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Sample records for significant perceived preference

  1. Perceived Spaciousness and Preference in Sequential Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokharaei, Saleheh; Nasar, Jack L

    2016-11-01

    We assessed the perceived spaciousness and preference for a destination space in relation to six attributes (size, lighting, window size, texture, wall mural, and amount of furniture) of it and of the space experienced before it. Studies have examined effects of these attributes but not for dynamic experience or preference. We created 24 virtual reality walks between each possible pair of two levels of each attribute. For each destination space, 31 students (13 men, 18 women) rated spaciousness and 30 students (16 men, 14 women) rated preference. We conducted separate 2 × 2 repeated-measure ANOVAs across each condition for perceived spaciousness and preference. Participants judged the space that was larger, was more brightly lit, with a larger window, or with less furniture as the more spacious. These attributes also increased preference. Consonant with adaptation-level theory, participants judged offices as higher in spaciousness and preference if preceded by a space that was smaller, was more dimly lit, or had smaller windows. The findings suggest that perceived spaciousness varies with size, lightness, window size, and amount of furniture but that perception also depends on the size, lightness, and size of the space experienced before. Designers could use the findings to manipulate features to make a space appear larger or more desirable. © 2016, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  2. Effect of perceived Price, Brand Image, perceived Quality and Trust on Consumer’s buying Preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Afsar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The study investigates the effect of factors such as perceived price, brand image, perceived quality and trust on consumers' evaluative judgments for beautification products. Results showed that brand image has positive and significant impact on consumer trust. Increase in perceived quality and trust depicted increase in a particular brand preference. Decrease in perceived price showed significant and positive impact on brand preference. This study measured the effect of brand image, price, quality and consumer trust information on how individuals subjectively evaluate a brand.

  3. Perceived stimulus complexity and food preference development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levy, C.M.; MacRae, A.; Köster, E.P.

    2006-01-01

    The importance of perceived complexity, a 'collative property' as defined by [Berlyne, D. E. (1967). Arousal and reinforcement. In Nebraska symposium on motivation (pp. 1-110). University of Nebraska Press], to the dynamic development of preference was investigated. Eighty-six female and 82 male

  4. Specialisation Preferences and Perceived Motivation in Ecotourism ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study determined specialisation preferences and perceived motivational factors in ecotourism and wildlife management programme among students in the Department of Ecotourism and Wildlife Management, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria. A sample of 156 students was randomly drawn from 261 ...

  5. Perceiving, imaging, and preferring physiognomic stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindauer, M S

    1986-01-01

    Physiognomic color responses in perception, imagery, and affect were investigated. Maluma and taketa, nonsense stimuli defined by many investigators as physiognomic, were utilized as prototypical physiognomic stimuli, along with eight other stimuli of various sorts. In Experiment 1, 22 subjects matched the colors of the stimuli; in Experiment 2, 27 subjects reported their imagery to the stimuli; and in Experiment 3, 16 subjects gave their color preferences for the stimuli. The Munsell sets of colors were employed throughout. Significant differences between the physiognomic and other stimuli were found on the brightness and saturation of color matches, images, and preferences. Other differences (e.g., the latency of color images) were also present. Distinctions were also noted between the two physiognomic stimuli. These results support the priority of innate and perceptual processes in physiognomy over those of learning and memory, although some ambiguities still remain.

  6. Specialisation Preferences and Perceived Motivation in Ecotourism ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    E M IGBOKWE

    (IJMB), University Diplomas and Higher National Diploma (HND) for entry into 200 ... Mono-technic and a College of Education as well as first and second preferred .... Table 1: Respondents' profile .... This field was recommended by others (e.g., parents, friends or teachers) .... Brazilian medical students and recent doctors.

  7. Leadership styles in nursing management: preferred and perceived.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellgren, Stina; Ekvall, Göran; Tomson, Göran

    2006-07-01

    The aim was to explore nursing leadership regarding what nurse managers and subordinates see as important and to explore subordinates' opinions of their nurse manager's performance in reality. Background The manager's style can be fundamental for subordinates' acceptance of change and in motivating them to achieve stated visions and goals and high quality of care. Nurse managers (n=77) and 10 of each included nurse manager's subordinates received a questionnaire to assess 'preferred' leadership behaviour in three dimensions: change, production and employee/relation orientations. The same questionnaire was used to assess subordinates' opinions of their manager's leadership behaviour. There are statistically significant differences in opinions of preferred leadership between managers and subordinates, especially related to production and relation orientation. The subordinates' perception of real leadership behaviour has lower mean values than their preferred leadership behaviour in all three dimensions. Subordinates prefer managers with more clearly expressed leadership behaviour than managers themselves prefer and demonstrate.

  8. Retention preferences and the relationship between total rewards, perceived organisational support and perceived supervisor support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilmien Smit

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Currently there is much debate whether modifying traditional reward packages to focus on the preferences of multi-generations would be essential in attracting, motivating and retaining talent. Total reward factors, perceived organisational support and perceived supervisor support are distinct but related concepts, all of which appear to influence an employee’s decision to stay at an organisation. Research purpose: The objective of this study was to identify the different total reward components that multi-generations prefer as most important for retention. In essence, the study aims to establish possible relationships between multi-generations’ total reward components, perceived organisational support, and perceived supervisor support. Motivation for the study: This study is useful as it conducts a contemporary retention exploration that considers both the emerging demographic workforce shift and the new paradigm shift towards talent management. Research methodology: A quantitative, cross-sectional research design was applied to gather data from employees (N = 303 from different industry sectors in South African organisations. Main findings: The results showed that performance management and remuneration are considered to be the most important retention factors amongst multi-generation groups. Differences between total reward preferences and demographical variables, which include age, gender, race, industry and job level, were found. Practical/managerial implications: Organisations should design their reward packages by taking employees preferences into account. More specifically, organisations should focus on remuneration, performance management and development opportunities in order to retain scarce skills. Contribution/value additions: The results of the study can assist managers to design effective retention strategies, whilst also providing crucial information for the retention and motivation of employees.

  9. Perceived beauty of random texture patterns: A preference for complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedenberg, Jay; Liby, Bruce

    2016-07-01

    We report two experiments on the perceived aesthetic quality of random density texture patterns. In each experiment a square grid was filled with a progressively larger number of elements. Grid size in Experiment 1 was 10×10 with elements added to create a variety of textures ranging from 10%-100% fill levels. Participants rated the beauty of the patterns. Average judgments across all observers showed an inverted U-shaped function that peaked near middle densities. In Experiment 2 grid size was increased to 15×15 to see if observers preferred patterns with a fixed density or a fixed number of elements. The results of the second experiment were nearly identical to that of the first showing a preference for density over fixed element number. Ratings in both studies correlated positively with a GIF compression metric of complexity and with edge length. Within the range of stimuli used, observers judge more complex patterns to be more beautiful. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of congruence between preferred and perceived learning environments in nursing education in Taiwan: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Ting-Kuang; Huang, Hsiu-Mei; Chan, Wing P; Chang, Chun-Yen

    2016-05-20

    To investigate the effects of congruence between preferred and perceived learning environments on learning outcomes of nursing students. A nursing course at a university in central Taiwan. 124 Taiwanese nursing students enrolled in a 13-week problem-based Fundamental Nursing curriculum. Students' preferred learning environment, perceptions about the learning environment and learning outcomes (knowledge, self-efficacy and attitudes) were assessed. On the basis of test scores measuring their preferred and perceived learning environments, students were assigned to one of two groups: a 'preferred environment aligned with perceived learning environment' group and a 'preferred environment discordant with perceived learning environment' group. Learning outcomes were analysed by group. Most participants preferred learning in a classroom environment that combined problem-based and lecture-based instruction. However, a mismatch of problem-based instruction with students' perceptions occurred. Learning outcomes were significantly better when students' perceptions of their instructional activities were congruent with their preferred learning environment. As problem-based learning becomes a focus of educational reform in nursing, teachers need to be aware of students' preferences and perceptions of the learning environment. Teachers may also need to improve the match between an individual student's perception and a teacher's intention in the learning environment, and between the student's preferred and actual perceptions of the learning environment. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  11. Balance (perceived and actual) and preferred stance width during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, John; Hsiao, Katherine T; Hsiao-Wecksler, Elizabeth T

    2008-05-01

    Pregnant women often remark that their balance degrades during pregnancy; however, it appears that no studies have documented the gravida's perception of her balance nor measured direction-specific changes in balance throughout pregnancy or after delivery. Thirty women, fifteen pregnant and fifteen non-pregnant controls, were tested monthly and through 6-month postpartum. For each session, perceived degradation in sense of balance, laboratory-based balance measures, stance width, and the number of falls since the previous session were recorded. Laboratory-based balance measures, quantified by direction-specific measures of postural sway, were computed from ten 30s quiet-standing trials on a stationary force platform. Repeated-measures analysis of variance, paired t-tests, and Pearson correlations were use to examine group and time effects. For the pregnant group, perceived balance degradation and stance width were highly correlated (r = 0.94). Both increased during pregnancy (P r > 0.72) and also decreased significantly between the third trimester and postpartum (P pregnancy, but increased after delivery. Contrary to recent work suggesting fall rates of 25%, only 13% of our subjects (n = 2) fell during pregnancy. Perceived degradation in balance during pregnancy was strongly related to increasing postural sway instability in the anterior-posterior direction. Lateral stability was maintained during pregnancy and likely accomplished by increasing stance width.

  12. Learning Style Preferences and the Perceived Usefulness of E-Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, Alexander Toni; Holtbrugge, Dirk; Berg, Nicola

    2012-01-01

    This paper uses data gathered from 953 students to investigate how far individuals' preferences for a particular learning style are associated with the perceived usefulness of e-learning. Our findings reveal the effect of individuals' learning styles as well as their gender and professional experience on the perceived usefulness of different forms…

  13. Does Preference for Abstract Patterns Relate to Information Processing and Perceived Duration?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letizia Palumbo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Repetitive prestimulation, in the form of click trains, is known to alter a wide range of cognitive and perceptual judgments. To date, no research has explored whether click trains also influence subjective preferences. This is plausible because preference is related to perceptual fluency and clicks may increase fluency, or, because preference is related to arousal and clicks may increase arousal. In Experiment 1, participants heard a click train, white noise, or silence through headphones and then saw an abstract symmetrical pattern on the screen for 0.5, 1, or 1.5 s. They rated the pattern on a 7-point scale. Click trains had no effect on preference ratings, although patterns that lasted longer were preferred. In Experiment 2, we again presented a click train, silence, or white noise but included both symmetrical and random patterns. Participants made both a duration and a preference judgment on every trial. Auditory click trains increased perceived duration, and symmetrical patterns were perceived as lasting longer than random patterns. Again there was no effect of auditory click trains on preference, and again patterns that were presented for longer were preferred. We conclude that click trains alter perceptual and cognitive processes, but not preferences. This helps clarify the nature of the click train effect and shows which predictions implicit in the existing literature are supported.

  14. Self-Perceived Mate Value, Facial Attractiveness, and Mate Preferences: Do Desirable Men Want It All?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnocky, Steven

    2018-01-01

    Ten years ago, Buss and Shackelford demonstrated that high mate value (i.e., physically attractive) women held more discerning mate preferences relative to lower mate value women. Since then, researchers have begun to consider the equally important role of men's sexual selectivity in human mate choice. Yet, little research has focused on whether high mate value men are similarly choosy in their mate preferences. In a sample of 139 undergraduate men, relationships between self-perceived mate value as well as female-rated facial attractiveness were examined in relation to men's expressed mate preferences. Results showed that self-perceived mate value was unrelated to men's facial attractiveness as rated by women. Men who believed they were of high mate value were more likely than lower mate value men to prefer to marry at a younger age; to have a spouse who was younger than them; and to have a partner who was sociable, ambitious, high in social status, with good financial prospects, a desire for children, health, good looks, and mutual attraction. Objective male facial attractiveness was generally unrelated to heightened mate preferences, with the exception of heightened preference for similar religious background and good physical health. Findings suggest that men who perceive themselves as high in overall mate value are selective in their mate choice in a manner similar to high mate value women.

  15. Greenery in the university environment: Students’ preferences and perceived restoration likelihood

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    A large body of evidence shows that interaction with greenery can be beneficial for human stress reduction, emotional states, and improved cognitive function. It can, therefore, be expected that university students might benefit from greenery in the university environment. Before investing in real-life interventions in a university environment, it is necessary to first explore students’ perceptions of greenery in the university environment. This study examined (1) preference for university indoor and outdoor spaces with and without greenery (2) perceived restoration likelihood of university outdoor spaces with and without greenery and (3) if preference and perceived restoration likelihood ratings were modified by demographic characteristics or connectedness to nature in Dutch university students (N = 722). Digital photographic stimuli represented four university spaces (lecture hall, classroom, study area, university outdoor space). For each of the three indoor spaces there were four or five stimuli conditions: (1) the standard design (2) the standard design with a colorful poster (3) the standard design with a nature poster (4) the standard design with a green wall (5) the standard design with a green wall plus interior plants. The university outdoor space included: (1) the standard design (2) the standard design with seating (3) the standard design with colorful artifacts (4) the standard design with green elements (5) the standard design with extensive greenery. Multi-level analyses showed that students gave higher preference ratings to the indoor spaces with a nature poster, a green wall, or a green wall plus interior plants than to the standard designs and the designs with the colorful posters. Students also rated preference and perceived restoration likelihood of the outdoor spaces that included greenery higher than those without. Preference and perceived restoration likelihood were not modified by demographic characteristics, but students with strong

  16. Greenery in the university environment: Students' preferences and perceived restoration likelihood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole van den Bogerd

    Full Text Available A large body of evidence shows that interaction with greenery can be beneficial for human stress reduction, emotional states, and improved cognitive function. It can, therefore, be expected that university students might benefit from greenery in the university environment. Before investing in real-life interventions in a university environment, it is necessary to first explore students' perceptions of greenery in the university environment. This study examined (1 preference for university indoor and outdoor spaces with and without greenery (2 perceived restoration likelihood of university outdoor spaces with and without greenery and (3 if preference and perceived restoration likelihood ratings were modified by demographic characteristics or connectedness to nature in Dutch university students (N = 722. Digital photographic stimuli represented four university spaces (lecture hall, classroom, study area, university outdoor space. For each of the three indoor spaces there were four or five stimuli conditions: (1 the standard design (2 the standard design with a colorful poster (3 the standard design with a nature poster (4 the standard design with a green wall (5 the standard design with a green wall plus interior plants. The university outdoor space included: (1 the standard design (2 the standard design with seating (3 the standard design with colorful artifacts (4 the standard design with green elements (5 the standard design with extensive greenery. Multi-level analyses showed that students gave higher preference ratings to the indoor spaces with a nature poster, a green wall, or a green wall plus interior plants than to the standard designs and the designs with the colorful posters. Students also rated preference and perceived restoration likelihood of the outdoor spaces that included greenery higher than those without. Preference and perceived restoration likelihood were not modified by demographic characteristics, but students with strong

  17. Greenery in the university environment: Students' preferences and perceived restoration likelihood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bogerd, Nicole; Dijkstra, S Coosje; Seidell, Jacob C; Maas, Jolanda

    2018-01-01

    A large body of evidence shows that interaction with greenery can be beneficial for human stress reduction, emotional states, and improved cognitive function. It can, therefore, be expected that university students might benefit from greenery in the university environment. Before investing in real-life interventions in a university environment, it is necessary to first explore students' perceptions of greenery in the university environment. This study examined (1) preference for university indoor and outdoor spaces with and without greenery (2) perceived restoration likelihood of university outdoor spaces with and without greenery and (3) if preference and perceived restoration likelihood ratings were modified by demographic characteristics or connectedness to nature in Dutch university students (N = 722). Digital photographic stimuli represented four university spaces (lecture hall, classroom, study area, university outdoor space). For each of the three indoor spaces there were four or five stimuli conditions: (1) the standard design (2) the standard design with a colorful poster (3) the standard design with a nature poster (4) the standard design with a green wall (5) the standard design with a green wall plus interior plants. The university outdoor space included: (1) the standard design (2) the standard design with seating (3) the standard design with colorful artifacts (4) the standard design with green elements (5) the standard design with extensive greenery. Multi-level analyses showed that students gave higher preference ratings to the indoor spaces with a nature poster, a green wall, or a green wall plus interior plants than to the standard designs and the designs with the colorful posters. Students also rated preference and perceived restoration likelihood of the outdoor spaces that included greenery higher than those without. Preference and perceived restoration likelihood were not modified by demographic characteristics, but students with strong

  18. Students' Perceived Preference for Visual and Auditory Assessment with E-Handwritten Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crews, Tena B.; Wilkinson, Kelly

    2010-01-01

    Undergraduate business communication students were surveyed to determine their perceived most effective method of assessment on writing assignments. The results indicated students' preference for a process that incorporates visual, auditory, and e-handwritten presentation via a tablet PC. Students also identified this assessment process would…

  19. Social Preference, Perceived Popularity and Social Intelligence: Relations to Overt and Relational Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreou, Eleni

    2006-01-01

    Relations among social preference, perceived popularity, social intelligence and two types of aggressive behaviour were studied. Peer-estimation techniques were used to measure all major variables. Altogether, 403 Greek schoolchildren from fourth-through sixth-grade classrooms participated in the study. Both overt and relational aggression were…

  20. A face for all seasons: Searching for context-specific leadership traits and discovering a general preference for perceived health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spisak, Brian R.; Blaker, Nancy M.; Lefevre, Carmen E.; Moore, Fhionna R.; Krebbers, Kleis F. B.

    2014-01-01

    Previous research indicates that followers tend to contingently match particular leader qualities to evolutionarily consistent situations requiring collective action (i.e., context-specific cognitive leadership prototypes) and information processing undergoes categorization which ranks certain qualities as first-order context-general and others as second-order context-specific. To further investigate this contingent categorization phenomenon we examined the “attractiveness halo”—a first-order facial cue which significantly biases leadership preferences. While controlling for facial attractiveness, we independently manipulated the underlying facial cues of health and intelligence and then primed participants with four distinct organizational dynamics requiring leadership (i.e., competition vs. cooperation between groups and exploratory change vs. stable exploitation). It was expected that the differing requirements of the four dynamics would contingently select for relatively healthier- or intelligent-looking leaders. We found perceived facial intelligence to be a second-order context-specific trait—for instance, in times requiring a leader to address between-group cooperation—whereas perceived health is significantly preferred across all contexts (i.e., a first-order trait). The results also indicate that facial health positively affects perceived masculinity while facial intelligence negatively affects perceived masculinity, which may partially explain leader choice in some of the environmental contexts. The limitations and a number of implications regarding leadership biases are discussed. PMID:25414653

  1. A face for all seasons: Searching for context-specific leadership traits and discovering a general preference for perceived health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian R. Spisak

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Previous research indicates that followers tend to contingently match particular leader qualities to evolutionarily consistent situations requiring collective action (i.e., context-specific cognitive leadership prototypes and information processing undergoes categorization which ranks certain qualities as first-order context-general and others as second-order context-specific. To further investigate this contingent categorization phenomenon we examined the attractiveness halo – a first-order facial cue which significantly biases leadership preferences. While controlling for facial attractiveness, we independently manipulated the underlying facial cues of health and intelligence and then primed participants with four distinct organizational dynamics requiring leadership (i.e., competition versus cooperation between groups and exploratory change versus stable exploitation. It was expected that the differing requirements of the four dynamics would contingently select for relatively healthier- or intelligent-looking leaders. We found perceived facial intelligence to be a second-order context-specific trait – for instance, in times requiring a leader to address between-group cooperation – whereas perceived health is significantly preferred across all contexts (i.e., a first-order trait. The results also indicate that facial health positively affects perceived masculinity while facial intelligence negatively affects perceived masculinity, which may partially explain leader choice in some of the environmental contexts. The limitations and a number of implications regarding leadership biases are discussed.

  2. Preferred and Perceived Participation of Younger and Older Patients in Decision Making About Treatment for Early Breast Cancer: A Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamelinck, Victoria C; Bastiaannet, Esther; Pieterse, Arwen H; van de Velde, Cornelis J H; Liefers, Gerrit-Jan; Stiggelbout, Anne M

    2018-04-01

    Older patients are believed to prefer a more passive role in treatment decision making, but studies reporting this relation were conducted over a decade ago or were retrospective. We prospectively compared younger (40-64 years) versus older (≥ 65 years) breast cancer patients' preferences for decision-making roles and their perceived actual roles. A prospective multicenter study was conducted in Leiden, The Hague, and Tilburg over a 2-year period. Early-stage breast cancer patients were surveyed about their preferred and perceived decision-making roles (active, shared, or passive) concerning surgery type (breast-conserving vs. mastectomy) (n = 74), adjuvant chemotherapy (aCT, n = 43), and adjuvant hormonal therapy (aHT, n = 39). For all decisions, both age groups most frequently preferred a shared role before consultation, except for decisions about aHT, for which younger patients more commonly preferred an active role. The proportion of patients favoring an active or passive role in each decision was lower for the older than the younger patients, but none of the differences was significant. Regarding perceived actual roles, both groups most frequently reported an active role in the surgical decision after consultation. In deciding about both aCT and aHT, a larger proportion of older patients perceived having had a passive role compared to younger patients, and a greater proportion of younger patients perceived having been active. Again, differences were not statistically significant. Most older patients preferred to decide together with their clinician, but preferences varied widely. Older patients more often than younger patients perceived they had not been involved in decisions about systemic therapy. Clinicians should invite all patients to participate in decision making and elicit their preferred role. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. How significant is perceived environmental risk to business location decisions?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allison, T.; Calzonetti, F.

    1996-01-01

    It has been argued that adverse perceptions of risk associated with high-level nuclear waste (HLNW) facilities will have significant impacts on the attraction of new, and the maintenance of existing business activities in areas in which adverse perceptions develop. We examine this proposition by the considering the importance of environmental amenities and a range of other factors to business location decisions using evidence from surveys of more than 400 manufacturing and business service establishments in Colorado and Utah. We show that the importance of environmental amenities varies according to a number of factors, in particular the type of product (manufactured product or business service), type of establishment (single-establishment firm or establishment of a multilocational firm) and establishment employment size. Policies designed to offset the loss of business activity that might result from adverse risk perceptions associated with HLNW facilities must therefore take into account how sensitive various forms of business activity present or likely to locate in any particular area might be to environmental factors

  4. How significant is perceived environmental risk to business location decisions?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allison, T. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Calzonetti, F. [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States)

    1996-12-31

    It has been argued that adverse perceptions of risk associated with high-level nuclear waste (HLNW) facilities will have significant impacts on the attraction of new, and the maintenance of existing business activities in areas in which adverse perceptions develop. We examine this proposition by the considering the importance of environmental amenities and a range of other factors to business location decisions using evidence from surveys of more than 400 manufacturing and business service establishments in Colorado and Utah. We show that the importance of environmental amenities varies according to a number of factors, in particular the type of product (manufactured product or business service), type of establishment (single-establishment firm or establishment of a multilocational firm) and establishment employment size. Policies designed to offset the loss of business activity that might result from adverse risk perceptions associated with HLNW facilities must therefore take into account how sensitive various forms of business activity present or likely to locate in any particular area might be to environmental factors.

  5. Senior residents' perceived need of and preferences for "smart home" sensor technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demiris, George; Hensel, Brian K; Skubic, Marjorie; Rantz, Marilyn

    2008-01-01

    The goal of meeting the desire of older adults to remain independent in their home setting while controlling healthcare costs has led to the conceptualization of "smart homes." A smart home is a residence equipped with technology that enhances safety of residents and monitors their health conditions. The study aim is to assess older adults' perceptions of specific smart home technologies (i.e., a bed sensor, gait monitor, stove sensor, motion sensor, and video sensor). The study setting is TigerPlace, a retirement community designed according to the Aging in Place model. Focus group sessions with fourteen residents were conducted to assess perceived advantages and concerns associated with specific applications, and preferences for recipients of sensor-generated information pertaining to residents' activity levels, sleep patterns and potential emergencies. Sessions were audio-taped; tapes were transcribed, and a content analysis was performed. A total of fourteen older adults over the age of 65 participated in three focus group sessions Most applications were perceived as useful, and participants would agree to their installation in their own home. Preference for specific sensors related to sensors' appearance and residents' own level of frailty and perceived need. Specific concerns about privacy were raised. The findings indicate an overall positive attitude toward sensor technologies for nonobtrusive monitoring. Researchers and practitioners are called upon to address ethical and technical challenges in this emerging domain.

  6. Testing of a Model with Latino Patients That Explains the Links Among Patient-Perceived Provider Cultural Sensitivity, Language Preference, and Patient Treatment Adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Jessica D Jones; Wall, Whitney; Tucker, Carolyn M

    2016-03-01

    Disparities in treatment adherence based on race and ethnicity are well documented but poorly understood. Specifically, the causes of treatment nonadherence among Latino patients living in the USA are complex and include cultural and language barriers. The purpose of this study was to examine whether patients' perceptions in patient-provider interactions (i.e., trust in provider, patient satisfaction, and patient sense of interpersonal control in patient-provider interactions) mediate any found association between patient-perceived provider cultural sensitivity (PCS) and treatment adherence among English-preferred Latino (EPL) and Spanish-preferred Latino (SPL) patients. Data from 194 EPL patients and 361 SPL patients were obtained using questionnaires. A series of language-specific structural equation models were conducted to test the relationship between patient-perceived PCS and patient treatment adherence and the examined mediators of this relationship among the Latino patients. No significant direct effects of patient-perceived PCS on general treatment adherence were found. However, as hypothesized, several significant indirect effects emerged. Preferred language appeared to have moderating effects on the relationships between patient-perceived PCS and general treatment adherence. These results suggest that interventions to promote treatment adherence among Latino patients should likely include provider training to foster patient-defined PCS, trust in provider, and patient satisfaction with care. Furthermore, this training needs to be customized to be suitable for providing care to Latino patients who prefer speaking Spanish and Latino patients who prefer speaking English.

  7. Intersections between the Autism Spectrum and the Internet: Perceived Benefits and Preferred Functions of Computer-Mediated Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie-Lynch, Kristen; Kapp, Steven K.; Shane-Simpson, Christina; Smith, David Shane; Hutman, Ted

    2014-01-01

    An online survey compared the perceived benefits and preferred functions of computer-mediated communication of participants with (N = 291) and without ASD (N = 311). Participants with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) perceived benefits of computer-mediated communication in terms of increased comprehension and control over communication, access to…

  8. Perceived Stress in Online Prostate Cancer Community Participants: Examining Relationships with Stigmatization, Social Support Network Preference, and Social Support Seeking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rising, Camella J; Bol, Nadine; Burke-Garcia, Amelia; Rains, Stephen; Wright, Kevin B

    2017-06-01

    Men with prostate cancer often need social support to help them cope with illness-related physiological and psychosocial challenges. Whether those needs are met depends on receiving support optimally matched to their needs. This study examined relationships between perceived stress, prostate cancer-related stigma, weak-tie support preference, and online community use for social support in a survey of online prostate cancer community participants (n = 149). Findings revealed a positive relationship between stigma and perceived stress. This relationship, however, was moderated by weak-tie support preference and online community use for social support. Specifically, stigma was positively related to perceived stress when weak-tie support was preferred. Analyses also showed a positive relationship between stigma and perceived stress in those who used their online community for advice or emotional support. Health communication scholars should work collaboratively with diagnosed men, clinicians, and online community administrators to develop online interventions that optimally match social support needs.

  9. Residential Location Preferences. The Significance of Socio-Cultural and Religious Attributes

    OpenAIRE

    Gobi Krishna Sinniah; Muhammad Zaly Shah; Geoff Vigar; Paulus Teguh Aditjandrad

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to explore residential location preferences and how they are related to travel behavior. The literature focuses on the preferences in relation to physical and demographic aspects, such as land uses, facilities, transportation facilities, transportation services, car ownership, income, household size and travel accessibility. However, this study suggests social and cultural issue such as racial diversity which is literally to be a significance context. The case s...

  10. Advanced driver assistance systems for teen drivers: Teen and parent impressions, perceived need, and intervention preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Eve; Fisher Thiel, Megan; Sultana, Nahida; Hannan, Chloe; Seacrist, Thomas

    2018-02-28

    From the advent of airbags to electronic stability control, technological advances introduced into automobile design have significantly reduced injury and death from motor vehicle crashes. These advances are especially pertinent among teen drivers, a population whose leading cause of death is motor vehicle crashes. Recently developed advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) have the potential to compensate for skill deficits and reduce overall crash risk. Yet, ADAS is only effective if drivers are willing to use it. Limited research has been conducted on the suitability of ADAS for teen drivers. The goal of this study is to identify teen drivers' perceived need for ADAS, receptiveness to in-vehicle technology, and intervention preferences. The long-term goal is to understand public perceptions and barriers to ADAS use and to help determine how these systems must evolve to meet the needs of the riskiest driving populations. Three focus groups (N = 24) were conducted with licensed teen drivers aged 16-19 years and 2 focus groups with parents of teen drivers (N = 12). Discussion topics included views on how ADAS might influence driving skills and behaviors; trust in technology; and data privacy. Discussions were transcribed; the team used conventional content analysis and open coding methods to identify 12 coding domains and code transcripts with NVivo 10. Interrater reliability testing showed moderate to high kappa scores. Overall, participants recognized potential benefits of ADAS, including improved safety and crash reduction. Teens suggested that ADAS is still developing and therefore has potential to malfunction. Many teens reported a greater trust in their own driving ability over vehicle technology. They expressed that novice drivers should learn to drive on non-ADAS-equipped cars and that ADAS should be considered a supplemental aid. Many teens felt that overreliance on ADAS may increase distracted driving or risky behaviors among teens. Parents also

  11. Coping with perceived racism: a significant factor in the development of obesity in African American women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwendwa, Denee T; Gholson, Georica; Sims, Regina C; Levy, Shellie-Anne; Ali, Mana; Harrell, C Jules; Callender, Clive O; Campbell, Alfonso L

    2011-07-01

    African American women have the highest rates of obesity in the United States. The prevalence of obesity in this group calls for the identification of psychosocial factors that increase risk. Psychological stress has been associated with obesity in women; however, there is scant literature that has explored the impact of racism on body mass index (BMI) in African American women. The current study aimed to determine whether emotional responses and behavioral coping responses to perceived racism were associated with BMI in African American women. A sample of 110 African American women participated in a community-based study. Height and weight measurements were taken to calculate BMI and participants completed the Perceived Racism Scale and the Perceived Stress Scale. Hierarchical regression analyses demonstrated a significant relationship between BMI and behavioral coping responses to perceived racism. Findings for emotional responses to perceived racism and appraisal of one's daily life as stressful were nonsignificant. Mean comparisons of BMI groups showed that obese African American women used more behavioral coping responses to perceived racism as compared to normal-weight and overweight women in the sample. Findings suggest that behavioral coping responses better explained increased risk for obesity in African American women. A biobehavioral pathway may explain this finding with a stress-response process that includes cortisol reactivity. Maladaptive behavioral coping responses may also provide insight into obesity risk. Future research is needed to determine which behavioral coping responses place African American women at greater risk for obesity.

  12. Congruence between patients’ preferred and perceived participation in medical decision-making: a review of the literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Patients are increasingly expected and asked to be involved in health care decisions. In this decision-making process, preferences for participation are important. In this systematic review we aim to provide an overview the literature related to the congruence between patients’ preferences and their perceived participation in medical decision-making. We also explore the direction of mismatched and outline factors associated with congruence. Methods A systematic review was performed on patient participation in medical decision-making. Medline, PsycINFO, CINAHL, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library databases up to September 2012, were searched and all studies were rigorously critically appraised. In total 44 papers were included, they sampled contained 52 different patient samples. Results Mean of congruence between preference for and perceived participation in decision-making was 60% (49 and 70 representing 25th and 75th percentiles). If no congruence was found, of 36 patient samples most patients preferred more involvement and of 9 patient samples most patients preferred less involvement. Factors associated with preferences the most investigated were age and educational level. Younger patients preferred more often an active or shared role as did higher educated patients. Conclusion This review suggests that a similar approach to all patients is not likely to meet patients’ wishes, since preferences for participation vary among patients. Health care professionals should be sensitive to patients individual preferences and communicate about patients’ participation wishes on a regular basis during their illness trajectory. PMID:24708833

  13. Congruence between patients' preferred and perceived participation in medical decision-making: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brom, Linda; Hopmans, Wendy; Pasman, H Roeline W; Timmermans, Danielle R M; Widdershoven, Guy A M; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, Bregje D

    2014-04-03

    Patients are increasingly expected and asked to be involved in health care decisions. In this decision-making process, preferences for participation are important. In this systematic review we aim to provide an overview the literature related to the congruence between patients' preferences and their perceived participation in medical decision-making. We also explore the direction of mismatched and outline factors associated with congruence. A systematic review was performed on patient participation in medical decision-making. Medline, PsycINFO, CINAHL, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library databases up to September 2012, were searched and all studies were rigorously critically appraised. In total 44 papers were included, they sampled contained 52 different patient samples. Mean of congruence between preference for and perceived participation in decision-making was 60% (49 and 70 representing 25th and 75th percentiles). If no congruence was found, of 36 patient samples most patients preferred more involvement and of 9 patient samples most patients preferred less involvement. Factors associated with preferences the most investigated were age and educational level. Younger patients preferred more often an active or shared role as did higher educated patients. This review suggests that a similar approach to all patients is not likely to meet patients' wishes, since preferences for participation vary among patients. Health care professionals should be sensitive to patients individual preferences and communicate about patients' participation wishes on a regular basis during their illness trajectory.

  14. Critical neuroscience-or critical science? A perspective on the perceived normative significance of neuroscience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schleim, Stephan

    2014-01-01

    Members of the Critical Neuroscience initiative raised the question whether the perceived normative significance of neuroscience is justified by the discipline's actual possibilities. In this paper I show how brain research was assigned the ultimate political, social, and moral authority by some

  15. Reliability and validity of the Perceived Stress Scale-10 in Hispanic Americans with English or Spanish language preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baik, Sharon H; Fox, Rina S; Mills, Sarah D; Roesch, Scott C; Sadler, Georgia Robins; Klonoff, Elizabeth A; Malcarne, Vanessa L

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the psychometric properties of the Perceived Stress Scale-10 among 436 community-dwelling Hispanic Americans with English or Spanish language preference. Multigroup confirmatory factor analysis examined the factorial invariance of the Perceived Stress Scale-10 across language groups. Results supported a two-factor model (negative, positive) with equivalent response patterns and item intercepts but different factor covariances across languages. Internal consistency reliability of the Perceived Stress Scale-10 total and subscale scores was good in both language groups. Convergent validity was supported by expected relationships of Perceived Stress Scale-10 scores to measures of anxiety and depression. These results support the use of the Perceived Stress Scale-10 among Hispanic Americans.

  16. Nurse managers' preferred and perceived leadership styles: a study at an Italian hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zampieron, Alessandra; Spanio, Daniele; Bernardi, Paola; Milan, Rosalia; Buja, Alessandra

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional descriptive study was to compare the different leadership styles based on perceptions of nurse managers and their staff. Nurse managers' styles are fundamental to improving subordinates' performance and achieving goals at health-care institutions. This was a cross-sectional study. A questionnaire developed by Ekvall & Arvonen, considering three leadership domains (Change, Production and Employee relations), was administered to all nurse managers and to their subordinates at a city hospital in north-east Italy. The comparison between the leadership styles actually adopted and those preferred by the nurse managers showed that the preferred style always scored higher than the style adopted, the difference reaching statistical significance for Change and Production. The leadership styles preferred by subordinates always scored higher than the styles their nurse managers actually adopted; in the subordinates' opinion, the differences being statistically significant in all three leadership domains. The study showed that nurse managers' expectations in relation to their leadership differ from those of their subordinates. These findings should be borne in mind when selecting and training nurse managers and other personnel, and they should influence the hospital's strategic management of nurses. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. The Impact of Congruence between Perceived and Preferred Leadership on Satisfaction among College Student-Athletes in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia, Jingyi Shannon; Pyun, Do Young; Kwon, Hyungil Harry

    2015-01-01

    Chelladurai developed the Multidimensional Model of Leadership, which was designed to be situation-specific to examine leadership behaviour and effectiveness in sporting contexts. Applying Chelladurai's concept to the Singapore sporting context, this study aimed to assess the impact of congruence between perceived and preferred leadership…

  18. Orthognathic Surgery Has a Significant Effect on Perceived Personality Traits and Emotional Expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzaferro, Daniel M; Wes, Ari M; Naran, Sanjay; Pearl, Rebecca; Bartlett, Scott P; Taylor, Jesse A

    2017-11-01

    The effects of orthognathic surgery go beyond objective cephalometric correction of facial and dental disproportion and malocclusion, respectively. The authors hypothesized that there is tangible improvement following surgery that alters publicly perceived personality traits and emotions. The authors used Amazon.com's Mechanical Turk (MTurk), a crowdsourcing tool, to determine how preoperative and postoperative images of orthognathic surgery patients were perceived on six personality traits and six emotional expressions based on posteroanterior and lateral photographs. Blinded respondents provided demographic information and were randomly assigned to one of two sets of 20 photographs (10 subjects before and after surgery). Data on 20 orthognathic surgery patients were collected from 476 individuals. The majority of participants were female (52.6 percent), 18 to 39 years old (67.9 percent), Caucasian (76.6 percent), had some college or technical training or graduated college (72.7 percent), and had an annual income between $20,000 and $99,999 (74.6 percent). A paired t test analysis found that subjects were perceived significantly more favorably after orthognathic surgery in 12 countenance categories: more dominant, trustworthy, friendly, intelligent, attractive, and happy; and also less threatening, angry, surprised, sad, afraid, and disgusted (p surgery than those earning less (p orthognathic surgery, with both perceived personality traits and emotions deemed more favorable. Additional work is needed to better understand the physiologic underpinnings of such findings. Crowdsourcing technology offers a unique opportunity for surgeons to gather data regarding laypeople's perceptions of surgical outcomes in areas such as orthognathic surgery.

  19. Prey preferences of the snow leopard (Panthera uncia: regional diet specificity holds global significance for conservation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Lyngdoh

    Full Text Available The endangered snow leopard is a large felid that is distributed over 1.83 million km(2 globally. Throughout its range it relies on a limited number of prey species in some of the most inhospitable landscapes on the planet where high rates of human persecution exist for both predator and prey. We reviewed 14 published and 11 unpublished studies pertaining to snow leopard diet throughout its range. We calculated prey consumption in terms of frequency of occurrence and biomass consumed based on 1696 analysed scats from throughout the snow leopard's range. Prey biomass consumed was calculated based on the Ackerman's linear correction factor. We identified four distinct physiographic and snow leopard prey type zones, using cluster analysis that had unique prey assemblages and had key prey characteristics which supported snow leopard occurrence there. Levin's index showed the snow leopard had a specialized dietary niche breadth. The main prey of the snow leopard were Siberian ibex (Capra sibrica, blue sheep (Pseudois nayaur, Himalayan tahr (Hemitragus jemlahicus, argali (Ovis ammon and marmots (Marmota spp. The significantly preferred prey species of snow leopard weighed 55±5 kg, while the preferred prey weight range of snow leopard was 36-76 kg with a significant preference for Siberian ibex and blue sheep. Our meta-analysis identified critical dietary resources for snow leopards throughout their distribution and illustrates the importance of understanding regional variation in species ecology; particularly prey species that have global implications for conservation.

  20. Prey preferences of the snow leopard (Panthera uncia): regional diet specificity holds global significance for conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyngdoh, Salvador; Shrotriya, Shivam; Goyal, Surendra P; Clements, Hayley; Hayward, Matthew W; Habib, Bilal

    2014-01-01

    The endangered snow leopard is a large felid that is distributed over 1.83 million km(2) globally. Throughout its range it relies on a limited number of prey species in some of the most inhospitable landscapes on the planet where high rates of human persecution exist for both predator and prey. We reviewed 14 published and 11 unpublished studies pertaining to snow leopard diet throughout its range. We calculated prey consumption in terms of frequency of occurrence and biomass consumed based on 1696 analysed scats from throughout the snow leopard's range. Prey biomass consumed was calculated based on the Ackerman's linear correction factor. We identified four distinct physiographic and snow leopard prey type zones, using cluster analysis that had unique prey assemblages and had key prey characteristics which supported snow leopard occurrence there. Levin's index showed the snow leopard had a specialized dietary niche breadth. The main prey of the snow leopard were Siberian ibex (Capra sibrica), blue sheep (Pseudois nayaur), Himalayan tahr (Hemitragus jemlahicus), argali (Ovis ammon) and marmots (Marmota spp). The significantly preferred prey species of snow leopard weighed 55±5 kg, while the preferred prey weight range of snow leopard was 36-76 kg with a significant preference for Siberian ibex and blue sheep. Our meta-analysis identified critical dietary resources for snow leopards throughout their distribution and illustrates the importance of understanding regional variation in species ecology; particularly prey species that have global implications for conservation.

  1. Customer Perceived Brand Equity in Measuring Consumption Preference towards Local and Imported Products: A serial Studies on Urban and Suburban Level of Indonesia Society in Greater Jakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Rahayu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study generally aims to analyze how the preferences of Indonesian as a customer in consuming local and imported products. The specific purpose of this study is to confirm measurement tools of the customer perceived brand equity, which are product country image, culture, marketing mix, and product quality. The result of this study indicates that Indonesian consider much about the marketing mix and product quality, while not so much considering culture.The product country image on the other hand gives the opposite effect. It is significantly related but has negative impact to the customer preference. This study is expected to provide insight on factors that contribute to form customer preference, consumption, and behavior in consuming local and imported product. It is expected that this study can bring impact in increasing local product competitiveness so that local and imported product could compete equally.

  2. Residential Location Preferences. The Significance of Socio-Cultural and Religious Attributes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gobi Krishna Sinniah

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to explore residential location preferences and how they are related to travel behavior. The literature focuses on the preferences in relation to physical and demographic aspects, such as land uses, facilities, transportation facilities, transportation services, car ownership, income, household size and travel accessibility. However, this study suggests social and cultural issue such as racial diversity which is literally to be a significance context. The case study reported here is based on Iskandar Malaysia’s development region. Reliability Analysis and Factor Analysis are applied to determine that religious and culture are influential in terms of residential location preferences. These findings add a different perspective on travel behavior studies, which are heavily dominated by researches from Western Europe, North America and Australasia. It is suggested that transport researchers need to reject universal conclusions and be clearer about the contexts in which their findings most applied and in multi-cultural scenarios to consider cultural and religious factors more extensively.

  3. Significance of Perceived Social Expectation and Implications to Conservation Education: Turtle Conservation as a Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Alex Y.; Chow, Alex T.; Cheung, Sze Man

    2012-11-01

    The likelihood of participating in wildlife conservation programs is dependent on social influences and circumstances. This view is validated by a case study of behavioral intention to support conservation of Asian turtles. A total of 776 college students in China completed a questionnaire survey designed to identify factors associated with their intention to support conservation. A regression model explained 48 % of variance in the level of intention. Perceived social expectation was the strongest predictor, followed by attitudes toward turtle protection and perceived behavioral control, altogether explaining 44 %. Strong ethics and socio-economic variables had some statistical significant impacts and accounted for 3 % of the variance. The effects of general environmental awareness, trust and responsibility ascription were modest. Knowledge about turtles was a weak predictor. We conclude that perceived social expectation is a limiting factor of conservation behavior. Sustained interest and commitment to conservation can be created by enhancing positive social influences. Conservation educators should explore the potential of professionally supported, group-based actions that can nurture a sense of collective achievement as part of an educational campaign.

  4. Children's Preference for Sequenced Accompaniments: The Influence of Style and Perceived Tempo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brittin, Ruth V.

    2000-01-01

    Explores the influence of tempo on musical preference for students in grades 2-6, focusing on the effects of various styles using a MIDI keyboard. Explains that the students listened to 10 musical selections identifying their preferences and perceptions of tempo. Reveals that the preferred styles were Hip-Hop, Heavy Rock Shuffle, Samba, and Funk2.…

  5. Short communication: study on veterinarian communication skills preferred and perceived by dairy farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipolla, M; Zecconi, A

    2015-04-01

    Effective communication in dairy farms improves management and herd health, and it is also pivotal for public health in a "from farm to fork" perspective. This paper reports the results of a descriptive study on dairy farmers' perception of veterinarian and other consultants' communication skills. Perceived communication skills showed to be significantly lower than desired ones for all the professional figures considered. Despite these unsatisfactory results, veterinarian were the most appreciated and skilled consultants. The observed farmers' dissatisfaction increases farmers' difficulties in identifying proper targets and proper consultant. An increase in the skill of veterinarian to deliver effective and tailored messages could help to overcome the problem. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Practice education learning environments: the mismatch between perceived and preferred expectations of undergraduate health science students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ted; Williams, Brett; McKenna, Lisa; Palermo, Claire; McCall, Louise; Roller, Louis; Hewitt, Lesley; Molloy, Liz; Baird, Marilyn; Aldabah, Ligal

    2011-11-01

    Practical hands-on learning opportunities are viewed as a vital component of the education of health science students, but there is a critical shortage of fieldwork placement experiences. It is therefore important that these clinical learning environments are well suited to students' perceptions and expectations. To investigate how undergraduate students enrolled in health-related education programs view their clinical learning environments and specifically to compare students' perception of their 'actual' clinical learning environment to that of their 'preferred/ideal' clinical learning environment. The Clinical Learning Environment Inventory (CLEI) was used to collect data from 548 undergraduate students (55% response rate) enrolled in all year levels of paramedics, midwifery, radiography and medical imaging, occupational therapy, pharmacy, nutrition and dietetics, physiotherapy and social work at Monash University via convenience sampling. Students were asked to rate their perception of the clinical learning environment at the completion of their placements using the CLEI. Satisfaction of the students enrolled in the health-related disciplines was closely linked with the five constructs measured by the CLEI: Personalization, Student Involvement, Task Orientation, Innovation, and Individualization. Significant differences were found between the student's perception of their 'actual' clinical learning environment and their 'ideal' clinical learning environment. The study highlights the importance of a supportive clinical learning environment that places emphasis on effective two-way communication. A thorough understanding of students' perceptions of their clinical learning environments is essential. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Innate Host Habitat Preference in the Parasitoid Diachasmimorpha longicaudata: Functional Significance and Modifications through Learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego F Segura

    Full Text Available Parasitoids searching for polyphagous herbivores can find their hosts in a variety of habitats. Under this scenario, chemical cues from the host habitat (not related to the host represent poor indicators of host location. Hence, it is unlikely that naïve females show a strong response to host habitat cues, which would become important only if the parasitoids learn to associate such cues to the host presence. This concept does not consider that habitats can vary in profitability or host nutritional quality, which according to the optimal foraging theory and the preference-performance hypothesis (respectively could shape the way in which parasitoids make use of chemical cues from the host habitat. We assessed innate preference in the fruit fly parasitoid Diachasmimorpha longicaudata among chemical cues from four host habitats (apple, fig, orange and peach using a Y-tube olfactometer. Contrary to what was predicted, we found a hierarchic pattern of preference. The parasitism rate realized on these fruit species and the weight of the host correlates positively, to some extent, with the preference pattern, whereas preference did not correlate with survival and fecundity of the progeny. As expected for a parasitoid foraging for generalist hosts, habitat preference changed markedly depending on their previous experience and the abundance of hosts. These findings suggest that the pattern of preference for host habitats is attributable to differences in encounter rate and host quality. Host habitat preference seems to be, however, quite plastic and easily modified according to the information obtained during foraging.

  8. Perceived relevance and information needs regarding food topics and preferred information sources among Dutch adults: results of a quantitative consumer study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dillen, van S.M.E.; Hiddink, G.J.; Koelen, M.A.; Graaf, de C.; Woerkum, van C.M.J.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: For more effective nutrition communication, it is crucial to identify sources from which consumers seek information. Our purpose was to assess perceived relevance and information needs regarding food topics, and preferred information sources by means of quantitative consumer research.

  9. School Psychologists and the Secret Illness: Perceived Knowledge, Role Preferences, and Training Needs regarding the Prevention and Treatment of Internalizing Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David N.; Jome, LaRae M.

    2010-01-01

    This descriptive study examined the perceptions of a national sample of school psychologists in the United States regarding their perceived knowledge, preferred roles, and training needs in the prevention and treatment of nine prominent child and adolescent internalizing disorders. The results indicated that participants perceived the prevention…

  10. Reciprocal influences of victimization, perceived social preference, and self-concept in adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bellmore, A.D.; Cillessen, A.H.N.

    2006-01-01

    In order to better understand self-concept development, the association between adolescents' social self-perceptions and their peers' perceptions of them was examined in a three-year longitudinal study of 491 middle school students. Each spring for three years, adolescents' peer-perceived

  11. Critical Neuroscience – or Critical Science? A Perspective on the Perceived Normative Significance of Neuroscience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan eSchleim

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Members of the Critical Neuroscience initiative raised the question whether the perceived normative significance of neuroscience is justified by the discipline’s actual possibilities. In this paper I show how brain research was assigned the ultimate political, social, and moral authority by some leading researchers who suggested that neuroscientists should change their research priorities, promising solutions to social challenges in order to increase research funds. Discussing the two examples of cognitive enhancement and the neuroscience of (immoral behavior I argue that there is indeed a gap between promises and expectations on the one hand and knowledge and applications on the other. However it would be premature to generalize this to the neurosciences at large, whose knowledge-producing, innovative, and economic potentials have just recently been confirmed by political and scientific decision-makers with the financial support for the Human Brain Project and the BRAIN Initiative. Finally, I discuss two explanations for the analyzed communication patterns and argue why Critical Neuroscience is necessary, but not sufficient. A more general Critical Science movement is required to improve the scientific incentive system.

  12. Critical neuroscience—or critical science? A perspective on the perceived normative significance of neuroscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleim, Stephan

    2014-01-01

    Members of the Critical Neuroscience initiative raised the question whether the perceived normative significance of neuroscience is justified by the discipline’s actual possibilities. In this paper I show how brain research was assigned the ultimate political, social, and moral authority by some leading researchers who suggested that neuroscientists should change their research priorities, promising solutions to social challenges in order to increase research funds. Discussing the two examples of cognitive enhancement and the neuroscience of (im)moral behavior I argue that there is indeed a gap between promises and expectations on the one hand and knowledge and applications on the other. However it would be premature to generalize this to the neurosciences at large, whose knowledge-producing, innovative, and economic potentials have just recently been confirmed by political and scientific decision-makers with the financial support for the Human Brain Project and the BRAIN Initiative. Finally, I discuss two explanations for the analyzed communication patterns and argue why Critical Neuroscience is necessary, but not sufficient. A more general Critical Science movement is required to improve the scientific incentive system. PMID:24904376

  13. School Psychologists and the Assessment of Childhood Internalizing Disorders: Perceived Knowledge, Role Preferences and Training Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David N.; Jome, Larae M.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the perceptions of a national sample of school psychologists in the United States regarding their knowledge, preferred roles and training needs in the assessment of nine prominent childhood internalizing disorders. Knowledge about all disorders was rated by respondents as being at least fairly important. In particular,…

  14. Variations in Perceived Parenting Education Preferences: A Person-Centred Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, YaeBin

    2015-01-01

    Parenting education needs assessment surveys were collected from a large group of the parents or caregivers of 698 0-5-year-old children in southern Nevada. Survey questions addressed parenting education interests, family characteristics, and preferred delivery methods of parenting education. Cluster analysis was used to empirically determine if…

  15. Science Credit for Agriculture: Perceived Support, Preferred Implementation Methods and Teacher Science Course Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Donald M.

    1996-01-01

    Arkansas agriculture teachers (213 of 259 surveyed) expressed support for granting science credit for agriculture (88.8%); 65.6% supported science credit for a limited number of agriculture courses. Blanket endorsement for all certified agriculture teachers was favored by 71.5%; 56.6% preferred endorsement only for certified teachers completing an…

  16. The Influence of Learning on Host Plant Preference in a Significant Phytopathogen Vector, Diaphorina citri.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dara G Stockton

    Full Text Available Although specialist herbivorous insects are guided by innate responses to host plant cues, host plant preference may be influenced by experience and is not dictated by instinct alone. The effect of learning on host plant preference was examined in the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri; vector of the causal agent of citrus greening disease or huanglongbing. We investigated: a whether development on specific host plant species influenced host plant preference in mature D. citri; and b the extent of associative learning in D. citri in the form of simple and compound conditioning. Learning was measured by cue selection in a 2-choice behavioral assay and compared to naïve controls. Our results showed that learned responses in D. citri are complex and diverse. The developmental host plant species influenced adult host plant preference, with female psyllids preferring the species on which they were reared. However, such preferences were subject to change with the introduction of an alternative host plant within 24-48 hrs, indicating a large degree of experience-dependent response plasticity. Additionally, learning occurred for multiple sensory modalities where novel olfactory and visual environmental cues were associated with the host plant. However, males and females displayed differing discriminatory abilities. In compound conditioning tasks, males exhibited recognition of a compound stimulus alone while females were capable of learning the individual components. These findings suggest D. citri are dynamic animals that demonstrate host plant preference based on developmental and adult experience and can learn to recognize olfactory and visual host plant stimuli in ways that may be sex specific. These experience-based associations are likely used by adults to locate and select suitable host plants for feeding and reproduction and may suggest the need for more tailored lures and traps, which reflect region-specific cultivars or predominate

  17. The Influence of Learning on Host Plant Preference in a Significant Phytopathogen Vector, Diaphorina citri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockton, Dara G; Martini, Xavier; Patt, Joseph M; Stelinski, Lukasz L

    2016-01-01

    Although specialist herbivorous insects are guided by innate responses to host plant cues, host plant preference may be influenced by experience and is not dictated by instinct alone. The effect of learning on host plant preference was examined in the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri; vector of the causal agent of citrus greening disease or huanglongbing. We investigated: a) whether development on specific host plant species influenced host plant preference in mature D. citri; and b) the extent of associative learning in D. citri in the form of simple and compound conditioning. Learning was measured by cue selection in a 2-choice behavioral assay and compared to naïve controls. Our results showed that learned responses in D. citri are complex and diverse. The developmental host plant species influenced adult host plant preference, with female psyllids preferring the species on which they were reared. However, such preferences were subject to change with the introduction of an alternative host plant within 24-48 hrs, indicating a large degree of experience-dependent response plasticity. Additionally, learning occurred for multiple sensory modalities where novel olfactory and visual environmental cues were associated with the host plant. However, males and females displayed differing discriminatory abilities. In compound conditioning tasks, males exhibited recognition of a compound stimulus alone while females were capable of learning the individual components. These findings suggest D. citri are dynamic animals that demonstrate host plant preference based on developmental and adult experience and can learn to recognize olfactory and visual host plant stimuli in ways that may be sex specific. These experience-based associations are likely used by adults to locate and select suitable host plants for feeding and reproduction and may suggest the need for more tailored lures and traps, which reflect region-specific cultivars or predominate Rutaceae in the area

  18. Perceived Case Management Needs and Service Preferences of Frequent Emergency Department Users: Lessons Learned in a Large Urban Centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahan, Deborah; Poremski, Daniel; Wise-Harris, Deborah; Pauly, Daniel; Leszcz, Molyn; Wasylenki, Donald; Stergiopoulos, Vicky

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the service needs and preferences of frequent emergency department users with mental health and addictions concerns who participated in a brief intensive case management intervention. We conducted semi-structured individual interviews with 20 frequent emergency department users with mental health and addictions challenges, 13 service providers involved in the delivery of a brief case management intervention, and a focus group with intervention case managers. Thematic analysis was used to explore perceived service user profiles, service needs and preferences of care. Service users experienced complex health and social needs and social isolation, while exhibiting resilience and the desire to contribute. They described multiple instances of stigmatization in interactions with healthcare professionals. Components of the brief intensive case management intervention perceived to be helpful included system navigation, advocacy, intermediation, and practical needs assistance. Frequent service users valued relational responsiveness, a non-judgmental stance, and a recovery orientation in case managers. Interventions for frequent service users in mental health may be enhanced by focusing on the engagement of formal and informal social supports, practical needs assistance, system navigation, advocacy and intermediation, and attention to the recovery goals of service users.

  19. Perceived Case Management Needs and Service Preferences of Frequent Emergency Department Users: Lessons Learned in a Large Urban Centre.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Kahan

    Full Text Available This study aimed to explore the service needs and preferences of frequent emergency department users with mental health and addictions concerns who participated in a brief intensive case management intervention.We conducted semi-structured individual interviews with 20 frequent emergency department users with mental health and addictions challenges, 13 service providers involved in the delivery of a brief case management intervention, and a focus group with intervention case managers. Thematic analysis was used to explore perceived service user profiles, service needs and preferences of care.Service users experienced complex health and social needs and social isolation, while exhibiting resilience and the desire to contribute. They described multiple instances of stigmatization in interactions with healthcare professionals. Components of the brief intensive case management intervention perceived to be helpful included system navigation, advocacy, intermediation, and practical needs assistance. Frequent service users valued relational responsiveness, a non-judgmental stance, and a recovery orientation in case managers.Interventions for frequent service users in mental health may be enhanced by focusing on the engagement of formal and informal social supports, practical needs assistance, system navigation, advocacy and intermediation, and attention to the recovery goals of service users.

  20. Attachment Avoidance Is Significantly Related to Attentional Preference for Infant Faces: Evidence from Eye Movement Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yuncheng; Cheng, Gang; Zhang, Dajun; Ta, Na; Xia, Mu; Ding, Fangyuan

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To determine the influence of adult attachment orientations on infant preference. Methods: We adopted eye-tracking technology to monitor childless college women's eye movements when looking at pairs of faces, including one adult face (man or woman) and one infant face, with three different expressions (happy, sadness, and neutral). The participants ( N = 150; 84% Han ethnicity) were aged 18-29 years ( M = 19.22, SD = 1.72). A random intercepts multilevel linear regression analysis was used to assess the unique contribution of attachment avoidance, determined using the Experiences in Close Relationships scale, to preference for infant faces. Results: Women with higher attachment avoidance showed less infant preference, as shown by less sustained overt attentional bias to the infant face than the adult face based on fixation time and count. Conclusion: Adult attachment might be related to infant preference according to eye movement indices. Women with higher attachment avoidance may lack attentional preference for infant faces. The findings may aid the treatment and remediation of the interactions between children and mothers with insecure attachment.

  1. Sex differences in relative foot length and perceived attractiveness of female feet: relationships among anthropometry, physique, and preference ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voracek, Martin; Fisher, Maryanne L; Rupp, Barbara; Lucas, Deanna; Fessler, Daniel M T

    2007-06-01

    Foot size proportionate to stature is smaller in women than in men, and small feet apparently contribute to perceived physical attractiveness of females. This exploratory study investigated the sex difference in relative foot length and interrelations among foot length, physique, and foot preference ratings in samples from Austria and Canada, each comprised of 75 men and 75 women. The findings included the following lines of evidence: the sex difference in relative foot length replicated in both data sets; the magnitude of this sex effect was large. Relative foot length was smaller in young, nulliparous, and slim women. Pointed-toe and high-heel shoes were more likely worn by smaller, lighter, and slimmer women. Men reported liking women's feet in general more than vice versa. A vast majority of both men and women favored small feet in women, but large feet in men. One's own foot size appeared to correspond to evaluations of attractiveness; particularly, women with small feet preferred small feet in women in general. The preference for small feet in women was convergent across different methods of evaluating attractiveness. Directions for investigations in this emerging field of research on physical attractiveness are discussed.

  2. Ecological significance and complexity of N-source preference in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britto, Dev T; Kronzucker, Herbert J

    2013-10-01

    Plants can utilize two major forms of inorganic N: NO3(-) (nitrate) and NH4(+) (ammonium). In some cases, the preference of one form over another (denoted as β) can appear to be quite pronounced for a plant species, and can be an important determinant and predictor of its distribution and interactions with other species. In many other cases, however, assignment of preference is not so straightforward and must take into account a wide array of complex physiological and environmental features, which interact in ways that are still not well understood. This Viewpoint presents a discussion of the key, and often co-occurring, factors that join to produce the complex phenotypic composite referred to by the deceptively simple term 'N-source preference'. N-source preference is much more complex a biological phenomenon than is often assumed, and general models predicting how it will influence ecological processes will need to be much more sophisticated than those that have been so far developed.

  3. Perceived Need for a Parental Decision Aid for the HPV Vaccine: Content and Format Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechuga, Julia; Swain, Geoffrey; Weinhardt, Lance S.

    2014-01-01

    The human papillomavirus (HPV) is a precursor of cervical cancer. In 2006, the Federal Drug Administration licensed a vaccine to protect against four types of HPV. Three years postlicensure of the vaccine, HPV vaccination is still fraught with controversy. To date, research suggests that contrary to popular notions, parents are less concerned with controversies on moral issues and more with uncertainty regarding because long-term safety of a drug is resolved after licensure. This study was designed to understand whether mothers from diverse ethnicities perceive a need for a decision support tool. Results suggest that the design of a culturally tailored decision support tool may help guide parents through the decision-making process. PMID:21444922

  4. Perceived need of a parental decision aid for the HPV vaccine: content and format preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechuga, Julia; Swain, Geoffrey; Weinhardt, Lance S

    2012-03-01

    The human papillomavirus (HPV) is a precursor of cervical cancer. In 2006, the Federal Drug Administration licensed a vaccine to protect against four types of HPV. Three years postlicensure of the vaccine, HPV vaccination is still fraught with controversy. To date, research suggests that contrary to popular notions, parents are less concerned with controversies on moral issues and more with uncertainty regarding because long-term safety of a drug is resolved after licensure. This study was designed to understand whether mothers from diverse ethnicities perceive a need for a decision support tool. Results suggest that the design of a culturally tailored decision support tool may help guide parents through the decision-making process.

  5. Consumer knowledge, preference, and perceived quality of dried tomato products in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owureku-Asare, Mavis; Ambrose, R P Kingsly; Oduro, Ibok; Tortoe, Charles; Saalia, Firibu K

    2017-05-01

    Postharvest losses (PHL) are incurred in the tomato value chain in Ghana and solar drying of tomato is a promising technology for reducing the loss. However, there are concerns on the usage, functionality and sensory appeal of the dried products to consumers, compounded with the lack of information and research on dried tomato processing in Ghana. A survey was carried out by administering semistructured questionnaires to 395 randomly selected and willing respondents in the Accra Metropolis. Information was obtained on the socioeconomic profile, consumption pattern, knowledge, and acceptance of tomato processing technologies and assessment of quality attributes important to consumers. Most consumers (74%) preferred tomato powder that is conveniently packaged to retain the characteristic intense taste and the flavor using Friedman's rank mean procedure. The study indicated that consumers were more concerned about good manufacturing practices during the production of solar-dried tomato (48.8%) rather than the quality attributes (8.6%). These findings indicate the need for safe solar drying procedures in order to increase consumer acceptability of solar-dried tomato products in Ghana.

  6. The Relationship between Racial Identity and Perceived Significance of the Election of President Barack Obama among African American Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Marisa; Smith-Bynum, Mia

    2016-01-01

    African American women's racial identity is a major determinant for how they interpret the world around them, yet there is little research examining how specific aspects of racial identity are linked with attitudes about an event that has been highly significant for African-Americans: the election of President Barack Obama. The current study examined the relationship between African American mothers' racial identity and their perceived significance of the election of President Barack Obama as an indicator of reduced systemic and actual racism for African Americans, using a sample of 110 African American mothers residing in a Northeastern metropolitan area. Results revealed that racial centrality and assimilation positively predicted perceived significance of President Obama's election for diminishing racism. Implications and future directions are discussed.

  7. Preferred Source and Perceived Need of More Information about Dental Implants by the Undergraduate Dental Students of Nepal: All Nepal Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Arati; Shrestha, Bidhan; Chaudhari, Bijay Kumar; Suwal, Pramita; Singh, Raj Kumar; Niraula, Surya Raj; Parajuli, Prakash Kumar

    2018-01-01

    Objectives. This study was conducted to know the preferred source and perceived need of more information about dental implants by the undergraduate students of Nepal and their association with academic levels and gender. Materials and Methods. It was conducted in all the dental colleges of Nepal from June 2016 to June 2017 after taking ethical clearance and approval from the research committee of BPKIHS. It included all those who were present at the time of survey. Data collection was done th...

  8. Preferred Source and Perceived Need of More Information about Dental Implants by the Undergraduate Dental Students of Nepal: All Nepal Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arati Sharma

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. This study was conducted to know the preferred source and perceived need of more information about dental implants by the undergraduate students of Nepal and their association with academic levels and gender. Materials and Methods. It was conducted in all the dental colleges of Nepal from June 2016 to June 2017 after taking ethical clearance and approval from the research committee of BPKIHS. It included all those who were present at the time of survey. Data collection was done through a cross-sectional questionnaire survey during the academic schedule of the colleges, supervised and monitored by the investigators themselves. The collected data were coded and entered in Microsoft excel 2013, and statistical analysis was done by SPSS 20 version. Result. A majority of the respondents agreed that they were not provided with sufficient information about implant treatment procedures during their BDS program (65.3%, would like more to be provided in the curriculum (95.1%, and would like to get additional reliable information from dental consultants and specialists (40.7% and training on it from fellowship programs conducted by universities (39.2%. Significant association was seen between the responses and academic levels. Conclusion. Undergraduate dental students of Nepal want more information about dental implants through various means.

  9. Preferred Source and Perceived Need of More Information about Dental Implants by the Undergraduate Dental Students of Nepal: All Nepal Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Arati; Shrestha, Bidhan; Chaudhari, Bijay Kumar; Suwal, Pramita; Singh, Raj Kumar; Niraula, Surya Raj; Parajuli, Prakash Kumar

    2018-01-01

    This study was conducted to know the preferred source and perceived need of more information about dental implants by the undergraduate students of Nepal and their association with academic levels and gender. It was conducted in all the dental colleges of Nepal from June 2016 to June 2017 after taking ethical clearance and approval from the research committee of BPKIHS. It included all those who were present at the time of survey. Data collection was done through a cross-sectional questionnaire survey during the academic schedule of the colleges, supervised and monitored by the investigators themselves. The collected data were coded and entered in Microsoft excel 2013, and statistical analysis was done by SPSS 20 version. A majority of the respondents agreed that they were not provided with sufficient information about implant treatment procedures during their BDS program (65.3%), would like more to be provided in the curriculum (95.1%), and would like to get additional reliable information from dental consultants and specialists (40.7%) and training on it from fellowship programs conducted by universities (39.2%). Significant association was seen between the responses and academic levels. Undergraduate dental students of Nepal want more information about dental implants through various means.

  10. Amerindian (but not African or European) ancestry is significantly associated with diurnal preference within an admixed Brazilian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, Kieren J; Campos Santos, Hadassa; Beijamini, Felipe; Duarte, Núbia E; Horimoto, Andréa R V R; Taporoski, Tâmara P; Vallada, Homero; Negrão, André B; Krieger, José E; Pedrazzoli, Mário; Knutson, Kristen L; Pereira, Alexandre C; von Schantz, Malcolm

    2017-01-01

    Significant questions remain unanswered regarding the genetic versus environmental contributions to racial/ethnic differences in sleep and circadian rhythms. We addressed this question by investigating the association between diurnal preference, using the morningness-eveningness questionnaire (MEQ), and genetic ancestry within the Baependi Heart Study cohort, a highly admixed Brazilian population based in a rural town. Analysis was performed using measures of ancestry, using the Admixture program, and MEQ from 1,453 individuals. We found an association between the degree of Amerindian (but not European of African) ancestry and morningness, equating to 0.16 units for each additional percent of Amerindian ancestry, after adjustment for age, sex, education, and residential zone. To our knowledge, this is the first published report identifying an association between genetic ancestry and MEQ, and above all, the first one based on ancestral contributions within individuals living in the same community. This previously unknown ancestral dimension of diurnal preference suggests a stratification between racial/ethnic groups in an as yet unknown number of genetic polymorphisms.

  11. Evidence of significant central fatigue in patients with cancer-related fatigue during repetitive elbow flexions till perceived exhaustion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Cai

    Full Text Available To investigate whether fatigue induced by an intermittent motor task in patients with cancer-related fatigue (CRF is more central or peripheral.Ten patients with CRF who were off chemo and radiation therapies and 14 age-matched healthy controls were enrolled. Participants completed a Brief Fatigue Inventory (BFI and performed a fatigue task consisting of intermittent elbow-flexion contractions at submaximal (40% maximal voluntary contraction intensity till self-perceived exhaustion. Twitch force was elicited by an electrical stimulation applied to the biceps brachii muscle. The relative degree of peripheral (muscle vs. central contribution to fatigue induced by the intermittent motor task (IMT was assessed using twitch force ratio (TF ratio defined as post IMT twitch force to pre IMT twitch force. The total number of trials (intermittent contractions and total duration of all trials performed by each subject were also quantified.BFI scores were higher (p < 0.001 in CRF than controls, indicating greater feeling of fatigue in CRF patients than controls. A significantly smaller number of trials and shorter total duration of the trials (p < 0.05 were observed in CRF than control participants. The TF ratio (0.81 ± 0.05 in CRF was higher (p < 0.05 compared with that of controls (0.62 ± 0.05, suggesting CRF patients experienced a significantly lower degree of muscle (peripheral fatigue at the time of perceived exhaustion.Consistent with prior findings for fatigue under submaximal sustained contraction, our results indicate that motor fatigue in CRF is more of central than peripheral origin during IMT. Significant central fatigue in CRF patients limits their ability to prolong motor performance.

  12. Physical activity and mental disorders: a case-control study on attitudes, preferences and perceived barriers in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpiniello, Bernardo; Primavera, Diego; Pilu, Alessandra; Vaccargiu, Nicola; Pinna, Federica

    2013-12-01

    Mentally ill people experience greater difficulty than the general population in exercising regularly. We aimed to evaluate attitudes displayed and barriers perceived towards physical activity in a sample of psychiatric patients. A total of 138 (M = 48, F = 90) patients attending a community mental health centre were compared with a control group made up of 138 subjects not affected by mental disorders matched for gender, mean age and education. Both groups underwent a self-administered questionnaire. Patients reported a more sedentary lifestyle in terms of weekly physical activities and daily hours of exercise; their body mass index (BMI) was significantly higher compared with the BMI of controls (p barriers to physical activity; moreover, stating how feeling sad or "distressed" reduced their propensity to physical exercise (p = 0.002). A higher number of patients (p physical activity, and the experiencing of scarce enjoyment (p barriers may limit regular physical activity in subjects affected by mental disorders; these barriers should be taken into account and appropriately addressed.

  13. A survey of radiographers' confidence and self-perceived accuracy in frontline image interpretation and their continuing educational preferences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neep, Michael J; Steffens, Tom; Owen, Rebecca; McPhail, Steven M

    2014-01-01

    The provision of a written comment on traumatic abnormalities of the musculoskeletal system detected by radiographers can assist referrers and may improve patient management, but the practice has not been widely adopted outside the United Kingdom. The purpose of this study was to investigate Australian radiographers' perceptions of their readiness for practice in a radiographer commenting system and their educational preferences in relation to two different delivery formats of image interpretation education, intensive and non-intensive. A cross-sectional web-based questionnaire was implemented between August and September 2012. Participants included radiographers with experience working in emergency settings at four Australian metropolitan hospitals. Conventional descriptive statistics, frequency histograms, and thematic analysis were undertaken. A Wilcoxon signed-rank test examined whether a difference in preference ratings between intensive and non-intensive education delivery was evident. The questionnaire was completed by 73 radiographers (68% response rate). Radiographers reported higher confidence and self-perceived accuracy to detect traumatic abnormalities than to describe traumatic abnormalities of the musculoskeletal system. Radiographers frequently reported high desirability ratings for both the intensive and the non-intensive education delivery, no difference in desirability ratings for these two formats was evident (z = 1.66, P = 0.11). Some Australian radiographers perceive they are not ready to practise in a frontline radiographer commenting system. Overall, radiographers indicated mixed preferences for image interpretation education delivered via intensive and non-intensive formats. Further research, preferably randomised trials, investigating the effectiveness of intensive and non-intensive education formats of image interpretation education for radiographers is warranted

  14. A survey of radiographers' confidence and self-perceived accuracy in frontline image interpretation and their continuing educational preferences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neep, Michael J [Department of Medical Imaging, Princess Alexandra Hospital, Brisbane, Queensland (Australia); Centre for Functioning and Health Research, Metro South Health, Brisbane, Queensland (Australia); School of Public Health and Social Work and Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Queensland (Australia); Steffens, Tom [Department of Medical Imaging, Princess Alexandra Hospital, Brisbane, Queensland (Australia); Owen, Rebecca [Radiation Oncology Mater Centre, Princess Alexandra Hospital, Brisbane, Queensland (Australia); Faculty of Health, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Queensland (Australia); McPhail, Steven M [Centre for Functioning and Health Research, Metro South Health, Brisbane, Queensland (Australia); School of Public Health and Social Work and Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Queensland (Australia); Department of Medical Imaging, Princess Alexandra Hospital, Brisbane, Queensland (Australia)

    2014-06-15

    The provision of a written comment on traumatic abnormalities of the musculoskeletal system detected by radiographers can assist referrers and may improve patient management, but the practice has not been widely adopted outside the United Kingdom. The purpose of this study was to investigate Australian radiographers' perceptions of their readiness for practice in a radiographer commenting system and their educational preferences in relation to two different delivery formats of image interpretation education, intensive and non-intensive. A cross-sectional web-based questionnaire was implemented between August and September 2012. Participants included radiographers with experience working in emergency settings at four Australian metropolitan hospitals. Conventional descriptive statistics, frequency histograms, and thematic analysis were undertaken. A Wilcoxon signed-rank test examined whether a difference in preference ratings between intensive and non-intensive education delivery was evident. The questionnaire was completed by 73 radiographers (68% response rate). Radiographers reported higher confidence and self-perceived accuracy to detect traumatic abnormalities than to describe traumatic abnormalities of the musculoskeletal system. Radiographers frequently reported high desirability ratings for both the intensive and the non-intensive education delivery, no difference in desirability ratings for these two formats was evident (z = 1.66, P = 0.11). Some Australian radiographers perceive they are not ready to practise in a frontline radiographer commenting system. Overall, radiographers indicated mixed preferences for image interpretation education delivered via intensive and non-intensive formats. Further research, preferably randomised trials, investigating the effectiveness of intensive and non-intensive education formats of image interpretation education for radiographers is warranted.

  15. Perceived stress in online prostate cancer community participants: Examining relationships with stigmatization, social support network preference, and social support seeking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rising, C.J.; Bol, N.; Burke-Garcia, A.; Rains, S.; Wright, K.B.

    2017-01-01

    Men with prostate cancer often need social support to help them cope with illness-related physiological and psychosocial challenges. Whether those needs are met depends on receiving support optimally matched to their needs. This study examined relationships between perceived stress, prostate

  16. Perceived need for information among patients with a haematological malignancy: associations with information satisfaction and treatment decision-making preferences.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rood, J.A.; van Zuuren, F.J.; Stam, F.; van der Ploeg, T.; Eeltink, C.M.; de Leeuw, I.M.; Huijgens, P.C.

    2015-01-01

    For patients with haematological malignancies, information on disease, prognosis, treatment and impact on quality of life is of the utmost importance. To gain insight into the perceived need for information in relation to sociodemographic and clinical parameters, comorbidity, quality of life (QoL)

  17. Perceived need for information among patients with a haematological malignancy: associations with information satisfaction and treatment decision-making preferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rood, J.A.J.; van Zuuren, F.J.; Stam, F.; van der Ploeg, T.; Eeltink, C.; Verdonck-de Leeuw, I.M.; Huijgens, P.C.

    2015-01-01

    For patients with haematological malignancies, information on disease, prognosis, treatment and impact on quality of life is of the utmost importance. To gain insight into the perceived need for information in relation to sociodemographic and clinical parameters, comorbidity, quality of life (QoL)

  18. Congruence between patients' preferred and perceived participation in medical decision-making: a review of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brom, L.; Hopmans, W.; Pasman, H.R.W.; Timmermans, D.R.M.; Widdershoven, G.A.M.; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, B.D.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Patients are increasingly expected and asked to be involved in health care decisions. In this decision-making process, preferences for participation are important. In this systematic review we aim to provide an overview the literature related to the congruence between patients'

  19. Perceived risks, emotions, and policy preferences : A longitudinal survey among the local population on gas quakes in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perlaviciute, Goda; Steg, Linda; Hoekstra, Elisabeth J.; Vrieling, Leonie

    Energy production can pose risks, such as nuclear accidents, oil spills, and earthquakes caused by gas production. Besides experts’ evaluations of risks, appropriate risk assessment and management require knowledge about how people experience these risks and which mitigation measures they prefer.

  20. Perceived barriers to care and provider gender preferences among veteran men who have experienced military sexual trauma: a qualitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turchik, Jessica A; McLean, Caitlin; Rafie, Samantha; Hoyt, Tim; Rosen, Craig S; Kimerling, Rachel

    2013-05-01

    Research suggests that there may be unique barriers to accessing care among men who have experienced sexual trauma. The primary goal of the current research was to elucidate potential barriers to accessing military sexual trauma (MST)-related care for male veterans. A secondary goal was to explore whether veterans have preferences regarding the gender of clinicians providing MST-related care. Qualitative analyses were used to examine data collected from semistructured interviews conducted with 20 male veterans enrolled in Veterans Health Administration care who reported MST but who had not received any MST-related mental health care. Veterans identified a number of potential barriers, with the majority of reported barriers relating to issues of stigma and gender. Regarding provider gender preferences, veterans were mixed, with 50% preferring a female provider, 25% a male provider, and 25% reporting no gender preference. These preliminary data suggest that stigma, gender, and knowledge-related barriers may exist for men regarding seeking MST-related care. Interventions to address potential barriers, such as outreach interventions and providing gender-specific psychoeducation, may increase access to care for male veterans who report MST. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  1. Perceived need for information among patients with a haematological malignancy: associations with information satisfaction and treatment decision-making preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rood, Janneke A J; van Zuuren, Florence J; Stam, Frank; van der Ploeg, Tjeerd; Eeltink, Corien; Verdonck-de Leeuw, Irma M; Huijgens, Peter C

    2015-06-01

    For patients with haematological malignancies, information on disease, prognosis, treatment and impact on quality of life is of the utmost importance. To gain insight into the perceived need for information in relation to sociodemographic and clinical parameters, comorbidity, quality of life (QoL) and information satisfaction, we compiled a questionnaire based on existing validated questionnaires. A total of 458 patients diagnosed with a haematological malignancy participated. The perceived need for information was moderate to high (40-70%). Multivariate regression analyses showed that a higher need for information was related to younger age, worse QoL, being member of a patient society and moderate comorbidity. The need for disease and treatment-related information was higher than the need for psychosocial information. A higher need for disease and treatment-related information was associated to being diagnosed with multiple myeloma. A higher need for psychosocial information was related to a lower educational level. The information provision could be improved according to 41% of the patients. Higher satisfaction with provided information was associated with better QoL. Most patients (62%) reported that they wanted to be fully informed about their illness and actively involved in treatment decision-making. The results contribute to improving patient-tailored information provision and shared decision-making in clinical practice. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Perceived causes of severe mental disturbance and preferred interventions by the Borana semi-nomadic population in southern Ethiopia: a qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Culture affects the way people conceptualize causes of severe mental disturbance which may lead to a variation in the preferred intervention methods. There is a seemingly dichotomous belief regarding what causes severe mental disturbance: people living in western countries tend to focus mainly on biological and psychosocial risk factors; whereas, in non-western countries the focus is mainly on supernatural and religious factors. These belief systems about causation potentially dictate the type of intervention preferred. Studying such belief systems in any society is expected to help in planning and implementation of appropriate mental health services. Methods A qualitative study was conducted among the Borana semi-nomadic population in southern Ethiopia to explore perceived causes of severe mental disturbance and preferred interventions. We selected, using purposive sampling, key informants from three villages and conducted a total of six focus group discussions: three for males and three for females. Results The views expressed regarding the causes of mental disturbance were heterogeneous encompassing supernatural causes such as possession by evil spirits, curse, bewitchment, ‘exposure to wind’ and subsequent attack by evil spirit in postnatal women and biopsychosocial causes such as infections (malaria), loss, ‘thinking too much’, and alcohol and khat abuse. The preferred interventions for severe mental disturbance included mainly indigenous approaches, such as consulting Borana wise men or indigenous healers, prayer, holy water treatment and seeking modern mental health care as a last resort. Conclusions These findings will be of value for health care planners who wish to expand modern mental health care to this population, indicating the need to increase awareness about the causes of severe mental disturbance and their interventions and collaborate with influential people and indigenous healers to increase acceptability of modern mental

  3. Degree of food processing of household acquisition patterns in a Brazilian urban area is related to food buying preferences and perceived food environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedovato, G M; Trude, A C B; Kharmats, A Y; Martins, P A

    2015-04-01

    This cross-sectional study examined the association between local food environment and consumers' acquisition of ultra-processed food. Households were randomly selected from 36 census tracts in Santos City, Brazil. Mothers, of varying economic status, who had children ages 10 or younger (n = 538) were interviewed concerning: their household food acquisition of 31 groups of food and beverages, perceptions of local food environment, food sources destinations, means of transportation used, and socioeconomic status. Food acquisition patterns were classified based on the degree of industrial food processing. Logistic regression models were fitted to assess the association between consumer behaviors and acquisition patterns. The large variety of fresh produce available in supermarkets was significantly related to lower odds of ultra-processed food purchases. After adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, higher odds for minimally-processed food acquisition were associated with: frequent use of specialized markets to purchase fruits and vegetables (OR 1.89, 95% CI 1.01-2.34), the habit of walking to buy food (OR 1.58, 95% CI 1.08-2.30), and perceived availability of fresh produce in participants' neighborhood (OR 1.58, 95% CI 1.08-2.30). Acquisition of ultra-processed food was positively associated with the use of taxis as principal means of transportation to food sources (OR 2.35, 95% CI 1.08-5.13), and negatively associated with perceived availability of a variety of fruits and vegetables in the neighborhood (OR 0.57, 95% CI 0.37-0.88). The results suggest that interventions aiming to promote acquisition of less processed food in settings similar to Santos, may be most effective if they focus on increasing the number of specialized fresh food markets in local neighborhood areas, improve residents' awareness of these markets' availability, and provide appropriate transportation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. There are lots of big fish in this pond: The role of peer overqualification on task significance, perceived fit, and performance for overqualified employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jia; Erdogan, Berrin; Bauer, Talya N; Jiang, Kaifeng; Liu, Songbo; Li, Yuhui

    2015-07-01

    Research has uncovered mixed results regarding the influence of overqualification on employee performance outcomes, suggesting the existence of boundary conditions for such an influence. Using relative deprivation theory (Crosby, 1976) as the primary theoretical basis, in the current research, we examine the moderating role of peer overqualification and provide insights to the questions regarding whether, when, and how overqualification relates to employee performance. We tested the theoretical model with data gathered across three phases over 6 months from 351 individuals and their supervisors in 72 groups. Results showed that when working with peers whose average overqualification level was high, as opposed to low, employees who felt overqualified for their jobs perceived greater task significance and person-group fit, and demonstrated higher levels of in-role and extra-role performance. We discuss theoretical and managerial implications for overqualification at the individual level and within the larger group context. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Self-reported interpersonal problems and impact messages as perceived by significant others are differentially associated with the process and outcome of depression therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altenstein-Yamanaka, David; Zimmermann, Johannes; Krieger, Tobias; Dörig, Nadja; Grosse Holtforth, Martin

    2017-07-01

    Interpersonal factors play a major role in causing and maintaining depression. This study sought to investigate how patients' self-perceived interpersonal problems and impact messages as perceived by significant others are interrelated, change over therapy, and differentially predict process and outcome in psychotherapy of depression. For the present study, we used data from 144 outpatients suffering from major depression that were treated within a psychotherapy study. Interpersonal variables were assessed pre- and posttherapy with the self-report Inventory of Interpersonal Problems-Circumplex Scale (IIP-32; Thomas, Brähler, & Strauss, 2011) and with the informant-based Impact Message Inventory (Caspar, Berger, Fingerle, & Werner, 2016). Patients' levels on the dimensions of Agency and Communion were calculated from both measures; their levels on Interpersonal Distress were measured with the IIP. Depressive and general symptomatology was assessed at pre-, post-, and at 3-month follow-up; patient-reported process measures were assessed during therapy. The Agency scores of IIP and IMI correlated moderately, but the Communion scores did not. IIP Communion was positively associated with the quality of the early therapeutic alliance and with the average level of cognitive-emotional processing during therapy. Whereas IIP Communion and IMI Agency increased over therapy, IIP Distress decreased. A pre-post-decrease in IIP Distress was positively associated with pre-postsymptomatic change over and above the other interpersonal variables, but pre-post-increase in IMI Agency was positively associated with symptomatic improvement from post- to 3-month follow-up. These findings suggest that significant others seem to provide important additional information about the patients' interpersonal style. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Work-family conflict and retirement preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymo, James M; Sweeney, Megan M

    2006-05-01

    This study investigates relationships between retirement preferences and perceived levels of work-family conflict. Using the large sample of 52-54-year-old respondents to the 1992 Wisconsin Longitudinal Study, we estimated multinomial logistic regression models of preferences for partial and full retirement within the next 10 years. We examined the association between retirement preferences and perceived work-family conflict, evaluated the extent to which work-family conflict was a mediating mechanism between stressful work and family circumstances and preferences to retire, and explored potential gender differences in the association between work-family conflict and preferring retirement. Work-family conflict was positively related to preferences for both full and partial retirement. Yet work-family conflict did not appear to mediate relationships between stressful work and family environments and retirement preferences, nor did significant gender differences emerge in this association. Our analyses provide the first direct evidence of the role played by work-family conflict in the early stages of the retirement process, although we were not able to identify the sources of conflict underlying this relationship. Identifying the sources of this conflict and the psychological mechanisms linking work-family conflict to retirement preferences is an important task for future researchers.

  7. Popularity and customer preferences for over-the-counter Chinese medicines perceived by community pharmacists in Shanghai and Guangzhou: a questionnaire survey study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background This study interviewed community pharmacists in Shanghai and Guangzhou for their perception of the popular categories of over-the-counter (OTC) Chinese medicines and the factors affecting customer preferences for OTC Chinese medicines. Methods A cross-sectional survey was carried out in six main administrative districts in Guangzhou and eight main administrative districts in Shanghai, China. Descriptive statistical analysis was conducted in this study. Results OTC Chinese medicines contributed 21–50% among all the pharmaceutical sales by the community pharmacies. The prevalent categories of OTC Chinese medicines were common cold medicines, respiratory system medicines, digestive system agents, gynecological medicines, health tonic medicines, and qing re (heat-clearing) and qu du (detoxifying) medicines. Customers were more concerned about medical factors of OTC Chinese medicines than business factors. Among the medical factors, the most important was drug safety, followed by efficacy, contraindications, indications, and side effects. Among the business factors, the most important were brand and price. Conclusions This study identified the top sales categories of OTC Chinese medicines in Shanghai and Guangzhou and the important factors such as drug safety, efficacy, period of validity, contraindications, and indications that are affecting the customer preferences for OTC Chinese medicines. PMID:25243017

  8. Which product characteristics are preferred by Chinese consumers when choosing pork? A conjoint analysis on perceived quality of selected pork attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiu Q; Verkuil, Julia M; Reinbach, Helene C; Meinert, Lene

    2017-05-01

    Due to the economic growth achieved by China over the past 20 years, Chinese consumers have changed their purchasing behavior regarding meat. Instead of buying locally produced pork, they are increasingly willing to purchase imported pork. A conjoint analysis investigated how intrinsic pork attributes ( fat content and processing) and extrinsic pork attributes ( origin , price , and packaging ) relate to the perceived quality of pork and the choices made by Chinese consumers. A questionnaire distributed among a sample of Chinese consumers ( n  = 81) revealed that processing (fresh/frozen) is the most important determinant of pork choice (36%), followed by fat content (27%), origin (18%), price (12%), and packaging (6.6%). Estimates of utility showed that Chinese consumers value fresh pork highly (0.147), followed by lean pork (0.111) and pork imported from countries other than China (0.073). The findings indicate that Chinese consumer's value both intrinsic and extrinsic attributes, and these results may help the meat industry improve China's competitive meat market by developing new and more products that are tailored to the needs of the consumer.

  9. Psychological Type and Preferences in the Academic Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-09-01

    INTJ Perceiving ISTP ISFP INFP INTP EXTRA VERSION Perceiving ESTP ESFP ENFP ENTP Judging ESTJ ESFJ ENFJ ENTJ (Kroeger and Thuesen, 1992: 44) (Note: In...significant relationships between the components of an individual’s psychological type and cognitive style, as measured by the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator...nature and addressed the following question: What are the relationships between the preferences as measured by the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) and

  10. Assessment of perceived needs and preferences with regard to the education of residents in Medical Ethics in King Abdulaziz University Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghamri, Ranya A; Al-Raddadi, Rajaa M

    2017-01-01

    Medical ethics is the branch of ethics that deals with moral issues in medical practice. Many postgraduate training programs have developed educational interventions in ethics to meet accreditation standards and prepare learners for certification examinations and clinical practice. The aim of this study was to assess the attitude of residents in King Abdulaziz University Hospital (KAUH) toward the need for ethics education and identify the most effective methods of teaching ethical issues. A cross-sectional study of residents in different specialties at KAUH was conducted using a self-administered questionnaire. The questionnaire consisted of four parts: demographic data, assessment of the educational need for ethics education, assessment of the impact of various learning methods, and assessment of the need for ethically important practices and behavior. SPSS version 16.0 was used for data entry and analysis. Descriptive analysis included frequency distribution, percentages, mean, and standard deviation (SD); Chi-square test and t -test were employed to determine statistical significance. Eighty-eight of the 102 residents invited to participate in the study returned completed questionnaires, providing a response rate of 86.3%. Their ages ranged between 24 and 38 years with a mean of 27.7 (standard deviation 2.8) years. Approximately two-thirds of the residents (65.9%) agreed that medical ethics can be taught and learned while only 19.3% of them disagreed. The most effective methods of ethical education according to the residents were discussion groups of peers led by a knowledgeable clinician (78.4%), clinical rounds (72.7%), and an incorporation of ethical issues into lectures and teaching rounds (69.3%). This study documents the importance residents placed on ethics education directed at practical, real-world dilemmas and ethically important professional developmental issues.

  11. Consumer preferences for telemedicine devices and services in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Joongha; Shin, Jungwoo; Lee, Jongsu; Shin, Kwangsoo; Park, Hayoung

    2014-02-01

    The scope of healthcare has been expanding from caring for sick people to keeping people from becoming sick, and telemedicine will play a significant role in this new healthcare paradigm. This study investigated consumer preferences and willingness to pay for attributes of telemedicine services in South Korea. A market simulation was conducted to examine the market shares of alternative services and their relationships to the perceived usefulness of service types and preferred device types. Using a conjoint survey, we collected data on consumer preferences for six telemedicine service attributes. Data analysis used the Bayesian mixed logit model. The market simulation estimated the probabilities of a specific service alternative being chosen using estimated model coefficients. Wearable devices were the most preferred, followed by smart-home and smartphone devices. Consumers perceived managing blood glucose to be the most useful telemedicine service, followed by monitoring oxygen saturation and blood pressure. The market simulation indicated that consumer preferences for device types were associated with the types of chronic diseases for which management through telemedicine services is perceived to be useful. As the focus of healthcare moves from treating patients to keeping individuals healthy, a key factor for the successful deployment of telemedicine services is understanding consumer perceptions and attitudes. The results of this study revealed the dynamics of consumer preferences with regard to service attributes.

  12. Canadian residents' perceived manager training needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stergiopoulos, Vicky; Lieff, Susan; Razack, Saleem; Lee, A Curtis; Maniate, Jerry M; Hyde, Stacey; Taber, Sarah; Frank, Jason R

    2010-01-01

    Despite widespread endorsement for administrative training during residency, teaching and learning in this area remains intermittent and limited in most programmes. To inform the development of a Manager Train-the-Trainer program for faculty, the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada undertook a survey of perceived Manager training needs among postgraduate trainees. A representative sample of Canadian specialty residents received a web-based questionnaire in 2009 assessing their perceived deficiencies in 13 Manager knowledge and 11 Manager skill domains, as determined by gap scores (GSs). GSs were defined as the difference between residents' perceived current and desired level of knowledge or skill in selected Manager domains. Residents' educational preferences for furthering their Manager knowledge and skills were also elicited. Among the 549 residents who were emailed the survey, 199 (36.2%) responded. Residents reported significant gaps in most knowledge and skills domains examined. Residents' preferred educational methods for learning Manager knowledge and skills included workshops, web-based formats and interactive small groups. The results of this national survey, highlighting significant perceived gaps in multiple Manager knowledge and skills domains, may inform the development of Manager curricula and faculty development activities to address deficiencies in training in this important area.

  13. The Significance of Tailored, Web-Based Information on Experiences Regarding Perceived Self-Management in Ovarian Cancer Patients in the Diagnostic Phase-An Experimental Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Marianne Kirstine; Holt, Kamila Adellund; Mogensen, Ole

    2016-01-01

    provided data for statistical analysis. Patients’ difference in change in Sense of Coherence over time was statistically significant in favor of those who had used the website (mean difference 4.42, pwebsite prevented a decrease in self-management of Danish...... of a healthcare-professional developed website, available to both patients and relatives, on patients’ experienced self-management before surgery for ovarian cancer. In an experimental study, Danish women with ovarian cancer were consecutively included if they would participate and had a relative, willing...... to offer attention to the cancer situation. The control group had standard care, the intervention group plus their relatives had additional access to a website with cancer-specific physical, psychical, and practical information. The validated questionnaires Cancer Behavior Inventory and Sense of Coherence...

  14. INTERACTIVE EFFECTS OF VISUAL AND AUDITORY INTERVENTION ON PHYSICAL PERFORMANCE AND PERCEIVED EFFORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju-Han Lin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of using different types of media on physical performance and perceived exertion. This study was divided into two parts. In Part 1, we examined the effects of different combination of audio and video interventions on physical performance and rating of perceived effort (RPE. We recruited 20 collegiate students who performed a 12-minute cycling task (where they were asked to bike as hard as possible under 4 conditions (music, video, music and video, and control in a randomized order. Results indicated participants in the 2 media groups (music & audio reported a significantly lower score for RPE. In addition, there was also an effect of media type where participants in music condition perceived less effort on the cycling task compared to the video condition. Part 2 examined how music preference influenced physical performance, but used a running task (where they were asked to run as hard as possible, and by recruiting a much larger sample. Seventy-five students were assigned into 5 groups (high preference and high motivation, high preference and low motivation, low preference and low motivation, low preference and high motivation, and control based on responses on the Brunel Music Rating Inventory (BMRI. Results showed that music preference, but not its motivational quality, had a significant effect on physical performance. Overall, these results show that listening to music, and in particular preferred music increases physical performance and reduces perceived effort.

  15. Independent preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vind, Karl

    1991-01-01

    A simple mathematical result characterizing a subset of a product set is proved and used to obtain additive representations of preferences. The additivity consequences of independence assumptions are obtained for preferences which are not total or transitive. This means that most of the economic ...... theory based on additive preferences - expected utility, discounted utility - has been generalized to preferences which are not total or transitive. Other economic applications of the theorem are given...

  16. Preferences over Social Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrison, Glenn W.; Lau, Morten; Rutström, E. Elisabet

    2013-01-01

    that subjects systematically reveal different risk attitudes in a social setting with no prior knowledge about the risk preferences of others compared to when they solely bear the consequences of the decision. However, we also find that subjects are significantly more risk averse when they know the risk......We elicit individual preferences over social risk. We identify the extent to which these preferences are correlated with preferences over individual risk and the well-being of others. We examine these preferences in the context of laboratory experiments over small, anonymous groups, although...... the methodological issues extend to larger groups that form endogenously (e.g., families, committees, communities). Preferences over social risk can be closely approximated by individual risk attitudes when subjects have no information about the risk preferences of other group members. We find no evidence...

  17. Work-Family Conflict and Retirement Preferences

    OpenAIRE

    Raymo, James M.; Sweeney, Megan M

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: This study investigates relationships between perceived levels of work-family conflict and retirement preferences. Methods: Using the large sample of 52-54 year-old respondents to the 1992 Wisconsin Longitudinal Study, we estimate multinomial logistic regression models of preferences for partial and full retirement within the next ten years. We examine the association between preferences for retirement and perceived work-family conflict...

  18. Lip line preference for variant face types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar, Nabila; Fida, Mubassar

    2012-06-01

    To determine the effect of altered lip line on attractiveness and to find preferred lip line for vertical face types in both genders. Cross-sectional analytical study. The Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, from May to July 2009. Photographs of two selected subjects were altered to produce three face types for the same individual with the aim of keeping the frame of the smile constant. Lip line was then altered for both the subjects as: both dentitions visible, upper incisors visible, upper incisors and 2 mm gum and 4 mm gum visible. The pictures were rated by different professionals for attractiveness. Descriptive statistics for the raters and multiple factor ANOVA was used to find the most attractive lip line. The total number of raters was 100 with the mean age of 30.3 ± 8 years. The alterations in the smile parameters produced statistically significant difference in the attractiveness of faces, whereas the perception difference was found to be insignificant amongst raters of different professions. Preferred lip line was the one showing only the upper incisors in dolico and mesofacial male and female genders whereas 2 mm gum show was preferred in brachyfacial subjects. The variability in lip line showed significant difference in the perceived attractiveness. Preferred lip lines as the one showing only the upper incisors in dolico and mesofacial male and female genders whereas 2 mm gum show was preferred in brachyfacial subjects.

  19. Heroin refusal self-efficacy and preference for medication-assisted treatment after inpatient detoxification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, Shannon R; Bailey, Genie L; Anderson, Bradley J; Stein, Michael D

    2017-10-01

    An individual's self-efficacy to refuse using heroin in high-risk situations is believed to minimize the likelihood for relapse. However, among individuals completing inpatient heroin detoxification, perceived refusal self-efficacy may also reduce one's perceived need for medication-assisted treatment (MAT), an effective and recommended treatment for opioid use disorder. In the current study, we examined the relationship between heroin refusal self-efficacy and preference for MAT following inpatient detoxification. Participants (N=397) were interviewed at the start of brief inpatient opioid detoxification. Multiple logistic regression was used to estimate the adjusted association of background characteristics, depressed mood, and perceived heroin refusal self-efficacy with preference for MAT. Controlling for other covariates, depressed mood and lower perceived refusal self-efficacy were associated with a significantly greater likelihood of expressing preference for MAT (versus no MAT). Perceived ability to refuse heroin after leaving detox is inversely associated with a heroin user's desire for MAT. An effective continuum of care model may benefit from greater attention to patient's perceived refusal self-efficacy during detoxification which may impact preference for MAT and long-term recovery. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Significant association between perceived HIV related stigma and late presentation for HIV/AIDS care in low and middle-income countries: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hailay Abrha Gesesew

    Full Text Available Late presentation for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV care is a major impediment for the success of antiretroviral therapy (ART outcomes. The role that stigma plays as a potential barrier to timely diagnosis and treatment of HIV among people living with HIV/AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome is ambivalent. This review aimed to assess the best available evidence regarding the association between perceived HIV related stigma and time to present for HIV/AIDS care.Quantitative studies conducted in English language between 2002 and 2016 that evaluated the association between HIV related stigma and late presentation for HIV care were sought across four major databases. This review considered studies that included the following outcome: 'late HIV testing', 'late HIV diagnosis' and 'late presentation for HIV care after testing'. Data were extracted using a standardized Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI data extraction tool. Meta- analysis was undertaken using Revman-5 software. I2 and chi-square test were used to assess heterogeneity. Summary statistics were expressed as pooled odds ratio with 95% confidence intervals and corresponding p-value.Ten studies from low- and middle- income countries met the search criteria, including six (6 and four (4 case control studies and cross-sectional studies respectively. The total sample size in the included studies was 3,788 participants. Half (5 of the studies reported a significant association between stigma and late presentation for HIV care. The meta-analytical association showed that people who perceived high HIV related stigma had two times more probability of late presentation for HIV care than who perceived low stigma (pooled odds ratio = 2.4; 95%CI: 1.6-3.6, I2 = 79%.High perceptions of HIV related stigma influenced timely presentation for HIV care. In order to avoid late HIV care presentation due the fear of stigma among patients, health professionals should play a key role in informing and counselling

  1. Significant association between perceived HIV related stigma and late presentation for HIV/AIDS care in low and middle-income countries: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesesew, Hailay Abrha; Tesfay Gebremedhin, Amanuel; Demissie, Tariku Dejene; Kerie, Mirkuzie Woldie; Sudhakar, Morankar; Mwanri, Lillian

    2017-01-01

    Background Late presentation for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) care is a major impediment for the success of antiretroviral therapy (ART) outcomes. The role that stigma plays as a potential barrier to timely diagnosis and treatment of HIV among people living with HIV/AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) is ambivalent. This review aimed to assess the best available evidence regarding the association between perceived HIV related stigma and time to present for HIV/AIDS care. Methods Quantitative studies conducted in English language between 2002 and 2016 that evaluated the association between HIV related stigma and late presentation for HIV care were sought across four major databases. This review considered studies that included the following outcome: ‘late HIV testing’, ‘late HIV diagnosis’ and ‘late presentation for HIV care after testing’. Data were extracted using a standardized Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) data extraction tool. Meta- analysis was undertaken using Revman-5 software. I2 and chi-square test were used to assess heterogeneity. Summary statistics were expressed as pooled odds ratio with 95% confidence intervals and corresponding p-value. Results Ten studies from low- and middle- income countries met the search criteria, including six (6) and four (4) case control studies and cross-sectional studies respectively. The total sample size in the included studies was 3,788 participants. Half (5) of the studies reported a significant association between stigma and late presentation for HIV care. The meta-analytical association showed that people who perceived high HIV related stigma had two times more probability of late presentation for HIV care than who perceived low stigma (pooled odds ratio = 2.4; 95%CI: 1.6–3.6, I2 = 79%). Conclusions High perceptions of HIV related stigma influenced timely presentation for HIV care. In order to avoid late HIV care presentation due the fear of stigma among patients, health professionals should

  2. Considering patient values and treatment preferences enhances patient involvement in rectal cancer treatment decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunneman, Marleen; Marijnen, Corrie A M; Baas-Thijssen, Monique C M; van der Linden, Yvette M; Rozema, Tom; Muller, Karin; Geijsen, Elisabeth D; Stiggelbout, Anne M; Pieterse, Arwen H

    2015-11-01

    The shared decision making (SDM) model states that patients' values and preferences should be clarified to choose a strategy that best fits the patient. This study aimed to assess whether values and preferences of rectal cancer patients are voiced and considered in deciding about preoperative radiotherapy (PRT), and whether this makes patients feel more involved in treatment decision making. Pre-treatment consultations of radiation oncologists and patients eligible for PRT were audiotaped (N=90). Tapes were transcribed and coded to identify patients' values and treatment preferences. Patients filled in a post-consultation questionnaire on their perceived involvement in decision making (N=60). Patients' values were voiced for 62/611 of benefits/harms addressed (10%), in 38/90 consultations (42%; maximum 4 values per consultation), and most often related to major long-term treatment outcomes. Patients' treatment preferences were discussed in 20/90 consultations (22%). In 16/90 consultations (18%), the oncologists explicitly indicated to consider patients' values or preferences. Patients perceived a significantly more active role in decision making if their values or preferences had been voiced or considered. Patients' values and treatment preferences are voiced or considered in a minority of consultations. If they are, this increases patients' perceived involvement in the decision making process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The Vocational Preference Inventory Scores and Environmental Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunce, Joseph T.; Kappes, Bruno Maurice

    1976-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between vocational interest measured by the Vocational Preference Inventory (VPI) and preferences of 175 undergraduates for structured or unstructured environments. Males having clear-cut preferences for structured situations had significantly higher Realistic-Conventional scores than those without…

  4. Smile: Student Modification in Learning Environments. Establishing Congruence between Actual and Preferred Classroom Learning Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarrow, Allan; Millwater, Jan

    1995-01-01

    This study investigated whether classroom psychosocial environment, as perceived by student teachers, could be improved to their preferred level. Students completed the College and University Classroom Environment Inventory, discussed interventions, then completed it again. Significant deficiencies surfaced in the learning environment early in the…

  5. Perceived Convenience, Compatibility, and Media Richness Contribute Significantly toDedicated E-book Reader Acceptance. A Review of: Lai, J.-Y., & Chang, C.-Y. (2011. User attitudes toward dedicated e-book readers for reading: The effects of convenience, compatibility and media richness. Online Information Review, 35(4, 558-580.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa S. Arndt

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective – Investigates the effects ofperceived convenience, compatibility andmedia richness on users’ attitudes towarddedicated e-book readers.Design – Convenience sample survey.Setting – Taiwanese university.Subjects – A total of 288 students at the seniorsecondary (5%, four-year university (78%,and graduate student (17% levels. Malefemaleparticipation was approximately equal.Methods – Students completed a 23-itemsurvey on dedicated e-book readers, withquestions on perceived usefulness, perceivedease of use, intention to use, convenience,compatibility, and media richness. Data wasanalyzed using the partial least squaresstatistical technique.Main Results – Users state an increasedintention to use dedicated e-book readers ifthey perceive the technology to be compatiblewith what they desire in a “book,” if the devicedelivers rich media content, and if the device isconvenient. Compatibility was found tosignificantly affect perceived ease of use, andwas found to be the strongest influence onintent to use a dedicated e-book reader.Compatibility, media richness andconvenience also increased the perceivedusefulness of dedicated e-book readers.Conclusion – Users will prefer dedicated e-book readers that are compatible with their preferences in a “book,” that deliver media-rich content, and that they find convenient. The study has implications for the design and development of e-book reading devices.

  6. Interests in School Subjects and Vocational Preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjoberg, Lennart; Drottz, Britt-Marie

    1983-01-01

    Reports a study in which Swedish high school students' academic interests were related to perceived effort, ability, and perceived vocational job prospects. Notes that academic interests were based on subjects' logical appeal and practical value. Notes that vocational preferences correlated strongly with individual job prospects but weakly with…

  7. Does Science Also Prefer a Ternary Pattern?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogliani, L.; Klein, D. J.; Balaban, A. T.

    2006-01-01

    Through the importance of the number three in our culture and the strange preference for a ternary pattern of our nature one can perceive how and why number theory degraded to numerology. The strong preference of our minds for simple patterns can be read as the key to understanding not only the development of numerology, but also why scientists…

  8. Do patient and practice characteristics confound age-group differences in preferences for general practice care? A quantitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous research showed inconsistent results regarding the relationship between the age of patients and preference statements regarding GP care. This study investigates whether elderly patients have different preference scores and ranking orders concerning 58 preference statements for GP care than younger patients. Moreover, this study examines whether patient characteristics and practice location may confound the relationship between age and the categorisation of a preference score as very important. Methods Data of the Consumer Quality Index GP Care were used, which were collected in 32 general practices in the Netherlands. The rank order and preference score were calculated for 58 preference statements for four age groups (0–30, 31–50, 51–74, 75 years and older). Using chi-square tests and logistic regression analyses, it was investigated whether a significant relationship between age and preference score was confounded by patient characteristics and practice location. Results Elderly patients did not have a significant different ranking order for the preference statements than the other three age groups (r = 0.0193; p = 0.41). However, in 53% of the statements significant differences were found in preference score between the four age groups. Elderly patients categorized significantly less preference statements as ‘very important’. In most cases, the significant relationships were not confounded by gender, education, perceived health, the number of GP contacts and location of the GP practice. Conclusion The preferences of elderly patients for GP care concern the same items as younger patients. However, their preferences are less strong, which cannot be ascribed to gender, education, perceived health, the number of GP contacts and practice location. PMID:23800156

  9. Perceived knowledge and perceived risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, R.G.

    1988-01-01

    Much discussion in the area of radioactive waste management has centered on the topic of siting waste facilities in the face of public opposition. Waste managers frequently believe that the public perceives risks associated with radioactive waste as much higher than objective risk. Previous research on this topic confirms that waste managers and the public view the risks differently. The scientific literature in this area has been focused on factors that shape risk perception such as how risk perception varies by group and associations among different types of perceived risk. Research in the area of natural hazards and emergency response has focused on how the public obtains information and how that information is interpreted. In addition, much attention has been given to public involvement and public information programs. Critical to each of these research areas is the role of perception of how informed an individual is on a given risk versus how the individual rates a given risk. This paper seeks to do three things: Look at perception of health risk of radioactive waste in the context of other things related to nuclear technology and radioactivity; Investigate the relationship between perceived knowledge and perceived risk; and Determine social and psychological consequences of perceived risk

  10. Perception of male gender preference among pregnant igbo women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohagwu, Cc; Eze, Cu; Eze, Jc; Odo, Mc; Abu, Po; Ohagwu, Ci

    2014-03-01

    Male gender preference is a dominant feature of Igbo culture and could be the reason behind women seeking fetal gender at ultrasound. The aim of this study is to investigate the perception of prenatal ultrasound patients of male gender preference in a patriarchal and gender sensitive society. The study was a cross-sectional survey, which targeted pregnant women who presented for prenatal ultrasound at four selected hospitals in Anambra State. A convenience sample size of 790 pregnant women constituted the respondents. The data collection instrument was a 13-item semi-structured self-completion questionnaire designed in line with the purpose of the study. Descriptive and inferential statistical analyses were carried out with statistical significance being considered at P < 0.05. Most of the women (88.4%, 698/790) were aware that fetal gender can be determined during the prenatal ultrasound while just over half of them (61.0%, 482/790) wanted fetal gender disclosed to them during prenatal ultrasound. More than half (58.6%, 463/790) of the women desired to have male babies in their present pregnancies while 20.1% (159/790) desired female babies and 21.3% (168/790) did not care if the baby was male or female. Some of the women (22.2%, 175/790) wanted to have male babies in their present pregnancies for various reasons predominant of which was protecting their marriages and cementing their places in their husbands' hearts. Male gender preference was strongly perceived. There was considerable anxiety associated with prenatal gender determination and moderate loss of interest in the pregnancy associated with disclosure of undesired fetal gender. Socio-demographic factors had significant influence on perception of male gender preference. Male gender preference is strongly perceived among Igbo women and its perception is significantly influenced by socio-demographic factors. Male gender preference may be responsible for Igbo women seeking fetal gender at ultrasound.

  11. Perceived Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ost, David H.

    1995-01-01

    Perceived risk is a function of information, knowledge, values, and perception. This exercise is designed to illustrate that in many situations there is no correct answer, only best-alternative choices. The exercise has five parts in which students work in groups of five. (LZ)

  12. Social preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gulløv, Eva

    2014-01-01

    The focus of this article is social divisions among preschool children in daycare centers. Based on ethnographic fieldwork in three daycare centers in Denmark, the analysis concerns young children’s social preferences. The ethnographic material shows that despite an explicit political ambition...... of daycares as means for social and cultural integration, lines of division do exist amongst the children. Such divisions are established in the daily interactions of the daycare, but they also reflect those of the broader society. With a focus on children’s interactions and social preferences, the material...... indicates that children’s choices of playmates run along lines of ethnic and class divisions. The article will address this pattern and analyze its causes in order to understand why such lines of divisions are to be found in an institutional context designed to overcome social inequality and prevent social...

  13. Happy faces are preferred regardless of familiarity--sad faces are preferred only when familiar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Hsin-I; Shimojo, Shinsuke; Yeh, Su-Ling

    2013-06-01

    Familiarity leads to preference (e.g., the mere exposure effect), yet it remains unknown whether it is objective familiarity, that is, repetitive exposure, or subjective familiarity that contributes to preference. In addition, it is unexplored whether and how different emotions influence familiarity-related preference. The authors investigated whether happy or sad faces are preferred or perceived as more familiar and whether this subjective familiarity judgment correlates with preference for different emotional faces. An emotional face--happy or sad--was paired with a neutral face, and participants rated the relative preference and familiarity of each of the paired faces. For preference judgment, happy faces were preferred and sad faces were less preferred, compared with neutral faces. For familiarity judgment, happy faces did not show any bias, but sad faces were perceived as less familiar than neutral faces. Item-by-item correlational analyses show preference for sad faces--but not happy faces--positively correlate with familiarity. These results suggest a direct link between positive emotion and preference, and argue at least partly against a common cause for familiarity and preference. Instead, facial expression of different emotional valence modulates the link between familiarity and preference.

  14. Treatment preferences and involvement in treatment decision making of patients with endometrial cancer and clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunneman, M; Pieterse, A H; Stiggelbout, A M; Nout, R A; Kamps, M; Lutgens, L C H W; Paulissen, J; Mattheussens, O J A; Kruitwagen, R F P M; Creutzberg, C L

    2014-08-12

    Vaginal brachytherapy (VBT) in high-intermediate-risk endometrial cancer (EC) provides a significant reduction in the risk of local cancer recurrence, but without survival benefit and with increased mucosal atrophy. Five-year local control is estimated to be similar for VBT and a watchful waiting policy (WWP), in which patients receive VBT combined with external radiation in case of a recurrence. Our aim was to assess treatment preferences of EC patients and clinicians regarding VBT and WWP, and to evaluate their preferred and perceived involvement in treatment decision making. Interviews were held with 95 treated EC patients. The treatment trade-off method was used to assess the minimally desired benefit from VBT in local control. Patients' preferred and perceived involvement in decision making were assessed using a questionnaire. Seventy-seven clinicians completed a questionnaire assessing their minimally desired benefit and preferred involvement in decision making. Minimally desired benefit of VBT was significantly lower for patients than for clinicians (median=0 vs 8%, Pdecision about VBT. However, irradiated patients indicated low perceived involvement in actual treatment decision making. We found variations between and within patients and clinicians in minimally desired benefit from VBT. However, the recurrence risk at which patients preferred VBT was low. Our results showed that patients consider active participation in decision making essential.

  15. National Identification, Endorsement of Acculturation Ideologies and Prejudice: The Impact of the Perceived Threat of Immigration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantina Badea

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines how the perceived threat of immigration affects the links between national identification, endorsement of assimilation or multiculturalism, and prejudice against immigrants in France. One hundred thirty-five French undergraduates completed a questionnaire measuring these factors. Path analysis showed that higher national identification increased perception of immigrants as a threat, which in turn predicted increased endorsement of assimilation for immigrants. The link between endorsement of assimilation and prejudice was not significant. In contrast, lower national identification decreased perception of immigrants as a threat and, in turn, increased endorsement of multiculturalism and reduced levels of prejudice. An alternative model specifying perception of threat as an outcome of preferences for multiculturalism or assimilation did not fit the data well. Results suggest that perceived threat from immigration is the key factor that guides the preferences of the majority group for acculturation ideologies and, through these preferences, shapes intergroup attitudes.

  16. Reduced social preferences in autism: evidence from charitable donations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Alice; Tsai, Karin; Rangel, Antonio; Adolphs, Ralph

    2012-05-17

    People with autism have abnormal preferences, ranging from an apparent lack of preference for social stimuli to unusually strong preferences for restricted sets of highly idiosyncratic stimuli. Yet the profile of preferences across social and nonsocial domains has not been mapped out in detail, and the processes responsible remain poorly understood. To assess preferences across a range of stimuli, we measured real monetary donations to 50 charities spanning categories pertaining to people, mental health, animals, or the environment. We compared the donations made by 16 high-functioning adults with autism to those made by neurotypical controls matched on age, gender and education. We additionally collected ratings of how people evaluated the different charities. Compared with controls, high-functioning adults with autism donated less overall and also showed a significantly disproportionate reduction in donations to people charities compared with donations to the other charities. Furthermore, whereas controls discriminated strongly between different people charities, choosing to donate a lot of money to some and very little to others, much less discrimination was seen in the autism group. Ratings that probed how participants constructed their preferences did not differ between groups, except for a difference in the perceived impact of pictures and text information about people charities. Strikingly, there were some charities related to mental health, and autism in particular, to which the autism group donated considerably more than did the controls. People with autism were found to have reduced preference and sensitivity towards charities benefiting other people. The findings provide evidence for a domain-specific impairment in social cognition in autism spectrum disorder, and in particular in linking otherwise intact social knowledge to the construction of value signals on which preferences regarding other people are based.

  17. Reduced social preferences in autism: evidence from charitable donations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Alice

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background People with autism have abnormal preferences, ranging from an apparent lack of preference for social stimuli to unusually strong preferences for restricted sets of highly idiosyncratic stimuli. Yet the profile of preferences across social and nonsocial domains has not been mapped out in detail, and the processes responsible remain poorly understood. Methods To assess preferences across a range of stimuli, we measured real monetary donations to 50 charities spanning categories pertaining to people, mental health, animals, or the environment. We compared the donations made by 16 high-functioning adults with autism to those made by neurotypical controls matched on age, gender and education. We additionally collected ratings of how people evaluated the different charities. Results Compared with controls, high-functioning adults with autism donated less overall and also showed a significantly disproportionate reduction in donations to people charities compared with donations to the other charities. Furthermore, whereas controls discriminated strongly between different people charities, choosing to donate a lot of money to some and very little to others, much less discrimination was seen in the autism group. Ratings that probed how participants constructed their preferences did not differ between groups, except for a difference in the perceived impact of pictures and text information about people charities. Strikingly, there were some charities related to mental health, and autism in particular, to which the autism group donated considerably more than did the controls. Conclusions People with autism were found to have reduced preference and sensitivity towards charities benefiting other people. The findings provide evidence for a domain-specific impairment in social cognition in autism spectrum disorder, and in particular in linking otherwise intact social knowledge to the construction of value signals on which preferences

  18. Preferences for behavioural, analytic and gestalt psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobel, H J

    1979-09-01

    This study investigated preferences for behavioural, analytic and gestalt psychotherapy among a sample of 40 SES class III and IV adult females and 67 college freshmen who had never been actual therapy patients. A scaled survey assessed general preference, preference given an imagined long-standing depressive disorder, preference given an imagined specific phobia, and preference for the therapist-patient relationship. Three audio tapes were designed, each describing one of the modalities. High inter-rater reliability and agreement were determined by three independent judges. Results showed that young females had a general preference for gestalt therapy. Young and old females, but not young males, significantly preferred behavioural therapy for a specific phobia. Under forced-choice conditions the group as a whole significantly preferred gestalt therapy. No differences were found for the relationship or preference given a depressive disorder. Preference was hypothesized as a cognitive structure with potential use in therapist-client matching.

  19. Self-perceived facture risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rothmann, M J; Ammentorp, J; Bech, M

    2015-01-01

    , and self-rated heath) and self-perceived fracture risk. Although women recognized the importance of some fracture risk factors, a number of significant risk factors appeared to be less well known. INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study is to investigate women's self-perceived fracture risk and potential...... factors associated with this and to compare self-perceived risk with absolute fracture risk estimated by FRAX® in women aged 65-80 years. METHODS: Data from 20,905 questionnaires from the ROSE study were analyzed. The questionnaire included 25 items on osteoporosis, risk factors for fractures, and self...... their fracture risk significantly higher than their peers. No correlation between self-perceived risk and absolute risk was found. The ordered logistic regression model showed a significant association between high self-perceived fracture risk and previous fragility fracture, parental hip fracture, falls, self...

  20. Difficult to swallow: patient preferences for alternative valproate pharmaceutical formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monali Bhosle

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Monali Bhosle,1 Joshua S Benner,1 Mitch DeKoven,1 Jeff Shelton21Health Economics and Outcomes Research, IMS Health Inc, Falls Church, VA, USA; 2Answers and Insights Market Research, Inc, Indianapolis, IN, USAObjective: To determine the degree to which swallowing valproate (VP tablets is an issue, the proportion of patients who would prefer an alternative formulation, and the predictors of preference.Methods: A quantitative telephone survey of eligible adults (n = 400, ≥18 years old who currently take (n = 236 or previously took (n = 164 VP tablets within the past 6 months was conducted.Results: More than half of the patients indicated that VP tablets were ‘uncomfortable to swallow’ (68.5%, n = 274 and were ‘very interested’ (65.8%, n = 263 in medications that were easier to swallow. When choosing conceptually between taking VP tablet once/day or an equally safe and effective but significantly smaller soft gel capsule twice per day, the 82.8%, (n = 331 preferred the soft gel capsule. In the multivariate regression analysis, perceiving soft gel capsules to be easier to swallow (OR = 73.54; 95% CI = 15.01 to 360.40 and taking VP more frequently (OR = 2.02; 95% CI = 1.13 to 3.61 were significant predictors of soft gel capsule treatment preference.Conclusion: VP users would prefer a formulation that is easier to swallow, even if it is needed to be taken twice per day. When choosing between medications with similar efficacy and safety, physicians can consider patient preferences to optimize conditions for medication adherence.Keywords: patient preference, valproate formulations, tablet characteristics

  1. Color preferences are not universal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Chloe; Clifford, Alexandra; Franklin, Anna

    2013-11-01

    Claims of universality pervade color preference research. It has been argued that there are universal preferences for some colors over others (e.g., Eysenck, 1941), universal sex differences (e.g., Hurlbert & Ling, 2007), and universal mechanisms or dimensions that govern these preferences (e.g., Palmer & Schloss, 2010). However, there have been surprisingly few cross-cultural investigations of color preference and none from nonindustrialized societies that are relatively free from the common influence of global consumer culture. Here, we compare the color preferences of British adults to those of Himba adults who belong to a nonindustrialized culture in rural Namibia. British and Himba color preferences are found to share few characteristics, and Himba color preferences display none of the so-called "universal" patterns or sex differences. Several significant predictors of color preference are identified, such as cone-contrast between stimulus and background (Hurlbert & Ling, 2007), the valence of color-associated objects (Palmer & Schloss, 2010), and the colorfulness of the color. However, the relationship of these predictors to color preference was strikingly different for the two cultures. No one model of color preference is able to account for both British and Himba color preferences. We suggest that not only do patterns of color preference vary across individuals and groups but the underlying mechanisms and dimensions of color preference vary as well. The findings have implications for broader debate on the extent to which our perception and experience of color is culturally relative or universally constrained. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  2. Man versus machine: the preferred modality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanko, Jill; Shekhter, Ilya; Rosen, Lisa; Arheart, Kristopher; Birnbach, David

    2012-12-01

    When learning objectives do not specifically dictate the use of one simulation modality over another, we sought to answer the question of which modality is preferred. We also assessed the impact of debriefing, and the frequency of participants asserting their leadership, as well as self-reported comfort and competence, and the ability to generate differential diagnoses when either a standardised patient (SP) or high-technology simulator (HTS) was used. One hundred and forty medical students participated in a simulation-based activity focusing on teamwork, task delegation, role clarity and effective communication. Two similar clinical scenarios were presented, and either an HTS or an SP was used. Following each scenario, participants were surveyed on the realism of the simulation and the patient, and also on their self-assessed comfort and competence. They were also asked to indicate which role they played, to list possible differential diagnoses for the case and, following the second scenario, which modality they preferred. The surveys indicated that 91 per cent (127) of students preferred the SP. The perceived realism of the simulation was higher for the second scenario than for the first. Scenarios with an SP were found to be significantly more realistic than the scenarios where the HTS was used. Comfort and competence scores were higher following the second scenario. No differences in the ability of participants to generate a list of differentials were found, and nearly twice as many participants reported taking the leadership role during their second simulation. We have found low and high technology to have similar effectiveness for achieving learning objectives and for the demonstration of skills; however, students clearly preferred the SPs. © Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2012.

  3. Associations between medical school and career preferences in Year 1 medical students in Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleland, Jennifer; Johnston, Peter W; French, Fiona H; Needham, Gillian

    2012-05-01

    Little is known about the relationship between the career preferences of medical students and the medical schools at which they are enrolled. Our aim was to explore this relationship early in students' medical training. Year 1 (2009-2010) medical students at the five Scottish medical schools were invited to take part in a career preference questionnaire survey. Questions were asked about demographic factors, career preferences and influencing factors. The response rate was 87.9% (883/1005). No significant differences were found among medical schools with regard to first-choice specialty. Surgery (22.5%), medicine (19.0%), general practice (17.6%) and paediatrics (16.1%) were the top career choices. Work-life balance, perceived aptitude and skills, intellectual satisfaction, and amount of patient contact were rated as the most important job-related factors by most respondents. Few differences were found among schools in terms of the impact of job-related factors on future career preferences. Students for whom the work-life balance was extremely important (odds ratio [OR]=0.6) were less likely to prefer surgery. Students for whom the work-life balance (OR=2.2) and continuity of care (OR=2.1) were extremely important were more likely to prefer general practice. Students' early career preferences were similar across the five medical schools. These preferences result from the interplay among demographic factors and the perceived characteristics of the various specialties. Maintaining a satisfactory work-life balance is very important to tomorrow's doctors, and the data hint that this may be breaking down some of the traditional gender differences in specialty choice. Longitudinal work is required to explore whether students' career preferences change as they progress through medical school and training. © Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2012.

  4. Clinical decision-making: physicians' preferences and experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    White Martha

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Shared decision-making has been advocated; however there are relatively few studies on physician preferences for, and experiences of, different styles of clinical decision-making as most research has focused on patient preferences and experiences. The objectives of this study were to determine 1 physician preferences for different styles of clinical decision-making; 2 styles of clinical decision-making physicians perceive themselves as practicing; and 3 the congruence between preferred and perceived style. In addition we sought to determine physician perceptions of the availability of time in visits, and their role in encouraging patients to look for health information. Methods Cross-sectional survey of a nationally representative sample of U.S. physicians. Results 1,050 (53% response rate physicians responded to the survey. Of these, 780 (75% preferred to share decision-making with their patients, 142 (14% preferred paternalism, and 118 (11% preferred consumerism. 87% of physicians perceived themselves as practicing their preferred style. Physicians who preferred their patients to play an active role in decision-making were more likely to report encouraging patients to look for information, and to report having enough time in visits. Conclusion Physicians tend to perceive themselves as practicing their preferred role in clinical decision-making. The direction of the association cannot be inferred from these data; however, we suggest that interventions aimed at promoting shared decision-making need to target physicians as well as patients.

  5. Intention to Use Smartphone Through Perceived Compatibility, Perceived Usefulness, and Perceived Ease of Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harries Arizonia Ismail

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This research is aimed to test the influence of perceived compatibility perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use and intention to use smartphone using five hypotheses. Purposive sampling was used as the technique of sample collection. There are representative samples that are 92 respondents, consists of lecturers, students, and employees from AKI University in Semarang city. The data had been analyzed by using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM and it was processed using AMOS program version 16.0. The result of the hypothesis shows that there is a positive and significant influence on perceived compatibility toward perceived usefulness, perceived compatibility toward perceived ease of use, perceived ease of use toward perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use toward intention to use. However, perceived usefulness toward intention to use is not significant. It can be caused that reason of owning smartphones is only a prestige and the users do not understand benefit of it’s features.Tujuan penelitian ini menguji pengaruh persepsi kesesuaian, persepsi kemanfaatan, persepsi kemudahan dan minat penggunaan smartphone. Teknik pengambilan sampel menggunakan purposive sampling. Jumlah sampel sebanyak 92 responden yang terdiri dari dosen, mahasiswa dan karyawan universitas AKI di kota Semarang. Data dianalisis menggunakan Structural Equation Modelling (SEM dan diolah dengan program AMOS versi 16.0. Hasil pengujian hipotesis menunjukkan pengaruh positif dan signifikan pada persepsi kesesuaian terhadap persepsi kemanfaatan, persepsi kesesuaian terhadap persepsi kemudahan penggunaan, persepsi kemudahan penggunaan terhadap persepsi kemanfaatan dan persepsi kemudahan penggunaan terhadap minat penggunaan. Namun demikian, pengaruh persepsi kemanfaatan terhadap minat penggunaan hasil dinyatakan tidak signifikan. Hal ini dikarenakan responden hanya menggunakan smartphones untuk prestis.JEL Classification: M3, M31

  6. VIERS- User Preference Service

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Preferences service provides a means to store, retrieve, and manage user preferences. The service supports definition of enterprise wide preferences, as well as...

  7. Reference-dependent preferences and loss aversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Einat Neuman

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available This study employs a Discrete Choice Experiment (DCE in the health-care sector to test the loss aversion theory that is derived from reference-dependent preferences: The absolute subjective value of a deviation from a reference point is generally greater when the deviation represents a loss than when the same-sized change is perceived as a gain. As far as is known, this paper is the first to use a DCE to test the loss aversion theory. A DCE is a highly suitable tool for such testing because it estimates the marginal valuations of attributes, based onextit{ deviations from a reference point} (a constant scenario. Moreover, loss aversion can be examined for extit{each attribute separately}. Another advantage of a DCE is that is can be applied toextit{ non-traded goods with non-tangible attributes}. A health-care event is used for empirical illustration: The loss aversion theory is tested within the context of preference structures for maternity-ward attributes, estimated using data gathered from 3850 observations made by a sample of 542 women who had recently given birth. Seven hypotheses are presented and tested. Overall, significant support for behavioral loss aversion theories was found. %JEL codes: D01, D12, I19

  8. Great apes prefer cooked food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wobber, Victoria; Hare, Brian; Wrangham, Richard

    2008-08-01

    The cooking hypothesis proposes that a diet of cooked food was responsible for diverse morphological and behavioral changes in human evolution. However, it does not predict whether a preference for cooked food evolved before or after the control of fire. This question is important because the greater the preference shown by a raw-food-eating hominid for the properties present in cooked food, the more easily cooking should have been adopted following the control of fire. Here we use great apes to model food preferences by Paleolithic hominids. We conducted preference tests with various plant and animal foods to determine whether great apes prefer food items raw or cooked. We found that several populations of captive apes tended to prefer their food cooked, though with important exceptions. These results suggest that Paleolithic hominids would likewise have spontaneously preferred cooked food to raw, exapting a pre-existing preference for high-quality, easily chewed foods onto these cooked items. The results, therefore, challenge the hypothesis that the control of fire preceded cooking by a significant period.

  9. The Mediating Role of Family on the Effects of Brand Preferences of Consumer-Based Brand Equity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erkan YILDIZ

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of this study is to investigate the effects of the sub-dimension of consumer-based brand equity which are called brand awareness, perceived quality, brand associations and brand loyalty on brand preference and the second goal is to find out the mediating role of family on these relations. For this purpose, a study was conducted with the participation of 295 people in Ankara. According to the research result, perceived quality and brand loyalty positively effects on brand preferences but there is no significant effect of brand awareness and brand association on these preferences. And also it is observed that family does not have any mediating role on these relations.

  10. Perceived health from biological motion predicts voting behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Robin S S; Arend, Isabel; Ward, Robert

    2010-04-01

    Body motion signals socially relevant traits like the sex, age, and even the genetic quality of actors and may therefore facilitate various social judgements. By examining ratings and voting decisions based solely on body motion of political candidates, we considered how the candidates' motion affected people's judgements and voting behaviour. In two experiments, participants viewed stick figure motion displays made from videos of politicians in public debate. Participants rated the motion displays for a variety of social traits and then indicated their vote preference. In both experiments, perceived physical health was the single best predictor of vote choice, and no two-factor model produced significant improvement. Notably, although attractiveness and leadership correlated with voting behaviour, neither provided additional explanatory power to a single-factor model of health alone. Our results demonstrate for the first time that motion can produce systematic vote preferences.

  11. Pupils' gender and age as factors of differences in teacher's liking, perceived teacher's support and academic achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Košir

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the present research was to examine how teachers report their liking of girls and boys in different periods of schooling and how students perceive the potential differences in their teachers' preferences. Also, the differences between girls and boys in the relationship between teacher's liking and perceived teacher's support on one side and students' academic achievement on the other side were examined. 1155 students (fifth and eighth grade of elementary school and second grade of secondary school and 50 teachers – their classteachers – participated in the study. The results show that teachers prefer girls to boys in all periods of schooling. This trend is especially evident in eight-graders. Compared to boys, girls have better academic achievement. However, there are no significant differences in the perceived teacher's support between girls and boys.

  12. Parent Preferences for Shared Decision-making in Acute Versus Chronic Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tom, Dina M; Aquino, Christian; Arredondo, Anthony R; Foster, Byron A

    2017-10-01

    The goal of this study was to examine preferences for shared decision-making (SDM) in parents of acutely ill versus chronically ill children in the inpatient setting. Additionally, we explored the effect of parental perception of illness severity and uncertainty in illness on decision-making preference. In this cross-sectional study, we surveyed parents of children admitted to pediatric inpatient units at an academic, tertiary-care hospital. Surveys were administered in person and used validated tools to assess SDM preferences and uncertainty in illness. Descriptive statistics evaluated associations stratified by acute versus chronic illness, and multivariable analyses were performed. Of the 200 parents who participated, the majority were women (78%), Hispanic (81.5%), English speaking (73%), between 30 and 39 years old (37.5%), and had an education achievement of less than a college degree (77%). The mean age of hospitalized children was 8.1 years, and half reported a chronic illness. Most parents preferred an active (43%) or collaborative (40%) role in SDM. There was no association with SDM preference by demographics, number of previous hospitalizations, perception of illness severity, or uncertainty. However, parents of chronically ill children significantly preferred a passive role in SDM when they perceived a high level of uncertainty in illness. Most parents of hospitalized children prefer to take an active or collaborative role in SDM. However, parents of chronically ill children who perceive high levels of uncertainty surrounding their children's illness prefer a passive role, thus illustrating the complexity in decision-making among this parent population. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  13. Learning Style Preferences of Southeast Asian Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Clara C.

    2000-01-01

    Investigated the perceptual learning style preferences (auditory, visual, kinesthetic, and tactile) and preferences for group and individual learning of Southeast Asian students compared to white students. Surveys indicated significant differences in learning style preferences between Southeast Asian and white students and between the diverse…

  14. Tempo Preferences of Different Age Music Listeners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, Albert; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Measures the effect of four levels of tempo on the self-reported preferences of six different age-groups for traditional jazz music listening examples. Stated that listener age exerted a strong influence on overall preference scores. Reported an analysis of variance showing that there is a significant preference for increasingly faster tempo at…

  15. Boys or girls? Parents' preferences and sex control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, N E

    1978-01-01

    Recent evidence from the U.S. and from other selected countries is examined on parent sex preferences for their children and how strongly these are held. This involves the significance of these preferences, the social and economic conditions that foster different types of preferences, and how different individuals and societies deal with them. The traditional preference for boys appears to remain nearly universal, which runs contrary to the ideal of "every child a wanted child," and also presents an obstacle to desired declines in fertility in developing countries where sons are still perceived as needed for economic and emotional security. This tendency has been turned around in Japan, Singapore, Hong Kong, and the U.S., where small families are now the ideal. 3 basic approaches to the scientific selection of sex-specific sperm for preselection, the timing of sexual intercourse, the separation of male- and female-bearing sperm followed by artificial insemination, and selective abortion after fetal sex determination indicate that an effective and practical method of sex control is still further off than predicted.

  16. Designing pharmacy services based on grocery store patron preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, Nicolette S Raya; Casper, Kristin A; Green, Tara R; Pedersen, Craig A

    2007-01-01

    To assess preferences of grocery store patrons concerning pharmacy services and identify study participant characteristics that may predict the success of pharmacy services in the community setting. Self-administered survey. Central Ohio from December 16, 2005, to January 12, 2006. 163 grocery store patrons. Eight grocery store survey events. Responses to survey items about (1) perceived importance of 28 pharmacy services, (2) identification of the 3 most important services, (3) frequency of grocery store and pharmacy use, (4) preferred methods of advertising pharmacy services, and (5) socioeconomic demographics. Preferred services delineated by various demographics also were analyzed. A total of 163 surveys were returned from study participants. Nine services appeared in both the top 12 overall preferred services and the 12 highest-ranked services. Statistically significant differences were observed among services ranked as important or very important by age, race, employment, income, caregiver status, and prescription drug coverage status. The three advertising tools selected most frequently included: weekly grocery store ads (68.6%), in-store signs (51.0%), and flyers attached to prescription bags (36.0%). Grocery store patrons would like a wide range of nontraditional pharmacy services that could be implemented into community pharmacies. Pharmacies in grocery stores need to provide both traditional and expanded pharmacy services to meet the desires and expectations of current and potential patients, and expanded marketing methods should be considered.

  17. Intolerance of uncertainty and conditioned place preference in opioid addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milen L. Radell

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Several personality factors have been implicated in vulnerability to addiction by impacting learning and decision making. One such factor is intolerance of uncertainty (IU, the tendency to perceive uncertain situations negatively and avoid them. Conditioned place preference (CPP, which compares preference for contexts paired with reward, has been used to examine the motivation for both drug and non-drug rewards. However, preference for locations associated with non-drug reward, as well as the potential influence of IU, has not been thoroughly studied in individuals with addiction. In the current study, we examined CPP using a computer-based task in a sample of addicted individuals undergoing opioid maintenance treatment and never-addicted controls. Patients were confirmed to have higher IU than controls. In the CPP task, the two groups did not differ in overall time spent in the previously-rewarded context. However, controls were more likely than patients to immediately return to this context. Contrary to our predictions, IU was not a significant predictor of preference for the previously-rewarded context, although higher IU in controls was associated with a higher number of rewards obtained in the task. No such relationship was found in patients.

  18. Preferences in Data Production Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Keith; Brafman, Ronen; Pang, Wanlin

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses the data production problem, which consists of transforming a set of (initial) input data into a set of (goal) output data. There are typically many choices among input data and processing algorithms, each leading to significantly different end products. To discriminate among these choices, the planner supports an input language that provides a number of constructs for specifying user preferences over data (and plan) properties. We discuss these preference constructs, how we handle them to guide search, and additional challenges in the area of preference management that this important application domain offers.

  19. Transitivity of Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regenwetter, Michel; Dana, Jason; Davis-Stober, Clintin P.

    2011-01-01

    Transitivity of preferences is a fundamental principle shared by most major contemporary rational, prescriptive, and descriptive models of decision making. To have transitive preferences, a person, group, or society that prefers choice option "x" to "y" and "y" to "z" must prefer "x" to…

  20. Perceived versus Actual Competitive Advantage

    OpenAIRE

    Langemeier, Michael R.; Yeager, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    This paper examined the relationship between farm characteristics and perceived sources of competitive advantage, and cost-based and revenue-based efficiency indices. Gross farm income and the percentage of labor devoted to crop production were significant and positively correlated with cost and revenue efficiency while the perception of the cowherd being the most important part of the operation was negatively correlated with efficiency. In general, perceived sources of competitive advantage ...

  1. Factors affecting the use and perceived benefit of ITE and BTE hearing aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumfield, A; Dillon, H

    2001-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate factors that might affect hearing aid use, satisfaction and perceived benefit. A further aim was to look at which variables affect the choice of hearing aid, in particular, an in-the-ear (ITE) versus a behind-the-ear (BTE) device. Twenty-nine elderly hearing-impaired people with a mild-to-moderate hearing loss were fitted with both an ITE and a BTE hearing aid with similar electroacoustic performance. Both hearing aids were linear with output compression limiting and were fitted in a randomized order. After wearing each device for a six-week period, subj ets were asked to select the hearing aid they preferred. Variables significantly related to hearing aid choice, use and perceived benefit included ease of management, accuracy with which the NAL-R insertion gain target was achieved, earmould comfort and the type of hearing aid the client preferred initially.

  2. Course Convenience, Perceived Learning, and Course Satisfaction across Course Formats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, Douglas; Ross, Douglas; Rosenbloom, Alfred; Singer, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Students' desire for course convenience may lead to their preference for online courses. But in their desire for convenience, are students sacrificing satisfaction or perceived learning? This article investigates the moderating impact of course format on the relationship between convenience and both perceived learning and satisfaction. Moderated…

  3. EEG Beta Oscillations in the Temporoparietal Area Related to the Accuracy in Estimating Others' Preference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonghyeok Park

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Humans often attempt to predict what others prefer based on a narrow slice of experience, called thin-slicing. According to the theoretical bases for how humans can predict the preference of others, one tends to estimate the other's preference using a perceived difference between the other and self. Previous neuroimaging studies have revealed that the network of dorsal medial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC and right temporoparietal junction (rTPJ is related to the ability of predicting others' preference. However, it still remains unknown about the temporal patterns of neural activities for others' preference prediction through thin-slicing. To investigate such temporal aspects of neural activities, we investigated human electroencephalography (EEG recorded during the task of predicting the preference of others while only a facial picture of others was provided. Twenty participants (all female, average age: 21.86 participated in the study. In each trial of the task, participants were shown a picture of either a target person or self for 3 s, followed by the presentation of a movie poster over which participants predicted the target person's preference as liking or disliking. The time-frequency EEG analysis was employed to analyze temporal changes in the amplitudes of brain oscillations. Participants could predict others' preference for movies with accuracy of 56.89 ± 3.16% and 10 out of 20 participants exhibited prediction accuracy higher than a chance level (95% interval. There was a significant difference in the power of the parietal alpha (10~13 Hz oscillation 0.6~0.8 s after the onset of poster presentation between the cases when participants predicted others' preference and when they reported self-preference (p < 0.05. The power of brain oscillations at any frequency band and time period during the trial did not show a significant correlation with individual prediction accuracy. However, when we measured differences of the power between the

  4. Statistically derived factors of varied importance to audiologists when making a hearing aid brand preference decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Earl E; Mueller, H Gustav; Ricketts, Todd A

    2009-01-01

    To determine the amount of importance audiologists place on various items related to their selection of a preferred hearing aid brand manufacturer. Three hundred forty-three hearing aid-dispensing audiologists rated a total of 32 randomized items by survey methodology. Principle component analysis identified seven orthogonal statistical factors of importance. In rank order, these factors were Aptitude of the Brand, Image, Cost, Sales and Speed of Delivery, Exposure, Colleague Recommendations, and Contracts and Incentives. While it was hypothesized that differences among audiologists in the importance ratings of these factors would dictate their preference for a given brand, that was not our finding. Specifically, mean ratings for the six most important factors did not differ among audiologists preferring different brands. A statistically significant difference among audiologists preferring different brands was present, however, for one factor: Contracts and Incentives. Its assigned importance, though, was always lower than that for the other six factors. Although most audiologists have a preferred hearing aid brand, differences in the perceived importance of common factors attributed to brands do not largely determine preference for a particular brand.

  5. Understanding determinants of consumer mobile health usage intentions, assimilation, and channel preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Arun; Chen, Liwei; Pye, Jessica; Baird, Aaron

    2013-08-02

    Consumer use of mobile devices as health service delivery aids (mHealth) is growing, especially as smartphones become ubiquitous. However, questions remain as to how consumer traits, health perceptions, situational characteristics, and demographics may affect consumer mHealth usage intentions, assimilation, and channel preferences. We examine how consumers' personal innovativeness toward mobile services (PIMS), perceived health conditions, health care availability, health care utilization, demographics, and socioeconomic status affect their (1) mHealth usage intentions and extent of mHealth assimilation, and (2) preference for mHealth as a complement or substitute for in-person doctor visits. Leveraging constructs from research in technology acceptance, technology assimilation, consumer behavior, and health informatics, we developed a cross-sectional online survey to study determinants of consumers' mHealth usage intentions, assimilation, and channel preferences. Data were collected from 1132 nationally representative US consumers and analyzed by using moderated multivariate regressions and ANOVA. The results indicate that (1) 430 of 1132 consumers in our sample (37.99%) have started using mHealth, (2) a larger quantity of consumers are favorable to using mHealth as a complement to in-person doctor visits (758/1132, 66.96%) than as a substitute (532/1132, 47.00%), and (3) consumers' PIMS and perceived health conditions have significant positive direct influences on mHealth usage intentions, assimilation, and channel preferences, and significant positive interactive influences on assimilation and channel preferences. The independent variables within the moderated regressions collectively explained 59.70% variance in mHealth usage intentions, 60.41% in mHealth assimilation, 34.29% in preference for complementary use of mHealth, and 45.30% in preference for substitutive use of mHealth. In a follow-up ANOVA examination, we found that those who were more favorable

  6. A preference for migration

    OpenAIRE

    Stark, Oded

    2007-01-01

    At least to some extent migration behavior is the outcome of a preference for migration. The pattern of migration as an outcome of a preference for migration depends on two key factors: imitation technology and migration feasibility. We show that these factors jointly determine the outcome of a preference for migration and we provide examples that illustrate how the prevalence and transmission of a migration-forming preference yield distinct migration patterns. In particular, the imitation of...

  7. Factors Influencing Parents' Preferences and Parents' Perceptions of Child Preferences of Picturebooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Laura

    2017-01-01

    This study examined factors influencing parents' preferences and their perceptions of their children's preferences for picturebooks. First, a content analysis was conducted on a set of picturebooks (N = 87) drawn from the sample described in Wagner (2013); Then, parents (N = 149) rated the books and several content properties were examined for their ability to predict parents' preferences and their perception of their children's preferences. The initial content analysis found correlated clusters of disparate measures of complexity (linguistic, cognitive, narrative) and identified a distinctive sub-genre of modern books featuring female protagonists. The experimental preference analysis found that parents' own preferences were most influenced by the books' age and status; parents' perceptions of their children's preferences were influenced by gender, with parents perceiving their sons (but not daughters) as dis-preferring books with female protagnoists. In addition, influences of the child's reading ability and the linguistic complexity of the book on preferences suggested a sensitivity to the cultural practice of joint book-reading. PMID:28919869

  8. Alcohol demand and risk preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave, Dhaval; Saffer, Henry

    2008-12-01

    Both economists and psychologists have studied the concept of risk preference. Economists categorize individuals as more or less risk-tolerant based on the marginal utility of income. Psychologists categorize individuals' propensity towards risk based on harm avoidance, novelty seeking and reward dependence traits. The two concepts of risk are related, although the instruments used for empirical measurement are quite different. Psychologists have found risk preference to be an important determinant of alcohol consumption; however economists have not included risk preference in studies of alcohol demand. This is the first study to examine the effect of risk preference on alcohol consumption in the context of a demand function. The specifications employ multiple waves from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) and the Health and Retirement Study (HRS), which permit the estimation of age-specific models based on nationally representative samples. Both of these data sets include a unique and consistent survey instrument designed to directly measure risk preference in accordance with the economist's definition. This study estimates the direct impact of risk preference on alcohol demand and also explores how risk preference affects the price elasticity of demand. The empirical results indicate that risk preference has a significant negative effect on alcohol consumption, with the prevalence and consumption among risk-tolerant individuals being 6-8% higher. Furthermore, the tax elasticity is similar across both risk-averse and risk-tolerant individuals. This suggests that tax policies are as equally effective in deterring alcohol consumption among those who have a higher versus a lower propensity for alcohol use.

  9. Spatial preference heterogeneity in forest recreation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abildtrup, Jens; Garcia, Serge; Olsen, Søren Bøye

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we analyze the preferences for recreational use of forests in Lorraine (Northeastern France), applying stated preference data. Our approach allows us to estimate individual-specific preferences for recreational use of different forest types. These estimates are used in a second stage...... in the estimation of welfare economic values for parking and picnic facilities in the analyzed model. The results underline the importance of considering spatial heterogeneity of preferences carrying out economic valuation of spatial-delineated environmental goods and that the spatial variation in willingness...... of the analysis where we test whether preferences depend on access to recreation sites. We find that there is significant preference heterogeneity with respect to most forest attributes. The spatial analysis shows that preferences for forests with parking and picnic facilities are correlated with having access...

  10. Value Preferences of Social Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartakovsky, Eugene; Walsh, Sophie D

    2018-04-01

    The current study examines value preferences of social workers in Israel. Using a theoretical framework of person-environment fit paradigm and theory of values, the study compared social workers (N = 641, mean age = 37.7 years, 91 percent female) with a representative sample of Israeli Jews (N = 1,600, mean age = 44.2, 52 percent female). Questionnaires included personal value preferences and sociodemographic variables (gender, age, education, religiosity, and immigrant status). Multivariate analysis of covariance showed that value preferences of social workers differed significantly from those of the general population. Analyses of covariance showed that social workers reported a higher preference for self-transcendence and a lower preference for conservation and self-enhancement values. Results have significance for the selection, training, and supervision of social workers. They suggest that it is important to assess to what extent selection processes for social workers are primarily recruiting social workers with shared values, thus creating an overly homogenous population of social workers. An understanding of personal value motivations can help social workers in their own process of self-development and growth, and to understand how the profession can fulfill their basic motivations.

  11. Preferences of AP position of the straight Caucasian facial profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mees, Steven; Jiménez Bellinga, Raúl; Mommaerts, Maurice Y; De Pauw, Guy A M

    2013-12-01

    Several investigators have compared the perception of profile attractiveness between professional and non-professional people, different groups of clinicians, and different ethnic groups. Our aim was to study preferences for facial protrusion in the lateral view for a straight Class I profile and to study the influence of gender, age, sex preference, and profession. Portrait images of one male and one female model with a Class I occlusal relationship were warped into nine different antero-posterior positions. An internet site was established to reach as many people as possible, and a request was sent by email to participate in a scientific experiment. Finally, 1707 Caucasion assessors could be grouped. The preferred male profile is the straight full ante profile. For a feminine facial profile, the straight average and the straight 2/3 ante profiles were perceived as the most attractive. Surgeons tended to give significantly higher scores to attractive (ante) profiles, which correlated strongly with scores of the orthodontists. Whenever possible with combined orthodontic/surgery treatment, straight ante profiles should be aimed for. Copyright © 2013 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Smart home design and operation preferences of Americans and Koreans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Kyeong-Ah; Salvendy, Gavriel; Proctor, Robert W

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of the present study was to generate both culture-specific and universal design and operational guidelines for smart homes. Questionnaire surveys were performed in the USA and South Korea to collect data on preferences for various aspects of the design and operation of smart homes. The factors that the survey participants considered most important were derived through factor analyses of the survey data and the responses of Americans and Koreans were compared to generate culture-specific guidelines. The five factors derived were: 1) environmental connection and control; 2) smart devices (appliances) and their control; 3) physical safety and security concerns; 4) comfort and relaxation issues; 5) control restriction issues. The two cultures showed different preference structures with statistical significance for all five factors. Prediction capability of the derived factors was also examined through multiple regressions for buying intention, interest, self-vision of living, moving intention, living satisfaction and perceived time and effort savings. 'Environmental connection and control' and 'smart devices (appliances) and their control' seemed to be the most influential factors for Americans and Koreans, respectively. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: Analysis of a survey of design and operational preferences for smart homes yielded five factors on which US and South Korean respondents differed. These factors form the basis for culture-specific guidelines, which, along with universal guidelines, should be followed in design of user-centred smart homes.

  13. HOW BRAND PERSONALITY INFLUENCES CONSUMER'S BRAND PREFERENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Țichindelean

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present paper is to identify if the congruence of the consumers personality with the perceived brand per-sonality increases their brand preferences. To achieve this purpose, the paper was structured in two parts; the first part contains a general literature review of the consumer behaviour theory and its influence factors and a more specific one regarding the consumer’s and brand personality concepts. The second part describes the used research methodology for achieving the paper’s purpose. The results of the underlying exploratory research confirmed the hypothesis that an overlapping of the consumers’ personality and the brand personality they perceive is positively correlated with their brand preferences.

  14. Do domestic dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) perceive the Delboeuf illusion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miletto Petrazzini, Maria Elena; Bisazza, Angelo; Agrillo, Christian

    2017-05-01

    In the last decade, visual illusions have been repeatedly used as a tool to compare visual perception among species. Several studies have investigated whether non-human primates perceive visual illusions in a human-like fashion, but little attention has been paid to other mammals, and sensitivity to visual illusions has been never investigated in the dog. Here, we studied whether domestic dogs perceive the Delboeuf illusion. In human and non-human primates, this illusion creates a misperception of item size as a function of its surrounding context. To examine this effect in dogs, we adapted the spontaneous preference paradigm recently used with chimpanzees. Subjects were presented with two plates containing food. In control trials, two different amounts of food were presented in two identical plates. In this circumstance, dogs were expected to select the larger amount. In test trials, equal food portion sizes were presented in two plates differing in size: if dogs perceived the illusion as primates do, they were expected to select the amount of food presented in the smaller plate. Dogs significantly discriminated the two alternatives in control trials, whereas their performance did not differ from chance in test trials with the illusory pattern. The fact that dogs do not seem to be susceptible to the Delboeuf illusion suggests a potential discontinuity in the perceptual biases affecting size judgments between primates and dogs.

  15. Informing Healthcare Waiting Area Design Using Transparency Attributes: A Comparative Preference Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shan; Powers, Matthew; Allison, David; Vincent, Ellen

    2017-07-01

    This study aimed to explore people's visual preference for waiting areas in general hospital environments designed with transparency attributes that fully integrate nature. Waiting can be a tedious and frustrating experience among people seeking healthcare treatments and negatively affect their perception of the quality of care. Positive distractions and supportive designs have gained increasing attraction to improve people's waiting experience. Nature, which has shown therapeutic effects according to a growing amount of evidence, could be a distinguished positive distraction in waiting areas. Additionally, the theory of transparency was operationalized to indicate a spatial continuity between the external nature and the built interiors in general healthcare waiting area design. A survey method was adopted in the study. Twenty-one images of general healthcare waiting areas depicting three design typologies were preselected following a strict procedure, including designs with (a) no window views, (b) limited window views to nature, and (c) transparent spaces with maximum natural views. Ninety-five student participants rated the images based on their visual preference using a Likert-type scale. The results showed that transparent waiting areas were significantly preferred. A significant positive relationship existed between the level of transparency and people's preference scores. The factor analysis indicated additional supportive features that may affect people's preferences, including daylight, perceived warmth, noninstitutional furniture arrangement, visual orientation, and the use of natural materials for interior design. However, these tentative results need to be furthered tested with the real patient population as the next step of this study.

  16. Evaluating Red Reflex and Surgeon Preference Between Nearly-Collimated and Focused Beam Microscope Illumination Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cionni, Robert J; Pei, Ron; Dimalanta, Ramon; Lubeck, David

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate the intensity and stability of the red reflex produced by ophthalmic surgical microscopes with nearly-collimated versus focused illumination systems and to assess surgeon preference in a simulated surgical setting. This two-part evaluation consisted of postproduction surgical video analysis of red reflex intensity and a microscope use and preference survey completed by 13 experienced cataract surgeons. Survey responses were based on bench testing and experience in a simulated surgical setting. A microscope with nearly-collimated beam illumination and two focused beam microscopes were assessed. Red reflex intensity and stability were greater with the nearly-collimated microscope illumination system. In the bench testing survey, surgeons reported that the red reflex was maintained over significantly greater distances away from pupillary center, and depth of focus was numerically greater with nearly-collimated illumination relative to focused illumination. Most participating surgeons (≥64%) reported a preference for the microscope with nearly-collimated illumination with regard to red reflex stability, depth of focus, visualization, surgical working distance, and perceived patient comfort. The microscope with nearly-collimated illumination produced a more intense and significantly more stable red reflex and was preferred overall by more surgeons. This is the first report of an attempt to quantify red reflex intensity and stability and to evaluate surgically-relevant parameters between microscope systems. The data and methods presented here may provide a basis for future studies attempting to quantify differences between surgical microscopes that may affect surgeon preference and microscope use in ophthalmic surgery.

  17. Consumer Preferences and Perceptions towards the use Colored Oral Solid Dosage Forms in Baghdad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inas Rifaat Ibrahim,*, Mohamed Izham M.I & Mahmoud Al-Haddad

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The main aims of this study were to determine consumers’ preferences and perceptions in Baghdad towards the color of Oral Solid Dosage Form.Materials and Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted using a self–administered questionnaire. A convenient sampling method was adopted to approach the consumers visiting the community pharmacies in Baghdad.The data collected was analyzed using SPSS version 16 ®. Anon-parametric statistics i.e [Chi-square, Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests] were used to evaluate the association of demographic variables with respondents perceptions toward physical characteristics of Oral Solid Dosage Form.Results: Colored OSDF was preferred by 76.4% of consumers.Significant differences in this preference were found among genders (P=0.029; age (P<0.001; educational level (P=0.001;and monthly income level (0.007. Further, consumers perceived that color of OSDF is related with the therapeutic activity of medicine. Significant differences in this perception were found to be influenced by gender (P=0.016; age group(P<0.001; and educational level (P<0.001.Conclusion: In a conclusion, color was the most preferred characteristic of OSDF by Baghdadi consumers with the perceptions that color is related to therapeutic activity of medicines. Gender, age, educational level, and monthly income are important factors that are associated with the preferences and perceptions toward colored OSDF.

  18. Quantifying the social costs of nuclear energy: Perceived risk of accident at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huhtala, Anni; Remes, Piia

    2017-01-01

    The preferences expressed in voting on nuclear reactor licenses and the risk perceptions of citizens provide insights into social costs of nuclear power and decision making in energy policy. We show analytically that these costs consist of disutility caused by unnecessary anxiety - due to misperceived risks relating to existing reactors - and where licenses for new nuclear reactors are not granted, delayed or totally lost energy production. Empirical evidence is derived from Finnish surveys eliciting explicitly the importance of risk perceptions on preferences regarding nuclear power and its environmental and economic impacts. We show that the estimated marginal impact of a high perceived risk of nuclear accident is statistically significant and that such a perception considerably decreases the probability of a person supporting nuclear power. This result holds across a number of robustness checks including an instrumental variable estimation and a model validation by observed voting behavior of the members of Parliament. The public's risk perceptions translate into a significant social cost, and are likely to affect the revenues, costs and financing conditions in the nuclear power sector in the future. - Highlights: • Survey on preferences regarding nuclear power and its environmental and economic impacts utilized. • A high perceived risk of nuclear accident decreases support for nuclear power. • The public's risk perceptions translate into a significant social cost.

  19. Other-regarding preferences and leadership styles

    OpenAIRE

    Kocher, Martin G.; Pogrebna, Ganna; Sutter, Matthias

    2009-01-01

    We use a laboratory experiment to examine whether and to what extent other-regarding preferences of team leaders influence their leadership style in choice under risk. We find that leaders who prefer efficiency or report high levels of selfishness are more likely to exercise an autocratic leadership style by ignoring preferences of the other team members. Yet, inequity aversion has no significant impact on leadership styles. Elected leaders have a higher propensity than exogenously assigned l...

  20. Musical Preferences are Linked to Cognitive Styles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M Greenberg

    Full Text Available Why do we like the music we do? Research has shown that musical preferences and personality are linked, yet little is known about other influences on preferences such as cognitive styles. To address this gap, we investigated how individual differences in musical preferences are explained by the empathizing-systemizing (E-S theory. Study 1 examined the links between empathy and musical preferences across four samples. By reporting their preferential reactions to musical stimuli, samples 1 and 2 (Ns = 2,178 and 891 indicated their preferences for music from 26 different genres, and samples 3 and 4 (Ns = 747 and 320 indicated their preferences for music from only a single genre (rock or jazz. Results across samples showed that empathy levels are linked to preferences even within genres and account for significant proportions of variance in preferences over and above personality traits for various music-preference dimensions. Study 2 (N = 353 replicated and extended these findings by investigating how musical preferences are differentiated by E-S cognitive styles (i.e., 'brain types'. Those who are type E (bias towards empathizing preferred music on the Mellow dimension (R&B/soul, adult contemporary, soft rock genres compared to type S (bias towards systemizing who preferred music on the Intense dimension (punk, heavy metal, and hard rock. Analyses of fine-grained psychological and sonic attributes in the music revealed that type E individuals preferred music that featured low arousal (gentle, warm, and sensual attributes, negative valence (depressing and sad, and emotional depth (poetic, relaxing, and thoughtful, while type S preferred music that featured high arousal (strong, tense, and thrilling, and aspects of positive valence (animated and cerebral depth (complexity. The application of these findings for clinicians, interventions, and those on the autism spectrum (largely type S or extreme type S are discussed.

  1. Musical Preferences are Linked to Cognitive Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, David M.; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Stillwell, David J.; Kosinski, Michal; Rentfrow, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Why do we like the music we do? Research has shown that musical preferences and personality are linked, yet little is known about other influences on preferences such as cognitive styles. To address this gap, we investigated how individual differences in musical preferences are explained by the empathizing-systemizing (E-S) theory. Study 1 examined the links between empathy and musical preferences across four samples. By reporting their preferential reactions to musical stimuli, samples 1 and 2 (Ns = 2,178 and 891) indicated their preferences for music from 26 different genres, and samples 3 and 4 (Ns = 747 and 320) indicated their preferences for music from only a single genre (rock or jazz). Results across samples showed that empathy levels are linked to preferences even within genres and account for significant proportions of variance in preferences over and above personality traits for various music-preference dimensions. Study 2 (N = 353) replicated and extended these findings by investigating how musical preferences are differentiated by E-S cognitive styles (i.e., ‘brain types’). Those who are type E (bias towards empathizing) preferred music on the Mellow dimension (R&B/soul, adult contemporary, soft rock genres) compared to type S (bias towards systemizing) who preferred music on the Intense dimension (punk, heavy metal, and hard rock). Analyses of fine-grained psychological and sonic attributes in the music revealed that type E individuals preferred music that featured low arousal (gentle, warm, and sensual attributes), negative valence (depressing and sad), and emotional depth (poetic, relaxing, and thoughtful), while type S preferred music that featured high arousal (strong, tense, and thrilling), and aspects of positive valence (animated) and cerebral depth (complexity). The application of these findings for clinicians, interventions, and those on the autism spectrum (largely type S or extreme type S) are discussed. PMID:26200656

  2. Musical Preferences are Linked to Cognitive Styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, David M; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Stillwell, David J; Kosinski, Michal; Rentfrow, Peter J

    2015-01-01

    Why do we like the music we do? Research has shown that musical preferences and personality are linked, yet little is known about other influences on preferences such as cognitive styles. To address this gap, we investigated how individual differences in musical preferences are explained by the empathizing-systemizing (E-S) theory. Study 1 examined the links between empathy and musical preferences across four samples. By reporting their preferential reactions to musical stimuli, samples 1 and 2 (Ns = 2,178 and 891) indicated their preferences for music from 26 different genres, and samples 3 and 4 (Ns = 747 and 320) indicated their preferences for music from only a single genre (rock or jazz). Results across samples showed that empathy levels are linked to preferences even within genres and account for significant proportions of variance in preferences over and above personality traits for various music-preference dimensions. Study 2 (N = 353) replicated and extended these findings by investigating how musical preferences are differentiated by E-S cognitive styles (i.e., 'brain types'). Those who are type E (bias towards empathizing) preferred music on the Mellow dimension (R&B/soul, adult contemporary, soft rock genres) compared to type S (bias towards systemizing) who preferred music on the Intense dimension (punk, heavy metal, and hard rock). Analyses of fine-grained psychological and sonic attributes in the music revealed that type E individuals preferred music that featured low arousal (gentle, warm, and sensual attributes), negative valence (depressing and sad), and emotional depth (poetic, relaxing, and thoughtful), while type S preferred music that featured high arousal (strong, tense, and thrilling), and aspects of positive valence (animated) and cerebral depth (complexity). The application of these findings for clinicians, interventions, and those on the autism spectrum (largely type S or extreme type S) are discussed.

  3. The Importance of Perceived Service Value in Retail Banking Services

    OpenAIRE

    Aleksandra Pisnik; Jasmina Dlačić; Borut Milfelner

    2016-01-01

    Purpose – In many industries, perceived service value is found to be a significant mediator between perceived service quality and customer satisfaction and loyalty. Therefore, this paper aims to test a conceptual model of perceived service value with its antecedents, such as perceived price and perceived service quality, and consequences, customer satisfaction and loyalty, in the retail banking industry. Design/Methodology/Approach – For the empirical study, a measurement instrument was d...

  4. The Allometry of Prey Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinkat, Gregor; Rall, Björn Christian; Vucic-Pestic, Olivera; Brose, Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    The distribution of weak and strong non-linear feeding interactions (i.e., functional responses) across the links of complex food webs is critically important for their stability. While empirical advances have unravelled constraints on single-prey functional responses, their validity in the context of complex food webs where most predators have multiple prey remain uncertain. In this study, we present conceptual evidence for the invalidity of strictly density-dependent consumption as the null model in multi-prey experiments. Instead, we employ two-prey functional responses parameterised with allometric scaling relationships of the functional response parameters that were derived from a previous single-prey functional response study as novel null models. Our experiments included predators of different sizes from two taxonomical groups (wolf spiders and ground beetles) simultaneously preying on one small and one large prey species. We define compliance with the null model predictions (based on two independent single-prey functional responses) as passive preferences or passive switching, and deviations from the null model as active preferences or active switching. Our results indicate active and passive preferences for the larger prey by predators that are at least twice the size of the larger prey. Moreover, our approach revealed that active preferences increased significantly with the predator-prey body-mass ratio. Together with prior allometric scaling relationships of functional response parameters, this preference allometry may allow estimating the distribution of functional response parameters across the myriads of interactions in natural ecosystems. PMID:21998724

  5. The allometry of prey preferences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregor Kalinkat

    Full Text Available The distribution of weak and strong non-linear feeding interactions (i.e., functional responses across the links of complex food webs is critically important for their stability. While empirical advances have unravelled constraints on single-prey functional responses, their validity in the context of complex food webs where most predators have multiple prey remain uncertain. In this study, we present conceptual evidence for the invalidity of strictly density-dependent consumption as the null model in multi-prey experiments. Instead, we employ two-prey functional responses parameterised with allometric scaling relationships of the functional response parameters that were derived from a previous single-prey functional response study as novel null models. Our experiments included predators of different sizes from two taxonomical groups (wolf spiders and ground beetles simultaneously preying on one small and one large prey species. We define compliance with the null model predictions (based on two independent single-prey functional responses as passive preferences or passive switching, and deviations from the null model as active preferences or active switching. Our results indicate active and passive preferences for the larger prey by predators that are at least twice the size of the larger prey. Moreover, our approach revealed that active preferences increased significantly with the predator-prey body-mass ratio. Together with prior allometric scaling relationships of functional response parameters, this preference allometry may allow estimating the distribution of functional response parameters across the myriads of interactions in natural ecosystems.

  6. Muscle Dysmorphia and the Perception of Men's Peer Muscularity Preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Linda; DeCusati, Frank

    2016-11-01

    Research suggests that peer muscularity norms preferences are related to men's body image, but little information is known about how perceptions of specific peer group norms preferences are related to men's body image disturbances and specific health behaviors. This study investigated how men perceived the muscularity preferences of male, female, close, and distant peers and whether the perceptions of specific peer preferences were related to muscle dysmorphia and steroid use. Data on muscle dysmorphia and the perceptions of peer muscularity norms were collected from 117 male college students. Results indicated that men perceived distant and male peers as having the most exaggerated preferences for muscularity and that those perceptions were not an accurate reflection of their distant male peers' reported preferences. Results also indicated that perceptions of close female peer muscularity preferences were predictive of symptoms of muscle dysmorphia, but this relationship did not exist for other peer groups, suggesting that the perceptions of close female peer preferences may play a role in the development of muscle dysmorphia. No relationship was found between perceptions of peer muscularity preferences and steroid use. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. Learning style preferences of surgical residency applicants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Roger H; Gilbert, Timothy

    2015-09-01

    The learning style preferences of general surgery residents have been previously reported; there is evidence that residents who prefer read/write learning styles perform better on the American Board of Surgery In-Training Examination (ABSITE). However, little is known regarding the learning style preferences of applicants to general surgery residency and their impact on educational outcomes. In this study, the preferred learning styles of surgical residency applicants were determined. We hypothesized that applicant rank data are associated with specific learning style preferences. The Fleming VARK learning styles inventory was offered to all general surgery residency applicants that were interviewed at a university hospital-based program. The VARK model categorizes learners as visual (V), aural (A), read/write (R), kinesthetic (K), or multimodal (MM). Responses on the inventory were scored to determine the preferred learning style for each applicant. Applicant data, including United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) scores, class rank, interview score, and overall final applicant ranking, were examined for association with preferred learning styles. Sixty-seven applicants were interviewed. Five applicants were excluded due to not completing the VARK inventory or having incomplete applicant data. The remaining 62 applicants (92%) were included for analysis. Most applicants (57%) had a multimodal preference. Sixty-nine percent of all applicants had some degree of preference for kinesthetic learning. There were statistically significant differences between applicants of different learning styles in terms of USMLE step 1 scores (P = 0.001) and USMLE step 2 clinical knowledge scores (P = 0.01), but not for class ranks (P = 0.27), interview scores (P = 0.20), or final ranks (P = 0.14). Multiple comparison analysis demonstrated that applicants with aural preferences had higher USMLE 1 scores (233.2) than those with kinesthetic (211.8, P = 0.005) or multimodal

  8. Compatibility of Mating Preferences

    OpenAIRE

    Bingol, Haluk O.; Basar, Omer

    2016-01-01

    Human mating is a complex phenomenon. Although men and women have different preferences in mate selection, there should be compatibility in these preferences since human mating requires agreement of both parties. We investigate how compatible the mating preferences of men and women are in a given property such as age, height, education and income. We use dataset of a large online dating site (N = 44, 255 users). (i) Our findings are based on the "actual behavior" of users trying to find a dat...

  9. Preferences for Depression Treatment Including Internet-Based Interventions: Results From a Large Sample of Primary Care Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Dorow

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: To date, little is known about treatment preferences for depression concerning new media. This study aims to (1 investigate treatment preferences for depression including internet-based interventions and (2 examine subgroup differences concerning age, gender and severity of depression as well as patient-related factors associated with treatment preferences.Methods: Data were derived from the baseline assessment of the @ktiv-trial. Depression treatment preferences were assessed from n = 641 primary care patients with mild to moderate depression regarding the following treatments: medication, psychotherapy, combined treatment, alternative treatment, talking to friends and family, exercise, self-help literature, and internet-based interventions. Depression severity was specified by GPs according to ICD-10 criteria. Ordinal logistic regression models were conducted to identify associated factors of treatment preferences.Results: Patients had a mean age of 43.9 years (SD = 13.8 and more than two thirds (68.6% were female. About 43% of patients had mild depression while 57% were diagnosed with moderate depression. The majority of patients reported strong preferences for psychotherapy, talking to friends and family, and exercise. About one in five patients was very likely to consider internet-based interventions in case of depression. Younger patients expressed significantly stronger treatment preferences for psychotherapy and internet-based interventions than older patients. The most salient factors associated with treatment preferences were the patients' education and perceived self-efficacy.Conclusions: Patients with depression report individually different treatment preferences.Our results underline the importance of shared decision-making within primary care. Future studies should investigate treatment preferences for different types of internet-based interventions.

  10. Mental health care needs and preferences for mothers of children with a disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilson, K-M; Davis, E; Johnson, S; Gains, J; Reddihough, D; Williams, K

    2018-05-01

    Mothers of children with a disability are at increased risk of poor mental health compared with mothers of typically developing children. The aim of the study was to describe the mental health care needs and preferences for support of mothers of children and young people aged 0-25 years with a disability. A cross-sectional study was used, using an online survey with 294 mothers of children with a disability. Questions were asked about mental health, perceived need for support, barriers to accessing mental health care, and preferences for support. Descriptive and chi-squared analyses were performed. High rates of mental ill health were self-identified in the previous 12 months, with reported clinically significant depression (44%), anxiety (42%), and suicidality (22%). Nearly half (48%) of the mothers reported high to very high psychological distress. Although 75% of mothers perceived a need for professional support, only 58% attempted to access this. Key barriers to accessing support were caregiving duties making it difficult to schedule appointments (45%) and not perceiving the mental health problem as serious enough to require help (36%). Individual counselling was the preferred type of support (66%) followed by professionally guided relaxation (49%) and education about mental health (47%). Support was considered most critical at the time of diagnosis and during medical intervention for their child. Although mental health problems were common and mothers perceived the need for professional help, several key barriers were preventing mothers from accessing help. Our study suggests that improving mothers' knowledge of when and where to seek help (mental health literacy) may encourage their access to support. There also needs to be more accessible treatment to mothers given the high care demands that are placed upon them. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Aesthetic Preferences for Eastern and Western Traditional Visual Art: Identity Matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Yan; Yang, Taoxi; Lin, Xiaoxiong; Fang, Yuan; Wang, Yi; Pöppel, Ernst; Lei, Quan

    2016-01-01

    Western and Chinese artists have different traditions in representing the world in their paintings. While Western artists start since the Renaissance to represent the world with a central perspective and focus on salient objects in a scene, Chinese artists concentrate on context information in their paintings, mainly before the mid-19th century. We investigated whether the different typical representations influence the aesthetic preference for traditional Chinese and Western paintings in the different cultural groups. Traditional Chinese and Western paintings were presented randomly for an aesthetic evaluation to Chinese and Western participants. Both Chinese and Western paintings included two categories: landscapes and people in different scenes. Results showed a significant interaction between the source of the painting and the cultural group. For Chinese and Western paintings, a reversed pattern of aesthetic preference was observed: while Chinese participants gave higher aesthetic scores to traditional Chinese paintings than to Western paintings, Western participants tended to give higher aesthetic scores to traditional Western paintings than to Chinese paintings. We interpret this observation as indicator that personal identity is supported and enriched within cultural belongingness. Another important finding was that landscapes were more preferable than people in a scene across different cultural groups indicating a universal principle of preferences for landscapes. Thus, our results suggest that, on the one hand, the way that artists represent the world in their paintings influences the way that culturally embedded viewers perceive and appreciate paintings, but on the other hand, independent of the cultural background, anthropological universals are disclosed by the preference of landscapes.

  12. READING HABITS AND PREFERENCES OF EFL POST GRADUATES: A CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noorizah Mohd. Noor

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, more emphasis has been given on the role of the learner in the language learning process considering that language learning is primarily a learner’s oriented activity. Thus, learners’ needs and interests should be taken into consideration for effective language learning and teaching to take place. One significant area where learners’ preferences influence their learning can be seen in reading. In any academic or higher learning context, reading is perceived as the most prominent academic language skill for all second and foreign language learners. It is through reading that these learners learn new information and become able to synthesize, evaluate and interpret in order to learn more about their subject matter. Pursuing a postgraduate study requires extensive reading practices which will enable the learners to extend their literacy development.  The present study examines the reading habits and preferences of a group of EFL graduate students. Data was collected through a questionnaire and analysed quantitatively. The findings will report on: i the types of reading materials preferred ii reasons for reading and iii the preferred language for reading. To conclude, the paper will further discuss the implications of the findings in terms of instructional materials development within an EFL context. Key words: EFL learners, reading habits, reading preferences, reading behaviour

  13. Eye tracking social preferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiang, Ting; Potters, Jan; Funaki, Yukihiko

    We hypothesize that if people are motivated by a particular social preference, then choosing in accordance with this preference will lead to an identifiable pattern of eye movements. We track eye movements while subjects make choices in simple three-person distribution experiments. We characterize

  14. von Neumann Morgenstern Preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vind, Karl

    von Neumann Morgenstern utility is generalized to von Neumann Morgenstern preferences. The proof is an application of simple hyperplane theorems......von Neumann Morgenstern utility is generalized to von Neumann Morgenstern preferences. The proof is an application of simple hyperplane theorems...

  15. von Neumann Morgenstern Preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vind, Karl

    2000-01-01

    von Neumann Morgenstern utility is generalized to von Neumann Morgenstern preferences. The proof is an application of simple hyperplane theorems......von Neumann Morgenstern utility is generalized to von Neumann Morgenstern preferences. The proof is an application of simple hyperplane theorems...

  16. Measuring Normative Risk Preferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.A.G. Alserda (Gosse)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThe results of eliciting risk preferences depend on the elicitation method. Different methods of measuring the same variable tend to produce different results. This raises the question whether normative risk preferences can be elicited at all. Using two types of manipulation, I assess

  17. Collectivists' contingency and autonomy as predictors of buffet preferences among Taiwanese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, Wen-Bin

    2006-01-01

    In a culture or society with high collectivism, contingent orientation and constrained autonomy are the prominent characteristics of adolescents' self-construal. This article examined whether Taiwanese adolescents' contingency and autonomy were associated with their prevalent preferences for buffet consumption. Findings in a panel survey indicated that contingency was positively correlated with adolescents' buffet preference, whereas autonomy was negatively correlated. Moreover, the results showed that adolescents' contingent orientation and perceived autonomy could predict their subsequent buffet preference over a half-year period. A laboratory experiment showed that adolescents who perceived lower autonomy exhibited greater preferences for buffet over the other diet consumption. In general, the results suggest that collectivist adolescents' contingency and autonomy were related to their trait-like preferences for buffet, and the state-like preferences for buffet were affected by their perceived levels of autonomy. Findings provide further insights into the impact of adolescents' self-construal on their diet consumption.

  18. HOST PLANT PREFERENCES OF BEMISIA TABACI GENNADIUS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JINGYing; HUANGJian; MARui-yan; HANJu-cai

    2003-01-01

    The preferences of Bemisia tabaci Gennadius for five host plants:poinsettia, tomato, cabbage,sweet potato and flowering Chinese cabbage, was tested using a Y-tube olfactometer and a desiccator in the labo-ratory. The results show that B. tabaci adults were attracted by the odors of the five plants. The order of prefer-ence was poinsettia > flowering Chinese cabbage > sweet potato > cabbage > tomato. Preference was extremely sig-nificant between poinsettia and the other four plants, and between flowering Chinese cabbage, cabbage and toma-to. There was no significant difference in preference for flowering Chinese cabbage and sweet potato, sweet pota-to, cabbage and tomato or between cabbage and tomato.

  19. Another driver of the Brazilian fuel ethanol supply chain: the consumers' preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliana Isabella

    Full Text Available Abstract Many factors have been discussed in the literature as the causes for setbacks in the Brazilian ethanol supply chain, such as the low price of petroleum and the high price of sugar in the financial crisis in 2008. However, there is an important gap that was not explored yet, how do drivers choose to refuel their cars? Do the supply chain managers know their consumers? Based on that, this paper aims to demonstrate how the ethanol supply chain stakeholders perceive consumers' preferences and compare them to the factors that are taken into consideration by Brazilian flexible-fuel vehicles drivers when choosing types of fuel gasoline or ethanol. For that, we illustrated the case by using a sample of announcements collected from Brazilian news media featuring the supply chain managers' view and the survey taken by drivers to understand the consumer's actions. Our results indicate that there is a significant difference between the actual preferences of fuel consumers and the perceived consumers' preferences by the stakeholders. This disparity is probably the (or one of the main cause of the second setback in the Brazilian supply chain (2009–2012. Based on these results we point out the strategic implications in managing this supply chain and also the role of public policy in improving the diffusion of ethanol in Brazil.

  20. Preferences and actual chemotherapy decision-making in the greater plains collaborative breast cancer study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Ann M; Buzalko, Russell J; Kupzyk, Kevin A; Gardner, Bret J; Djalilova, Dilorom M; Otte, Julie L

    2017-12-01

    There is renewed interest in identifying breast cancer patients' participation in decision-making about adjuvant chemotherapy. There is a gap in the literature regarding the impact of these decisions on quality of life (QOL) and quality of care (QOC). Our aims were to determine similarities and differences in how patients diagnosed with breast cancer preferred to make decisions with providers about cancer treatment, to examine the patient's recall of her role when the decision was made about chemotherapy and to determine how preferred and actual roles, as well as congruence between them, relate to QOL and perceived QOC. Greater Plains Collaborative clinical data research network of PCORnet conducted the 'Share Thoughts on Breast Cancer' survey among women 12-18 months post-diagnosis at eight sites in seven Midwestern United States. Patients recalled their preferred and actual treatment decision-making roles and three new shared decision-making (SDM) variables were created. Patients completed QOL and QOC measurements. Correlations and t-tests were used. Of 1235 returned surveys, 873 (full sample) and 329 (subsample who received chemotherapy) were used. About one-half of women in both the full (50.7%) and subsample (49.8%,) preferred SDM with providers about treatment decisions, but only 41.2% (full) and 42.6% (subsample) reported experiencing SDM. Significant differences were found between preferred versus actual roles in the full (p decision-making variables with QOL, but there was an association with QOC. The subsample's decision-making variables related to several QOL scales and QOC items, with a more patient-centered decision than originally preferred related to higher physical and social/family well-being, overall QOL and QOC. Patients benefit from providers' efforts to identify patient preferences, encourage an active role in SDM, and tailor decision making to their desired choice.

  1. CONSIDERATIONS ON CONSUMER PERCEIVED RISK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Catalina Timiras

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article we identified a number of factors influencing the consumers’ perceived risk. In the first part we conducted a review of the main issues that define the perceived risk by the consumer at the time of purchase, some of the lines of action of the organizations to diminish this risk perception and a number of influencing factors presented in the literature, with significant impact on the intensity with which risk is perceived by consumers. The second part of the article is based on the statistical information regarding e-commerce market, market in which the perceived risk plays an important role in the purchasing decision. Thus, based on available official statistics provided by Eurostat we have revealed the existence of certain links between electronic commerce and orientation towards risk and income levels, age and consumer educational level. The review is not intended to be exhaustive, the study taking into consideration only those links that can be identified from using official statistical data.

  2. A survey of nurses' perceived competence and educational needs in performing resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Young Sook; Issenberg, S Barry; Chung, Hyun Soo; Kim, So Sun; Lim, Tae Ho

    2013-05-01

    Effective training is needed for high-quality performance of staff nurses, who are often the first responders in initiating resuscitation. There is insufficient evidence to identify specific educational strategies that improve outcomes, including early recognition and rescue of the critical patient. This study was conducted to identify perceived competence and educational needs as well as to examine factors influencing perceived competence in resuscitation among staff nurses to build a resuscitation training curriculum. A convenience sample of 502 staff nurses was recruited from 11 hospitals in a single city. Staff nurses were asked to complete a self-administered questionnaire. On a five-point scale, chest compression was the lowest-rated technical skill (M = 3.33, SD = 0.80), whereas staying calm and focusing on required tasks was the lowest-rated non-technical skill (M = 3.30, SD = 0.80). Work duration, the usefulness of simulation, recent code experience, and recent simulation-based training were significant factors in perceived competence, F(4, 496) = 45.94, p < .001. Simulation-based resuscitation training was the most preferred training modality, and cardiac arrest was the most preferred training topic. Based on this needs assessment, a simulation-based resuscitation training curriculum with cardiac arrest scenarios is suggested to improve the resuscitation skills of staff nurses. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  3. Are Caribbean reef sharks, Carcharhinus perezi, able to perceive human body orientation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Erich K; Amin, Raid

    2014-05-01

    The present study examines the potential capability of Caribbean reef sharks to perceive human body orientation, as well as discussing the sharks' swimming patterns in a person's vicinity. A standardized video method was used to record the scenario of single SCUBA divers kneeling in the sand and the approach patterns of sharks, combined with a control group of two divers kneeling back-to-back. When approaching a single test-subject, significantly more sharks preferred to swim outside the person's field of vision. The results suggest that these sharks are able to identify human body orientation, but the mechanisms used and factors affecting nearest distance of approach remain unclear.

  4. Revealed smooth nontransitive preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Hans; Tvede, Mich

    2013-01-01

    In the present paper, we are concerned with the behavioural consequences of consumers having nontransitive preference relations. Data sets consist of finitely many observations of price vectors and consumption bundles. A preference relation rationalizes a data set provided that for every observed...... consumption bundle, all strictly preferred bundles are more expensive than the observed bundle. Our main result is that data sets can be rationalized by a smooth nontransitive preference relation if and only if prices can normalized such that the law of demand is satisfied. Market data sets consist of finitely...... many observations of price vectors, lists of individual incomes and aggregate demands. We apply our main result to characterize market data sets consistent with equilibrium behaviour of pure-exchange economies with smooth nontransitive consumers....

  5. Consumers’ preferences for bread

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edenbrandt, Anna Kristina; Gamborg, Christian; Thorsen, Bo Jellesmark

    2017-01-01

    Consumers are apprehensive about transgenic technologies, so cisgenics, which limit gene transfers to sexually compatible organisms, have been suggested to address consumer concerns. We study consumer preferences for rye bread alternatives based on transgenic or cisgenic rye, grown conventionally...

  6. CT colonography with limited bowel preparation: prospective assessment of patient experience and preference in comparison to optical colonoscopy with cathartic bowel preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensch, Sebastiaan; Bipat, Shandra; Vries, Ayso H. de; Heutinck, Anneke; Stoker, Jaap; Peringa, Jan; Montauban van Swijndregt, Alexander D.; Dekker, Evelien; Baak, Lubbertus C.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to prospectively compare participant experience and preference of limited preparation computed tomography colonography (CTC) with full-preparation colonoscopy in a consecutive series of patients at increased risk of colorectal cancer. CTC preparation comprised 180 ml diatrizoate meglumine, 80 ml barium and 30 mg bisacodyl. For the colonoscopy preparation 4 l of polyethylene glycol solution was used. Participants' experience and preference were compared using the Wilcoxon signed rank test and the chi-squared test, respectively. Associations between preference and experience parameters for the 173 participants were determined by logistic regression. Diarrhoea occurred in 94% of participants during CTC preparation. This side effect was perceived as severely or extremely burdensome by 29%. Nonetheless, the total burden was significantly lower for the CTC preparation than for colonoscopy (9% rated the CTC preparation as severely or extremely burdensome compared with 59% for colonoscopy; p<0.001). Participants experienced significantly more pain, discomfort and total burden with the colonoscopy procedure than with CTC (p<0.001). After 5 weeks, 69% preferred CTC, 8% were indifferent and 23% preferred colonoscopy (p<0.001). A burdensome colonoscopy preparation and pain at colonoscopy were associated with CTC preference (p<0.04). In conclusion, participants' experience and preference were rated in favour of CTC with limited bowel preparation compared with full-preparation colonoscopy. (orig.)

  7. Dichotic Listening Can Improve Perceived Clarity of Music in Cochlear Implant Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannson, Nicolas; Innes-Brown, Hamish; Marozeau, Jeremy

    2015-08-26

    Musical enjoyment for cochlear implant (CI) recipients is often reported to be unsatisfactory. Our goal was to determine whether the musical experience of postlingually deafened adult CI recipients could be enriched by presenting the bass and treble clef parts of short polyphonic piano pieces separately to each ear (dichotic). Dichotic presentation should artificially enhance the lateralization cues of each part and help the listeners to better segregate them and thus provide greater clarity. We also hypothesized that perception of the intended emotion of the pieces and their overall enjoyment would be enhanced in the dichotic mode compared with the monophonic (both parts in the same ear) and the diotic mode (both parts in both ears). Twenty-eight piano pieces specifically composed to induce sad or happy emotions were selected. The tempo of the pieces, which ranged from lento to presto covaried with the intended emotion (from sad to happy). Thirty participants (11 normal-hearing listeners, 11 bimodal CI and hearing-aid users, and 8 bilaterally implanted CI users) participated in this study. Participants were asked to rate the perceived clarity, the intended emotion, and their preference of each piece in different listening modes. Results indicated that dichotic presentation produced small significant improvements in subjective ratings based on perceived clarity and preference. We also found that preference and clarity ratings were significantly higher for pieces with fast tempi compared with slow tempi. However, no significant differences between diotic and dichotic presentation were found for the participants' preference ratings, or their judgments of intended emotion. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Teachers' preferences towards textbook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanojević Darko D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, using the method named Conjoint analysis, and with the goal of determining teacher's preferences in the process of textbook selection, and also defining the prototype of quality textbook which will could be used in the classroom. With consideration of criteria defined in the previous researches on this topic, an continuing the work on those results, we will create clear hypothetical prototype of the textbook which will satisfy the teacher's preference.

  9. Perceived Calling and Work Engagement Among Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziedelis, Arunas

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship of perceived calling and work engagement in nursing over and above major work environment factors. In all, 351 nurses from various health care institutions completed the survey. Data were collected about the most demanding aspects of nursing, major job resources, the degree to which nursing is perceived as a meaningful calling, work engagement, and main demographic information. Hierarchical linear regression was applied to assess the relation between perceived calling and work engagement, while controlling for demographic and work environment factors, and perceived calling was significantly related to two out of three components of nurses' work engagement. The highest association was found with dedication component, and vigor component was related insignificantly. Results have shown that perceived calling might motivate nurses to engage in their work even in burdensome environment, although possible implications for the occupational well-being of nurses themselves remains unclear.

  10. Preferred place of care and place of death of the general public and cancer patients in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagishi, Akemi; Morita, Tatsuya; Miyashita, Mitsunori; Yoshida, Saran; Akizuki, Nobuya; Shirahige, Yutaka; Akiyama, Miki; Eguchi, Kenji

    2012-10-01

    Dying at a favorite place is one of the important determinants for terminally ill cancer patients. The primary aim was to clarify (1) differences in preferred place of care and place of death among the general public across four areas across Japan and (2) preferred place of care and place of death among community-representative cancer patients. A cross-sectional mail survey was conducted on 8,000 randomly selected general population. We examined preferred place of care and place of death using two vignettes and obtained a total of 3,984 (50%) responses. For the pain scenario, approximately 50% of the general public throughout four areas chose home as their preferred place of care; and for the dependent-without-pain scenario, about 40% chose home as preferred place of care. In cancer patients, for both scenarios, approximately 40% chose home as the preferred place of care, and they were significantly less likely to choose home. The most preferred combination of place of care and place of death was home hospice for both groups. Although there were statistically significant differences in preferred place of care and place of death among the four regions, the absolute difference was less than 8%. Independent determinants of choosing home as place of care included concern about family burden and being unable to adequately respond to sudden changes out of working hours. In conclusion, establishing more accessible home and hospice service is strongly required through arranging regional resources to reduce family burden, alleviating patient-perceived burdens, and improving 24-h support at home.

  11. Retrospective dream components and musical preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroth, Jerry; Lamas, Jasmin; Pisca, Nicholas; Bourret, Kristy; Kollath, Miranda

    2008-08-01

    Retrospective dream components endorsed on the KJP Dream Inventory were correlated with those on the Short Test of Musical Preference for 68 graduate students in counseling psychology (11 men). Among 40 correlations, 6 were significant between preferences for Heavy Metal and Dissociative avoidance dreams (.32), Dreaming that you are dreaming (.40), Dreaming that you have fallen unconscious or asleep (.41), Recurring pleasantness (.31), and Awakening abruptly from a dream (-.31); between preferences for Rap/Hip-Hop and Sexual dreams (.27); and between preferences for Jazz and Recurring pleasantness in dreams (.33). Subjects preferring Classical music reported a higher incidence of Dreams of flying (.33) and rated higher Discontentedness in dreams (-.26). The meaning of these low values awaits research based on personality inventories and full dream reports.

  12. Perceived discrimination, social support, and perceived stress among people living with HIV/AIDS in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xiaoyou; Lau, Joseph T F; Mak, Winnie W S; Chen, Lin; Choi, K C; Song, Junmin; Zhang, Yan; Zhao, Guanglu; Feng, Tiejian; Chen, Xi; Liu, Chuliang; Liu, Jun; Liu, De; Cheng, Jinquan

    2013-01-01

    Perceived stress among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWH) was associated with severe mental health problems and risk behaviors. Discrimination toward PLWH in China is prevalent. Both perceived discrimination and social supports are determinants of the stress level among PLWH. Psychological support services for PLWH in China are scarce. It is unknown whether social support is a buffer between the perceived discrimination and perceived stress. With written consent, this study surveyed 258 PLWH recruited from multiple sources in two cities in China. Instruments were validated in previous or the present study, including the perceived stress scale for PLWH (PSSHIV), the perceived social support scale (PSSS), and the perceived discrimination scale for PLWH (PDSHIV). Pearson correlations and multiple regression models were fit. PDSHIV was associated with the Overall Scale and all subscales of PSSHIV, whilst lower socioeconomic status in general and lower scores of PSSS were associated with various subscales of PSSHIV. The interaction item (PSSS×PSDHIV) was nonsignificant in modeling PSSHIV, hence no significant moderating effect was detected. Whilst perceived discrimination is a major source of stress and social support can reduce stress among PLWH in China, improved social support cannot buffer the stressful consequences due to perceived discrimination. The results highlight the importance to reduce discrimination toward PLWH and the difficulty to alleviate its negative consequences. It is warranted to improve mental health among PLWH in China and it is still important to foster social support among PLWH as it has direct effects on perceived stress.

  13. Patients' preferences for doctors' attire in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Yasuhiro; Takahashi, Osamu; Ohde, Sachiko; Deshpande, Gautam A; Fukui, Tsuguya

    2010-01-01

    Physicians' attire is one important factor to enhance the physician-patient relationship. However, there are few studies that examine patients' preferences for physicians' attire in Japan. We sought to assess patients' preference regarding doctors' attire and to assess the influence of doctors' attire on patients' confidence in their physician. Furthermore, we examined whether patients' preferences would change among various clinical situations. Employing a cross-sectional design, Japanese outpatients chosen over one week in October 2008 from waiting rooms in various outpatient departments at St. Luke's International Hospital, Tokyo, were given a 10-item questionnaire. A 5-point Likert scale was used to estimate patient preference for four types of attire in both male and female physicians, including semi-formal attire, white coat, surgical scrubs, and casual wear. In addition, a 4-point Likert Scale was used to measure the influence of doctors' attire on patient confidence. Japanese outpatients consecutively chosen from waiting rooms at St. Luke's International Hospital in Tokyo for one week in October 2008. Of 2,272 outpatients enrolled, 1483 (67.1%) of respondents were women. Mean age of subjects was 53.8 years (SD 16.2 years). Respondents most preferred the white coat (mean rank: 4.18, SD: 0.75) and preferred casual attire the least (mean rank: 2.32, SD: 0.81). For female physicians, 1.4% of respondents ranked the white coat little/least preferred while 64.7% of respondents ranked casual wear little/least preferred. Among respondents who most preferred the white coat for physician attire, perceived hygiene (62.7%) and inspiring confidence (59.3%) were important factors for doctor's attire. Around 70% of all respondents reported that physicians' attire has an influence on their confidence in their physician. This study confirms that Japanese outpatients prefer a white coat. Furthermore, this study strongly suggests that wearing a white coat could favorably

  14. Learning style preferences: A study of pre-clinical medical students in Barbados

    Science.gov (United States)

    OJEH, NKEMCHO; SOBERS-GRANNUM, NATASHA; GAUR, UMA; UDUPA, ALAYA; MAJUMDER, MD.ANWARUL AZIM

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Educators need to be aware of different learning styles to effectively tailor instructional strategies and methods to cater to the students’ learning needs and support a conductive learning environment. The VARK [an acronym for visual (V), aural (A), read/write (R) and kinesthetic (K)] instrument is a useful model to assess learning styles. The aim of this study was to use the VARK questionnaire to determine the learning styles of pre-clinical medical students in order to compare the perceived and assessed learning style preferences, assess gender differences in learning style preferences, and determine whether any relationships exists between awareness of learning styles and academic grades, age, gender and learning modality. Methods: The VARK questionnaire was administered to pre-clinical students taking a variety of courses in the first three years of the undergraduate MB BS degree programme at the Faculty of Medical Sciences, The University of the West Indies, Cave Hill Campus, Barbados in 2014. Results: The majority of the students were multimodal learners with no differences observed between males (59.5%) and females (60.0%), with tetramodal being the most common. Read/write (33.8%) followed by kinesthetic (32.5%) were the most common learning style preferences. The sensory modality preference for females was read/write (34.2%) and for males it was kinesthetic (40.5%). Significant differences were observed between the perceived and assessed learning style preferences with a majority of visual and read/write learners correctly matching their perceived to their actual learning styles. Awareness of learning styles was associated with learning modality but not with academic performance, age or gender. Overall, 60.7% of high achievers used multimodal learning compared to 56.9% low achievers. Conclusion: The findings from this study indicated that the VARK tool was useful in gathering information about different learning styles, and might assist

  15. Learning style preferences: A study of pre-clinical medical students in Barbados.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojeh, Nkemcho; Sobers-Grannum, Natasha; Gaur, Uma; Udupa, Alaya; Majumder, Md Anwarul Azim

    2017-10-01

    Educators need to be aware of different learning styles to effectively tailor instructional strategies and methods to cater to the students' learning needs and support a conductive learning environment. The VARK [an acronym for visual (V), aural (A), read/write (R) and kinesthetic (K)] instrument is a useful model to assess learning styles. The aim of this study was to use the VARK questionnaire to determine the learning styles of pre-clinical medical students in order to compare the perceived and assessed learning style preferences, assess gender differences in learning style preferences, and determine whether any relationships exists between awareness of learning styles and academic grades, age, gender and learning modality. The VARK questionnaire was administered to pre-clinical students taking a variety of courses in the first three years of the undergraduate MB BS degree programme at the Faculty of Medical Sciences, The University of the West Indies, Cave Hill Campus, Barbados in 2014. The majority of the students were multimodal learners with no differences observed between males (59.5%) and females (60.0%), with tetramodal being the most common. Read/write (33.8%) followed by kinesthetic (32.5%) were the most common learning style preferences. The sensory modality preference for females was read/write (34.2%) and for males it was kinesthetic (40.5%). Significant differences were observed between the perceived and assessed learning style preferences with a majority of visual and read/write learners correctly matching their perceived to their actual learning styles. Awareness of learning styles was associated with learning modality but not with academic performance, age or gender. Overall, 60.7% of high achievers used multimodal learning compared to 56.9% low achievers. The findings from this study indicated that the VARK tool was useful in gathering information about different learning styles, and might assist educators in designing blended teaching

  16. Learning style preferences: A study of Pre-clinical Medical Students in Barbados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NKEMCHO OJEH

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Educators need to be aware of different learning styles to effectively tailor instructional strategies and methods to cater to the students’ learning needs and support a conductive learning environment. The VARK [an acronym for visual (V, aural (A, read/write (R and kinesthetic (K] instrument is a useful model to assess learning styles. The aim of this study was to use the VARK questionnaire to determine the learning styles of pre-clinical medical students in order to compare the perceived and assessed learning style preferences, assess gender differences in learning style preferences, and determine whether any relationships exists between awareness of learning styles and academic grades, age, gender and learning modality. Methods: The VARK questionnaire was administered to preclinical students taking a variety of courses in the first three years of the undergraduate MB BS degree programme at the Faculty of Medical Sciences, The University of the West Indies, Cave Hill Campus, Barbados in 2014. Results: The majority of the students were multimodal learners with no differences observed between males (59.5% and females (60.0%, with tetramodal being the most common. Read/write (33.8% followed by kinesthetic (32.5% were the most common learning style preferences. The sensory modality preference for females was read/write (34.2% and for males it was kinesthetic (40.5%. Significant differences were observed between the perceived and assessed learning style preferences with a majority of visual and read/write learners correctly matching their perceived to their actual learning styles. Awareness of learning styles was associated with learning modality but not with academic performance, age or gender. Overall, 60.7% of high achievers used multimodal learning compared to 56.9% low achievers. Conclusion: The findings from this study indicated that the VARK tool was useful in gathering information about different learning styles, and might

  17. Age Preferences for Professional Helpers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furchtgott, Ernest; Busemeyer, Jerome R.

    1981-01-01

    For all occupations except clergyman, a relationship between the age of the respondent and preferred age of the professional existed. Older individuals preferred older service providers with one exception, their physician. Highly educated respondents preferred younger physicians. (Author)

  18. Preference Handling for Artificial Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Goldsmith, Judy; University of Kentucky; Junker, Ulrich; ILOG

    2009-01-01

    This article explains the benefits of preferences for AI systems and draws a picture of current AI research on preference handling. It thus provides an introduction to the topics covered by this special issue on preference handling.

  19. Learning preferences from paired opposite-based semantics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franco de los Ríos, Camilo; Rodríguez, J. Tinguaro; Montero, Javier

    2017-01-01

    Preference semantics examine the meaning of the preference predicate, according to the way that alternatives can be understood and organized for decision making purposes. Through opposite-based semantics, preference structures can be characterized by their paired decomposition of preference...... on the character of opposition, the compound meaning of preference emerges from the fuzzy reinforcement of paired opposite concepts, searching for significant evidence for affirming dominance among the decision objects. Here we propose a general model for the paired decomposition of preference, examining its...

  20. College Students' Therapy Preferences: The Role of Psychological Mindedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Jennifer L.

    2016-01-01

    The current study examined expectations and preferences of psychotherapy approach in 225 college students. Psychodynamic-interpersonal (PI) techniques were generally favored over cognitive-behavioral (CB) techniques both in expectations of what is characteristic of a typical therapy session and perceived helpfulness. There was no difference in…

  1. Psychological Type Preferences of Female Bible College Students in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, William K.; Francis, Leslie J.

    2008-01-01

    A sample of 122 female students attending a Pentecostal Bible College in England completed Form G (Anglicised) of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI). The data demonstrated preferences for extraversion over introversion, for sensing over intuition, for feeling over thinking, and for judging over perceiving. The predominant type was ISFJ (16%),…

  2. Cybersenga: Ugandan youth preferences for content in an Internet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cybersenga: Ugandan youth preferences for content in an Internet-Delivered Comprehensive Sexuality Education Programme. ... Information sources of information include family members, teachers and peers. Ugandan youth perceive the concept of receiving Internet-based sexuality information as a way to obtain private ...

  3. The Effects of Exposure to Different Social Robots on Attitudes toward Preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vlachos, Evgenios; Jochum, Elizabeth Ann; Demers, Louis-Philippe

    2016-01-01

    for soft materials, preferred mutual contact despite initial preference of subject to initiate touch, and preferred communication with a robot that could touch rather than initial preference for a robot that could “see”. Overall, users showed a significant constant preference for the machine-like robot...

  4. Hierarchy of Needs, Perception and Preference for Leadership Styles within a Police Educational Institution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina RAUS

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The present research investigates Maslow’s hierarchy of needs and the leadership style (perceived and ideal in a sample of employees of a police school. The purpose of this study was to identify and propose solutions to improve the managerial activity. Based on Maslow’s theory for understanding human motivation, we developed a measurement scale for human needs. Based on Lewin’s theory of leadership style, we developed two measurement scales, one for perceived leadership and one for ideal leadership style. Agreement of judges was used to obtain valid measures. Reliable α-Cronbach coefficients were obtained for internal consistency of the measurement scales. We conducted correlational and comparative analyses between variables, regarding each professional category (police officers, police constables, civilians. The results contradict Maslow’s theoretical model for human needs, challenging the order imposed by Maslow’s pyramid. The order of the importance of needs differ from one category of personnel to another. Regardless of professional status, physiological needs are generally more significant than other needs. Comparing the perceived leadership style with the ideal style, all groups would prefer a less autocratic leadership style than it is, and more democratic than they perceive it. In addition, civilians would like a more permissive style of leadership than it is the perceived style. Perceived leadership styles are correlated differently with staff needs. Practical implications and contribution of the research are discussed.

  5. Relationships Between the Vocational Preference Inventory and the Edwards Personal Preference Schedule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakefield, James A., Jr.; Cunningham, Claude H.

    1975-01-01

    The Vocational Preference Inventory and the Edwards Personal Preference Schedule were administered to 372 undergraduates. The two instruments were compared using canonical analysis. The analysis revealed three significant relationships between components of the two instruments. The relationships were viewed as supportive of Holland's theory of…

  6. Perceived Social Support among Mentally Ill Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bandana Pokharel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Social support is the perception that one is cared for, has assistance available from significant others and its benefit is by buffering stress by influencing the ability to adjust and live with illness. Social support can uplift the quality and subjective wellbeing of people. The objective of this study was to examine the perceived social support and factors influencing it among mentally ill patients. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out. Ninety cases aged more than 18 years visiting outpatient of psychiatric department and diagnosed as a case of mental illness for at least a year were included. Instruments used were self-developed proforma and Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support. Interview technique was used to collect the data. Results: Majority (60% of the patients perceive social support from family, 28% of the patients perceive social support from significant others. Regression analysis showed that the perceived social support is influenced by employment status, type of family one lives in and physical illness. It is not influenced by gender, subjective financial status and frequency of hospitalization. Conclusion: Perceived social support is influenced by employment status, type of family one lives in and physical illness. Majority (60% of the patients perceive social support from family.

  7. Preferences for Depression Help-Seeking Among Vietnamese American Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim-Mozeleski, Jin E; Tsoh, Janice Y; Gildengorin, Ginny; Cao, Lien H; Ho, Tiffany; Kohli, Sarita; Lam, Hy; Wong, Ching; Stewart, Susan; McPhee, Stephen J; Nguyen, Tung T

    2017-11-11

    Culture impacts help-seeking preferences. We examined Vietnamese Americans' help-seeking preferences for depressive symptoms, through a telephone survey (N = 1666). A vignette describing an age- and gender-matched individual with depression was presented, and respondents chose from a list of options and provided open-ended responses about their help-seeking preferences. Results showed that 78.3% would seek professional help, either from a family doctor, a mental health provider, or both; 54.4% preferred to seek help from a family doctor but not from a mental health provider. Most (82.1%) would prefer to talk to family or friends, 62.2% would prefer to look up information, and 50.1% would prefer to get spiritual help. Logistic regression analysis revealed that preferences for non-professional help-seeking options (such as talking to friends or family, looking up information, and getting spiritual help), health care access, and perceived poor health, were associated with increased odds of preferring professional help-seeking. This population-based study of Vietnamese Americans highlight promising channels to deliver education about depression and effective help-seeking resources, particularly the importance of family doctors and social networks. Furthermore, addressing barriers in access to care remains a critical component of promoting professional help-seeking.

  8. Treatment preferences of psychotherapy patients with chronic PTSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markowitz, John C; Meehan, Kevin B; Petkova, Eva; Zhao, Yihong; Van Meter, Page E; Neria, Yuval; Pessin, Hayley; Nazia, Yasmin

    2016-03-01

    Patient treatment preference may moderate treatment effect in major depressive disorder (MDD) studies. Little research has addressed preference in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD); almost none has assessed actual patients' PTSD psychotherapy preferences. From a 14-week trial of chronic PTSD comparing prolonged exposure, relaxation therapy, and interpersonal psychotherapy, we report treatment preferences of the 110 randomized patients, explore preference correlates, and assess effects on treatment outcome. Patients recruited between 2008 and 2013 with chronic DSM-IV PTSD (Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale [CAPS] score ≥ 50) received balanced, scripted psychotherapy descriptions prerandomization and indicated their preferences. Analyses assessed relationships of treatment attitudes to demographic and clinical factors. We hypothesized that patients randomized to preferred treatments would have better outcomes, and to unwanted treatment worse outcomes. Eighty-seven patients (79%) voiced treatment preferences or disinclinations: 29 (26%) preferred prolonged exposure, 29 (26%) preferred relaxation therapy, and 56 (50%) preferred interpersonal psychotherapy (Cochran Q = 18.46, P psychotherapy (Cochran Q = 22.71, P psychotherapy preferences to outcome. Despite explanations emphasizing prolonged exposure's greater empirical support, patients significantly preferred interpersonal psychotherapy. Preference subtly affected psychotherapy outcome; depression appeared an important moderator of the effect of unwanted treatment on outcome. Potential biases to avoid in future research are discussed. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00739765. © Copyright 2015 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  9. Measuring children's food preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Annemarie; Kildegaard, Heidi; Gabrielsen, Gorm

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate if children’s food preferences can be reliable measured by using pictures of foods presented on a computer screen in a conjoint layout.We investigate reproducibility (test–retest) and infer validity by comparison with traditional hedonic evaluations...... juices (tangible products), chosen to span the preference spectrum, were hedonically evaluated for appearance and taste. Finally, an actual product choice was performed by having the children choose between two buns and two juices.Results showed that the computer evaluationswith pictures of foods...... provided reproducible information about the children’s visual food preferences, which were in concordance with both hedonic measures and products choices, and can thus be considered valid....

  10. Biking practices and preferences in a lower income, primarily minority neighborhood: Learning what residents want.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusk, Anne C; Anastasio, Albert; Shaffer, Nicholas; Wu, Juan; Li, Yanping

    2017-09-01

    This paper examines if, in a lower-income minority neighborhood, bicycling practices and bicycle-environment preferences of Blacks and Hispanics were different from Whites. During the summer of 2014, surveys were mailed to 1537 households near a proposed cycle track on Malcolm X Boulevard in Roxbury, MA. On the Boulevard, intercept surveys were distributed to cyclists and observations noted about passing cyclist's characteristics. Data were analyzed from 252 returned-mailed surveys, 120 intercept surveys, and 709 bicyclists. White (100%), Hispanic (79%), and Black (76%) bicyclists shown pictures of 6 bicycle facility types in intercept surveys perceived the cycle track as safest. More White mailed-survey respondents thought bikes would not be stolen which may explain why more Hispanics (52%) and Blacks (47%) preferred to park their bikes inside their home compared with Whites (28%), with H/W B/W differences statistically significant ( p  bike compared with Whites (75%). Minority populations are biking on roads but prefer cycle tracks. They also prefer to park bikes inside their homes and bicycle with family and friends. Wide cycle tracks (bicycling with family/friends) and home bike parking should be targeted as capital investments in lower-income minority neighborhoods.

  11. The Lookahead Principle for Preference Elicitation: Experimental Results

    OpenAIRE

    Viappiani, Paolo; Faltings, Boi; Pu, Pearl

    2006-01-01

    Preference-based search is the problem of finding an item that matches best with a user's preferences. User studies show that example-based tools for preference-based search can achieve significantly higher accuracy when they are complemented with suggestions chosen to inform users about the available choices. We discuss the problem of eliciting preferences in example-based tools and present the lookahead principle for generating suggestions. We compare two different implementations of this p...

  12. Enterprise Mac Managed Preferences

    CERN Document Server

    Marczak, Edward

    2010-01-01

    Many systems administrators on the Mac need a way to manage machine configuration after initial setup and deployment. Apple's Managed Preferences system (also known as MCX) is under-documented, often misunderstood, and sometimes outright unknown by sys admins. MCX is usually deployed in conjunction with an OS X server, but it can also be used in Windows environments or where no dedicated server exists at all. Enterprise Mac Managed Preferences is the definitive guide to Apple's Managed Client technology. With this book, you'll get the following: * An example-driven guide to Mac OS X Managed Pr

  13. Does Patient Preference Measurement in Decision Aids Improve Decisional Conflict? A Randomized Trial in Men with Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirk, Joseph D; Crespi, Catherine M; Saucedo, Josemanuel D; Lambrechts, Sylvia; Dahan, Ely; Kaplan, Robert; Saigal, Christopher

    2017-12-01

    Shared decision making (SDM) has been advocated as an approach to medical decision making that can improve decisional quality. Decision aids are tools that facilitate SDM in the context of limited physician time; however, many decision aids do not incorporate preference measurement. We aim to understand whether adding preference measurement to a standard patient educational intervention improves decisional quality and is feasible in a busy clinical setting. Men with incident localized prostate cancer (n = 122) were recruited from the Greater Los Angeles Veterans Affairs (VA) Medical Center urology clinic, Olive View UCLA Medical Center, and Harbor UCLA Medical Center from January 2011 to May 2015 and randomized to education with a brochure about prostate cancer treatment or software-based preference assessment in addition to the brochure. Men undergoing preference assessment received a report detailing the relative strength of their preferences for treatment outcomes used in review with their doctor. Participants completed instruments measuring decisional conflict, knowledge, SDM, and patient satisfaction with care before and/or after their cancer consultation. Baseline knowledge scores were low (mean 62%). The baseline mean total score on the Decisional Conflict Scale was 2.3 (±0.9), signifying moderate decisional conflict. Men undergoing preference assessment had a significantly larger decrease in decisional conflict total score (p = 0.023) and the Perceived Effective Decision Making subscale (p = 0.003) post consult compared with those receiving education only. Improvements in satisfaction with care, SDM, and knowledge were similar between groups. Individual-level preference assessment is feasible in the clinic setting. Patients with prostate cancer who undergo preference assessment are more certain about their treatment decisions and report decreased levels of decisional conflict when making these decisions.

  14. The relationship between personality types and reward preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Nienaber

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Research has shown that total rewards models structured according to individual preferences, positively influence efforts to attract, retain and motivate key employees. Yet, this is seldom done. Structuring total rewards models according to the preferences of employee segments is a viable alternative to accommodate individual preferences. Research purpose: The primary aim of the study was to determine the relationship between personality types and reward preferences. The secondary aim was to determine the reward preferences for different demographic groups. Motivation for the study: An enhanced understanding of reward preferences for different employee segments will enable employers to offer more competitive reward options to their employees. This may, in turn, have a positive impact on retention. Research design, approach and method: Two measuring instruments, the MBTI® Form GRV and the Rewards Preferences Questionnaire, were distributed electronically to 5 000 potential respondents. The results from 589 sets of questionnaires were used in the data analyses. Primary and secondary factor analyses were done on the items in the Rewards Preferences Questionnaire. Main findings/results: The study confirmed that individuals with certain personality types and personality preferences, have different preferences for certain reward categories. There was a stronger relationship between reward preferences and personality preferences than for reward preferences and personality types. Preferences for reward categories by different demographic groups were confirmed. The significant difference in reward preferences between Black and White respondents in particular was noteworthy, with Black respondents indicating significantly higher mean scores for all reward categories than White respondents. Finally, a total rewards framework influenced by the most prominent preferences for reward categories, was designed. Practical/Managerial implications

  15. Patient preferences for partner notification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apoola, A; Radcliffe, K W; Das, S; Robshaw, V; Gilleran, G; Kumari, B S; Boothby, M; Rajakumar, R

    2006-08-01

    To identify patient preferences for notification of sexual contacts when a sexually transmitted infection (STI) is diagnosed. A questionnaire survey of 2544 patients attending three large genitourinary clinics at Derby, Birmingham, and Coventry in the United Kingdom. The median age of the respondents was 24 with 1474 (57.9%) women, 1835 (72.1%) white, 1826 (71.8%) single. The most favoured method of partner notification was patient referral, which was rated a "good" method by 65.8% when they had to be contacted because a sexual partner has an STI. Notifying contacts by letter as a method of provider partner notification is more acceptable than phoning, text messaging, or email. Respondents with access to mobile telephones, private emails, and private letters were more likely to rate a method of partner notification using that mode of communication as "good" compared to those without. With provider referral methods of partner notification respondents preferred to receive a letter, email, or text message asking them to contact the clinic rather than a letter, email or text message informing them that they may have an STI. Most respondents think that being informed directly by a partner is the best method of being notified of the risk of an STI. Some of the newer methods may not be acceptable to all but a significant minority of respondents prefer these methods of partner notification. The wording of letters, emails, or text messages when used for partner notification has an influence on the acceptability of the method and may influence success of the partner notification method. Services should be flexible enough to utilise the patients' preferred method of partner notification.

  16. A Study on the Relationships between Digital Game Preference and Game Preference Reason with Gender, Class Level and Learning Styles

    OpenAIRE

    Ferhat Kadir PALA; Mukaddes ERDEM

    2011-01-01

    This study examined for to determine the relationships between digital game preferences and the game preferences reasons with gender, class levels and learning styles of university students. Study group consisted of students of Computer Education and Instructional Technology Department. Game preferences and preference reasons data were gathered by an open ended 16 items questionnaire. Kolb’s Learning Style Inventory was used for collecting learning styles data. As a result, significant relati...

  17. Perceiving haptic feedback in virtual reality simulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Våpenstad, Cecilie; Hofstad, Erlend Fagertun; Langø, Thomas; Mårvik, Ronald; Chmarra, Magdalena Karolina

    2013-07-01

    To improve patient safety, training of psychomotor laparoscopic skills is often done on virtual reality (VR) simulators outside the operating room. Haptic sensations have been found to influence psychomotor performance in laparoscopy. The emulation of haptic feedback is thus an important aspect of VR simulation. Some VR simulators try to simulate these sensations with handles equipped with haptic feedback. We conducted a survey on how laparoscopic surgeons perceive handles with and without haptic feedback. Surgeons with different levels of experience in laparoscopy were asked to test two handles: Xitact IHP with haptic feedback and Xitact ITP without haptic feedback (Mentice AB, Gothenburg, Sweden), connected to the LapSim (Surgical Science AB, Sweden) VR simulator. They performed two tasks on the simulator before answering 12 questions regarding the two handles. The surgeons were not informed about the differences in the handles. A total of 85 % of the 20 surgeons who participated in the survey claimed that it is important that handles with haptic feedback feel realistic. Ninety percent of the surgeons preferred the handles without haptic feedback. The friction in the handles with haptic feedback was perceived to be as in reality (5 %) or too high (95 %). Regarding the handles without haptic feedback, the friction was perceived as in reality (45 %), too low (50 %), or too high (5 %). A total of 85 % of the surgeons thought that the handle with haptic feedback attempts to simulate the resistance offered by tissue to deformation. Ten percent thought that the handle succeeds in doing so. The surveyed surgeons believe that haptic feedback is an important feature on VR simulators; however, they preferred the handles without haptic feedback because they perceived the handles with haptic feedback to add additional friction, making them unrealistic and not mechanically transparent.

  18. Bioclimatic comfort and the thermal perceptions and preferences of beach tourists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutty, Michelle; Scott, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The largest market segment of global tourism is coastal tourism, which is strongly dependent on the destination's thermal climate. To date, outdoor bioclimatic comfort assessments have focused exclusively on local residents in open urban areas, making it unclear whether outdoor comfort is perceived differently in non-urban environments or by non-residents (i.e. tourists) with different weather expectations and activity patterns. This study provides needed insight into the perception of outdoor microclimatic conditions in a coastal environment while simultaneously identifying important psychological factors that differentiate tourists from everyday users of urban spaces. Concurrent micrometeorological measurements were taken on several Caribbean beaches in the islands of Barbados, Saint Lucia and Tobago, while a questionnaire survey was used to examine the thermal comfort of subjects ( n = 472). Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI) conditions of 32 to 39 °C were recorded, which were perceived as being "slightly warm" or "warm" by respondents. Most beach users (48 to 77 %) would not change the thermal conditions, with some (4 to 15 %) preferring even warmer conditions. Even at UTCI of 39 °C, 62 % of respondents voted for no change to current thermal conditions, with an additional 10 % stating that they would like to feel even warmer. These results indicate that beach users' thermal preferences are up to 18 °C warmer than the preferred thermal conditions identified in existing outdoor bioclimatic studies from urban park settings. This indicates that beach users hold fundamentally different comfort perceptions and preferences compared to people using urban spaces. Statistically significant differences ( p ≤ .05) were also recorded for demographic groups (gender, age) and place of origin (climatic region).

  19. Bioclimatic comfort and the thermal perceptions and preferences of beach tourists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutty, Michelle; Scott, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The largest market segment of global tourism is coastal tourism, which is strongly dependent on the destination's thermal climate. To date, outdoor bioclimatic comfort assessments have focused exclusively on local residents in open urban areas, making it unclear whether outdoor comfort is perceived differently in non-urban environments or by non-residents (i.e. tourists) with different weather expectations and activity patterns. This study provides needed insight into the perception of outdoor microclimatic conditions in a coastal environment while simultaneously identifying important psychological factors that differentiate tourists from everyday users of urban spaces. Concurrent micrometeorological measurements were taken on several Caribbean beaches in the islands of Barbados, Saint Lucia and Tobago, while a questionnaire survey was used to examine the thermal comfort of subjects (n = 472). Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI) conditions of 32 to 39 °C were recorded, which were perceived as being "slightly warm" or "warm" by respondents. Most beach users (48 to 77 %) would not change the thermal conditions, with some (4 to 15 %) preferring even warmer conditions. Even at UTCI of 39 °C, 62 % of respondents voted for no change to current thermal conditions, with an additional 10 % stating that they would like to feel even warmer. These results indicate that beach users' thermal preferences are up to 18 °C warmer than the preferred thermal conditions identified in existing outdoor bioclimatic studies from urban park settings. This indicates that beach users hold fundamentally different comfort perceptions and preferences compared to people using urban spaces. Statistically significant differences (p ≤ .05) were also recorded for demographic groups (gender, age) and place of origin (climatic region).

  20. Constructive Preference Elicitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Dragone

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available When faced with large or complex decision problems, human decision makers (DM can make costly mistakes, due to inherent limitations of their memory, attention, and knowledge. Preference elicitation tools assist the decision maker in overcoming these limitations. They do so by interactively learning the DM’s preferences through appropriately chosen queries and suggesting high-quality outcomes based on the preference estimates. Most state-of-the-art techniques, however, fail in constructive settings, where the goal is to synthesize a custom or entirely novel configuration rather than choosing the best option among a given set of candidates. Many wide-spread problems are constructive in nature: customizing composite goods such as cars and computers, bundling products, recommending touristic travel plans, designing apartments, buildings, or urban layouts, etc. In these settings, the full set of outcomes is humongous and can not be explicitly enumerated, and the solution must be synthesized via constrained optimization. In this article, we describe recent approaches especially designed for constructive problems, outlining the underlying ideas and their differences as well as their limitations. In presenting them, we especially focus on novel issues that the constructive setting brings forth, such as how to deal with sparsity of the DM’s preferences, how to properly frame the interaction, and how to achieve efficient synthesis of custom instances.

  1. Immigrants' location preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damm, Anna Piil

    This paper exploits a spatial dispersal policy for refugee immigrants to estimate the importance of local and regional factors for refugees' location preferences. The main results of a mixed proportional hazard competing risks model are that placed refugees react to high regional unemployment...

  2. Hormones and social preferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buser, T.

    2011-01-01

    We examine whether social preferences are determined by hormones. We do this by investigating whether markers for the strength of prenatal testosterone exposure (finger length ratios) and current exposure to progesterone and oxytocin (the menstrual cycle) are correlated with choices in social

  3. Preferred Dance Tempo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Sofia; Huron, David; Brod, Garvin

    2014-01-01

    In two experiments participants tuned a drum machine to their preferred dance tempo. Measurements of height, shoulder width, leg length, and weight were taken for each participant, and their sex recorded. Using a multiple regression analysis, height and leg length combined was found to be the bes...

  4. Adapting Training to Meet the Preferred Learning Styles of Different Generations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urick, Michael

    2017-01-01

    This article considers how training professionals can respond to differences in training preferences between generational groups. It adopts two methods. First, it surveys the existing research and finds generally that preferences for training approaches can differ between groups and specifically that younger employees are perceived to leverage…

  5. Peer and Teacher Preference, Student-Teacher Relationships, Student Ethnicity, and Peer Victimization in Elementary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feihong; Leary, Kevin A.; Taylor, Lorraine C.; Derosier, Melissa E.

    2016-01-01

    We examined the effects of peer preference and teacher preference for students, students' perceived relationship with their teacher and student ethnicity on peer victimization in late elementary school. Participants were students in the third through fifth grades in four public elementary schools in a southern state. Using hierarchical linear…

  6. Modeling commuter preferences for the proposed bus rapid transit in Dar-es-Salaam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nkurunziza, A.; Zuidgeest, M.H.P.; Brussel, M.J.G.; van Maarseveen, M.F.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    The paper analyzes individual commuter preferences towards the proposed bus rapid transit (BRT) system in Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania. The objective of the survey was to identify how commuters perceive and value the proposed BRT service quality attributes. A stated preference survey of potential users

  7. Characteristics of neurogenic bowel in spinal cord injury and perceived quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardee, Connie; Bricker, Diedre; Rundquist, Jeanine; MacRae, Christi; Tebben, Cherisse

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the association between characteristics of individuals with spinal cord injury and neurogenic bowel and their perceived quality of life. The study design is an exploratory, descriptive correlational design. To measure the variables of the study the Quality of Life Survey developed by Randell et al. (2001) was used to measure perceived quality of life related to bowel management. Individual bowel management preferences and subjective costs and benefits of the preferences were gathered through the Neurogenic Bowel Characteristics Survey. PARTICIPANTS/METHOD: Data were collected from a random half of the individuals who met the inclusion criteria from the patient database (n=1193). Two hundred and forty one surveys were analyzed for this study. More than half of the sample (n=134) provided their own bowel management consisting of digital stimulation, suppositories, and other aids; 8% (n=19) had a colostomy. Regardless of the bowel management program 54% (n=127) were satisfied with current methods. Although time reported to complete bowel programs ranged from 1 to 120 minutes, there was no difference in rating of satisfaction with time. There was a statistically significant difference between those satisfied and dissatisfied with current bowel management and quality of life; those satisfied demonstrated a higher quality of life on three subscales, work function (p= .021), bowel problems (p< .001), and social function (p< .001). Those dissatisfied with their bowel program perceived a lower quality of life and indicated problems of time (p= .001), pain or discomfort (p= .033), and poor results (p< .001). Research data provide the patient's perspective on bowel management characteristics, complications, satisfaction, and their perceived quality of life. Results of this research will be incorporated into bowel management education and possible modification of the current inpatient bowel management program. © 2012 Association of Rehabilitation Nurses.

  8. Parental Decision-Making Preferences in Neonatal Intensive Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Elliott Mark; Barg, Frances K; Cook, Noah; Black, Emily; Joffe, Steven

    2016-12-01

    To explore how characteristics of medical decisions influence parents' preferences for control over decisions for their seriously ill infants. In qualitative interviews, parents of infants in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) were asked to consider all medical decisions they could recall, and were prompted with decisions commonly encountered in the NICU. For each decision, parents were asked detailed questions about who made each decision, whom they would have preferred to make the decision, and why. Using standard qualitative methods, responses were coded and organized such that decision-level characteristics could be analyzed according to preferred decision-making role. Parents identified 2 factors that were associated with a preference to delegate decisions to the medical team (high degree of urgency, high level of required medical expertise) and 4 factors associated with a preference to retain parental control (high perceived risk, high personal experience with the decision, involvement of foreign bodily fluids, and similarity to decisions that they perceived as part of the normal parental role). Characteristics of decisions influence preferences for control over medical decisions among parents of patients in the NICU. These insights may guide improvements in physician-parent communication and consent. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Food preference for milk and dairy products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Derflerová Brázdová

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Milk and dairy products constitute an important source of energy and nutrients for humans. Food preferences may significantly influence the actual consumption (and thus nutrition of people at the population level. The objective of the present large-scale survey was to specify current preferences for milk and dairy products with regard to age and sex. The study was conducted across the Moravia region, Czech Republic, on a sample of 451 individuals divided into 4 age groups: children, adolescents, young adults, and elderly people. A graphic scale questionnaire was administered, with respondents rating their degree of preference for each food item by drawing a mark on a 35 mm line. Out of the 115 items in the questionnaire, 11 items represented dairy products. Data was analysed by means of a general linear model using IBM SPSS Statistics software. Preference for milk was lower in the elderly group than the other groups (P P < 0.01. The overall preference for dairy products (21.6 was lower than the average preference for all foods on the list (22.5. The cross-sectional study revealed intergenerational differences in preferences for specific dairy products, which were most marked in case of cream, processed cheese, blue cheese, and buttermilk. The knowledge of these differences might help promote more focused action at the community level directed at increasing the overall consumption of dairy products in the population.

  10. Children's gender and parents' color preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Philip N

    2013-04-01

    Gender differences in color preferences have been found in adults and children, but they remain unexplained. This study asks whether the gendered social environment in adulthood affects parents' color preferences. The analysis used the gender of children to represent one aspect of the gendered social environment. Because having male versus female children in the U.S. is generally randomly distributed, it provides something of a natural experiment, offering evidence about the social construction of gender in adulthood. The participants were 749 adults with children who responded to an online survey invitation, asking "What's your favorite color?" Men were more likely to prefer blue, while women were more likely to prefer red, purple, and pink, consistent with long-standing U.S. patterns. The effect of having only sons was to widen the existing gender differences between men and women, increasing the odds that men prefer blue while reducing the odds that women do; and a marginally significant effect showed women having higher odds of preferring pink when they have sons only. The results suggest that, in addition to any genetic, biological or child-socialization effects shaping adults' tendency to segregate their color preferences by gender, the gender context of adulthood matters as well.

  11. Revealing additional preference heterogeneity with an extended random parameter logit model: the case of extra virgin olive oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Yangui

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Methods that account for preference heterogeneity have received a significant amount of attention in recent literature. Most of them have focused on preference heterogeneity around the mean of the random parameters, which has been specified as a function of socio-demographic characteristics. This paper aims at analyzing consumers’ preferences towards extra-virgin olive oil in Catalonia using a methodological framework with two novelties over past studies: 1 it accounts for both preference heterogeneity around the mean and the variance; and 2 it considers both socio-demographic characteristics of consumers as well as their attitudinal factors. Estimated coefficients and moments of willingness to pay (WTP distributions are compared with those obtained from alternative Random Parameter Logit (RPL models. Results suggest that the proposed framework increases the goodness-of-fit and provides more useful insights for policy analysis. The most important attributes affecting consumers’ preferences towards extra virgin olive oil are the price and the product’s origin. The consumers perceive the organic olive oil attribute negatively, as they think that it is not worth paying a premium for a product that is healthy in nature.

  12. The role of spatial organization in preference for color pairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schloss, Karen B; Palmer, Stephen E

    2011-01-01

    We investigated how spatial organization influences color-pair preference asymmetries: differential preference for one color pair over another when the pairs contain the same colors in opposite spatial configurations. Schloss and Palmer (2011, Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics 73 55-571) found weak figure ground preference asymmetries for small squares centered on large squares in aesthetic ratings. Here, we found robust preference asymmetries using a more sensitive forced-choice task: participants strongly prefer pairs with yellower, lighter figures on bluer, darker grounds (experiment 1). We also investigated which spatial factors influence these preference asymmetries. Relative area of the two component regions is clearly important, and perceived 3-D area of the 2-D displays (ie after the ground is amodally completed behind the figure) is more influential than 2-D area (experiment 2). Surroundedness is not required, because yellowness blueness effects were comparable for pairs in which the figure was surrounded by the ground, and for mosaic arrangements in which the regions were adjacent and separated by a gap (experiment 3). Lightness darkness effects, however, were opposite for figure ground versus mosaic organizations: people prefer figure-ground organizations in which smaller regions are lighter, but prefer mosaic organizations in which smaller regions are darker. Physiological, phenomenological, and ecological explanations of the reported results are discussed.

  13. Uncovering ecosystem service bundles through social preferences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berta Martín-López

    Full Text Available Ecosystem service assessments have increasingly been used to support environmental management policies, mainly based on biophysical and economic indicators. However, few studies have coped with the social-cultural dimension of ecosystem services, despite being considered a research priority. We examined how ecosystem service bundles and trade-offs emerge from diverging social preferences toward ecosystem services delivered by various types of ecosystems in Spain. We conducted 3,379 direct face-to-face questionnaires in eight different case study sites from 2007 to 2011. Overall, 90.5% of the sampled population recognized the ecosystem's capacity to deliver services. Formal studies, environmental behavior, and gender variables influenced the probability of people recognizing the ecosystem's capacity to provide services. The ecosystem services most frequently perceived by people were regulating services; of those, air purification held the greatest importance. However, statistical analysis showed that socio-cultural factors and the conservation management strategy of ecosystems (i.e., National Park, Natural Park, or a non-protected area have an effect on social preferences toward ecosystem services. Ecosystem service trade-offs and bundles were identified by analyzing social preferences through multivariate analysis (redundancy analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis. We found a clear trade-off among provisioning services (and recreational hunting versus regulating services and almost all cultural services. We identified three ecosystem service bundles associated with the conservation management strategy and the rural-urban gradient. We conclude that socio-cultural preferences toward ecosystem services can serve as a tool to identify relevant services for people, the factors underlying these social preferences, and emerging ecosystem service bundles and trade-offs.

  14. Uncovering Ecosystem Service Bundles through Social Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-López, Berta; Iniesta-Arandia, Irene; García-Llorente, Marina; Palomo, Ignacio; Casado-Arzuaga, Izaskun; Amo, David García Del; Gómez-Baggethun, Erik; Oteros-Rozas, Elisa; Palacios-Agundez, Igone; Willaarts, Bárbara; González, José A.; Santos-Martín, Fernando; Onaindia, Miren; López-Santiago, Cesar; Montes, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    Ecosystem service assessments have increasingly been used to support environmental management policies, mainly based on biophysical and economic indicators. However, few studies have coped with the social-cultural dimension of ecosystem services, despite being considered a research priority. We examined how ecosystem service bundles and trade-offs emerge from diverging social preferences toward ecosystem services delivered by various types of ecosystems in Spain. We conducted 3,379 direct face-to-face questionnaires in eight different case study sites from 2007 to 2011. Overall, 90.5% of the sampled population recognized the ecosystem’s capacity to deliver services. Formal studies, environmental behavior, and gender variables influenced the probability of people recognizing the ecosystem’s capacity to provide services. The ecosystem services most frequently perceived by people were regulating services; of those, air purification held the greatest importance. However, statistical analysis showed that socio-cultural factors and the conservation management strategy of ecosystems (i.e., National Park, Natural Park, or a non-protected area) have an effect on social preferences toward ecosystem services. Ecosystem service trade-offs and bundles were identified by analyzing social preferences through multivariate analysis (redundancy analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis). We found a clear trade-off among provisioning services (and recreational hunting) versus regulating services and almost all cultural services. We identified three ecosystem service bundles associated with the conservation management strategy and the rural-urban gradient. We conclude that socio-cultural preferences toward ecosystem services can serve as a tool to identify relevant services for people, the factors underlying these social preferences, and emerging ecosystem service bundles and trade-offs. PMID:22720006

  15. PENGARUH PERCEIVED VALUE AND PERCEIVED QUALITY TERHADAP KEPERCAYAAN KONSUMEN DI RUMAH SAKIT KARTIKA SARI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glory Budi Dharma

    2012-07-01

    The objective (s of this research was identifying the effect perceived value and perceived quality toward consumer’s trust honesty and consumer’s trust benevolence. The design of this research applies hypothesis testing to examine all hypotheses in this study. The method used in this study is multiple regressions between independent variables and dependent variable. Data analysis used in this research was collected by distributing questionnaires which were distributed on 110 respondents at Kartika Sari Hospital. There were 107 responses of which 100 completed and usable for analyzed by multiple regressions. The result of this research conclude that the professionalism, perceived quality, value monetary costs, value non monetary costs have positive and significant impact on consumer’s trust honesty dan consumer’s trust benevolence. Keywords : Sonsumer loyalty, Perceived value, Perceived quality, Satisfaction

  16. Reading the face of a leader: women with low facial masculinity are perceived as competitive

    OpenAIRE

    Silberzahn, Raphael; Menges, Jochen

    2016-01-01

    In competitive settings, people prefer leaders with masculine faces. But is facial masculinity a trait that is similarly desired in men and women leaders? Across three studies, we discovered that people indeed prefer men and women leaders who have faces with masculine traits. But surprisingly, we find that people also prefer women with low facial masculinity as leaders in competitive contexts (Study 1). Our findings indicate that low facial masculinity in women, but not in men is perceived to...

  17. Dichotic Listening Can Improve Perceived Clarity of Music in Cochlear Implant Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Vannson

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Musical enjoyment for cochlear implant (CI recipients is often reported to be unsatisfactory. Our goal was to determine whether the musical experience of postlingually deafened adult CI recipients could be enriched by presenting the bass and treble clef parts of short polyphonic piano pieces separately to each ear (dichotic. Dichotic presentation should artificially enhance the lateralization cues of each part and help the listeners to better segregate them and thus provide greater clarity. We also hypothesized that perception of the intended emotion of the pieces and their overall enjoyment would be enhanced in the dichotic mode compared with the monophonic (both parts in the same ear and the diotic mode (both parts in both ears. Twenty-eight piano pieces specifically composed to induce sad or happy emotions were selected. The tempo of the pieces, which ranged from lento to presto covaried with the intended emotion (from sad to happy. Thirty participants (11 normal-hearing listeners, 11 bimodal CI and hearing-aid users, and 8 bilaterally implanted CI users participated in this study. Participants were asked to rate the perceived clarity, the intended emotion, and their preference of each piece in different listening modes. Results indicated that dichotic presentation produced small significant improvements in subjective ratings based on perceived clarity. We also found that preference and clarity ratings were significantly higher for pieces with fast tempi compared with slow tempi. However, no significant differences between diotic and dichotic presentation were found for the participants’ preference ratings, or their judgments of intended emotion.

  18. Estimating exponential scheduling preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Katrine; Börjesson, Maria; Engelson, Leonid

    2015-01-01

    of car drivers' route and mode choice under uncertain travel times. Our analysis exposes some important methodological issues related to complex non-linear scheduling models: One issue is identifying the point in time where the marginal utility of being at the destination becomes larger than the marginal......Different assumptions about travelers' scheduling preferences yield different measures of the cost of travel time variability. Only few forms of scheduling preferences provide non-trivial measures which are additive over links in transport networks where link travel times are arbitrarily...... utility of being at the origin. Another issue is that models with the exponential marginal utility formulation suffer from empirical identification problems. Though our results are not decisive, they partly support the constant-affine specification, in which the value of travel time variability...

  19. Correlated Preferences for Male Facial Masculinity and Partner Traits in Gay and Bisexual Men in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Lijun; Zheng, Yong

    2015-07-01

    Previous studies have documented the correlation between preferences for male facial masculinity and perceived masculinity: women who rate their male partner as more masculine tend to prefer more masculine faces. Men's self-rated masculinity predicts their female partner's preference for masculinity. This study examined the association between other trait preferences and preference for male facial masculinity among 556 gay and bisexual men across multiple cities in China. Participants were asked to choose the three most important traits in a romantic partner from a list of 23 traits. Each participant was then asked to choose a preferred face in each of 10 pairs of male faces presented sequentially, with each pair consisting of a masculinized and feminized version of the same base face. The results indicated that preferences for health and status-related traits were correlated with preferences for male facial masculinity in gay and bisexual men in China; individuals who were more health- or status-oriented in their preferences for a romantic partner preferred more masculine male faces than individuals with lower levels of these orientations. The findings have implications for the correlated preferences for facial masculinity and health- and status-related traits and may be related to perceived health and dominance/aggression of masculine faces based on a sample of non-Western gay and bisexual men.

  20. PREFERENCE, PRINCIPLE AND PRACTICE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovsgaard, Morten; Bro, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Legitimacy has become a central issue in journalism, since the understanding of what journalism is and who journalists are has been challenged by developments both within and outside the newsrooms. Nonetheless, little scholarly work has been conducted to aid conceptual clarification as to how jou...... distinct, but interconnected categories*preference, principle, and practice. Through this framework, historical attempts to justify journalism and journalists are described and discussed in the light of the present challenges for the profession....

  1. Emotions and Economic Preference

    OpenAIRE

    Todorova, Tamara; Ramachandran, Bharath

    2005-01-01

    We wish to examine critically the viewpoint that: a) economists take too narrow a view of rationality and do not recognize the role of emotions as a component of rationality and b) do not address the question of whether preferences are rational or not, and instead take them as just given. We trace the relationship between economics and emotions showing some economic dimensions of emotional states. We illustrate them with examples of economic behavior based on emotional reactions.

  2. Reduced dietary intake of simple sugars alters perceived sweet taste intensity but not perceived pleasantness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Paul M; Nattress, Laura; Flammer, Linda J; Beauchamp, Gary K

    2016-01-01

    Individuals who adhere to reduced-sodium diets come to prefer less salt over time, but it is unclear whether sweet taste perception is modulated by reduced sugar intake. The objective was to determine how a substantial reduction in dietary intake of simple sugars affects sweetness intensity and pleasantness of sweet foods and beverages. Healthy men and women aged 21-54 y participated for 5 mo. After the baseline month, 2 subject groups were matched for demographic characteristics, body mass index, and intake of simple sugars. One group (n = 16; 13 of whom completed key experimental manipulations) was randomly assigned to receive a low-sugar diet during the subsequent 3 mo, with instructions to replace 40% of calories from simple sugars with fats, proteins, and complex carbohydrates. The other (control) group (n = 17; 16 of whom completed the study) did not change their sugar intake. During the final month, both groups chose any diet they wished. Each month subjects rated the sweetness intensity and pleasantness of vanilla puddings and raspberry beverages that varied in sucrose concentration. ANOVA showed no systematic differences between groups in rated sweetness during the baseline or first diet month. During the second diet month, the low-sugar group rated low-sucrose pudding samples as more intense than did the control group (significant group-by-concentration interaction, P = 0.002). During the third diet month, the low-sugar subjects rated both low and high concentrations in puddings as ∼40% sweeter than did the control group (significant effect of group, P = 0.01). A weaker effect on rated sweetness was obtained for the beverages. Rated pleasantness was not affected for either of the stimuli. This experiment provides empirical evidence that changes in consumption of simple sugars influence perceived sweet taste intensity. More work is needed to determine whether sugar intake ultimately shifts preferences for sweet foods and beverages. This trial was

  3. Marketing Green Fertilizers: Insights into Consumer Preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Dahlin

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In an effort to support the long-term viability of the bioenergy industry through an end market for digestate, we investigated purchasing preferences for fertilizer product features in the home gardening market. We conducted a discrete choice experiment (DCE, presenting 504 respondents with a total of 6048 product attribute choices in a simulated context that replicated the tradeoff decisions made in the real marketplace. We analyzed the choice data using a hierarchical Bayes estimate to generate part-worth utilities for fertilizer product attributes. We then conducted a latent class analysis to identify market segments that could be expected to respond to differentiated product design strategies. We were able to quantify both purchasing preferences for fertilizer product attributes as well as the importance of each attribute to the perceived utility of a product. We were further able to identify five distinct market segments that make clear the potential for differentiated strategies in the home gardening market. We found both negative and positive price sensitivities, with sociodemographically distinct subgroups that favored low-, mid-, and high-priced products. We also found purchasing preferences for brand status, product labeling and nutrient values. Our results provide insights that should help product managers in the biogas industry develop marketing strategies to integrate digestate into a sustainable energy production system.

  4. Epidemic spreading on preferred degree adaptive networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolad, Shivakumar; Liu, Wenjia; Schmittmann, B; Zia, R K P

    2012-01-01

    We study the standard SIS model of epidemic spreading on networks where individuals have a fluctuating number of connections around a preferred degree κ. Using very simple rules for forming such preferred degree networks, we find some unusual statistical properties not found in familiar Erdös-Rényi or scale free networks. By letting κ depend on the fraction of infected individuals, we model the behavioral changes in response to how the extent of the epidemic is perceived. In our models, the behavioral adaptations can be either 'blind' or 'selective'--depending on whether a node adapts by cutting or adding links to randomly chosen partners or selectively, based on the state of the partner. For a frozen preferred network, we find that the infection threshold follows the heterogeneous mean field result λ(c)/μ = / and the phase diagram matches the predictions of the annealed adjacency matrix (AAM) approach. With 'blind' adaptations, although the epidemic threshold remains unchanged, the infection level is substantially affected, depending on the details of the adaptation. The 'selective' adaptive SIS models are most interesting. Both the threshold and the level of infection changes, controlled not only by how the adaptations are implemented but also how often the nodes cut/add links (compared to the time scales of the epidemic spreading). A simple mean field theory is presented for the selective adaptations which capture the qualitative and some of the quantitative features of the infection phase diagram.

  5. The Causes of Preference Reversal.

    OpenAIRE

    Tversky, Amos; Slovic, Paul; Kahneman, Daniel

    1990-01-01

    Observed preference reversal cannot be adequately explained by violations of independence, the reduction axiom, or transitivity. The primary cause of preference reversal is the failure of procedure invariance, especially the overpricing of low-probability, high-payoff bets. This result violates regret theory and generalized (nonindependent) utility models. Preference reversal and a new reversal involving time preferences are explained by scale compatibility, which implies that payoffs are wei...

  6. Human preference for air movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftum, Jørn; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Tynel, A.

    2002-01-01

    Human preference for air movement was studied at slightly cool, neutral, and slightly warm overall thermal sensations and at temperatures ranging from 18 deg.C to 28 deg.C. Air movement preference depended on both thermal sensation and temperature, but large inter-individual differences existed...... between subjects. Preference for less air movement was linearly correlated with draught discomfort, but the percentage of subjects who felt draught was lower than the percentage who preferred less air movement....

  7. The filter of choice: filtration method preference among injecting drug users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keijzer Lenneke

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Injection drug use syringe filters (IDUSF are designed to prevent several complications related to the injection of drugs. Due to their small pore size, their use can reduce the solution's insoluble particle content and thus diminish the prevalence of phlebitis, talcosis.... Their low drug retention discourages from filter reuse and sharing and can thus prevent viral and microbial infections. In France, drug users have access to sterile cotton filters for 15 years and to an IDUSF (the Sterifilt® for 5 years. This study was set up to explore the factors influencing filter preference amongst injecting drug users. Methods Quantitative and qualitative data were gathered through 241 questionnaires and the participation of 23 people in focus groups. Results Factors found to significantly influence filter preference were duration and frequency of injecting drug use, the type of drugs injected and subculture. Furthermore, IDU's rationale for the preference of one type of filter over others was explored. It was found that filter preference depends on perceived health benefits (reduced harms, prevention of vein damage, protection of injection sites, drug retention (low retention: better high, protective mechanism against the reuse of filters; high retention: filter reuse as a protective mechanism against withdrawal, technical and practical issues (filter clogging, ease of use, time needed to prepare an injection and believes (the conviction that a clear solution contains less active compound. Conclusion It was concluded that the factors influencing filter preference are in favour of change; a shift towards the use of more efficient filters can be made through increased availability, information and demonstrations.

  8. The consistency principle in interpersonal communication: consequences of preference confirmation and disconfirmation in collective decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojzisch, Andreas; Kerschreiter, Rudolf; Faulmüller, Nadira; Vogelgesang, Frank; Schulz-Hardt, Stefan

    2014-06-01

    Interpersonal cognitive consistency is a driving force in group behavior. In this article, we propose a new model of interpersonal cognitive consistency in collective decision making. Building on ideas from the mutual enhancement model (Wittenbaum, Hubbell, & Zuckerman, 1999), we argue that group members evaluate one another more positively when they mention information confirming each other's preferences instead of information disconfirming these preferences. Furthermore, we argue that this effect is mediated by perceived information quality: Group members evaluate one another more positively when they mention information confirming each other's preferences because they perceive this information to be more important and accurate than information disconfirming each other's preferences. Finally, we hypothesize that group members who communicate information confirming each other's preferences receive positive feedback for doing so, which, in turn, leads group members to mention even more of this information. The results of 3 studies with pseudo and face-to-face interacting dyads provide converging support for our model.

  9. Treatment preference in hypochondriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, J; Vincent, N; Furer, P; Cox, B; Kjernisted, K

    1999-12-01

    Promising cognitive-behavioral and medication treatments for hypochondriasis are in the early stages of evaluation. Little is known about the treatment preferences and opinions of individuals seeking help for this problem. In this exploratory study, 23 volunteers from the community with a DSM-IV diagnosis of hypochondriasis were recruited through a newspaper advertisement. Participants were presented with a survey which included balanced descriptions of both a medication and a cognitive-behavioral treatment for intense illness concerns (hypochondriasis). The brief descriptions of the treatments discussed the time commitment required as well as the major advantages and disadvantages of each. Results showed that, relative to medication treatment, cognitive-behavioral treatment was predicted to be more effective in both the short and long terms and was rated as more acceptable. Psychological treatment was indicated as the first choice by 74% of respondents, medication by 4%, and 22% indicated an equal preference. Forty-eight percent of respondents would only accept the psychological treatment.

  10. Estimating exponential scheduling preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Katrine; Börjesson, Maria; Engelson, Leonid

    Extended abstract Choice of departure time is a travel choice dimension that transportation planners often need to forecast in appraisal. A traveller may shift departure time in response to changes in expected travel time or travel time variability (TTV) or in response to time-differentiated cong......Extended abstract Choice of departure time is a travel choice dimension that transportation planners often need to forecast in appraisal. A traveller may shift departure time in response to changes in expected travel time or travel time variability (TTV) or in response to time...... from the underlying scheduling preferences (Noland and Small, 1995, Bates et al., 2001, Fosgerau and Karlström, 2010). The scheduling preferences can be formally represented as time-dependent rates of utility derived at different locations. Assuming that the travellers are rational and choose departure......’ departure time choice. The assumption underlying the scheduling approach is that the traveller rationally maximises her total utility obtained during a period of time. The total utility depends on time of departure from the origin and time of arrival to the destination. The total utility is usually assumed...

  11. STD patients’ preferences for HIV prevention strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castro JG

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Jose G Castro,1 Deborah L Jones,2 Stephen M Weiss2 1Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, 2Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Miami, Miami, FL, USA Abstract: The objective of this pilot study was to explore the knowledge of and preferences regarding effective biomedical interventions among high risk individuals attending a sexually transmitted diseases clinic, and to examine the effect of a brief information intervention on preference. Participants completed a baseline assessment, attended a presentation on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV prevention methods, and completed a postintervention assessment. Outcome measures included: demographics and sexual risk factors, self-perceived HIV risk, and knowledge and attitudes regarding new biomedical methods of HIV prevention. After the baseline evaluation, participants were provided with information on new biomedical prevention strategies. Participants were given the option to review the information by reading a pamphlet or by viewing a brief video containing the same information. Participants (n=97 were female (n=51 and male (n=46. At baseline, only a small minority of participants were aware of the newer biomedical strategies to prevent HIV infection. Postintervention, 40% endorsed having heard about the use of HIV medications to prevent HIV infection; 72% had heard that male circumcision can decrease the risk of acquiring HIV infection in men; and 73% endorsed knowledge of the potential role of microbicides in decreasing the risk of acquiring HIV. Following the intervention, the most preferred prevention method was male condoms, followed by preexposure prophylaxis, and microbicides. The least preferred methods were male circumcision and female condoms. This study provides preliminary information on knowledge and attitudes regarding newer biomedical interventions to protect against HIV infection. Keywords: STD clinic, biomedical HIV prevention, PrEP, male

  12. Height preferences in humans may not be universal: evidence from the Datoga people of Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorokowski, P; Butovskaya, M L

    2012-09-01

    Many studies in Western societies have shown that women prefer relatively taller men as potential partners, whereas men prefer women who are slightly shorter than themselves. Here, we discuss possible limitations of previous results within the context of the stimuli used (i.e., differences in the perceived body size of female silhouettes). Our results show that, at least in a Polish sample (N=231), modified stimuli did not essentially change the observed male-taller preferences. In contrast, we report height preferences in a traditional ethnic group, the Datoga people from Tanzania (N=107), in which men and women preferred extreme sexual dimorphism in stature (SDS) sets (i.e., men and women chose women much taller or much shorter than themselves). Thus, our data do not accord with the suggestion of a universal preference for taller men, but rather suggests that height preferences may be influenced by cultural, environmental, and ecological conditions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Perceived floor slipperiness and floor roughness in a gait experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ruifeng; Li, Kai Way

    2015-01-01

    Slips and falls contribute to occupational injuries and fatalities globally. Both floor slipperiness and floor roughness affect the occurrence of slipping and falling. Investigations on fall-related phenomena are important for the safety and health of workers. The purposes of this study were to: compare the perceived floor slipperiness before and after walking on the floor; compare the perceived floor slipperiness with and without shoes for males and females; discuss the perceived floor roughness based on barefoot walking; and establish regression models to describe the relationship between perceived floor slipperiness and actual friction of the floors. Male and female subjects walked on 3 m walkways with or without shoes. The perceived floor slipperiness ratings both before and after their walk were collected. The perceived floor slipperiness both before and after walking were significantly affected by both floor and surface conditions. Gender, floor, surface, and footwear conditions were all significant factors affecting the adjustment of perceived floor slipperiness. The subjects made more adjustment on perceived floor slipperiness rating when they had shoes on than when they were barefooted. Regression models were established to describe the relationship between perceived floor slipperiness and floor coefficient of friction. These models may be used to estimate perceived floor slipperiness, or in reverse, the coefficient of friction of the floor, so as to prevent slipping and falling in workplaces.

  14. Acceptability of psychological treatment to Chinese- and Caucasian-Australians: Internet treatment reduces barriers but face-to-face care is preferred.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Isabella; Sharpe, Louise; Li, Stephen; Hunt, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    Internet treatments have the potential to improve access, especially for cultural groups who face considerable treatment barriers. This study explored the perceived barriers and likelihood of using Internet and face-to-face treatments for depression among Chinese and Caucasian Australian participants. Three-hundred ninety-five (289 Chinese, 106 Caucasian) primary care patients completed a questionnaire about depression history, previous help-seeking, perceived barriers to Internet and face-to-face treatment, and likelihood of using either treatment for depressive symptoms. Internet treatment reduced perceived barriers (including stigma, lack of motivation, concerns of bringing up upsetting feelings, time constraints, transport difficulties, and cost) for both groups to a similar degree, except for time constraints. There were heightened concerns about the helpfulness, suitability, and confidentiality of Internet treatments. Chinese participants and individuals with a probable depression history reported increased perceived barriers across treatments. Both Chinese and Caucasian groups preferred face-to-face treatment across depression severity. However, when age was controlled, there were no significant concerns about Internet treatment, and face-to-face treatment was only preferred for severe depression. Only 12 % of the entire sample refused to try Internet treatment for depression. Endorsement of perceived Internet treatment barriers (including concerns of bringing up upsetting feelings, that treatment would be unhelpful or unsuitable, lack of motivation, cost, cultural sensitivity, and confidentiality) reduced the likelihood to try Internet treatments. Internet treatment reduced perceived treatment barriers across groups, with encouraging support for Internet treatment as an acceptable form of receiving help. Negative concerns about Internet treatment need to be addressed to encourage use.

  15. Perceived stress in dental practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pop-Jordanova, Nada; Radojkova-Nikolovska, Vera; Markovska-Simoska, Silvana

    2013-01-01

    Stress is a normal physiological response to events that make us feel threatened, or upset our balance in some way. In medicine, it is known that stress, as an emotional state, can be a trigger for many psychosomatic disorders. Work stress and burnout are considered to be serious professional risks in dentistry. The dentist should be aware of these stressors and attempt to manage them in order to avoid becoming occupationally dissatisfied. On the other hand, the other common characteristic of modern life is a growing burden of different chronic diseases. Periodontal disease is one of the two most important oral diseases contributing to the global burden of chronic disease. The aim of this study was to assess the perceived stress in patients with periodontal pathologies, and to compare it with the stress in doctors-dentists and students of dentistry as future professionals. Our study confirmed the presence of significant stress in all three groups of examinees (patients, doctors, and students). Surprisingly, the obtained PSQ scores are similar in the examined groups. In addition, no differences between perceived stress in males and females have been found. There is a minimal positive correlation between age and obtained scores. However, stress must be evaluated as a risk factor both for professionals or for chronic dental patients and some response measures must be undertaken.

  16. Scientists versus regulators: precaution, novelty & regulatory oversight as predictors of perceived risks of engineered nanomaterials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian E H Beaudrie

    Full Text Available Engineered nanoscale materials (ENMs present a difficult challenge for risk assessors and regulators. Continuing uncertainty about the potential risks of ENMs means that expert opinion will play an important role in the design of policies to minimize harmful implications while supporting innovation. This research aims to shed light on the views of 'nano experts' to understand which nanomaterials or applications are regarded as more risky than others, to characterize the differences in risk perceptions between expert groups, and to evaluate the factors that drive these perceptions. Our analysis draws from a web-survey (N = 404 of three groups of US and Canadian experts: nano-scientists and engineers, nano-environmental health and safety scientists, and regulatory scientists and decision-makers. Significant differences in risk perceptions were found across expert groups; differences found to be driven by underlying attitudes and perceptions characteristic of each group. Nano-scientists and engineers at the upstream end of the nanomaterial life cycle perceived the lowest levels of risk, while those who are responsible for assessing and regulating risks at the downstream end perceived the greatest risk. Perceived novelty of nanomaterial risks, differing preferences for regulation (i.e. the use of precaution versus voluntary or market-based approaches, and perceptions of the risk of technologies in general predicted variation in experts' judgments of nanotechnology risks. Our findings underscore the importance of involving a diverse selection of experts, particularly those with expertise at different stages along the nanomaterial lifecycle, during policy development.

  17. CONCEPT ANALYSIS OF PERCEIVED CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mardiyono Mardiyono

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. Perceived control is a personality characteristic that contributes psychological adjustment. It was derived from various theories, so that definitions of perceived control were ambiguous meaning. Disclosing concept of perceived control is required.Objective. The analysis aims to identify definition and use of perceived control, examine the basic attributes of perceived control, and the measurements of perceived control.Method. Databases searched for electronic journals and books that were published from 1994 to 2010 were analyzed.Result. Perceived control is personal belief that refers to controllability on behalf of one’s self and ability to control threats or events. The use of perceived control includes maternal, pediatric, medical, surgical, psychiatric, community nursing, and pain management. Perceived control was composed of two dimensions: belief about controllability and belief about ability to control to threats.Conclusion. Instrument of Anxiety Control Questionnaire most closely corresponds to two dimensions: belief about controllability and ability to control. Defining attributes and dimensions of perceived control are useful for developing tool.Keywords: perceived control, controllability, ability to control, and agency

  18. Color preference and familiarity in performance on brand logo recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kuo-Chen; Lin, Chin-Chiuan; Chiang, Shu-Ying

    2008-10-01

    Two experiments assessed effects of color preference and brand-logo familiarity on recall performance. Exp. 1 explored the color preferences, using a forced-choice technique, of 189 women and 63 men, Taiwanese college students ages 18 to 20 years (M = 19.4, SD = 1.5). The sequence of the three most preferred colors was white, light blue, and black and of the three least preferred colors was light orange, dark violet, and dark brown. Exp. 2 investigated the effects of color preference based on the results of Exp. 1 and brand-logo familiarity on recall. A total of 27 women and 21 men, Taiwanese college students ages 18 to 20 years (M = 19.2, SD = 1.2) participated. They memorized a list of 24 logos (four logos shown in six colors) and then performed sequential recall. Analyses showed color preference significantly affected recall accuracy. Accuracy for high color preference was significantly greater than that for low preferences. Results showed no significant effects of brand-logo familiarity or sex on accuracy. In addition, the interactive effect of color preference and brand-logo familiarity on accuracy was significant. These results have implications for the design of brand logos to create and sustain memory of brand images.

  19. Female partner preferences enhance offspring ability to survive an infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raveh, Shirley; Sutalo, Sanja; Thonhauser, Kerstin E; Thoß, Michaela; Hettyey, Attila; Winkelser, Friederike; Penn, Dustin J

    2014-01-23

    It is often suggested that mate choice enhances offspring immune resistance to infectious diseases. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a study with wild-derived house mice (Mus musculus musculus) in which females were experimentally mated either with their preferred or non-preferred male, and their offspring were infected with a mouse pathogen, Salmonella enterica (serovar Typhimurium). We found that offspring sired by preferred males were significantly more likely to survive the experimental infection compared to those sired by non-preferred males. We found no significant differences in the pathogen clearance or infection dynamics between the infected mice, suggesting that offspring from preferred males were better able to cope with infection and had improved tolerance rather than immune resistance. Our results provide the first direct experimental evidence within a single study that partner preferences enhance offspring resistance to infectious diseases.

  20. Lexical preferences in Dutch verbal cluster ordering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloem, J.; Bellamy, K.; Karvovskaya, E.; Kohlberger, M.; Saad, G.

    2016-01-01

    This study discusses lexical preferences as a factor affecting the word order variation in Dutch verbal clusters. There are two grammatical word orders for Dutch two-verb clusters, with no clear meaning difference. Using the method of collostructional analysis, I find significant associations

  1. Mentoring And Women's Perceived Professional Growth | Chovwen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the influence of mentoring on professional growth of women and result indicated that although protégé/mentoring relationship was not formally constituted in most organizations it was found to be a significant predictor of growth and participants with mentors perceived they experienced higher growth ...

  2. Perceived Discrimination and Personality Development in Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutin, Angelina R.; Stephan, Yannick; Terracciano, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Perceived discrimination is common and a significant source of stress that may have implications for personality development across adulthood. In this study, we examined whether experiences with discrimination were associated with maladaptive changes in the 5 major dimensions of personality using 2 longitudinal samples that differed in age and…

  3. Men's strategic preferences for femininity in female faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Anthony C; Jones, Benedict C; Feinberg, David R; Perrett, David I

    2014-08-01

    Several evolutionarily relevant sources of individual differences in face preference have been documented for women. Here, we examine three such sources of individual variation in men's preference for female facial femininity: term of relationship, partnership status and self-perceived attractiveness. We show that men prefer more feminine female faces when rating for a short-term relationship and when they have a partner (Study 1). These variables were found to interact in a follow-up study (Study 2). Men who thought themselves attractive also preferred more feminized female faces for short-term relationships than men who thought themselves less attractive (Study 1 and Study 2). In women, similar findings for masculine preferences in male faces have been interpreted as adaptive. In men, such preferences potentially reflect that attractive males are able to compete for high-quality female partners in short-term contexts. When a man has secured a mate, the potential cost of being discovered may increase his choosiness regarding short-term partners relative to unpartnered men, who can better increase their short-term mating success by relaxing their standards. Such potentially strategic preferences imply that men also face trade-offs when choosing relatively masculine or feminine faced partners. In line with a trade-off, women with feminine faces were seen as more likely to be unfaithful and more likely to pursue short-term relationships (Study 3), suggesting that risk of cuckoldry is one factor that may limit men's preferences for femininity in women and could additionally lead to preferences for femininity in short-term mates. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  4. Using mental mapping to unpack perceived cycling risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manton, Richard; Rau, Henrike; Fahy, Frances; Sheahan, Jerome; Clifford, Eoghan

    2016-03-01

    Cycling is the most energy-efficient mode of transport and can bring extensive environmental, social and economic benefits. Research has highlighted negative perceptions of safety as a major barrier to the growth of cycling. Understanding these perceptions through the application of novel place-sensitive methodological tools such as mental mapping could inform measures to increase cyclist numbers and consequently improve cyclist safety. Key steps to achieving this include: (a) the design of infrastructure to reduce actual risks and (b) targeted work on improving safety perceptions among current and future cyclists. This study combines mental mapping, a stated-preference survey and a transport infrastructure inventory to unpack perceptions of cycling risk and to reveal both overlaps and discrepancies between perceived and actual characteristics of the physical environment. Participants translate mentally mapped cycle routes onto hard-copy base-maps, colour-coding road sections according to risk, while a transport infrastructure inventory captures the objective cycling environment. These qualitative and quantitative data are matched using Geographic Information Systems and exported to statistical analysis software to model the individual and (infra)structural determinants of perceived cycling risk. This method was applied to cycling conditions in Galway City (Ireland). Participants' (n=104) mental maps delivered data-rich perceived safety observations (n=484) and initial comparison with locations of cycling collisions suggests some alignment between perception and reality, particularly relating to danger at roundabouts. Attributing individual and (infra)structural characteristics to each observation, a Generalised Linear Mixed Model statistical analysis identified segregated infrastructure, road width, the number of vehicles as well as gender and cycling experience as significant, and interactions were found between individual and infrastructural variables. The paper

  5. Risk preferences over small stakes: Evidence from deductible choice

    OpenAIRE

    Janko Gorter; Paul Schilp

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides new field evidence on risk preferences over small stakes. Using unique population and survey data on deductible choice in Dutch universal health insurance, we find that risk preferences are a dominant factor in decision aking. In fact, our results indicate that risk preferences are both statistically and quantitatively more significant in explaining deductible choice behavior than risk type. This finding contrasts with classical expected utility theory, as it implies risk ...

  6. Cuisine Preference of Local Tourists in San Juan, Batangas, Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    RYENE SELLINE B. KALALO; ANGELICA LYNTTE A. CABLAO; MARICRISS P. CABATAY; CHARISSA P. MANTAL; RHONALYN T. MANALO; SEVILLA S. FELICEN

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the cuisine preference of the local tourist in San Juan, Batangas. More specifically, it aimed to describe the demographic profile of local tourist; to identify the preferred cuisine by different restaurants; to determine the significant difference when group according to demographic profile; and to determine the cuisine preference of local tourists in San Juan, Batangas. The research design used the descriptive method because it is the most appropria...

  7. Latent lifestyle preferences and household location decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Joan L.; Li, Jieping

    2007-04-01

    Lifestyle, indicating preferences towards a particular way of living, is a key driver of the decision of where to live. We employ latent class choice models to represent this behavior, where the latent classes are the lifestyles and the choice model is the choice of residential location. Thus, we simultaneously estimate lifestyle groups and how lifestyle impacts location decisions. Empirical results indicate three latent lifestyle segments: suburban dwellers, urban dwellers, and transit-riders. The suggested lifestyle segments have intriguing policy implications. Lifecycle characteristics are used to predict lifestyle preferences, although there remain significant aspects that cannot be explained by observable variables.

  8. Effect on Perceived Stimulation dan Perceived Crowding on the Decision of the Unplanned Purchase (Impulse Buying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enggal Sriwardiningsih

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Purchase decisions aren’t made necessarily planned, because impulsive buying is such a result of environmental stimuli shopping. Things affecting unplanned purchasing decisions are perceived by stimulation and crowding. The purpose of this study is to determine whether there are influences between perceived crowding and stimulation of impulse buying simultaneously or partial. The object used is one of the largest retailers in Cilegon. This research design is quantitative analysis of the consumer unit. The collecting data technique includes using questionnaires, interviews, and literature from previous research. Data processed using the SPSS 16.0 program through the validity and reliability, normality test, and regression analysis. The study states that there is significant influence between perceived crowding and perceived stimulation both simultaneous and partial response to impulse buying. 

  9. Mediating role of job satisfaction in the relationship between motivation, perceived support, training and perceived commitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neda Sadat Sanei

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Motivation as a psychological factor can affect the mental health of employees and consequently the health of work place. It has been recently concerned in the social science literature. The present study aimed to assess the mediating effect of job satisfaction on the relation of motivation, perceived support and training to perceived commitment. The data study analyzed in the structural equation modeling method. The data were gathered in library field, and, also using questionnaire. The data were achieved from staff of Sabzevar city municipality using validity and reliability approved questionnaires. For validity, face and construct validity and for reliability, Cronbach's alpha was used. Finally, data from 159 questionnaires were analyzed. The findings showed that motivation, perceived support and training had positive significant effects on normative and continuance commitment of employees. Also, positive significant effect of job satisfaction on continuance and normative commitment was confirmed. In addition, the findings of this study indicated positive effect of motivation, perceived support and training on perceived commitment with mediating role of job satisfaction. In other words, the more motivation, perceived support and training are, the more job satisfaction will be, which in turn can result in the increased continuance and normative commitment.

  10. INVESTIGATING THE PERCEIVED NEEDS OF INTERNATIONAL STUDENTS LEARNING EAP

    OpenAIRE

    Dedy Setiawan

    2009-01-01

    Abstract: The perceived needs of students learning EAP were analysed u-sing a questionnaire which investigated the subjects’ preference for particular topics and various modes of learning in relation to both the target and present situation. The target situation in the questionnaire was represented by items concerning study skills; while items concerning the present situation were oriented to the contents of the EAP course and its methodology and activities. The findings provide evidence fo...

  11. Pengaruh Perceived Quality, Perceived Sacrifice Dan Perceived Value Terhadap Customer Satisfaction Di Informa Innovative Furnishing Pakuwon City Surabaya

    OpenAIRE

    Saputro, Daniel Krisno

    2013-01-01

    Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisa pengaruh dari Perceived Quality, Perceived Sacrifice dan Perceived Value terhadap Customer Satisfaction di Informa Innovative Furnishing Pakuwon City Surabaya. Variabel yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah perceived quality, perceived sacrifice dan perceived value. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan dengan menyebarkan kuesioner kepada 100 orang konsumen di Informa Pakuwon City. Alat analisa yang digunakan adalah analisa regresi linear berganda.Hasil d...

  12. Pengaruh Perceived Quality, Perceived Sacrifice, Perceived Value, Dan Price Fairness Terhadap Customer Satisfaction Taman Sari Rasa Waterpark Cilacap

    OpenAIRE

    Rifqi, Viola Amdya; Endratno, Hermin

    2015-01-01

    Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui dan menganalisis pengaruh perceived quality, perceived sacrifice, perceived value, dan price fairness terhadap customer satisfaction Taman Sari Rasa Waterpark Cilacap. Dimana variabel independen dalam penelitian ini adalah perceived quality, perceived sacrifice, perceived value, dan price fairness, sedangkan variabel dependen dalam penelitian ini adalah customer satisfaction.Analisis yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini menggunakan uji v...

  13. Image quality preferences among radiographers and radiologists. A conjoint analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ween, Borgny; Kristoffersen, Doris Tove; Hamilton, Glenys A.; Olsen, Dag Rune

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the image quality preferences among radiographers and radiologists. The radiographers' preferences are mainly related to technical parameters, whereas radiologists assess image quality based on diagnostic value. Methods: A conjoint analysis was undertaken to survey image quality preferences; the study included 37 respondents: 19 radiographers and 18 radiologists. Digital urograms were post-processed into 8 images with different properties of image quality for 3 different patients. The respondents were asked to rank the images according to their personally perceived subjective image quality. Results: Nearly half of the radiographers and radiologists were consistent in their ranking of the image characterised as 'very best image quality'. The analysis showed, moreover, that chosen filtration level and image intensity were responsible for 72% and 28% of the preferences, respectively. The corresponding figures for each of the two professions were 76% and 24% for the radiographers, and 68% and 32% for the radiologists. In addition, there were larger variations in image preferences among the radiologists, as compared to the radiographers. Conclusions: Radiographers revealed a more consistent preference than the radiologists with respect to image quality. There is a potential for image quality improvement by developing sets of image property criteria

  14. Registered nurses' perceptions of rewarding and its significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitovirta, Jaana; Lehtimäki, Aku-Ville; Vehviläinen-Julkunen, Katri; Mitronen, Lasse; Kvist, Tarja

    2017-11-07

    To examine reward type preferences and their relationships with the significance of rewarding perceived by registered nurses in Finland. Previous studies have found relationships between nurses' rewarding and their motivation at work, job satisfaction and organisational commitment. Data were collected in a cross-sectional, descriptive, questionnaire survey from 402 registered nurses using the Registered Nurses' Perceptions of Rewarding Scale in 2015, and analysed with descriptive and multivariate statistical methods. Registered nurses assigned slightly higher values to several non-financial than to financial rewards. The non-financial reward types appreciation and feedback from work community, worktime arrangements, work content, and opportunity to develop, influence and participate were highly related to the significance of rewarding. We identified various rewards that registered nurses value, and indications that providing an appropriate array of rewards, particularly non-financial rewards, is a highly beneficial element of nursing management. It is important to understand the value of rewards for nursing management. Nurse managers should offer diverse rewards to their registered nurses to promote excellent performance and to help efforts to secure and maintain high-quality, safe patient care. The use of appropriate rewards is especially crucial to improving registered nurses' reward satisfaction and job satisfaction globally in the nursing profession. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Heritability of food preferences in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breen, Fiona M; Plomin, Robert; Wardle, Jane

    2006-07-30

    There is persisting interest in the idea that taste preferences are heritable characteristics, but few twin studies have found evidence for a significant genetic component. Small sample sizes and idiosyncratic selection of foods may have contributed to the negative results. We hypothesized that using a larger twin sample and empirical groupings of food types, would give stronger evidence for the heritability of food preferences. We examined the heritability of preferences for four food groups in a sample of young twins. We administered a food preference questionnaire with 95 foods to 214 mothers of same-sex twin pairs (103 monozygotic and 111 dizygotic pairs) aged 4 to 5. 18 foods were excluded because they had been tried by fewer than 25% of the children. Foods were grouped into 'Vegetables', 'Fruits', 'Desserts' and 'Meat and Fish' on the basis of a factor analysis of the preference data. Genetic analyses were carried out on mean liking across these four groups, using model fitting techniques. Over all 77 foods, MZ correlations were higher than DZ correlations for 72 of them, with a higher mean MZ correlation (r = 0.76) than DZ correlation (r = 0.56). Using model fitting techniques with the factor scores, significant heritability estimates were obtained for all four food groups. Heritability was modest for dessert foods (0.20), moderate for vegetables (0.37) and fruits (0.51), and high for liking for protein foods (0.78). Shared environmental effects were strong for desserts, fruits and vegetables, while non-shared environmental influences were low for all four food groups. These results provide strong evidence for modest heritability of food preferences when using empirically-derived groupings of foods.

  16. Dancers' Perceived and Actual Knowledge of Anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotler, Dana H; Lynch, Meaghan; Cushman, Daniel; Hu, Jason; Garner, Jocelyn

    2017-06-15

    Dancers are highly susceptible to musculoskeletal injuries and frequently require interaction with medical professionals. While many dancers have a finely tuned awareness of their bodies, their knowledge of the fundamentals of human anatomy is not uniform. There is a paucity of literature on the benefits of human anatomy education in dancers, though it seems intuitive that there should be a relationship. The purpose of this study was to assess dancers' perceived and actual knowledge of basic musculoskeletal anatomy and its relationship to function. Adult dancers at the undergraduate, pre-professional, and professional levels were surveyed through an anonymous online questionnaire. Questions included demographic information, dance techniques studied, anatomy training, and injury history. Subjects rated their perceived knowledge of anatomy and were tested with 15 multiple-choice questions on basic musculoskeletal anatomy. Four hundred seventy-five surveys were completed. Ordinal regression showed a correlation of perceived to actual knowledge of anatomy (p < 0.001). Factors that correlated with increases in both perceived and actual knowledge of anatomy included having taken an anatomy course of any type (p < 0.001) and increased age (p ≤ 0.001). Years of dance training and professional dancer status both significantly correlated with increased knowledge of anatomy (p < 0.001) but not perceived knowledge. Chi-square analysis showed that dancers with training in either modern or jazz dance had a significantly higher perceived, but not actual, knowledge when compared to those without training in those styles of dance (p < 0.001 and p = 0.011, respectively). In conclusion, dancers generally scored well on questions pertaining to basic musculoskeletal anatomy, and their perception correlated with their actual knowledge of anatomy. Factors that contribute to dancers' knowledge of anatomy include age, years of experience, professional dancer status, and anatomy training.

  17. Mental resilience, perceived immune functioning, and health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Schrojenstein Lantman M

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Marith Van Schrojenstein Lantman,1 Marlou Mackus,1 Leila S Otten,1 Deborah de Kruijff,1 Aurora JAE van de Loo,1,2 Aletta D Kraneveld,1,2 Johan Garssen,1,3 Joris C Verster1,2,4 1Division of Pharmacology, Utrecht University, Utrecht, the Netherlands; 2Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Utrecht University, Utrecht, the Netherlands; 3Nutricia Research, Utrecht, the Netherlands; 4Centre for Human Psychopharmacology, Swinburne University, Melbourne, Australia Background: Mental resilience can be seen as a trait that enables an individual to recover from stress and to face the next stressor with optimism. People with resilient traits are considered to have a better mental and physical health. However, there are limited data available assessing the relationship between resilient individuals and their perspective of their health and immune status. Therefore, this study was conducted to examine the relationship between mental resilience, perceived health, and perceived immune status. Methods: A total of 779 participants recruited at Utrecht University completed a questionnaire consisting of demographic characteristics, the brief resilience scale for the assessment of mental resilience, the immune function questionnaire (IFQ, and questions regarding their perceived health and immune status. Results: When correcting for gender, age, height, weight, smoker status, amount of cigarettes smoked per week, alcohol consumption status, amount of drinks consumed per week, drug use, and frequency of past year drug use, mental resilience was significantly correlated with perceived health (r=0.233, p=0.0001, perceived immune functioning (r=0.124, p=0.002, and IFQ score (r=−0.185, p=0.0001. Conclusion: A significant, albeit modest, relationship was found between mental resilience and perceived immune functioning and health. Keywords: mental resilience, immune functioning, health, vitality, quality of life

  18. Effects of anger regulation and social anxiety on perceived stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayano Yamaguchi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The mediating role of social anxiety was explored within the effect of anger regulation on perceived stress in the national sample of American and Japanese older adults. Results indicated that anger suppression is a significant factor in perceived stress mediated by social anxiety. Anger suppression was also directly related to perceived stress. The correlation of anger suppression with social anxiety was stronger in Japan than in the United States. Understanding both universal and culture-specific aspects of emotion regulation and perceived stress will be essential for the development of sound theory, future research, and effective prevention and intervention efforts.

  19. Is perceived dysphonia related to perceived healthiness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maryn, Youri; Debo, Kim

    2015-10-01

    Literature has shown that voice-disordered persons are at higher risk for negative attitudes on several personality and physical appearance traits than vocally normal persons. This study investigated general perceptions of health in subjects with various degrees of dysphonia. Recordings from 100 normophonic and dysphonic subjects were auditorily rated on dysphonia severity by five experienced clinicians and on degree of healthiness/unhealthiness by seven unexperienced listeners. Results revealed strong correlation between auditory ratings of dysphonia severity and unhealthiness severity. Dysphonic subjects are rated significantly unhealthier than normophonic subjects, and the receiver-operating characteristics curve showed that even slight dysphonia induces negative attributions of unhealthiness. This study provides additional evidence for the negative attitudes with which dysphonic speakers are confronted, especially in terms of health.

  20. Perceived Accessibility to Services and Sites Among Israeli Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitman-Schorr, Adi; Ayalon, Liat; Khalaila, Rabia

    2017-07-01

    To explore the direct and indirect effects of settlement type (rural-kibbutz vs. urban mid-size cities) on perceived accessibility by sociospatial factors: (a) connection to the living area, (b) familiarity with the living area, (c) social participation, and (d) perceived safety of the living area. A convenience sample of 279 older adults aged 65 and older was interviewed. Using bootstrapping, we tested the strength and significance of the conditional indirect effects of four simultaneous mediators of the relationship between settlement type and perceived accessibility. The relationship between settlement type and perceived accessibility was mediated by social participation and perceived safety of the living area. Policy makers should pay attention to the enhancement of sociospatial dimensions to improve the perceived accessibility of older adults.

  1. Student Preferences and Performance in Online and Face-to-Face Classes Using Myers-Briggs Indicator: A Longitudinal Quasi-Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seta Boghikian-Whitby

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This longitudinal, quasi-experimental study investigated students’ cognitive personality type using the Myers-Briggs personality Type Indicator (MBTI in Internet-based Online and Face-to-Face (F2F modalities. A total of 1154 students enrolled in 28 Online and 32 F2F sections taught concurrently over a period of fourteen years. The study measured whether the sample is similar to the national average percentage frequency of all 16 different personality types; whether specific personality type students preferred a specific modality of instructions and if this preference changed over time; whether learning occurred in both class modalities; and whether specific personality type students learned more from a specific modality. Data was analyzed using regression, t-test, frequency, and Chi-Squared. The study concluded that data used in the study was similar to the national statistics; that no major differences in preference occurred over time; and that learning did occur in all modalities, with more statistically significant learning found in the Online modality versus F2F for Sensing, Thinking, and Perceiving types. Finally, Sensing and Thinking (ST and Sensing and Perceiving (SP group types learned significantly more in Online modality versus F2F.

  2. The colors of paintings and viewers' preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Sérgio M C; Linhares, João M M; Montagner, Cristina; João, Catarina A R; Amano, Kinjiro; Alfaro, Catarina; Bailão, Ana

    2017-01-01

    One hypothesis to explain the aesthetics of paintings is that it depends on the extent to which they mimic natural image statistics. In fact, paintings and natural scenes share several statistical image regularities but the colors of paintings seem generally more biased towards red than natural scenes. Is the particular option for colors in each painting, even if less naturalistic, critical for perceived beauty? Here we show that it is. In the experiments, 50 naïve observers, unfamiliar with the 10 paintings tested, could rotate the color gamut of the paintings and select the one producing the best subjective impression. The distributions of angles obtained are described by normal distributions with maxima deviating, on average, only 7 degrees from the original gamut orientation and full width at half maximum just above the threshold to perceive a chromatic change in the paintings. Crucially, for data pooled across observers and abstract paintings the maximum of the distribution was at zero degrees, i.e., the same as the original. This demonstrates that artists know what chromatic compositions match viewers' preferences and that the option for less naturalistic colors does not constrain the aesthetic value of paintings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Perceived psychosocial needs, social support and quality of life in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Perceived social dysfunction was in four areas – fear of stigma in 15 (83.3%) subjects, lack of satisfying relationship with family in 15 (83.3%) subjects, lack of inner motivation in 12 (66.7%) subjects and social isolation in 12 (66.7%) subjects. Subjects with extrovert personality perceived significantly more lifestyle changes, ...

  4. The association between insomnia and perceived health status

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donners, A.; Bury, D.; Fernstrand, A.; Garssen, J.; Roth, T.; Verster, J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Impaired sleep can have a significant impact on perceived health status. The aim of the current study was to examine the relationship between perceived health status and sleep quality, total sleep time, and insomnia. Materials and methods: A survey was conducted among Dutch university

  5. Adolescents' and adults' visual preferences for pictures of fruit and vegetable mixes -effect of complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mielby, Line Holler; Kildegaard, Heidi; Gabrielsen, G.

    2012-01-01

    Complexity is an important parameter for the appreciation of foods as a bell-shaped relationship between hedonic appreciation and complexity has been found by Berlyne (1970). The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between adolescent and adult visual preferences and perceived...... complexity for vegetable (V), fruit (F), and combined fruit and vegetable (FV) mixes. Two hundred and forty-two adolescents and 119 adults performed three incomplete rankings of visual preference of eight pictures of V mixes, eight pictures of F mixes, and eight pictures of FV mixes, respectively. The three...... correlations between designed collative properties and perceived complexity. Inverted U-shaped relationships between visual preference and perceived complexity were found for both the V mixes and the F mixes but not for the FV mixes. For the V and the F mixes, the subjects’ optimal level of complexity...

  6. THE EFFECT OF TAX PREFERENCES ON HEALTH SPENDING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogan, John F.; Hubbard, R. Glenn; Kessler, Daniel P.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we estimate the effect of the tax preference for health insurance on health care spending using data from the Medical Expenditure Panel Surveys from 1996–2005. We use the fact that Social Security taxes are only levied on earnings below a statutory threshold to identify the impact of the tax preference. Because employer-sponsored health insurance premiums are excluded from Social Security payroll taxes, workers who earn just below the Social Security tax threshold receive a larger tax preference for health insurance than workers who earn just above it. We find a significant effect of the tax preference, consistent with previous research. PMID:22500056

  7. Partner preferences among survivors of betrayal trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobin, Robyn L

    2012-01-01

    Betrayal trauma theory suggests that social and cognitive development may be affected by early trauma such that individuals develop survival strategies, particularly dissociation and lack of betrayal awareness, that may place them at risk for further victimization. Several experiences of victimization in the context of relationships predicated on trust and dependence may contribute to the development of relational schema whereby abuse is perceived as normal. The current exploratory study investigates interpersonal trauma as an early experience that might impact the traits that are desired in potential romantic partners. Participants in the current study were asked to rate the desirability of several characteristics in potential romantic partners. Although loyalty was desirable to most participants regardless of their trauma history, those who reported experiences of high betrayal trauma rated loyalty less desirable than those who reported experiences of traumas that were low and medium in betrayal. Participants who reported experiences of revictimization (defined as the experience of trauma perpetrated by a close other during 2 different developmental periods) differed from participants who only reported 1 experience of high betrayal trauma in their self-reported desire for a romantic partner who possessed the traits of sincerity and trustworthiness. Preference for a partner who uses the tactic of verbal aggression was also associated with revictimization status. These preliminary findings suggest that victimization perpetrated by close others may affect partner preferences.

  8. Numerical-Technological Skills and Work Experience in the Perceived Usefulness in an Accounting Virtual Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrador-Alcaide, Teresa Carmen; Hernández-Solís, Montserrat

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse the perceived usefulness of a set of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) applied in a virtual learning environment (VLE) in a distance education model. We analysed whether the numerical and technological preferences of the students could explain the perceived usefulness related to the ICT…

  9. When getting angry is smart: emotional preferences and emotional intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Brett Q; Tamir, Maya

    2012-08-01

    People who prefer to feel useful emotions, even when they are unpleasant to experience, must understand emotions and seek to regulate them in strategic ways. Such people, therefore, may be more emotionally intelligent compared with people who prefer to feel emotions that may not be useful for the context at hand, even if those emotions are pleasant to experience. We tested this hypothesis by measuring emotional intelligence and preferences to feel pleasant and unpleasant emotions in contexts in which they are likely to be useful or not. We found significant positive associations between emotional intelligence and preferences for useful emotions, even when controlling for trait emotional experiences and cognitive intelligence. People who prefer to feel anger when confronting others tend to be higher in emotional intelligence, whereas people who prefer to feel happiness in such contexts tend to be lower in emotional intelligence. Such findings are consistent with the idea that wanting to feel bad may be good at times, and vice versa.

  10. Strategies used by parents to influence their children's food preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Catherine G; Worsley, Anthony; Campbell, Karen J

    2015-07-01

    Food preferences are important determinants of children's food intakes. Parental feeding behaviours have a significant influence on the development of children's food preferences. The aim of the present study was to describe the ways in which parents attempt to influence their children's food preferences. Parents of 2-5 year old children participated in semi-structured qualitative interviews, which were transcribed and content analysed using a thematic coding manual. The parents described the ways in which they tried to influence the foods their child liked and disliked. Participants (N = 57) were separated into three separate groups based on an a priori study measuring food preferences and food neophobia: those who either had children with healthy food preferences (i.e. closely aligned with dietary guidelines) (N = 20), or unhealthy food preferences (i.e. not closely aligned with dietary guidelines) (N = 18), or high levels of food neophobia (N = 19). The parents used many, diverse behaviours to influence their child's food preferences. Some of these behaviours were likely to be effective in promoting healthy food preferences in children (e.g. parental modelling, food exposure), whilst others were likely to be ineffective (e.g. forcing consumption, restricting food access). Parents of children with healthy food preferences appeared to use more of the feeding behaviours predicted to promote healthy preferences than parents in the other two groups. Parents of children with unhealthy food preferences and those of food neophobic children appeared to rely more on ineffective behaviours. Parents used a mixture of effective and ineffective behaviours, with parents of children with unhealthy food preferences or high food neophobia using fewer behaviours known to be effective. Interventions aimed at influencing parental feeding behaviours should include those behaviours targeted at children's food preferences. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  11. Breaking bad news: patients' preferences and health locus of control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Raquel Gomes; Carvalho, Irene Palmares

    2013-07-01

    To identify patients' preferences for models of communicating bad news and to explore how such preferences, and the reasons for the preferences, relate with personality characteristics, specifically patients' health locus of control (HLC): internal/external and 'powerful others' (PO). Seventy-two patients from an oncology clinic watched videotaped scenarios of a breaking bad news moment, selected the model they preferred, filled an HLC scale and were interviewed about their choices. Data were analyzed with Chi-square, Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests. Interviews were content-analyzed. 77.8% preferred an "empathic professional", 12.5% a "distanced expert" and 9.7% an "emotionally burdened expert". Preferences varied significantly with HLC scores (patients with higher internal locus of control (ILC) and lower PO preferred the empathic model), presence of cancer, age and education. Patients explained their preferences through aspects of Caring, Professionalism, Wording, Time and Hope. ILC registered significant differences in regards to Wording and Time, whereas PO was associated with Hope and Time. HLC is an important dimension that can help doctors to better know their patients. Knowing whether patients attribute their health to their own behaviors or to chance/others can help tailor the disclosure of bad news to their specific preferences. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Beholder and Beheld: A Multilevel Model of Perceived Sexual Appeal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackaronis, Julia E; Strassberg, Donald S; Cundiff, Jeanne M; Cann, Deanna J

    2015-11-01

    When individuals (observers) assess how appealing they find sexual stimuli (targets), which factors matter and to whom? The present study examined how observer and target characteristics interact and impact perceived sexual appeal. Participants were 302 men (206 heterosexual, 96 gay) and 289 women (196 heterosexual, 93 lesbian) between the ages of 18 and 67 years, who viewed 34 photographs of targets of their preferred gender and rated each target for sexual appeal, masculinity-femininity, and estimated age. Participants also rated their own masculinity-femininity. A baseline model indicated that roughly 30 % of the variance in sexual appeal ratings was at the observer level (between observers) and 70 % of the variance was at the target level (within observers). In the final model, five characteristics of the participant observers (gender, sexual orientation, age, race/ethnicity, and self-described masculinity-femininity) and six characteristics of the target photographs (gender, whether the photographs were taken from heterosexual versus gay/lesbian media, race/ethnicity, perceived masculinity-femininity, and estimated age) were independently and interactively related to observer ratings of target sexual appeal. Observers displayed preferences for similar targets in terms of race/ethnicity and masculinity-femininity, while also displaying a general preference for target youth. Variation in the strength of these preferences occurred according to observers' own gender, race/ethnicity, masculinity-femininity, and sexual orientation.

  13. Psychiatric patients' preferences and experiences in clinical decision-making: examining concordance and correlates of patients' preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De las Cuevas, Carlos; Peñate, Wenceslao; de Rivera, Luis

    2014-08-01

    To assess the concordance between patients' preferred role in clinical decision-making and the role they usually experience in their psychiatric consultations and to analyze the influence of socio-demographic, clinical and personality characteristics on patients' preferences. 677 consecutive psychiatric outpatients were invited to participate in a cross-sectional survey and 507 accepted. Patients completed Control Preference Scale twice consecutively before consultation, one for their preferences of participation and another for the style they usually experienced until then, and locus of control and self-efficacy scales. Sixty-three percent of psychiatric outpatients preferred a collaborative role in decision-making, 35% preferred a passive role and only a 2% an active one. A low concordance for preferred and experienced participation in medical decision-making was registered, with more than a half of patients wanting a more active role than they actually had. Age and doctors' health locus of control orientation were found to be the best correlates for participation preferences, while age and gender were for experienced. Psychiatric diagnoses registered significant differences in patients' preferences of participation but no concerning experiences. The limited concordance between preferred and experienced roles in psychiatric patients is indicative that clinicians need to raise their sensitivity regarding patient's participation. The assessment of patient's attribution style should be useful for psychiatrist to set objectives and priority in the communication with their patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Learning Style Preferences of Elderly Coronary Artery Disease Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theis, Saundra L.; Merritt, Sharon L.

    1992-01-01

    The Patient Learning Styles Questionnaire derived from Canfield and administered to 134 elderly coronary artery disease patients revealed the following order of learning preferences: structure, iconics, listening, direct experience, reading, achievement, affiliation, and eminence. Level of education significantly influenced preferred learning…

  15. Personality Preferences and Career Expectations of Finnish Business Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarlstrom, Maria

    2000-01-01

    Predominant Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) scores for 533 Finnish business students were as follows: 67% extraverted, 53% intuitive, 67% thinking, and 33% feeling. For Schein's career anchors, 26% preferred Technical Competence, 17% Managerial Competence, and 14% Independence. Significant relationships between MBTI preferences and career…

  16. Simple improvement of consumer fit in external preference mapping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faber, N.M.; Mojet, J.; Poelman, A.A.M.

    2003-01-01

    In the common implementation of external preference mapping consumer preferences are fitted as polynomial functions of the first two principal components (PCs) of the sensory data. A major weakness of the method is the relatively small number of consumers that can be significantly fitted. Several

  17. Pengaruh Perceived Quality dan Perceived Value terhadap Purchase Intention

    OpenAIRE

    Saputri, Stella Meiliana; Kurniawati

    2015-01-01

    Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh perceived quality dan perceived valueterhadap purchase intention. Data yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah dataprimer.Data dikumpulkan langsung melalui penyebaran kuisioner kepada 160responden.Teknik pengambilan sampel dalam penelitian ini adalah dengan menggunakanpurposive sampling.Uji instrumen data menggunakan validitas dan reliabilitas.Uji hipotesismenggunakan Structure Equation Model (SEM).Hasil pengujian hipotesa menunjukkanterda...

  18. Perceived Threat and Perceived Neglect: Couples' Underlying Concerns during Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, Keith

    2010-01-01

    The Couples Underlying Concern Inventory assesses 2 fundamental types of distress that couples experience during interpersonal conflict. "Perceived threat" involves a perception that one's partner is blaming and controlling the self. "Perceived neglect" involves a perception that one's partner is failing to make desired contributions or…

  19. Do not judge according to appearance: patients' preference of a doctor's face does not influence their assessment of the patient-doctor relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soon-Ho; Chang, Dong-Seon; Kang, O-Seok; Kim, Hwa-Hyun; Kim, Hackjin; Lee, Hyejung; Park, Hi-Joon; Chae, Younbyoung

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether a patient's preference for a doctor's face is associated with better assessments of relational empathy in the patient-doctor relationship after the first clinical consultation. A total of 110 patients enrolled in a traditional Korean medical clinic participated in the study. Patients' preference for doctors' faces was assessed by a two alternative forced choice (2AFC) task, with 60 different pairs of six different Asian male doctors' faces. One of the six doctors then carried out the initial clinical consultation for these patients. The patient-doctor relationship was assessed using the Consultation and Relational Empathy (CARE) measure. The data of all patients' simulated preferences for a doctor's face and their assessment values of a doctor's relational empathy was compared, and no significant correlation was found between both values (r=-0.024, p>0.809). These findings suggest that the perceived empathy in the patient-doctor relationship is not influenced by the patient's preference for a certain doctor's face. The first impression of a doctor is often determined by his appearance and look. However, whether or not the patient particularly prefers a doctor's face does not seem to matter in developing a good patient-doctor relationship.

  20. Biking practices and preferences in a lower income, primarily minority neighborhood: Learning what residents want

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne C. Lusk

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines if, in a lower-income minority neighborhood, bicycling practices and bicycle-environment preferences of Blacks and Hispanics were different from Whites. During the summer of 2014, surveys were mailed to 1537 households near a proposed cycle track on Malcolm X Boulevard in Roxbury, MA. On the Boulevard, intercept surveys were distributed to cyclists and observations noted about passing cyclist's characteristics. Data were analyzed from 252 returned-mailed surveys, 120 intercept surveys, and 709 bicyclists. White (100%, Hispanic (79%, and Black (76% bicyclists shown pictures of 6 bicycle facility types in intercept surveys perceived the cycle track as safest. More White mailed-survey respondents thought bikes would not be stolen which may explain why more Hispanics (52% and Blacks (47% preferred to park their bikes inside their home compared with Whites (28%, with H/W B/W differences statistically significant (p < 0.05. More Hispanic (81% and Black (54% mailed-survey respondents thought they would bicycle more if they could bicycle with family and friends compared with Whites (40%. Bicyclists observed commuting morning and evening included Blacks (55%, Whites (36% and Hispanics (9%. More Whites (68% wore helmets compared with Hispanics (21% and Blacks (17% (p < 0.001. More Blacks (94% and Hispanics (94% rode a mountain bike compared with Whites (75%. Minority populations are biking on roads but prefer cycle tracks. They also prefer to park bikes inside their homes and bicycle with family and friends. Wide cycle tracks (bicycling with family/friends and home bike parking should be targeted as capital investments in lower-income minority neighborhoods.

  1. Understanding Midwives’ Preferences for Providing Information About Newborn Bloodspot Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart James Wright

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Understanding preferences for information provision in the context of health care service provision is challenging because of the number of potential attributes that may influence preferences. This study aimed to identify midwives’ preferences for the process and outcomes of information provision in an expanded national newborn bloodspot screening program. Design: A sample of practicing midwives completed a hybrid-stated preference survey including a conjoint analysis (CA and discrete choice experiment to quantify preferences for the types of, and way in which, information should be provided in a newborn bloodspot screening program. Six conjoint analysis questions captured the impact of different types of information on parents’ ability to make a decision, and 10 discrete choice experiment questions identified preferences for four process attributes (including parents’ ability to make a decision. Results: Midwives employed by the UK National Health Service (n = 134 completed the survey. All types of information content were perceived to improve parents’ ability to make a decision except for the possibility of false-positive results. Late pregnancy was seen to be the best time to provide information, followed by day 3 postbirth. Information before 20 weeks of pregnancy was viewed as reducing parents’ ability to make a decision. Midwives preferred information to be provided by an individual discussion and did not think parents should receive information on the Internet. Conclusion: A hybrid stated preference survey design identified that a wide variety of information should be provided to maximize parents’ ability to make a decision ideally provided late in pregnancy or on day 3 postbirth.

  2. Patients' preferences when comparing analogue implant impressions using a polyether impression material versus digital impressions (Intraoral Scan) of dental implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wismeijer, Daniel; Mans, Ronny; van Genuchten, Michiel; Reijers, Hajo A

    2014-10-01

    The primary objective of this clinical study was to assess the patients' perception of the difference between an analogue impression approach on the one hand and an intra-oral scan (IO scan) on the other when restoring implants in the non-aesthetic zone. A second objective was to analyse the difference in time needed to perform these two procedures. Thirty consecutive patients who had received 41 implants (Straumann tissue level) in the non-aesthetic zone in an implant-based referral practice setting in the Netherlands. As they were to receive crown and or bridge work on the implants, in one session, the final impressions were taken with both an analogue technique and with an intraoral scan. Patients were also asked if, directly after the treatment was carried out, they would be prepared to fill out a questionnaire on their perception of both techniques. The time involved following these two procedures was also recorded. The preparatory activities of the treatment, the taste of the impression material and the overall preference of the patients were significantly in favour of the IO scan. The bite registration, the scan head and gag reflex positively tended to the IO scan, but none of these effects were significant. The overall time involved with the IO scan was more negatively perceived than the analogue impression. Overall less time was involved when following the analogue impression technique than with the IO scan. The overall preference of the patients in our sample is significantly in favour of the approach using the IO scan. This preference relates mainly to the differences between the compared approaches with respect to taste effects and their preparatory activities. The patients did perceive the duration of IO scan more negatively than the analogue impression approach. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. The effect of perceived mobility necessity in the choice of departure time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorhauge, Mikkel; Cherchi, Elisabetta; Rich, Jeppe

    2014-01-01

    is likely to affect the choice of departure time. However departure time choice is also related to the full daily activity pattern, such as a restriction or a preference in one activity may form restrictions in the flexibility of other activities and thereby affect the preference for the related departure...... time. In this paper we investigate how the latent effect of the perceived mobility necessities affects the choice of departure time. A stated choice experiment collected among workers who commute to Copenhagen center is used to estimate 9 hybrid choice models where the discrete choice of departing...... before or later than the current trip depends on the latent construct of the perceived mobility necessities. Results show that individuals who perceive they have high mobility necessity tend to prefer the current departure time, and in particular dislike departing later. However the latent variables...

  4. Light colour preference of growing rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsolt Szendrő

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the experiment was to evaluate the light colour preference of growing rabbits placed in a free-choice cage. The experiment was carried out on 128 Pannon White growing rabbits weaned at the age of 5 weeks and placed into blocks (2m2 of four cages. The rabbits could move freely among the four cages (0.5m2 each through swing doors. The cages differed only in the colour of the light applied (white, yellow, green or blue. The lighting schedule was 16L: 8D. From 6 until 10 weeks of age, infrared video recording was performed once a week (24 hours. The number of rabbits in each cage was counted every 15 minutes. Feed consumption was measured weekly. Between 6 and 10 weeks of age the rabbits significantly preferred white light (28.0%. The preference order was the following: yellow (26.3%, blue (23.4% and green (22.3% (P<0.001. No significant differences were recorded in the feed consumption among the cages. In conclusion, the cage preference of the rabbits was slightly affected by the light colour.

  5. Perceived gender in clear and conversational speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booz, Jaime A.

    Although many studies have examined acoustic and sociolinguistic differences between male and female speech, the relationship between talker speaking style and perceived gender has not yet been explored. The present study attempts to determine whether clear speech, a style adopted by talkers who perceive some barrier to effective communication, shifts perceptions of femininity for male and female talkers. Much of our understanding of gender perception in voice and speech is based on sustained vowels or single words, eliminating temporal, prosodic, and articulatory cues available in more naturalistic, connected speech. Thus, clear and conversational sentence stimuli, selected from the 41 talkers of the Ferguson Clear Speech Database (Ferguson, 2004) were presented to 17 normal-hearing listeners, aged 18 to 30. They rated the talkers' gender using a visual analog scale with "masculine" and "feminine" endpoints. This response method was chosen to account for within-category shifts of gender perception by allowing nonbinary responses. Mixed-effects regression analysis of listener responses revealed a small but significant effect of speaking style, and this effect was larger for male talkers than female talkers. Because of the high degree of talker variability observed for talker gender, acoustic analyses of these sentences were undertaken to determine the relationship between acoustic changes in clear and conversational speech and perceived femininity. Results of these analyses showed that mean fundamental frequency (fo) and f o standard deviation were significantly correlated to perceived gender for both male and female talkers, and vowel space was significantly correlated only for male talkers. Speaking rate and breathiness measures (CPPS) were not significantly related for either group. Outcomes of this study indicate that adopting a clear speaking style is correlated with increases in perceived femininity. Although the increase was small, some changes associated

  6. Relationship of perceived stress with depression: complete mediation by perceived control and anxiety in Iran and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbani, Nima; Krauss, Stephen W; Watson, P J; Lebreton, Daniel

    2008-12-01

    This study sought to clarify the importance and cross-cultural relevance of associations between generalized perceived stress and depression. Also tested was the hypothesis that perceived stress would correlate more strongly with anxiety than with depression, whereas control would be more predictive of depression than of anxiety. Relationships between perceived stress, anxiety, depression, and perceived control were examined in samples of Iranian (n = 191) and American (n = 197) undergraduates. Correlations among these variables were generally similar across the two societies. Perceived stress did predict anxiety better than depression, but perceptions of control predicted depression significantly better than anxiety only in the United States. Best fitting structural equation models revealed that anxiety and perceived control completely accounted for the linkage between perceived stress and depression in both societies. An equally acceptable and more parsimonious model described perceived stress as a consequence rather than as an antecedent of anxiety and perceived control. Structural equation models were essentially identical across the two cultures except that internal control displayed a significant negative relationship with anxiety only in Iran. This result seemed to disconfirm any possible suggestion that a supposedly individualistic process like internal control could have no noteworthy role within a presumably more collectivistic Muslim society like Iran. Overall, these data documented the importance of anxiety and perceived control in explaining the perceived stress-depression relationship cross-culturally and therefore questioned the usefulness of perceived stress in predicting depression. Whether this understanding of the stress-depression relationship deserves general acceptance will require additional studies that measure the frequency of stressful life events and that utilize a longitudinal design.

  7. Aluminium tolerance in rice is antagonistic with nitrate preference and synergistic with ammonium preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xue Qiang; Guo, Shi Wei; Shinmachi, Fumie; Sunairi, Michio; Noguchi, Akira; Hasegawa, Isao; Shen, Ren Fang

    2013-01-01

    Acidic soils are dominated chemically by more ammonium and more available, so more potentially toxic, aluminium compared with neutral to calcareous soils, which are characterized by more nitrate and less available, so less toxic, aluminium. However, it is not known whether aluminium tolerance and nitrogen source preference are linked in plants. This question was investigated by comparing the responses of 30 rice (Oryza sativa) varieties (15 subsp. japonica cultivars and 15 subsp. indica cultivars) to aluminium, various ammonium/nitrate ratios and their combinations under acidic solution conditions. indica rice plants were generally found to be aluminium-sensitive and nitrate-preferring, while japonica cultivars were aluminium-tolerant and relatively ammonium-preferring. Aluminium tolerance of different rice varieties was significantly negatively correlated with their nitrate preference. Furthermore, aluminium enhanced ammonium-fed rice growth but inhibited nitrate-fed rice growth. The results suggest that aluminium tolerance in rice is antagonistic with nitrate preference and synergistic with ammonium preference under acidic solution conditions. A schematic diagram summarizing the interactions of aluminium and nitrogen in soil-plant ecosystems is presented and provides a new basis for the integrated management of acidic soils.

  8. Children Reason about Shared Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawcett, Christine A.; Markson, Lori

    2010-01-01

    Two-year-old children's reasoning about the relation between their own and others' preferences was investigated across two studies. In Experiment 1, children first observed 2 actors display their individual preferences for various toys. Children were then asked to make inferences about new, visually inaccessible toys and books that were described…

  9. Intelligence and musical mode preference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonetti, Leonardo; Costa, Marco

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between fluid intelligence and preference for major–minor musical mode was investigated in a sample of 80 university students. Intelligence was assessed by the Raven’s Advanced Progressive Matrices. Musical mode preference was assessed by presenting 14 pairs of musical stimuli...... differences at the cognitive and personality level related to the enjoyment of sad music....

  10. Assessing Preference for Social Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clay, Casey J.; Samaha, Andrew L.; Bloom, Sarah E.; Bogoev, Bistra K.; Boyle, Megan A.

    2013-01-01

    We examined a procedure to assess preference for social interactions in individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities. Preferences were identified in five individuals using a paired-choice procedure in which participants approached therapists who provided different forms of social interactions. A subsequent tracking test showed that…

  11. Job satisfaction and preference drift.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maassen van den Brink, H.; Groot, W.J.N.

    1999-01-01

    Most empirical studies do not find that higher wages lead to more job satisfaction. In this paper we argue that the insignificant effect of wages on job satisfaction is due to preference drift. We adapt the standard ordered response model to allow for preference shifts. The empirical results support

  12. Managing Perceived Stress among College Students: The Roles of Social Support and Dysfunctional Coping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Ruth Chu-Lien

    2012-01-01

    The author examined the conditions (i.e., social support and dysfunctional coping) under which perceived stress predicted psychological well-being in 459 college students. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated a significant 2-way interaction (Perceived Stress x Social Support) and a significant 3-way interaction (Perceived Stress x Social…

  13. Preferences for a third-trimester ultrasound scan in a low-risk obstetric population: a discrete choice experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Fiona A; Crealey, Grainne E; Alderdice, Fiona A; McElnay, James C

    2015-10-01

    Establish maternal preferences for a third-trimester ultrasound scan in a healthy, low-risk pregnant population. Cross-sectional study incorporating a discrete choice experiment. A large, urban maternity hospital in Northern Ireland. One hundred and forty-six women in their second trimester of pregnancy. A discrete choice experiment was designed to elicit preferences for four attributes of a third-trimester ultrasound scan: health-care professional conducting the scan, detection rate for abnormal foetal growth, provision of non-medical information, cost. Additional data collected included age, marital status, socio-economic status, obstetric history, pregnancy-specific stress levels, perceived health and whether pregnancy was planned. Analysis was undertaken using a mixed logit model with interaction effects. Women's preferences for, and trade-offs between, the attributes of a hypothetical scan and indirect willingness-to-pay estimates. Women had significant positive preference for higher rate of detection, lower cost and provision of non-medical information, with no significant value placed on scan operator. Interaction effects revealed subgroups that valued the scan most: women experiencing their first pregnancy, women reporting higher levels of stress, an adverse obstetric history and older women. Women were able to trade on aspects of care and place relative importance on clinical, non-clinical outcomes and processes of service delivery, thus highlighting the potential of using health utilities in the development of services from a clinical, economic and social perspective. Specifically, maternal preferences exhibited provide valuable information for designing a randomized trial of effectiveness and insight for clinical and policy decision makers to inform woman-centred care. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Clinical significance of perceptible fetal motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayburn, W F

    1980-09-15

    The monitoring of fetal activity during the last trimester of pregnancy has been proposed to be useful in assessing fetal welfare. The maternal perception of fetal activity was tested among 82 patients using real-time ultrasonography. All perceived fetal movements were visualized on the scanner and involved motion of the lower limbs. Conversely, 82% of all visualized motions of fetal limbs were perceived by the patients. All combined motions of fetal trunk with limbs were preceived by the patients and described as strong movements, whereas clusters of isolated, weak motions of the fetal limbs were less accurately perceived (56% accuracy). The number of fetal movements perceived during the 15-minute test period was significantly (p fetal motion was present (44 of 45 cases) than when it was absent (five of 10 cases). These findings reveal that perceived fetal motion is: (1) reliable; (2) related to the strength of lower limb motion; (3) increased with ruptured amniotic membranes; and (4) reassuring if considered to be active.

  15. Association of perceived stigma and mood and anxiety disorders : results from the World Mental Health Surveys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alonso, J.; Buron, A.; Bruffaerts, R.; He, Y.; Posada-Villa, J.; Lepine, J-P.; Angermeyer, M. C.; Levinson, D.; de Girolamo, G.; Tachimori, H.; Mneimneh, Z. N.; Medina-Mora, M. E.; Ormel, J.; Scott, K. M.; Gureje, O.; Haro, J. M.; Gluzman, S.; Lee, S.; Vilagut, G.; Kessler, R. C.; Von Korff, M.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: We assessed the prevalence of perceived stigma among persons with mental disorders and chronic physical conditions in an international study. Method: Perceived stigma (reporting health-related embarrassment and discrimination) was assessed among adults reporting significant disability.

  16. The Effects of Branding on Purchasing Preferences of Tourists at Accommodation Enterprises: An Implementation at Chain Accommodation Enterprises in Antalya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banu Yıldız

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to determine the effect of branding on the purchasing preferences of tourists at accommodation enterprises. Towards this end questionnaire technique was used and 398 questionnaires were considered to be evaluated. The data, gathered, analyzed by using statistical methods. As a result it is revealed that branding (brad awareness, perceived quality, brand image, brand trust, brand attitude and brand loyalty parameters has a positive effect on purchasing preferences of tourists and a negative effect on the volume of perceived risk. Factors contributing to more on purchasing preferences of tourists, respectively, brand attitude, brand loyalty and brand awareness.

  17. The Importance of Perceived Service Value in Retail Banking Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Pisnik

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – In many industries, perceived service value is found to be a significant mediator between perceived service quality and customer satisfaction and loyalty. Therefore, this paper aims to test a conceptual model of perceived service value with its antecedents, such as perceived price and perceived service quality, and consequences, customer satisfaction and loyalty, in the retail banking industry. Design/Methodology/Approach – For the empirical study, a measurement instrument was developed and tested for validity and reliability. Measures were assessed with exploratory factor analysis (EFA, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA and structural equation modeling (SEM. A structural model with five reflective constructs was evaluated to test direct and indirect relationships among constructs. Findings and implications – Results confirm a mediating role of perceived value in relationships between perceived price, perceived service quality, customer satisfaction, and customer loyalty in the case of retail banking services. Limitations – Because the results are directly relevant only to customers and marketing managers of retail banking services, generalizations of the findings beyond the immediate population observed should be made with caution. Originality – This paper extends existing knowledge with both direct and indirect effects among researched concepts, and shows the importance of perceived service value in achieving satisfied and loyal customers in retail banking services.

  18. The heritability of perceived stress.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Federenko, I.S.; Schlotz, W.; Kirschbaum, C.; Bartels, M.; Hellhammer, D.H.; Wüst, S.

    2006-01-01

    Background. Exploration of the degree to which perceived chronic stress is heritable is important as these self-reports have been linked to stress-related health outcomes. The aims of this study were to estimate whether perceived stress is a heritable condition and to assess whether heritability

  19. Perceived value in food selection when dining out: comparison of African Americans and Euro-Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinci, Debra M; Philipp, Steven F

    2007-06-01

    This descriptive study compares African Americans' and Euro-Americans' perceived value of food selection pertaining to cost, portion size, and meal satisfaction when eating away from home. A stratified sample was drawn from a southern U.S. metropolitan area (N= 1,011; 486 African American, 525 Euro-American). Analysis showed no difference between African-American and Euro-American adults by sex or how often they dined out. These two groups significantly differed across years of education, age, and answering 14 of 18 rated statements on value perceptions. African-Americans' value perceptions were influenced more by lower cost foods and larger portion sizes than those of Euro-Americans. For meal satisfaction, African Americans were more likely to agree with statements that indicate preferring foods high in energy and low in essential micronutrient density. This study supports the need for more investigation.

  20. African American Women's Beliefs About Mental Illness, Stigma, and Preferred Coping Behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Ward, Earlise C.; Heidrich, Susan M.

    2009-01-01

    We examined African American women's representations/beliefs about mental illness, preferred coping behaviors if faced with mental illness, whether perceived stigma was associated with treatment-seeking, and if so, whether it was related to beliefs and coping preference, and whether these variables differed by age group. Participants were 185 community-dwelling African American women 25 to 85 years of age. Results indicated the women believed that mental illness is caused by several factors, ...

  1. Learning User Preferences in Ubiquitous Systems: A User Study and a Reinforcement Learning Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Zaidenberg , Sofia; Reignier , Patrick; Mandran , Nadine

    2010-01-01

    International audience; Our study concerns a virtual assistant, proposing services to the user based on its current perceived activity and situation (ambient intelligence). Instead of asking the user to define his preferences, we acquire them automatically using a reinforcement learning approach. Experiments showed that our system succeeded the learning of user preferences. In order to validate the relevance and usability of such a system, we have first conducted a user study. 26 non-expert s...

  2. Assessing Women's Preferences and Preference Modeling for Breast Reconstruction Decision-Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Clement S; Cantor, Scott B; Reece, Gregory P; Crosby, Melissa A; Fingeret, Michelle C; Markey, Mia K

    2014-03-01

    Women considering breast reconstruction must make challenging trade-offs amongst issues that often conflict. It may be useful to quantify possible outcomes using a single summary measure to aid a breast cancer patient in choosing a form of breast reconstruction. In this study, we used multiattribute utility theory to combine multiple objectives to yield a summary value using nine different preference models. We elicited the preferences of 36 women, aged 32 or older with no history of breast cancer, for the patient-reported outcome measures of breast satisfaction, psychosocial well-being, chest well-being, abdominal well-being, and sexual wellbeing as measured by the BREAST-Q in addition to time lost to reconstruction and out-of-pocket cost. Participants ranked hypothetical breast reconstruction outcomes. We examined each multiattribute utility preference model and assessed how often each model agreed with participants' rankings. The median amount of time required to assess preferences was 34 minutes. Agreement among the nine preference models with the participants ranged from 75.9% to 78.9%. None of the preference models performed significantly worse than the best performing risk averse multiplicative model. We hypothesize an average theoretical agreement of 94.6% for this model if participant error is included. There was a statistically significant positive correlation with more unequal distribution of weight given to the seven attributes. We recommend the risk averse multiplicative model for modeling the preferences of patients considering different forms of breast reconstruction because it agreed most often with the participants in this study.

  3. Pediatric data sharing in genomic research: attitudes and preferences of parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burstein, Matthew D; Robinson, Jill Oliver; Hilsenbeck, Susan G; McGuire, Amy L; Lau, Ching C

    2014-04-01

    In the United States, data from federally funded genomics studies are stored in national databases, which may be accessible to anyone online (public release) or only to qualified researchers (restricted release). The availability of such data exposes participants to privacy risk and limits the ability to withdraw from research. This exposure is especially challenging for pediatric participants, who are enrolled in studies with parental permission. The current study examines genomic research participants' attitudes to explore differences in data sharing (DS) preferences between parents of pediatric patients and adult patients. A total of 113 parents of pediatric patients and 196 adult participants from 6 genomics studies were randomly assigned to 3 experimental consent forms. Participants were invited to a follow-up structured interview exploring DS preferences, study understanding, and attitudes. Descriptive analyses and regression models were built on responses. Most parents (73.5%) and adult participants (90.3%) ultimately consented to broad public release. However, parents were significantly more restrictive in their data release decisions, not because of understanding or perceived benefits of participation but rather autonomy and control. Parents want to be more involved in the decision about DS and are significantly more concerned than adult participants about unknown future risks. Parents have the same altruistic motivations and grasp of genomics studies as adult participants. However, they are more concerned about future risks to their child, which probably motivates them to choose more restrictive DS options, but only when such options are made available.

  4. Correlated Male Preferences for Femininity in Female Faces and Voices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul J Fraccaro

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Sexually dimorphic physical traits are important for mate choice and mate preference in many species, including humans. Several previous studies have observed that women's preferences for physical cues of male masculinity in different domains (e.g., visual and vocal are correlated. These correlations demonstrate systematic, rather than arbitrary, variation in women's preferences for masculine men and are consistent with the proposal that sexually dimorphic cues in different domains reflect a common underlying aspect of male quality. Here we present evidence for a similar correlation between men's preferences for different cues of femininity in women; although men generally preferred feminized to masculinized versions of both women's faces and voices, the strength of men's preferences for feminized versions of female faces was positively and significantly correlated with the strength of their preferences for feminized versions of women's voices. In a second study, this correlation occurred when men judged women's attractiveness as long-term, but not short-term, mates, which is consistent with previous research. Collectively, these findings (1 present novel evidence for systematic variation in men's preferences for feminine women, (2 present converging evidence for concordant preferences for sexually dimorphic traits in different domains, and (3 complement findings of correlations between women's facial and vocal femininity.

  5. Effects of Perceived Trust and Perceived Price on Customers’ Intention to Buy in Online Store in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricky Setiawan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Price and trust are important factors that influence customer purchasing decision in online shopping. However, the synergy of these two factors in customer intention to buy still needs to get higher attention. This paper examines the relative influence of perceived trust and perceived price on customers intention to buy, both for customers who have bought item from the store (repeat customers and who have not (potential customers, and examines whether a difference exists on the strength of influence of price and trust to purchase intention in those groups. Data are analyzed with the multiple group analysis structural equation modeling, comparing the repeat customers and potential customers. The results of this paper reveal that there is no significant difference of effect between perceived trust and perceived price on intention to buy between potential and repeat customers and that perceived trust exerts a stronger effect than perceived price on purchase intentions for both potential and repeat customers of an online vendor. This paper also reveals that while perceived trust exerts a positive influence, perceived price exerts a negative influence on both perceived value and intention to buy.

  6. Treatment acceptability and preferences for managing severe health anxiety: Perceptions of internet-delivered cognitive behaviour therapy among primary care patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soucy, Joelle N; Hadjistavropoulos, Heather D

    2017-12-01

    While cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) is an established treatment for health anxiety, there are barriers to service access. Internet-delivered cognitive behaviour therapy (ICBT) has demonstrated effectiveness and has the potential to improve access to treatment. Nevertheless, it is unknown how patients perceive ICBT relative to other interventions for health anxiety and what factors predict ICBT acceptability. This study investigated these questions. Primary care patients (N = 116) who reported elevated levels of health anxiety were presented three treatment vignettes that each described a different protocol for health anxiety (i.e., medication, CBT, ICBT). Acceptability and credibility of the treatments were assessed following the presentation of each vignette. Participants then ranked the three treatments and provided a rational for their preferences. The treatments were similarly rated as moderately acceptable. Relative to medication and ICBT, CBT was perceived as the most credible treatment for health anxiety. The highest preference ranks were for CBT and medication. Regression analyses indicated that lower computer anxiety, past medication use, and lower ratings of negative cognitions about difficulty coping with an illness significantly predicted greater ICBT acceptability. Health anxiety was not assessed with a diagnostic interview. Primary care patients were recruited through a Qualtrics panel. Patients did not have direct experience with treatment but learned about treatment options through vignettes. Medication and CBT are preferred over ICBT. If ICBT is to increase treatment access, methods of improving perceptions of this treatment option are needed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Perceiving individuality in harpsichord performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koren, Réka; Gingras, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    Can listeners recognize the individual characteristics of unfamiliar performers playing two different musical pieces on the harpsichord? Six professional harpsichordists, three prize-winners and three non prize-winners, made two recordings of two pieces from the Baroque period (a variation on a Partita by Frescobaldi and a rondo by François Couperin) on an instrument equipped with a MIDI console. Short (8 to 15 s) excerpts from these 24 recordings were subsequently used in a sorting task in which 20 musicians and 20 non-musicians, balanced for gender, listened to these excerpts and grouped together those that they thought had been played by the same performer. Twenty-six participants, including 17 musicians and nine non-musicians, performed significantly better than chance, demonstrating that the excerpts contained sufficient information to enable listeners to recognize the individual characteristics of the performers. The grouping accuracy of musicians was significantly higher than that observed for non-musicians. No significant difference in grouping accuracy was found between prize-winning performers and non-winners or between genders. However, the grouping accuracy was significantly higher for the rondo than for the variation, suggesting that the features of the two pieces differed in a way that affected the listeners' ability to sort them accurately. Furthermore, only musicians performed above chance level when matching variation excerpts with rondo excerpts, suggesting that accurately assigning recordings of different pieces to their performer may require musical training. Comparisons between the MIDI performance data and the results of the sorting task revealed that tempo and, to a lesser extent, note onset asynchrony were the most important predictors of the perceived distance between performers, and that listeners appeared to rely mostly on a holistic percept of the excerpts rather than on a comparison of note-by-note expressive patterns.

  8. Perceiving individuality in harpsichord performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Réka eKoren

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Can listeners recognize the individual characteristics of unfamiliar performers playing two different musical pieces on the harpsichord? Six professional harpsichordists, three prize-winners and three non prize-winners, made two recordings of two pieces from the Baroque period (a variation on a partita by Frescobaldi and a rondo by François Couperin on an instrument equipped with a MIDI console. Short (8 to 15 seconds excerpts from these 24 recordings were subsequently used in a sorting task in which twenty musicians and twenty non-musicians, balanced for gender, listened to these excerpts and grouped together those that they thought had been played by the same performer. Twenty-six participants, including 17 musicians and 9 non-musicians, performed significantly better than chance, demonstrating that the excerpts contained sufficient information to enable listeners to recognize the individual characteristics of the performers. The grouping accuracy of musicians was significantly higher than that observed for non‐musicians. No significant difference in grouping accuracy was found between prize-winning performers and non-winners or between genders. However, the grouping accuracy was significantly higher for the rondo than for the variation, suggesting that the features of the two pieces differed in a way that affected the listeners’ ability to sort them accurately. Furthermore, only musicians performed above chance level when matching variation excerpts with rondo excerpts, suggesting that accurately assigning recordings of different pieces to their performer may require musical training. Comparisons between the MIDI performance data and the results of the sorting task revealed that tempo and, to a lesser extent, note onset asynchrony were the most important predictors of the perceived distance between performers, and that listeners appeared to rely mostly on a holistic percept of the excerpts rather than on a comparison of note

  9. Perceiving individuality in harpsichord performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koren, Réka; Gingras, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    Can listeners recognize the individual characteristics of unfamiliar performers playing two different musical pieces on the harpsichord? Six professional harpsichordists, three prize-winners and three non prize-winners, made two recordings of two pieces from the Baroque period (a variation on a Partita by Frescobaldi and a rondo by François Couperin) on an instrument equipped with a MIDI console. Short (8 to 15 s) excerpts from these 24 recordings were subsequently used in a sorting task in which 20 musicians and 20 non-musicians, balanced for gender, listened to these excerpts and grouped together those that they thought had been played by the same performer. Twenty-six participants, including 17 musicians and nine non-musicians, performed significantly better than chance, demonstrating that the excerpts contained sufficient information to enable listeners to recognize the individual characteristics of the performers. The grouping accuracy of musicians was significantly higher than that observed for non-musicians. No significant difference in grouping accuracy was found between prize-winning performers and non-winners or between genders. However, the grouping accuracy was significantly higher for the rondo than for the variation, suggesting that the features of the two pieces differed in a way that affected the listeners’ ability to sort them accurately. Furthermore, only musicians performed above chance level when matching variation excerpts with rondo excerpts, suggesting that accurately assigning recordings of different pieces to their performer may require musical training. Comparisons between the MIDI performance data and the results of the sorting task revealed that tempo and, to a lesser extent, note onset asynchrony were the most important predictors of the perceived distance between performers, and that listeners appeared to rely mostly on a holistic percept of the excerpts rather than on a comparison of note-by-note expressive patterns. PMID:24605104

  10. Preferred nasolabial angle in Middle Eastern population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alharethy, Sami

    2017-05-01

    To define the preferred nasolabial angle measurement in Middle Eastern population. An observational study was conducted from January 2012 to January 2016 at the Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, King Abdulaziz University Hospital, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. A total of 1027 raters, 506 males, and 521 females were asked to choose the most ideal nasolabial angle for 5 males and 5 females lateral photographs whose nasolabial angle were modified with Photoshop into the following angles (85°, 90°, 95°, 100°, 105°, and 110°). Male raters preferred the angle of 89.5° ± 3.5° (mean ± SD) for males and 90.8° ± 5.6° for females. While female raters preferred the angle of 89.3° ± 3.8° for males and 90.5° ± 4.8° for females. ANOVA test compare means among groups: p: 0.342, and there is no statistically significant difference between groups. The results of our study showed an even more acute angles than degrees found in the literature. It shows that what young generation in our region prefers and clearly reflects that what could be explained as under rotation of the nasal tip in other cultures is just the ideal for some Middle Eastern population.

  11. What You Know About Customer-Perceived Quality: The Role of Customer Expectation Distributions

    OpenAIRE

    Roland T. Rust; J. Jeffrey Inman; Jianmin Jia; Anthony Zahorik

    1999-01-01

    We show that some of the most common beliefs about customer-perceived quality are wrong. For example, 1) it is not necessary to exceed customer expectations to increase preference, 2) receiving an expected level of bad service does not reduce preference, 3) rational customers may rationally choose an option with lower expected quality, even if all non-quality attributes are equal, and 4) paying more attention to loyal, experienced customers can sometimes be counter-productive. These surprisin...

  12. Stated preference methods using R

    CERN Document Server

    Aizaki, Hideo; Sato, Kazuo

    2014-01-01

    Stated Preference Methods Using R explains how to use stated preference (SP) methods, which are a family of survey methods, to measure people's preferences based on decision making in hypothetical choice situations. Along with giving introductory explanations of the methods, the book collates information on existing R functions and packages as well as those prepared by the authors. It focuses on core SP methods, including contingent valuation (CV), discrete choice experiments (DCEs), and best-worst scaling (BWS). Several example data sets illustrate empirical applications of each method with R

  13. Perceived overprotection: support gone bad?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimarolli, Verena R; Reinhardt, Joann P; Horowitz, Amy

    2006-01-01

    This article focuses on the effects of perceived overprotection, a potentially problematic aspect of receiving support, on the ability to adjust to a chronic impairment, specifically, age-related vision loss. Perceived overprotection is an especially critical issue in this population of chronically ill older adults because of the safety issues associated with vision impairment and because perceptions on the part of the older adult that the support providers are overprotective may lead to excess disability. Participants were 584 older men and women with age-related vision impairment who applied for services at a vision rehabilitation agency. Path analysis was used to examine the effects of perceived overprotection on two positive indicators of adjustment: vision-specific adaptation and environmental mastery. Moreover, antecedents of perceived overprotection were examined. Higher levels of perceived overprotection were associated with less optimal adjustment to age-related vision loss, with lower scores on measures of vision-specific adaptation and environmental mastery. Higher levels of functional disability and instrumental support received were associated with higher levels of perceived overprotection. Findings indicate that support providers of older adults with visual impairment as well as vision rehabilitation service providers need to be aware of the detrimental impact of perceived overprotection.

  14. Help Preferences Among Employees Who Wish to Change Health Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Roger; Cleal, Bryan; Jakobsen, Mette Øllgaard; Villadsen, Ebbe; Andersen, Lars L

    2014-08-01

    To examine the help preferences of employees in the Danish police who had acknowledged that they wished to change health behaviors. In addition, we explored whether preferences varied with age, gender, chronic health concerns, positive expectations of good health, and past experiences of in-house health promotion services (i.e., wellness service). Respondents to an electronic questionnaire who acknowledged wishing to change health behaviors in relation to smoking (n = 845), alcohol (n = 684), eating (n = 4,431), and physical activity (n = 5,179) were asked to choose up to three help alternatives on a predefined list. In descending order, smokers preferred help from nicotine gum, no help, and help and support from family and friends. Alcohol consumers preferred no help or help and support from family and friends or "other" forms. Employees who wanted to change eating habits preferred a free fruit bowl, free nutritional guidance, and healthy food at work. Employees who wanted to change physical activity patterns preferred exercise at work, offers of free exercise, and exercise in a social/collegial context. Wishing to change health behaviors is not always accompanied by perceiving a need for assistance. The no-help option was selected fairly frequently and mostly in relation to alcohol and smoking. A fruit bowl was the most preferred option for help, followed by exercise at work and free exercise. Help from traditional health services was ranked low, possibly reflecting that they are primarily viewed as a solution for stopping disease rather than promoting health. © 2013 Society for Public Health Education.

  15. Physicians' preference for controller medication in mild persistent asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakirtas, Arzu; Kutlu, Ali; Baccioglu, Ayse; Erkekol, Ferda Oner; Bavbek, Sevim; Kalayci, Omer

    2017-10-01

    Although the asthma guidelines recommend inhaled corticosteroids(ICS) or leukotriene receptor antagonists-(LTRAs) for the treatment of mild persistent asthma, factors governing the physicians' preference are unknown. We aimed to investigate the preference of physicians for the controller medication and the factors governing their choice. A self-administered questionnaire composed of 16 questions that aimed to determine the preference of the physicians for the first choice controller medication in mild persistent asthma and physician and patient related factors that may be associated with this selection was e-mailed to the members of the Turkish National Society of Allergy and Clinical Immunology and distributed to participants in the 21st congress. Of the 670 questionnaires, there were 51% participants and 336 of them were complete enough to be included in the analysis. Low dose ICS was preferred as the first choice controller medication for mild persistent asthma by 84.5% of the physicians. The reasons for physicians' preference were different for ICS and LTRA. In the logistic regression analysis, use of asthma guidelines (OR:3.5, 95%CI:1.3-9.3, p = 0.01), alignment in guidelines (OR:2.9, 95%CI:1.4-5.8, p = 0.002) and the opinion that it is a more effective (OR:2.3, 95%CI:1.1-4.8, p = 0.02) were independently associated with ICS preference. Being a pediatrician (OR:5.4, 95%CI: 2.7-10.5, p asthma. Asthma guidelines, training background (pediatrician versus not) and perceived efficacy and patient compliance appeared to influence their preferences. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Infants Prefer Female Body Phenotypes; Infant Girls Prefer They Have an Hourglass Shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Gerianne M; Hawkins, Laura B; Wilcox, Teresa; Hirshkowitz, Amy

    2016-01-01

    Adolescents and adults show preferences for male and female body shapes consistent with evolutionary theories of reproductive fitness and mate selection. However, when these preferences for females with narrow waists (i.e., 0.7 waist-to-hip ratio) and men with broad shoulders (i.e., mesomorphic body shape) emerge during the lifespan is largely unknown. To address this knowledge gap, eye-movements were tracked in 146 infants (3-18 months of age) during computer presentation of three-dimensional human figures varying in body features thought relevant for reproductive success (e.g., secondary sex characteristics, waist-to-hip ratio). When presented with pairs of figures differing in apparent sex, male and female infants looked significantly longer at the female figure compared to the male figure, a new finding that extends previous research showing preferences for female faces in infancy. When presented with same-sex figures differing in characteristics associated with mate value, male and female infants looked longer at a low mate value male (i.e., an endomorphic body type) compared to a high mate value male (i.e., a mesomorphic body type), a finding that replicates the results of previous research. In addition, the novel use of high and low mate value female figures showed a sex difference in visual attention, such that female infants looked longer at the high mate value female figure compared to the low mate female figure whereas male infants showed the opposite pattern of results. In sum, these findings suggest that infants generally do not possess preferences for adult-defined attractive male body shapes. However, infant girls' greater attention to a female figure with an adult-preferred waist-to-hip ratio raises the possibility that evolved preferences for 0.7 waist-to-hip ratio influence girls' later preference for toys representing females with an hourglass shape, perhaps supporting elaboration of adult social behaviors that enhance reproductive success (e

  17. The psychometric properties of the generalized anxiety disorder-7 scale in Hispanic Americans with English or Spanish language preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Sarah D; Fox, Rina S; Malcarne, Vanessa L; Roesch, Scott C; Champagne, Brian R; Sadler, Georgia Robins

    2014-07-01

    The Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 scale (GAD-7) is a self-report questionnaire that is widely used to screen for anxiety. The GAD-7 has been translated into numerous languages, including Spanish. Previous studies evaluating the structural validity of the English and Spanish versions indicate a unidimensional factor structure in both languages. However, the psychometric properties of the Spanish language version have yet to be evaluated in samples outside of Spain, and the measure has not been tested for use among Hispanic Americans. This study evaluated the reliability, structural validity, and convergent validity of the English and Spanish language versions of the GAD-7 for Hispanic Americans in the United States. A community sample of 436 Hispanic Americans with an English (n = 210) or Spanish (n = 226) language preference completed the GAD-7. Multiple-group confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to examine the goodness-of-fit of the unidimensional factor structure of the GAD-7 across language-preference groups. Results from the multiple-group CFA indicated a similar unidimensional factor structure with equivalent response patterns and item intercepts, but different variances, across language-preference groups. Internal consistency was good for both English and Spanish language-preference groups. The GAD-7 also evidenced good convergent validity as demonstrated by significant correlations in expected directions with the Perceived Stress Scale, the Patient Health Questionnaire-9, and the Physical Health domain of the World Health Organization Quality of Life-BREF assessment. The unidimensional GAD-7 is suitable for use among Hispanic Americans with an English or Spanish language preference.

  18. Assessment of respondent acceptability of preference measures: discriminatory power of graphic positioning scale versus traditional scaling measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franic, Duska M; Pathak, Dev S

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare discriminatory power of two different measures-graphic positioning scale (GPS) versus traditional scale (TS)-in assessing respondent acceptability of three preference measures: visual analog scale (VAS), standard gamble (SG), and willingness to pay (WTP). Two face-to-face interviews were conducted at least 1 week apart in a convenience sample of women aged 22 to 50 years with no history of breast cancer or cancer requiring chemotherapy. Study participation required completion of two surveys: one evaluating health preferences for an acute condition (chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting) and one evaluating a chronic condition (breast cancer). Data were collected from March 2000 to June 2000 at Ohio State University. Respondents were randomized to either GPS or TS surveys. Data analysis was a two-step process. First, a four-way multivariate repeated-measures analysis of variance (MANOVA) was conducted to assess respondent acceptability of three-preference metrics-VAS, SG, and WTP-in health-care decision making. Each of the four dependent variables, difficulty, clarity, reasonableness, and comfort in use in decision making, was measured on 9-point Likert scale. Second, a mixed design univariate analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed for each dependent variable to optimize MANOVA analysis. Univariate ANOVAs, 2 x (2 x 3), were composed of three independent variables: assessment (GPS/TS), condition (acute and chronic), and preferences (VAS, SG, WTP). Of 126 respondents, 119 were usable and complete. MANOVA results showed (P <.05) for two main effects, condition (F4,114 = 6.375) and preferences (F8,110 = 9.290), and two significant interactions, condition x assessment (F4,114 = 3.421) and condition x preferences (F8,110 = 2.087). GPS has higher discriminatory power than TS in assessing respondent attitudes toward health preference measures. Results showed that respondents had more difficulty and less comfort when making

  19. Preferred Provider Organization (PPO) Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Find & compare doctors, hospitals, & other providers Preferred Provider Organization (PPO) Plans How PPO Plans Work A Medicare ... extra for these benefits. Related Resources Health Maintenance Organization (HMO) Private Fee-for-Service (PFFS) Special Needs ...

  20. Elicitation of ostomy pouch preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnichsen, Ole

    2011-01-01

    Background: Previous studies about patients who have undergone ostomy surgery commonly address the issues of the surgery, complications, preoperative counseling, quality of life, and psychosocial changes following surgery. Only a limited number of studies deal with how technical improvements...... in stoma care would affect patients and, to the author's knowledge, the present study is the first to elicit preferences for potential improvements in ostomy pouches in the form of monetary values. Objective: This article examines and measures Swedish patients' preferences for potential improvements...... in ostomy pouch attributes. The theory, study design, elicitation procedure, and resulting preference structure of the sample is described. Methods: A discrete-choice experiment (DCE) was used to elicit preferences. Respondents were asked to choose between alternatives in choice sets, in which each...

  1. Perceived Perfectionism from God Scale: Development and Initial Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kenneth T; Allen, G E Kawika; Stokes, Hannah I; Suh, Han Na

    2017-05-03

    In this study, the Perceived Perfectionism from God Scale (PPGS) was developed with Latter-day Saints (Mormons) across two samples. Sample 1 (N = 421) was used for EFA to select items for the Perceived Standards from God (5 items) and the Perceived Discrepancy from God (5 items) subscales. Sample 2 (N = 420) was used for CFA and cross-validated the 2-factor oblique model as well as a bifactor model. Perceived Standards from God scores had Cronbach alphas ranging from .73 to .78, and Perceived Discrepancy from God scores had Cronbach alphas ranging from .82 to .84. Standards from God scores were positively correlated with positive affect, whereas Discrepancy from God scores was positively correlated with negative affect, shame and guilt. Moreover, these two PPGS subscale scores added significant incremental variances in predicting associated variables over and above corresponding personal perfectionism scores.

  2. Perceived stress and bruxism in university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallo, Pierpaolo; Carpinelli, Luna; Savarese, Giulia

    2016-12-21

    Many studies have shown the correlation between bruxism and stress that affects the quality of life of university students. The present study highlights this correlation-for the first time-in a group of university students in Italy. We have investigated the prevalence of awake and asleep bruxism and its correlation with perceived stress in a group of 278 Italian undergraduate students (117 M). A self report questionnaire was constructed using a socio-demographic test, the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and the item n. 8 of the Fonseca Questionnaire for presence of bruxism. The perceived stress score using PSS-10 scale was 32.2 (SD 4.6, 95% CL 31.6-32.7) for all the subjects, with significant gender difference: M = 31.2 and F = 32.9 (P = 0.0019). The prevalence for awake bruxism was 37.9% (F = 40.8%; M = 34.2%,), while for sleep bruxism was 31.8% (F = 33.3%; M = 29.1%), both without significant gender difference. A positive correlation, with significant concordance and dependence, between stress score and awake bruxism was present for male students only. University students showed higher bruxism and stress levels compared to the general population, with higher stress for females, but, even if female students show higher stress, a correlation between stress and bruxism exists only for male gender. Further studies should be performed.

  3. Affine Geometry, Visual Sensation, and Preference for Symmetry of Things in a Thing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgitta Dresp-Langley

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Evolution and geometry generate complexity in similar ways. Evolution drives natural selection while geometry may capture the logic of this selection and express it visually, in terms of specific generic properties representing some kind of advantage. Geometry is ideally suited for expressing the logic of evolutionary selection for symmetry, which is found in the shape curves of vein systems and other natural objects such as leaves, cell membranes, or tunnel systems built by ants. The topology and geometry of symmetry is controlled by numerical parameters, which act in analogy with a biological organism’s DNA. The introductory part of this paper reviews findings from experiments illustrating the critical role of two-dimensional (2D design parameters, affine geometry and shape symmetry for visual or tactile shape sensation and perception-based decision making in populations of experts and non-experts. It will be shown that 2D fractal symmetry, referred to herein as the “symmetry of things in a thing”, results from principles very similar to those of affine projection. Results from experiments on aesthetic and visual preference judgments in response to 2D fractal trees with varying degrees of asymmetry are presented. In a first experiment (psychophysical scaling procedure, non-expert observers had to rate (on a scale from 0 to 10 the perceived beauty of a random series of 2D fractal trees with varying degrees of fractal symmetry. In a second experiment (two-alternative forced choice procedure, they had to express their preference for one of two shapes from the series. The shape pairs were presented successively in random order. Results show that the smallest possible fractal deviation from “symmetry of things in a thing” significantly reduces the perceived attractiveness of such shapes. The potential of future studies where different levels of complexity of fractal patterns are weighed against different degrees of symmetry is pointed out

  4. Human preference for individual colors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Stephen E.; Schloss, Karen B.

    2010-02-01

    Color preference is an important aspect of human behavior, but little is known about why people like some colors more than others. Recent results from the Berkeley Color Project (BCP) provide detailed measurements of preferences among 32 chromatic colors as well as other relevant aspects of color perception. We describe the fit of several color preference models, including ones based on cone outputs, color-emotion associations, and Palmer and Schloss's ecological valence theory. The ecological valence theory postulates that color serves an adaptive "steering' function, analogous to taste preferences, biasing organisms to approach advantageous objects and avoid disadvantageous ones. It predicts that people will tend to like colors to the extent that they like the objects that are characteristically that color, averaged over all such objects. The ecological valence theory predicts 80% of the variance in average color preference ratings from the Weighted Affective Valence Estimates (WAVEs) of correspondingly colored objects, much more variance than any of the other models. We also describe how hue preferences for single colors differ as a function of gender, expertise, culture, social institutions, and perceptual experience.

  5. Perceived risks and perceived benefits of different nanotechnology foods and nanotechnology food packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegrist, Michael; Stampfli, Nathalie; Kastenholz, Hans; Keller, Carmen

    2008-09-01

    Nanotechnology has the potential to generate new food products and new food packaging. In a mail survey in the German speaking part of Switzerland, lay people's (N=337) perceptions of 19 nanotechnology applications were examined. The goal was to identify food applications that are more likely and food applications that are less likely to be accepted by the public. The psychometric paradigm was employed, and applications were described in short scenarios. Results suggest that affect and perceived control are important factors influencing risk and benefit perception. Nanotechnology food packaging was assessed as less problematic than nanotechnology foods. Analyses of individual data showed that the importance of naturalness in food products and trust were significant factors influencing the perceived risk and the perceived benefit of nanotechnology foods and nanotechnology food packaging.

  6. Is it the music? Peer substance use as a mediator of the link between music preferences and adolescent substance use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder, Juul; Ter Bogt, Tom F M; Raaijmakers, Quinten A W; Nic Gabhainn, Saoirse; Monshouwer, Karin; Vollebergh, Wilma A M

    2010-06-01

    Both music preferences and the substance use behavior of peers are important elements in explaining adolescent substance use. The extent to which music preference and peer use overlap in explaining adolescent substance use remains to be determined. A nationally representative sample of 7324 Dutch school-going adolescents (aged 12-16) provided data on music preferences, substance use behaviors and perceived number of peers using substances. Factor analyses showed that preferences for eight music genres factored into four styles: Pop (chart music, Dutch pop), Adult (classical music, jazz), Urban (rap/hiphop, soul/R&B) and Hard (punk/hardcore, techno/hardhouse); substance use was indicated by smoking, drinking, and cannabis use. Structural equation modeling revealed that the relationship between music preference and substance use was either wholly or partially mediated by perceived peer use. Music can model substance use and fans of different types of music may select friends with use patterns that reinforce their own substance use inclinations.

  7. Toddlers' food preferences. The impact of novel food exposure, maternal preferences and food neophobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Anika J; Mallan, Kimberley M; Byrne, Rebecca; Magarey, Anthea; Daniels, Lynne A

    2012-12-01

    Food preferences have been identified as a key determinant of children's food acceptance and consumption. The aim of this study was to identify factors that influence children's liking for fruits, vegetables and non-core foods. Participants were Australian mothers (median age at delivery=31years, 18-46years) and their two-year-old children (M=24months, SD=1month; 52% female) allocated to the control group (N=245) of the NOURISH RCT. The effects of repeated exposure to new foods, maternal food preferences and child food neophobia on toddlers' liking of vegetables, fruits and non-core foods and the proportion never tried were examined via hierarchical regression models; adjusting for key maternal (age, BMI, education) and child covariates (birth weight Z-score, gender), duration of breastfeeding and age of introduction to solids. Maternal preferences corresponded with child preferences. Food neophobia among toddlers was associated with liking fewer vegetables and fruits, and trying fewer vegetables. Number of repeated exposures to new food was not significantly associated with food liking at this age. Results highlight the need to: (i) encourage parents to offer a wide range of foods, regardless of their own food preferences, and (ii) provide parents with guidance on managing food neophobia. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Learning the preferences of physicians for the organization of result lists of medical evidence articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, D; Wilk, S; Michalowski, W; Slowinski, R; Thomas, R; Kadzinski, M; Farion, K

    2014-01-01

    Online medical knowledge repositories such as MEDLINE and The Cochrane Library are increasingly used by physicians to retrieve articles to aid with clinical decision making. The prevailing approach for organizing retrieved articles is in the form of a rank-ordered list, with the assumption that the higher an article is presented on a list, the more relevant it is. Despite this common list-based organization, it is seldom studied how physicians perceive the association between the relevance of articles and the order in which articles are presented. In this paper we describe a case study that captured physician preferences for 3-element lists of medical articles in order to learn how to organize medical knowledge for decision-making. Comprehensive relevance evaluations were developed to represent 3-element lists of hypothetical articles that may be retrieved from an online medical knowledge source such as MEDLINE or The Cochrane Library. Comprehensive relevance evaluations asses not only an article's relevance for a query, but also whether it has been placed on the correct list position. In other words an article may be relevant and correctly placed on a result list (e.g. the most relevant article appears first in the result list), an article may be relevant for a query but placed on an incorrect list position (e.g. the most relevant article appears second in a result list), or an article may be irrelevant for a query yet still appear in the result list. The relevance evaluations were presented to six senior physicians who were asked to express their preferences for an article's relevance and its position on a list by pairwise comparisons representing different combinations of 3-element lists. The elicited preferences were assessed using a novel GRIP (Generalized Regression with Intensities of Preference) method and represented as an additive value function. Value functions were derived for individual physicians as well as the group of physicians. The results show

  9. Orthodontic appliance preferences of children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Daniel K; Fields, Henry W; Johnston, William M; Rosenstiel, Stephen F; Firestone, Allen R; Christensen, James C

    2010-12-01

    Although attractiveness and acceptability of orthodontic appliances have been rated by adults for themselves and for adolescents, children and adolescents have not provided any substantial data. The objective of this study was to evaluate preferences and acceptability of orthodontic appliances in children and adolescents. Images of orthodontic appliances previously captured and standardized were selected and incorporated into a computer-based survey. Additional images of shaped brackets and colored elastomeric ties, as well as discolored clear elastomeric ties, were captured and incorporated onto existing survey images with Photoshop (Adobe, San Jose, Calif). The survey displayed 12 orthodontic appliance variations to 139 children in 3 age groups: 9 to 11 years (n = 45), 12 to 14 years (n = 49), and 15 to 17 years (n = 45). The subjects rated each image for attractiveness and acceptability. All images were displayed and rated twice to assess rater reliability. Overall reliability ratings were r = 0.74 for attractiveness and k = 0.66 for acceptability. There were significant differences in bracket attractiveness and acceptability in each age group. The highest-rated appliances were clear aligners, twin brackets with colored ties, and shaped brackets with and without colored ties. Colored elastomeric ties improved attractiveness significantly over brackets without colored ties for children in the 12-to-14 year group. There was a tendency for older subjects to rate clear orthodontic appliances higher than did younger subjects. Ceramic brackets with discolored ties tended to be rated lower than ceramic brackets with new ties and scored lowest in acceptability and attractiveness in all age groups. Girls rated shaped brackets significantly higher than did boys. Children's preferences for orthodontic appliances differ by age and sex. Child and adolescent preferences differ from adult preferences. Copyright © 2010 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby

  10. Perceived intimacy of expressed emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, A; Conway, M

    1990-08-01

    Research on norms for emotional expression and self-disclosure provided the basis for two hypotheses concerning the perceived intimacy of emotional self-disclosure. The first hypothesis was that the perceived intimacy of negative emotional disclosure would be greater than that of positive emotional disclosure; the second was that disclosures of more intense emotional states would be perceived as more intimate than disclosures of less intense emotional states for both negative and positive disclosures. Both hypotheses received support when male students in Canada rated the perceived intimacy of self-disclosures that were equated for topic and that covered a comprehensive sample of emotions and a range of emotional intensities. The effects were observed across all the topics of disclosure examined.

  11. Neuroanatomical correlates of perceived usability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vi, Chi Thanh; Hornbæk, Kasper; Subramanian, Sriram

    2017-01-01

    Usability has a distinct subjective component, yet surprisingly little is known about its neural basis and relation to the neuroanatomy of aesthetics. To begin closing this gap, we conducted two functional magnetic resonance imaging studies in which participants were shown static webpages (in...... the first study) and videos of interaction with webpages (in the second study). The webpages were controlled so as to exhibit high and low levels of perceived usability and perceived aesthetics. Our results show unique links between perceived usability and brain areas involved in functions such as emotional...... processing (left fusiform gyrus, superior frontal gyrus), anticipation of physical interaction (precentral gyrus), task intention (anterior cingulate cortex), and linguistic processing (medial and bilateral superior frontal gyri). We use these findings to discuss the brain correlates of perceived usability...

  12. Adolescents' food preferences in china: do household living arrangements matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Suo

    2011-01-01

    Family circumstance has long been considered one important factor that shapes children's eating habits including preferences for particular foods. However, less scholarly efforts have been devoted to understanding children's food preferences in extended family households. Drawn on data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) 2006 (n = 662), this exploratory study compares food preferences of adolescents living in extended families with those residing in nuclear families. T-test results show that adolescents living in extended families (n = 202) had unhealthier food preferences compared with those living in nuclear families (n = 460). They showed more liking for fast food, salted snack food, and sugared drinks, and less liking for vegetables and fruits. Regression results present that controlling for other relevant variables, household structure was significantly associated with adolescents' food preferences (p China.

  13. Measuring customer preferences in the German statutory health insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendzialek, Jonas B; Simic, Dusan; Stock, Stephanie

    2017-09-01

    This paper investigates consumer preferences in the German statutory health insurance market. It further aims to test whether preferences differ by age and health status. Evidence is provided by a discrete choice experiment conducted in 2014 using the six most important attributes in sickness fund competition and ten random generated choice sets per participant. Price is found to be the most important attribute followed by additional benefits, managed care programmes, and distance to nearest branch. Other positive attributes of sickness funds are found to balance out a higher price, which would allow a sickness fund to position itself as high quality. However, significant differences in preferences were found between age and health status group. In particular, compromised health is associated with higher preference for illness-related additional benefits and less distance to the lowest branch, but lower preference for a lower price. Based on these differences, a distinct sickness fund offer could be constructed that would allow passive risk selection.

  14. Modeling the Perceptions and Preferences of Pedestrians on Crossing Facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongwei Guo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pedestrian’s street-crossing behaviour has a significant effect on traffic performance and safety. The crossing behaviour is determined by human factors and environmental factors. Aiming at examining the pedestrian perceptions toward crossing facilities and preferences for crossing locations, an observational study of pedestrian crossing behaviour at urban street is conducted. The perceptions and preferences of pedestrians are collected using stated preference technique. A specific questionnaire is designed to conduct the stated preference survey. A multinomial logit model is proposed to describe the perceptions and preferences of pedestrians on crossing facilities and locations. The sensitivity analysis is performed to discuss the influence of various factors on crossing behaviour. Then the relationship between crossing locations and crossing distances is analyzed by a new proposed method. With the theoretical analysis, the engineering solutions considering pedestrian behaviour are suggested. The results are helpful to design human-centered crossing facilities in urban traffic.

  15. Overeating, late dinner, and perceived stress in Japanese workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Akiko; Sakurazawa, Hirofumi; Fujita, Takanori; Akamatsu, Rie

    2016-01-01

    This study examined relationships among overeating at dinner, dinner time, perceived stress, and strategies for coping with stress among Japanese workers. In December 2012, 255 male Japanese workers at a leasing company completed a questionnaire about overeating (score range: 5-20), dinner time, perceived stress, and strategies for coping with stress. Each worker was sent an email with a link to a website, where their answers were collected. Relationships among overeating, dinner time, perceived stress, and stress-related coping strategies were investigated using two-way analysis of variance. The analyses of cross-sectional data revealed no differences in the overeating scores among those who ate dinner before 21:00 according to their level of perceived stress. However, those who ate dinner after 21:00 and reported feeling stressed tended to overeat at dinner (F(1, 237)=5.62, p=0.019). Additionally, those with perceived stress engaged in emotional expression involving others, and those without perceived stress tended to seek help to solve their problems and change their mood. We found no significant interactions involving the items related to strategies for coping with stress. This study found that overeating at dinner was related to dinner time and perceived stress. Additionally, the combination of a late dinner time and perceived stress reinforced overeating at dinner. The results of this study do not identify a coping strategy to prevent overeating. Copyright © 2015 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Beliefs, Barriers, and Preferences of European Overweight Women to Adopt a Healthier Lifestyle in Pregnancy to Minimize Risk of Developing Gestational Diabetes Mellitus : An Explorative Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jelsma, Judith G M; van Leeuwen, Karen M; Oostdam, Nicolette; Bunn, Christopher; Simmons, David; Desoye, Gernot; Corcoy, Rosa; Adelantado, Juan M; Kautzky-Willer, Alexandra; Harreiter, Jürgen; van Assche, Frans Andre; Devlieger, Roland; Timmerman, Dirk; Hill, David; Damm, Peter; Mathiesen, Elisabeth R; Wender-Ozegowska, Ewa; Zawiejska, Agnieszka; Rebollo, Pablo; Lapolla, Annunziata; Dalfrà, Maria G; Del Prato, Stefano; Bertolotto, Alessandra; Dunne, Fidelma; Jensen, Dorte M; Andersen, Lise Lotte T; Snoek, Frank J; van Poppel, Mireille Nm

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: We explored beliefs, perceived barriers, and preferences regarding lifestyle changes among overweight European pregnant women to help inform the development of future lifestyle interventions in the prevention of gestational diabetes mellitus. METHODS: An explorative mixed methods,

  17. Beliefs, Barriers, and Preferences of European Overweight Women to Adopt a Healthier Lifestyle in Pregnancy to Minimize Risk of Developing Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: An Explorative Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jelsma, Judith G. M.; van Leeuwen, Karen M.; Oostdam, Nicolette; Bunn, Christopher; Simmons, David; Desoye, Gernot; Corcoy, Rosa; Adelantado, Juan M.; Kautzky-Willer, Alexandra; Harreiter, Jürgen; van Assche, Frans Andre; Devlieger, Roland; Timmerman, Dirk; Hill, David; Damm, Peter; Mathiesen, Elisabeth R.; Wender-Ozegowska, Ewa; Zawiejska, Agnieszka; Rebollo, Pablo; Lapolla, Annunziata; Dalfrà, Maria G.; del Prato, Stefano; Bertolotto, Alessandra; Dunne, Fidelma; Jensen, Dorte M.; Andersen, Lise Lotte T.; Snoek, Frank J.; van Poppel, Mireille N. M.

    2016-01-01

    We explored beliefs, perceived barriers, and preferences regarding lifestyle changes among overweight European pregnant women to help inform the development of future lifestyle interventions in the prevention of gestational diabetes mellitus. An explorative mixed methods, two-staged study was

  18. The Significance of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pielke, R.

    2002-05-01

    Whether global warming, terrestrial carbon sinks, ecosystem functioning, genetically modified organisms, cloning, vaccination or chemicals in the environment, science is increasingly the battlefield on which political advocates, not least lawyers and commercial interests, manipulate `facts' to their preferred direction, which fosters the politicization of science. Debate putatively over science increasingly relies on tactics such as ad hominem attacks and criticism of process (for example, peer review or sources of funding), through paid advertisements, press releases and other publicity campaigns. As political battles are waged through `science', many scientists are willing to adopt tactics of demagoguery and character assassination as well as, or even instead of, reasoned argument, as in aspects of debate over genetically modified crops or global warming. Science is becoming yet another playing field for power politics, complete with the trappings of media spin and a win-at-all-costs attitude. Sadly, much of what science can offer policymakers, and hence society, is lost. This talk will use cases from the atmospheric sciences as points of departure to explore the politicization of science from several perspectives and address questions such as: Is it a problem? For whom and what outcomes? What are the alternatives to business-as-usual?

  19. Survey of time preference, delay discounting models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R. Doyle

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper surveys over twenty models of delay discounting (also known as temporal discounting, time preference, time discounting, that psychologists and economists have put forward to explain the way people actually trade off time and money. Using little more than the basic algebra of powers and logarithms, I show how the models are derived, what assumptions they are based upon, and how different models relate to each other. Rather than concentrate only on discount functions themselves, I show how discount functions may be manipulated to isolate rate parameters for each model. This approach, consistently applied, helps focus attention on the three main components in any discounting model: subjectively perceived money; subjectively perceived time; and how these elements are combined. We group models by the number of parameters that have to be estimated, which means our exposition follows a trajectory of increasing complexity to the models. However, as the story unfolds it becomes clear that most models fall into a smaller number of families. We also show how new models may be constructed by combining elements of different models. The surveyed models are: Exponential; Hyperbolic; Arithmetic; Hyperboloid (Green and Myerson, Rachlin; Loewenstein and Prelec Generalized Hyperboloid; quasi-Hyperbolic (also known as beta-delta discounting; Benhabib et al's fixed cost; Benhabib et al's Exponential / Hyperbolic / quasi-Hyperbolic; Read's discounting fractions; Roelofsma's exponential time; Scholten and Read's discounting-by-intervals (DBI; Ebert and Prelec's constant sensitivity (CS; Bleichrodt et al.'s constant absolute decreasing impatience (CADI; Bleichrodt et al.'s constant relative decreasing impatience (CRDI; Green, Myerson, and Macaux's hyperboloid over intervals models; Killeen's additive utility; size-sensitive additive utility; Yi, Landes, and Bickel's memory trace models; McClure et al.'s two exponentials; and Scholten and Read's trade

  20. Perceived parental efficacy: concept analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montigny, Francine; Lacharité, Carl

    2005-02-01

    This paper describes a concept analysis carried out to remove some of the ambiguity surrounding the conceptual meaning of perceived parental efficacy and to distinguish it from related concepts such as parental confidence and parental competence. Constructing parental efficacy is a crucial step for family members after the birth of their first child. For some authors, perceived parental efficacy is a motor for adequate parental practices. Confusion about the definition and measurement of this concept has hindered both psychology and nursing practice and research. Concept delineation and concept clarification are required in order to further the development of the concept of perceived parental efficacy. A literature search using a variety of online databases yielded 113 articles between the years 1980 and 2000. The final sample (n=60) consisted of 30 articles from two disciplines: nursing and psychology. A content analysis of the literature was done using Rodger's evolutionary concept analysis method. Content analysis of the literature yielded four contributors to perceived parental efficacy: positive enactive mastery experiences, vicarious experiences, verbal persuasion and an appropriate physiological and affective state. Perceived parental efficacy can thus be defined as 'beliefs or judgements a parent holds of their capabilities to organize and execute a set of tasks related to parenting a child'. This conceptual analysis has allowed perceived parental efficacy to be distinguished from parental confidence and parental competence. Both nursing and psychology research, practice and education will benefit from a more precise and delineated concept.

  1. Testing Preference Axioms in Discrete Choice experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Østerdal, Lars Peter; Tjur, Tue

    Recent studies have tested the preference axioms of completeness and transitivity, and have detected other preference phenomena such as unstability, learning- and tiredness effects, ordering effects and dominance, in stated preference discrete choice experiments. However, it has not been explicitly...... of the preference axioms and other preference phenomena in the context of stated preference discrete choice experiments, and examine whether or how these can be subject to meaningful (statistical) tests...

  2. Recent advances in fuzzy preference modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van de Walle, B.; De Baets, B.; Kerre, E.

    1996-01-01

    Preference structures are well-known mathematical concepts having numerous applications in a variety of disciplines, such as economics, sociology and psychology. The generalization of preference structures to the fuzzy case has received considerable attention over the past years. Fuzzy preference structures allow a decision maker to express degrees of preference instead of the rigid classical yes-or-no preference assignment. This paper reports on the recent insights gained into the existence, construction and characterization of these fuzzy preference structures

  3. Adolescents' selective visual attention for high-status peers: the role of perceiver status and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansu, Tessa A M; Cillessen, Antonius H N; Karremans, Johan C

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has shown that adolescents' attention for a peer is determined by the peer's status. This study examined how it is also determined by the status of the perceiving adolescent, and the gender of both parties involved (perceiver and perceived). Participants were 122 early adolescents (M age = 11.0 years) who completed sociometric measures and eye-tracking recordings of visual fixations at pictures of high-status (popular) and low-status (unpopular) classmates. Automatic attention (first-gaze preference) and controlled attention (total gaze time) were measured. Target popularity was associated with both measures of attention. These associations were further moderated by perceiver popularity and perceiver and target gender. Popular adolescents attracted attention especially from other popular adolescents. Popular boys attracted attention especially from girls. © 2013 The Authors. Child Development © 2013 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  4. The Role of Bioenergy in Enhancing Energy, Food and Ecosystem Sustainability Based on Societal Perceptions and Preferences in Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilibeth A. Acosta

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper discussed the analysis of the survey on sustainability of bioenergy conducted in the Philippines, India and China. It acquired general perceptions of the people by asking them (a specific questions about their level of familiarity with bioenergy; (b relationship of their work to bioenergy; and (c their opinion on contribution of various feedstock on the economy and impact of bioenergy production on food security. In addition to these questions, we estimated preference weights of various feedstock based on the conjoint choices on bioenergy’s contribution to social stability, social welfare and ecological balance. The estimates revealed significant trade-offs not only among these three dimensions of sustainability but also the relative importance of energy security, food security and ecosystem capacity to other economic, social and environmental objectives. The types of first generation feedstock that are currently used for biofuel production in the respective countries and those that offer alternative household use are perceived as important to the economy and preferred bioenergy feedstock. Based on the results of the study, the preferred role of bioenergy for sustainable development reflects the social and economic concerns in the respective Asian countries, e.g., energy security in China, food security in India, and ecosystem degradation in the Philippines.

  5. Son preference in rural China: patrilineal families and socioeconomic change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Rachel; Tao, Ran; Lu, Xi

    2011-01-01

    This article draws on a survey conducted in six provinces in summer 2008 to investigate the determinants of son preference in rural China. The analysis confirms the conventional wisdom that son preference is embedded within patrilineal family structures and practices. We extend our analysis by exploring specific aspects of variation within patrilineal family culture. We find that the patrilineal group (clan) composition of villages and family participation in practices such as building ancestral halls and updating genealogies significantly influence son preference. Yet even though son preference is embedded within patrilineal family culture, our analysis suggests that over time the attenuation of son preference is likely. This is because determinants associated with socioeconomic change—for instance, higher levels of education, direct exposure to official policy education materials, higher income (a proxy for rural industrialization), and agricultural mechanization—all attenuate son preference. Being younger and female are also associated with weaker son preference, and both characteristics are likely to interact with education and industrialization to further dilute son preference in the longer term. Nevertheless, our findings suggest that concerted efforts are needed to ameliorate institutional discrimination against rural people in welfare provisioning and in labor markets, and to promote multiple dimensions of gender equality, including in land rights, wage rates, and education.

  6. PREFERRED MODALITY INFLUENCES ON EXERCISE-INDUCED MOOD CHANGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew M. Lane

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study tested, both retrospectively and prospectively, exercise-induced mood changes among regular exercisers. Specifically, it examined the extent to which preferred exercise modality promoted greater mood benefits. A group of 25 exercise participants (M = 35.5 yr., SD = 10.5 yr. took part in the study. All participants had exercised at least three times a week (M = 3.5, SD = 2.3 during the previous year. Participants completed a 14-item Exercise Preference Questionnaire to provide retrospective evaluations of their most- and least-preferred type of exercise. For the prospective investigation, participants completed the Brunel Mood Scale (BRUMS 15 minutes before and immediately after their most- and least-preferred exercise sessions. One week separated completion of each exercise session. Retrospective assessment of exercise-induced mood changes showed strong support for enhanced mood following the preferred mode of exercise. Also, as hypothesized, prospective results showed that mood enhancement was greater following the preferred exercise modality, but significant mood enhancement also occurred following the least-preferred modality among experienced exercisers. In conclusions, findings support the principle that exercise can provide psychological benefits to its participants, in the form of positive affective outcomes, something that appears to be enhanced by preferred exercise modality. Given the important public health implications of exercise adherence, future research should seek to further investigate the mechanisms of exercise-induced mood enhancement

  7. Automatic color preference correction for color reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukada, Masato; Funayama, Chisato; Tajima, Johji

    2000-12-01

    The reproduction of natural objects in color images has attracted a great deal of attention. Reproduction more pleasing colors of natural objects is one of the methods available to improve image quality. We developed an automatic color correction method to maintain preferred color reproduction for three significant categories: facial skin color, green grass and blue sky. In this method, a representative color in an object area to be corrected is automatically extracted from an input image, and a set of color correction parameters is selected depending on the representative color. The improvement in image quality for reproductions of natural image was more than 93 percent in subjective experiments. These results show the usefulness of our automatic color correction method for the reproduction of preferred colors.

  8. Exploring Donation Decisions: Beliefs and Preferences for Organ Donation in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Melissa K.; White, Katherine M.

    2010-01-01

    The authors explored common beliefs and preferences for posthumous and living organ donation in Australia where organ donation rates are low and little research exists. Content analysis of discussions revealed the advantage of prolonging/saving life whereas disadvantages differed according to donation context. A range of people/groups perceived to…

  9. Understanding the effect of adaptive preference elicitation methods on user satisfaction of a recommender system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knijnenburg, B.P.; Willemsen, M.C.

    2009-01-01

    In a recommender system that suggests options based on user attribute weights, the method of preference elicitation (PE) employed by a recommender system can influence users' satisfaction with the system, as well as the perceived usefulness and the understandability of the system. Specifically, we

  10. The effect of preference elicitation methods on the user experience of a recommender system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knijnenburg, B.P.; Willemsen, M.C.

    2010-01-01

    To increase the user experience, preference elicitation methods used by recommender systems can be adapted to individual differences such as the level of expertise. However, we will show that the satisfaction and perceived usefulness of a recommender system also depends strongly on subtle variations

  11. Relationship between Therapists' Knowledge about Divorce Effects and Marital Therapy Intervention Preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levengood, Jan; And Others

    The effects of divorce on children have been greatly disputed among therapists. Since the perceived harmfulness of divorce may affect how marital counseling is done, this study examined how therapists' beliefs about divorce consequences are related to their intervention preferences. A two-part questionnaire was devised to be administered to…

  12. Antecedents and benefits of obtaining preferred customer status: Experiences from the Dutch construction industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bemelmans, Jeroen; Voordijk, Johannes T.; Vos, Bart; Dewulf, Geert P.M.R.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore both the antecedents and the impact of a buying company having preferred customer status. Specific attention is paid to an, until now, unexplored antecedent: the buyer’s maturity as perceived by the supplier. In terms of impact, the focus is on the

  13. Do People Really Want Freedom of Choice? Assessing preferences of pension participants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dalen, H.P.; Henkens, K.

    2017-01-01

    Reforms in private pension plans across the world are opening up more options for pension participants to make choices to suit their preferences. Freedom of choice is however not a unidimensional concept as it is commonly perceived by policy makers. People can value both the freedom to choose as

  14. Do people really want freedom of choice? : Assessing preferences of pension holders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dalen, Harry; Henkens, Kene

    2018-01-01

    Reforms of private pension plans across the world are involving the introduction of more options for pension holders to make choices to suit their preferences. Freedom of choice is not, however, a unidimensional concept despite being commonly perceived as such by policy makers. Using a unique panel

  15. Antecedents and benefits of obtaining preferred customer status : Experiences from the Dutch construction industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bemelmans, Jeroen; Voordijk, J.T.; Vos, Bart; Dewulf, Geert

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore both the antecedents and the impact of a buying company having preferred customer status. Specific attention is paid to an, until now, unexplored antecedent: the buyer’s maturity as perceived by the supplier. In terms of impact, the focus is on the

  16. e-Purchase Intention of Taiwanese Consumers: Sustainable Mediation of Perceived Usefulness and Perceived Ease of Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massoud Moslehpour

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a new model by partially combining personality traits (PT and Technology Acceptance Model (TAM attributes to examine the influences of personality characteristics (conscientiousness, openness and perception of technology (perceived usefulness, perceives ease of use on e-purchase intention. We use truncate sampling technique and survey questionnaire to target the sample of Taiwanese online consumers and collect data. We find that consciousness (CON (personality attribute significantly influences perceived usefulness (PU (technology perception attributes, perceived ease of use (PEOU (technology perception attributes and openness to experience (OPE (personality attribute. PU, PEOU and OPE have significant impacts on e-purchase intention (INT. PEOU has the strongest positive impact on (INT. In addition, PU, PEOU and OPE combined together mediate the relationship between CON and INT. Further post hoc analysis of the mediation shows that both PU and PEOU are sustainable mediators. However, OPE is not a significant mediator.

  17. Beliefs, Barriers, and Preferences of European Overweight Women to Adopt a Healthier Lifestyle in Pregnancy to Minimize Risk of Developing Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelsma, Judith G M; Van Leeuwen, Karen M.; Oostdam, Nicolette

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. We explored beliefs, perceived barriers, and preferences regarding lifestyle changes among overweight European pregnant women to help inform the development of future lifestyle interventions in the prevention of gestational diabetes mellitus. Methods. An explorative mixed methods, two....... Women preferred to obtain detailed information about their personal risk. The health of their baby was a major motivating factor. Perceived barriers for physical activity included pregnancy-specific issues such as tiredness and experiencing physical complaints. Insufficient time was a barrier more...

  18. Patient preferences versus physicians' judgement: does it make a difference in healthcare decision making?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mühlbacher, Axel C; Juhnke, Christin

    2013-06-01

    Clinicians and public health experts make evidence-based decisions for individual patients, patient groups and even whole populations. In addition to the principles of internal and external validity (evidence), patient preferences must also influence decision making. Great Britain, Australia and Germany are currently discussing methods and procedures for valuing patient preferences in regulatory (authorization and pricing) and in health policy decision making. However, many questions remain on how to best balance patient and public preferences with physicians' judgement in healthcare and health policy decision making. For example, how to define evaluation criteria regarding the perceived value from a patient's perspective? How do physicians' fact-based opinions also reflect patients' preferences based on personal values? Can empirically grounded theories explain differences between patients and experts-and, if so, how? This article aims to identify and compare studies that used different preference elicitation methods and to highlight differences between patient and physician preferences. Therefore, studies comparing patient preferences and physician judgements were analysed in a review. This review shows a limited amount of literature analysing and comparing patient and physician preferences for healthcare interventions and outcomes. Moreover, it shows that methodology used to compare preferences is diverse. A total of 46 studies used the following methods-discrete-choice experiments, conjoint analyses, standard gamble, time trade-offs and paired comparisons-to compare patient preferences with doctor judgements. All studies were published between 1985 and 2011. Most studies reveal a disparity between the preferences of actual patients and those of physicians. For most conditions, physicians underestimated the impact of intervention characteristics on patients' decision making. Differentiated perceptions may reflect ineffective communication between the provider

  19. Perceived threat and perceived neglect: Couples' underlying concerns during conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, Keith

    2010-06-01

    The Couples Underlying Concern Inventory assesses 2 fundamental types of distress that couples experience during interpersonal conflict. Perceived threat involves a perception that one's partner is blaming and controlling the self. Perceived neglect involves a perception that one's partner is failing to make desired contributions or investments. Scales measuring these 2 underlying concerns were developed in Study 1, where a sample of 1,224 married people rated a pool of 57 words describing oneself and perceptions of a partner during a specific episode of conflict. Factor analysis identified 2 dimensions, and 2 brief 8-item scales were created. In Study 2, a sample of 2,315 married people completed the resulting 16-item inventory along with 10 self-report scales measuring types of emotion, cognition, and behavior during conflict. A 2-dimensional factor structure was confirmed, and measurement invariance was demonstrated across 4 racial/ethnic groups. Both perceived threat and perceived neglect correlated with relationship satisfaction and conflict communication. More importantly, each concern was associated with a different, and theoretically expected, set of variables regarding self emotion, emotion perceived in a partner, and cognition during conflict.

  20. Millennials sex differences on Snapchat perceived privacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonietta Rauzzino

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Snapchat offers a distinctive feature from other social networks in that its users control the visibility of the contents they share with others by defining how long these contents may be available. Snapchat is changing the way men and women perceive online information privacy and content management. This paper aims to illustrate the relevance of social representation theory to evaluate perceived privacy in Snapchat users, with a sample of 268 young adults residing in Bogotá. A survey method was employed for data collection purposes. The results reveal that Snapchat users are concerned about their networks’ privacy, with no significant sex differences, although men's perception of Snapchat privacy is safer than that of women. Finally, a discussion is presented as to the limitations and implications of these results for further studies.

  1. Perceived workplace health support is associated with employee productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lu; Hannon, Peggy A; Laing, Sharon S; Kohn, Marlana J; Clark, Kathleen; Pritchard, Scott; Harris, Jeffrey R

    2015-01-01

    To examine the relationship between perceived workplace health support and employee productivity. A quantitative cross-sectional study. Washington State agencies. A total of 3528 employees from six state agencies were included in this analysis. Perceived workplace health support was assessed by two questions that queried respondents on how often they felt supported by the workplace for healthy living and physical activity. The Work Productivity and Activity Impairment Questionnaire was used to measure health-related absenteeism and presenteeism in the past 7 days. Multivariate linear regression was used to estimate the mean differences in productivity by levels of perceived health support. Most participants were between 45 and 64 years of age and were predominantly non-Hispanic white. Presenteeism varied significantly by the level of perceived workplace health support, with those who felt least supported having higher presenteeism than those who felt most supported. The difference in presenteeism by perceived workplace support remained significant in models adjusting for sociodemographic and health characteristics (mean difference: 7.1% for support for healthy living, 95% confidence interval: 3.7%, 10.4%; 4.3% for support for physical activity, 95% confidence interval: 1.7%, 6.8%). Absenteeism was not associated with perceived workplace health support. Higher perceived workplace health support is independently associated with higher work productivity. Employers may see productivity benefit from wellness programs through improved perceptions of workplace health support.

  2. Perceived Safety, Quality and Cultural Competency of Maternity Care for Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Women in Queensland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mander, Sarah; Miller, Yvette D

    2016-03-01

    Various policies, plans and initiatives have been implemented to provide safe, quality and culturally competent care to patients within Queensland's health care system. A series of models of maternity care are available in Queensland that range from standard public care to private midwifery care. The current study aimed to determine whether identifying as culturally or linguistically diverse (CALD) was associated with the perceived safety, quality and cultural competency of maternity care from a consumer perspective, and to identify specific needs and preferences of CALD maternity care consumers. Secondary analysis of data collected in the Having a Baby in Queensland Survey 2012 was used to compare the experiences of 655 CALD women to those of 4049 non-CALD women in Queensland, Australia, across three stages of maternity care: pregnancy, labour and birth, and after birth. After adjustment for model of maternity care received and socio-demographic characteristics, CALD women were significantly more likely than non-CALD women to experience suboptimal staff technical competence in pregnancy, overall perceived safety in pregnancy and labour/birth, and interpersonal sensitivity in pregnancy and labour/birth. Approximately 50 % of CALD women did not have the choice to use a translator or interpreter, or the gender of their care provider, during labour and birth. Thirteen themes of preferences and needs of CALD maternity care consumers based on ethnicity, cultural beliefs, or traditions were identified; however, these were rarely met. Findings imply that CALD women in Queensland experience disadvantageous maternity care with regards to perceived staff technical competence, safety, and interpersonal sensitivity, and receive care that lacks cultural competence. Improved access to support persons, continuity and choice of carer, and staff availability and training is recommended.

  3. Situational Motivation and Perceived Intensity: Their Interaction in Predicting Changes in Positive Affect from Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Guérin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There is evidence that affective experiences surrounding physical activity can contribute to the proper self-regulation of an active lifestyle. Motivation toward physical activity, as portrayed by self-determination theory, has been linked to positive affect, as has the intensity of physical activity, especially of a preferred nature. The purpose of this experimental study was to examine the interaction between situational motivation and intensity [i.e., ratings of perceived exertion (RPE] in predicting changes in positive affect following an acute bout of preferred physical activity, namely, running. Fourty-one female runners engaged in a 30-minute self-paced treadmill run in a laboratory context. Situational motivation for running, pre- and post-running positive affect, and RPE were assessed via validated self-report questionnaires. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed a significant interaction effect between RPE and introjection (P<.05 but not between RPE and identified regulation or intrinsic motivation. At low levels of introjection, the influence of RPE on the change in positive affect was considerable, with higher RPE ratings being associated with greater increases in positive affect. The implications of the findings in light of SDT principles as well as the potential contingencies between the regulations and RPE in predicting positive affect among women are discussed.

  4. Situational motivation and perceived intensity: their interaction in predicting changes in positive affect from physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guérin, Eva; Fortier, Michelle S

    2012-01-01

    There is evidence that affective experiences surrounding physical activity can contribute to the proper self-regulation of an active lifestyle. Motivation toward physical activity, as portrayed by self-determination theory, has been linked to positive affect, as has the intensity of physical activity, especially of a preferred nature. The purpose of this experimental study was to examine the interaction between situational motivation and intensity [i.e., ratings of perceived exertion (RPE)] in predicting changes in positive affect following an acute bout of preferred physical activity, namely, running. Fourty-one female runners engaged in a 30-minute self-paced treadmill run in a laboratory context. Situational motivation for running, pre- and post-running positive affect, and RPE were assessed via validated self-report questionnaires. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed a significant interaction effect between RPE and introjection (P positive affect was considerable, with higher RPE ratings being associated with greater increases in positive affect. The implications of the findings in light of SDT principles as well as the potential contingencies between the regulations and RPE in predicting positive affect among women are discussed.

  5. Detecting Novelty and Significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Vera; Bradley, Margaret M.; Codispoti, Maurizio; Lang, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    Studies of cognition often use an “oddball” paradigm to study effects of stimulus novelty and significance on information processing. However, an oddball tends to be perceptually more novel than the standard, repeated stimulus as well as more relevant to the ongoing task, making it difficult to disentangle effects due to perceptual novelty and stimulus significance. In the current study, effects of perceptual novelty and significance on ERPs were assessed in a passive viewing context by presenting repeated and novel pictures (natural scenes) that either signaled significant information regarding the current context or not. A fronto-central N2 component was primarily affected by perceptual novelty, whereas a centro-parietal P3 component was modulated by both stimulus significance and novelty. The data support an interpretation that the N2 reflects perceptual fluency and is attenuated when a current stimulus matches an active memory representation and that the amplitude of the P3 reflects stimulus meaning and significance. PMID:19400680

  6. Inpatients' Preferences, Beliefs, and Stated Willingness to Pay for Complementary and Alternative Medicine Treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montross-Thomas, Lori P; Meier, Emily A; Reynolds-Norolahi, Kimberly; Raskin, Erin E; Slater, Daniel; Mills, Paul J; MacElhern, Lauray; Kallenberg, Gene

    2017-04-01

    Research demonstrates the benefits of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in myriad environments. Yet, the majority of CAM services are offered in outpatient settings. Incorporating CAM into hospital settings may lead to increased patient comfort, well-being, and overall satisfaction with hospital admissions. Few studies have examined CAM services among inpatients. Therefore, this study assessed inpatients' preferences and beliefs regarding CAM, as well as their stated willingness to pay for these services. Adult patients (n = 100), ranging in age from 19-95 years (M = 53 years; SD = 19.2 years), were recruited during their hospitalization in the University of California, San Diego, Healthcare System. The inpatients completed a brief individual interview to gather their perspectives on common CAM services, including acupuncture, aromatherapy, art therapy, guided imagery, healthy food, humor therapy, massage therapy, music therapy, pet therapy, Reiki, and stress management. Inpatients were asked which CAM therapies they perceived as being potentially the most helpful, their willingness to pay for those therapies, and their perceived beliefs regarding the use of those therapies. Inpatients most commonly perceived healthy food (85%), massage therapy (82%), and humor therapy (70%) to be the most helpful, and were most willing to pay for healthy food (71%), massage therapy (70%), and stress management (48%). Inpatients most commonly believed CAM treatments would provide relaxation (88%), increase well-being (86%), and increase their overall satisfaction with the hospitalization (85%). This study suggests that CAM services may be a beneficial addition to hospitals, as demonstrated by inpatients' interest and stated willingness to pay for these services. These findings may help organizational leaders when making choices regarding the development of CAM services within hospitals, particularly since a significant percentage of inpatients reported that

  7. Significant NRC Enforcement Actions

    Data.gov (United States)

    Nuclear Regulatory Commission — This dataset provides a list of Nuclear Regulartory Commission (NRC) issued significant enforcement actions. These actions, referred to as "escalated", are issued by...

  8. Eating as the "Means" Activity in a Contingency: Effects on Young Children's Food Preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, Leann Lipps; And Others

    1984-01-01

    To investigate the effects of instrumental eating on food preferences, 45 preschool children were assigned to either instrumental eating or control conditions. Preference data obtained before and after a series of snack sessions (consisting of milk beverages) demonstrated a significant negative shift in preference for the instrumental groups.…

  9. The impact of attitudes and work preferences on Dutch mothers' employment patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruitenberg, J.; de Beer, P.

    2012-01-01

    In the last decades, preference theory has gained significance in the academic literature on the determinants of female employment patterns. Mostly, within these studies gender and work attitudes and work preferences (the number of hours a woman prefers to work) are treated as one concept. However,

  10. Children's preferences concerning ambiance of dental waiting rooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, A; Garg, I; Shah, M

    2015-02-01

    Despite many advances in paediatric dentistry, the greatest challenge for any paediatric dentist is to remove the anxiety related to a dental visit and have a child patient to accept dental treatment readily. Minor changes made in the waiting room design can have a major effect on the way any child perceives the upcoming dental experience. This study was carried out to determine children's preferences regarding the dental waiting area so as to improve their waiting experience and reduce their preoperative anxiety before a dental appointment. This was a cross-sectional descriptive study using survey methodology. A questionnaire designed to evaluate children's preferences regarding the waiting room was distributed to new paediatric patients, aged between 6 and 11 years of age, attending an outpatient dental facility and was completed by 212 children (127 males, 85 females). The analyses were carried out on cross-tables using Phi (for 2×2 tables) or Cramer's V (for larger than 2×2 tables) to assess responses to the questionnaire items across age groups and gender. A majority of children preferred music and the ability to play in a waiting room. They also preferred natural light and walls with pictures. They preferred looking at an aquarium or a television and sitting on beanbags and chairs and also preferred plants and oral hygiene posters Repetious. The results obtained from this study may help the dental team decide on an appropriate design of their paediatric waiting room so as to make children comfortable in the dental environment and improve delivery of health care.

  11. Does psychological need satisfaction perceived online enhance well-being?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ligang; Tao, Ting; Fan, Chunlei; Gao, Wenbin

    2015-09-01

    The Internet has been building a new context, in which adolescents and young people complete their academic tasks, do their work, engage in social interaction, and even conduct anonymous identity experimentation. Therefore, it becomes very significant to assess psychological need satisfaction online, and to relate it to well-being. This study investigated the influence on well-being of psychological need satisfaction perceived online and the regulatory role in this relationship of psychological need satisfaction perceived in daily life. A total of 1,727 students from junior and senior high schools and universities in China were surveyed using the Basic Psychological Needs in General scale, the Basic Psychological Needs in the Online World scale, and the Index of Well-Being, Index of General Affect scale. The mean age of the adolescent sample was 17.47 years (ranging from 12.50 to 25.42 years). The results indicated that both need satisfaction perceived online and that perceived in daily life positively predicted psychological well-being, and psychological need satisfaction in daily life qualified the association between psychological need satisfaction perceived online and well-being. In particular, students who perceived higher psychological need satisfaction in daily life were found to benefit from psychological need satisfaction perceived online, but students with low psychological need satisfaction perceived in daily life did not. We suggest that people who perceive lower basic need satisfaction in daily life are more likely to use the Internet for socioaffective regulation and to consider cyberspace as a new world. Thus, need satisfaction perceived online may not transform into "real" happiness. © 2015 The Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  12. Radio News Source Preference by Residents of UYO Urban, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHARLES OBOT

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to broadcast news by audience members is part of human information processing.  Radio is believed to be a major source of news on many local and national issues for many people in many countries. But it was uncertain whether the assumption was tenable in Nigeria. Selectivity plays significant role in audience members’ exposure to broadcast news.  The study set out to investigate which radio station(s residents of Uyo residents tune to for news on important local and national issues. It also studied what factors influence their choice of radio station for news on socio-political crises in Nigeria. The findings showed that majority of the respondents prefer foreign radio stations – Voice of America (VOA and British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC for news on socio-political crises in Nigeria. The survey also revealed that media credibility exerted great influence on audience exposure to broadcast news and choice of broadcast medium for news. It is the submission of this work that the continuous presentation of one-sided point of view, whether in government-controlled media or privately-owned ones not only makes the audience hold their news content suspect but also makes such mass medium to rank low in terms of perceived credibility. One of the implications of that situation is that mass mobilization through such media would be difficult to achieve.  Consequently, it is the submission of this research that if broadcast media in Nigeria are to be reckoned trustworthy and reliable, diverse and balanced views on all issues in the news should always be presented.

  13. Metro passengers’ route choice model and its application considering perceived transfer threshold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Fanglei; Zhang, Yongsheng; Liu, Shasha

    2017-01-01

    With the rapid development of the Metro network in China, the greatly increased route alternatives make passengers’ route choice behavior and passenger flow assignment more complicated, which presents challenges to the operation management. In this paper, a path sized logit model is adopted to analyze passengers’ route choice preferences considering such parameters as in-vehicle time, number of transfers, and transfer time. Moreover, the “perceived transfer threshold” is defined and included in the utility function to reflect the penalty difference caused by transfer time on passengers’ perceived utility under various numbers of transfers. Next, based on the revealed preference data collected in the Guangzhou Metro, the proposed model is calibrated. The appropriate perceived transfer threshold value and the route choice preferences are analyzed. Finally, the model is applied to a personalized route planning case to demonstrate the engineering practicability of route choice behavior analysis. The results show that the introduction of the perceived transfer threshold is helpful to improve the model’s explanatory abilities. In addition, personalized route planning based on route choice preferences can meet passengers’ diversified travel demands. PMID:28957376

  14. Differences between Perceived Usefulness of Social Media and Institutional Channels by Undergraduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumida Garcia, Leandro; Costa Silva, Camila Mariane

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This research aims to compare the preference of social media sites and institutional communication channels of a higher education institution by confronting elements that form perceived usefulness and user satisfaction with the system. Social media technologies are a part of the routine of the modern society in many diverse ways,…

  15. Effects of perceived social support and family demands on college students' mental well-being: A cross-cultural investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Khallad, Y.; Jabr, F.

    2015-01-01

    The effects of perceived social support and family demands on college students' mental well-being (perceived stress and depression) were assessed in 2 samples of Jordanian and Turkish college students. Statistically significant negative correlations were found between perceived support and mental well-being. Multiple regression analyses showed that perceived family support was a better predictor of mental well-being for Jordanian students, while perceived support from friends was a better pre...

  16. Activity in ventromedial prefrontal cortex during self-related processing: positive subjective value or personal significance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyungmi; Johnson, Marcia K

    2015-04-01

    Well-being and subjective experience of a coherent world depend on our sense of 'self' and relations between the self and the environment (e.g. people, objects and ideas). The ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vMPFC) is involved in self-related processing, and disrupted vMPFC activity is associated with disruptions of emotional/social functioning (e.g. depression and autism). Clarifying precise function(s) of vMPFC in self-related processing is an area of active investigation. In this study, we sought to more specifically characterize the function of vMPFC in self-related processing, focusing on two alternative accounts: (i) assignment of positive subjective value to self-related information and (ii) assignment of personal significance to self-related information. During functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), participants imagined owning objects associated with either their perceived ingroup or outgroup. We found that for ingroup-associated objects, vMPFC showed greater activity for objects with increased than decreased post-ownership preference. In contrast, for outgroup-associated objects, vMPFC showed greater activity for objects with decreased than increased post-ownership preference. Our findings support the idea that the function of vMPFC in self-related processing may not be to represent/evaluate the 'positivity' or absolute preference of self-related information but to assign personal significance to it based on its meaning/function for the self. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Influence Of Perceived Employer Branding On Perceived Organizational Culture Employee Identity And Employee Commitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilhani Anuradha Akuratiya

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available All organizations strive for sustainable competitive advantage in order to attain profit and survive in the increasingly competitive marketplace. In such situation human resources have become crucial to achieve competitive advantage especially in the service oriented industries. In order to achieve competitive advantage it is necessary to retain talented employees within the organization. To attract and retain talented employees within organizations employers are using employer branding to separate their organization from its competitors and build an image as a good place to work. Thus the key intention of the study was to explore influence of perceived employer branding on perceived organizational culture and employee identity and how in turn affect to increase employee commitment. In the present study employer branding model was based on culture identity and commitment in licensed financial companies. Research population consisted executive level employees of top ten licensed financial companies. Sampling method was convenience sampling and data collection instrument was questionnaire. Correlation and regression analysis was used to analyze the data. Results from the analysis showed that perceived employer branding had significant influence on perceived organizational culture and employee identity and in turn they had a significant effect on employee commitment.

  18. From placement to employment: Career preferences of Jordanian nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoqirat, Noordeen; Abu-Qamar, Ma'en Zaid

    2015-09-01

    This study examined employment planning and career preferences of final year nursing students in Jordan. Focus group discussions (n = 4) were conducted by the first author with a convenience sample of 27 nursing students. N-Vivo 9 was used to analyze the qualitative data. The analysis revealed two themes. The first theme focused on "moving from study to work", and comprised two sub-themes: being uncertain and hesitant and being a real nurse. The second theme was "the place where I want to be", and referred to participants' preferences concerning their future career. Participants showed interest in critical care units but they were not optimistic about their future career prospects due to the possibility of being jobless and the perceived low public image of nurses. In addition to the nature of placement atmosphere, gender, family and cultural issues were found to shape participants' preferences. It is therefore important to periodically review the considerations of employment planning and career preferences of nursing students, otherwise devising interventions for sound recruitment of nurses in the future will be flawed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Endogenous scheduling preferences and congestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens; Small, Kenneth

    2017-01-01

    We consider the timing of activities through a dynamic model of commuting with congestion, in which workers care solely about leisure and consumption. Implicit preferences for the timing of the commute form endogenously due to temporal agglomeration economies. Equilibrium exists uniquely and is i......We consider the timing of activities through a dynamic model of commuting with congestion, in which workers care solely about leisure and consumption. Implicit preferences for the timing of the commute form endogenously due to temporal agglomeration economies. Equilibrium exists uniquely...... and is indistinguishable from that of a generalized version of the classical Vickrey bottleneck model, based on exogenous trip-timing preferences, but optimal policies differ: the Vickrey model will misstate the benefits of a capacity increase, it will underpredict the benefits of congestion pricing, and pricing may make...

  20. Youth and Shopping Malls: A Case Study about Youth Preference in Mall Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Güliz MUĞAN AKINCI

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Shopping malls demonstrate the growth of consumption culture in contemporary urban life. After the 1980s, a liberalized economy and changing global factors made shopping malls important components of Turkish urban identity. As shopping malls have become such a significant part of the social world of youth in the last twenty years, it seems crucial to concentrate on ‘malls and youth’ as a subject of study. In this context, this study aims to analyze the leisure time activities and preferred leisure spaces of teenagers in Turkey as well as where shopping malls fit in among other leisure spaces. In addition to this, the study will focus on the question of how youth perceive and experience the social and physical environment of shopping malls and their relationship with the concept of design. To this end, a field survey was conducted in the Ankara Migros Shopping Mall. The research was carried out through observations and in-depth interviews with 104 teenagers ranged in age from 13 to 19. The results of the study indicate that shopping malls were the preferred leisure space for teenagers. Physical characteristics such as the location of the mall and ease of accessibility were determined as the primary reasons for the teenagers’ preference. According to analyses, it was found that the youth did not pay much attention to the physical environment and its characteristics and had lack of information about it. In this scope, it seems that further analysis is needed to understand the teenagers’ lack of interest about the physical environment and design issue, and overemphasis and predominance given to the societal issues and social environment.

  1. Gender identity rather than sexual orientation impacts on facial preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciocca, Giacomo; Limoncin, Erika; Cellerino, Alessandro; Fisher, Alessandra D; Gravina, Giovanni Luca; Carosa, Eleonora; Mollaioli, Daniele; Valenzano, Dario R; Mennucci, Andrea; Bandini, Elisa; Di Stasi, Savino M; Maggi, Mario; Lenzi, Andrea; Jannini, Emmanuele A

    2014-10-01

    Differences in facial preferences between heterosexual men and women are well documented. It is still a matter of debate, however, how variations in sexual identity/sexual orientation may modify the facial preferences. This study aims to investigate the facial preferences of male-to-female (MtF) individuals with gender dysphoria (GD) and the influence of short-term/long-term relationships on facial preference, in comparison with healthy subjects. Eighteen untreated MtF subjects, 30 heterosexual males, 64 heterosexual females, and 42 homosexual males from university students/staff, at gay events, and in Gender Clinics were shown a composite male or female face. The sexual dimorphism of these pictures was stressed or reduced in a continuous fashion through an open-source morphing program with a sequence of 21 pictures of the same face warped from a feminized to a masculinized shape. An open-source morphing program (gtkmorph) based on the X-Morph algorithm. MtF GD subjects and heterosexual females showed the same pattern of preferences: a clear preference for less dimorphic (more feminized) faces for both short- and long-term relationships. Conversely, both heterosexual and homosexual men selected significantly much more dimorphic faces, showing a preference for hyperfeminized and hypermasculinized faces, respectively. These data show that the facial preferences of MtF GD individuals mirror those of the sex congruent with their gender identity. Conversely, heterosexual males trace the facial preferences of homosexual men, indicating that changes in sexual orientation do not substantially affect preference for the most attractive faces. © 2014 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  2. Social Preferences and Strategic Uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cabrales, Antonio; Miniaci, Raffaele; Piovesan, Marco

    This paper reports experimental evidence on a stylized labor market. The experiment is designed as a sequence of three phases. In the first two phases, P1 and P2; agents face simple games, which we use to estimate subjects' social and reciprocity concerns, together with their beliefs. In the last......, for both principals and agents. Finally, we also see that social preferences explain, to a large extent, matching between principals and agents, since agents display a marked propensity to work for principals with similar social preferences...

  3. The value of customer preference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herig, C.; Houston, A. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1996-05-01

    Customer preference (CP), or green pricing, may be the financial hedge for electric supply industry integration of photovoltaics. CP is currently defined as a voluntary contribution for energy generated with renewable resources. Several utilities have examined the CP financing of renewables through experimental or implemented programs and market research. This paper first expands the concept of customer preference to include both voluntary and involuntary customer contributions. It then categorizes the features of existing and proposed CP programs. The connections between these features and market research and marketing strategies for new product development from a competitive industry are analyzed.

  4. Endogenous scheduling preferences and congestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens; Small, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    and leisure, but agglomeration economies at home and at work lead to scheduling preferences forming endogenously. Using bottleneck congestion technology, we obtain an equilibrium queuing pattern consistent with a general version of the Vickrey bottleneck model. However, the policy implications are different....... Compared to the predictions of an analyst observing untolled equilibrium and taking scheduling preferences as exogenous, we find that both the optimal capacity and the marginal external cost of congestion have changed. The benefits of tolling are greater, and the optimal time varying toll is different....

  5. The value of customer preference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herig, C.; Houston, A.

    1996-01-01

    Customer preference (CP), or green pricing, may be the financial hedge for electric supply industry integration of photovoltaics. CP is currently defined as a voluntary contribution for energy generated with renewable resources. Several utilities have examined the CP financing of renewables through experimental or implemented programs and market research. This paper first expands the concept of customer preference to include both voluntary and involuntary customer contributions. It then categorizes the features of existing and proposed CP programs. The connections between these features and market research and marketing strategies for new product development from a competitive industry are analyzed

  6. Scientists versus Regulators: Precaution, Novelty & Regulatory Oversight as Predictors of Perceived Risks of Engineered Nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudrie, Christian E. H.; Satterfield, Terre; Kandlikar, Milind; Harthorn, Barbara H.

    2014-01-01

    Engineered nanoscale materials (ENMs) present a difficult challenge for risk assessors and regulators. Continuing uncertainty about the potential risks of ENMs means that expert opinion will play an important role in the design of policies to minimize harmful implications while supporting innovation. This research aims to shed light on the views of ‘nano experts’ to understand which nanomaterials or applications are regarded as more risky than others, to characterize the differences in risk perceptions between expert groups, and to evaluate the factors that drive these perceptions. Our analysis draws from a web-survey (N = 404) of three groups of US and Canadian experts: nano-scientists and engineers, nano-environmental health and safety scientists, and regulatory scientists and decision-makers. Significant differences in risk perceptions were found across expert groups; differences found to be driven by underlying attitudes and perceptions characteristic of each group. Nano-scientists and engineers at the upstream end of the nanomaterial life cycle perceived the lowest levels of risk, while those who are responsible for assessing and regulating risks at the downstream end perceived the greatest risk. Perceived novelty of nanomaterial risks, differing preferences for regulation (i.e. the use of precaution versus voluntary or market-based approaches), and perceptions of the risk of technologies in general predicted variation in experts' judgments of nanotechnology risks. Our findings underscore the importance of involving a diverse selection of experts, particularly those with expertise at different stages along the nanomaterial lifecycle, during policy development. PMID:25222742

  7. Empirical study of travel mode forecasting improvement for the combined revealed preference/stated preference data–based discrete choice model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanfu Qiao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The combined revealed preference/stated preference data–based discrete choice model has provided the actual choice-making restraints as well as reduced the prediction errors. But the random error variance of alternatives belonging to different data would impact its universality. In this article, we studied the traffic corridor between Chengdu and Longquan with the revealed preference/stated preference joint model, and the single stated preference data model separately predicted the choice probability of each mode. We found the revealed preference/stated preference joint model is universal only when there is a significant difference between the random error terms in different data. The single stated preference data would amplify the travelers’ preference and cause prediction error. We proposed a universal way that uses revealed preference data to modify the single stated preference data parameter estimation results to achieve the composite utility and reduce the prediction error. And the result suggests that prediction results are more reasonable based on the composite utility than the results based on the single stated preference data, especially forecasting the mode share of bus. The future metro line will be the main travel mode in this corridor, and 45% of passenger flow will transfer to the metro.

  8. The Preference for Internet-Based Psychological Interventions by Individuals Without Past or Current Use of Mental Health Treatment Delivered Online: A Survey Study With Mixed-Methods Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattsson, Susanne; Olsson, Erik Martin Gustaf

    2016-01-01

    Background The use of the Internet has the potential to increase access to evidence-based mental health services for a far-reaching population at a low cost. However, low take-up rates in routine care indicate that barriers for implementing Internet-based interventions have not yet been fully identified. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the preference for Internet-based psychological interventions as compared to treatment delivered face to face among individuals without past or current use of mental health treatment delivered online. A further aim was to investigate predictors of treatment preference and to complement the quantitative analyses with qualitative data about the perceived advantages and disadvantages of Internet-based interventions. Methods Two convenience samples were used. Sample 1 was recruited in an occupational setting (n=231) and Sample 2 consisted of individuals previously treated for cancer (n=208). Data were collected using a paper-and-pencil survey and analyzed using mixed methods. Results The preference for Internet-based psychological interventions was low in both Sample 1 (6.5%) and Sample 2 (2.6%). Most participants preferred psychological interventions delivered face to face. Use of the Internet to search for and read health-related information was a significant predictor of treatment preference in both Sample 1 (odds ratio [OR] 2.82, 95% CI 1.18-6.75) and Sample 2 (OR 3.52, 95% CI 1.33-9.29). Being born outside of Sweden was a significant predictor of preference for Internet-based interventions, but only in Sample 2 (OR 6.24, 95% CI 1.29-30.16). Similar advantages and disadvantages were mentioned in both samples. Perceived advantages of Internet-based interventions included flexibility regarding time and location, low effort, accessibility, anonymity, credibility, user empowerment, and improved communication between therapist and client. Perceived disadvantages included anonymity, low credibility, impoverished

  9. Investigation Of The Perceived Mobbing Behaviours By Counselor Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murside EMIROGLU

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to research into the mobbing behaviour perceived by teacher counsellors in terms of variables. Descriptive research method has been used in this study. The universe of this study has included the teacher counsellors working at Gaziantep. As it is desired to be reached the whole of the universe in the study, the way of sampling is not preferred. 219 teachers working on seven different districts of Gaziantep have comprised the sample group of this study. With the purpose of providing the description of the personal information of the people included in the study, ‘Occupational Satisfaction Scale’ has been used, and with the purpose of evaluating the perceived mobbing behaviour ‘Mobbing Detection Scale’ which includes 35 items has been used. Data collection tools were delivered to the schools with a directive and they were retaken in closed envelopes. The obtained data was analyzed with SPSS program. With the aim of determining whether occupational satisfaction and personal variables predicts the perceived mobbing, regression analysis has been used in the study. The variables of marital status, educational level, occupational seniority and school types have been found to be a meaningful predictor of mobbing behaviour perceived by teacher counsellors. Suggestions have been developed in line with the obtained data. Key

  10. Managing neurogenic bowel dysfunction: what do patients prefer? A discrete choice experiment of patient preferences for transanal irrigation and standard bowel management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nafees B

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Beenish Nafees,1 Andrew J Lloyd,2 Rachel S Ballinger,2 Anton Emmanuel3 1Health Outcomes Research, Nafees Consulting Limited, London, 2Patient-Reported Outcomes Research, ICON plc, Oxford, 3Department of Gastroenterology and Nutrition, University College Hospital, London, UK Background: Most patients with bowel dysfunction secondary to neurological illness are managed by a range of nonsurgical methods, including dietary changes, laxatives, and suppository use to transanal irrigation (TAI. The aim of the present study was to explore individuals’ preferences regarding TAI devices and furthermore investigate willingness to pay (WTP for attributes in devices in the UK. Methods: A discrete choice experiment survey was conducted to evaluate the patients’ perceived value of TAI devices. Attributes were selected based upon a literature review and input from clinicians. Interviews were conducted with three clinicians and the survey was developed and finalized with the input from both patients and professionals. The final attributes were “risk of urinary tract infections” (UTIs, “risk of fecal incontinence” (FI, “frequency of use”, “time spent on toilet”, “ease of use”, “level of control/independence”, and “cost”. Participants were recruited by a patient panel of TAI device users in the UK. Data were analyzed using the conditional logit model whereby the coefficients obtained from the model provided an estimate of the (log odds ratios (ORs of preference for attributes. WTP was also estimated for each attribute. Results: A total of 129 participants were included in the final analyses. Sixty two percent of the participants had suffered from three UTIs in the preceding year and 58% of patients reported currently experiencing FI using their current device. All attributes were significant predictors of choice. The most important attributes for participants were the “risk of FI”, “frequency of use”, and “risk of UTIs

  11. Online Learners' Preferences for Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northrup, Pamela T.

    2002-01-01

    Describes a study that investigated types of interaction that graduate students perceived to be important for elearning (electronic learning). Discusses content interaction, conversation and collaboration, interpersonal and metacognitive skills, and need for support; explains the Online Learning Interaction Inventory; and reports that flexibility…

  12. Perceived Accessibility of Public Transport as a Potential Indicator of Social Inclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin Lättman

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Perceived accessibility has been acknowledged as an important aspect of transport policy since the 70s. Nevertheless, very few empirical studies have been conducted in this field. When aiming to improve social inclusion, by making sustainable transport modes accessible to all, it is important to understand the factors driving perceived accessibility. Unlike conventional accessibility measures, perceived accessibility focuses on the perceived possibilities and ease of engaging in preferred activities using different transport modes. We define perceived accessibility in terms of how easy it is to live a satisfactory life with the help of the transport system, which is not necessarily the same thing as the objective standard of the system. According to previous research, perceived accessibility varies with the subjectively-rated quality of the mode of transport. Thus, improvements in quality (e.g. trip planning, comfort, or safety increase the perceived accessibility and make life easier to live using the chosen mode of transport. This study (n=750 focuses on the perceived accessibility of public transport, captured using the Perceived Accessibility Scale PAC (Lättman, Olsson, & Friman, 2015. More specifically, this study aims to determine how level of quality affects the perceived accessibility in public transport. A Conditional Process Model shows that, in addition to quality, feeling safe and frequency of travel are important predictors of perceived accessibility. Furthermore, elderly and those in their thirties report a lower level of perceived accessibility to their day-to-day activities using public transport. The basic premise of this study is that subjective experiences may be as important as objective indicators when planning and designing for socially inclusive transport systems.

  13. Filipino American grandparent caregivers' roles, acculturation, and perceived health status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka-Yahiro, Merle R

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory study was to describe the relationships between roles, acculturation, and perceived health status among 47 FA grandparent caregivers who were providing extensive caregiving to their grandchildren. Role satisfaction was significantly related to perceived health status. Role occupancy was significantly related to years lived in the U.S. and employment. Role integration and role stress were significantly related to gender and income. Acculturation was significantly related to role involvement, years lived in the U.S., language spoken, and education. The findings of this health disparities research study will lead to more contextual work in this area of study.

  14. Sweet Preference Associated with the Risk of Hypercholesterolemia Among Middle-Aged Women in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Yoonjin; Lee, Soojin; Kim, Yangha

    2018-04-05

    Sweet preference has been reported to be associated with various health problems. This study examined the influence of sweet taste preference on the risk of dyslipidemia in Korean middle-aged women. The study selected 3,609 middle-aged women from the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study (KoGES) and classified them into two groups on the basis of whether or not they preferred sweet taste. Dietary intake was analyzed using a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. Serum lipid profiles and anthropometric variables were measured. Subjects who preferred the sweet taste had significantly higher intakes of sugar products and sweet drink than those who did not prefer the sweet taste. Subjects who preferred the sweet taste showed higher carbohydrate and fat intake and less fiber intake than those who did not prefer the sweet taste. The serum concentrations of total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol were significantly higher in subjects who preferred the sweet taste than those who did not prefer. Furthermore, subjects who preferred the sweet taste showed a significantly higher odds ratio (OR) for hypercholesterolemia (OR 1.22; 95% CI (1.01-1.45)) and hyper-LDL cholesterolemia (OR 1.33; 95% CI (1.11-1.60)) than those who did not prefer the sweet taste. Our results suggested that preference for sweet taste may increase the consumption of sugar products and sweet drinks, which is partially linked to the risk of hypercholesterolemia and hyper-LDL cholesterolemia in Korean middle-aged women.

  15. Incorporating outcome uncertainty and prior outcome beliefs in stated preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundhede, Thomas; Jacobsen, Jette Bredahl; Hanley, Nick

    2015-01-01

    Stated preference studies tell respondents that policies create environmental changes with varying levels of uncertainty. However, respondents may include their own a priori assessments of uncertainty when making choices among policy options. Using a choice experiment eliciting respondents......’ preferences for conservation policies under climate change, we find that higher outcome uncertainty reduces utility. When accounting for endogeneity, we find that prior beliefs play a significant role in this cost of uncertainty. Thus, merely stating “objective” levels of outcome uncertainty...

  16. Social norms on rent seeking and preferences for redistribution

    OpenAIRE

    Sabatini, Fabio; Sarracino, Francesco; Yamamura, Eiji

    2014-01-01

    Empirical studies have shown that preferences for redistribution are sig- nificantly correlated with expectations of future mobility and the belief that society offers equal opportunities. We add to previous research by inves- tigating the role of individual and social norms on rent seeking. We find that the individual propensity for stigmatizing rent seeking significantly and positively affects preferences for redistribution. On the other hand, living in an area where most citizens do not st...

  17. Boundary Management Preferences, Boundary Control, and Work-Life Balance among Full-Time Employed Professionals in Knowledge-Intensive, Flexible Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christin Mellner

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Profound changes are taking place within working life, where established boundaries between work and personal life are challenged by increased global competition, ever-faster changing markets, and rapid development of boundary transcending information and communication technologies (ICT. The aim of this study was to investigate boundary management preferences in terms of keeping work and personal life domains separated or integrated, that is, segmenting or blending of domains, the perception of being in control of one´s preferred boundaries, and work-life balance among employees at a Swedish telecom company (N = 1,238, response rate 65%, men 73%, mean age 42 years. Psychosocial work factors, individual characteristics, sociodemographic factors, and work-life balance were investigated in relation to boundary management preferences and perceived boundary control. For high boundary control among segmenters, nearly all the studied psychosocial work factors were significant. Among integrators, this was the case only for clear expectations in work. For both groups, the individual capacity for self-regulation was associated with high boundary control. Regarding sociodemographic factors, cohabiting women with children who preferred segmentation had low boundary control. Finally, there was a main effect of boundary control on work-life balance. In particular, male segmenters perceiving high boundary control had better work-life balance than all others. Conclusions of the study are that segmenters need external boundaries in work for succesful boundary management. Moreover, self-regulation seems a crucial boundary competence in knowledge- intensive, flexible work. Results are of value for health promotion in modern work organizations in supporting employees achieving successful boundary control and subsequent work-life balance.

  18. The Impact of Supporting Family Caregivers Before Bereavement on Outcomes After Bereavement: Adequacy of End-of-Life Support and Achievement of Preferred Place of Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoun, Samar M; Ewing, Gail; Grande, Gunn; Toye, Chris; Bear, Natasha

    2018-02-01

    The investigation of the situation of bereaved family caregivers following caregiving during the end-of-life phase of illness has not received enough attention. This study investigated the extent to which using the Carer Support Needs Assessment Tool (CSNAT) intervention during the caregiving period has affected bereaved family caregivers' perceptions of adequacy of support, their grief and well-being, and achievement of their preferred place of death. All family caregivers who participated in a stepped-wedge cluster trial of the CSNAT intervention in Western Australia (2012-2014) and completed the pre-bereavement study (n = 322) were invited to take part in a caregiver survey by telephone four to six months after bereavement (2015). The survey measured the adequacy of end-of-life support, the level of grief, the current physical and mental health, and the achievement of the preferred place of death. The response rate was 66% (152, intervention; 60, control). The intervention group perceived that their pre-bereavement support needs had been adequately met to a significantly greater extent than the control group (d = 0.43, P death more often according to their caregivers (79.6% vs. 63.6%, P = 0.034). There was also a greater agreement on the preferred place of death between patients and their caregivers in the intervention group (P = 0.02). The results from this study provide evidence that the CSNAT intervention has a positive impact on perceived adequacy of support of bereaved family caregivers and achievement of preferred place of death according to caregivers. The benefits gained by caregivers in being engaged in early and direct assessment of their support needs before bereavement reinforce the need for palliative care services to effectively support caregivers well before the patient's death. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparison of perceived value structural models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunčana Piri Rajh

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Perceived value has been considered an important determinant of consumer shopping behavior and studied as such for a long period of time. According to one research stream, perceived value is a variable determined by perceived quality and perceived sacrifice. Another research stream suggests that the perception of value is a result of the consumer risk perception. This implies the presence of two somewhat independent research streams that are integrated by a third research stream – the one suggesting that perceived value is a result of perceived quality and perceived sacrifices while perceived (performance and financial risk mediates the relationship between perceived quality and perceived sacrifices on the one hand, and perceived value on the other. This paper describes the three approaches (models that have been mentioned. The aim of the paper is to determine which of the observed models show the most acceptable level of fit to the empirical data. Using the survey method, research involving three product categories has been conducted on a sample of Croatian consumers. Collected data was analyzed by the structural equation modeling (SEM method. Research has shown an appropriate level of fit of each observed model to the empirical data. However, the model measuring the effect of perceived risk on perceived value indicates the best level of fit, which implies that perceived performance risk and perceived financial risk are the best predictors of perceived value.

  20. Impact of hospital atmosphere on perceived health care outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narang, Ritu; Polsa, Pia; Soneye, Alabi; Fuxiang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Healthcare service quality studies primarily examine the relationships between patients' perceived quality and satisfaction with healthcare services, clinical effectiveness, service use, recommendations and value for money. These studies suggest that patient-independent quality dimensions (structure, process and outcome) are antecedents to quality. The purpose of this paper is to propose an alternative by looking at the relationship between hospital atmosphere and healthcare quality with perceived outcome. Data were collected from Finland, India, Nigeria and the People's Republic of China. Regression analysis used perceived outcome as the dependent variable and atmosphere and healthcare service quality as independent variables. Findings - Results showed that atmosphere and healthcare service quality have a statistically significant relationship with patient perceived outcomes. The sample size was small and the sampling units were selected on convenience; thus, caution must be exercised in generalizing the findings. The study determined that service quality and atmosphere are considered significant for developing and developed nations. This result could have significant implications for policy makers and service providers developing healthcare quality and hospital atmosphere. Studies concentrate on healthcare outcome primarily regarding population health status, mortality, morbidity, customer satisfaction, loyalty, quality of life, customer behavior and consumption. However, the study exposes how patients perceive their health after treatment. Furthermore, the authors develop the healthcare service literature by considering atmosphere and perceived outcome.

  1. Perceived injustice predicts stress and pain in adults with sickle cell disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezenwa, Miriam O; Molokie, Robert E; Wilkie, Diana J; Suarez, Marie L; Yao, Yingwei

    2015-06-01

    Research evidence shows that perceived injustice is a context-based unfair treatment that has negative influence on health outcomes. We examined the contribution of patients' perceived injustice regarding interactions with health care providers to stress and pain in adults with sickle cell disease (SCD). This study was a cross-sectional correlational pilot study. Included in the study were adults with SCD who received their care from a university-affiliated comprehensive sickle cell clinic. Participants were 52 adults whose mean age was 34 ± 11 years (minimum [min] 20 years, maximum [max] 70 years). Most of the patients were African American (n = 48, 92%) and female (n = 41, 79%). Forty-eight patients (92%) reported having a high school diploma or higher. Participants completed the perceived injustice questionnaire, perceived stress questionnaire, and the PAINReportIt, which includes questions to measure pain and demographics. We analyzed the data using the linear regression analyses. Perceived injustice from doctors was a significant predictor of perceived stress (p pain (p = .002). Perceived injustice from nurses also was a significant predictor of perceived stress (p pain (p = .02). The procedural, distributive, and informational domains of perceived injustice attributed to both doctors and nurses consistently predicted patients' perceived stress, but only the procedural and distributive domains of perceived injustice consistently predicted patients' pain. Findings suggest that perceived injustice was negatively associated with stress and pain in adults with SCD and warrant further investigation in a larger sample. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. The Relationships Among Socio-Demographics, Perceived Health, and Happiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weech-Maldonado, Robert; Miller, Michael J.; Lord, Justin C.

    2017-01-01

    This article explores explore the relationships among socio-demographics, perceived health, and happiness in a patient population of 221 adults recruited from 39 primary care practices in Alabama. We also explored whether the relationship between socio-demographics and happiness is mediated by perceived health. The dependent variable, happiness, was dichotomized as happy versus unhappy. Independent variables or correlates of happiness included race (Black or White), age (happiness and its correlates. Our findings suggest that adequate health literacy and better perceived health are associated with an increase in the likelihood of happiness. In addition, the relationship between perceived sufficient income and happiness is mediated by perceived health; whereas, individuals with sufficient income are more likely to have better perceived health, and as a result more likely to be happy. Other individual factors, such as gender, age, and race were not significantly associated with being happy or having higher perceived health in any of the models. Results suggest that policies aimed at increasing health literacy, promoting health, and reducing income disparities may be associated with greater happiness. PMID:28757904

  3. Do pig farmers preferences bias consumer choice for pork? Response to critique of the pork preference studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngapo, T M; Fortin, J; Martin, J-F

    2010-08-01

    Québec consumers and pig farmers selected their preferred chop from 16 images that had been modified to give 16 treatments: two levels each of fat cover, colour, marbling and drip. The selection process was repeated eight times from different groups of chops. Fat cover (47% preferred lean) and colour (44%, light red) were the most frequently chosen characteristics. No significant differences were observed between farmers and consumers preferences (chi(2) test, Ppreference-based clusters were found; 41% preferring dark red, lean meat and 59%, light red, lean meat, without marbling or drip. Choice-based clusters showed no significant links with either individual socio-demographic items, including pig farmer as occupation, or the three socio-demographic-based clusters observed (chi(2) test, Pconsumers and, therefore, inclusion of pig farmers in consumer panels would not bias consumer choice for pork. Crown Copyright (c) 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Revealed preference with limited consideration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demuynck, T.; Seel, C.

    2014-01-01

    We derive revealed preference tests for models where individuals use consideration sets to simplify their consumption problem. Our basic test provides necessary and sufficient conditions for consistency of observed choices with the existence of consideration set restrictions. The same conditions can

  5. Cortisol shifts financial risk preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandasamy, Narayanan; Hardy, Ben; Page, Lionel; Schaffner, Markus; Graggaber, Johann; Powlson, Andrew S; Fletcher, Paul C; Gurnell, Mark; Coates, John

    2014-03-04

    Risk taking is central to human activity. Consequently, it lies at the focal point of behavioral sciences such as neuroscience, economics, and finance. Many influential models from these sciences assume that financial risk preferences form a stable trait. Is this assumption justified and, if not, what causes the appetite for risk to fluctuate? We have previously found that traders experience a sustained increase in the stress hormone cortisol when the amount of uncertainty, in the form of market volatility, increases. Here we ask whether these elevated cortisol levels shift risk preferences. Using a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over protocol we raised cortisol levels in volunteers over 8 d to the same extent previously observed in traders. We then tested for the utility and probability weighting functions underlying their risk taking and found that participants became more risk-averse. We also observed that the weighting of probabilities became more distorted among men relative to women. These results suggest that risk preferences are highly dynamic. Specifically, the stress response calibrates risk taking to our circumstances, reducing it in times of prolonged uncertainty, such as a financial crisis. Physiology-induced shifts in risk preferences may thus be an underappreciated cause of market instability.

  6. Consumer Preferences for Mass Customization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.G.C. Dellaert (Benedict); S. Stremersch (Stefan)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractIncreasingly, firms adopt mass customization, which allows consumers to customize products by self-selecting their most preferred composition of the product for a predefined set of modules. For example, PC vendors such as Dell allow customers to customize their PC by choosing the type of

  7. Educational Homogamy: Preferences or Opportunities?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Helena Skyt; Svarer, Michael

    Individuals match on length and type of education. We investigate whether thesystematic relationship between educations of partners is explained by opportuni-ties (e.g. low search frictions) or preferences (e.g. complementarities in householdproduction or portfolio optimization). We find that half...

  8. LATER RETIREMENT? PATTERNS, PREFERENCES, POLICIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Kohli

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Pension systems are a major part of the political economy of current societies – much beyond providing old-age income security. The well-known demographics of population aging as well as globalization today challenge their financial viability. Later retirement seems to be a good way to meet these challenges. However, it is not only unpopular but also inequitable in terms of differential longevity. The paper first discusses these problems, with a particular focus on the social stratification of mortality. It then analyzes the preferences towards retirement age at several levels:  in terms of attitudes towards public spending on pensions or towards the state’s responsibility in this matter, of support for pension policy alternatives, and of preferred individual age of retirement. Results show that large majorities across all age groups are in favour of more government spending on pensions. There is a substantial amount of ‘involuntary retirement’, meaning that people would have preferred to work longer than they actually did, as well as a somewhat lower amount of ‘involuntary work’, but the preferred ages are everywhere below 65, and in some countries still below 60. Finally, the paper examines the policies of raising the retirement age adopted during the last two decades. What has especially been lacking in these policies is a consideration of socially differentiated longevity.

  9. Gaming Preferences of Aging Generations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blocker, Kenneth A.; Wright, Timothy J.; Boot, Walter R.

    2017-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that action digital game training can improve a variety of perceptual and cognitive abilities, including those that decline most with age. Unfortunately, previous work has found that older adults dislike these games and adherence may be poor for action game-based interventions. The focus of the current study was to better understand the types of games older adults are willing to play and explore predictors of game preference (e.g., gender, age, technology experience, personality). With this information action games might be modified or developed to maximize adherence and cognitive benefit. Older adults were administered a modified version of an existing game questionnaire and a custom game preference survey. Clear preferences were observed that were similar between participants with and without previous digital game experience (with puzzle and intellectually stimulating games being most interesting to older adults in our sample, and massively multiplayer online games and first-person shooters being least interesting). Personality, demographic, and technology experience variables were also collected. Interesting trends suggested the possibility that several demographic and personality variables might be predictive of game preference. Results have implications for future directions of research, designing games that would appeal to older adult audiences, and for how to design custom games to maximize intervention adherence based on individual difference characteristics. PMID:29033699

  10. Gaming Preferences of Aging Generations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blocker, Kenneth A; Wright, Timothy J; Boot, Walter R

    2014-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that action digital game training can improve a variety of perceptual and cognitive abilities, including those that decline most with age. Unfortunately, previous work has found that older adults dislike these games and adherence may be poor for action game-based interventions. The focus of the current study was to better understand the types of games older adults are willing to play and explore predictors of game preference (e.g., gender, age, technology experience, personality). With this information action games might be modified or developed to maximize adherence and cognitive benefit. Older adults were administered a modified version of an existing game questionnaire and a custom game preference survey. Clear preferences were observed that were similar between participants with and without previous digital game experience (with puzzle and intellectually stimulating games being most interesting to older adults in our sample, and massively multiplayer online games and first-person shooters being least interesting). Personality, demographic, and technology experience variables were also collected. Interesting trends suggested the possibility that several demographic and personality variables might be predictive of game preference. Results have implications for future directions of research, designing games that would appeal to older adult audiences, and for how to design custom games to maximize intervention adherence based on individual difference characteristics.

  11. Measuring higher order ambiguity preferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Baillon (Aurélien); Schlesinger, H. (Harris); G. van de Kuilen (Gijs)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractWe report the results from an experiment designed to measure attitudes towards ambiguity beyond ambiguity aversion. In particular, we implement recently-proposed model-free preference conditions of ambiguity prudence and ambiguity temperance. Ambiguity prudence has been shown to play an

  12. Market mechanisms and customer preferences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boethius, O. [Volvo Car Corporation, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    1995-12-31

    The paper relates to market mechanisms and customer preferences regarding alternative fuels for road transports. Globally, road transports are to 99% dependent on crude oil. According to the author, one third of the crude oil is consumed for road transports. The use of natural gas as an alternative fuel is discussed in this connection

  13. Risk preferences under acute stress

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cahlíková, Jana; Cingl, L.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 1 (2017), s. 209-236 ISSN 1386-4157 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : risk preferences * risk aversion * stress Subject RIV: AH - Economics OBOR OECD: Applied Economics, Econometrics Impact factor: 2.391, year: 2016

  14. Risk preferences under acute stress

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cahlíková, Jana; Cingl, L.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 1 (2017), s. 209-236 ISSN 1386-4157 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) SVV 265801/2012 Institutional support: Progres-Q24 Keywords : risk preferences * risk aversion * stress Subject RIV: AH - Economics OBOR OECD: Applied Economics, Econometrics Impact factor: 2.391, year: 2016

  15. Lighting preferences in individual offices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Roberto Gomes de Faria

    Full Text Available Abstract Workplaces with good daylighting offer visual comfort to users, give them a series of physiological and psychological benefits and allow good performance of visual activities, besides saving energy. However, this solution is not always adopted: lighting type preferences involve many variables besides the availability of daylight. This paper explores a case study through the analysis of questionnaire answers and computer simulations of a series of metrics related to quality of lighting with the aim of finding explanations for the lighting preferences of individual office users. The results show that, although the offices present good daylighting conditions and no glare potential, and users are satisfied with daylighting, these parameters are not sufficient to explain the predominant lighting preferences. The findings have also shown that there is no consensus about which parameters potentially cause visual comfort, while the parameters that cause discomfort are clearly identified. In addition, in this study, 49% of the preference for mixed lighting (daylight plus electrical light can be explained by the fact that mixed lighting produces better modeling than daylighting alone.

  16. Lichen species preference by reindeer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holleman, D F; Luick, J R

    1977-08-01

    The preference by reindeer for five species of lichens commonly found on Central Alaska rangelands was tested under controlled laboratory conditions. Results indicate that reindeer are strongly selective species in their lichen grazing habits. The five tested species ranged as follows in order of decreasing acceptibility: Caldonia alpestris, C. rangiferina, Stereocaulon paschale, Cetraria richardsonii, and Peltigera aphthosa.

  17. Birth Order and Vocational Preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Robert M.; Lynch, Janet

    1980-01-01

    The relationship between vocational preferences of adolescents and their birth order was examined. Firstborns were found to be overrepresented in the conventional and enterprising areas; later borns were found to be overrepresented in the social and investigative areas. (Author/GK)

  18. Decision Making and Revealed Preference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de la Rosa, Leonidas Enrique

    If our decision-making processes are to some extent shaped by evolutionary pressures and our environment is different from that to which we adapted, some of our choices will not be in our best interest. But revealed preference is the only tool that we have so far to conduct a normative analysis...

  19. Ratio Bias and Policy Preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rasmus Tue

    2016-01-01

    Numbers permeate modern political communication. While current scholarship on framing effects has focused on the persuasive effects of words and arguments, this article shows that framing of numbers can also substantially affect policy preferences. Such effects are caused by ratio bias, which...

  20. Wanting, liking, and preference construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Xianchi; Brendl, C Miguel; Ariely, Dan

    2010-06-01

    According to theories on preference construction, multiple preferences result from multiple contexts (e.g., loss vs. gain frames). This implies that people can have different representations of a preference in different contexts. Drawing on Berridge's (1999) distinction between unconscious liking and wanting, we hypothesize that people may have multiple representations of a preference toward an object even within a single context. Specifically, we propose that people can have different representations of an object's motivational value, or incentive value, versus its emotional value, or likability, even when the object is placed in the same context. Study 1 establishes a divergence between incentive value and likability of faces using behavioral measures. Studies 2A and 2B, using self-report measures, provide support for our main hypothesis that people are perfectly aware of these distinct representations and are able to access them concurrently at will. We also discuss implications of our findings for the truism that people seek pleasure and for expectancy-value theories.

  1. Nursing Students’ Preferred Learning Styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh Salehi

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: Learning style is the processing of information and comprehension. If teachers present contents in a style that matches a student’s preferred learning style, academic performance and success will improve. If content retention improves it will result in an increase in thetest scores. It is also important to determine if students, as a group, fit into a particular style or a particular cycle as they move through an educational program.Methods: The study is a descriptive analytical research. Nursing Students at Isfahan Medical Sciences University completed a questionnaire  formulated to assess learning styles. Analysis of variance was used to investigate the possible relationship between learning cycle and student’s grades in the curriculum (i.e. freshman, sophomore, junior, or senior. Cross tabulation was used to test for a relationship between learning style and student academic year of study in the curriculum.Results: 294 students received the Kolb LSI questionnaire. The data demonstrated that juniors preferred a converger learning style and the senior students were in the abstract conceptualization cycle of learning. There were no relationships demonstrated between other groups in the study.Conclusion: The junior and senior students appear to prefer the stage of learning involving thinking and problem analysis. When a group of students demonstrate a preference for particular learning style teachers can develop their curriculum along their learning styleKey words: LEARNING STYLES, NURSING STUDENTS, FRESHMAN, SOPHOMORE, JUNIOR, SENIOR

  2. Premium Auctions and Risk Preferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hu, A.; Offerman, T.J.S.; Zou, L.

    2010-01-01

    In a premium auction, the seller offers some "pay back", called premium, to the highest bidders. This paper investigates how the performance of such premium tactic is related to the participant's risk preferences. By developing an English premium auction model with symmetric interdependent values,

  3. Cortisol shifts financial risk preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandasamy, Narayanan; Hardy, Ben; Page, Lionel; Schaffner, Markus; Graggaber, Johann; Powlson, Andrew S.; Fletcher, Paul C.; Gurnell, Mark; Coates, John

    2014-01-01

    Risk taking is central to human activity. Consequently, it lies at the focal point of behavioral sciences such as neuroscience, economics, and finance. Many influential models from these sciences assume that financial risk preferences form a stable trait. Is this assumption justified and, if not, what causes the appetite for risk to fluctuate? We have previously found that traders experience a sustained increase in the stress hormone cortisol when the amount of uncertainty, in the form of market volatility, increases. Here we ask whether these elevated cortisol levels shift risk preferences. Using a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over protocol we raised cortisol levels in volunteers over 8 d to the same extent previously observed in traders. We then tested for the utility and probability weighting functions underlying their risk taking and found that participants became more risk-averse. We also observed that the weighting of probabilities became more distorted among men relative to women. These results suggest that risk preferences are highly dynamic. Specifically, the stress response calibrates risk taking to our circumstances, reducing it in times of prolonged uncertainty, such as a financial crisis. Physiology-induced shifts in risk preferences may thus be an underappreciated cause of market instability. PMID:24550472

  4. Seasonal Variations in Color Preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schloss, Karen B; Nelson, Rolf; Parker, Laura; Heck, Isobel A; Palmer, Stephen E

    2017-08-01

    We investigated how color preferences vary according to season and whether those changes could be explained by the ecological valence theory (EVT). To do so, we assessed the same participants' preferences for the same colors during fall, winter, spring, and summer in the northeastern United States, where there are large seasonal changes in environmental colors. Seasonal differences were most pronounced between fall and the other three seasons. Participants liked fall-associated dark-warm colors-for example, dark-red, dark-orange (brown), dark-yellow (olive), and dark-chartreuse-more during fall than other seasons. The EVT could explain these changes with a modified version of Palmer and Schloss' (2010) weighted affective valence estimate (WAVE) procedure that added an activation term to the WAVE equation. The results indicate that color preferences change according to season, as color-associated objects become more/less activated in the observer. These seasonal changes in color preferences could not be characterized by overall shifts in weights along cone-contrast axes. Copyright © 2016 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  5. Preferences for 'New' Treatments Diminish in the Face of Ambiguity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Mark; Marra, Carlo A; Bansback, Nick

    2017-06-01

    New products usually offer advantages over existing products, but in health care, most new drugs are 'me-too', comparable in effectiveness and side effects to existing drugs, but with a more ambiguous evidence base around adverse effects. Despite this, new treatments drive increased health care spending, suggesting a preference for 'newness' in this setting. We explore (1) whether preferences for treatments labeled 'new' exist and (2) persist once the ambiguity in the evidence base reflecting newness is described. We use a Canadian general population sample (n = 2837) characterized by their innovativeness in adopting new products in normal markets. We found that innovators/early adopters (n = 173) had significant preferences for 'newer' treatments (B = 0.162, p = 0.038) irrespective of comparable benefits and side effects and all respondents had significant preferences for less ambiguity in benefit/side effect estimates. Notably, when 'newness' was combined with ambiguity, no significant preferences for new treatments were observed regardless of respondent innovativeness. We conclude that preferences for new products exist for some people in health care markets but disappear when the implication of ambiguity in the evidence base for new treatments is communicated. Physicians should avoid describing treatments as 'new' or be mindful to qualify the implications of 'new' treatments in terms of evidence ambiguity. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Pragmatic randomised controlled trial of preferred intensity exercise in women living with depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morres Ioannis

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exercise may be effective in treating depression, but trials testing its effect in depressed women are rare. Aim To compare the effect of exercise of preferred intensity with exercise of prescribed intensity in thirty-eight women living with depression. Methods A Pragmatic RCT of 12 sessions of exercise at preferred intensity compared with 12 sessions at prescribed intensity. Beck Depression Inventory (BDI, Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale (RSES, General Health Questionnaire 12 (GHQ-12, heart rate (HR, Rating of Perceived Exertion Scale (RPE, Quality of Life in Depression Scale (QLDS, Multi-Dimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MDSPSS, SF12 Health Survey and exercise participation rates were compared between groups. Results Intervention participants had statistically better BDI (t = 2.638, df = 36, p = 0.006, 95% mean (SD 26.5 (10.7, CI-20.4 to -2.7, d = 0.86, GHQ-12 (t = 3.284, df = 36, p = 0.001, mean (SD 8.3 (3.7 95% CI -6.5 to -1.5, d = 1.08, RSES (t = 2.045, df = 36, p = 0.024, mean (SD 11.3 (5.8, 95% CI 0.3 -6.4, d = 0.25, QLDS (t = 1.902, df = 36, p = 0.0325, mean (SD 15.5 (7.9, 95% CI -12.2 -0.4, d = 0.27 RPE scores (t = 1.755, df = 36, p = 0.0475, mean (SD 9.2 (3.2, 95% CI -.5 - 5.2, d = 0.77 and attended more exercise sessions (t = 1.781, df = 36, p = 0.0415, number of sessions 8 (65%, 95% CI-0.3 -4.8, d = 0.58. SF-12, MSPSS and HR did not differ significantly between groups. Conclusions Exercise of preferred intensity improves psychological, physiological and social outcomes, and exercise participation rates in women living with depression. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00546221

  7. What factors are influencing preferences toward conventional versus complementary and alternative medical clinic advertisements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hye-Won; Chang, Dong-Seon; Lee, Hyangsook; Kang, O-Seok; Lee, Hyejung; Park, Hi-Joon; Chae, Younbyoung

    2011-10-01

    The present study aimed to determine whether health service advertisements are perceived differently depending on advertising conventional or complementary and alternative medicine clinics. A total of 42 adults (male=21, female=21) recruited through advertisements in Seoul, South Korea participated in this study. A standardized health service advertisement was designed with three controlled visual components such as (1) medical treatment information, (2) medical practitioner, and (3) medical facilities and it was shown to subjects while their eye movements were tracked and they were asked to rate their preferences for the different advertisements and their separate components. A multiple regression analysis was performed to see the correlation of the preferences for each of the three visual components with the overall preference rating of each health service advertisement. Preferences for the advertisement depended mostly on the preference for the medical treatment information, whereas advertisements for complementary and alternative medical clinics depended also on the preference for the medical practitioner. These results imply that the same health service advertisement will be perceived differently depending on whether it advertises Western or Oriental medical clinics.

  8. Perceived agricultural runoff impact on drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crampton, Andrea; Ragusa, Angela T

    2014-09-01

    Agricultural runoff into surface water is a problem in Australia, as it is in arguably all agriculturally active countries. While farm practices and resource management measures are employed to reduce downstream effects, they are often either technically insufficient or practically unsustainable. Therefore, consumers may still be exposed to agrichemicals whenever they turn on the tap. For rural residents surrounded by agriculture, the link between agriculture and water quality is easy to make and thus informed decisions about water consumption are possible. Urban residents, however, are removed from agricultural activity and indeed drinking water sources. Urban and rural residents were interviewed to identify perceptions of agriculture's impact on drinking water. Rural residents thought agriculture could impact their water quality and, in many cases, actively avoided it, often preferring tank to surface water sources. Urban residents generally did not perceive agriculture to pose health risks to their drinking water. Although there are more agricultural contaminants recognised in the latest Australian Drinking Water Guidelines than previously, we argue this is insufficient to enhance consumer protection. Health authorities may better serve the public by improving their proactivity and providing communities and water utilities with the capacity to effectively monitor and address agricultural runoff.

  9. Conditioned place preferences in humans using virtual reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astur, Robert S; Carew, Andrew W; Deaton, Bonnie E

    2014-07-01

    To extend a standard paradigm of conditioning in nonhumans to humans, we created a virtual reality (VR) conditioned place preference task, with real-life food rewards. Undergraduates were placed into a VR environment consisting of 2 visually distinct rooms. On Day 1, participants underwent 6 pairing sessions in which they were confined into one of the two rooms and explored the VR environment. Room A was paired with real-life M&Ms for 3 sessions, and Room B was paired with no food for 3 sessions. Day 2 was the test day, administered the next day, and participants were given free access to the entire VR environment for 5min. In experiment 1, participants were food restricted, and we observed that on the test day, participants display a significant conditioned place preference for the VR room previously paired with food (pchoice of "Which room do you like best?". In experiment 2, when participants were not food restricted, there was no evidence of a place preference, either implicitly (e.g. dwell time) or explicitly. Hence, we show that we can reliably establish a place preference in humans, but that the preference is contingent on the participants' hunger state. Future research will examine the extent to which these preferences can be blocked or extinguished as well as whether these preferences are evident using other reinforcers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. A typology of preferences for participation in healthcare decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Kathryn E; Smith, Maureen A; Vanness, David

    2006-09-01

    Classifying patients as "active" or "passive" with regard to healthcare decision making is misleading, since patients have different desires for different components of the decision-making process. Distinguishing patients' desired roles is an essential step towards promoting care that respects and responds to individual patients' preferences. We included items on the 2004 Wisconsin Longitudinal Study mail survey measuring preferences for four components of the decision-making process: physician knowledge of patient medical history, physician disclosure of treatment choices, discussion of treatment choices, and selection of treatment choice. We characterized preference types for 5199 older adults using cluster analysis. Ninety-six percent of respondents are represented by four preference types, all of which prefer maximal information exchange with physicians. Fifty-seven percent of respondents wanted to retain personal control over important medical decisions ("autonomists"). Among the autonomists, 81% preferred to discuss treatment choices with their physician. Thirty-nine percent of respondents wanted their physician to make important medical decisions ("delegators"). Among the delegators, 41% preferred to discuss treatment choices. Female gender, higher educational attainment, better self-rated health, fewer prescription medications, and having a shorter duration at a usual place of care predicted a significantly higher probability of the most active involvement in discussing and selecting treatment choices. The overwhelming majority of older adults want to be given treatment options and have their physician know everything about their medical history; however, there are substantial differences in how they want to be involved in discussing and selecting treatments.

  11. Design of Brand Names of Medicines Considering Subjects' Preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Carla Maria Batista Ferreira; Cavaco, Afonso

    2018-03-01

    Only recently, regulations on the names of medicines were developed. Regulations are mainly focused on avoiding the approval of medicine names that may be confusing to others. Furthermore, legal requirements do not include testing for human factors, such as potential users' preferences. To develop a set of new brand names of medicines, to determine subjects' preferred names, and to evaluate if the linguistic features of these names were related to subjects' preferences. Forty-six new names linguistically equivalent to the Portuguese brand names of medicines were developed. A panel of 13 postgraduates on linguistic studies were purposively enrolled. Participants were required to select and categorize the 6 most preferred names. From the 29 selected names: 62.1% ended in consonants, 65.5% contained at least one syllable of the CVC type, and 62.1% presented final stress. Considering these 3 linguistic features, there were statistically significant differences between the preferred and underpreferred names: χ 2 = 4.572, P = .032; χ 2 = 5.599, P = .018; and χ 2 = 4.572; P = .032, respectively. Some linguistic features of the evaluated names were related to subjects' preferences. Tests on subjects' preferences about the names of medicines may provide additional safety features addressed by the present regulations.

  12. The effects of preferred and non-preferred running strike patterns on tissue vibration properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enders, Hendrik; von Tscharner, Vinzenz; Nigg, Benno M

    2014-03-01

    To characterize soft tissue vibrations during running with a preferred and a non-preferred strike pattern in shoes and barefoot. Cross-sectional study. Participants ran at 3.5 m s(-1) on a treadmill in shoes and barefoot using a rearfoot and a forefoot strike for each footwear condition. The preferred strike patterns for the subjects were a rearfoot strike and a forefoot strike for shod and barefoot running, respectively. Vibrations were recorded with an accelerometer overlying the belly of the medial gastrocnemius. Thirteen non-linearly scaled wavelets were used for the analysis. Damping was calculated as the overall decay of power in the acceleration signal post ground contact. A higher damping coefficient indicates higher damping capacities of the soft tissue. The shod rearfoot strike showed a 93% lower damping coefficient than the shod forefoot strike (pforefoot strike showed a trend toward a lower damping coefficient compared to a barefoot rearfoot strike. Running barefoot with a forefoot strike resulted in a significantly lower damping coefficient than a forefoot strike when wearing shoes (pstrike showed lower damping compared to a barefoot rearfoot strike (p<0.001). While rearfoot striking showed lower vibration frequencies in shod and barefoot running, it did not consistently result in lower damping coefficients. This study showed that the use of a preferred movement resulted in lower damping coefficients of running related soft tissue vibrations. Copyright © 2013 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Texting preferences in a Paediatric residency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, Lauren; Kuklinski, Cadence; Ladley, Amy; Adamson, Greg; Broom, Matthew

    2017-12-01

    Text messaging is ubiquitous among residents, but remains an underused educational tool. Though feasibility has been demonstrated, evidence of its ability to improve standardised test scores and provide insight on resident texting preferences is lacking. The authors set out to evaluate: (1) satisfaction with a hybrid question-and-answer (Q&A) texting format; and (2) pre-/post-paediatric in-training exam (ITE) performance. A prospective study with paediatrics and internal medicine-paediatrics residents. Residents were divided into subgroups: adolescent medicine (AM) and developmental medicine (DM). Messages were derived from ITE questions and sent Monday-Friday with a 20 per cent variance in messages specific to the sub-group. Residents completed surveys gauging perceptions of the programme, and pre- and post-programme ITE scores were analysed. Forty-one residents enrolled and 32 (78%) completed a post-programme survey. Of those, 21 (66%) preferred a Q&A format with an immediate text response versus information-only texts. The percentage change in ITE scores between 2013 and 2014 was significant. Comparing subgroups, there was no significant difference between the percentage change in ITE scores. Neither group performed significantly better on either the adolescent or developmental sections of the ITE. Text messaging… remains an underused educational tool CONCLUSIONS: Overall, participants improved their ITE scores, but no improvement was seen in the targeted subgroups on the exam. Although Q&A texts are preferred by residents, further assessment is required to assess the effect on educational outcomes. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and The Association for the Study of Medical Education.

  14. Developmental stability in gender-typed preferences between infancy and preschool age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauer, Jillian E; Ilksoy, Sibel D; Lourenco, Stella F

    2018-04-01

    Infants exhibit visual preferences for gender-typed objects (e.g., dolls, toy vehicles) that parallel the gender-typed play preferences of preschool-aged children, but the developmental stability of individual differences in early emerging gender-typed preferences has not yet been characterized. In the present study, we examined the longitudinal association between infants' (N = 51) performance on an object-preference task, administered between 6 and 13 months of age, and their play preferences at 4 years of age. Greater visual interest in a toy truck relative to a doll in infancy predicted significantly greater male-typical toy and activity preferences (e.g., play with vehicles, videogames) at age 4. These findings suggest that gender-typed object preferences present during the 1st year of life may represent the developmental precursors of gender-typed play preferences observed later in childhood. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Analysis of skin conductance response during evaluation of preferences for cosmetic products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohira, Hideki; Hirao, Naoyasu

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed skin conductance response (SCR) as a psychophysiological index to evaluate affective aspects of consumer preferences for cosmetic products. To examine the test-retest reliability of association between preferences and SCR, we asked 33 female volunteers to complete two experimental sessions approximately 1 year apart. The participants indicated their preferences in a typical paired comparison task by choosing the better option from a combination of two products among four products. We measured anticipatory SCR prior to expressions of the preferences. We found that the mean amplitude of the SCR elicited by the preferred products was significantly larger than that elicited by the non-preferred products. The participants' preferences and corresponding SCR patterns were well preserved at the second session 1 year later. Our results supported cumulating findings that SCR is a useful index of consumer preferences that has future potential, both in laboratory and marketing settings. PMID:25709593

  16. User adoption of mobile commerce in Bangladesh: Integrating perceived risk, perceived cost and personal awareness with TAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Mizanur Rahman

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops and tests a model for predicting user adoption of mobile commerce (i.e. e-commerce using mobile phones in developing countries. The model takes up the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM determinants of perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use, and extends these through the inclusion of three further determinants: perceived risk, perceived cost and personal awareness to enable prediction of the likelihood of mobile commerce adoption by users in the developing world. 575 usable surveys were gathered from the urban, semi-urban and rural areas of Bangladesh. Perceived risk and perceived usefulness were found to be the most influential factors effecting mobile commerce adoption, while the effect of perceived ease of use and personal awareness was found to be low although significant. The study reconfirmed the need of extending TAM model, in the context of mobile commerce, to address both itrs transactional and non-transactional components. Service providers need to ensure high levels of security and privacy to reduce userrs perceptions of risk. Mobile commerce services and technologies should be upgraded to world standard to make them more useful to users.

  17. Perceived Autonomy Support in the NIMH RAISE Early Treatment Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Julia; Penn, David L; Bauer, Daniel J; Meyer-Kalos, Piper; Mueser, Kim T; Robinson, Delbert G; Addington, Jean; Schooler, Nina R; Glynn, Shirley M; Gingerich, Susan; Marcy, Patricia; Kane, John M

    2017-09-01

    This study examined perceived support for autonomy-the extent to which individuals feel empowered and supported to make informed choices-among participants in the Recovery After an Initial Schizophrenia Episode Early Treatment Program (RAISE ETP). The aims of this study were to evaluate whether NAVIGATE, the active treatment studied in RAISE ETP, was associated with greater improvements in perceived autonomy support over the two-year intervention, compared with community care, and to examine associations between perceived autonomy support and quality of life and symptoms over time and across treatment groups. This study examined perceived autonomy support among the 404 individuals with first-episode psychosis who participated in the RAISE ETP trial (NAVIGATE, N=223; community care, N=181). Three-level conditional linear growth modeling was used given the nested data structure. The results indicated that perceived autonomy support increased significantly over time for those in NAVIGATE but not in community care. Once treatment began, higher perceived autonomy support was related to higher quality of life at six, 12, and 18 months in NAVIGATE and at 12, 18, and 24 months in community care. Higher perceived autonomy support was related to improved scores on total symptoms and on excited symptoms regardless of treatment group and time. Overall, perceived autonomy support increased in NAVIGATE but not for those in community care and was related to improved quality of life and symptoms across both treatment groups. Future research should examine the impact of perceived autonomy support on a wider array of outcomes, including engagement, medication adherence, and functioning.

  18. Associations between perceived leadership and presenteeism in an industrial population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vänni, Kimmo J; Neupane, Subas; Nygård, Clas-Håkan

    2017-12-30

    Presenteeism has received increasing attention in occupational health research but the evidence for its association with perceived leadership is scant. To assess the association of perceived leadership and presenteeism among industrial workers. Survey responses from employees on perceived leadership were linked to the personnel register of a food industry company. The Presenteeism Scale method was used to determine the presenteeism percentage. Perceived leadership was measured as a composite variable of six individual items on motivating and participating leadership. Generalized linear models were used to determine the association of perceived leadership with presenteeism. There were 847 participants. The majority of office workers of both genders reported better perceived leadership than factory workers. We found that perceived poor leadership was associated with a higher likelihood of presenteeism (rate ratio (RR) 1.64, 95% confidence intervals (CIs) 1.51-1.78). However, there was variation amongst and within occupational groups and genders, with a higher risk of presenteeism amongst male factory workers (RR 2.28, 95% CI 2.02-2.52) than female office workers. Leadership was found to be significantly associated with presenteeism, with a greater risk of presenteeism in those reporting poor perceived leadership. The association between levels of perceived leadership and presenteeism was stronger in men than women. Organizations should focus on motivating leadership practices to reduce the risk of presenteeism, especially among men. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  19. Perceiving Tonal Structure in Music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumhansl, Carol L.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses research that may broaden understanding of how music of other styles and cultures is perceived and remembered. Experiments examined serve to isolate similarities and differences that exist across musical cultures and characterize their psychological effects and to study perception of compositional styles in Western music outside the…

  20. How Does a Shared Decision-Making (SDM) Intervention for Oncologists Affect Participation Style and Preference Matching in Patients with Breast and Colon Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieber, Christiane; Nicolai, Jennifer; Gschwendtner, Kathrin; Müller, Nicole; Reuter, Katrin; Buchholz, Angela; Kallinowski, Birgit; Härter, Martin; Eich, Wolfgang

    2018-06-01

    The aims of this study are to assess patients' preferred and perceived decision-making roles and preference matching in a sample of German breast and colon cancer patients and to investigate how a shared decision-making (SDM) intervention for oncologists influences patients' preferred and perceived decision-making roles and the attainment of preference matches. This study is a post hoc analysis of a randomised controlled trial (RCT) on the effects of an SDM intervention. The SDM intervention was a 12-h SDM training program for physicians in combination with decision board use. For this study, we analysed a subgroup of 107 breast and colon cancer patients faced with serious treatment decisions who provided data on specific questionnaires with regard to their preferred and perceived decision-making roles (passive, SDM or active). Patients filled in questionnaires immediately following a decision-relevant consultation (t1) with their oncologist. Eleven of these patients' 27 treating oncologists had received the SDM intervention within the RCT. A majority of cancer patients (60%) preferred SDM. A match between preferred and perceived decision-making roles was reached for 72% of patients. The patients treated by SDM-trained physicians perceived greater autonomy in their decision making (p < 0.05) with more patients perceiving SDM or an active role, but their preference matching was not influenced. A SDM intervention for oncologists boosted patient autonomy but did not improve preference matching. This highlights the already well-known reluctance of physicians to engage in explicit role clarification. German Clinical Trials Register DRKS00000539; Funding Source: German Cancer Aid.

  1. Patients Prefer Boarding in Inpatient Hallways: Correlation with the National Emergency Department Overcrowding Score

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R. Richards

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The boarding of patients in Emergency Department (ED hallways when no inpatient beds are available is a major cause of ED crowding. One solution is to board admitted patients in an inpatient rather than ED hallway. We surveyed patients to determine their preference and correlated their responses to real-time National Emergency Department Overcrowding Score (NEDOCS. Methods. This was a survey of admitted patients in the ED of an urban university level I trauma center serving a community of 5 million about their personal preferences regarding boarding. Real-time NEDOCS was calculated at the time each survey was conducted. Results. 99 total surveys were completed during October 2010, 42 (42% patients preferred to be boarded in an inpatient hallway, 33 (33% preferred the ED hallway, and 24 (24% had no preference. Mean (±SD NEDOCS (range 0–200 was 136±46 for patients preferring inpatient boarding, 112±39 for ED boarding, and 119±43 without preference. Male patients preferred inpatient hallway boarding significantly more than females. Preference for inpatient boarding was associated with a significantly higher NEDOCS. Conclusions. In this survey study, patients prefer inpatient hallway boarding when the hospital is at or above capacity. Males prefer inpatient hallway boarding more than females. The preference for inpatient hallway boarding increases as the ED becomes more crowded.

  2. Patients prefer boarding in inpatient hallways: correlation with the national emergency department overcrowding score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, John R; Ozery, Gal; Notash, Mark; Sokolove, Peter E; Derlet, Robert W; Panacek, Edward A

    2011-01-01

    Objective. The boarding of patients in Emergency Department (ED) hallways when no inpatient beds are available is a major cause of ED crowding. One solution is to board admitted patients in an inpatient rather than ED hallway. We surveyed patients to determine their preference and correlated their responses to real-time National Emergency Department Overcrowding Score (NEDOCS). Methods. This was a survey of admitted patients in the ED of an urban university level I trauma center serving a community of 5 million about their personal preferences regarding boarding. Real-time NEDOCS was calculated at the time each survey was conducted. Results. 99 total surveys were completed during October 2010, 42 (42%) patients preferred to be boarded in an inpatient hallway, 33 (33%) preferred the ED hallway, and 24 (24%) had no preference. Mean (±SD) NEDOCS (range 0-200) was 136 ± 46 for patients preferring inpatient boarding, 112 ± 39 for ED boarding, and 119 ± 43 without preference. Male patients preferred inpatient hallway boarding significantly more than females. Preference for inpatient boarding was associated with a significantly higher NEDOCS. Conclusions. In this survey study, patients prefer inpatient hallway boarding when the hospital is at or above capacity. Males prefer inpatient hallway boarding more than females. The preference for inpatient hallway boarding increases as the ED becomes more crowded.

  3. Exploring student preferences with a Q-sort: the development of an individualized renal physiology curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, John K; Hargett, Charles W; Nagler, Alisa; Jakoi, Emma; Lehrich, Ruediger W

    2015-09-01

    Medical education reform is underway, but the optimal course for change has yet to be seen. While planning for the redesign of a renal physiology course at the Duke School of Medicine, the authors used a Q-sort survey to assess students' attitudes and learning preferences to inform curricular change. The authors invited first-year medical students at the Duke School of Medicine to take a Q-sort survey on the first day of renal physiology. Students prioritized statements related to their understanding of renal physiology, learning preferences, preferred course characteristics, perceived clinical relevance of renal physiology, and interest in nephrology as a career. By-person factor analysis was performed using the centroid method. Three dominant factors were strongly defined by learning preferences: "readers" prefer using notes, a textbook, and avoid lectures; "social-auditory learners" prefer attending lectures, interactivity, and working with peers; and "visual learners" prefer studying images, diagrams, and viewing materials online. A smaller, fourth factor represented a small group of students with a strong predisposition against renal physiology and nephrology. In conclusion, the Q-sort survey identified and then described in detail the dominant viewpoints of our students. Learning style preferences better classified first-year students rather than any of the other domains. A more individualized curriculum would simultaneously cater to the different types of learners in the classroom. Copyright © 2015 The American Physiological Society.

  4. Significant Tsunami Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, P. K.; Furtney, M.; McLean, S. J.; Sweeney, A. D.

    2014-12-01

    Tsunamis have inflicted death and destruction on the coastlines of the world throughout history. The occurrence of tsunamis and the resulting effects have been collected and studied as far back as the second millennium B.C. The knowledge gained from cataloging and examining these events has led to significant changes in our understanding of tsunamis, tsunami sources, and methods to mitigate the effects of tsunamis. The most significant, not surprisingly, are often the most devastating, such as the 2011 Tohoku, Japan earthquake and tsunami. The goal of this poster is to give a brief overview of the occurrence of tsunamis and then focus specifically on several significant tsunamis. There are various criteria to determine the most significant tsunamis: the number of deaths, amount of damage, maximum runup height, had a major impact on tsunami science or policy, etc. As a result, descriptions will include some of the most costly (2011 Tohoku, Japan), the most deadly (2004 Sumatra, 1883 Krakatau), and the highest runup ever observed (1958 Lituya Bay, Alaska). The discovery of the Cascadia subduction zone as the source of the 1700 Japanese "Orphan" tsunami and a future tsunami threat to the U.S. northwest coast, contributed to the decision to form the U.S. National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program. The great Lisbon earthquake of 1755 marked the beginning of the modern era of seismology. Knowledge gained from the 1964 Alaska earthquake and tsunami helped confirm the theory of plate tectonics. The 1946 Alaska, 1952 Kuril Islands, 1960 Chile, 1964 Alaska, and the 2004 Banda Aceh, tsunamis all resulted in warning centers or systems being established.The data descriptions on this poster were extracted from NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) global historical tsunami database. Additional information about these tsunamis, as well as water level data can be found by accessing the NGDC website www.ngdc.noaa.gov/hazard/

  5. Perceived exercise benefits and barriers among power wheelchair soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barfield, J P; Malone, Laurie A

    2013-01-01

    Lack of exercise is a major risk factor for secondary conditions among persons dependent upon motorized wheelchairs. Power wheelchair soccer is a unique exercise opportunity for this population, and understanding factors that influence exercise decision-making is necessary for clinicians to help those in motorized chairs reduce their secondary risk. Therefore, this study examined differences in perceived benefits and barriers to exercise among power wheelchair soccer players using a mixed-methods analysis. The most common perceived benefit to exercise was "Exercising lets me have contact with friends and persons I enjoy." Post hoc comparisons of quantitative data indicated that persons with muscular dystrophy perceived exercise to be significantly less important than did other disability groups (p Exercise is hard work for me," "Exercise tires me," and "There are too few places for me to exercise" were the most common perceived barriers. These findings can assist with development of exercise opportunities for power wheelchair users.

  6. Perceived social image and life satisfaction across cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez Mosquera, Patricia M; Imada, Toshie

    2013-01-01

    We studied the relationship between perceived social image and life satisfaction in four different cultural groups. One-hundred nine Indian (63 females, 46 males), 67 Pakistani/Bangladeshi (36 females, 31 males), 76 White British (43 females, 33 males), and 94 European Americans (43 females, 48 males) completed measures on the cultural importance of social image, positive and negative emotions, academic achievement, and perceived social image. Indian and Pakistani/Bangladeshi participants valued social image more than White British and European-American participants. Consistent with this value difference, a positive perceived social image predicted life satisfaction among Indian and Pakistani/Bangladeshi participants only. For these participants, perceived social image predicted life satisfaction above and beyond the effects of emotions and academic achievement. Academic achievement only predicted life satisfaction among White British and European Americans. Emotions were significant predictors of life satisfaction for all participants.

  7. Personality traits and perceived social support among depressed older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cukrowicz, Kelly C; Franzese, Alexis T; Thorp, Steven R; Cheavens, Jennifer S; Lynch, Thomas R

    2008-09-01

    The contribution of personality traits and social support to mental health is well established, but to our knowledge there have been no longitudinal investigations of the relation between personality and social support in depressed older adults. In the current study, we examined a repeated measures multi-level mixed model of change in perceived social support to determine whether personality traits and depressive symptoms were associated with changes in perceived social support over the 3 year study interval in a sample of depressed older adults. Results suggest that Conscientiousness and Extraversion were personality traits that were significantly predictive of changes in perceived social support over this time interval. Based on these results it appears that, among depressed older adults, those with conscientious or extraverted personality traits are more likely to resist impulses to withdraw from relationships. In addition, these traits may lead to more satisfying interactions and greater perceived social support over time. The implications of these results are discussed.

  8. LOOKING AT PERCEIVED VALUE AND EDUCATION MARKETING FROM A DIFFERENT PERSPECTIVE: PERCEIVED VALUE OF MARKETING EDUCATION

    OpenAIRE

    Sığırcı, Özge; Gürdal, Sahavet

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study is both to see the perceived value of marketing education, and to investigate whether there are any differences among people based on gender, age, marketing education level, and the sacrifices done for the marketing education. Exploratory Factor Analysis and a Reliability Analysis is conducted. Additionally, Independent Samples T-test and One-Way ANOVA is conducted to reveal the differences based on aforementioned differences in sample. Some significant diffe...

  9. The acceptance of mobile government from a citizens’ perspective: Identifying perceived risks and perceived benefits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ohme, Jakob

    2014-01-01

    and citizens. There are many examples of failures of early e-government projects due to a lack of consideration of users’ requirements. Against this background, this article tries to contribute to governmental communication processes by addressing the driving factors influencing the acceptance of mobile......-government is significantly influenced by both, factors users see as a benefit but also by factors of perceived risks....

  10. Synergistic selection between ecological niche and mate preference primes diversification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boughman, Janette W; Svanbäck, Richard

    2017-01-01

    The ecological niche and mate preferences have independently been shown to be important for the process of speciation. Here, we articulate a novel mechanism by which ecological niche use and mate preference can be linked to promote speciation. The degree to which individual niches are narrow and clustered affects the strength of divergent natural selection and population splitting. Similarly, the degree to which individual mate preferences are narrow and clustered affects the strength of divergent sexual selection and assortative mating between diverging forms. This novel perspective is inspired by the literature on ecological niches; it also explores mate preferences and how they may contribute to speciation. Unlike much comparative work, we do not search for evolutionary patterns using proxies for adaptation and sexual selection, but rather we elucidate how ideas from niche theory relate to mate preference, and how this relationship can foster speciation. Recognizing that individual and population niches are conceptually and ecologically linked to individual and population mate preference functions will significantly increase our understanding of rapid evolutionary diversification in nature. It has potential to help solve the difficult challenge of testing the role of sexual selection in the speciation process. We also identify ecological factors that are likely to affect individual niche and individual mate preference in synergistic ways and as a consequence to promote speciation. The ecological niche an individual occupies can directly affect its mate preference. Clusters of individuals with narrow, differentiated niches are likely to have narrow, differentiated mate preference functions. Our approach integrates ecological and sexual selection research to further our understanding of diversification processes. Such integration may be necessary for progress because these processes seem inextricably linked in the natural world. © 2016 The Author(s). Evolution

  11. Greenery in the university environment : Students’ preferences and perceived restoration likelihood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bogerd, Nicole; Dijkstra, S. Coosje; Seidell, Jacob C.; Maas, Jolanda

    2018-01-01

    A large body of evidence shows that interaction with greenery can be beneficial for human stress reduction, emotional states, and improved cognitive function. It can, therefore, be expected that university students might benefit from greenery in the university environment. Before investing in

  12. Perceived Differences and Preferred Norms: Dutch Physical Educators Constructing Gendered Ethnicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Doodewaard, Corina; Knoppers, Annelies

    2018-01-01

    Many physical education (PE) teachers have been challenged by the shift from teaching in primarily ethnic homogenous contexts to multi-ethnic (ME) classes. Teachers in secondary schools often experience difficulty in class management in such classes. This difficulty may limit their ability to create a positive student--teacher relationship and may…

  13. Association Between Perceived Social Support and Depression in Postmenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadayon Najafabadi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background The most common symptom in early menopausal women is depression. Depression is a type of chronic disease that impacts on postmenopausal women’s life. Social support plays a protective role for women and enables them to solve their life problems and thus, feel less depressed. Objectives We assessed depression as a chronic disease and evaluated the association between perceived social support and depression in postmenopausal women. Patients and Methods This correlation-analytic study was conducted on 321 postmenopausal women using 2-stage cluster sampling in Ahvaz in 2014. Data collecting instruments were comprised of a demographic questionnaire, a depression scale (Beck Depression Inventory-II, and a social support questionnaire (PRQ 85-Part 2. Data analysis was done using SPSS, version 20. The Spearman correlation coefficient was used to evaluate the relationship between perceived social support and depression, and the χ2 test was employed to assess the relationship between perceived social support and demographic characteristics. Results The Spearman correlation test revealed a significant reverse relationship between perceived social support and depression (r = -0.468; P = 0.001. There were significant relationships between perceived social support and some personal variables such as marital status, education level, and job status (P 0.05. Conclusions We found a reverse relationship between perceived social support and depression in postmenopausal women. Raising awareness in society apropos the relationship between social support and depression in postmenopausal women can enhance their quality of life.

  14. Implicit Motives and Men's Perceived Constraint in Fatherhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppen, Jessica; Waldvogel, Patricia; Ehlert, Ulrike

    2016-01-01

    Research shows that implicit motives influence social relationships. However, little is known about their role in fatherhood and, particularly, how men experience their paternal role. Therefore, this study examined the association of implicit motives and fathers' perceived constraint due to fatherhood. Furthermore, we explored their relation to fathers' life satisfaction. Participants were fathers with biological children ( N = 276). They were asked to write picture stories, which were then coded for implicit affiliation and power motives. Perceived constraint and life satisfaction were assessed on a visual analog scale. A higher implicit need for affiliation was significantly associated with lower perceived constraint, whereas the implicit need for power had the opposite effect. Perceived constraint had a negative influence on life satisfaction. Structural equation modeling revealed significant indirect effects of implicit affiliation and power motives on life satisfaction mediated by perceived constraint. Our findings indicate that men with a higher implicit need for affiliation experience less constraint due to fatherhood, resulting in higher life satisfaction. The implicit need for power, however, results in more perceived constraint and is related to decreased life satisfaction.

  15. Implicit Motives and Men’s Perceived Constraint in Fatherhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppen, Jessica; Waldvogel, Patricia; Ehlert, Ulrike

    2016-01-01

    Research shows that implicit motives influence social relationships. However, little is known about their role in fatherhood and, particularly, how men experience their paternal role. Therefore, this study examined the association of implicit motives and fathers’ perceived constraint due to fatherhood. Furthermore, we explored their relation to fathers’ life satisfaction. Participants were fathers with biological children (N = 276). They were asked to write picture stories, which were then coded for implicit affiliation and power motives. Perceived constraint and life satisfaction were assessed on a visual analog scale. A higher implicit need for affiliation was significantly associated with lower perceived constraint, whereas the implicit need for power had the opposite effect. Perceived constraint had a negative influence on life satisfaction. Structural equation modeling revealed significant indirect effects of implicit affiliation and power motives on life satisfaction mediated by perceived constraint. Our findings indicate that men with a higher implicit need for affiliation experience less constraint due to fatherhood, resulting in higher life satisfaction. The implicit need for power, however, results in more perceived constraint and is related to decreased life satisfaction. PMID:27933023

  16. Implicit Motives and Men’s Perceived Constraint in Fatherhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Ruppen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Research shows that implicit motives influence social relationships. However, little is known about their role in fatherhood and, particularly, how men experience their paternal role. Therefore, this study examined the association of implicit motives and fathers’ perceived constraint due to fatherhood. Furthermore, we explored their relation to fathers’ life satisfaction. Participants were fathers with biological children (N = 276. They were asked to write picture stories, which were then coded for implicit affiliation and power motives. Perceived constraint and life satisfaction were assessed on a visual analog scale. A higher implicit need for affiliation was significantly associated with lower perceived constraint, whereas the implicit need for power had the opposite effect. Perceived constraint had a negative influence on life satisfaction. Structural equation modeling revealed significant indirect effects of implicit affiliation and power motives on life satisfaction mediated by perceived constraint. Our findings indicate that men with a higher implicit need for affiliation experience less constraint due to fatherhood, resulting in higher life satisfaction. The implicit need for power, however, results in more perceived constraint and is related to decreased life satisfaction.

  17. The effect of preferred music genre selection versus preferred song selection on experimentally induced anxiety levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walworth, Darcy DeLoach

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences of experimentally induced anxiety levels reached by subjects listening to no music (n = 30), subjects listening to music selected by the experimenter from the subject's preferred genre or artist listed as relaxing (n = 30), and subjects listening to a specific song they listed as relaxing (n = 30). Subjects consisted of 90 individuals, male and female, randomly assigned to one of the three groups mentioned above. Subjects in either music group filled out a questionnaire prior to participating in the study indicating their preference of music used for relaxation purposes. Subjects in Experimental Group 1 marked their preferred genres and/or artists, and Experimental Group 2 marked specific songs used for relaxation purposes. While the experimenter hypothesized subjects in Experimental Group 2 would show less anxiety than both the control group and Experimental Group 1, there were no significant differences found between the 2 music groups in anxiety levels reached. However, there was a statistically significant difference between the no music control group and both music groups in the anxiety level reached by subjects. Subjects listening to music, both songs chosen by the experimenter and subject selected songs, showed significantly less anxiety than subjects not listening to music.

  18. Preferences for Physical and Virtual Retail Formats Choice: The Case of Polish Consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radoslaw Macik

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Paper discusses Polish consumers’ behaviour and preferences for retail channel and format choice on the background of relevant literature. Results include perception maps created using multidimensional scaling (MDS on data from two studies: in 2008 and 2012, giving possibility to assess changes at the economic slowdown. Two-dimensional solutions are fitting the data very well and allow to describe compared formats in terms of perceived level of personal interactions with the sales personnel, and perceived total cost for consumer. During analysed period perception of discount stores substantially changed – previously perceived as similar to marketplace, now they are closer convenience stores. Virtual channel formats are still perceived as separate cluster in comparison to physical ones. Declared shopping frequency for 15 formats from both channels is compared with emotional attitudes toward them. Inaddition, UNIANOVA procedure has been used to find connections with shopping frequency and demographic variables as well as decision-making styles.

  19. Dynamic electricity pricing—Which programs do consumers prefer?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dütschke, Elisabeth; Paetz, Alexandra-Gwyn

    2013-01-01

    Dynamic pricing is being discussed as one method of demand side management (DSM) which could be crucial for integrating more renewable energy sources into the electricity system. At the same time, there have been very few analyses of consumer preferences in this regard: Which type of pricing program are consumers most likely to choose and why? This paper sheds some light on these issues based on two empirical studies from Germany: (1) A questionnaire study including a conjoint analysis-design and (2) A field experiment with test-residents of a smart home laboratory. The results show that consumers are open to dynamic pricing, but prefer simple programs to complex and highly dynamic ones; smart home technologies including demand automation are seen as a prerequisite for DSM. The study provides some indications that consumers might be more willing to accept more dynamic pricing programs if they have the chance to experience in practice how these can be managed in everyday life. At the same time, the individual and societal advantages of such programs are not obvious to consumers. For this reason, any market roll-out will need to be accompanied by convincing communication and information campaigns to ensure that these advantages are perceived. - Highlights: • Little is known about consumer preferences on dynamic pricing. • Two studies are conducted to analyze this topic. • A survey shows that consumers without experience prefer conventional programs. • Test residents of a smart home were more open to dynamic pricing. • They also prefer well-structured programs

  20. Dental Continuing Education Preference Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-06-01

    Subjects Clinical Dentistry Dx/Tx TMJ Problems Equilibration Discolored Teeth Facial Pain Health/Nutrition Orofacial Infect. Endo. Failures Perio-Endo...Diagnosis/Treatment of Orofacial Infections. Of these six subjects, Medical Emergencies was ranked as a topic most needed by slightly over 36% of the...Treatment of TMJ Problems, and Diagnosis/Treatment of Orofacial Infections among the top six topics. A "high need" for Oral Surgery topics was perceived by

  1. Impact of manual preference on directionality in children's drawings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picard, Delphine

    2011-01-01

    The effects of handedness on directionality in drawing are already well documented in the literature, at least as far as adults are concerned. The present study investigates the impact of manual preference on directionality as seen in the drawing product and drawing process, from a developmental point of view. A total of 120 children aged 5 to 9, both right and left-handed drawers, volunteered for the study. Children were asked to draw twice from memory a set of six common objects. Results indicate that directionality in drawing product varies significantly according to manual preference in the 9-year-old children, but not in the younger age groups. The concomitant increase between 7 and 9 years of age in the use of preferred stroke directions and the impact of manual preference in the drawing process suggests that biomechanical factors might play an important role in behavioural asymmetries in drawing.

  2. Statistical analysis of subjective preferences for video enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Russell L.; Satgunam, PremNandhini; Bronstad, P. Matthew; Peli, Eli

    2010-02-01

    Measuring preferences for moving video quality is harder than for static images due to the fleeting and variable nature of moving video. Subjective preferences for image quality can be tested by observers indicating their preference for one image over another. Such pairwise comparisons can be analyzed using Thurstone scaling (Farrell, 1999). Thurstone (1927) scaling is widely used in applied psychology, marketing, food tasting and advertising research. Thurstone analysis constructs an arbitrary perceptual scale for the items that are compared (e.g. enhancement levels). However, Thurstone scaling does not determine the statistical significance of the differences between items on that perceptual scale. Recent papers have provided inferential statistical methods that produce an outcome similar to Thurstone scaling (Lipovetsky and Conklin, 2004). Here, we demonstrate that binary logistic regression can analyze preferences for enhanced video.

  3. Basolateral amygdala lesions abolish mutual reward preferences in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Lallement, Julen; van Wingerden, Marijn; Schäble, Sandra; Kalenscher, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    In a recent study, we demonstrated that rats prefer mutual rewards in a Prosocial Choice Task. Here, employing the same task, we show that the integrity of basolateral amygdala was necessary for the expression of mutual reward preferences. Actor rats received bilateral excitotoxic (n=12) or sham lesions (n=10) targeting the basolateral amygdala and were subsequently tested in a Prosocial Choice Task where they could decide between rewarding ("Both Reward") or not rewarding a partner rat ("Own Reward"), either choice yielding identical reward to the actors themselves. To manipulate the social context and control for secondary reinforcement sources, actor rats were paired with either a partner rat (partner condition) or with an inanimate rat toy (toy condition). Sham-operated animals revealed a significant preference for the Both-Reward-option in the partner condition, but not in the toy condition. Amygdala-lesioned animals exhibited significantly lower Both-Reward preferences than the sham group in the partner but not in the toy condition, suggesting that basolateral amygdala was required for the expression of mutual reward preferences. Critically, in a reward magnitude discrimination task in the same experimental setup, both sham-operated and amygdala-lesioned animals preferred large over small rewards, suggesting that amygdala lesion effects were restricted to decision making in social contexts, leaving self-oriented behavior unaffected. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Population genetic segmentation of MHC-correlated perfume preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hämmerli, A; Schweisgut, C; Kaegi, M

    2012-04-01

    It has become difficult to find a matching perfume. An overwhelming number of 300 new perfumes launch each year, and marketing campaigns target pre-defined groups based on gender, age or income rather than on individual preferences. Recent evidence for a genetic basis of perfume preferences, however, could be the starting point for a novel population genetic approach to better match perfumes with people's preferences. With a total of 116 participants genotyped for alleles of three loci of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), the aim of this study was to test whether common MHC alleles could be used as genetic markers to segment a given population into preference types. Significant deviations from random expectations for a set of 10 common perfume ingredients indicate how such segmentation could be achieved. In addition, preference patterns of participants confronted with images that contained a sexual communication context significantly differed in their ratings for some of the scents compared with participants confronted with images of perfume bottles. This strongly supports the assumption that genetically correlated perfume preferences evolved in the context of sexual communication. The results are discussed in the light of perfume customization. © 2011 The Authors. ICS © 2011 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  5. Relationship between exercise heart rate and music tempo preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karageorghis, Costas I; Jones, Leighton; Low, Daniel C

    2006-06-01

    The present study examined the predicted positive and linear relationship (Iwanaga, 1995a, 1995b) between exercise heart rate and music tempo preference. Initially, 128 undergraduate students (M age = 20.0 years, SD = 0.9) were surveyed to establish their three favorite music artists. A separate experimental group of 29 undergraduates (M age = 20.3 years, SD = 1.2) selected the music of a single artist from the three highest-rated artists from the earlier survey. They reported their preference for slow, medium, and fast tempo selections from each artist for three treadmill walking conditions at 40%, 60%, and 75% maximal heart rate reserve. A mixed-model 3 x 3 x 2 (Exercise Intensity x Music Tempo x Gender) analysis of variance was used to analyze the data. Results indicated there was no three-way interaction for music preference. There was, however, a significant (p Music Tempo (partial eta2 = .09) and a significant (p effect for music tempo, with large differences evident between preference for medium versus slow tempo and fast versus slow tempo music at all exercise intensities (partial eta2 = .78). Participants reported a preference for both medium and fast tempo music at low and moderate exercise intensities and for fast tempo music at high intensity. Only partial support was found for the expected linear relationship between exercise intensity and music tempo preference.

  6. Preference direction study of Job’s-tears ice cream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiwat Wangcharoen

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Job's-tears (Coix lachryma-jobi L. is a kind of cereal commonly used in Asia as food and medicine, but it is still not widely consumed in Thailand. Four prototype products of Job’s-tears ice cream were developed by varying 2 levels of glucose syrup (16 and 32% of Job's-tears used and coconut milk (50 and 100 % of Job's-tears used. Their sensory attribute profiles were evaluated by 3 groups of 10 selected panelists using Ratio profile test (RPT, and their acceptances, hedonic scores, were evaluated by 100 consumers. Results showed that there were significant effects of coconut milk quantity on several attributes, such as appearance (whiteness, texture (hardness, smoothness, and flavour (coconut milk aroma, sweetness, saltiness, but the effect of glucose syrup quantity was significant on hardness only. Acceptance data were analyzed by cluster analysis to find out the difference of preference directions and 3 clusters (n1 = 39, n2 = 25, n3 = 36 were found. The first cluster preferred Job's tears ice cream containing high glucose syrup and low coconut milk, whilst the second preferred high level of only one of these two ingredients, and the third preferred high level of both ingredients. External preference maps were created from RPT and acceptance data to express the preference direction of each cluster.

  7. Circadian Phase Preference in Pediatric Bipolar Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerri L. Kim

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Pediatric bipolar disorder (BD rates have notably increased over the past three decades. Given the significant morbidity and mortality associated with BD, efforts are needed to identify factors useful in earlier detection to help address this serious public health concern. Sleep is particularly important to consider given the sequelae of disrupted sleep on normative functioning and that sleep is included in diagnostic criteria for both Major Depressive and Manic Episodes. Here, we examine one component of sleep—i.e., circadian phase preference with the behavioral construct of morningness/eveningness (M/E. In comparing 30 BD and 45 typically developing control (TDC participants, ages 7–17 years, on the Morningness-Eveningness Scale for Children (MESC, no between-group differences emerged. Similar results were found when comparing three groups (BD−ADHD; BD+ADHD; TDC. Consistent with data available on circadian phase preference in adults with BD, however, we found that BD adolescents, ages 13 years and older, endorsed significantly greater eveningness compared to their TDC peers. While the current findings are limited by reliance on subjective report and the high-rate of comorbid ADHD among the BD group, this finding that BD teens demonstrate an exaggerated shift towards eveningness than would be developmentally expected is important. Future studies should compare the circadian rhythms across the lifespan for individuals diagnosed with BD, as well as identify the point at which BD youth part ways with their healthy peers in terms of phase preference. In addition, given our BD sample was overall euthymic, it may be that M/E is more state vs. trait specific in latency age youth. Further work would benefit from assessing circadian functioning using a combination of rating forms and laboratory-based measures. Improved understanding of sleep in BD may identify behavioral targets for inclusion in prevention and intervention protocols.

  8. Infants prefer female body phenotypes; infant girls prefer they have an hourglass shape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerianne M Alexander

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Adolescents and adults show preferences for male and female body shapes consistent with evolutionary theories of reproductive fitness and mate selection. However, when these preferences for females with narrow waists (i.e., 0.7 waist-to-hip ratio and men with broad shoulders (i.e., mesomorphic body shape emerge during the lifespan is largely unknown. To address this knowledge gap, eye-movements were tracked in 144 infants (3 to 18 months of age during computer presentation of three-dimensional human figures varying in body features thought relevant for reproductive success (e.g., secondary sex characteristics, waist-to-hip ratio. When presented with pairs of figures differing in apparent sex, male and female infants looked significantly longer at the female figure compared to the male figure, a new finding that extends previous research showing preferences for female faces in infancy. When presented with same-sex figures differing in characteristics associated with mate value, male and female infants looked longer at a low mate value male (i.e., an endomorphic body type compared to a high mate value male (i.e., a mesomorphic body type, a finding that replicates the results of previous research. In addition, the novel use of high and low mate value female figures showed a sex difference in visual attention, such that female infants looked longer at the high mate value female figure compared to the low mate female figure whereas male infants showed the opposite pattern of results. In sum, these findings suggest that infants generally do not possess preferences for adult-defined attractive male body shapes. However, infant girls’ greater attention to a female figure with an adult-preferred waist-to-hip ratio raises the possibility that evolved preferences for 0.7 waist-to-hip ratio influence girls’ later preference for toys representing females with an hourglass shape, perhaps supporting elaboration of adult social behaviors that enhance

  9. Women's Stereotypes and Consumer Preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Velandia Morales

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available According to The Ambivalent Sexism Theory (Glick y Fiske, 1996 there are distinct stereotypes of women that men express different attitudes. Among them, the housewife, sexy women and executive women are the clearest ones. One hundred people participated in the present study in order to test the relationship between the female stereotypes, their level of influence and prestige and the level of preference for a commercial product (described in female and male terms. The results showed that sexy women is more associated with the masculine description, whereas the executive women is more associated to the feminine product description, and in both cases the housewife is the least associated with the two different descriptions. It was also found that the influence and the women prestige mediated the relationship between the stereotypes and the preference shown for the product described in feminine terms

  10. Preferences for Simultaneous Polydrug Use:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Jeanette; Østergaard, Stine Vernstrøm; Fletcher, Adam

    2016-01-01

    among those reporting drug use, according to sociodemographics, alcohol intake, frequency of intoxication, and smoking. Illicit drug use was more prevalent among young adults in England than Denmark. The difference was smallest for cannabis use: Lifetime cannabis use is 66% in England and 58% in Denmark......Cross-national surveys of young adults’ simultaneous polydrug use (SPU) are rare, as measuring polydrug use requires multiple questions capturing the timing, sequence, and dosage of mixing drugs. This study proposes a new way of measuring SPU by examining how preferences for simultaneous polydrug...... use (PSPU) vary among club/bar-goers in two European countries, Denmark and England, typically cited as exemplars of the normalization of illegal drug use. The study considers the utility of the normalization thesis for understanding preferences for polydrug use in the European nighttime economy...

  11. Cultural legacies and political preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siroky, David S.; Mueller, Sean; Hechter, Michael

    2017-01-01

    crucial in explaining the decision to secede, but not in a conventional pocketbook manner. To examine this theory, we analyze the 2013 referendum on the secession of the Jura Bernois region from the Canton of Berne in Switzerland, using municipal level census and referendum data. The results lend support......, ecological constraints such as geography and topography affect social interaction with like-minded individuals. On the basis of both these political preferences and ecological constraints, individuals then make rational choices about the desirability of secession. Instrumental considerations are therefore...... to the theory and suggest one way in which the politics of identity, based on factors like language and religion, can be fused with the politics of interest (preferences for more or less state intervention into the polity and economy) to better understand group behavior....

  12. Ratio Bias and Policy Preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rasmus Tue

    2017-01-01

    Numbers permeate modern political communication. While current scholarship on framing effects has focused on the persuasive effects of words and arguments, this article shows that framing of numbers can also substantially affect policy preferences. Such effects are caused by ratio bias, which...... is a general tendency to focus on numerators and pay insufficient attention to denominators in ratios. Using a population-based survey experiment, I demonstrate how differently framed but logically equivalent representations of the exact same numerical value can have large effects on citizens’ preferences...... regarding salient political issues such as education and taxes. Furthermore, the effects of numerical framing are found across most groups of the population, largely regardless of their political predisposition and their general ability to understand and use numerical information. These findings have...

  13. Predictive Validity and Adjustment of Ideal Partner Preferences Across the Transition Into Romantic Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlach, Tanja M; Arslan, Ruben C; Schultze, Thomas; Reinhard, Selina K; Penke, Lars

    2017-09-18

    Although empirical research has investigated what we ideally seek in a romantic partner for decades, the crucial question of whether ideal partner preferences actually guide our mating decisions in real life has remained largely unanswered. One reason for this is the lack of designs that assess individuals' ideal partner preferences before entering a relationship and then follow up on them over an extended period. In the Göttingen Mate Choice Study (GMCS), a preregistered, large-scale online study, we used such a naturalistic prospective design. We investigated partner preferences across 4 preference domains in a large sample of predominantly heterosexual singles (N = 763, aged 18-40 years) and tracked these individuals across a period of 5 months upon a possible transition into romantic relationships. Attesting to their predictive validity, partner preferences prospectively predicted the characteristics of later partners. This was equally true for both sexes, except for vitality-attractiveness where men's preferences were more predictive of their later partners' standing on this dimension than women's. Self-perceived mate value did not moderate the preference-partner characteristics relations. Preferences proved to be relatively stable across the 5 months interval, yet were less stable for those who entered a relationship. Subgroup analyses using a newly developed indicator of preference adjustment toward (vs. away from) partner characteristics revealed that participants adjusted their preferences downward when partners fell short of initial preferences, but showed no consistent adjustment when partners exceeded them. Results and implications are discussed against the background of ongoing controversies in mate choice and romantic relationship research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Impact of discussion on preferences elicited in a group setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milne Ruairidh

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The completeness of preferences is assumed as one of the axioms of expected utility theory but has been subject to little empirical study. Methods Fifteen non-health professionals was recruited and familiarised with the standard gamble technique. The group then met five times over six months and preferences were elicited independently on 41 scenarios. After individual valuation, the group discussed the scenarios, following which preferences could be changed. Changes made were described and summary measures (mean and median before and after discussion compared using paired t test and Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test. Semi-structured telephone interviews were carried out to explore attitudes to discussing preferences. These were transcribed, read by two investigators and emergent themes described. Results Sixteen changes (3.6% were made to preferences by seven (47% of the fifteen members. The difference between individual preference values before and after discussion ranged from -0.025 to 0.45. The average effect on the group mean was 0.0053. No differences before and after discussion were statistically significant. The group valued discussion highly and suggested it brought four main benefits: reassurance; improved procedural performance; increased group cohesion; satisfying curiosity. Conclusion The hypothesis that preferences are incomplete cannot be rejected for a proportion of respondents. However, brief discussion did not result in substantial number of changes to preferences and these did not have significant impact on summary values for the group, suggesting that incompleteness, if present, may not have an important effect on cost-utility analyses.

  15. Economic Beliefs and Party Preference

    OpenAIRE

    Michael W.M. Roos; Andreas Orland

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a questionnaire study used to explore the economic understanding, normative positions along the egalitarian-libertarian spectrum, and the party preferences of a large student sample. The aim of the study is both to find socio-economic determinants of normative and positive beliefs and to explore how beliefs about the economy influence party support. We find that positive beliefs of lay people differ systematically from those of economic experts. Positive beli...

  16. Women's Stereotypes and Consumer Preferences

    OpenAIRE

    Velandia Morales, Andrea; Universidad de Granada; Rodríguez-Bailón, Rosa; Universidad de Granada

    2011-01-01

    According to The Ambivalent Sexism Theory (Glick y Fiske, 1996) there are distinct stereotypes of women that men express different attitudes. Among them, the housewife, sexy women and executive women are the clearest ones. One hundred people participated in the present study in order to test the relationship between the female stereotypes, their level of influence and prestige and the level of preference for a commercial product (described in female and male terms). The results showed that se...

  17. Community detection using preference networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasgin, Mursel; Bingol, Haluk O.

    2018-04-01

    Community detection is the task of identifying clusters or groups of nodes in a network where nodes within the same group are more connected with each other than with nodes in different groups. It has practical uses in identifying similar functions or roles of nodes in many biological, social and computer networks. With the availability of very large networks in recent years, performance and scalability of community detection algorithms become crucial, i.e. if time complexity of an algorithm is high, it cannot run on large networks. In this paper, we propose a new community detection algorithm, which has a local approach and is able to run on large networks. It has a simple and effective method; given a network, algorithm constructs a preference network of nodes where each node has a single outgoing edge showing its preferred node to be in the same community with. In such a preference network, each connected component is a community. Selection of the preferred node is performed using similarity based metrics of nodes. We use two alternatives for this purpose which can be calculated in 1-neighborhood of nodes, i.e. number of common neighbors of selector node and its neighbors and, the spread capability of neighbors around the selector node which is calculated by the gossip algorithm of Lind et.al. Our algorithm is tested on both computer generated LFR networks and real-life networks with ground-truth community structure. It can identify communities accurately in a fast way. It is local, scalable and suitable for distributed execution on large networks.

  18. Effects of floral scents and their dietary experiences on the feeding preference in the blowfly, Phormia regina

    OpenAIRE

    Toru eMaeda; Miwako eTamotsu; Ryohei eYamaoka; Mamiko eOzaki

    2015-01-01

    AbstractThe flowers of different plant species have diverse scents with varied chemical compositions. Hence, every floral scent does not uniformly affect insect feeding preferences. The blowfly, Phormia regina, is a nectar feeder, and when a fly feeds on flower nectar, its olfactory organs, antennae, and maxillary palps are exposed to the scent. Generally, feeding preference is influenced by food flavor, which relies on both taste and odor. Therefore, the flies perceive the sweet taste of nec...

  19. With a Little Help from Our Friends: The Impact of Cross-group Friendship on Acculturation Preferences

    OpenAIRE

    Zagefka, Hanna; Lay, Siugmin; Astudillo, Jorge; Lickel, Brian; Brown, Rupert; Tropp, Linda; Gonzalez, Roberto; Bernardino, Michelle; Hässler, Tabea

    2018-01-01

    Despite extensive research on intergroup contact and acculturation, our understanding of how contact affects receiving society members' preferences for acculturation orientation of immigrants over time is still relatively rudimentary. This longitudinal study examined how perceived group similarity and outgroup trust mediate the effects of cross-group friendship on acculturation preferences (culture maintenance and culture adoption) of the receiving society. It was predicted that cross-group f...

  20. Preferred and Actual Relative Height among Homosexual Male Partners Vary with Preferred Dominance and Sex Role

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentova, Jaroslava Varella; Stulp, Gert; Třebický, Vít; Havlíček, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has shown repeatedly that human stature influences mate preferences and mate choice in heterosexuals. In general, it has been shown that tall men and average height women are most preferred by the opposite sex, and that both sexes prefer to be in a relationship where the man is taller than the woman. However, little is known about such partner preferences in homosexual individuals. Based on an online survey of a large sample of non-heterosexual men (N = 541), we found that the majority of men prefer a partner slightly taller than themselves. However, these preferences were dependent on the participant’s own height, such that taller men preferred shorter partners, whereas shorter men preferred taller partners. We also examined whether height preferences predicted the preference for dominance and the adoption of particular sexual roles within a couple. Although a large proportion of men preferred to be in an egalitarian relationship with respect to preferred dominance (although not with respect to preferred sexual role), men that preferred a more dominant and more “active” sexual role preferred shorter partners, whereas those that preferred a more submissive and more “passive” sexual role preferred taller partners. Our results indicate that preferences for relative height in homosexual men are modulated by own height, preferred dominance and sex role, and do not simply resemble those of heterosexual women or men. PMID:24466136