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Sample records for significant predictor variable

  1. Technological Capability's Predictor Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Maciel Reichert

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify the factors that influence in configuration of the technological capability of companies in sectors with medium-low technological intensity. To achieve the goal proposed in this article a survey was carried out. Based on the framework developed by Lall (1992 which classifies firms in basic, intermediate and advanced level of technological capability; it was found that the predominant technological capability is intermediate, with 83.7% of respondent companies (plastics companies in Brazil. It is believed that the main contribution of this study is the finding that the dependent variable named “Technological Capability” can be explained at a rate of 65% by six variables: development of new processes; selection of the best equipment supplier; sales of internally developed new technology to third parties; design and manufacture of equipment; study of the work methods and perform inventory control; and improvement of product quality.

  2. About hidden influence of predictor variables: Suppressor and mediator variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milovanović Boško

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper procedure for researching hidden influence of predictor variables in regression models and depicting suppressor variables and mediator variables is shown. It is also shown that detection of suppressor variables and mediator variables could provide refined information about the research problem. As an example for applying this procedure, relation between Atlantic atmospheric centers and air temperature and precipitation amount in Serbia is chosen. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 47007

  3. Predictor variable resolution governs modeled soil types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil mapping identifies different soil types by compressing a unique suite of spatial patterns and processes across multiple spatial scales. It can be quite difficult to quantify spatial patterns of soil properties with remotely sensed predictor variables. More specifically, matching the right scale...

  4. Bayesian modeling of measurement error in predictor variables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fox, Gerardus J.A.; Glas, Cornelis A.W.

    2003-01-01

    It is shown that measurement error in predictor variables can be modeled using item response theory (IRT). The predictor variables, that may be defined at any level of an hierarchical regression model, are treated as latent variables. The normal ogive model is used to describe the relation between

  5. Multiple Imputation of Predictor Variables Using Generalized Additive Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Roel; van Buuren, Stef; Spiess, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The sensitivity of multiple imputation methods to deviations from their distributional assumptions is investigated using simulations, where the parameters of scientific interest are the coefficients of a linear regression model, and values in predictor variables are missing at random. The

  6. Predictor variables of addiction to training in Spanish master athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Zarauz Sancho

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In the last fifteen years has been in Spain a very significant increase in people over 35 years practicing Athletics at federative level. The aim of this study is to know their addiction to training and relationships with different variables of this training and athletic history. Also, get a sufficiently robust predictive models by sex, taking their addiction to these variables. Valuable descriptive data and training habits and athletic history were obtained, and that the addiction in Spanish master athletes have average levels, with the pleasure and relaxation subscale (positive and desirable that obtains higher values, and abstinence and craving subscale (negative and undesirable which gets lower. Both correlations as in the regression analysis, only one variant has been analyzed to be related or be predictive of addiction or any of its subscales. Due to these results it is necessary to further investigate this population in future research about your addiction to training including psychological variables as predictors of it (motivation, perception and beliefs about the causes of success, intrinsic satisfaction, etc. to explainmore fully his addiction to training, especially in the case of men.

  7. Predictor Variables for Marathon Race Time in Recreational Female Runners

    OpenAIRE

    Schmid, Wiebke; Knechtle, Beat; Knechtle, Patrizia; Barandun, Ursula; Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Rosemann, Thomas; Lepers, Romuald

    2012-01-01

    Purpose We intended to determine predictor variables of anthropometry and training for marathon race time in recreational female runners in order to predict marathon race time for future novice female runners. Methods Anthropometric characteristics such as body mass, body height, body mass index, circumferences of limbs, thicknesses of skin-folds and body fat as well as training variables such as volume and speed in running training were related to marathon race time using bi- and multi-varia...

  8. Childhood Depression: Relation to Adaptive, Clinical and Predictor Variables

    OpenAIRE

    Garaigordobil, Maite; Bernar?s, Elena; Jaureguizar, Joana; Machimbarrena, Juan M.

    2017-01-01

    The study had two goals: (1) to explore the relations between self-assessed childhood depression and other adaptive and clinical variables (2) to identify predictor variables of childhood depression. Participants were 420 students aged 7–10 years old (53.3% boys, 46.7% girls). Results revealed: (1) positive correlations between depression and clinical maladjustment, school maladjustment, emotional symptoms, internalizing and externalizing problems, problem behaviors, emotional reactivity, and...

  9. Significance of blood pressure variability in patients with sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Nishant Raj; Bian, Yu-Yao; Shou, Song-Tao

    2014-01-01

    This study was undertaken to observe the characteristics of blood pressure variability (BPV) and sepsis and to investigate changes in blood pressure and its value on the severity of illness in patients with sepsis. Blood parameters, APACHE II score, and 24-hour ambulatory BP were analyzed in 89 patients with sepsis. In patients with APACHE II score>19, the values of systolic blood pressure (SBPV), diasystolic blood pressure (DBPV), non-dipper percentage, cortisol (COR), lactate (LAC), platelet count (PLT) and glucose (GLU) were significantly higher than in those with APACHE II score ≤19 (Pblood cell (WBC), creatinine (Cr), PaO2, C-reactive protein (CRP), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) were not statistically significant (P>0.05). Correlation analysis showed that APACHE II scores correlated significantly with SBPV and DBPV (P0.05). Logistic regression analysis of SBPV, DBPV, APACHE II score, and LAC was used to predict prognosis in terms of survival and non-survival rates. Receiver operating characteristics curve (ROC) showed that DBPV was a better predictor of survival rate with an AUC value of 0.890. However, AUC of SBPV, APACHE II score, and LAC was 0.746, 0.831 and 0.915, respectively. The values of SBPV, DBPV and non-dipper percentage are higher in patients with sepsis. DBPV and SBPV can be used to predict the survival rate of patients with sepsis.

  10. Childhood Depression: Relation to Adaptive, Clinical and Predictor Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maite Garaigordobil

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The study had two goals: (1 to explore the relations between self-assessed childhood depression and other adaptive and clinical variables (2 to identify predictor variables of childhood depression. Participants were 420 students aged 7–10 years old (53.3% boys, 46.7% girls. Results revealed: (1 positive correlations between depression and clinical maladjustment, school maladjustment, emotional symptoms, internalizing and externalizing problems, problem behaviors, emotional reactivity, and childhood stress; and (2 negative correlations between depression and personal adaptation, global self-concept, social skills, and resilience (sense of competence and affiliation. Linear regression analysis including the global dimensions revealed 4 predictors of childhood depression that explained 50.6% of the variance: high clinical maladjustment, low global self-concept, high level of stress, and poor social skills. However, upon introducing the sub-dimensions, 9 predictor variables emerged that explained 56.4% of the variance: many internalizing problems, low family self-concept, high anxiety, low responsibility, low personal self-assessment, high social stress, few aggressive behaviors toward peers, many health/psychosomatic problems, and external locus of control. The discussion addresses the importance of implementing prevention programs for childhood depression at early ages.

  11. Calculating the true level of predictors significance when carrying out the procedure of regression equation specification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikita A. Moiseev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to a new randomization method that yields unbiased adjustments of p-values for linear regression models predictors by incorporating the number of potential explanatory variables, their variance-covariance matrix and its uncertainty, based on the number of observations. This adjustment helps to control type I errors in scientific studies, significantly decreasing the number of publications that report false relations to be authentic ones. Comparative analysis with such existing methods as Bonferroni correction and Shehata and White adjustments explicitly shows their imperfections, especially in case when the number of observations and the number of potential explanatory variables are approximately equal. Also during the comparative analysis it was shown that when the variance-covariance matrix of a set of potential predictors is diagonal, i.e. the data are independent, the proposed simple correction is the best and easiest way to implement the method to obtain unbiased corrections of traditional p-values. However, in the case of the presence of strongly correlated data, a simple correction overestimates the true pvalues, which can lead to type II errors. It was also found that the corrected p-values depend on the number of observations, the number of potential explanatory variables and the sample variance-covariance matrix. For example, if there are only two potential explanatory variables competing for one position in the regression model, then if they are weakly correlated, the corrected p-value will be lower than when the number of observations is smaller and vice versa; if the data are highly correlated, the case with a larger number of observations will show a lower corrected p-value. With increasing correlation, all corrections, regardless of the number of observations, tend to the original p-value. This phenomenon is easy to explain: as correlation coefficient tends to one, two variables almost linearly depend on each

  12. Intra-individual variability as a predictor of learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matija Svetina

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Learning is one of the most important aspects of children's behaviour. A new theory that emerged from evolutionary principles and information-processing models assumes learning to be run by two basic mechanisms: variability and selection. The theory is based on the underlying assumption that intra-individual variability of strategies that children use to solve a problem, is a core mechanism of learning change. This assumption was tested in the case of multiple classification (MC task. 30 6-year-old children were tested for intelligence, short-term memory, and MC. Procedure followed classical pre-test/learning/post-test scheme. Amount of learning was measured through percentage of correct answers before and after learning sessions, whereas intra-individual variability was assessed through children's explanations of their answers on MC problems. The results yielded intra-individual variability to explain learning changes beyond inter-individual differences in intelligence or short-term memory. Although the results rose some new questions to be considered in further research, the data supported the hypothesis of intra-individual variability as predictor of learning change.

  13. Predictor variables for marathon race time in recreational female runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Wiebke; Knechtle, Beat; Knechtle, Patrizia; Barandun, Ursula; Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Rosemann, Thomas; Lepers, Romuald

    2012-06-01

    We intended to determine predictor variables of anthropometry and training for marathon race time in recreational female runners in order to predict marathon race time for future novice female runners. Anthropometric characteristics such as body mass, body height, body mass index, circumferences of limbs, thicknesses of skin-folds and body fat as well as training variables such as volume and speed in running training were related to marathon race time using bi- and multi-variate analysis in 29 female runners. The marathoners completed the marathon distance within 251 (26) min, running at a speed of 10.2 (1.1) km/h. Body mass (r=0.37), body mass index (r=0.46), the circumferences of thigh (r=0.51) and calf (r=0.41), the skin-fold thicknesses of front thigh (r=0.38) and of medial calf (r=0.40), the sum of eight skin-folds (r=0.44) and body fat percentage (r=0.41) were related to marathon race time. For the variables of training, maximal distance ran per week (r=- 0.38), number of running training sessions per week (r=- 0.46) and the speed of the training sessions (r= - 0.60) were related to marathon race time. In the multi-variate analysis, the circumference of calf (P=0.02) and the speed of the training sessions (P=0.0014) were related to marathon race time. Marathon race time might be partially (r(2)=0.50) predicted by the following equation: Race time (min)=184.4 + 5.0 x (circumference calf, cm) -11.9 x (speed in running during training, km/h) for recreational female marathoners. Variables of both anthropometry and training were related to marathon race time in recreational female marathoners and cannot be reduced to one single predictor variable. For practical applications, a low circumference of calf and a high running speed in training are associated with a fast marathon race time in recreational female runners.

  14. Distribution and predictors of wing shape and size variability in three sister species of solitary bees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Dellicour

    Full Text Available Morphological traits can be highly variable over time in a particular geographical area. Different selective pressures shape those traits, which is crucial in evolutionary biology. Among these traits, insect wing morphometry has already been widely used to describe phenotypic variability at the inter-specific level. On the contrary, fewer studies have focused on intra-specific wing morphometric variability. Yet, such investigations are relevant to study potential convergences of variation that could highlight micro-evolutionary processes. The recent sampling and sequencing of three solitary bees of the genus Melitta across their entire species range provides an excellent opportunity to jointly analyse genetic and morphometric variability. In the present study, we first aim to analyse the spatial distribution of the wing shape and centroid size (used as a proxy for body size variability. Secondly, we aim to test different potential predictors of this variability at both the intra- and inter-population levels, which includes genetic variability, but also geographic locations and distances, elevation, annual mean temperature and precipitation. The comparison of spatial distribution of intra-population morphometric diversity does not reveal any convergent pattern between species, thus undermining the assumption of a potential local and selective adaptation at the population level. Regarding intra-specific wing shape differentiation, our results reveal that some tested predictors, such as geographic and genetic distances, are associated with a significant correlation for some species. However, none of these predictors are systematically identified for the three species as an important factor that could explain the intra-specific morphometric variability. As a conclusion, for the three solitary bee species and at the scale of this study, our results clearly tend to discard the assumption of the existence of a common pattern of intra-specific signal

  15. Distribution and predictors of wing shape and size variability in three sister species of solitary bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellicour, Simon; Gerard, Maxence; Prunier, Jérôme G; Dewulf, Alexandre; Kuhlmann, Michael; Michez, Denis

    2017-01-01

    Morphological traits can be highly variable over time in a particular geographical area. Different selective pressures shape those traits, which is crucial in evolutionary biology. Among these traits, insect wing morphometry has already been widely used to describe phenotypic variability at the inter-specific level. On the contrary, fewer studies have focused on intra-specific wing morphometric variability. Yet, such investigations are relevant to study potential convergences of variation that could highlight micro-evolutionary processes. The recent sampling and sequencing of three solitary bees of the genus Melitta across their entire species range provides an excellent opportunity to jointly analyse genetic and morphometric variability. In the present study, we first aim to analyse the spatial distribution of the wing shape and centroid size (used as a proxy for body size) variability. Secondly, we aim to test different potential predictors of this variability at both the intra- and inter-population levels, which includes genetic variability, but also geographic locations and distances, elevation, annual mean temperature and precipitation. The comparison of spatial distribution of intra-population morphometric diversity does not reveal any convergent pattern between species, thus undermining the assumption of a potential local and selective adaptation at the population level. Regarding intra-specific wing shape differentiation, our results reveal that some tested predictors, such as geographic and genetic distances, are associated with a significant correlation for some species. However, none of these predictors are systematically identified for the three species as an important factor that could explain the intra-specific morphometric variability. As a conclusion, for the three solitary bee species and at the scale of this study, our results clearly tend to discard the assumption of the existence of a common pattern of intra-specific signal/structure within the

  16. Significant Predictors for Effectiveness of Blended Learning in a Language Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichadee, Saovapa

    2018-01-01

    A wide variety of technologies combined with traditional classroom methods can make learning easier in the digital age. This paper studied undergraduate students' learning performance and satisfaction after they had studied in a blended setting and investigated if variables of learner characteristics and course features would be predictors for…

  17. Personal And Organisational Variables As Predictors Of Unethical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It was hypothesized that gender, family size, age, reward system, length of service and job security are not viable predictors of unethical behaviour in workplace environments. Results showed that gender, family size, job insecurity and perceived underpayment are viable predictors of unethical behaviour. Male employees ...

  18. Predictor variables for a half marathon race time in recreational male runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Knechtle, Beat; Knechtle, Patrizia; Barandun, Ursula; Lepers, Romuald; Rosemann, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate predictor variables of anthropometry, training, and previous experience in order to predict a half marathon race time for future novice recreational male half marathoners. Eighty-four male finishers in the 'Half Marathon Basel' completed the race distance within (mean and standard deviation, SD) 103.9 (16.5) min, running at a speed of 12.7 (1.9) km/h. After multivariate analysis of the anthropometric characteristics, body mass index (r = 0.56), suprailiacal (r = 0.36) and medial calf skin fold (r = 0.53) were related to race time. For the variables of training and previous experience, speed in running of the training sessions (r = -0.54) were associated with race time. After multivariate analysis of both the significant anthropometric and training variables, body mass index (P = 0.0150) and speed in running during training (P = 0.0045) were related to race time. Race time in a half marathon might be partially predicted by the following equation (r(2) = 0.44): Race time (min) = 72.91 + 3.045 * (body mass index, kg/m(2)) -3.884 * (speed in running during training, km/h) for recreational male runners. To conclude, variables of both anthropometry and training were related to half marathon race time in recreational male half marathoners and cannot be reduced to one single predictor variable.

  19. The baseline serum value of α-amylase is a significant predictor of distance running performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Salvagno, Gian Luca; Danese, Elisa; Tarperi, Cantor; La Torre, Antonio; Guidi, Gian Cesare; Schena, Federico

    2015-02-01

    This study was planned to investigate whether serum α-amylase concentration may be associated with running performance, physiological characteristics and other clinical chemistry analytes in a large sample of recreational athletes undergoing distance running. Forty-three amateur runners successfully concluded a 21.1 km half-marathon at 75%-85% of their maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max). Blood was drawn during warm up and 15 min after conclusion of the run. After correction for body weight change, significant post-run increases were observed for serum values of alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, bilirubin, creatine kinase (CK), iron, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), triglycerides, urea and uric acid, whereas the values of body weight, glomerular filtration rate, total and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol were significantly decreased. The concentration of serum α-amylase was unchanged. In univariate analysis, significant associations with running performance were found for gender, VO2max, training regimen and pre-run serum values of α-amylase, CK, glucose, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol, LDH, urea and uric acid. In multivariate analysis, only VO2max (p=0.042) and baseline α-amylase (p=0.021) remained significant predictors of running performance. The combination of these two variables predicted 71% of variance in running performance. The baseline concentration of serum α-amylase was positively correlated with variation of serum glucose during the trial (r=0.345; p=0.025) and negatively with capillary blood lactate at the end of the run (r=-0.352; p=0.021). We showed that the baseline serum α-amylase concentration significantly and independently predicts distance running performance in recreational runners.

  20. Importance of predictor variables for models of chemical function

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Importance of random forest predictors for all classification models of chemical function. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Isaacs , K., M....

  1. Bayesian modeling of measurement error in predictor variables using item response theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fox, Gerardus J.A.; Glas, Cornelis A.W.

    2000-01-01

    This paper focuses on handling measurement error in predictor variables using item response theory (IRT). Measurement error is of great important in assessment of theoretical constructs, such as intelligence or the school climate. Measurement error is modeled by treating the predictors as unobserved

  2. Joint Bayesian variable and graph selection for regression models with network-structured predictors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, C. B.; Stingo, F. C.; Vannucci, M.

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we develop a Bayesian approach to perform selection of predictors that are linked within a network. We achieve this by combining a sparse regression model relating the predictors to a response variable with a graphical model describing conditional dependencies among the predictors. The proposed method is well-suited for genomic applications since it allows the identification of pathways of functionally related genes or proteins which impact an outcome of interest. In contrast to previous approaches for network-guided variable selection, we infer the network among predictors using a Gaussian graphical model and do not assume that network information is available a priori. We demonstrate that our method outperforms existing methods in identifying network-structured predictors in simulation settings, and illustrate our proposed model with an application to inference of proteins relevant to glioblastoma survival. PMID:26514925

  3. Predictor variables for a half marathon race time in recreational male runners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rüst CA

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Christoph Alexander Rüst1, Beat Knechtle1,2, Patrizia Knechtle2, Ursula Barandun1, Romuald Lepers3, Thomas Rosemann11Institute of General Practice and Health Services Research, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland; 2Gesundheitszentrum St Gallen, St Gallen, Switzerland; 3INSERM U887, University of Burgundy, Faculty of Sport Sciences, Dijon, FranceAbstract: The aim of this study was to investigate predictor variables of anthropometry, training, and previous experience in order to predict a half marathon race time for future novice recreational male half marathoners. Eighty-four male finishers in the ‘Half Marathon Basel’ completed the race distance within (mean and standard deviation, SD 103.9 (16.5 min, running at a speed of 12.7 (1.9 km/h. After multivariate analysis of the anthropometric characteristics, body mass index (r = 0.56, suprailiacal (r = 0.36 and medial calf skin fold (r = 0.53 were related to race time. For the variables of training and previous experience, speed in running of the training sessions (r = –0.54 were associated with race time. After multivariate analysis of both the significant anthropometric and training variables, body mass index (P = 0.0150 and speed in running during training (P = 0.0045 were related to race time. Race time in a half marathon might be partially predicted by the following equation (r2 = 0.44: Race time (min = 72.91 + 3.045 * (body mass index, kg/m2 –3.884 * (speed in running during training, km/h for recreational male runners. To conclude, variables of both anthropometry and training were related to half marathon race time in recreational male half marathoners and cannot be reduced to one single predictor variable.Keywords: anthropometry, body fat, skin-folds, training, endurance

  4. The variable Jung as a predictor of mortality in patients with pulmonary edema.

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    Jung, Robert; Ivanović, Vladimir; Potić, Zoran; Panić, Gordana; Petrović, Milovan; Pavlović, Katica; Cemerlić-Adjić, Nada; Baskot, Branislav

    2013-09-01

    In our Intensive Coronary Care Unit (CCU) a specific scoring system named the AMIS_NS was developed both for prediction of mortality in patients with acute myocardial infarction and for evaluation of the quality of work. One of the most important variables of the AMIS_NS system is the variable Jung which stands for the interrelationship unified mortality predictors. The variable includes all the values of systolic blood pressure, heart rate and age, without limiting values for any of these. The cutoff value is 2.08. The patients with the lower variable value account for a significantly higher mortality. Data on the actual infarction are not necessitated now for this variable. The aim of this study was to assess the significance of the variable Jung in non-infarction patients with acute pulmonary edema. In a 24-month period out of 2,223 patients there were 1,087 and 1,136 patients with and without acute myocardial infarction, respectively. There was the subgroup without myocardial infarction of 312 (84.1%) patients admitted with the diagnosis of pulmonary edema. The subgroup with myocardial infarction consisted of 59 (15.9%) patients who were admitted for acute myocardial infarction and pulmonary edema which developed immediately after admission or during hospitalization in the CCU. For all the patients a uniform questionnaire was fulfilled on admission. Data were put into the personal computer. The variable "Jung" was used: (systolic bloog pressure/heart rate x age) x 100. RESULTS. Regarding sex, there was no difference in mortality, so that males and females were regarded as a whole. Previous myocardial infarction was equally registered in both groups. The investigated persons had less percent of mortality and a significantly higher systemic pressure as well as higher value of the variable Jung. There was no statistically significant difference in the heart rate between the two groups. In both groups of deceased patients the variable Jung (1.5 vs 1.6) was

  5. The VALUE perfect predictor experiment: evaluation of temporal variability

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Maraun, D.; Huth, Radan; Gutiérrez, J. M.; Martín, D. S.; Dubrovský, Martin; Fischer, A.; Hertig, E.; Soares, S. M. M.; Bartholy, J.; Pongrácz, R.; Widmann, M.; Casado, M. J.; Ramos, P.; Bedia, J.

    (2017) ISSN 0899-8418 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LD12029 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : regional climate * downscaling * evaluation * validation * temporal variability * spells * interannual variability * long-term trends Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 3.760, year: 2016 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/joc.5222/abstract

  6. Seasonality in trauma admissions - Are daylight and weather variables better predictors than general cyclic effects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Røislien, Jo; Søvik, Signe; Eken, Torsten

    2018-01-01

    Trauma is a leading global cause of death, and predicting the burden of trauma admissions is vital for good planning of trauma care. Seasonality in trauma admissions has been found in several studies. Seasonal fluctuations in daylight hours, temperature and weather affect social and cultural practices but also individual neuroendocrine rhythms that may ultimately modify behaviour and potentially predispose to trauma. The aim of the present study was to explore to what extent the observed seasonality in daily trauma admissions could be explained by changes in daylight and weather variables throughout the year. Retrospective registry study on trauma admissions in the 10-year period 2001-2010 at Oslo University Hospital, Ullevål, Norway, where the amount of daylight varies from less than 6 hours to almost 19 hours per day throughout the year. Daily number of admissions was analysed by fitting non-linear Poisson time series regression models, simultaneously adjusting for several layers of temporal patterns, including a non-linear long-term trend and both seasonal and weekly cyclic effects. Five daylight and weather variables were explored, including hours of daylight and amount of precipitation. Models were compared using Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC). A regression model including daylight and weather variables significantly outperformed a traditional seasonality model in terms of AIC. A cyclic week effect was significant in all models. Daylight and weather variables are better predictors of seasonality in daily trauma admissions than mere information on day-of-year.

  7. Seasonality in trauma admissions – Are daylight and weather variables better predictors than general cyclic effects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Søvik, Signe; Eken, Torsten

    2018-01-01

    Background Trauma is a leading global cause of death, and predicting the burden of trauma admissions is vital for good planning of trauma care. Seasonality in trauma admissions has been found in several studies. Seasonal fluctuations in daylight hours, temperature and weather affect social and cultural practices but also individual neuroendocrine rhythms that may ultimately modify behaviour and potentially predispose to trauma. The aim of the present study was to explore to what extent the observed seasonality in daily trauma admissions could be explained by changes in daylight and weather variables throughout the year. Methods Retrospective registry study on trauma admissions in the 10-year period 2001–2010 at Oslo University Hospital, Ullevål, Norway, where the amount of daylight varies from less than 6 hours to almost 19 hours per day throughout the year. Daily number of admissions was analysed by fitting non-linear Poisson time series regression models, simultaneously adjusting for several layers of temporal patterns, including a non-linear long-term trend and both seasonal and weekly cyclic effects. Five daylight and weather variables were explored, including hours of daylight and amount of precipitation. Models were compared using Akaike’s Information Criterion (AIC). Results A regression model including daylight and weather variables significantly outperformed a traditional seasonality model in terms of AIC. A cyclic week effect was significant in all models. Conclusion Daylight and weather variables are better predictors of seasonality in daily trauma admissions than mere information on day-of-year. PMID:29425210

  8. Inpatient Treatment for Adolescents with Anorexia Nervosa: Clinical Significance and Predictors of Treatment Outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlegl, Sandra; Diedrich, Alice; Neumayr, Christina; Fumi, Markus; Naab, Silke; Voderholzer, Ulrich

    2016-05-01

    This study evaluated the clinical significance as well as predictors of outcome for adolescents with severe anorexia nervosa (AN) treated in an inpatient setting. Body mass index (BMI), eating disorder (ED) symptoms [Eating Disorder Inventory-2 (EDI-2)], general psychopathology and depression were assessed in 238 patients at admission and discharge. BMI increased from 14.8 + 1.2 to 17.3 + 1.4 kg/m(2). Almost a fourth (23.6%) of the patients showed reliable changes, and 44.7% showed clinically significant changes (EDI-2). BMI change did not significantly differ between those with reliable or clinically significant change or no reliable change in EDI-2. Length of stay, depression and body dissatisfaction were negative predictors of a clinically significant change. Inpatient treatment is effective in about two thirds of adolescents with AN and should be considered when outpatient treatment fails. About one third of patients showed significant weight gain, but did not improve regarding overall ED symptomatology. Future studies should focus on treatment strategies for non-responders. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  9. Selecting candidate predictor variables for the modelling of post ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: The objective of this project was to determine the variables most likely to be associated with post- .... (as defined subjectively by the research team) in global .... ed on their lack of knowledge of wealth scoring tools. ... HIV serology.

  10. Clinical predictors and prognostic significance of electrical storm in patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brigadeau, François; Kouakam, Claude; Klug, Didier; Marquié, Christelle; Duhamel, Alain; Mizon-Gérard, Frédérique; Lacroix, Dominique; Kacet, Salem

    2006-03-01

    Insufficient data exists regarding predictors of electrical storms (ES) and clinical outcome in patients treated with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD). The purpose of this study was to delineate a subgroup of patients likely to experience ES and to determine the impact of ES on mortality in ICD recipients. Baseline characteristics of 307 ICD-treated patients were retrospectively analysed. ES was defined as two or more ventricular tachyarrhythmias within 24 h leading to an immediate electrical therapy (antitachycardia pacing and/or shock), separated by a period of sinus rhythm. Clinical characteristics and survival of 123 patients experiencing a total of 294 episodes of ES (median 2 ES/patient, range 1-9), were compared with those of 184 ES-free patients during a median follow-up of 826 days (inter-quartile 1141 days). Median actuarial duration for the first ES occurrence after ICD implant was 1417 days [95% confidence interval (CI) 1061-2363] with a median follow-up of 816 days (7-4642 days) in ES-free patients. Univariate analysis identified older age, depressed left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), ventricular tachycardia (VT) as index arrhythmia, chronic renal failure and absence of lipid-lowering drugs as variables significantly associated with an increased risk of ES. Multivariable Cox analysis confirmed an independent predictive value for chronic renal failure [hazard ratio (HR) 1.54, 95% CI 0.95-2.51, P=0.052], VT (HR 2.20, 95% CI 1.44-3.37, P=0.0003), and LVEF (HR 0.98, 95% CI 0.97-0.99, P=0.027). In contrast, diabetics (HR 0.49, 95% CI 0.27-0.90, P=0.022) were less affected by ES. There was no difference in survival between both groups. ES is frequent but does not increase mortality in ICD's recipients. Patients with severe systolic dysfunction, chronic renal failure and VT as initial arrhythmia are likely to experience ES. Diabetics are less affected by ES.

  11. Significant Variables in the Combustion Process of Natural Gas

    OpenAIRE

    Villaflor, Gloria; Morales, Graciela V; Velasco, Jorge

    2008-01-01

    Se determinan las variables significativas del proceso de combustión de gas natural, aquellas más sensibles para producir cambios importantes desde punto de vista económico y medioambiental. Con este fin se realiza la simulación del proceso de combustión de gas natural, utilizando el simulador comercial HYSYS. Se determina que las variables de operación más sensibles para este proceso son la temperatura del aire, la temperatura de los gases de combustión y el exceso de aire usado en la combus...

  12. An Examination of Predictor Variables for Problematic Internet Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulut Serin, Nerguz

    2011-01-01

    This study examines problematic Internet use among university students in terms of gender, while also gauging the impact of personality traits, life satisfaction and loneliness variables on problematic Internet use. A total of 411 university students studying Education in North Cyprus participated in the study. The participants were selected using…

  13. Value of Construction Company and its Dependence on Significant Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vítková, E.; Hromádka, V.; Ondrušková, E.

    2017-10-01

    The paper deals with the value of the construction company assessment respecting usable approaches and determinable variables. The reasons of the value of the construction company assessment are different, but the most important reasons are the sale or the purchase of the company, the liquidation of the company, the fusion of the company with another subject or the others. According the reason of the value assessment it is possible to determine theoretically different approaches for valuation, mainly it concerns about the yield method of valuation and the proprietary method of valuation. Both approaches are dependant of detailed input variables, which quality will influence the final assessment of the company´s value. The main objective of the paper is to suggest, according to the analysis, possible ways of input variables, mainly in the form of expected cash-flows or the profit, determination. The paper is focused mainly on methods of time series analysis, regression analysis and mathematical simulation utilization. As the output, the results of the analysis on the case study will be demonstrated.

  14. The behaviour of random forest permutation-based variable importance measures under predictor correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicodemus, Kristin K; Malley, James D; Strobl, Carolin; Ziegler, Andreas

    2010-02-27

    Random forests (RF) have been increasingly used in applications such as genome-wide association and microarray studies where predictor correlation is frequently observed. Recent works on permutation-based variable importance measures (VIMs) used in RF have come to apparently contradictory conclusions. We present an extended simulation study to synthesize results. In the case when both predictor correlation was present and predictors were associated with the outcome (HA), the unconditional RF VIM attributed a higher share of importance to correlated predictors, while under the null hypothesis that no predictors are associated with the outcome (H0) the unconditional RF VIM was unbiased. Conditional VIMs showed a decrease in VIM values for correlated predictors versus the unconditional VIMs under HA and was unbiased under H0. Scaled VIMs were clearly biased under HA and H0. Unconditional unscaled VIMs are a computationally tractable choice for large datasets and are unbiased under the null hypothesis. Whether the observed increased VIMs for correlated predictors may be considered a "bias" - because they do not directly reflect the coefficients in the generating model - or if it is a beneficial attribute of these VIMs is dependent on the application. For example, in genetic association studies, where correlation between markers may help to localize the functionally relevant variant, the increased importance of correlated predictors may be an advantage. On the other hand, we show examples where this increased importance may result in spurious signals.

  15. Significance of Demographic Variables for Targeting of Internet Advertisements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Václav Stříteský

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Broad ad targeting options belong among the major advantages of internet advertising. Demographic targeting has become a standard option in most of on-line advertising systems. There are more ways how to target on-line advertisements by using demographic variables. In some cases, e.g., social media, we can use data from user registrations. Modern technologies enable to estimate the demographic profile of internet users using on behavioural data. The traditional approach to the demographic targeting of advertisements based on affinity targeting assumes the existence of internet servers with sufficient homogeneity of visits. The aim of this article is to identify the differences in the internet content consumption habits of Czech internet users based on gender and age. The analysis is based on the data from the extensive research which was carried out by the Netmonitor project, and which was provided for the purposes of this study by the Association for Internet Development (SPIR. The research results show that the traditional affinity-based method of targeting according to gender and age is still suitable on the Czech internet. On the other hand, in some cases, the traditional approach of ad targeting based on affinity leads to wasted ad impressions that miss defined target group.

  16. Psychosocial Variables as Predictors of School Adjustment of Gifted Students with Learning Disabilities in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakolade, O. A.; Oyedokun, S. O.

    2015-01-01

    The paper considered several psychosocial variables as predictors of school adjustment of 40 gifted students with learning disabilities in Junior Secondary School in Ikenne Local Government Council Area of Ogun State, Nigeria. Purposeful random sampling was employed to select four schools from 13 junior secondary schools in the area, six…

  17. Predictors variables of anxiety in the Spanish master athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Zarauz Sancho

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years Spain has seen a very significant increase in adults over 35 who often train and compete at all levels in athletics tracks. They are master athletes and, above them, there is no nationwide study and very few internationally there. Therefore, the objective of this research is on the one hand, know their training habits, athletic history and their anxiety level, analyzing gender differences, and secondly, obtain predictive models of anxiety based on their training habits and athletic history. We start from the assumption that, in the Spanish veteran athletes, in both sexes, there should be a moderate pre-competitive anxiety (cognitive and somatic and high self-confidence, and anxiety will be predict by a high score in the other state of anxiety, by scoring low in self-confidence as well as to train fewer days a week and take less years training, for the highest level of competition in which they participates and not having support from a coach. By contrast, self-confidence can be predicted by low rate in the two states of anxiety, by training more days a week and have more years training, by the lower level of the competition in which it participates and for having supported a coach. The results confirmed the hypothesis regarding levels of anxiety and self-confidence but, however, unexpected results were obtained regarding the prediction thereof which are discussed later

  18. Epigenetic Signature: A New Player as Predictor of Clinically Significant Prostate Cancer (PCa) in Patients on Active Surveillance (AS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferro, Matteo; Ungaro, Paola; Cimmino, Amelia; Lucarelli, Giuseppe; Busetto, Gian Maria; Cantiello, Francesco; Damiano, Rocco; Terracciano, Daniela

    2017-05-27

    Widespread prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing notably increased the number of prostate cancer (PCa) diagnoses. However, about 30% of these patients have low-risk tumors that are not lethal and remain asymptomatic during their lifetime. Overtreatment of such patients may reduce quality of life and increase healthcare costs. Active surveillance (AS) has become an accepted alternative to immediate treatment in selected men with low-risk PCa. Despite much progress in recent years toward identifying the best candidates for AS in recent years, the greatest risk remains the possibility of misclassification of the cancer or missing a high-risk cancer. This is particularly worrisome in men with a life expectancy of greater than 10-15 years. The Prostate Cancer Research International Active Surveillance (PRIAS) study showed that, in addition to age and PSA at diagnosis, both PSA density (PSA-D) and the number of positive cores at diagnosis (two compared with one) are the strongest predictors for reclassification biopsy or switching to deferred treatment. However, there is still no consensus upon guidelines for placing patients on AS. Each institution has its own protocol for AS that is based on PRIAS criteria. Many different variables have been proposed as tools to enrol patients in AS: PSA-D, the percentage of freePSA, and the extent of cancer on biopsy (number of positive cores or percentage of core involvement). More recently, the Prostate Health Index (PHI), the 4 Kallikrein (4K) score, and other patient factors, such as age, race, and family history, have been investigated as tools able to predict clinically significant PCa. Recently, some reports suggested that epigenetic mapping differs significantly between cancer patients and healthy subjects. These findings indicated as future prospect the use of epigenetic markers to identify PCa patients with low-grade disease, who are likely candidates for AS. This review explores literature data about the potential of

  19. A study of the effect of measurement error in predictor variables in nondestructive assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burr, Tom L.; Knepper, Paula L.

    2000-01-01

    It is not widely known that ordinary least squares estimates exhibit bias if there are errors in the predictor variables. For example, enrichment measurements are often fit to two predictors: Poisson-distributed count rates in the region of interest and in the background. Both count rates have at least random variation due to counting statistics. Therefore, the parameter estimates will be biased. In this case, the effect of bias is a minor issue because there is almost no interest in the parameters themselves. Instead, the parameters will be used to convert count rates into estimated enrichment. In other cases, this bias source is potentially more important. For example, in tomographic gamma scanning, there is an emission stage which depends on predictors (the 'system matrix') that are estimated with error during the transmission stage. In this paper, we provide background information for the impact and treatment of errors in predictors, present results of candidate methods of compensating for the effect, review some of the nondestructive assay situations where errors in predictors occurs, and provide guidance for when errors in predictors should be considered in nondestructive assay

  20. Pre-performance Physiological State: Heart Rate Variability as a Predictor of Shooting Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, E; Wang, C J K

    2018-03-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) is commonly used in sport science for monitoring the physiology of athletes but not as an indicator of physiological state from a psychological perspective. Since HRV is established to be an indicator of emotional responding, it could be an objective means of quantifying an athlete's subjective physiological state before competition. A total of 61 sport shooters participated in this study, of which 21 were novice shooters, 19 were intermediate shooters, and 21 were advanced level shooters. HRV, self-efficacy, and use of mental skills were assessed before they completed a standard shooting performance task of 40 shots, as in a competition qualifying round. The results showed that HRV was significantly positively correlated with self-efficacy and performance and was a significant predictor of shooting performance. In addition, advanced shooters were found to have significantly lower average heart rate before shooting and used more self-talk, relaxation, imagery, and automaticity compared to novice and intermediate shooters. HRV was found to be useful in identifying the physiological state of an athlete before competing, and as such, coaches and athletes can adopt practical strategies to improve the pre-performance physiological state as a means to optimize performance.

  1. Reliability, reference values and predictor variables of the ulnar sensory nerve in disease free adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruediger, T M; Allison, S C; Moore, J M; Wainner, R S

    2014-09-01

    The purposes of this descriptive and exploratory study were to examine electrophysiological measures of ulnar sensory nerve function in disease free adults to determine reliability, determine reference values computed with appropriate statistical methods, and examine predictive ability of anthropometric variables. Antidromic sensory nerve conduction studies of the ulnar nerve using surface electrodes were performed on 100 volunteers. Reference values were computed from optimally transformed data. Reliability was computed from 30 subjects. Multiple linear regression models were constructed from four predictor variables. Reliability was greater than 0.85 for all paired measures. Responses were elicited in all subjects; reference values for sensory nerve action potential (SNAP) amplitude from above elbow stimulation are 3.3 μV and decrement across-elbow less than 46%. No single predictor variable accounted for more than 15% of the variance in the response. Electrophysiologic measures of the ulnar sensory nerve are reliable. Absent SNAP responses are inconsistent with disease free individuals. Reference values recommended in this report are based on appropriate transformations of non-normally distributed data. No strong statistical model of prediction could be derived from the limited set of predictor variables. Reliability analyses combined with relatively low level of measurement error suggest that ulnar sensory reference values may be used with confidence. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Significantly reduced hypoxemic events in morbidly obese patients undergoing gastrointestinal endoscopy: Predictors and practice effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basavana Gouda Goudra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Providing anesthesia for gastrointestinal (GI endoscopy procedures in morbidly obese patients is a challenge for a variety of reasons. The negative impact of obesity on the respiratory system combined with a need to share the upper airway and necessity to preserve the spontaneous ventilation, together add to difficulties. Materials and Methods: This retrospective cohort study included patients with a body mass index (BMI >40 kg/m 2 that underwent out-patient GI endoscopy between September 2010 and February 2011. Patient data was analyzed for procedure, airway management technique as well as hypoxemic and cardiovascular events. Results: A total of 119 patients met the inclusion criteria. Our innovative airway management technique resulted in a lower rate of intraoperative hypoxemic events compared with any published data available. Frequency of desaturation episodes showed statistically significant relation to previous history of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA. These desaturation episodes were found to be statistically independent of increasing BMI of patients. Conclusion: Pre-operative history of OSA irrespective of associated BMI values can be potentially used as a predictor of intra-procedural desaturation. With suitable modification of anesthesia technique, it is possible to reduce the incidence of adverse respiratory events in morbidly obese patients undergoing GI endoscopy procedures, thereby avoiding the need for endotracheal intubation.

  3. Significantly reduced hypoxemic events in morbidly obese patients undergoing gastrointestinal endoscopy: Predictors and practice effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudra, Basavana Gouda; Singh, Preet Mohinder; Penugonda, Lakshmi C; Speck, Rebecca M; Sinha, Ashish C

    2014-01-01

    Providing anesthesia for gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy procedures in morbidly obese patients is a challenge for a variety of reasons. The negative impact of obesity on the respiratory system combined with a need to share the upper airway and necessity to preserve the spontaneous ventilation, together add to difficulties. This retrospective cohort study included patients with a body mass index (BMI) >40 kg/m(2) that underwent out-patient GI endoscopy between September 2010 and February 2011. Patient data was analyzed for procedure, airway management technique as well as hypoxemic and cardiovascular events. A total of 119 patients met the inclusion criteria. Our innovative airway management technique resulted in a lower rate of intraoperative hypoxemic events compared with any published data available. Frequency of desaturation episodes showed statistically significant relation to previous history of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). These desaturation episodes were found to be statistically independent of increasing BMI of patients. Pre-operative history of OSA irrespective of associated BMI values can be potentially used as a predictor of intra-procedural desaturation. With suitable modification of anesthesia technique, it is possible to reduce the incidence of adverse respiratory events in morbidly obese patients undergoing GI endoscopy procedures, thereby avoiding the need for endotracheal intubation.

  4. Significant Independent Predictors of Vitamin D Deficiency in Inpatients and Outpatients of a Nephrology Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Recep Bentli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. Kidney disease was found to be a major risk factor for vitamin D deficiency in a population study of patients hospitalized. The aims of the study were to describe the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency inpatients and outpatients in a nephrology department during fall and to evaluate effect of assessing serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OHD levels and previous supplementation of cholecalciferol on vitamin D status. Methods. We studied 280 subjects in total, between October and January. The subjects were recruited from the following two groups: (a inpatients and (b outpatients in nephrology unit. We examined previous documentary evidence of vitamin D supplementation of the patients. Results. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among these 280 patients was 62,1% (174 patients. Fifty-three patients (18.9% had severe vitamin D deficiency, 121 patients (43.2% moderate vitamin D deficiency, and 66 patients (23.6% vitamin D insufficiency. In logistic regression analysis female gender, not having vitamin D supplementation history, low serum albumin, and low blood urea nitrogen levels were significant independent predictors of vitamin D deficiency while no association of vitamin D deficiency with diabetes mellitus, serum creatinine, eGFR, and being hospitalized was found. Conclusion. Vitamin D deficiency, seems to be an important problem in both inpatients and outpatients of nephrology. Monitoring serum 25(OHD concentrations regularly and replacement of vitamin D are important. Women in Turkey are at more risk of deficiency and may therefore need to consume higher doses of vitamin D.

  5. Carboxyhemoglobin levels as a predictor of risk for significant hyperbilirubinemia in African-American DAT(+) infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutzman, D L; Gatien, E; Ajayi, S; Wong, R J

    2016-05-01

    To compare the degree of hemolysis in a group of direct antiglobulin test (DAT) positive (pos) African-American (AA) infants as measured by carboxyhemoglobin corrected (COHbc) for carbon monoxide in ambient air to a similar group of DAT negative (neg) ABO incompatible infants and a group without blood group incompatibility. To determine if COHbc is a better predictor of significant hyperbilirubinemia than DAT status. A prospective study of 180 AA infants from the Well-Baby Nursery of an inner city community hospital, all of whose mothers were type O pos. Infants (60) were ABO incompatible DAT pos, 60 were ABO incompatible DAT neg and 60 were type O(+). Blood for COHbc was drawn at the time of the infants' initial bilirubin and the infants' precise percentile on the Bhutani nomogram was calculated. Mean COHbc of type O(+) infants was 0.76±0.21 and 0.78±0.24% for ABO incompatible DAT neg infants (P=0.63). Mean CoHbc for the ABO incompatible DAT pos infants was 1.03±0.41% (P0.90% (area under the curve(AUC) 0.8113). This was similar to the AUC of the receiver operating characteristic curve using any titer strength of DAT pos as a cutoff (0.7960). Although not greatly superior to the titer strength of DAT pos, COHbc is useful in determining if the etiology of severe hyperbilirubinemia is a hemolytic process.

  6. Predictor variables for half marathon race time in recreational female runners

    OpenAIRE

    Knechtle, Beat; Knechtle, Patrizia; Barandun, Ursula; Rosemann, Thomas; Lepers, Romuald

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The relationship between skin-fold thickness and running performance has been investigated from 100 m to the marathon distance, except the half marathon distance. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether anthropometry characteristics or training practices were related to race time in 42 recreational female half marathoners to determine the predictor variables of half-marathon race time and to inform future novice female half marathoners. METHODS: Observational field study at the ‘Half ...

  7. Predictor variables for a half marathon race time in recreational male runners

    OpenAIRE

    Rüst, C A; Knechtle, B; Knechtle, P; Barandun, U; Lepers, R; Rosemann, T

    2011-01-01

    Christoph Alexander Rüst1, Beat Knechtle1,2, Patrizia Knechtle2, Ursula Barandun1, Romuald Lepers3, Thomas Rosemann11Institute of General Practice and Health Services Research, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland; 2Gesundheitszentrum St Gallen, St Gallen, Switzerland; 3INSERM U887, University of Burgundy, Faculty of Sport Sciences, Dijon, FranceAbstract: The aim of this study was to investigate predictor variables of anthropometry, training, and previous experience in order to ...

  8. Perioperative Blood Transfusion as a Significant Predictor of Biochemical Recurrence and Survival after Radical Prostatectomy in Patients with Prostate Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Kwon Kim

    Full Text Available There have been conflicting reports regarding the association of perioperative blood transfusion (PBT with oncologic outcomes including recurrence rates and survival outcomes in prostate cancer. We aimed to evaluate whether perioperative blood transfusion (PBT affects biochemical recurrence-free survival (BRFS, cancer-specific survival (CSS, and overall survival (OS following radical prostatectomy (RP for patients with prostate cancer.A total of 2,713 patients who underwent RP for clinically localized prostate cancer between 1993 and 2014 were retrospectively analyzed. We performed a comparative analysis based on receipt of transfusion (PBT group vs. no-PBT group and transfusion type (autologous PBT vs. allogeneic PBT. Univariate and multivariate Cox-proportional hazard regression analysis were performed to evaluate variables associated with BRFS, CSS, and OS. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to calculate survival estimates for BRFS, CSS, and OS, and log-rank test was used to conduct comparisons between the groups.The number of patients who received PBT was 440 (16.5%. Among these patients, 350 (79.5% received allogeneic transfusion and the other 90 (20.5% received autologous transfusion. In a multivariate analysis, allogeneic PBT was found to be statistically significant predictors of BRFS, CSS, and OS; conversely, autologous PBT was not. The Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed significantly decreased 5-year BRFS (79.2% vs. 70.1%, log-rank, p = 0.001, CSS (98.5% vs. 96.7%, log-rank, p = 0.012, and OS (95.5% vs. 90.6%, log-rank, p < 0.001 in the allogeneic PBT group compared to the no-allogeneic PBT group. In the autologous PBT group, however, none of these were statistically significant compared to the no-autologous PBT group.We found that allogeneic PBT was significantly associated with decreased BRFS, CSS, and OS. This provides further support for the immunomodulation hypothesis for allogeneic PBT.

  9. Efficient conservative ADER schemes based on WENO reconstruction and space-time predictor in primitive variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanotti, Olindo; Dumbser, Michael

    2016-01-01

    We present a new version of conservative ADER-WENO finite volume schemes, in which both the high order spatial reconstruction as well as the time evolution of the reconstruction polynomials in the local space-time predictor stage are performed in primitive variables, rather than in conserved ones. To obtain a conservative method, the underlying finite volume scheme is still written in terms of the cell averages of the conserved quantities. Therefore, our new approach performs the spatial WENO reconstruction twice: the first WENO reconstruction is carried out on the known cell averages of the conservative variables. The WENO polynomials are then used at the cell centers to compute point values of the conserved variables, which are subsequently converted into point values of the primitive variables. This is the only place where the conversion from conservative to primitive variables is needed in the new scheme. Then, a second WENO reconstruction is performed on the point values of the primitive variables to obtain piecewise high order reconstruction polynomials of the primitive variables. The reconstruction polynomials are subsequently evolved in time with a novel space-time finite element predictor that is directly applied to the governing PDE written in primitive form. The resulting space-time polynomials of the primitive variables can then be directly used as input for the numerical fluxes at the cell boundaries in the underlying conservative finite volume scheme. Hence, the number of necessary conversions from the conserved to the primitive variables is reduced to just one single conversion at each cell center. We have verified the validity of the new approach over a wide range of hyperbolic systems, including the classical Euler equations of gas dynamics, the special relativistic hydrodynamics (RHD) and ideal magnetohydrodynamics (RMHD) equations, as well as the Baer-Nunziato model for compressible two-phase flows. In all cases we have noticed that the new ADER

  10. Age most significant predictor of requiring enteral feeding in head-and-neck cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sachdev, Sean; Refaat, Tamer; Bacchus, Ian D; Sathiaseelan, Vythialinga; Mittal, Bharat B

    2015-01-01

    A significant number of patients treated for head and neck squamous cell cancer (HNSCC) undergo enteral tube feeding. Data suggest that avoiding enteral feeding can prevent long-term tube dependence and disuse of the swallowing mechanism which has been linked to complications such as prolonged dysphagia and esophageal constriction. We examined detailed dosimetric and clinical parameters to better identify those at risk of requiring enteral feeding. One hundred patients with advanced stage HNSCC were retrospectively analyzed after intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) to a median dose of 70 Gy (range: 60-75 Gy) with concurrent chemotherapy in nearly all cases (97%). Patients with significant weight loss (>10%) in the setting of severely reduced oral intake were referred for placement of a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) tube. Detailed DVH parameters were collected for several structures. Univariate and multivariate analyses using logistic regression were used to determine clinical and dosimetric factors associated with needing enteral feeding. Dichotomous outcomes were tested using Fisher’s exact test and continuous variables between groups using the Wilcoxon rank-sum test. Thirty-three percent of patients required placement of an enteral feeding tube. The median time to tube placement was 25 days from start of treatment, after a median dose of 38 Gy. On univariate analysis, age (p = 0.0008), the DFH (Docetaxel/5-FU/Hydroxyurea) chemotherapy regimen (p = .042) and b.i.d treatment (P = 0.040) (used in limited cases on protocol) predicted need for enteral feeding. On multivariate analysis, age remained the single statistically significant factor (p = 0.003) regardless of other clinical features (e.g. BMI) and all radiation planning parameters. For patients 60 or older compared to younger adults, the odds ratio for needing enteral feeding was 4.188 (p = 0.0019). Older age was found to be the most significant risk factor for needing enteral feeding in

  11. Predictor variables for half marathon race time in recreational female runners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beat Knechtle

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The relationship between skin-fold thickness and running performance has been investigated from 100 m to the marathon distance, except the half marathon distance. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether anthropometry characteristics or training practices were related to race time in 42 recreational female half marathoners to determine the predictor variables of half-marathon race time and to inform future novice female half marathoners. METHODS: Observational field study at the 'Half Marathon Basel' in Switzerland. RESULTS: In the bivariate analysis, body mass (r = 0.60, body mass index (r = 0.48, body fat (r = 0.56, skin-fold at pectoral (r = 0.61, mid-axilla (r = 0.69, triceps (r = 0.49, subscapular (r = 0.61, abdominal (r = 0.59, suprailiac (r = 0.55 medial calf (r = 0.53 site, and speed of the training sessions (r = -0.68 correlated to race time. Mid-axilla skin-fold (p = 0.04 and speed of the training sessions (p = 0.0001 remained significant after multi-variate analysis. Race time in a half marathon might be predicted by the following equation (r² = 0.71: Race time (min = 166.7 + 1.7x (mid-axilla skin-fold, mm - 6.4x (speed in training, km/h. Running speed during training was related to skinfold thickness at mid-axilla (r = -0.31, subscapular (r = -0.38, abdominal (r = -0.44, suprailiacal (r = -0.41, the sum of eight skin-folds (r = -0.36 and percent body fat (r = -0.31. CONCLUSION: Anthropometric and training variables were related to half-marathon race time in recreational female runners. Skin-fold thicknesses at various upper body locations were related to training intensity. High running speed in training appears to be important for fast half-marathon race times and may reduce upper body skin-fold thicknesses in recreational female half marathoners.

  12. Predictor variables for half marathon race time in recreational female runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knechtle, Beat; Knechtle, Patrizia; Barandun, Ursula; Rosemann, Thomas; Lepers, Romuald

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between skin-fold thickness and running performance has been investigated from 100 m to the marathon distance, except the half marathon distance. To investigate whether anthropometry characteristics or training practices were related to race time in 42 recreational female half marathoners to determine the predictor variables of half-marathon race time and to inform future novice female half marathoners. Observational field study at the 'Half Marathon Basel' in Switzerland. In the bivariate analysis, body mass (r = 0.60), body mass index (r = 0.48), body fat (r = 0.56), skin-fold at pectoral (r = 0.61), mid-axilla (r = 0.69), triceps (r = 0.49), subscapular (r = 0.61), abdominal (r = 0.59), suprailiac (r = 0.55) medial calf (r = 0.53) site, and speed of the training sessions (r = -0.68) correlated to race time. Mid-axilla skin-fold (p = 0.04) and speed of the training sessions (p = 0.0001) remained significant after multi-variate analysis. Race time in a half marathon might be predicted by the following equation (r² = 0.71): Race time (min) = 166.7 + 1.7x (mid-axilla skin-fold, mm) - 6.4x (speed in training, km/h). Running speed during training was related to skinfold thickness at mid-axilla (r = -0.31), subscapular (r = -0.38), abdominal (r = -0.44), suprailiacal (r = -0.41), the sum of eight skin-folds (r = -0.36) and percent body fat (r = -0.31). Anthropometric and training variables were related to half-marathon race time in recreational female runners. Skin-fold thicknesses at various upper body locations were related to training intensity. High running speed in training appears to be important for fast half-marathon race times and may reduce upper body skin-fold thicknesses in recreational female half marathoners.

  13. [Predictors of mean blood glucose control and its variability in diabetic hospitalized patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáenz-Abad, Daniel; Gimeno-Orna, José Antonio; Sierra-Bergua, Beatriz; Pérez-Calvo, Juan Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    This study was intended to assess the effectiveness and predictors factors of inpatient blood glucose control in diabetic patients admitted to medical departments. A retrospective, analytical cohort study was conducted on patients discharged from internal medicine with a diagnosis related to diabetes. Variables collected included demographic characteristics, clinical data and laboratory parameters related to blood glucose control (HbA1c, basal plasma glucose, point-of-care capillary glucose). The cumulative probability of receiving scheduled insulin regimens was evaluated using Kaplan-Meier analysis. Multivariate regression models were used to select predictors of mean inpatient glucose (MHG) and glucose variability (standard deviation [GV]). The study sample consisted of 228 patients (mean age 78.4 (SD 10.1) years, 51% women). Of these, 96 patients (42.1%) were treated with sliding-scale regular insulin only. Median time to start of scheduled insulin therapy was 4 (95% CI, 2-6) days. Blood glucose control measures were: MIG 181.4 (SD 41.7) mg/dL, GV 56.3 (SD 22.6). The best model to predict MIG (R(2): .376; P<.0001) included HbA1c (b=4.96; P=.011), baseline plasma glucose (b=.056; P=.084), mean capillary blood glucose in the first 24hours (b=.154; P<.0001), home treatment (versus oral agents) with basal insulin only (b=13.1; P=.016) or more complex (pre-mixed insulin or basal-bolus) regimens (b=19.1; P=.004), corticoid therapy (b=14.9; P=.002), and fasting on admission (b=10.4; P=.098). Predictors of inpatient blood glucose control which should be considered in the design of DM management protocols include home treatment, HbA1c, basal plasma glucose, mean blood glucose in the first 24hours, fasting, and corticoid therapy. Copyright © 2014 SEEN. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Sleep characteristics as predictor variables of stress systems markers in insomnia disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floam, Samantha; Simpson, Norah; Nemeth, Emese; Scott-Sutherland, Jennifer; Gautam, Shiva; Haack, Monika

    2015-06-01

    This study investigates the extent to which sleep characteristics serve as predictor variables for inflammatory, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal and autonomic systems markers. Twenty-nine participants with a diagnosis of insomnia disorder based on the Diagnostic Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (age 25.3 ± 1.6 years, insomnia duration 6.6 ± 0.8 years) and 19 healthy control sleepers (age 25.4 ± 1.4 years) underwent a 2-week at-home evaluation keeping a sleep diary and wearing an actigraph, followed by a visit to the Research Center to measure blood pressure, and collect blood and urine samples. The actigraphy- and diary-based variables of sleep duration, sleep-onset latency, wake after sleep onset and sleep fragmentation/number of night-time awakenings were averaged and entered as dependent variables in regression analyses. Composite scores were calculated for the autonomic (blood pressure, norepinephrine), inflammatory (monocyte counts, interleukin-6, C-reactive protein) and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal systems (cortisol), and used as predictor variables in regression models. Compared with controls, individuals with insomnia had a shorter sleep duration (P insomnia disorder, cortisol is upregulated and associated with actigraphy- and diary-based wake after sleep onset, suggesting that wake after sleep onset may serve as a marker to identify individuals at increased risks for disorders associated with a hyperactive hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal system. The absence of autonomic and pro-inflammatory changes (interleukin-6, C-reactive protein), despite a substantial decrease in actigraphic sleep duration, may relate to a higher resilience to the adverse biological consequences of insomnia in this young age group. © 2014 European Sleep Research Society.

  15. Methodological development for selection of significant predictors explaining fatal road accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadashova, Bahar; Arenas-Ramírez, Blanca; Mira-McWilliams, José; Aparicio-Izquierdo, Francisco

    2016-05-01

    Identification of the most relevant factors for explaining road accident occurrence is an important issue in road safety research, particularly for future decision-making processes in transport policy. However model selection for this particular purpose is still an ongoing research. In this paper we propose a methodological development for model selection which addresses both explanatory variable and adequate model selection issues. A variable selection procedure, TIM (two-input model) method is carried out by combining neural network design and statistical approaches. The error structure of the fitted model is assumed to follow an autoregressive process. All models are estimated using Markov Chain Monte Carlo method where the model parameters are assigned non-informative prior distributions. The final model is built using the results of the variable selection. For the application of the proposed methodology the number of fatal accidents in Spain during 2000-2011 was used. This indicator has experienced the maximum reduction internationally during the indicated years thus making it an interesting time series from a road safety policy perspective. Hence the identification of the variables that have affected this reduction is of particular interest for future decision making. The results of the variable selection process show that the selected variables are main subjects of road safety policy measures. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Psychological Predictor Variables of Emotional Maladjustment in Infertility: Analysis of the Moderating role of Gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel M. Ramírez-Uclés

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El objeto del estudio es determinar si las variables ansiedad-estado, ansiedad-rasgo, afecto positivo, afecto negativo, alexitimia y recursos adaptativos (personales e interpersonales pueden predecir el desajuste emocional en personas infértiles, analizando el posible papel modulador del sexo en dicho desajuste. Participaron en el estudio 101 personas con un diagnóstico de infertilidad (51 hombres y 50 mujeres que respondieron a una batería de pruebas psicológicas (DERA, Cuestionario de Desajuste Emocional y Recursos Adaptativos en Infertilidad, Inventario de Ansiedad Estado-Rasgo [STAI], PANAS, Escala de Afectos Positivos y Negativos y TAS-20 [Escala de Alexitimia de Toronto]. Los efectos moduladores, parciales y de interacción de las variables se analizaron mediante un análisis de regresión de orden jerárquico. El modelo resultante explica el 71.1% de la varianza total, constituyendo el sexo una importante variable moduladora, mientras las variables ansiedad-rasgo, ansiedad-estado, afecto negativo y bajos recursos interpersonales actúan como importantes predictores del desajuste emocional en personas infértiles. Los resultados pueden ayudar en la elección de apoyos y tratamientos psicológicos y adecuados para alcanzar el ajuste emocional en hombres y mujeres infértiles.

  17. Statistical Significance of the Contribution of Variables to the PCA Solution: An Alternative Permutation Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linting, Marielle; van Os, Bart Jan; Meulman, Jacqueline J.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the statistical significance of the contribution of variables to the principal components in principal components analysis (PCA) is assessed nonparametrically by the use of permutation tests. We compare a new strategy to a strategy used in previous research consisting of permuting the columns (variables) of a data matrix…

  18. Spatial modelling of marine organisms in Forsmark and Oskarshamn. Including calculation of physical predictor variables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlen, Ida; Nikolopoulos, Anna; Isaeus, Martin (AquaBiota Water Research, Stockholm (SE))

    2007-06-15

    GIS grids (maps) of marine parameters were created using point data from previous site investigations in the Forsmark and Oskarshamn areas. The proportion of global radiation reaching the sea bottom in Forsmark and Oskarshamn was calculated in ArcView, using Secchi depth measurements and the digital elevation models for the respective area. The number of days per year when the incoming light exceeds 5 MJ/m2 at the bottom was then calculated using the result of the previous calculations together with measured global radiation. Existing modelled grid-point data on bottom and pelagic temperature for Forsmark were interpolated to create surface covering grids. Bottom and pelagic temperature grids for Oskarshamn were calculated using point measurements to achieve yearly averages for a few points and then using regressions with existing grids to create new maps. Phytoplankton primary production in Forsmark was calculated using point measurements of chlorophyll and irradiance, and a regression with a modelled grid of Secchi depth. Distribution of biomass of macrophyte communities in Forsmark and Oskarshamn was calculated using spatial modelling in GRASP, based on field data from previous surveys. Physical parameters such as those described above were used as predictor variables. Distribution of biomass of different functional groups of fish in Forsmark was calculated using spatial modelling based on previous surveys and with predictor variables such as physical parameters and results from macrophyte modelling. All results are presented as maps in the report. The quality of the modelled predictions varies as a consequence of the quality and amount of the input data, the ecology and knowledge of the predicted phenomena, and by the modelling technique used. A substantial part of the variation is not described by the models, which should be expected for biological modelling. Therefore, the resulting grids should be used with caution and with this uncertainty kept in mind. All

  19. Spatial modelling of marine organisms in Forsmark and Oskarshamn. Including calculation of physical predictor variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlen, Ida; Nikolopoulos, Anna; Isaeus, Martin

    2007-06-01

    GIS grids (maps) of marine parameters were created using point data from previous site investigations in the Forsmark and Oskarshamn areas. The proportion of global radiation reaching the sea bottom in Forsmark and Oskarshamn was calculated in ArcView, using Secchi depth measurements and the digital elevation models for the respective area. The number of days per year when the incoming light exceeds 5 MJ/m2 at the bottom was then calculated using the result of the previous calculations together with measured global radiation. Existing modelled grid-point data on bottom and pelagic temperature for Forsmark were interpolated to create surface covering grids. Bottom and pelagic temperature grids for Oskarshamn were calculated using point measurements to achieve yearly averages for a few points and then using regressions with existing grids to create new maps. Phytoplankton primary production in Forsmark was calculated using point measurements of chlorophyll and irradiance, and a regression with a modelled grid of Secchi depth. Distribution of biomass of macrophyte communities in Forsmark and Oskarshamn was calculated using spatial modelling in GRASP, based on field data from previous surveys. Physical parameters such as those described above were used as predictor variables. Distribution of biomass of different functional groups of fish in Forsmark was calculated using spatial modelling based on previous surveys and with predictor variables such as physical parameters and results from macrophyte modelling. All results are presented as maps in the report. The quality of the modelled predictions varies as a consequence of the quality and amount of the input data, the ecology and knowledge of the predicted phenomena, and by the modelling technique used. A substantial part of the variation is not described by the models, which should be expected for biological modelling. Therefore, the resulting grids should be used with caution and with this uncertainty kept in mind. All

  20. Variability of Neuronal Responses: Types and Functional Significance in Neuroplasticity and Neural Darwinism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chervyakov, Alexander V; Sinitsyn, Dmitry O; Piradov, Michael A

    2016-01-01

    HIGHLIGHTS We suggest classifying variability of neuronal responses as follows: false (associated with a lack of knowledge about the influential factors), "genuine harmful" (noise), "genuine neutral" (synonyms, repeats), and "genuine useful" (the basis of neuroplasticity and learning).The genuine neutral variability is considered in terms of the phenomenon of degeneracy.Of particular importance is the genuine useful variability that is considered as a potential basis for neuroplasticity and learning. This type of variability is considered in terms of the neural Darwinism theory. In many cases, neural signals detected under the same external experimental conditions significantly change from trial to trial. The variability phenomenon, which complicates extraction of reproducible results and is ignored in many studies by averaging, has attracted attention of researchers in recent years. In this paper, we classify possible types of variability based on its functional significance and describe features of each type. We describe the key adaptive significance of variability at the neural network level and the degeneracy phenomenon that may be important for learning processes in connection with the principle of neuronal group selection.

  1. Survey of French spine surgeons reveals significant variability in spine trauma practices in 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonjon, G; Grelat, M; Dhenin, A; Dauzac, C; Lonjon, N; Kepler, C K; Vaccaro, A R

    2015-02-01

    In France, attempts to define common ground during spine surgery meetings have revealed significant variability in clinical practices across different schools of surgery and the two specialities involved in spine surgery, namely, neurosurgery and orthopaedic surgery. To objectively characterise this variability by performing a survey based on a fictitious spine trauma case. Our working hypothesis was that significant variability existed in trauma practices and that this variability was related to a lack of strong scientific evidence in spine trauma care. We performed a cross-sectional survey based on a clinical vignette describing a 31-year-old male with an L1 burst fracture and neurologic symptoms (numbness). Surgeons received the vignette and a 14-item questionnaire on the management of this patient. For each question, surgeons had to choose among five possible answers. Differences in answers across surgeons were assessed using the Index of Qualitative Variability (IQV), in which 0 indicates no variability and 1 maximal variability. Surgeons also received a questionnaire about their demographics and surgical experience. Of 405 invited spine surgeons, 200 responded to the survey. Five questions had an IQV greater than 0.9, seven an IQV between 0.5 and 0.9, and two an IQV lower than 0.5. Variability was greatest about the need for MRI (IQV=0.93), degree of urgency (IQV=0.93), need for fusion (IQV=0.92), need for post-operative bracing (IQV=0.91), and routine removal of instrumentation (IQV=0.94). Variability was lowest for questions about the need for surgery (IQV=0.42) and use of the posterior approach (IQV=0.36). Answers were influenced by surgeon specialty, age, experience level, and type of centre. Clinical practice regarding spine trauma varies widely in France. Little published evidence is available on which to base recommendations that would diminish this variability. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  2. Case-Mix Variables and Predictors for Outcomes of Laparoscopic Hysterectomy: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driessen, Sara R C; Sandberg, Evelien M; la Chapelle, Claire F; Twijnstra, Andries R H; Rhemrev, Johann P T; Jansen, Frank Willem

    2016-01-01

    The assessment of surgical quality is complex, and an adequate case-mix correction is missing in currently applied quality indicators. The purpose of this study is to give an overview of all studies mentioning statistically significant associations between patient characteristics and surgical outcomes for laparoscopic hysterectomy (LH). Additionally, we identified a set of potential case-mix characteristics for LH. This systematic review was conducted according to the Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology guidelines. We searched PubMed and EMBASE from January 1, 2000 to August 1, 2015. All articles describing statistically significant associations between patient characteristics and adverse outcomes of LH for benign indications were included. Primary outcomes were blood loss, operative time, conversion, and complications. The methodologic quality of the included studies was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale. The included articles were summed per predictor and surgical outcome. Three sets of case-mix characteristics were determined, stratified by different levels of evidence. Eighty-five of 1549 identified studies were considered eligible. Uterine weight and body mass index (BMI) were the most mentioned predictors (described, respectively, 83 and 45 times) in high quality studies. For longer operative time and higher blood loss, uterine weight ≥ 250 to 300 g and ≥500 g and BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2) dominated as predictors. Previous operations, adhesions, and higher age were also considered as predictors for longer operative time. For complications and conversions, the patient characteristics varied widely, and uterine weight, BMI, previous operations, adhesions, and age predominated. Studies of high methodologic quality indicated uterine weight and BMI as relevant case-mix characteristics for all surgical outcomes. For future development of quality indicators of LH and to compare surgical outcomes adequately, a case

  3. Genetic and Psychosocial Predictors of Aggression: Variable Selection and Model Building With Component-Wise Gradient Boosting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Suchting

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Rationale: Given datasets with a large or diverse set of predictors of aggression, machine learning (ML provides efficient tools for identifying the most salient variables and building a parsimonious statistical model. ML techniques permit efficient exploration of data, have not been widely used in aggression research, and may have utility for those seeking prediction of aggressive behavior.Objectives: The present study examined predictors of aggression and constructed an optimized model using ML techniques. Predictors were derived from a dataset that included demographic, psychometric and genetic predictors, specifically FK506 binding protein 5 (FKBP5 polymorphisms, which have been shown to alter response to threatening stimuli, but have not been tested as predictors of aggressive behavior in adults.Methods: The data analysis approach utilized component-wise gradient boosting and model reduction via backward elimination to: (a select variables from an initial set of 20 to build a model of trait aggression; and then (b reduce that model to maximize parsimony and generalizability.Results: From a dataset of N = 47 participants, component-wise gradient boosting selected 8 of 20 possible predictors to model Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire (BPAQ total score, with R2 = 0.66. This model was simplified using backward elimination, retaining six predictors: smoking status, psychopathy (interpersonal manipulation and callous affect, childhood trauma (physical abuse and neglect, and the FKBP5_13 gene (rs1360780. The six-factor model approximated the initial eight-factor model at 99.4% of R2.Conclusions: Using an inductive data science approach, the gradient boosting model identified predictors consistent with previous experimental work in aggression; specifically psychopathy and trauma exposure. Additionally, allelic variants in FKBP5 were identified for the first time, but the relatively small sample size limits generality of results and calls for

  4. Genetic and Psychosocial Predictors of Aggression: Variable Selection and Model Building With Component-Wise Gradient Boosting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchting, Robert; Gowin, Joshua L; Green, Charles E; Walss-Bass, Consuelo; Lane, Scott D

    2018-01-01

    Rationale : Given datasets with a large or diverse set of predictors of aggression, machine learning (ML) provides efficient tools for identifying the most salient variables and building a parsimonious statistical model. ML techniques permit efficient exploration of data, have not been widely used in aggression research, and may have utility for those seeking prediction of aggressive behavior. Objectives : The present study examined predictors of aggression and constructed an optimized model using ML techniques. Predictors were derived from a dataset that included demographic, psychometric and genetic predictors, specifically FK506 binding protein 5 (FKBP5) polymorphisms, which have been shown to alter response to threatening stimuli, but have not been tested as predictors of aggressive behavior in adults. Methods : The data analysis approach utilized component-wise gradient boosting and model reduction via backward elimination to: (a) select variables from an initial set of 20 to build a model of trait aggression; and then (b) reduce that model to maximize parsimony and generalizability. Results : From a dataset of N = 47 participants, component-wise gradient boosting selected 8 of 20 possible predictors to model Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire (BPAQ) total score, with R 2 = 0.66. This model was simplified using backward elimination, retaining six predictors: smoking status, psychopathy (interpersonal manipulation and callous affect), childhood trauma (physical abuse and neglect), and the FKBP5_13 gene (rs1360780). The six-factor model approximated the initial eight-factor model at 99.4% of R 2 . Conclusions : Using an inductive data science approach, the gradient boosting model identified predictors consistent with previous experimental work in aggression; specifically psychopathy and trauma exposure. Additionally, allelic variants in FKBP5 were identified for the first time, but the relatively small sample size limits generality of results and calls for

  5. Retention Esophagitis as a Significant Clinical Predictor of Progression to Esophageal Cancer in Achalasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haewon Kim

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims Chronic liquid and/or food stasis caused by retention esophagitis (RE in achalasia is a notable endoscopic finding because of the presence of a thickened or whitish esophageal mucosa and histologically altered squamous hyperplasia. We aimed to identify the clinical features of RE associated with achalasia and to clarify the clinical definition of RE in achalasia as a precancerous lesion identified by analyzing biomarker expressions. Methods From 2006 to 2015, we retrospectively reviewed 37 patients with achalasia without previous treatment. Among them, 21 patients had diagnostic findings of RE (RE+ and 16 patients had no diagnostic findings of RE (RE–. Immunohistochemical staining of p53, p16, and Ki-67 was performed on the endoscopic biopsy tissues from the patients with achalasia and 10 control patients with non-obstructive dysphagia. Results The symptom duration and transit delay were significantly longer in the RE+ group than in the RE– group. We found particularly high p53 positivity rates in the RE+ group (p<0.001. The rate of p16 expression was also significantly higher in the RE+ group than in the other two groups (p=0.003. Conclusions A high p53 expression rate was more frequently found in the RE+ group than in the other two groups. RE could be a meaningful clinical feature of achalasia for predicting esophageal carcinogenesis.

  6. European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer Risk Calculator: External Validation, Variability, and Clinical Significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Gómez, Enrique; Carrasco-Valiente, Julia; Blanca-Pedregosa, Ana; Barco-Sánchez, Beatriz; Fernandez-Rueda, Jose Luis; Molina-Abril, Helena; Valero-Rosa, Jose; Font-Ugalde, Pilar; Requena-Tapia, Maria José

    2017-04-01

    To externally validate the European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer (ERSPC) risk calculator (RC) and to evaluate its variability between 2 consecutive prostate-specific antigen (PSA) values. We prospectively catalogued 1021 consecutive patients before prostate biopsy for suspicion of prostate cancer (PCa). The risk of PCa and significant PCa (Gleason score ≥7) from 749 patients was calculated according to ERSPC-RC (digital rectal examination-based version 3 of 4) for 2 consecutive PSA tests per patient. The calculators' predictions were analyzed using calibration plots and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (area under the curve). Cohen kappa coefficient was used to compare the ability and variability. Of 749 patients, PCa was detected in 251 (33.5%) and significant PCa was detected in 133 (17.8%). Calibration plots showed an acceptable parallelism and similar discrimination ability for both PSA levels with an area under the curve of 0.69 for PCa and 0.74 for significant PCa. The ERSPC showed 226 (30.2%) unnecessary biopsies with the loss of 10 significant PCa. The variability of the RC was 16% for PCa and 20% for significant PCa, and a higher variability was associated with a reduced risk of significant PCa. We can conclude that the performance of the ERSPC-RC in the present cohort shows a high similitude between the 2 PSA levels; however, the RC variability value is associated with a decreased risk of significant PCa. The use of the ERSPC in our cohort detects a high number of unnecessary biopsies. Thus, the incorporation of ERSPC-RC could help the clinical decision to carry out a prostate biopsy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Investigating personal, cognitive and organizational variables as predictors of unsafe behaviors among line workers in an industrial company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Neissi

    2013-08-01

     .Conclusion: The results of this study showed the importance of safety competency, prevention focus, safety rules and procedures, safety efficiency and consciousness as predictors of unsafe work behaviors. Therefore, it is recommended to rely on these variables in the safety training courses and also in selecting people for high risk environments.

  8. Self Efficacy and Some Demographic Variables as Predictors of Occupational Stress among Primary School Teachers in Delta State of Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akpochafo, G. O.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated self efficacy and some demographic variables as predictors of occupational stress among primary school teachers in Delta State. Three hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. The study adopted a descriptive survey design that utilized an expost-facto research type. A sample of one hundred and twenty primary school…

  9. Test of variables of attention (TOVA as a predictor of early attention complaints, an antecedent to dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric R Braverman

    2010-10-01

    males with a significant number of ADD complaints, individuals whose scores were significantly deviant or borderline (SDB on TOVA, had a significantly greater number of attention complaints compared with normals for omissions (P < 0.02, response time (P < 0.015, and variability (P < 0.005, but not commissions (P > 0.50. For males, the mean scores for auditory, visual, immediate, and working memory scores as measured by the WMS-III were significantly greater for normals versus SDBs on the TOVA subtest, ie, omission (P < 0.01 and response time (P < 0.05, but not variability or commissions. The means for auditory, visual, and immediate memory scores were significantly greater for normals versus SDBs for variability (P < 0.045 only. In females, the mean scores for visual and working memory scores were significantly greater for normals versus SDBs for omissions (P < 0.025. The number of SDB TOVA quarters was a significant predictor for “impaired” or “normal” group membership for visual memory (P < 0.015, but not for the other three WMS-III components. For males, the partial correlation between the number of attention complaints and the number of SDB TOVA quarters was also significant (r = 0.251, P < 0.005. For the 152 females with a significant number of attention complaints, no significant differences between SDBs and normals were observed (P > 0.15. This is the first report, to our knowledge, which provides evidence that TOVA is an accurate predictor of early attention complaints and memory impairments in a clinical setting. This finding is more robust for males than for females between the ages of 40 and 90 years.Keywords: attention complaints, dementia, TOVA, Wechsler Memory Scale

  10. Urinary phthalate metabolites and their biotransformation products: predictors and temporal variability among men and women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeker, John D.; Calafat, Antonia M.; Hauser, Russ

    2012-01-01

    Most epidemiology studies investigating potential adverse health effects in relation to phthalates measure the urinary concentration of the free plus glucuronidated species of phthalate metabolites (i.e., total concentration) to estimate exposure. However, the free species may represent the biologically relevant dose. In this study, we collected 943 urine samples from 112 men and 157 women and assessed the between- and within-person variability and predictors of a) the free and total urinary concentrations of phthalate metabolites, and b) the percentage of free phthalate metabolites (a potential phenotypic indicator of individual susceptibility). We also explored the proportion of urinary di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) metabolites contributed to by the bioactive mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP), considered a possible indicator of susceptibility to phthalate exposure. The percentage of phthalate metabolites present in the free form were less stable over time than the total metabolite concentration, and, therefore, it is not likely a useful indicator of metabolic susceptibility. Thus, the added costs and effort involved in the measurement of free in addition to total metabolite concentrations in large-scale studies may not be justified. Conversely, the proportion of DEHP metabolites contributed to by MEHP was more stable within individuals over time and may be a promising indicator of susceptibility if time of day of sample collection is carefully considered. PMID:22354176

  11. Predictor variables of happiness and its connection with risk and protective factors for health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maite eGaraigordobil

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Great thinkers, philosophers, scientists, and artists from History have often been concerned about one of the most important elements of life: happiness. The study had four goals: 1 To analyze possible differences in feelings of happiness as a function of sex and age; 2 To explore the relations of happiness with risk factors (psychopathological symptoms, behavior problems and protective factors (self-concept-self-esteem, cooperative behavior, social skills for health; 3 To identify predictor variables of happiness; and 4 To explore whether self-esteem mediates the relationship between happiness and psychopathological symptoms. The sample comprised 286 adolescents (14-16 years old. The study used a descriptive, correlational, and cross-sectional methodology. Seven assessment instruments were administered. The ANOVAs confirm that there are no sex differences, but happiness decreases as age increases. Pearson coefficients show that adolescents with more feelings of happiness had fewer psychopathological symptoms (somatization, obsession-compulsion, interpersonal sensitivity, depression, anxiety, hostility, phobic anxiety, paranoid ideation, psychoticism…, fewer behavioral problems (school-academic, antisocial behavior, shyness-withdrawal, psychopathological, psychosomatic, high social adaptation, high self-concept/self-esteem, many cooperative behaviors, many appropriate social skills, and few negative social skills (inappropriate assertiveness, impulsiveness, jealousy-withdrawal. Multiple regression analysis identified five variables predicting happiness: high self-concept, few symptoms of depression, many cooperative behaviors, high self-esteem, and low psychoticism. Results showed a partial mediational effect of self-esteem in the relation between happiness and psychopathological symptoms. The discussion focuses on the importance of implementing programs to promote feelings of happiness, as well as protective factors for health (self

  12. Predictor variables of happiness and its connection with risk and protective factors for health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garaigordobil, Maite

    2015-01-01

    Great thinkers, philosophers, scientists, and artists from History have often been concerned about one of the most important elements of life: happiness. The study had four goals: (1) To analyze possible differences in feelings of happiness as a function of sex and age; (2) To explore the relations of happiness with risk factors (psychopathological symptoms, behavior problems) and protective factors (self-concept-self-esteem, cooperative behavior, social skills) for health; (3) To identify predictor variables of happiness; and (4) To explore whether self-esteem mediates the relationship between happiness and psychopathological symptoms. The sample comprised 286 adolescents (14–16 years old). The study used a descriptive, correlational, and cross-sectional methodology. Seven assessment instruments were administered. The ANOVAs confirm that there are no sex differences, but happiness decreases as age increases. Pearson coefficients show that adolescents with more feelings of happiness had fewer psychopathological symptoms (somatization, obsession–compulsion, interpersonal sensitivity, depression, anxiety, hostility, phobic anxiety, paranoid ideation, psychoticism…), fewer behavioral problems (school-academic, antisocial behavior, shyness-withdrawal, psychopathological, psychosomatic), high social adaptation, high self-concept/self-esteem, many cooperative behaviors, many appropriate social skills, and few negative social skills (inappropriate assertiveness, impulsiveness, jealousy-withdrawal). Multiple regression analysis identified five variables predicting happiness: high self-concept, few symptoms of depression, many cooperative behaviors, high self-esteem, and low psychoticism. Results showed a partial mediational effect of self-esteem in the relation between happiness and psychopathological symptoms. The discussion focuses on the importance of implementing programs to promote feelings of happiness, as well as protective factors for health (self

  13. Understanding the significance variables for fabrication of fish gelatin nanoparticles by Plackett-Burman design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subara, Deni; Jaswir, Irwandi; Alkhatib, Maan Fahmi Rashid; Noorbatcha, Ibrahim Ali

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this experiment is to screen and to understand the process variables on the fabrication of fish gelatin nanoparticles by using quality-design approach. The most influencing process variables were screened by using Plackett-Burman design. Mean particles size, size distribution, and zeta potential were found in the range 240±9.76 nm, 0.3, and -9 mV, respectively. Statistical results explained that concentration of acetone, pH of solution during precipitation step and volume of cross linker had a most significant effect on particles size of fish gelatin nanoparticles. It was found that, time and chemical consuming is lower than previous research. This study revealed the potential of quality-by design in understanding the effects of process variables on the fish gelatin nanoparticles production.

  14. FIRE: an SPSS program for variable selection in multiple linear regression analysis via the relative importance of predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo-Seva, Urbano; Ferrando, Pere J

    2011-03-01

    We provide an SPSS program that implements currently recommended techniques and recent developments for selecting variables in multiple linear regression analysis via the relative importance of predictors. The approach consists of: (1) optimally splitting the data for cross-validation, (2) selecting the final set of predictors to be retained in the equation regression, and (3) assessing the behavior of the chosen model using standard indices and procedures. The SPSS syntax, a short manual, and data files related to this article are available as supplemental materials from brm.psychonomic-journals.org/content/supplemental.

  15. Treatment processes and demographic variables as predictors of dropout from trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (TF-CBT) for youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasinski, Carly; Hayes, Adele M; Alpert, Elizabeth; McCauley, Thomas; Ready, C Beth; Webb, Charles; Deblinger, Esther

    2018-05-22

    Premature dropout is a significant concern in trauma-focused psychotherapy for youth. Previous studies have primarily examined pre-treatment demographic and symptom-related predictors of dropout, but few consistent findings have been reported. The current study examined demographic, symptom, and in-session process variables as predictors of dropout from Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (TF-CBT) for youth. Participants were a diverse sample of Medicaid-eligible youth (ages 7-17; n = 108) and their nonoffending caregivers (n = 86), who received TF-CBT through an effectiveness study in a community setting. In-session process variables were coded from audio-recorded sessions, and these and pre-treatment demographic variables and symptom levels were examined as predictors of dropout prior to receiving an adequate dose of TF-CBT (parents or relatives. No other demographic or symptom-related factors predicted dropout. These findings highlight the importance of addressing avoidance and therapeutic relationship difficulties in early sessions of TF-CBT to help reduce dropout, and they have implications for improving efforts to disseminate evidence-based trauma-focused treatments. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Significance of the impact of motion compensation on the variability of PET image features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carles, M.; Bach, T.; Torres-Espallardo, I.; Baltas, D.; Nestle, U.; Martí-Bonmatí, L.

    2018-03-01

    In lung cancer, quantification by positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) imaging presents challenges due to respiratory movement. Our primary aim was to study the impact of motion compensation implied by retrospectively gated (4D)-PET/CT on the variability of PET quantitative parameters. Its significance was evaluated by comparison with the variability due to (i) the voxel size in image reconstruction and (ii) the voxel size in image post-resampling. The method employed for feature extraction was chosen based on the analysis of (i) the effect of discretization of the standardized uptake value (SUV) on complementarity between texture features (TF) and conventional indices, (ii) the impact of the segmentation method on the variability of image features, and (iii) the variability of image features across the time-frame of 4D-PET. Thirty-one PET-features were involved. Three SUV discretization methods were applied: a constant width (SUV resolution) of the resampling bin (method RW), a constant number of bins (method RN) and RN on the image obtained after histogram equalization (method EqRN). The segmentation approaches evaluated were 40% of SUVmax and the contrast oriented algorithm (COA). Parameters derived from 4D-PET images were compared with values derived from the PET image obtained for (i) the static protocol used in our clinical routine (3D) and (ii) the 3D image post-resampled to the voxel size of the 4D image and PET image derived after modifying the reconstruction of the 3D image to comprise the voxel size of the 4D image. Results showed that TF complementarity with conventional indices was sensitive to the SUV discretization method. In the comparison of COA and 40% contours, despite the values not being interchangeable, all image features showed strong linear correlations (r  >  0.91, p\\ll 0.001 ). Across the time-frames of 4D-PET, all image features followed a normal distribution in most patients. For our patient cohort, the

  17. Teacher Variables As Predictors of Academic Achievement of Primary School Pupils Mathematics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adedeji TELLA

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the relationship between Teacher self- efficacy, interest, attitude, qualification, experience and pupils’ academic achievement in primary school mathematics. The participants of the study comprises of 254 primary school teachers and 120 primary school pupils. Data collected on the study were analysed using a stepwise multiple regression analysis. The results reveals that teacher self – efficacy and interest had significant correlation with pupils achievement scores. Teacher’s self-efficacy being the best predictor of pupils’ academic achievement in mathematics was followed by teacher’s interest. Attitude, qualification and experience were not significant correlation with pupil’s achievement in mathematics. The study recommended that it is high time for primary school mathematics teachers to have a change of attitude towards the teaching of the subject so that the achievement of universal basic education will not be hindered. Furthermore, primary school educational authorities were called upon to ensure that only teachers who are qualified to teach the subject are employed. Not these alone, their attention was also drawn to the fact that they should design educational programmes that will enhance the teacher self- efficacy for a better prediction of pupils’ achievement in mathematics.

  18. Prevalence and clinical significance of nonorgan specific antibodies in patients with autoimmune thyroiditis as predictor markers for rheumatic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elnady, Basant M; Kamal, Naglaa M; Shaker, Raneyah H M; Soliman, Amal F; Hasan, Waleed A; Alghamdi, Hamed A; Algethami, Mohammed M; Jajah, Mohamed Bilal

    2016-09-01

    Autoimmune diseases are considered the 3rd leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the industrialized countries. Autoimmune thyroid diseases (ATDs) are associated with high prevalence of nonorgan-specific autoantibodies, such as antinuclear antibodies (ANA), antidouble-stranded deoxyribonucleic acid (anti-dsDNA), antiextractable-nuclear antigens (anti-ENAs), rheumatoid factor (RF), and anticyclic-citrullinated peptides (anti-CCP) whose clinical significance is unknown.We aimed to assess the prevalence of various nonorgan-specific autoantibodies in patients with ATD, and to investigate the possible association between these autoantibodies and occurrence of rheumatic diseases and, if these autoantibodies could be considered as predictor markers for autoimmune rheumatic diseases in the future.This study had 2 phases: phase 1; in which 61 ATD patients free from rheumatic manifestations were assessed for the presence of these nonorgan-specific autoantibodies against healthy 61 control group, followed by 2nd phase longitudinal clinical follow-up in which cases are monitored systematically to establish occurrence and progression of any rheumatic disease in association to these autoantibodies with its influences and prognosis.Regarding ATD patients, ANA, anti-dsDNA, Anti-ENA, and RF were present in a percentage of (50.8%), (18%), (21.3%), and (34.4%), respectively, with statistically significance difference (P rheumatic diseases, over 2 years follow-up. It was obvious that those with positive anti-dsDNA had higher risk (2.45 times) to develop rheumatic diseases than those without. There was a statistically significant positive linear relationship between occurrence of disease in months and (age, anti-dsDNA, anti-CCP, RF, and duration of thyroiditis). Anti-dsDNA and RF are the most significant predictors (P rheumatic diseases than previously thought. Anti-dsDNA, RF, and anti-CCP antibodies may be used as predictive screening markers of systemic lupus erythematosus

  19. Analysis of University Organizational Culture Perceptions and Demographic Variables as Predictors of Perceived Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa KESEN

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available It has been seen that it is inevitable for individuals to be exposed to stress in their student lives as in their work lives. The aim of this study is to measure perceived stress levels of university students in the university organizational culture setting. To this end, it is investigated the relationship between perceived stress levels of university students and university organizational culture perceptions. By using questionnaire method it is measured that the perceptions of organizational culture in different stress levels and it is analyzed that the differences in students' perceived stress levels according to socio-demographic variables. The population of the study is comprised of randomly chosen 286 students who receive training at Bayburt University Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences. According to the results, it has been found that there is a significant difference between students' perceived stress and gender. While the students stating that they experience low level of stress give maximum points to the variable of adaptation to change, other students expressing that they are exposed high level of stress give minimum score to the variable of cooperation. Besides, it has been found that different demographic variables by various combinations have different effects on perceived stress and university organizational culture.

  20. LASR-Guided Variability Subtraction: The Linear Algorithm for Significance Reduction of Stellar Seismic Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Sarah; Myers, Sam; Ahlers, Johnathon; Barnes, Jason W.

    2017-10-01

    Stellar seismic activity produces variations in brightness that introduce oscillations into transit light curves, which can create challenges for traditional fitting models. These oscillations disrupt baseline stellar flux values and potentially mask transits. We develop a model that removes these oscillations from transit light curves by minimizing the significance of each oscillation in frequency space. By removing stellar variability, we prepare each light curve for traditional fitting techniques. We apply our model to $\\delta$-Scuti KOI-976 and demonstrate that our variability subtraction routine successfully allows for measuring bulk system characteristics using traditional light curve fitting. These results open a new window for characterizing bulk system parameters of planets orbiting seismically active stars.

  1. Personality variables as predictors of early non-metastatic colorectal cancer patients' psychological distress and health-related quality of life: a one-year prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyphantis, Thomas; Paika, Vassiliki; Almyroudi, Augoustina; Kampletsas, Eleftherios O; Pavlidis, Nicholas

    2011-05-01

    We aimed to assess the course of early non-metastatic colorectal cancer patients' psychological distress and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and to identify relevant clinical and psychological predictors during a one-year period. Of the 144 early non-metastatic colorectal cancer patients initially assessed for psychological distress symptoms (SCL-90-R), HRQOL (WHOQOL-BREF), sense of coherence (SOC), defense mechanisms (LSI) and hostility (HDHQ), 84 (58.3%) completed the one-year follow-up. Mean (SD) age was 65.1 (9.8) years and 67.4% were male. Mean (SD) disease duration was 1.7 (2.2) years, with 49.3% being diagnosed within the last six months. In 75.0% the site was at colon and in 25.0% at rectum; 2.1% had stage I, 59.0% stage II and 38.9% stage III disease. Paranoid ideation, psychoticism, interpersonal sensitivity, anxiety and depressive symptoms increased significantly over the one-year period of the study and most of the HRQOL components were significantly decreased over the same period. Men were at greater risk for further developing depressive symptomatology. Low SOC was independent predictor of depression, while hostility independently predicted anxiety, interpersonal sensitivity and psychoticism symptoms. General psychological distress and low SOC were independent predictors of HRQOL, while repression was also an independent predictor of Physical HRQOL. In early non-metastatic colorectal cancer patients, psychological distress symptoms are increased and HRQOL is decreased over one-year period. Symptoms of psychological distress are strong predictors of HRQOL, while personality variables can also predict psychological distress symptoms' increase and HRQOL decrease over time, and this could be relevant to psychological interventions. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Biological variability in biomechanical engineering research: Significance and meta-analysis of current modeling practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Douglas; Julias, Margaret; Nauman, Eric

    2014-04-11

    Biological systems are characterized by high levels of variability, which can affect the results of biomechanical analyses. As a review of this topic, we first surveyed levels of variation in materials relevant to biomechanics, and compared these values to standard engineered materials. As expected, we found significantly higher levels of variation in biological materials. A meta-analysis was then performed based on thorough reviews of 60 research studies from the field of biomechanics to assess the methods and manner in which biological variation is currently handled in our field. The results of our meta-analysis revealed interesting trends in modeling practices, and suggest a need for more biomechanical studies that fully incorporate biological variation in biomechanical models and analyses. Finally, we provide some case study example of how biological variability may provide valuable insights or lead to surprising results. The purpose of this study is to promote the advancement of biomechanics research by encouraging broader treatment of biological variability in biomechanical modeling. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The Controlling Nutritional Status Score Is a Significant Independent Predictor of Poor Prognosis in Patients With Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takamori, Shinkichi; Toyokawa, Gouji; Taguchi, Kenichi; Edagawa, Makoto; Shimamatsu, Shinichiro; Toyozawa, Ryo; Nosaki, Kaname; Seto, Takashi; Hirai, Fumihiko; Yamaguchi, Masafumi; Shoji, Fumihiro; Okamoto, Tatsuro; Takenoyama, Mitsuhiro; Ichinose, Yukito

    2017-07-01

    Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a devastating neoplasm; however, some patients exhibit a good response to chemotherapy or multidisciplinary therapy, including surgery and chemotherapy. It is therefore important to discover the factors that can be used to select patients who will benefit from such treatment. Although the Controlling Nutritional Status (CONUT) score has been used to predict the prognosis in other types of malignancy, its utility in patients with MPM is unknown. The aim of this study was to clarify the clinical significance of the CONUT in patients with MPM. The data of 83 patients, who were treated with surgery, chemotherapy, or multidisciplinary therapy, were analyzed in the present study. A cut-off CONUT score of 2 was used to classify all of the patients into low or high CONUT groups. Fifty-two of the 83 patients were classified into the low CONUT group. A high CONUT score was significantly correlated with chemotherapy alone (P = .011). The high CONUT group had significantly poorer overall survival (OS) (P clinical stage and the CONUT score were found to be independent predictive factors for the OS: clinical stage, I/II and III/IV; P = .001 and CONUT score, ≥ 3 and ≤ 2; P = .011, respectively. The clinical stage and the CONUT score were also independent predictive factors for DFS/PFS: clinical stage, I/II and III/IV; P = .006 and CONUT score, ≥ 3 and ≤ 2; P = .013, respectively. The CONUT score was an independent predictor of a poor prognosis in the patients with MPM. This score provides useful information for selecting patients who will benefit from the treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Predictors of early stable symptomatic remission after an exacerbation of schizophrenia: the significance of symptoms, neuropsychological performance and cognitive biases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreou, Christina; Roesch-Ely, Daniela; Veckenstedt, Ruth; Bohn, Francesca; Aghotor, Julia; Köther, Ulf; Pfueller, Ute; Moritz, Steffen

    2013-12-30

    Neuropsychological deficits and severity of initial psychopathology have been repeatedly associated with poor symptomatic outcomes in schizophrenia. The role of higher-order cognitive biases on symptomatic outcomes of the disorder has not yet been investigated. The present study aimed to assess the contribution of cognitive biases, psychopathology and neuropsychological deficits on the probability of achieving early symptomatic remission after a psychotic episode in patients with schizophrenia. Participants were 79 patients with a DSM-IV diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder undergoing an acute psychotic episode, and 25 healthy controls. According to psychopathology assessments, patients were split into those who had achieved remission after an average follow-up interval of 7 months, and those who had not (NR). Patients who achieved remission exhibited higher premorbid IQ and better performance on the TMT-B, as well as lower baseline positive, disorganized and distress symptoms than NR patients. TMT-B performance and positive symptoms at baseline were the best predictors of remission. Cognitive biases and negative symptoms were not associated with later remission. The findings highlight the significance of initial symptom severity for at least short-term symptomatic outcomes and, thus, the importance of adequate symptomatic treatment and prevention of psychotic outbreaks in patients. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Identification of significant process variables for a flow-through supercritical water oxidation reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, R.E.

    1992-05-01

    The effects of four process variables on the destruction efficiency of a flow-through supercritical water oxidation reactor were investigated. These process variables included: (1) reactor throughput (GPH), (2) concentration of the surrogate waste (% acetone), (3) maximum reactor tube-wall temperature (OC), and (4) applied stoichiometric oxygen. The analysis was conducted utilizing two-level factorial experiments, steepest ascent methods, and central composite designs. This experimental protocol assures efficient experimentation and allows for an empirical response surface model of the system to be developed. This experimentation identified a significant positive effect for stoichiometric oxygen applied and temperature variations between 400 to 500 degrees C. The increase in destruction efficiency due to stoichiometric 0 2 provides strong evidence that supercritical water oxidations are catalyzed by excess oxygen, and the strong temperature effect is a result of large increases in the kinetic rates for this temperature range. However, increasing temperature between 550 to 650 degrees C does not provide substantial increases in destruction efficiency. In addition, destruction efficiency is significantly unproved by increasing the Reynolds number and residence time. The destruction efficiency of the reactor is also dependent upon the initial concentration of surrogate waste. This concentration dependence may indicate first-order supercritical CO kinetics is inadequate for describing all waste types and reactor configurations. Alternatively, it may indicate reactant mixing, caused by local turbulence at the oxidation fronts of these higher concentration waste streams, results in higher destruction efficiencies

  6. Variability in anatomical features of human clavicle: Its forensic anthropological and clinical significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagmahender Singh Sehrawat

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Bones can reflect the basic framework of human body and may provide valuable information about the biological identity of the deceased. They, often, survive the morphological alterations, taphonomic destructions, decay/mutilation and decomposition insults. In-depth knowledge of variations in clavicular shape, size and its dimensions is very important from both clinical (fixation of clavicular fractures using external or inter-medullary devices, designing orthopedic fixation devices as well as forensic anthropological perspectives. Human clavicle is the most frequently fractured bone of human skeleton, possessing high degree of variability in its anatomical, biomechanical and morphological features. Extended period of skeletal growth (up to third decade in clavicle imparts it an additional advantage for forensic identification purposes. In present study, five categories of clavicular features like lengths, diameters, angles, indices and robustness were examined to explore the suitability of collarbone for forensic and clinical purposes. For this purpose, 263 pairs of adult clavicles (195 Males and 68 Females were collected from autopsied cadavers and were studied for 13 anatomical features. Gender and occupational affiliations of cadavers were found to have significant influences on anatomical dimensions of their clavicles. Product index, weight and circumference of collarbone were found the best univariate variables, discriminating sex of more than 80% individuals. The best multivariate Function-I (DF: -17.315 + 0.054 CL-L+0.196 CC-R+0.184 DM-L could identify sex and occupation of 89.4% (89.2% Male and 89.7% Female and 65.4% individuals, respectively. All clavicular variables were found bilaterally asymmetric; left clavicles being significantly longer in length, lighter in weight, smooth in texture and less curved than the right side bones. Among non-metric traits, sub-clavian groove, nutrient foramina and ‘type’ of clavicle exhibited

  7. What are the predictor variables of social well-being among the medical science students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javadi-Pashaki, Nazila; Darvishpour, Azar

    2018-01-01

    Individuals with social well-being can cope more successfully with major problems of social roles. Due to the social nature of human life, it cannot be ignored to pay attention the social aspect of health. The purpose of this study was to identify variables that predict the social well-being of medical students. A descriptive-analytical study was conducted on 489 medical science students of Gilan Province, the North of Iran, during May to September 2016. The samples were selected using quota sampling method. Research instrument was a questionnaire consisting of two parts: demographic section and Keyes social well-being questionnaire. Data analysis was done using SPSS software version 19 and with descriptive and inferential statistics (t-test, ANOVA, and linear regression). The results showed that majority of the students had average social well-being. Furthermore, a significant relationship between the academic degree ( P = 0.009), major ( P = 0.0001), the interest and field's satisfaction ( P = 0.0001), and social well-being was seen. The results of linear regression model showed that four variables (academic degree, major, group membership, and the interest and field's satisfaction) were significantly associated with the social well-being ( P social well-being and the need for further consideration of these factors are obvious. Thus, health and education authorities are advised to pay attention students' academic degree, major, group membership, and the interest and field's satisfaction to upgrade and maintain the level of their social well-being.

  8. Coping Strategies as Predictors and Mediators of Disability-Related Variables and Psychosocial Adaptation: An Exploratory Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livneh, Hanoch; Wilson, Lisa M.

    2003-01-01

    Examines the relationships among four predictors (functional limitations, perceived visibility of condition, and two disability-associated affective responses-anxiety and depression), coping strategies, and two outcome measures of psychosocial adaptation to disability. Findings suggest that coping strategies add significantly to the variance in…

  9. To cross or not to cross: modeling wildlife road crossings as a binary response variable with contextual predictors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siers, Shane R.; Reed, Robert N.; Savidge, Julie A.

    2016-01-01

    Roads are significant barriers to landscape-scale movements of individuals or populations of many wildlife taxa. The decision by an animal near a road to either cross or not cross may be influenced by characteristics of the road, environmental conditions, traits of the individual animal, and other aspects of the context within which the decision is made. We considered such factors in a mixed-effects logistic regression model describing the nightly road crossing probabilities of invasive nocturnal Brown Treesnakes (Boiga irregularis) through short-term radiotracking of 691 snakes within close proximity to 50 road segments across the island of Guam. All measures of road magnitude (traffic volume, gap width, surface type, etc.) were significantly negatively correlated with crossing probabilities. Snake body size was the only intrinsic factor associated with crossing rates, with larger snakes crossing roads more frequently. Humidity was the only environmental variable affecting crossing rate. The distance of the snake from the road at the start of nightly movement trials was the most significant predictor of crossings. The presence of snake traps with live mouse lures during a portion of the trials indicated that localized prey cues reduced the probability of a snake crossing the road away from the traps, suggesting that a snake's decision to cross roads is influenced by local foraging opportunities. Per capita road crossing rates of Brown Treesnakes were very low, and comparisons to historical records suggest that crossing rates have declined in the 60+ yr since introduction to Guam. We report a simplified model that will allow managers to predict road crossing rates based on snake, road, and contextual characteristics. Road crossing simulations based on actual snake size distributions demonstrate that populations with size distributions skewed toward larger snakes will result in a higher number of road crossings. Our method of modeling per capita road crossing

  10. Climate variables as predictors for seasonal forecast of dengue occurrence in Chennai, Tamil Nadu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subash Kumar, D. D.; Andimuthu, R.

    2013-12-01

    Background Dengue is a recently emerging vector borne diseases in Chennai. As per the WHO report in 2011 dengue is one of eight climate sensitive disease of this century. Objective Therefore an attempt has been made to explore the influence of climate parameters on dengue occurrence and use for forecasting. Methodology Time series analysis has been applied to predict the number of dengue cases in Chennai, a metropolitan city which is the capital of Tamil Nadu, India. Cross correlation of the climate variables with dengue cases revealed that the most influential parameters were monthly relative humidity, minimum temperature at 4 months lag and rainfall at one month lag (Table 1). However due to intercorrelation of relative humidity and rainfall was high and therefore for predictive purpose the rainfall at one month lag was used for the model development. Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) models have been applied to forecast the occurrence of dengue. Results and Discussion The best fit model was ARIMA (1,0,1). It was seen that the monthly minimum temperature at four months lag (β= 3.612, p = 0.02) and rainfall at one month lag (β= 0.032, p = 0.017) were associated with dengue occurrence and they had a very significant effect. Mean Relative Humidity had a directly significant positive correlation at 99% confidence level, but the lagged effect was not prominent. The model predicted dengue cases showed significantly high correlation of 0.814(Figure 1) with the observed cases. The RMSE of the model was 18.564 and MAE was 12.114. The model is limited by the scarcity of the dataset. Inclusion of socioeconomic conditions and population offset are further needed to be incorporated for effective results. Conclusion Thus it could be claimed that the change in climatic parameters is definitely influential in increasing the number of dengue occurrence in Chennai. The climate variables therefore can be used for seasonal forecasting of dengue with rise in minimum

  11. BMI, HOMA-IR, and Fasting Blood Glucose Are Significant Predictors of Peripheral Nerve Dysfunction in Adult Overweight and Obese Nondiabetic Nepalese Individuals: A Study from Central Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapa, Lekhjung; Rana, P V S

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Nondiabetic obese individuals have subclinical involvement of peripheral nerves. We report the factors predicting peripheral nerve function in overweight and obese nondiabetic Nepalese individuals. Methodology. In this cross-sectional study, we included 50 adult overweight and obese nondiabetic volunteers without features of peripheral neuropathy and 50 healthy volunteers to determine the normative nerve conduction data. In cases of abnormal function, the study population was classified on the basis of the number of nerves involved, namely, "HOMA-IR) was the significant predictor (P = 0.019, 96% CI = 1.420-49.322) of sensory nerve dysfunction. Body mass index (BMI) was the significant predictor (P = 0.034, 95% CI = 1.018-1.577) in case of ≥2 mixed nerves' involvement. Conclusion. FBG, HOMA-IR, and BMI were significant predictors of peripheral nerve dysfunction in overweight and obese Nepalese individuals.

  12. Non-stationarities significantly distort short-term spectral, symbolic and entropy heart rate variability indices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magagnin, Valentina; Bassani, Tito; Bari, Vlasta; Turiel, Maurizio; Porta, Alberto; Maestri, Roberto; Pinna, Gian Domenico

    2011-01-01

    The autonomic regulation is non-invasively estimated from heart rate variability (HRV). Many methods utilized to assess autonomic regulation require stationarity of HRV recordings. However, non-stationarities are frequently present even during well-controlled experiments, thus potentially biasing HRV indices. The aim of our study is to quantify the potential bias of spectral, symbolic and entropy HRV indices due to non-stationarities. We analyzed HRV series recorded in healthy subjects during uncontrolled daily life activities typical of 24 h Holter recordings and during predetermined levels of robotic-assisted treadmill-based physical exercise. A stationarity test checking the stability of the mean and variance over short HRV series (about 300 cardiac beats) was utilized to distinguish stationary periods from non-stationary ones. Spectral, symbolic and entropy indices evaluated solely over stationary periods were contrasted with those derived from all the HRV segments. When indices were calculated solely over stationary series, we found that (i) during both uncontrolled daily life activities and controlled physical exercise, the entropy-based complexity indices were significantly larger; (ii) during uncontrolled daily life activities, the spectral and symbolic indices linked to sympathetic modulation were significantly smaller and those associated with vagal modulation were significantly larger; (iii) while during uncontrolled daily life activities, the variance of spectral, symbolic and entropy rate indices was significantly larger, during controlled physical exercise, it was smaller. The study suggests that non-stationarities increase the likelihood to overestimate the contribution of sympathetic control and affect the power of statistical tests utilized to discriminate conditions and/or groups

  13. Identifying significant predictors of head-on conflicts on two-lane rural roads using inductive loop detectors data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariat-Mohaymany, Afshin; Tavakoli-Kashani, Ali; Nosrati, Hadi; Ranjbari, Andisheh

    2011-12-01

    To identify the significant factors that influence head-on conflicts resulting from dangerous overtaking maneuvers on 2-lane rural roads in Iran. A traffic conflict technique was applied to 12 two-lane rural roads in order to investigate the potential situations for accidents to occur and thus to identify the geometric and traffic factors affecting traffic conflicts. Traffic data were collected via the inductive loop detectors installed on these roads, and geometric characteristics were obtained through field observations. Two groups of data were then analyzed independently by Pearson's chi-square test to evaluate their relationship to traffic conflicts. The independent variables were percentage of time spent following (PTSF), percentage of heavy vehicles, directional distribution of traffic (DDT), mean speed, speed standard deviation, section type, road width, longitudinal slope, holiday or workday, and lighting condition. It was indicated that increasing the PTSF, decreasing the percentage of heavy vehicles, increasing the mean speed (up to 75 km/h), increasing DDT in the range of 0 to 60 percent, and decreasing the standard deviation of speed significantly increased the occurrence of traffic conflicts. It was also revealed that traffic conflicts occur more frequently on curve sections and on workdays. The variables road width, slope, and lighting condition were found to have a minor effect on conflict occurrence. To reduce the number of head-on conflicts on the aforementioned roads, some remedial measures are suggested, such as not constructing long "No Passing" zones and constructing passing lanes where necessary; keeping road width at the standard value; constructing roads with horizontal curves and a high radius and using appropriate road markings and overtaking-forbidden signs where it is impossible to modify the radius; providing enough light and installing caution signs/devices on the roads; and intensifying police control and supervision on workdays

  14. Investigating demographic, work-related and job satisfaction variables as predictors of motivation in Greek nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaki, Eleni; Kontodimopoulos, Nick; Niakas, Dimitris

    2013-04-01

    To investigate whether demographic variables and work-related factors predict work motivation in Greek nurses. Nurses' motivation is crucial for an effective health-care system. Herzberg's and Maslow's motivation theories constitute the framework of this study. The sample consisted of 200 nurses from every sector and registration level in a University Hospital in Greece. The response rate was 76%. A previously developed and validated questionnaire addressing four work-related motivators (job attributes, remuneration, co-workers and achievements) on a five-point Likert scale. Most participants were women, married, between 36 years and 45 years old and higher education graduates. The highest mean score was recorded for 'achievements' (mean 4.07, SD 0.72), which emerged as the most important motivator. Job satisfaction, work sector and age were statistically significantly related to motivational factors. Nurses placed emphasis on motivators not strictly relating to economic rewards, but which can be seen as intrinsic and could lead to self-actualization. The constantly changing health sector requires that human resources and job context be a priority for health administrators. By promoting nurses' satisfaction and efficacy, an improvement in service quality is expected. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Social, economic, and resource predictors of variability in household air pollution from cookstove emissions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gautam N Yadama

    Full Text Available We examine if social and economic factors, fuelwood availability, market and media access are associated with owning a modified stove and variation in household emissions from biomass combustion, a significant environmental and health concern in rural India. We analyze cross-sectional household socio-economic data, and PM(2.5 and particulate surface area concentration in household emissions from cookstoves (n=100. This data set combines household social and economic variables with particle emissions indexes associated with the household stove. The data are from the Foundation for Ecological Society, India, from a field study of household emissions. In our analysis, we find that less access to ready and free fuelwood and higher wealth are associated with owning a replacement/modified stove. We also find that additional kitchen ventilation is associated with a 12% reduction in particulate emissions concentration (p<0.05, after we account for the type of stove used. We did not find a significant association between replacement/modified stove on household emissions when controlling for additional ventilation. Higher wealth and education are associated with having additional ventilation. Social caste, market and media access did not have any effect on the presence of replacement or modified stoves or additional ventilation. While the data available to us does not allow an examination of direct health outcomes from emissions variations, adverse environmental and health impacts of toxic household emissions are well established elsewhere in the literature. The value of this study is in its further examination of the role of social and economic factors and available fuelwood from commons in type of stove use, and additional ventilation, and their effect on household emissions. These associations are important since the two direct routes to improving household air quality among the poor are stove type and better ventilation.

  16. Ongoing EEG phase as a trial-by-trial predictor of perceptual and attentional variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rufin eVanRullen

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Even in well-controlled laboratory environments, apparently identical repetitions of an experimental trial can give rise to highly variable perceptual outcomes and behavioral responses. This variability is generally discarded as a reflection of intrinsic noise in neuronal systems. However, part of this variability may be accounted for by trial-by-trial fluctuations of the phase of ongoing oscillations at the moment of stimulus presentation. For example, the phase of an EEG oscillation reflecting the rapid waxing and waning of sustained attention can predict the perception of a subsequent visual stimulus at threshold. Similar ongoing periodicities account for a portion of the trial-by-trial variability of visual reaction times. We review the available experimental evidence linking ongoing EEG phase to perceptual and attentional variability, and the corresponding methodology. We propose future tests of this relation, and discuss the theoretical implications for understanding the neuronal dynamics of sensory perception.

  17. On the significance of bell's inequality for hidden-variable theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Baere, W.

    1984-01-01

    It is explicitly shown that Bell's derivation of the generalized Bell inequality and its subsequent interpretation depend on an implicit hypothesis concerning the reproducibility of some set of hidden variables in different runs of the same experiment

  18. Clinical significance of mobile health assessed sleep duration and variability in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, Christopher N; Gershon, Anda; Eyler, Lisa T; Depp, Colin A

    2016-10-01

    Sleep disturbances are prevalent, persistent, and impairing features of bipolar disorder. However, the near-term and cumulative impact of the severity and variability of sleep disturbances on symptoms and functioning remains unclear. We examined self-reported daily sleep duration and variability in relation to mood symptoms, medication adherence, cognitive functioning, and concurrent daily affect. Forty-one outpatients diagnosed with bipolar disorder were asked to provide daily reports of sleep duration and affect collected via ecological momentary assessment with smartphones over eleven weeks. Measures of depressive and manic symptoms, medication adherence, and cognitive function were collected at baseline and concurrent assessment of affect were collected daily. Analyses examined whether sleep duration or variability were associated with baseline measures and changes in same-day or next-day affect. Greater sleep duration variability (but not average sleep duration) was associated with greater depressive and manic symptom severity, and lower medication adherence at baseline, and with lower and more variable ratings of positive affect and higher ratings of negative affect. Sleep durations shorter than 7-8 h were associated with lower same-day ratings of positive and higher same-day ratings of negative affect, however this did not extend to next-day affect. Greater cumulative day-to-day sleep duration variability, but not average sleep duration, was related to more severe mood symptoms, lower self-reported medication adherence and higher levels of negative affect. Bouts of short- or long-duration sleep had transient impact on affect. Day-to-day sleep variability may be important to incorporate into clinical assessment of sleep disturbances in bipolar disorder. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Socioeconomic, emotional, and physical execution variables as predictors of cognitive performance in a Spanish sample of middle-aged and older community-dwelling participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Mari Feli; Facal, David; Juncos-Rabadán, Onésimo; Yanguas, Javier

    2017-10-01

    Cognitive performance is not easily predicted, since different variables play an important role in the manifestation of age-related declines. The objective of this study is to analyze the predictors of cognitive performance in a Spanish sample over 50 years from a multidimensional perspective, including socioeconomic, affective, and physical variables. Some of them are well-known predictors of cognition and others are emergent variables in the study of cognition. The total sample, drawn from the "Longitudinal Study Aging in Spain (ELES)" project, consisted of 832 individuals without signs of cognitive impairment. Cognitive function was measured with tests evaluating episodic and working memory, visuomotor speed, fluency, and naming. Thirteen independent variables were selected as predictors belonging to socioeconomic, emotional, and physical execution areas. Multiple linear regressions, following the enter method, were calculated for each age group in order to study the influence of these variables in cognitive performance. Education is the variable which best predicts cognitive performance in the 50-59, 60-69, and 70-79 years old groups. In the 80+ group, the best predictor is objective economic status and education does not enter in the model. Age-related decline can be modified by the influence of educational and socioeconomic variables. In this context, it is relevant to take into account how easy is to modify certain variables, compared to others which depend on each person's life course.

  20. Cognitive Ability and Personality Variables as Predictors of School Grades and Test Scores in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofer, Manfred; Kuhnle, Claudia; Kilian, Britta; Fries, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    The predictive power of cognitive ability and self-control strength for self-reported grades and an achievement test were studied. It was expected that the variables use of time structure, academic procrastination, and motivational interference during learning further aid in predicting students' achievement because they are operative in situations…

  1. Variability in Predictions from Online Tools: A Demonstration Using Internet-Based Melanoma Predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabor, Emily C; Coit, Daniel; Gershenwald, Jeffrey E; McMasters, Kelly M; Michaelson, James S; Stromberg, Arnold J; Panageas, Katherine S

    2018-02-22

    Prognostic models are increasingly being made available online, where they can be publicly accessed by both patients and clinicians. These online tools are an important resource for patients to better understand their prognosis and for clinicians to make informed decisions about treatment and follow-up. The goal of this analysis was to highlight the possible variability in multiple online prognostic tools in a single disease. To demonstrate the variability in survival predictions across online prognostic tools, we applied a single validation dataset to three online melanoma prognostic tools. Data on melanoma patients treated at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center between 2000 and 2014 were retrospectively collected. Calibration was assessed using calibration plots and discrimination was assessed using the C-index. In this demonstration project, we found important differences across the three models that led to variability in individual patients' predicted survival across the tools, especially in the lower range of predictions. In a validation test using a single-institution data set, calibration and discrimination varied across the three models. This study underscores the potential variability both within and across online tools, and highlights the importance of using methodological rigor when developing a prognostic model that will be made publicly available online. The results also reinforce that careful development and thoughtful interpretation, including understanding a given tool's limitations, are required in order for online prognostic tools that provide survival predictions to be a useful resource for both patients and clinicians.

  2. Child predictors of learning to control variables via instruction or self-discovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagensveld, B.; Segers, P.C.J.; Kleemans, M.A.J.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.

    2015-01-01

    We examined the role child factors on the acquisition and transfer of learning the control of variables strategy (CVS) via instruction or self-discovery. Seventy-six fourth graders and 43 sixth graders were randomly assigned to a group receiving direct CVS instruction or a discovery learning group.

  3. Variability in Preschool Teachers' Interactions with Children as a Predictor of Children's Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curby, Timothy W.; Brock, Laura L.; Hamre, Bridget K.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this proposal is to examine whether variability in the quality of teachers' interactions (Emotional Support, Classroom Organization, Instructional Support) with students is systematically related to the children's development. In other words, the authors examine whether the amount that teachers vary over the course of a day is a…

  4. Weight Suppression as a Predictor Variable in the Treatment of Eating Disorders: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Paul E; Lebow, Jocelyn; Rienecke, Renee D

    2018-04-21

    Weight suppression (WS - the difference between highest body weight and current body weight) has been proposed as a predictor of treatment outcome within eating disorders (EDs), although this hypothesis has not been consistently supported. Review the association between pre-treatment WS and outcome following psychological treatment for EDs. A comprehensive electronic database search for published and unpublished literature from 1979 to 2017. Reference lists were also inspected. Eligibility criteria were determined according to relevant guidelines and a quality appraisal was conducted. Twelve studies met inclusion criteria (one was subsequently excluded based on insufficient data). Greater WS was generally associated with weight gain at post-treatment although not with other treatment outcomes. The existing evidence, with data from 1566 participants, is summarised according to three main post-treatment outcomes: weight change; treatment completion; and symptom abstinence. Patients with disordered eating and greater WS may need to gain more weight than others during treatment to achieve good outcomes. Recommendations for future studies are provided. Evidence-based treatments for EDs may benefit from considering WS when planning treatment, such as further psychoeducation on weight changes. Societal interventions regarding promotion of healthy eating may also draw on these findings. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  5. Variability and predictors of serum perfluoroalkyl substance concentrations during pregnancy and early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingsley, Samantha L; Eliot, Melissa N; Kelsey, Karl T; Calafat, Antonia M; Ehrlich, Shelley; Lanphear, Bruce P; Chen, Aimin; Braun, Joseph M

    2018-08-01

    Exposure to poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), ubiquitous and persistent environmental contaminants, could be associated with adverse health outcomes, but there are limited longitudinal data assessing patterns and predictors of exposure during childhood. We quantified concentrations of eight different PFAS in sera collected from women during pregnancy and children at delivery and ages 3 and 8 years in 367 mother-child pairs enrolled in a prospective cohort from 2003 to 2006. In general, median childhood PFAS concentrations increased from birth to age 3 and then decreased by age 8. Maternal serum PFAS concentrations during pregnancy were strongly correlated with cord serum concentrations (0.76 PFAS concentrations, including income, race, and parity. In children, serum PFAS concentrations were associated with maternal age at delivery, race, parity, and child age. Breastfeeding duration was positively associated with childhood PFAS concentrations at ages 3 and 8 years. In addition, stain repellant use was associated with higher perfluorooctanoic acid and perfluorohexane sulfonic acid concentrations at age 8 years. Serum PFAS concentrations are higher during early childhood, a potentially sensitive period of development, and were highest among breastfed children. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Procrastination and predictor variables among a group of dental students in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atalayin, Cigdem; Balkis, Murat; Tezel, Huseyin; Kayrak, Gul

    2018-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of procrastination among a group of Turkish dental students and to determine the predictors and consequences of procrastination. A total number of 273 females and 179 males (aged between 18 and 28) were included in the study. Tuckman procrastination scale, Academic Life Satisfaction Scale, Concern over Mistake Scale, Poor Time Management Scale, Self-Doubt Scale, Irrational Beliefs about Studying Scale, Positive and Negative Affect Schedule and Life Satisfaction Scale were used to gather data. Results indicated that 50% of participants were more likely to procrastinate their academic assignments or tasks. Procrastination score did not differ according to gender. The findings suggested that procrastinating students had a higher level of poor time management, self-doubt and irrational beliefs about studying, and poor academic performance and well-being than their non-procrastinating counterparts. Preventive strategies are necessary to overcome procrastination which affects the academic achievement, satisfaction, and well-being of dental students.

  7. Variable Origin of the Superior Laryngeal Artery and Its Clinical Significance

    OpenAIRE

    Soubhagya R. Nayak1*, Ashwin Krishnamurthy2, Latha V. Prabhu2, Bhagath Kumar Potu3, Ishwar B. Bagoji4, Jiji PJ2 and Ganesh Kumar Chettiar2

    2011-01-01

    The superior laryngeal artery (SLA) is the dominant arterial supply of the laryngeal muscles, mucosa and glands. The purpose of the present study was to document the variable origin of the SLA in the carotid triangle. Although the variation in the SLA origin and morphology is important during the partial laryngectomy and reconstruction surgery of the larynx, the description of the SLA in modern literature is vague. The anatomy of SLA was studied in 37 adult South Indian preserved cadavers age...

  8. Development and application of downscaled hydroclimatic predictor variables for use in climate vulnerability and assessment studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, James; Boynton, Ryan; Flint, Lorraine; Flint, Alan; N'goc Le, Thuy

    2012-01-01

    This paper outlines the production of 270-meter grid-scale maps for 14 climate and derivative hydrologic variables for a region that encompasses the State of California and all the streams that flow into it. The paper describes the Basin Characterization Model (BCM), a map-based, mechanistic model used to process the hydrological variables. Three historic and three future time periods of 30 years (1911–1940, 1941–1970, 1971–2000, 2010–2039, 2040–2069, and 2070–2099) were developed that summarize 180 years of monthly historic and future climate values. These comprise a standardized set of fine-scale climate data that were shared with 14 research groups, including the U.S. National Park Service and several University of California groups as part of this project. We present three analyses done with the outputs from the Basin Characterization Model: trends in hydrologic variables over baseline, the most recent 30-year period; a calibration and validation effort that uses measured discharge values from 139 streamgages and compares those to Basin Characterization Model-derived projections of discharge for the same basins; and an assessment of the trends of specific hydrological variables that links historical trend to projected future change under four future climate projections. Overall, increases in potential evapotranspiration dominate other influences in future hydrologic cycles. Increased potential evapotranspiration drives decreasing runoff even under forecasts with increased precipitation, and drives increased climatic water deficit, which may lead to conversion of dominant vegetation types across large parts of the study region as well as have implications for rain-fed agriculture. The potential evapotranspiration is driven by air temperatures, and the Basin Characterization Model permits it to be integrated with a water balance model that can be derived for landscapes and summarized by watershed. These results show the utility of using a process

  9. Are Macro variables good predictors? A prediction based on the number of total medals acquired

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahram Shafiee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A large amount of effort is spent on forecasting the outcome of sporting events. Moreover, there are large quantities of data regarding the outcomes of sporting events and the factors which are assumed to contribute to those outcomes. In this paper we tried to predict the success of nations at the Asian Games through macro-economic, political, social and cultural variables. we used the information of variables include urban population, Education Expenditures, Age Structure, GDP Real Growth Rate, GDP Per Capita, Unemployment Rate, Population, Inflation Average, current account balance, life expectancy at birth and Merchandise Trade for all of the participating countries in Asian Games from 1970 to 2006 in order to build the model and then this model was tested by the information of variables in 2010. The prediction is based on the number of total medals acquired each country. In this research we used WEKA software that is a popular suite of machine learning software written in Java. The value of correlation coefficient between the predicted and original ranks is 90.42%. Neural Network Model, between 28 countries mentioned, predicts their ranks according to the maximum difference between predicted and original ranks of 19 countries (67.85% is 3, the maximum difference between predicted and original ranks of 8 countries (28.57% is between 4 to 6 and the difference between predicted and original ranks of 1 countries (3.57% is more than 6.

  10. The Significance of the Spatial Variability of Rainfall on the Numerical Simulation of Urban Floods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Guillaume Courty

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The growth of urban population, combined with an increase of extreme events due to climate change call for a better understanding and representation of urban floods. The uncertainty in rainfall distribution is one of the most important factors that affects the watershed response to a given precipitation event. However, most of the investigations on this topic have considered theoretical scenarios, with little reference to case studies in the real world. This paper incorporates the use of spatially-variable precipitation data from a long-range radar in the simulation of the severe floods that impacted the city of Hull, U.K., in June 2007. This radar-based rainfall field is merged with rain gauge data using a Kriging with External Drift interpolation technique. The utility of this spatially-variable information is investigated through the comparison of computed flooded areas (uniform and radar against those registered by public authorities. Both results show similar skills at reproducing the real event, but differences in the total precipitated volumes, water depths and flooded areas are illustrated. It is envisaged that in urban areas and with the advent of higher resolution radars, these differences will be more important and call for further investigation.

  11. Psychological predictor variables of emotional maladjustment in infertility: Analysis of the moderating role of gender

    OpenAIRE

    Ramírez-Uclés, Isabel M.; Castillo-Aparicio, M. Del; Moreno-Rosset, C.

    2015-01-01

    El objeto del estudio es determinar si las variables ansiedad-estado, ansiedad-rasgo, afecto positivo, afecto negativo, alexitimia y recursos adaptativos (personales e interpersonales) pueden predecir el desajuste emocional en personas infértiles, analizando el posible papel modulador del sexo en dicho desajuste. Participaron en el estudio 101 personas con un diagnóstico de infertilidad (51 hombres y 50 mujeres) que respondieron a una batería de pruebas psicológicas (DERA, Cuestionario de Des...

  12. On the selection of significant variables in a model for the deteriorating process of facades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrat, C.; Gibert, V.; Casas, J. R.; Rapinski, J.

    2017-10-01

    In previous works the authors of this paper have introduced a predictive system that uses survival analysis techniques for the study of time-to-failure in the facades of a building stock. The approach is population based, in order to obtain information on the evolution of the stock across time, and to help the manager in the decision making process on global maintenance strategies. For the decision making it is crutial to determine those covariates -like materials, morphology and characteristics of the facade, orientation or environmental conditions- that play a significative role in the progression of different failures. The proposed platform also incorporates an open source GIS plugin that includes survival and test moduli that allow the investigator to model the time until a lesion taking into account the variables collected during the inspection process. The aim of this paper is double: a) to shortly introduce the predictive system, as well as the inspection and the analysis methodologies and b) to introduce and illustrate the modeling strategy for the deteriorating process of an urban front. The illustration will be focused on the city of L’Hospitalet de Llobregat (Barcelona, Spain) in which more than 14,000 facades have been inspected and analyzed.

  13. Application of Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs for Weight Predictions of Blue Crabs (Callinectes sapidus RATHBUN, 1896 Using Predictor Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. TURELI BILEN

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available An evaluation of the performance of artificial networks (ANNs to estimate the weights of blue crab (Callinectes sapidus catches in Yumurtalık Cove (Iskenderun Bay that uses measured predictor variables is presented, including carapace width (CW, sex (male, female and female with eggs, and sampling month. Blue crabs (n=410 were collected each month between 15 September 1996 and 15 May 1998. Sex, CW, and sampling month were used and specified in the input layer of the network. The weights of the blue crabs were utilized in the output layer of the network. A multi-layer perception architecture model was used and was calibrated with the Levenberg Marguardt (LM algorithm. Finally, the values were determined by the ANN model using the actual data. The mean square error (MSE was measured as 3.3, and the best results had a correlation coefficient (R of 0.93. We compared the predictive capacity of the general linear model (GLM versus the Artificial Neural Network model (ANN for the estimation of the weights of blue crabs from independent field data. The results indicated the higher performance capacity of the ANN to predict weights compared to the GLM (R=0.97 vs. R=0.95, raw variable when evaluated against independent field data.

  14. Significant and variable linear polarization during the prompt optical flash of GRB 160625B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troja, E.; Lipunov, V. M.; Mundell, C. G.; Butler, N. R.; Watson, A. M.; Kobayashi, S.; Cenko, S. B.; Marshall, F. E.; Ricci, R.; Fruchter, A.; Wieringa, M. H.; Gorbovskoy, E. S.; Kornilov, V.; Kutyrev, A.; Lee, W. H.; Toy, V.; Tyurina, N. V.; Budnev, N. M.; Buckley, D. A. H.; González, J.; Gress, O.; Horesh, A.; Panasyuk, M. I.; Prochaska, J. X.; Ramirez-Ruiz, E.; Rebolo Lopez, R.; Richer, M. G.; Roman-Zuniga, C.; Serra-Ricart, M.; Yurkov, V.; Gehrels, N.

    2017-07-01

    Newly formed black holes of stellar mass launch collimated outflows (jets) of ionized matter that approach the speed of light. These outflows power prompt, brief and intense flashes of γ-rays known as γ-ray bursts (GRBs), followed by longer-lived afterglow radiation that is detected across the electromagnetic spectrum. Measuring the polarization of the observed GRB radiation provides a direct probe of the magnetic fields in the collimated jets. Rapid-response polarimetric observations of newly discovered bursts have probed the initial afterglow phase, and show that, minutes after the prompt emission has ended, the degree of linear polarization can be as high as 30 per cent - consistent with the idea that a stable, globally ordered magnetic field permeates the jet at large distances from the central source. By contrast, optical and γ-ray observations during the prompt phase have led to discordant and often controversial results, and no definitive conclusions have been reached regarding the origin of the prompt radiation or the configuration of the magnetic field. Here we report the detection of substantial (8.3 ± 0.8 per cent from our most conservative simulation), variable linear polarization of a prompt optical flash that accompanied the extremely energetic and long-lived prompt γ-ray emission from GRB 160625B. Our measurements probe the structure of the magnetic field at an early stage of the jet, closer to its central black hole, and show that the prompt phase is produced via fast-cooling synchrotron radiation in a large-scale magnetic field that is advected from the black hole and distorted by dissipation processes within the jet.

  15. Variability of Cenococcum colonization and its ecophysiological significance for young conifers at alpine-treeline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasselquist, Niles; Germino, Matthew J; McGonigle, Terence; Smith, William K

    2005-03-01

    * Plants establishing in environments that are marginal for growth could be particularly sensitive to mycorrhizal associations. We investigated ectomycorrhizal colonization and its significance for young conifers growing at, or above, their normal limits for growth, in the alpine-treeline ecotone. * Colonization of seedlings (treeline may include a below-ground, mycorrhizal component that complements previously reported effects of trees on the microclimate and ecophysiology of seedlings.

  16. Diabetes as an independent predictor of left ventricular longitudinal strain reduction at rest and during dobutamine stress test in patients with significant coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierzbowska-Drabik, Karina; Trzos, Ewa; Kurpesa, Malgorzata; Rechcinski, Tomasz; Miskowiec, Dawid; Cieslik-Guerra, Urszula; Uznanska-Loch, Barbara; Sobczak, Maria; Kasprzak, Jaroslaw Damian

    2017-12-09

    Diabetes (DM) is a strong cardiovascular risk factor modifying also the left ventricular (LV) function that may be objectively assessed with echocardiographic strain analysis. Although the impact of isolated DM on myocardial deformation has been already studied, few data concern diabetics with coronary artery disease (CAD), especially in all stages of dobutamine stress echocardiography (DSE). We compared LV systolic function during DSE in CAD with and without DM using state-of-the art speckle-tracking quantification and assessed the impact of DM on LV systolic strain. DSE was performed in 250 patients with angina who afterwards had coronarography with ≥50% stenosis in the left main artery and ≥70% in other arteries considered as significant. In this analysis, we included 127 patients with confirmed CAD: 42 with DM [DM(+); mean age 64 ± 9 years] and 85 patients without DM [DM(-); mean age 63 ± 9 years]. The severity of CAD and LV ejection fraction (EF) were similar in both groups. Global and regional LV peak systolic longitudinal strain (PSLS) revealed in all DSE phases lower values in DM(+) group: 14.5 ± 3.6% vs. 17.4 ± 4.0% at rest; P = 0.0001, 13.8 ± 3.9% vs. 16.7 ± 4.0% at peak stress; P = 0.0002, and 14.2 ± 3.1% vs. 15.5 ± 3.5% at recovery; P = 0.0432 for global parameters, although dobutamine challenge did not enhance further resting differences. LV EF, body surface area, and diabetes were independent predictors for strain in 16-variable model (R2 = 0, 51, P coexisting CAD and DM on myocardial strain. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2017. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Dropout in the lower tracks of Dutch secondary education : Predictor variables and variation among schools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luyten, H; Bosker, R.J.; Dekkers, H; Derks, A

    2003-01-01

    This study analyses the data from a large-scale longitudinal investigation into the effect of both school and student characteristics on the dropout rate for students in lower secondary education in The Netherlands. Dropout rates were found to vary significantly between schools, but only a single

  18. Logistic Regression for Seismically Induced Landslide Predictions: Using Uniform Hazard and Geophysical Layers as Predictor Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowicki, M. A.; Hearne, M.; Thompson, E.; Wald, D. J.

    2012-12-01

    Seismically induced landslides present a costly and often fatal threats in many mountainous regions. Substantial effort has been invested to understand where seismically induced landslides may occur in the future. Both slope-stability methods and, more recently, statistical approaches to the problem are described throughout the literature. Though some regional efforts have succeeded, no uniformly agreed-upon method is available for predicting the likelihood and spatial extent of seismically induced landslides. For use in the U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) Prompt Assessment of Global Earthquakes for Response (PAGER) system, we would like to routinely make such estimates, in near-real time, around the globe. Here we use the recently produced USGS ShakeMap Atlas of historic earthquakes to develop an empirical landslide probability model. We focus on recent events, yet include any digitally-mapped landslide inventories for which well-constrained ShakeMaps are also available. We combine these uniform estimates of the input shaking (e.g., peak acceleration and velocity) with broadly available susceptibility proxies, such as topographic slope and surface geology. The resulting database is used to build a predictive model of the probability of landslide occurrence with logistic regression. The landslide database includes observations from the Northridge, California (1994); Wenchuan, China (2008); ChiChi, Taiwan (1999); and Chuetsu, Japan (2004) earthquakes; we also provide ShakeMaps for moderate-sized events without landslide for proper model testing and training. The performance of the regression model is assessed with both statistical goodness-of-fit metrics and a qualitative review of whether or not the model is able to capture the spatial extent of landslides for each event. Part of our goal is to determine which variables can be employed based on globally-available data or proxies, and whether or not modeling results from one region are transferrable to

  19. Contextual Variability in Personality from Significant-Other Knowledge and Relational Selves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan M Andersen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We argue that the self is intrinsically embedded in an interpersonal context such that it varies in IF-THEN terms, as the relational self. We have demonstrated that representations of the significant other and the relationship with that other are automatically activated by situational cues and that this activation affects both experienced and expressed aspects of the self and personality. Here, we expand on developments of the IF–THEN cognitive-affective framework of personality (CAPS, Mischel & Shoda, 1995, by extending it to the domain of interpersonal relationships at the dyadic level (Andersen & Chen, 2002. Going beyond Mischel’s early research (Mischel, 1968, our framework combines social cognition and learning theory with a learning-based psychodynamic approach, which provides the basis for extensive research on the social-cognitive process of transference and the relational self as it arises in everyday social interactions (Andersen & Cole, 1990, evidence from which contributes to a modern conceptualization of personality that emphasizes the centrality of the situation.

  20. Contextual Variability in Personality From Significant-Other Knowledge and Relational Selves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Susan M; Tuskeviciute, Rugile; Przybylinski, Elizabeth; Ahn, Janet N; Xu, Joy H

    2015-01-01

    We argue that the self is intrinsically embedded in an interpersonal context such that it varies in IF-THEN terms, as the relational self. We have demonstrated that representations of the significant other and the relationship with that other are automatically activated by situational cues and that this activation affects both experienced and expressed aspects of the self and personality. Here, we expand on developments of the IF-THEN cognitive-affective framework of personality system (Mischel and Shoda, 1995), by extending it to the domain of interpersonal relationships at the dyadic level (Andersen and Chen, 2002). Going beyond Mischel's early research (Mischel, 1968), our framework combines social cognition and learning theory with a learning-based psychodynamic approach, which provides the basis for extensive research on the social-cognitive process of transference and the relational self as it arises in everyday social interactions (Andersen and Cole, 1990), evidence from which contributes to a modern conceptualization of personality that emphasizes the centrality of the situation.

  1. A multicenter study of outcome in systemic lupus erythematosus. I. Entry variables as predictors of prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginzler, E M; Diamond, H S; Weiner, M; Schlesinger, M; Fries, J F; Wasner, C; Medsger, T A; Ziegler, G; Klippel, J H; Hadler, N M; Albert, D A; Hess, E V; Spencer-Green, G; Grayzel, A; Worth, D; Hahn, B H; Barnett, E V

    1982-06-01

    A retrospective study of factors influencing survival in 1,103 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) was carried out at 9 university centers diverse in geographic, socioeconomic, and racial characteristics. The mortality and disease characteristics of the patients at study entry varied widely among centers. The survival rates from the time patients with a diagnosis of SLE were first evaluated at the participating center was 90% at 1 year, 77% at 5 years, and 71% at 10 years. Patients with a serum creatinine greater than 3 mg/dl at study entry had the lowest survival rates: 48%, 29%, and 12% at 1, 5, and 10 years, respectively. Survival rate also correlated independently with the entry hematocrit, degree of proteinuria, number of preliminary American Rheumatism Association criteria for SLE satisfied, and source of funding of medical care. When data were corrected for socioeconomic status, race/ethnic origin did not significantly influence survival. Survival rates varied widely at different participating institutions, generally due to differences in disease severity. Place of treatment was independently associated with survival only in the second year after study entry. Disease duration before study entry did not account for the differences in disease severity.

  2. A Study on Predictor Variables of Organizational Climate in Educational Institutes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudivada Venkat Rao

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Organization Climate is a fancied term which is relevant at any point of time and is transient. The contextual reference of Organizational Climate is made for its ability to attract, retain and nurture talent. But, even though higher education in India is important; it failed to attract the best talent. The Organizational Climate and its contents were subjected to further scrutiny in this paper in Institutes of Higher Education in Visakhapatnam. The study examines the profile factors and their influence on the components of Organizational Climate. Further, the intra and inter relationships were also tested. The results show direction to the practioners for improving the significant influencing factors. The sample of 150 faculty members was drawn from five Institutes of Higher Education in Visakhapatnam. The human resources practices relating to Working Conditions, Job Design, Performance Management, Compensation, Relations, Communications, Training and Development, Objectivity and Rationality, Grievance Handling and Welfare were considered for estimating the organizational climate. The multi-regression and mean analysis find organizational climate as moderate. The gender diversity and female influence were there in the Educational Institutes. However, Compensation has a very low mean. The Performance Management, Objectivity & Rationality and Relations were found to be the major influencers.

  3. Predictor variables of performance in recreational male long-distance inline skaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knechtle, Beat; Knechtle, Patrizia; Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Senn, Oliver; Rosemann, Thomas; Lepers, Romuald

    2011-06-01

    We investigated the associations between selected anthropometric and training characteristics with race time in 84 recreational male long-distance inline skaters at the longest inline marathon in Europe, the 'Inline One-eleven' over 111 km in Switzerland, using bi- and multivariate analysis. The mean (s) race time was 264 (41) min. The bivariate analysis showed that age (r = 0.30), body mass (r = 0.42), body mass index (r = 0.35), circumference of upper arm (r = 0.32), circumference of thigh (r = 0.29), circumference of calf (r = 0.38), skin-fold of thigh (r = 0.22), skin-fold of calf (r = 0.27), the sum of skin-folds (r = 0.43), percent body fat (r = 0.45), duration per training unit in inline skating (r = 0.33), and speed during training (r = -0.46) were significantly and positively correlated to race time. Stepwise multiple regression showed that duration per training unit (P = 0.003), age (P = 0.029) and percent body fat (P = 0.016) were the best correlated with race time. Race time in a long-distance inline race such as the 'Inline One-eleven' over 111 km with a mean race time of ∼260 min might be predicted by the following equation (r(2) = 0.41): Race time (min) = 114.91 + 0:51* (duration per training unit, min) + 0:85* (age, years) +3:78* (body fat, %) for recreational long-distance inline skaters.

  4. Distribution, variability, and predictors of urinary bisphenol A levels in 50 North Carolina adults over a six-week monitoring period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Marsha K; Nash, Maliha; Barr, Dana Boyd; Starr, James M; Scott Clifton, M; Sobus, Jon R

    2018-03-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is commonly manufactured to make polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins for use in consumer products and packaged goods. BPA has been found in several different types of environmental media (e.g., food, dust, and air). Many cross-sectional studies have frequently detected BPA concentrations in adult urine samples. However, limited data are available on the temporal variability and important predictors of urinary BPA concentrations in adults. In this work, the major objectives were to: 1) quantify BPA levels in duplicate-diet solid food, drinking water, hard floor surface wipe, and urine samples (first-morning void [FMV], bedtime, and 24-h) collected from adults over a six-week monitoring period; 2) determine the temporal variability of urinary BPA levels using concentration, specific gravity (SG) adjusted, creatinine (CR) adjusted, and excretion rate values, and; 3) examine associations between available study factors and urinary BPA concentrations. In 2009-2011, a convenience sample of 50 adults was recruited from residential settings in North Carolina. The participants completed diaries and collected samples during weeks 1, 2, and/or 6 of a six-week monitoring period. BPA was detected in 38%, 4%, and 99% of the solid food (n=775), drinking water (n=50), and surface wipe samples (n=138), respectively. Total BPA (free plus conjugated) was detected in 98% of the 2477 urine samples. Median urinary BPA levels were 2.07ng/mL, 2.20ng/mL-SG, 2.29ng/mg, and 2.31ng/min for concentration, SG-adjusted, CR-adjusted, and excretion rate values, respectively. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) estimates for BPA showed poor reproducibility (≤0.35) for all urine sample types and methods over a day, week, and six weeks. CR-adjusted bedtime voids collected over six-weeks required the fewest, realistic number of samples (n=11) to obtain a reliable biomarker estimate (ICC=0.80). Results of linear mixed-effects models showed that sex, race, season, and CR

  5. The Glasgow Prognostic Score as a significant predictor of diffuse large B cell lymphoma treated with R-CHOP in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoyang; Zhang, Yunxiang; Zhao, Weili; Liu, Zhao; Shen, Yang; Li, Junmin; Shen, Zhixiang

    2015-01-01

    The Glasgow Prognostic Score (GPS) incorporates C-reactive protein and albumin as clinically useful markers of tumor behavior and shows significant prognostic value in several types of solid tumors. The accuracy of the GPS in predicting outcomes in diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) remains unknown. We performed this study to evaluate the prognostic significance of the GPS in DLBCL in China. We retrospectively analyzed 160 patients with newly diagnosed DLBCL at the Shanghai Ruijin Hospital (China). The prognostic value of the GPS was evaluated and compared with that of the International Prognostic Index (IPI) and immunohistochemical subtyping. The GPS was defined as follows: GPS-0, C-reactive protein (CRP) ≤10 mg/L and albumin ≥35 g/L; GPS-1, CRP >10 mg/L or albumin L; and GPS-2, CRP >10 mg/L and albumin L. Patients with lower GPS tended to have better outcomes including progression-free survival (PFS, P GPS and high IPI score were independent adverse predictors of OS. Similar to several other tumors, GPS is a reliable predictor of survival outcomes in DLBCL patients treated with R-CHOP therapy. Inflammatory responses are implicated in the progression and survival of patients with DLBCL.

  6. Predictors of pre-game anxiety dysphoria among teenage soccer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Predictors of pre-game anxiety dysphoria among teenage soccer players. ... The result confirmed a significant composite effect of the dependent variable on the independent variables (0.87637, 74.49548, ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  7. The spatial distribution of known predictors of autism spectrum disorders impacts geographic variability in prevalence in central North Carolina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoffman Kate

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The causes of autism spectrum disorders (ASD remain largely unknown and widely debated; however, evidence increasingly points to the importance of environmental exposures. A growing number of studies use geographic variability in ASD prevalence or exposure patterns to investigate the association between environmental factors and ASD. However, differences in the geographic distribution of established risk and predictive factors for ASD, such as maternal education or age, can interfere with investigations of ASD etiology. We evaluated geographic variability in the prevalence of ASD in central North Carolina and the impact of spatial confounding by known risk and predictive factors. Methods Children meeting a standardized case definition for ASD at 8 years of age were identified through records-based surveillance for 8 counties biennially from 2002 to 2008 (n=532. Vital records were used to identify the underlying cohort (15% random sample of children born in the same years as children with an ASD, n=11,034, and to obtain birth addresses. We used generalized additive models (GAMs to estimate the prevalence of ASD across the region by smoothing latitude and longitude. GAMs, unlike methods used in previous spatial analyses of ASD, allow for extensive adjustment of individual-level risk factors (e.g. maternal age and education when evaluating spatial variability of disease prevalence. Results Unadjusted maps revealed geographic variation in surveillance-recognized ASD. Children born in certain regions of the study area were up to 1.27 times as likely to be recognized as having ASD compared to children born in the study area as a whole (prevalence ratio (PR range across the study area 0.57-1.27; global P=0.003. However, geographic gradients of ASD prevalence were attenuated after adjusting for spatial confounders (adjusted PR range 0.72-1.12 across the study area; global P=0.052. Conclusions In these data, spatial variation of ASD

  8. Prevalence and predictors of clinically significant depressive symptoms among Chinese and Malawian children: a cross-cultural comparative cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zgambo, Maggie; Kalembo, Fatch Welcome; Wang, Honghong; He, Guoping; Chen, Sanmei

    2014-08-14

    Multicultural comparative studies have recently increased scientific knowledge base regarding the mental health of diverse populations. This cross-cultural study was cross-sectionally designed to assess differences in the prevalence and predictors of clinically significant depressive symptoms between Chinese and Malawian children. A total of 478 children (237 Chinese and 241 Malawians) were randomly recruited in the study. The participants completed a Children Depression Inventory in the dimensions of Negative Mood, Interpersonal Problems, Ineffectiveness, Anhedonia, and Negative Self- Esteem. They further provided demographic and family structure information. Data were analyzed by Student's t-test, Chi-square test, and logistic regression. The prevalence of clinically significant depressive symptoms was 16% and 12.4% for Chinese and Malawian study participants, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that fighting among siblings (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 4.1, 95% CI, 3.5-5.9), fighting among children and parents (aOR = 7.7, 95% CI, 4.6-9.8) and living with father only (aOR = 4.1, 95% CI, 3.4-6.7) were significant predictors of clinically significant depressive symptoms among Chinese study participants. On the other hand, clinically significant depressive symptoms were predicted by employment status of a mom only among Malawian study participants (aOR = 3.0, 95% CI, 2.3-5.9). We conclude that diverse cultures affect children's mental health differently and this cluster of children has a noticeable amount of depressive symptoms that in the least requires further diagnosis and preventive measures.

  9. Correction of the significance level when attempting multiple transformations of an explanatory variable in generalized linear models

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background In statistical modeling, finding the most favorable coding for an exploratory quantitative variable involves many tests. This process involves multiple testing problems and requires the correction of the significance level. Methods For each coding, a test on the nullity of the coefficient associated with the new coded variable is computed. The selected coding corresponds to that associated with the largest statistical test (or equivalently the smallest pvalue). In the context of the Generalized Linear Model, Liquet and Commenges (Stat Probability Lett,71:33–38,2005) proposed an asymptotic correction of the significance level. This procedure, based on the score test, has been developed for dichotomous and Box-Cox transformations. In this paper, we suggest the use of resampling methods to estimate the significance level for categorical transformations with more than two levels and, by definition those that involve more than one parameter in the model. The categorical transformation is a more flexible way to explore the unknown shape of the effect between an explanatory and a dependent variable. Results The simulations we ran in this study showed good performances of the proposed methods. These methods were illustrated using the data from a study of the relationship between cholesterol and dementia. Conclusion The algorithms were implemented using R, and the associated CPMCGLM R package is available on the CRAN. PMID:23758852

  10. Gender and single nucleotide polymorphisms in MTHFR, BHMT, SPTLC1, CRBP2R, and SCARB1 are significant predictors of plasma homocysteine normalized by RBC folate in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Using linear regression models, we studied the main and two-way interaction effects of the predictor variables gender, age, BMI, and 64 folate/vitamin B-12/homocysteine/lipid/cholesterol-related single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) on log-transformed plasma homocysteine normalized by red blood cell...

  11. Standardized FDG uptake as a prognostic variable and as a predictor of incomplete cytoreduction in primary advanced ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risum, Signe; Jakobsen, Annika Loft; Høgdall, Claus

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Introduction. In patients with advanced ovarian cancer undergoing preoperative PET/CT, we investigated the prognostic value of SUV in the primary tumor and we evaluated the value of SUV for predicting incomplete primary cytoreduction (macroscopic residual tumor). Material and methods. From...... debulking (no macroscopic residual tumor); median SUV(max) was 13.5 (range 2.5-39.0). Median follow-up was 30.2 months. At follow-up 57% (34/60) were alive and 43% (26/60) had died from ovarian cancer. SUV(max) in patients alive was not statistically different from SUV(max) in dead patients (p=0.......69), and SUV(max) was not correlated with the amount of residual tumor after surgery (p=0.19). Using univariate Cox regression analysis, residual tumor was a significant prognostic variable (p=0.001); SUV(max) was not a statistically significant prognostic variable (p=0.86). Discussion. FDG uptake (SUV...

  12. The clinical significance of detection to heart rate deceleration capacity and heart rate variability in patients with chronic heart failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang-rong Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the change of heart rate deceleration capacity ( DC and heart rate variability in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF and its relationship with left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF. Methods: DC, LVEF, time and frequency domain parameters of HRV were measured in 66 patients with CHF and 34 healthy adults (control group by using 24h Holter recordings and Echocardiography. The standard deviation of normal R-R intervals( SDNN, squares of differences between adjacent NN intervals ( RMSSD,low frequency power( LFn and high frequency power( HFn and the changes of LVEF were compared between  the two groups,the relationship between DC,LVEF and HRV were studied in patients with CHF. Results: The median value of DC in the patients with CHF was significantly lower than that in control group( 3.1 ± 2.4 ms vs 7.2 ± 1.3 ms,P <0.01.Incidence of abnormal DC in the CHF group was 57.5%,which was significantly higher than that in the control group (P <0.01.The HRV index, including SDNN、RMSSD、LFn、HFn, in the CHF group was significantly lower than that in normal control group (P < 0.01. Significant positive correlation between HRV index and LVEF were confirmed (P < 0.01. Conclusions: DC and HRV index are lower in patients with CHF and have a good correlation with the left ventricular ejection fraction.

  13. Time series analysis of dengue incidence in Guadeloupe, French West Indies: Forecasting models using climate variables as predictors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruche Guy

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During the last decades, dengue viruses have spread throughout the Americas region, with an increase in the number of severe forms of dengue. The surveillance system in Guadeloupe (French West Indies is currently operational for the detection of early outbreaks of dengue. The goal of the study was to improve this surveillance system by assessing a modelling tool to predict the occurrence of dengue epidemics few months ahead and thus to help an efficient dengue control. Methods The Box-Jenkins approach allowed us to fit a Seasonal Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (SARIMA model of dengue incidence from 2000 to 2006 using clinical suspected cases. Then, this model was used for calculating dengue incidence for the year 2007 compared with observed data, using three different approaches: 1 year-ahead, 3 months-ahead and 1 month-ahead. Finally, we assessed the impact of meteorological variables (rainfall, temperature and relative humidity on the prediction of dengue incidence and outbreaks, incorporating them in the model fitting the best. Results The 3 months-ahead approach was the most appropriate for an effective and operational public health response, and the most accurate (Root Mean Square Error, RMSE = 0.85. Relative humidity at lag-7 weeks, minimum temperature at lag-5 weeks and average temperature at lag-11 weeks were variables the most positively correlated to dengue incidence in Guadeloupe, meanwhile rainfall was not. The predictive power of SARIMA models was enhanced by the inclusion of climatic variables as external regressors to forecast the year 2007. Temperature significantly affected the model for better dengue incidence forecasting (p-value = 0.03 for minimum temperature lag-5, p-value = 0.02 for average temperature lag-11 but not humidity. Minimum temperature at lag-5 weeks was the best climatic variable for predicting dengue outbreaks (RMSE = 0.72. Conclusion Temperature improves dengue outbreaks forecasts

  14. Are Simulated and Observed Twentieth Century Tropical Pacific Sea Surface Temperature Trends Significant Relative to Internal Variability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coats, S.; Karnauskas, K. B.

    2017-10-01

    Historical trends in the tropical Pacific zonal sea surface temperature gradient (SST gradient) are analyzed herein using 41 climate models (83 simulations) and 5 observational data sets. A linear inverse model is trained on each simulation and observational data set to assess if trends in the SST gradient are significant relative to the stationary statistics of internal variability, as would suggest an important role for external forcings such as anthropogenic greenhouse gasses. None of the 83 simulations have a positive trend in the SST gradient, a strengthening of the climatological SST gradient with more warming in the western than eastern tropical Pacific, as large as the mean trend across the five observational data sets. If the observed trends are anthropogenically forced, this discrepancy suggests that state-of-the-art climate models are not capturing the observed response of the tropical Pacific to anthropogenic forcing, with serious implications for confidence in future climate projections. There are caveats to this interpretation, however, as some climate models have a significant strengthening of the SST gradient between 1900 and 2013 Common Era, though smaller in magnitude than the observational data sets, and the strengthening in three out of five observational data sets is insignificant. When combined with observational uncertainties and the possibility of centennial time scale internal variability not sampled by the linear inverse model, this suggests that confident validation of anthropogenic SST gradient trends in climate models will require further emergence of anthropogenic trends. Regardless, the differences in SST gradient trends between climate models and observational data sets are concerning and motivate the need for process-level validation of the atmosphere-ocean dynamics relevant to climate change in the tropical Pacific.

  15. High Neutrophil-to-Lymphocyte Ratio is a Significant Predictor of Cardiovascular and All-Cause Mortality in Patients Undergoing Peritoneal Dialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangxue Lu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Chronic inflammation is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular death in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD. Although elevated neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR, a novel inflammatory marker, has been shown to predict cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality in the general population, limited evidence is available for its role in ESRD. Methods: We enrolled 86 patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis (PD for a 36-month follow-up to investigate the association between the NLR and arterial stiffness markers, namely, carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV and carotid augmentation index (AIx, and mortality in PD patients. The primary endpoints were cardiovascular mortality and all-cause mortality. Kaplan–Meier curves were used to show the cumulative incidence of cardiovascular mortality and all-cause mortality. Results: High NLR was found to be a predictor of increased cfPWV (β = 1.150; P < 0.001 and AIx (β = 3.945; P < 0.001 in patients on PD. Patients with higher NLR had lower survival during follow-up. Kaplan–Meier curves showed that the cumulative incidences of both cardiovascular mortality and all-cause mortality were significantly higher in patients with NLR ≥ 4.5 (both P < 0.01. Conclusion: Our results suggest that high NLR is independently associated with arterial stiffness and predicts cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in PD patients.

  16. Bagging Weak Predictors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lukas, Manuel; Hillebrand, Eric

    Relations between economic variables can often not be exploited for forecasting, suggesting that predictors are weak in the sense that estimation uncertainty is larger than bias from ignoring the relation. In this paper, we propose a novel bagging predictor designed for such weak predictor variab...

  17. Rural origin plus a rural clinical school placement is a significant predictor of medical students' intentions to practice rurally: a multi-university study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Judith H; Dewitt, Dawn E; Pallant, Julie F; Cunningham, Christine E

    2012-01-01

    Health workforce shortages are a major problem in rural areas. Australian medical schools have implemented a number of rural education and training interventions aimed at increasing medical graduates' willingness to work in rural areas. These initiatives include recruiting students from rural backgrounds, delivering training in rural areas, and providing all students with some rural exposure during their medical training. However there is little evidence regarding the impact of rural exposure versus rural origin on workforce outcomes. The aim of this study is to identify and assess factors affecting preference for future rural practice among medical students participating in the Australian Rural Clinical Schools (RCS) Program. Questionnaires were distributed to 166 medical students who had completed their RCS term in 2006; 125 (75%) responded. Medical students were asked about their preferred location and specialty for future practice, their beliefs about rural work and life, and the impact of the RCS experience on their future rural training and practice preferences. Almost half the students (47%; n=58) self-reported a 'rural background'. Significantly, students from rural backgrounds were 10 times more likely to prefer to work in rural areas when compared with other students (ppreferring general practice, 80% (n=24) wished to do so rurally. Eighty-five per cent (n=105) of students agreed that their RCS experience increased their interest in rural training and practice with 62% (n=75) of students indicating a preference for rural internship/basic training after their RCS experience. A substantial percentage (86%; n=108) agreed they would consider rural practice after their RCS experience. This baseline study provides significant evidence to support rural medical recruitment and retention through education and training, with important insights into the factors affecting preference for future rural practice. By far the most significant predictor of rural practice

  18. The presence of urinary nitrites is a significant predictor of pediatric urinary tract infection susceptibility to first- and third-generation cephalosporins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisz, Dany; Seabrook, Jamie A; Lim, Rodrick K

    2010-07-01

    Previous studies in adults have refuted the use of nitrites as a predictor of bacterial resistance to both trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and cephalosporins. Some centers now consider first-line outpatient therapy with an oral third-generation cephalosporin appropriate for young children. The objective of this study was to determine if nitrite-negative pediatric urinary tract infections (UTIs) were more likely than nitrite-positive UTIs to be resistant to cephalosporins. This may enable physicians to adjust antimicrobial therapy before patients leave the Emergency Department (ED) to avoid the complications of ineffectively treated pediatric UTIs. A retrospective chart review examined, over a 9-month period, 173 pediatric patients who were diagnosed with a clinical UTI in the ED and who also had a positive urine culture and a recorded dipstick at the time of visit. The chi-squared test and Fisher's exact test were used to compare nitrite-negative vs. nitrite-positive UTIs for resistance to third-generation cephalosporins and other empiric antimicrobials. For third-generation cephalosporins, 1.4% of nitrite-positive UTIs were resistant, whereas 14.4% of nitrite-negative UTIs were resistant (95% confidence interval [CI] -0.22 to -0.05). For first-generation cephalosporins, 8.4% were resistant in the nitrite-positive group, compared to 22.2% in the nitrite-negative group (95% CI -0.24 to -0.03). The absence of urinary nitrites is a significant indicator for potential resistance to cephalosporins in pediatric UTIs. Due to low levels of pediatric UTI resistance, cephalosporins continue to represent useful empiric therapy in the general pediatric population. However, in high-risk patients, physicians may opt to alter their empiric choice of antibiotic based on the presence of urinary nitrites. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Age of acquisition predicts naming and lexical-decision performance above and beyond 22 other predictor variables: an analysis of 2,342 words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortese, Michael J; Khanna, Maya M

    2007-08-01

    Age of acquisition (AoA) ratings were obtained and were used in hierarchical regression analyses to predict naming and lexical-decision performance for 2,342 words (from Balota, Cortese, Sergent-Marshall, Spieler, & Yap, 2004). In the analyses, AoA was included in addition to the set of predictors used by Balota et al. (2004). AoA significantly predicted latency performance on both tasks above and beyond the standard predictor set. However, AoA was more strongly related to lexical-decision performance than to naming performance. Finally, the previously reported effect of imageability on naming latencies by Balota et al. was not significant with AoA included as a factor. These results are consistent with the idea either that AoA has a semantic/lexical locus or that AoA effects emerge primarily in situations in which the input-output mapping is arbitrary.

  20. Clinical and angiographic predictors of haemodynamically significant angiographic lesions: development and validation of a risk score to predict positive fractional flow reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sareen, Nishtha; Baber, Usman; Kezbor, Safwan; Sayseng, Sonny; Aquino, Melissa; Mehran, Roxana; Sweeny, Joseph; Barman, Nitin; Kini, Annapoorna; Sharma, Samin K

    2017-04-07

    Coronary revascularisation based upon physiological evaluation of lesions improves clinical outcomes. Angiographic or visual stenosis assessment alone is insufficient in predicting haemodynamic stenosis severity by fractional flow reserve (FFR) and therefore cannot be used to guide revascularisation, particularly in the lesion subset system formulated. Of 1,023 consecutive lesions (883 patients), 314 (31%) were haemodynamically significant. Characteristics associated with FFR ≤0.8 include male gender, higher SYNTAX score, lesions ≥20 mm, stenosis >50%, bifurcation, calcification, absence of tortuosity and smaller reference diameter. A user-friendly integer score was developed with the five variables demonstrating the strongest association. On prospective validation (in 279 distinct lesions), the increasing value of the score correlated well with increasing haemodynamic significance (C-statistic 0.85). We identified several clinical and angiographic characteristics and formulated a scoring system to guide the approach to intermediate lesions. This may translate into cost savings. Larger studies with prospective validation are required to confirm our results.

  1. Indexed effective orifice area is a significant predictor of higher mid- and long-term mortality rates following aortic valve replacement in patients with prosthesis-patient mismatch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jian; Lin, Yiyun; Kang, Bo; Wang, Zhinong

    2014-02-01

    Prosthesis-patient mismatch (PPM) is defined as a too-small effective orifice area (EOA) of an inserted prosthetic relative to body size, resulting in an abnormally high postoperative gradient. It is unclear, however, whether residual stenosis after aortic valve replacement (AVR) has a negative impact on mid- and long-term survivals. We searched electronic databases, including PubMed, Embase, Medline and the Cochrane controlled trials register, through October 2012, to identify published full-text English studies on the association between PPM and mortality rates. A significant PPM was defined as an indexed EOA (iEOA)<0.85 cm2/m2, and severe PPM as an iEOA<0.65 cm2/m2. Two reviewers independently assessed the studies for inclusion and extracted data. Fourteen observational studies, involving 14 874 patients, met our final inclusion criteria. Meta-analysis demonstrated that PPM significantly increased mid-term (odds ratio [OR] 1.42, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.19-1.69) and long-term (OR 1.52, 95% CI 1.26-1.84) all-cause mortalities. Subgroup analysis showed that PPM was associated with higher mid- and long-term mortality rates only in younger and predominantly female populations. Risk-adjusted sensitivity analysis showed that severe PPM was associated with reduced survival (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 1.50, 95% CI 1.24-1.80), whereas moderate PPM was not (adjusted HR 0.96, 95% CI 0.86-1.07). Regardless of severity, however, PPM had a negative effect on survival in patients with impaired ejection fraction (adjusted HR 1.26, 95% CI 1.09-1.47). PPM (iEOA<0.85 cm2/m2) after AVR tended to be associated with increased long-term all-cause mortality in younger patients, females and patients with preoperative left ventricular dysfunction. Severe PPM (iEOA<0.65 cm2/m2) was a significant predictor of reduced long-term survival in all populations undergoing AVR.

  2. Ecological Momentary Assessment of Pain, Fatigue, Depressive, and Cognitive Symptoms Reveals Significant Daily Variability in Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratz, Anna L; Murphy, Susan L; Braley, Tiffany J

    2017-11-01

    To describe the daily variability and patterns of pain, fatigue, depressed mood, and cognitive function in persons with multiple sclerosis (MS). Repeated-measures observational study of 7 consecutive days of home monitoring, including ecological momentary assessment (EMA) of symptoms. Multilevel mixed models were used to analyze data. General community. Ambulatory adults (N=107) with MS recruited through the University of Michigan and surrounding community. Not applicable. EMA measures of pain, fatigue, depressed mood, and cognitive function rated on a 0 to 10 scale, collected 5 times a day for 7 days. Cognitive function and depressed mood exhibited more stable within-person patterns than pain and fatigue, which varied considerably within person. All symptoms increased in intensity across the day (all Pfatigue showing the most substantial increase. Notably, this diurnal increase varied by sex and age; women showed a continuous increase from wake to bedtime, whereas fatigue plateaued after 7 pm for men (wake-bed B=1.04, P=.004). For the oldest subgroup, diurnal increases were concentrated to the middle of the day compared with younger subgroups, which showed an earlier onset of fatigue increase and sustained increases until bed time (wake-3 pm B=.04, P=.01; wake-7 pm B=.03, P=.02). Diurnal patterns of cognitive function varied by education; those with advanced college degrees showed a more stable pattern across the day, with significant differences compared with those with bachelor-level degrees in the evening (wake-7 pm B=-.47, P=.02; wake-bed B=-.45, P=.04). Findings suggest that chronic symptoms in MS are not static, even over a short time frame; rather, symptoms-fatigue and pain in particular-vary dynamically across and within days. Incorporation of EMA methods should be considered in the assessment of these chronic MS symptoms to enhance assessment and treatment strategies. Copyright © 2017 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier

  3. Sociocultural predictors of motor development of athletes from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sociocultural predictors of motor development of athletes from Botswana, Lesotho and Swaziland. ... variables as they influenced the athletes' motor skill development. The social situations, family and the schools were found to significantly ...

  4. Interrater and intrarater agreements of magnetic resonance imaging findings in the lumbar spine: significant variability across degenerative conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Michael C; Buerba, Rafael A; Long, William D; Blizzard, Daniel J; Lischuk, Andrew W; Haims, Andrew H; Grauer, Jonathan N

    2014-10-01

    agreement. However, when stratified by condition, absolute interrater agreement ranged from 65.1% to 92.0%. Disc hydration, disc space height, and bone marrow changes exhibited the lowest absolute interrater agreements. The absolute intrarater agreement had a narrower range, from 74.5% to 91.5%. Fleiss kappa coefficients ranged from fair-to-substantial agreement (0.282-0.618). Even in a study using standardized evaluation criteria, there was significant variability in the interrater and intrarater agreements of MRI in assessing different degenerative conditions of the lumbar spine. Clinicians should be aware of the condition-specific diagnostic limitations of MRI interpretation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Risk Factors and Predictors of Significant Chondral Surface Change From Primary to Revision Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: A MOON and MARS Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnussen, Robert A; Borchers, James R; Pedroza, Angela D; Huston, Laura J; Haas, Amanda K; Spindler, Kurt P; Wright, Rick W; Kaeding, Christopher C; Allen, Christina R; Anderson, Allen F; Cooper, Daniel E; DeBerardino, Thomas M; Dunn, Warren R; Lantz, Brett A; Mann, Barton; Stuart, Michael J; Albright, John P; Amendola, Annunziato; Andrish, Jack T; Annunziata, Christopher C; Arciero, Robert A; Bach, Bernard R; Baker, Champ L; Bartolozzi, Arthur R; Baumgarten, Keith M; Bechler, Jeffery R; Berg, Jeffrey H; Bernas, Geoffrey A; Brockmeier, Stephen F; Brophy, Robert H; Bush-Joseph, Charles A; Butler, J Brad; Campbell, John D; Carey, James L; Carpenter, James E; Cole, Brian J; Cooper, Jonathan M; Cox, Charles L; Creighton, R Alexander; Dahm, Diane L; David, Tal S; Flanigan, David C; Frederick, Robert W; Ganley, Theodore J; Garofoli, Elizabeth A; Gatt, Charles J; Gecha, Steven R; Giffin, James Robert; Hame, Sharon L; Hannafin, Jo A; Harner, Christopher D; Harris, Norman Lindsay; Hechtman, Keith S; Hershman, Elliott B; Hoellrich, Rudolf G; Hosea, Timothy M; Johnson, David C; Johnson, Timothy S; Jones, Morgan H; Kamath, Ganesh V; Klootwyk, Thomas E; Levy, Bruce A; Ma, C Benjamin; Maiers, G Peter; Marx, Robert G; Matava, Matthew J; Mathien, Gregory M; McAllister, David R; McCarty, Eric C; McCormack, Robert G; Miller, Bruce S; Nissen, Carl W; O'Neill, Daniel F; Owens, Brett D; Parker, Richard D; Purnell, Mark L; Ramappa, Arun J; Rauh, Michael A; Rettig, Arthur C; Sekiya, Jon K; Shea, Kevin G; Sherman, Orrin H; Slauterbeck, James R; Smith, Matthew V; Spang, Jeffrey T; Svoboda, Steven J; Taft, Timothy N; Tenuta, Joachim J; Tingstad, Edwin M; Vidal, Armando F; Viskontas, Darius G; White, Richard A; Williams, James S; Wolcott, Michelle L; Wolf, Brian R; York, James J

    2018-03-01

    Articular cartilage health is an important issue following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury and primary ACL reconstruction. Factors present at the time of primary ACL reconstruction may influence the subsequent progression of articular cartilage damage. Larger meniscus resection at primary ACL reconstruction, increased patient age, and increased body mass index (BMI) are associated with increased odds of worsened articular cartilage damage at the time of revision ACL reconstruction. Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. Subjects who had primary and revision data in the databases of the Multicenter Orthopaedics Outcomes Network (MOON) and Multicenter ACL Revision Study (MARS) were included. Reviewed data included chondral surface status at the time of primary and revision surgery, meniscus status at the time of primary reconstruction, primary reconstruction graft type, time from primary to revision ACL surgery, as well as demographics and Marx activity score at the time of revision. Significant progression of articular cartilage damage was defined in each compartment according to progression on the modified Outerbridge scale (increase ≥1 grade) or >25% enlargement in any area of damage. Logistic regression identified predictors of significant chondral surface change in each compartment from primary to revision surgery. A total of 134 patients were included, with a median age of 19.5 years at revision surgery. Progression of articular cartilage damage was noted in 34 patients (25.4%) in the lateral compartment, 32 (23.9%) in the medial compartment, and 31 (23.1%) in the patellofemoral compartment. For the lateral compartment, patients who had >33% of the lateral meniscus excised at primary reconstruction had 16.9-times greater odds of progression of articular cartilage injury than those with an intact lateral meniscus ( P < .001). For the medial compartment, patients who had <33% of the medial meniscus excised at the time of the primary reconstruction

  6. Componentes principais como preditores no mapeamento digital de classes de solos Principal components as predictor variables in digital mapping of soil classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre ten Caten

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Tecnologias disponíveis para a observação da Terra oferecem uma grande gama de informações sobre componentes ambientais que, por estarem relacionadas com a formação dos solos, podem ser usadas como variáveis preditoras no Mapeamento Digital de Solos (MDS. No entanto, modelos com um grande número de preditores, bem como a existência de multicolinearidade entre os dados, podem ser ineficazes no mapeamento de classes e propriedades do solo. O objetivo deste estudo foi empregar a Análise de Componentes Principais (ACP visando a selecionar e diminuir o número de preditores na regressão logística múltipla multinomial (RLMM utilizada no mapeamento de classes de solos. Nove covariáveis ambientais, ligadas ao fator de formação relevo, foram derivadas de um Modelo Digital de Elevação e denominadas variáveis originais, estas foram submetidas à ACP e transformadas em Componentes Principais (CP. As RLMM foram desenvolvidas utilizando-se atributos de terreno e as CP como variáveis explicativas. O mapa de solos gerado a partir de três CP (65,6% da variância original obteve um índice kappa de 37,3%, inferior aos 48,5% alcançado pelo mapa de solos gerado a partir de todas as nove variáveis originais.Available technologies for Earth observation offer a wide range of predictors relevant to Digital Soil Mapping (DSM. However, models with a large number of predictors, as well as, the existence of multicollinearity among the data, may be ineffective in the mapping of classes and soil properties. The aim of this study was to use the Principal Component Analysis (PCA to reduce the number of predictors in the multinomial logistic regression (MLR used in soil mapping. Nine environmental covariates, related to the relief factor of soil formation, were derived from a digital elevation model and named the original variables, which were submitted to PCA and transformed into principal components (PC. The MLR were developed using the terrain

  7. Operative variables are better predictors of postdischarge infections and unplanned readmissions in vascular surgery patients than patient characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Caitlin W; Bronsert, Michael; Hammermeister, Karl E; Henderson, William G; Gibula, Douglas R; Black, James H; Glebova, Natalia O

    2017-04-01

    Although postoperative readmissions are frequent in vascular surgery patients, the reasons for these readmissions are not well characterized, and effective approaches to their reduction are unknown. Our aim was to analyze the reasons for vascular surgery readmissions and to report potential areas for focused efforts aimed at readmission reduction. The 2012 to 2013 American College of Surgeons National Quality Improvement Program (ACS NSQIP) data set was queried for vascular surgery patients. Multivariable models were developed to analyze risk factors for postdischarge infections, the major drivers of unplanned 30-day readmissions. We identified 86,403 vascular surgery patients for analysis. Thirty-day readmission occurred in 8827 (10%), of which 8054 (91%) were unplanned. Of the unplanned readmissions, 61% (n = 4951) were related to the index vascular surgery procedure. Infectious complications were the most common reason for a surgery-related readmission (1940 [39%]), with surgical site infection being the most common type of infection related to unplanned readmission. Multivariable analysis showed the top five preoperative risk factors for postdischarge infections were the presence of a preoperative open wound, inpatient operation, obesity, work relative value unit, and insulin-dependent diabetes (but not diabetes managed with oral medications). Cigarette smoking was a weak predictor and came in tenth in the mode (overall C index, 0.657). When operative and postoperative factors were included in the model, total operative time was the strongest predictor of postdischarge infectious complications (odds ratio [OR] 1.2 for each 1-hour increase in operative time), followed by presence of a preoperative open wound (OR, 1.5), inpatient operation (OR, 2), obesity (OR, 1.8), and discharge to rehabilitation facility (OR, 1.7; P model was fair (C statistic, 0.686). Infectious complications dominate the reasons for unplanned 30-day readmissions in vascular surgery

  8. Predictors of International Graduate Student Success in U.S. Universities: Analysis of Noncognitive Student Variables and Institutional Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, Rania

    2009-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationships between Sedlacek's (2004b) student noncognitive variables (positive self-concept, realistic self-appraisal, successfully handling the system, preference for long-term goals, leadership experience, presence of a strong support person, community service, and knowledge of the…

  9. Personality Variables as Predictors of Leadership Role Performance Effectiveness of Administrators of Public Secondary Schools in Cross River State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akpan, Charles P.; Archibong, Ijeoma A.

    2012-01-01

    The study sought to find out the predictive effect of self-concept, self-efficacy, self-esteem and locus of control on the instructional and motivational leadership roles performance effectiveness of administrators of public secondary schools in Cross River State of Nigeria. The relative contribution of each of the independent variables to the…

  10. Bio-Social Variables as Predictors of Teacher Union Leaders' Adherence to Democratic Principles in Ogun State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fejoh, Johnson

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of bio-social variables - educational status, age and family socio-economic background on teacher union leaders' adherence to democratic principles in Ogun State of Nigeria. The study employed the ex-post-facto research design. Five hypotheses were generated and tested using an instrument titled "union…

  11. Brief Communication: Upper Air Relaxation in RACMO2 Significantly Improves Modelled Interannual Surface Mass Balance Variability in Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Berg, W. J.; Medley, B.

    2016-01-01

    The Regional Atmospheric Climate Model (RACMO2) has been a powerful tool for improving surface mass balance (SMB) estimates from GCMs or reanalyses. However, new yearly SMB observations for West Antarctica show that the modelled interannual variability in SMB is poorly simulated by RACMO2, in contrast to ERA-Interim, which resolves this variability well. In an attempt to remedy RACMO2 performance, we included additional upper-air relaxation (UAR) in RACMO2. With UAR, the correlation to observations is similar for RACMO2 and ERA-Interim. The spatial SMB patterns and ice-sheet-integrated SMB modelled using UAR remain very similar to the estimates of RACMO2 without UAR. We only observe an upstream smoothing of precipitation in regions with very steep topography like the Antarctic Peninsula. We conclude that UAR is a useful improvement for regional climate model simulations, although results in regions with steep topography should be treated with care.

  12. IDENTIFICATION OF THOSE VARIABLES THAT HAVE A SIGNIFICANT INFLUENCE ON THE EXPECTED NUMBER OF DAYS OF STAYING IN THE CENTRE DEVELOPMENT REGION OF ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika KULCSÁR

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available I started from the assumption that there are more variables that have a significant influence on the expected number of days of staying in the Centre Development Region. To identify those variables this paper includes the analysis of variance with two variables that are not interacting, in this case the dependent variable is the question "How many days did you plan to stay in Centre Development Region?" and the independent variables are: "What is the purpose of your stay?" "What is the highest level of education?". Given that there are cases when interactions occur between variables, I also analyzed the interaction effects between the two independent variables. The paper also includes an ANOVA analysis with three variables between which interactions relationships occur. After identifying the dependency relations between the variables I found that the inclusion of the third variable, namely the "Marital status" of respondents, adds value to the model. Following the results obtained by ANOVA analysis, I identified those socio-demographic characteristics that, in my opinion, companies that operate on tourist market in the Center Development Region should consider when fundamenting marketing strategies in tourism.

  13. Use of geophysical survey as a predictor of the edaphic properties variability in soils used for livestock production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahuel R. Peralta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The spatial variability in soils used for livestock production (i.e. Natraquoll and Natraqualf at farm and paddock scale is usually very high. Understanding this spatial variation within a field is the first step for site-specific crop management. For this reason, we evaluated whether apparent electrical conductivity (ECa, a widely used proximal soil sensing technology, is a potential estimator of the edaphic variability in these types of soils. ECa and elevation data were collected in a paddock of 16 ha. Elevation was negatively associated with ECa. Geo-referenced soil samples were collected and analyzed for soil organic matter (OM content, pH, the saturation extract electrical conductivity (ECext, available phosphorous (P, and anaerobically incubated Nitrogen (Nan. Relationships between soil properties and ECa were analyzed using regression analysis, principal components analysis (PCA, and stepwise regression. Principal components (PC and the PC-stepwise were used to determine which soil properties have an important influence on ECa. In this experiment elevation was negatively associated with ECa. The data showed that pH, OM, and ECext exhibited a high correlation with ECa (R2=0.76; 0.70 and 0.65, respectively. Whereas P and Nan showed a lower correlation (R2=0.54 and 0.11 respectively. The model resulting from the PC-stepwise regression analysis explained slightly more than 69% of the total variation of the measured ECa, only retaining PC1. Therefore, ECext, pH and OM were considered key latent variables because they substantially influence the relationship between the PC1 and the ECa (loading factors>0.4. Results showed that ECa is associated with the spatial distribution of some important soil properties. Thus, ECa can be used as a support tool to implement site-specific management in soils for livestock use.

  14. Use of geophysical survey as a predictor of the edaphic properties variability in soils used for livestock production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peralta, N.R.; Cicore, P.L.; Marino, M.A.; Marques da Silva, J. R.; Costa, J.L.

    2015-07-01

    The spatial variability in soils used for livestock production (i.e. Natraquoll and Natraqualf) at farm and paddock scale is usually very high. Understanding this spatial variation within a field is the first step for site-specific crop management. For this reason, we evaluated whether apparent electrical conductivity (ECa), a widely used proximal soil sensing technology, is a potential estimator of the edaphic variability in these types of soils. ECa and elevation data were collected in a paddock of 16 ha. Elevation was negatively associated with ECa. Geo-referenced soil samples were collected and analyzed for soil organic matter (OM) content, pH, the saturation extract electrical conductivity (ECext), available phosphorous (P), and anaerobically incubated Nitrogen (Nan). Relationships between soil properties and ECa were analyzed using regression analysis, principal components analysis (PCA), and stepwise regression. Principal components (PC) and the PC-stepwise were used to determine which soil properties have an important influence on ECa. In this experiment elevation was negatively associated with ECa. The data showed that pH, OM, and ECext exhibited a high correlation with ECa (R2=0.76; 0.70 and 0.65, respectively). Whereas P and Nan showed a lower correlation (R2=0.54 and 0.11 respectively). The model resulting from the PC-stepwise regression analysis explained slightly more than 69% of the total variation of the measured ECa, only retaining PC1. Therefore, ECext, pH and OM were considered key latent variables because they substantially influence the relationship between the PC1 and the ECa (loading factors>0.4). Results showed that ECa is associated with the spatial distribution of some important soil properties. Thus, ECa can be used as a support tool to implement site-specific management in soils for livestock use. (Author)

  15. Using k-dependence causal forest to mine the most significant dependency relationships among clinical variables for thyroid disease diagnosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LiMin Wang

    Full Text Available Numerous data mining models have been proposed to construct computer-aided medical expert systems. Bayesian network classifiers (BNCs are more distinct and understandable than other models. To graphically describe the dependency relationships among clinical variables for thyroid disease diagnosis and ensure the rationality of the diagnosis results, the proposed k-dependence causal forest (KCF model generates a series of submodels in the framework of maximum spanning tree (MST and demonstrates stronger dependence representation. Friedman test on 12 UCI datasets shows that KCF has classification accuracy advantage over the other state-of-the-art BNCs, such as Naive Bayes, tree augmented Naive Bayes, and k-dependence Bayesian classifier. Our extensive experimental comparison on 4 medical datasets also proves the feasibility and effectiveness of KCF in terms of sensitivity and specificity.

  16. Chromosomal radiosensitivity: a study of the chromosomal G2 assay in human blood lymphocytes indicating significant inter-individual variability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smart, V.; Curwen, G.B.; Whitehouse, C.A.; Edwards, A.; Tawn, E.J.

    2003-01-01

    The G 2 chromosomal radiosensitivity assay is a technically demanding assay. To ensure that it is reproducible in our laboratory, we have examined the effects of storage and culture conditions by applying the assay to a group of healthy controls and determined the extent of intra- and inter-individual variations. Nineteen different individuals provided one or more blood samples resulting in a total of 57 successful tests. Multiple cultures from a single blood sample showed no statistically significant difference in the number of chromatid type aberrations between cultures. A 24 h delay prior to culturing the lymphocytes did not significantly affect the induced G 2 score. Intra-individual variation was not statistically significant in seven out of nine individuals. Inter-individual variation was highly statistically significant (P<0.001), indicating that there is a real difference between individuals in the response to radiation using this assay

  17. Histological variability in the limb bones of the Asiatic wild ass and its significance for life history inferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nacarino-Meneses, Carmen; Jordana, Xavier; Köhler, Meike

    2016-01-01

    The study of bone growth marks (BGMs) and other histological traits of bone tissue provides insights into the life history of present and past organisms. Important life history traits like longevity or age at maturity, which could be inferred from the analysis of these features, form the basis for estimations of demographic parameters that are essential in ecological and evolutionary studies of vertebrates. Here, we study the intraskeletal histological variability in an ontogenetic series of Asiatic wild ass ( Equus hemionus ) in order to assess the suitability of several skeletal elements to reconstruct the life history strategy of the species. Bone tissue types, vascular canal orientation and BGMs have been analyzed in 35 cross-sections of femur, tibia and metapodial bones of 9 individuals of different sexes, ages and habitats. Our results show that the number of BGMs recorded by the different limb bones varies within the same specimen. Our study supports that the femur is the most reliable bone for skeletochronology, as already suggested. Our findings also challenge traditional beliefs with regard to the meaning of deposition of the external fundamental system (EFS). In the Asiatic wild ass, this bone tissue is deposited some time after skeletal maturity and, in the case of the femora, coinciding with the reproductive maturity of the species. The results obtained from this research are not only relevant for future studies in fossil Equus , but could also contribute to improve the conservation strategies of threatened equid species.

  18. A statistical-dynamical scheme for reconstructing ocean forcing in the Atlantic. Part I: weather regimes as predictors for ocean surface variables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cassou, Christophe; Minvielle, Marie; Terray, Laurent [CERFACS/CNRS, Climate Modelling and Global Change Team, Toulouse (France); Perigaud, Claire [JPL-NASA, Ocean Science Element, Pasadena, CA (United States)

    2011-01-15

    The links between the observed variability of the surface ocean variables estimated from reanalysis and the overlying atmosphere decomposed in classes of large-scale atmospheric circulation via clustering are investigated over the Atlantic from 1958 to 2002. Daily 500 hPa geopotential height and 1,000 hPa wind anomaly maps are classified following a weather-typing approach to describe the North Atlantic and tropical Atlantic atmospheric dynamics, respectively. The algorithm yields patterns that correspond in the extratropics to the well-known North Atlantic-Europe weather regimes (NAE-WR) accounting for the barotropic dynamics, and in the tropics to wind classes (T-WC) representing the alteration of the trades. 10-m wind and 2-m temperature (T2) anomaly composites derived from regime/wind class occurrence are indicative of strong relationships between daily large-scale atmospheric circulation and ocean surface over the entire Atlantic basin. High temporal correlation values are obtained basin-wide at low frequency between the observed fields and their reconstruction by multiple linear regressions with the frequencies of occurrence of both NAE-WR and T-WC used as sole predictors. Additional multiple linear regressions also emphasize the importance of accounting for the strength of the daily anomalous atmospheric circulation estimated by the combined distances to all regimes centroids in order to reproduce the daily to interannual variability of the Atlantic ocean. We show that for most of the North Atlantic basin the occurrence of NAE-WR generally sets the sign of the ocean surface anomaly for a given day, and that the inter-regime distances are valuable predictors for the magnitude of that anomaly. Finally, we provide evidence that a large fraction of the low-frequency trends in the Atlantic observed at the surface over the last 50 years can be traced back, except for T2, to changes in occurrence of tropical and extratropical weather classes. All together, our

  19. HIV-1 infection during pregnancy and in children : significance of HIV-1 variability and the placental barrier

    OpenAIRE

    Casper, Charlotte

    2001-01-01

    With the global increase in human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) infection in women of childbearing age, there has also been an alarming increase in the number of mother-to-child transmissions of HIV-1. Although antiretroviral therapy and Cesarian section have been demonstrated to significantly decrease the vertical transmission rate of , these interventions are not widely available in the developing world. Therefore, studies of the mechanisms of vertical transmission are ...

  20. Prognostic Significance of Blood Pressure Variability on Beat-to-Beat Monitoring After Transient Ischemic Attack and Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Alastair J S; Mazzucco, Sara; Li, Linxin; Rothwell, Peter M

    2018-01-01

    Visit-to-visit and day-to-day blood pressure (BP) variability (BPV) predict an increased risk of cardiovascular events but only reflect 1 form of BPV. Beat-to-beat BPV can be rapidly assessed and might also be predictive. In consecutive patients within 6 weeks of transient ischemic attack or nondisabling stroke (Oxford Vascular Study), BPV (coefficient of variation) was measured beat-to-beat for 5 minutes (Finometer), day-to-day for 1 week on home monitoring (3 readings, 3× daily), and on awake ambulatory BP monitoring. BPV after 1-month standard treatment was related (Cox proportional hazards) to recurrent stroke and cardiovascular events for 2 to 5 years, adjusted for mean systolic BP. Among 520 patients, 26 had inadequate beat-to-beat recordings, and 22 patients were in atrial fibrillation. Four hundred five patients had all forms of monitoring. Beat-to-beat BPV predicted recurrent stroke and cardiovascular events independently of mean systolic BP (hazard ratio per group SD, stroke: 1.47 [1.12-1.91]; P =0.005; cardiovascular events: 1.41 [1.08-1.83]; P =0.01), including after adjustment for age and sex (stroke: 1.47 [1.12-1.92]; P =0.005) and all risk factors (1.40 [1.00-1.94]; P =0.047). Day-to-day BPV was less strongly associated with stroke (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.29 [0.97-1.71]; P =0.08) but similarly with cardiovascular events (1.41 [1.09-1.83]; P =0.009). BPV on awake ambulatory BP monitoring was nonpredictive (stroke: 0.89 [0.59-1.35]; P =0.59; cardiovascular events: 1.08 [0.77-1.52]; P =0.65). Despite a weak correlation ( r =0.119; P =0.02), beat-to-beat BPV was associated with risk of recurrent stroke independently of day-to-day BPV (1.41 [1.05-1.90]; P =0.02). Beat-to-beat BPV predicted recurrent stroke and cardiovascular events, independently of mean systolic BP and risk factors but short-term BPV on ambulatory BP monitoring did not. Beat-to-beat BPV may be a useful additional marker of cardiovascular risk. © 2017 The Authors.

  1. Facebook Addiction: Onset Predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biolcati, Roberta; Mancini, Giacomo; Pupi, Virginia; Mugheddu, Valeria

    2018-05-23

    Worldwide, Facebook is becoming increasingly widespread as a communication platform. Young people especially use this social networking site daily to maintain and establish relationships. Despite the Facebook expansion in the last few years and the widespread acceptance of this social network, research into Facebook Addiction (FA) is still in its infancy. Hence, the potential predictors of Facebook overuse represent an important matter for investigation. This study aimed to deepen the understanding of the relationship between personality traits, social and emotional loneliness, life satisfaction, and Facebook addiction. A total of 755 participants (80.3% female; n = 606) aged between 18 and 40 (mean = 25.17; SD = 4.18) completed the questionnaire packet including the Bergen Facebook Addiction Scale, the Big Five, the short version of Social and Emotional Loneliness Scale for Adults, and the Satisfaction with Life Scale. A regression analysis was used with personality traits, social, family, romantic loneliness, and life satisfaction as independent variables to explain variance in Facebook addiction. The findings showed that Conscientiousness, Extraversion, Neuroticism, and Loneliness (Social, Family, and Romantic) were strong significant predictors of FA. Age, Openness, Agreeableness, and Life Satisfaction, although FA-related variables, were not significant in predicting Facebook overuse. The risk profile of this peculiar behavioral addiction is also discussed.

  2. Ethnic Variables and Negative Life Events as Predictors of Depressive Symptoms and Suicidal Behaviors in Latino College Students: On the Centrality of "Receptivo a los Demás"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Edward C.; Yu, Elizabeth A.; Yu, Tina; Kahle, Emma R.; Hernandez, Viviana; Kim, Jean M.; Jeglic, Elizabeth L.; Hirsch, Jameson K.

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we examined ethnic variables (viz., multigroup ethnic identity and other group orientation) along with negative life events as predictors of depressive symptoms and suicidal behaviors in a sample of 156 (38 male and 118 female) Latino college students. Results of conducting hierarchical regression analyses indicated that the…

  3. Unbiased proteomics analysis demonstrates significant variability in mucosal immune factor expression depending on the site and method of collection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenzie M Birse

    Full Text Available Female genital tract secretions are commonly sampled by lavage of the ectocervix and vaginal vault or via a sponge inserted into the endocervix for evaluating inflammation status and immune factors critical for HIV microbicide and vaccine studies. This study uses a proteomics approach to comprehensively compare the efficacy of these methods, which sample from different compartments of the female genital tract, for the collection of immune factors. Matching sponge and lavage samples were collected from 10 healthy women and were analyzed by tandem mass spectrometry. Data was analyzed by a combination of differential protein expression analysis, hierarchical clustering and pathway analysis. Of the 385 proteins identified, endocervical sponge samples collected nearly twice as many unique proteins as cervicovaginal lavage (111 vs. 61 with 55% of proteins common to both (213. Each method/site identified 73 unique proteins that have roles in host immunity according to their gene ontology. Sponge samples enriched for specific inflammation pathways including acute phase response proteins (p = 3.37×10(-24 and LXR/RXR immune activation pathways (p = 8.82×10(-22 while the role IL-17A in psoriasis pathway (p = 5.98×10(-4 and the complement system pathway (p = 3.91×10(-3 were enriched in lavage samples. Many host defense factors were differentially enriched (p<0.05 between sites including known/potential antimicrobial factors (n = 21, S100 proteins (n = 9, and immune regulatory factors such as serpins (n = 7. Immunoglobulins (n = 6 were collected at comparable levels in abundance in each site although 25% of those identified were unique to sponge samples. This study demonstrates significant differences in types and quantities of immune factors and inflammation pathways collected by each sampling technique. Therefore, clinical studies that measure mucosal immune activation or factors assessing HIV transmission should utilize

  4. The co registration of initial PET on the CT-radiotherapy reduces significantly the variabilities of anatomo-clinical target volume in the child hodgkin disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metwally, H.; Blouet, A.; David, I.; Rives, M.; Izar, F.; Courbon, F.; Filleron, T.; Laprie, A.; Plat, G.; Vial, J.

    2009-01-01

    It exists a great interobserver variability for the anatomo-clinical target volume (C.T.V.) definition in children suffering of Hodgkin disease. In this study, the co-registration of the PET with F.D.G. on the planning computed tomography has significantly lead to a greater coherence in the clinical target volume definition. (N.C.)

  5. 25-Hydroxy vitamin-D, obesity, and associated variables as predictors of breast cancer risk and tamoxifen benefit in NSABP-P1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amir, Eitan; Cecchini, Reena S; Ganz, Patricia A; Costantino, Joseph P; Beddows, Samantha; Hood, Nicola; Goodwin, Pamela J

    2012-06-01

    Observational studies suggest that host factors are associated with breast cancer risk. The influence of obesity, vitamin-D status, insulin resistance, inflammation, and elevated adipocytokines in women at high risk of breast cancer is unknown. The NSABP-P1 trial population was used for a nested case-control study. Cases were drawn from those who developed invasive breast cancer and controls selected from unaffected participants (≤4 per case) matched for age, race, 5 year Gail score, and geographic location of clinical center as a surrogate for latitude. Fasting serum banked at trial enrolment was assayed for 25-hydroxy vitamin-D (25OHD), insulin, leptin (adipocytokine), and C-reactive protein (CRP, marker of inflammation). Logistic regression was used to test for associations between study variables and the risk of invasive breast cancer. Two hundred and thirty-one cases were matched with 856 controls. Mean age was 54, and 49% were premenopausal. There were negative correlations for 25OHD with body mass index (BMI), insulin, CRP, and leptin. BMI ≥ 25 kg/m(2) was associated with higher breast cancer risk (odds ratio [OR] 1.45, p = 0.02) and tamoxifen treatment was associated with lower risk (OR = 0.44, p continuous variables, 25OHD, insulin, CRP, and leptin levels were not associated with breast cancer risk (all p > 0.34). In this high risk population, higher BMI was associated with a greater breast cancer risk. Serum levels of 25OHD, insulin, CRP, and leptin were not independent predictors of either breast cancer risk or tamoxifen benefit.

  6. Reduced estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR 73 m2 ) at first transurethral resection of bladder tumour is a significant predictor of subsequent recurrence and progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blute, Michael L; Kucherov, Victor; Rushmer, Timothy J; Damodaran, Shivashankar; Shi, Fangfang; Abel, E Jason; Jarrard, David F; Richards, Kyle A; Messing, Edward M; Downs, Tracy M

    2017-09-01

    To evaluate if moderate chronic kidney disease [CKD; estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) 73 m 2 ] is associated with high rates of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) recurrence or progression. A multi-institutional database identified patients with serum creatinine values prior to first transurethral resection of bladder tumour (TURBT). The CKD-epidemiology collaboration formula calculated patient eGFR. Cox proportional hazards models evaluated associations with recurrence-free (RFS) and progression-free survival (PFS). In all, 727 patients were identified with a median (interquartile range [IQR]) patient age of 69.8 (60.1-77.6) years. Data for eGFR were available for 632 patients. During a median (IQR) follow-up of 3.7 (1.5-6.5) years, 400 (55%) patients had recurrence and 145 (19.9%) patients had progression of tumour stage or grade. Moderate or severe CKD was identified in 183 patients according to eGFR. Multivariable analysis identified an eGFR of 73 m 2 (hazard ratio [HR] 1.5, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.2-1.9; P = 0.002) as a predictor of tumour recurrence. The 5-year RFS rate was 46% for patients with an eGFR of ≥60 mL/min/1.73 m 2 and 27% for patients with an eGFR of 73 m 2 (P 73 m 2 (HR 3.7, 95% CI: 1.75-7.94; P = 0.001) was associated with progression to muscle-invasive disease. The 5-year PFS rate was 83% for patients with an eGFR of ≥60 mL/min/1.73 m 2 and 71% for patients with an eGFR of 73 m 2 (P = 0.01). Moderate CKD at first TURBT is associated with reduced RFS and PFS. Patients with reduced renal function should be considered for increased surveillance. © 2017 The Authors BJU International © 2017 BJU International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Significant variables associated with epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheema, F.A.; Qayyum, K.; Ahmad, N.; Makhdoomi, A.; Safdar, A.; Asif, A.; Chaudhry, H.R.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To study the characteristics of the epileptics and the risk factors contributing to the development of epilepsy. Results: Majority of the subjects were single (77.84%), 1st born among their siblings (25.95%), belonged to low social class (50.63%), and unemployed(25.31%). The major risk factors were family history of illness (23.52%) and positive medical problem around birth (12.66%). The presence of family history of illness, positive medical problem around birth and advanced maternal age at birth were associated with early onset of epilepsy. Vulnerability for the epilepsy also increases among hospital deliveries. Conclusion: Although the present study has identified various risk factors, yet the results need to be further confirmed through case-control studies. (author)

  8. Survival time and effect of selected predictor variables on survival in owned pet cats seropositive for feline immunodeficiency and leukemia virus attending a referral clinic in northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spada, Eva; Perego, Roberta; Sgamma, Elena Assunta; Proverbio, Daniela

    2018-02-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and feline leukemia virus (FeLV) are among the most important feline infectious diseases worldwide. This retrospective study investigated survival times and effects of selected predictor factors on survival time in a population of owned pet cats in Northern Italy testing positive for the presence of FIV antibodies and FeLV antigen. One hundred and three retrovirus-seropositive cats, 53 FIV-seropositive cats, 40 FeLV-seropositive cats, and 10 FIV+FeLV-seropositive cats were included in the study. A population of 103 retrovirus-seronegative age and sex-matched cats was selected. Survival time was calculated and compared between retrovirus-seronegative, FIV, FeLV and FIV+FeLV-seropositive cats using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. Cox proportional-hazards regression analysis was used to study the effect of selected predictor factors (male gender, peripheral blood cytopenia as reduced red blood cells - RBC- count, leukopenia, neutropenia and lymphopenia, hypercreatininemia and reduced albumin to globulin ratio) on survival time in retrovirus-seropositive populations. Median survival times for seronegative cats, FIV, FeLV and FIV+FeLV-seropositive cats were 3960, 2040, 714 and 77days, respectively. Compared to retrovirus-seronegative cats median survival time was significantly lower (P<0.000) in FeLV and FIV+FeLV-seropositive cats. Median survival time in FeLV and FIV+FeLV-seropositive cats was also significant lower (P<0.000) when compared to FIV-seropositive cats. Hazard ratio of death in FeLV and FIV+FeLV-seropositive cats being respectively 3.4 and 7.4 times higher, in comparison to seronegative cats and 2.3 and 4.8 times higher in FeLV and FIV+FeLV-seropositive cats as compared to FIV-seropositive cats. A Cox proportional-hazards regression analysis showed that FIV and FeLV-seropositive cats with reduced RBC counts at time of diagnosis of seropositivity had significantly shorter survival times when compared to FIV and Fe

  9. Evaluation of plasma lactate concentration and base excess at the time of hospital admission as predictors of gastric necrosis and outcome and correlation between those variables in dogs with gastric dilatation-volvulus: 78 cases (2004-2009).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, Kari A Santoro; Syring, Rebecca S; Drobatz, Kenneth J

    2013-01-01

    To determine the correlation between plasma lactate concentration and base excess at the time of hospital admission and evaluate each variable as a predictor of gastric necrosis or outcome in dogs with gastric dilatation-volvulus (GDV). Retrospective case series. 78 dogs. For each dog, various data, including plasma lactate concentration and base excess at the time of hospital admission, surgical or necropsy findings, and outcome, were collected from medical records. Gastric necrosis was identified in 12 dogs at the time of surgery and in 4 dogs at necropsy. Sixty-five (83%) dogs survived to hospital discharge, whereas 13 (17%) dogs died or were euthanized. Of the 65 survivors and 8 nonsurvivors that underwent surgery, gastric necrosis was detected in 8 and 4 dogs, respectively. Via receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, an initial plasma lactate concentration cutoff of 7.4 mmol/L was 82% accurate for predicting gastric necrosis (sensitivity, 50%; specificity, 88%) and 88% accurate for predicting outcome (sensitivity, 75%; specificity, 89%). Among all dogs, the correlation between initial plasma lactate concentration and base excess was significant, although base excess was a poor discriminator for predicting gastric necrosis or outcome (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, 0.571 and 0.565, respectively). In dogs with GDV, plasma lactate concentration at the time of hospital admission was a good predictor of gastric necrosis and outcome. However, despite the correlation between initial base excess and plasma lactate concentration, base excess should not be used for prediction of gastric necrosis or outcome in those patients.

  10. Bone marrow vascular endothelial growth factor level per platelet count might be a significant predictor for the treatment outcomes of patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung Sun; Gang, Ga Won; Lee, Se Ryun; Sung, Hwa Jung; Park, Young; Kim, Dae Sik; Choi, Chul Won; Kim, Byung Soo

    2015-10-01

    Developing a parameter to predict bone marrow invasion by non-Hodgkin's lymphoma is an important unmet medical need for treatment decisions. This study aimed to confirm the validity of the hypothesis that bone marrow plasma vascular endothelial growth factor level might be correlated with the risk of bone marrow involvement and the prognosis of patients with diffuse large B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Forty-nine diffuse large B-cell lymphoma patients treated with rituximab, cyclophosphamide, daunorubicin, vincristine and prednisolone regimen were enrolled. Vascular endothelial growth factor level was measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The validity of bone marrow plasma vascular endothelial growth factor level and bone marrow vascular endothelial growth factor level per platelet count for predicting treatment response and survival after initial rituximab, cyclophosphamide, daunorubicin, vincristine and prednisolone combined chemotherapy was assessed. Bone marrow plasma vascular endothelial growth factor level per platelet count was significantly associated with old age (≥ 65 years), poor performance score (≥ 2), high International prognosis index (≥ 3) and bone marrow invasion. The patients with high bone marrow plasma vascular endothelial growth factor level per platelet count (≥ 3.01) showed a significantly lower complete response rate than the others. On Kaplan-Meier survival curves, the patients with high bone marrow plasma vascular endothelial growth factor levels (≥ 655 pg/ml) or high bone marrow plasma vascular endothelial growth factor level per platelet count (≥ 3.01) demonstrated a significantly shorter overall survival and progression-free survival than the others. In the patients without bone marrow involvement, bone marrow plasma vascular endothelial growth factor level per platelet count had a significant relationship with overall survival and progression-free survival. Multivariate analysis revealed that the patients without

  11. Utility of gastric aspirates for diagnosing tuberculosis in children in a low prevalence area: predictors of positive cultures and significance of non-tuberculous mycobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordy, Faisal; Richardson, Susan E; Stephens, Derek; Lam, Ray; Jamieson, Frances; Kitai, Ian

    2015-01-01

    In countries with low rates of tuberculosis (TB), yields of gastric aspirates (GAs) for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) culture are low. The significance of non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) isolated from GA is uncertain. We reviewed clinical, microbiologic and radiologic data for children who underwent GA between 1999 and 2011 at Sick Kids, Toronto. Radiologic features of cases were compared with those of age matched controls. 785 GAs were obtained from 285 patients of whom 20 (7%) had positive MTB cultures: in 15 patients the GA was the only positive culture for MTB. Of 15 culture-positive patients who underwent exactly 3 GAs, MTB was isolated from the first lavage in 10 (67%), only from the second in 3 (20%) and only from the third in 2 (13%). On univariate analysis, miliary disease and intrathoracic lymphadenopathy were associated with a positive GA MTB culture. On multiple conditional logistic regression analysis, adenopathy remained significant (OR 10.2 [95% CI 2.0-51.4] p =0.005). Twelve patients had NTM isolated, most commonly M. avium complex: none had evidence of invasive NTM disease during a median duration of 12 months of follow-up. Causal pathogens different from the GA NTM culture were isolated from biopsies or bronchoalveolar lavage in 3. GAs continue to be important for TB diagnosis in children. Three GAs have a yield better than 1. Those with miliary or disseminated TB and intrathoracic lymphadenopathy have highest yields. NTM isolates from GA are likely unimportant and can be clinically misleading.

  12. Feminist identity as a predictor of eating disorder diagnostic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Melinda A; Scott, Norman A; Riopel, Cori M; Skaggs, Anna K

    2008-06-01

    Passive Acceptance (PA) and Active Commitment (AC) subscales of the Feminist Identity Development Scale (FIDS) were examined as predictors of eating disorder diagnostic status as assessed by the Questionnaire for Eating Disorder Diagnoses (Q-EDD). Results of a hierarchical regression analysis revealed PA and AC scores were not statistically significant predictors of ED diagnostic status after controlling for diagnostic subtype. Results of a multiple regression analysis revealed FIDS as a statistically significant predictor of ED diagnostic status when failing to control for ED diagnostic subtype. Discrepancies suggest ED diagnostic subtype may serve as a moderator variable in the relationship between ED diagnostic status and FIDS. (c) 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Psychometric and demographic predictors of the perceived risk of terrorist threats and the willingness to pay for terrorism risk management programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumpower, Jeryl L; Shi, Liu; Stoutenborough, James W; Vedlitz, Arnold

    2013-10-01

    A 2009 national telephone survey of 924 U.S. adults assessed perceptions of terrorism and homeland security issues. Respondents rated severity of effects, level of understanding, number affected, and likelihood of four terrorist threats: poisoned water supply; explosion of a small nuclear device in a major U.S. city; an airplane attack similar to 9/11; and explosion of a bomb in a building, train, subway, or highway. Respondents rated perceived risk and willingness to pay (WTP) for dealing with each threat. Demographic, attitudinal, and party affiliation data were collected. Respondents rated bomb as highest in perceived risk but gave the highest WTP ratings to nuclear device. For both perceived risk and WTP, psychometric variables were far stronger predictors than were demographic ones. OLS regression analyses using both types of variables to predict perceived risk found only two significant demographic predictors for any threat--Democrat (a negative predictor for bomb) and white male (a significant positive predictor for airline attack). In contrast, among psychometric variables, severity, number affected, and likelihood were predictors of all four threats and level of understanding was a predictor for one. For WTP, education was a negative predictor for three threats; no other demographic variables were significant predictors for any threat. Among psychometric variables, perceived risk and number affected were positive predictors of WTP for all four threats; severity and likelihood were predictors for three; level of understanding was a significant predictor for two. © 2013 Society for Risk Analysis.

  14. Predictors of poor outcomes after significant chest trauma in multiply injured patients: a retrospective analysis from the German Trauma Registry (Trauma Register DGU®).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Stephan; Biberthaler, Peter; Delhey, Patrick; Trentzsch, Heiko; Winter, Hauke; van Griensven, Martijn; Lefering, Rolf; Huber-Wagner, Stefan

    2014-09-03

    Blunt thoracic trauma is one of the critical injury mechanisms in multiply injured trauma victims. Although these patients present a plethora of potential structural damages to vital organs, it remains debated which injuries actually influence outcome and thereby should be addressed initially. Hence, the aim of this study was to identify the influence of critical structural damages on mortality. All patients in the database of the TraumaRegister DGU® (TR-DGU) from 2002-2011 with AIS Chest ≥ 2, blunt trauma, age of 16 or older and an ISS ≥ 16 were analyzed. Outcome parameters were in-hospital mortality as well as ventilation time in patients surviving the initial 14 days after trauma. 22613 Patients were included (mean ISS 30.5 ± 12.6; 74.7% male; Mean Age 46.1 ± 197 years; mortality 17.5%; mean duration of ventilation 7.3 ± 11.5; mean ICU stay 11.7 ± 14.1 days). Only a limited number of specific injuries had a significant impact on survival. Major thoracic vessel injuries (AIS ≥5), bilateral lung contusion, bilateral flail chest, structural heart injury (AIS ≥3) significantly influence mortality in study patients. Several extrathoracic factors (age, blood transfusion, systolic blood pressure and extrathoracic severe injuries) were also predictive of increased mortality. Most injuries of the thoracic wall had no or only a moderate effect on the duration of ventilation. Injuries to the lung (laceration, contusion or pneumothoraces) had a moderate prolonging effect. Cardiac injuries and severe injuries to the thoracic vessels induced a substantially prolonged ventilation interval. We demonstrate quantitatively the influence of specific structural damages of the chest on critical outcome parameters. While most injuries of the chest wall have no or only limited impact in the study collective, injuries to the lung overall show adverse outcome. Injuries to the heart or thoracic vessels have a devastating prognosis following blunt

  15. Depressed heart rate variability as an independent predictor of death in chronic congestive heart failure secondary to ischemic or idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponikowski, P; Anker, S D; Chua, T P; Szelemej, R; Piepoli, M; Adamopoulos, S; Webb-Peploe, K; Harrington, D; Banasiak, W; Wrabec, K; Coats, A J

    1997-06-15

    After acute myocardial infarction, depressed heart rate variability (HRV) has been proven to be a powerful independent predictor of a poor outcome. Although patients with chronic congestive heart failure (CHF) have also markedly impaired HRV, the prognostic value of HRV analysis in these patients remains unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate whether HRV parameters could predict survival in 102 consecutive patients with moderate to severe CHF (90 men, mean age 58 years, New York Heart Association [NYHA] class II to IV, CHF due to idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy in 24 patients and ischemic heart disease in 78 patients, ejection fraction [EF], 26%; peak oxygen consumption, 16.9 ml/kg/min) after exclusion of patients in atrial fibrilation with diabetes or with chronic renal failure. In the prognostic analysis (Cox proportional-hazards model, Kaplan-Meier survival analysis), the following factors were investigated: age, CHF etiology, NYHA class, EF, peak oxygen consumption, presence of ventricular tachycardia on Holter monitoring, and HRV measures derived from 24-hour electrocardiography monitoring, calculated in the time (standard deviation of all normal RR intervals [SDNN], standard deviation of 5-minute RR intervals [SDANN], mean of all 5-minute standard deviations of RR intervals [SD], root-mean-square of difference of successive RR intervals [rMSSD], and percentage of adjacent RR intervals >50 ms different [pNN50]) and frequency domain (total power [TP], power within low-frequency band [LF], and power within high-frequency band [HF]). During follow-up of 584 +/- 405 days (365 days in all who survived), 19 patients (19%) died (mean time to death: 307 +/- 315 days, range 3 to 989). Cox's univariate analysis identified the following factors to be predictors of death: NYHA (p = 0.003), peak oxygen consumption (p = 0.01), EF (p = 0.02), ventricular tachycardia on Holter monitoring (p = 0.05), and among HRV measures: SDNN (p = 0.004), SDANN (p = 0.003), SD

  16. Minimal percentage of dose received by 90% of the urethra (%UD90) is the most significant predictor of PSA bounce in patients who underwent low-dose-rate brachytherapy (LDR-brachytherapy) for prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Nobumichi; Asakawa, Isao; Fujimoto, Kiyohide; Anai, Satoshi; Hirayama, Akihide; Hasegawa, Masatoshi; Konishi, Noboru; Hirao, Yoshihiko

    2012-09-14

    To clarify the significant clinicopathological and postdosimetric parameters to predict PSA bounce in patients who underwent low-dose-rate brachytherapy (LDR-brachytherapy) for prostate cancer. We studied 200 consecutive patients who received LDR-brachytherapy between July 2004 and November 2008. Of them, 137 patients did not receive neoadjuvant or adjuvant androgen deprivation therapy. One hundred and forty-two patients were treated with LDR-brachytherapy alone, and 58 were treated with LDR-brachytherapy in combination with external beam radiation therapy. The cut-off value of PSA bounce was 0.1 ng/mL. The incidence, time, height, and duration of PSA bounce were investigated. Clinicopathological and postdosimetric parameters were evaluated to elucidate independent factors to predict PSA bounce in hormone-naïve patients who underwent LDR-brachytherapy alone. Fifty patients (25%) showed PSA bounce and 10 patients (5%) showed PSA failure. The median time, height, and duration of PSA bounce were 17 months, 0.29 ng/mL, and 7.0 months, respectively. In 103 hormone-naïve patients treated with LDR-brachytherapy alone, and univariate Cox proportional regression hazard model indicated that age and minimal percentage of the dose received by 30% and 90% of the urethra were independent predictors of PSA bounce. With a multivariate Cox proportional regression hazard model, minimal percentage of the dose received by 90% of the urethra was the most significant parameter of PSA bounce. Minimal percentage of the dose received by 90% of the urethra was the most significant predictor of PSA bounce in hormone-naïve patients treated with LDR-brachytherapy alone.

  17. Co-relation of variables as determined from panoramic radiograph and evaluating their significance in eruption of permanent mandibular third molar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kushal Amin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the Study: Purpose of the study is to investigate whether the variables associated with the permanent mandibular third molar (PMM3 and arch dimensions could be co-related and significantly differentiated between a fully erupted and mesially impacted PMM3 among a set of Indian population. Study Design: A standardized panoramic radiograph was taken of subjects of age 21 years and above. Patients with missing tooth from mandibular arch, subjects undergoing or having history of orthodontic treatment, subjects having disto-angular, horizontal or vertical impacted PMM3 were excluded from the study. Subjects were divided into 2 groups: (1 mesially impacted PMM3 and (2 vertically erupted PMM3. Following measurements were taken from acetate paper tracing of standardized panoramic radiograph: (1 Angulation of long axis of PMM3 to permanent mandibular second molar (theta (2 Angulation of PMM 3 to base of mandible (theta 2 (3 Gonial angle (theta 3 (4 Mesio-distal width of PMM 3 (5 Retro molar space. From these measurements Ganss ratio (retro molar space /PMM3 crown width. was calculated. Results and Conclusion: Results revealed that angle theta 1, angle theta 2, retro molar space and Ganss ratio were positively co-related and highly significant variables associated with the mesially and vertically erupted teeth as measured on panoramic radiograph. Using these variables a long-term study can be carried out to predict the ultimate position of lower third molar in the arch so that if there is a probability of the tooth being impacted at a later age, a prophylactic germectomy can be performed at an early age.

  18. Validation of three noninvasive laboratory variables to predict significant fibrosis and cirrhosis in patients with chronic hepatitis C in Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ado, Ayman A.; Al-Swat, Khalid; Azzam, N.; Al-Faleh, Faleh; Ahmed, S.

    2007-01-01

    We tested the clinical utility of the platelet count, aspartate aminotransferase/alanine aminotransferase (AST/ALT) ratio, and the AST to platelet ratio index (APRI) score in predicting the presence or absence of advanced fibrosis and cirrhosis in patients with chronic hepatitis C in Saudi Arabia. Liver biopsy procedures performed on chronic hepatitis C patients in our gastroenterology unit at King Khalid University Hospital were traced form records between 1998 to 2003. The hospital computer database was then accessed and detailed laboratory parameters obtained. By plotting receiver operating characteristic curves (ROC), three selected models (platelet count, AST/ALT ratio and the APRI score) were compared in terms of the best variable to predict significant fibrosis. Two hundred and forty-six patients with hepatitis C were included in this analysis. Overall, 26% of patients had advanced fibrosis. When comparing the three above mentioned prediction models, APRI score was the one associated with the highest area under the curve (AUC) = 0.812 (95%Cl, 0.756-0.868) on the ROC curves, compared to the platelet count and AST/ALT ratio, which yielded an AUC of 0.783 (0.711-0.855) and 0.716 (0.642-0.789), respectively. The APRI score seemed to be the best predictive variable for the presence or absence of advanced fibrosis in Saudi hepatitis C patients. (author)

  19. Individual predictors of adolescents’ vocational interest stabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Hirschi, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    The study investigated the predictive utility of interest profile differentiation, coherence, elevation, congruence, and vocational identity commitment and career maturity (career planning and exploration) on the 10-month interest stability of 292 Swiss eighth-grade students: profile, rank, and level stabilities were assessed. Controlling for socio-demographic and vocational interest type variables, measures of differentiated and coherent vocational interests were significant predictors of pr...

  20. The Epidemiological Significance and Temporal Stability of Mycobacterial Interspersed Repetitive Units-Variable Number of Tandem Repeats-Based Method Applied to Mycobacterium tuberculosis in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Li

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to validate the epidemiological significance and temporal stability of Mycobacterial Interspersed Repetitive Units-Variable Number of Tandem Repeats (MIRU-VNTR typing in a genetically and geographically diverse set of clinical isolates from patients diagnosed with pulmonary tuberculosis in China. Between 2010 and 2013, a total of 982 Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates were collected from four population-based investigations in China. Apart from the currently applied 24-locus MIRU-VNTR, six additional hypervariable loci were analyzed in order to validate the MIRU-VNTR combinations in terms of their epidemiological links, clustering time span, and paired geographic distance. In vitro temporal stability was analyzed for both individual MIRU-VNTR loci, and for several combinations of loci. In the present study, four MIRU-VNTR combinations, including the hypervariable loci 3820, 3232, 2163a, and 4120, were evaluated. All of these combinations obtained a Hunter-Gaston discriminatory index (HGDI value over 0.9900 with a reduced clustering proportion (from 32.0% to 25.6%. By comparing epidemiological links, clustering time span, and paired geographic distance, we found that the performances of the four MIRU-VNTR combinations were comparable to the insertion sequence 6110 restriction fragment length polymorphism (IS6110-RFLP, and significantly better than that of 24-locus MIRU-VNTR genotyping alone. The proportion of temporally stable loci ranged from 90.5% to 92.5% within the combined MIRU-VNTR genotyping, which is higher than IS6110-RFLP (85.4%. By adding four hypervariable loci to the standard 24-locus MIRU-VNTR genotyping, we obtained a high discriminatory power, stability and epidemiological significance. This algorithm could therefore be used to improve tuberculosis transmission surveillance and outbreak investigation in China.

  1. Clinical significance of power spectral analysis of heart rate variability and {sup 123}I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) myocardial imaging for assessing the severity of heart failure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishida, Yoshio; Fukuoka, Shuji; Shimotsu, Yoriko; Sasaki, Tatsuya; Kamakura, Shiro; Yasumura, Yoshio; Miyatake, Kunio; Shimomura, Katsuro [National Cardiovascular Center, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Tani, Akihiro

    1997-04-01

    The significance of power spectral analysis of heart rate variability and of MIBG myocardial imaging to see the sympathetic nervous function was evaluated in patients with congestive heart failure due to dilated cardiomyopathy. Subjects were 10 normal volunteers and 8 patients with severity NYHA II; 10 normals and 25 patients with NYHA II and III; and 17 patients treated with a beta-blocker (metoprolol 5-40 mg). ECG was recorded with a portable ECG recorder for measuring RR intervals for 24 hr, which were applied for power spectral analysis. Early and delayed imagings with 111 MBq of {sup 123}I-MIBG were performed at 15 min and 4 hr, respectively, after its intravenous administration for acquisition of anterior planar and SPECT images. Myocardial blood flow SPECT was also done with 111 MBq of {sup 201}Tl given intravenously, and difference of total defect scores between MIBG and Tl images was computed. MIBG myocardial sympathetic nerve imaging in those patients was found useful to assess the severity of heart failure, to predict the risk patients for beta-blocker treatment and to assess the risk in complicated ventricular tachycardia. (K.H.)

  2. Inadequate Response to Therapy as a Predictor of Suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlsgaard, Katherine K.; Beck, Aaron T.; Brown, Gregory K.

    1998-01-01

    The role of response to cognitive therapy as a predictor of suicide was investigated by comparing 17 outpatients with mood disorders who committed suicide with 17 matched patients who did not commit suicide. Significant differences were found on several variables including higher levels of hopelessness at termination of therapy. (Author/EMK)

  3. Predictors of Racial Prejudice in White American Counseling Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Linda G.; Conoley, Collie W.; King, Jennifer; Rollins, Dahl; Rivera, Saori; Veve, Mia

    2006-01-01

    This study extends the research on racial prejudice by combining previously identified predictors into 1 study to determine their relative importance in contributing to racial prejudice. Results revealed that White racial identity significantly predicted racial prejudice when demographic variables were controlled. Implications of reducing racial…

  4. Talent predictors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Lorenzo

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of talent predictors is the initial point for building diagnosis and encouragement procedures in this field. The meaning of word predictor is to anticipate the future, to divine. Early prediction of high performance is complex problem no resolute by the science yet. There are many discrepancies about what measure and how to do. The article analyze the art state in this problematic because the excellence is determined by the interaction between internal and environmental factors.

  5. Variability of the Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 2 Flexibility Without Significant Change in the Initial Conformation of the Protein or Its Environment; a Computational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghizadeh, Mohammad; Goliaei, Bahram; Madadkar-Sobhani, Armin

    2016-06-01

    Protein flexibility, which has been referred as a dynamic behavior has various roles in proteins' functions. Furthermore, for some developed tools in bioinformatics, such as protein-protein docking software, considering the protein flexibility, causes a higher degree of accuracy. Through undertaking the present work, we have accomplished the quantification plus analysis of the variations in the human Cyclin Dependent Kinase 2 (hCDK2) protein flexibility without affecting a significant change in its initial environment or the protein per se. The main goal of the present research was to calculate variations in the flexibility for each residue of the hCDK2, analysis of their flexibility variations through clustering, and to investigate the functional aspects of the residues with high flexibility variations. Using Gromacs package (version 4.5.4), three independent molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of the hCDK2 protein (PDB ID: 1HCL) was accomplished with no significant changes in their initial environments, structures, or conformations, followed by Root Mean Square Fluctuations (RMSF) calculation of these MD trajectories. The amount of variations in these three curves of RMSF was calculated using two formulas. More than 50% of the variation in the flexibility (the distance between the maximum and the minimum amount of the RMSF) was found at the region of Val-154. As well, there are other major flexibility fluctuations in other residues. These residues were mostly positioned in the vicinity of the functional residues. The subsequent works were done, as followed by clustering all hCDK2 residues into four groups considering the amount of their variability with respect to flexibility and their position in the RMSF curves. This work has introduced a new class of flexibility aspect of the proteins' residues. It could also help designing and engineering proteins, with introducing a new dynamic aspect of hCDK2, and accordingly, for the other similar globular proteins. In

  6. Variable Selection via Partial Correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Runze; Liu, Jingyuan; Lou, Lejia

    2017-07-01

    Partial correlation based variable selection method was proposed for normal linear regression models by Bühlmann, Kalisch and Maathuis (2010) as a comparable alternative method to regularization methods for variable selection. This paper addresses two important issues related to partial correlation based variable selection method: (a) whether this method is sensitive to normality assumption, and (b) whether this method is valid when the dimension of predictor increases in an exponential rate of the sample size. To address issue (a), we systematically study this method for elliptical linear regression models. Our finding indicates that the original proposal may lead to inferior performance when the marginal kurtosis of predictor is not close to that of normal distribution. Our simulation results further confirm this finding. To ensure the superior performance of partial correlation based variable selection procedure, we propose a thresholded partial correlation (TPC) approach to select significant variables in linear regression models. We establish the selection consistency of the TPC in the presence of ultrahigh dimensional predictors. Since the TPC procedure includes the original proposal as a special case, our theoretical results address the issue (b) directly. As a by-product, the sure screening property of the first step of TPC was obtained. The numerical examples also illustrate that the TPC is competitively comparable to the commonly-used regularization methods for variable selection.

  7. Predictors of depression stigma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorm Anthony F

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To investigate and compare the predictors of personal and perceived stigma associated with depression. Method Three samples were surveyed to investigate the predictors: a national sample of 1,001 Australian adults; a local community sample of 5,572 residents of the Australian Capital Territory and Queanbeyan aged 18 to 50 years; and a psychologically distressed subset (n = 487 of the latter sample. Personal and Perceived Stigma were measured using the two subscales of the Depression Stigma Scale. Potential predictors included demographic variables (age, gender, education, country of birth, remoteness of residence, psychological distress, awareness of Australia's national depression initiative beyondblue, depression literacy and level of exposure to depression. Not all predictors were used for all samples. Results Personal stigma was consistently higher among men, those with less education and those born overseas. It was also associated with greater current psychological distress, lower prior contact with depression, not having heard of a national awareness raising initiative, and lower depression literacy. These findings differed from those for perceived stigma except for psychological distress which was associated with both higher personal and higher perceived stigma. Remoteness of residence was not associated with either type of stigma. Conclusion The findings highlight the importance of treating the concepts of personal and perceived stigma separately in designing measures of stigma, in interpreting the pattern of findings in studies of the predictors of stigma, and in designing, interpreting the impact of and disseminating interventions for stigma.

  8. Direct medical costs and their predictors in the EMAR-II cohort: "Variability in the management of rheumatoid arthritis and spondyloarthritis in Spain".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon, Leticia; Abasolo, Lydia; Fernandez-Gutierrez, Benjamin; Jover, Juan Angel; Hernandez-Garcia, Cesar

    To analyze the resource utilization in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients and predictive factors in and patients treated with biological drugs and biologic-naïve. A cross-sectional study was performed in a sample including all regions and hospitals throughout the country. Sociodemographic data, disease activity parameters and treatment data were obtained. Resource utilization for two years of study was recorded and we made costs imputation. Correlation analyzes were performed on all RA patients and those treated with biological and biological naïve, to estimate the differences in resource utilization. Factors associated with increased resources utilization (costs) attending to treatment was analyzed by linear regression models. We included 1,095 RA patients, 26% male, mean age of 62±14 years. Mean of direct medical costs per patient was €24,291±€45,382. Excluding biological drugs, the average cost per patient was €3,742±€3,711. After adjustment, factors associated with direct medical costs for all RA patients were biologic drugs (P=.02) and disease activity (P=.004). In the biologic-naïve group, the predictor of direct medical costs was comorbidity (P<.001). In the biologic treatment group predictors were follow-up length of the disease (P=.04), age (P=.02) and disease activity (P=.007). Our data show a remarkable economic impact of RA. It is important to identify and estimate the economic impact of the disease, compare data from other geographic samples and to develop improvement strategies to reduce these costs and increase the quality of care. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Reumatología y Colegio Mexicano de Reumatología. All rights reserved.

  9. Variability and predictors of negative mood intensity in patients with borderline personality disorder and recurrent suicidal behavior: multilevel analyses applied to experience sampling methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisenbaum, Rosane; Links, Paul S; Eynan, Rahel; Heisel, Marnin J

    2010-05-01

    Variability in mood swings is a characteristic of borderline personality disorder (BPD) and is associated with suicidal behavior. This study investigated patterns of mood variability and whether such patterns could be predicted from demographic and suicide-related psychological risk factors. Eighty-two adults with BPD and histories of recurrent suicidal behavior were recruited from 3 outpatient psychiatric programs in Canada. Experience sampling methodology (ESM) was used to assess negative mood intensity ratings on a visual analogue scale, 6 random times daily, for 21 days. Three-level models estimated variability between times (52.8%), days (22.2%), and patients (25.1%) and supported a quadratic pattern of daily mood variability. Depression scores predicted variability between patients' initial rating of the day. Average daily mood patterns depended on levels of hopelessness, suicide ideation, and sexual abuse history. Patients reporting moderate to severe sexual abuse and elevated suicide ideation were characterized by worsening moods from early morning up through evening, with little or no relief; patients reporting mild sexual abuse and low suicide ideation reported improved mood throughout the day. These patterns, if replicated in larger ESM studies, may potentially assist the clinician in determining which patients require close monitoring.

  10. Usefulness of short-term variability of QT intervals as a predictor for electrical remodeling and proarrhythmia in patients with nonischemic heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hinterseer, Martin; Beckmann, Britt-Maria; Thomsen, Morten Bækgaard

    2010-01-01

    and moderate HF (New York Heart Association classes II to III) were compared to matched controls. Twenty patients had implantable cardiac defibrillators secondary to a history of ventricular tachycardia (VT). Two cardiologists blinded to diagnosis manually measured QT intervals. Beat-to-beat variability...

  11. Modeling Linguistic Variables With Regression Models: Addressing Non-Gaussian Distributions, Non-independent Observations, and Non-linear Predictors With Random Effects and Generalized Additive Models for Location, Scale, and Shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coupé, Christophe

    2018-01-01

    As statistical approaches are getting increasingly used in linguistics, attention must be paid to the choice of methods and algorithms used. This is especially true since they require assumptions to be satisfied to provide valid results, and because scientific articles still often fall short of reporting whether such assumptions are met. Progress is being, however, made in various directions, one of them being the introduction of techniques able to model data that cannot be properly analyzed with simpler linear regression models. We report recent advances in statistical modeling in linguistics. We first describe linear mixed-effects regression models (LMM), which address grouping of observations, and generalized linear mixed-effects models (GLMM), which offer a family of distributions for the dependent variable. Generalized additive models (GAM) are then introduced, which allow modeling non-linear parametric or non-parametric relationships between the dependent variable and the predictors. We then highlight the possibilities offered by generalized additive models for location, scale, and shape (GAMLSS). We explain how they make it possible to go beyond common distributions, such as Gaussian or Poisson, and offer the appropriate inferential framework to account for 'difficult' variables such as count data with strong overdispersion. We also demonstrate how they offer interesting perspectives on data when not only the mean of the dependent variable is modeled, but also its variance, skewness, and kurtosis. As an illustration, the case of phonemic inventory size is analyzed throughout the article. For over 1,500 languages, we consider as predictors the number of speakers, the distance from Africa, an estimation of the intensity of language contact, and linguistic relationships. We discuss the use of random effects to account for genealogical relationships, the choice of appropriate distributions to model count data, and non-linear relationships. Relying on GAMLSS, we

  12. Modeling Linguistic Variables With Regression Models: Addressing Non-Gaussian Distributions, Non-independent Observations, and Non-linear Predictors With Random Effects and Generalized Additive Models for Location, Scale, and Shape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Coupé

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available As statistical approaches are getting increasingly used in linguistics, attention must be paid to the choice of methods and algorithms used. This is especially true since they require assumptions to be satisfied to provide valid results, and because scientific articles still often fall short of reporting whether such assumptions are met. Progress is being, however, made in various directions, one of them being the introduction of techniques able to model data that cannot be properly analyzed with simpler linear regression models. We report recent advances in statistical modeling in linguistics. We first describe linear mixed-effects regression models (LMM, which address grouping of observations, and generalized linear mixed-effects models (GLMM, which offer a family of distributions for the dependent variable. Generalized additive models (GAM are then introduced, which allow modeling non-linear parametric or non-parametric relationships between the dependent variable and the predictors. We then highlight the possibilities offered by generalized additive models for location, scale, and shape (GAMLSS. We explain how they make it possible to go beyond common distributions, such as Gaussian or Poisson, and offer the appropriate inferential framework to account for ‘difficult’ variables such as count data with strong overdispersion. We also demonstrate how they offer interesting perspectives on data when not only the mean of the dependent variable is modeled, but also its variance, skewness, and kurtosis. As an illustration, the case of phonemic inventory size is analyzed throughout the article. For over 1,500 languages, we consider as predictors the number of speakers, the distance from Africa, an estimation of the intensity of language contact, and linguistic relationships. We discuss the use of random effects to account for genealogical relationships, the choice of appropriate distributions to model count data, and non-linear relationships

  13. Predictors of tonic immobility during traumatic events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Bados

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Tonic immobility (TI is a possible reaction to danger that is facilitated by intense fear, physical restraint and perceived inability to escape. Other variables that could affect TI, such as the type and characteristics of traumatic events and personal characteristics have been little or no studied. The present study evaluated the power of these variables to predict TI in a sample of 273 college students who had experienced at least one traumatic event. Of the sample, 7.7% and 13.2% responded with TI according to the two stricter definitions adopted. Most of the variables were significantly associated with TI in univariate analyses. However, in a multiple regression analysis, only certain features of the events (occurrence of physical/sexual abuse, number of different types of events experienced and certain reactions to them (perception of how traumatic were the events, severe fear response were significant predictors of TI. Since these predictors explained only 25% of the variance, the influence of other variables -such as neuroticism, negative affectivity and perceived lack of personal control or resources to cope with traumatic events- should be investigated.

  14. Electricity curtailment behaviors in Greek households: Different behaviors, different predictors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botetzagias, Iosif; Malesios, Chrisovaladis; Poulou, Dimitra

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We study the self-reported energy (electricity) curtailment behaviors of Greek households (N=285). • We find that the curtailment behaviors are distinct and should be studied/analyzed separately. • ‘Age’, ‘Gender’ and ‘Perceived Behavioral Control’ are statistically significant predictors of most behaviors. • The demographic/structural and the psychological predictors contribute significantly explain the variance of the behaviors. • The cluster of moral predictors does not contribute statistically significantly to the explained variance. - Abstract: This paper argues that electricity ‘curtailment’ behaviors (i.e. frequent and/or low cost or free energy saving behaviors) in households are distinct from one another and they thus should be analyzed and promoted. We test this claim with data from telephone interviews with Greek households in the capital city of Athens (N=285), analyzing the impact of a number of demographical/structural, psychological (based on the Theory of Planned Behavior) and moral (based on norms’ activation) predictors though hierarchical binary logistic regression modeling. We find that that each electricity curtailment behavior depends on a different mix of predictors with ‘Age’, ‘Gender’ and ‘Perceived Behavioral Control’ being statistically significant for most behaviors. Overall, the psychological and the demographical/structural clusters of variables substantially contribute to the explained variance of electricity curtailment behaviors. The moral cluster's contribution is not statistically significant since moral concerns are largely interwoven in the psychological constructs

  15. Sperm variables as predictors of fertility in Black Castellana roosters; use in the selection of sperm donors for genome resource banking purposes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santiago Moreno, J.; Lopez Sebastian, A.; Castano, C.; Coloma, M. A.; Gomez Brunet, A.; Toledano Diaz, A.; Prieto, M. T.; Campo, J. L.

    2009-07-01

    Semen was collected from 10 Black Castellana roosters and the classic sperm variables (ejaculate volume, sperm concentration and sperm motility) examined. In addition, the hypo-osmotic swelling test was used to investigate sperm cell membrane integrity, and acidic aniline blue staining used to screen for morphological abnormalities (including acrosome integrity) and to examine the condensation status of the chromatin. The latter was also examined by Gram staining. Large and small semen volumes were associated high and low sperm concentrations respectively (R2=0.04, P<0.05). The percentage of motile spermatozoa correlated strongly with the percentage of sperm cells showing an intact acrosome (R2=0.13, P<0.001) and with the percentage of morphologically normal spermatozoa (R2=0.04, P<0.05). The percentage of Gram positive spermatozoa was positively correlated with semen appearance (R2=0.12, P<0.05), sperm cell concentration (R2=0.13, P<0.05), and with the sperm motility variables studied (R2=0.14, P<0.05 for percentage mobility, and R2=0.12, P<0.05 for quality of movement). Only three of the 10 roosters, all with fertilisation potentials of 80-90%, were considered potential sperm donors for genome resource banking purposes. The remaining birds were all of low fertility (. 50%); in fact, some produced semen volumes too small to perform fertility tests. Semen volume and membrane integrity were found to be the best variables for predicting the fertilisation potential of rooster ejaculates. (Author) 37 refs.

  16. Variables sociodemográficas y estilos de vida como predictores de la autovaloración de la salud de los inmigrantes en el País Vasco Sociodemographic variables and lifestyle as predictors of self-perceived health in immigrants in the Basque Country (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Rodríguez Álvarez

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Investigar la importancia de los factores sociodemográficos y de los estilos de vida en la autovaloración de la salud en los inmigrantes de origen magrebí, subsahariano, latinoamericano y europeo no comunitario del País Vasco. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo transversal con una muestra formada por 219 magrebíes (31,8%, 152 subsaharianos (22,1%, 167 latinoamericanos (24,2% y 151 europeos no comunitarios (21,9%. La herramienta para la recopilación de datos fue la Encuesta de Salud de la Comunidad Autónoma del País Vasco (ESCAV'2002. El análisis multivariante se realizó con regresión logística dicotómica (soporte SPSS 13. Resultados: Para la autovaloración de la salud, el 64,2% de los magrebíes, el 78,7% de los subsaharianos, el 66,1% de los latinoamericanos y el 67,1% de los europeos declararon tener una salud muy buena o buena. Las variables asociadas significativamente (p Objective: To explore the importance of socio-demographic factors as well as life-style and their influence in self-rated health of Maghribian, Sub-Saharian, Latin-American and non-Communitarian European immigrant groups living in the Basque Country (Spain. Methods: Descriptive cross-study with a convenience sample of 689 persons, consisting of 219 Maghribians (31.8%, 152 Sub-Saharians (22.1%, 167 Latino(as (24.2% and 151 non-Communitarian Europeans (21.9%. Data base have been completed with data collected using the 2002 Regional Basque Health Interview Survey (ESCAV 2002. The multivariate analysis was performed by using the dicotomic logistic regression (software SPSS 13. Results: We found that 64.2% of Maghribian, 78.7% of Sub-Saharian, 66.1% of Latin-American and 67.1% of non-Communitarian European assessed their health as very good or good. The significantly associated variables (p < 0.05 and p < 0.01 with self-rated health were collective membership, sex and age. Persons belonging to the Sub-Saharian collective showed a stronger advantage of

  17. Sleep and Academic Performance in Undergraduates: A Multi-measure, Multi-predictor Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Gomes, Ana Allen; Tavares, José; de Azevedo, Maria Helena P.

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined the associations of sleep patterns with multiple measures of academic achievement of undergraduate university students and tested whether sleep variables emerged as significant predictors of subsequent academic performance when other potential predictors, such as class attendance, time devoted to study, and substance use are considered. A sample of 1654 (55% female) full-time undergraduates 17 to 25 yrs of age responded to a self-response questionnaire on sleep, aca...

  18. Predictors of Happiness and Emotional Intelligence in Secondary Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Pulido Acosta

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed predictors of happiness and emotional intelligence taking into account age, sex, culture and status and the relationship among these variables. 811 persons participated; 71.6% were Muslims and 28.4% Christians, with 46.1% males and 53.9% females. One questionnaire was used to evaluate happiness and another to evaluate emotional intelligence. The results indicate that predictors of happiness are age, culture, status and sex, while those of emotional intelligence are age, culture and sex. The study found that there is a statistically significant and direct correlation between happiness and emotional intelligence.

  19. Predictors of persistent pain after total knee arthroplasty: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, G N; Rice, D A; McNair, P J; Kluger, M

    2015-04-01

    Several studies have identified clinical, psychosocial, patient characteristic, and perioperative variables that are associated with persistent postsurgical pain; however, the relative effect of these variables has yet to be quantified. The aim of the study was to provide a systematic review and meta-analysis of predictor variables associated with persistent pain after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Included studies were required to measure predictor variables prior to or at the time of surgery, include a pain outcome measure at least 3 months post-TKA, and include a statistical analysis of the effect of the predictor variable(s) on the outcome measure. Counts were undertaken of the number of times each predictor was analysed and the number of times it was found to have a significant relationship with persistent pain. Separate meta-analyses were performed to determine the effect size of each predictor on persistent pain. Outcomes from studies implementing uni- and multivariable statistical models were analysed separately. Thirty-two studies involving almost 30 000 patients were included in the review. Preoperative pain was the predictor that most commonly demonstrated a significant relationship with persistent pain across uni- and multivariable analyses. In the meta-analyses of data from univariate models, the largest effect sizes were found for: other pain sites, catastrophizing, and depression. For data from multivariate models, significant effects were evident for: catastrophizing, preoperative pain, mental health, and comorbidities. Catastrophizing, mental health, preoperative knee pain, and pain at other sites are the strongest independent predictors of persistent pain after TKA. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Journal of Anaesthesia. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Variable temperature ion trap studies of CH4+ + H2, HD and D2: negative temperature dependence and significant isotope effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asvany, O.; Savic, I.; Schlemmer, S.; Gerlich, D.

    2004-01-01

    Reactions of methane cations, CH 4 + , with H 2 , HD and D 2 have been studied in a variable temperature 22-pole ion trap from room temperature down to 15 K. The formation of CH 5 + in collisions with H 2 is slow at 300 K, but it becomes faster by at least one order of magnitude when the temperature is lowered to 15 K. This behavior is tentatively explained with a longer complex lifetime at low temperatures. However, since tunneling is most probably not responsible for product formation, other dynamical or statistical restrictions must be responsible for the negative temperature dependence. In collisions of CH 4 + with HD, the CH 5 + product ion (68% at 15 K) prevails over CH 4 D + (32%). Reaction of CH 4 + with D 2 is found to be much slower than with H 2 or HD. The rate coefficient for converting CH 4 + into CH 3 D + by H-D exchange has been determined to be smaller than 10 -12 cm 3 /s, indicating that scrambling in the CH 6 + complex is very unlikely

  1. Variable temperature ion trap studies of CH{sub 4}{sup +} + H{sub 2}, HD and D{sub 2}: negative temperature dependence and significant isotope effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asvany, O.; Savic, I.; Schlemmer, S.; Gerlich, D

    2004-03-08

    Reactions of methane cations, CH{sub 4}{sup +}, with H{sub 2}, HD and D{sub 2} have been studied in a variable temperature 22-pole ion trap from room temperature down to 15 K. The formation of CH{sub 5}{sup +} in collisions with H{sub 2} is slow at 300 K, but it becomes faster by at least one order of magnitude when the temperature is lowered to 15 K. This behavior is tentatively explained with a longer complex lifetime at low temperatures. However, since tunneling is most probably not responsible for product formation, other dynamical or statistical restrictions must be responsible for the negative temperature dependence. In collisions of CH{sub 4}{sup +} with HD, the CH{sub 5}{sup +} product ion (68% at 15 K) prevails over CH{sub 4}D{sup +} (32%). Reaction of CH{sub 4}{sup +} with D{sub 2} is found to be much slower than with H{sub 2} or HD. The rate coefficient for converting CH{sub 4}{sup +} into CH{sub 3}D{sup +} by H-D exchange has been determined to be smaller than 10{sup -12} cm{sup 3}/s, indicating that scrambling in the CH{sub 6}{sup +} complex is very unlikely.

  2. Predictors of posttreatment drinking outcomes in patients with alcohol dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flórez, Gerardo; Saiz, Pilar A; García-Portilla, Paz; De Cos, Francisco J; Dapía, Sonia; Alvarez, Sandra; Nogueiras, Luis; Bobes, Julio

    2015-01-01

    This cohort study examined how predictors of alcohol dependence treatment outcomes work together over time by comparing pretreatment and posttreatment predictors. A sample of 274 alcohol-dependent patients was recruited and assessed at baseline, 6 months after treatment initiation (end of the active intervention phase), and 18 months after treatment initiation (end of the 12-month research follow-up phase). At each assessment point, the participants completed a battery of standardized tests [European Addiction Severity Index (EuropASI), Obsessive Compulsive Drinking Scale (OCDS), Alcohol Timeline Followback (TLFB), Fagerström, and International Personality Disorder Examination (IPDE)] that measured symptom severity and consequences; biological markers of alcohol consumption were also tested at each assessment point. A sequential strategy with univariate and multivariate analyses was used to identify how pretreatment and posttreatment predictors influence outcomes up to 1 year after treatment. Pretreatment variables had less predictive power than posttreatment ones. OCDS scores and biological markers of alcohol consumption were the most significant variables for the prediction of posttreatment outcomes. Prior pharmacotherapy treatment and relapse prevention interventions were also associated with posttreatment outcomes. The findings highlight the positive impact of pharmacotherapy during the first 6 months after treatment initiation and of relapse prevention during the first year after treatment and how posttreatment predictors are more important than pretreatment predictors.

  3. Patient Characteristics and Patient Behavior as Predictors of Outcome in Cognitive Therapy and Exposure Therapy for Hypochondriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richtberg, Samantha; Jakob, Marion; Höfling, Volkmar; Weck, Florian

    2017-06-01

    Psychotherapy for hypochondriasis has greatly improved over the last decades and cognitive-behavioral treatments are most promising. However, research on predictors of treatment outcome for hypochondriasis is rare. Possible predictors of treatment outcome in cognitive therapy (CT) and exposure therapy (ET) for hypochondriasis were investigated. Characteristics and behaviors of 75 patients were considered as possible predictors: sociodemographic variables (sex, age, and cohabitation); psychopathology (pretreatment hypochondriacal symptoms, comorbid mental disorders, and levels of depression, anxiety, and somatic symptoms); and patient in-session interpersonal behavior. Severity of pretreatment hypochondriacal symptoms, comorbid mental disorders, and patient in-session interpersonal behavior were significant predictors in multiple hierarchical regression analyses. Interactions between the predictors and the treatment (CT or ET) were not found. In-session interpersonal behavior is an important predictor of outcome. Furthermore, there are no specific contraindications to treating hypochondriasis with CT or ET. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Blastocystis Isolates from Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome and from Asymptomatic Carriers Exhibit Similar Parasitological Loads, but Significantly Different Generation Times and Genetic Variability across Multiple Subtypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gie-Bele Vargas-Sanchez

    selected, reducing their genetic variability.

  5. Discrimination, acculturation and other predictors of depression among pregnant Hispanic women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Janiece L; Ruiz, R Jeanne; Chinn, Juanita J; Marti, Nathan; Ricks, Tiffany N

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to examine the effects of socioeconomic status, acculturative stress, discrimination, and marginalization as predictors of depression in pregnant Hispanic women. A prospective observational design was used. Central and Gulf coast areas of Texas in obstetrical offices. A convenience sample of 515 pregnant, low income, low medical risk, and self-identified Hispanic women who were between 22-24 weeks gestation was used to collect data. The predictor variables were socioeconomic status, discrimination, acculturative stress, and marginalization. The outcome variable was depression. Education, frequency of discrimination, age, and Anglo marginality were significant predictors of depressive symptoms in a linear regression model, F (6, 458) = 8.36, Pdiscrimination was the strongest positive predictor of increased depressive symptoms. It is important that health care providers further understand the impact that age and experiences of discrimination throughout the life course have on depressive symptoms during pregnancy.

  6. Fear of childbirth and obstetrical events as predictors of postnatal symptoms of depression and post-traumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairbrother, Nichole; Woody, Sheila R

    2007-12-01

    This prospective study examined psychological and obstetrical predictors of enduring postpartum symptoms of depression and post-traumatic stress disorder. Contrary to prediction, prenatal fear of childbirth did not significantly predict symptoms of depression or post-traumatic stress disorder at one month postpartum, but anxiety sensitivity was an unexpected predictor that merits further investigation. Several obstetrical and neonatal variables significantly predicted symptoms of post-traumatic disorder, but not depression.

  7. Pulmonary venous flow index as a predictor of pulmonary vascular resistance variability in congenital heart disease with increased pulmonary flow: a comparative study before and after oxygen inhalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Ivan Romero; Mendonça, Maria Alayde; Andrade, José Lázaro; Moises, Valdir; Campos, Orlando; Silva, Célia Camelo; Carvalho, Antonio Carlos

    2013-09-01

    There is no definitive and reliable echocardiographic method for estimating the pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) to differentiate persistent vascular disease from dynamic pulmonary hypertension. The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between the pulmonary venous blood flow velocity-time integral (VTIpv) and PVR. Eighteen patients (10 females; 4 months to 22 years of age) with congenital heart disease and left to right shunt were studied. They underwent complete cardiac catheterization, including measurements of the PVR and Qp:Qs ratio, before and after 100% oxygen inhalation. Simultaneous left inferior pulmonary venous flow VTIpv was obtained by Doppler echocardiography. The PVR decreased significantly from 5.0 ± 2.6 W to 2.8 ± 2.2 W (P = 0.0001) with a significant increase in the Qp:Qs ratio, from 3.2 ± 1.4 to 4.9 ± 2.4 (P = 0.0008), and the VTIpv increased significantly from 22.6 ± 4.7 cm to 28.1 ± 6.2 cm (P = 0.0002) after 100% oxygen inhalation. VTIpv correlated well with the PVR and Qp:Qs ratio (r = -0.74 and 0.72, respectively). Diagnostic indexes indicated a sensitivity of 86%, specificity of 75%, accuracy of 83%, a positive predictive value of 92% and a negative predictive value of 60%. The VTIpv correlated well with the PVR. The measurement of this index before and after oxygen inhalation may become a useful noninvasive test for differentiating persistent vascular disease from dynamic and flow-related pulmonary hypertension. © 2013, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Spatial correlation between the predictor variables and the weighting values calculated during the mapping of the environmental factors of mass movements in the Beni Idder region (northern Rif

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ait Brahim L.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Tleta of Beni Ider region located in the SW of Tetouan (Rif Septentrional knows many mass instabilities. The diagnostic via the inventory, the mapping and the characterization of mass movements was made by using satellite imagery, aerial photography and field data coupled with existing documents (geological, geomorphological,…. The understanding of both their spatial distribution and the mechanism generating them, is very complex because of the existence of an important number of natural factors (geological, geomorphological, hydrological in a relative mountainous landscape with deep valleys, steep slopes and significant elevation changes. Thus, a multidisciplinary approach was adopted to elaborate the landslide susceptibility map of the region taking into account interactions and causal relationships between the various natural parameters that tend to accentuate and aggravate the setting of landslides. The multidisciplinary database allowed us to evaluate the susceptibility thanks to a bivariate probabiliste model (Weight of Evidence. The obtained landslide susceptibility map is a major contribution to the development of urban development plans in the region.

  9. Social connectedness and self-esteem: predictors of resilience in mental health among maltreated homeless youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Michelle T

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to explore social connectedness and self-esteem as predictors of resilience among homeless youth with histories of maltreatment. Connectedness variables included family connectedness, school connectedness, and affiliation with prosocial peers. The sample included 150 homeless youth aged 14 to 21 (mean age = 18 years) with the majority being an ethnic minority. Participants completed surveys using audio-CASI. Results revealed that youth with higher levels of social connectedness and self-esteem reported lower levels of psychological distress. When all predictor variables were controlled in the analysis, self-esteem remained significant for predicting better mental health.

  10. Clinical predictors of challenging atrioventricular node ablation procedure for rate control in patients with atrial fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polin, Baptiste; Behar, Nathalie; Galand, Vincent; Auffret, Vincent; Behaghel, Albin; Pavin, Dominique; Daubert, Jean-Claude; Mabo, Philippe; Leclercq, Christophe; Martins, Raphael P

    2017-10-15

    Atrioventricular node (AVN) ablation is usually a simple procedure but may sometimes be challenging. We aimed at identifying pre-procedural clinical predictors of challenging AVN ablation. Patients referred for AVN ablation from 2009 to 2015 were retrospectively included. Baseline clinical data, procedural variables and outcomes of AVN ablation were collected. A "challenging procedure" was defined 1) total radiofrequency delivery to get persistent AVN block≥400s, 2) need for left-sided arterial approach or 3) failure to obtain AVN ablation. 200 patients were included (71±10years). A total of 37 (18.5%) patients had "challenging" procedures (including 9 failures, 4.5%), while 163 (81.5%) had "non-challenging" ablations. In multivariable analysis, male sex (Odds ratio (OR)=4.66, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.74-12.46), body mass index (BMI, OR=1.08 per 1kg/m 2 , 95%CI 1.01-1.16), operator experience (OR=0.40, 95%CI 0.17-0.94), and moderate-to-severe tricuspid regurgitation (TR, OR=3.65, 95%CI 1.63-8.15) were significant predictors of "challenging" ablations. The proportion as a function of number of predictors was analyzed (from 0 to 4, including male sex, operator inexperience, a BMI>23.5kg/m 2 and moderate-to-severe TR). There was a gradual increase in the risk of "challenging" procedure with the number of predictors by patient (No predictor: 0%; 1 predictor: 6.3%; 2 predictors: 16.5%; 3 predictors: 32.5%; 4 predictors: 77.8%). Operator experience, male sex, higher BMI and the degree of TR were independent predictors of "challenging" AVN ablation procedure. The risk increases with the number of predictors by patient. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Cognitive and clinical predictors of functional capacity in patients with first episode schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesterager, Lone; Christensen, Torben Ø; Olsen, Birthe B

    2012-01-01

    The predictors of functional capacity in first episode schizophrenia among seven separable cognitive domains and clinical variables are unknown.......The predictors of functional capacity in first episode schizophrenia among seven separable cognitive domains and clinical variables are unknown....

  12. Robust Regression Procedures for Predictor Variable Outliers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-03-01

    space of probability dis- tributions. Then the influence function of the estimator is defined to be the derivative of the functional evaluated at the...measure of the impact of an outlier x0 on the estimator . . . . . .0 10 T(F) is the " influence function " which is defined to be T(F) - lirT(F")-T(F...positive and negative directions. An em- pirical influence function can be defined in a similar fashion simply by replacing F with F in eqn. (3.4).n

  13. Predictors of Sunburn Risk Among Florida Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arutyunyan, Sergey; Alfonso, Sarah V; Hernandez, Nilda; Favreau, Tracy; Fernández, M Isabel

    2017-03-01

    The incidence of skin cancer, the most common type of cancer in the United States, is increasing. Sunburn is a major modifiable risk factor for skin cancer, and its prevalence among the US population is high. To identify predictors of having had a red or painful sunburn in the past 12 months among people living in Florida. Florida residents were recruited from public places and online. They were asked to complete an anonymous cross-sectional survey that assessed demographic information, dermatologic history, as well as knowledge, attitude, and behavior factors associated with sunburn. A total of 437 participants whose data were complete for all variables were included in the multivariate analysis. In multivariate logistic regression, younger age (18-29 years) was the most significant predictor of sunburn (OR, 15.26; 95% CI, 5.97-38.98; PSunburn prevention programs that osteopathic physicians can readily implement in clinical practice are urgently needed, particularly for young adult patients. This study identified 7 predictors of sunburn in Florida residents. With additional research findings, promoting attitude change toward sun protection may be a viable strategy.

  14. Predictors of Readmission after Inpatient Plastic Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umang Jain

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Understanding risk factors that increase readmission rates may help enhance patient education and set system-wide expectations. We aimed to provide benchmark data on causes and predictors of readmission following inpatient plastic surgery. Methods The 2011 National Surgical Quality Improvement Program dataset was reviewed for patients with both "Plastics" as their recorded surgical specialty and inpatient status. Readmission was tracked through the "Unplanned Readmission" variable. Patient characteristics and outcomes were compared using chi-squared analysis and Student's t-tests for categorical and continuous variables, respectively. Multivariate regression analysis was used for identifying predictors of readmission. Results A total of 3,671 inpatient plastic surgery patients were included. The unplanned readmission rate was 7.11%. Multivariate regression analysis revealed a history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD (odds ratio [OR], 2.01; confidence interval [CI], 1.12-3.60; P=0.020, previous percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI (OR, 2.69; CI, 1.21-5.97; P=0.015, hypertension requiring medication (OR, 1.65; CI, 1.22-2.24; P<0.001, bleeding disorders (OR, 1.70; CI, 1.01-2.87; P=0.046, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA class 3 or 4 (OR, 1.57; CI, 1.15-2.15; P=0.004, and obesity (body mass index ≥30 (OR, 1.43; CI, 1.09-1.88, P=0.011 to be significant predictors of readmission. Conclusions Inpatient plastic surgery has an associated 7.11% unplanned readmission rate. History of COPD, previous PCI, hypertension, ASA class 3 or 4, bleeding disorders, and obesity all proved to be significant risk factors for readmission. These findings will help to benchmark inpatient readmission rates and manage patient and hospital system expectations.

  15. The Barthel index as predictor of handicap in stroke survivors: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: After adjusting for other variables, the multivariable analysis showed that handicap in stroke is significantly associated with the Barthel index (p<0.05) and atrial fibrillation (p<0.05). Conclusion: Barthel index is an important predictor of handicap following stroke. Atrial fibrillation should also be considered in the ...

  16. Pharmacogenetic Predictors of Methylphenidate Dose-Response in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froehlich, Tanya E.; Epstein, Jeffery N.; Nick, Todd G.; Melguizo Castro, Maria S.; Stein, Mark A.; Brinkman, William B.; Graham, Amanda J.; Langberg, Joshua M.; Kahn, Robert S.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Because of significant individual variability in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) medication response, there is increasing interest in identifying genetic predictors of treatment effects. This study examined the role of four catecholamine-related candidate genes in moderating methylphenidate (MPH) dose-response. Method:…

  17. Family and Cultural Predictors of Depression among Samoan American Middle and High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Christine J.; Borrero, Noah E.; Tito, Patsy

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated family intergenerational conflict and collective self-esteem as predictors of depression in a sample of 128 Samoan middle and high school students. Simultaneous regression analyses revealed that each independent variable significantly contributed to an overall model that accounted for 13% of the variance in depression.…

  18. Teacher and child predictors of achieving IEP goals of children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruble, Lisa; McGrew, John H

    2013-12-01

    It is encouraging that children with autism show a strong response to early intervention, yet more research is needed for understanding the variability in responsiveness to specialized programs. Treatment predictor variables from 47 teachers and children who were randomized to receive the COMPASS intervention (Ruble et al. in The collaborative model for promoting competence and success for students with ASD. Springer, New York, 2012a) were analyzed. Predictors evaluated against child IEP goal attainment included child, teacher, intervention practice, and implementation practice variables based on an implementation science framework (Dunst and Trivette in J Soc Sci 8:143-148, 2012). Findings revealed one child (engagement), one teacher (exhaustion), two intervention quality (IEP quality for targeted and not targeted elements), and no implementation quality variables accounted for variance in child outcomes when analyzed separately. When the four significant variables were compared against each other in a single regression analysis, IEP quality accounted for one quarter of the variance in child outcomes.

  19. Body image flexibility: A predictor and moderator of outcome in transdiagnostic outpatient eating disorder treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellizzer, Mia L; Waller, Glenn; Wade, Tracey D

    2018-04-01

    Predictors of attrition and predictors and moderators of outcome were explored in a transdiagnostic sample of patients who received ten-session cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT-T) for nonunderweight eating disorders. Body image flexibility, a protective positive body image construct, was hypothesized to be a significant moderator. Data from two case series were combined to form a sample of 78 participants who received CBT-T. Baseline measures of body image, negative affect, personality, and motivation (readiness to change and self-efficacy) were included as potential predictors. Global eating disorder psychopathology at each assessment point (baseline, mid- and post-treatment, 1- and 3-month follow-up) was the outcome variable. Predictors of attrition were assessed using logistic regression, and multilevel modeling was applied for predictors and moderators of outcome. Body image flexibility emerged as the strongest predictor and moderator of global eating disorder psychopathology, followed by body image avoidance. Body checking, negative affect, personality beliefs, and self-efficacy were significant predictors of global eating disorder psychopathology. Higher body image flexibility predicted lower global eating disorder psychopathology at every assessment point. Further research is required to replicate findings and explore the benefit of focusing on positive body image in treatment. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Satisfacción laboral: Análisis de las variables predictoras en una muestra de profesionales de la salud, en Atención Especializada, de un área sanitaria de la Comunidad de Madrid Job satisfaction: Analysis of predictor variables in a sample of healthcare proffessionals, in Specialty Care, of a sanitary area of the Comunidad de Madrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia Bernat Jiménez

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo presenta los resultados del estudio de satisfacción laboral realizado a una muestra de 873 trabajadores de la sanidad pública, mediante aplicación de un cuestionario ad hoc, cuya estructura se presenta. A partir de estos resultados, se analizan las variables con capacidad predictiva sobre la satisfacción laboral general en la muestra. El objetivo es la búsqueda de un modelo válido que permita el planteamiento de estrategias preventivas y de intervención en el contexto laboral analizado, como vía para aumentar los niveles de satisfacción y salud laboral.This work presents the result of a study in job satisfaction performed to a sample of 873 workers of public healthcare by applying an ad hoc questionnaire whose structure will be presented here too. With the support of these results, the variables with predictor potential over the general sample job satisfaction will be analyzed. The main aim of this work is the finding of a valid model that allows the development of prevention and intervention strategies in the job context analyzed, as a way to increase job satisfaction and public health.

  1. Predictors of Persistent Axial Neck Pain After Cervical Laminoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Atsushi; Shiraishi, Yasuyuki; Inoue, Hirokazu; Endo, Teruaki; Takeshita, Katsushi

    2018-01-01

    Retrospective analysis of prospective data. The aim of this study was to reveal baseline predictors of persistent postlaminoplasty neck pain. Axial neck pain is one of the most common complications after cervical laminoplasty; however, baseline predictors of persistent postlaminoplasty neck pain are unclear. We analyzed data from 156 patients who completed a 2-year follow-up after double-door laminoplasty for degenerative cervical myelopathy. Patients rated the average intensity of axial neck pain in the last month using an 11-point numerical rating scale preoperatively and at the 2-year follow-up. The dependent variable was the presence of moderate-to-severe neck pain (numerical rating scale ≥4) at the 2-year follow-up. The independent variables included patient characteristics, baseline radiological parameters, surgical variables, baseline axial neck pain intensity, and baseline functions, which were measured by the Japanese Orthopaedic Association score and the Short Form-36 survey (SF-36). Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify independent predictors of moderate-to-severe neck pain after laminoplasty. At the 2-year follow-up, 51 patients (32%) had moderate-to-severe neck pain, and 106 patients (68%) had no or mild pain. Univariate analysis revealed that the ratio of cervical anterolisthesis, ratio of current smoking, baseline neck pain intensity, and baseline SF-36 Mental Component Summary differed significantly between the groups. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that independent predictors of moderate-to-severe neck pain at the 2-year follow-up include the presence of anterolisthesis, current smoking, moderate-to-severe baseline neck pain, and lower SF-36 Mental Component Summary. The presence of anterolisthesis and moderate-to-severe baseline neck pain were also associated with significantly poorer physical function after surgery. The presence of anterolisthesis was associated not only with the highest odds ratio of

  2. Predictors of physical performance and functional ability in people 50+ with and without fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, C Jessie; Rutledge, Dana N; Aquino, Jordan

    2010-07-01

    The purposes of this study were to determine whether people with and without fibromyalgia (FM) age 50 yr and above showed differences in physical performance and perceived functional ability and to determine whether age, gender, depression, and physical activity level altered the impact of FM status on these factors. Dependent variables included perceived function and 6 performance measures (multidimensional balance, aerobic endurance, overall functional mobility, lower body strength, and gait velocity-normal or fast). Independent (predictor) variables were FM status, age, gender, depression, and physical activity level. Results indicated significant differences between adults with and without FM on all physical-performance measures and perceived function. Linear-regression models showed that the contribution of significant predictors was in expected directions. All regression models were significant, accounting for 16-65% of variance in the dependent variables.

  3. Individualism-Collectivism, Social-Network Orientation, and Acculturation as Predictors of Attitudes toward Seeking Professional Psychological Help among Chinese Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tata, Shiraz Piroshaw; Leong, Frederick T. L.

    1994-01-01

    Used several culturally based variables (individualism-collectivism, social support attitudes, acculturation) and gender to predict patterns of help-seeking attitudes among Chinese American college students (n=219). Each of the independent variables was found to be a significant predictor of attitudes toward seeking professional psychological…

  4. Nonlinear Forecasting With Many Predictors Using Kernel Ridge Regression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Exterkate, Peter; Groenen, Patrick J.F.; Heij, Christiaan

    This paper puts forward kernel ridge regression as an approach for forecasting with many predictors that are related nonlinearly to the target variable. In kernel ridge regression, the observed predictor variables are mapped nonlinearly into a high-dimensional space, where estimation of the predi...

  5. Some psychosocial predictors of anxiety disorder in epilepsy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to expose the variables or predictors that mediate in anxiety disorders among epileptics in Nigeria. Such variables or predictors are age, level of social support and perceived level of stigmatization were examined with reference to their roles in causing anxiety disorder among epileptics in Nigeria.

  6. Sleep and academic performance in undergraduates: a multi-measure, multi-predictor approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Ana Allen; Tavares, Jos; de Azevedo, Maria Helena P

    2011-11-01

    The present study examined the associations of sleep patterns with multiple measures of academic achievement of undergraduate university students and tested whether sleep variables emerged as significant predictors of subsequent academic performance when other potential predictors, such as class attendance, time devoted to study, and substance use are considered. A sample of 1654 (55% female) full-time undergraduates 17 to 25 yrs of age responded to a self-response questionnaire on sleep, academics, lifestyle, and well-being that was administered at the middle of the semester. In addition to self-reported measures of academic performance, a final grade for each student was collected at the end of the semester. Univariate analyses found that sleep phase, morningness/eveningness preference, sleep deprivation, sleep quality, and sleep irregularity were significantly associated with at least two academic performance measures. Among 15 potential predictors, stepwise multiple regression analysis identified 5 significant predictors of end-of-semester marks: previous academic achievement, class attendance, sufficient sleep, night outings, and sleep quality (R(2)=0.14 and adjusted R(2)=0.14, F(5, 1234)= 40.99, p academic achievement and the remaining sleep variables as well as the academic, well-being, and lifestyle variables lost significance in stepwise regression. Together with class attendance, night outings, and previous academic achievement, self-reported sleep quality and self-reported frequency of sufficient sleep were among the main predictors of academic performance, adding an independent and significant contribution, regardless of academic variables and lifestyles of the students.

  7. Predictors of postpartum depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katon, Wayne; Russo, Joan; Gavin, Amelia

    2014-09-01

    To examine sociodemographic factors, pregnancy-associated psychosocial stress and depression, health risk behaviors, prepregnancy medical and psychiatric illness, pregnancy-related illnesses, and birth outcomes as risk factors for post-partum depression (PPD). A prospective cohort study screened women at 4 and 8 months of pregnancy and used hierarchical logistic regression analyses to examine predictors of PPD. The study sample include 1,423 pregnant women at a university-based high risk obstetrics clinic. A score of ≥10 on the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) indicated clinically significant depressive symptoms. Compared with women without significant postpartum depressive symptoms, women with PPD were significantly younger (pdepressive symptoms (pdepression case finding for pregnant women.

  8. Predictors of Transience among Homeless Emerging Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Kristin M.; Bender, Kimberly; Thompson, Sanna J.

    2014-01-01

    This study identified predictors of transience among homeless emerging adults in three cities. A total of 601 homeless emerging adults from Los Angeles, Austin, and Denver were recruited using purposive sampling. Ordinary least squares regression results revealed that significant predictors of greater transience include White ethnicity, high…

  9. Situational and Intrapersonal Predictors of School and Life Satisfaction of Elementary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drost, Amy Linden

    2012-01-01

    This study examined predictors of school and life satisfaction of fifth-grade students. Two situational predictor variables (school climate and school stress) and two intrapersonal predictor variables (locus of control and academic self-concept) were examined. It was hypothesized that positive school climate, low levels of school stress, internal…

  10. Predictors of Moral Disengagement in Sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, David Light; Funk, Christopher D; Bredemeier, Brenda Light

    2015-12-01

    Researchers have made productive use of Bandura's (1991) construct of moral disengagement (MD) to help explain why sport participants deviate from ethical ideals. In this study of intercollegiate athletes from diverse sports (N = 713), we examined MD in relation to other character-related variables: empathy, moral identity, moral attentiveness, and contesting orientations. We also examined whether moral attentiveness conforms to the pattern of "bracketed morality" found in moral reasoning (Shields & Bredemeier, 1995) and moral behavior (Kavussanu, Boardley, Sagar, & Ring, 2013). Results indicated that MD correlated positively with perceptual moral attentiveness and war contesting orientation; MD correlated negatively with empathy, moral identity, reflective moral attentiveness, and partnership contesting orientation. Results of hierarchical regression demonstrated that gender, contesting orientations, moral identity, and one form of moral attentiveness were significant predictors of MD. Finally, sport participants were found to be less morally attentive in sport than in everyday life.

  11. Predictors of Contraceptive Use in Ghana: Role of Religion, Region of Residence, Ethnicity and Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Adjei

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Effective contraceptive use prevents most reproductive health challenges. The aim of this study is to identify the demographic predictors of contraceptive usage in Ghana. Using a logistic regression analysis, a sample size of 4916 women of the Ghana Demographic and Health Survey (GDHS 2008 were selected. Results showed that religion is the most important predictor among the demographic factors. Ethnicity of the women, level of education and region of residence were also found to be statistically significantly. Contraceptive health promotion should be intensified as the best option for preventing unintended pregnancies in the respective variables.

  12. FUNCTIONAL ABILITIES AS PREDICTORS OF PREADOSLESCENT STUDENTS’ ATHLETIC RESULTS OUTCOME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroljub Ivanović

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this research has been directed to the functional abilities relation testing (as predictors and athletic results (as criterion of students, who are VII and VIII grade of primary school (Χ= 13, 9 years; SD = 1, 17. The research has been conducted in Valjevo during November 2010. on the sample of 108 examinees. Variables’ sample has been assembled from 3 tests for functional abilities (maximal oxygen consumption, pulse frequency and vital lungs capacity evaluation and 4 athletic disciplines (high jump, long jump, shot put and 60 meters low start sprint from current physical education curriculum. Crombah-alfa coefficient values indicate to satisfactory reliability of applied instruments. In data processing canonical correlation analysis and multiple regression analysis have been used. Achieved canonical correlation analysis results showed that functional abilities set is statistically and significantly related to criterion variables set (R=.67, manifesting one canonical factor on the level p<.03. Achieved determination coefficient (R² = .43 indicates to functional abilities prognostic significance of explained variance 46% criterion. Using hierarchy regression model following statistically significant beta coefficient of functional abilities as partial predictors of athletics outcome have been determined: I for vital lungs capacity- high jump (β = .67, p < .01, II for vital lungs capacity- long jump (β = .55, p < .01, III for vital lungs capacity and pulse frequency- shot put (β =.-.34, p < .01; β =.42, p < .02 and IV for vital lungs capacity- 60 meters sprint (β = .-.39. Regression equation calculation of other applied functional abilities preadolescents’ predictor variables has not statistically and significantly contributed to univariance prediction of criterion variable variance

  13. In Pursuit of the Elusive Elixir: Predictors of First Grade Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Robin

    Multivariate sets of predictor variables including both cognitive and social variables, different types of preschool experiences, and family environment variables were used to predict the first-grade reading achievement of 144 first-grade boys and girls. Measures for the predictor variables had been taken at school entry and at the end of the…

  14. Predictors of business return in New Orleans after Hurricane Katrina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina S N Lam

    Full Text Available We analyzed the business reopening process in New Orleans after Hurricane Katrina, which hit the region on August 29, 2005, to better understand what the major predictors were and how their impacts changed through time. A telephone survey of businesses in New Orleans was conducted in October 2007, 26 months after Hurricane Katrina. The data were analyzed using a modified spatial probit regression model to evaluate the importance of each predictor variable through time. The results suggest that the two most important reopening predictors throughout all time periods were the flood depth at the business location and business size as represented by its wages in a logarithmic form. Flood depth was a significant negative predictor and had the largest marginal effects on the reopening probabilities. Smaller businesses had lower reopening probabilities than larger ones. However, the nonlinear response of business size to the reopening probability suggests that recovery aid would be most effective for smaller businesses than for larger ones. The spatial spillovers effect was a significant positive predictor but only for the first nine months. The findings show clearly that flood protection is the overarching issue for New Orleans. A flood protection plan that reduces the vulnerability and length of flooding would be the first and foremost step to mitigate the negative effects from climate-related hazards and enable speedy recovery. The findings cast doubt on the current coastal protection efforts and add to the current debate of whether coastal Louisiana will be sustainable or too costly to protect from further land loss and flooding given the threat of sea-level rise. Finally, a plan to help small businesses to return would also be an effective strategy for recovery, and the temporal window of opportunity that generates the greatest impacts would be the first 6∼9 months after the disaster.

  15. Predictors of business return in New Orleans after Hurricane Katrina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Nina S N; Arenas, Helbert; Pace, Kelley; LeSage, James; Campanella, Richard

    2012-01-01

    We analyzed the business reopening process in New Orleans after Hurricane Katrina, which hit the region on August 29, 2005, to better understand what the major predictors were and how their impacts changed through time. A telephone survey of businesses in New Orleans was conducted in October 2007, 26 months after Hurricane Katrina. The data were analyzed using a modified spatial probit regression model to evaluate the importance of each predictor variable through time. The results suggest that the two most important reopening predictors throughout all time periods were the flood depth at the business location and business size as represented by its wages in a logarithmic form. Flood depth was a significant negative predictor and had the largest marginal effects on the reopening probabilities. Smaller businesses had lower reopening probabilities than larger ones. However, the nonlinear response of business size to the reopening probability suggests that recovery aid would be most effective for smaller businesses than for larger ones. The spatial spillovers effect was a significant positive predictor but only for the first nine months. The findings show clearly that flood protection is the overarching issue for New Orleans. A flood protection plan that reduces the vulnerability and length of flooding would be the first and foremost step to mitigate the negative effects from climate-related hazards and enable speedy recovery. The findings cast doubt on the current coastal protection efforts and add to the current debate of whether coastal Louisiana will be sustainable or too costly to protect from further land loss and flooding given the threat of sea-level rise. Finally, a plan to help small businesses to return would also be an effective strategy for recovery, and the temporal window of opportunity that generates the greatest impacts would be the first 6∼9 months after the disaster.

  16. Predictors of Discharge to Home after Thrombolytic Treatment in Right Hemisphere Infarct Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E-I. Ruuskanen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background The aim of the study was to assess the association between thrombolysis and length of hospital stay after right hemisphere (RH infarct, and to identify which cognitive functions were predictive of discharge. Methods The study group consisted of 75 acute RH patients. Thirty-three patients had thrombolysis. Neuropsychologicalexaminations were performed within 11 days of stroke onset. The cognitive predictors were visual neglect, visual memory, visual search and reasoning and visuoconstructive abilities. The outcome variable was time from stroke to discharge to home. Results Thrombolysis emerged as a statistically significant predictor of discharge time in patients with moderate/severe stroke (NIHSS ≥5. In the total series of patients and in patients with mild stroke (NIHSS <5, thrombolysiswas not significantly associated with discharge time. Milder visuoconstructive defects shortened the hospital stay of the whole patient group and of patients with moderate/severe stroke. In all patient groups, independence in activitiesof daily living (ADL was a significant single predictor of a shorter hospital stay. The best combination of predictors for discharge was independence in ADL in the total series of patients and in patients with mild stroke, and thrombolysis and independence in ADL in patients with moderate/severe stroke. Conclusions Thrombolytic treatment was a significant predictor of earlier discharge to home in patients with moderate/severe RH infarct, while cognitive functions had less predictive power.

  17. Predictors of WAIS-R vocabulary in late life: Differences by race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Ruth T; Midlarsky, Elizabeth

    2017-11-01

    Vocabulary scores tend to be significantly related to education in heterogeneous groups of older adults, even after controlling for confounding variables. However, there may be other factors that impinge on cognitive functioning for certain demographic groups, particularly those whose educational opportunities were limited, and who may have experienced considerable stress as a result of their minority status. This study sought to explore possible predictors of vocabulary scores among African American and White older adults. In this study, samples of African American (N = 165) and White (N = 146) community-dwelling older adults reported their level of education, perceived health status, and number of stressful life events, and were administered the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R) Vocabulary subtest. Among the White participants, level of education was the only significant predictor of vocabulary score after controlling for perceived health and exposure to stress. Among African American participants, education was also a significant predictor of vocabulary score. However perceived health and number of stressful life events were also significantly predictors of vocabulary score. Findings indicate that for certain cohorts of older adults, especially those who may have experienced stressful life circumstances and health disparities as a result of racial inequality, education may not be the only variable that predicts verbal intelligence. The importance of investigating cognitive functioning within a broader sociocultural context is discussed.

  18. Predictors of outcomes in outpatients with anorexia nervosa - Results from the ANTOP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Beate; Friederich, Hans-Christoph; Zipfel, Stephan; Resmark, Gaby; Giel, Katrin; Teufel, Martin; Schellberg, Dieter; Löwe, Bernd; de Zwaan, Martina; Zeeck, Almut; Herpertz, Stephan; Burgmer, Markus; von Wietersheim, Jörn; Tagay, Sefik; Dinkel, Andreas; Herzog, Wolfgang

    2016-10-30

    This study aimed to determine predictors of BMI and recovery for outpatients with anorexia nervosa (AN). Patients were participants of the ANTOP (Anorexia Nervosa Treatment of Out-Patients) trial and randomized to focal psychodynamic therapy (FPT), enhanced cognitive behavior therapy (CBT-E), or optimized treatment as usual (TAU-O). N=169 patients participated in the one-year follow-up (T4). Outcomes were the BMI and global outcome (recovery/partial syndrome/full syndrome) at T4. We examined the following baseline variables as possible predictors: age, BMI, duration of illness, subtype of AN, various axis I diagnoses, quality of life, self-esteem, and psychological characteristics relevant to AN. Linear and logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify the predictors of the BMI and global outcome. The strongest positive predictor for BMI and recovery at T4 was a higher baseline BMI of the patients. Negative predictors for BMI and recovery were a duration of illness >6 years and a lifetime depression diagnosis at baseline. Additionally, higher bodily pain was significantly associated with a lower BMI and self-esteem was a positive predictor for recovery at T4. A higher baseline BMI and shorter illness duration led to a better outcome. Further research is necessary to investigate whether or not AN patients with lifetime depression, higher bodily pain, and lower self-esteem may benefit from specific treatment approaches. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Drivers’ Age, Gender, Driving Experience, and Aggressiveness as Predictors of Aggressive Driving Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perepjolkina Viktorija

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent years have seen a growing interest in the problem of aggressive driving. In the presentstudy two demographic variables (gender and age, two non-psychological driving-experiencerelated variables (annual mileage and legal driving experience in years and aggressiveness asa personality trait (including behavioural and affective components as psychological variableof individual differences were examined as potential predictors of aggressive driving. The aimof the study was to find out the best predictors of aggressive driving behaviour. The study wasbased on an online survey, and 228 vehicle drivers in Latvia participated in it. The questionnaireincluded eight-item Aggressive Driving Scale (Bone & Mowen, 2006, short Latvian versionof the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire (AQ; Buss & Perry, 1992, and questions gainingdemographic and driving experience information. Gender, age and annual mileage predictedaggressive driving: being male, young and with higher annual driving exposure were associatedwith higher scores on aggressive driving. Dispositional aggressiveness due to anger componentwas a significant predictor of aggressive diving score. Physical aggression and hostility wereunrelated to aggressive driving. Altogether, the predictors explained a total of 28% of thevariance in aggressive driving behaviour. Findings show that dispositional aggressiveness,especially the anger component, as well as male gender, young age and higher annual mileagehas a predictive validity in relation to aggressive driving. There is a need to extend the scope ofpotential dispositional predictors pertinent to driving aggression.

  20. Baseline Predictors for Success Following Strategy-Based Cognitive Remediation Group Training in Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farreny, Aida; Aguado, Jaume; Corbera, Silvia; Ochoa, Susana; Huerta-Ramos, Elena; Usall, Judith

    2016-08-01

    Our aim was to examine predictive variables associated with the improvement in cognitive, clinical, and functional outcomes after outpatient participation in REPYFLEC strategy-based Cognitive Remediation (CR) group training. In addition, we investigated which factors might be associated with some long-lasting effects at 6 months' follow-up. Predictors of improvement after CR were studied in a sample of 29 outpatients with schizophrenia. Partial correlations were computed between targeted variables and outcomes of response to explore significant associations. Subsequently, we built linear regression models for each outcome variable and predictors of improvement. The improvement in negative symptoms at posttreatment was linked to faster performance in the Trail Making Test B. Disorganization and cognitive symptoms were related to changes in executive function at follow-up. Lower levels of positive symptoms were related to durable improvements in life skills. Levels of symptoms and cognition were associated with improvements following CR, but the pattern of resulting associations was nonspecific.

  1. Predictors of Availing Maternal Health Schemes: A community based study in Gujarat, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kranti Suresh Vora

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: India continues to face challenges in improving key maternal health indicators with about 1/3rd of global maternal deaths happening in India. Utilization of health care services is an important issue in India with significant proportion of home deliveries and majority of mothers not receiving adequate antenatal care. Mortality among poor rural women is the highest with lowest utilization. To make maternal healthcare more equitable, numerous schemes such as Janani Suraksha Yojana, Chiranjeevi Yojana, Kasturba Poshan Sahay Yojana have been introduced. Studies suggest that utilization of such schemes by target population is low and there is a need to understand factors affecting maternal health care utilization in the context of these schemes. Current community based study was done in rural Gujarat to understand characteristics of women who utilize such schemes and predictors of utilization. Methodology: Data collection was done in two districts of Gujarat from June to August, 2013 as a pilot phase of MATIND project. Community based cross-sectional study included 827 households and socio-demographic details of 1454 women of 15-49 years age groups were collected. 265 mothers, who had delivered after 1st January, 2013 are included in the regression analyses. The data analysis carried out with R version 3.0.1 software.  Results: The analysis indicates socioeconomic variables such as caste, maternal variables such as education and health system variables such as use of government facility are important predictors of maternal health scheme utilization. Results suggest that socioeconomic and health system factors are the best predictors for availing scheme. Conclusion: Health system variables along with individual level variables are important predictors for availing maternal health schemes. The study indicates the need to examine all levels of predictors for utilizing government health schemes to maximize the benefit for underserved

  2. Predictors of student success in entry-level science courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Mamta K.

    Although the educational evaluation process is useful and valuable and is supported by the Higher Education Act, a strong research base for program evaluation of college entry-level science courses is still lacking. Studies in science disciplines such as, biology, chemistry, and physics have addressed various affective and demographic factors and their relationships to student achievement. However, the literature contains little information that specifically addresses student biology content knowledge skills (basics and higher order thinking skills) and identifies factors that affect students' success in entry-level college science courses. These gate-keeping courses require detailed evaluation if the goal of an institution is to increase students' performance and success in these courses. These factors are, in fact, a stepping stone for increasing the number of graduates in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) majors. The present study measured students' biology content knowledge and investigated students' performance and success in college biology, chemistry, and physics entry-level courses. Seven variables---gender, ethnicity, high school Grade Point Average (GPA), high school science, college major, school financial aid support, and work hours were used as independent variables and course final performance as a dichotomous dependent variable. The sample comprised voluntary student participants in entry-level science courses. The study attempted to explore eight research questions. Content knowledge assessments, demographic information analysis, multiple regression analysis, and binary logistic regression analysis were used to address research questions. The results suggested that high school GPA was a consistently good predictor of students' performance and success in entry-level science courses. Additionally, high school chemistry was a significant predictor variable for student success in entry-level biology and chemistry courses

  3. Insight, rumination, and self-reflection as predictors of well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Rick; Loffredo, Donald A

    2011-01-01

    Dispositional private self-focused attention variables such as insight, internal self-awareness (ISA), and self-reflectiveness (SR) have been found to relate to well-being. The present study sought to determine which dispositional private self-focused attention variables have the most predictive power for subjective well-being as measured by the Satisfaction With Life Scale (E. Diener, R. A. Emmons, R. J. Larsen, & S. Griffin, 1985) and for a eudaemonic form of well-being as measured by the Psychological Well-Being Scale (C. D. Ryff, 1989). A total of 121 college student participants completed an online version of the Self-Consciousness Scale-Revised, the Rumination-Reflection Questionnaire, the Self-Reflection and Insight Scale, the Satisfaction With Life Scale, and the Psychological WellBeing Scale. Results of a multivariate regression analysis using the Self-Consciousness Scale-Revised's (M. F. Scheier & C. S. Carver, 1985) subfactors of SR and ISA, the Rumination-Reflection Questionnaire's (P. D. Trapnell & J. D. Campbell, 1999) subscales of Rumination and Reflection, and the Self-Reflection and Insight Scale's (A. M. Grant, J. Franklin, & P. Langford, 2002) Self-Reflection and Insight subscales revealed that the Insight subscale was the only statistically significant predictor (a positive predictor) for all 6 dimensions of psychological well-being. Insight was also the only significant positive predictor for satisfaction with life. The Rumination subscale was a significant negative predictor for 3 dimensions of psychological well-being, and the Reflection subscale was a significant positive predictor for 1 dimension. Implications of dispositional self-awareness variables and their relation to dimensions of well-being are discussed.

  4. Personality, organizational stress, and attitudes toward work as prospective predictors of professional burnout in hospital nurses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudek-Knežević, Jasna; Kalebić Maglica, Barbara; Krapić, Nada

    2011-01-01

    Aim To examine to what extent personality traits (extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism, and openness), organizational stress, and attitudes toward work and interactions between personality and either organizational stress or attitudes toward work prospectively predict 3 components of burnout. Methods The study was carried out on 118 hospital nurses. Data were analyzed by a set of hierarchical regression analyses, in which personality traits, measures of organizational stress, and attitudes toward work, as well as interactions between personality and either organizational stress or attitudes toward work were included as predictors, while 3 indices of burnout were measured 4 years later as criteria variables. Results Personality traits proved to be significant but weak prospective predictors of burnout and as a group predicted only reduced professional efficacy (R2 = 0.10), with agreeableness being a single negative predictor. Organizational stress was positive, affective-normative commitment negative predictor, while continuance commitment was not related to any dimension of burnout. We found interactions between neuroticism as well as conscientiousness and organizational stress, measured as role conflict and work overload, on reduced professional efficacy (βNRCWO = -0.30; ßcRCWO = -0.26). We also found interactions between neuroticism and affective normative commitment (β = 0.24) and between openness and continuance commitment on reduced professional efficacy (β = -0.23), as well as interactions between conscientiousness and continuance commitment on exhaustion. Conclusion Although contextual variables were strong prospective predictors and personality traits weak predictors of burnout, the results suggested the importance of the interaction between personality and contextual variables in predicting burnout. PMID:21853549

  5. Predictors of Suicide Attempts in Clinically Depressed Korean Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Ahye; Song, Jungeun; Yook, Ki-Hwan; Jon, Duk-In; Jung, Myung Hun; Hong, Narei; Hong, Hyun Ju

    2016-01-01

    We examined predictors of suicide attempts in clinically depressed adolescents in Korea and gender differences in suicidal behavior. In total, 106 adolescents diagnosed with depressive disorder were recruited in South Korea. We assessed various variables that might affect suicide attempts, and used a structured interview for the diagnosis of depression and comorbidities and to evaluate suicidality. Demographic and clinical characteristics of the subjects were compared between suicide attempt and non-suicide attempt groups and we examined significant predictors of suicide attempts. Gender differences in suicidal ideation and suicidal behavior were also analyzed. Among 106 depressed participants, 50 (47.2%) adolescents were classified in the suicide attempt group. Generally, the suicide attempt and non-suicide attempt group shared similar clinical characteristics. The suicide attempt group had more females, more major depressive disorder diagnoses, more depressive episodes, and higher suicidal ideation than the non-suicide attempt group. Suicidal ideation was the only significant predictor of suicidal attempt, regardless of gender. Higher suicidal ideation frequency scores and more non-suicidal self-injurious behaviors were shown in the female suicide attempt group than the male suicide attempt group. It is recommended that suicidal ideation be assessed regularly and managed rigorously to decrease suicide risks in depressive adolescents. PMID:27776392

  6. Regulatory and personality predictors of the reliability of professional actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morosanova V.I.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. The present research is carried out in the context of the conscious self-regulation of professional activity. Objective. It investigates the regulatory and personality predictors of reliability in rescue operations under stressful conditions. Design. The research sample includes 87 rescuers (72 men and 15 women aged from 25 to 50 years. Respondents were asked to complete the Morosanova’s Self-Regulation Profile Questionnaire – SRPQM, the Eysenck Personality Profile - Short (EPP-S, and the expert questionnaire “Professional Reliability of Rescue Operation” designed for this particular study. Results. On the basis of a correlation analysis, the structural model of the predictors of action reliability was constructed using the maximum likelihood method. Consistency indices showed a good agreement between the model and empirical data. The model contains three latent factors: “Self-regulation”, “Neuroticism” and “Reliability of actions”. As the model displays, the “Self-regulation” factor is a significant predictor of professional action reliability. There are two indicator variables for the factor “Self-regulation”: the self-regulation reliability considered as its stability in the stressful situations, and the rescuers’ levels of development of professionally critical regulatory features - modeling of conditions significant for the achievement of goals and the programming of actions. The study results also show that personality dispositions (by Eysenck have only indirect influence on action reliability. As the structural model reveals, the conscious self-regulation is a mediator in the relationship of neuroticism traits and action reliability. Conclusion. The conscious self-regulation is a significant predictor of professional action reliability under stressful conditions. It is also the mediator of the effects of personality dispositions on the reliability of action.

  7. Are competition and extrinsic motivation reliable predictors of academic cheating?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gábor eOrosz

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies suggest that extrinsic motivation and competition are reliable predictors of academic cheating. The aim of the present questionnaire study was to separate the effects of motivation- and competition-related variables on academic cheating by Hungarian high school students (N = 620, M = 264, F = 356. Structural equation modeling showed that intrinsic motivation has a negative effect, and amotivation has a positive indirect effect on self-reported academic cheating. In contrast, extrinsic motivation had no significant effect. Indirect positive influence on cheating, based on some characteristics of hypercompetition, was also found, whereas attitudes towards self-developmental competition had a mediated negative influence. Neither constructive nor destructive competitive classroom climate had a significant impact on academic dishonesty. Acceptance of cheating and guilt has significant and direct effect on self-reported cheating. In comparison with them, the effects of motivational and competition-related variables are relatively small, even negligible. These results suggest that extrinsic motivation and competition are not amongst the most reliable predictors of academic cheating behavior.

  8. Are competition and extrinsic motivation reliable predictors of academic cheating?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orosz, Gábor; Farkas, Dávid; Roland-Lévy, Christine

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that extrinsic motivation and competition are reliable predictors of academic cheating. The aim of the present questionnaire study was to separate the effects of motivation- and competition-related variables on academic cheating by Hungarian high school students (N = 620, M = 264, F = 356). Structural equation modeling showed that intrinsic motivation has a negative effect, and amotivation has a positive indirect effect on self-reported academic cheating. In contrast, extrinsic motivation had no significant effect. Indirect positive influence on cheating, based on some characteristics of hypercompetition, was also found, whereas attitudes toward self-developmental competition had a mediated negative influence. Neither constructive nor destructive competitive classroom climate had a significant impact on academic dishonesty. Acceptance of cheating and guilt has significant and direct effect on self-reported cheating. In comparison with them, the effects of motivational and competition-related variables are relatively small, even negligible. These results suggest that extrinsic motivation and competition are not amongst the most reliable predictors of academic cheating behavior.

  9. Examining Predictors of Help Giving Toward People With a Mental Illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyssia Rossetto

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about factors influencing helping behaviors toward a person with mental illness. This study explored a range of predictors of helping intentions and behaviors using data from a national survey of Australian adults. Participants (n = 6,019 were randomly assigned one of six vignettes and asked how they would help the character if it was someone they knew and cared about, and asked whether and how they had helped a person in real life with a similar problem. Responses were scored using a system based on the Mental Health First Aid action plan. Regression analyses examined predictors of high helping scores in relation to type of disorder and respondent demographics, mental health literacy, and experiences with mental illness. Predictors of harmful responses and seeking advice on how to help appropriately were also assessed. Significant predictors varied by vignette, with the only consistent predictor being female gender. Participants aged under 30 provided less helpful responses to people with social phobia. Mental health literacy variables were inconsistently related to helping, whereas more stigmatizing attitudes significantly predicted harmful responses and poor helping scores. Targeting males and young people may improve rates of helpful responses. Education campaigns aiming to reduce stigma and increase knowledge of schizophrenia may also minimize potentially harmful actions.

  10. Predictors of psychological resilience amongst medical students following major earthquakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Frances; Bell, Caroline; Ali, Anthony; McKenzie, Janice; Boden, Joseph M; Wilkinson, Timothy; Bell, Caroline

    2016-05-06

    To identify predictors of self-reported psychological resilience amongst medical students following major earthquakes in Canterbury in 2010 and 2011. Two hundred and fifty-three medical students from the Christchurch campus, University of Otago, were invited to participate in an electronic survey seven months following the most severe earthquake. Students completed the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale, the Post-traumatic Disorder Checklist, the Work and Adjustment Scale, and the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire. Likert scales and other questions were also used to assess a range of variables including demographic and historical variables (eg, self-rated resilience prior to the earthquakes), plus the impacts of the earthquakes. The response rate was 78%. Univariate analyses identified multiple variables that were significantly associated with higher resilience. Multiple linear regression analyses produced a fitted model that was able to explain 35% of the variance in resilience scores. The best predictors of higher resilience were: retrospectively-rated personality prior to the earthquakes (higher extroversion and lower neuroticism); higher self-rated resilience prior to the earthquakes; not being exposed to the most severe earthquake; and less psychological distress following the earthquakes. Psychological resilience amongst medical students following major earthquakes was able to be predicted to a moderate extent.

  11. Predictors of hope among women with breast cancer during chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Cristina Sartore Balsanelli

    Full Text Available Abstract OBJECTIVE Identifying the predictors of hope in patients with breast cancer during chemotherapy treatment. METHOD A prospective longitudinal study. The sample was composed of 122 women who responded to the instruments of hope, anxiety and depression, coping, fatigue, religiosity and self-esteem in the first and last cycle of chemotherapy. These variables were used in adjusting the logistic regression model that characterized multivariate statistics, allowing identification of predictor variables. RESULT The increase of hope at the end of chemotherapy treatment was statistically significant (p = 0.012. The delay in undergoing treatment from the onset of breast cancer symptoms, Karnofsky Performance Status, depression, self-esteem and pain were characterized as factors being associated to hope by univariate analysis. Among the variables analyzed, pain was the only predicting factor of hope. CONCLUSION Pain was the predicting factor in this sample. Hope increased during treatment and revealed the following associated factors: Karnofsky Performance Status, delay in starting the treatment, depression, self-esteem and pain. This study brought forth a multidisciplinary contribution, allowing for understanding the factors that can influence hope and presenting support to nursing care. The data evidenced conditions of improvement or worsening of hope, which requires interdisciplinary attention in Oncology.

  12. Distillation Column Flooding Predictor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George E. Dzyacky

    2010-11-23

    The Flooding Predictor™ is a patented advanced control technology proven in research at the Separations Research Program, University of Texas at Austin, to increase distillation column throughput by over 6%, while also increasing energy efficiency by 10%. The research was conducted under a U. S. Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement awarded to George Dzyacky of 2ndpoint, LLC. The Flooding Predictor™ works by detecting the incipient flood point and controlling the column closer to its actual hydraulic limit than historical practices have allowed. Further, the technology uses existing column instrumentation, meaning no additional refining infrastructure is required. Refiners often push distillation columns to maximize throughput, improve separation, or simply to achieve day-to-day optimization. Attempting to achieve such operating objectives is a tricky undertaking that can result in flooding. Operators and advanced control strategies alike rely on the conventional use of delta-pressure instrumentation to approximate the column’s approach to flood. But column delta-pressure is more an inference of the column’s approach to flood than it is an actual measurement of it. As a consequence, delta pressure limits are established conservatively in order to operate in a regime where the column is never expected to flood. As a result, there is much “left on the table” when operating in such a regime, i.e. the capacity difference between controlling the column to an upper delta-pressure limit and controlling it to the actual hydraulic limit. The Flooding Predictor™, an innovative pattern recognition technology, controls columns at their actual hydraulic limit, which research shows leads to a throughput increase of over 6%. Controlling closer to the hydraulic limit also permits operation in a sweet spot of increased energy-efficiency. In this region of increased column loading, the Flooding Predictor is able to exploit the benefits of higher liquid

  13. RS-WebPredictor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zaretzki, J.; Bergeron, C.; Huang, T.-W.

    2013-01-01

    Regioselectivity-WebPredictor (RS-WebPredictor) is a server that predicts isozyme-specific cytochrome P450 (CYP)-mediated sites of metabolism (SOMs) on drug-like molecules. Predictions may be made for the promiscuous 2C9, 2D6 and 3A4 CYP isozymes, as well as CYPs 1A2, 2A6, 2B6, 2C8, 2C19 and 2E1....... RS-WebPredictor is the first freely accessible server that predicts the regioselectivity of the last six isozymes. Server execution time is fast, taking on average 2s to encode a submitted molecule and 1s to apply a given model, allowing for high-throughput use in lead optimization projects.......Availability: RS-WebPredictor is accessible for free use at http://reccr.chem.rpi.edu/ Software/RS-WebPredictor....

  14. Predictors in Internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy and behavioral stress management for severe health anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedman, Erik; Andersson, Erik; Lekander, Mats; Ljótsson, Brjánn

    2015-01-01

    Severe health anxiety can be effectively treated with exposure-based Internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy (ICBT), but information about which factors that predict outcome is scarce. Using data from a recently conducted RCT comparing ICBT (n = 79) with Internet-delivered behavioral stress management (IBSM) (n = 79) the presented study investigated predictors of treatment outcome. Analyses were conducted using a two-step linear regression approach and the dependent variable was operationalized both as end state health anxiety at post-treatment and as baseline-to post-treatment improvement. A hypothesis driven approach was used where predictors expected to influence outcome were based on a previous predictor study by our research group. As hypothesized, the results showed that baseline health anxiety and treatment adherence predicted both end state health anxiety and improvement. In addition, anxiety sensitivity, treatment credibility, and working alliance were significant predictors of health anxiety improvement. Demographic variables, i.e. age, gender, marital status, computer skills, educational level, and having children, had no significant predictive value. We conclude that it is possible to predict a substantial proportion of the outcome variance in ICBT and IBSM for severe health anxiety. The findings of the present study can be of high clinical value as they provide information about factors of importance for outcome in the treatment of severe health anxiety. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. First-grade cognitive abilities as long-term predictors of reading comprehension and disability status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Douglas; Compton, Donald L; Fuchs, Lynn S; Bryant, V Joan; Hamlett, Carol L; Lambert, Warren

    2012-01-01

    In a sample of 195 first graders selected for poor reading performance, the authors explored four cognitive predictors of later reading comprehension and reading disability (RD) status. In fall of first grade, the authors measured the children's phonological processing, rapid automatized naming (RAN), oral language comprehension, and nonverbal reasoning. Throughout first grade, they also modeled the students' reading progress by means of weekly Word Identification Fluency (WIF) tests to derive December and May intercepts. The authors assessed their reading comprehension in the spring of Grades 1-5. With the four cognitive variables and the WIF December intercept as predictors, 50.3% of the variance in fifth-grade reading comprehension was explained: 52.1% of this 50.3% was unique to the cognitive variables, 13.1% to the WIF December intercept, and 34.8% was shared. All five predictors were statistically significant. The same four cognitive variables with the May (rather than December) WIF intercept produced a model that explained 62.1% of the variance. Of this amount, the cognitive variables and May WIF intercept accounted for 34.5% and 27.7%, respectively; they shared 37.8%. All predictors in this model were statistically significant except RAN. Logistic regression analyses indicated that the accuracy with which the cognitive variables predicted end-of-fifth-grade RD status was 73.9%. The May WIF intercept contributed reliably to this prediction; the December WIF intercept did not. Results are discussed in terms of a role for cognitive abilities in identifying, classifying, and instructing students with severe reading problems.

  16. Elderly outpatient profile and predictors of falls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Grace Angélica de Oliveira; Cintra, Fernanda Aparecida; Batista, Fernanda Sotelo; Neri, Anita Liberalesso; Guariento, Maria Elena; Sousa, Maria da Luz Rosario de; D'Elboux, Maria José

    2013-01-01

    CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVES Falls are a serious public health problem and are one of the biggest reasons for hospitalization, morbidity and mortality among elderly people. Moreover, few studies on predictors of falls have been conducted in low and middle income countries. The aim here was to identify elderly outpatient profiles according to sociodemographic, clinical, physical and functional variables and correlate them with occurrences of falls among these subjects. DESIGN AND SETTING Cross-sectional descriptive study forming part of the project "Quality of Life of Frail Elderly People", carried out in Campinas, Brazil. METHODS The subjects were 145 elderly individuals (76.3 ± 7.8 years old), of whom 65% were women, who were living in the city of Campinas or nearby and were attended at the geriatric outpatient clinic of a University Hospital. Sociodemographic, clinical, physical and functional data, as well as fall occurrence data, were gathered. Cluster analyses and comparisons between groups were carried out. RESULTS Cluster analysis identified two distinct groups related to the study variables, and the determinants for this distinction were: gender, marital status, physical performance, handgrip strength and functional independence. These groups were compared according to occurrences of falls over the last year, and significant differences between them were found. CONCLUSIONS The results showed that greater occurrences of falls were associated with a profile of elderly people comprising female gender, single status, lower muscle strength and physical performance regarding balance and gait, and lower independence in motor tasks for activities of daily living.

  17. Elderly outpatient profile and predictors of falls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace Angélica de Oliveira Gomes

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVESFalls are a serious public health problem and are one of the biggest reasons for hospitalization, morbidity and mortality among elderly people. Moreover, few studies on predictors of falls have been conducted in low and middle income countries. The aim here was to identify elderly outpatient profiles according to sociodemographic, clinical, physical and functional variables and correlate them with occurrences of falls among these subjects.DESIGN AND SETTINGCross-sectional descriptive study forming part of the project “Quality of Life of Frail Elderly People”, carried out in Campinas, Brazil.METHODSThe subjects were 145 elderly individuals (76.3 ± 7.8 years old, of whom 65% were women, who were living in the city of Campinas or nearby and were attended at the geriatric outpatient clinic of a University Hospital. Sociodemographic, clinical, physical and functional data, as well as fall occurrence data, were gathered. Cluster analyses and comparisons between groups were carried out.RESULTSCluster analysis identified two distinct groups related to the study variables, and the determinants for this distinction were: gender, marital status, physical performance, handgrip strength and functional independence. These groups were compared according to occurrences of falls over the last year, and significant differences between them were found.CONCLUSIONSThe results showed that greater occurrences of falls were associated with a profile of elderly people comprising female gender, single status, lower muscle strength and physical performance regarding balance and gait, and lower independence in motor tasks for activities of daily living.

  18. Emotional Intelligence and Personality Traits as Predictors of Occupational Therapy students' Practice Education Performance: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ted; Williams, Brett; Etherington, Jamie

    2016-12-01

    This study investigated whether occupational therapy students' emotional intelligence and personality traits are predictive of specific aspects of their fieldwork performance. A total of 114 second and third year undergraduate occupational therapy students (86.6% response rate) completed the Genos Emotional Intelligence Inventory (Genos EI) and the Ten-Item Personality Inventory (TIPI). Fieldwork performance scores were obtained from the Student Practice Evaluation Form Revised (SPEF-R). Linear regressions were completed with the SPEF-R domains being the dependent variables and the Genos EI and TIPI factors being the independent variables. Regression analysis results revealed that the Genos EI subscales of Emotional Management of Others (EMO), Emotional Awareness of Others (EAO), Emotional Expression (EEX) and Emotional Reasoning (ERE) were significant predictors of various domains of students' fieldwork performance. EAO and ERE were significant predictors of students' Communication Skills accounting for 4.6% of its variance. EMO, EAO, EEX and ERE were significant predictors of students' Documentation Skills explaining 6.8% of its variance. EMO was a significant predictor of students' Professional Behaviour accounting for 3.2% of its variance. No TIPI factors were found to be significant predictors of the SPEF-R domains. Occupational therapy students' emotional intelligence was a significant predictor of components of their fieldwork performance while students' personality traits were not. The convenience sampling approach used, small sample size recruited and potential issue of social desirability of the self-reported Genos EI and TIPI data are acknowledged as study limitations. It is recommended that other studies be completed to investigate if any other relevant constructs or factors are predictive of occupational therapy students' fieldwork performance. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Childhood cardiovascular risk factors, a predictor of late adolescent overweight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Kalantari

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Increased CVD risk factors are predictors of future overweight in childhood and adolescent and increased weight is linked significantly with dyslipidemia and hypertension in this age group.

  20. Predictors of Intention of Reporting Child Abuse among Emergency Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hye-Mi; Kim, Ji-Soo

    The current study investigates predictors of intention of reporting child abuse among emergency nurses in Korea. A descriptive cross-sectional design was used. Data were collected from 200 emergency nurses in eight general hospitals in Korea through a questionnaire that asked about their general characteristics, knowledge about child abuse, perceived behavioral control, experiences of child abuse cases and reporting, and attitude toward child abuse. Multiple regression analysis indicated that attitude toward child abuse was the most influential predictor of the intention of reporting child abuse among Korea's emergency nurses. Knowledge about child abuse, and perceived behavioral control were also significant influencing predictors of reporting intention. These variables explained 22.1% of the variances in the intention of reporting child abuse among emergency nurses. Reporting child abuse has not yet been established as a professional responsibility among Korea's emergency nurses. Increasing the level of awareness of the characteristics of child abuse and encouraging communication among nurses about the responsibility to report suspected child abuse will increase nurses' confidence to report. Training for reporting child abuse should be implemented in the near future to improve emergency nurses' understanding of child abuse. A support program is also needed to help emergency nurses build confidence in reporting child abuse as a professional responsibility. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Loneliness in old age: Psychosocial and health predictors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Kaasa

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available  Study objectives  Design  Main results  17% (CI 12.5–23.0 of the respondents answered yes. A significant correlation was demonstratedbetween a feeling of loneliness and low self-perceived health, low vision and poor hearing, low activity of dailylife (ADL function, loss of a spouse, low social network, no hobbies and possession of a safety alarm. After amultiple regression analysis of the significant variables, the remaining variables as predictors for lonelinessincluded: number of social contacts, self-perceived health, using hearing aid and having a safety alarm.: : The information is obtained from a survey conducted among 232 inhabitants in this age group in the municipalityof Tønsberg, its Northern District. The interview data are composed of the responses from 202 elderlypeople living in a house or apartment (non-institutionalized to the question «do you generally feel lonely?».The purpose of this article is to study the prevalence of loneliness in a group of elderly peopleover 80 years old and the sociodemographic, health-related and social predictors for experiencing loneliness.ABSTRACT:

  2. NUTRITION-RELATED PREDICTORS OF SLEEP DURATION IN HEMODIALYSIS PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerrilynn Burrowes

    2012-06-01

    At baseline, mean SD was 7.8±2.4 hrs; 33%, 43% and 24% of subjects were in the short, medium and long sleep groups, respectively. In univariate analysis, dietary protein intake, serum albumin, appetite, and QOL measures (mental component score [MCS] and physical component score [PCS] were significant predictors of SD. In multivariate analysis, age (P=0.008, race (White vs. Black (P=0.001, appetite on dialysis days (DD (P=0.0001, MCS and PCS (P<0.0001, respectively were also significant predictors of SD. Younger patients and those with good appetite on DD were more likely to sleep less, whereas Blacks and those with higher MCS and PCS were more likely to sleep more. Of the nutrition variables, higher protein intake and better appetite were associated with long vs. short SD in univariate analysis. In multivariate analysis, appetite on DD was the only variable predictive of SD. The odds ratio (95% CI of having a good appetite for those in the short SD group compared to the medium and long SD groups was 0.81 (0.72, 0.92 and 0.86 (0.78, 0.95, respectively. Further research on SD and appetite and the potential effects of short sleep on inflammation needs to be done in MHD patients.

  3. Predictor-Year Subspace Clustering Based Ensemble Prediction of Indian Summer Monsoon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moumita Saha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Forecasting the Indian summer monsoon is a challenging task due to its complex and nonlinear behavior. A large number of global climatic variables with varying interaction patterns over years influence monsoon. Various statistical and neural prediction models have been proposed for forecasting monsoon, but many of them fail to capture variability over years. The skill of predictor variables of monsoon also evolves over time. In this article, we propose a joint-clustering of monsoon years and predictors for understanding and predicting the monsoon. This is achieved by subspace clustering algorithm. It groups the years based on prevailing global climatic condition using statistical clustering technique and subsequently for each such group it identifies significant climatic predictor variables which assist in better prediction. Prediction model is designed to frame individual cluster using random forest of regression tree. Prediction of aggregate and regional monsoon is attempted. Mean absolute error of 5.2% is obtained for forecasting aggregate Indian summer monsoon. Errors in predicting the regional monsoons are also comparable in comparison to the high variation of regional precipitation. Proposed joint-clustering based ensemble model is observed to be superior to existing monsoon prediction models and it also surpasses general nonclustering based prediction models.

  4. Predictors of Hospitalization Among Newly Admitted Skilled Nursing Facility Residents: Rethinking the Role of Functional Decline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun J. Kim

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Hospital transfer from a skilled nursing facility (SNF is costly, and many are potentially preventable. This study examines: 1 whether functional decline is a predictor of hospital transfer, and 2 the magnitude of relationships between predictors (functional impairment and chronic medical illness and hospital transfer from SNFs. Methods: We used Minimum Data Set (MDS Version 2.0 in the state of Michigan between 2007 and 2009. In total, 196,662 new SNF admissions were observed. Multilevel generalized estimating equations and regression models were performed for each functional and clinical domain while adjusting for demographic variables and change in activities of daily living (ADL. Results: 65% of recently admitted SNF residents experienced functional decline after SNF admission, and 58% were readmitted to a hospital. Residents who needed extensive assistance or were completely dependent in their functional domains had pressure ulcers, deteriorated mood or lower cognitive performance scale scores. These residents experienced higher chances of hospital transfer. However, a deteriorated ADL played a significant role in all multivariate models, indicating that a decline in ADL is a stronger predictor of hospital transfer than other functional or clinical predictors. Conclusion: Although all functional impairments and chronic medical illness can be associated with hospital transfer, functional decline may be the most important predictor of hospital transfer in patients newly admitted to an SNF.

  5. Predictors of disability retirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, N; Lynch, J; Kaplan, G A; Cohen, R D; Goldberg, D E; Salonen, J T

    1997-12-01

    Disability retirement may increase as the work force ages, but there is little information on factors associated with retirement because of disability. This is the first prospective population-based study of predictors of disability retirement including information on workplace, socioeconomic, behavioral, and health-related factors. The subjects were 1038 Finnish men who were enrolled in the Kuopio Ischemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study, who were 42, 48, 54, or 60 years of age at the beginning of the study, and who participated in a 4-year follow-up medical examination. Various job characteristics predicted disability retirement. Heavy work, work in uncomfortable positions, long workhours, noise at work, physical job strain, musculoskeletal strain, repetitive or continuous muscle strain, mental job strain, and job dissatisfaction were all significantly associated with the incidence of disability retirement. The ability to communicate with fellow workers and social support from supervisors tended to reduce the risk of disability retirement. The relationships persisted after control for socioeconomic factors, prevalent disease, and health behavior, which were also associated with disability retirement. The strong associations found between workplace factors and the incidence of disability retirement link the problem of disability retirement to the problem of poor work conditions.

  6. Predictors of outcome for cognitive behaviour therapy in binge eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammers, Mirjam W; Vroling, Maartje S; Ouwens, Machteld A; Engels, Rutger C M E; van Strien, Tatjana

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this naturalistic study was to identify pretreatment predictors of response to cognitive behaviour therapy in treatment-seeking patients with binge eating disorder (BED; N = 304). Furthermore, we examined end-of-treatment factors that predict treatment outcome 6 months later (N = 190). We assessed eating disorder psychopathology, general psychopathology, personality characteristics and demographic variables using self-report questionnaires. Treatment outcome was measured using the bulimia subscale of the Eating Disorder Inventory 1. Predictors were determined using hierarchical linear regression analyses. Several variables significantly predicted outcome, four of which were found to be both baseline predictors of treatment outcome and end-of-treatment predictors of follow-up: Higher levels of drive for thinness, higher levels of interoceptive awareness, lower levels of binge eating pathology and, in women, lower levels of body dissatisfaction predicted better outcome in the short and longer term. Based on these results, several suggestions are made to improve treatment outcome for BED patients. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  7. Work-home interface stress: an important predictor of emotional exhaustion 15 years into a medical career

    Science.gov (United States)

    HERTZBERG, Tuva Kolstad; RØ, Karin Isaksson; VAGLUM, Per Jørgen Wiggen; MOUM, Torbjørn; RØVIK, Jan Ole; GUDE, Tore; EKEBERG, Øivind; TYSSEN, Reidar

    2015-01-01

    The importance of work-home interface stress can vary throughout a medical career and between genders. We studied changes in work-home interface stress over 5 yr, and their prediction of emotional exhaustion (main dimension of burn-out), controlled for other variables. A nationwide doctor cohort (NORDOC; n=293) completed questionnaires at 10 and 15 yr after graduation. Changes over the period were examined and predictors of emotional exhaustion analyzed using linear regression. Levels of work-home interface stress declined, whereas emotional exhaustion stayed on the same level. Lack of reduction in work-home interface stress was an independent predictor of emotional exhaustion in year 15 (β=−0.21, p=0.001). Additional independent predictors were reduction in support from colleagues (β=0.11, p=0.04) and emotional exhaustion at baseline (β=0.62, pseparate analyses, significant adjusted predictors were lack of reduction in work-home interface stress among women, and reduction of collegial support and lack of reduction in working hours among men. Thus, change in work-home interface stress is a key independent predictor of emotional exhaustion among doctors 15 yr after graduation. Some gender differences in predictors of emotional exhaustion were found. PMID:26538002

  8. Predictors of vision impairment in Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Dalmau, Bernardo; Martinez-Lapiscina, Elena H; Pulido-Valdeolivas, Irene; Zubizarreta, Irati; Llufriu, Sara; Blanco, Yolanda; Sola-Valls, Nuria; Sepulveda, Maria; Guerrero, Ana; Alba, Salut; Andorra, Magi; Camos, Anna; Sanchez-Vela, Laura; Alfonso, Veronica; Saiz, Albert; Villoslada, Pablo

    2018-01-01

    Visual impairment significantly alters the quality of life of people with Multiple Sclerosis (MS). The objective of this study was to identify predictors (independent variables) of visual outcomes, and to define their relationship with neurological disability and retinal atrophy when assessed by optical coherence tomography (OCT). We performed a cross-sectional analysis of 119 consecutive patients with MS, assessing vision using high contrast visual acuity (LogMar), 2.5% and 1.25% low contrast visual acuity (Sloan charts), and color vision (Hardy-Rand-Rittler plates). Quality of vision is a patient reported outcome based on an individual's unique perception of his or her vision and was assessed with the Visual Functioning Questionnaire-25 (VFQ-25) with the 10 neuro-ophthalmologic items. MS disability was assessed using the expanded disability status scale (EDSS), the MS functional composite (MSFC) and the brief repetitive battery-neuropsychology (BRB-N). Retinal atrophy was assessed using spectral domain OCT, measuring the thickness of the peripapillar retinal nerve fiber layer (pRNFL) and the volume of the ganglion cell plus inner plexiform layer (GCIPL). The vision of patients with MS was impaired, particularly in eyes with prior optic neuritis. Retinal atrophy (pRNFL and GCIPL) was closely associated with impaired low contrast vision and color vision, whereas the volume of the GCIPL showed a trend (p = 0.092) to be associated with quality of vision. Multiple regression analysis revealed that EDSS was an explanatory variable for high contrast vision after stepwise analysis, GCIPL volume for low contrast vision, and GCIPL volume and EDSS for color vision. The explanatory variables for quality of vision were high contrast vision and color vision. In summary, quality of vision in MS depends on the impairment of high contrast visual acuity and color vision due to the disease.

  9. Predictors of completed childhood vaccination in Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osetinsky, Brianna; Gaydos, Laura M; Leon, Juan S

    This project examines how access issues, ethnicity, and geographic region affect vaccination of children by two years of age in Bolivia. Bolivia's rich variation in culture and geography results in unequal healthcare utilization even for basic interventions such as childhood vaccination. This study utilizes secondary data from the 2008 Demographic and Health Survey for Bolivia to examine predictors of vaccination completion in children by two years of age. Using logistic regression methods, we control for health system variables (difficulty getting to a health center and type of health center as well as demographic and socio-economic covariates). The results indicated that children whose parents reported distance as a problem in obtaining health care were less likely to have completed all vaccinations. Ethnicity was not independently statistically significant, however, in a sub-analysis, people from the Quechua ethnic group were more likely to report 'distance as a problem in obtaining healthcare.' Surprisingly, living in a rural environment has a protective effect on completed vaccinations. However, geographic region did predict significant differences in the probability that children would be fully vaccinated; children in the region with the lowest vaccination completion coverage were 80% less likely to have completed vaccination compared to children in the best performing region, which may indicate unequal access and utilization of health services nationally. Further study of regional differences, urbanicity, and distance as a healthcare access problem will help refine implications for the Bolivian health system.

  10. Dietary tendencies as predictors of marathon time in novice marathoners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Patrick B; Ingraham, Stacy J; Lundstrom, Chris; Rhodes, Gregory

    2013-04-01

    The effects of dietary factors such as carbohydrate (CHO) on endurance-running performance have been extensively studied under laboratory-based and simulated field conditions. Evidence from "real-life" events, however, is poorly characterized. The purpose of this observational study was to examine the associations between prerace and in-race nutrition tendencies and performance in a sample of novice marathoners. Forty-six college students (36 women and 10 men) age 21.3 ± 3.3 yr recorded diet for 3 d before, the morning of, and during a 26.2-mile marathon. Anthropometric, physiological, and performance measurements were assessed before the marathon so the associations between diet and marathon time could be included as part of a stepwise-regression model. Mean marathon time was 266 ± 42 min. A pre-marathon 2-mile time trial explained 73% of the variability in marathon time (adjusted R2 = .73, p marathon time, explaining an additional 4% of the variability in marathon time (adjusted R2 = .77, p = .006). Other factors such as age, body-mass index, gender, day-before + morning-of energy, and in-race CHO were not significant independent predictors of marathon time. In this sample of primarily novice marathoners, DBMC intake was associated with faster marathon time, independent of other known predictors. These results suggest that novice and recreational marathoners should consider consuming a moderate to high amount of CHO in the 24-36 hr before a marathon.

  11. Organisationally relevant variables and Keyes's Mental Health Continuum Scale: An exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deo J.W. Strümpfer

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In an exploratory study on a sample of convenience (n = 165, 11 self-report variables with presumed organisational  relevance were  related,  as  predictors,  to  the  three  subscores  and  summed  score of  the Keyes  (2005a, 2005b; 2007 Mental Health Continuum  scale  (long  form. Keyes's  scale was administered five to seven days after the first set of scales. The predictor scores were reduced to three factorial scores, labelled positive orientation, negative orientation and positive striving. When classified thus, the predictor variables showed significant and meaningful relationships with some or all of the Keyes subscores and the total score, although few reached medium effect sizes.

  12. Development and validation of a prediction model for long-term sickness absence based on occupational health survey variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roelen, Corné; Thorsen, Sannie; Heymans, Martijn

    2018-01-01

    LTSA during follow-up. Results: The 15-predictor model was reduced to a 9-predictor model including age, gender, education, self-rated health, mental health, prior LTSA, work ability, emotional job demands, and recognition by the management. Discrimination by the 9-predictor model was significant (AUC...... population. Implications for rehabilitation Long-term sickness absence risk predictions would enable healthcare providers to refer high-risk employees to rehabilitation programs aimed at preventing or reducing work disability. A prediction model based on health survey variables discriminates between...... employees at high and low risk of long-term sickness absence, but discrimination was not practically useful. Health survey variables provide insufficient information to determine long-term sickness absence risk profiles. There is a need for new variables, based on the knowledge and experience...

  13. Predictors of life disability in trichotillomania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Esther S; Flessner, Christopher A; Grant, Jon E; Keuthen, Nancy J

    2015-01-01

    Limited research has investigated disability and functional impairment in trichotillomania (TTM) subjects. This study examined the relationships between hair pulling (HP) style and severity and disability while controlling for mood severity. Disability was measured in individual life areas (work, social, and family/home life) instead of as a total disability score as in previous studies. One hundred fifty three adult hair pullers completed several structured interviews and self-report instruments. HP style and severity, as well as depression, anxiety, and stress were correlated with work, social, and family/home life impairment on the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS). Multiple regression analyses were performed to determine significant predictors of life impairment. Depressive severity was a significant predictor for all SDS life areas. In addition, interference/avoidance associated with HP was a predictor for work and social life disability. Distress from HP was a significant predictor of social and family/home life disability. Focused HP score and anxiety were significant predictors of family/home life disability. As expected, depression in hair pullers predicted disability across life domains. Avoiding work and social situations can seriously impair functioning in those life domains. Severity of distress and worry about HP may be most elevated in social situations with friends and family and thus predict impairment in those areas. Finally, since HP often occurs at home, time spent in focused hair pulling would have a greater negative impact on family and home responsibilities than social and work life. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Sociodemographic predictors of elderly's psychological well-being in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momtaz, Yadollah A; Ibrahim, Rahimah; Hamid, Tengku A; Yahaya, Nurizan

    2011-05-01

    Psychological well-being as one of the most important indicators of successful aging has received substantial attention in the gerontological literature. Prior studies show that sociodemographic factors influencing elderly's psychological well-being are multiple and differ across cultures. The aim of this study was to identify significant sociodemographic predictors of psychological well-being among Malay elders. The study included 1415 older Malays (60-100 years, 722 women), randomly selected through a multistage stratified random method from Peninsular Malaysia. WHO-Five well-being index was used to measure psychological well-being. Data analysis was conducted using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 13.0. Using multiple regression analysis a significant model emerged (F(7, 1407) = 20.14, p ≤ 0.001), where age, sex, marital status, and household income were significant predictor variables of psychological well-being among Malay elders. However, level of education, employment status, and place of residence failed to predict psychological well-being. This study showed that the oldest old, elderly women, unmarried, and the poor elderly people are at risk for experiencing low psychological well-being. Therefore, they need special attention from family, policy makers, and those who work with elderly people.

  15. A clinical algorithm for triaging patients with significant lymphadenopathy in primary health care settings in Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eltahir A.G. Khalil

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tuberculosis is a major health problem in developing countries. The distinction between tuberculous lymphadenitis, non-specific lymphadenitis and malignant lymph node enlargement has to be made at primary health care levels using easy, simple and cheap methods. Objective: To develop a reliable clinical algorithm for primary care settings to triage cases ofnon-specific, tuberculous and malignant lymphadenopathies. Methods: Calculation of the odd ratios (OR of the chosen predictor variables was carried out using logistic regression. The numerical score values of the predictor variables were weighed against their respective OR. The performance of the score was evaluated by the ROC (ReceiverOperator Characteristic curve. Results: Four predictor variables; Mantoux reading, erythrocytes sedimentation rate (ESR,nocturnal fever and discharging sinuses correlated significantly with TB diagnosis and were included in the reduced model to establish score A. For score B, the reduced model included Mantoux reading, ESR, lymph-node size and lymph-node number as predictor variables for malignant lymph nodes. Score A ranged 0 to 12 and a cut-off point of 6 gave a best sensitivity and specificity of 91% and 90% respectively, whilst score B ranged -3 to 8 and a cut-off point of3 gave a best sensitivity and specificity of 83% and 76% respectively. The calculated area underthe ROC curve was 0.964 (95% CI, 0.949 – 0.980 and -0.856 (95% CI, 0.787 ‑ 0.925 for scores Aand B respectively, indicating good performance. Conclusion: The developed algorithm can efficiently triage cases with tuberculous andmalignant lymphadenopathies for treatment or referral to specialised centres for furtherwork-up.

  16. Psychosocial predictors of the onset of anxiety disorders in women: Results from a prospective 3-year longitudinal study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calkins, Amanda W.; Otto, Michael W.; Cohen, Lee S.; Soares, Claudio N.; Vitonis, Alison F.; Hearon, Bridget A.; Harlow, Bernard L.

    2009-01-01

    In a prospective, longitudinal, population-based study of 643 women participating in the Harvard Study of Moods and Cycles we examined whether psychosocial variables predicted a new or recurrent onset of an anxiety disorder. Presence of anxiety disorders was assessed every six months over three years via structured clinical interviews. Among individuals who had a new episode of anxiety, we confirmed previous findings that history of anxiety, increased anxiety sensitivity (the fear of anxiety related sensations), and increased neuroticism were significant predictors. We also found trend level support for assertiveness as a predictor of anxiety onset. However, of these variables, only history of anxiety and anxiety sensitivity provided unique prediction. We did not find evidence for negative life events as a predictor of onset of anxiety either alone or in interaction with other variables in a diathesis-stress model. These findings from a prospective longitudinal study are discussed in relation to the potential role of such predictors in primary or relapse prevention efforts. PMID:19699609

  17. Predictors of Career Adaptability Skill among Higher Education Students in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amos Shaibu Ebenehi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examined predictors of career adaptability skill among higher  education students in Nigeria. A sample of 603 higher education students randomly selected from six colleges of education in Nigeria participated in this study.  A set of self-reported questionnaire was used for data collection, and multiple linear regression analysis was used to analyze the data.  Results indicated that 33.3% of career adaptability skill was explained by the model.  Four out of the five predictor variables significantly predicted career adaptability skill among higher education students in Nigeria.  Among the four predictors, career self-efficacy sources was the most statistically significant predictor of career adaptability skill among higher education students in Nigeria, followed by personal goal orientation, career future concern, and perceived social support respectively.  Vocational identity did not statistically predict career adaptability skill among higher education students in Nigeria.  The study suggested that similar study should be replicated in other parts of the world in view of the importance of career adaptability skill to the smooth transition of graduates from school to the labor market.  The study concluded by requesting stakeholders of higher institutions in Nigeria to provide career exploration database for the students, and encourage career intervention program in order to enhance career adaptability skill among the students.

  18. Changes in Situational and Dispositional Factors as Predictors of Job Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Anita C.; Semmer, Norbert K.

    2013-01-01

    Arguably, job satisfaction is one of the most important variables with regard to work. When explaining job satisfaction, research usually focuses on predictor variables in terms of levels but neglects growth rates. Therefore it remains unclear how potential predictors evolve over time and how their development affects job satisfaction. Using…

  19. Nursing workload predictors in Catalonia (Spain: a home care cohort study Variables predictoras de las cargas de trabajo de enfermería en Cataluña: seguimiento de una cohorte de atención domiciliaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Gené Badia

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the characteristics of chronic patients and their environment in order to predict the nursing workload required 1 year after their inclusion in a home care program. Methods: A longitudinal study was carried out in 72 primary health care teams in Catalonia (Spain with a 1-year follow-up of 1,068 home care patients over 64 years old. The variables collected from each patient included data on health and social status (Charlson and Barthel indexes and the Pfeiffer, Braden and Gijon scales, carer overburden (Zarit scale, hospital admissions, use of emergency services, self-perceived health (SF-12 and the number of health worker visits. Results: Patients received 7.2 (SD 10.4 visits per year from their nurse-in-charge, out of a total of 8.7 (SD 13.1 nursing visits per year. Risk factors for receiving more nursing visits at home were male gender (IRR=1.42, 95%CI: 1.20-1.67, dependency for daily activities (IRR=1.65, 95%CI: 1.29-2.13, decubitus ulcers (IRR=4.03, 95%CI: 2.27-7.14 and receiving emergency medical care at home (IRR=1.65, 95%CI: 1.31-2.07. In contrast, patients with major cognitive impairment (IRR=0.78, 95%CI: 0.63-0.98 had a lower probability of receiving nursing visits at home. Conclusions: Workload can be predicted by patients' clinical characteristics. The positive correlation of workload with variables related to disease severity and the negative correlation with variables related to cognitive impairment show that home care nursing in Catalonia is basically demand-oriented.Objetivo: Identificar las características basales de los pacientes crónicos y su entorno que predicen la carga de trabajo de enfermería durante el año siguiente a su inclusión en un programa de atención domiciliaria (ATDOM. Métodos: Estudio longitudinal realizado en 72 equipos de atención primaria de salud en Cataluña. Seguimiento durante un año de 1068 pacientes de ATDOM mayores de 64 años de edad. Variables recogidas: nivel de salud

  20. Neurocognitive and Behavioral Predictors of Math Performance in Children With and Without ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonini, Tanya N; Kingery, Kathleen M; Narad, Megan E; Langberg, Joshua M; Tamm, Leanne; Epstein, Jeffery N

    2016-02-01

    This study examined neurocognitive and behavioral predictors of math performance in children with and without ADHD. Neurocognitive and behavioral variables were examined as predictors of (a) standardized mathematics achievement scores, (b) productivity on an analog math task, and (c) accuracy on an analog math task. Children with ADHD had lower achievement scores but did not significantly differ from controls on math productivity or accuracy. N-back accuracy and parent-rated attention predicted math achievement. N-back accuracy and observed attention predicted math productivity. Alerting scores on the attentional network task predicted math accuracy. Mediation analyses indicated that n-back accuracy significantly mediated the relationship between diagnostic group and math achievement. Neurocognition, rather than behavior, may account for the deficits in math achievement exhibited by many children with ADHD. © The Author(s) 2013.

  1. Predictors of monoterpene exposure in the Danish furniture industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagström, Katja; Jacobsen, Gitte; Sigsgaard, Torben; Schaumburg, Inger; Erlandsen, Mogens; Schlunssen, Vivi

    2012-04-01

    Individuals who work with pine in the furniture industry may be exposed to monoterpenes, the most abundant of which are α-pinene, β-pinene, and Δ(3)-carene. Monoterpenes are suspected to cause dermatitis and to harm the respiratory system. An understanding of the predictors of monoterpene exposure is therefore important in preventing these adverse effects. These predictors may include general characteristics of the work environment and specific work operations. We sought to assess the extent to which workers are exposed to monoterpenes and to identify possible predictors of monoterpene exposure in the pine furniture industry in Denmark. Passive measurements of the levels of selected monoterpenes (α-pinene, β-pinene, and Δ(3)-carene) were performed on 161 subjects from 17 pine furniture factories in Viborg County, Denmark; one sample was acquired from each worker. Additionally, wood dust samples were collected from 145 workers. Data on potential predictors of exposure were acquired over the course of the day on which the exposure measurements were recorded and could be assigned to one of four hierarchic ordered levels: worker, machine, department, and factory. In addition to univariate analyses, a mixed model was used to account for imbalances within the data and random variation with each of the hierarchically ordered levels. The geometric mean (GM) monoterpene content observed over the 161 measurements was 7.8 mg m(-3) [geometric standard deviation (GSD): 2.4]; the GM wood dust level over 145 measurements was 0.58 mg m(-3) (GSD: 1.49). None of the measured samples exceeded the occupational exposure limit for terpenes in Denmark (25 ppm, 150 mg m(-3)). In the univariate analyses, half of the predictors tested were found to be significant; the multivariate model indicated that only three of the potential predictors were significant. These were the recirculation of air in rooms used for the processing of wood (a factory level predictor), the presence of a

  2. Predictors for oral cancer in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Isabella Lima Arrais RIBEIRO; Johnys Berton Medeiros da NÓBREGA; Ana Maria Gondim VALENÇA; Ricardo Dias de CASTRO

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Introduction The incidence of lip, oral cavity and oropharynx cancer in Brazil is one of the highest worldwide. Objective This study aimed to identify predictors for oral cancer in Brazil between 2010 and 2013. Method Through a time series study in which 14,959 primary head and neck cancer diagnoses were evaluated. The variables of interest were gender, age, race, education level, family history of cancer, alcohol consumption, smoking, and previous cancer diagnosis. The outcome va...

  3. Coping responses as predictors of satisfaction with life amongst a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All participants completed the Coping Responses Inventory – Adult Version, as well as the Satisfaction with Life Scale. Initially, Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients were calculated to examine the relationship between the predictor variables (coping responses) and the criterion variable(satisfaction with life).

  4. Environmental and organismal predictors of intraspecific variation in the stoichiometry of a neotropical freshwater fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sabaawi, Rana W; Kohler, Tyler J; Zandoná, Eugenia; Travis, Joseph; Marshall, Michael C; Thomas, Steven A; Reznick, David N; Walsh, Matthew; Gilliam, James F; Pringle, Catherine; Flecker, Alexander S

    2012-01-01

    The elemental composition of animals, or their organismal stoichiometry, is thought to constrain their contribution to nutrient recycling, their interactions with other animals, and their demographic rates. Factors that affect organismal stoichiometry are generally poorly understood, but likely reflect elemental investments in morphological features and life history traits, acting in concert with the environmental availability of elements. We assessed the relative contribution of organismal traits and environmental variability to the stoichiometry of an insectivorous Neotropical stream fish, Rivulus hartii. We characterized the influence of body size, life history phenotype, stage of maturity, and environmental variability on organismal stoichiometry in 6 streams that differ in a broad suite of environmental variables. The elemental composition of R. hartii was variable, and overlapped with the wide range of elemental composition documented across freshwater fish taxa. Average %P composition was ∼3.2%(±0.6), average %N∼10.7%(±0.9), and average %C∼41.7%(±3.1). Streams were the strongest predictor of organismal stoichiometry, and explained up to 18% of the overall variance. This effect appeared to be largely explained by variability in quality of basal resources such as epilithon N:P and benthic organic matter C:N, along with variability in invertebrate standing stocks, an important food source for R. hartii. Organismal traits were weak predictors of organismal stoichiometry in this species, explaining when combined up to 7% of the overall variance in stoichiometry. Body size was significantly and positively correlated with %P, and negatively with N:P, and C:P, and life history phenotype was significantly correlated with %C, %P, C:P and C:N. Our study suggests that spatial variability in elemental availability is more strongly correlated with organismal stoichiometry than organismal traits, and suggests that the stoichiometry of carnivores may not be

  5. Environmental and organismal predictors of intraspecific variation in the stoichiometry of a neotropical freshwater fish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rana W El-Sabaawi

    Full Text Available The elemental composition of animals, or their organismal stoichiometry, is thought to constrain their contribution to nutrient recycling, their interactions with other animals, and their demographic rates. Factors that affect organismal stoichiometry are generally poorly understood, but likely reflect elemental investments in morphological features and life history traits, acting in concert with the environmental availability of elements. We assessed the relative contribution of organismal traits and environmental variability to the stoichiometry of an insectivorous Neotropical stream fish, Rivulus hartii. We characterized the influence of body size, life history phenotype, stage of maturity, and environmental variability on organismal stoichiometry in 6 streams that differ in a broad suite of environmental variables. The elemental composition of R. hartii was variable, and overlapped with the wide range of elemental composition documented across freshwater fish taxa. Average %P composition was ∼3.2%(±0.6, average %N∼10.7%(±0.9, and average %C∼41.7%(±3.1. Streams were the strongest predictor of organismal stoichiometry, and explained up to 18% of the overall variance. This effect appeared to be largely explained by variability in quality of basal resources such as epilithon N:P and benthic organic matter C:N, along with variability in invertebrate standing stocks, an important food source for R. hartii. Organismal traits were weak predictors of organismal stoichiometry in this species, explaining when combined up to 7% of the overall variance in stoichiometry. Body size was significantly and positively correlated with %P, and negatively with N:P, and C:P, and life history phenotype was significantly correlated with %C, %P, C:P and C:N. Our study suggests that spatial variability in elemental availability is more strongly correlated with organismal stoichiometry than organismal traits, and suggests that the stoichiometry of carnivores

  6. Gender and distance influence performance predictors in young swimmers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Victor Mezzaroba

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Predictors of performance in adult swimmers are constantly changing during youth especially because the training routine begins even before puberty in the modality. Therefore this study aimed to determine the group of parameters that best predict short and middle swimming distance performances of young swimmers of both genders. Thirty-three 10-to 16-years-old male and female competitive swimmers participated in the study. Multiple linear regression (MLR was used considering mean speed of maximum 100, 200 and 400 m efforts as dependent variables, and five parameters groups as possible predictors (anthropometry, body composition, physiological and biomechanical parameters, chronological age/pubic hair. The main results revealed explanatory powers of almost 100% for both genders and all performances, but with different predictors entered in MLR models of each parameter group or all variables. Thus, there are considerable differences in short and middle swimming distance, and males and females predictors that should be considered in training programs.

  7. Erectile dysfunction is a strong predictor of poor quality of life in men with Type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malavige, L S; Jayaratne, S D; Kathriarachchi, S T; Sivayogan, S; Ranasinghe, P; Levy, J C

    2014-06-01

    To identify predictors of poor quality of life among men with diabetes from a comprehensive set of sexual, clinical, socio-economic and lifestyle variables. This was a cross-sectional observational-study of 253 men with Type 2 diabetes, randomly selected from a clinic in Colombo, Sri Lanka. Erectile dysfunction was assessed using the five-item International Index of Erectile Function and quality of life was assessed using the Sri Lankan version of the 36-item short form health survey questionnaire and the disease-specific Psychological Impact of Erectile Dysfunction scale. The presence of premature ejaculation, reduced libido, socio-demographic and lifestyle data was obtained using an interviewer-administered questionnaire. Significant predictors of quality of life were identified by stepwise multivariate linear regression models for short form-36 subscales, summary scales and two scales of Psychological Impact of Erectile Dysfunction. Significant predictors on the physical summary scale of the 36-item short form were erectile dysfunction (β = 7.93, 95% CI 3.70-12.17, P 27.5 kg/m(2) (β = 9.12, 95% CI 1.38-17.44, P strong predictor of poor generic and disease-specific quality of life among other sexual and clinical variables in men with diabetes. © 2014 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2014 Diabetes UK.

  8. Clinical Predictors of Hospital Admission in Children Aged 0-24 Months with Acute Bronchiolitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nucksheeba Aziz

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Bronchiolitis is a significant cause of acute morbidity in children less than 2 years old and some children with bronchiolitis are admitted to the hospital. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES To identify clinical predictors of hospital admission in children aged 0-24 months with acute bronchiolitis.   METHODS: All children in the age group of 0-24 months presenting with acute bronchiolitis to a dedicated pediatric emergency department of GB pant cantonment children hospital, Govt Medical College Srinagar,   from April 2012-March 2013 were included in the study, provided they met the inclusion criteria. Non-parametric numerical variables were analyzed using Mann Whitney u test. Chi square was used to analyzecategorical variables, p value < 0.05 was considered significant. RESULTS: 763(552(72.3% male, mean age 8.52+/- 3.59 months children (0-24months presented with acute bronchiolitis during the study period. 435(313 (72% male, mean age 6.69+/-3.8 monthspatients were admitted to the hospital. The eight best predictors of admission (age, respiratory rate, heart rate, oxygen saturation, fever, grunt, dehydration and duration of symptoms were determined. CONCLUSION:This study has identified clinical predictors of admission in children aged 0-24 months with acute bronchiolitis. This information can be used as a guide in deciding whether to admit a child with bronchiolitis.

  9. Predictors of migraine headache recurrence: A pooled analysis from the eletriptan database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dodick, D.W.; Lipton, R.B.; Goadsby, P.J.

    2008-01-01

    Objective.-To identify clinical variables associated with risk of headache recurrence within 22 hours of initial successful treatment of a migraine attack (2-hour headache response), and to analyze the effect of eletriptan in reducing the incidence of recurrence. Methods.-Data were pooled from 10...... evaluable. A multivariable logistic regression analysis identified significant predictors of headache recurrence (return to moderate/severe pain intensity within 22 hours of initial headache response). Treatment response was assessed in two high-risk subgroups, defined by the presence of significant...

  10. Internal predictors of burnout in psychiatric nurses: An Indian study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudraprosad Chakraborty

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Research has not adequately focused on the issue of burnout in Psychiatric nurses, despite the fact that they suffer considerable stress in their work. Till date no study has been conducted on burnout among psychiatric nurses in India. Further, there is a particular lack of research in internal variables predicting burnout in them. Aims: To determine whether there are any internal psychological factors relevant to burnout in psychiatric nurses in India. Materials and Methods: We recruited 101 psychiatric nurses scoring less than two in General Health Questionnaire, version 12 (GHQ-12 from two psychiatric hospitals after obtaining informed consent. All subjects filled up a sociodemographic data sheet along with global adjustment scale, emotional maturity scale, PGI general well-being scale, locus of control scale, and Copenhagen burnout inventory (CBI. Correlations between burnout and sociodemographic/clinical variables were done by Pearson′s r or Spearman′s rho. Signi ficant variables were entered in a stepwise multiple linear regression analysis with total burnout score as dependent variable. Results: Age, duration of total period of nursing, prior military training, locus of control, sense of general well-being, adjustment capabilities, and emotional maturity had significant relation with burnout. Of them, emotional maturity was the most significant protective factors against burnout along with adjustment capabilities, sense of physical well-being, and military training in decreasing significance. Together they explained 41% variation in total burnout score which is significant at <0.001 level. An internal locus of control was inversely correlated with burnout, but failed to predict it in regression analysis. Conclusion: Emotional maturity, adjustability, sense of general physical well-being as well as prior military training significantly predicted lower burnout. Of them, emotional maturity was the most important predictor

  11. Internal predictors of burnout in psychiatric nurses: An Indian study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Rudraprosad; Chatterjee, Arunima; Chaudhury, Suprakash

    2012-07-01

    Research has not adequately focused on the issue of burnout in Psychiatric nurses, despite the fact that they suffer considerable stress in their work. Till date no study has been conducted on burnout among psychiatric nurses in India. Further, there is a particular lack of research in internal variables predicting burnout in them. To determine whether there are any internal psychological factors relevant to burnout in psychiatric nurses in India. We recruited 101 psychiatric nurses scoring less than two in General Health Questionnaire, version 12 (GHQ-12) from two psychiatric hospitals after obtaining informed consent. All subjects filled up a sociodemographic data sheet along with global adjustment scale, emotional maturity scale, PGI general well-being scale, locus of control scale, and Copenhagen burnout inventory (CBI). Correlations between burnout and sociodemographic/clinical variables were done by Pearson's r or Spearman's rho. Signi ficant variables were entered in a stepwise multiple linear regression analysis with total burnout score as dependent variable. Age, duration of total period of nursing, prior military training, locus of control, sense of general well-being, adjustment capabilities, and emotional maturity had significant relation with burnout. Of them, emotional maturity was the most significant protective factors against burnout along with adjustment capabilities, sense of physical well-being, and military training in decreasing significance. Together they explained 41% variation in total burnout score which is significant at Emotional maturity, adjustability, sense of general physical well-being as well as prior military training significantly predicted lower burnout. Of them, emotional maturity was the most important predictor. Internal locus of control was also correlated with lower burnout.

  12. Predictors of Preoperative Program Non-Completion in Adolescents Referred for Bariatric Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brode, Cassie; Ratcliff, Megan; Reiter-Purtill, Jennifer; Hunsaker, Sanita; Helmrath, Michael; Zeller, Meg

    2018-04-23

    Factors contributing to adolescents' non-completion of bariatric surgery, defined as self-withdrawal during the preoperative phase of care, independent of program or insurance denial, are largely unknown. Recent adolescent and adult bariatric surgery literature indicate that psychological factors and treatment withdrawal play a role; however, for adolescents, additional age-salient (family/caregiver) variables might also influence progression to surgery. The present study examined demographic, psychological, and family/caregiver variables as predictors of whether adolescents completed surgery ("completers") or withdrew from treatment ("non-completers"). Adolescents were from a bariatric surgery program within a pediatric tertiary care hospital. A retrospective chart review was conducted of consecutive patients who completed bariatric surgery psychological intake evaluations from September 2009 to April 2013. Data involving completer (n = 61) versus non-completer (n = 65) status were analyzed using two-tailed independent t tests, Chi-squared tests, and logistic regressions. Forty-three percent of adolescents completed surgery, similar to adult bariatric samples. Significantly more males were non-completers (p adolescents (p = 0.06). No other demographic, psychological, or caregiver/family variables were significant predictors of non-completion. These findings indicate that demographic variables, rather than psychological or family factors, were associated with the progression to or withdrawal from surgery. Further assessment is needed to determine specific reasons for completing or withdrawing from treatment, particularly for males and older adolescents, to improve clinical care and reduce attrition.

  13. Predictors of condom use and refusal among the population of Free State province in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandran, Thoovakkunon Moorkoth; Berkvens, Dirk; Chikobvu, Perpetual; Nöstlinger, Christiana; Colebunders, Robert; Williams, Brian Gerard; Speybroeck, Niko

    2012-05-28

    This study investigated the extent and predictors of condom use and condom refusal in the Free State province in South Africa. Through a household survey conducted in the Free Sate province of South Africa, 5,837 adults were interviewed. Univariate and multivariate survey logistic regressions and classification trees (CT) were used for analysing two response variables 'ever used condom' and 'ever refused condom'. Eighty-three per cent of the respondents had ever used condoms, of which 38% always used them; 61% used them during the last sexual intercourse and 9% had ever refused to use them. The univariate logistic regression models and CT analysis indicated that a strong predictor of condom use was its perceived need. In the CT analysis, this variable was followed in importance by 'knowledge of correct use of condom', condom availability, young age, being single and higher education. 'Perceived need' for condoms did not remain significant in the multivariate analysis after controlling for other variables. The strongest predictor of condom refusal, as shown by the CT, was shame associated with condoms followed by the presence of sexual risk behaviour, knowing one's HIV status, older age and lacking knowledge of condoms (i.e., ability to prevent sexually transmitted diseases and pregnancy, availability, correct and consistent use and existence of female condoms). In the multivariate logistic regression, age was not significant for condom refusal while affordability and perceived need were additional significant variables. The use of complementary modelling techniques such as CT in addition to logistic regressions adds to a better understanding of condom use and refusal. Further improvement in correct and consistent use of condoms will require targeted interventions. In addition to existing social marketing campaigns, tailored approaches should focus on establishing the perceived need for condom-use and improving skills for correct use. They should also incorporate

  14. Learning and Study Strategies Inventory subtests and factors as predictors of National Board of Chiropractic Examiners Part 1 examination performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutz, Christine M; Dalton, Leanne; Tepe, Rodger E

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to extend research on the relationship between chiropractic students' learning and study strategies and national board examination performance. Sixty-nine first trimester chiropractic students self-administered the Learning and Study Strategies Inventory (LASSI). Linear trends tests (for continuous variables) and Mantel-Haenszel trend tests (for categorical variables) were utilized to determine if the 10 LASSI subtests and 3 factors predicted low, medium and high levels of National Board of Chiropractic Examiners (NBCE) Part 1 scores. Multiple regression was performed to predict overall mean NBCE examination scores using the 3 LASSI factors as predictor variables. Four LASSI subtests (Anxiety, Concentration, Selecting Main Ideas, Test Strategies) and one factor (Goal Orientation) were significantly associated with NBCE examination levels. One factor (Goal Orientation) was a significant predictor of overall mean NBCE examination performance. Learning and study strategies are predictive of NBCE Part 1 examination performance in chiropractic students. The current study found LASSI subtests Anxiety, Concentration, Selecting Main Ideas, and Test Strategies, and the Goal-Orientation factor to be significant predictors of NBCE scores. The LASSI may be useful to educators in preparing students for academic success. Further research is warranted to explore the effects of learning and study strategies training on GPA and NBCE performance.

  15. Joint High-Dimensional Bayesian Variable and Covariance Selection with an Application to eQTL Analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Bhadra, Anindya

    2013-04-22

    We describe a Bayesian technique to (a) perform a sparse joint selection of significant predictor variables and significant inverse covariance matrix elements of the response variables in a high-dimensional linear Gaussian sparse seemingly unrelated regression (SSUR) setting and (b) perform an association analysis between the high-dimensional sets of predictors and responses in such a setting. To search the high-dimensional model space, where both the number of predictors and the number of possibly correlated responses can be larger than the sample size, we demonstrate that a marginalization-based collapsed Gibbs sampler, in combination with spike and slab type of priors, offers a computationally feasible and efficient solution. As an example, we apply our method to an expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) analysis on publicly available single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and gene expression data for humans where the primary interest lies in finding the significant associations between the sets of SNPs and possibly correlated genetic transcripts. Our method also allows for inference on the sparse interaction network of the transcripts (response variables) after accounting for the effect of the SNPs (predictor variables). We exploit properties of Gaussian graphical models to make statements concerning conditional independence of the responses. Our method compares favorably to existing Bayesian approaches developed for this purpose. © 2013, The International Biometric Society.

  16. Life Span Studies of ADHD—Conceptual Challenges and Predictors of Persistence and Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caye, Arthur; Swanson, James; Thapar, Anita; Sibley, Margaret; Arseneault, Louise; Hechtman, Lily; Arnold, L. Eugene; Niclasen, Janni; Moffitt, Terrie

    2018-01-01

    There is a renewed interest in better conceptualizing trajectories of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) from childhood to adulthood, driven by an increased recognition of long-term impairment and potential persistence beyond childhood and adolescence. This review addresses the following major issues relevant to the course of ADHD in light of current evidence from longitudinal studies: (1) conceptual and methodological issues related to measurement of persistence of ADHD, (2) estimates of persistence rate from childhood to adulthood and its predictors, (3) long-term negative outcomes of childhood ADHD and their early predictors, and (4) the recently proposed new adult-onset ADHD. Estimates of persistence vary widely in the literature, and diagnostic criteria, sample characteristics, and information source are the most important factors explaining variability among studies. Evidence indicates that ADHD severity, comorbid conduct disorder and major depressive disorder, and treatment for ADHD are the main predictors of ADHD persistence from childhood to adulthood. Comorbid conduct disorder and ADHD severity in childhood are the most important predictors of adverse outcomes in adulthood among children with ADHD. Three recent population studies suggested the existence of a significant proportion of individuals who report onset of ADHD symptoms and impairments after childhood. Finally, we highlight areas for improvement to increase our understanding of ADHD across the life span. PMID:27783340

  17. Predictors of academic performance for applicants to an international dental studies program in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitigoi-Aron, Gabriela; King, Patricia A; Chambers, David W

    2011-12-01

    The number of U.S. and Canadian dental schools offering programs for dentists with degrees from other countries leading to the D.D.S. or D.M.D. degree has increased recently. This fact, along with the diversity of educational systems represented by candidates for these programs, increases the importance of identifying valid admissions predictors of success in international dental student programs. Data from 148 students accepted into the international dental studies program at the University of the Pacific from 1994 through 2004 were analyzed. Dependent variables were comprehensive cumulative GPA at the end of both the first and second years of the two-year program. The Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) and both Parts I and II of the National Board Dental Examination (NBDE) were significant positive predictors of success. Performance on laboratory tests of clinical skill in operative dentistry and in fixed prosthodontics and ratings from interviewers were not predictive of overall success in the program. Although this study confirms the predictive value of written tests such as the TOEFL and NBDE, it also contributes to the literature documenting inconsistent results regarding other types of predictors. It may be the case that characteristics of individual programs or features of the applicant pools for each may require use of admissions predictors that are unique to schools.

  18. Is parenting style a predictor of suicide attempts in a representative sample of adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Suicidal ideation and suicide attempts are serious but not rare conditions in adolescents. However, there are several research and practical suicide-prevention initiatives that discuss the possibility of preventing serious self-harm. Profound knowledge about risk and protective factors is therefore necessary. The aim of this study is a) to clarify the role of parenting behavior and parenting styles in adolescents’ suicide attempts and b) to identify other statistically significant and clinically relevant risk and protective factors for suicide attempts in a representative sample of German adolescents. Methods In the years 2007/2008, a representative written survey of N = 44,610 students in the 9th grade of different school types in Germany was conducted. In this survey, the lifetime prevalence of suicide attempts was investigated as well as potential predictors including parenting behavior. A three-step statistical analysis was carried out: I) As basic model, the association between parenting and suicide attempts was explored via binary logistic regression controlled for age and sex. II) The predictive values of 13 additional potential risk/protective factors were analyzed with single binary logistic regression analyses for each predictor alone. Non-significant predictors were excluded in Step III. III) In a multivariate binary logistic regression analysis, all significant predictor variables from Step II and the parenting styles were included after testing for multicollinearity. Results Three parental variables showed a relevant association with suicide attempts in adolescents – (all protective): mother’s warmth and father’s warmth in childhood and mother’s control in adolescence (Step I). In the full model (Step III), Authoritative parenting (protective: OR: .79) and Rejecting-Neglecting parenting (risk: OR: 1.63) were identified as significant predictors (p < .001) for suicidal attempts. Seven further variables were interpreted to be

  19. Psychological Predictors of Anabolic Steroid Use: An Exploratory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwerin, Michael J.; Corcoran, Kevin J.; LaFleur, Bonnie J.; Fisher, Leslee; Patterson, David; Olrich, Tracy

    1997-01-01

    Examined social physique anxiety, upper body esteem, social anxiety, and body dissatisfaction as possible predictors of anabolic steroid (AS) use. Results based on 185 AS-using bodybuilders and various control groups indicated that the upper body strength subscale of two measures, along with age, were significant predictors of AS use. (RJM)

  20. Conspicuous plumage colours are highly variable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delhey, Kaspar; Szecsenyi, Beatrice; Nakagawa, Shinichi; Peters, Anne

    2017-01-25

    Elaborate ornamental traits are often under directional selection for greater elaboration, which in theory should deplete underlying genetic variation. Despite this, many ornamental traits appear to remain highly variable and how this essential variation is maintained is a key question in evolutionary biology. One way to address this question is to compare differences in intraspecific variability across different types of traits to determine whether high levels of variation are associated with specific trait characteristics. Here we assess intraspecific variation in more than 100 plumage colours across 55 bird species to test whether colour variability is linked to their level of elaboration (indicated by degree of sexual dichromatism and conspicuousness) or their condition dependence (indicated by mechanism of colour production). Conspicuous colours had the highest levels of variation and conspicuousness was the strongest predictor of variability, with high explanatory power. After accounting for this, there were no significant effects of sexual dichromatism or mechanisms of colour production. Conspicuous colours may entail higher production costs or may be more sensitive to disruptions during production. Alternatively, high variability could also be related to increased perceptual difficulties inherent to discriminating highly elaborate colours. Such psychophysical effects may constrain the exaggeration of animal colours. © 2017 The Author(s).

  1. Predictors of Homophobia in Female College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basow, Susan A.; Johnson, Kelly

    2000-01-01

    Investigated how self-esteem, self-discrepancy, and gender-attribute importance related to homophobia in predominantly white college women, noting sex role attitudes, authoritarian attitudes, and extent of contact with homosexuals. The only significant predictor of homophobia was authoritarian attitudes. Other correlations included belief in sex…

  2. Crowdsourcing Novel Childhood Predictors of Adult Obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bevelander, K.E.; Kaipainen, K.; Swain, R.; Dohle, S.; Bongard, J.C.; Hines, P.D.H.; Wansink, B.

    2014-01-01

    Effective and simple screening tools are needed to detect behaviors that are established early in life and have a significant influence on weight gain later in life. Crowdsourcing could be a novel and potentially useful tool to assess childhood predictors of adult obesity. This exploratory study

  3. Predictors of weight maintenance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pasman, W.J.; Saris, W.H.M.; Westerterp-Plantenga, M.S.

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To obtain predictors of weight maintenance after a weight-loss intervention. Research Methods and Procedures: An overall analysis of data from two-long intervention studies [n = 67 women; age: 37.9±1.0 years; body weight (BW): 87.0±1.2 kg; body mass index: 32.1±0.5 kg·m-2; % body fat:

  4. Predictors of job satisfaction among Academic Faculty: Do instructional and clinical faculty differ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Kevin C.; Song, Jae W.; Kim, H. Myra; Woolliscroft, James O.; Quint, Elisabeth H.; Lukacs, Nicholas W.; Gyetko, Margaret R.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To identify and compare predictors of job satisfaction between the instructional and clinical faculty tracks. Method A 61-item faculty job satisfaction survey was distributed to 1,898 academic faculty at the University of Michigan Medical School. The anonymous survey was web-based. Questions covered topics on departmental organization, research, clinical and teaching support, compensation, mentorship, and promotion. Levels of satisfaction were contrasted between the two tracks, and predictors of job satisfaction were identified using linear regression models. Results The response rates for the instructional and clinical tracks were 43.1% and 41.3%, respectively. Clinical faculty reported being less satisfied with how they are mentored, and fewer reported understanding the process for promotion. There was no significant difference in overall job satisfaction between faculty tracks. Surprisingly, clinical faculty with mentors were significantly less satisfied with how they were being mentored, with career advancement and overall job satisfaction, compared to instructional faculty mentees. Additionally, senior-level clinical faculty were significantly less satisfied with their opportunities to mentor junior faculty compared to senior-level instructional faculty. Significant predictors of job satisfaction for both tracks included areas of autonomy, meeting career expectations, work-life balance, and departmental leadership. Unique to the clinical track, compensation and career advancement variables also emerged as significant predictors. Conclusion Greater effort must be placed in the continued attention to faculty well-being both at the institutional level and at the level of departmental leadership. Success in enhancing job satisfaction is more likely if directed by locally designed assessments involving department chairs, specifically in fostering more effective mentoring relationships focused on making available career advancement activities such as

  5. Controlling confounding by frailty when estimating influenza vaccine effectiveness using predictors of dependency in activities of daily living.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Henry T; McGrath, Leah J; Wyss, Richard; Ellis, Alan R; Stürmer, Til

    2017-12-01

    To improve control of confounding by frailty when estimating the effect of influenza vaccination on all-cause mortality by controlling for a published set of claims-based predictors of dependency in activities of daily living (ADL). Using Medicare claims data, a cohort of beneficiaries >65 years of age was followed from September 1, 2007, to April 12, 2008, with covariates assessed in the 6 months before follow-up. We estimated Cox proportional hazards models of all-cause mortality, with influenza vaccination as a time-varying exposure. We controlled for common demographics, comorbidities, and health care utilization variables and then added 20 ADL dependency predictors. To gauge residual confounding, we estimated pre-influenza season hazard ratios (HRs) between September 1, 2007 and January 5, 2008, which should be 1.0 in the absence of bias. A cohort of 2 235 140 beneficiaries was created, with a median follow-up of 224 days. Overall, 52% were vaccinated and 4% died during follow-up. During the pre-influenza season period, controlling for demographics, comorbidities, and health care use resulted in a HR of 0.66 (0.64, 0.67). Adding the ADL dependency predictors moved the HR to 0.68 (0.67, 0.70). Controlling for demographics and ADL dependency predictors alone resulted in a HR of 0.68 (0.66, 0.70). Results were consistent with those in the literature, with significant uncontrolled confounding after adjustment for demographics, comorbidities, and health care use. Adding ADL dependency predictors moved HRs slightly closer to the null. Of the comorbidities, health care use variables, and ADL dependency predictors, the last set reduced confounding most. However, substantial uncontrolled confounding remained. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Predictors of transformational leadership of nurse managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echevarria, Ilia M; Patterson, Barbara J; Krouse, Anne

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationships among education, leadership experience, emotional intelligence and transformational leadership of nurse managers. Nursing leadership research provides limited evidence of predictors of transformational leadership style in nurse managers. A predictive correlational design was used with a sample of nurse managers (n = 148) working in varied health care settings. Data were collected using the Genos Emotional Intelligence Inventory, the Multi-factor Leadership Questionnaire and a demographic questionnaire. Simple linear and multiple regression analyses were used to examine relationships. A statistically significant relationship was found between emotional intelligence and transformational leadership (r = 0.59, P transformational leadership. Nurse managers should be well informed of the predictors of transformational leadership in order to pursue continuing education and development opportunities related to those predictors. The results of this study emphasise the need for emotional intelligence continuing education, leadership development and leader assessment programmes. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Life Span Studies of ADHD-Conceptual Challenges and Predictors of Persistence and Outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caye, Arthur; Swanson, James; Thapar, Anita

    2016-01-01

    outcomes of childhood ADHD and their early predictors, and (4) the recently proposed new adult-onset ADHD. Estimates of persistence vary widely in the literature, and diagnostic criteria, sample characteristics, and information source are the most important factors explaining variability among studies...... in adulthood among children with ADHD. Three recent population studies suggested the existence of a significant proportion of individuals who report onset of ADHD symptoms and impairments after childhood. Finally, we highlight areas for improvement to increase our understanding of ADHD across the life span....... the following major issues relevant to the course of ADHD in light of current evidence from longitudinal studies: (1) conceptual and methodological issues related to measurement of persistence of ADHD, (2) estimates of persistence rate from childhood to adulthood and its predictors, (3) long-term negative...

  8. An Investigation of Predictors of Life Satisfaction among Overseas Iranian Undergraduate Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razieh Tadayon Nabavi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, many young people have gone overseas to study and live at least temporarily in new countries that maybe quite different to their homeland. The aim of this study was to determine the predictors of life satisfaction among Iranian undergraduate students studying at Malaysian private universities. A total of 361 undergraduate students were identified as respondents of this study by using Multi-Stage random sampling technique. The results of the study showed that the Iranian undergraduate students were moderately satisfied with their overseas student life. Findings also showed that the results of multiple regression analyses indicated social support emerged as the strongest unique predictor of life satisfaction, followed by academic achievement, and adjustment. Findings revealed that 44.8% of the variability in life satisfaction could be predicted by social support, academic achievement, and adjustment. The results also indicated that social support significantly mediated the effect of loneliness on life satisfaction.

  9. Predictors of nonadherence with blood pressure regimens in hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kauric-Klein Z

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Zorica Kauric-KleinCollege of Nursing, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, USABackground: Hypertension is very poorly controlled in patients on hemodialysis (HD. Demographic and psychosocial predictors of nonadherence with blood pressure (BP regimens in HD have not been investigated. A study of 118 HD patients from six outpatient HD units was conducted to determine the relationship between demographic/psychosocial factors and adherence with BP-related regimens, ie, fluid restriction, BP medication adherence, and HD treatment adherence.Methods: Descriptive statistics, Pearson correlations, and multiple regressions were conducted to analyze and determine the relationships between variables.Results: Younger age was related to increased fluid gains (r = -0.37, P < 0.01, decreased medication adherence (r = -0.19, P = 0.04, increased missed HD treatments (r = -0.37, P < 0.01, and diastolic BP (r = -0.60, P < 0.01. Female sex was significantly related to decreased fluid gains (r = -0.28, P < 0.01. Race was related to increased missed HD treatments (r = 0.22, P = 0.02. Increased social support was related to decreased missed HD treatments (r = -0.22, P = 0.02. Depression scores were inversely related to decreased medication adherence scores (r = 0.24, P = 0.01.Conclusion: By identifying risk factors for nonadherence with BP-related regimens (young age, male sex, decreased social support, and depression, health care providers can plan early clinical intervention to minimize the risk of nonadherence.Keywords: nonadherence, hemodialysis, blood pressure, demographic predictors, psychosocial predictors

  10. Pretreatment Predictors of Adverse Radiation Effects After Radiosurgery for Arteriovenous Malformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayhurst, Caroline; Monsalves, Eric; Prooijen, Monique van; Cusimano, Michael; Tsao, May; Menard, Cynthia; Kulkarni, Abhaya V.; Schwartz, Michael; Zadeh, Gelareh

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To identify vascular and dosimetric predictors of symptomatic T2 signal change and adverse radiation effects after radiosurgery for arteriovenous malformation, in order to define and validate preexisting risk models. Methods and Materials: A total of 125 patients with arteriovenous malformations (AVM) were treated at our institution between 2005 and 2009. Eighty-five patients have at least 12 months of clinical and radiological follow-up. Any new-onset headaches, new or worsening seizures, or neurological deficit were considered adverse events. Follow-up magnetic resonance images were assessed for new onset T2 signal change and the volume calculated. Pretreatment characteristics and dosimetric variables were analyzed to identify predictors of adverse radiation effects. Results: There were 19 children and 66 adults in the study cohort, with a mean age of 34 (range 6–74). Twenty-three (27%) patients suffered adverse radiation effects (ARE), 9 patients with permanent neurological deficit (10.6%). Of these, 5 developed fixed visual field deficits. Target volume and 12 Gy volume were the most significant predictors of adverse radiation effects on univariate analysis (p 3 , above which the rate of ARE increased dramatically. Multivariate analysis target volume and the absence of prior hemorrhage are the only significant predictors of ARE. The volume of T2 signal change correlates to ARE, but only target volume is predictive of a higher volume of T2 signal change. Conclusions: Target volume and the absence of prior hemorrhage is the most accurate predictor of adverse radiation effects and complications after radiosurgery for AVMs. A high percentage of permanent visual field defects in this series suggest the optic radiation is a critical radiosensitive structure.

  11. Predictors of leisure physical activity in a spanish university population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Ponce-de-León Elizondo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To determine some predictors of leisure-time physical activity in the Spanish university environment. Participants: A total of 1340 participants (48% men, with an average age of 22 years. Variables: leisure-time physical activity practice; gender; civil status; place of residence; amount of leisuretime; leisure-time occupation; desire to perform physical activity; satisfaction with the use of leisure-time; leisure-time physical activity practice in the past; and years of physical activity practice. Method: Face-toface interviews were undertaken using a questionnaire with close-ended questions. Results: Fifty-eight percent of the subjects reported being physically inactive. Male gender, desire to perform physical activity, satisfaction with the use of leisure-time, and practice of sports in the past, were significantly associated with leisure-time physical activity. Conclusions: Physical activity practice during childhood and adolescence is the strongest predictor of current leisure-time physical activity for this university population.

  12. Personality predictors of mortality in cardiac transplant candidates and recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandwin, M; Trask, P C; Schwartz, S M; Clifford, M

    2000-08-01

    Emotional factors are generally recognized as impacting the care of end-stage heart disease and mortality following cardiac transplants. Equally important, however, are predictors of pretransplant mortality. The current study examined the utility of the Millon Behavioral Health Inventory (MBHI) as a predictor of pre- and posttransplant mortality. A total of 103 cardiac transplant candidates were assessed with the MBHI as part of a pretransplant evaluation that included baseline demographic variables and cardiac status. Time to transplant and mortality status at 1 and 5 years was also obtained. Cluster analysis of MBHI response scores elicited two clusters characterized by high and low distress. Cluster membership predicted survival status at 1-year and 5-year follow-up, with high distress cluster patients having significantly higher mortality in both the total sample and a subgroup of patients who did receive a heart transplant. These results support the value of the MBHI for assessing personality attributes that may dispose toward unfavorable outcome in heart transplant candidates. Further understanding of psychosocial contributions to illness course and outcome may enable more effective selection of treatment interventions with cardiac patients.

  13. Personality predictors of longevity: activity, emotional stability, and conscientiousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terracciano, Antonio; Löckenhoff, Corinna E; Zonderman, Alan B; Ferrucci, Luigi; Costa, Paul T

    2008-07-01

    To examine the association between personality traits and longevity. Using the Guilford-Zimmerman Temperament Survey, personality traits were assessed in 2359 participants (38% women; age = 17 to 98 years, mean = 50 years) from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging, starting in 1958. Over the duration of the study, 943 (40%) participants died, on average 18 years after their personality assessment. The association of each trait with longevity was examined by Cox regression controlling for demographic variables. In preliminary analyses among the deceased, those who scored 1 standard deviation (SD) above the mean on General Activity (a facet of Extraversion), Emotional Stability (low Neuroticism), or Conscientiousness lived on average 2 to 3 years longer than those scoring 1 SD below the mean. Survival analyses on the full sample confirmed the association of General Activity, Emotional Stability, and Conscientiousness with lower risk of death, such that every 1-SD increase was related to about 13%, 15%, and 27% risk reduction, respectively. The association of personality traits with longevity was largely independent from the influence of smoking and obesity. Personality predictors of longevity did not differ by sex, except for Ascendance (a facet of Extraversion). Emotional Stability was a significant predictor when the analyses were limited to deaths due to cardiovascular disease, with comparable effect sizes for General Activity and Conscientiousness. In a large sample of generally healthy individuals followed for almost five decades, longevity was associated with being conscientious, emotionally stable, and active.

  14. Personality predictors of longevity: Activity, Emotional Stability, and Conscientiousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terracciano, Antonio; Löckenhoff, Corinna E.; Zonderman, Alan B.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Costa, Paul T.

    2008-01-01

    Objective To examine the association between personality traits and longevity. Methods Using the Guilford-Zimmerman Temperament Survey, personality traits were assessed in 2359 participants (38% women; age: 17 to 98 years, M = 50) from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA), starting in 1958. Over the duration of the study, 943 (40%) participants died, on average 18 years after their personality assessment. The association of each trait with longevity was examined by Cox regression controlling for demographic variables. Results In preliminary analyses among the deceased, those who scored one SD above the mean on General Activity (a facet of Extraversion), Emotional Stability (low Neuroticism), or Conscientiousness lived on average two to three years longer than those scoring one SD below the mean. Survival analyses on the full sample confirmed the association of General Activity, Emotional Stability, and Conscientiousness with lower risk of death, such that every one SD increase was related to about 13%, 15%, and 27% risk reduction, respectively. The association of personality traits with longevity was largely independent from the influence of smoking and obesity. Personality predictors of longevity did not differ by sex, except for Ascendance (a facet of Extraversion). Emotional Stability was a significant predictor when the analyses were limited to deaths due to cardiovascular disease, with comparable effect sizes for General Activity and Conscientiousness. Conclusions In a large sample of generally healthy individuals followed for almost five decades, longevity was associated with being conscientious, emotionally stable, and active. PMID:18596250

  15. Predictors of Better Self-Care in Patients with Heart Failure after Six Months of Follow-Up Home Visits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trojahn, Melina Maria; Ruschel, Karen Brasil; Nogueira de Souza, Emiliane; Mussi, Cláudia Motta; Naomi Hirakata, Vânia; Nogueira Mello Lopes, Alexandra; Rabelo-Silva, Eneida Rejane

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the predictors of better self-care behavior in patients with heart failure (HF) in a home visiting program. This is a longitudinal study nested in a randomized controlled trial (ISRCTN01213862) in which the home-based educational intervention consisted of a six-month followup that included four home visits by a nurse, interspersed with four telephone calls. The self-care score was measured at baseline and at six months using the Brazilian version of the European Heart Failure Self-Care Behaviour Scale. The associations included eight variables: age, sex, schooling, having received the intervention, social support, income, comorbidities, and symptom severity. A simple linear regression model was developed using significant variables (P ≤ 0.20), followed by a multivariate model to determine the predictors of better self-care. One hundred eighty-eight patients completed the study. A better self-care behavior was associated with patients who received intervention (P < 0.001), had more years of schooling (P = 0.016), and had more comorbidities (P = 0.008). Having received the intervention (P < 0.001) and having a greater number of comorbidities (P = 0.038) were predictors of better self-care. In the multivariate regression model, being in the intervention group and having more comorbidities were a predictor of better self-care. PMID:24083023

  16. Predictors of physical activity in persons with mental illness: Testing a social cognitive model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zechner, Michelle R; Gill, Kenneth J

    2016-12-01

    This study examined whether the social cognitive theory (SCT) model can be used to explain the variance in physical exercise among persons with serious mental illnesses. A cross-sectional, correlational design was employed. Participants from community mental health centers and supported housing programs (N = 120) completed 9 measures on exercise, social support, self-efficacy, outcome expectations, barriers, and goal-setting. Hierarchical regression tested the relationship between self-report physical activity and SCT determinants while controlling for personal characteristics. The model explained 25% of the variance in exercise. Personal characteristics explained 18% of the variance in physical activity, SCT variables of social support, self-efficacy, outcome expectations, barriers, and goals were entered simultaneously, and they added an r2 change value of .07. Gender (β = -.316, p = .001) and Brief Symptom Inventory Depression subscale (β = -2.08, p exercise. In a separate stepwise multiple regression, we entered only SCT variables as potential predictors of exercise. Goal-setting was the single significant predictor, F(1, 118) = 13.59, p exercise in persons with mental illnesses. Goal-setting practices, self-efficacy, outcome expectations and social support from friends for exercise should be encouraged by psychiatric rehabilitation practitioners. People with more depressive symptoms and women exercise less. More work is needed on theoretical exploration of predictors of exercise. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Predictors of Swimming Ability among Children and Adolescents in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Pharr

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Swimming is an important source of physical activity and a life skill to prevent drowning. However, little research has been conducted to understand predictors of swimming ability. The purpose of this study was to understand factors that predict swimming ability among children and adolescents in the United States (US. This was a cross-sectional survey conducted between February and April of 2017 across five geographically diverse cities. Participants were accessed through the Young Christian Men’s Association (YMCA and included parents of children aged 4–11 years old and adolescents aged 12–17 years old. Independent t-test, analysis of variance (ANOVA, and univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted. Several factors were significant (p ≤ 0.05 predictors of swimming ability and explained 53% of the variance in swimming ability. Variables that were positively associated with swimming ability included: ability of parent(s to swim, child/adolescent age, a best friend who enjoys swimming, water-safety knowledge, pool open all year, and encouragement to swim from parent(s. Variables that were negatively associated with swimming ability included: fear of drowning, being African American, and being female. Interventions and programs to improve the swimming ability of children and adolescents could be developed with these predictors in mind.

  18. Vigorous physical activity predicts higher heart rate variability among younger adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Richard; McBerty, Victoria; Zaky, Adam; Gianotti, Melino

    2017-06-14

    Baseline heart rate variability (HRV) is linked to prospective cardiovascular health. We tested intensity and duration of weekly physical activity as predictors of heart rate variability in young adults. Time and frequency domain indices of HRV were calculated based on 5-min resting electrocardiograms collected from 82 undergraduate students. Hours per week of both moderate and vigorous activity were estimated using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. In regression analyses, hours of vigorous physical activity, but not moderate activity, significantly predicted greater time domain and frequency domain indices of heart rate variability. Adjusted for weekly frequency, greater daily duration of vigorous activity failed to predict HRV indices. Future studies should test direct measurements of vigorous activity patterns as predictors of autonomic function in young adulthood.

  19. The co registration of initial PET on the CT-radiotherapy reduces significantly the variabilities of anatomo-clinical target volume in the child hodgkin disease; La coregistration de la TEP initiale sur la scanographie de radiotherapie diminue significativement les variabilites de volume cible anatomoclinique dans la maladie de Hodgkin de l'enfant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metwally, H.; Blouet, A.; David, I.; Rives, M.; Izar, F.; Courbon, F.; Filleron, T.; Laprie, A. [Institut Claudius-Regaud, 31 - Toulouse (France); Plat, G.; Vial, J. [CHU-hopital des Enfants, 31 - Toulouse (France)

    2009-10-15

    It exists a great interobserver variability for the anatomo-clinical target volume (C.T.V.) definition in children suffering of Hodgkin disease. In this study, the co-registration of the PET with F.D.G. on the planning computed tomography has significantly lead to a greater coherence in the clinical target volume definition. (N.C.)

  20. Predictors of 30-day readmission after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Jacob K; Guniganti, Ridhima; Arias, Eric J; Desai, Kshitij; Washington, Chad W; Yan, Yan; Weng, Hua; Xiong, Chengjie; Fondahn, Emily; Cross, DeWitte T; Moran, Christopher J; Rich, Keith M; Chicoine, Michael R; Dhar, Rajat; Dacey, Ralph G; Derdeyn, Colin P; Zipfel, Gregory J

    2017-06-01

    OBJECTIVE Despite persisting questions regarding its appropriateness, 30-day readmission is an increasingly common quality metric used to influence hospital compensation in the United States. However, there is currently insufficient evidence to identify which patients are at highest risk for readmission after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The objective of this study was to identify predictors of 30-day readmission after SAH, to focus preventative efforts, and to provide guidance to funding agencies seeking to risk-adjust comparisons among hospitals. METHODS The authors performed a case-control study of 30-day readmission among aneurysmal SAH patients treated at a single center between 2003 and 2013. To control for geographic distance from the hospital and year of treatment, the authors randomly matched each case (30-day readmission) with approximately 2 SAH controls (no readmission) based on home ZIP code and treatment year. They evaluated variables related to patient demographics, socioeconomic characteristics, comorbidities, presentation severity (e.g., Hunt and Hess grade), and clinical course (e.g., need for gastrostomy or tracheostomy, length of stay). Conditional logistic regression was used to identify significant predictors, accounting for the matched design of the study. RESULTS Among 82 SAH patients with unplanned 30-day readmission, the authors matched 78 patients with 153 nonreadmitted controls. Age, demographics, and socioeconomic factors were not associated with readmission. In univariate analysis, multiple variables were significantly associated with readmission, including Hunt and Hess grade (OR 3.0 for Grade IV/V vs I/II), need for gastrostomy placement (OR 2.0), length of hospital stay (OR 1.03 per day), discharge disposition (OR 3.2 for skilled nursing vs other disposition), and Charlson Comorbidity Index (OR 2.3 for score ≥ 2 vs 0). However, the only significant predictor in the multivariate analysis was discharge to a skilled

  1. Predictors of agitation in critically ill adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burk, Ruth S; Grap, Mary Jo; Munro, Cindy L; Schubert, Christine M; Sessler, Curtis N

    2014-09-01

    Agitation in critically ill adults is a frequent complication of hospitalization and results in multiple adverse outcomes. Potential causes of agitation are numerous; however, data on factors predictive of agitation are limited. To identify predictors of agitation by examining demographic and clinical characteristics of critically ill patients. A medical record review was performed. Documentation of agitation was indicated by scores on the Richmond Agitation-Sedation Scale or the use of an agitation keyword. Records of 200 patients from 1 medical and 1 surgical intensive care unit were used for the study. Risk factors were determined for 2 points in time: admission to the intensive care unit and within 24 hours before the first episode of agitation. Data on baseline demographics, preadmission risk factors, and clinical data were collected and were evaluated by using logistic multivariable regression to determine predictors of agitation. Predictors of agitation on admission to intensive care were history of use of illicit substances, height, respiratory and central nervous system subscores on the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment, and use of restraints. Predictors of agitation within 24 hours before the onset of agitation were history of psychiatric diagnosis, height, score on the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment, ratio of Pao2 to fraction of inspired oxygen less than 200, serum pH, percentage of hours with restraints, percentage of hours of mechanical ventilation, pain, and presence of genitourinary catheters. Predictors of agitation on admission and within 24 hours before the onset of agitation were primarily clinical variables. ©2014 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.

  2. Psychosocial predictors of affect in adult patients undergoing orthodontic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñacoba, Cecilia; González, M José; Santos, Noelia; Romero, Martín

    2014-02-01

    In this paper we propose to study the role of psychosocial variables in affect in adult patients undergoing orthodontic treatment, considering that affect is a key variable in treatment adherence. Seventy-four patients (average age 33,24 ± 10,56) with metal multibracket-fixed orthodontic treatment were included. Patients were assessed twice. The first stage, at the beginning of treatment, included assessment of dental impact (Psychosocial Impact of Dental Aesthetics Questionnaire), trait anxiety (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory), self-esteem (Rosenberg's self-esteem scale), and self-efficacy (General Self-efficacy Scale). In the second stage, 6 months later, positive and negative affect towards treatment was assessed using the Positive and Negative Affect Scale. Dental social impact differentiates between patients with high and low negative affect, while self-efficacy differentiates between patients with high and low positive affect. Trait anxiety and self-esteem differentiate between both types of affect (positive and negative). Trait anxiety and self-esteem (when trait anxiety weight is controlled) are significant predictor variables of affective balance. These results have important practical implications, because it seems essential to adopt a bio-psychosocial model incorporating assessment methods focusing on day-to-day changes in mood and well-being.

  3. Demographic, Medical, and Psychosocial Predictors of Pregnancy Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunkel Schetter, Christine; Niles, Andrea N; Guardino, Christine M; Khaled, Mona; Kramer, Michael S

    2016-09-01

    Pregnancy anxiety is associated with risk of preterm birth and an array of other birth, infant, and childhood outcomes. However, previous research has not helped identify those pregnant women at greatest risk of experiencing this specific, contextually-based affective condition. We examined associations between demographic, medical, and psychosocial factors and pregnancy anxiety at 24-26 weeks of gestation in a prospective, multicentre cohort study of 5271 pregnant women in Montreal, Canada. Multivariate analyses indicated that higher pregnancy anxiety was independently related to having an unintended pregnancy, first birth, higher medical risk, and higher perceived risk of complications. Among psychosocial variables, higher pregnancy anxiety was associated with lower perceived control of pregnancy, lower commitment to the pregnancy, more stressful life events, higher perceived stress, presence of job stress, lower self-esteem and more social support. Pregnancy anxiety was also higher in women who had experienced early income adversity and those who did not speak French as their primary language. Psychosocial variables explained a significant amount of the variance in pregnancy anxiety independently of demographic and medical variables. Women with pregnancy-related risk factors, stress of various kinds, and other psychosocial factors experienced higher pregnancy anxiety in this large Canadian sample. Some of the unique predictors of pregnancy anxiety match those of earlier US studies, while others point in new directions. Screening for high pregnancy anxiety may be warranted, particularly among women giving birth for the first time and those with high-risk pregnancies. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Cultural and Personality Predictors of Facebook Intrusion: A Cross-Cultural Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Błachnio, Agata; Przepiorka, Aneta; Benvenuti, Martina; Cannata, Davide; Ciobanu, Adela M.; Senol-Durak, Emre; Durak, Mithat; Giannakos, Michail N.; Mazzoni, Elvis; Pappas, Ilias O.; Popa, Camelia; Seidman, Gwendolyn; Yu, Shu; Wu, Anise M. S.; Ben-Ezra, Menachem

    2016-01-01

    The increase in the number of users of social networking sites (SNS) has inspired intense efforts to determine intercultural differences between them. The main aim of the study was to investigate the cultural and personal predictors of Facebook intrusion. A total of 2628 Facebook users from eight countries took part in the study. The Facebook Intrusion Questionnaire, the Ten-Item Personality Inventory, and the Singelis Scale were used. We found that two variables related to Country were significantly related to Facebook intrusion: uniqueness (negatively) and low context (positively); of the personality variables, conscientiousness, and emotional stability were negatively related to the dependent variable of Facebook intrusion across different countries, which may indicate the universal pattern of Facebook intrusion. The results of the study will contribute to the international debate on the phenomenon of SNS. PMID:27994566

  5. Cultural and Personality Predictors of Facebook Intrusion: A Cross-Cultural Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Błachnio, Agata; Przepiorka, Aneta; Benvenuti, Martina; Cannata, Davide; Ciobanu, Adela M; Senol-Durak, Emre; Durak, Mithat; Giannakos, Michail N; Mazzoni, Elvis; Pappas, Ilias O; Popa, Camelia; Seidman, Gwendolyn; Yu, Shu; Wu, Anise M S; Ben-Ezra, Menachem

    2016-01-01

    The increase in the number of users of social networking sites (SNS) has inspired intense efforts to determine intercultural differences between them. The main aim of the study was to investigate the cultural and personal predictors of Facebook intrusion. A total of 2628 Facebook users from eight countries took part in the study. The Facebook Intrusion Questionnaire, the Ten-Item Personality Inventory, and the Singelis Scale were used. We found that two variables related to Country were significantly related to Facebook intrusion: uniqueness (negatively) and low context (positively); of the personality variables, conscientiousness, and emotional stability were negatively related to the dependent variable of Facebook intrusion across different countries, which may indicate the universal pattern of Facebook intrusion. The results of the study will contribute to the international debate on the phenomenon of SNS.

  6. Cultural and Personality Predictors of Facebook Intrusion: A Cross-Cultural Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Błachnio

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The increase in the number of users of social networking sites has inspired intense efforts to determine intercultural differences between them. The main aim of the study was to investigate the cultural and personal predictors of Facebook intrusion. A total of 2,628 Facebook users from eight countries took part in the study. The Facebook Intrusion Questionnaire, the Ten-Item Personality Measure, and the Singelis Scale were used. We found that two variables related to Country were significantly related to Facebook intrusion: uniqueness (negatively and low context (positively; of the personality variables, conscientiousness and emotional stability were negatively related to the dependent variable of Facebook intrusion across different countries, which may indicate the universal pattern of Facebook intrusion. The results of the study will contribute to the international debate on the phenomenon of social networking sites (SNS.

  7. Variability Bugs:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melo, Jean

    . Although many researchers suggest that preprocessor-based variability amplifies maintenance problems, there is little to no hard evidence on how actually variability affects programs and programmers. Specifically, how does variability affect programmers during maintenance tasks (bug finding in particular......)? How much harder is it to debug a program as variability increases? How do developers debug programs with variability? In what ways does variability affect bugs? In this Ph.D. thesis, I set off to address such issues through different perspectives using empirical research (based on controlled...... experiments) in order to understand quantitatively and qualitatively the impact of variability on programmers at bug finding and on buggy programs. From the program (and bug) perspective, the results show that variability is ubiquitous. There appears to be no specific nature of variability bugs that could...

  8. Heteroscedasticity generated by errors in predictors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Downing, D.J.; Fedorov, V.V.; Nanstad, R.K.

    1995-11-01

    The heteroscedasticity or changing variance observed ``raw`` data may be the result of randomness or uncertainty in the predictor variables. As an example we consider ``Charpy Test`` experiments widely used to characterize the ductile-brittle toughness of steels such as those used for nuclear pressure vessels. While this type of experiment is of interest in itself, our main objective is to show that the use of a proper statistical technique may help to avoid the use of more complicated physical models to explain the heteroscedasticity of the observations. We also extend the existing method of regression analysis with errors in controllable variables to the case when the variances of the response and the controllable variables are both unknown.

  9. Early Predictors of Ten-Year Course in First-Episode Psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Svein; Melle, Ingrid; Johannessen, Jan Olav

    2016-01-01

    , five, and ten years (N=186 at ten years). Time in psychosis was defined as time with scores ≥4 on any of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale items P1, P3, P5, P6, and G9. Evaluations were retrospective, based on clinical interviews and all available clinical information. During the first two years......, patients were also evaluated by their clinicians at least biweekly. Baseline and early-course predictors of long-term course were identified with linear mixed-model analyses. RESULTS: Four variables provided significant, additive predictions of longer time in psychosis during the ten-year follow...

  10. Predictors of meaningful improvement in quality of life after temporal lobe epilepsy surgery: A prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauli, Carla; Schwarzbold, Marcelo Liborio; Diaz, Alexandre Paim; de Oliveira Thais, Maria Emilia Rodrigues; Kondageski, Charles; Linhares, Marcelo Neves; Guarnieri, Ricardo; de Lemos Zingano, Bianca; Ben, Juliana; Nunes, Jean Costa; Markowitsch, Hans Joachim; Wolf, Peter; Wiebe, Samuel; Lin, Katia; Walz, Roger

    2017-05-01

    To investigate prospectively the independent predictors of a minimum clinically important change (MCIC) in quality of life (QOL) after anterior temporal lobectomy (ATL) for drug-resistant mesial temporal lobe epilepsy related to hippocampal sclerosis (MTLE-HS) in Brazilian patients. Multiple binary logistic regression analysis was performed to identify the clinical, demographic, radiologic, and electrophysiologic variables independently associated with MCIC in the Quality of Life in Epilepsy-31 Inventory (QOLIE-31) overall score 1 year after ATL in 77 consecutive patients with unilateral MTLE-HS. The overall QOLIE-31 score and all its subscale scores increased significantly (p Epilepsy.

  11. Neighborhood Social Predictors of Weight-related Measures in Underserved African Americans in the PATH Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Tyler C; Wilson, Dawn K; Coulon, Sandra M; Hand, Gregory A; Siceloff, E Rebekah

    2015-11-05

    African Americans have the highest rate of obesity in the United States relative to other ethnic minority groups. Bioecological factors including neighborhood social and physical environmental variables may be important predictors of weight-related measures specifically body mass index (BMI) in African American adults. Baseline data from the Positive Action for Today's Health (PATH) trial were collected from 417 African American adults. Overall a multiple regression model for BMI was significant, showing positive associations with average daily moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) (B =-.21, Psocial interaction (B =-.13, Psocial interaction was associated with healthier BMI, highlighting it as a potential critical factor for future interventions in underserved, African American communities.

  12. Base Deficit as an Indicator of Significant Blunt Abdominal Trauma

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    multiruka1

    important cause of morbidity and mortality among trauma patients. ... the use of BD as an indicator of significant BAT. Methods: ... Key words: Base deficit, Blunt abdominal trauma,. Predictor. ..... Delineate Risk for Torso Injury in Stable Patients.

  13. Predictors of nurses' experience of verbal abuse by nurse colleagues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Ronald; Krainovich-Miller, Barbara; Budin, Wendy; Djukic, Maja

    Between 45% and 94% of registered nurses (RNs) experience verbal abuse, which is associated with physical and psychological harm. Although several studies examined predictors of RNs' verbal abuse, none examined predictors of RNs' experiences of verbal abuse by RN colleagues. To examine individual, workplace, dispositional, contextual, and interpersonal predictors of RNs' reported experiences of verbal abuse from RN colleagues. In this secondary analysis, a cross-sectional design with multiple linear regression analysis was used to examine the effect of 23 predictors on verbal abuse by RN colleagues in a sample of 1,208 early career RNs. Selected variables in the empirical intragroup conflict model explained 23.8% of variance in RNs' experiences of verbal abuse by RN colleagues. A number of previously unstudied factors were identified that organizational leaders can monitor and develop or modify policies to prevent early career RNs' experiences of verbal abuse by RN colleagues. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Predictors of job satisfaction and absenteeism in two samples of Hong Kong nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siu, Oi-Ling

    2002-10-01

    Stress-related outcomes of job satisfaction and absenteeism among nurses should receive more attention in Hong Kong because absenteeism is costly. Many nurses' complaints are due to organizational change in privatization since the establishment of the Hong Kong Hospital Authority in 1991. Organizational climate is found to be an antecedent of job dissatisfaction and absenteeism in many studies in western societies. To investigate the role of organizational climate and psychological distress on job satisfaction; and the role of climate, distress and job satisfaction on absenteeism in Hong Kong nurses, while controlling for demographic variables. A self-administered questionnaire survey method was used to collect data from two samples of nurses within a 8-month period. They are, respectively, 144 (74 general nurses, 70 psychiatric nurses; 47 males, 97 females) and 114 (85 general nurses, 29 psychiatric nurses; 17 males, 97 females) nurses. Multiple regression analyses revealed that occupational type (psychiatric/general), environment (the physical conditions in the work area) and psychological distress were significant predictors of job satisfaction for sample 1; and well-being (social relations, welfare and health issues) was the only significant predictor of job satisfaction for sample 2. However, age, involvement (the degree of commitment displayed towards employees by the organization), psychological distress and job satisfaction were significant predictors of absenteeism for sample 1; and occupational type, organization (the interaction between the worker and the organization), and involvement were significant predictors of absenteeism for sample 2. The empirical findings provide support for the climate-job satisfaction and climate-absenteeism relationships. Psychological distress could be an antecedent of job satisfaction; and job satisfaction could be an antecedent of absenteeism. Certain climate dimensions should be improved to enhance job satisfaction and

  15. Predictors of major postoperative cardiac complications in a surgical ICU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Paula C; Abelha, Fernando J

    2008-03-01

    Cardiovascular complications are associated with increased mortality and morbidity during the postoperative period, resulting in longer hospital stay and higher treatment costs. The aim of this study was to identify predictors of major postoperative cardiac complications. 187 patients undergoing noncardiac surgery, admitted to a surgical intensive care unit (ICU) between November 2004 and April 2005. Variables recorded were age, gender, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status, type and magnitude of surgery, mortality, ICU and hospital length of stay (LOS), Simplified Acute Physiology Score II (SAPS II), cardiac troponin I (cTnI) at postoperative day 0, 1, 2 and 3, history of hypertension, hyperlipidemia, Revised Cardiac Risk Index (RCRI) score, major cardiac events (MCE): acute myocardial infarction (AMI), pulmonary edema (PE), ventricular fibrillation (VF) or primary cardiac arrest (PCA). Correlations between variables and MCE were made by univariate analysis by simple logistic regression with odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI). Total of 14 MCE: 9 AMI, 1 VF, 4 PE. Significant risk factors for MCE were high-risk surgery (OR 8.26, 95% CI 1.76-38.85, p = 0.008), RCRI > or = 2 (OR 4.0, 95% CI 1.22-13.16, p = 0.022), admission cTnI (OR 1.46, 95% CI 1.07-1.99, p = 0.018); day 1 cTnI (OR 1.75, 95% CI 1.27-2.41, p = 0.001); day 2 cTnI (OR 2.23, 95% CI 1.24-3.98, p = 0.007), SAPS II (OR 1.08, 95% CI 1.04-1.12, p or = 2, cTnI levels and SAPS II were predictors of postoperative MCE. Patients with MCE had longer ICU stay and higher mortality rate.

  16. Study on predictors of health outcome in patients attending hypertension intervention programme in Malaysia.

    OpenAIRE

    Wahab, Rasidah Abd.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore predictor of health outcomes among Malaysian hypertensive patients attending a standard hypertension intervention programme. Among the psychological predictors studied are illness perception, health locus of control, and self-efficacy. Quality of life, anxiety and depression and demographic variables are among the predictors included in the study. Two series of studies were conducted to answer the research question formulated for each study. Study 1 aims to...

  17. Can You Hack It? Validating Predictors for IT Boot Camps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gear, Courtney C.

    Given the large number of information technology jobs open and lack of qualified individuals to fill them, coding boot camps have sprung up in response to this skill gap by offering a specialized training program in an accelerated format. This fast growth has created a need to measure these training programs and understand their effectiveness. In the present study, a series of analyses examined whether specific or combinations of predictors were valid for training performance in this coding academy. Self-rated, daily efficacy scores were used as outcome variables of training success and correlation results showed a positive relationship with efficacy scores and the logic test score as a predictor. Exploratory analyses indicated a Dunning-Kruger effect where students with lower education levels experience higher overall mood during the training program. Limitations of the study included small sample size, severe range restriction in predictor scores, lack of variance in predictor scores, and low variability in training program success. These limitations made identifying jumps between training stages difficult to identify. By identifying which predictors matter most for each stage of skill acquisition, further research should consider more objective variables such as instructor scores which can serve as a guideline to better asses what stage learners join at and how to design curriculum and assignments accordingly (Honken, 2013).

  18. Primary caregivers of schizophrenia outpatients: burden and predictor variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandón, Pamela; Jenaro, Cristina; Lemos, Serafín

    2008-04-15

    This article explores family burden in relation to relatives' coping strategies and social networks, as well as in relation to the patients' severity of positive and negative symptoms. Data on the severity of symptoms (Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale for Schizophrenia [PANSS]), social functioning (Social Functioning Scale [SFS]), caregivers burden (Interview on Objective and Subjective Family Burden or Entrevista de Carga Familiar Objetiva y Subjetiva [ECFOS]), coping skills (Family Coping Questionnaire [FCQ]), and social support (Social Network Questionnaire [SNQ]) were gathered from a randomized sample of 101 Chilean outpatients and their primary caregivers, mostly mothers. Low levels of burden were typically found, with the exception of moderate levels on general concerns for the ill relative. A hierarchical regression analysis with four blocks showed that clinical characteristics, such as higher frequency of relapses, more positive symptoms and lower independence-performance, together with lower self-control attributed to the patient, decrease in social interests, and less affective support, predict burden. The results support the relevance of psychoeducational interventions where families' needs are addressed.

  19. Ketogenic diet: Predictors of seizure control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Nitin; Arkilo, Dimitrios; Farooq, Osman; Gillogly, Cynthia; Kavak, Katelyn S; Weinstock, Arie

    2017-01-01

    The ketogenic diet is an effective non-pharmacologic treatment for medically resistant epilepsy. The aim of this study was to identify any predictors that may influence the response of ketogenic diet. A retrospective chart review for all patients with medically resistant epilepsy was performed at a tertiary care epilepsy center from 1996 to 2012. Patient- and diet-related variables were evaluated with respect to seizure reduction at 1, 3, 6, 9 and 12-month intervals and divided into four possible outcome classes. Sixty-three patients met inclusion. Thirty-seven (59%) reported >50% seizure reduction at 3 months with 44% and 37% patients benefiting at 6-month and 12-month follow up, respectively. A trend toward significant seizure improvement was noted in 48% patients with seizure onset >1 year at 12-month (p = 0.09) interval and in 62% patients with >10 seizure/day at 6-month interval (p = 0.054). An ordinal logistic regression showed later age of seizure to have higher odds of favorable response at 1-month (p = 0.005) and 3-month (p = 0.013) follow up. Patients with non-fasting diet induction were more likely to have a favorable outcome at 6 months (p = 0.008) as do females (p = 0.037) and those treated with higher fat ratio diet (p = 0.034). Our study reports the effectiveness of ketogenic diet in children with medically resistant epilepsy. Later age of seizure onset, female gender, higher ketogenic diet ratio and non-fasting induction were associated with better odds of improved seizure outcome. A larger cohort is required to confirm these findings.

  20. El estrato socioeconómico como factor predictor del uso constante de condón en adolescentes Socioeconomic strata as a predictor factor for consistent condom use among adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramiro Caballero Hoyos

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: El estrato socioeconómico juega un rol importante en las desigualdades en salud. En México, la prevalencia más alta de casos de SIDA se encuentra en población de estratos más bajos. El propósito de lo estudio fue describir el estrato socioeconómico (ajustado por variables psicosociales, situacionales y demográficas como un factor predictor del uso consistente del condón, en adolescentes. MÉTODOS: Se incluyó en el estudio una muestra de una encuesta previa aplicada a 1.410 adolescentes de 15 a 19 años y estratificada por edad, género y estrato socioeconómico de Guadalajara, México. El análisis fue aplicado sobre los 251 adolescentes que reportaron actividad sexual. El análisis estadístico se realizó mediante Ji Cuadrada, t-test, ANOVA y regresión logística. RESULTADOS: La frecuencia de uso consistente de condón fue 30,7% y hubo una prevalencia de uso irregular. El estrato socioeconómico alto fue el principal predictor (OR= 11,1, CI95%= 2,6-47,6. Otros predictores significativos fueron el género masculino, el soporte de los pares y el nivel alto de conocimientos sobre VIH/SIDA. CONCLUSIÓN: El estrato socioeconómico es un importante factor predictor del uso consistente del condón.INTRODUCTION: Socioeconomic level plays an important role in health inequalities. In Mexico, the highest prevalence of AIDS cases is among individuals of lower socioeconomic level. The purpose of the study was to describe the socioeconomic level (adjusted for psychosocial, situational and demographic variables as a predictor factor for the consistent condom use among adolescents of Guadalajara, Mexico. METHODS: A sample of 1,410 adolescents, aged 15 to 19 years, drawn from a previous survey stratified by age, gender and socioeconomic strata was included in the study. Analysis was performed in 251 adolescents who reported sexual activity. Statistical analysis was performed using Chi-square, t-test, ANOVA, and logistic regression. RESULTS

  1. Predictors of Hospitalization among Children on ART in Ethiopia: a Cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haileamlak, Abraham; Hagos, Tesfalem; Abebe, Workeabeba; Abraham, Loko; Asefa, Henok; Teklu, Alula M

    2017-02-01

    Substantial progress has been made in the management of pediatric HIV infection in Ethiopia with the implementation of mother-to-child-prevention programs. Since the introduction of HAART in 2005, mortality among HIV-infected children has reduced while the rate of hospitalization was expected to rise. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to assess predictors of hospitalization in children on ART in seven university referral hospitals in Ethiopia. A prospective cohort study design was employed on children age 0-18 years as part of a multisite observational study. ART-experienced eligible and ART-naïve children with HIV/AIDS were enrolled into the Advanced Clinical Monitoring (ACM) till December 31, 2012 were included. From the database, information on hospitalization and other independent variables were extracted. Analysis was done using both SPSS for Windows version 16.0 and STATA. Descriptive analyses and modeling was done using logistic regression. Of the 405 children on ART (174 experienced, 231 naive), 86 (20.7%) were hospitalized for various reasons; two children were excluded since they were hospitalized for unrelated conditions (appendicitis and burn). Fifty one (60.7%) of the eighty four admitted children were hospitalized in the first six months of ART initiation. Of the independent variables, only the presence of opportunistic infections and duration on ART were significantly associated with hospitalization both on bi-variable and multivariable analyses (P-value ART increased by one month, the risk of hospitalization decreased by 5.4%, which is statistically significant (P hospitalized increased by 35.2% (P = 0.002). Of the individual opportunistic infections, pneumonia was found to be the only predictor of hospitalization (P-value = 0.002). This study showed that nearly two-third of the hospitalization was within 6 months of initiation of ART; and presence of OI and duration on ART were the only predictors of hospitalization.

  2. Predictors of public support for nutrition-focused policy, systems and environmental change strategies in Los Angeles County, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles, Brenda; Kuo, Tony

    2017-01-13

    Since 2010, federal and local agencies have invested broadly in a variety of nutrition-focused policy, systems and environmental change (PSE) initiatives in Los Angeles County (LAC). To date, little is known about whether the public supports such efforts. We address this gap in the literature by examining predictors of support for a variety of PSEs. Voters residing in LAC (n=1007) were randomly selected to participate in a cross-sectional telephone survey commissioned by the LAC Department of Public Health. The survey asked questions about attitudes towards the obesity epidemic, nutrition knowledge and behaviours, public opinions about changing business practices/government policies related to nutrition, and sociodemographics. A factor analysis informed outcome variable selection (ie, type of PSEs). Multivariable regression analyses were performed to examine predictors of public support. Predictors in the regression models included (primary regressor) community economic hardship; (control variables) political affiliation, sex, age, race and income; and (independent variables) perceptions about obesity, perceived health and weight status, frequency reading nutrition labels, ease of finding healthy and unhealthy foods, and food consumption behaviours (ie, fruit and vegetables, non-diet soda, fast-food and sit-down restaurant meals). 3 types of PSE outcome variables were identified: promotional/incentivising, limiting/restrictive and business practices. Community economic hardship was not found to be a significant predictor of public support for any of the 3 PSE types. However, Republican party affiliation, being female and perceiving obesity as a serious health problem were. These findings have implications for public health practice and community planning in local health jurisdictions. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  3. [Cost analysis of radiotherapy provided in inpatient setting -  testing potential predictors for a new prospective payment system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedo, J; Bláha, M; Pavlík, T; Klika, P; Dušek, L; Büchler, T; Abrahámová, J; Srámek, V; Slampa, P; Komínek, L; Pospíšil, P; Sláma, O; Vyzula, R

    2014-01-01

    As a part of the development of a new prospective payment model for radiotherapy we analyzed data on costs of care provided by three comprehensive cancer centers in the Czech Republic. Our aim was to find a combination of variables (predictors) which could be used to sort hospitalization cases into groups according to their costs, with each group having the same reimbursement rate. We tested four variables as possible predictors -  number of fractions, stage of disease, radiotherapy technique and diagnostic group. We analyzed 7,440 hospitalization cases treated in three comprehensive cancer centers from 2007 to 2011. We acquired data from the I COP database developed by Institute of Biostatistics and Analyses of Masaryk University in cooperation with oncology centers that contains records from the National Oncological Registry along with data supplied by healthcare providers to insurance companies for the purpose of retrospective reimbursement. When comparing the four variables mentioned above we found that number of fractions and radiotherapy technique were much stronger predictors than the other two variables. Stage of disease did not prove to be a relevant indicator of cost distinction. There were significant differences in costs among diagnostic groups but these were mostly driven by the technique of radiotherapy and the number of fractions. Within the diagnostic groups, the distribution of costs was too heterogeneous for the purpose of the new payment model. The combination of number of fractions and radiotherapy technique appears to be the most appropriate cost predictors to be involved in the prospective payment model proposal. Further analysis is planned to test the predictive value of intention of radiotherapy in order to determine differences in costs between palliative and curative treatment.

  4. Is parenting style a predictor of suicide attempts in a representative sample of adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donath, Carolin; Graessel, Elmar; Baier, Dirk; Bleich, Stefan; Hillemacher, Thomas

    2014-04-26

    Suicidal ideation and suicide attempts are serious but not rare conditions in adolescents. However, there are several research and practical suicide-prevention initiatives that discuss the possibility of preventing serious self-harm. Profound knowledge about risk and protective factors is therefore necessary. The aim of this study is a) to clarify the role of parenting behavior and parenting styles in adolescents' suicide attempts and b) to identify other statistically significant and clinically relevant risk and protective factors for suicide attempts in a representative sample of German adolescents. In the years 2007/2008, a representative written survey of N = 44,610 students in the 9th grade of different school types in Germany was conducted. In this survey, the lifetime prevalence of suicide attempts was investigated as well as potential predictors including parenting behavior. A three-step statistical analysis was carried out: I) As basic model, the association between parenting and suicide attempts was explored via binary logistic regression controlled for age and sex. II) The predictive values of 13 additional potential risk/protective factors were analyzed with single binary logistic regression analyses for each predictor alone. Non-significant predictors were excluded in Step III. III) In a multivariate binary logistic regression analysis, all significant predictor variables from Step II and the parenting styles were included after testing for multicollinearity. Three parental variables showed a relevant association with suicide attempts in adolescents - (all protective): mother's warmth and father's warmth in childhood and mother's control in adolescence (Step I). In the full model (Step III), Authoritative parenting (protective: OR: .79) and Rejecting-Neglecting parenting (risk: OR: 1.63) were identified as significant predictors (p parental separation events. Parenting style does matter. While children of Authoritative parents profit, children of

  5. Development and validation of a prediction model for long-term sickness absence based on occupational health survey variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelen, Corné; Thorsen, Sannie; Heymans, Martijn; Twisk, Jos; Bültmann, Ute; Bjørner, Jakob

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop and validate a prediction model for identifying employees at increased risk of long-term sickness absence (LTSA), by using variables commonly measured in occupational health surveys. Based on the literature, 15 predictor variables were retrieved from the DAnish National working Environment Survey (DANES) and included in a model predicting incident LTSA (≥4 consecutive weeks) during 1-year follow-up in a sample of 4000 DANES participants. The 15-predictor model was reduced by backward stepwise statistical techniques and then validated in a sample of 2524 DANES participants, not included in the development sample. Identification of employees at increased LTSA risk was investigated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis; the area-under-the-ROC-curve (AUC) reflected discrimination between employees with and without LTSA during follow-up. The 15-predictor model was reduced to a 9-predictor model including age, gender, education, self-rated health, mental health, prior LTSA, work ability, emotional job demands, and recognition by the management. Discrimination by the 9-predictor model was significant (AUC = 0.68; 95% CI 0.61-0.76), but not practically useful. A prediction model based on occupational health survey variables identified employees with an increased LTSA risk, but should be further developed into a practically useful tool to predict the risk of LTSA in the general working population. Implications for rehabilitation Long-term sickness absence risk predictions would enable healthcare providers to refer high-risk employees to rehabilitation programs aimed at preventing or reducing work disability. A prediction model based on health survey variables discriminates between employees at high and low risk of long-term sickness absence, but discrimination was not practically useful. Health survey variables provide insufficient information to determine long-term sickness absence risk profiles. There is a need for

  6. Differential Predictors of Pain and Disability in Patients with Whiplash Injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael JL Sullivan

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The psychological predictors of pain and disability were examined in a sample of people who sustained whiplash injuries during rear-end motor vehicle accidents. Sixty-five patients referred to a specialty pain clinic with a diagnosis of whiplash injury completed measures of depression, anxiety, catastrophizing, pain and perceived disability. Regression analysis revealed that psychological variables accounted for 18% of the variance in pain ratings. The magnification subscale of the Pain Catastrophizing Scale was the only variable that contributed significant, unique variance to the prediction of pain. Psychological variables accounted for 37% of the variance in perceived disability scores. In the latter analysis, however, none of the independent variables contributed significant, unique variance to the prediction of perceived disability. Psychological variables accounted for significant variance in disability ratings, even when controlling for pain intensity. Discussion focuses on the need to draw clearer distinctions between determinants of pain and disability, and directions for interventions aimed at minimizing disability following whiplash injury are suggested.

  7. Sex differences in predictors of violent and non-violent juvenile offending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Zoe; Woodhams, Jessica; Cooke, Claire

    2014-01-01

    In response to concerns regarding the rise in female juvenile violent crime and the dearth of gender-specific research, this study aimed to identify predictors of violent offending in female offenders. Data were extracted from risk assessments of 586 male and female juvenile offenders (aged 11-17 years) conducted between 2005 and 2009 by the Youth Offending Service in Gloucestershire, an English county. Information regarding the young people's living arrangements, family and personal relationships, education, emotional/mental health, thinking and behavior, and attitudes to offending was recorded. Comparisons were made between the violent male offenders (N = 185), the violent female offenders (N = 113), the non-violent male offenders (N = 150), and the non-violent female offenders (N = 138) for these variables. These were followed by a multinomial logistic regression analysis. The findings indicated that engaging in self-harm was the best predictor of being a female violent offender, with the predictors of giving into pressure from others and attempted suicide nearing significance. Furthermore, non-violent females were significantly less likely to lose control of their temper and more likely to give in to pressure from others than their violent counterparts. Non-violent males were significantly less likely to lose control of their temper and more likely to self-harm and give in to pressure from others than violent males. Although many similarities existed between sexes for predictors of violent offending, the findings of this study indicate that more attention needs to be paid to the mental health of female offenders. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Predictors of science success: The impact of motivation and learning strategies on college chemistry performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obrentz, Shari B.

    As the number of college students studying science continues to grow, it is important to identify variables that predict their success. The literature indicates that motivation and learning strategy use facilitate science success. Research findings show these variables can change throughout a semester and differ by performance level, gender and ethnicity. However, significant predictors of performance vary by research study and by group. The current study looks beyond the traditional predictors of grade point averages, SAT scores and completion of advanced placement (AP) chemistry to consider a comprehensive set of variables not previously investigated within the same study. Research questions address the predictive ability of motivation constructs and learning strategies for success in introductory college chemistry, how these variables change throughout a semester, and how they differ by performance level, gender and ethnicity. Participants were 413 introductory college chemistry students at a highly selective university in the southeast. Participants completed the Chemistry Motivation Questionnaire (CMQ) and Learning Strategies section of the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ) three times during the semester. Self-efficacy, effort regulation, assessment anxiety and previous achievement were significant predictors of chemistry course success. Levels of motivation changed with significant decreases in self-efficacy and increases in personal relevance and assessment anxiety. Learning strategy use changed with significant increases in elaboration, critical thinking, metacognitive self-regulation skills and peer learning, and significant decreases in time and study management and effort regulation. High course performers reported the highest levels of motivation and learning strategy use. Females reported lower intrinsic motivation, personal relevance, self-efficacy and critical thinking, and higher assessment anxiety, rehearsal and organization

  9. Investigation of Remedial Education Course Scores as a Predictor of Introduction-Level Course Performances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulmer, Ward; Means, Darris R.; Cawthon, Tony W.; Kristensen, Sheryl A.

    2016-01-01

    This study explores whether performance in remedial English and remedial math is a predictor of success in a college-level introduction English or college-level math class; and whether demographic variables increase the likelihood of remedial English and remedial math as a predictor of success in a college-level introduction English or…

  10. Intellective and Non-Intellective Predictors of Academic Achievement at a Filipino University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, David; Astilla, Estela

    1980-01-01

    A follow-up study of 1,149 freshmen at a major Filipino university showed that intellective measures were only moderately successful predictors of college grade point average. However, the nonintellective variables considered were (with the possible exception of level of scholastic expectation) of little value as predictors of college performance.…

  11. Socio-cultural predictors of reading literacy in fourth graders in Lima, Peru

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morales Silva, S.L.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.; Leeuwe, J.F.J. van

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates socio-cultural cognitive literacy predictors for reading literacy (RL), tested in 314 fourth graders from two different levels of social economic status in Lima, Peru. The following variables were tested as predictors: word decoding, vocabulary, motivation to read, reading

  12. Adolescent Mothers and Depression: Predictors of Resilience and Risk through the Toddler Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshbaugh, Elaine M.

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated predictors of depression in 278 African-American, 206 European-American, and 122 Hispanic teen mothers approximately 36 months after the birth while controlling for depression 14 months after the birth. Predictor variables were age, ethnicity, mastery, knowledge of development, and parental distress. Younger teens were not…

  13. Predictor sort sampling and one-sided confidence bounds on quantiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steve Verrill; Victoria L. Herian; David W. Green

    2002-01-01

    Predictor sort experiments attempt to make use of the correlation between a predictor that can be measured prior to the start of an experiment and the response variable that we are investigating. Properly designed and analyzed, they can reduce necessary sample sizes, increase statistical power, and reduce the lengths of confidence intervals. However, if the non- random...

  14. The predictors of absenteeism due to psychological disability: a longitudinal study in the education sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrini, Alessia; Perron, Jacques; Corbière, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Being absent from work because of a psychological disability is costly for both individuals and organizations and frequent in employees working in the field of education. Absenteeism from work has been mostly studied as an organizational withdrawal behavior related to negative factors. The purpose of this longitudinal study is to define the predictors of absenteeism due to psychological disability by taking into account resources, such as Self-determined work motivation and Subjective well-being, as well as symptoms of Psychological distress. The sample consisted of 261 employees from a Canadian public school organization. Independent sample t-tests were conducted to compare the mean scores of participants who were not absent from work and participants who were absent due to psychological disability. Logistic regression analyses were computed for the dependent variable to assess the contribution of the three independent variables. Participants who were absent from work due to psychological disability in the year following the data collection scored significantly lower on resources, and higher on symptoms than those participants who were not absent. The three-predictor model was found to be significant. However, only Self-determined work motivation and Psychological distress significantly predicted absenteeism due to psychological disability. Results are discussed in terms of psychological processes regulating the relationships between the work-related factors (i.e., work motivation) and life-related factors (i.e., psychological distress and subjective well-being) of personal adjustment and accomplishment.

  15. Predictors of the number of under-five malnourished children in Bangladesh: application of the generalized poisson regression model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Mohammad Mafijul; Alam, Morshed; Tariquzaman, Md; Kabir, Mohammad Alamgir; Pervin, Rokhsona; Begum, Munni; Khan, Md Mobarak Hossain

    2013-01-08

    Malnutrition is one of the principal causes of child mortality in developing countries including Bangladesh. According to our knowledge, most of the available studies, that addressed the issue of malnutrition among under-five children, considered the categorical (dichotomous/polychotomous) outcome variables and applied logistic regression (binary/multinomial) to find their predictors. In this study malnutrition variable (i.e. outcome) is defined as the number of under-five malnourished children in a family, which is a non-negative count variable. The purposes of the study are (i) to demonstrate the applicability of the generalized Poisson regression (GPR) model as an alternative of other statistical methods and (ii) to find some predictors of this outcome variable. The data is extracted from the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS) 2007. Briefly, this survey employs a nationally representative sample which is based on a two-stage stratified sample of households. A total of 4,460 under-five children is analysed using various statistical techniques namely Chi-square test and GPR model. The GPR model (as compared to the standard Poisson regression and negative Binomial regression) is found to be justified to study the above-mentioned outcome variable because of its under-dispersion (variance variable namely mother's education, father's education, wealth index, sanitation status, source of drinking water, and total number of children ever born to a woman. Consistencies of our findings in light of many other studies suggest that the GPR model is an ideal alternative of other statistical models to analyse the number of under-five malnourished children in a family. Strategies based on significant predictors may improve the nutritional status of children in Bangladesh.

  16. Utilización de las variables comerciales propias de los concesionarios de automóviles como indicadores predictores de crisis económicas posteriores = Use of commercial variables of car de alers as predictive indicators of later economic crises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Óscar Gutiérrez Aragón

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo lleva a cabo un estudio profundo de la evolución de varios indicadores comerciales vinculados a la actividad propia de un concesionario de automóviles, así como las cifras de ventas de las siete principales marcas generalistas del sector (Renault, Citroën, Peugeot, Seat, Ford, Opel y Volkswagen en un mercado o territorio económicamente deprimido durante el periodo comprendido entre los años 2005 y 2008 en los ejercicios previos a la crisis económica y financiera, con el fin de poner de manifiesto la existencia de un deterioro de las cifras de estas variables anterior a la misma. En consecuencia, y como conclusión, la observación y el análisis de estos datos de un modo sistemático y reflexivo deberían ayudar en gran medida a poder adelantar o pronosticar la llegada de una crisis económica que afectará a más sectores económicos y a territorios geográficos más favorecidos. In the present research we study the evolution of several commercial indicators linked to the activity of a vehicle dealer and the sales figures of the seven major generalist brands in the industry (Renault, Citroen, Peugeot, Seat, Ford, Opel and Volkswagen in an economically depressed area during the period between 2005 and 2008, the previous exercises to the economic and financial crisis, in order to highlight the existence of a decline in these variables before crisis. Consequently, the observation and analysis of these data from a systematic and thoughtful point of view could help to a large extent to predict the coming of an economic crisis that will affect to other economic sectors and more favoured geographical areas.

  17. Are studies reporting significant results more likely to be published?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koletsi, Despina; Karagianni, Anthi; Pandis, Nikolaos; Makou, Margarita; Polychronopoulou, Argy; Eliades, Theodore

    2009-11-01

    Our objective was to assess the hypothesis that there are variations of the proportion of articles reporting a significant effect, with a higher percentage of those articles published in journals with impact factors. The contents of 5 orthodontic journals (American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, Angle Orthodontist, European Journal of Orthodontics, Journal of Orthodontics, and Orthodontics and Craniofacial Research), published between 2004 and 2008, were hand-searched. Articles with statistical analysis of data were included in the study and classified into 4 categories: behavior and psychology, biomaterials and biomechanics, diagnostic procedures and treatment, and craniofacial growth, morphology, and genetics. In total, 2622 articles were examined, with 1785 included in the analysis. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were applied with statistical significance as the dependent variable, and whether the journal had an impact factor, the subject, and the year were the independent predictors. A higher percentage of articles showed significant results relative to those without significant associations (on average, 88% vs 12%) for those journals. Overall, these journals published significantly more studies with significant results, ranging from 75% to 90% (P = 0.02). Multivariate modeling showed that journals with impact factors had a 100% increased probability of publishing a statistically significant result compared with journals with no impact factor (odds ratio [OR], 1.99; 95% CI, 1.19-3.31). Compared with articles on biomaterials and biomechanics, all other subject categories showed lower probabilities of significant results. Nonsignificant findings in behavior and psychology and diagnosis and treatment were 1.8 (OR, 1.75; 95% CI, 1.51-2.67) and 3.5 (OR, 3.50; 95% CI, 2.27-5.37) times more likely to be published, respectively. Journals seem to prefer reporting significant results; this might be because of authors

  18. Of Dutch courage and mobile chimneys: Pattern and predictors of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Previous studies in Nigeria have associated alcohol and tobacco use among students with certain socioeconomic and educational achievement variables, albeit its determinants among university students remain largely unknown. This study examined current patterns and predictors of alcohol and tobacco use with a model ...

  19. Predictors of Home Deliveries in Rakai District, Uganda | Nuwaha ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to identify independent predictors for home delivery, 211 women from 21 clusters, who had a delivery in the previous one year, were interviewed in Rakai District, Uganda, from June 2 to 30, 1997. Mothers answered questions regarding socio-economic, local, reproductive and self-efficacy variables and whether ...

  20. Predictors of Early Termination in a University Counseling Training Clinic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampropoulos, Georgios K.; Schneider, Mercedes K.; Spengler, Paul M.

    2009-01-01

    Despite the existence of counseling dropout research, there are limited predictive data for counseling in training clinics. Potential predictor variables were investigated in this archival study of 380 client files in a university counseling training clinic. Multinomial logistic regression, predictive discriminant analysis, and classification and…

  1. Predictors of Stress in Nigerian Executives | Adeoye | Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eight major predictor variables of workload, role, career prospects, organizational structure and climate, interpersonal relations, environment, home and private life were tested using simple regression analysis. Also, public and private sector executives were compared on the basis of age and working experience. All results ...

  2. Beyond Health and Wealth: Predictors of Women's Retirement Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Christine A.; Balaswamy, Shantha

    2009-01-01

    Despite empirical support for the positive effects of health and wealth on retirement satisfaction, alternative variables also play a key role in helping to shape women's assessment of retirement. In the present study, we explore personal and psychosocial predictors of women's retirement satisfaction while controlling for financial security and…

  3. Predictors of Immigrant Children's School Achievement: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Sung Seek; Kang, Suk-Young; An, Soonok

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the predictors and indicators of immigrant children's school achievement, using the two of the most predominant groups of American immigrants (103 Koreans and 100 Mexicans). Regression analyses were conducted to determine which independent variables (acculturation, parenting school involvement, parenting style, parent…

  4. Empirical Investigation of Predictors of Success in an MBA Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Atul; Turek, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The twofold purpose of this study was to determine if selected variables were predictors of: student performance in the MBA programme; and student performance on the MBA MFT exam. Design/methodology/approach: This study focuses on MBA graduates at a US university who have successfully completed the entire programme requirements. Real…

  5. Psychological predictors of outcome after gastric banding for morbid obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larsen, J.K.

    2004-01-01

    Obesity has become a major public health problem in Western societies. Although surgery is considered the treatment of choice in morbid obesity, the outcome is variable and weight regain may occur in the long-term postoperative period. The aim of this thesis was to examine psychological predictors

  6. Detection of major climatic and environmental predictors of liver fluke exposure risk in Ireland using spatial cluster analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selemetas, Nikolaos; de Waal, Theo

    2015-04-30

    Fasciolosis caused by Fasciola hepatica (liver fluke) can cause significant economic and production losses in dairy cow farms. The aim of the current study was to identify important weather and environmental predictors of the exposure risk to liver fluke by detecting clusters of fasciolosis in Ireland. During autumn 2012, bulk-tank milk samples from 4365 dairy farms were collected throughout Ireland. Using an in-house antibody-detection ELISA, the analysis of BTM samples showed that 83% (n=3602) of dairy farms had been exposed to liver fluke. The Getis-Ord Gi* statistic identified 74 high-risk and 130 low-risk significant (Pclimatic variables (monthly and seasonal mean rainfall and temperatures, total wet days and rain days) and environmental datasets (soil types, enhanced vegetation index and normalised difference vegetation index) were used to investigate dissimilarities in the exposure to liver fluke between clusters. Rainfall, total wet days and rain days, and soil type were the significant classes of climatic and environmental variables explaining the differences between significant clusters. A discriminant function analysis was used to predict the exposure risk to liver fluke using 80% of data for modelling and the remaining subset of 20% for post hoc model validation. The most significant predictors of the model risk function were total rainfall in August and September and total wet days. The risk model presented 100% sensitivity and 91% specificity and an accuracy of 95% correctly classified cases. A risk map of exposure to liver fluke was constructed with higher probability of exposure in western and north-western regions. The results of this study identified differences between clusters of fasciolosis in Ireland regarding climatic and environmental variables and detected significant predictors of the exposure risk to liver fluke. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Predictors of change in life skills in schizophrenia after cognitive remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, Matthew M; Seltzer, James C; Fujimoto, Marco; Shagan, Dana S; Wexler, Bruce E

    2009-02-01

    Few studies have investigated predictors of response to cognitive remediation interventions in patients with schizophrenia. Predictor studies to date have selected treatment outcome measures that were either part of the remediation intervention itself or closely linked to the intervention with few studies investigating factors that predict generalization to measures of everyday life-skills as an index of treatment-related improvement. In the current study we investigated the relationship between four measures of neurocognitive function, crystallized verbal ability, auditory sustained attention and working memory, verbal learning and memory, and problem-solving, two measures of symptoms, total positive and negative symptoms, and the process variables of treatment intensity and duration, to change on a performance-based measure of everyday life-skills after a year of computer-assisted cognitive remediation offered as part of intensive outpatient rehabilitation treatment. Thirty-six patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder were studied. Results of a linear regression model revealed that auditory attention and working memory predicted a significant amount of the variance in change in performance-based measures of everyday life skills after cognitive remediation, even when variance for all other neurocognitive variables in the model was controlled. Stepwise regression revealed that auditory attention and working memory predicted change in everyday life-skills across the trial even when baseline life-skill scores, symptoms and treatment process variables were controlled. These findings emphasize the importance of sustained auditory attention and working memory for benefiting from extended programs of cognitive remediation.

  8. Severe virus associated community acquired pneumonia: predictors of lethality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. O. Pertseva

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite the fact that the influenza virus pathogenicity factors have been well studied in vitro, in vivo lack is presented in understanding of the those risk factors, objective and laboratory parameters, which related most of all to the fatal virus-associated community-aquired pneumonia (CAP. That is why the purpose of the study was to study the clinical and laboratory characteristics of patients with severe virus-associated CAP during the 2015–2016 influenza epidemic and their role as predictors of patients’ mortality. To do this, patients with severe virus-associated CAP were examined. They were divided into 2 groups depending on the outcome of treatment: 1st- deaths from the virus-associated severe CAP and 2nd - patients with successful treatment of the severe virus-associated CAP. Special statistical method was used – one-dimensional analysis of variance to compare individual parameters between the two groups of patients (surviving and deceased. Pearson χ2 test (contingency table was used for categorical variables. Factors that were significant predictors of mortality as a result of univariate analysis were tested using multifactorial analysis using logistic regression. In the final model, each parameter must have had a significant impact on mortality. It was found that risk factors for death in patients with severe virus-associated CAP according to univariate analysis were: presence of obesity, disorders of consciousness, BH≥35 min, SaO2<80%, PaO2<50 mm Hg, mmHg PaCO2 ≥50 mmHg during hospitalization. Independent predictors of mortality according to the logistic regression are the presence of obesity, disorders of consciousness, PaO2<50 mm Hg, mmHg PaCO2 ≥50 mmHg. Given that among clinical and laboratory parameters key parameters that significantly influence the outcome, are indicators of the severity of hypoxia and hypoxemia, a major step in determining the severity of the patients with virus-associated severe emergency is

  9. Pulsating variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The study of stellar pulsations is a major route to the understanding of stellar structure and evolution. At the South African Astronomical Observatory (SAAO) the following stellar pulsation studies were undertaken: rapidly oscillating Ap stars; solar-like oscillations in stars; 8-Scuti type variability in a classical Am star; Beta Cephei variables; a pulsating white dwarf and its companion; RR Lyrae variables and galactic Cepheids. 4 figs

  10. Predictors of return to work with upper limb disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshe, S; Izhaki, R; Chodick, G; Segal, N; Yagev, Y; Finestone, A S; Juven, Y

    2015-10-01

    Return to work (RTW) is a key goal in the proper management of upper limb disorders (ULDs). ULDs stem from diverse medical aetiologies and numerous variables can affect RTW. The abundance of factors, their complex interactions and the diversity of human behaviour make it difficult to pinpoint those at risk of not returning to work (NRTW) and to intervene effectively. To weigh various clinical, functional and occupational parameters that influence RTW in ULD sufferers and to identify significant predictors. A retrospective analysis of workers with ULD referred to an occupational health clinic and further examined by an occupational therapist. Functional assessment included objective and subject ive [Disability of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) score] parameters. Quantification of work requirements was based on definitions from the Dictionary of Occupational Titles web site. RTW status was confirmed by a follow-up telephone questionnaire. Among the 52 subjects, the RTW rate was 42%. The DASH score for the RTW group was 27 compared with 56 in the NRTW group (P < 0.001). In multivariate analyses, only the DASH score was found to be a significant independent predictor of RTW (P < 0.05). Physicians and rehabilitation staff should regard a high DASH score as a warning sign when assessing RTW prospects in ULD cases. It may be advisable to focus on workers with a large discrepancy between high DASH scores and low objective disability and to concentrate efforts appropriately. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Predictors of trips to food destinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerr Jacqueline

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Food environment studies have focused on ethnic and income disparities in food access. Few studies have investigated distance travelled for food and did not aim to inform the geographic scales at which to study the relationship between food environments and obesity. Further, studies have not considered neighborhood design as a predictor of food purchasing behavior. Methods Atlanta residents (N = 4800 who completed a travel diary and reported purchasing or consuming food at one of five food locations were included in the analyses. A total of 11,995 food-related trips were reported. Using mixed modeling to adjust for clustering of trips by participants and households, person-level variables (e.g. demographics, neighborhood-level urban form measures, created in GIS, and trip characteristics (e.g. time of day, origin and destination were investigated as correlates of distance travelled for food and frequency of grocery store and fast food outlet trips. Results Mean travel distance for food ranged from 4.5 miles for coffee shops to 6.3 miles for superstores. Type of store, urban form, type of tour, day of the week and ethnicity were all significantly related to distance travelled for food. Origin and destination environment, type of tour, day of week, age, gender, income, ethnicity, vehicle access and obesity status were all significantly related to visiting a grocery store. Home neighborhood environment, day of week, type of tour, gender, income, education level, age, and obesity status were all significantly related to likelihood of visiting a fastfood outlet. Conclusions The present study demonstrated that people travel sizeable distances for food and this distance is related to urban. Results suggest that researchers need to employ different methods to characterize food environments than have been used to assess urban form in studies of physical activity. Food is most often purchased while traveling from locations other

  12. Prevalence and predictors of valvular heart disease in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivero, Florencia; Gonzalez-Echavarri, Cristina; Ruiz-Estevez, Beatriz; Maderuelo, Irene; Ruiz-Irastorza, Guillermo

    2016-12-01

    We aimed to study the frequency, severity and predictors of valvular heart disease (VHD) in our lupus cohort. 211 patients were included. A transthoracic echocardiogram was used for this study. Significant valvular lesions were classified into two groups: valvular thickening and valvular dysfunction. Univariate logistic regression was performed in order to find associations with valvular thickening and dysfunction. Those variables with a p value ≤0.1 in the univariate analysis were subsequently included in multiple logistic regression models. Significant valve lesions were found in 53 patients (25%). The independent predictors of valvular thickening were the age at the time of the echocardiogram (OR 1.05, 95% CI 1.02-1.7), lymphopenia (OR 3.6, 95%CI 1.4-9.5), thrombocytopenia (OR 2.65, 95%CI 1.24-5.72), and anti-Sm antibodies (OR 3.28, 95%CI 1.44-7.33). The independent predictors of valvular dysfunction were age at the time of the echocardiogram (OR 1.045, 95%CI 1.009-1.083), thrombocytopenia (OR 5, 95%CI 1.66-14.86), hypertension (OR 6.2, 95%CI 2.1-18.4) and aPL (OR 6.2, 95%CI 2.1-18.4). Regarding the latter, the independent relation with valvular dysfunction was only seen for the double positivity aCL/LA, (OR 13.2, 95%CI 3.8-45.2, p<0.0001). Our study confirms the high prevalence of significant VHD in SLE patients. Clinical variables related with persistent inflammatory activity were associated with VHD. The association between VHD and aPL positivity was confirmed. Double-positive aCL/LA patients were most likely to suffer from valvular dysfunction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Predictors of serious bacterial infections in pediatric burn patients with fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyles, David; Sinha, Madhumita; Rosenberg, David I; Foster, Kevin N; Tran, Melissa; Drachman, David

    2014-01-01

    To determine predictors of serious bacterial infections in pediatric burn patients with fever (core temp ≥38.5°C), the authors conducted a retrospective review of medical records of pediatric (0-18 years) patients admitted to the Arizona Burn Center between 2008 and 2011 with greater than 5% TBSA and inpatient hospitalization for ≥72 hours. The study group comprised patients with a febrile episode during their inpatient stay. Serious bacterial infection (the primary outcome variable) was defined as: bacteremia, urinary tract infection, meningitis (blood, urine, or cerebrospinal fluid culture positive for a pathogen respectively), pneumonia, line, and wound infection. A generalized estimating equation analysis was done to predict the presence or absence of serious bacterial infection. Of 1082 pediatric burn patients hospitalized during the study period, 353 met the study eligibility criteria. A total of 108 patients (30.6%) had at least one fever episode (fever group). No difference in demographic characteristics was noted between the fever and no-fever groups; significant differences were observed for: third-degree TBSA, second-degree TBSA, total operating room visits, length of stay, Injury Severity Score, and death. A total of 47.2% of the patients had one or more episodes of fever with serious bacterial infection. In a generalized estimating equation predictive model, presence of a central line, second-, and third-degree TBSA were predictive of serious bacterial infection in burn patients with fever. In this study, individual clinical variables such as tachypnea and tachycardia were not predictive of serious bacterial infections, but the presence of a central line, and larger TBSA were significant predictors of serious bacterial infections. Younger age (P =.08) and ventilator support (P =.057) also approached significance as predictors of serious bacterial infections.

  14. Religiousness as a Predictor of Alcohol Use in High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hae-Seong; Bauer, Scott; Oescher, Jeffrey

    2001-01-01

    Examines the relationship between religiousness and alcohol use of adolescents based on a sample of high school seniors. Results provide support for examining religiousness variables as predictors of alcohol use patterns of adolescents. (Contains 16 references and 4 tables.) (GCP)

  15. Predictors of mental health in female teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seibt, Reingard; Spitzer, Silvia; Druschke, Diana; Scheuch, Klaus; Hinz, Andreas

    2013-12-01

    Teaching profession is characterised by an above-average rate of psychosomatic and mental health impairment due to work-related stress. The aim of the study was to identify predictors of mental health in female teachers. A sample of 630 female teachers (average age 47 ± 7 years) participated in a screening diagnostic inventory. Mental health was surveyed with the General Health Questionnaire GHQ-12. The following parameters were measured: specific work conditions (teacher-specific occupational history), scales of the Effort-Reward-Imbalance (ERI) Questionnaire as well as cardiovascular risk factors, physical complaints (BFB) and personal factors such as inability to recover (FABA), sense of coherence (SOC) and health behaviour. First, mentally fit (MH(+)) and mentally impaired teachers (MH(-)) were differentiated based on the GHQ-12 sum score (MH(+): teachers showed evidence of mental impairment. There were no differences concerning work-related and cardiovascular risk factors as well as health behaviour between MH(+) and MH(-). Binary logistic regressions identified 4 predictors that showed a significant effect on mental health. The effort-reward-ratio proved to be the most relevant predictor, while physical complaints as well as inability to recover and sense of coherence were identified as advanced predictors (explanation of variance: 23%). Contrary to the expectations, classic work-related factors can hardly contribute to the explanation of mental health. Additionally, cardiovascular risk factors and health behaviour have no relevant influence. However, effort-reward-ratio, physical complaints and personal factors are of considerable influence on mental health in teachers. These relevant predictors should become a part of preventive arrangements for the conservation of teachers' health in the future.

  16. Predictors of mental health in female teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reingard Seibt

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Teaching profession is characterised by an above-average rate of psychosomatic and mental health impairment due to work-related stress. The aim of the study was to identify predictors of mental health in female teachers. Material and Methods: A sample of 630 female teachers (average age 47±7 years participated in a screening diagnostic inventory. Mental health was surveyed with the General Health Questionnaire GHQ-12. The following parameters were measured: specific work conditions (teacher-specific occupational history, scales of the Effort-Reward-Imbalance (ERI Questionnaire as well as cardiovascular risk factors, physical complaints (BFB and personal factors such as inability to recover (FABA, sense of coherence (SOC and health behaviour. Results: First, mentally fit (MH+ and mentally impaired teachers (MH- were differentiated based on the GHQ-12 sum score (MH+: < 5; MH-: ≥ 5; 18% of the teachers showed evidence of mental impairment. There were no differences concerning work-related and cardiovascular risk factors as well as health behaviour between MH+ and MH-. Binary logistic regressions identified 4 predictors that showed a significant effect on mental health. The effort-reward-ratio proved to be the most relevant predictor, while physical complaints as well as inability to recover and sense of coherence were identified as advanced predictors (explanation of variance: 23%. Conclusion: Contrary to the expectations, classic work-related factors can hardly contribute to the explanation of mental health. Additionally, cardiovascular risk factors and health behaviour have no relevant influence. However, effort-reward-ratio, physical complaints and personal factors are of considerable influence on mental health in teachers. These relevant predictors should become a part of preventive arrangements for the conservation of teachers' health in the future.

  17. Predictors of Dropout by Female Obese Patients Treated with a Group Cognitive Behavioral Therapy to Promote Weight Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryoko Sawamoto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate predictors of dropout from a group cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT intervention for overweight or obese women. Methods: 119 overweight and obese Japanese women aged 25-65 years who attended an outpatient weight loss intervention were followed throughout the 7-month weight loss phase. Somatic characteristics, socioeconomic status, obesity-related diseases, diet and exercise habits, and psychological variables (depression, anxiety, self-esteem, alexithymia, parenting style, perfectionism, and eating attitude were assessed at baseline. Significant variables, extracted by univariate statistical analysis, were then used as independent variables in a stepwise multiple logistic regression analysis with dropout as the dependent variable. Results: 90 participants completed the weight loss phase, giving a dropout rate of 24.4%. The multiple logistic regression analysis demonstrated that compared to completers the dropouts had significantly stronger body shape concern, tended to not have jobs, perceived their mothers to be less caring, and were more disorganized in temperament. Of all these factors, the best predictor of dropout was shape concern. Conclusion: Shape concern, job condition, parenting care, and organization predicted dropout from the group CBT weight loss intervention for overweight or obese Japanese women.

  18. Predictors of Dropout by Female Obese Patients Treated with a Group Cognitive Behavioral Therapy to Promote Weight Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawamoto, Ryoko; Nozaki, Takehiro; Furukawa, Tomokazu; Tanahashi, Tokusei; Morita, Chihiro; Hata, Tomokazu; Komaki, Gen; Sudo, Nobuyuki

    2016-01-01

    To investigate predictors of dropout from a group cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) intervention for overweight or obese women. 119 overweight and obese Japanese women aged 25-65 years who attended an outpatient weight loss intervention were followed throughout the 7-month weight loss phase. Somatic characteristics, socioeconomic status, obesity-related diseases, diet and exercise habits, and psychological variables (depression, anxiety, self-esteem, alexithymia, parenting style, perfectionism, and eating attitude) were assessed at baseline. Significant variables, extracted by univariate statistical analysis, were then used as independent variables in a stepwise multiple logistic regression analysis with dropout as the dependent variable. 90 participants completed the weight loss phase, giving a dropout rate of 24.4%. The multiple logistic regression analysis demonstrated that compared to completers the dropouts had significantly stronger body shape concern, tended to not have jobs, perceived their mothers to be less caring, and were more disorganized in temperament. Of all these factors, the best predictor of dropout was shape concern. Shape concern, job condition, parenting care, and organization predicted dropout from the group CBT weight loss intervention for overweight or obese Japanese women. © 2016 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  19. Preschool Predictors of Kindergarten Language Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Walk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to explore a variety of cognitive and social variables which are most relevant to children’s linguistic success in an educational setting. The study examines kindergarten English language outcomes in classrooms containing monolingual English speaking children and bilingual children who speak English and one other language. Data from the National Center for Early Development and Learning Multistate Study of Pre-Kindergarten (2001-2003 regarding classroom and student characteristics were used for bilingual (N = 120 and monolingual (N = 534 children. Hierarchical regression analysis (Study 1 and path analysis (Study 2 were conducted to determine the cognitive and social variables present in preschool that are most predictive of English skills in kindergarten. The results of the studies demonstrate that social variables were important for both monolingual and bilingual children. Personality variables were more predictive for monolingual children, whereas teacher relationship variables were more important for bilingual children. Simple and routine adult interaction was predictive of English skills in both groups, which may indicate the importance of implicit learning over explicit instruction in early language acquisition. The present studies found different predictors of English language skills for monolingual and bilingual kindergarteners.

  20. Predictors of comorbid personality disorders in patients with panic disorder with agoraphobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latas, M; Starcevic, V; Trajkovic, G; Bogojevic, G

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to ascertain predictors of comorbid personality disorders in patients with panic disorder with agoraphobia (PDAG). Sixty consecutive outpatients with PDAG were administered the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II Personality Disorders (SCID-II) for the purpose of diagnosing personality disorders. Logistic regressions were used to identify predictors of any comorbid personality disorder, any DSM-IV cluster A, cluster B, and cluster C personality disorder. Independent variables in these regressions were gender, age, duration of panic disorder (PD), severity of PDAG, and scores on self-report instruments that assess the patient's perception of their parents, childhood separation anxiety, and traumatic experiences. High levels of parental protection on the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI), indicating a perception of the parents as overprotective and controlling, emerged as the only statistically significant predictor of any comorbid personality disorder. This finding was attributed to the association between parental overprotection and cluster B personality disorders, particularly borderline personality disorder. The duration of PD was a significant predictor of any cluster B and any cluster C personality disorder, suggesting that some of the cluster B and cluster C personality disorders may be a consequence of the long-lasting PDAG. Any cluster B personality disorder was also associated with younger age. In conclusion, despite a generally nonspecific nature of the relationship between parental overprotection in childhood and adult psychopathology, the findings of this study suggest some specificity for the association between parental overprotection in childhood and personality disturbance in PDAG patients, particularly cluster B personality disorders.

  1. Combining clinical variables to optimize prediction of antidepressant treatment outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iniesta, Raquel; Malki, Karim; Maier, Wolfgang; Rietschel, Marcella; Mors, Ole; Hauser, Joanna; Henigsberg, Neven; Dernovsek, Mojca Zvezdana; Souery, Daniel; Stahl, Daniel; Dobson, Richard; Aitchison, Katherine J; Farmer, Anne; Lewis, Cathryn M; McGuffin, Peter; Uher, Rudolf

    2016-07-01

    The outcome of treatment with antidepressants varies markedly across people with the same diagnosis. A clinically significant prediction of outcomes could spare the frustration of trial and error approach and improve the outcomes of major depressive disorder through individualized treatment selection. It is likely that a combination of multiple predictors is needed to achieve such prediction. We used elastic net regularized regression to optimize prediction of symptom improvement and remission during treatment with escitalopram or nortriptyline and to identify contributing predictors from a range of demographic and clinical variables in 793 adults with major depressive disorder. A combination of demographic and clinical variables, with strong contributions from symptoms of depressed mood, reduced interest, decreased activity, indecisiveness, pessimism and anxiety significantly predicted treatment outcomes, explaining 5-10% of variance in symptom improvement with escitalopram. Similar combinations of variables predicted remission with area under the curve 0.72, explaining approximately 15% of variance (pseudo R(2)) in who achieves remission, with strong contributions from body mass index, appetite, interest-activity symptom dimension and anxious-somatizing depression subtype. Escitalopram-specific outcome prediction was more accurate than generic outcome prediction, and reached effect sizes that were near or above a previously established benchmark for clinical significance. Outcome prediction on the nortriptyline arm did not significantly differ from chance. These results suggest that easily obtained demographic and clinical variables can predict therapeutic response to escitalopram with clinically meaningful accuracy, suggesting a potential for individualized prescription of this antidepressant drug. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Significance testing in ridge regression for genetic data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Iorio Maria

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Technological developments have increased the feasibility of large scale genetic association studies. Densely typed genetic markers are obtained using SNP arrays, next-generation sequencing technologies and imputation. However, SNPs typed using these methods can be highly correlated due to linkage disequilibrium among them, and standard multiple regression techniques fail with these data sets due to their high dimensionality and correlation structure. There has been increasing interest in using penalised regression in the analysis of high dimensional data. Ridge regression is one such penalised regression technique which does not perform variable selection, instead estimating a regression coefficient for each predictor variable. It is therefore desirable to obtain an estimate of the significance of each ridge regression coefficient. Results We develop and evaluate a test of significance for ridge regression coefficients. Using simulation studies, we demonstrate that the performance of the test is comparable to that of a permutation test, with the advantage of a much-reduced computational cost. We introduce the p-value trace, a plot of the negative logarithm of the p-values of ridge regression coefficients with increasing shrinkage parameter, which enables the visualisation of the change in p-value of the regression coefficients with increasing penalisation. We apply the proposed method to a lung cancer case-control data set from EPIC, the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. Conclusions The proposed test is a useful alternative to a permutation test for the estimation of the significance of ridge regression coefficients, at a much-reduced computational cost. The p-value trace is an informative graphical tool for evaluating the results of a test of significance of ridge regression coefficients as the shrinkage parameter increases, and the proposed test makes its production computationally feasible.

  3. Teacher and Child Predictors of Achieving IEP Goals of Children with Autism

    OpenAIRE

    Ruble, Lisa; McGrew, John H.

    2013-01-01

    It is encouraging that children with autism show a strong response to early intervention, yet more research is needed for understanding the variability in responsiveness to specialized programs. Treatment predictor variables from 47 teachers and children who were randomized to receive the COMPASS intervention (Ruble et al. in The collaborative model for promoting competence and success for students with ASD. Springer, New York, 2012a) were analyzed. Predictors evaluated agai...

  4. Cognitive Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegler, Robert S.

    2007-01-01

    Children's thinking is highly variable at every level of analysis, from neural and associative levels to the level of strategies, theories, and other aspects of high-level cognition. This variability exists within people as well as between them; individual children often rely on different strategies or representations on closely related problems…

  5. Psychological predictors of outcome in vertical banded gastroplasty: a 6 months prospective pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leombruni, Paolo; Pierò, Andrea; Dosio, Davide; Novelli, Alessia; Abbate-Daga, Giovanni; Morino, Mario; Toppino, Mauro; Fassino, Secondo

    2007-07-01

    At present, bariatric surgery is the most effective treatment for morbid obesity. Several factors appear to influence the patient's ability to adjust to the postoperative condition, but reliable predictors are lacking. The aim of this study was to assess whether psychological presurgical variables can predict outcome of vertical banded gastroplasty (VBG) in the short term. 38 severely obese patients (6 men and 32 women) underwent laparoscopic VBG. All were assessed prospectively at TO (before surgery) and at T6 (6 months after surgery) with a semi-structured interview and a battery of psychological tests: State Trait Anger Expression Inventory (STAXI), Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI-2), Symptom Checklist 90 (SCL-90), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Binge Eating Scale (BES), Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ), and (only at TO) the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). The comparison between TO and T6 found a significant weight loss and an improvement in several dimensions of EDI-2, BDI, and BSQ, together with an increase in the frequency of vomiting. Self-directedness (TCI) and Body Dissatisfaction (EDI-2) appear to be predictors of short-term outcome regarding weight loss. Self-transcendence (TCI) is associated with emerging side-effects. Although larger and longer studies are necessary to confirm these data, Self directedness and Self trascendence emerge as predictors of 6 months clinical and psychological outcome of VBG.

  6. Predictors of positive mental health among refugees: Results from Canada's General Social Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beiser, Morton; Hou, Feng

    2017-01-01

    Do refugees have lower levels of positive mental health than other migrants? If so, to what extent is this attributable to post-migration experiences, including discrimination? How does gender affect the relationships between post-migration experience and positive mental health? To address these questions, the current study uses data from Statistics Canada's 2013 General Social Survey (GSS), a nationally representative household study that included 27,695 Canadians 15 years of age and older. The study compares self-reported positive mental health among 651 refugees, 309 economic immigrants, and 448 family class immigrants from 50 source countries. Immigration-related predictors of mental health were examined including sociodemographic characteristics, discrimination, acculturation variables, and experiences of reception. Separate analyses were carried out for women and men. Refugees had lower levels of positive mental health than other migrants. Affiliative feelings towards the source country jeopardized refugee, but not immigrant mental health. A sense of belonging to Canada was a significant predictor of mental health. Perceived discrimination explained refugee mental health disadvantage among men, but not women. Bridging social networks were a mental health asset, particularly for women. The implications of anti-refugee discrimination net of the effects of anti-immigrant and anti-visible minority antipathies are discussed, as well as possible reasons for gender differences in the salience of mental health predictors.

  7. Predictors of 3-month abstinence in smokers attending stop-smoking clinics in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wee, Lei Hum; West, Robert; Bulgiba, Awang; Shahab, Lion

    2011-02-01

    Much is known about the predictors of success in quitting smoking. In particular, nicotine dependence, but not strength of motivation to stop, appears to predict abstinence. However, to date, studies have come almost exclusively from Western countries. More data are needed on the cross-cultural generalizability of these findings. One hundred and ninety-eight smokers attending 5 stop-smoking clinics in Malaysia completed a questionnaire prior to their target quit date and were followed up 3 months after this date. Predictors included sociodemographic variables, smoking patterns, past history of quitting, characteristics of current quit attempt, and smoking motives as well as nicotine dependence (Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence [FTND]) and self-rated strength of motivation of stop. At 3-month follow-up, 35.4% (95% CI: 28.7-42.0) of participants reported being abstinent. A backward elimination multiple logistic regression identified a number of significant predictors of success, including strength of motivation to stop (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 3.05, 95% CI: 1.28-7.25). FTND did not predict success. Motivation and nicotine dependence may play different roles in explaining variation in ability to stop smoking in different cultures.

  8. Predictors of intractable childhood epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, M.A.; Ahmed, T.M.

    2008-01-01

    To determine the prognosis of seizures in epileptic children and identify early predictors of intractable childhood epilepsy. All children (aged 1 month to 16 years) with idiopathic or cryptogenic epilepsy who were treated and followed at the centre during the study period were included. The patients who had marked seizures even after two years of adequate treatment were labeled as intractable epileptics (cases). Children who had no seizure for more than one year at last follow-up visit were the controls. Adequate treatment was described as using at least three anti-epileptic agents either alone or in combination with proper compliance and dosage. Records of these patients were reviewed to identify the variables that may be associated with seizure intractability. Of 442 epileptic children, 325 (74%) intractable and 117 (26%) control epileptics were included in the study. Male gender (OR=3.92), seizures onset in infancy >10 seizures before starting treatment (OR=3.76), myoclonic seizures (OR=1.37), neonatal seizures (OR=3.69), abnormal EEG (OR=7.28) and cryptogenic epilepsy (OR=9.69) and head trauma (OR=4.07) were the factors associated with intractable epilepsy. Seizure onset between 5-7 years of age, idiopathic epilepsy, and absence seizures were associated with favourable prognosis in childhood epilepsy. Intractable childhood epilepsy is expected if certain risk factors such as type, age of onset, gender and cause of epilepsy are found. Early referral of such patients to the specialized centres is recommended for prompt and optimal management. (author)

  9. Does ecosystem variability explain phytoplankton diversity? Solving an ecological puzzle with long-term data sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarker, Subrata; Lemke, Peter; Wiltshire, Karen H.

    2018-05-01

    Explaining species diversity as a function of ecosystem variability is a long-term discussion in community-ecology research. Here, we aimed to establish a causal relationship between ecosystem variability and phytoplankton diversity in a shallow-sea ecosystem. We used long-term data on biotic and abiotic factors from Helgoland Roads, along with climate data to assess the effect of ecosystem variability on phytoplankton diversity. A point cumulative semi-variogram method was used to estimate the long-term ecosystem variability. A Markov chain model was used to estimate dynamical processes of species i.e. occurrence, absence and outcompete probability. We identified that the 1980s was a period of high ecosystem variability while the last two decades were comparatively less variable. Ecosystem variability was found as an important predictor of phytoplankton diversity at Helgoland Roads. High diversity was related to low ecosystem variability due to non-significant relationship between probability of a species occurrence and absence, significant negative relationship between probability of a species occurrence and probability of a species to be outcompeted by others, and high species occurrence at low ecosystem variability. Using an exceptional marine long-term data set, this study established a causal relationship between ecosystem variability and phytoplankton diversity.

  10. Friendship quantity and quality as predictors of rejection sensitivity in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Šeboková

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The current study examines friendship quality and quantity as unique predictors of rejection sensitivity in adolescents. The purpose of the study was to analyze whether the unique contributions of friendship quality and quantity differ in adolescent boys and girls. Rejection sensitivity is conceptualized as the disposition to anxiously expect, readily perceive and intensively react to social rejection. That is why rejection sensitivity is considered to be a cognitive-affective mechanism which leads to increase of internalizing problems in children and adolescents (loneliness, social anxiety, depression.... Friendship variables have been found to predict the level of internalizing problems in adolescents. Little to no research, however, has examined friendship quality and quantity as predictors of level of rejection sensitivity. Participants in this study were 184 students (98 girls and 86 boys, aged from 13 to 16 (M=13.83, SD=1. Adolescents completed measures assessing number of their friends, quality of best friendship (self-report questionnaire Friendship qualities scale, Bukowski, Hoza, Boivin, 1994 and rejection sensitivity (self-report questionnaire Rejection sensitivity scale, Downey, Feldman, 1996. Regression analysis indicated that friendship features (companionship, balance, help, security, closeness, friendship quantity and overall friendship quality are significant unique predictors of sensitivity rejection in adolescents with. Results suggest that adolescents with higher number of and higher quality friendships have lower concerns about the possibility and expectation of rejection, which can lead to minimizing the risk of development of internalizing problems. However, only a small proportion of variance was accounted for in rejection sensitivity by the friendship variables (small to medium effect size. This suggests that different kind of peer relationships (peer acceptance, popularity, peer victimization make unique, differential

  11. Exploring patient satisfaction predictors in relation to a theoretical model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grøndahl, Vigdis Abrahamsen; Hall-Lord, Marie Louise; Karlsson, Ingela; Appelgren, Jari; Wilde-Larsson, Bodil

    2013-01-01

    The aim is to describe patients' care quality perceptions and satisfaction and to explore potential patient satisfaction predictors as person-related conditions, external objective care conditions and patients' perception of actual care received ("PR") in relation to a theoretical model. A cross-sectional design was used. Data were collected using one questionnaire combining questions from four instruments: Quality from patients' perspective; Sense of coherence; Big five personality trait; and Emotional stress reaction questionnaire (ESRQ), together with questions from previous research. In total, 528 patients (83.7 per cent response rate) from eight medical, three surgical and one medical/surgical ward in five Norwegian hospitals participated. Answers from 373 respondents with complete ESRQ questionnaires were analysed. Sequential multiple regression analysis with ESRQ as dependent variable was run in three steps: person-related conditions, external objective care conditions, and PR (p person-related conditions) explained 51.7 per cent of the ESRQ variance. Step 2 (external objective care conditions) explained an additional 2.4 per cent. Step 3 (PR) gave no significant additional explanation (0.05 per cent). Steps 1 and 2 contributed statistical significance to the model. Patients rated both quality-of-care and satisfaction highly. The paper shows that the theoretical model using an emotion-oriented approach to assess patient satisfaction can explain 54 per cent of patient satisfaction in a statistically significant manner.

  12. Psychosocial predictors of treatment outcome for trauma-affected refugees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Sonne

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The effects of treatment in trials with trauma-affected refugees vary considerably not only between studies but also between patients within a single study. However, we know little about why some patients benefit more from treatment, as few studies have analysed predictors of treatment outcome. Objective: The objective of the study was to examine possible psychosocial predictors of treatment outcome for trauma-affected refugees. Method: The participants were 195 adult refugees with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD who were enrolled in a 6- to 7-month treatment programme at the Competence Centre for Transcultural Psychiatry (CTP, Denmark. The CTP Predictor Index used in the study included 15 different possible outcome predictors concerning the patients’ past, chronicity of mental health problems, pain, treatment motivation, prerequisites for engaging in psychotherapy, and social situation. The primary outcome measure was PTSD symptoms measured on the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (HTQ. Other outcome measures included the Hopkins Symptom Check List-25, the WHO-5 Well-being Index, Sheehan Disability Scale, Hamilton Depression and Anxiety Scales, the somatisation scale of the Symptoms Checklist-90, Global Assessment of Functioning scales, and pain rated on visual analogue scales. The relations between treatment outcomes and the total score as well as subscores of the CTP Predictor Index were analysed. Results: Overall, the total score of the CTP Predictor Index was significantly correlated to pre- to post treatment score changes on the majority of the ratings mentioned above. While employment status was the only single item significantly correlated to HTQ-score changes, a number of single items from the CTP Predictor Index correlated significantly with changes in depression and anxiety symptoms, but the size of the correlation coefficients were modest. Conclusions: The total score of the CTP Predictor Index correlated significantly

  13. Exploratory regression analysis: a tool for selecting models and determining predictor importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Michael T; Oswald, Frederick L

    2011-06-01

    Linear regression analysis is one of the most important tools in a researcher's toolbox for creating and testing predictive models. Although linear regression analysis indicates how strongly a set of predictor variables, taken together, will predict a relevant criterion (i.e., the multiple R), the analysis cannot indicate which predictors are the most important. Although there is no definitive or unambiguous method for establishing predictor variable importance, there are several accepted methods. This article reviews those methods for establishing predictor importance and provides a program (in Excel) for implementing them (available for direct download at http://dl.dropbox.com/u/2480715/ERA.xlsm?dl=1) . The program investigates all 2(p) - 1 submodels and produces several indices of predictor importance. This exploratory approach to linear regression, similar to other exploratory data analysis techniques, has the potential to yield both theoretical and practical benefits.

  14. Something's missing: need fulfillment and self-expansion as predictors of susceptibility to infidelity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowski, Gary W; Ackerman, Robert A

    2006-08-01

    The present authors investigated whether an individual's motivations that are related to need fulfillment and self-expansion within a romantic relationship can predict self-reported susceptibility to infidelity. A sample of 109 college students (50 men, 59 women) who were in dating relationships completed questionnaires that assessed 5 types of variables of need fulfillment (i.e., intimacy, companionship, sex, security, and emotional involvement), 3 types of self-expansion variables (i.e., self-expansion, inclusion of the other in the self, and potential for self-expansion), and susceptibility to infidelity. As the present authors predicted, both sets of predictors (need fulfillment and self-expansion) significantly contributed to the variance in susceptibility to infidelity. The present findings indicated the possibility that, when a relationship is not able to fulfill needs or provide ample self-expansion for an individual, his or her susceptibility to infidelity increases.

  15. Personality Traits as Predictors of Shopping Motivations and Behaviors: A Canonical Correlation Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Gohary

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the relationship between Big Five personality traits with shopping motivation variables consisting of compulsive and impulsive buying, hedonic and utilitarian shopping values. Two hundred forty seven college students were recruited to participate in this research. Bivariate correlation demonstrates an overlap between personality traits; consequently, canonical correlation was performed to prevent this phenomenon. The results of multiple regression analysis suggested conscientiousness, neuroticism and openness as predictors of compulsive buying, impulsive buying and utilitarian shopping values. In addition, the results showed significant differences between males and females on conscientiousness, neuroticism, openness, compulsive buying and hedonic shopping value. Besides, using hierarchical regression analysis, we examined sex as moderator between Big Five personality traits and shopping variables, but we didn’t find sufficient evidence to prove it.

  16. Attention problems and hyperactivity as predictors of college grade point average.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwanz, Kerry A; Palm, Linda J; Brallier, Sara A

    2007-11-01

    This study examined the relative contributions of measures of attention problems and hyperactivity to the prediction of college grade point average (GPA). A sample of 316 students enrolled in introductory psychology and sociology classes at a southeastern university completed the BASC-2 Self-Report of Personality College Form. Scores on the attention problems scale and the hyperactivity scale of the BASC-2 were entered into a regression equation as predictors of cumulative GPA. Each of the independent variables made a significant contribution to the prediction of GPA. Attention problem scores alone explained 7% of the variability in GPAs. The addition of hyperactivity scores to the equation produced a 2% increase in explanatory power. The implications of these results for assessing symptoms of inattention and hyperactivity in college students are discussed.

  17. Moderation analysis with missing data in the predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Wang, Lijuan

    2017-12-01

    The most widely used statistical model for conducting moderation analysis is the moderated multiple regression (MMR) model. In MMR modeling, missing data could pose a challenge, mainly because the interaction term is a product of two or more variables and thus is a nonlinear function of the involved variables. In this study, we consider a simple MMR model, where the effect of the focal predictor X on the outcome Y is moderated by a moderator U. The primary interest is to find ways of estimating and testing the moderation effect with the existence of missing data in X. We mainly focus on cases when X is missing completely at random (MCAR) and missing at random (MAR). Three methods are compared: (a) Normal-distribution-based maximum likelihood estimation (NML); (b) Normal-distribution-based multiple imputation (NMI); and (c) Bayesian estimation (BE). Via simulations, we found that NML and NMI could lead to biased estimates of moderation effects under MAR missingness mechanism. The BE method outperformed NMI and NML for MMR modeling with missing data in the focal predictor, missingness depending on the moderator and/or auxiliary variables, and correctly specified distributions for the focal predictor. In addition, more robust BE methods are needed in terms of the distribution mis-specification problem of the focal predictor. An empirical example was used to illustrate the applications of the methods with a simple sensitivity analysis. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Cognitive and emotional predictors of episodic and dispositional forgiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mróz Justyna

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The study examined the importance of cognitive (positive orientation, basic hope and emotional (positive and negative affectivity, emotional control variables for state and trait forgiveness. One hundred and thirty nine participants completed six inventories in Polish version: HFS (Thompson et al., 2005, TRIM (McCullough et al., 1998, P-Scale (Caprara et al., 2012, BHI-12 (Trzebiński & Zięba, 2003a, SUPIN (Polish version of PANAS; Watson, Clark, & Tellegen, 1988, CECS (Watson & Greer, 1983. Results showed that dispositional forgiveness (general and positive was associated with cognitive and emotional predictors, whereas episodic forgiveness primarily with certain emotional variables. In addition, the results indicated that emotional predictors merely participate in the process of reducing unforgiveness, whereas cognitive and emotional variables were shown to be necessary for full forgiveness.

  19. Predictors of health-related quality of life in type II diabetic patients in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frydas Aristidis

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetes Mellitus (DM is a major cause of morbidity and mortality affecting millions of people worldwide, while placing a noteworthy strain on public health funding. The aim of this study was to assess health-related quality of life (HRQOL of Greek Type II DM patients and to identify significant predictors of the disease in this patient population. Methods The sample (N = 229, 52.8% female, 70.0 years mean age lived in a rural community of Lesvos, an island in the northeast of the Aegean Archipelagos. The generic SF-36 instrument, administered by trainee physicians, was used to measure HRQOL. Scale scores were compared with non-parametric Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests and multivariate stepwise linear regression analyses were used to investigate the effect of sociodemographic and diabetes-related variables on HRQOL. Results The most important predictors of impaired HRQOL were female gender, diabetic complications, non-diabetic comorbidity and years with diabetes. Older age, lower education, being unmarried, obesity, hypertension and hyperlipidaemia were also associated with impaired HRQOL in at least one SF-36 subscale. Multivariate regression analyses produced models explaining significant portions of the variance in SF-36 subscales, especially physical functioning (R2 = 42%, and also showed that diabetes-related indicators were more important disease predictors, compared to sociodemographic variables. Conclusion The findings could have implications for health promotion in rural medical practice in Greece. In order to preserve a good HRQOL, it is obviously important to prevent diabetes complications and properly manage concomitant chronic diseases. Furthermore, the gender difference is interesting and requires further elucidation. Modifying screening methods and medical interventions or formulating educational programs for the local population appear to be steps in the correct direction.

  20. Predictors of parent-child agreement on child anxiety diagnoses on the ADIS-IV-C/P.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamblin, Rebecca J; Salloum, Alison; Andel, Ross; Nadeau, Joshua M; McBride, Nicole M; Lewin, Adam B; Storch, Eric A

    2016-11-30

    Diagnostic agreement between parents' and children's reports on children's anxiety problems is notoriously poor; however, very few investigations have examined specific predictors of inter-rater agreement on child anxiety diagnoses. This study examined predictors of categories of parent and child diagnostic endorsement on the Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule for Children-IV. One hundred eight children (ages 7-13) and their parents completed structured diagnostic interviews for non-OCD/PTSD anxiety diagnoses and paper and pencil measures of functioning and impairment in a variety of domains. Parent-child agreement was statistically significant for social phobia and separation anxiety disorder, but was overall poor for all anxiety diagnoses. Externalizing disorder status, family accommodation frequency, and child rated impairment in various domains differentially predicted informant discrepancies for different anxiety disorders. These data are among the first to suggest variables that may explain parent-child concordance. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  1. Analysis of forecasting malaria case with climatic factors as predictor in Mandailing Natal Regency: a time series study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aulia, D.; Ayu, S. F.; Matondang, A.

    2018-01-01

    Malaria is the most contagious global concern. As a public health problem with outbreaks, affect the quality of life and economy, also could lead to death. Therefore, this research is to forecast malaria cases with climatic factors as predictors in Mandailing Natal Regency. The total number of positive malaria cases on January 2008 to December 2016 were taken from health department of Mandailing Natal Regency. Climates data such as rainfall, humidity, and temperature were taken from Center of Statistic Department of Mandailing Natal Regency. E-views ver. 9 is used to analyze this study. Autoregressive integrated average, ARIMA (0,1,1) (1,0,0)12 is the best model to explain the 67,2% variability data in time series study. Rainfall (P value = 0.0005), temperature (P value = 0,0029) and humidity (P value = 0.0001) are significant predictors for malaria transmission. Seasonal adjusted factor (SAF) in November and March shows peak for malaria cases.

  2. Mental Health-Ill Health Differences in Disease Severity and Its Sociodemographic Biobehavioral Predictors Among Patients With Knee Osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezakhani Moghaddam, Hamed; Nadrian, Haidar; Abbagolizadeh, Nategh; Babazadeh, Towhid; Aghemiri, Mehran; Fathipour, Asaad

    2018-01-01

    Our aim in this cross-sectional study was to investigate mental health-ill health differences in disease severity and its sociodemographic biobehavioral predictors among patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Applying convenient sampling, 180 patients with knee OA in Tabriz, Iran, were recruited to participate in completing a three-section questionnaire (SF-12, Lequesne Algofunctional Index and Self-Management Behaviors Scale). Separate hierarchical multiple linear regressions were performed with OA severity as dependent variable: one for OA patients with positive mental health and other for OA patients with mental disorders symptoms. Among the patients with positive mental health, but not those with symptoms of mental disorder, pain management, duration of OA, physical activity management, living alone, and level of education were significant predictors of disease severity. Health care providers with a better understanding on the determinants of disease severity by mental health status may identify vulnerable patients and develop targeted interventions to foster disease management behaviors among OA patients.

  3. National trends in occupational injuries before and after 1992 and predictors of workers' compensation costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhushan, Abhinav; Leigh, J Paul

    2011-01-01

    Numbers and costs of occupational injuries and illnesses are significant in terms of morbidity and dollars, yet our understanding of time trends is minimal. We investigated trends and addressed some common hypotheses regarding causes of fluctuations. We pulled data on incidence rates (per 100 full-time employed workers) for injuries and illnesses from the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics and on costs and benefits from the National Academy of Social Insurance for 1973 through 2007. Rates reflected all injury and illness cases, lost work-time cases, and cases resulting in at least 31 days away from work. We adjusted dollar costs (premiums) and benefits for inflation and measured them per employed worker. We plotted data in time-trend charts and ran linear regressions. From 1973 to 1991, there was a weak to nonexistent downward trend for injury and illness rates, and rates were strongly and negatively correlated with the unemployment rate. From 1992 to 2007, there were strong, consistent downward trends, but no longer were there statistically significant correlations with unemployment. Significant predictors (and signs) of workers' compensation premiums for 1973-2007 included medical price inflation (positive), number of lost-time injuries (positive), the Dow Jones Industrial Average (negative), and inflation-adjusted interest rate on U.S. Treasury bonds (negative). Dollars of benefits were positively and significantly predicted by medical inflation and number of lost-time cases. For 1992-2007, the Dow Jones variable was the only robust predictor of premiums; the number of injuries was not a significant positive predictor. We had two major conclusions. First, the year 1992 marked a sharp contrast in trends and correlations between unemployment and incidence rates for occupational injuries and illnesses. Second, for the entire time period (1973-2007), insurance carriers' premiums were strongly associated with returns on investments.

  4. Developing models to predict 8th grade students' achievement levels on timss science based on opportunity-to-learn variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitford, Melinda M.

    Science educational reforms have placed major emphasis on improving science classroom instruction and it is therefore vital to study opportunity-to-learn (OTL) variables related to student science learning experiences and teacher teaching practices. This study will identify relationships between OTL and student science achievement and will identify OTL predictors of students' attainment at various distinct achievement levels (low/intermediate/high/advanced). Specifically, the study (a) address limitations of previous studies by examining a large number of independent and control variables that may impact students' science achievement and (b) it will test hypotheses of structural relations to how the identified predictors and mediating factors impact on student achievement levels. The study will follow a multi-stage and integrated bottom-up and top-down approach to identify predictors of students' achievement levels on standardized tests using TIMSS 2011 dataset. Data mining or pattern recognition, a bottom-up approach will identify the most prevalent association patterns between different student achievement levels and variables related to student science learning experiences, teacher teaching practices and home and school environments. The second stage is a top-down approach, testing structural equation models of relations between the significant predictors and students' achievement levels according.

  5. Nurse dose: linking staffing variables to adverse patient outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manojlovich, Milisa; Sidani, Souraya; Covell, Christine L; Antonakos, Cathy L

    2011-01-01

    Inconsistent findings in more than 100 studies have made it difficult to explain how variation in nurse staffing affects patient outcomes. Nurse dose, defined as the level of nurses required to provide patient care in hospital settings, draws on variables used in staffing studies to describe the influence of many staffing variables on outcomes. The aim of this study was to examine the construct validity of nurse dose by determining its association with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections and reported patient falls on a sample of inpatient adult acute care units. Staffing data came from 26 units in Ontario, Canada, and Michigan. Financial and human resource data were data sources for staffing variables. Sources of data for MRSA came from infection control departments. Incident reports were the data source for patient falls. Data analysis consisted of bivariate correlations and Poisson regression. Bivariate correlations revealed that nurse dose attributes (active ingredient and intensity) were associated significantly with both outcomes. Active ingredient (education, experience, skill mix) and intensity (full-time employees, registered nurse [RN]:patient ratio, RN hours per patient day) were significant predictors of MRSA. Coefficients for both attributes were negative and almost identical. Both attributes were significant predictors of reported patient falls, and coefficients were again negative, but coefficient sizes differed. By conceptualizing nurse and staffing variables (education, experience, skill mix, full-time employees, RN:patient ratio, RN hours per patient day) as attributes of nurse dose and by including these in the same analysis, it is possible to determine their relative influence on MRSA infections and reported patient falls.

  6. Predictors of Pain among Head and Neck Cancer Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuman, Andrew G.; Terrell, Jeffrey E.; Light, Emily; Wolf, Gregory T.; Bradford, Carol R.; Chepeha, Douglas; Jiang, Yunyun; McLean, Scott; Ghanem, Tamer A.; Duffy, Sonia A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Pain is a strong contributor to cancer patients’ quality of life. The objective of this study was to determine predictors of pain 1 year after the diagnosis of head and neck cancer. Design Prospective, multi-site cohort study. Setting Three academically-affiliated medical centers. Patients Previously untreated patients with carcinoma of the upper aerodigestive tract (n=374). Main Outcome Measures Participants were surveyed pre-treatment and 1 year thereafter. Multivariate analyses were conducted to determine predictors of the SF-36 bodily pain score 1 year after diagnosis. Results The mean SF-36 bodily pain score at 1 year was 65, compared to 61 at diagnosis (p=.004), compared to 75 among population norms (lower scores indicate worse pain). Variables independently associated with pain included pre-treatment pain score (p<0.001), less education (p=0.02), neck dissection (p=0.001), feeding tube (p=0.05), xerostomia (p<0.001), depressive symptoms (p<0.001), taking more pain medication (p<0.001), less physical activity (p=.02), and poor sleep quality (p=0.006). Current smoking and problem drinking were marginally significant (p=0.07 and 0.08, respectively). Conclusions Aggressive pain management may be indicated for head and neck cancer patients who undergo neck dissections, complain of xerostomia, require feeding tubes, and have medical comorbidities. Treatment of modifiable risk factors such as depression, poor sleep quality, tobacco and alcohol abuse may also reduce pain and improve quality of life among head and neck cancer patients. PMID:23165353

  7. Socio-Demographic Indicators, Intelligence, and Locus of Control as Predictors of Adult Financial Well-Being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Furnham

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The current study investigated a longitudinal data set of 4790 adults examining a set of socio-demographic and psychological factors that influence adult financial well-being. Parental social status (at birth, childhood intelligence and self-esteem (at age 10, locus of control (at age 16, psychological distress (age 30, educational qualifications (age 34, current occupation, weekly net income, house ownership status, and number of rooms (all measured at age 38 years were examined. Structural Equation Modelling showed that childhood intelligence, locus of control, education and occupation were all independent predictors of adult financial well-being for both men and women. Parental social status and psychological distress were also significant predictors of the outcome variable for men, but not for women. Whereas for women, in comparison to men, the effects of current occupation and childhood intelligence on the outcome variable appeared to be stronger. The strongest predictor of adult financial well-being was current occupational prestige, followed by educational achievement. The gender deferential of financial well-being indicators and its implications are discussed.

  8. Uncertainties of statistical downscaling from predictor selection: Equifinality and transferability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Guobin; Charles, Stephen P.; Chiew, Francis H. S.; Ekström, Marie; Potter, Nick J.

    2018-05-01

    The nonhomogeneous hidden Markov model (NHMM) statistical downscaling model, 38 catchments in southeast Australia and 19 general circulation models (GCMs) were used in this study to demonstrate statistical downscaling uncertainties caused by equifinality to and transferability. That is to say, there could be multiple sets of predictors that give similar daily rainfall simulation results for both calibration and validation periods, but project different amounts (or even directions of change) of rainfall changing in the future. Results indicated that two sets of predictors (Set 1 with predictors of sea level pressure north-south gradient, u-wind at 700 hPa, v-wind at 700 hPa, and specific humidity at 700 hPa and Set 2 with predictors of sea level pressure north-south gradient, u-wind at 700 hPa, v-wind at 700 hPa, and dewpoint temperature depression at 850 hPa) as inputs to the NHMM produced satisfactory results of seasonal rainfall in comparison with observations. For example, during the model calibration period, the relative errors across the 38 catchments ranged from 0.48 to 1.76% with a mean value of 1.09% for the predictor Set 1, and from 0.22 to 2.24% with a mean value of 1.16% for the predictor Set 2. However, the changes of future rainfall from NHMM projections based on 19 GCMs produced projections with a different sign for these two different sets of predictors: Set 1 predictors project an increase of future rainfall with magnitudes depending on future time periods and emission scenarios, but Set 2 predictors project a decline of future rainfall. Such divergent projections may present a significant challenge for applications of statistical downscaling as well as climate change impact studies, and could potentially imply caveats in many existing studies in the literature.

  9. Detecting Novelty and Significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Vera; Bradley, Margaret M.; Codispoti, Maurizio; Lang, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    Studies of cognition often use an “oddball” paradigm to study effects of stimulus novelty and significance on information processing. However, an oddball tends to be perceptually more novel than the standard, repeated stimulus as well as more relevant to the ongoing task, making it difficult to disentangle effects due to perceptual novelty and stimulus significance. In the current study, effects of perceptual novelty and significance on ERPs were assessed in a passive viewing context by presenting repeated and novel pictures (natural scenes) that either signaled significant information regarding the current context or not. A fronto-central N2 component was primarily affected by perceptual novelty, whereas a centro-parietal P3 component was modulated by both stimulus significance and novelty. The data support an interpretation that the N2 reflects perceptual fluency and is attenuated when a current stimulus matches an active memory representation and that the amplitude of the P3 reflects stimulus meaning and significance. PMID:19400680

  10. Significant NRC Enforcement Actions

    Data.gov (United States)

    Nuclear Regulatory Commission — This dataset provides a list of Nuclear Regulartory Commission (NRC) issued significant enforcement actions. These actions, referred to as "escalated", are issued by...

  11. Leg pain and psychological variables predict outcome 2-3 years after lumbar fusion surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Allan D; Tyni-Lenné, Raija; Hedlund, Rune

    2011-10-01

    Prediction studies testing a thorough range of psychological variables in addition to demographic, work-related and clinical variables are lacking in lumbar fusion surgery research. This prospective cohort study aimed at examining predictions of functional disability, back pain and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) 2-3 years after lumbar fusion by regressing nonlinear relations in a multivariate predictive model of pre-surgical variables. Before and 2-3 years after lumbar fusion surgery, patients completed measures investigating demographics, work-related variables, clinical variables, functional self-efficacy, outcome expectancy, fear of movement/(re)injury, mental health and pain coping. Categorical regression with optimal scaling transformation, elastic net regularization and bootstrapping were used to investigate predictor variables and address predictive model validity. The most parsimonious and stable subset of pre-surgical predictor variables explained 41.6, 36.0 and 25.6% of the variance in functional disability, back pain intensity and HRQOL 2-3 years after lumbar fusion. Pre-surgical control over pain significantly predicted functional disability and HRQOL. Pre-surgical catastrophizing and leg pain intensity significantly predicted functional disability and back pain while the pre-surgical straight leg raise significantly predicted back pain. Post-operative psychomotor therapy also significantly predicted functional disability while pre-surgical outcome expectations significantly predicted HRQOL. For the median dichotomised classification of functional disability, back pain intensity and HRQOL levels 2-3 years post-surgery, the discriminative ability of the prediction models was of good quality. The results demonstrate the importance of pre-surgical psychological factors, leg pain intensity, straight leg raise and post-operative psychomotor therapy in the predictions of functional disability, back pain and HRQOL-related outcomes.

  12. Temporal predictors of health-related quality of life in elderly people with diabetes: results of a German cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maatouk, Imad; Wild, Beate; Wesche, Daniela; Herzog, Wolfgang; Raum, Elke; Müller, Heiko; Rothenbacher, Dietrich; Stegmaier, Christa; Schellberg, Dieter; Brenner, Hermann

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine predictors that influence health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in a large cohort of elderly diabetes patients from primary care over a follow-up period of five years. At the baseline measurement of the ESTHER cohort study (2000-2002), 1375 out of 9953 participants suffered from diabetes (13.8%). 1057 of these diabetes patients responded to the second-follow up (2005-2007). HRQOL at baseline and follow-up was measured using the SF-12; mental component scores (MCS) and physical component scores (PCS) were calculated; multiple linear regression models were used to determine predictors of HRQOL at follow-up. As possible predictors for HRQOL, the following baseline variables were examined: treatment with insulin, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), number of diabetes related complications, number of comorbid diseases, Body-Mass-Index (BMI), depression and HRQOL. Regression analyses were adjusted for sociodemographic variables and smoking status. 1034 patients (97.8%) responded to the SF-12 both at baseline and after five years and were therefore included in the study. Regression analyses indicated that significant predictors of decreased MCS were a lower HRQOL, a higher number of diabetes related complications and a reported history of depression at baseline. Complications, BMI, smoking and HRQOL at baseline significantly predicted PCS at the five year follow-up. Our findings expand evidence from previous cross-sectional data indicating that in elderly diabetes patients, depression, diabetes related complications, smoking and BMI are temporally predictive for HRQOL.

  13. Temporal predictors of health-related quality of life in elderly people with diabetes: results of a German cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imad Maatouk

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to determine predictors that influence health-related quality of life (HRQOL in a large cohort of elderly diabetes patients from primary care over a follow-up period of five years. METHODS AND RESULTS: At the baseline measurement of the ESTHER cohort study (2000-2002, 1375 out of 9953 participants suffered from diabetes (13.8%. 1057 of these diabetes patients responded to the second-follow up (2005-2007. HRQOL at baseline and follow-up was measured using the SF-12; mental component scores (MCS and physical component scores (PCS were calculated; multiple linear regression models were used to determine predictors of HRQOL at follow-up. As possible predictors for HRQOL, the following baseline variables were examined: treatment with insulin, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c, number of diabetes related complications, number of comorbid diseases, Body-Mass-Index (BMI, depression and HRQOL. Regression analyses were adjusted for sociodemographic variables and smoking status. 1034 patients (97.8% responded to the SF-12 both at baseline and after five years and were therefore included in the study. Regression analyses indicated that significant predictors of decreased MCS were a lower HRQOL, a higher number of diabetes related complications and a reported history of depression at baseline. Complications, BMI, smoking and HRQOL at baseline significantly predicted PCS at the five year follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings expand evidence from previous cross-sectional data indicating that in elderly diabetes patients, depression, diabetes related complications, smoking and BMI are temporally predictive for HRQOL.

  14. Cognitive and attitudinal predictors related to graphing achievement among pre-service elementary teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szyjka, Sebastian P.

    procedure allowed the researcher to explore the relationships among the affective and cognitive variables that were included in the regression analysis. The results for CFA indicated that the revised QALGS measure was sound in its psychometric properties when tested against the QASG. Reliability statistics indicated that the overall reliability for the 32 items in the QALGS was .90. The learning preferences construct had the lowest reliability (.67), while enjoyment (.89), confidence (.86) and usefulness (.77) constructs had moderate to high reliabilities. The first four measurement models fit the data well as indicated by the appropriate descriptive and statistical indices. However, the fifth measurement model did not fit the data well statistically, and only fit well with two descriptive indices. The results addressing the research question indicated that mathematical and logical thinking ability were significant predictors of line graph performance among the remaining group of variables. These predictors accounted for 41% of the total variability on the line graph performance variable. Partial correlation coefficients indicated that mathematics ability accounted for 20.5% of the variance on the line graphing performance variable when removing the effect of logical thinking. The logical thinking variable accounted for 4.7% of the variance on the line graphing performance variable when removing the effect of mathematics ability.

  15. Psychosocial predictors of energy underreporting in a large doubly labeled water study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tooze, Janet A; Subar, Amy F; Thompson, Frances E; Troiano, Richard; Schatzkin, Arthur; Kipnis, Victor

    2004-05-01

    Underreporting of energy intake is associated with self-reported diet measures and appears to be selective according to personal characteristics. Doubly labeled water is an unbiased reference biomarker for energy intake that may be used to assess underreporting. Our objective was to determine which factors are associated with underreporting of energy intake on food-frequency questionnaires (FFQs) and 24-h dietary recalls (24HRs). The study participants were 484 men and women aged 40-69 y who resided in Montgomery County, MD. Using the doubly labeled water method to measure total energy expenditure, we considered numerous psychosocial, lifestyle, and sociodemographic factors in multiple logistic regression models for prediction of the probability of underreporting on the FFQ and 24HR. In the FFQ models, fear of negative evaluation, weight-loss history, and percentage of energy from fat were the best predictors of underreporting in women (R(2) = 0.09); body mass index, comparison of activity level with that of others of the same sex and age, and eating frequency were the best predictors in men (R(2) = 0.10). In the 24HR models, social desirability, fear of negative evaluation, body mass index, percentage of energy from fat, usual activity, and variability in number of meals per day were the best predictors of underreporting in women (R(2) = 0.22); social desirability, dietary restraint, body mass index, eating frequency, dieting history, and education were the best predictors in men (R(2) = 0.25). Although the final models were significantly related to underreporting on both the FFQ and the 24HR, the amount of variation explained by these models was relatively low, especially for the FFQ.

  16. Validating predictors of disease progression in a large cohort of primary-progressive multiple sclerosis based on a systematic literature review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan-Patrick Stellmann

    Full Text Available New agents with neuroprotective or neuroregenerative potential might be explored in primary-progressive Multiple Sclerosis (PPMS--the MS disease course with leading neurodegenerative pathology. Identification of patients with a high short-term risk for progression may minimize study duration and sample size. Cohort studies reported several variables as predictors of EDSS disability progression but findings were partially contradictory.To analyse the impact of published predictors on EDSS disease progression in a large cohort of PPMS patients.A systematic literature research was performed to identify predictors for disease progression in PPMS. Individual case data from the Sylvia Lawry Centre (SLC and the Hamburg MS patient database (HAPIMS was pooled for a retrospective validation of these predictors on the annualized EDSS change.The systematic literature analysis revealed heterogeneous data from 3 prospective and 5 retrospective natural history cohort studies. Age at onset, gender, type of first symptoms and early EDSS changes were available for validation. Our pooled cohort of 597 PPMS patients (54% female had a mean follow-up of 4.4 years and mean change of EDSS of 0.35 per year based on 2503 EDSS assessments. There was no significant association between the investigated variables and the EDSS-change.None of the analysed variables were predictive for the disease progression measured by the annualized EDSS change. Whether PPMS is still unpredictable or our results may be due to limitations of cohort assessments or selection of predictors cannot be answered. Large systematic prospective studies with new endpoints are needed.

  17. Intergroup contact and religiosity as predictor of between group attitudes in conflict environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalić Bojan R.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to identify relations between level of religiosity and level of contact on one side and social attitudes towards members of religious out-groups in conflict environment on the other side. This research was conducted on the sample of Christian Orthodox students in Kosovska Mitrovica (which is partially conflict environment and the Muslims were the out-group towards whom attitudes were analyzed. Attitudes measures we used were social distance scale and semantic differential. Likert type scale was used for religiosity measure, quantity and quality of contact. Controlled variables in this research were: gender, age and social status. Results showed that significant amount of variance was explained by independent variables (R2=.270, F(7,779=9.241, p=.000 for semantic differential and R2=.306, F(5,105=9.241, p=.000. However, there is no significant correlation between religiosity and attitude level towards Muslims. Most of the variance for semantic differential was explained by quality of contact (R2=.255, F(1,109=37,285, p=.000 and this was the only significant predictor for this attitude measure. Quantity of contact was significant predictor for social distance attitude measure, with highest incremental value - calculated by hierarchical linear regression (R2change=.216, F(l,109=30,076, p=.000. Following predictor was quality of contact (R2????????=.049, F(l,108=7,269, p=.008 and the last predictor was sex, with the lowest incremental value (R2=.034, F(1,107=5,159, p=.025. These results are interpreted by probable existence of several types of religiosity. There is possibility that general religiosity we measured in this research, was influenced by different types of religiosity, which could be the reason why correlation was not identified. Correlation between quality of contact confirms results published by other authors (Allport, Pettigrew who claimed that contact by itself cannot diminish prejudices and lead to change

  18. Concurrent sexual partners-A predictor of Chlamydia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Marianne Johansson; Olesen, Frede; Maindal, Helle Terkildsen

    2013-01-01

    , but the significance of this compared with other well-known predictors has only been briefly described. Aim: The aim is to examine if concurrent partners isan independent predictor for C. trachomatis infection in young Danes aged 15-29 years. Methods: Detailed sexual behavior data were collected via a web......:These preliminary results suggest that concurrent sexual partners is an important predictor for C.trachomatis infections among young Danes aged 15-29. A more concise conclusion will be presented at the Ph.D day......Background:Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common sexually transmitted bacterial infection among young Danes and the spread is highly dependent on the population’s sexual behavior. Previous studies have found concurrent partnerships to be a possible predictor for C. trachomatis...

  19. Predictors of relationship power among drug-involved women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Aimee N C; Tross, Susan; Hu, Mei-chen; Pavlicova, Martina; Nunes, Edward V

    2012-08-01

    Gender-based relationship power is frequently linked to women's capacity to reduce sexual risk behaviors. This study offers an exploration of predictors of relationship power, as measured by the multidimensional and theoretically grounded sexual relationship power scale, among women in outpatient substance abuse treatment. Linear models were used to test nine predictors (age, race/ethnicity, education, time in treatment, economic dependence, substance use, sexual concurrency, partner abuse, and sex role orientation) of relationship power among 513 women participating in a multi-site HIV risk reduction intervention study. Significant predictors of relationship control included having a non-abusive male partner, only one male partner, and endorsing traditional masculine (or both masculine and feminine) sex role attributes. Predictors of decision-making dominance were interrelated, with substance use × partner abuse and age × sex role orientation interactions. Results contribute to the understanding of factors which may influence relationship power and to their potential role in HIV sexual risk reduction interventions.

  20. Predictors of the left ventricular dysfunction induced by ventricular arrhythmia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. І. Vytryhovskiy

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The most powerful predictor of life-threatening arrhythmia risk is a combination of low heart rate variability with low ejection fraction (EF of the left ventricle. Aim. To identify predictors of left ventricle dysfunction which is induced by ventricular arrhythmia. Materials and methods. To diagnose structural changes of left ventricular functional capacity and reserves in patients with previous myocardial infarction and patients with high and very high cardiovascular risk by SCORE scale and for establishment the relationship between morphological heart changes and pathological phenomenon of heart turbulence echocardiography and study of heart rate turbulence variability were performed. 603 patients were selected for the research. All patients were divided into groups: group 1 – patients with coronary heart disease, but without associated risk factors, such as smoking, obesity, metabolic syndrome; group 2 – patients who smoke tobacco more than 2 years (very high cardiovascular risk by scale SCORE; group 3 – patients with metabolic syndrome without coronary heart disease or arterial hypertension (very high cardiovascular risk by scale SCORE. The control group consisted of 149 persons. Results. The feature of structural changes in patients with myocardial infarction and in patients with a high cardiovascular risk by SCORE with heart rate turbulence compared with cases without НRT is considerably thickening of the left interventricular septum in systole. Based on this, it can be argued that the emergence of ventricular arrhythmia and accordingly phenomenon of heart rate turbulence in patients with existing cardiovascular diseases and risk factors has both morphological and functional character. Significant difference of echocardioscopy parameters in patients with postinfarction cardiosclerosis and risk factors by the SCORE system was established by index of intraventricular septum thickness in systole, and in persons with high risk – in

  1. Disability predictors in chronic low back pain after aquatic exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baena-Beato, Pedro Ángel; Delgado-Fernández, Manuel; Artero, Enrique G; Robles-Fuentes, Alejandro; Gatto-Cardia, María Claudia; Arroyo-Morales, Manuel

    2014-07-01

    The physical and psychological factors associated with reduction of disability after aquatic exercise are not well understood. Sixty participants (30 men and 30 women; age, 50.60 [9.69] yrs; body mass index, 27.21 [5.20] kg/m²) with chronic low back pain were prospectively recruited. The 8-wk aquatic therapy program was carried out in an indoor pool sized 25 × 6 m, with 140-cm water depth and 30°C (1°C) of water temperature, where patients exercised for 2-5 days a week. Each aquatic exercise session lasted 55-60 mins (10 mins of warm-up, 20-25 mins of aerobic exercise, 15-20 mins of resistance exercise, and 10 mins of cooldown). Demographic information, disability (Oswestry Disability Index), back pain (visual analog scale), quality-of-life (Short Form 36), abdominal muscular endurance (curl-up), handgrip strength, trunk flexion and hamstring length (sit and reach), resting heart rate, and body mass index were outcomes variables. Significant correlations between change in disability and visual analog scale (at rest, flexion, and extension), curl-up and handgrip (r ranged between -0.353 and 0.582, all Ps pain and abdominal muscular endurance were significant predictors of change in disability after therapy.

  2. Social Isolation and Aging in Zambia: Examining the Possible Predictors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Chabila Mapoma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This research paper examined social isolation and aging in Zambia by examining possible predictors. The paper produces evidence on risk factors likely to engender social isolation among the elderly population of Zambia. Snowball sampling was undertaken to select 690 adults aged 60 and over in communities as well as those living in homes for the aged. A structured questionnaire was used to solicit information from respondents. Results show that old people in Zambia experience forms of social isolation which exhibit themselves (but not limited to through such factors as loss of appetite, stress, moody, hopeless, useless, unhappy, and lonely. On balance, however, the direction of association and the number of statistically significant findings suggest that associations between variables examined and risk factors associated with social isolation amongst older people in this analysis could explain the overall situation occuring currently in Zambia and probably other developing countries. In view of this, this study recommends that further work is needed to identify and explain details of factors of social isolation using techniques such as focus group discussions as well as in-depth interviews with key informants. Such approaches may even help to explain why, for example, sex seems not to be significant in determining indicators of social isolation.

  3. Take charge: Personality as predictor of recovery from eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levallius, Johanna; Roberts, Brent W; Clinton, David; Norring, Claes

    2016-12-30

    Many treatments for eating disorders (ED) have demonstrated success. However, not all patients respond the same to interventions nor achieve full recovery, and obvious candidates like ED diagnosis and symptoms have generally failed to explain this variability. The current study investigated the predictive utility of personality for outcome in ED treatment. One hundred and thirty adult patients with bulimia nervosa or eating disorder not otherwise specified enrolled in an intensive multimodal treatment for 16 weeks. Personality was assessed with the NEO Personality Inventory Revised (NEO PI-R). Outcome was defined as recovered versus still ill and also as symptom score at termination with the Eating Disorder Inventory-2 (EDI-2). Personality significantly predicted both recovery (70% of patients) and symptom improvement. Patients who recovered reported significantly higher levels of Extraversion at baseline than the still ill, and Assertiveness emerged as the personality trait best predicting variance in outcome. This study indicates that personality might hold promise as predictor of recovery after treatment for ED. Future research might investigate if adding interventions to address personality features improves outcome for ED patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Predictors of condom use and refusal among the population of Free State province in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandran Thoovakkunon

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study investigated the extent and predictors of condom use and condom refusal in the Free State province in South Africa. Methods Through a household survey conducted in the Free Sate province of South Africa, 5,837 adults were interviewed. Univariate and multivariate survey logistic regressions and classification trees (CT were used for analysing two response variables ‘ever used condom’ and ‘ever refused condom’. Results Eighty-three per cent of the respondents had ever used condoms, of which 38% always used them; 61% used them during the last sexual intercourse and 9% had ever refused to use them. The univariate logistic regression models and CT analysis indicated that a strong predictor of condom use was its perceived need. In the CT analysis, this variable was followed in importance by ‘knowledge of correct use of condom’, condom availability, young age, being single and higher education. ‘Perceived need’ for condoms did not remain significant in the multivariate analysis after controlling for other variables. The strongest predictor of condom refusal, as shown by the CT, was shame associated with condoms followed by the presence of sexual risk behaviour, knowing one’s HIV status, older age and lacking knowledge of condoms (i.e., ability to prevent sexually transmitted diseases and pregnancy, availability, correct and consistent use and existence of female condoms. In the multivariate logistic regression, age was not significant for condom refusal while affordability and perceived need were additional significant variables. Conclusions The use of complementary modelling techniques such as CT in addition to logistic regressions adds to a better understanding of condom use and refusal. Further improvement in correct and consistent use of condoms will require targeted interventions. In addition to existing social marketing campaigns, tailored approaches should focus on establishing the perceived need

  5. Predictors of Bone Mineral Density in African-American and Caucasian College Aged Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea K. Johnson

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Research regarding risk factors and prevalence of low bone min-eral density (BMD among African-American and Caucasian college-aged wom-en are limited. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to determine if selected predictors of BMD in African-American and Caucasian college-aged women differ by race.Methods: A total of 101 local African-American (n=50 and Caucasian (n=51 females, ages 18 to 30 years, were in this study. All data were collected in the Bone Density and Body Composition Laboratory. BMD was measured using DXA technology. Race, family history of osteoporosis, BMI, current physical activity, osteoporosis knowledge, length of time on oral contraceptives, age at menarche and calcium intake were included in the multiple regression analyses with spinal and femoral BMD as dependent variables.Results: Overall, 38.6% had low spinal BMD and 7.9% had low femoral BMD. BMI (β=0.073, R2 = .148, P = .001, 95% CI [0.030, 0.116] and current physical activity (β=0.071, R2 = .148, P = .017, 95% CI [0.013, 0.129] were the only variables that were statistically significant in predicting spinal BMD. BMI (β=0.056, R2 = .13, P = .010, 95% CI [0.014, 0.098] and current physical activ-ity (β=0.078, R2 = .13, P = .007, 95% CI [0.022, 0.134] were also the only varia-bles that were statistically significant in predicting femoral BMD. Race was not a significant predictor of spinal or femoral BMD.Conclusion: It is imperative for both African-American and Caucasian women to engage in osteoporosis-preventive behaviors.

  6. Predictors of Citation Rate in Psychology: Inconclusive Influence of Effect and Sample Size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanel, Paul H P; Haase, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    In the present article, we investigate predictors of how often a scientific article is cited. Specifically, we focus on the influence of two often neglected predictors of citation rate: effect size and sample size, using samples from two psychological topical areas. Both can be considered as indicators of the importance of an article and post hoc (or observed) statistical power, and should, especially in applied fields, predict citation rates. In Study 1, effect size did not have an influence on citation rates across a topical area, both with and without controlling for numerous variables that have been previously linked to citation rates. In contrast, sample size predicted citation rates, but only while controlling for other variables. In Study 2, sample and partly effect sizes predicted citation rates, indicating that the relations vary even between scientific topical areas. Statistically significant results had more citations in Study 2 but not in Study 1. The results indicate that the importance (or power) of scientific findings may not be as strongly related to citation rate as is generally assumed.

  7. Gambling Disorder: Exploring Pre-treatment and In-treatment Dropout Predictors. A UK Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronzitti, Silvia; Soldini, Emiliano; Smith, Neil; Clerici, Massimo; Bowden-Jones, Henrietta

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to identify predictors of treatment dropout in a sample of gamblers attending a specialist clinic for gambling disorder. We analysed data on 846 treatment-seeking pathological gamblers. Firstly, we investigated differences in socio-demographic and clinical variables between treatment completers and pre-treatment dropouts, as well as between treatment completers and during-treatment dropouts. Subsequently, variables were entered into a multinomial logistic regression model to identify significant predictors of pre-treatment and in-treatment dropout. Overall, 44.8% of clients did not complete the treatment: 27.4% dropped out before starting it, while 17.4% dropped out during the treatment. Younger age and use of drugs were associated with pre-treatment dropout, while family history of gambling disorder, a lower PGSI score, and being a smoker were related with in-treatment dropout. Our findings suggest that pre-treatment dropouts differ from in-treatment dropouts, and, thus, further research will benefit from considering these groups separately. In addition, this newly gained knowledge will also be helpful in increasing treatment retention in specific subgroups of problem gamblers.

  8. Crowdsourcing novel childhood predictors of adult obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevelander, Kirsten E; Kaipainen, Kirsikka; Swain, Robert; Dohle, Simone; Bongard, Josh C; Hines, Paul D H; Wansink, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Effective and simple screening tools are needed to detect behaviors that are established early in life and have a significant influence on weight gain later in life. Crowdsourcing could be a novel and potentially useful tool to assess childhood predictors of adult obesity. This exploratory study examined whether crowdsourcing could generate well-documented predictors in obesity research and, moreover, whether new directions for future research could be uncovered. Participants were recruited through social media to a question-generation website, on which they answered questions and were able to pose new questions that they thought could predict obesity. During the two weeks of data collection, 532 participants (62% female; age  =  26.5±6.7; BMI  =  29.0±7.0) registered on the website and suggested a total of 56 unique questions. Nineteen of these questions correlated with body mass index (BMI) and covered several themes identified by prior research, such as parenting styles and healthy lifestyle. More importantly, participants were able to identify potential determinants that were related to a lower BMI, but have not been the subject of extensive research, such as parents packing their children's lunch to school or talking to them about nutrition. The findings indicate that crowdsourcing can reproduce already existing hypotheses and also generate ideas that are less well documented. The crowdsourced predictors discovered in this study emphasize the importance of family interventions to fight obesity. The questions generated by participants also suggest new ways to express known predictors.

  9. Crowdsourcing novel childhood predictors of adult obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten E Bevelander

    Full Text Available Effective and simple screening tools are needed to detect behaviors that are established early in life and have a significant influence on weight gain later in life. Crowdsourcing could be a novel and potentially useful tool to assess childhood predictors of adult obesity. This exploratory study examined whether crowdsourcing could generate well-documented predictors in obesity research and, moreover, whether new directions for future research could be uncovered. Participants were recruited through social media to a question-generation website, on which they answered questions and were able to pose new questions that they thought could predict obesity. During the two weeks of data collection, 532 participants (62% female; age  =  26.5±6.7; BMI  =  29.0±7.0 registered on the website and suggested a total of 56 unique questions. Nineteen of these questions correlated with body mass index (BMI and covered several themes identified by prior research, such as parenting styles and healthy lifestyle. More importantly, participants were able to identify potential determinants that were related to a lower BMI, but have not been the subject of extensive research, such as parents packing their children's lunch to school or talking to them about nutrition. The findings indicate that crowdsourcing can reproduce already existing hypotheses and also generate ideas that are less well documented. The crowdsourced predictors discovered in this study emphasize the importance of family interventions to fight obesity. The questions generated by participants also suggest new ways to express known predictors.

  10. Predictors of job satisfaction among academic faculty members: do instructional and clinical staff differ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Kevin C; Song, Jae W; Kim, H Myra; Woolliscroft, James O; Quint, Elisabeth H; Lukacs, Nicholas W; Gyetko, Margaret R

    2010-10-01

    This study aimed to identify and compare predictors of job satisfaction between instructional and clinical faculty members. A 61-item faculty job satisfaction survey was distributed to 1898 academic faculty members at the University of Michigan Medical School. The anonymous survey was web-based. Questions covered topics on departmental organisation, research, clinical and teaching support, compensation, mentorship, and promotion. Levels of satisfaction were contrasted between faculty members on the two tracks, and predictors of job satisfaction were identified using linear regression models. Response rates for the instructional and clinical faculty groups were 43.1% and 46.7%, respectively. Clinical faculty members reported being less satisfied with how they were mentored and fewer reported understanding the process for promotion. There was no significant difference in overall job satisfaction between the two faculty groups. Surprisingly, clinical faculty members with mentors were significantly less satisfied with how they were mentored and with career advancement, and were significantly less likely to choose an academic career if they had to do it all over again compared with instructional faculty mentees. Additionally, senior-level clinical faculty members were significantly less satisfied with their opportunities to mentor junior faculty members compared with senior-level instructional faculty staff. Significant predictors of job satisfaction for both groups included areas of autonomy, meeting career expectations, work-life balance, and departmental leadership. In the clinical track only, compensation and career advancement variables also emerged as significant predictors of overall job satisfaction. Greater emphasis must be placed on faculty members' well-being at both the institutional level and the level of departmental leadership. Efforts to enhance job satisfaction and improve retention are more likely to succeed if they are directed by locally designed

  11. Complex variables

    CERN Document Server

    Fisher, Stephen D

    1999-01-01

    The most important topics in the theory and application of complex variables receive a thorough, coherent treatment in this introductory text. Intended for undergraduates or graduate students in science, mathematics, and engineering, this volume features hundreds of solved examples, exercises, and applications designed to foster a complete understanding of complex variables as well as an appreciation of their mathematical beauty and elegance. Prerequisites are minimal; a three-semester course in calculus will suffice to prepare students for discussions of these topics: the complex plane, basic

  12. Radiotherapy is associated with significant improvement in local and regional control in Merkel cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Susan H; Haydu, Lauren E; Goh, Robin Yeong Hong; Fogarty, Gerald B

    2012-01-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare tumour of skin. This study is a retrospective audit of patients with MCC from St Vincent’s and Mater Hospital, Sydney, Australia. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of radiotherapy (RT) on the local and regional control of MCC lesions and survival of patients with MCC. The data bases in anatomical pathology, RT and surgery. We searched for patients having a diagnosis of MCC between 1996 and 2007. Patient, tumour and treatment characteristics were collected and analysed. Univariate survival analysis of categorical variables was conducted with the Kaplan-Meier method together with the Log-Rank test for statistical significance. Continuous variables were assessed using the Cox regression method. Multivariate analysis was performed for significant univariate results. Sixty seven patients were found. Sixty two who were stage I-III and were treated with radical intent were analysed. 68% were male. The median age was 74 years. Forty-two cases (68%) were stage I or II, and 20 cases (32%) were stage III. For the subset of 42 stage I and II patients, those that had RT to their primary site had a 2-year local recurrence free survival of 89% compared with 36% for patients not receiving RT (p<0.001). The cumulative 2-year regional recurrence free survival for patients having adjuvant regional RT was 84% compared with 43% for patients not receiving this treatment (p<0.001). Immune status at initial surgery was a significant predictor for OS and MCCSS. In a multivariate analysis combining macroscopic size (mm) and immune status at initial surgery, only immune status remained a significant predictor of overall survival (HR=2.096, 95% CI: 1.002-4.385, p=0.049). RT is associated with significant improvement in local and regional control in Merkel cell carcinoma. Immunosuppression is an important factor in overall survival

  13. Probabilistic Electricity Price Forecasting Models by Aggregation of Competitive Predictors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Monteiro

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This article presents original probabilistic price forecasting meta-models (PPFMCP models, by aggregation of competitive predictors, for day-ahead hourly probabilistic price forecasting. The best twenty predictors of the EEM2016 EPF competition are used to create ensembles of hourly spot price forecasts. For each hour, the parameter values of the probability density function (PDF of a Beta distribution for the output variable (hourly price can be directly obtained from the expected and variance values associated to the ensemble for such hour, using three aggregation strategies of predictor forecasts corresponding to three PPFMCP models. A Reliability Indicator (RI and a Loss function Indicator (LI are also introduced to give a measure of uncertainty of probabilistic price forecasts. The three PPFMCP models were satisfactorily applied to the real-world case study of the Iberian Electricity Market (MIBEL. Results from PPFMCP models showed that PPFMCP model 2, which uses aggregation by weight values according to daily ranks of predictors, was the best probabilistic meta-model from a point of view of mean absolute errors, as well as of RI and LI. PPFMCP model 1, which uses the averaging of predictor forecasts, was the second best meta-model. PPFMCP models allow evaluations of risk decisions based on the price to be made.

  14. Selection of the most powerful predictors for the evaluation of hepatic steatosis grade: An experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Zhongzhen; Shan Hong; He Bingjun; Lv Wentian; Meng Xiaochun; Wang Jin; Zhu Kangshun; Yang Yang; Chen Guihua

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To select the most powerful predictors for the evaluation of hepatic steatosis grade. Methods and materials: Forty-five healthy New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into one normal control group and three experimental groups. Hepatic steatosis models were established by feeding a high-fat, high-sugar diet and drinking water containing 5% ethanol. Twenty-two variable indexes were measured using general observation, biochemical examination, ultrasonography, computed tomography (CT), and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Univariate analysis, correlation analysis, and stepwise regression analysis were used to make the selection of the most powerful predictors. ROC analysis was used to compare the diagnostic efficacy of single index with combined index (Y) expressed by a regression equation. Results: Based on statistical analysis, there were 12 variable indexes with significant differences among groups, which correlated with hepatic steatosis grade: liver weight, hepatic index, liver CT value, liver-to-muscle attenuation ratio, 1 H MRS fat peak value, fat peak area, fat-to-water peak area ratio, fat percentage, ultrasound attenuation coefficient, serum aspartate aminotransferase, total cholesterol (TC) and triglycerides. Among them hepatic index, liver CT value and serum TC were selected as the most powerful predictors for hepatic steatosis grade with correlation coefficients of 0.709, -0.764, and 0.886, respectively. The regression equation was: Y = 1.975 + 3.906 x 10 -2 X 1 + 0.369X 2 - 2.84 x 10 -2 X 3 , where Y = hepatic steatosis grade, X 1 = TC, X 2 = hepatic index, and X 3 = liver CT value. ROC analysis displayed PPV, NPV, curve area of combined index (Y) were superior to simple index (hepatic index, liver CT value and serum TC) in evaluating hepatic steatosis grade, and they were nearly 1.0000, 1.0000 and 1.000, respectively. Conclusions: Combined application of several diagnostic methods is superior to simple diagnostic method, and

  15. The prevalence and predictors of severe depression among the elderly in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Abdul; Tahir, Ibrahim

    2015-03-01

    The population of Malaysia is relatively young, due to this there is a dearth in research conducted among the elderly especially relating to depression. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence and the predictors of severe depression among the elderly in Malaysia. A sample of 2005 older adults randomly selected from the Penang State government's list of elderly receiving aid participated in the study. The Geriatric Depression Scale was used to screen for depression. Socio-demographic, social support, disease, functional and other factors were looked at as possible predictor variables. The prevalence of severe depression was 19.2 %. Indians (aOR = 2.0), being married (aOR = 10.5), widowed & divorced (aOR = 5.2), having poor (aOR = 2.7) or moderate social support (aOR = 2.7), having no one (aOR = 2.9), relatives (aOR = 2.3) or religious figures & others (aOR = 1.9) as compared to a spouse as a source of emotional support, feeling extremely lonely (aOR = 3.4), not socially active (aOR = 2.3), cognitively impaired (aOR 2.5), activities limited due to illness or disability (aOR = 1.6) and poor sleep quality (aOR = 3.6) were significant predictor variables. The prevalence of severe depression was high. It is pertinent that older adults, especially those with risk factors identified in this study be screened for depression at every opportunity.

  16. Self-efficacy, stress, and acculturation as predictors of first year science success among Latinos at a South Texas university

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Mark W.

    The study tested the hypothesis that self-efficacy, stress, and acculturation are useful predictors of academic achievement in first year university science, independent of high school GPA and SAT scores, in a sample of Latino students at a South Texas Hispanic serving institution of higher education. The correlational study employed a mixed methods explanatory sequential model. The non-probability sample consisted of 98 university science and engineering students. The study participants had high science self-efficacy, low number of stressors, and were slightly Anglo-oriented bicultural to strongly Anglo-oriented. As expected, the control variables of SAT score and high school GPA were statistically significant predictors of the outcome measures. Together, they accounted for 19.80% of the variation in first year GPA, 13.80% of the variation in earned credit hours, and 11.30% of the variation in intent to remain in the science major. After controlling for SAT scores and high school GPAs, self-efficacy was a statistically significant predictor of credit hours earned and accounted for 5.60% of the variation; its unique contribution in explaining the variation in first year GPA and intent to remain in the science major was not statistically significant. Stress and acculturation were not statistically significant predictors of any of the outcome measures. Analysis of the qualitative data resulted in six themes (a) high science self-efficacy, (b) stressors, (c) positive role of stress, (d) Anglo-oriented, (e) bicultural, and (f) family. The quantitative and qualitative results were synthesized and practical implications were discussed.

  17. Predictors of job satisfaction among academic family medicine faculty: Findings from a faculty work-life and leadership survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Paul; White, David; Meaney, Christopher; Kwong, Jeffrey; Antao, Viola; Kim, Florence

    2017-03-01

    To identify predictors of job satisfaction among academic family medicine faculty members. A comprehensive Web-based survey of all faculty members in an academic department of family medicine. Bivariate and multivariable analyses (logistic regression) were used to identify variables associated with job satisfaction. The Department of Family and Community Medicine at the University of Toronto in Ontario and its 15 affiliated community teaching hospitals and community-based teaching practices. All 1029 faculty members in the Department of Family and Community Medicine were invited to complete the survey. Faculty members' demographic and practice information; teaching, clinical, administration, and research activities; leadership roles; training needs and preferences; mentorship experiences; health status; stress levels; burnout levels; and job satisfaction. Faculty members' perceptions about supports provided, recognition, communication, retention, workload, teamwork, respect, resource distribution, remuneration, and infrastructure support. Faculty members' job satisfaction, which was the main outcome variable, was obtained from the question, "Overall, how satisfied are you with your job?" Of the 1029 faculty members, 687 (66.8%) responded to the survey. Bivariate analyses revealed 26 predictors as being statistically significantly associated with job satisfaction, including faculty members' ratings of their local department and main practice setting, their ratings of leadership and mentorship experiences, health status variables, and demographic variables. The multivariable analyses identified the following 5 predictors of job satisfaction: the Maslach Burnout Inventory subscales of emotional exhaustion and personal accomplishment; being born in Canada; the overall quality of mentorship that was received being rated as very good or excellent; and teamwork being rated as very good or excellent. The findings from this study show that job satisfaction among academic

  18. Intrinsic motivation as a predictor of work outcome after vocational rehabilitation in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saperstein, Alice M; Fiszdon, Joanna M; Bell, Morris D

    2011-09-01

    Intrinsic motivation is a construct commonly used in explaining goal-directed behavior. In people with schizophrenia, intrinsic motivation is usually subsumed as a feature of negative symptoms or underlying neurocognitive dysfunction. A growing literature reflects an interest in defining and measuring motivational impairment in schizophrenia and in delineating the specific role of intrinsic motivation as both an independent predictor and a mediator of psychosocial functioning. This cross-sectional study examined intrinsic motivation as a predictor of vocational outcomes for 145 individuals with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder participating in a 6-month work rehabilitation trial. Correlation and mediation analyses examined baseline intrinsic motivation and negative symptoms in relation to work hours and work performance. Data support a significant relationship between intrinsic motivation and negative symptoms and significant correlations with outcome variables, such that lower negative symptoms and greater intrinsic motivation were associated with better work functioning. Moreover, in this sample, intrinsic motivation fully mediated the relationships between negative symptoms, work productivity, and work performance. These results have significant implications on the design of work rehabilitation interventions for people with schizophrenia and support a role for targeting intrinsic motivation directly to influence vocational functioning. Future directions for research and intervention are discussed.

  19. Predictors of students' self-esteem: The importance of body self-perception and exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazarević Ljiljana B.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to explore the predictive validity of physical self-efficacy, social physique anxiety, and physical activity in the self-esteem of students, as well as to investigate potential gender differences. The Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale (SES, Physical Self-Efficacy Scale (PSES, Social Physique Anxiety Scale (SPAS, and a short questionnaire about physical activity were administered to a sample of 232 university students. The overall results show that students are moderately physically active (on the average, 2.75 times per week, have moderately high selfesteem and physical self-efficacy and lower social physique anxiety. No gender differences were detected in self-esteem. In other variables, gender differences are significant and mostly in favour of males. The analyses showed that self-esteem correlated positively with physical self-efficacy and physical activity, and negatively with social physique anxiety. The regression analyses indicated that physical selfefficacy, social physique anxiety and female gender were significant predictors of self-esteem. Physical activity was not a significant predictor of self-esteem. Future studies should investigate the relations of body self-perceptions, physical exercise, and domain-specific self-esteem.

  20. Variable stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feast, M.W.; Wenzel, W.; Fernie, J.D.; Percy, J.R.; Smak, J.; Gascoigne, S.C.B.; Grindley, J.E.; Lovell, B.; Sawyer Hogg, H.B.; Baker, N.; Fitch, W.S.; Rosino, L.; Gursky, H.

    1976-01-01

    A critical review of variable stars is presented. A fairly complete summary of major developments and discoveries during the period 1973-1975 is given. The broad developments and new trends are outlined. Essential problems for future research are identified. (B.R.H. )

  1. Who will lose weight? A reexamination of predictors of weight loss in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barata José T

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to analyze pretreatment predictors of short-term weight loss in Portuguese overweight and obese women involved in a weight management program. Behavioral and psychosocial predictors were selected a priori from previous results reported in American women who participated in a similar program. Methods Subjects were 140 healthy overweight/obese women (age, 38.3 ± 5.9 y; BMI, 30.3 ± 3.7 kg/m2 who participated in a 4-month lifestyle weight loss program consisting of group-based behavior therapy to improve diet and increase physical activity. At baseline, all women completed a comprehensive behavioral and psychosocial battery, in standardized conditions. Results Of all starting participants, 3.5% (5 subjects did not finish the program. By treatment's end, more than half of all women had met the recomended weight loss goals, despite a large variability in individual results (range for weight loss = 19 kg. In bivariate and multivariate correlation/regression analysis fewer previous diets and weight outcome evaluations, and to a lesser extent self-motivation and body image were significant and independent predictors of weight reduction, before and after adjustment for baseline weight. A negative and slightly curvilinear relationship best described the association between outcome evaluations and weight change, revealing that persons with very accepting evaluations (that would accept or be happy with minimal weight change lost the least amount of weight while positive but moderate evaluations of outcomes (i.e., neither low nor extremely demanding were more predictive of success. Among those subjects who reported having initiated more than 3–4 diets in the year before the study, very few were found to be in the most successful group after treatment. Quality of life, self-esteem, and exercise variables did not predict outcomes. Conclusions Several variables were confirmed as predictors of success in short

  2. Religiosity and Authoritarianism as Predictors of Attitude toward the Disabled: A Regression Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunick, Roy H.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    This study identifies predictors and correlates of attitudes toward the disabled. Authoritarianism, church attendance, religious orthodoxy, age, and education were significantly related to these attitudes of people in a Rocky Mountain Community. Significant predictors of the criterion were authoritarianism, religiosity, and age. Recommendations…

  3. Prediction of employer-employee relationships from sociodemographic variables and social values in Brunei public and private sector workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundia, Lawrence; Mahalle, Salwa; Matzin, Rohani; Nasir Zakaria, Gamal Abdul; Abdullah, Nor Zaiham Midawati; Abdul Latif, Siti Norhedayah

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to identify the sociodemographic variables and social value correlates and predictors of employer-employee relationship problems in a random sample of 860 Brunei public and private sector workers of both genders. A quantitative field survey design was used and data were analyzed by correlation and logistic regression. The rationale and justification for using this approach is explained. The main sociodemographic correlates and predictors of employer-employee relationship problems in this study were educational level and the district in which the employee resided and worked. Other correlates, but not necessarily predictors, of employer-employee relationship problems were seeking help from the Bomo (traditional healer); obtaining help from online social networking; and workers with children in the family. The two best and most significant social value correlates and predictors of employer-employee relationship problems included interpersonal communications; and self-regulation and self-direction. Low scorers on the following variables were also associated with high likelihood for possessing employer-employee relationship problems: satisfaction with work achievements; and peace and security, while low scorers on work stress had lower odds of having employer-employee relationship problems. Other significant social value correlates, but not predictors of employer-employee relationship problems were self-presentation; interpersonal trust; peace and security; and general anxiety. Consistent with findings of relevant previous studies conducted elsewhere, there were the variables that correlated with and predicted employer-employee relationship problems in Brunei public and private sector workers. Having identified these, the next step, efforts and priority should be directed at addressing the presenting issues via counseling and psychotherapy with affected employees. Further research is recommended to understand better the problem and its

  4. Prediction of employer–employee relationships from sociodemographic variables and social values in Brunei public and private sector workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundia, Lawrence; Mahalle, Salwa; Matzin, Rohani; Nasir Zakaria, Gamal Abdul; Abdullah, Nor Zaiham Midawati; Abdul Latif, Siti Norhedayah

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to identify the sociodemographic variables and social value correlates and predictors of employer–employee relationship problems in a random sample of 860 Brunei public and private sector workers of both genders. A quantitative field survey design was used and data were analyzed by correlation and logistic regression. The rationale and justification for using this approach is explained. The main sociodemographic correlates and predictors of employer–employee relationship problems in this study were educational level and the district in which the employee resided and worked. Other correlates, but not necessarily predictors, of employer–employee relationship problems were seeking help from the Bomo (traditional healer); obtaining help from online social networking; and workers with children in the family. The two best and most significant social value correlates and predictors of employer–employee relationship problems included interpersonal communications; and self-regulation and self-direction. Low scorers on the following variables were also associated with high likelihood for possessing employer–employee relationship problems: satisfaction with work achievements; and peace and security, while low scorers on work stress had lower odds of having employer–employee relationship problems. Other significant social value correlates, but not predictors of employer–employee relationship problems were self-presentation; interpersonal trust; peace and security; and general anxiety. Consistent with findings of relevant previous studies conducted elsewhere, there were the variables that correlated with and predicted employer–employee relationship problems in Brunei public and private sector workers. Having identified these, the next step, efforts and priority should be directed at addressing the presenting issues via counseling and psychotherapy with affected employees. Further research is recommended to understand better the

  5. Rationalising predictors of child sexual exploitation and sex-trading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klatt, Thimna; Cavner, Della; Egan, Vincent

    2014-02-01

    Although there is evidence for specific risk factors leading to child sexual exploitation and prostitution, these influences overlap and have rarely been examined concurrently. The present study examined case files for 175 young persons who attended a voluntary organization in Leicester, United Kingdom, which supports people who are sexually exploited or at risk of sexual exploitation. Based on the case files, the presence or absence of known risk factors for becoming a sex worker was coded. Data were analyzed using t-test, logistic regression, and smallest space analysis. Users of the voluntary organization's services who had been sexually exploited exhibited a significantly greater number of risk factors than service users who had not been victims of sexual exploitation. The logistic regression produced a significant model fit. However, of the 14 potential predictors--many of which were associated with each other--only four variables significantly predicted actual sexual exploitation: running away, poverty, drug and/or alcohol use, and having friends or family members in prostitution. Surprisingly, running away was found to significantly decrease the odds of becoming involved in sexual exploitation. Smallest space analysis of the data revealed 5 clusters of risk factors. Two of the clusters, which reflected a desperation and need construct and immature or out-of-control lifestyles, were significantly associated with sexual exploitation. Our research suggests that some risk factors (e.g. physical and emotional abuse, early delinquency, and homelessness) for becoming involved in sexual exploitation are common but are part of the problematic milieu of the individuals affected and not directly associated with sex trading itself. Our results also indicate that it is important to engage with the families and associates of young persons at risk of becoming (or remaining) a sex worker if one wants to reduce the numbers of persons who engage in this activity. Copyright

  6. Predictors of mortality in patients initiating antiretroviral therapy in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a history of oral candidiasis (HR 2.58, 95% CI 1.37 - 4.88) remained significant in multivariate analysis. A history of tuberculosis was not a significant predictor of mortality. Conclusions. Simple clinical and laboratory data independently predict mortality and allow for risk stratification in patients initiating ART in South Africa.

  7. Predictors of undiagnosed prevalent type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heltberg, Andreas Søndergaard; Andersen, John Sahl; Sandholdt, Håkon

    2018-01-01

    AIMS: To investigate how self-reported risk factors (including socioeconomic status) predict undiagnosed, prevalent type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). To externally validate Leicester Risk Assessment Score (LRAS), Finnish Diabetes Risk Score (FINDRISC) and Danish Diabetes Risk Score (DDRS......), and to investigate how these predict a European Heart SCORE≥5% in a Danish population study. METHODS: We included 21,205 adults from the Danish General Suburban Population Study. We used relative importance calculations of self-reported variables in prediction of undiagnosed T2DM. We externally validated established...... prediction models reporting ROC-curves for undiagnosed T2DM, pre-diabetes and SCORE. RESULTS: More than 20% of people with T2DM were undiagnosed. The 7 most important self-rated predictors in sequential order were high BMI, antihypertensive-therapy, age, cardiovascular disease, waist-circumference, fitness...

  8. Predictors of abdominal injuries in blunt trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrath, Samiris; Parreira, José Gustavo; Perlingeiro, Jacqueline A G; Solda, Silvia C; Assef, José Cesar

    2012-01-01

    To identify predictors of abdominal injuries in victims of blunt trauma. retrospective analysis of trauma protocols (collected prospectively) of adult victims of blunt trauma in a period of 15 months. Variables were compared between patients with abdominal injuries (AIS>0) detected by computed tomography or/and laparotomy (group I) and others (AIS=0, group II). Student's t, Fisher and qui-square tests were used for statistical analysis, considering p3) in head (18.5% vs. 7.9%), thorax (29.2% vs. 2.4%) and extremities (40.0% vs. 13.7%). The highest odds ratios for the diagnosis of abdominal injuries were associated flail chest (21.8) and pelvic fractures (21.0). Abdominal injuries were more frequently observed in patients with hemodynamic instability, changes in Glasgow coma scale and severe lesions to the head, chest and extremities.

  9. Potential predictors of psychological distress and well-being in medical students: a cross-sectional pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bore, Miles; Kelly, Brian; Nair, Balakrishnan

    2016-01-01

    Research has consistently found that the proportion of medical students who experience high levels of psychological distress is significantly greater than that found in the general population. The aim of our research was to assess the levels of psychological distress more extensively than has been done before, and to determine likely predictors of distress and well-being. In 2013, students from an Australian undergraduate medical school (n=127) completed a questionnaire that recorded general demographics, hours per week spent studying, in paid work, volunteer work, and physical exercise; past and current physical and mental health, social support, substance use, measures of psychological distress (Kessler Psychological Distress Scale, depression, anxiety, stress, burnout); and personality traits. Females were found to have higher levels of psychological distress than males. However, in regression analysis, the effect of sex was reduced to nonsignificance when other variables were included as predictors of psychological distress. The most consistent significant predictors of our 20 indicators of psychological distress were social support and the personality traits of emotional resilience and self-control. The findings suggest that emotional resilience skills training embedded into the medical school curriculum could reduce psychological distress among medical students.

  10. Potential predictors of psychological distress and well-being in medical students: a cross-sectional pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bore M

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Miles Bore,1 Brian Kelly,2 Balakrishnan Nair2 1School of Psychology, 2School of Medicine and Public Health, University of Newcastle, Newcastle, NSW, Australia Purpose: Research has consistently found that the proportion of medical students who experience high levels of psychological distress is significantly greater than that found in the general population. The aim of our research was to assess the levels of psychological distress more extensively than has been done before, and to determine likely predictors of distress and well-being. Subjects and methods: In 2013, students from an Australian undergraduate medical school (n=127 completed a questionnaire that recorded general demographics, hours per week spent studying, in paid work, volunteer work, and physical exercise; past and current physical and mental health, social support, substance use, measures of psychological distress (Kessler Psychological Distress Scale, depression, anxiety, stress, burnout; and personality traits. Results: Females were found to have higher levels of psychological distress than males. However, in regression analysis, the effect of sex was reduced to nonsignificance when other variables were included as predictors of psychological distress. The most consistent significant predictors of our 20 indicators of psychological distress were social support and the personality traits of emotional resilience and self-control. Conclusion: The findings suggest that emotional resilience skills training embedded into the medical school curriculum could reduce psychological distress among medical students. Keywords: medical student, well-being, psychological distress, personality

  11. Significant Tsunami Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, P. K.; Furtney, M.; McLean, S. J.; Sweeney, A. D.

    2014-12-01

    Tsunamis have inflicted death and destruction on the coastlines of the world throughout history. The occurrence of tsunamis and the resulting effects have been collected and studied as far back as the second millennium B.C. The knowledge gained from cataloging and examining these events has led to significant changes in our understanding of tsunamis, tsunami sources, and methods to mitigate the effects of tsunamis. The most significant, not surprisingly, are often the most devastating, such as the 2011 Tohoku, Japan earthquake and tsunami. The goal of this poster is to give a brief overview of the occurrence of tsunamis and then focus specifically on several significant tsunamis. There are various criteria to determine the most significant tsunamis: the number of deaths, amount of damage, maximum runup height, had a major impact on tsunami science or policy, etc. As a result, descriptions will include some of the most costly (2011 Tohoku, Japan), the most deadly (2004 Sumatra, 1883 Krakatau), and the highest runup ever observed (1958 Lituya Bay, Alaska). The discovery of the Cascadia subduction zone as the source of the 1700 Japanese "Orphan" tsunami and a future tsunami threat to the U.S. northwest coast, contributed to the decision to form the U.S. National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program. The great Lisbon earthquake of 1755 marked the beginning of the modern era of seismology. Knowledge gained from the 1964 Alaska earthquake and tsunami helped confirm the theory of plate tectonics. The 1946 Alaska, 1952 Kuril Islands, 1960 Chile, 1964 Alaska, and the 2004 Banda Aceh, tsunamis all resulted in warning centers or systems being established.The data descriptions on this poster were extracted from NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) global historical tsunami database. Additional information about these tsunamis, as well as water level data can be found by accessing the NGDC website www.ngdc.noaa.gov/hazard/

  12. Illicit substance use among adolescents: a matrix of prospective predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petraitis, J; Flay, B R; Miller, T Q; Torpy, E J; Greiner, B

    1998-11-01

    This paper reviews findings from 58 prospective studies of illicit substance use (ISU) among adolescents. It arranges 384 findings according to three types of influence (viz., social, attitudinal, and intrapersonal) and four levels of influence (viz., ultimate, distal, proximal, and immediate). The bulk of evidence reconfirms the importance of several predictors of ISU (e.g., intentions and prior substance-related behavior, friendship patterns and peer behaviors, absence of supportive parents, psychological temperament), reveals that a few variables thought to be well-established predictors may not be (e.g., parental behaviors, parental permissiveness, depression, low self-esteem), and uncovers several variables where findings were either sparse or inconsistent (e.g., the role of public policies concerning ISU, mass media depictions of ISU, certain parenting styles, affective states, perceptions of parental disapproval for ISU, and substance-specific refusal skills). Directions for future research are discussed.

  13. Predictors of Burnout Syndrome Among Healthcare Workers in Hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janine Kieling Monteiro

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This research aims at identifying sociodemographic and laboral predictors of burnout syndrome in 182 health workers in the hospital setting. It uses a questionnaire, Maslach Burnout Inventory, and a working context scale. In the analysis of the data a multiple regression analysis was employed. Interviewees' considering their profession as stressful was the most revealing variable with regards to the Emotional Exhaustion dimension and the low level of Professional Efficacy. As predictor variables to Cynicism the research points to negative working environments, stress upon dealing with male patients. The risk profile for burnout syndrome includes higher schooled professionals, old-timers and those who perceive their job, work scale, type and quantity of patients as stressing factors.

  14. Encke-Beta Predictor for Orion Burn Targeting and Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Shane; Scarritt, Sara; Goodman, John L.

    2016-01-01

    The state vector prediction algorithm selected for Orion on-board targeting and guidance is known as the Encke-Beta method. Encke-Beta uses a universal anomaly (beta) as the independent variable, valid for circular, elliptical, parabolic, and hyperbolic orbits. The variable, related to the change in eccentric anomaly, results in integration steps that cover smaller arcs of the trajectory at or near perigee, when velocity is higher. Some burns in the EM-1 and EM-2 mission plans are much longer than burns executed with the Apollo and Space Shuttle vehicles. Burn length, as well as hyperbolic trajectories, has driven the use of the Encke-Beta numerical predictor by the predictor/corrector guidance algorithm in place of legacy analytic thrust and gravity integrals.

  15. Time course and predictors of median nerve conduction after carpal tunnel release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotman, Mitchell B; Enkvetchakul, Bobby V; Megerian, J Thomas; Gozani, Shai N

    2004-05-01

    To identify predictors of outcome and of electrophysiologic recovery in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) treated by endoscopic carpal tunnel release using a nerve conduction testing system (NC-Stat; NEUROMetrix, Inc, Waltham, MA). Validity of the automated nerve conduction testing system was shown by comparing presurgical distal motor latencies (DMLs) against a reference obtained by referral to an electromyography laboratory. The DML was evaluated in 48 patients with CTS. Measurements were obtained within 1 hour of surgery and at 2 weeks, 6 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months after carpal tunnel release. Presurgical and postsurgical DMLs were then compared and correlated with variables and possible predictors of outcome including age, body mass index, gender, and presurgical DMLs. The automated nerve conduction testing system DMLs matched those of reference electromyography/nerve conduction study values with high correlation. Sensitivity of the automated nerve conduction testing system when compared with a standardized CTS case definition was 89%, with a specificity of 95%. A significant correlation was found between the DML before release and the DML 1 hour after release. Moreover, maximal postsurgical DML improvement was highly dependent on the presurgical DML, with no improvement shown for the 6-ms group. Among the clinical variables of age, gender, and body mass index only age was mildly predictive of postrelease DML changes at 6 months. No other correlations between clinical variables and postsurgical DMLs were significant. In addition the predictive value of age was lost when combined with the presurgical DML in a multivariate analysis. Postsurgical changes in the median nerve DML were highly dependent on the prerelease latency. The sensitivity and specificity of a nerve conduction monitoring system in detecting and aiding in the diagnosis of CTS is useful in the long-term management of patients with CTS and can aid in determining the level of improvement

  16. Sleepiness, long distance commuting and night work as predictors of driving performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Di Milia

    Full Text Available Few studies have examined the effect of working night shift and long distance commuting. We examined the association between several sleep related and demographic variables, commuting distance, night work and use of mobile phones on driving performance. We used a prospective design to recruit participants and conducted a telephone survey (n = 649. The survey collected demographic and journey details, work and sleep history and driving performance concerning the day the participant was recruited. Participants also completed the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale. Night workers reported significantly more sleepiness, shorter sleep duration and commuting longer distances. Seven variables were significant predictors of lane crossing. The strongest predictor was acute sleepiness (OR = 5.25, CI, 1.42-19.49, p<0.01 followed by driving ≥150 kms (OR = 3.61, CI, 1.66-7.81, p<0.001, obtaining less than 10 hours sleep in the previous 48 hours (OR = 2.58, CI, 1.03-6.46, p<0.05, driving after night shift (OR = 2.19, CI, 1.24-3.88, p<0.001, being <43 years old (OR = 1.95, CI, 1.11-3.41, p<0.05 and using mobile phones during the journey (OR = 1.90, CI, 1.10-3.27, p<0.05. Sleep related variables, long-distance commuting and night work have a major impact on lane crossing. Several interventions should be considered to reduce the level of sleepiness in night workers.

  17. Predictors of patient dependence in mild-to-moderate Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benke, Thomas; Sanin, Günter; Lechner, Anita; Dal-Bianco, Peter; Ransmayr, Gerhard; Uranüs, Margarete; Marksteiner, Josef; Gaudig, Maren; Schmidt, Reinhold

    2015-01-01

    Patient dependence has rarely been studied in mild-to-moderate Alzheimer's disease (AD). To identify factors which predict patient dependence in mild-to-moderate AD. We studied 398 non-institutionalized AD patients (234 females) of the ongoing Prospective Registry on Dementia (PRODEM) in Austria. The Dependence Scale (DS) was used to assess patient dependence. Patient assessment comprised functional abilities, neuropsychiatric symptoms and cognitive functions. A multiple linear regression analysis was performed to identify predictors of patient dependence. AD patients were mildly-to-moderately impaired (mean scores and SDs were: CDR 0.84 ± 0.43; DAD 74.4 ± 23.3, MMSE = 22.5 ± 3.6). Psychopathology and caregiver burden were in the low range (mean NPI score 13.2, range 0 to 98; mean ZBI score 18, range 0-64). Seventy five percent of patients were classified as having a mild level of patient dependence (DS sum score 0 to 6). Patient dependence correlated significantly and positively with age, functional measures, psychopathology and depression, disease duration, and caregiver burden. Significant negative, but low correlations were found between patient dependence, cognitive variables, and global cognition. Activities of daily living, patient age, and disease severity accounted for 63% of variance in patient dependence, whereas cognitive variables accounted for only 11%. Dependence in this cohort was mainly related to age and functional impairment, and less so to cognitive and neuropsychiatric variables. This differs from studies investigating patients in more advanced disease stages which found abnormal behavior and impairments of cognition as main predictors of patient dependence.

  18. Predictors of spoken language development following pediatric cochlear implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boons, Tinne; Brokx, Jan P L; Dhooge, Ingeborg; Frijns, Johan H M; Peeraer, Louis; Vermeulen, Anneke; Wouters, Jan; van Wieringen, Astrid

    2012-01-01

    Although deaf children with cochlear implants (CIs) are able to develop good language skills, the large variability in outcomes remains a significant concern. The first aim of this study was to evaluate language skills in children with CIs to establish benchmarks. The second aim was to make an estimation of the optimal age at implantation to provide maximal opportunities for the child to achieve good language skills afterward. The third aim was to gain more insight into the causes of variability to set recommendations for optimizing the rehabilitation process of prelingually deaf children with CIs. Receptive and expressive language development of 288 children who received CIs by age five was analyzed in a retrospective multicenter study. Outcome measures were language quotients (LQs) on the Reynell Developmental Language Scales and Schlichting Expressive Language Test at 1, 2, and 3 years after implantation. Independent predictive variables were nine child-related, environmental, and auditory factors. A series of multiple regression analyses determined the amount of variance in expressive and receptive language outcomes attributable to each predictor when controlling for the other variables. Simple linear regressions with age at first fitting and independent samples t tests demonstrated that children implanted before the age of two performed significantly better on all tests than children who were implanted at an older age. The mean LQ was 0.78 with an SD of 0.18. A child with an LQ lower than 0.60 (= 0.78-0.18) within 3 years after implantation was labeled as a weak performer compared with other deaf children implanted before the age of two. Contralateral stimulation with a second CI or a hearing aid and the absence of additional disabilities were related to better language outcomes. The effect of environmental factors, comprising multilingualism, parental involvement, and communication mode increased over time. Three years after implantation, the total multiple

  19. Psychosocial predictors of emotional eating and their weight-loss treatment-induced changes in women with obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annesi, James J; Mareno, Nicole; McEwen, Kristin

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed at assessing whether psychosocial predictors of controlled eating and weight loss also predict emotional eating, and how differing weight-loss treatment methods affect those variables. Women with obesity (M = 47.8 ± 7.9 years; BMI = 35.4 ± 3.3 kg/m(2)) were randomized into groups of either phone-supported self-help (Self-Help; n = 50) or in-person contact (Personal Contact; n = 53) intended to increase exercise, improve eating behaviors, and reduce weight over 6 months. A multiple regression analysis indicated that at baseline mood, self-regulating eating, body satisfaction, and eating-related self-efficacy significantly predicted emotional eating (R (2) = 0.35), with mood and self-efficacy as independent predictors. Improvements over 6 months on each psychosocial measure were significantly greater in the Personal Contact group. Changes in mood, self-regulation, body satisfaction, and self-efficacy significantly predicted emotional eating change (R (2) = 0.38), with all variables except self-regulation change being an independent predictor. Decreased emotional eating was significantly associated with weight loss. Findings suggest that weight-loss interventions should target specific psychosocial factors to improve emotional eating. The administration of cognitive-behavioral methods through personal contact might be more beneficial for those improvements than self-help formats.

  20. Predictors of Playing Augmented Reality Mobile Games While Walking Based on the Theory of Planned Behavior: Web-Based Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jeeyun; Mackert, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Background There has been a sharp increase in the number of pedestrians injured while using a mobile phone, but little research has been conducted to explain how and why people use mobile devices while walking. Therefore, we conducted a survey study to explicate the motivations of mobile phone use while walking Objective The purpose of this study was to identify the critical predictors of behavioral intention to play a popular mobile game, Pokemon Go, while walking, based on the theory of planned behavior (TPB). In addition to the three components of TPB, automaticity, immersion, and enjoyment were added to the model. This study is a theory-based investigation that explores the underlying mechanisms of mobile phone use while walking focusing on a mobile game behavior. Methods Participants were recruited from a university (study 1; N=262) and Amazon Mechanical Turk (MTurk) (study 2; N=197) in the United States. Participants completed a Web-based questionnaire, which included measures of attitude, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control (PBC), automaticity, immersion, and enjoyment. Participants also answered questions regarding demographic items. Results Hierarchical regression analyses were conducted to examine hypotheses. The model we tested explained about 41% (study 1) and 63% (study 2) of people’s intention to play Pokemon Go while walking. The following 3 TPB variables were significant predictors of intention to play Pokemon Go while walking in study 1 and study 2: attitude (P<.001), subjective norms (P<.001), and PBC (P=.007 in study 1; P<.001 in study 2). Automaticity tendency (P<.001), immersion (P=.02), and enjoyment (P=.04) were significant predictors in study 1, whereas enjoyment was the only significant predictor in study 2 (P=.01). Conclusions Findings from this study demonstrated the utility of TPB in predicting a new behavioral domain—mobile use while walking. To sum up, younger users who are habitual, impulsive, and less immersed players

  1. Predictors of delayed Antenatal Care (ANC) visits in Nigeria: secondary analysis of 2013 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliyu, Alhaji Abubakar; Dahiru, Tukur

    2017-01-01

    Antenatal Care (ANC) is an important component of maternal health and covers a wide range of activities with huge potential benefits for positive pregnancy out comes. However, large proportions of women do initiate ANC early resulting in adverse consequences. The study utilized the nationally-representative sample of women of reproductive age interviewed during the 2013 Nigeria DHS. Analysis was restricted to 20, 467 women aged 15-49 years who had a live birth in the five-year period prior to the survey. Multinomial logistic regression was performed using Stata v13 to determine significant factors related to timing of initiation of ANC. Relative risk ratio (RRR) was used to assess the strength of association between independent and dependent variables. Overall, 27%, 62% and 12% of women initiated ANC in the first, second and third trimesters respectively. In both the two model, the findings reveal that maternal education, level of media exposure, region and place of residence are the uniform predictors of initiation of ANC; having health insurance is a significant predictor of third trimester ANC initiation relative to first to first trimester only. Within the categories of household wealth, levels of participation in household decision-making and region some categories are significant predictors while others are not. Maternal education, level of media exposure, region and place of residence are the uniform and consistent predictors of delay in ANC initiation. This suggests that girl-child education, universal health coverage and universal health insurance could be the interventions required to improve service utilization and maternal health.

  2. Personal and organizational predictors of workplace sexual harassment of women by men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekker, I; Barling, J

    1998-01-01

    The authors investigated the predictors of workplace sexual harassment in 278 male university faculty and staff (M age = 45 years). Workplace variables (perceptions of organizational sanctions against harassment and perceptions of a sexualized workplace) and personal variables (adversarial sexual beliefs, sexual harassment beliefs, perspective taking, and self-esteem) were studied as predictors of sexualized and gender harassment. Social desirability was controlled. Both organizational variables and beliefs about sexual harassment predicted gender harassment and sexualized harassment. Perspective taking, adversarial sexual beliefs, and sexual harassment beliefs moderated the effects of perceived organizational sanctions against harassment on sexualized harassment. Findings are discussed as they relate to organizational efforts to reduce or prevent sexual harassment.

  3. Are competition and extrinsic motivation reliable predictors of academic cheating?

    OpenAIRE

    Gábor eOrosz; Gábor eOrosz; Gábor eOrosz; Dávid eFarkas; Dávid eFarkas; Dávid eFarkas; Christine eRoland-Levy

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that extrinsic motivation and competition are reliable predictors of academic cheating. The aim of the present questionnaire study was to separate the effects of motivation- and competition-related variables on academic cheating by Hungarian high school students (N = 620, M = 264, F = 356). Structural equation modeling showed that intrinsic motivation has a negative effect, and amotivation has a positive indirect effect on self-reported academic cheating. In contrast,...

  4. Are Competition and Extrinsic Motivation Reliable Predictors of Academic Cheating?

    OpenAIRE

    Orosz, G?bor; Farkas, D?vid; Roland-L?vy, Christine

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that extrinsic motivation and competition are reliable predictors of academic cheating. The aim of the present questionnaire study was to separate the effects of motivation- and competition-related variables on academic cheating by Hungarian high school students (N = 620, M = 264, F = 356). Structural equation modeling showed that intrinsic motivation has a negative effect, and amotivation has a positive indirect effect on self-reported academic cheating. In contrast,...

  5. Predictors of intelligence at the age of 5

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Hanne-Lise Falgreen; Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler; Underbjerg, Mette

    2013-01-01

    - Revised. Information on parental characteristics, pregnancy and birth factors, postnatal influences, and postnatal growth was collected during pregnancy and at follow-up. A model including study design variables and child's sex explained 7% of the variance in IQ, while parental education and maternal IQ...... are major predictors of IQ and should be included routinely in studies of cognitive development. Obstetrical and postnatal factors also predict IQ, but their contribution may be of comparatively limited magnitude....

  6. Teacher and Child Predictors of Achieving IEP Goals of Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruble, Lisa; McGrew, John H.

    2013-01-01

    It is encouraging that children with autism show a strong response to early intervention, yet more research is needed for understanding the variability in responsiveness to specialized programs. Treatment predictor variables from 47 teachers and children who were randomized to receive the COMPASS intervention (Ruble et al. in "The…

  7. Predictors of First-Year Sultan Qaboos University Students' Grade Point Average

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhausi, Hussain Ali; Al-Yahmadi, Hamad; Al-Kalbani, Muna; Clayton, David; Al-Barwani, Thuwayba; Al-Sulaimani, Humaira; Neisler, Otherine; Khan, Mohammad Athar

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated predictors of first-year university grade point average (GPA) using academic and nonacademic variables. Data were collected from 1511 Omani students selected conveniently from the population of students entering Sultan Qaboos University (SQU) in Fall 2010. Variables considered in the analysis were general education diploma…

  8. Predictors of career commitment and job performance of Jordanian nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrayyan, Majd T; Al-Faouri, Ibrahim

    2008-04-01

    Few studies focused on nurses' career commitment and nurses' job performance. This research aimed at studying variables of nurses' career commitment and job performance, and assessing the relationship between the two concepts as well as their predictors. A survey was used to collect data from a convenient sample of 640 Registered Nurses employed in 24 hospitals. Nurses 'agreed' to be committed to their careers and they were performing their jobs 'well'. As a part of career commitment, nurses were willing to be involved, in their own time, in projects that would benefit patient care. The highest and lowest means of nurses' job performance were reported for the following aspects: leadership, critical care, teaching/collaboration, planning/evaluation, interpersonal relations/communications and professional development. Correlating of total scores of nurses' career commitment and job performance revealed the presence of a significant and positive relationship between the two concepts. Stepwise regression models revealed that the explained variance in nurses' career commitment was 23.9% and that in nurses' job performance was 29.9%. Nurse managers should promote nursing as a career and they should develop and implement various strategies to increase nurses' career commitment and nurses' job performance. These strategies should focus on nurse retention, staff development and quality of care. Nurses' career commitment and job performance are inter-related complex concepts that require further studies to understand, promote and maintain these positive factors in work environments.

  9. Predictors of fatal outcome in fulminant hepatic failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarwar, S.; Khan, A.A.; Alam, A.; Butt, A.K.; Ahmad, I.; Niazi, A.K.; Dilshad, A.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To determine prognostic indicators for morbidity and mortality in patients with fulminant hepatic failure. Design: Observational study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Shaikh Zayed Postgraduate Medical Institute, Lahore, from April 2003 to June 2005. Patients and Methods: Forty-five patients with confirmed diagnosis of fulminant hepatic failure were included in this study. They were investigated for acute viral serology, complete blood count, liver function tests, renal function tests, serum electrolytes, arterial blood gases, initially daily and then on alternate days. Patients were followed in high dependency/ICU at the Shaikh Zayed Postgraduate Medical Institute. Data were analyzed by logistic regression analysis to identify predictors of mortality and morbidity. Results: Of the 45 subjects, 31 were males and 14 females. Twenty-four patients were positive for acute hepatitis E. Twenty patients recovered fully, whereas 25 died with mortality rate of 55.6 %. Variables i.e. presence of non-A non-B viral hepatitis, serum creatinine > 2.0 mg/dl, serum phosphate> 3.5 mg/dl and sepsis were found to have significant association with mortality on linear correlation. Only serum creatinine more than 2.0 mg/dl, serum phosphate > 3.5 mg/dl and development of sepsis were found to predict the outcome after multivariate analysis. Conclusion: Patients with serum creatinine > 2.0 mg/dl, serum phosphate > 3.5 mg/dl and sepsis showed adverse prognosis for survival. (author)

  10. Non-intellectual predictors of achievement in mathematics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milošević Nikoleta M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Findings presented herein are a part of a large international study of primary school final grade student achievement in mathematics and science (TIMSS 2003. Studies were also conducted on the degree of correlation between student family socioeconomic status, mathematical self-concept and achievement in mathematics. Pilot studies, whose findings are discussed comprised 112 seventh-grade students. "Family socioeconomic status" was defined by variables such as the number of family members, economically disadvantaged/affluent home, and parental educational status. "Mathematical self-concept" was defined as one of the more narrow domains of academic self-concept. "Achievement in mathematics" was measured by the test assessing two dimensions of knowledge of mathematics: content and cognitive skills. The analyses of partial correlations indicate that the most significant predictors of achievement in mathematics test are as follows mathematical self-concept, mother’s educational status and some indicators of family socioeconomic status (access to the Internet, number of household members, number of books available at home. Concerning the correlation found between family characteristics and mathematical self-concept and achievement in mathematics, the developers of current changes in mathematics teaching should not disregard the findings of this study.

  11. Psychological Predictors of Aggressive Behavior Among Men and Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanile, Cristina; Matera, Camilla; Nerini, Amanda; Puddu, Luisa; Raffagnino, Rosalba

    2017-10-01

    This study examined the relationships among attitude toward violence, self-esteem, emotion dysregulation, anger, and aggression in community men and women and male inmates. Overall, 166 community men, 197 community women, and 100 male inmates completed a battery of questionnaires containing self-reported measures. Self-esteem and attitude toward violence were significant predictors of aggressive behavior, with emotion dysregulation mediating the relationship between self-esteem and the criterion variable. Anger mediated the relationship between emotion dysregulation and aggressive behavior only among community people. Among men, inmates reported a more