. • The heavy metal residual fraction restricts transfer in the incinerator. • Pre-treatment to remove heavy metals from WEEE residues would reduce emissions. -- Abstract: The large amount of residues generated from dismantling waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) results in a considerable environmental burden. We used material flow analysis to investigate heavy metal behavior in an incineration plant in China used exclusively to incinerate residues from WEEE dismantling. The heavy metals tested were enriched in the bottom and fly ashes after incineration. However, the contents of heavy metals in the bottom ash, fly ash and exhaust gas do not have a significant correlation with that of the input waste. The evaporation and recondensation behavior of heavy metals caused their contents to differ with air pollution control equipment because of the temperature difference during gas venting. Among the heavy metals tested, Cd had the strongest tendency to transfer during incineration (T{sub Cd} = 69.5%) because it had the lowest melting point, followed by Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn. The exchangeable and residual fractions of heavy metals increased substantially in the incineration products compared with that of the input residues. Although the mass of residues from WEEE dismantling can be reduced by 70% by incineration, the safe disposal of the metal-enriched bottom and fly ashes is still required.

  3. Flow analysis of heavy metals in a pilot-scale incinerator for residues from waste electrical and electronic equipment dismantling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, Yu-Yang; Feng, Yi-Jian; Cai, Si-Shi; Ding, Wei-Xu; Shen, Dong-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Cu, Zn, Pb, and Ni are enriched in bottom ash from WEEE dismantling residues. • The heavy metal residual fraction restricts transfer in the incinerator. • Pre-treatment to remove heavy metals from WEEE residues would reduce emissions. -- Abstract: The large amount of residues generated from dismantling waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) results in a considerable environmental burden. We used material flow analysis to investigate heavy metal behavior in an incineration plant in China used exclusively to incinerate residues from WEEE dismantling. The heavy metals tested were enriched in the bottom and fly ashes after incineration. However, the contents of heavy metals in the bottom ash, fly ash and exhaust gas do not have a significant correlation with that of the input waste. The evaporation and recondensation behavior of heavy metals caused their contents to differ with air pollution control equipment because of the temperature difference during gas venting. Among the heavy metals tested, Cd had the strongest tendency to transfer during incineration (T Cd = 69.5%) because it had the lowest melting point, followed by Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn. The exchangeable and residual fractions of heavy metals increased substantially in the incineration products compared with that of the input residues. Although the mass of residues from WEEE dismantling can be reduced by 70% by incineration, the safe disposal of the metal-enriched bottom and fly ashes is still required

  4. Measurement of residual stresses in welded sample of dissimilar materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansur, Tanius Rodrigues; Gomes, Paulo de Tarso Vida; Scaldaferri, Denis Henrique Bianchi; Martins, Geraldo Antonio Scoralick; Atanazio Filho, Nelson do Nascimento

    2008-01-01

    reactors, what can generate significant residual stresses due so much to the welding procedure as for the difference of the coefficients of thermal expansion of the involved materials. In this work, are shown the results of the measurement of residual tensions in welded sample of steel carbon SA 508 Cl 3 and stainless steel 316L. The Inconel 182 was used as weld metal. (author)

  5. Residual stress analysis in BWR pressure vessel attachments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dexter, R.J.; Leung, C.P.; Pont, D.

    1992-06-01

    Residual stresses from welding processes can be the primary driving force for stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in BWR components. Thus, a better understanding of the causes and nature of these residual stresses can help assess and remedy SCC. Numerical welding simulation software, such as SYSWELD, and material property data have been used to quantify residual stresses for application to SCC assessments in BWR components. Furthermore, parametric studies using SYSWELD have revealed which variables significantly affect predicted residual stress. Overall, numerical modeling techniques can be used to evaluate residual stress for SCC assessments of BWR components and to identify and plan future SCC research

  6. Effect of the weld groove shape and pass number on residual stresses in butt-welded pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sattari-Far, I.; Farahani, M.R.

    2009-01-01

    This study used finite element techniques to analyze the thermo-mechanical behaviour and residual stresses in butt-welded pipes. The residual stresses were also measured in some welds by using the Hole-Drilling method. The results of the finite element analysis were compared with experimentally measured data to evaluate the accuracy of the finite element modelling. Based on this study, a finite element modelling procedure with reasonable accuracy was developed. The developed FE modelling was used to study the effects of weld groove shape and weld pass number on welding residual stresses in butt-welded pipes. The hoop and axial residual stresses in pipe joints of 6 and 10 mm thickness of different groove shapes and pass number were studied. It is shown that these two parameters may have significant effects on magnitude and distribution of residual stresses in welded pipes.

  7. Effects of fatigue and environment on residual strengths of center-cracked graphite/epoxy buffer strip panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigelow, Catherine A.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of fatigue, moisture conditioning, and heating on the residual tension strengths of center-cracked graphite/epoxy buffer strip panels were evaluated using specimens made with T300/5208 graphite epoxy in a 16-ply quasi-isotropic layup, with two different buffer strip materials, Kevlar-49 or S-glass. It was found that, for panels subjected to fatigue loading, the residual strengths were not significantly affected by the fatigue loading, the number of repetitions of the loading spectrum, or the maximum strain level. The moisture conditioning reduced the residual strengths of the S-glass buffer strip panels by 10 to 15 percent below the ambient results, but increased the residual strengths of the Kevlar-49 buffer strip panels slightly. For both buffer strip materials, the heat increased the residual strengths of the buffer strip panels slightly over the ambient results.

  8. Food processing as a means for pesticide residue dissipation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Tijana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pesticides are one of the major inputs used for increasing agricultural productivity of crops. However, their inadequate application may produce large quantities of residues in the environment and, once the environment is contaminated with pesticides, they may easily enter into the human food chain through plants, creating a potentially serious health hazard. Nowadays, consumers are becoming more aware of the importance of safe and high quality food products. Thus it is pertinent to explore simple, cost-effective strategies for decontaminating food from pesticides. Various food processing techniques, at industrial and/or domestical level, have been found to significantly reduce the contents of pesticide residues in most food materials. The extent of reduction varies with the nature of pesticides, type of commodity and processing steps. Pesticides, especially those with limited movement and penetration ability, can be removed with reasonable efficiency by washing, and the effectiveness of washing depends on pesticide solubility in water or in different chemical solvents. Peeling of fruit and vegetable skin can dislodge pesticide residues to varying degrees, depending on constitution of a commodity, chemical nature of the pesticide and environmental conditions. Different heat treatments (drying, pasteurization, sterilization, blanching, steaming, boiling, cooking, frying or roasting during various food preparation and preservation processes can cause losses of pesticide residues through evaporation, co-distillation and/or thermal degradation. Product manufactures, from the simplest grain milling, through oil extraction and processing, juicing/pureeing or canning of fruits and vegetables, to complex bakery and dairy production, malting and brewing, wine making and various fermentation processes, play a role in the reduction of pesticide contents, whereby each operation involved during processing usually adds to a cumulative effect of reduction of

  9. Residual Liquefaction under Standing Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirca, V.S. Ozgur; Sumer, B. Mutlu; Fredsøe, Jørgen

    2012-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of an experimental study which deals with the residual liquefaction of seabed under standing waves. It is shown that the seabed liquefaction under standing waves, although qualitatively similar, exhibits features different from that caused by progressive waves....... The experimental results show that the buildup of pore-water pressure and the resulting liquefaction first starts at the nodal section and spreads towards the antinodal section. The number of waves to cause liquefaction at the nodal section appears to be equal to that experienced in progressive waves for the same...

  10. Impact of Vial Capping on Residual Seal Force and Container Closure Integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathaes, Roman; Mahler, Hanns-Christian; Roggo, Yves; Ovadia, Robert; Lam, Philippe; Stauch, Oliver; Vogt, Martin; Roehl, Holger; Huwyler, Joerg; Mohl, Silke; Streubel, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    The vial capping process is a critical unit operation during drug product manufacturing, as it could possibly generate cosmetic defects or even affect container closure integrity. Yet there is significant variability in capping equipment and processes, and their relation to potential defects or container closure integrity has not been thoroughly studied. In this study we applied several methods-residual seal force tester, a self-developed system of a piezo force sensor measurement, and computed tomography-to characterize different container closure system combinations that had been sealed using different capping process parameter settings. Additionally, container closure integrity of these samples was measured using helium leakage (physical container closure integrity) and compared to characterization data. The different capping equipment settings lead to residual seal force values from 7 to 115 N. High residual seal force values were achieved with high capping pre-compression force and a short distance between the capping plate and plunge. The choice of container closure system influenced the obtained residual seal force values. The residual seal force tester and piezoelectric measurements showed similar trends. All vials passed physical container closure integrity testing, and no stopper rupture was seen with any of the settings applied, suggesting that container closure integrity was warranted for the studied container closure system with the chosen capping setting ranges. The vial capping process is a critical unit operation during drug product manufacturing, as it could possibly generate cosmetic defects or even affect container closure integrity. Yet there is significant variability in capping equipment and processes, and their relation to potential defects or container closure integrity has not been thoroughly studied. In this study we applied several methods-residual seal force tester, a self-developed system of a piezo force sensor measurement, and

  11. Surgical treatment for residual or recurrent strabismus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Wang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Although the surgical treatment is a relatively effective and predictable method for correcting residual or recurrent strabismus, such as posterior fixation sutures, medial rectus marginal myotomy, unilateral or bilateral rectus re-recession and resection, unilateral lateral rectus recession and adjustable suture, no standard protocol is established for the surgical style. Different surgical approaches have been recommended for correcting residual or recurrent strabismus. The choice of the surgical procedure depends on the former operation pattern and the surgical dosages applied on the patients, residual or recurrent angle of deviation and the operator''s preference and experience. This review attempts to outline recent publications and current opinion in the management of residual or recurrent esotropia and exotropia.

  12. Residual stresses in Inconel 718 engine disks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dahan Yoann

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aubert&Duval has developed a methodology to establish a residual stress model for Inconel 718 engine discs. To validate the thermal, mechanical and metallurgical parts of the model, trials on lab specimens with specific geometry were carried out. These trials allow a better understanding of the residual stress distribution and evolution during different processes (quenching, ageing, machining. A comparison between experimental and numerical results reveals the residual stresses model accuracy. Aubert&Duval has also developed a mechanical properties prediction model. Coupled with the residual stress prediction model, Aubert&Duval can now propose improvements to the process of manufacturing in Inconel 718 engine disks. This model enables Aubert&Duval customers and subcontractors to anticipate distortions issues during machining. It could also be usedt to optimise the engine disk life.

  13. Applications of bauxite residue: A mini-review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Ajay S; Suri, Narendra M; Kant, Suman

    2017-10-01

    Bauxite residue is the waste generated during alumina production by Bayer's process. The amount of bauxite residue (40-50 wt%) generated depends on the quality of bauxite ore used for the processing. High alkalinity and high caustic content in bauxite residue causes environmental risk for fertile soil and ground water contamination. The caustic (NaOH) content in bauxite residue leads to human health risks, like dermal problems and irritation to eyes. Moreover, disposal of bauxite residue requires a large area; such problems can only be minimised by utilising bauxite residue effectively. For two decades, bauxite residue has been used as a binder in cement industries and filler/reinforcement for composite materials in the automobile industry. Valuable metals and oxides, like alumina (Al 2 O 3 ), titanium oxide (TiO 2 ) and iron oxide Fe 2 O 3 , were extracted from bauxite residue to reduce waste. Bauxite residue was utilised in construction and structure industries to make geopolymers. It was also used in the making of glass-ceramics and a coating material. Recently bauxite residue has been utilised to extract rare earth elements like scandium (Sc), yttrium (Y), lanthanum (La), cerium (Ce), neodymium (Nd) and dysprosium (Dy). In this review article, the mineralogical characteristics of bauxite residue are summarised and current progresses on utilisation of bauxite residue in different fields of science and engineering are presented in detail.

  14. Effects of iron-aluminium oxides and organic carbon on aggregate stability of bauxite residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Feng; Li, Yubing; Xue, Shengguo; Hartley, William; Wu, Hao

    2016-05-01

    In order to successfully establish vegetation on bauxite residue, properties such as aggregate structure and stability require improvement. Spontaneous plant colonization on the deposits in Central China over the last 20 years has revealed that natural processes may improve the physical condition of bauxite residues. Samples from three different stacking ages were selected to determine aggregate formation and stability and its relationship with iron-aluminium oxides and organic carbon. The residue aggregate particles became coarser in both dry and wet sieving processes. The mean weight diameter (MWD) and geometry mean diameter (GMD) increased significantly, and the proportion of aggregate destruction (PAD) decreased. Natural stacking processes could increase aggregate stability and erosion resistant of bauxite residues. Free iron oxides and amorphous aluminium oxides were the major forms in bauxite residues, but there was no significant correlation between the iron-aluminium oxides and aggregate stability. Aromatic-C, alkanes-C, aliphatic-C and alkenes-C were the major functional groups present in the residues. With increasing stacking age, total organic carbon content and aggregate-associated organic carbon both increased. Alkanes-C, aliphatic-C and alkenes-C increased and were mainly distributed in macro-aggregates, whereas aromatic-C was mainly distributed in aluminium oxides maybe more important for stability of micro-aggregates.

  15. Occurrence of non extractable pesticide residues in physical and chemical fractions of two soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreou, Kostas; Semple, Kirk; Jones, Kevin

    2010-05-01

    Soils are considered to be a significant sink for organic contaminants, including pesticides, in the environment. Understanding the distribution and localisation of aged pesticide residues in soil is of great importance for assessing the mobility and availability of these chemicals in the environment. This study aimed to characterise the distribution of radiolabeled herbicide isoproturon and the radiolabeled insecticides diazinon and cypermethrin in two organically managed soils. The soils were spiked and aged under laboratory conditions for 17 months. The labile fraction of the pesticides residues was recovered in CaCl2 (0.01M) and then subjected to physical size fractionation using sedimentation and centrifugation steps, with >20μm, 20-2μm and 2-0.1μm soil factions collected. Further, the distribution of the pesticide residues in the organic matter of the fractionated soil was investigated using a sequential alkaline extraction (0.1N NaOH) into humic and fulvic acid and humin. Soil fractions of 20-2μm and 2-0.1μm had the largest burden of the 14C-residues. Different soil constituents have different capacities to form non-extractable residues. Soil solid fractions of 20-2 µm and 20 µm). Fulvic acid showed to play a vital role in the formation and stabilisation of non-extractable 14C-pesticide residues in most cases.Assessment of the likelihood of the pesticide residues to become available to soil biota requires an understanding of the structure of the SOM matrix and the definition of the kinetics of the pesticide residues in different SOM pools as a function of the time.

  16. Sharing Residual Liability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carbonara, Emanuela; Guerra, Alice; Parisi, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Economic models of tort law evaluate the efficiency of liability rules in terms of care and activity levels. A liability regime is optimal when it creates incentives to maximize the value of risky activities net of accident and precaution costs. The allocation of primary and residual liability...... for policy makers and courts in awarding damages in a large number of real-world accident cases....

  17. Residual Fragments after Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaan Özdedeli

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Clinically insignificant residual fragments (CIRFs are described as asymptomatic, noninfectious and nonobstructive stone fragments (≤4 mm remaining in the urinary system after the last session of any intervention (ESWL, URS or PCNL for urinary stones. Their insignificance is questionable since CIRFs could eventually become significant, as their presence may result in recurrent stone growth and they may cause pain and infection due to urinary obstruction. They may become the source of persistent infections and a significant portion of the patients will have a stone-related event, requiring auxilliary interventions. CT seems to be the ultimate choice of assessment. Although there is no concensus about the timing, recent data suggests that it may be performed one month after the procedure. However, imaging can be done in the immediate postoperative period, if there are no tubes blurring the assessment. There is some evidence indicating that selective medical therapy may have an impact on decreasing stone formation rates. Retrograde intrarenal surgery, with its minimally invasive nature, seems to be the best way to deal with residual fragments.

  18. The effect of high pressure and residual oxygen on the color stability of minced cured restructured ham at different levels of drying, pH, and NaCl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bak, Kathrine Holmgaard; Lindahl, Gunilla; Karlsson, Anders H; Lloret, Elsa; Gou, Pere; Arnau, Jacint; Orlien, Vibeke

    2013-10-01

    Color stability of minced cured restructured ham was studied by considering the effects of high pressure (HP) (600 MPa, 13°C, 5 min), raw meat pH24 (low, normal, high), salt content (15, 30 g/kg), drying (20%, 50% weight loss), and residual oxygen level (0.02%-0.30%). Raw hams were selected by pH24 in Semimembranosus, mixed with additives, frozen, sliced, and dried by the Quick-Dry-Slice® (QDS) process followed by HP treatment or not (control). Packaging and storage simulated industrial packaging: modified atmosphere containing 80% N2, 20% CO2, and residual O2 in one of three intervals: hams, while the stabilizing effect on 50% QDS hams was smaller, concluding that water has the dominating role. Raw meat pH24, salt content, and residual oxygen level had varying effects on the stability of the red color. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Residual monomer content determination in some acrylic denture base materials and possibilities of its reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostić Milena

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Polymethyl methacrylate is used for producing a denture basis. It is a material made by the polymerization process of methyl methacrylate. Despite of the polymerization type, there is a certain amount of free methyl methacrylate (residual monomer incorporated in the denture, which can cause irritation of the oral mucosa. The aim of this study was to determine the amount of residual monomer in four different denture base acrylic resins by liquid chromatography and the possibility of its reduction. Methods. After the polymerization, a postpolymerization treatment was performed in three different ways: in boiling water for thirty minutes, with 500 W microwaves for three minutes and in steam bath at 22º C for one to thirty days. Results. The obtained results showed that the amount of residual monomer is significantly higher in cold polymerizing acrylates (9.1-11%. The amount of residual monomer after hot polymerization was in the tolerance range (0.59- 0.86%. Conclusion. The obtained results denote a low content of residual monomer in the samples which have undergone postpolymerization treatment. A lower percent of residual monomer is established in samples undergone a hot polymerization.

  20. Application of minerals residues in the asphalt composition; Aplicacao de residuos minerais na composicao do asfalto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Roberto Carlos da C.; Seidl, Peter Rudolf [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Escola de Quimica; Correia, Julio Cesar Guedes [Centro de Tecnologia Mineral - CETEM, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The performance of asphalt pavements depends mainly on the properties of their constituents: mineral aggregates and asphalt cement. The mineral aggregate represents about 95% in weight of asphalt mixtures having a significant influence on the properties and performance of these mixtures. Asphalt cement (CAP) corresponds to the smaller fraction but it is mainly responsible for adsorption on the mineral aggregates. The objective of this study was to evaluate the interaction between different CAPs with residues from granite saw wills in place of mineral aggregates that run up costs with extraction and processing in as