WorldWideScience

Sample records for significant paradigm shift

  1. Paradigm Shifts in Ophthalmic Diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebag, J; Sadun, Alfredo A; Pierce, Eric A

    2016-08-01

    Future advances in ophthalmology will see a paradigm shift in diagnostics from a focus on dysfunction and disease to better measures of psychophysical function and health. Practical methods to define genotypes will be increasingly important and non-invasive nanotechnologies are needed to detect molecular changes that predate histopathology. This is not a review nor meant to be comprehensive. Specific topics have been selected to illustrate the principles of important paradigm shifts that will influence the future of ophthalmic diagnostics. It is our impression that future evaluation of vision will go beyond visual acuity to assess ocular health in terms of psychophysical function. The definition of disease will incorporate genotype into what has historically been a phenotype-centric discipline. Non-invasive nanotechnologies will enable a paradigm shift from disease detection on a cellular level to a sub-cellular molecular level. Vision can be evaluated beyond visual acuity by measuring contrast sensitivity, color vision, and macular function, as these provide better insights into the impact of aging and disease. Distortions can be quantified and the psychophysical basis of vision can be better evaluated than in the past by designing tests that assess particular macular cell function(s). Advances in our understanding of the genetic basis of eye diseases will enable better characterization of ocular health and disease. Non-invasive nanotechnologies can assess molecular changes in the lens, vitreous, and macula that predate visible pathology. Oxygen metabolism and circulatory physiology are measurable indices of ocular health that can detect variations of physiology and early disease. This overview of paradigm shifts in ophthalmology suggests that the future will see significant improvements in ophthalmic diagnostics. The selected topics illustrate the principles of these paradigm shifts and should serve as a guide to further research and development. Indeed

  2. Shifting Sugars and Shifting Paradigms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegal, Mark L.

    2015-01-01

    No organism lives in a constant environment. Based on classical studies in molecular biology, many have viewed microbes as following strict rules for shifting their metabolic activities when prevailing conditions change. For example, students learn that the bacterium Escherichia coli makes proteins for digesting lactose only when lactose is available and glucose, a better sugar, is not. However, recent studies, including three PLOS Biology papers examining sugar utilization in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, show that considerable heterogeneity in response to complex environments exists within and between populations. These results join similar recent results in other organisms that suggest that microbial populations anticipate predictable environmental changes and hedge their bets against unpredictable ones. The classical view therefore represents but one special case in a range of evolutionary adaptations to environmental changes that all organisms face. PMID:25688600

  3. Shifting sugars and shifting paradigms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark L Siegal

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available No organism lives in a constant environment. Based on classical studies in molecular biology, many have viewed microbes as following strict rules for shifting their metabolic activities when prevailing conditions change. For example, students learn that the bacterium Escherichia coli makes proteins for digesting lactose only when lactose is available and glucose, a better sugar, is not. However, recent studies, including three PLOS Biology papers examining sugar utilization in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, show that considerable heterogeneity in response to complex environments exists within and between populations. These results join similar recent results in other organisms that suggest that microbial populations anticipate predictable environmental changes and hedge their bets against unpredictable ones. The classical view therefore represents but one special case in a range of evolutionary adaptations to environmental changes that all organisms face.

  4. Shifting the paradigm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiss, Katalin; Brozik, Anna; Kucsma, Nora

    2012-01-01

    ABCB6, a member of the adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette (ABC) transporter family, has been proposed to be responsible for the mitochondrial uptake of porphyrins. Here we show that ABCB6 is a glycoprotein present in the membrane of mature erythrocytes and in exosomes released from reticuloc...... paradigm linking the expression and function of ABCB6 to mitochondria....

  5. Gas transmission : a paradigm shift

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornelson, D.W.

    1997-01-01

    The evolution of energy markets in North America was discussed. The investment opportunities that are possible in a deregulated energy market, be it in production or in the generation of energy commodities, in the development of midstream infrastructure, or in the provision of energy services, were outlined. Deregulation of crude oil, natural gas and electricity has resulted in significant changes in the structure of energy markets and the way in which customers are served. One of the advantages of competition regarding power generation is that it has turned energy into a commodity which has resulted in greater customer choice and efficiency. As one example of midstream infrastructure development, the Alliance Pipeline project was described. This project was conceived as a means to enhance the value of western Canadian natural gas. The 1,900 mile pipeline will run from British Columbia, through Alberta into Chicago where it will interconnect with the North American gas transmission grid. The pipeline is an efficient means of transporting energy from Western Canada to North American markets, and Alliance, as a lowest cost transporter, will continue to put pressure on the traditional infrastructure to become even more competitive at the margin. As such, Alliance represents a paradigm shift in energy transportation, and serves as an excellent example of the type of investment opportunity that a deregulated market can provide. It was suggested that innovation and competition in a deregulated North American energy market will continue to increase. As electricity is deregulated, the energy market will respond more quickly to changes in supply and demand than it did in the past, in an effort to satisfy the needs of investors and customers. This will provide increased opportunities for restructuring and further competition

  6. The Prerequisites for a Degrowth Paradigm Shift

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch-Hansen, Hubert

    2018-01-01

    What would it take for a degrowth paradigm shift to take place? Drawing on contemporary critical political economy scholarship, this article identifies four prerequisites for socio-economic paradigm shifts: deep crisis, an alternative political project, a comprehensive coalition of social forces...... currently facing humanity. On the other hand, the prospects for a degrowth paradigm shift remain bleak: unlike political projects that became hegemonic in the past, degrowth has neither support from a comprehensive coalition of social forces nor any consent to its agenda among the broader population....

  7. Explaining (Missing) Regulator Paradigm Shifts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wigger, Angela; Buch-Hansen, Hubert

    2014-01-01

    The global financial and economic crisis has prompted some scholars to suggest that a fundamental regulatory shift away from neoliberalism will take place – both in general and in the field of EU competition regulation. This paper shows that so far no radical break with the neoliberal type...... regulation after the crisis in the 1970s, the paper argues that the preconditions for a fundamental shift in this issue area are not present this time around. Several reasons account for this: the current crisis has been construed by economic and political elites as a crisis within and not of neoliberal...

  8. Cancer: shift of the paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenstein, Anatoly V

    2008-12-01

    Cancer is usually considered to be a by-product of design limitations of a multicellular organism and its intrinsic fallibility. However, recent data prompt a revision of some established notions about carcinogenesis and form a new paradigm of carcinogenesis as a highly conserved biological phenomenon - a programmed death of an organism. This altruistic program, which is unleashed when mutagenesis surpasses a certain critical threshold, gives a population the important benefit acting as a guardian of the gene pool against the spread of certain mutant genes. A growing body of evidence supports this point of view: (i) epigenetic changes leading to cancer arise early, simultaneously in many cells and look like deterministic regulation; (ii) concept of cancer stem cell suggests a view of carcinogenesis not as vague transformation but as well known differentiation; (iii) tumor/host relations usually perceived as antagonistic are, in reality, synergistic; (iv) death of an individual from cancer is predetermined and results apparently from a specific activity (killer function) of cancer cell and (v) evolutionary conservation indicates that cancer comes with a general advantage that explains its evolutionary success. A holistic approach to carcinogenesis suggests new avenues of research and new therapeutic strategy.

  9. The Underlying Social Dynamics of Paradigm Shifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Sickert, Carlos; Cosmelli, Diego; Claro, Francisco; Fuentes, Miguel Angel

    2015-01-01

    We develop here a multi-agent model of the creation of knowledge (scientific progress or technological evolution) within a community of researchers devoted to such endeavors. In the proposed model, agents learn in a physical-technological landscape, and weight is attached to both individual search and social influence. We find that the combination of these two forces together with random experimentation can account for both i) marginal change, that is, periods of normal science or refinements on the performance of a given technology (and in which the community stays in the neighborhood of the current paradigm); and ii) radical change, which takes the form of scientific paradigm shifts (or discontinuities in the structure of performance of a technology) that is observed as a swift migration of the knowledge community towards the new and superior paradigm. The efficiency of the search process is heavily dependent on the weight that agents posit on social influence. The occurrence of a paradigm shift becomes more likely when each member of the community attaches a small but positive weight to the experience of his/her peers. For this parameter region, nevertheless, a conservative force is exerted by the representatives of the current paradigm. However, social influence is not strong enough to seriously hamper individual discovery, and can act so as to empower successful individual pioneers who have conquered the new and superior paradigm.

  10. The Underlying Social Dynamics of Paradigm Shifts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Rodriguez-Sickert

    Full Text Available We develop here a multi-agent model of the creation of knowledge (scientific progress or technological evolution within a community of researchers devoted to such endeavors. In the proposed model, agents learn in a physical-technological landscape, and weight is attached to both individual search and social influence. We find that the combination of these two forces together with random experimentation can account for both i marginal change, that is, periods of normal science or refinements on the performance of a given technology (and in which the community stays in the neighborhood of the current paradigm; and ii radical change, which takes the form of scientific paradigm shifts (or discontinuities in the structure of performance of a technology that is observed as a swift migration of the knowledge community towards the new and superior paradigm. The efficiency of the search process is heavily dependent on the weight that agents posit on social influence. The occurrence of a paradigm shift becomes more likely when each member of the community attaches a small but positive weight to the experience of his/her peers. For this parameter region, nevertheless, a conservative force is exerted by the representatives of the current paradigm. However, social influence is not strong enough to seriously hamper individual discovery, and can act so as to empower successful individual pioneers who have conquered the new and superior paradigm.

  11. Increasing Product Confidence-Shifting Paradigms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Marla; Kashyap, Vishal; Cheung, Mee-Shew

    2015-01-01

    Leaders in the pharmaceutical, medical device, and food industries expressed a unilateral concern over product confidence throughout the total product lifecycle, an unsettling fact for these leaders to manage given that their products affect the lives of millions of people each year. Fueled by the heparin incident of intentional adulteration in 2008, initial efforts for increasing product confidence were focused on improving the confidence of incoming materials, with a belief that supplier performance must be the root cause. As in the heparin case, concern over supplier performance extended deep into the supply chain to include suppliers of the suppliers-which is often a blind spot for pharmaceutical, device, and food manufacturers. Resolved to address the perceived lack of supplier performance, these U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-regulated industries began to adopt the supplier relationship management strategy, developed by the automotive industry, that emphasizes "management" of suppliers for the betterment of the manufacturers. Current product and supplier management strategies, however, have not led to a significant improvement in product confidence. As a result of the enduring concern by industry leaders over the lack of product confidence, Xavier University launched the Integrity of Supply Initiative in 2012 with a team of industry leaders and FDA officials. Through a methodical research approach, data generated by the pharmaceutical, medical device, and food manufacturers surprisingly pointed to themselves as a source of the lack of product confidence, and revealed that manufacturers either unknowingly increase the potential for error or can control/prevent many aspects of product confidence failure. It is only through this paradigm shift that manufacturers can work collaboratively with their suppliers as equal partners, instead of viewing their suppliers as "lesser" entities needing to be controlled. The basis of this shift provides manufacturers

  12. Introduction: Science, Sexuality, and Psychotherapy: Shifting Paradigms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerbone, Armand R

    2017-08-01

    This introduction presents an overview of the current issue (73, 8) of Journal of Clinical Psychology: In Session. This issue features a series of articles, with clinical cases, each presented to illustrate the challenges faced by individuals and couples whose sexual and gender identities and expressions do not comport with traditional and cultural norms. These articles also document the challenges to the therapists who treat them. Considered individually, each article underscores the need to recognize the importance of evidence in guiding psychotherapy in cases involving sexuality. The discussions in each article offer recommendations meant to help and guide psychotherapists. Considered collectively, they raise important questions and considerations about shifting paradigms of human sexuality. Implications for assessment and treatment of cases involving sexuality and gender identity are discussed and recommended. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. TIPS (trigger an IIF paradigm shift)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilcup, P.E. Glen [Intel Corporation, MS: F9-016, 4100 Sara Road, Rio Rancho, NM 87124 (United States)]. E-mail: glen.w.kilcup@intel.com; Hickox, Dick [Intel Corporation, MS: F9-016, 4100 Sara Road, Rio Rancho, NM 87124 (United States); Reynaga, Adolfo [Intel Corporation, MS: F9-016, 4100 Sara Road, Rio Rancho, NM 87124 (United States)

    2007-04-11

    Challenge: New Mexico Corporate Services (NMCS) recordable injuries have been averaging 2-4 per year for the last 5 years with no statistical improvement. However, we believe all NM employees must go home incident and injury free every day and just as healthy as they came to work. In addition, we have received feedback from several sources, that indicates some employees are reluctant to report injuries. These indicators showed us that continuing our current strategies, making incremental improvement and changes, would not give us the improvement desired. We needed a paradigm shift to get everyone completely engaged in the IIF (Incident and Injury Free) culture, in order to achieve true IIF results. Methods/Strategies: We formed a small (3-person) taskforce consisting of safety representatives from EHS, Site Services and CS Operations. We reviewed 5 years worth of data to determine what was injuring our people. We also decided to review all injuries, not simply those classified as recordable by OSHA standards. First we identified the types of injury information needed to get a true picture of our safety issues. We analyzed IRB (Incident Review Board) data showing us the following factors and whether any of them contributed to the injury: - Date - Incident Description - Severity - Root Cause - Type of Injury - Season - Work Group/Shift - Area - Improper evaluation of hazard - Inadequate work procedures - Incorrect Mental Model - Inadequate PPE Requirement - Failure to Follow or Unaware of PPE Requirement - Shortcut or Schedule Pressure - Last or First Day of Shift or Adjacent to Holiday - OT - Aggravate Existing Condition - Inadequate Training or Passdown - Experience in Task - Corrective Action Taken - Overall Quality of Response. Once this information was collected for all injuries in an Excel file, we graphed it several ways to help reveal trends: - Shift 7 had double the injuries of shift 5 - Night shift injuries were relatively high but lower than Shift 7 -Shift

  14. TIPS (trigger an IIF paradigm shift)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilcup, P.E. Glen; Hickox, Dick; Reynaga, Adolfo

    2007-01-01

    Challenge: New Mexico Corporate Services (NMCS) recordable injuries have been averaging 2-4 per year for the last 5 years with no statistical improvement. However, we believe all NM employees must go home incident and injury free every day and just as healthy as they came to work. In addition, we have received feedback from several sources, that indicates some employees are reluctant to report injuries. These indicators showed us that continuing our current strategies, making incremental improvement and changes, would not give us the improvement desired. We needed a paradigm shift to get everyone completely engaged in the IIF (Incident and Injury Free) culture, in order to achieve true IIF results. Methods/Strategies: We formed a small (3-person) taskforce consisting of safety representatives from EHS, Site Services and CS Operations. We reviewed 5 years worth of data to determine what was injuring our people. We also decided to review all injuries, not simply those classified as recordable by OSHA standards. First we identified the types of injury information needed to get a true picture of our safety issues. We analyzed IRB (Incident Review Board) data showing us the following factors and whether any of them contributed to the injury: - Date - Incident Description - Severity - Root Cause - Type of Injury - Season - Work Group/Shift - Area - Improper evaluation of hazard - Inadequate work procedures - Incorrect Mental Model - Inadequate PPE Requirement - Failure to Follow or Unaware of PPE Requirement - Shortcut or Schedule Pressure - Last or First Day of Shift or Adjacent to Holiday - OT - Aggravate Existing Condition - Inadequate Training or Passdown - Experience in Task - Corrective Action Taken - Overall Quality of Response. Once this information was collected for all injuries in an Excel file, we graphed it several ways to help reveal trends: - Shift 7 had double the injuries of shift 5 - Night shift injuries were relatively high but lower than Shift 7 -Shift

  15. TIPS (trigger an IIF paradigm shift).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilcup P E, Glen; Hickox, Dick; Reynaga, Adolfo

    2007-04-11

    New Mexico Corporate Services (NMCS) recordable injuries have been averaging 2-4 per year for the last 5 years with no statistical improvement. However, we believe all NM employees must go home incident and injury free every day and just as healthy as they came to work. In addition, we have received feedback from several sources, that indicates some employees are reluctant to report injuries. These indicators showed us that continuing our current strategies, making incremental improvement and changes, would not give us the improvement desired. We needed a paradigm shift to get everyone completely engaged in the IIF (Incident & Injury Free) culture, in order to achieve true IIF results. We formed a small (3-person) taskforce consisting of safety representatives from EHS, Site Services and CS Operations. We reviewed 5 years worth of data to determine what was injuring our people. We also decided to review all injuries, not simply those classified as recordable by OSHA standards. First we identified the types of injury information needed to get a true picture of our safety issues. We analyzed IRB (Incident Review Board) data showing us the following factors and whether any of them contributed to the injury: - Date - Incident Description - Severity - Root Cause - Type of Injury - Season - Work Group/Shift - Area - Improper evaluation of hazard - Inadequate work procedures - Incorrect Mental Model - Inadequate PPE Requirement - Failure to Follow or Unaware of PPE Requirement - Shortcut or Schedule Pressure - Last or First Day of Shift or Adjacent to Holiday - OT - Aggravate Existing Condition - Inadequate Training or Passdown - Experience in Task - Corrective Action Taken - Overall Quality of Response. Once this information was collected for all injuries in an Excel file, we graphed it several ways to help reveal trends: Shift 7 had double the injuries of shift 5. Night shift injuries were relatively high but lower than Shift 7. Shift 5 had no severe (recordable

  16. Paradigm Shift in Language Teaching and Language Teacher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Ferreira do Vale Borges

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this article, I intend to conduct a short literature review and discussion about paradigm shift in language teaching and language teacher education from Cartesian to the complexity paradigm. For that, I use the Kuhnian notion of scientific revolution to present a short compilation of works related to paradigm shift in different sciences, including psychology, linguistics and, more emphatically, applied linguistics. The main proposal is to show the evolutions of paradigm shift in language and social sciences and its impact on the emergence of the complexity paradigm in language teaching and language teacher education fields.

  17. Will Mobile Learning Bring a Paradigm Shift in Higher Education?

    OpenAIRE

    Rajasingham, Lalita

    2011-01-01

    In the light of technology-driven social change that creates new challenges for universities, this paper considers the potential of mobile learning as a subset of e-learning to effect a paradigm shift in higher education. Universities face exponential growth in demand for higher education, significant decreases in government funding for education, a changing in understanding of the nature of knowledge, changing student demographics and expectations, and global competition. At the same time un...

  18. Researching Style: Epistemology, Paradigm Shifts and Research Interest Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayner, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    This paper identifies the need for a deliberate approach to theory building in the context of researching cognitive and learning style differences in human performance. A case for paradigm shift and a focus upon research epistemology is presented, building upon a recent critique of style research. A proposal for creating paradigm shift is made,…

  19. Is This the Paradigm Shift We Need?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirvis, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Dr. Woocher's essay, states Mirvis, is seminal in the field of Jewish education. It proposes a new paradigm for Jewish education in North America. This proposed paradigm is supported by a comprehensive multi-disciplinary research drawing on literature from education, philosophy, history, sociology, psychology, and economics. The essay reflects a…

  20. Indian Science Culture Needs a Paradigm Shift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Om P

    2017-06-01

    am sure such a cultural change and paradigm shift from the status quo does not need extra funds and can be surely ushered in without money.

  1. Attention shifts the language network reflecting paradigm presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin eKollndorfer

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI is a reliable and non-invasive method with which to localize language function in pre-surgical planning. In clinical practice, visual stimulus presentation is often difficult or impossible, due to the patient’s restricted language or attention abilities. Therefore, our aim was to investigate modality-specific differences in visual and auditory stimulus presentation.Methods: Ten healthy subjects participated in an fMRI study comprising two experiments with visual and auditory stimulus presentation. In both experiments, two language paradigms (one for language comprehension and one for language production used in clinical practice were investigated. In addition to standard data analysis by the means of the general linear model (GLM, independent component analysis (ICA was performed to achieve more detailed information on language processing networks.Results: GLM analysis revealed modality-specific brain activation for both language paradigms for the contrast visual > auditory in the area of the intraparietal sulcus and the hippocampus, two areas related to attention and working memory. Using group ICA, a language network was detected for both paradigms independent of stimulus presentation modality. The investigation of language lateralization revealed no significant variations. Visually presented stimuli further activated an attention-shift network, which could not be identified for the auditory presented language.Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that the visually presented language stimuli additionally activate an attention-shift network. These findings will provide important information for pre-surgical planning in order to preserve reading abilities after brain surgery, significantly improving surgical outcomes. Our findings suggest that the presentation modality for language paradigms should be adapted on behalf of individual indication.

  2. School on Cloud: Towards a Paradigm Shift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutsopoulos, Kostis C.; Kotsanis, Yannis C.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the basic concept of the EU Network School on Cloud: Namely, that present conditions require a new teaching and learning paradigm based on the integrated dimension of education, when considering the use of cloud computing. In other words, it is suggested that there is a need for an integrated approach which is simultaneously…

  3. Critical Review--Outsourcing: A Paradigm Shift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakabadse, Nada; Kakabadse, Andrew

    2000-01-01

    Discusses trends in outsourcing, provision of goods and services to an organization that were previously delivered in house. Addresses outsourcing in the public sector, advantages and disadvantages, implications for human resource development, and the shift to the new "psychological contract" between employers and employees. (Contains…

  4. Emotional Branding The shift in branding paradigm

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, Mei Yan

    2004-01-01

    An extensive amount of academic papers have acknowledged that consumers’ decision making process involves not only tangible but also intangible attributes (Copeland, 1925; Sharitt, 1992; Paul & Olson, 1994; Antonides & Raaij, 1998; Aakar, 1991; Kotler, 1996; Zaltman, 2003) However, the power of emotion has been largely neglected by most companies in the past few decades. Recently, as some practitioners recognised the shift of economy and increasing expectation derived from consumers, the bran...

  5. Research by Design: A paradigm shift?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verbeke, Johan

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we will argue that architectural research is becoming more and more important, not only in academia but also in architectural practice. Moreover, a shift is taking place from using and absorbing research methods from other disciplines towards building on the own specific strength...... of the discipline of architecture, i.e. using design and creative practice as a method to generate knowledge and disclose unknown aspects of reality. In doing so, this paper tries to place the Delft ARENA meeting Architectural Research Network Meeting (November 2013) in perspective....

  6. Paradigm shift in psychiatry: what may it involve?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valent, Paul

    2018-02-01

    This study aims to examine the potential nature of an ongoing paradigm shift in psychiatry that has been suggested to be occurring. New findings in traumatology and neuroscience do form a potential platform for a paradigm shift. Prior conflicting paradigms are suggested to be due to biases arising from mental structures themselves. A new wholist perspective is proposed, which makes sense of and incorporates previous paradigms, and coheres recent understanding of right- and left-brain functioning and biopsychosocial traumatic processes and their ramifications. The perspective makes sense of the great variety of post-traumatic manifestations ranging from somatic to meaning-making dysfunctions. The wholist perspective may well be an important step in solidifying a fresh paradigmatic perspective in psychiatry.

  7. Cooperate! A paradigm shift for health equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Wei-Ching; Fraser, Joy H

    2017-02-21

    The role of competition and cooperation in relation to the goal of health equity is examined in this paper. The authors explain why the win-lose mentality associated with avoidable competition is ethically questionable and less effective than cooperation in achieving positive outcomes, particularly as it relates to health and health equity. Competition, which differentiates winners from losers, often with the winner-takes-all reward system, inevitably leads to a few winners and many losers, resulting in social inequality, which, in turn, engenders and perpetuates health inequity.Competitive market-driven approaches to healthcare-brought about by capitalism, neo-liberalization, and globalization, based primarily on a competitive framework-are shown to have contributed to growing inequities with respect to the social determinants of health, and have undermined equal opportunity to access health care and achieve health equity. It is possible to redistribute income and wealth to reduce social inequality, but globalization poses increasing challenges to policy makers. John Stuart Mill provided a passionate, philosophical defense of cooperatives, followed by Karl Polanyi who offered an insightful critique of both state socialism and especially the self-regulating market, thereby opening up the cooperative way of shaping the future. We cite Hannah Arendt's "the banality of evil" to characterize the tragic concept of "ethical fading" witnessed in business and everyday life all over the world, often committed (without thinking and reflecting) by ordinary people under competitive pressures.To promote equity in health for all, we recommend the adoption of a radically new cooperation paradigm, applied whenever possible, to everything in our daily lives.

  8. Paradigm shift from cartography to geo-communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodersen, Lars

    2007-01-01

    This paper argues that the domain of GIS, cartography, geo-information etc. is facing a paradigm shift. The implication of a paradigm shift is a complete and necessary re-definition of e.g. the philosophical foundation of the system, as well as with a major upgrade and readjustment of procedures......-information is actually not possible at all without having a usage (a project identity and a purpose) in mind. Objective and neutral geo-information does not exist. Therefore the overall philosophy of the geo-domain will be that it is a communication discipline....

  9. Misrepresenting Religious Education's Past and Present in Looking Forward: Gearon Using Kuhn's Concepts of Paradigm, Paradigm Shift and Incommensurability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Robert

    2015-01-01

    In looking to the future, some writers on religious education (RE) have attempted to evaluate current approaches to the subject. Some have characterised any significant change in approach as a "paradigm shift", a term derived from Thomas Kuhn's work in the philosophy of science. This article examines the uses of the terms…

  10. Port Harcourt Medical Journal, a paradigm shift | Eke | Port Harcourt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Port Harcourt Medical Journal, a paradigm shift. N Eke. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0795-3038.179439 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors ...

  11. Paradigm shifts in orthodontic treatment with mini-implant anchorage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnny Joung-Lin Liaw

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available After the applications of mini-implant anchorage, the envelope of orthodontic treatment was expanded and some treatment modes were changed because of more predictable tooth movement with empowered anchorage. The author tried to share his experience of TADs applications for clarifying the paradigm shifts of orthodontic treatment assisted with the mini-implant anchorage.

  12. What Philanthropy's Paradigm Shift Means for Higher Ed Fundraising

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCully, George

    2015-01-01

    This is an unprecedented era of human history, in which simultaneous transformations of every technically advanced field are being driven by the powerful technological revolution in information and communications. Technically, these transformative changes are "paradigm shifts"--a distinct kind of historical change in which the governing…

  13. A Paradigm Shift for Educational Administrators: The Total Quality Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hough, M. J.

    This paper reviews the major ideas of the seminal total quality management theorists, such as Deming, Crosby, Juran, Ishikawa, and Imai, to illustrate how total quality management is applicable to education. It is argued that there is a need for a paradigm shift in educational administration. The first part reviews current Australian societal…

  14. Human security from paradigm shift to operationalisation: job description for a human security worker

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glasius, M.

    2008-01-01

    This article shows how human security has functioned as both a paradigm-shifting and a bridging concept, with its most significant implications being, first, the shift from a focus on state security to one on human rights, and, second, the indivisibility of physical and material security. The

  15. Ares V: Shifting the Payload Design Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumrall, Phil; Creech, Steve; Cockrell, Charles E.

    2009-01-01

    NASA is designing the Ares V heavy-lift cargo launch vehicle to send more crew and cargo to more places on the lunar surface than the 1960s-era Saturn V and to provide ongoing support for a permanent lunar outpost. This uncrewed cargo vehicle is designed to operate together with the Ares I crew vehicle (Figure 1). In addition to this role, however, its unmatched mass and volume capability represent a national asset for exploration, science, and commerce. The Ares V also enables or significantly enhances a large class of space missions not thought possible by scientists and engineers since the Saturn V program ended over 30 years ago. Compared to current systems, it will offer approximately five times the mass and volume to most orbits and locations. This should allow prospective mission planners to build robust payloads with margins that are three to five times the industry norm. The space inside the planned payload shroud has enough usable volume to launch the volumetric equivalent of approximately 10 Apollo Lunar Modules or approximately five equivalent Hubble Space Telescopes. This mass and volume capability to low-Earth orbit (LEO) enables a host of new scientific and observation platforms, such as telescopes, satellites, planetary and solar missions, as well as being able to provide the lift for future large in-space infrastructure missions, such as space based solar power and mining, Earth asteroid defense, propellant depots, etc. In addition, payload designers may also have the option of simplifying their designs or employing Ares V s payload as dumb mass to reduce technical and operational risk. The Ares V team is engaging the potential payload community now, two to three years before System Requirements Review (SRR), in order to better understand the additional requirements from the payload community that could be accommodated in the Ares V design in its conceptual phase. This paper will discuss the Ares V reference mission and capability, as well as its

  16. SCIENTIFIC PARADIGM SHIFT AS THE BACKGROUND OF LANGUAGE EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. D. Tabanakova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Recently, there has been a cardinal restructuring of university preparation. Linguistic education takes up nearly the last position in the new model of the higher school dictated by economic interests. Investments in linguistic projects are considered as unprofitable today. The linguistic component in educational programs of a bachelor degree is reduced to a minimum, and focused on language knowledge promoting as communication technologies.The aim of the work purposes to trace how the scientific and the linguistic paradigm shift have an impact on the domestic linguistic education system, and to show the unrealized potential capacity of linguistic knowledge.Methodology and research methods. The methodology of the offered research is based, on the one hand, upon the domestic periodical press review on the linguistic education problems for the last 15 years, on the other – on the philosophical analysis of science historical forms which change has caused the past, the present and the future of linguistics and linguistic education. The inductive methods to integrate different approaches are also used.Theoretical significance. The author emphasizes the need to consider the problems of higher education in philosophical aspect, through the interaction of a scientific and educational paradigm.Results and scientific novelty. At a time of global changes in domestic higher education the linguistic education is considered to be a display of the convergence process of natural sciences, technology and humanities. The philosophical study of the scientific paradigms – classical, non-classical and post-non-classical has revealed the regularities of the linguistic scientific paradigms – structural, communicative and cognitive. Each of the paradigms was traced in the frame of linguistic education functions alternation and constantly changing academic programs.A new take on the U-turn of a centrifugal vector in science has obviously demonstrated

  17. Paradigm Shift in Distance Education in the 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet FIRAT

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Information and communication technologies have been one of a driving force which enables higher education expansion and gives a dynamic structure to the science in the twenty-first century. One of the most effective users of this driving force in higher education is distance education. Previously, distance education was considered to be as a method to ensure equality of opportunity in education, and partly to meet the educational needs of citizens in limited circumstances; today it has undergone an incontrovertible paradigm shift by transforming into an interdisciplinary science field with its functional flexibility, strong technology infrastructure, diversity of programs, innovative teaching approaches and rapidly increasing student numbers. In this study, it is aimed to reveal this paradigm shift with a historical point of view, and the information technology supported rise and paradigm shift of distance education is evaluated by a holistic perspective from different point of views of different perspectives from the studies in literature to the current research topics.

  18. Paradigm shift in transport legislation or rather at the 'bottleneck'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naeser, Hanns

    2015-01-01

    In the year just started significant decisions with considerable consequences by the Federal Constitutional Court and the Federal Administrative Court in the field of nuclear law are expected. Especially the decision with regards to 'nuclear phase-out' within the 13th amendment of the Atomic Energy Act is being eagerly expected, as with its far-reaching consequences also fundamental constitutional questions need to be answered. The Federal Administrative Court will need to decide on the question, whether she admits the appeal against the Brunsbuettel decision by the Higher Administrative Court Schleswig-Holstein (HAC), which from the view of claimant shifted the fundamental basis of demarcation of responsibilities between the executive and judiciary power. In comparison to these fundamental decisions the awaited decision by the HAC on nuclear transport legislation seems of subordinate importance, although she will proceed with a paradigm shift in the legal area. The decision deals with the question as to whether and when a right of action from a third party within the nuclear transport legislation can be accepted or more precisely under which preconditions a third party has clear standing against a nuclear transport authorisation. As the site selection law (issued on 23 July 2013 BGBI I p. 2552) excludes the recirculation of vitrified waste block canisters from reprocessing spent fuel elements to the transport cask storage facility Gorleben, the decision by the HAC Lueneburg for this site will only be relevant for present unpredictable transportations from the transport cask storage facility Gorleben to a final repository. If necessary interest to seek a declaratory judgment for declaratory action, in concreto danger of recurrence will be approved, is another matter.

  19. Enhanced Recovery After Surgery: The Plastic Surgery Paradigm Shift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Erica L; Zavlin, Dmitry; Friedman, Jeffrey D; Abdollahi, Aariane; Rappaport, Norman H

    2017-12-14

    With a focus on providing high quality care and reducing facility based expenses there has been an evolution in perioperative care by way of enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS). ERAS allows for a multidisciplinary and multimodal approach to perioperative care which not only expedites recovery but maximizes patient outcomes. This paradigm shift has been generally accepted by most surgical specialties, including plastic surgery. The goal of this study was to evaluate the impact of ERAS on outcomes in cosmetic plastic surgery. A prospective study consisting of phone call questionnaires was designed where patients from two senior plastic surgeons (N.H.R. and J.D.F.) were followed. The treatment group (n = 10) followed an ERAS protocol while the control group (n = 12) followed the traditional recovery after surgery which included narcotic usage. Patients were contacted on postoperative days (POD) 0 through 7+ and surveyed about a number of outcomes measures. The ERAS group demonstrated a significant reduction in postoperative pain on POD 0, 1, 2, and 3 (all P plastic surgery. The utility lies in the ability to expedite patient's recovery while still providing quality care. This study showed a reduction in postoperative complaints by avoiding narcotics without an increase in complications. Our findings signify the importance of ERAS protocols within cosmetic plastic surgery. 4. © 2017 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. Reprints and permission: journals.permissions@oup.com

  20. Will Mobile Learning Bring a Paradigm Shift in Higher Education?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalita Rajasingham

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the light of technology-driven social change that creates new challenges for universities, this paper considers the potential of mobile learning as a subset of e-learning to effect a paradigm shift in higher education. Universities face exponential growth in demand for higher education, significant decreases in government funding for education, a changing in understanding of the nature of knowledge, changing student demographics and expectations, and global competition. At the same time untethered mobile telephony is connecting large numbers of potential learners to communications networks. A review of some empirical literature on the current status of mobile learning that explores alternatives to help universities fulfil core functions of storage, processing, and disseminating knowledge that can be applied to real life problems, is followed by an examination of the strengths and weaknesses of increased connectivity to mobile communications networks to support constructivist, self-directed quality interactive learning for increasingly mobile learners. This paper also examines whether mobile learning can align the developing technology with changing student expectations and the implications of such an alignment for teaching and institutional strategies. Technologies considered include mobile computing and technology, wireless laptop, hand-held PDAs, and mobile telephony.

  1. Health Paradigm Shifts in the 20th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Miguel DeAngulo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of systems theory and the study of complexity to medicine and human health allows for a more comprehensive understanding and a more holistic view of what it means to be human. Such application overcomes the limitations of the traditional, fragmented understanding of phenomena and problems based on the mechanistic or Newtonian worldview. It recognizes that phenomena are interrelated, and that individual parts cannot be understood by only focusing on the analysis of their individual qualities. Rather, the individual parts can only be understood in relation to the whole and by being analyzed in the context of their interaction with the whole. The door is opened to previously unimagined models of thinking.In the 20th Century there have been shifts in the paradigms that have governed medicine and human health in the modern western world. There has been a shift from the focus on specific biological analysis and pathological diagnostics to complex human interactions with the environment and with sociopolitical and economic processes. There are complex models of systems in immunology, in neuroscience, and in genetics, as well as complex ways of understanding interactions as in epidemic modeling, in social media technologies, socioeconomic factors, and artificial intelligence.In this paper we describe three paradigms of the health-disease process that in some degree correspond to the historical development of modern medicine and healthcare over the previous century. The oldest paradigm focused on specific disease mechanisms and treatment. This gave way to paradigms that historically were broader and more inclusive, such as “international health”. The international health paradigm focused primarily on the control of epidemics across national borders and considered government as the only health actor. However, this perspective has come to be seen as excessively reductionist and excluded many critical components essential to a robust

  2. From Product to Service Design: A Thinking Paradigm Shift

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Rodriguez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Society, industry and the economy are all experiencing changes caused by a shift from products to services. While a “problem-solving” approach is commonly used for the development of products, new design approaches are needed as the primary unit of exchange moves from goods to services.  This research argues that a fundamental transformation in the design world is taking place, manifested in a thinking paradigm shift from problem solving (designing products towards systems thinking (designing services. This paper draws on design literature to identify concepts of systems thinking and problem solving to help understand core elements in the shift from product to service design. It also reports on a series of semi-structured interviews with designers working in five design consultancies that have moved from product design to services design. The results show a change in the way designers think and approach projects when facing the challenges of designing services, confirming a movement from problem solving to systems thinking. However, systems thinking is not replacing problem solving but complementing it. The results also indicate that the growing complexity of the issues designers deal with influences the adoption of systems thinking in responding to service design challenges, as well as current changes in people’s ideas about sustainability and  society.

  3. Intelligent e-Learning Systems: An Educational Paradigm Shift

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suman Bhattacharya

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Learning is the long process of transforming information as well as experience into knowledge, skills, attitude and behaviors. To make up the wide gap between the demand of increasing higher education and comparatively limited resources, more and more educational institutes are looking into instructional technology. Use of online resources not only reduces the cost of education but also meet the needs of society. Intelligent e-learning has become one of the important channels to reach out to students exceeding geographic boundaries. Besides this, the characteristics of e-learning have complicated the process of education, and have brought challenges to both instructors and students. This paper will focus on the discussion of different discipline of intelligent e-learning like scaffolding based e-learning, personalized e-learning, confidence based e-learning, intelligent tutoring system, etc. to illuminate the educational paradigm shift in intelligent e-learning system.

  4. Paradigm Shift in the Management Strategy for Epithelial Ovarian Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Keiichi; McAlpine, Jessica N; Lheureux, Stephanie; Matsumura, Noriomi; Oza, Amit M

    2016-01-01

    The hypothesis on the pathogenesis of epithelial ovarian cancer continues to evolve. Although epithelial ovarian cancer had been assumed to arise from the coelomic epithelium of the ovarian surface, it is now becoming clearer that the majority of serous carcinomas arise from epithelium of the distal fallopian tube, whereas clear cell and endometrioid cancers arise from endometriosis. Molecular and genomic characteristics of epithelial ovarian cancer have been extensively investigated. Our understanding of pathogenesis of the various histologic types of ovarian cancer have begun to inform changes to the strategies for management of epithelial ovarian cancer, which represent a paradigm shift not only for treatment but also for prevention, which previously had not been considered achievable. In this article, we will discuss novel attempts at the prevention of high-grade serous ovarian cancer and treatment strategies for two distinct entities in epithelial ovarian cancer: low-grade serous and clear cell ovarian carcinomas, which are relatively rare and resistant to conventional chemotherapy.

  5. The PRISM (Pliocene Palaeoclimate) reconstruction: Time for a paradigm shift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowsett, Harry J.; Robinson, Marci M.; Stoll, Danielle K.; Foley, Kevin M.; Johnson, Andrew L. A.; Williams, Mark; Riesselman, Christina

    2013-01-01

    Global palaeoclimate reconstructions have been invaluable to our understanding of the causes and effects of climate change, but single-temperature representations of the oceanic mixed layer for data–model comparisons are outdated, and the time for a paradigm shift in marine palaeoclimate reconstruction is overdue. The new paradigm in marine palaeoclimate reconstruction stems the loss of valuable climate information and instead presents a holistic and nuanced interpretation of multi-dimensional oceanographic processes and responses. A wealth of environmental information is hidden within the US Geological Survey's Pliocene Research,Interpretation and Synoptic Mapping (PRISM) marine palaeoclimate reconstruction, and we introduce here a plan to incorporate all valuable climate data into the next generation of PRISM products. Beyond the global approach and focus, we plan to incorporate regional climate dynamics with emphasis on processes, integrating multiple environmental proxies wherever available in order to better characterize the mixed layer, and developing a finer time slice within the Mid-Piacenzian Age of the Pliocene, complemented by underused proxies that offer snapshots into environmental conditions. The result will be a proxy-rich, temporally nested, process-oriented approach in a digital format - a relational database with geographic information system capabilities comprising a three-dimensional grid representing the surface layer, with a plethora of data in each cell.

  6. Evolution of Management Theory within 20 Century: A Systemic Overview of Paradigm Shifts in Management

    OpenAIRE

    Khorasani, Sasan Torabzadeh; Almasifard, Maryam

    2017-01-01

    Significant progress in civilization of human being has been made over 20century. Advance technology; globalization and revolution of communication are the main outcomes of this development. However, it is obvious that these achievements have been significantly influenced by evolution of management theories. The paradigm shift from classical management to modern management can be clustered into several phases. This paper presents an overview of evolution of management theory within 20 century...

  7. Is the Lamb shift chemically significant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyall, Kenneth G.; Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Schwenke, David W.; Pyykko, Pekka; Arnold, James (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The contribution of the Lamb shift to the atomization energies of some prototype molecules, BF3, AlF3, and GaF3, is estimated by a perturbation procedure. It is found to be in the range of 3-5% of the one-electron scalar relativistic contribution to the atomization energy. The maximum absolute value is 0.2 kcal/mol for GaF3. These sample calculations indicate that the Lamb shift is probably small enough to be neglected for energetics of molecules containing light atoms if the target accuracy is 1 kcal/mol, but for higher accuracy calculations and for molecules containing heavy elements it must be considered.

  8. A Paradigm Shift in Low Dose Radiation Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Alatas

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available When ionizing radiation traverses biological material, some energy depositions occur and ionize directly deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA molecules, the critical target. A classical paradigm in radiobiology is that the deposition of energy in the cell nucleus and the resulting damage to DNA are responsible for the detrimental biological effects of radiation. It is presumed that no radiation effect would be expected in cells that receive no direct radiation exposure through nucleus. The risks of exposure to low dose ionizing radiation are estimated by extrapolating from data obtained after exposure to high dose radiation. However, the validity of using this dose-response model is controversial because evidence accumulated over the past decade has indicated that living organisms, including humans, respond differently to low dose radiation than they do to high dose radiation. Moreover, recent experimental evidences from many laboratories reveal the fact that radiation effects also occur in cells that were not exposed to radiation and in the progeny of irradiated cells at delayed times after radiation exposure where cells do not encounter direct DNA damage. Recently, the classical paradigm in radiobiology has been shifted from the nucleus, specifically the DNA, as the principal target for the biological effects of radiation to cells. The universality of target theory has been challenged by phenomena of radiation-induced genomic instability, bystander effect and adaptive response. The new radiation biology paradigm would cover both targeted and non-targeted effects of ionizing radiation. The mechanisms underlying these responses involve biochemical/molecular signals that respond to targeted and non-targeted events. These results brought in understanding that the biological response to low dose radiation at tissue or organism level is a complex process of integrated response of cellular targets as well as extra-cellular factors. Biological understanding of

  9. Weight Science: Evaluating the Evidence for a Paradigm Shift

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aphramor Lucy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Current guidelines recommend that "overweight" and "obese" individuals lose weight through engaging in lifestyle modification involving diet, exercise and other behavior change. This approach reliably induces short term weight loss, but the majority of individuals are unable to maintain weight loss over the long term and do not achieve the putative benefits of improved morbidity and mortality. Concern has arisen that this weight focus is not only ineffective at producing thinner, healthier bodies, but may also have unintended consequences, contributing to food and body preoccupation, repeated cycles of weight loss and regain, distraction from other personal health goals and wider health determinants, reduced self-esteem, eating disorders, other health decrement, and weight stigmatization and discrimination. This concern has drawn increased attention to the ethical implications of recommending treatment that may be ineffective or damaging. A growing trans-disciplinary movement called Health at Every Size (HAES challenges the value of promoting weight loss and dieting behavior and argues for a shift in focus to weight-neutral outcomes. Randomized controlled clinical trials indicate that a HAES approach is associated with statistically and clinically relevant improvements in physiological measures (e.g., blood pressure, blood lipids, health behaviors (e.g., eating and activity habits, dietary quality, and psychosocial outcomes (such as self-esteem and body image, and that HAES achieves these health outcomes more successfully than weight loss treatment and without the contraindications associated with a weight focus. This paper evaluates the evidence and rationale that justifies shifting the health care paradigm from a conventional weight focus to HAES.

  10. Urban Stormwater Governance: The Need for a Paradigm Shift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhakal, Krishna P; Chevalier, Lizette R

    2016-05-01

    Traditional urban stormwater management involves rapid removal of stormwater through centralized conveyance systems of curb-gutter-pipe networks. This results in many adverse impacts on the environment including hydrological disruption, groundwater depletion, downstream flooding, receiving water quality degradation, channel erosion, and stream ecosystem damage. In order to mitigate these adverse impacts, urban stormwater managers are increasingly using green infrastructure that promote on-site infiltration, restore hydrological functions of the landscape, and reduce surface runoff. Existing stormwater governance, however, is centralized and structured to support the conventional systems. This governance approach is not suited to the emerging distributed management approach, which involves multiple stakeholders including parcel owners, government agencies, and non-governmental organizations. This incongruence between technology and governance calls for a paradigm shift in the governance from centralized and technocratic to distributed and participatory governance. This paper evaluates how five US cities have been adjusting their governance to address the discord. Finally, the paper proposes an alternative governance model, which provides a mechanism to involve stakeholders and implement distributed green infrastructure under an integrative framework.

  11. Dynamic Docking: A Paradigm Shift in Computational Drug Discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Gioia

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Molecular docking is the methodology of choice for studying in silico protein-ligand binding and for prioritizing compounds to discover new lead candidates. Traditional docking simulations suffer from major limitations, mostly related to the static or semi-flexible treatment of ligands and targets. They also neglect solvation and entropic effects, which strongly limits their predictive power. During the last decade, methods based on full atomistic molecular dynamics (MD have emerged as a valid alternative for simulating macromolecular complexes. In principle, compared to traditional docking, MD allows the full exploration of drug-target recognition and binding from both the mechanistic and energetic points of view (dynamic docking. Binding and unbinding kinetic constants can also be determined. While dynamic docking is still too computationally expensive to be routinely used in fast-paced drug discovery programs, the advent of faster computing architectures and advanced simulation methodologies are changing this scenario. It is feasible that dynamic docking will replace static docking approaches in the near future, leading to a major paradigm shift in in silico drug discovery. Against this background, we review the key achievements that have paved the way for this progress.

  12. Cancer research in need of a scientific revolution: Using 'paradigm shift' as a method of investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wion, Didier; Appaix, Florence; Burruss, Meriwether; Berger, Francois; van der Sanden, Boudewijn

    2015-09-01

    Despite important human and financial resources and considerable accumulation of scientific publications, patents, and clinical trials, cancer research has been slow in achieving a therapeutic revolution similar to the one that occurred in the last century for infectious diseases. It has been proposed that science proceeds not only by accumulating data but also through paradigm shifts. Here, we propose to use the concept of 'paradigm shift' as a method of investigation when dominant paradigms fail to achieve their promises. The first step in using the 'paradigm shift' method in cancer research requires identifying its founding paradigms. In this review, two of these founding paradigms will be discussed: (i) the reification of cancer as a tumour mass and (ii) the translation of the concepts issued from infectious disease in cancer research. We show how these founding paradigms can generate biases that lead to over-diagnosis and over-treatment and also hamper the development of curative cancer therapies. We apply the 'paradigm shift' method to produce perspective reversals consistent with current experimental evidence. The 'paradigm shift' method enlightens the existence of a tumour physiologic-prophylactic-pathologic continuum. It integrates the target/antitarget concept and that cancer is also an extracellular disease. The 'paradigm shift' method has immediate implications for cancer prevention and therapy. It could be a general method of investigation for other diseases awaiting therapy.

  13. Towards a Paradigm Shift in Educational Research: A Case of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The postcolonial theory paradigm guided the study. The article reviews literature on the postcolonial theory with the objective of illustrating how this research paradigm may be employed in the field of education in a postcolonial context. The origin, purpose and relevance of the postcolonial theory are brought to the fore as ...

  14. [Essentials of pharmacophylogeny: knowledge pedigree, epistemology and paradigm shift].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Da-cheng; Xiao, Pei-gen; Liu, Li-wei; Peng, Yong; He, Chun-nian

    2015-09-01

    Chinese materia medica resource (CMM resource) is the foundation of the development of traditional Chinese medicine. In the study of sustainable utilization of CMM resource, adopting innovative theory and method to find new CMM resource is one of hotspots and always highlighted. Pharmacophylogeny interrogates the phylogenetic relationship of medicinal organisms (especially medicinal plants), as well as the intrinsic correlation of morphological taxonomy, molecular phylogeny, chemical constituents, and therapeutic efficacy (ethnopharmacology and pharmacological activity). This new discipline may have the power to change the way we utilize medicinal plant resources and develop plant-based drugs. Phylogenomics is the crossing of evolutionary biology and genomics, in which genome data are utilized for evolutionary reconstructions. Phylogenomics can be integrated into the flow chart of drug discovery and development, and extends the field of pharmacophylogeny at the omic level, thus the concept of pharmacophylogenomics could be redefined in the context of plant pharmaceutical resources. This contribution gives a brief discourse of knowledge pedigree of pharmacophylogeny, epistemology and paradigm shift, highlighting the theoretical and practical values of pharmacophylogenomics. Many medicinally important tribes and genera, such as Clematis, Pulsatilla, Anemone, Cimicifugeae, Nigella, Delphinieae, Adonideae, Aquilegia, Thalictrum, and Coptis, belong to Ranunculaceae family. Compared to other plant families, Ranunculaceae has the most species that are recorded in China Pharmacopoeia (CP) 2010. However, many Ranunculaceae species, e. g., those that are closely related to CP species, as well as those endemic to China, have not been investigated in depth, and their phylogenetic relationship and potential in medicinal use remain elusive. As such, it is proposed to select Ranunculaceae to exemplify the utility of pharmacophylogenomics and to elaborate the new concept

  15. E-health beyond technology: analyzing the paradigm shift that lies beneath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moerenhout, Tania; Devisch, Ignaas; Cornelis, Gustaaf C

    2018-03-01

    Information and computer technology has come to play an increasingly important role in medicine, to the extent that e-health has been described as a disruptive innovation or revolution in healthcare. The attention is very much focused on the technology itself, and advances that have been made in genetics and biology. This leads to the question: What is changing in medicine today concerning e-health? To what degree could these changes be characterized as a 'revolution'? We will apply the work of Thomas Kuhn, Larry Laudan, Michel Foucault and other philosophers-which offers an alternative understanding of progress and revolution in medicine to the classic discovery-oriented approach-to our analysis. Nowadays, the long-standing curative or reactive paradigm in medicine is facing a crisis due to an aging population, a significant increase in chronic diseases and the development of more expensive diagnostic tools and therapies. This promotes the evolution towards a new paradigm with an emphasis on preventive medicine. E-health constitutes an essential part of this new paradigm that seeks to solve the challenges presented by an aging population, skyrocketing costs and so forth. Our approach changes the focus from the technology itself toward the underlying paradigm shift in medicine. We will discuss the relevance of this approach by applying it to the surge in digital self-tracking through health apps and wearables: the recognition of the underlying paradigm shift leads to a more comprehensive understanding of self-tracking than a solely discovery-oriented or technology-focused view can provide.

  16. Guidelines, editors, pharma and the biological paradigm shift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ajai R; Singh, Shakuntala A

    2007-01-01

    independent access to all trial data and control all editorial and publication decisions. However the findings of a 2002 study suggest that academic institutions routinely participate in clinical research that does not adhere to ICMJE standards of accountability, access to data and control of publication.There is an inevitable slant to produce not necessarily useful but marketable products which ensure the profitability of industry and research grants outflow to academia. Industry supports new, not traditional, therapies, irrespective of what is effective. Whatever traditional therapy is supported is most probably because the company concerned has a product with a big stake there, which has remained a 'gold standard' or which that player thinks has still some 'juice' left.Industry sponsorship is mainly for potential medications, not for trying to determine whether there may be non-pharmacological interventions that may be equally good, if not better. In the paradigm shift towards biological psychiatry, the role of industry sponsorship is not overt but probably more pervasive than many have realised, or the right thinking may consider good, for the health of the branch in the long run.An issue of major concern is protection of the interests of research subjects. Patients agree to become research subjects not only for personal medical benefit but, as an extension, to benefit the rest of the patient population and also advance medical research.We all accept that industry profits have to be made, and investment in research and development by the pharma industry is massive. However, we must also accept there is a fundamental difference between marketing strategies for other entities and those for drugs.The ultimate barometer is patient welfare and no drug that compromises it can stand the test of time. So, how does it make even commercial sense in the long term to market substandard products? The greatest mistake long-term players in industry may make is try to adopt the shady

  17. The paradigm shift to an “open” model in drug development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Au

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The rising cost of healthcare, the rising cost for drug development, the patent cliff for Big pharma, shorter patent protection, decrease reimbursement, and the recession have made it more difficult for the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industry to develop drugs. Due to the unsustainable amount of time and money in developing a drug that will have a significant return on investment (ROI it has become hard to sustain a robust pipeline. The industry is transforming its business model to meet these challenges. In essence a paradigm shift is occurring; the old “closed” model is giving way to a new “open” business model.

  18. Probabilities, beliefs, and dual processing: The paradigm shift in the psychology of reasoning

    OpenAIRE

    Elqayam, Shira; Over, D. E

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, the psychology of reasoning has been undergoing a paradigm shift, with general Bayesian, probabilistic approaches replacing the older, much more restricted binary logic paradigm. At the same time, dual processing theories have been gaining influence. We argue that these developments should be integrated and moreover that such integration is already underway. The new reasoning paradigm should be grounded in dual processing for its algorithmic level of analysis just as it uses ...

  19. Composite paradigms in medicine: analysing Gillies' claim of reclassification of disease without paradigm shift in the case of Helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutton, Joseph

    2012-09-01

    Since the publication of Kuhn's The Structure of Scientific Revolutions in 1962, the notion of paradigms has shaped the way that philosophy views scientific discovery and how changes in what is regarded as empirical fact occur. This drew heavily on examples from the history of the natural sciences to support Kuhn's hypothesis. However, some argue that medicine is different from the natural sciences. Gillies has proposed another theory of how paradigms apply to medicine; that of composite paradigms. In doing so, Gillies uses the example of Helicobacter pylori and the shift from the excess-acid theory to the current bacterial-infection theory of gastric ulcers to illustrate these fundamental differences between medicine and the natural sciences. Upon analysis of Gillies' claim, it is evident that traditional Kuhnian paradigms are also composite and that the manner in which Gillies proposes disease is classified is insufficient in describing medicine. Furthermore, new local paradigms are demonstrably introduced and the change was accompanied by many of the markers of paradigmatic change including changes in worldview, resistance, incommensurability and the introduction of new questions that could not have existed under the previous paradigm. Whilst this change may not be on the scale of the Chemical revolution, it can still be considered paradigm shift. Thagard also proposes an alternate view of discovery using the case of H. pylori. This has much in common with Kuhnian paradigms but Thagard's theory offers further elucidation and refinement. This allows it to better characterise all of the associated features of discovery relevant in the case of H. pylori, thus provides a preferable tool for examination of this important recent discovery. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Quantum ergonomics: shifting the paradigm of the systems agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Guy H; Salmon, Paul M; Bedinger, Melissa; Stanton, Neville A

    2017-02-01

    A paradigm is an accepted world view. If we do not continually question our paradigm then wider trends and movements will overtake the discipline leaving it ill adapted to future challenges. This Special Issue is an opportunity to keep systems thinking at the forefront of ergonomics theory and practice. Systems thinking prompts us to ask whether ergonomics, as a discipline, has been too timid? Too preoccupied with the resolution of immediate problems with industrial-age methods when, approaching fast, are developments which could render these operating assumptions an irrelevance. Practical case studies are presented to show how abstract systems problems can be tackled head-on to deliver highly innovative and cost-effective insights. The strategic direction of the discipline foregrounds high-quality systems problems. These are something the discipline is well able to respond to provided that the appropriate operating paradigms are selected. Practitioner Summary: High-quality systems problems are the future of the discipline. How do we convert obtuse sounding systems concepts into practical interventions? In this paper, the essence of systems thinking is distilled and practical case studies used to demonstrate the benefits of this new paradigm.

  1. The 'Turn to Parenting': Paradigm shift or work in progress?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hopman, M.; Knijn, G.C.M.

    In the field of child and youth support, preventive and parent-oriented support programs are currently emphasized. This is understood as a new paradigm of parenting support, which is sometimes referred to as “the turn to parenting.” Using Campbell’s (Annual Review of Sociology, 28:21–38, 2002),

  2. From Reified Abstractions to Situated Contexts: Feminist Jurisprudence, Paradigm Shift and Legal Change

    OpenAIRE

    Petoussi, Vassiliki Jr.

    1998-01-01

    This study addresses the extent to which feminist jurisprudence literature has developed the potential to initiate a legal paradigm shift leading to legal and consequent social change that would alleviate gender inequality. Drawing upon Kuhn's (1970) and Stacey and Thorne's (1985) arguments, I theorized that for a paradigm shift centered upon women and women's experiences to occur, feminist jurisprudence, particularly second- and third-phase feminist jurisprudence, needs to be incorporated i...

  3. Paradigm Shift Additive Manufacturing and the New Way of War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    the DoD must actively pivot away from the acquisition, logis- tics, sustainment and contracting practices developed from more than 100 years of...replenished during the duration of the operation, and returned to the warehouse at the end of operation. Pivoting to AM’s New Paradigm Contrast conventional...program managers and even operators. No amount of computer based training, PowerPoint presentations, and white papers will convey the digital

  4. Shifting Paradigms in Music Education Research (1953-1978): A Theoretical and Quantitative Reassessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, Estelle R.; Ward-Steinman, Patrice Madura

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine evidence of a hypothesized shift in the operative research paradigms in music education during the first quarter century of the publication of the "Journal of Research in Music Education," during the period 1953 to 1978. This shift was from humanities-oriented historical and philosophical studies…

  5. From Power to Empowerment: A Paradigm Shift in Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dambe, M.; Moorad, F.

    2008-01-01

    This article argues that there has been a clear shift in leadership approaches from those where the leader is in control and commanding i.e., power-based leadership to one where there is empowerment. Here the power comes from the followers and is shared. Burns concepts of transactional and transformational leadership are used interchangeably with…

  6. Changing environments or shifting paradigms? Strategic decision making toward water protection in Helsinki, 1850-2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laakkonen, Simo; Laurila, Sari

    2007-04-01

    The study examines the history of strategic decision-making concerning water protection in Helsinki, 1850-2000. We identified five major strategic decisions that occurred during the study period. The results indicate that strategic decision-making evolves in long-term policy cycles that last on average 20-30 years. New policy cycles are caused by paradigm shifts. Paradigms are shared and predominant ways of understanding reality that help when groups must act to solve common and complex environmental problems. However the internal structure and external dynamics of paradigms are contradictory. Although paradigms serve initially as means to redefine problems and find creative solutions, as time goes by each paradigm seems to become also a barrier that restricts the introduction of new ways of thinking and acting. The power of paradigms lies in the fact that they can be defined as scientific but also social, political, or cultural agreements depending on the context.

  7. A radical paradigm shift for a new definition of architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessio Erioli

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Architecture is facing a period of great challenges and possibilities, typical of all crises. In such periods, the paradigms we have taken for granted so far are the same ones that generated the crisis, therefore they should undergo a critical revision and new modes of thought and operation (driven by computation can be actively explored and pursued. Instead of retreating to intellectual “safe houses”, architecture should open itself up to and be restructured by the accelerated pace of change imposed by reality, renouncing obsolete methods of anticipating and exerting control and welcoming a more proactive behaviour. It is therefore of primary importance to promote the exercise of projective imagination.

  8. The design & delivery of quality services: A paradigm shift

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. B.H. Smith

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available As result of the increasingly important role information technology (IT is playing in service provision, less person-to-person contact will in future be made during service provision. Highly skilled specialists will make the remaining contact. Emphasis will shift to speed of delivery, with logistics playing an important role. The designers of services must take these factors into account if they wish to design quality services.

  9. BBB disruption with unfocused ultrasound alone-A paradigm shift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyle, Al

    2012-10-01

    One paradigm for ultrasound-enabled blood brain barrier disruption uses image guided focused ultrasound and preformed microbubble agents to enable drug delivery to the brain. We propose an alternative approach: unguided, unfocused ultrasound with no adjunctive agent. Compared with the focused approach, the proposed method affects a larger region of the brain, and is aimed at treatment of regional neurological disease including glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). Avoidance of image guidance and focusing reduces cost for equipment and staff training. Avoidance of adjunctive agents also lowers cost and is enabled by a longer exposure time. Since 2004, our group has worked with two animal models, three investigators in four laboratories to safely deliver five compounds, increasing the concentration of large molecule markers in brain tissue two fold or more. Safety and effectiveness data for four studies have been presented at the Ultrasound Industry Association meetings in 2007 and 2010. This paper describes new safety and effectiveness results for a fifth study. We present evidence of delivery of large molecules - including Avastin-to the brains of a large animal model correlated with acoustic pressure, and summarize the advantages and disadvantages of this novel approach.

  10. Revolutions and shifting paradigms in human factors & ergonomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boff, Kenneth R

    2006-07-01

    The "Revolution in Information Technology" has spawned a series of transformational revolutions in the nature and practice of human factors and ergonomics (HFE). "Generation 1" HFE evolved with a focus on adapting equipment, workplace and tasks to human capabilities and limitations. Generation 2, focused on cognitive systems integration, arose in response to the need to manage automation and dynamic function allocation. Generation 3 is focused on symbiotic technologies that can amplify human physical and cognitive capabilities. Generation 4 is emergent and is focused on biological enhancement of physical or cognitive capabilities. The shift from HFE Generations 1 and 2 to Generations 3 and 4 profoundly alters accepted boundary constraints on the adaptability of humans in complex systems design. Furthermore, it has opened an ethical divide between those that see cognitive and physical enhancement as a great benefit to society and those who perceive this as tampering with the fundamentals of human nature.

  11. Paradigm shift, metamorphosis of medical ethics, and the rise of bioethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luiz Telles de Almeida

    Full Text Available Both the increasing incorporation of medical technology and new social demands (including those for health care beginning in the 1960s have brought about significant changes in medical practice. This situation has in turn sparked a growth in the philosophical debate over problems pertaining to ethical practice. These issues no longer find answers in the Hippocratic ethical model. The authors believe that the crisis in Hippocratic ethics could be described as a period of paradigm shift in which a new set of values appears to be emerging. Beginning with the bioethics movement, the authors expound on the different ethical theories applied to medical practice and conclude that principlism is the most appropriate approach for solving the new moral dilemma imposed on clinical practice.

  12. Turkey and the European Union: Will the Paradigm Shift?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Henderson, Alonzo

    1996-01-01

    .... Most significant among these are increased exposure to Greek-Turkish issues, Turkish economic strength in areas of little interest to Europe, and an exploding population which is expected to surpass Germany's by 2010...

  13. Addressing shipboard cultural diversity: A paradigm shift required to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The past few decades have witnessed a tremendous technological and social transformation on board ships and with it some very significant operational challenges. Much of the social challenges have been the result of a new maritime workforce that has now become largely much more culturally diverse than ever.

  14. Paradigm shift: contribution of field epidemiology training in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The occurrence of major zoonotic disease outbreaks in Sub-Saharan Africa has had a significant impact on the already constrained public health systems. This has, as a result, justified the need to identify creative strategies to address threats from emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases at the ...

  15. Sexuality, culture and society: shifting paradigms in sexuality research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Richard

    2009-04-01

    Over the course of the past three decades, there has been a significant increase of research on the social and cultural dimensions of sexuality. This paper reviews three major phases in the development of this work. In the first phase, work focusing on the social construction of sexual experience developed an important critique of the biomedical and sexological approaches that had dominated the field over much of the twentieth century. In the second phase, increasingly detailed studies of sexual life were developed which highlighted the cross-cultural diversity of sexual cultures, sexual identities and sexual communities. In the most recent phase, there has been a growing recognition of the complex relationship between culture and power, and increasing attention to the political and economic dimensions of sexuality. In spite of the significant conceptual and methodological advances that have taken place over time, however, it is also possible to identify a number of important questions that have not yet been adequately addressed and that may have been precluded by some of the perspectives that have come to dominate the field. The paper ends by focusing on the silences and invisibilities that continue to characterize this field of research and the challenges that must still be confronted in seeking to expand our understanding of these issues.

  16. Lab-oriented radical innovations as drivers of paradigm shifts in science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coccia, M.

    2014-01-01

    An interesting problem in the economics of innovation and strategic management of labs is to explain the drivers of breakthroughs and paradigm shifts in science. This study confronts the issue by analysing a main case study: the technological determinant of the discovery of quasi-periodic materials

  17. The Paradigm Shift: Leadership Challenges in the Public Sector Schools in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansoor, Zahida

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has established that school heads as leaders are vital to the successful implementation of educational reforms (Derek, 2009; Robinson, Lloyd, & Rowe, 2008). Education system in Pakistan is going through a paradigm shift from teacher centered to learner centered classrooms using English as the instructional language. The…

  18. Sustainability or Limitless Expansion: Paradigm Shift in HRD Practice and Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardichvili, Alexandre

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to discuss a shift from the mentality of limitless growth and expansion to the new sustainability paradigm in HRD practice, and identifies what corresponding changes are needed in human resource development (HRD) university programs. Design/methodology/approach: The paper is based on a review of the literature in HRD and…

  19. Quest for biomarkers of treatment-resistant depression: shifting the paradigm toward risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Donald F.

    2013-01-01

    have, however, used a post hoc experimental design that failed to determine the association between biomarkers and the initial risk ofTRD. Particular ttention in future studies should be on shifting the experimental paradigm oward procedures that can determine the risk for developing treatment...

  20. A Paradigm shift in the concept for making dental impressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayar, Sanjna; Mahadevan, R

    2015-04-01

    Digital dental impression is a revolutionary technological advancement that so surpasses the accuracy and efficiency of former techniques for obtaining replicas of prepared teeth for the purpose of fabricating restorations that its adoption by dentists is rapidly eclipsing the use of elastomeric impression materials. The ultimate goals of dentists dedicated to quality restorative dentistry are to make their treatment of patients as accurate, stressless, and efficient as possible. By elimination of the everyday problems described above, there is no question that the significant advantages of digital impressions will make intraoral digital scanning standard procedure in most dental offices within the next several years. Furthermore, digital impressions have proven to reduce remakes and returns, as well as increase overall efficiency. The patient also benefits by being provided a far more positive experience. Finally, through the use of digital impression making, it has been determined that laboratory products become more consistent and require less chair time at insertion.

  1. A Paradigm shift in the concept for making dental impressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjna Nayar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Digital dental impression is a revolutionary technological advancement that so surpasses the accuracy and efficiency of former techniques for obtaining replicas of prepared teeth for the purpose of fabricating restorations that its adoption by dentists is rapidly eclipsing the use of elastomeric impression materials. The ultimate goals of dentists dedicated to quality restorative dentistry are to make their treatment of patients as accurate, stressless, and efficient as possible. By elimination of the everyday problems described above, there is no question that the significant advantages of digital impressions will make intraoral digital scanning standard procedure in most dental offices within the next several years. Furthermore, digital impressions have proven to reduce remakes and returns, as well as increase overall efficiency. The patient also benefits by being provided a far more positive experience. Finally, through the use of digital impression making, it has been determined that laboratory products become more consistent and require less chair time at insertion.

  2. [The need for a paradigm shift in radiotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Árpád; Katona, Csilla; Farkas, Róbert; Póti, Zsuzsa

    2015-11-01

    The status and indications of radiotherapy have significantly changed in the past decade because novel techniques, radiobiological research and major advances in informatics have made better local control possible. Using supplemented marking of the target volume with computer tomography based other image-making methods adapted made it possible to define the tumor and intact surrounding tissues more precisely. With novel radiotherapy techniques the dosage of the homogenity and the covering in the target volume can be raised optimally, especially with intensity modulated arc radiotherapy (volumetric modulated arc therapy) without causing radiation injury or damage to intact surrounding tissues. Furthermore, with novel techniques and target volume marking, new indications have appeared in clinical practice and besides stereotactic radiotherapy for intracranial metastases, the extracranial so-called oligometastic conditions can be maintained close to a curative state (or in remission) for many years. Among these, perhaps the most striking is the stereotactic radiotherapy treatment of liver, lung and spinal cord metastases in one or more fractions, for which the indispensable condition is the image or respiratory guided technique.

  3. Building blocks toward contemporary trauma theory: Ferenczi 's paradigm shift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mészáros, Judit

    2010-12-01

    In laying down the building blocks of contemporary trauma theory, Ferenczi asserted that trauma is founded on real events and that it occurs in the interpersonal and intersubjective dynamics of object relations. He stressed the significance of the presence or lack of a trusted person in the post-traumatic situation. After the trauma, the loneliness and later the isolation of the victim represent a serious pathogenic source. In the traumatic situation, the victim and the persecutor/aggressor operate differing ego defense mechanisms. Ferenczi was the first to describe the ego defense mechanism of identification with the aggressor. Ferenczi pointed out the characteristic features of the role of analyst/therapist with which (s)he may assist the patient in working through the trauma, among them being the development of a therapeutic atmosphere based on trust, so that the traumatic experiences can be relived, without which effective therapeutic change cannot be achieved. For the analyst, countertransference, as part of authentic communication, is incorporated into the therapeutic process. These are the key building blocks that are laid down by Ferenczi in his writings and appear in later works on trauma theory.

  4. e-Teaching in pediatric cardiology: A paradigm shift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maheshwari, Sunita; Zheleva, Bistra; Rajasekhar, Veeralakshmi; Batra, Bipin

    2015-01-01

    Training of postgraduate students has traditionally been done in person in a hospital setting with hands-on training with each faculty member imparting knowledge to 2 to 4 students per year. Supplementing their practical education with online instruction could make a significant difference in standardizing pediatric cardiology education in India. To present the rationale, methods and survey results of a live e-Teaching methodology implemented for Pediatric cardiology trainees in association with the National Board of Examinations, India. Between March 2010 and March 2014, 310 e-classes were conducted in the Pediatric cardiac sciences by 24 e-teachers. Content of the e-Learning program was based on a 2-year pediatric cardiology curriculum and included twice-weekly live online video training sessions, a library of recorded sessions and online test quizzes for the students. A total of 231 students accessed the program at various times over the 4-year period. In our study, requests for access to the e-lectures increased from 10/year the first year to 100/year by the fourth year with feedback surveys conveying a high satisfaction level from the students and a high need for this knowledge. The advantages of virtual live e-Learning included the fact that one teacher can teach multiple students in multiple geographic locations at the same time, obviating the issue of quality teacher shortage and the same content can be disseminated to all students undergoing specialist training so there is a national consensus on diagnostic and management approach among all trainees. Additionally, the e-classes can be recorded and replayed so they can be viewed repeatedly by the same group or new trainees. This is the first sustained use of e-Teaching in a medical super-specialty in India. We believe that e-Teaching is an innovative solution that can be applied, not just to Pediatric Cardiology as we have done, but to all branches of specialist and super-specialist medical training in

  5. paradigm shift

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-07-17

    Jul 17, 2015 ... Cancer research in need of a scientific revolution: .... 'scientific revolution' is not exclusive. For example, ..... Stroma in breast development and disease. Semin. ..... Welch HG and Passow HJ 2014 Quantifying the benefits and.

  6. Transoral laser surgery for laryngeal carcinoma: has Steiner achieved a genuine paradigm shift in oncological surgery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, A T; Tanyi, A; Hart, R D; Trites, J; Rigby, M H; Lancaster, J; Nicolaides, A; Taylor, S M

    2018-01-01

    Transoral laser microsurgery applies to the piecemeal removal of malignant tumours of the upper aerodigestive tract using the CO 2 laser under the operating microscope. This method of surgery is being increasingly popularised as a single modality treatment of choice in early laryngeal cancers (T1 and T2) and occasionally in the more advanced forms of the disease (T3 and T4), predominantly within the supraglottis. Thomas Kuhn, the American physicist turned philosopher and historian of science, coined the phrase 'paradigm shift' in his groundbreaking book The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. He argued that the arrival of the new and often incompatible idea forms the core of a new paradigm, the birth of an entirely new way of thinking. This article discusses whether Steiner and colleagues truly brought about a paradigm shift in oncological surgery. By rejecting the principle of en block resection and by replacing it with the belief that not only is it oncologically safe to cut through the substance of the tumour but in doing so one can actually achieve better results, Steiner was able to truly revolutionise the management of laryngeal cancer. Even though within this article the repercussions of his insight are limited to the upper aerodigestive tract oncological surgery, his willingness to question other peoples' dogma makes his contribution truly a genuine paradigm shift.

  7. A new call for quality. Shifting the paradigm for development policy in Greece through competitions

    OpenAIRE

    Angelos Psilopoulos

    2013-01-01

    This paper is following up on Kouzelis, Psilopoulou and Psilopoulos (2010), where it was partly suggested that skipping architectural competitions in favour of a quantitative (i.e., fiscal) approach was a prevailing paradigm for the building procurement policy in Greece at the time. Here the aim is to trace a notable shift from that paradigm by reviewing three case studies: the case of the UpTo35 competition conducted as part of a private development scheme, the case of two ideas competitions...

  8. Ready for a paradigm shift? Part 1: introducing the philosophy of qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petty, Nicola J; Thomson, Oliver P; Stew, Graham

    2012-08-01

    The manual therapy professions have almost exclusively focused on the use of quantitative research to help inform their practices. This paper argues that a greater use of qualitative research will help develop a more robust and comprehensive knowledge base in manual therapy. The types of knowledge used in practice and generated from the two research paradigms are explored. It is hoped that an understanding of the philosophical and theoretical underpinnings of qualitative research may encourage more manual therapists to value and use this approach to help further inform their practice; for some, this may involve a paradigm shift in thinking. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Paradigm shifts in critical care medicine: the progress we have made.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Jean-Louis; Creteur, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    There have really been no single, major, advances in critical care medicine since the specialty came into existence. There has, however, been a gradual, continuous improvement in the process of care over the years, which has resulted in improved patient outcomes. Here, we will highlight just a few of the paradigm shifts we have seen in processes of critical care, including the move from small, closed units to larger, more open ICUs; from a paternal "dictatorship" to more "democratic" team-work; from intermittent to continuous, invasive to less-invasive monitoring; from "more" interventions to "less" thus reducing iatrogenicity; from consideration of critical illness as a single event to realization that it is just one part of a trajectory; and from "four walls" to "no walls" as we take intensive care outside the physical ICU. These and other paradigm shifts have resulted in improvements in the whole approach to patient management, leading to more holistic, humane care for patients and their families. As critical care medicine continues to develop, further paradigm shifts in processes of care are inevitable and must be embraced if we are to continue to provide the best possible care for all critically ill patients.

  10. Paradigm shifts in critical care medicine: the progress we have made

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    There have really been no single, major, advances in critical care medicine since the specialty came into existence. There has, however, been a gradual, continuous improvement in the process of care over the years, which has resulted in improved patient outcomes. Here, we will highlight just a few of the paradigm shifts we have seen in processes of critical care, including the move from small, closed units to larger, more open ICUs; from a paternal "dictatorship" to more "democratic" team-work; from intermittent to continuous, invasive to less-invasive monitoring; from "more" interventions to "less" thus reducing iatrogenicity; from consideration of critical illness as a single event to realization that it is just one part of a trajectory; and from "four walls" to "no walls" as we take intensive care outside the physical ICU. These and other paradigm shifts have resulted in improvements in the whole approach to patient management, leading to more holistic, humane care for patients and their families. As critical care medicine continues to develop, further paradigm shifts in processes of care are inevitable and must be embraced if we are to continue to provide the best possible care for all critically ill patients. PMID:26728199

  11. Cryptic species as a window into the paradigm shift of the species concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fišer, Cene; Robinson, Christopher T; Malard, Florian

    2018-02-01

    The species concept is the cornerstone of biodiversity science, and any paradigm shift in the delimitation of species affects many research fields. Many biologists now are embracing a new "species" paradigm as separately evolving populations using different delimitation criteria. Individual criteria can emerge during different periods of speciation; some may never evolve. As such, a paradigm shift in the species concept relates to this inherent heterogeneity in the speciation process and species category-which is fundamentally overlooked in biodiversity research. Cryptic species fall within this paradigm shift: they are continuously being reported from diverse animal phyla but are poorly considered in current tests of ecological and evolutionary theory. The aim of this review is to integrate cryptic species in biodiversity science. In the first section, we address that the absence of morphological diversification is an evolutionary phenomenon, a "process" counterpart to the long-studied mechanisms of morphological diversification. In the next section regarding taxonomy, we show that molecular delimitation of cryptic species is heavily biased towards distance-based methods. We also stress the importance of formally naming of cryptic species for better integration into research fields that use species as units of analysis. Finally, we show that incorporating cryptic species leads to novel insights regarding biodiversity patterns and processes, including large-scale biodiversity assessments, geographic variation in species distribution and species coexistence. It is time for incorporating multicriteria species approaches aiming to understand speciation across space and taxa, thus allowing integration into biodiversity conservation while accommodating for species uncertainty. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Does prospect theory warrant a paradigm shift in the economics of risk?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PL Mohapi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper assesses whether a paradigm shift should be made from expected utility framework to prospect theory framework – in the economics of choice under risk. A brief overview of the subject is outlined, starting with expected utility theory and noting its descriptive limitations. Proposed theories to make up for these limitations is also provided. Prospect theory emerged as the most serious challenger to expected utility theory. A review of some descriptive predictions of prospect theory, suggests that there is no scientific reason why expected utility should not be ousted from dominance by prospect theory. The shift to prospect theory however is not without costs. Conceptual complexities and non-universality of application associated with prospect theory should be embraced with the shift while not entirely abandoning expected utility theory.

  13. India's NCD strategy in the SDG era: are there early signs of a paradigm shift?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Shinjini; Van Belle, Sara

    2018-04-25

    The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are seen in most corners as the embodiment of a more inclusive and holistic development approach, key to addressing the numerous and urgent challenges the world faces. In the health realm, a true SDG approach will require a five-fold paradigm shift according to Buse and Hawkes. This article explores whether early traces of this paradigm shift can already be witnessed in the Indian context, focusing on Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs) more in particular. By now, NCDs make up a large health burden in India, both individually and on the health system. Inspired by an SDG vision, tackling NCDs will require a comprehensive approach rooted in preventive, curative and rehabilitative services. In India, some early momentum in this respect can already be witnessed, certainly in addressing the first two challenges identified by Buse and Hawkes, leadership and intersectoral coherence, and a shift from treatment to prevention. A central plan addressing health through an inter-sectoral approach has shaped the trajectory so far, moving away from silos to engagement with sectors beyond health. New guidelines addressing comprehensive primary healthcare propose a community outreach and preventive approach for NCDs. At a broader level, NCD prevention is also closely linked to tackling the so called "commercial determinants of health" and will require among others strong (central and state level) regulation, teaming up with global advocacy networks and capitalizing on global frameworks, where they exist. Strong political leadership will be indispensable for this, and is according to Buse and Hawkes closely linked to seeing health as a right and the government as accountable when it comes to providing for the right to health through its policies and actions. National stewardship will thus be key, via a more adaptive network governance structure with the central level coordinating with the state level to ensure implementation, while also engaging

  14. Shifting the Climate Finance Paradigm: Nine Key Challenges for Developed Countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtin, Joseph

    2013-03-13

    In 2009, developed countries committed to part-funding the cost of adapting to the impacts of climate change and of low carbon development in developing countries. From 2010 to 2012, fast start finance began to flow from developed country exchequers. However, the climate finance paradigm is now shifting. A transition from loans and grants provided from scarce exchequer resources to innovative instruments for leveraging private capital and mitigating investment risk is required in the coming period. But what are the implications for developed countries? This policy brief explores the policy context defining the current climate finance debate; examines the extent to which commitments have been met; and identifies nine key challenges for developed countries as they enter the new climate finance paradigm, drawing on the lessons of the fast start finance period. This is the second in a series of Environment Nexus policy briefs by leading experts in the fields of agriculture, energy, climate change and water.

  15. Paradigm shifts and the interplay between state, business and civil sectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Encarnação, Sara; Santos, Fernando P.; Santos, Francisco C.; Blass, Vered; Pacheco, Jorge M.; Portugali, Juval

    2016-12-01

    The recent rise of the civil sector as a main player of socio-political actions, next to public and private sectors, has largely increased the complexity underlying the interplay between different sectors of our society. From urban planning to global governance, analysis of these complex interactions requires new mathematical and computational approaches. Here, we develop a novel framework, grounded on evolutionary game theory, to envisage situations in which each of these sectors is confronted with the dilemma of deciding between maintaining a status quo scenario or shifting towards a new paradigm. We consider multisector conflicts regarding environmentally friendly policies as an example of application, but the framework developed here has a considerably broader scope. We show that the public sector is crucial in initiating the shift, and determine explicitly under which conditions the civil sector-reflecting the emergent reality of civil society organizations playing an active role in modern societies-may influence the decision-making processes accruing to other sectors, while fostering new routes towards a paradigm shift of the society as a whole. Our results are shown to be robust to a wide variety of assumptions and model parametrizations.

  16. How To Be Better Prepared For A Paradigm Shift In Economic Theory, And Write Better Articles In The Meantime

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Welch; W.A. Dolfsma (Wilfred)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractThe development of economic thought is not unlike the development of technological knowledge: paradigms can be discerned over time and across the field. Indeed, in its history economics has experienced paradigm shifts. There is no reason why it will not do so again in the future. In

  17. New horizons for Korean energy industry--shifting paradigms and challenges ahead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, H.-J.Hyun-Joon.

    2003-01-01

    Korean energy industry is experiencing a radical paradigm shift. Vertically integrated monopoly is being dismantled while state-owned energy companies are privatized. The industry is in transition from extensive government control to more flexible and market-oriented operation. Along with the task of successfully implementing these structural changes, Korea is now faced with challenges of addressing energy security with the decentralized supply system. This paper discusses ongoing efforts to transform electric power and natural gas industries in Korea, and then explores possible schemes for regional energy cooperation that will enhance efficiency and supply security

  18. Paradigm Shift: Report on the New Role of Design in Business and Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gjoko Muratovski

    Full Text Available Corporate cultures' prevailing attitudes towards design have begun to shift. Financial companies and management consultancies now have design teams, and include “design” in their service portfolios. Large corporations are bolstering their in-house design capabilities, and appointing designers to executive roles. Venture capitalist firms and startups increasingly recognize the value of including designers in the early stages of business development. Even global organizations and international foundations now list design on their agendas. A paradigm shift is taking place in the field of design. This study examines some of the latest corporate investments in design, and reflects on what this phenomenon means for the wider field of design. The focus of this study is on the key trend indicators that are defining the current landscape of design, and its changing role in business and society.

  19. Effects of holistic nursing course: a paradigm shift for holistic health practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, Marty

    2007-06-01

    A study of an undergraduate course in holistic nursing was conducted to determine its impact on personal and professional health care practices. A mixed method design was used to examine responses on a sample of 200 participants. Results indicated a positive personal impact with continued application of concepts into professional health practices. Personal and professional nursing practices were influenced from 1 to 7 years after completing the holistic nursing course. After introduction of the concepts of self-care and holistic approaches to health, students and graduates experienced a shift in values and beliefs related to their own health practices. Continued exposure to holistic practices creates a pattern of awareness toward health that affects future personal and professional nursing practice, creating a paradigm shift for emerging nursing students and graduates from the course. This affects the manner in which nurses meet the needs of their clients in a variety of settings.

  20. Revisiting the 'paradigm shift' in opioid use: Developments and implications 10 years later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Benedikt; Rehm, Jürgen

    2017-03-23

    A decade ago, we queried the unfolding of a 'paradigm shift' in illicit opioid use in North America, specifically involving a shift away from heroin to prescription opioid (PO) use. Today, this situation is more acute than ever, with prescription opioid misuse, morbidity and mortality amounting to one of the most severe substance use-related public health crises ever, now even impacting life expectancy in key population segments. Despite medical system-based PO dispensing and practices being recognised as core drivers of the PO crisis, effective policy measures have been long absent or limited-including those to reduce medical PO use to levels supported by best evidence for pain care. At the same time, heroin use has been increasing again, now commonly tied into interdependent opioid use trajectories, initiated with POs yet shifting to heroin as influenced by economic or availability factors. For policy, there are now two major and urgent-yet partly conflicting-tasks: one is to reduce the determinants of PO misuse and harms by reducing medical prescribing to levels supported by good evidence, while the other is to effectively protect those many active problematic PO users from acute harms (including overdose mortality) by providing effective treatment and survival aids (e.g. naloxone). Surprisingly, it appears that a major 'homemade' and medical system-induced drug crisis has been at least as challenging for North American policy systems to address as other, more conventional illicit drug problems. Lessons for policy hence need to be urgently identified and applied for the future. [Fischer B, Rehm J. Revisiting the 'paradigm shift' in opioid use: Developments and implications 10 years later. Drug Alcohol Rev 2017;00:000-000]. © 2017 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  1. Creating a new generation of pediatric dentists: a paradigm shift in training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Gomez, Francisco J; Silva, Daniela Rodrigues P; Law, Clarice S; Pizzitola, Rebecca L; John, Brendan; Crall, James J

    2014-12-01

    The University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) School of Dentistry has implemented a Health Resources and Services Administration-funded program to prepare dentists for the complex and comprehensive needs of pediatric patients within rapidly changing demographics and a paradigm shift in dentistry. Traditional dental education has focused on how to respond to oral disease, whereas UCLA's program shifts the paradigm to emphasize early assessment, risk-based prevention, and disease management. A holistic approach to dental care that considers social and environmental determinants is used with minimally invasive techniques for restorative care. To support this change, pediatric dental residents receive traditional training combined with new didactics, advocacy opportunities, and applied learning experiences at community-based organizations. These new elements teach residents to recognize the causal factors of disease and to identify interventions that promote oral health at the individual, family, community, and policy level. Consequently, they are better prepared to treat a diverse group of patients who historically have faced the greatest burden of disease as well as an increased number of barriers to accessing oral health care; these consist of low-income, minority, and/or pediatric populations including children with special health needs. The program's ultimate goal is for residents to deploy these skills in treating vulnerable populations and to demonstrate greater interest in collaborating with non-dental health providers and community organizations to increase access to dental services in private or public health practice settings.

  2. Paradigm shifts about dust on the Moon: From Apollo 11 to Chang'e-4

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Brian J.

    2018-07-01

    Strategic purposes of this DAP-2017 report are to update our DAP-2010 report on movements of inescapable fine lunar dust, to summarise key new measurements and to assist rigorous focus. Lunar dust is defined here in two sciences, Apollo dust and Ejecta dust, to end several confusions. The Kuhn Cycle is introduced to stimulate progression of a science about movements of Apollo dust which lacks an agreed paradigm to supply puzzles for scientists to solve and tools for their solution. We populate the cycle with two paradigm shifts. The first was serendipitous invention in 1966 of the Apollo Dust Detector Experiment (DDE), 3 orthogonal solar cells each with a thermometer, which on Apollo 12 measured cause and effect, collective movements of billions to trillions of low-energy Apollo dust particles and changes in temperature they cause. In contrast, Apollo 17 LEAM and LADEE LDEX experiments follow traditions to measure impacts of high-velocity Ejecta dust particles, one by one. In 2015, Apollo 12 DDE discoveries of sunrise-driven storms of Apollo dust stimulated a measurement-based 5-step model of dust transport at astronaut waist height. The discoveries solve (i) 50-year-old mysteries of Horizon Glow, (ii) 30-year-old uncertainties about levitated dust, (iii) processes leading to lunar surfaces being smooth and (iv) immobilisation of the Chang'e-3 lunar rover Yutu in 2014 after its first sunrise. The IAC-2017 Website Abstract of a withdrawn Chang'e-3 presentation may support our views that sunrise-mobilised dust caused immobilisation of Yutu. A precursor to a second paradigm shift was May 2016 announced revision of Chang'e-4 scientific priorities. Using Kuhn terminology of scientific progress, a second shift would follow our "revolution" in 2015 that sunrise-driven dust storms caused the 2014 ″crisis" of immobilisation of Chang'e-3 lunar rover Yutu. No such sequence occurred previously with lunar dust. Measurement-based evidence from Apollo 11 to Chang'e-3 confirms

  3. Flexible Believers in the Netherlands: A Paradigm Shift toward Transreligious Multiplicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalsky Manuela

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Netherlands has undergone a radical religious transformation through secularization, individualization and migration. Expressions of Christian belief are no longer strictly defined by the Church and hybrid forms of religiosity incorporating other religions have emerged. After a brief sketch of Dutch religious plurality, the author focuses on interviews with ‘flexible believers’, people who combine elements from different religious traditions and worldviews. Through interviews, she discovers a number of characteristics of these multiple religious believers (MRB - interviewees - such as ritual praxis, identity-making processes and belonging - and reflects on their impact for the wider picture of religiosity in today‘s post-Christian Dutch network society. She concludes that hybrid forms of lived religion like mrb, present a challenge to traditional concepts of religious identity and belonging. They require a paradigm shift from an ‘either/or’ to a relational ‘as well as’ approach within a rhizomatic network of meaning.

  4. Radical Innovation, Paradigm Shift and Incumbent’s Dilemma The Case of the Auto Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eden Yin

    2017-04-01

    & Rothaermel, 2003. These innovations may have the potential to shrink the incumbents’ marketspace, e.g., Gemesis’ synthetic diamonds challenging the natural diamonds (McAdams and Reavis, 2008, EasyJet challenging mainstream airlines such as BA, Netflix challenging the traditional movie rental business (Leonhartdt, 2006, or displace the incumbent market leader, e.g., IBM PC and its clones destroyed minicomputer makers such as DEC, Wang, Apollo and so on. Yet, they do not often disrupt the entire industry. But in recent years, more industry-wide disruptions have occurs due to emerge of not a single radical innovation but an array of them simultaneously from within or outside of a particular industry. In this process, it is not just the incumbent market leader or a few incumbent firms but the entire value chain, ecosystem or industry get displaced, the so-called paradigm shift, e.g., GPS device by software companies such as Google and Waze, desktop computing by mobile devices, and the traditional auto industry centered around the internal combustion engine by peer-to-peer service provider (e.g., Uber, consumer electronics (e.g., Apple, battery-driven vehicle (e.g., Tesla, and software companies (e.g., Google, Amazon. When this happens, incumbents are not fighting against a particular firm or a few firms that have introduced radical innovations based on similar technologies, but an army of very diverse entrants that are disrupting the entire industries from various directions, some of which are from remote industries with vastly different organizational capabilities, mindset and business model. How incumbents of the existing ecosystem should best cope with the massive and dramatic industry-level disruption induced by multiple radical innovations along a number of fronts or paradigm shift has largely remained unexamined. In the face of paradigm shift, can the above mentioned strategies or tactics for incumbents to combat single radical innovation or firm be adequate to deal

  5. When Medicine Meets Engineering—Paradigm Shifts in Diagnostics and Therapeutics

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    Aleidy Silva

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available During the last two decades, the manufacturing techniques of microfluidics-based devices have been phenomenally advanced, offering unlimited potential for bio-medical technologies. However, the direct applications of these technologies toward diagnostics and therapeutics are still far from maturity. The present challenges lay at the interfaces between the engineering systems and the biocomplex systems. A precisely designed engineering system with narrow dynamic range is hard to seamlessly integrate with the adaptive biological system in order to achieve the design goals. These differences remain as the roadblock between two fundamentally non-compatible systems. This paper will not extensively review the existing microfluidic sensors and actuators; rather, we will discuss the sources of the gaps for integration. We will also introduce system interface technologies for bridging the differences to lead toward paradigm shifts in diagnostics and therapeutics.

  6. Shifting the paradigm in Oregon from teen pregnancy prevention to youth sexual health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nystrom, Robert J; Duke, Jessica E A; Victor, Brad

    2013-01-01

    Oregon's work on teen pregnancy prevention during the previous 20 years has shifted from a risk-focused paradigm to a youth development model that places young people at the center of their sexual health and well-being. During 2005, the Oregon Governor's Office requested that an ad hoc committee of state agency and private partners develop recommendations for the next phase of teen pregnancy prevention. As a result of that collaborative effort, engagement of young people, and community input, the Oregon Youth Sexual Health Plan was released in 2009. The plan focuses on development of young people and embraces sexuality as a natural part of adolescent development. The plan's five goals and eight objectives guide the work of state agencies and partners addressing youth sexual health. Oregon's development of a statewide plan can serve as a framework for other states and entities to address all aspects of youth sexual health.

  7. Paradigm shifts and other prerequisites to facilitate the institutionalising of strategy in South African organisations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kruger

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available South African organisations must undergo a mind shift and adhere to certain prerequisites to survive and be successful. It is evident that companies not changing their mindsets will not survive and be able to create a sustainable competitive advantage and to compete in world markets. Companies have to solve new problems with new paradigms, constantly create something better, something new, create new markets as opposed to increasing market share. The Third Wave development will lead to societal transformation. Moving to Third Wave will imply growth organisations to act like small entrepreneurial businesses that will have the benefit of speed and simplicity but also be able to implement strategy more effectively. Time is of the essence. South African companies have no other option but to move swiftly. The transformation from second to third wave is inevitable.

  8. Use of dextran nanoparticle: A paradigm shift in bacterial exopolysaccharide based biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Aparna; Bandopadhyay, Rajib

    2016-06-01

    This review is a concise compilation of all the major researches on dextran nanoparticle based biomedical applications. Dextran is a highly biocompatible and biodegradable neutral bacterial exopolysaccharide with simple repeating glucose subunits. It's simple yet unique biopolymeric nature made it highly suitable as nanomedicine, nanodrug carrier, and cell imaging system or nanobiosensor. Most importantly, it is extremely water soluble and shows no post drug delivery cellular toxicity. Complete metabolism of dextran is possible inside body thus possibility of renal failure is minimum. Dextran based nanoparticles have superior aqueous solubility, high cargo capacity and intrinsic viscosity, and short storage period. The main focus area of this review is- past and present of major biomedical applications of dextran based nanomaterials thus showing a paradigm shift in bacterial exopolysaccharide based nanobiotechnology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Contemporary management of locally advanced rectal cancer: Resolving issues, controversies and shifting paradigms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nacion, Aeris Jane D; Park, Youn Young; Kim, Nam Kyu

    2018-02-01

    Advancements in rectal cancer treatment have resulted in improvement only in locoregional control and have failed to address distant relapse, which is the predominant mode of treatment failure in rectal cancer. As the efficacy of conventional chemoradiotherapy (CRT) followed by total mesorectal excision (TME) reaches a plateau, the need for alternative strategies in locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC) has grown in relevance. Several novel strategies have been conceptualized to address this issue, including: 1) neoadjuvant induction and consolidation chemotherapy before CRT; 2) neoadjuvant chemotherapy alone to avoid the sequelae of radiation; and 3) nonoperative management for patients who achieved pathological or clinical complete response after CRT. This article explores the issues, recent advances and paradigm shifts in the management of LARC and emphasizes the need for a personalized treatment plan for each patient based on tumor stage, location, gene expression and quality of life.

  10. From Axenic to Mixed Cultures: Technological Advances Accelerating a Paradigm Shift in Microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nai, Corrado; Meyer, Vera

    2018-06-01

    Since the onset of microbiology in the late 19th century, scientists have been growing microorganisms almost exclusively as pure cultures, resulting in a limited and biased view of the microbial world. Only a paradigm shift in cultivation techniques - from axenic to mixed cultures - can allow a full comprehension of the (chemical) communication of microorganisms, with profound consequences for natural product discovery, microbial ecology, symbiosis, and pathogenesis, to name a few areas. Three main technical advances during the last decade are fueling the realization of this revolution in microbiology: microfluidics, next-generation 3D-bioprinting, and single-cell metabolomics. These technological advances can be implemented for large-scale, systematic cocultivation studies involving three or more microorganisms. In this review, we present recent trends in microbiology tools and discuss how these can be employed to decode the chemical language that microorganisms use to communicate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Remote monitoring of cardiovascular implanted electronic devices: a paradigm shift for the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Edmond M; Varma, Niraj

    2012-07-01

    Traditional follow-up of cardiac implantable electronic devices involves the intermittent download of largely nonactionable data. Remote monitoring represents a paradigm shift from episodic office-based follow-up to continuous monitoring of device performance and patient and disease state. This lessens device clinical burden and may also lead to cost savings, although data on economic impact are only beginning to emerge. Remote monitoring technology has the potential to improve the outcomes through earlier detection of arrhythmias and compromised device integrity, and possibly predict heart failure hospitalizations through integration of heart failure diagnostics and hemodynamic monitors. Remote monitoring platforms are also huge databases of patients and devices, offering unprecedented opportunities to investigate real-world outcomes. Here, the current status of the field is described and future directions are predicted.

  12. The public perception of climate change in Taiwan and its paradigm shift

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, Kuei Tien

    2013-01-01

    This study attempts to explore the risk perceptions of climate change in Taiwan. It probes into the public's views toward governments' risk communication regarding climate change, citizens' participation in decision-making, and their trust in the capacity of governments toward risk governance, as well as their attitude towards corporate social responsibility. For analysis, we developed ten types of perceptions under three dimensions: namely the severity of climate change (Type 1), the development of sustainable society (Types 2, 3, 4 and 5), and the risk governance and communication (Types 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10) to discuss whether the Taiwanese public's perception of climate change was prepared for a socially reflective paradigm shift. Regarding the three dimensions in the questionnaire design, although this study individually measured the public's risk perception, there was a high correlation between the variance analysis results among the three dimensions. This could systematically explain the potential change of the governance paradigm in Taiwanese society concerning structural transformation. - Highlights: • The public had critical view on the policy decision-making of climate change. • There is low public trust in the government's capacity to resist climate change. • The public requested more risk communication, transparency and participation. • The pursuit of an alternative sustainable economic society is highly expected. • People supported renewable energy by higher prices for carbon reduction

  13. A new call for quality. Shifting the paradigm for development policy in Greece through competitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelos Psilopoulos

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is following up on Kouzelis, Psilopoulou and Psilopoulos (2010, where it was partly suggested that skipping architectural competitions in favour of a quantitative (i.e., fiscal approach was a prevailing paradigm for the building procurement policy in Greece at the time. Here the aim is to trace a notable shift from that paradigm by reviewing three case studies: the case of the UpTo35 competition conducted as part of a private development scheme, the case of two ideas competitions organized by architecture review GreekArchitects.gr as part of an open discourse on politics and urban issues, and finally a general turn in policy by the ‘Ministry of Environment, Energy and Climate Change including a new legislative framework aiming to establish a central role for architectural competitions in the development of public space. As these cases are studied in terms of narrative inquiry, the focus will be primarily on the incentives behind them and a proposal that they all find themselves on common ground by the narrative of simply ‘breaking with past practices’, in addition to introducing the notion of quality, not by prescribing it in qualificatory terms but rather by simply supporting and safeguarding it in both policy and will.

  14. A Paradigm Shift: How Macrobioethics Can Assist in the Transition from Anthropocentrism to Ecocentrism

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    Daniel Borges Moura

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Environmental preservation is not made in order to protect the environment, but to the man's own protection. Although there are political and legal instruments to deal with the claim "environmental protection," what we see, in fact, it is the manipulation of nature for the benefit of humanity. The objective of this study is to demonstrate, succinctly, as was the historical evolution to the anthropocentric paradigm, and its consequences on international policies relating to the environment. We Will provide an analysis of the major international treaties involving the environment to demonstrate that, although there is an anthropocentric logic, there are signs, albeit modest, that we are coming to a point of change. With the emergence of "new issues" of international law, as the topics covered in the post- Second World War were called, played down the almost exclusive that security and the economy had in international forums to be an increase in the discussions on, for example, environmental issues. This change of political nature, associated with the emergence of new philosophies, is creating a favorable environment to occur, probably even in the current century, a paradigm shift that transforms the theoretical basis of anthropocentrism to ecocentrism, modifying the way the man It relates to the environment in which it is inserted.

  15. Challenges of Transit Oriented Development (TOD in Iran. The Need for a Paradigm Shift

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahta Mirmoghtadaee

    2016-10-01

    The major contention of this paper is to discuss the general concept of TOD, its benefits and challenges in Iranian urban context. It is discussed here that TOD has several positive outcomes considering the existing urbanization trends in Iran. It may be used as a practical instrument to deal with rapidly urbanizing country in which motorization rate is increasing and air pollution is the serious cause of life loss. However there are several challenges which should be faced. The need for an Iranian version of TOD, which re-narrated the theory according to local situation, is the first challenge. A paradigm shift in the government, shifting the priority from housing schemes to mass transit systems is the second challenge needed to be taken into consideration. The third challenge is the overlapping and parallel institutions dealing with mass transit systems in urban and regional transportation planning and insufficient planning instruments. The integrated transportation and urban planning system is necessary here, and there is an urgent need to develop a national TOD guideline with the potential to develop local versions for each city.

  16. Partnerships between Professional and Amateur Astronomers: A Shift in Research Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanamandra-Fisher, Padma A.; Orton, G. S.; Casquinha, P.; Coffelt, A.; Delcroix, M.; Go, C.; Hueso, R.; Jaeschke, W.; Kardasis, M.; Kraaikamp, E.; Morales, E.; Peach, D.; Rogers, J.; Wesley, A.; Willems, F.; Wilson, T.

    2012-10-01

    "Citizen Astronomy" can be thought of as the paradigm shift transforming the nature of observational astronomy. The night sky, with all its delights and mysteries, enthralls professional and amateur astronomers, and students who will form the next generation of scientists and engineers. These students are matriculating in an era of reduced funding for core competencies such as science, technology, mathematics and engineering (STEM) sciences and an ongoing general decline in these sciences. How then do we re-generate their interest and engage students while we perform cutting-edge planetary science in a fiscally constrained environment? One promising solution is to promote the emerging partnerships between professional and dedicated proficient amateur astronomers, that rely on creating a niche for long timeline of multispectral remote sensing. In the past decade, it is the collective observations and their analyses by the ever-increasing global network of amateur astronomers that has discovered interesting phenomena and provided the reference backdrop for observations by professional ground-based professional astronomers and spacecraft missions. We shall focus on our collaboration or "Citizen Astronomy: Jupiter and Saturn" for the past five years and illustrate the strong synergy between the two groups that has produced new scientific results. With the active inclusion and use of emerging social media (Facebook, Twitter, etc.), the near daily communication and updates (via email, Skype, Facebook) between the two groups is becoming a powerful tool for ground-based remote sensing. However, what is sorely lacking in this paradigm is the inclusion of teachers and students and, therefore, its inclusion in the secondary and tertiary classrooms. We will provide various scenarios to address this issue, and emphasize the various aspects of STEM learning/teaching that is necessary for students and teachers - all that can be performed at low cost; and showcase some of our

  17. The New Rule Paradigm Shift: Transforming At-Risk Programs by Matching Business Archetypes Strategies in the Global Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Paul S.

    2007-01-01

    The challenge was given to transform aviation-related programs to keep them from being eliminated. These programs were to be discontinued due to enrollment declines, costs, legislative mandates, lack of administrative support, and drastic state budget reductions. The New Rule was a paradigm shift of focus to the global market for program…

  18. Tundra permafrost thaw causes significant shifts in energy partitioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Stiegler

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Permafrost, a key component of the arctic and global climate system, is highly sensitive to climate change. Observed and ongoing permafrost degradation influences arctic hydrology, ecology and biogeochemistry, and models predict that rapid warming is expected to significantly reduce near-surface permafrost and seasonally frozen ground during the 21st century. These changes raise concern of how permafrost thaw affects the exchange of water and energy with the atmosphere. However, associated impacts of permafrost thaw on the surface energy balance and possible feedbacks on the climate system are largely unknown. In this study, we show that in northern subarctic Sweden, permafrost thaw and related degradation of peat plateaus significantly change the surface energy balance of three peatland complexes by enhancing latent heat flux and, to less degree, also ground heat flux at the cost of sensible heat flux. This effect is valid at all radiation levels but more pronounced at higher radiation levels. The observed differences in flux partitioning mainly result from the strong coupling between soil moisture availability, vegetation composition, albedo and surface structure. Our results suggest that ongoing and predicted permafrost degradation in northern subarctic Sweden ultimately result in changes in land–atmosphere coupling due to changes in the partitioning between latent and sensible heat fluxes. This in turn has crucial implications for how predictive climate models for the Arctic are further developed.

  19. Paradigm shifts and the development of the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders: past experiences and future aspirations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    First, Michael B

    2010-11-01

    Work is currently under way on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), Fifth Edition, due to be published by the American Psychiatric Association in 2013. Dissatisfaction with the current categorical descriptive approach has led to aspirations for a paradigm shift for DSM-5. A historical review of past revisions of the DSM was performed. Efforts undertaken before the start of the DSM-5 development process to conduct a state-of-the science review and set a research agenda were examined to determine if results supported a paradigm shift for DSM-5. Proposals to supplement DSM-5 categorical diagnosis with dimensional assessments are reviewed and critiqued. DSM revisions have alternated between paradigm shifts (the first edition of the DSM in 1952 and DSM-III in 1980) and incremental improvements (DSM-II in 1968, DSM-III-R in 1987, and DSM-IV in 1994). The results of the review of the DSM-5 research planning initiatives suggest that despite the scientific advances that have occurred since the descriptive approach was first introduced in 1980, the field lacks a sufficiently deep understanding of mental disorders to justify abandoning the descriptive approach in favour of a more etiologically based alternative. Proposals to add severity and cross-cutting dimensions throughout DSM-5 are neither paradigm shifting, given that simpler versions of such dimensions are already a component of DSM-IV, nor likely to be used by busy clinicians without evidence that they improve clinical outcomes. Despite initial aspirations that DSM would undergo a paradigm shift with this revision, DSM-5 will continue to adopt a descriptive categorical approach, albeit with a greatly expanded dimensional component.

  20. Baxter v. Montana, libertarianism, and end-of-life: the ripe time for a paradigm shift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruble, James H

    2010-09-01

    Baxter v. Montana (2009 WL 5155363 [Mont. 2009]) is a recent decision from the Montana Supreme Court that provides new legal insight into the societal issue of aid in dying. This case involves interests of persons with terminal illness, medical practitioners, law enforcement, legislative and judicial bodies, as well as the citizens of Montana. A summary judgment ruling at the Montana district court level was based almost entirely on a constitutional fundamental rights analysis. In contrast, the Montana Supreme Court affirming decision was based almost entirely on a statutory rights analysis. Both rulings from the Montana courts support the position that licensed prescribers in Montana who provide aid in dying assistance to terminally ill patients have some immunity from criminal prosecution. Each side in the case argued what they believed to be the intents and purposes of the people of Montana. Baxter v. Montana illustrates different methods to determine the will of the people concerning aid in dying and public policy. This case very subtly suggests a paradigm shift may be occurring in aid in dying policy.

  1. Non-IID Recommender Systems: A Review and Framework of Recommendation Paradigm Shifting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longbing Cao

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available While recommendation plays an increasingly critical role in our living, study, work, and entertainment, the recommendations we receive are often for irrelevant, duplicate, or uninteresting products and services. A critical reason for such bad recommendations lies in the intrinsic assumption that recommended users and items are independent and identically distributed (IID in existing theories and systems. Another phenomenon is that, while tremendous efforts have been made to model specific aspects of users or items, the overall user and item characteristics and their non-IIDness have been overlooked. In this paper, the non-IID nature and characteristics of recommendation are discussed, followed by the non-IID theoretical framework in order to build a deep and comprehensive understanding of the intrinsic nature of recommendation problems, from the perspective of both couplings and heterogeneity. This non-IID recommendation research triggers the paradigm shift from IID to non-IID recommendation research and can hopefully deliver informed, relevant, personalized, and actionable recommendations. It creates exciting new directions and fundamental solutions to address various complexities including cold-start, sparse data-based, cross-domain, group-based, and shilling attack-related issues.

  2. Paradigm shifts in fish conservation: moving to the ecosystem services concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowx, I G; Portocarrero Aya, M

    2011-12-01

    Various factors constrain the existence and development of inland fishes and fisheries, such as pollution, habitat degradation, alien invasive species, local user conflicts, low social priority and inadequate research and funding. In many cases, however, degradation of the environment and loss of aquatic habitat are the predominant concerns for the conservation of freshwater aquatic biota. The need for concerted effort to prevent and reduce environmental degradation, as well as protection of freshwater fishes and fisheries as renewable common pool resources or entities in their own right, are the greatest challenges facing the conservation of fishes in inland waters. Unfortunately, traditional conservation practices such as regulation of exploitation, protected areas and habitat restoration have failed to arrest the alarming increase in number of threatened freshwater fish species worldwide. This paper examines the shifting paradigm of fisheries management from rule-based regulation, through fishery enhancement towards the ecosystem approach to fisheries, with reference to inland waters, and how the emerging concept of ecosystem services coupled with traditional fish conservation management practices, institutional restructuring and integrated management planning should provide a more sustainable thrust to formulation and promotion of fish conservation initiatives. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Fish Biology © 2011 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  3. The transformation from custodial to recovery-oriented care: a paradigm shift that needed to happen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Brian; Furness, Trentham; Dhital, Deepa; Park, Malcolm; Connally, Fiona

    2014-01-01

    As custodial mental health services are beginning to adopt a recovery-oriented model of care, it is imperative that successes in the transformation to recovery are captured. The aim of this illustrative case study was to describe the organizational procedure that enabled the systematic transformation of a custodial mental health service to a service with a self-professed recovery orientation as its model of service delivery. One-to-one interviews with key stakeholders and a document analysis were completed to thoroughly describe the transformation of the service. Four major themes arose from the data: (a) "We had this whole paradigm shift that needed to happen;" (b) "Think recovery," the development of a manualized guide; (c) "Stepping out my recovery;" adaptation of the service guide to the secure care context; and (d) developing the culture. The "developing the culture" major theme was subcategorized to consist of (a) the right people, (b) education, (c) reflective learning, and (d) leadership. The themes provided insights to assist mental health nurses to understand the processes involved in systems transformation. However, the major successes of the service, although only recently evaluated, commenced over a decade ago and yet continue to evolve.

  4. Regenerative endodontics: a true paradigm shift or a bandwagon about to be derailed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazzal, H; Duggal, M S

    2017-02-01

    Regenerative endodontic techniques (RETs) have been hailed as a paradigm shift for the management of traumatised non-vital immature permanent anterior teeth. In this article the aim was to critically appraise the literature with regards to the outcome of regenerative endodontics on root development. Critical review of the literature where regenerative endodontic techniques have been used in the management of immature non-vital teeth with continuation of root development as the main outcome reported. Most studies published were in the form of case reports and series with very few randomised controlled trials with a high risk of bias. Continuation of root development following the use of RET has been shown to be unpredictable at best with lower success in those teeth losing vitality as a result of dental trauma. Despite the high success of regenerative endodontics in terms of periodontal healing including resolution of clinical and radiographic signs and symptoms of infection, continuation of root development remains an unpredictable outcome. The use of a blood clot as a scaffold in regenerative endodontics should be reviewed carefully as that might offer an environment for repair rather than regeneration. In addition, preservation of structures, such as Hertwig's epithelial root sheath, may have an important bearing on the success of this approach and should be further investigated.

  5. Paradigm shift regarding the transversalis fascia, preperitoneal space, and Retzius' space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakage, N

    2018-06-01

    There has been confusion in the anatomical recognition when performing inguinal hernia operations in Japan. From now on, a paradigm shift from the concept of two-dimensional layer structure to the three-dimensional space recognition is necessary to promote an understanding of anatomy. Along with the formation of the abdominal wall, the extraperitoneal space is formed by the transversalis fascia and preperitoneal space. The transversalis fascia is a somatic vascular fascia originating from an arteriovenous fascia. It is a dense areolar tissue layer at the outermost of the extraperitoneal space that runs under the diaphragm and widely lines the body wall muscle. The umbilical funiculus is taken into the abdominal wall and transformed into the preperitoneal space that is a local three-dimensional cavity enveloping preperitoneal fasciae composed of the renal fascia, vesicohypogastric fascia, and testiculoeferential fascia. The Retzius' space is an artificial cavity formed at the boundary between the transversalis fascia and preperitoneal space. In the underlay mesh repair, the mesh expands in the range spanning across the Retzius' space and preperitoneal space.

  6. Physical Training and Activity in People With Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy: Paradigm Shift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluding, Patricia M; Bareiss, Sonja K; Hastings, Mary; Marcus, Robin L; Sinacore, David R; Mueller, Michael J

    2017-01-01

    Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) occurs in more than 50% of people with diabetes and is an important risk factor for skin breakdown, amputation, and reduced physical mobility (ie, walking and stair climbing). Although many beneficial effects of exercise for people with diabetes have been well established, few studies have examined whether exercise provides comparable benefits to people with DPN. Until recently, DPN was considered to be a contraindication for walking or any weight-bearing exercise because of concerns about injuring a person's insensitive feet. These guidelines were recently adjusted, however, after research demonstrated that weight-bearing activities do not increase the risk of foot ulcers in people who have DPN but do not have severe foot deformity. Emerging research has revealed positive adaptations in response to overload stress in these people, including evidence for peripheral neuroplasticity in animal models and early clinical trials. This perspective article reviews the evidence for peripheral neuroplasticity in animal models and early clinical trials, as well as adaptations of the integumentary system and the musculoskeletal system in response to overload stress. These positive adaptations are proposed to promote improved function in people with DPN and to foster the paradigm shift to including weight-bearing exercise for people with DPN. This perspective article also provides specific assessment and treatment recommendations for this important, high-risk group. © 2017 American Physical Therapy Association.

  7. Self-management in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Time for a paradigm shift?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nici, Linda; Bontly, Thomas D; Zuwallack, Richard; Gross, Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    Self-management in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, centering on an action plan for the exacerbation and enhanced communication between the patient and health care providers, makes good clinical sense. However, five relatively large trials of self-management in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease have had inconsistent results: only two demonstrated reductions in health care utilization and one had to be discontinued prematurely because of increased mortality. Do these discordant findings require a paradigm shift in our concept of self-management? Probably not-but an analysis of the negative studies can give us valuable insights. There are data to support the idea that patients in the trial that showed increased mortality did not self-manage appropriately. Only 4.5% of these patients called in before starting treatment for their exacerbation, the time to initiation of antibiotics or steroids was unsatisfactorily long, and the intervention arm used minimally more prednisone and antibiotics than the control arm. The reasons for a higher mortality will likely never be known, but it is possible that these high-risk patients may have needed earlier assessment by a trained professional, or that self-management led to overconfidence and treatment delays. We clearly need more effective ways to implement self-management and better define which groups of patients stand to benefit (or be harmed) by this intervention. This will require an investment in well-thought-out clinical trials.

  8. The coming paradigm shift: A transition from manual to automated microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahani, Navid; Monteith, Corey E

    2016-01-01

    The field of pathology has used light microscopy (LM) extensively since the mid-19(th) century for examination of histological tissue preparations. This technology has remained the foremost tool in use by pathologists even as other fields have undergone a great change in recent years through new technologies. However, as new microscopy techniques are perfected and made available, this reliance on the standard LM will likely begin to change. Advanced imaging involving both diffraction-limited and subdiffraction techniques are bringing nondestructive, high-resolution, molecular-level imaging to pathology. Some of these technologies can produce three-dimensional (3D) datasets from sampled tissues. In addition, block-face/tissue-sectioning techniques are already providing automated, large-scale 3D datasets of whole specimens. These datasets allow pathologists to see an entire sample with all of its spatial information intact, and furthermore allow image analysis such as detection, segmentation, and classification, which are impossible in standard LM. It is likely that these technologies herald a major paradigm shift in the field of pathology.

  9. The coming paradigm shift: A transition from manual to automated microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navid Farahani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The field of pathology has used light microscopy (LM extensively since the mid-19 th century for examination of histological tissue preparations. This technology has remained the foremost tool in use by pathologists even as other fields have undergone a great change in recent years through new technologies. However, as new microscopy techniques are perfected and made available, this reliance on the standard LM will likely begin to change. Advanced imaging involving both diffraction-limited and subdiffraction techniques are bringing nondestructive, high-resolution, molecular-level imaging to pathology. Some of these technologies can produce three-dimensional (3D datasets from sampled tissues. In addition, block-face/tissue-sectioning techniques are already providing automated, large-scale 3D datasets of whole specimens. These datasets allow pathologists to see an entire sample with all of its spatial information intact, and furthermore allow image analysis such as detection, segmentation, and classification, which are impossible in standard LM. It is likely that these technologies herald a major paradigm shift in the field of pathology.

  10. Italy’s contribution to global health: the need for a paradigm shift

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews Italian Development Assistance for Health and overall contribution to Global Health from 2001 to 2012. It analyses strategies and roles of central and decentralized authorities as well as those of private non-profit and corporate actors. The research illustrates a very low and unstable official contribution that lags far behind internationally agreed upon objectives, a highly fragmented institutional scenario, and controversial political choices favouring “vertical” global initiatives undermining national health systems, and in contrast with Italian deep-rooted principles, traditional approaches and official guidelines. Italy’s contribution to global health goes beyond official development aid, however. The raising movement toward Universal Health Coverage may offer an extraordinary opportunity for a leading role to a country whose National Health System is founded on the principles of universal and equitable access to care. At the same time, the distinctive experience of Italian decentralized cooperation, with the involvement of a multiplicity actors in a coordinated effort for cooperation in health with homologous partners in developing countries, may offer – if adequately harnessed - new opportunities for an Italian “system” of development cooperation. Nevertheless, the indispensable prerequisite of a substantial increase in public funding is challenged by the current economic crisis and domestic political situation. For a renewed Italian role in development and global health, a paradigm shift is needed, requiring both conceptual revision and deep institutional and managerial reforms to ensure an appropriate strategic direction and an efficient and effective use of resources. PMID:24708890

  11. Maximizing the Impact of e-Therapy and Serious Gaming: Time for a Paradigm Shift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Theresa M; de Beurs, Derek; Khazaal, Yasser; Gaggioli, Andrea; Riva, Giuseppe; Botella, Cristina; Baños, Rosa M; Aschieri, Filippo; Bavin, Lynda M; Kleiboer, Annet; Merry, Sally; Lau, Ho Ming; Riper, Heleen

    2016-01-01

    Internet interventions for mental health, including serious games, online programs, and apps, hold promise for increasing access to evidence-based treatments and prevention. Many such interventions have been shown to be effective and acceptable in trials; however, uptake and adherence outside of trials is seldom reported, and where it is, adherence at least, generally appears to be underwhelming. In response, an international Collaboration On Maximizing the impact of E-Therapy and Serious Gaming (COMETS) was formed. In this perspectives' paper, we call for a paradigm shift to increase the impact of internet interventions toward the ultimate goal of improved population mental health. We propose four pillars for change: (1) increased focus on user-centered approaches, including both user-centered design of programs and greater individualization within programs, with the latter perhaps utilizing increased modularization; (2) Increased emphasis on engagement utilizing processes such as gaming, gamification, telepresence, and persuasive technology; (3) Increased collaboration in program development, testing, and data sharing, across both sectors and regions, in order to achieve higher quality, more sustainable outcomes with greater reach; and (4) Rapid testing and implementation, including the measurement of reach, engagement, and effectiveness, and timely implementation. We suggest it is time for researchers, clinicians, developers, and end-users to collaborate on these aspects in order to maximize the impact of e-therapies and serious gaming.

  12. Maximizing the impact of e-therapy and serious gaming: Time for a paradigm shift

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa M Fleming

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Internet interventions for mental health, including serious games, online programs and apps, hold promise for increasing access to evidence-based treatments and prevention. Many such interventions have been shown to be effective and acceptable in trials; however, uptake and adherence outside of trials is seldom reported, and where it is, adherence at least, generally appears to be underwhelming. In response, an international Collaboration On Maximizing the impact of E-Therapy and Serious Gaming (COMETS was formed. In this perspectives paper, we call for a paradigm shift to increase the impact of internet interventions towards the ultimate goal of improved population mental health. We propose four pillars for change: 1. Increased focus on user-centered approaches, including both user-centered design of programs and greater individualization within programs, with the latter perhaps utilizing increased modulariziation. 2. Increased emphasis on engagement; utilizing processes such as gaming, gamification, telepresence, and persuasive technology. 3. Increased collaboration in program development, testing and data sharing, across both sectors and regions, in order to achieve higher quality, more sustainable outcomes with greater reach. 4. Rapid testing and implementation, including the measurement of reach, engagement and effectiveness, and timely implementation. We suggest it is time for researchers, clinicians, developers and end-users to collaborate on these aspects in order to maximize the impact of e-therapies and serious gaming.

  13. Organizing Astronomy Popularization and Teacher Training Workshops in Nigeria: A paradigm shift in Sourcing funds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chukwudi Okpala, Kingsley; Iheanyi Okere, Bonaventure

    2015-08-01

    Funding for astronomy popularization and workshops has become a huge challenge in recent times especially for developing countries like Nigeria. However, a modification of the primary and secondary school curriculum to include space science topics in the school system has led to a ripe desire by the relevant agencies/corporate bodies to make commitments towards the astronomy popularization activities as part of their social responsibility. Considering the size of Nigeria, there is need for a shift in paradigm for sourcing resources to tackle the dart of funds for organizing educational activities in a sustainable manner. Recently a teacher training and science popularization workshop was organized as a first in a series of subsequent workshops geared towards having a sustainable means of popularizing astronomy for development in Nigeria. Principally, the key lies in the partnership with schools and other corporate bodies in addition to the usual governmental actions. Experiences from this workshop will be enumerated with the hope of inspiring the same success in similar societies.

  14. Paradigm shift in urban energy systems through distributed generation: Methods and models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manfren, Massimiliano; Caputo, Paola; Costa, Gaia

    2011-01-01

    The path towards energy sustainability is commonly referred to the incremental adoption of available technologies, practices and policies that may help to decrease the environmental impact of energy sector, while providing an adequate standard of energy services. The evaluation of trade-offs among technologies, practices and policies for the mitigation of environmental problems related to energy resources depletion requires a deep knowledge of the local and global effects of the proposed solutions. While attempting to calculate such effects for a large complex system like a city, an advanced multidisciplinary approach is needed to overcome difficulties in modeling correctly real phenomena while maintaining computational transparency, reliability, interoperability and efficiency across different levels of analysis. Further, a methodology that rationally integrates different computational models and techniques is necessary to enable collaborative research in the field of optimization of energy efficiency strategies and integration of renewable energy systems in urban areas. For these reasons, a selection of currently available models for distributed generation planning and design is presented and analyzed in the perspective of gathering their capabilities in an optimization framework to support a paradigm shift in urban energy systems. This framework embodies the main concepts of a local energy management system and adopts a multicriteria perspective to determine optimal solutions for providing energy services through distributed generation.

  15. Education of tobacco use prevention and cessation for dental professionals--a paradigm shift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Joan M; Ramseier, Christoph A; Mattheos, Nikos; Schoonheim-Klein, Meta; Compton, Sharon; Al-Hazmi, Nadia; Polychronopoulou, Argy; Suvan, Jean; Antohé, Magda E; Forna, Doriana; Radley, Nicki

    2010-02-01

    The use of tobacco continues to be a substantial risk factor in the development and progression of oral cancer, periodontitis, implant failure and poor wound healing. Dental and dental hygiene education providers have made great advances towards the incorporation of tobacco education into their curricula in recent years. Unfortunately, however, both medical and dental education research has consistently reported schools providing only basic knowledge-based curricula that rarely incorporate more effective, behaviourally-based components affecting long-term change. The limited training of oral healthcare students, at least in part, is reflected in practising dental professionals continuing to report offering incomplete tobacco interventions. In order to prepare the next generation of oral healthcare providers, this paper proposes a paradigm shift in how tobacco use prevention and cessation (TUPAC) may be incorporated into existing curricula. It is suggested that schools should carefully consider: to what level of competency should TUPAC be trained in dental and dental hygiene schools; the importance of establishing rapport through good communication skills; the core knowledge level for TUPAC; suggested instructional and assessment strategies; the importance of continuing professional education for the enhancement of TUPAC.

  16. Role of the kidney in the pathogenesis of hypertension: time for a neo-Guytonian paradigm or a paradigm shift?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Roger G; Bie, Peter

    2016-02-01

    The "Guytonian paradigm" places the direct effect of arterial pressure, on renal excretion of salt and water, at the center of long-term control of blood pressure, and thus the pathogenesis of hypertension. It originated in the sixties and remains influential within the field of hypertension research. However, the concept of one central long-term feedback loop, through which arterial pressure is maintained by its influence on renal function, has been questioned. Furthermore, some concepts in the paradigm are undermined by experimental observations. For example, volume retention and increased cardiac output induced by high salt intake do not necessarily lead to increased arterial pressure. Indeed, in multiple models of salt-sensitive hypertension the major abnormality appears to be failure of the vasodilator response to increased cardiac output, seen in salt-resistant animals, rather than an increase in cardiac output itself. There is also evidence that renal control of extracellular fluid volume is driven chiefly by volume-dependent neurohumoral control mechanisms rather than through direct or indirect effects of changes in arterial pressure, compatible with the concept that renal sodium excretion is controlled by parallel actions of different feedback systems, including hormones, reflexes, and renal arterial pressure. Moreover, we still do not fully understand the sequence of events underlying the phenomenon of "whole body autoregulation." Thus the events by which volume retention may develop to hypertension characterized by increased peripheral resistance remain enigmatic. Finally, by definition, animal models of hypertension are not "essential hypertension;" progress in our understanding of essential hypertension depends on new results on system functions in patients. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  17. A Paradigm shift to an Old Scheme for Outgoing Longwave Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Alastair B.

    2016-04-01

    There are many cases where the climate models do not agree with the empirical data. For instance, the data from radiosondes (and MSUs) do not show the amount of warming in the upper troposphere that is predicted by the models (Thorne et al. 2011). The current scheme for outgoing longwave radiation can be traced back to the great 19th Century French mathematician J-B Joseph Fourier. His anachronistic idea was that the radiation balance at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) is maintained by the conduction of heat from the surface (Fourier 1824). It was based on comparing the atmosphere to the 18th Century Swiss scientist H-B de Saussure's hotbox which he had invented to show that solar radiation is only slightly absorbed by the atmosphere. Saussure also showed that thermal radiation existed and argued that the warmth of the air near the surface of the Earth is due to absorption of that infra red radiation (Saussure 1786). Hence a paradigm shift to Saussure's scheme, where the thermal radiation is absorbed at the base of the atmosphere, rather than throughout the atmosphere as in Fourier's scheme, may solve many climate models problems. In this new paradigm the boundary layer continually exchanges radiation with the surface. Thus only at two instants during the day is there no net gain or loss of heat by the boundary layer from the surface, and so that layer is not in LTE. Moreover, since the absorption of outgoing longwave radiation is saturated within the boundary layer, it has little influence on the TOA balance. That balance is mostly maintained by changes in albedo, e.g. clouds and ice sheets. Use of this paradigm can explain why the excess warming in south western Europe was caused by water vapour close to the surface (Philipona et al. 2005), and may also explain why there are difficulties in closing the surface radiation balance (Wild et al. 2013) and in modelling abrupt climate change (White et al. 2013). References: Fourier, Joseph. 1824. 'Remarques G

  18. A paradigm shift toward a consistent modeling framework to assess climate impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monier, E.; Paltsev, S.; Sokolov, A. P.; Fant, C.; Chen, H.; Gao, X.; Schlosser, C. A.; Scott, J. R.; Dutkiewicz, S.; Ejaz, Q.; Couzo, E. A.; Prinn, R. G.; Haigh, M.

    2017-12-01

    Estimates of physical and economic impacts of future climate change are subject to substantial challenges. To enrich the currently popular approaches of assessing climate impacts by evaluating a damage function or by multi-model comparisons based on the Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs), we focus here on integrating impacts into a self-consistent coupled human and Earth system modeling framework that includes modules that represent multiple physical impacts. In a sample application we show that this framework is capable of investigating the physical impacts of climate change and socio-economic stressors. The projected climate impacts vary dramatically across the globe in a set of scenarios with global mean warming ranging between 2.4°C and 3.6°C above pre-industrial by 2100. Unabated emissions lead to substantial sea level rise, acidification that impacts the base of the oceanic food chain, air pollution that exceeds health standards by tenfold, water stress that impacts an additional 1 to 2 billion people globally and agricultural productivity that decreases substantially in many parts of the world. We compare the outcomes from these forward-looking scenarios against the common goal described by the target-driven scenario of 2°C, which results in much smaller impacts. It is challenging for large internationally coordinated exercises to respond quickly to new policy targets. We propose that a paradigm shift toward a self-consistent modeling framework to assess climate impacts is needed to produce information relevant to evolving global climate policy and mitigation strategies in a timely way.

  19. Laparoscopic paediatric surgery: A potential for paradigm shift in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M A Misauno

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Until recently, surgical conditions in children requiring operation were managed by the traditional open method. The introduction of the laparoscopic surgical technique seems to be reversing this trend in many centres. We are pioneering some laparoscopic surgery procedures in our environment and the aim of this study was to document our experience with laparoscopic paediatric surgical procedures in a developing country. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective analysis of all consecutive children that had laparoscopic surgery at 5 hospitals in Northern Nigeria from June 2008 to February 2011. Results: Twenty-one patients had laparoscopic surgeries during the study period with a mean age of 12.5 ± 2.6 years and age range of 10-16 years. There were 14 females and 7 males with a M:F ratio of 1:2. Seven patients (33.3% had cholecystectomies and 13 (61.9% had appendicectomies and the remaining one patient (4.8% had adhesiolysis for partial adhesive intestinal obstruction following previous open appendicectomy. The mean operating time was 89 min with a range of 45-110 min for appendicectomies, 55-150 min for cholecystectomies and the adhesiolysis took 50 min. The mean hospital stay was 2 days except for the conversions that stayed up to 7 days. There were 2 (9.5% conversions with no mortality. Conclusion: We solicit a paradigm shift in our approach to surgical management and implore other centres to embrace laparoscopic surgery in the management of surgical conditions in children since it confers obvious advantages over open surgery.

  20. Shifting the Paradigm for Long Term Monitoring at Legacy Sites to Improve Performance while Reducing Cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eddy-Dilek, Carol A.; Looney, Brian B.; Seaman, John; Kmetz, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    A major issue facing many government and private industry sites that were previously contaminated with radioactive and chemical wastes is that often the sites cannot be cleaned up enough to permit unrestricted human access. These sites will require long-term management, in some cases indefinitely, leaving site owners with the challenge of protecting human health and environmental quality in a cost effective manner. Long-term monitoring of groundwater contamination is one of the largest projected costs in the life cycle of environmental management at the Savannah River Site (SRS), the larger DOE complex, and many large federal and private sites. Currently, most monitoring strategies are focused on laboratory measurements of contaminants measured in groundwater samples collected from wells. This approach is expensive, and provides limited and lagging information about the effectiveness of cleanup activities and the behavior of the residual contamination. Over the last twenty years, DOE and other federal agencies have made significant investments in the development of various types of sensors and strategies that would allow for remote analysis of contaminants in groundwater, but these approaches do not promise significant reductions in risk or cost. Scientists at SRS have developed a new paradigm to simultaneously improve the performance of long term monitoring systems while lowering the overall cost of monitoring. This alternative approach incorporates traditional point measurements of contaminant concentration with measurements of controlling variables including boundary conditions, master variables, and traditional plume/contaminant variables. Boundary conditions are the overall driving forces that control plume movement and therefore provide leading indication to changes in plume stability. These variables include metrics associated with meteorology, hydrology, hydrogeology, and land use. Master variables are the key variables that control the chemistry of the

  1. Excavations at Schöningen and paradigm shifts in human evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conard, Nicholas J; Serangeli, Jordi; Böhner, Utz; Starkovich, Britt M; Miller, Christopher E; Urban, Brigitte; Van Kolfschoten, Thijs

    2015-12-01

    The exceptional preservation at Schöningen together with a mixture of perseverance, hard work, and sheer luck led to the recovery of unique finds in an exceptional context. The 1995 discovery of numerous wooden artifacts, most notably at least 10 carefully made spears together with the skeletons of at least 20 to 25 butchered horses, brought the debate about hunting versus scavenging among late archaic hominins and analogous arguments about the purportedly primitive behavior of Homo heidelbergensis and Neanderthals to an end. Work under H. Thieme's lead from 1992 to 2008 and results from the current team since 2008 demonstrate that late H. heidelbergensis or early Neanderthals used sophisticated artifacts made from floral and faunal materials, in addition to lithic artifacts more typically recovered at Lower Paleolithic sites. The finds from the famous Horse Butchery Site and two dozen other archaeological horizons from the edges of the open-cast mine at Schöningen provide many new insights into the technology and behavioral patterns of hominins about 300 ka BP during MIS 9 on the Northern European Plain. An analysis of the finds from Schöningen and their contexts shows that the inhabitants of the site were skilled hunters at the top of the food chain and exhibited a high level of planning depth. These hominins had command of effective means of communication about the here and now, and the past and the future, that allowed them to repeatedly execute well-coordinated and successful group activities that likely culminated in a division of labor and social and economic patterns radically different from those of all non-human primates. The unique preservation and high quality excavations have led to a major paradigm shift or "Schöningen Effect" that changed our views of human evolution during the late Lower Paleolithic. In this respect, we can view the behaviors documented at Schöningen as a plausible baseline for the behavioral sophistication of archaic hominins

  2. National Drought Policy: Shifting the Paradigm from Crisis to Risk-based Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhite, D. A.; Sivakumar, M. K.; Stefanski, R.

    2011-12-01

    Drought is a normal part of climate for virtually all of the world's climatic regimes. To better address the risks associated with this hazard and societal vulnerability, there must be a dramatic paradigm shift in our approach to drought management in the coming decade in the light of the increasing frequency of droughts and projections of increased severity and duration of these events in the future for many regions, especially in the developing world. Addressing this challenge will require an improved awareness of drought as a natural hazard, the establishment of integrated drought monitoring and early warning systems, a higher level of preparedness that fully incorporates risk-based management, and the adoption of national drought policies that are directed at increasing the coping capacity and resilience of populations to future drought episodes. The World Meteorological Organization (WMO), in partnership with other United Nations' agencies, the National Drought Mitigation Center at the University of Nebraska, NOAA, the U.S. Department of Agriculture, and other partners, is currently launching a program to organize a High Level Meeting on National Drought Policy (HMNDP) in March 2013 to encourage the development of national drought policies through the development of a compendium of key policy elements. The key objectives of a national drought policy are to: (1) encourage vulnerable economic sectors and population groups to adopt self-reliant measures that promote risk management; (2) promote sustainable use of the agricultural and natural resource base; and (3) facilitate early recovery from drought through actions consistent with national drought policy objectives. The key elements of a drought policy framework are policy and governance, including political will; addressing risk and improving early warnings, including vulnerability analysis, impact assessment, and communication; mitigation and preparedness, including the application of effective and

  3. Renewable Energy, Climate Action and Resilient Societies: Accelerating the Global and Local Paradigm Shift

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, Thomas; Levai, David; Wang, Xin

    2017-07-01

    This report has been commissioned by a group of foundations in G20 countries, which have come together under the F20 platform in order to engage with the issue of climate change and sustainability in the context of the G20. The report analyzes the emerging energy transition towards efficient and renewable energy systems at global level and in specific G20 countries. On the basis of this analysis, and of the country specific case-studies that have also been conducted in the report, it provides recommendations for foundations and the G20 aimed at enhancing climate change mitigation and sustainability. Key Messages: 1. The global transition to renewable energy systems is underway and accelerating, driven by a combination of policy interventions, very rapid innovation, particularly the fall in renewable electricity costs, and changing societal priorities in many areas, such as the importance being placed on clean air, green industrial development, and investments in local communities. 2. This transition creates tremendous opportunities for countries and companies to ramp-up a new kind of job creation and economic development based on renewable, efficient energy systems. At the same time, countries and actors, who do not anticipate the shift, could be left behind and lose out economically. The good news is that the necessary tools are there. The main question is whether the social and political will for change can be developed and harnessed at the speed and scope required. 3. An economic shift on the scale and speed required to mitigate climate change cannot be achieved solely from the 'top-down'; it can only be implemented with the buy-in and participation of civil society. Worrying trends of inequality, economic disruption, and the fragmentation and fractiousness of public discourse make obtaining this social buy-in all the more difficult. Civil society must thus be seen as an essential partner of policies to drive a new paradigm of sustainable economic development

  4. Bonds or Bargains: Relationship Paradigms and Their Significance for Marital Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sue

    1986-01-01

    Discusses contrasting conceptual paradigms describing the nature of intimate relationships. Relationships may be viewed in terms of a rational bargain or as an emotional bond. The implications of each paradigm for the process of marital therapy and the role of bonding and attachment in adult intimacy are prescribed. Implications for marital…

  5. Will the Meikirch Model, a New Framework for Health, Induce a Paradigm Shift in Healthcare?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bircher, Johannes; Hahn, Eckhart G

    2017-03-06

    healthcare interact based on the model, mutual understanding of and adherence to treatments and preventive measures will improve. In healthcare, the Meikirch model also makes it plain that neither pay-for-performance nor value-based payment is an adequate response to improve person-centered healthcare. The Meikirch model is not only a unifying theoretical framework for health and disease but also a scaffold for the practice of medicine and public health. It is fully in line with the theory and practice of evidence-based medicine, person-centered healthcare, and integrative medicine. The model offers opportunities to self-motivate people to improve their health-supporting behavior, thereby making preventive approaches and overall healthcare more effective. We believe that the Meikirch model could induce a paradigm shift in healthcare. The healthcare community is hereby invited to acquaint themselves with this model and to consider its potential ramifications.

  6. The Limits of Pedagogy: "Diaculturalist Pedagogy" as Paradigm Shift in the Education of Adult Immigrants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entigar, Katherine E.

    2017-01-01

    Pedagogy develops through the interventions of scholars who believe injustice should not be normalised. Such interventions nonetheless subsume monoculturalist assumptions constructed within the US social and academic narrative. The top-down paradigm of "designing pedagogy" is inappropriate for educating adult immigrants, whose…

  7. A Navajo Paradigm for Long Life Happiness--and for Reversing Navajo Language Shift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, Deborah

    1997-01-01

    Describes a Navajo model by which individuals may assume responsibility for reversing Navajo language shift. Argues that reversing Navajo language shift requires that Navajos acknowledge the problem, that Navajo principles of balance and the natural order be applied to the problem, and that Navajo individuals and families make a commitment to…

  8. MEDIASTINAL SHIFT: A SIGN OF SIGNIFICANT CLINICAL AND RADIOLOGICAL IMPORTANCE IN DIAGNOSIS OF MALIGNANT PLEURAL EFFUSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Khajotia

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Mediastinal shift (upper and lower is a clinical and radiologicalmarker of significant importance, which at times helps todetermine the aetiological cause of the underlying pathology.Tracheal shift is an indicator of upper mediastinal shift, whilea shift in the position of the heart indicates a lower mediastinalshift. Since the pleural cavity is confined by the rib cage, incase of a moderately large pleural effusion, the structures inthe thoracic cavity normally get ‘pushed’ to the opposite sideresulting in a shift of the upper and lower mediastinum. Thisis clinically and radiologically detected by a shift in the tracheaand heart to the side opposite to the pleural effusion. This iscommonly seen in pleural effusions resulting from tuberculosisor other infections. However, in some cases even a largepleural effusion fails to shift the mediastinum to the oppositeside. In fact, in some cases, the trachea and heart areobserved to be central or even shifted to the same side asthe effusion. This finding is of immense importance as it is aclinical indicator of a more serious condition which needsprompt diagnosis and urgent management. We report here,one such case of a middle-aged man who presented to theemergency department with complaints of increasingbreathlessness and whose clinical and radiological examinationrevealed a moderately large right-sided pleural effusion withthe trachea and heart also shifted to the right side.

  9. Paradigm Shift or Business as Usual? Dynamic Complementarities in Innovation Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    James Love; Stephen Roper; Priit Vahter

    2013-01-01

    We investigate claims of a ‘paradigm shift’ towards firms using open innovation as a conscious strategic choice. Such a claim implicitly involves two elements: first, there should be some evidence that firms are increasingly likely to use a combination of internal and external knowledge in their innovation activity, and second, there should evidence that firms derive a systematic advantage from so doing. Using a panel of Irish manufacturing plants over the period 1991-2008 we develop four arc...

  10. [Is the brain the creator of psychic phenomena or is a paradigm shift inevitable?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilla, Ernesto

    2014-06-01

    Every day new scientific information is appearing that cannot be explained using the classical Newtonian model and is calling for the emergence of a new paradigm that would include the explanation of such phenomena as telepathy, clairvoyance, presentiment, precognition, out of the body experiences, psychic healing, after-death communication, near-death experiences and reincarnation. The materialist paradigm which considers the brain as the sole cause of consciousness and psychic phenomena has been challenged by a new paradigm that seems to demonstrate that there is not a cause-effect relationship between brain activity and psychic phenomena but only a correlation between them, since these phenomena can be experienced without the body and appear to have an extra-cerebral origin (cosmic field, cosmic consciousness?). Of course, the brain is intensely involved in the manifestation of consciousness in our daily life but this is not equivalent to affirm that brain creates consciousness. Recent findings force us to consider a non-physical, spiritual and transpersonal aspect of reality.

  11. The prognostic significance of midline shift at presentation on survival in patients with glioblastoma multiforme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamburg, Eugene S.; Regine, William F.; Patchell, Roy A.; Strottmann, James M.; Mohiuddin, Mohammed; Young, A. Byron

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: While patients with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) who present with midline shift have a presumably worse prognosis, there is little literature evaluating the prognostic significance of this presentation in multivariate analysis in the context of other known prognostic factors. Methods and Materials: From March 1981 to September 1993, 219 patients underwent irradiation for intracranial glioma at our institution. One hundred fourteen patients with a diagnosis of a primary GBM were analyzed for the influence of the presence of midline shift at diagnosis on survival with respect to other known prognostic factors, including age, Karnofsky performance status (KPS), and extent of surgery. Eighty-five patients (74%) presented with midline shift. Surgical treatment consisted of subtotal/total resection in 86 patients (75%). Among patients presenting with midline shift, 68 (80%) underwent subtotal/total resection before irradiation. Results: Multivariate analysis of the entire cohort of patients found none of the potential prognostic factors analyzed to significantly influence survival. The overall median survival was 6 months. However, when multivariate analysis was limited to patients with a KPS of ≥ 70, only the presence of midline shift and age were found to significantly influence survival. Patients with a KPS ≥ 70 and with midline shift present at diagnosis had a median survival of 8 months, as compared to 14 months for those not having midline shift at presentation (p = 0.04). Patients with a KPS ≥ 70 and age > 50 years had a median survival of 5 months as compared to 11 months for those ≤ 50 (p 0.02). Conclusion: In this series, where 80% of patients who presented with a midline shift underwent decompressive resection of GBM before irradiation, the presence of midline shift at diagnosis remained an independent prognostic factor influencing survival among good performance status patients. While the role of decompressive surgery in this setting is

  12. Stratigraphic significance of Cruziana: New data concerning the Cambrian-Ordovician ichnostratigraphic paradigm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magwood, J.P.A.; Pemberton, S.G. (Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton (Canada))

    1990-08-01

    The classic Cambrian-Ordovician ichnostratigraphic paradigm originally developed in Europe is based on the assumption that Cruziana - ichnofossils presumably produced by trilobites - can be used in much the same way as trilobite body fossils have been used in chronostratigraphy. That these ichnofossils can be found in many otherwise unfossiliferous, shallow-marine siliciclastic deposits has made them extremely valuable as correlation tools. The paradigm has been used to date lower Paleozoic units in eastern Canada and Europe. It has also been used as supporting evidence to show close affinities between (1) eastern North America, Wales, and Spain and (2) Spain, northern Africa, and southern Asia. Ichnospecies indicative of the Lower Ordovician (Tremadocian and Arenigian), according to the paradigm, have been recovered from the Lower Cambrian (Atdabanian) Gog Group, near Lake Louise, Alberta, Canada. This discovery indicates that these ichnospecies cannot be used as global Lower Ordovician index fossils.

  13. [Paradigm shift in dentistry for children: from restorative to preventive treatment of caries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Amerongen, J P; van Palenstein Helderman, W H

    2010-03-01

    First, the development of dental health care for children in the Netherlands is discussed. Caries prevalence among children has declined sharply. The present situation, however, makes clear that the majority of carious cavities in the temporary dentition remain untreated. This has led to the conclusion that the level of restorative care has to increase. On the basis of new insights in cariology gained in recent decades, the authors of this article argue for abandoning the old paradigm of restorative treatment in favour of prevention in the treatment of caries.

  14. Towards conceptualizing child wellbeing in India: The need for a paradigm shift

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Saith (Ashwani); R. Wazir (Rekha)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractGlobally, there is a vast array of social indicators, many of these specifically oriented to the lives, experience and needs of children. This approach is much more advanced in developed economies and rich countries, where the focus has widened and shifted progressively towards a full

  15. Intersectional scholarship & positive youth development: Post-modern paradigm shift in understanding adjustment of marginalized youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-M. GONZALEZ

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Research on intersectionality of marginalized youth is generally situated in the assumption that non-normative identity leads to pathology and victimization. Further, most research to date has studied marginalized youth using a traditional nuclear family paradigm. In this paper we discuss how intersectionality addresses the combination of strengths and challenges of living with stigmatizing identities and family processes, towards developing successful youth adjustment. We apply the three-step intersectionality approach to study findings among a group of racial/ethnic minority and sexual minority identified youth and discuss the particular role of familism and extended kinship support beliefs that are unique to these youth as a promoter of successful adjustment.

  16. Great Recession and paradigm shift – towards sustainable development of agriculture and rural areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiktor Szydło

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Great Recession is another proof that the current paradigm of economic growth should be changed. It ought to be applied to all sectors, including agriculture. The farming sector was strongly affected by substantial price increases of some products. It was especially painful for poorer consumers in developing and Third World countries, while its benefits were channelled mainly to big farmers and speculators in developed economies. Common Agricultural Policy could not avert this turbulence. The implementa-tion of the concept of sustainable development is a possible solution of this problem as its approach is more holistic and humanistic. However, the implementation of adequate reforms is very slow. It is a sign that leading US and EU policymakers attempt to stay within the limits of current model of growth.However, the second wave of price hikes may prove to be more lasting, which would further deepen income inequality.

  17. Shifting the life-history paradigm: discovery of novel habitat use by hawksbill turtles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaos, Alexander R.; Lewison, Rebecca L.; Yañez, Ingrid L.; Wallace, Bryan P.; Liles, Michael J.; Nichols, Wallace J.; Baquero, Andres; Hasbún, Carlos R.; Vasquez, Mauricio; Urteaga, José; Seminoff, Jeffrey A.

    2012-01-01

    Adult hawksbill turtles (Eretmochelys imbricata) are typically described as open-coast, coral reef and hard substrate dwellers. Here, we report new satellite tracking data on female hawksbills from several countries in the eastern Pacific that revealed previously undocumented behaviour for adults of the species. In contrast to patterns of habitat use exhibited by their Caribbean and Indo-Pacific counterparts, eastern Pacific hawksbills generally occupied inshore estuaries, wherein they had strong associations with mangrove saltwater forests. The use of inshore habitats and affinities with mangrove saltwater forests presents a previously unknown life-history paradigm for adult hawksbill turtles and suggests a potentially unique evolutionary trajectory for the species. Our findings highlight the variability in life-history strategies that marine turtles and other wide-ranging marine wildlife may exhibit among ocean regions, and the importance of understanding such disparities from an ecological and management perspective. PMID:21880620

  18. Moving Towards the Age-friendly Hospital: A Paradigm Shift for the Hospital-based Care of the Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Allen R; Larente, Nadine; Morais, Jose A

    2011-12-01

    Care of the older adult in the acute care hospital is becoming more challenging. Patients 65 years and older account for 35% of hospital discharges and 45% of hospital days. Up to one-third of the hospitalized frail elderly loses independent functioning in one or more activities of daily living as a result of the 'hostile environment' that is present in the acute hospitals. A critical deficit of health care workers with expertise and experience in the care of the elderly also jeopardizes successful care delivery in the acute hospital setting. We propose a paradigm shift in the culture and practice of event-driven acute hospital-based care of the elderly which we call the Age-friendly Hospital concept. Guiding principles include: a favourable physical environment; zero tolerance for ageism throughout the organization; an integrated process to develop comprehensive services using the geriatric approach; assistance with appropriateness decision-making and fostering links between the hospital and the community. Our current proposed strategy is to focus on delirium management as a hospital-wide condition that both requires and highlights the Geriatric Medicine specialist as an expert of content, for program development and of evaluation. The Age-friendly Hospital concept we propose may lead the way to enable hospitals in the fast-moving health care system to deliver high-quality care without jeopardizing risk-benefit, function, and quality of life balances for the frail elderly. Recruitment and retention of skilled health care professionals would benefit from this positive 'branding' of an institution. Convincing hospital management and managing change are significant challenges, especially with competing priorities in a fiscal environment with limited funding. The implementation of a hospital-wide delirium management program is an example of an intervention that embodies many of the principles in the Age-friendly Hospital concept. It is important to change the way

  19. The language of violence in mental health: shifting the paradigm to the language of peace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alex, Marion; Whitty-Rogers, Joanne; Panagopoulos, Wendy

    2013-01-01

    Language used in health care, particularly with vulnerable populations such as those with mental illness, is often violent, rising from historical prejudices and politics of power over others. This creates disharmony and distrust between health care providers and patients and families. Peace involves relationships that nurture ongoing harmony, trust, and constructive solutions. In this descriptive philosophical article, we discuss connections between and among the concepts of peace, health, relational ethics, in relation to nurses' responsibilities, current health care realities, and the language of nursing. We propose a shift in discourse within nurse-patient relationships from oppressive and stigmatizing language to the discourse of peace.

  20. Software verification, model validation and hydrogeologic modelling aspects in nuclear waste disposal system simulations : a paradigm shift

    OpenAIRE

    Sheng, G.M.

    1994-01-01

    This work (1) reviews the current concept ad~ internationally on the disposal of highlevel nuclear wastes; (2) discusses some of the major challenges facing this disposal technology; (3) presents an evaluation of the Canadian performance assessment work as a case study; and (4) introduces a new paradigm within which to site an underground. disposal facility that offers many significant advantages over the existing concept.

    Chapter 1 explains the setup of the work and forms th...

  1. Paradigm shifts: using a participatory leadership process to redesign health systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleeby, Erin; Holschneider, Christine H; Singhal, Rita

    2014-12-01

    Physicians have increasingly given up private practices to become members of, and key stakeholders in, large healthcare systems. These systems are currently transforming to meet the Triple Aim: guaranteeing the equitable provision of high-quality, evidence-based care at a reasonable cost. Participatory leadership is an organizational change theory that engages key stakeholders as architects in the transformation process. This review highlights the utility of this leadership strategy in designing care for women's health. Our blueprint describing participatory leadership theory in women's health systems change is discussed in three case studies, highlighting what we call the six Ps of participatory leadership: participants, principles, purpose, process, and power. The 'sixth P', product, can then be substantially influential in changing the paradigm of care. Obstetrics and gynecology is increasingly practiced in large health systems responsible for the health of populations. Innovations in clinical practice impact care at the level of the individual. In order for advances in clinical practice to reach broad populations of women, they must be integrated into a delivery system. Physician engagement in leadership during this time of system transformation is of critical importance.

  2. The Paradigm Shift in Strategic Human Resources. Research in the case of Romanian Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen NOVAC

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the conditions and factors influencing the development of a strategic human capital plan, offering a framework for obtaining competitive advantage and for developing a business plan in which the Human Resources function can actually make a contribution. The authors also present the key elements of a Human Resources paradigm which will change the DNA of its function. The research was first implemented in 2009 with the purpose of identifying specific processes within Strategic Human Resources Management (SHRM. Aiming to obtain further information on HR processes currently applied within Romanian organizations, the authors applied a semi-structured interview on Human Resources specialists working in domains such as supporting services, human resources outsourcing services, telecommunications, automotive and taxi services, call center services and trade marketing. The results indicated that within organizations following the development of human resources processes, the gain of new knowledge in the business area of the company can be observed. The effects are also evident within organizations` development plans.

  3. Paradigm shift in consciousness research: the child's self-awareness and abnormalities in autism, ADHD and schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Hans C

    2012-02-01

    Self-awareness is a pivotal component of any conscious experience and conscious self-regulation of behaviour. A paralimbic network is active, specific and causal in self-awareness. Its regions interact by gamma synchrony. Gamma synchrony develops throughout infancy, childhood and adolescence into adulthood and is regulated by dopamine and other neurotransmitters via GABA interneurons. Major derailments of this network and self-awareness occur in developmental disorders of conscious self-regulation like autism, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and schizophrenia. Recent research on conscious experience is no longer limited to the study of neural 'correlations' but is increasingly lending itself to the study of causality. This paradigm shift opens new perspectives for understanding the neural mechanisms of the developing self and the causal effects of their disturbance in developmental disorders. © 2011 The Author(s)/Acta Paediatrica © 2011 Foundation Acta Paediatrica.

  4. The effectiveness of the Millennium Development Goals (MDG as global paradigm shift for poverty eradication in sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman van der Elst

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite isolated progress there seems to be no clear-cut guideline or solution to the collective eradication of extreme poverty in sub-Saharan Africa. In an attempt to overcome the above reality, the objective of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs is short term poverty relief to the poorest of the poor by 2015. This is to be achieved through the realisation of eight pro-poor objectives. Since 2000 there has been notable progress. Developmental organisations such as the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund (IMF and the Freedom House Index project that global poverty will have been reduced to below fifteen per cent by 2015. The MDGs can, however, currently only be perceived as partially effective because poverty relief remains restricted to mainly Latin America and South and South East Asia. This partial success is substantiated by the reality that the majority of states in sub-Saharan Africa remains subjected to a cycle of extreme poverty, which seems impossible to overcome. There is consensus amongst many researchers that none of the MDGs will be achieved in this region by 2015. This article aims to critically analyse the nature, objectives and progress of the MDGs as a global developmental paradigm shift. In order to explore future trends and identify potential solutions, an emphasis is, however, placed on the possible reasons for the slow progress of the MDGs, specifically in sub-Saharan Africa. Keywords: Global paradigm shift, new conditionality, extreme poverty, poverty eradication, sub-Saharan Africa, foreign aid, deprivation hypothesis, weak governance, free-market approach and the poverty trap Disciplines: International relations, law, political economy, politics, environmental studies, water studies, communication studies, public management and governance, education, sociology, anthropology and history.

  5. Do nonlinear dynamics in economics amount to a Kuhnian paradigm shift?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dore, Mohammed H I; Rosser, J Barkley

    2007-01-01

    Much empirical analysis and econometric work recognizes that there are nonlinearities, regime shifts or structural breaks, asymmetric adjustment costs, irreversibilities and lagged dependencies. Hence, empirical work has already transcended neoclassical economics. Some progress has also been made in modeling endogenously generated cyclical growth and fluctuations. All this is inconsistent with neoclassical general equilibrium. Hence there is growing evidence of Kuhnian anomalies. It therefore follows that there is a Kuhnian crisis in economics and further research in nonlinear dynamics and complexity can only increase the Kuhnian anomalies. This crisis can only deepen. However, there is an ideological commitment to general equilibrium that justifies "free enterprise" with only minimal state intervention that may still sustain neoclassical economics despite the growing evidence of Kuhnian anomalies. Thus, orthodox textbook theory continues to ignore this fact and static neoclassical theory remains a dogma with no apparent reformulation to replace it.

  6. Contemporary management of low--grade glioma: a paradigm shift in neuro-oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayhurst, Caroline

    2017-06-01

    Supratentorial diffuse intrinsic low-grade gliomas represent a distinct but heterogenous group of tumours, with the propensity to grow and to differentiate into malignant tumours. They have been historically viewed in the 'benign' spectrum of intrinsic brain tumours, so a watch-and-wait policy was often adopted. With recent advances in our understanding of the natural history of these tumours, combined with advances in surgical technique, an aggressive approach is now recommended. Increasing quality evidence of the impact of tumour resection and multicentre trials of adjuvant radiotherapy and chemotherapy have led to a new algorithm for low-grade glioma management. This review aims to outline the emerging evidence that has shifted neuro-oncology practice. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  7. Policy Making While Paradigms Shift: Understanding the Development of Policy Drought in the U.S. Congress 1981-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCurdy, K. M.

    2013-12-01

    adversaries. The junior members of Congress embracing 'Movement Republican goals' to reduce the size of government by any means, are impatient with their senior colleagues who held pragmatic views for achieving limited government. Tensions arise in the conference from this lack of goal alignment, and increasingly become public. The give and take between the parties that was normal in the New Deal and Great Society eras has been replaced by intense partisanship in the 21st century, as the number of members who came to government embracing Reagan's maxim that government was the problem gradually increased in magnitude and seniority. It is important to recognize that there is a paradigm shift underway in Congress, related to the demographic changes in Congress as the new Republicans implement their policy goal of reducing the size of government, and that the structure of the institution produces a lag effect for that shift, and that the binary party labels may further mask the shift.

  8. Update on recent guidelines for the management of urinary tract infections in children: the shifting paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paintsil, Elijah

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review Recent guidelines on the management of urinary tract infections (UTIs) in children have seen a shift from aggressive imaging studies and the use of prophylactic antibiotics to a more restrictive and targeted approach. This review focuses on new additions to the literature on management of UTI from January 2011 to September 2012. Recent findings The causal relationship between UTI–vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) and renal scarring has been challenged by several studies. Concerns about unnecessary exposure to ionizing radiation, invasiveness of some of the procedures, and risk of infection have also been raised. With improved prenatal ultrasound, a ‘top-down’ approach to investigating febrile UTI in children using renal bladder ultrasound alone as an initial study has become popular. Several studies have reported that prophylactic antibiotics and imaging studies after first UTI can be reduced substantially without affecting the risk of recurrent UTI or renal scarring. Summary The use of targeted imaging approach in evaluating febrile UTI in children may lead to improved resource use and reduction of potential harmful procedures and interventions, without affecting outcomes of UTI in children. Providers using current guidelines should endeavor to collect practice-based evidence to validate and inform future guidelines. PMID:23241875

  9. The causes and unintended consequences of a paradigm shift in corn production practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fausti, Scott W.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Biotechnology adoption and the U.S. corn production system are causally linked. • U.S. agriculture and energy policy choices merged to incentivize U.S. corn production. • U.S. biofuel energy policy contributed to the adoption of Bt corn seed technology. • Policy alternatives to modify the corn-based ethanol production system are provided. - Abstract: Independent but simultaneously occurring changes in U.S. agricultural and energy policies in conjunction with advances in biotechnology converged to create an economic and regulatory environment that incentivized corn acreage expansion. Advancements in Bt seed and ethanol production technologies contributed to scale efficiency gains in corn and biofuel production. These advancements were accompanied by changes in market forces that altered the balance between corn and other agricultural crop production. The causal linkages among Bt adoption, ethanol production, and corn production are explored along with a discussion of how this shift toward corn production generated unexpected economic and environmental consequences. Alternative policy solutions to mitigate the negative consequences and enhance the resiliency of U.S. agriculture are discussed

  10. Innovations from the “ivory tower”: Wilhelm Barthlott and the paradigm shift in surface science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Neinhuis

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This article is mainly about borders that have tremendous influence on our daily life, although many of them exist and act mostly unrecognized. In this article the first objective will be to address more generally the relation between university and society or industry, borders within universities, borders in thinking and the huge amount of misunderstandings and losses resulting from these obvious or hidden borders. In the second part and in more detail, the article will highlight the impact of the research conducted by Wilhelm Barthlott throughout his scientific career during which not only one border was removed, shifted or became more penetrable. Among the various fields of interest not mentioned here (e.g., systematics of Cactaceae, diversity and evolution of epiphytes, the unique natural history of isolated rocky outcrops called inselbergs, or the global distribution of biodiversity, plant surfaces and especially the tremendous diversity of minute structures on leaves, fruits, seeds and other parts of plants represent a common thread through 40 years of scientific career of Wilhelm Barthlott. Based on research that was regarded already old-fashioned in the 1970s and 1980s, systematic botany, results and knowledge were accumulated that, some 20 years later, initiated a fundamental turnover in how surfaces were recognized not only in biology, but even more evident in materials science.

  11. A paradigm shift towards low-nitrifying production systems: the role of biological nitrification inhibition (BNI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbarao, G. V.; Sahrawat, K. L.; Nakahara, K.; Rao, I. M.; Ishitani, M.; Hash, C. T.; Kishii, M.; Bonnett, D. G.; Berry, W. L.; Lata, J. C.

    2013-01-01

    Background Agriculture is the single largest geo-engineering initiative that humans have initiated on planet Earth, largely through the introduction of unprecedented amounts of reactive nitrogen (N) into ecosystems. A major portion of this reactive N applied as fertilizer leaks into the environment in massive amounts, with cascading negative effects on ecosystem health and function. Natural ecosystems utilize many of the multiple pathways in the N cycle to regulate N flow. In contrast, the massive amounts of N currently applied to agricultural systems cycle primarily through the nitrification pathway, a single inefficient route that channels much of this reactive N into the environment. This is largely due to the rapid nitrifying soil environment of present-day agricultural systems. Scope In this Viewpoint paper, the importance of regulating nitrification as a strategy to minimize N leakage and to improve N-use efficiency (NUE) in agricultural systems is highlighted. The ability to suppress soil nitrification by the release of nitrification inhibitors from plant roots is termed ‘biological nitrification inhibition’ (BNI), an active plant-mediated natural function that can limit the amount of N cycling via the nitrification pathway. The development of a bioassay using luminescent Nitrosomonas to quantify nitrification inhibitory activity from roots has facilitated the characterization of BNI function. Release of BNIs from roots is a tightly regulated physiological process, with extensive genetic variability found in selected crops and pasture grasses. Here, the current status of understanding of the BNI function is reviewed using Brachiaria forage grasses, wheat and sorghum to illustrate how BNI function can be utilized for achieving low-nitrifying agricultural systems. A fundamental shift towards ammonium (NH4+)-dominated agricultural systems could be achieved by using crops and pastures with high BNI capacities. When viewed from an agricultural and

  12. Energy and climate policy in China's twelfth five-year plan: A paradigm shift

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jun; Wang Xin

    2012-01-01

    The twelfth five-year plan (FYP) endorsed by the People's National Congress in March 2011 plays a crucial role in shaping China's development trajectory over the next decades , and especially for the fulfillment of the 40–45 carbon intensity reduction target by 2020. The plan will condition both the medium and long term perspectives of economic restructuring, rebalance between the inclusive economic growth and environmental objectives, which are compounded by multiple constraints faced by China such as aging population, natural resources depletion, energy supply security and environmental deterioration. This article investigates the major energy and climate targets and actions specified in the 12th FYP to gain insights into the nature and magnitude of challenges and difficulties with regard to the medium and long run economic and environmental policies. It points out that China should articulate sectoral policies with the global climate mitigation targets to avoid long term carbon lock-in. Based on an in-depth analysis of the objectives in the plan, it is argued that the implementation should include mainstreaming developments of appropriate instruments to support cost-effective energy efficiency improvements and carbon intensity reduction in the next five years. - Highlights: ► We investigate the major energy and climate targets and actions specified in the Chinese 12th FYP. ► It points out FYP's implications for energy policy and global climate stabilisation. ► Challenges and difficulties with regard to the medium and long run climate strategies. ► Shift from investment and export-led to consumption led sustainable and inclusive growth model.

  13. A paradigm shift towards low-nitrifying production systems: the role of biological nitrification inhibition (BNI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbarao, G V; Sahrawat, K L; Nakahara, K; Rao, I M; Ishitani, M; Hash, C T; Kishii, M; Bonnett, D G; Berry, W L; Lata, J C

    2013-07-01

    Agriculture is the single largest geo-engineering initiative that humans have initiated on planet Earth, largely through the introduction of unprecedented amounts of reactive nitrogen (N) into ecosystems. A major portion of this reactive N applied as fertilizer leaks into the environment in massive amounts, with cascading negative effects on ecosystem health and function. Natural ecosystems utilize many of the multiple pathways in the N cycle to regulate N flow. In contrast, the massive amounts of N currently applied to agricultural systems cycle primarily through the nitrification pathway, a single inefficient route that channels much of this reactive N into the environment. This is largely due to the rapid nitrifying soil environment of present-day agricultural systems. In this Viewpoint paper, the importance of regulating nitrification as a strategy to minimize N leakage and to improve N-use efficiency (NUE) in agricultural systems is highlighted. The ability to suppress soil nitrification by the release of nitrification inhibitors from plant roots is termed 'biological nitrification inhibition' (BNI), an active plant-mediated natural function that can limit the amount of N cycling via the nitrification pathway. The development of a bioassay using luminescent Nitrosomonas to quantify nitrification inhibitory activity from roots has facilitated the characterization of BNI function. Release of BNIs from roots is a tightly regulated physiological process, with extensive genetic variability found in selected crops and pasture grasses. Here, the current status of understanding of the BNI function is reviewed using Brachiaria forage grasses, wheat and sorghum to illustrate how BNI function can be utilized for achieving low-nitrifying agricultural systems. A fundamental shift towards ammonium (NH4(+))-dominated agricultural systems could be achieved by using crops and pastures with high BNI capacities. When viewed from an agricultural and environmental perspective, the

  14. Responsibility for the future of the world-paradigm shift in the theory and practice of marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gábor Rekettye

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available En las últimas cuatro décadas muchos estudios científicos fueron publicados sobre los impactos medioambientales que amenazan el futuro de nuestro planeta. Estas manifestaciones apenas han afectado el área de marketing, no ha habido ningún cambio paradigmático. La primera parte del artículo trata de los procesos climáticos que amenazan el medio ambiente y la vida cotidiana de la población, y que pueden ser importantes para la formación del futuro del marketing. Hay una relación estrecha entre el cambio climático y el consumismo que estimula la investigación sobre la responsabilidad y la sostenibilidad del consumo. La segunda parte del artículo trata de esbozar las nuevas tendencias posibles en la teoría y en la práctica del marketing que son necesarias para enfrentar las cambiantes necesidades medioambientales.In the last four decades quite a lot of scientific studies have been published about those dangerous signs which threaten the future of our world. These manifests have only slightly affected the field of marketing; no paradigm shift has taken place. The first part of the paper deals with climate processes threatening the environment and the everyday life of the population, and which may be important in shaping the future of marketing. There is a strong relation between climate change and consumerism enforcing the research about the responsibility and sustainability of consumption. The second part of the study tries to outline those possible new trends in the theory and practice of marketing which are necessary to meet the changing environmental needs.

  15. A paradigm shift in advertising and its meaning for advertising-supported media

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez-Latre, F.J. (Francisco Javier)

    2007-01-01

    The changing role of advertising is altering the behavior of advertisers with significant implications for advertising-supported media. Advertisers are struggling to understand changes in audience media usage and to changes in attention paid to commercial messages. In order to maintain relevance, media firms need to lead the way in helping advertising understand and adjust to the changes.

  16. Foreign aid or foreign investments: Call for a paradigm shift in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    But looking at these as investments in supported countries will significantly improve the outcome, health system impacts, as well as engineer sustainable health system strengthening and improvement. Such a re-branding will reduce the politics of support, improve effectiveness and efficiency in the use of the resources, and ...

  17. A Goniometry Paradigm Shift to Measure Burn Scar Contracture in Burn Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    Washington Headquarters Services, Directorate for Information Operations and Reports (0704-0188), 1215 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 1204, Arlington...enrolling, spending will increase in parallel with on-site study training and remuneration for submitted data. Significant changes in use or care

  18. Phenomenological study on the significance of the scalar potential and Lamb shift

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Xuhao; Li Xueqian; Ke Hongwei

    2011-01-01

    We indicated in our previous work that for QED the contributions of the scalar potential, which appears at the loop level, is much smaller than that of the vector potential, and in fact negligible. But the situation may be different for QCD, the reason being that the loop effects are more significant because α s is much larger than α, and secondly the non-perturbative QCD effects may induce the scalar potential. In this work, we phenomenologically study the contribution of the scalar potential to the spectra of charmonium. Taking into account both vector and scalar potentials, by fitting the well measured charmonium spectra, we re-fix the relevant parameters and test them by calculating other states of the charmonium family. We also consider the role of the Lamb shift and present the numerical results with and without involving the Lamb shift. (authors)

  19. A Bile Duct Cancer Patient Whose Stent Shifted Significantly Over the Course of External Beam Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, Hyong Geun

    2011-01-01

    The author reports a bile duct cancer patient whose stent shifted significantly from right to left over the course of radiotherapy. The 80-year-old female patient had a short stature with thoracic kyphosis and mutiple spinal compression fractures. She was also emaciated and very lean. By comparing the weekly scanned computed tomography images, the author found her stent to have shifted by more than 4 cm from right to left over the course of external beam radiotherapy. The results of this case study suggest that for a very lean and emaciated kyphotic bile duct cancer patient, the possibility of large interfractional movement of the bile duct or stent during radiotherapy should be considered.

  20. Hyperglycemia, Young Age, Altered Sleep Habits: The Three Shifting Paradigms of Coronary Artery Disease Risk Stratification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irtiza Hasan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The study was undertaken to estimate the risk factors age, gender, race, obesity (BMI, glycemic status (prediabetes, diabetes, exercise and psychosocial factors (sleep, sadness related to coronary artery disease (CAD. The data set for this study is the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS, which is a large scale, cross sectional, voluntary, household interview survey maintaining data on health status, health care access and progress towards achieving the national health objectives in the USA. A total of 26,965 (male/female =55.8/ 44.2% subjects were included in the study. Of them, 79.9% were less than 65 years of age. Regarding obesity, overweight, obese and morbid obese were 34.8, 17.3 and 11.0%, respectively. Sadness of any degree was reported in 28%. Sleep duration was found 9h/d in 9.7%. Heart disease was reported in 4.9%. About 10% were reported to have diabetes and 4.1% prediabetes. 40% of the respondents’ maintained exercise once per week and only 12.8% maintained 10 or more times per week. Logistic regression estimated that compared with the non-diabetics, the subjects with prediabetes (OR 3.27, 95% CI, 2.32-4.59 and diabetes (OR 6.44 95% CI, 5.21-7.96 had excess risk of CAD, more significant in the younger subjects (65y. The risk of CAD was found significant in both prediabetes (OR 2.47, 95% CI, 1.44-4.23 and diabetes (OR 3.03, 95% CI, 2.16-4.24 as compared with non-diabetic group who slept >9h a day. The subjects with prediabetes or diabetes had excess risk for CAD compared with the non-diabetic subjects, which was more marked in the younger people. Again, compared with the non-diabetic people, the subjects with prediabetes or diabetes, having less sleep or excess sleep, had excess risk for CAD. Further study may confirm our findings. Ibrahim Med. Coll. J. 2012; 6(2: 39-45

  1. Acute flaccid paralysis due to West nile virus infection in adults: A paradigm shift entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boby Varkey Maramattom

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Three cases of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP with preceding fever are described. One patient had a quadriparesis with a florid meningoencephalitic picture and the other two had asymmetric flaccid paralysis with fasciculations at the onset of illness. Magnetic resonance imaging in two cases showed prominent hyperintensitities in the spinal cord and brainstem with prominent involvement of the grey horn (polio-myelitis. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF polymerase chain reaction was positive for West Nile virus (WNV in the index patient. All three cases had a positive WNV immunoglobulin M antibody in serum/CSF and significantly high titer of WNV neutralizing antibody in serum, clearly distinguishing the infection from other Flaviviridae such as Japanese encephalitis. WNV has been recognized in India for many decades; however, AFP has not been adequately described. WNV is a flavivirus that is spread by Culex mosquitoes while they take blood meals from humans and lineage 1 is capable of causing a devastating neuro-invasive disease with fatal consequences or severe morbidity. We describe the first three laboratory confirmed cases of WNV induced AFP from Kerala and briefly enumerate the salient features of this emerging threat.

  2. Solar technology and building implementation in Malaysia: A national paradigm shift

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syahrul Nizam Kamaruzzaman

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Solar technology is becoming increasingly popular. For example, the production of solarcells quadrupled in the 1999-2004 period, with a capacity of four gigawatts worldwide. Renewableenergy including solar power produces few or no harmful emissions and it is becoming increasinglyimportant to exploit it in the future. This paper presents a literature review of the application ofnumerous types of solar technology in buildings in Malaysia and identifies the challenges faced.Although several newly constructed green buildings use solar technology, Malaysia has yet to acceptit wholesale. If solar technology is to be adopted widely, then both public and private sectors mustcooperate to provide large-scale financial incentives and produce specialists in solar technology. Asthe first step, the government has established the Low Energy Office and the Green Energy Office,which use passive solar design and photovoltaic systems in their own buildings. However, the privatesector has yet to follow suit. It is anticipated that the application of solar technology in buildings willencourage sustainable development when all non-renewable energy sources decrease significantly. Ifpeople do not recognise the potential of such technology in daily life, it will soon be too late.

  3. Preventive Biomechanics: A Paradigm Shift With a Translational Approach to Injury Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewett, Timothy E; Bates, Nathaniel A

    2017-09-01

    Preventive medicine techniques have alleviated billions of dollars' worth of the economic burden in the medical care system through the implementation of vaccinations and screenings before the onset of disease symptoms. Knowledge of biomechanical tendencies has progressed rapidly over the past 20 years such that clinicians can identify, in healthy athletes, the underlying mechanisms that lead to catastrophic injuries such as anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) ruptures. As such, preventive medicine concepts can be applied to noncontact musculoskeletal injuries to reduce the economic burden of sports medicine treatments and enhance the long-term health of athletes. To illustrate the practical medical benefits that could be gained from preventive biomechanics applied to the ACL as well as the need and feasibility for the broad implementation of these principles. Literature review. The recent literature pertinent to the screening and prevention of musculoskeletal injuries was reviewed and compiled into a clinical commentary on the current state and applicability of preventive biomechanics. Investigators have identified neuromuscular training protocols that screen for and correct the underlying biomechanical deficits that lead to ACL injuries. The literature shows that when athletes comply with these prescribed training protocols, the incidence of injuries is significantly reduced within that population. Such preventive biomechanics practices employ basic training methods that would be familiar to athletic coaches and have the potential to save billions of dollars in cost in sports medicine. The widespread implementation of preventive biomechanics concepts could profoundly affect the field of sports medicine with a minimum of initial investment.

  4. [Paradigm shift in conservative dentistry: from a mechanistic to a prevention-oriented perception].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellwig, E; Altenburger, M

    2011-09-01

    The application of different preventive measures has resulted in a decline of clinically detectable carious lesions in children and adolescents. Not only have caries symptoms changed significantly, but the number of extracted teeth in adults has decreased. Due to these epidemiological facts, modern conservative dentistry is based on a careful risk analysis and caries diagnosis, which also takes into consideration biological and psychosocial components of caries etiology. Conservative dentistry will fail if the dentists are only interested in repairing defects. Simultaneous with the positive outcome of prevention, some unanswered problems have arisen, for which there are no adequate solutions. In young children, caries prevalence is still high and the restorative care of these primary teeth should be improved. For adolescents, early detection of carious lesions should be improved and polarization of caries prevalence should be eliminated. In older adults, evidence-based therapy options for treatment of erosions, abrasions, and root caries are lacking. For seniors needing general care, preventive and restorative concepts should be established.

  5. Educational Policies and the Labour Market in the Visual Arts – the Paradigm Shift

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Glišić

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the key findings of an extensive research into the role of university-level visual art education in the preparation of visual artists for the successful transition from the academic environment to the art ‘labour market’. Starting from an assumption that higher visual arts education may be a significant factor in redefining the career paths of the visual arts graduates in Serbia, it reviews the recent changes in concepts and programs of university-level visual arts education in Europe and in Serbia. Education policies increasingly foresee the necessity of conscious compliance of education with society as a whole, bearing in mind the wide range of social roles that visual art and professionals from this field may assume. This is especially important for Serbia, since culture is considered one of the country’s most important assets in re-positioning itself on a mental map of Europe. In this paper I will map the main issues, briefly present the historical development of art school programs in Europe and in Serbia, and I will present the concept of the Management in Fine Arts course designed for the BA level at the Fine Art Schools which was designed to endow students with the opportunity to attain basic ‘labour market skills’, and provide them with knowledge and skills necessary to direct their professional development in such manner to enable them to easily find their place in various areas of contemporary society.

  6. Blood conservation operations in pediatric cardiac patients: a paradigm shift of blood use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Mohsen; Florentino-Pineda, Ivan; Weatherred, Ted; Qadeer, Ahsan; Rosenberg, Carol Ann; Hudacko, Andrea; Ryu, Duchwan

    2013-03-01

    Red blood cell transfusion is associated with high morbidity in pediatric patients undergoing cardiac operations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical effects and outcomes of blood conservation for our pediatric patients undergoing cardiac operations. We retrospectively analyzed a collected database of 168 pediatric patients who underwent biventricular (BV) and univentricular (UV) cardiac operations from 2006 to 2010. Patients were grouped into no blood conservation (n = 86 [BV = 74, UV = 12]) and blood conservation (n = 82 [BV = 68, UV = 14]) cohorts. There were no statistical differences in age, sex, weight, and preoperative or postoperative hemoglobin levels in the BV groups. Even though the blood conservation group had longer cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) (p conservation group, there were no statistical differences in age, sex, weight, CPB and cross-clamp times, preoperative and postoperative hemoglobin levels, and red blood cell transfusions despite lower intraoperative hemoglobin levels (p conservation group. Logistic regression analysis demonstrated a significant correlation between intraoperative blood transfusion and increased inotropic score, longer duration on the ventilator, and increased length of hospitalization. Blood conservation in pediatric cardiac operations is associated with fewer ventilator days, lower inotropic scores, and shorter lengths of stay. These findings, in addition to attendant risks and side effects of blood transfusion and the rising cost of safer blood products, justify blood conservation in pediatric cardiac operations. Copyright © 2013 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Foreign aid or foreign investments: call for a paradigm shift in mentality and nomenclature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleribe, Obinna Ositadimma; Nwanwanyu, Okey

    2015-01-01

    Funding for health care programs has over the years been an important challenge for health and health care services. However with the advent of financing, part of this problem was resolved. Through these investments, lives were saved, many destinies recovered and some obsolete systems reengineered. Major proofs of these expenditures are number of people reached and sometimes number of sites opened/supported, which in several cases, are not entirely verifiable. Sustainable development from these funds is limited, and far and in between. This is despite the fact that supports for health care and health care services have been ongoing for more than 60 years. As long as these funds are seen as aids to developing countries, they will continue to fail to achieve their primary objectives. But looking at these as investments in supported countries will significantly improve the outcome, health system impacts, as well as engineer sustainable health system strengthening and improvement. Such a re-branding will reduce the politics of support, improve effectiveness and efficiency in the use of the resources, and empower receiving nations towards better health systems.

  8. A Multiplan Treatment-Planning Framework: A Paradigm Shift for Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, Robert R.; Zhang, Hao H.; Goadrich, Laura; Nazareth, Daryl P.; Shi Leyuan; D'Souza, Warren D.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To describe a multiplan intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) planning framework, and to describe a decision support system (DSS) for ranking multiple plans and modeling the planning surface. Methods and Materials: One hundred twenty-five plans were generated sequentially for a head-and-neck case and a pelvic case by varying the dose-volume constraints on each of the organs at risk (OARs). A DSS was used to rank plans according to dose-volume histogram (DVH) values, as well as equivalent uniform dose (EUD) values. Two methods for ranking treatment plans were evaluated: composite criteria and pre-emptive selection. The planning surface determined by the results was modeled using quadratic functions. Results: The DSS provided an easy-to-use interface for the comparison of multiple plan features. Plan ranking resulted in the identification of one to three 'optimal' plans. The planning surface models had good predictive capability with respect to both DVH values and EUD values and generally, errors of <6%. Models generated by minimizing the maximum relative error had significantly lower relative errors than models obtained by minimizing the sum of squared errors. Using the quadratic model, plan properties for one OAR were determined as a function of the other OAR constraint settings. The modeled plan surface can then be used to understand the interdependence of competing planning objectives. Conclusion: The DSS can be used to aid the planner in the selection of the most desirable plan. The collection of quadratic models constructed from the plan data to predict DVH and EUD values generally showed excellent agreement with the actual plan values

  9. Microbial Adaptation to High Pressures - From Denial to a New Paradigm Shift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, A.

    2011-12-01

    The question of microbial survival at high pressure and temperature is considered important to the origin, search and adaptation of life on Earth and other planetary bodies. Field studies have shown the realm of life far exceeding the limits of direct sample accessibility, but these studies have been at the edge of sampling accessibility. Not surprisingly most studies on high pressure have focused on the presumption that pressure as a variable is limiting to biology. The only previous study (Sharma et al. 2002) that experimentally demonstrated cellular activity at high (Gigapascal) pressures using in-situ observations was considered as an outlier or an anomaly and largely ignored in published literature. A number of subsequent studies (e.g. Daniel et al. 2006, Meersman and Heremans 2008) continued asserting indirect and IR study single isolated protein measurements as indication of limits about 300MPa for any viable life. On the other hand, more simplistically, geologists have relied on the conventional closure of open fractures to about few kilometers depth as a scenario limiting any microbial ecosystem. These biochemical and apparent geological limitations have not only sidelined significant observations of rapid adaptation and survival of microbial life at high pressures (Sharma et al 2002), Vanlint et al. 2011), but have made such critical observations as mere anecdotal footnotes to deep life research; despite the fact that these experimental results have opened up a wide range of possibilities for biophysics and biology overcoming obsolete assumptions. Here the author revisits the high pressure survival of microbes by expanding the range of pressures synergistically with temperature and time exposure on Escherichia coli . The results demonstrate continued cell viability at greatly elevated temperature (upto 160 C) and pressure (upto 2400 MPa). The experimental data suggest the cell viability curve mimics a Clapeyeron-type (entropy-volume) thermodynamic

  10. The Dynamics of Pheromone Gland Synthesis and Release: a Paradigm Shift for Understanding Sex Pheromone Quantity in Female Moths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Stephen P; Anderson, Karin G; Casas, Jérôme

    2018-05-10

    Moths are exemplars of chemical communication, especially with regard to specificity and the minute amounts they use. Yet, little is known about how females manage synthesis and storage of pheromone to maintain release rates attractive to conspecific males and why such small amounts are used. We developed, for the first time, a quantitative model, based on an extensive empirical data set, describing the dynamical relationship among synthesis, storage (titer) and release of pheromone over time in a moth (Heliothis virescens). The model is compartmental, with one major state variable (titer), one time-varying (synthesis), and two constant (catabolism and release) rates. The model was a good fit, suggesting it accounted for the major processes. Overall, we found the relatively small amounts of pheromone stored and released were largely a function of high catabolism rather than a low rate of synthesis. A paradigm shift may be necessary to understand the low amounts released by female moths, away from the small quantities synthesized to the (relatively) large amounts catabolized. Future research on pheromone quantity should focus on structural and physicochemical processes that limit storage and release rate quantities. To our knowledge, this is the first time that pheromone gland function has been modeled for any animal.

  11. Omics-Based Strategies in Precision Medicine: Toward a Paradigm Shift in Inborn Errors of Metabolism Investigations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdellah Tebani

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The rise of technologies that simultaneously measure thousands of data points represents the heart of systems biology. These technologies have had a huge impact on the discovery of next-generation diagnostics, biomarkers, and drugs in the precision medicine era. Systems biology aims to achieve systemic exploration of complex interactions in biological systems. Driven by high-throughput omics technologies and the computational surge, it enables multi-scale and insightful overviews of cells, organisms, and populations. Precision medicine capitalizes on these conceptual and technological advancements and stands on two main pillars: data generation and data modeling. High-throughput omics technologies allow the retrieval of comprehensive and holistic biological information, whereas computational capabilities enable high-dimensional data modeling and, therefore, accessible and user-friendly visualization. Furthermore, bioinformatics has enabled comprehensive multi-omics and clinical data integration for insightful interpretation. Despite their promise, the translation of these technologies into clinically actionable tools has been slow. In this review, we present state-of-the-art multi-omics data analysis strategies in a clinical context. The challenges of omics-based biomarker translation are discussed. Perspectives regarding the use of multi-omics approaches for inborn errors of metabolism (IEM are presented by introducing a new paradigm shift in addressing IEM investigations in the post-genomic era.

  12. Omics-Based Strategies in Precision Medicine: Toward a Paradigm Shift in Inborn Errors of Metabolism Investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tebani, Abdellah; Afonso, Carlos; Marret, Stéphane; Bekri, Soumeya

    2016-09-14

    The rise of technologies that simultaneously measure thousands of data points represents the heart of systems biology. These technologies have had a huge impact on the discovery of next-generation diagnostics, biomarkers, and drugs in the precision medicine era. Systems biology aims to achieve systemic exploration of complex interactions in biological systems. Driven by high-throughput omics technologies and the computational surge, it enables multi-scale and insightful overviews of cells, organisms, and populations. Precision medicine capitalizes on these conceptual and technological advancements and stands on two main pillars: data generation and data modeling. High-throughput omics technologies allow the retrieval of comprehensive and holistic biological information, whereas computational capabilities enable high-dimensional data modeling and, therefore, accessible and user-friendly visualization. Furthermore, bioinformatics has enabled comprehensive multi-omics and clinical data integration for insightful interpretation. Despite their promise, the translation of these technologies into clinically actionable tools has been slow. In this review, we present state-of-the-art multi-omics data analysis strategies in a clinical context. The challenges of omics-based biomarker translation are discussed. Perspectives regarding the use of multi-omics approaches for inborn errors of metabolism (IEM) are presented by introducing a new paradigm shift in addressing IEM investigations in the post-genomic era.

  13. Paradigm shift, metamorphosis of medical ethics, and the rise of bioethics Transição paradigmática, metamorfose da ética médica e emergência da bioética

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luiz Telles de Almeida

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Both the increasing incorporation of medical technology and new social demands (including those for health care beginning in the 1960s have brought about significant changes in medical practice. This situation has in turn sparked a growth in the philosophical debate over problems pertaining to ethical practice. These issues no longer find answers in the Hippocratic ethical model. The authors believe that the crisis in Hippocratic ethics could be described as a period of paradigm shift in which a new set of values appears to be emerging. Beginning with the bioethics movement, the authors expound on the different ethical theories applied to medical practice and conclude that principlism is the most appropriate approach for solving the new moral dilemma imposed on clinical practice.A crescente incorporação de tecnologia médica e as novas demandas sociais, inclusive de saúde, que tiveram início nos anos 60, impuseram importantes transformações na prática médica. Tal situação tem estimulado crescente debate filosófico em torno de problemas de ética prática que não mais encontram respostas no âmbito do modelo ético hipocrático. Para os autores, a crise da ética hipocrática poderia ser caracterizada como um período de transição paradigmática em que se estaria formando um novo conjunto de valores. A partir do movimento da bioética, os autores apresentam as diferentes teorias éticas aplicadas à prática médica, concluindo que a abordagem principialista seria mais adequada à resolução dos novos dilemas morais postos à prática clínica.

  14. A paradigm shift needed for nuclear reactors. From economies of unit scale to economies of production scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Ning

    2009-01-01

    The success and sustainability of the nascent 'Nuclear Renaissance' will depend heavily on the timely development and deployment SMRs (small and modular reactors) as a new paradigm to increase economic competitiveness and broaden markets and applications for nuclear energy. A critical assessment of the historical and current reactor construction cost data reveals a troubling trend of rapid escalation in practically all countries, while showing little or negative economies of (unit) scale. The escalation cannot be fully accounted for by cost inflation in materials and labors, or by ratcheting regulations and other external factors. Rather, it appears that the intrinsic complexity and the associated risks and costs of extremely large systems have offset all returns of (unit) scale in power engineering and learning effects in practice. The construction heavy nature of the nuclear power plants exacerbates the cost problem as compared to that of the manufactured goods. The power markets have evolved away from the very large monolithic generation units toward modular units more amenable for manufacturing and transportation. This is clearly illustrated through the increasingly bi-modal distribution of generation units around a few MWe (wind, micro-turbines etc) and 100-200 MWe (gas turbine and combined cycle). The rapid market adoption and penetration of these units dwarf the addition rates of the very large units. This is not merely an outcome based on economic and financial risk reduction (important in their own right) or better match of applications - the technological and operational performances are equal or even superior in these smaller modular units. This presentation will use the industry, market and application data analyses, and successful examples from other sectors and industries with different organizing principles to demonstrate the benefits and potentials of SMRs. The resultant paradigm shift, from the singular pursuit of economies of unit scale to

  15. A shift from significance test to hypothesis test through power analysis in medical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, G

    2006-01-01

    Medical research literature until recently, exhibited substantial dominance of the Fisher's significance test approach of statistical inference concentrating more on probability of type I error over Neyman-Pearson's hypothesis test considering both probability of type I and II error. Fisher's approach dichotomises results into significant or not significant results with a P value. The Neyman-Pearson's approach talks of acceptance or rejection of null hypothesis. Based on the same theory these two approaches deal with same objective and conclude in their own way. The advancement in computing techniques and availability of statistical software have resulted in increasing application of power calculations in medical research and thereby reporting the result of significance tests in the light of power of the test also. Significance test approach, when it incorporates power analysis contains the essence of hypothesis test approach. It may be safely argued that rising application of power analysis in medical research may have initiated a shift from Fisher's significance test to Neyman-Pearson's hypothesis test procedure.

  16. A shift from significance test to hypothesis test through power analysis in medical research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Girish

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Medical research literature until recently, exhibited substantial dominance of the Fisher′s significance test approach of statistical inference concentrating more on probability of type I error over Neyman-Pearson′s hypothesis test considering both probability of type I and II error. Fisher′s approach dichotomises results into significant or not significant results with a P value. The Neyman-Pearson′s approach talks of acceptance or rejection of null hypothesis. Based on the same theory these two approaches deal with same objective and conclude in their own way. The advancement in computing techniques and availability of statistical software have resulted in increasing application of power calculations in medical research and thereby reporting the result of significance tests in the light of power of the test also. Significance test approach, when it incorporates power analysis contains the essence of hypothesis test approach. It may be safely argued that rising application of power analysis in medical research may have initiated a shift from Fisher′s significance test to Neyman-Pearson′s hypothesis test procedure.

  17. The Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing - Europe (CAAT-EU): a transatlantic bridge for the paradigm shift in toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daneshian, Mardas; Leist, Marcel; Hartung, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing - Europe (CAAT-EU) was founded based collaboration between the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health and the University of Konstanz. CAAT-EU, housed at the University of Konstanz, will coordinate transatlantic activities to promote humane science in research and education, and participate, as partner or coordinator, in publicly and privately funded European projects. Thomas Hartung will serve as program liaison representing Johns Hopkins University and Marcel Leist as the University of Konstanz liaison. CAAT-EU aims to: 1) Set up transatlantic consortia for international research projects on alternative methods. 2) Establish a CAAT Europe faculty and advisory board composed of sponsor representatives and prominent academics from Europe . 3) Participate in the Transatlantic Think Tank for Toxicology (t4) devoted to conceptual work for the paradigm shift in toxicology. 4) Coordinate a series of information days in Europe on relevant developments in the US, similar to the 2009 series CAAT held in the US on EU issues (one on the 7th Amendment to the EU Cosmetics Directive and one on EU and US chemical regulation). 5) Support ALTEX as the official journal of CAAT and CAAT-EU. 6) Develop strategic projects with sponsors to promote humane science and new toxicology, especially with CAAT faculty members. 7) Develop a joint education program between Johns Hopkins and the University of Konstanz, such as e-courses and the existing Humane Science Certificate program developed by CAAT, a student exchange program, and collaboration with the International Graduate School "Cell-based Characterization of De- and Regeneration" in Konstanz.

  18. Shifting the Paradigm for Long Term Monitoring at Legacy Sites to Improve Performance while Reducing Costs - 13422

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eddy-Dilek, Carol A; Looney, Brian B.; Gaughan, Thomas; Kmetz, Thomas; Seaman, John

    2013-01-01

    A major issue facing many government and private industry sites that were previously contaminated with radioactive and chemical wastes is that often the sites cannot be cleaned up enough to permit unrestricted human access. These sites will require long-term management, in some cases indefinitely, leaving site owners with the challenge of protecting human health and environmental quality in a cost effective manner. Long-term monitoring of groundwater contamination is one of the largest projected costs in the life cycle of environmental management at the Savannah River Site (SRS), the larger DOE complex, and many large federal and private sites. Currently, most monitoring strategies are focused on laboratory measurements of contaminants measured in groundwater samples collected from wells. This approach is expensive, and provides limited and lagging information about the effectiveness of cleanup activities and the behavior of the residual contamination. Over the last twenty years, DOE and other federal agencies have made significant investments in the development of various types of sensors and strategies that would allow for remote analysis of contaminants in groundwater, but these approaches do not promise significant reductions in risk or cost. Scientists at SRS have developed a new paradigm to simultaneously improve the performance of long term monitoring systems while lowering the overall cost of monitoring. This alternative approach incorporates traditional point measurements of contaminant concentration with measurements of controlling variables including boundary conditions, master variables, and traditional plume/contaminant variables. Boundary conditions are the overall driving forces that control plume movement and therefore provide leading indication to changes in plume stability. These variables include metrics associated with meteorology, hydrology, hydrogeology, and land use. Master variables are the key variables that control the chemistry of the

  19. Olle Höök Lectureship 2015: The World Health Organization's paradigm shift and implementation of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health in rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stucki, Gerold

    2016-06-13

    The World Health Organization's (WHO) paradigm shift, implied by the launch of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF), is inextricably entwined with the emergence of rehabilitation as a key health strategy of the 21st century. To enable health systems to scale up rehabilitation we must spearhead the implementation of the ICF in rehabilitation towards its system-wide implementation in the healthcare system at large. In this essay, based on the Olle Höök lecture 20151, it is argued that the launch of the ICF in 2001 represents a paradigm shift, as it has enabled the WHO to more comprehensively act on its mandate and has guided WHO policies to shape the health system in response to population functioning needs. It is shown that this paradigm shift has important implications for rehabilitation, including its conceptualization and scientific methods. A prerequisite for the system-wide implementation of the ICF in clinical practice, policy, and research, is the availability of practical tools that allow for the universal and standardized description of functioning. Finally, some reflections are presented on how we may foster the system-wide implementation of the ICF by applying approaches from the implementation sciences.

  20. Paradigm shift in transport legislation or rather at the 'bottleneck'; Paradigmenwechsel im Befoerderungsrecht oder am 'Flaschenhals'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naeser, Hanns [GNS Gesellschaft fuer Nuklear-Service mbH, Essen (Germany)

    2015-01-15

    In the year just started significant decisions with considerable consequences by the Federal Constitutional Court and the Federal Administrative Court in the field of nuclear law are expected. Especially the decision with regards to 'nuclear phase-out' within the 13th amendment of the Atomic Energy Act is being eagerly expected, as with its far-reaching consequences also fundamental constitutional questions need to be answered. The Federal Administrative Court will need to decide on the question, whether she admits the appeal against the Brunsbuettel decision by the Higher Administrative Court Schleswig-Holstein (HAC), which from the view of claimant shifted the fundamental basis of demarcation of responsibilities between the executive and judiciary power. In comparison to these fundamental decisions the awaited decision by the HAC on nuclear transport legislation seems of subordinate importance, although she will proceed with a paradigm shift in the legal area. The decision deals with the question as to whether and when a right of action from a third party within the nuclear transport legislation can be accepted or more precisely under which preconditions a third party has clear standing against a nuclear transport authorisation. As the site selection law (issued on 23 July 2013 BGBI I p. 2552) excludes the recirculation of vitrified waste block canisters from reprocessing spent fuel elements to the transport cask storage facility Gorleben, the decision by the HAC Lueneburg for this site will only be relevant for present unpredictable transportations from the transport cask storage facility Gorleben to a final repository. If necessary interest to seek a declaratory judgment for declaratory action, in concreto danger of recurrence will be approved, is another matter.

  1. Replacing gasoline with corn ethanol results in significant environmental problem-shifting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi; Bae, Junghan; Kim, Junbeum; Suh, Sangwon

    2012-04-03

    Previous studies on the life-cycle environmental impacts of corn ethanol and gasoline focused almost exclusively on energy balance and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and largely overlooked the influence of regional differences in agricultural practices. This study compares the environmental impact of gasoline and E85 taking into consideration 12 different environmental impacts and regional differences among 19 corn-growing states. Results show that E85 does not outperform gasoline when a wide spectrum of impacts is considered. If the impacts are aggregated using weights developed by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), overall, E85 generates approximately 6% to 108% (23% on average) greater impact compared with gasoline, depending on where corn is produced, primarily because corn production induces significant eutrophication impacts and requires intensive irrigation. If GHG emissions from the indirect land use changes are considered, the differences increase to between 16% and 118% (33% on average). Our study indicates that replacing gasoline with corn ethanol may only result in shifting the net environmental impacts primarily toward increased eutrophication and greater water scarcity. These results suggest that the environmental criteria used in the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) be re-evaluated to include additional categories of environmental impact beyond GHG emissions.

  2. Shifting the Paradigm for Long Term Monitoring at Legacy Sites to Improve Performance while Reducing Costs - 13422

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eddy-Dilek, Carol A; Looney, Brian B. [Savannah River National Laboratory (United States); Gaughan, Thomas; Kmetz, Thomas [Savannah River Nuclear Solutions, LLC (United States); Seaman, John [Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (United States)

    2013-07-01

    A major issue facing many government and private industry sites that were previously contaminated with radioactive and chemical wastes is that often the sites cannot be cleaned up enough to permit unrestricted human access. These sites will require long-term management, in some cases indefinitely, leaving site owners with the challenge of protecting human health and environmental quality in a cost effective manner. Long-term monitoring of groundwater contamination is one of the largest projected costs in the life cycle of environmental management at the Savannah River Site (SRS), the larger DOE complex, and many large federal and private sites. Currently, most monitoring strategies are focused on laboratory measurements of contaminants measured in groundwater samples collected from wells. This approach is expensive, and provides limited and lagging information about the effectiveness of cleanup activities and the behavior of the residual contamination. Over the last twenty years, DOE and other federal agencies have made significant investments in the development of various types of sensors and strategies that would allow for remote analysis of contaminants in groundwater, but these approaches do not promise significant reductions in risk or cost. Scientists at SRS have developed a new paradigm to simultaneously improve the performance of long term monitoring systems while lowering the overall cost of monitoring. This alternative approach incorporates traditional point measurements of contaminant concentration with measurements of controlling variables including boundary conditions, master variables, and traditional plume/contaminant variables. Boundary conditions are the overall driving forces that control plume movement and therefore provide leading indication to changes in plume stability. These variables include metrics associated with meteorology, hydrology, hydrogeology, and land use. Master variables are the key variables that control the chemistry of the

  3. Re-envisioning global agricultural trade: time for a paradigm shift to ensure food security and population health in low-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirkle, Catherine M; Poliquin, Hélène; Sia, Drissa; Kouakou, Kouassi Joseph; Sagna, Tani

    2015-03-01

    In this commentary, we use examples from West Africa to highlight how the liberalization of global agricultural trade exacerbates population health inequalities by threatening the livelihoods and food security of communities in low-income settings. We highlight the exploitative nature of trade agreements with West African countries demonstrating how these agreements disincentivize local agricultural investment and take jobs away from small-scale farmers. Further, we link agricultural trade liberalization to increased food insecurity, malnutrition, and exposure to environmental contaminants. Finally, we propose a paradigm shift that advocates for food sovereignty and the right to food. © The Author(s) 2014.

  4. [The end of discrimination in social security for the elderly? Some remarks on the consequences of the paradigm shift in a life course perspective on gender].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fachinger, Uwe

    2008-10-01

    Trying to analyse the effects of the paradigm shift in the old age social security system in Germany (GRV) from a life cycle gender perspective yields light and shade - it is a conglomeration of individual- and family-specific transfers, financed by a mix of contributions and taxes, and with measures of explicit and implicit, intended and not intended ex-post and ex-ante redistribution and discrimination.The paradigm shift has increased the complexity of the system and created additional elements of gender specific discrimination as well as reduced established elements of the so called "social compensation". Furthermore, the relevance of complementary private and occupational pensions will increase absolute and relative due to the reduction of the pension level. This will raise the importance of earnings in old age especially those that are without any elements of social security compensation or without elements of recognition of activities beside employment. Overall the paradigm shift has intensified the discrimination of women in two ways and the pension privatisation has caused redistribution from the bottom to the top. In other words, there is an increase in inter- and intra-gender discrimination. Due to the changes and the emphasis of aspects of an independent old age security savings for women the norm of the "male breadwinner model" has increased. The importance of "providing one's own pension" additionally creates distribution conflicts within a partnership. Because of the necessity of constant payments over time within a private insurance and the changes of an individual income and gender-specific life cycle, conflicts may occur time and again. The dependence of life-long partnerships on each other is not reduced or abolished with the strengthening of the individualistic model of protection, but is qualitatively and quantitatively improved. Against this background, the measures of the statutory pension system which are aimed towards the situation of a

  5. Outage planning in nuclear power plants. A paradigm shift from an external towards an integrated project planning tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosemann, Andreas [Gesellschaft fuer integrierte Systemplanung (GiS) mbH, Weinheim (Germany)

    2014-05-15

    In nuclear power plants it is common to carry out the technical planning of the annual outage work orders in an Enterprise Application Management (EAM) system and to schedule the outage tasks in a project planning tool. The reason for this is historical: Former EAM systems did not (or just to some extend) offer the necessary functionalities to realise the scheduling of the outage; graphical support for the planning was not provided at all. Consequently, scheduling the annual outage was performed in a separate planning tool. Modern Enterprise Application Management (EAM) software builds on established project planning tools with respect to the functionalities and timing of work orders. As a standard they provide editable charts as well as a lot of functionalities which are required for scheduling the annual outage. The functional gap between the demanded planning functionalities and the functionalities provided by the EAM system has been significantly reduced. Depending on the deployed software itself it is possible to extend the EAM system with little effort (in comparison to the promising advantages) so that external project timing planning tools are not required any more. By shifting towards an integrated planning tool, efficiency in planning an outage as well as the quality of communication of the current planning status increases. Furthermore, the basis of information for work orders by the control room staff and therefore safety can be enhanced. (orig.)

  6. Outage planning in nuclear power plants. A paradigm shift from an external towards an integrated project planning tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosemann, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    In nuclear power plants it is common to carry out the technical planning of the annual outage work orders in an Enterprise Application Management (EAM) system and to schedule the outage tasks in a project planning tool. The reason for this is historical: Former EAM systems did not (or just to some extend) offer the necessary functionalities to realise the scheduling of the outage; graphical support for the planning was not provided at all. Consequently, scheduling the annual outage was performed in a separate planning tool. Modern Enterprise Application Management (EAM) software builds on established project planning tools with respect to the functionalities and timing of work orders. As a standard they provide editable charts as well as a lot of functionalities which are required for scheduling the annual outage. The functional gap between the demanded planning functionalities and the functionalities provided by the EAM system has been significantly reduced. Depending on the deployed software itself it is possible to extend the EAM system with little effort (in comparison to the promising advantages) so that external project timing planning tools are not required any more. By shifting towards an integrated planning tool, efficiency in planning an outage as well as the quality of communication of the current planning status increases. Furthermore, the basis of information for work orders by the control room staff and therefore safety can be enhanced. (orig.)

  7. Shifting paradigm: From “No Code” and “Do-Not-Resuscitate” to “Goals of Care” policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaseen M Arabi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Policies addressing limitations of medical therapy in patients with advanced medical conditions are typically referred to as Code Status (No Code policies or Do-Not-Resuscitate (DNR status polices. Inconsistencies in implementation, understanding, decision-making, communication and management of No Code or DNR orders have led to delivery of poorer care to some patients. Several experts have called for a change in the current approach. The new approach, Goals of Care paradigm, aims to contextualize the decisions about resuscitation and advanced life support within the overall plan of care, focusing on choices of treatments to be given rather than specifically on treatments not to be given. Adopting “Goals of Care” paradigm is a big step forward on the journey for optimizing the care for patients with advanced medical conditions; a journey that requires collaborative approach and is of high importance for patients, community and healthcare systems.

  8. Rethinking Gender, Heterosexual Men, and Women’s Vulnerability to HIV/AIDS: Time to Shift the Paradigm

    OpenAIRE

    Higgins, Jenny A.; Hoffman, Susie; Dworkin, Shari L.

    2010-01-01

    Most HIV prevention literature portrays women as especially “vulnerable” to HIV infection by way of biological susceptibility and men’s sexual power and privilege. Conversely, heterosexual men are perceived as active transmitters of HIV but not active agents in prevention. Although the women’s vulnerability paradigm was a radical revision of earlier views of women in the epidemic, mounting challenges undermine its current usefulness. This paper reviews the etiology and successes of the paradi...

  9. The New world of ';Big Data' Analytics and High Performance Data: A Paradigm shift in the way we interact with very large Earth Observation datasets (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purss, M. B.; Lewis, A.; Ip, A.; Evans, B.

    2013-12-01

    The next decade promises an exponential increase in volumes of open data from Earth observing satellites. The ESA Sentinels, the Japan Meteorological Agency's Himawari 8/9 geostationary satellites, various NASA missions, and of course the many EO satellites planned from China, will produce petabyte scale datasets of national and global significance. It is vital that we develop new ways of managing, accessing and using this ';big-data' from satellites, to produce value added information within realistic timeframes. A paradigm shift is required away from traditional ';scene based' (and labour intensive) approaches with data storage and delivery for processing at local sites, to emerging High Performance Data (HPD) models where the data are organised and co-located with High Performance Computational (HPC) infrastructures in a way that enables users to bring themselves, their algorithms and the HPC processing power to the data. Automated workflows, that allow the entire archive of data to be rapidly reprocessed from raw data to fully calibrated products, are a crucial requirement for the effective stewardship of these datasets. New concepts such as arranging and viewing data as ';data objects' which underpin the delivery of ';information as a service' are also integral to realising the transition into HPD analytics. As Australia's national remote sensing and geoscience agency, Geoscience Australia faces a pressing need to solve the problems of ';big-data', in particular around the 25-year archive of calibrated Landsat data. The challenge is to ensure standardised information can be extracted from the entire archive and applied to nationally significant problems in hazards, water management, land management, resource development and the environment. Ultimately, these uses justify government investment in these unique systems. A key challenge was how best to organise the archive of calibrated Landsat data (estimated to grow to almost 1 PB by the end of 2014) in a way

  10. Big data - a 21st century science Maginot Line? No-boundary thinking: shifting from the big data paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiuzhen; Jennings, Steven F; Bruce, Barry; Buchan, Alison; Cai, Liming; Chen, Pengyin; Cramer, Carole L; Guan, Weihua; Hilgert, Uwe Kk; Jiang, Hongmei; Li, Zenglu; McClure, Gail; McMullen, Donald F; Nanduri, Bindu; Perkins, Andy; Rekepalli, Bhanu; Salem, Saeed; Specker, Jennifer; Walker, Karl; Wunsch, Donald; Xiong, Donghai; Zhang, Shuzhong; Zhang, Yu; Zhao, Zhongming; Moore, Jason H

    2015-01-01

    Whether your interests lie in scientific arenas, the corporate world, or in government, you have certainly heard the praises of big data: Big data will give you new insights, allow you to become more efficient, and/or will solve your problems. While big data has had some outstanding successes, many are now beginning to see that it is not the Silver Bullet that it has been touted to be. Here our main concern is the overall impact of big data; the current manifestation of big data is constructing a Maginot Line in science in the 21st century. Big data is not "lots of data" as a phenomena anymore; The big data paradigm is putting the spirit of the Maginot Line into lots of data. Big data overall is disconnecting researchers and science challenges. We propose No-Boundary Thinking (NBT), applying no-boundary thinking in problem defining to address science challenges.

  11. Ensinar e aprender no meio virtual: rompendo paradigmas Teaching and learning in the virtual environment: shifting paradigms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Lacerda dos Santos

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Este texto relata os resultados de uma pesquisa de síntese desenvolvida no período entre 2004 e 2008, a partir de 13 dissertações de mestrado acadêmico e profissionalizante, com o objetivo de discutir a sala de aula virtual. Mais precisamente, o texto procura configurar a crise paradigmática em torno da ruptura entre a sala de aula presencial e a sala de aula virtual, tendo em vista a emergência da sociedade da informação, por meio de dados empíricos coletados pelos 13 mestrandos participantes da pesquisa longitudinal financiada pelo CNPq, pela FAPDF e pela FENADESP. Na primeira parte, há uma introdução geral ao tema e à problemática de pesquisa que deram origem à investigação meta-analítica ou de síntese aqui desenvolvida, configurada por quatro questões: 1 quais são os novos formatos para a sala de aula virtual?; 2 quais estratégias pedagógicas mostram-se adequadas para nortear o trabalho docente na sala de aula virtual?; 3 quais materiais didáticos inovadores são condizentes com o trabalho docente na sala de aula virtual?; 4 quais novos papéis docentes surgem no contexto da sala de aula virtual? Logo em seguida, há uma descrição sucinta da abordagem metodológica adotada para subsidiar nosso esforço investigativo em busca de respostas às questões de pesquisa anunciadas. A terceira parte consiste em um quadro teórico, igualmente sucinto, acerca do conceito de sala de aula virtual. No item seguinte, há a discussão de cada questão à luz dos resultados alcançados nas 13 dissertações de mestrado analisadas. Por fim, são elaboradas algumas conclusões finais, as quais apontam e discutem certos elementos definidores da sala de aula virtual que configuram a referida crise paradigmática.This text describes the results of a synthesis study developed during the period between 2004 and 2008, based on 13 academic and professional Master dissertations, with the objective of discussing the virtual classroom. More

  12. Analysing the significance of silence in qualitative interviewing: questioning and shifting power relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bengtsson, Tea Torbenfeldt; Fynbo, Lars

    2017-01-01

    In this article we analyse the significance of silence in qualitative interviews with 36 individuals interviewed about high-risk, illegal activities. We describe how silence expresses a dynamic power relationship between interviewer and interviewee. In the analysis, we focus on two different types...... significant data. We conclude that silence constitutes possibilities for interviewees and interviewers to handle the complex power at play in qualitative interviewing either by maintaining or by losing control of the situation....

  13. Outage planning in nuclear power plants. A paradigm shift from an external towards an integrated project planning tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosemann, Andreas [Gesellschaft fuer integrierte Systemplanung (GIS) mbH, Weinheim (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    Latest demands on nuclear plant inspections are the ongoing actualisation of the outage plan on the basis of the current work progress and current events as well as the permanent access to the current planning status and work process of all people involved in the outage. Modern EAM systems (EAM: Enterprise Application Management) made up ground on established project planning tools with regard to functionalities for scheduling work orders. A shift towards an integrated planning in the EAM system increases the efficiency in the outage planning and improves the communication of current states of planning. (orig.)

  14. Outage planning in nuclear power plants. A paradigm shift from an external towards an integrated project planning tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosemann, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Latest demands on nuclear plant inspections are the ongoing actualisation of the outage plan on the basis of the current work progress and current events as well as the permanent access to the current planning status and work process of all people involved in the outage. Modern EAM systems (EAM: Enterprise Application Management) made up ground on established project planning tools with regard to functionalities for scheduling work orders. A shift towards an integrated planning in the EAM system increases the efficiency in the outage planning and improves the communication of current states of planning. (orig.)

  15. Software verification, model validation, and hydrogeologic modelling aspects in nuclear waste disposal system simulations. A paradigm shift

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheng, G.M.

    1994-01-01

    This work reviewed the current concept of nuclear waste disposal in stable, terrestrial geologic media with a system of natural and man-made multi-barriers. Various aspects of this concept and supporting research were examined with the emphasis on the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program. Several of the crucial issues and challenges facing the current concept were discussed. These include: The difficulties inherent in a concept that centres around lithologic studies; the unsatisfactory state of software quality assurance in the present computer simulation programs; and the lack of a standardized, comprehensive, and systematic procedure to carry out a rigorous process of model validation and assessment of simulation studies. An outline of such an approach was presented and some of the principles, tools and techniques for software verification were introduced and described. A case study involving an evaluation of the Canadian performance assessment computer program is presented. A new paradigm to nuclear waste disposal was advocated to address the challenges facing the existing concept. The RRC (Regional Recharge Concept) was introduced and its many advantages were described and shown through a modelling exercise. (orig./HP)

  16. Exploration of Two Training Paradigms Using Forced Induced Weight Shifting With the Tethered Pelvic Assist Device to Reduce Asymmetry in Individuals After Stroke: Case Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Lauri; Khan, Moiz; Martelli, Dario; Quinn, Lori; Stein, Joel; Agrawal, Sunil

    2017-10-01

    Many robotic devices in rehabilitation incorporate an assist-as-needed haptic guidance paradigm to promote training. This error reduction model, while beneficial for skill acquisition, could be detrimental for long-term retention. Error augmentation (EA) models have been explored as alternatives. A robotic Tethered Pelvic Assist Device has been developed to study force application to the pelvis on gait and was used here to induce weight shift onto the paretic (error reduction) or nonparetic (error augmentation) limb during treadmill training. The purpose of these case reports is to examine effects of training with these two paradigms to reduce load force asymmetry during gait in two individuals after stroke (>6 mos). Participants presented with baseline gait asymmetry, although independent community ambulators. Participants underwent 1-hr trainings for 3 days using either the error reduction or error augmentation model. Outcomes included the Borg rating of perceived exertion scale for treatment tolerance and measures of force and stance symmetry. Both participants tolerated training. Force symmetry (measured on treadmill) improved from pretraining to posttraining (36.58% and 14.64% gains), however, with limited transfer to overground gait measures (stance symmetry gains of 9.74% and 16.21%). Training with the Tethered Pelvic Assist Device device proved feasible to improve force symmetry on the treadmill irrespective of training model. Future work should consider methods to increase transfer to overground gait.

  17. The needs of having a paradigm shift from public sector to private sector on funding digitizing management work of historical buildings in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamarudin, M. K.; Yahya, Z.; Harun, R.; Jaapar, A.

    2014-02-01

    In Malaysia, the government agencies that handle the management of historical buildings are finding themselves facing a shortage of funds to provide the necessary work on digitalising management works. Due to the rising cost of management, which also covers maintenance and infrastructure works, there is a need for a paradigm shift from public sector to private sector provision on infrastructure and management works. Therefore the government agencies need to find the suitable mechanism to encourage private sector especially the private property and developers to take part in it. This scenario has encouraged the authorities to look new ways of entering into partnership and collaboration with the private sector to secure the continuity of provision and funding. The paper first reviews the different approach to facilitate off-site local management system of historical buildings and then examines options for both private and public funding in digitalising the historical buildings management works by interviewing government officer, conservator and member of nongovernment agencies. It then explores how the current system of management may adopt the shift to avoid any vulnerability and threat to the existing historical buildings. This paper concludes with a short summary of key issues in management works of historical buildings and recommendations.

  18. The needs of having a paradigm shift from public sector to private sector on funding digitizing management work of historical buildings in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamarudin, M K; Yahya, Z; Jaapar, A; Harun, R

    2014-01-01

    In Malaysia, the government agencies that handle the management of historical buildings are finding themselves facing a shortage of funds to provide the necessary work on digitalising management works. Due to the rising cost of management, which also covers maintenance and infrastructure works, there is a need for a paradigm shift from public sector to private sector provision on infrastructure and management works. Therefore the government agencies need to find the suitable mechanism to encourage private sector especially the private property and developers to take part in it. This scenario has encouraged the authorities to look new ways of entering into partnership and collaboration with the private sector to secure the continuity of provision and funding. The paper first reviews the different approach to facilitate off-site local management system of historical buildings and then examines options for both private and public funding in digitalising the historical buildings management works by interviewing government officer, conservator and member of nongovernment agencies. It then explores how the current system of management may adopt the shift to avoid any vulnerability and threat to the existing historical buildings. This paper concludes with a short summary of key issues in management works of historical buildings and recommendations

  19. Shifting the Paradigm: Using HIV Surveillance Data as a Foundation for Improving HIV Care and Preventing HIV Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Patricia; Gardner, Lytt I; Buchacz, Kate; Garland, Pamela Morse; Mugavero, Michael J; Bosshart, Jeffrey T; Shouse, R Luke; Bertolli, Jeanne

    2013-01-01

    Context Reducing HIV incidence in the United States and improving health outcomes for people living with HIV hinge on improving access to highly effective treatment and overcoming barriers to continuous treatment. Using laboratory tests routinely reported for HIV surveillance to monitor individuals’ receipt of HIV care and contacting them to facilitate optimal care could help achieve these objectives. Historically, surveillance-based public health intervention with individuals for HIV control has been controversial because of concerns that risks to privacy and autonomy could outweigh benefits. But with the availability of lifesaving, transmission-interrupting treatment for HIV infection, some health departments have begun surveillance-based outreach to facilitate HIV medical care. Methods Guided by ethics frameworks, we explored the ethical arguments for changing the uses of HIV surveillance data. To identify ethical, procedural, and strategic considerations, we reviewed the activities of health departments that are using HIV surveillance data to contact persons identified as needing assistance with initiating or returning to care. Findings Although privacy concerns surrounding the uses of HIV surveillance data still exist, there are ethical concerns associated with not using HIV surveillance to maximize the benefits from HIV medical care and treatment. Early efforts to use surveillance data to facilitate optimal HIV medical care illustrate how the ethical burdens may vary depending on the local context and the specifics of implementation. Health departments laid the foundation for these activities by engaging stakeholders to gain their trust in sharing sensitive information; establishing or strengthening legal, policy and governance infrastructure; and developing communication and follow-up protocols that protect privacy. Conclusions We describe a shift toward using HIV surveillance to facilitate optimal HIV care. Health departments should review the

  20. Smart grids: A paradigm shift on energy generation and distribution with the emergence of a new energy management business model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardenas, Jesus Alvaro

    An energy and environmental crisis will emerge throughout the world if we continue with our current practices of generation and distribution of electricity. A possible solution to this problem is based on the Smart grid concept, which is heavily influenced by Information and Communication Technology (ICT). Although the electricity industry is mostly regulated, there are global models used as roadmaps for Smart Grids' implementation focusing on technologies and the basic generation-distribution-transmission model. This project aims to further enhance a business model for a future global deployment. It takes into consideration the many factors interacting in this energy provision process, based on the diffusion of technologies and literature surveys on the available documents in the Internet as well as peer-reviewed publications. Tariffs and regulations, distributed energy generation, integration of service providers, consumers becoming producers, self-healing devices, and many other elements are shifting this industry into a major change towards liberalization and deregulation of this sector, which has been heavily protected by the government due to the importance of electricity for consumers. We propose an Energy Management Business Model composed by four basic elements: Supply Chain, Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Stakeholders Response, and the resulting Green Efficient Energy (GEE). We support the developed model based on the literature survey, we support it with the diffusion analysis of these elements, and support the overall model with two surveys: one for peers and professionals, and other for experts in the field, based on the Smart Grid Carnegie Melon Maturity Model (CMU SEI SGMM). The contribution of this model is a simple path to follow for entities that want to achieve environmental friendly energy with the involvement of technology and all stakeholders.

  1. The Shifting Paradigm of Post-Cold War Counterintelligence Support to USAF Operations: A Middle Eastern Case Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lajeunesse, CGabriel

    1999-01-01

    The threat to US Operations in the Middle East has changed significantly since the end of the Cold War, and although counterintelligence methodology has changed with it, additional modifications are needed...

  2. Schooling in American Sign Language: A Paradigm Shift from a Deficit Model to a Bilingual Model in Deaf Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, Tom

    2013-01-01

    Deaf people have long held the belief that American Sign Language (ASL) plays a significant role in the academic development of deaf children. Despite this, the education of deaf children has historically been exclusive of ASL and constructed as an English-only, deficit-based pedagogy. Newer research, however, finds a strong correlation between…

  3. Examining a Paradigm Shift in Organic Depot-Level Software Maintenance for Army Communications and Electronics Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-30

    scalable application of cutting edge technologies. 20 4. Responding to changing resources—With likely significant resource reductions the depot...deal with underutilized organic capability while continuing to increase outsourcing of depot workload. In addition the study states that a...the unique organic skills that TYAD could 40 bring to the software sustainment mission could be valuable based on the specific type of software

  4. Trying to Learn Lessons for Response to Extreme Events: Paradigm Shifts Affecting Civil Defense in the Trinational Region of Southwestern Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, G. L. P.

    2015-12-01

    The last ten years have seen several extreme climate events in southwestern Amazonia with historic impacts. The City of Rio Branco, Capital of Acre, Brazil´s westernmost State, suffered its seventh consecutive annual flooding and its worst in March 2015. The city of Tarauacá, also in Acre, registered 12 flooding events between November 2014 and April 2015. The most recent flood of the trinational Acre River in 2015 set historic records for flood stage and number of displaced persons in Cobija, the Capital of Pando, Bolivia. From February to April 2014, floods of the Madeira River disrupted the one highway between Acre and southern Brazil. Puerto Maldonado, the capital in Madre de Dios Region of Peru had its worst flood in 50 years during 2014. In 2005 and 2010, prolonged droughts combined with ignition sources resulted in tens to hundreds of thousands of hectares of fire-damaged rainforests in the Madre de Dios, Acre and Pando (MAP) Region. The Civil Defenses in these three contiguous political units faced several abrupt paradigm shifts that affected their responses: 1) The drought of 2005 showed dramatically that regional rainforests do burn; 2) The recent flooding history, particularly in 2012 and 2015, demolished the cultural icon of a nine-year recurrence interval; 3) What happens outside your territory can be devastating. The Madeira River flood impeded an estimated 200 million dollars from circulating in Acre; 4) The past can be a terrible guide. For Cobija and Rio Branco, the 2015 flood was on the order of a meter higher than any other. Many home dwellers did not evacuate in time because they used past floods as a guide; 5) A collapse in communication - cell phones, land lines, and Internet - can get worse. In 2012, such a collapse occurred in two border towns for 5 days, yet in 2015 it lasted more than 11 days. Research is needed to address how institutions linked to Civil Defense can shift paradigms in time to be more effective.

  5. Shifting the paradigm of music instruction: Implications of embodiment stemming from an augmented reality guitar learning system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Roland Keebler

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Musical instruction often includes materials that can act as a barrier to learning. New technologies using augmented reality may aid in reducing the initial difficulties involved in learning music by lowering these barriers characteristic of traditional instructional materials. Therefore, this set of studies examined a novel augmented reality guitar learning system (i.e., the Fretlight® guitar in regards to current theories of embodied music cognition. Specifically, we examined the effects of using this system in comparison to a standard instructional material (i.e. diagrams. First, we review major theories related to musical embodiment and specify a niche within this research space we call embodied music technology for learning. Following, we explicate two parallel experiments that were conducted to address the learning effects of this system. Experiment 1 examined short-term learning effects within one experimental session, while Experiment 2 examined both short-term and long-term effects across two sessions spaced at a two-week interval. Analyses demonstrated that, for many of our dependent variables, all participants increased in performance across time. Further, the Fretlight® condition consistently led to significantly better outcomes via interactive effects, including significantly better long term retention for the learned information across a two week time interval. These results are discussed in the context of embodied cognition theory as it relates to music. Potential limitations and avenues for future research are described.

  6. Paradigm-shift: radiological changes in the asymptomatic iNPH-patient to be: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, D C; Adib, S D; Schuhmann, M U; Brendle, C

    2018-02-09

    Many radiological signs are known for the diagnosis of idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH). However, there is little information about these signs in the pre-symptomatic phase. For pathophysiological investigative purposes we conducted a descriptive image analysis study on pre-symptomatic patients. Patients that had contact with either the neurological or neurosurgical department of the university hospital Tuebingen from 2010 through 2016 with magnetic resonance images > 3 years before onset of symptoms, were included. The date of onset and severity of symptoms, date of first imaging and birth date were recorded. Evan's index (EI), width of the third ventricle (3VW), tight high convexity (THC), Sylvian fissure, extent of white matter hyperintensities and aqueductal flow were assessed in images before and around symptom onset. Ten patients were included. In all ten patients the first symptom was gait disturbance. Nine of ten pre-symptomatic images showed classic signs for iNPH. EI showed a significant increase between the pre-symptomatic and symptomatic phase. 3VW showed a trend for increase without significance. THC changed back and forth over time within some patients. In accordance with the scarce literature available, radiological changes are present at least 3 years before onset of iNPH-symptoms. EI seems to be a robust measure for pre-symptomatic radiological changes. Extrapolating the data, the development of iNPH typical changes might be an insidious process and the development of THC might be a variable and non-linear process. Further studies with larger sample sizes are necessary to put these findings into the pathophysiological perspective for the development of iNPH.

  7. Glycemic load, exercise, and monitoring blood glucose (GEM): A paradigm shift in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Daniel J; Taylor, Ann G; Singh, Harsimran; Moncrief, Matthew; Diamond, Anne; Yancy, William S; Hegde, Shefali; McCall, Anthony L

    2016-01-01

    This preliminary RCT investigated whether an integrated lifestyle modification program that focuses on reducing postprandial blood glucose through replacing high with low glycemic load foods and increasing routine physical activities guided by systematic self-monitoring of blood glucose (GEM) could improve metabolic control of adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus, without compromising other physiological parameters. Forty-seven adults (mean age 55.3 years) who were diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus for less than 5 years (mean 2.1 years), had HbA1c ≥ 7% (mean 8.4%) and were not taking blood glucose lowering medications, were randomized to routine care or five 1-h instructional sessions of GEM. Assessments at baseline and 6 months included a physical exam, metabolic and lipid panels, and psychological questionnaires. The GEM intervention led to significant improvements in HbA1c (decreasing from 8.4 to 7.4% [69-57 mmol/mol] compared with 8.3 to 8.3% [68-68 mmol/mol] for routine care; Interaction ptype 2 diabetes mellitus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Intestinal Stem Cells to Advance Drug Development, Precision, and Regenerative Medicine: A Paradigm Shift in Translational Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochel, Jonathan P; Jergens, Albert E; Kingsbury, Dawn; Kim, Hyun Jung; Martín, Martín G; Allenspach, Karin

    2017-12-12

    Recent advances in our understanding of the intestinal stem cell niche and the role of key signaling pathways on cell growth and maintenance have allowed the development of fully differentiated epithelial cells in 3D organoids. Stem cell-derived organoids carry significant levels of proteins that are natively expressed in the gut and have important roles in drug transport and metabolism. They are, therefore, particularly relevant to study the gastrointestinal (GI) absorption of oral medications. In addition, organoids have the potential to serve as a robust preclinical model for demonstrating the effectiveness of new drugs more rapidly, with more certainty, and at lower costs compared with live animal studies. Importantly, because they are derived from individuals with different genotypes, environmental risk factors and drug sensitivity profiles, organoids are a highly relevant screening system for personalized therapy in both human and veterinary medicine. Lastly, and in the context of patient-specific congenital diseases, orthotopic transplantation of engineered organoids could repair and/or replace damaged epithelial tissues reported in various GI diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disease, cystic fibrosis, and tuft enteropathy. Ongoing translational research on organoids derived from dogs with naturally occurring digestive disorders has the potential to improve the predictability of preclinical models used for optimizing the therapeutic management of severe chronic enteropathies in human patients.

  9. The Very High Background Radiation Area in Ramsar, Iran: Public Health Risk or Signal for a Regulatory Paradigm Shift?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karam, P. Andrew [Univ. of Rochester, Rochester, NY (United States); Mortazavi, S.M. Javad [Rafsanjan Univ. of Medical Sciences (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Medical Physics Dept.

    2001-07-01

    Ramsar, a city on the Caspian Sea in northern Iran hosts the highest measured natural background radiation levels in the world. These are due to the local geology and hydrogeology and, in some places, deliver radiation doses far in excess of those recommended for radiation workers. A population of about 2000 is exposed to average annual radiation levels of 10.2 mGy/yr and the highest recorded doses are about 260 mGy/yr. These high radiation levels are due to the deposition of {sup 226}Ra in local rocks and, because these rocks are used in the construction of many local houses, interior radiation levels are often similar to those found outside. The presence of areas such as Ramsar raises an interesting public health policy question: Is it necessary to relocate the inhabitants to areas of lower natural background radiation levels in the interests of public health? According to the linear, no-threshold (LNT) hypothesis, there is no doubt that relocating the population of Ramsar will result in a reduction in cancer incidence. Therefore, under any reasonable policy based on the LNT hypothesis, the public health is best served by relocating many of Ramsar's inhabitants to other areas along the Caspian Sea. At present, there is no reliable epidemiological data on cancer incidence among the inhabitants of Ramsar's high background radiation areas (HBRAs), but local physicians feel that local cancer incidence rates are lower than in neighboring cities. Furthermore, preliminary results indicate that there is a statistically significant radio adaptation in the inhabitants of Ramsar. Interestingly, it seems that the frequency of chromosome aberrations in the lymphocytes of the inhabitants of Ramsar is no higher than the control areas. This important finding suggests that the cancer rate in Ramsar should be no higher than in other comparable parts of Iran. In other HBRAs such as Yangjiang, China it has been reported that mortality from all cancers and those from

  10. The Very High Background Radiation Area in Ramsar, Iran: Public Health Risk or Signal for a Regulatory Paradigm Shift?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karam, P. Andrew; Mortazavi, S.M. Javad

    2001-01-01

    Ramsar, a city on the Caspian Sea in northern Iran hosts the highest measured natural background radiation levels in the world. These are due to the local geology and hydrogeology and, in some places, deliver radiation doses far in excess of those recommended for radiation workers. A population of about 2000 is exposed to average annual radiation levels of 10.2 mGy/yr and the highest recorded doses are about 260 mGy/yr. These high radiation levels are due to the deposition of 226 Ra in local rocks and, because these rocks are used in the construction of many local houses, interior radiation levels are often similar to those found outside. The presence of areas such as Ramsar raises an interesting public health policy question: Is it necessary to relocate the inhabitants to areas of lower natural background radiation levels in the interests of public health? According to the linear, no-threshold (LNT) hypothesis, there is no doubt that relocating the population of Ramsar will result in a reduction in cancer incidence. Therefore, under any reasonable policy based on the LNT hypothesis, the public health is best served by relocating many of Ramsar's inhabitants to other areas along the Caspian Sea. At present, there is no reliable epidemiological data on cancer incidence among the inhabitants of Ramsar's high background radiation areas (HBRAs), but local physicians feel that local cancer incidence rates are lower than in neighboring cities. Furthermore, preliminary results indicate that there is a statistically significant radio adaptation in the inhabitants of Ramsar. Interestingly, it seems that the frequency of chromosome aberrations in the lymphocytes of the inhabitants of Ramsar is no higher than the control areas. This important finding suggests that the cancer rate in Ramsar should be no higher than in other comparable parts of Iran. In other HBRAs such as Yangjiang, China it has been reported that mortality from all cancers and those from leukemia, breast and

  11. Switching from static to adaptable and dynamic building envelopes: A paradigm shift for the energy efficiency in buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Perino

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The key role of the building envelope in attaining building energy efficiency and satisfactory indoor comfort has long been established. Nevertheless, until recent times, all efforts and attention have mainly been focused on increasing and optimizing the thermal insulation of the envelope components. This strategy was a winning approach for a long time, but its limitations became obvious when users and designers started to consider the overall energy demand of a building and started to aim for Zero Energy Building (ZEB or nearly ZEB goals. New and more revolutionary concepts and technologies needed to be developed to satisfy such challenging requirements. The potential benefits of this technological development are relevant since the building envelope plays a key role in controlling the energy and mass flows from outdoors to indoors (and vice versa and, moreover, the facades offer a significant opportunity for solar energy exploitation. Several researches have demonstrated that the limitation of the existing facades could be overcome only by switching from ‘static’ to ‘responsive’ and ‘dynamic’ systems, such as Multifunctional Facade Modules (MFMs and Responsive Building Elements (RBE. These components are able to continuously and pro-actively react to outdoor and indoor environment conditions and facilitate and enhance the exploitation of renewable and low exergy sources. In order to reduce the energy demand, to maximize the indoor comfort conditions and to produce energy at the site, these almost ‘self-sufficient’, or even ‘positive energy’ building skins frequently incorporate different technologies and are functionally connected to other building services and installations. An overview of the technological evolution of the building envelope that has taken place, ranging from traditional components to the innovative skins, will be given in this paper, while focusing on the different approaches that have characterized this

  12. Is gingival recession a consequence of an orthodontic tooth size and/or tooth position discrepancy? "A paradigm shift".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, Colin

    2011-01-01

    Gingival recession (GR) is a commonly observed dental lesion. The underlying etiology has not been clearly identified, although several theories have been suggested. Tooth crowding or tooth malalignment is also frequently observed, with both conditions appearing to be more prevalent in developed countries with heterogeneous populations. A total of 25 consecutively treated patients representing 72 teeth and demonstrating facial clinical GR of > 3 mm were examined clinically, photographically, and with 3-dimensional radiology using conebeam computed tomography. All examined teeth presented with normal interproximal probing depths and attachment levels (teeth demonstrating > 3 mm of GR presented with significantly prominent facial tooth contours and associated alveolar bone dehiscences. Most involved teeth presented with their root structures extending beyond the facial alveolar bony housing (fenestrations). This represents a discrepancy between tooth size and alveolar bone dimensions in the buccolingual, axial, and sagittal orientation. Fewer involved teeth were malpositioned toward the buccal aspect. Both conditions were associated with facial alveolar bone dehiscences and associated GR. This study suggests tooth volume and/or tooth position within the alveolar bony housing strongly correlate with GR. All nonperiodontitis-involved teeth with GR were associated with either wider teeth or facially aligned teeth. However, it is emphasized that all facially aligned teeth, or "larger" teeth, do not necessarily present with GR. Based on these findings, the radiographic-supporting bone index is proposed. This index should facilitate appropriate evaluation of the alveolar bone supporting the mucogingival complex, both on the facial and lingual aspect of teeth. Further investigations are needed to support these preliminary data.

  13. The interface between forensic science and technology: how technology could cause a paradigm shift in the role of forensic institutes in the criminal justice system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloosterman, Ate; Mapes, Anna; Geradts, Zeno; van Eijk, Erwin; Koper, Carola; van den Berg, Jorrit; Verheij, Saskia; van der Steen, Marcel; van Asten, Arian

    2015-08-05

    In this paper, the importance of modern technology in forensic investigations is discussed. Recent technological developments are creating new possibilities to perform robust scientific measurements and studies outside the controlled laboratory environment. The benefits of real-time, on-site forensic investigations are manifold and such technology has the potential to strongly increase the speed and efficacy of the criminal justice system. However, such benefits are only realized when quality can be guaranteed at all times and findings can be used as forensic evidence in court. At the Netherlands Forensic Institute, innovation efforts are currently undertaken to develop integrated forensic platform solutions that allow for the forensic investigation of human biological traces, the chemical identification of illicit drugs and the study of large amounts of digital evidence. These platforms enable field investigations, yield robust and validated evidence and allow for forensic intelligence and targeted use of expert capacity at the forensic institutes. This technological revolution in forensic science could ultimately lead to a paradigm shift in which a new role of the forensic expert emerges as developer and custodian of integrated forensic platforms. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  14. The interface between forensic science and technology: how technology could cause a paradigm shift in the role of forensic institutes in the criminal justice system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloosterman, Ate; Mapes, Anna; Geradts, Zeno; van Eijk, Erwin; Koper, Carola; van den Berg, Jorrit; Verheij, Saskia; van der Steen, Marcel; van Asten, Arian

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the importance of modern technology in forensic investigations is discussed. Recent technological developments are creating new possibilities to perform robust scientific measurements and studies outside the controlled laboratory environment. The benefits of real-time, on-site forensic investigations are manifold and such technology has the potential to strongly increase the speed and efficacy of the criminal justice system. However, such benefits are only realized when quality can be guaranteed at all times and findings can be used as forensic evidence in court. At the Netherlands Forensic Institute, innovation efforts are currently undertaken to develop integrated forensic platform solutions that allow for the forensic investigation of human biological traces, the chemical identification of illicit drugs and the study of large amounts of digital evidence. These platforms enable field investigations, yield robust and validated evidence and allow for forensic intelligence and targeted use of expert capacity at the forensic institutes. This technological revolution in forensic science could ultimately lead to a paradigm shift in which a new role of the forensic expert emerges as developer and custodian of integrated forensic platforms. PMID:26101289

  15. Planning and Policy Implications for Renewal and Paradigm Shift in the Curriculum Contents of Vocational and Technology Education Programmes in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.L. Adepoju

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Vocational and technology education (VTE is widely recognized as agent of technological development, industrial revolution, economic growth and voca-tional independence all over the world. In Nigeria, attempts have been made by various governments to restructure the system so as to keep pace with what operates in developed countries and to meet global competitions and best prac-tices. However, in this paper, the need for the renewal and paradigm shift in the curriculum contents of vocational and technological education is empha-sized. The paper e-rays the historical development of vocational and technolo-gy education in Nigeria from the colonial era. The paper further examines is-sues associated with implementation of a reviewed curriculum and the partici-pation of VTE in industrial revolution and vocational independence. A curvi-linear model and two equations are developed in the paper to explain the as-sumed linear correlation between curriculum renewal and technological break-through (technological development, industrial revolution, economic growth and vocational independence. The challenges facing VTE in Nigeria and the implications of the proposed curriculum renewal for stakeholders are highlight-ed in the paper.

  16. Media Arts: A Shifting Paradigm?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    The chairs of four arts education professional organizations--Jane Bonbright of the National Dance Education Organization, Michael Butera of the National Association for Music Education, Lynne Kingsley of the American Alliance for Theatre and Education, and Deborah Reeve of the National Art Education Association--were individually interviewed for…

  17. Military Culture. A Paradigm Shift?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dunivin, Karen

    1997-01-01

    In this study, Lt Col Karen O. Dunivin, USAF, examines social change in American military culture and explores the current struggle between the military's traditional and exclusionary combat, masculine-warrior (CMW...

  18. Genetics of preeclampsia: paradigm shifts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oudejans, Cees B. M.; van Dijk, Marie; Oosterkamp, Marjet; Lachmeijer, Augusta; Blankenstein, Marinus A.

    2007-01-01

    Segregation of preeclampsia into early-onset, placental and late-onset, maternal subtypes along with the acknowledgement of the contribution of epigenetics in placentally expressed genes proved to be a key first step in the identification of essential gene variants associated with preeclampsia.

  19. Paradigms and pragmatism: approaches to medical statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, M J

    2000-01-01

    Until recently, the dominant philosophy of science was that due to Karl Popper, with its doctrine that the proper task of science was the formulation of hypotheses followed by attempts at refuting them. In spite of the close analogy with significance testing, these ideas do not fit well with the practice of medical statistics. The same can be said of the later philosophy of Thomas Kuhn, who maintains that science proceeds by way of revolutionary upheavals separated by periods of relatively pedestrian research which are governed by what Kuhn refers to as paradigms. Through there have been paradigm shifts in the history of statistics, a degree of continuity can also be discerned. A current paradigm shift is embodied in the spread of Bayesian ideas. It may be that a future paradigm will emphasise the pragmatic approach to statistics that is associated with the name of Daniel Schwartz.

  20. Shifting paradigm of maternal and perinatal death review system in Bangladesh: A real time approach to address sustainable developmental goal 3 by 2030 [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Animesh Biswas

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Recently, Bangladesh has made remarkable progress in reducing maternal and neonatal morality, even though the millennium developmental goal to reduce maternal and neonatal mortality was not achieved. Sustainable Developmental Goal (SDG 3 has already been set for a new target to reduce maternal and neonatal deaths by 2030. The country takes this timely initiative to introduce a maternal and perinatal death review system. This review will discuss the shifting paradigm of the maternal and perinatal death review system in Bangladesh and its challenges in reaching the SDG on time. This review uses existing literature on the maternal and perinatal death review system in Bangladesh, and other systems in similar settings, as well as reports, case studies, news, government letters and meeting minutes. Bangladesh introduced the maternal and perinatal death review system in 2010. Prior to this there was no such comprehensive death review system practiced in Bangladesh. The system was established within the government health system and has brought about positive effects and outcomes. Therefore, the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare of Bangladesh gradually scaled up the maternal and perinatal death review system nationwide in 2016 within the government health system. The present death review system highlighted real-time data use, using the district health information software(DHIS-2. Health mangers are able to take remedial action plans and implement strategies based on findings in DHIS-2. Therefore, effective utilization of data can play a pivotal role in the reduction of maternal and perinatal deaths in Bangladesh. Overall, the maternal and perinatal death review system provides a great opportunity to achieve the SDG 3 on time. However, the system needs continuous monitoring at different levels to ensure its quality and validity of information, as well as effective utilization of findings for planning and implementation under a measureable

  1. Paradigm Shift in Transboundary Water Management Policy: Linking Water Environment Energy and Food (weef) to Catchment Hydropolitics - Needs, Scope and Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    RAI, S.; Wolf, A.; Sharma, N.; Tiwari, H.

    2015-12-01

    The incessant use of water due to rapid growth of population, enhanced agricultural and industrial activities, degraded environment and ecology will in the coming decades constrain the socioeconomic development of humans. To add on to the precarious situation, political boundaries rarely embrace hydrological boundaries of lakes, rivers, aquifers etc. Hydropolitics relate to the ability of geopolitical institutions to manage shared water resources in a politically sustainable manner, i.e., without tensions or conflict between political entities. Riparian hydropolitics caters to differing objectives, needs and requirements of states making it difficult to administer the catchment. The diverse riparian objectives can be merged to form a holistic catchment objective of sustainable water resources development and management. It can be proposed to make a paradigm shift in the present-day transboundary water policy from riparian hydropolitics (in which the focal point of water resources use is hinged on state's need) to catchment hydropolitics (in which the interest of the basin inhabitants are accorded primacy holistically over state interests) and specifically wherein the water, environment, energy and food (WEEF) demands of the catchment are a priority and not of the states in particular. The demands of the basin pertaining to water, food and energy have to be fulfilled, keeping the environment and ecology healthy in a cooperative political framework; the need for which is overwhelming. In the present scenario, the policy for water resources development of a basin is segmented into independent uncoordinated parts controlled by various riparians; whereas in catchment hydropolitics the whole basin should be considered as a unit. The riparians should compromise a part of national interest and work in collaboration on a joint objective which works on the principle of the whole as against the part. Catchment hydropolitics may find greater interest in the more than 250

  2. 技术范式生态化转变下的四川秦巴山区绿色发展研究%The Green Development of Qinba Mountain Areas in Sichuan under the Ecological Shift of Technological Paradigm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李美慧; 卓琳; 卢毅

    2016-01-01

    Based on thetheory of technological paradigm ,this paper discussed the plight of modern technological paradigm ,and analyzed its ecological Shift .Through summarizing and analyzing current situation and problems in the Qinba Mountain Areas ,the paper clarified that this area need to go green ,low‐carbon ,recycling which is characterized by way of eco‐development ,and to solve existing weak development foundation ,relatively low level of socio‐economic development .On this basis ,by ecological shift of technological paradigm ,this paper explored new green development of Qinba Mountain Areas ,and further proposed the ways to strengthen and enhance the awareness level of ecological shift of technological paradigm ,making the integration of related industries to build technology paradigm community ,and technological paradigm with the help of technological innovation and track up‐gradation of Qinba Mountain Areas ,etc .,which should bring a new chapter in the economic and social development for this area .%基于技术范式的视角,讨论现代技术范式的困境,并分析其生态化的转变。通过对四川秦巴山区的现状与问题的归纳与分析,阐明该区需要走以绿色、低碳、循环为特征的生态发展之路,从而增强基础建设,提升经济水平。结合技术范式生态化转变,探索四川秦巴山区的绿色发展道路,进一步提出了强化和提升对技术范式生态化转变的认知水平、整合相关产业构建四川秦巴山区技术范式共同体、科技创新支撑构筑四川秦巴山区技术范式升级轨道等具体措施,为四川秦巴山区经济和社会发展带来新篇章。

  3. Cancer research in need of a scientific revolution: Using `paradigm ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    It has been proposed that science proceeds not only by accumulating data but also through paradigm shifts. Here, we propose to use the concept of `paradigm shift' as a method of investigation when dominant paradigms fail to achieve their promises. The first step in using the `paradigm shift' method in cancer research ...

  4. A paradigm shift in pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PKPD) modeling: rule of thumb for estimating free drug level in tissue compared with plasma to guide drug design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulin, Patrick

    2015-07-01

    A basic assumption in pharmacokinetics-pharmacodynamics research is that the free drug concentration is similar in plasma and tissue, and, hence, in vitro plasma data can be used to estimate the in vivo condition in tissue. However, in a companion manuscript, it has been demonstrated that this assumption is violated for the ionized drugs. Nonetheless, these observations focus on in vitro static environments and do not challenge data with an in vivo dynamic system. Therefore, an extension from an in vitro to an in vivo system becomes the necessary next step. The objective of this study was to perform theoretical simulations of the free drug concentration in tissue and plasma by using a physiologically based pharmacokinetics (PBPK) model reproducing the in vivo conditions in human. Therefore, the effects of drug ionization, lipophilicity, and clearance have been taken into account in a dynamic system. This modeling exercise was performed as a proof of concept to demonstrate that free drug concentration in tissue and plasma may also differ in a dynamic system for passively permeable drugs that are ionized at the physiological pH. The PBPK model simulations indicated that free drug concentrations in tissue cells and plasma significantly differ for the ionized drugs because of the pH gradient effect between cells and interstitial space. Hence, a rule of thumb for potentially performing more accurate PBPK/PD modeling is suggested, which states that the free drug concentration in tissue and plasma will differ for the ionizable drugs in contrast to the neutral drugs. In addition to the pH gradient effect for the ionizable drugs, lipophilicity and clearance effects will increase or decrease the free drug concentration in tissue and plasma for each class of drugs; thus, higher will be the drug lipophilicity and clearance, lower would be the free drug concentration in plasma, and, hence, in tissue, in a dynamic in vivo system. Therefore, only considering the value of free

  5. Of Paradigms and Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carstensen, Martin B.; Matthijs, Matthias

    in the study of policy paradigms. To demonstrate the general applicability of our framework, the paper examines the evolution of British macroeconomic policy making since 1990. We show that various Prime Ministers and their Chancellors were able to reinterpret and redefine the dominant neoliberal understanding......? Despite the profound impact of Peter Hall’s approach to policy paradigms and social learning, there is a burgeoning consensus that transposing a rudimentary ‘Kuhnian’ understanding of paradigms into the context of public policy making leads to a notion of punctuated equilibrium style shifts as the only...

  6. Innovative technological paradigm-based approach towards biofuel feedstock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Jiuping; Li, Meihui

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • DAS was developed through an innovative approach towards literature mining and technological paradigm theory. • A novel concept of biofuel feedstock development paradigm (BFDP) is proposed. • The biofuel production diffusion velocity model gives predictions for the future. • Soft path appears to be the driving force for the new paradigm shift. • An integrated biofuel production feedstock system is expected to play a significant role in a low-carbon sustainable future. - Abstract: Biofuels produced from renewable energy biomass are playing a more significant role because of the environmental problems resulting from the use of fossil fuels. However, a major problem with biofuel production is that despite the range of feedstock that can be used, raw material availability varies considerably. By combining a series of theories and methods, the research objective of this study is to determine the current developments and the future trends in biofuel feedstock. By combining technological paradigm theory with literature mining, it was found that biofuel feedstock production development followed a three-stage trajectory, which was in accordance with the traditional technological paradigm – the S-curve. This new curve can be divided into BFDP (biofuel feedstock development paradigm) competition, BFDP diffusion, and BFDP shift. The biofuel production diffusion velocity model showed that there has been constant growth from 2000, with the growth rate reaching a peak in 2008, after which time it began to drop. Biofuel production worldwide is expected to remain unchanged until 2030 when a paradigm shift is expected. This study also illustrates the results of our innovative procedure – a combination of the data analysis system and the technological paradigm theory – for the present biofuel feedstock soft path that will lead to this paradigm shift, with integrated biofuel production feedstock systems expected to be a significant new trend.

  7. Project management: a new service delivery paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. van der Walt

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available In line with international trends in governance, the South African Government’s initial focus on the development of policy frameworks, structures and systems in order to give effect to the values and principles of the Constitution, shifted to the most critical issue, namely service delivery. The Government became increasingly aware that a significant expansion in the scope and quality of service provision was not possible with traditional delivery settings and approaches. There is growing evidence that there is a need for a significant departure from conventional approaches and that a leap into a new service delivery paradigm is necessary. Increasingly this new paradigm highlights the need to further develop the government’s project management skills and applications with a view to achieving improved delivery capability. In this article the focus will be placed on the changing service delivery paradigm – from an “old” traditional model through the transition to a “new” paradigm. This paradigm is shaped by international and national trends and events in government. The contribution and advantages of project management applications for effective governance are highlighted and the article concludes with an explanation of project management organisational arrangements necessary to support the new paradigm.

  8. Significant Learning and Civic Education: Shifting Frameworks for Teaching in Light of Learning about the Financial Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KimMarie McGoldrick

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The recent financial crisis has motivated economic educators to rethink what economics should be taught, acknowledging disconnects between classroom content and real world events. We introduce a learning theory approach that is broader, one that goes beyond such context specific discussions of foundational knowledge and application (i.e., teaching about this specific crisis and provide a framework to address the broader issue of how teaching practices can, by their very nature, minimize such disconnects and provide more effective processes for teaching about current economic conditions. The theory of significant learning (Fink 2003 is presented as a model of how experiences can be used to develop a deep approach to learning, learning that lasts. Experiential learning pedagogies are timeless in that they can be readily modified to promote deeper understanding over a wide range of economic environments. Focusing on one category of significant learning, the human dimension, and one component of the financial crisis, unemployment, examples which modify existing experiential learning practices are described to demonstrate how such pedagogic practices can be readily adapted to teaching and learning about current economic conditions. In short, we demonstrate that incorporating student experiences into pedagogic practice provides a natural alignment of teaching content and real world events, regardless of how those change over time.

  9. The genetic basis for fruit odor discrimination in Rhagoletis flies and its significance for sympatric host shifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dambroski, Hattie R; Linn, Charles; Berlocher, Stewart H; Forbes, Andrew A; Roelofs, Wendell; Feder, Jeffrey L

    2005-09-01

    Rhagoletis pomonella (Diptera: Tephritidae) use volatile compounds emitted from the surface of ripening fruit as important chemosensory cues for recognizing and distinguishing among alternative host plants. Host choice is of evolutionary significance in Rhagoletis because these flies mate on or near the fruit of their respective host plants. Differences in host choice based on fruit odor discrimination therefore result in differential mate choice and prezygotic reproductive isolation, facilitating sympatric speciation in the absence of geographic isolation. We test for a genetic basis for host fruit odor discrimination through an analysis of F2 and backcross hybrids constructed between apple-, hawthorn-, and flowering dogwood-infesting Rhagoletis flies. We recovered a significant proportion (30-65%) of parental apple, hawthorn, and dogwood fly response phenotypes in F2 hybrids, despite the general failure of F1 hybrids to reach odor source spheres. Segregation patterns in F2 and backcross hybrids suggest that only a modest number of allelic differences at a few loci may underlie host fruit odor discrimination. In addition, a strong bias was observed for F2 and backcross flies to orient to the natal fruit blend of their maternal grandmother, implying the existence of cytonuclear gene interactions. We explore the implications of our findings for the evolutionary dynamics of sympatric host race formation and speciation.

  10. A Paradigm Shift in Water Quality Governance in a Transitional Context: A Critical Study about the Empowerment of Local Governance in Georgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sisira S. Withanachchi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The management of water quality is an important part of natural resource governance. Assurance of water quality therefore requires formulation of the regulatory framework and institutional process. Water quality-related problems and their management are mainly recognized as local responsibilities in Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM. The politics of environmental policy-making should consider the political economic dynamics and socio-ecological patterns. Decentralization by providing more power to the local level and moving to a new spatial management system that is based on water basins are the two strong entreaties in the new water governance paradigm. Transitional countries facing rapid institutional adjustment, restructuring of regulations, and political-economic changes are encountering these demands internally and externally in their policy formulations. In this context, this study critically examines the case of Georgia, a transitional country. In particular, the focus is on how local governance entities can be empowered and what obstacles water quality governance encounters in Georgia. Qualitative research design is the main research method implemented in this study. The key findings from the research analysis are as follows: the existing regulations and governance system do not facilitate the active engagement of local entities in water quality governance. The application of new water polices may fail again if a top-down governance model is put in place that only creates a narrow space for local governance entities to effectively govern water quality.

  11. From Bolam-Bolitho to Modified-Montgomery - A Paradigm Shift in the Legal Standard of Determining Medical Negligence in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neo, Han Yee

    2017-09-01

    In a recent landmark litigation, the Singapore Court of Appeal introduced a new legal standard for determining medical negligence with regards to information disclosure - the Modified-Montgomery test. This new test fundamentally shifts the legal position concerning the standard of care expected of a doctor when he dispenses medical advice. Previously, a doctor is expected to disclose what a "reasonable physician" would tell his patient. Now, a doctor must disclose "all material risks" that a "reasonable patient" would want to know under his unique circumstances. Patient-centred communication is no longer an aspirational ideal but has become a legal mandate. Manpower, administrative, logistic and medical educational reforms should start now, so as to support the average physician transit from the era of the Bolam-Bolitho, to that of the Modified-Montgomery.

  12. Paradigms for parasite conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Eric R; Carlson, Colin J; Bueno, Veronica M; Burgio, Kevin R; Cizauskas, Carrie A; Clements, Christopher F; Seidel, Dana P; Harris, Nyeema C

    2016-08-01

    Parasitic species, which depend directly on host species for their survival, represent a major regulatory force in ecosystems and a significant component of Earth's biodiversity. Yet the negative impacts of parasites observed at the host level have motivated a conservation paradigm of eradication, moving us farther from attainment of taxonomically unbiased conservation goals. Despite a growing body of literature highlighting the importance of parasite-inclusive conservation, most parasite species remain understudied, underfunded, and underappreciated. We argue the protection of parasitic biodiversity requires a paradigm shift in the perception and valuation of their role as consumer species, similar to that of apex predators in the mid-20th century. Beyond recognizing parasites as vital trophic regulators, existing tools available to conservation practitioners should explicitly account for the unique threats facing dependent species. We built upon concepts from epidemiology and economics (e.g., host-density threshold and cost-benefit analysis) to devise novel metrics of margin of error and minimum investment for parasite conservation. We define margin of error as the risk of accidental host extinction from misestimating equilibrium population sizes and predicted oscillations, while minimum investment represents the cost associated with conserving the additional hosts required to maintain viable parasite populations. This framework will aid in the identification of readily conserved parasites that present minimal health risks. To establish parasite conservation, we propose an extension of population viability analysis for host-parasite assemblages to assess extinction risk. In the direst cases, ex situ breeding programs for parasites should be evaluated to maximize success without undermining host protection. Though parasitic species pose a considerable conservation challenge, adaptations to conservation tools will help protect parasite biodiversity in the face of

  13. Detection of fat in focal liver lesions using chemical-shift MR imaging: its significance in patients with and without hepatic cirrhosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.

    1999-01-01

    To determine the utility of the chemical shift technique in MRI for the detection of fact in focal hepatic lesions and to see its significance in patients with and without hepatic cirrhosis. 159 patients with 207 hepatic lesions were studied using MRI (IT). Two groups were established: a) patients with hepatic cirrhosis (n=63 with 69 lesions) and b) patients without cirrhosis (n=96 with 138 lesions). Images were obtained in phase (P) and in opposite phase (OP) with gradient echo sequences (RG). The parameter used to differentiate the lesions with fat from those without fat was the variation percentage of the intensity of the signal (VIS) between the images in P and in OP. The statistical valuation was carried out using Student's t tests and the area under the ROC curve. The chemical shift technique detected fat in 25 lesions (12%), 10 hepatocarcinomas in the patients with cirrhosis and two angiomyolipomas and 13 nodular fat infiltrations in the patients who did not have cirrhosis. The average VIS percentage in the 10 hepatocarcinomas was 174.77% (ranging from 88.64% to 369.33%) while in the remaining 59 hepatocarcinomas it was -4.03% (ranging from 12.79% to -19.10%) (p=0.003). In the patients who did not have cirrhosis the average VIS percentage of the lesions with fat was 161.23 (ranging from 19.82 to 605.78) while in the lesions without fat it was -0.41 (ranging from -18.96 to 19.52) (p=0.003). The area under the ROC curve was 1 for the VIS parameter. The chemical shift technique allowed for fat to be detected within hepatic lesions. Based on our study, a nodule with fat in a patient with hepatic cirrhosis is suspected to have hepatocarcinomas while in patients who do not suffer from cirrhosis the existence of fat in a nodule favours its bening nature. (Author) 39 refs

  14. Paradigm shift of contamination risk of six heavy metals in tea (Camellia sinensis L.) growing soil: A new approach influenced by inorganic and organic amendments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karak, Tanmoy; Bora, Krishnamoni; Paul, Ranjit Kumar; Das, Sampa; Khare, Puja; Dutta, Amrit Kumar; Boruah, Romesh Kumar

    2017-09-15

    The present study provides several contamination and ecological risk indices for selected metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni and Zn) in tea (Camellia sinensis L.; cv. S.3A/3) growing soil influenced by lower to higher doses of inorganic and organic amendments. While ecological risk indices were applied, it was observed that same treatment showed different risk levels but contamination risk status did not vary significantly. All the indices showed significant correlation with heavy metals' concentration in young shoots of tea plants. As the indices characterized experimental soils with different extents of contamination, it would be important to standardize the indices with long term experiments followed by generation of new index. Therefore, we formulated a new contamination index named as Tea Research Association Heavy Metal Contamination Index (TRAHMCI) for tea growing soils. TRAHMCI is based on the probable change of metal status in soil with progress of growth of tea plant. This could be useful to negate discrepancies arised from use of various existing metal contamination indices in tea growing soils amended with different doses of fertilizers. TRAHMCI was formulated based on individual contamination factor using statistical technique and applied to the present dataset which provided a more holistic understanding of overall tea growing soil behavior. The limitation of the developed TRAHMCI index is that, the index had not been validated for other crops in our study not to claim its effective use for crops other than tea. As already mentioned, this new index had been formulated by taking tea as the test crop with above mentioned six heavy metal contents in young shoot and made tea. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Rib fracture fixation in the 65 years and older population: A paradigm shift in management strategy at a Level I trauma center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Michael T; Ashley, Dennis W; Abukhdeir, Hesham; Christie, D Benjamin

    2017-03-01

    Rib fractures after chest wall trauma are a common injury; however, they carry a significant morbidity and mortality risk. The impact of rib fractures in the 65-year and older patient population has been well documented as have the mortality and pneumonia rates. We hypothesize that patients 65 years and older receiving rib plating (RP) have decreased mortality, complication rates, and an accelerated return to normal functional states when compared with controls. With institutional review board approval, a retrospective review analyzed patients 65 years and older with rib fractures admitted from 2009 to 2015 receiving RP (RP group) (n = 23) compared to nonoperative, injury-matched controls admitted from 2003 to 2008 (NO group) (n = 50). Patients were followed prospectively with regard to lifestyle and functional satisfaction. Independent variables analyzed included Injury Severity Score (ISS), number of rib fractures, mortalities, hospital days, intensive care unit days, pneumonia development, respiratory complications, readmission rates, need for and length of rehabilitation stay time. Comparisons were by χ tests/Fisher's exact tests, Student's t tests and Wilcoxon rank sum tests. From 2003 to 2008, 50 NO patients were admitted with ages ranging 65 to 97 years, average ISS of 18.47 (14.28-22.66) versus ages ranging from 63 to 89 years, average ISS of 20.71 (15.7-25.73) for the RP group (n = 23). Average hospital days were 16.76 (10.35-23.18) and 18.36 (13.61-23.11) in the NO and RP groups, respectively. Average intensive care unit days were 11.65 (6.45-16.85) and 8.29 (5.31-11.26) days in the NO and RP groups, respectively. Four respiratory readmissions, two deaths, seven pneumonias, seven pleural-effusions, and 19 recurrent pneumothoraces were encountered in the NO group versus 0 in the RP group (p < 0.001). An equal percentage of patients in both groups entered rehabilitation facilities with average stay time of 18.5 and 28.53 days for the RP and NO groups

  16. End-of-treatment and serial PET imaging in primary mediastinal B-cell lymphoma following dose-adjusted-EPOCH-R: A paradigm shift in clinical decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melani, Christopher; Advani, Ranjana; Roschewski, Mark; Walters, Kelsey M; Chen, Clara C; Baratto, Lucia; Ahlman, Mark A; Miljkovic, Milos D; Steinberg, Seth M; Lam, Jessica; Shovlin, Margaret; Dunleavy, Kieron; Pittaluga, Stefania; Jaffe, Elaine S; Wilson, Wyndham H

    2018-05-10

    Dose-adjusted-EPOCH-R obviates the need for radiotherapy in most patients with primary mediastinal B-cell lymphoma. End-of-treatment PET, however, does not accurately identify patients at risk of treatment failure, thereby confounding clinical decision making. To define the role of PET in primary mediastinal B-cell lymphoma following dose-adjusted-EPOCH-R, we extended enrollment and follow-up on our published phase II trial and independent series. Ninety-three patients received dose-adjusted-EPOCH-R without radiotherapy. End-of-treatment PET was performed in 80 patients, of whom 57 received 144 serial scans. One nuclear medicine physician from each institution blindly reviewed all scans from their respective institution. End-of-treatment PET was negative (Deauville 1-3) in 55 (69%) patients with one treatment failure (8-year event-free and overall survival of 96.0% and 97.7%). Among 25 (31%) patients with a positive (Deauville 4-5) end-of-treatment PET, there were 5 (20%) treatment failures (8-year event-free and overall survival of 71.1% and 84.3%). Linear regression analysis of serial scans showed a significant decrease in SUVmax in positive end-of-treatment PET non-progressors compared to an increase in treatment failures. Among 6 treatment failures, the median end-of-treatment SUVmax was 15.4 (range, 1.9-21.3) and 4 achieved long-term remission with salvage therapy. Virtually all patients with a negative end-of-treatment PET following dose-adjusted-EPOCH-R achieved durable remissions and should not receive radiotherapy. Among patients with a positive end-of-treatment PET, only 5/25 (20%) had treatment-failure. Serial PET imaging distinguished end-of-treatment PET positive patients without treatment failure, thereby reducing unnecessary radiotherapy by 80%, and should be considered in all patients with an initial positive PET following dose-adjusted-EPOCH-R (NCT00001337). Copyright © 2018, Ferrata Storti Foundation.

  17. Paradigm shift in MRI for sciatica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barzouhi, Abdelilah el

    2013-01-01

    In contrast with the intuitive feeling of physicians many worrisome MRI findings do not correlate with patient outcome in patients with sciatica. Physicians should for example not automatically ascribe persistent or recurrent symptoms of sciatica to the presence of abnormalities visible on MRI. This

  18. Environment and Architecture - a Paradigm Shift

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Battista, Valerio

    The interaction of human cultures and the built environment allows a wide range of interpretations and has been studied inside the domain of many disciplines. This paper discusses three interpretations descending from a systemic approach to the question: - architecture as an "emergence" of the settlement system; - place (and space) as an "accumulator" of time and a "flux" of systems; - landscape as one representation/description of the human settlement. Architecture emerges as a new physical conformation or layout, or as a change in a specific site, arising from actions and representations of political, religious, economical or social powers, being shaped at all times by the material culture belonging to a specific time and place in the course of human evolution. Any inhabited space becomes over time a place as well as a landscape, i.e. a representation of the settlement and a relationship between setting and people. Therefore, any place owns a landscape which, in turn, is a system of physical systems; it could be defined as a system of sites that builds up its own structure stemming from the orographical features and the geometry of land surfaces that set out the basic characters of its space.

  19. Soft durum wheat - a paradigm shift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two traits define most aspects of wheat quality and utilization: kernel texture (hardness) and gluten. The former is far simpler genetically and is controlled by two genes, Puroindoline a and Puroindoline b. Durum wheat lacks puroindolines and has very hard kernels. As such, durum wheat when milled ...

  20. Paradigm shift in plant growth control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Körner, Christian

    2015-06-01

    For plants to grow they need resources and appropriate conditions that these resources are converted into biomass. While acknowledging the importance of co-drivers, the classical view is still that carbon, that is, photosynthetic CO2 uptake, ranks above any other drivers of plant growth. Hence, theory and modelling of growth traditionally is carbon centric. Here, I suggest that this view is not reflecting reality, but emerged from the availability of methods and process understanding at leaf level. In most cases, poorly understood processes of tissue formation and cell growth are governing carbon demand, and thus, CO2 uptake. Carbon can only be converted into biomass to the extent chemical elements other than carbon, temperature or cell turgor permit. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Shifting paradigms in managing radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Bars, Y.; Pescatore, C.

    2004-01-01

    The Stakeholder involvement in policy making of radioactive waste management, has received considerable attention within the OECD. The Nea forum on Stakeholder confidence (FSC) was set up in 2000. A Nea recent publication entitled ''Learning and adapting to societal requirements for radioactive waste management'' brings together the key FSC findings and experience covering four years of work. Six main areas are targeted in this publication and are briefly described in this document: favourable candidates for issuing radioactive waste management policy, the design of the decision-making process, the social and ethical dimension, trust in the actors, Stakeholder involvement and the local dimension of radioactive waste management. (A.L.B.)

  2. Counterinsurgency and Strategic Public Health: Shifting Paradigms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    government’s 3 effectiveness and, thus, its control. Another insight into this dynamic can be seen through the eyes of Abraham Maslow , a prominent...humanistic psychologist. Maslow defines a hierarchy of needs which builds a person toward self-actualization. He postulates the most basic of human...because if a person were deprived of all needs, the physiological ones would come first in the person’s search for satisfaction.”(emphasis added) Maslow

  3. Shifting Paradigms in International Investment Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    rightly remain muted at this point. Overall, the field is in a tense state of flux, with important questions in need of apt resolution; some more controversial—reforming the system of investor–State dispute settlement, for one—than others (protecting the State’s ability to regulate, for instance)....

  4. Cervical Cancer: Reality and Paradigm Shift

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Quiñones Ceballos

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Invasive cervical carcinoma usually reaches its highest frequency between 35-50 years of age. The Cuban prevention program screens the female population aged 25 to 60 years using the Pap smear and reexamines them every three years. Despite this effort, advanced cancer is diagnosed in young women as well as in those 40 to 60 years of age.

  5. A Paradigm Shift in Nuclear Spectrum Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westmeier, Wolfram; Siemon, Klaus

    2012-08-01

    An overview of the latest developments in quantitative spectrometry software is presented. New strategies and algorithms introduced are characterized by buzzwords “Physics, no numerology”, “Fuzzy logic” and “Repeated analyses”. With the implementation of these new ideas one arrives at software capabilities that were unreachable before and which are now realized in the GAMMA-W, SODIGAM and ALPS packages.

  6. Alliance - a paradigm shift in energy transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornelson, D.W.

    1997-01-01

    Key components of the Alliance Pipeline Project were outlined. This joint Canada - U.S. venture consists of a $Can 3.7 billion, producer-driven, high-pressure, rich-gas pipeline from producing fields in western Canada to an interconnection with the North American pipeline grid near Chicago. The initial volume for the system is 1.3 Bcfd, with provision for expansion to 2 Bcfd at minimal cost. The project also includes a $Can 200 million, non-regulated, natural gas liquids extraction plant and delivery system originating near Chicago. Alberta ethane supply and demand for 1995 and supply projections for 2010, (for delivery through the Alliance pipeline?), were also highlighted. 11 figs

  7. Emerging viruses in the Felidae: shifting paradigms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Stephen J; Troyer, Jennifer L; Brown, Meredith A; Johnson, Warren E; Antunes, Agostinho; Roelke, Melody E; Pecon-Slattery, Jill

    2012-02-01

    The domestic cat is afflicted with multiple viruses that serve as powerful models for human disease including cancers, SARS and HIV/AIDS. Cat viruses that cause these diseases have been studied for decades revealing detailed insight concerning transmission, virulence, origins and pathogenesis. Here we review recent genetic advances that have questioned traditional wisdom regarding the origins of virulent Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) diseases, the pathogenic potential of Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV) in wild non-domestic Felidae species, and the restriction of Feline Leukemia Virus (FeLV) mediated immune impairment to domestic cats rather than other Felidae species. The most recent interpretations indicate important new evolutionary conclusions implicating these deadly infectious agents in domestic and non-domestic felids.

  8. Emerging Viruses in the Felidae: Shifting Paradigms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meredith A. Brown

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The domestic cat is afflicted with multiple viruses that serve as powerful models for human disease including cancers, SARS and HIV/AIDS. Cat viruses that cause these diseases have been studied for decades revealing detailed insight concerning transmission, virulence, origins and pathogenesis. Here we review recent genetic advances that have questioned traditional wisdom regarding the origins of virulent Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP diseases, the pathogenic potential of Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV in wild non-domestic Felidae species, and the restriction of Feline Leukemia Virus (FeLV mediated immune impairment to domestic cats rather than other Felidae species. The most recent interpretations indicate important new evolutionary conclusions implicating these deadly infectious agents in domestic and non-domestic felids.

  9. From sustainability to resilience: a paradigm shift

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ,000/annum, making it the largest species loss since that of the dinosaurs 65 million years ago at almost 1,000 times the background rate of extinction (Quammen 1998). Again, as Gunderson et al. note, ecological resilience is different from engineering...

  10. Membrane paradigm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, R.H.; Thorne, K.S.

    1986-01-01

    The membrane paradigm is a modified frozen star approach to modeling black holes, with particles and fields assuming a complex, static, boundary-layer type structure (membrane) near the event horizon. The membrane has no effects on the present or future evolution of particles and fields above itself. The mathematical representation is a combination of a formalism containing terms for the shear and bulk viscosity, surface pressure, momentum, temperature, entropy, etc., of the horizon and the 3+1 formalism. The latter model considers a family of three-dimensional spacelike hypersurfaces in one-dimensional time. The membrane model considers a magnetic field threading the hole and undergoing torque from the hole rotation. The field is cleaned by the horizon and distributed over the horizon so that ohmic dissipation is minimized. The membrane paradigm is invalid inside the horizon, but is useful for theoretically probing the properties of slowly evolving black holes

  11. Paradigm Shift in Radiation Biology/Radiation Oncology-Exploitation of the "H₂O₂ Effect" for Radiotherapy Using Low-LET (Linear Energy Transfer) Radiation such as X-rays and High-Energy Electrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Yasuhiro

    2016-02-25

    review, this potential paradigm shift in modern radiation biology/radiation oncology is discussed in detail in terms of overcoming drug/radiation resistance in radiation therapy and/or anti-cancer chemotherapy.

  12. Paradigm Shift in Radiation Biology/Radiation Oncology—Exploitation of the “H2O2 Effect” for Radiotherapy Using Low-LET (Linear Energy Transfer Radiation such as X-rays and High-Energy Electrons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuhiro Ogawa

    2016-02-01

    review, this potential paradigm shift in modern radiation biology/radiation oncology is discussed in detail in terms of overcoming drug/radiation resistance in radiation therapy and/or anti-cancer chemotherapy.

  13. A New Paradigm for Chemical Engineering?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gani, Rafiqul

    evidence of this change comes from the jobs taken by graduating chemical engineering professionals in North America, Europe, and some of the Asian countries. In terms of where the graduating chemical engineers are going to work, a clear shift from the commodity chemical industry to the product oriented...... businesses has been observed. There is an increasing trend within the chemical industry to focus on products and the sustainable processes that can make them. Do these changes point to a paradigm shift in chemical engineering as a discipline? Historically, two previous paradigm shifts in chemical engineering...... corresponded to major shifts in chemical engineering as a discipline, which affected not only the education of chemical engineers, but also the development of chemical engineering as a discipline. Has the time come for a new paradigm shift that will prepare the current and future chemical engineering graduates...

  14. PARADIGMS IN CONSUMER BEHAVIOR

    OpenAIRE

    Sabrina Oktoria Sihombing

    2011-01-01

    A paradigm influences what we see and conceive about certain facts. Paradigm can also influence what we accept as a truth. Yet, the debate over which paradigm and methodology is best suit for marketing and consumer behavior has begun since 1980s. Many researchers criticized the domination of logical empiricism paradigm and offered alternative paradigm to understand marketing and consumer behavior. This article discusses several paradigms and methodology, which are part of qualitative paradigm...

  15. PARADIGMS IN CONSUMER BEHAVIOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Oktoria Sihombing

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A paradigm influences what we see and conceive about certain facts. Paradigm can also influence what we accept as a truth. Yet, the debate over which paradigm and methodology is best suit for marketing and consumer behavior has begun since 1980s. Many researchers criticized the domination of logical empiricism paradigm and offered alternative paradigm to understand marketing and consumer behavior. This article discusses several paradigms and methodology, which are part of qualitative paradigm, and compares them with positivism paradigm. This article will also point to the importance of reconciliation between qualitative and quantitative paradigm in order to improve marketing and consumer behavior studies.

  16. PARADIGM OF ACCOUNTING CHANGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constanta Iacob

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The words and phrases swop with each other and the apparent stability of a word’s meaning sometimes change in time. This explains why the generic term of accounting is used when referring to the qualities attributed to accounting,but also when it comes to organizing financial accounting function within the entity, and when referring concretely to keeping a double record with its specific means, methods and tools specific, respectively seen as a technical accounting.Speaking about the qualities of accounting, but also about the organizational form it takes, we note that there is a manifold meaning of the word accounting, which is why the purpose of this article is to demonstrate that the paradigm shift aimed at a new set of rules and if the rules changes, then we can change the very purpose of accounting.

  17. Shift Colors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Publications & News Shift Colors Pages default Sign In NPC Logo Banner : Shift Colors Search Navy Personnel Command > Reference Library > Publications & News > Shift Colors Top Link Bar Navy Personnel Library Expand Reference Library Quick Launch Shift Colors Shift Colors Archives Mailing Address How to

  18. Information processing as a paradigm for decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppenheimer, Daniel M; Kelso, Evan

    2015-01-03

    For decades, the dominant paradigm for studying decision making--the expected utility framework--has been burdened by an increasing number of empirical findings that question its validity as a model of human cognition and behavior. However, as Kuhn (1962) argued in his seminal discussion of paradigm shifts, an old paradigm cannot be abandoned until a new paradigm emerges to replace it. In this article, we argue that the recent shift in researcher attention toward basic cognitive processes that give rise to decision phenomena constitutes the beginning of that replacement paradigm. Models grounded in basic perceptual, attentional, memory, and aggregation processes have begun to proliferate. The development of this new approach closely aligns with Kuhn's notion of paradigm shift, suggesting that this is a particularly generative and revolutionary time to be studying decision science.

  19. Osteoporosis: Modern Paradigms for Last Century's Bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Marlena C; Wolber, Frances M

    2016-06-17

    The skeleton is a metabolically active organ undergoing continuously remodelling. With ageing and menopause the balance shifts to increased resorption, leading to a reduction in bone mineral density and disruption of bone microarchitecture. Bone mass accretion and bone metabolism are influenced by systemic hormones as well as genetic and lifestyle factors. The classic paradigm has described osteoporosis as being a "brittle bone" disease that occurs in post-menopausal, thin, Caucasian women with low calcium intakes and/or vitamin D insufficiency. However, a study of black women in Africa demonstrated that higher proportions of body fat did not protect bone health. Isoflavone interventions in Asian postmenopausal women have produced inconsistent bone health benefits, due in part to population heterogeneity in enteric bacterial metabolism of daidzein. A comparison of women and men in several Asian countries identified significant differences between countries in the rate of bone health decline, and a high incidence rate of osteoporosis in both sexes. These studies have revealed significant differences in genetic phenotypes, debunking long-held beliefs and leading to new paradigms in study design. Current studies are now being specifically designed to assess genotype differences between Caucasian, Asian, African, and other phenotypes, and exploring alternative methodology to measure bone architecture.

  20. What Elements in a Sustainability Course Contribute to Paradigm Change and Action Competence? A Study at Lincoln University, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piasentin, Flora Bonazzi; Roberts, Lin

    2018-01-01

    A significant shift in the dominant paradigm governing the relationship of humans with nature and society is crucial in order to change the current unsustainable practices. This article describes a pilot-study based on a Masters level sustainability course, which explored what specific content, activities and resources may contribute to promoting…

  1. New energy paradigm?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldoni, Giovanni

    2007-01-01

    The rise of oil prices, the difficulties in markets liberalization, and the poor results of competition have convinced many that a new energy paradigm is necessary. Taking the original definition of scientific paradigm, it doesn't seem that a practical solution could be found outside the present paradigm of energy policy, made of privatisation, liberalisation and competition [it

  2. A paradigm analysis of ecological sustainability: The emerging polycentric climate change publics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taminiau, Job B.

    Climate change poses significant complications to the development model employed by modern societies. Using paradigm analysis, the dissertation explains why, after 21 years, policy failure haunts the field: a key impediment is the unquestioned assumption that policy must adhere to an economic optimality principle. This results in policy models which fail to uphold sustainability, justice, and equality due to an emphasis on economic growth, technology, and technical and bureaucratic expertise. Unable to build consensus among low- and high-carbon economies, and searching for what one economist has called an oxymoron -- "sustainable growth" (Daly, 1997) -- the policy process has foundered with its only international convention (the Kyoto Protocol) having lost relevance. In the midst of this policy failure, the dissertation offers and defends the premise that alternative strategies have emerged which signal the prospect of a paradigm shift to ecological sustainability -- a paradigm in which social change takes places through commons-based management and community authorship in the form of network governance and where sustainability serves as governor of growth -- something unavailable in an optimality-guided world. Especially, a strategy of polycentricity is discussed in detail in order to elucidate the potential for a paradigm shift. This discussion is followed by an evaluation of two innovative concepts -- the Sustainable Energy Utility and the Solar City -- that might fit the polycentricity strategy and bring forth transformative change. The dissertation finds considerable potential rests in these two concepts and argues the critical importance of further development of innovative approaches to implement the ecological sustainability paradigm.

  3. ACCOUNTING PARADIGMS WHICH FAVOR HISTORICAL COST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin Gabriel CRISTEA

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Henning Kirkegaard shows that the evolution of accounting is to shift from one paradigm to another . Business continuity perspective should guide the company into the future , without confine it exclusively in the past. Accounting in its classical form , however, can not be dissociated from the historical cost evaluation .

  4. About hypotheses and paradigms: exploring the Discreetness-Chance Paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaellis, Eugene

    2006-01-01

    Hypotheses generally conform to paradigms which, over time, change, usually tardily, after they have become increasingly difficult to sustain under the impact of non-conforming evidence and alternative hypotheses, but more important, when they no longer are comfortably ensconced in the surrounding social-economic-political-cultural milieu. It is asserted that this milieu is the most important factor in shaping scientific theorizing. Some examples are cited: the rejection of the evidence that the world orbits around the sun (suspected by Pythagoras) in favor of centuries-long firm adherence to the Ptolemaic geocentric system; the early acceptance of Natural Selection in spite of its tautological essence and only conjectural supporting evidence, because it justified contemporaneous social-political ideologies as typified by, e.g., Spencer and Malthus. Economic, social, and cultural factors are cited as providing the ground, i.e., ideational substrate, for what is cited as the Discreetness-Chance Paradigm (DCP), that has increasingly dominated physics, biology, and medicine for over a century and which invokes small, discrete packets of energy/matter (quanta, genes, microorganisms, aberrant cells) functioning within an environment of statistical, not determined, causality. There is speculation on a possible paradigmatic shift from the DCP, which has fostered the proliferation, parallel with ("splitting") taxonomy, of alleged individual disease entities, their diagnoses, and, when available, their specific remedies, something particularly prominent in, e.g., psychiatry's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, a codified compendium of alleged mental and behavioral disorders, but evident in any textbook of diagnosis and treatment of physical ailments. This presumed paradigm shift may be reflected in Western medicine, presently increasingly empirical and atomized, towards a growing acceptance of a more generalized, subject-oriented, approach to health and disease, a non

  5. The Next Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Kastrup

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to perceive the world, we need more than just raw sensory input: a subliminal paradigm of thought is required to interpret raw sensory data and, thereby, create the objects and events we perceive around ourselves. As such, the world we see reflects our own unexamined, culture-bound assumptions and expectations, which explains why every generation in history has believed that it more or less understood the world. Today, we perceive a world of objects and events outside and independent of mind, which merely reflects our current paradigm of thought. Anomalies that contradict this paradigm have been accumulated by physicists over the past couple of decades, which will eventually force our culture to move to a new paradigm. Under this new paradigm, a form of universal mind will be viewed as nature’s sole fundamental entity. In this paper, I offer a sketch of what the new paradigm may look like.

  6. Didaktiske paradigmer og refleksion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Torben Spanget

    2014-01-01

    analysis of subject didactics by Sigmund Ongstad. The two positions offer fundamentally different insights into didactics. Nielsen’s position establishes didactics as a knowledge domain and Ongstad’s position points to the dynamics of subject didactics by analyzing communication as a basic aspect. Krogh...... this article. A possible utilitarian didactical paradigm, already indicated by Krogh as a historical paradigm prominent in our time, is also discussed. It is suggested that reflection could be seen as a normative response to the utilitarian paradigm, and not as a paradigm in its own right. It is concluded...

  7. Shifting Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, Jenni

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the shifts in attention and focus as one teacher introduces and explains an image that represents the processes involved in a numeric problem that his students have been working on. This paper takes a micro-analytic approach to examine how the focus of attention shifts through what the teacher and students do and say in the…

  8. Hippocampal theta frequency shifts and operant behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopes da Silva, F.H.; Kamp, A.

    1. 1. A shift of hippocampal dominant theta frequency to 6 c/sec has been demonstrated in the post-reward period in two dogs, which occurs consistently related in time to a well defined behavioural pattern in the course of an operant conditioning paradigm. 2. 2. The frequency shift was detected and

  9. Mudança significativa do limiar auditivo em trabalhadores expostos a diferentes níveis de ruído Significant auditory threshold shift among workers exposed to different noise levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia Cardoso Oliva

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a audição e a ocorrência de mudança significativa do limiar auditivo em trabalhadores de frigoríficos expostos a níveis de ruído abaixo das Normas e Regulamentações nacionais e internacionais e compará-los com trabalhadores expostos a níveis de ruído considerados excessivos. MÉTODOS: Utilizou-se um banco de dados contendo informações longitudinais de 266 trabalhadores. Foram selecionados trabalhadores com um mínimo de três exames audiométricos e os que continham dados de exposição ao ruído. Foram mantidos 63 exames, classificados de acordo com sua exposição ao ruído em três níveis: 79 a 84,9 dB(A, 85 a 89,9 dB(A e 90 a 98,8 dB(A. Foi avaliada a ocorrência de perdas auditivas e de mudança significativa de limiar auditivo dos participantes de cada subgrupo. RESULTADOS: Verificou-se diferenças em todas as frequências nos testes de comparação entre a média dos limiares auditivos para cada frequência em função do nível de exposição ao ruído. A correlação entre a ocorrência de Perda Auditiva Induzida por Níveis de Pressão Sonora Elevados (PAINPSE e os anos de exposição ao ruído dentro da empresa atual foi significativa (R=0,373; p=0,079. Foram encontradas mudanças permanentes de limiar auditivo nos três níveis de exposição ao ruído. CONCLUSÃO: Os achados do presente estudo sugerem a existência de uma associação entre mudança significativa do limiar auditivo dos trabalhadores e os anos de exposição ao ruído considerado de baixo risco.PURPOSE: To assess the hearing status and signs of significant auditory threshold shifts in meat-processing facility workers who are exposed to noise levels below nationally and internationally recommended exposure limits, and to compare these results with data from workers exposed to excessive noise levels. METHODS: Longitudinal audiometric data from 266 workers were evaluated, and only workers with a minimum of three audiometric test results

  10. Sulforaphane (SFN: An Isothiocyanate in a Cancer Chemoprevention Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Fahad Ullah

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC in its latest World Cancer Report (2014 has projected the increase in the global cancer burden from 14 million (2012 to 22 million incidence annually within the next two decades. Such statistics warrant a collaborative engagement of conventional and complementary and alternative therapies to contain and manage cancer. In recent years, there has been a shift in the cancer chemoprevention paradigm with a significant focus turning towards bioactive components of human diets for their anticancer properties. Since diet is an integral part of lifestyle and given that an estimated one third of human cancers are believed to be preventable though appropriate lifestyle modification including dietary habits, the current shift in the conventional paradigm assumes significance. Several epidemiological studies have indicated that consumption of broccoli is associated with a lower risk of cancer incidence including breast, prostate, lung, stomach and colon cancer. The edible plant belonging to the family of cruciferae such as broccoli is a rich source of glucoraphanin, a precursor of isothiocyanate sulforaphane which is considered to be a potent anti-cancer agent. Plant-based dietary agents such as sulforaphane mimic chemotherapeutic drugs such as vorinostat, possessing histone deacetylase inhibition activity. Evidence from epidemiological and experimental studies have emerged, enhancing the clinical plausibility and translational value of sulforaphane in cancer chemoprevention. The present review provides the current understanding of the cancer chemopreventive pharmacology of sulforaphane towards its potential as an anticancer agent.

  11. Dynamic paradigm of turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukhamedov, Alfred M.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper a dynamic paradigm of turbulence is proposed. The basic idea consists in the novel definition of chaotic structure given with the help of Pfaff system of PDE associated with the turbulent dynamics. A methodological analysis of the new and the former paradigm is produced

  12. An Integrative Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammack, Phillip L.

    2005-01-01

    Through the application of life course theory to the study of sexual orientation, this paper specifies a new paradigm for research on human sexual orientation that seeks to reconcile divisions among biological, social science, and humanistic paradigms. Recognizing the historical, social, and cultural relativity of human development, this paradigm…

  13. Solar Ethics: A New Paradigm for Environmental Ethics and Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Michael A.; Hung, Ruyu

    2009-01-01

    This article provides grounds for a new paradigm of environmental ethics and education based on the centrality of the sun and solar system--a shift from anthropocentrism to solar systemism. The article provides some grounds for this shift from the physical sciences that considers the planet Earth as part of a wider system that is dependent upon…

  14. The search for understanding: the role of paradigms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Marcella; Dowling, Maura; Millar, Michelle

    2018-03-16

    Kuhn's ( 1962 ) acknowledgement of a paradigm as a way that scientists make sense of their world and its reality gave recognition to the idea of 'paradigm shift'. This shift exposes the transience of paradigm development shaped by societal and scientific evolution. This ongoing evolutionary development provides the researcher with many paradigms to consider regarding how research is undertaken and the search for understanding achieved. An understanding of paradigm development is necessary when planning a study and can shape the search for understanding. It is hoped that the discussion presented here will assist novice and experienced researchers in articulating the rationales for their paradigm choices. An overview of the dominant paradigms is presented, reflecting ongoing paradigm development shaped by ontological, epistemological and methodological perspectives. Potential paradigm choices that shape research aims, objectives and focus in the search for understanding are considered. The inherent debates about paradigm shift, division, war and synthesis leave the researcher many perspectives to consider. Articulating the world views underpinning constructivism, interpretivism and pragmatism is particularly challenging because of the blurring of boundaries between them. The evolutionary nature of paradigmatic development has provided nurse researchers with the opportunity for methodological openness to the myriad research approaches, methods and designs that they may choose to answer their research question. However, it is imperative that researchers consider their ontological stances and the nature of their research questions. This is challenging in constructivism, interpretivism and pragmatism, where there is often an overlap of paradigm world views. ©2018 RCN Publishing Company Ltd. All rights reserved. Not to be copied, transmitted or recorded in any way, in whole or part, without prior permission of the publishers.

  15. Language Tasks and Mobile Technologies: A Paradigm Shift in Designing Task-Based CALL for Young Language Learners / Activités langagières et technologies mobiles : un changement de paradigme dans la conception des tâches en apprentissage des langues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martine Pellerin

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This article examines how the use of mobile technologies (iPods and tablets in language classrooms contributes to redesigning task-based approaches for young language learners. The article is based on a collaborative action research (CAR project in Early French Immersion classrooms in the province of Alberta, Canada. The data collection included digital ethnographic observation in the classrooms, students’ artifacts, and interviews with teachers and students. The findings outlined how the use of mobile technologies such as iPods and tablets contributes to redesigning language tasks and activities by helping young learners to create their own learning environment and meaningful language tasks, as well as self-assess and regulate their language learning process. The research also provides evidence of how the use of mobile technologies contributes to redesigning task-based approaches for young language learners that reflect learning principles based on emergent learning theories as well as Vygotskian sociocultural theories in second language acquisition (SLA. Activités langagières et technologies mobiles : un changement de paradigme dans la conception des tâches en apprentissage des langues assisté par ordinateur pour jeunes apprenants Cet article étudie la façon dont l'utilisation des technologies mobiles (iPods et tablettes dans les classes de langue contribue à la refonte des approches basées sur des tâches pour les jeunes apprenants. L'article se fonde sur un projet de collaboration recherche-action (CRA dans les classes initiales d'immersion en français dans la province de l'Alberta, au Canada. La collecte de données comprenait l'observation ethnographique numérique dans les salles de classe, les artefacts des élèves, et des entrevues avec les enseignants et les étudiants. Les résultats ont montré comment l'utilisation des technologies mobiles telles que les iPods et tablettes contribue à la refonte des tâches et des

  16. Programming Language Paradigms

    OpenAIRE

    Felician ALECU

    2013-01-01

    This paper's goal is to briefly explain the basic theory behind programming languages and their history while taking a close look at different programming paradigms that are used today as well as describing their differences, benefits, and drawbacks

  17. [Assistance to the climacteric woman: new paradigms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzi, Dino Roberto Soares De; Catan, Lenita Binelli; Moreira, Karen; Artico, Graziela Rech

    2009-01-01

    Population aging is a demographic reality for Brazil. Consequently, in the next years it is expected a progressive increase in seeking health care services in the country by women with complaints related to climacterium. Parallel to it, assistance at this part of woman's life has been going through a paradigm shift which has imposed to health professionals a change of attitude in relation to this stage of woman's life. Today it is acknowledged that the climacterium is influenced by biological, psychosocial and cultural factors, whose knowledge is fundamental for planning a more qualified and humanized care. This article proposes a reflection on the paradigm shifts in assistance at climacterium, highlighting important aspects as multidisciplinarity and interdisciplinarity, so as to serve better this portion of population, and provide it with more integrated and individualized care, bringing together knowledge and sensitivity, and always aiming at a better quality of life.

  18. Toward a New Energy Paradigm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farhad Mahmud

    2006-01-01

    More than 50% of the developing world does not have access to electricity. It is our belief that it is as much a problem of distribution as of production. The traditional approach of power distribution through a national grid system is remarkably slow. Alternate methods are not sought because of an implicit assumption that it is an area that would necessarily involve large infra-structural undertaking. However, the traditional distribution paradigm can be challenged by new developments in fuel cell technology that can open up the possibility of involvement of small private initiatives in the distribution of power in remote areas where grid penetration has not taken place. This would require distribution re-engineering in an innovative and practical way based on advancement in new technology (fuel cells in our case). Our business approach would require a shift in focus away from production to distribution in addressing the issue. (authors)

  19. Are Nurse Leaders Prepared to Lead Across the Continuum of Care in the New Paradigm?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitz, O Ed; Malin, Shelly

    2017-05-01

    The movement toward linking reimbursement with outcomes necessitates providing care across a continuum of settings, leading to the need for a new healthcare paradigm. Issues related to shifting to this new paradigm include disagreement about what this paradigm encompasses, the fragmentation of the healthcare system, and overreliance on the medical model as a framework for driving health policy decisions. We advocate for nurse leaders to guide the development of this new paradigm.

  20. The Predictive Processing Paradigm Has Roots in Kant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Link R

    2016-01-01

    Predictive processing (PP) is a paradigm in computational and cognitive neuroscience that has recently attracted significant attention across domains, including psychology, robotics, artificial intelligence and philosophy. It is often regarded as a fresh and possibly revolutionary paradigm shift, yet a handful of authors have remarked that aspects of PP seem reminiscent of the work of 18th century philosopher Immanuel Kant. To date there have not been any substantive discussions of how exactly PP links back to Kant. In this article, I argue that several core aspects of PP were anticipated by Kant (1996/1787) in his works on perception and cognition. Themes from Kant active in PP include: (1) the emphasis on "top-down" generation of percepts; (2) the role of "hyperpriors"; (3) the general function of "generative models"; (4) the process of "analysis-by-synthesis"; and (5) the crucial role of imagination in perception. In addition to these, I also point out that PP echoes Kant's general project in that it aims to explain how minds track causal structure in the world using only sensory data, and that it uses a reverse-engineer or "top-down" method of analysis. I then locate a possible source of Kant's influence on PP by tracing the paradigm back to Hermann von Helmholtz, who saw himself as providing a scientific implementation of Kant's conclusions. I conclude by arguing that PP should not be regarded as a new paradigm, but is more appropriately understood as the latest incarnation of an approach to perception and cognition initiated by Kant and refined by Helmholtz.

  1. The Predictive Processing Paradigm Has Roots in Kant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Link R.

    2016-01-01

    Predictive processing (PP) is a paradigm in computational and cognitive neuroscience that has recently attracted significant attention across domains, including psychology, robotics, artificial intelligence and philosophy. It is often regarded as a fresh and possibly revolutionary paradigm shift, yet a handful of authors have remarked that aspects of PP seem reminiscent of the work of 18th century philosopher Immanuel Kant. To date there have not been any substantive discussions of how exactly PP links back to Kant. In this article, I argue that several core aspects of PP were anticipated by Kant (1996/1787) in his works on perception and cognition. Themes from Kant active in PP include: (1) the emphasis on “top-down” generation of percepts; (2) the role of “hyperpriors”; (3) the general function of “generative models”; (4) the process of “analysis-by-synthesis”; and (5) the crucial role of imagination in perception. In addition to these, I also point out that PP echoes Kant’s general project in that it aims to explain how minds track causal structure in the world using only sensory data, and that it uses a reverse-engineer or “top-down” method of analysis. I then locate a possible source of Kant’s influence on PP by tracing the paradigm back to Hermann von Helmholtz, who saw himself as providing a scientific implementation of Kant’s conclusions. I conclude by arguing that PP should not be regarded as a new paradigm, but is more appropriately understood as the latest incarnation of an approach to perception and cognition initiated by Kant and refined by Helmholtz. PMID:27777555

  2. Market shifting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forst, Michael

    2013-11-01

    After years of oversupply and artificially low module pricing, market analysts believe that the solar industry will begin to stabilize by 2017. While the market activities are shifting from Europe to the Asia Pacific region and the United States, the solar shakeout continues to be in full swing including solar cell and module manufacturing. (orig.)

  3. Tough Shift

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brewer, Robert S.; Verdezoto, Nervo; Holst, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    people to change their behavior at home. Leveraging prior research on encouraging reductions in residential energy use through game play, we introduce ShareBuddy: a casual mobile game intended to encourage players not only to reduce, but also to shift their electricity use. We conducted two field studies...... real-world resource use into a game....

  4. Winnicott's paradigm outlined

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeljko Loparic

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to present a unified view of Winnicott’s contribution to psychoanalysis. Part I (Sections 1-4 starts off by recalling that, according to some important commentators, Winnicott introduced a change in paradigms in psychoanalysis. In order to show that this change can be viewed as an overall “switch in paradigms”, in the sense given by T. S. Kuhn, this paper presents an account of the Kuhn’s view of science and offers a reconstruction of Freud’s Oedipal, Triangular or “Toddler-in-the-Mother’s-Bed” Paradigm. Part II (Sections 5-13 shows that as early as the 1920’s Winnicott encountered insurmountable anomalies in the Oedipal paradigm and, for that reason, started what can be called revolutionary research for a new framework of psychoanalysis. This research led Winnicott, especially during the last period of his life, to produce an alternative dual or “Baby-on-the-Mother’s-Lap” Paradigm. This new paradigm is described in some detail, especially the paradigmatic dual mother-baby relation and Winnicott’s dominant theory of maturation. Final remarks are made regarding Winnicott’s heritage and the future of psychoanalysis.

  5. Transforming education in South Africa: paradigm shift or change ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The transformation of the content of the educational curriculum in South Africa is an imperative of historical justice. Though the final constitution of South Africa represents a substantive improvement on the rights condition of many South Africans, it is at the same time an impediment to transformation. This is because it is not ...

  6. Palliative care and neurology: time for a paradigm shift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boersma, Isabel; Miyasaki, Janis; Kutner, Jean; Kluger, Benzi

    2014-08-05

    Palliative care is an approach to the care of patients and families facing progressive and chronic illnesses that focuses on the relief of suffering due to physical symptoms, psychosocial issues, and spiritual distress. As neurologists care for patients with chronic, progressive, life-limiting, and disabling conditions, it is important that they understand and learn to apply the principles of palliative medicine. In this article, we aim to provide a practical starting point in palliative medicine for neurologists by answering the following questions: (1) What is palliative care and what is hospice care? (2) What are the palliative care needs of neurology patients? (3) Do neurology patients have unique palliative care needs? and (4) How can palliative care be integrated into neurology practice? We cover several fundamental palliative care skills relevant to neurologists, including communication of bad news, symptom assessment and management, advance care planning, caregiver assessment, and appropriate referral to hospice and other palliative care services. We conclude by suggesting areas for future educational efforts and research. © 2014 American Academy of Neurology.

  7. Intellectual Innovation: A Paradigm Shift in Workforce Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    training courses or objectives, organizations should develop a tailored plan that focuses on what each employee needs to learn . Time and effort are...the organizations’ missions or operational requirements. Here lies the challenge. How can organizations find, develop and keep employees in this...supervisors trying to develop their respective employees so they can meet their unique workforce requirements. But employing existing technology or

  8. Ibrutinib: a paradigm shift in management of CLL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badar, Talha; Burger, Jan A; Wierda, William G; O'Brien, Susan

    2014-12-01

    B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling plays a vital role in B-cell malignancies; Bruton tyrosine kinase is a critical mediator of this signaling. BCR signaling, either constitutively or following antigen binding, leads to activation of several downstream pathways involved in cell survival, proliferation and migration. The efficacy observed in studies of the Bruton tyrosine kinase inhibitor, ibrutinib, confirms that BCR signaling is critical for the growth of B-cell malignancies. Ibrutinib characteristically induces redistribution of malignant B cells from tissues into the peripheral blood and rapid resolution of adenopathy. Furthermore, ibrutinib therapy results in normalization of lymphocyte counts and improvement in cytopenias. Ibrutinib has been shown to have an excellent safety profile and does not cause myelosuppression. Early data from combination studies of ibrutinib with anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies have shown more rapid responses compared to those seen with ibrutinib monotherapy. Current data strongly support continued clinical evaluation of ibrutinib in B-cell malignancies.

  9. The Paradigm Shift to Non-Treatment of Asymptomatic Bacteriuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolle, Lindsay E

    2016-04-19

    Asymptomatic bacteriuria, also called asymptomatic urinary infection, is a common finding in healthy women, and in women and men with abnormalities of the genitourinary tract. The characterization and introduction of the quantitative urine culture in the 1950s first allowed the reliable recognition of asymptomatic bacteriuria. The observations that a substantial proportion of patients with chronic pyelonephritis at autopsy had no history of symptomatic urinary infection, and the high frequency of pyelonephritis observed in pregnant women with untreated asymptomatic bacteriuria, supported a conclusion that asymptomatic bacteriuria was harmful. Subsequent screening and long term follow-up programs for asymptomatic bacteriuria in schoolgirls and women reported an increased frequency of symptomatic urinary tract infection for subjects with asymptomatic bacteriuria, but no increased morbidity from renal failure or hypertension, or increased mortality. Treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria did not decrease the frequency of symptomatic infection. Prospective, randomized, comparative trials enrolling premenopausal women, children, elderly populations, patients with long term catheters, and diabetic patients consistently report no benefits with antimicrobial treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria, and some evidence of harm. Several studies have also reported that antimicrobial treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria increases the short term risk of pyelonephritis. Current investigations are exploring the potential therapeutic intervention of establishing asymptomatic bacteriuria with an avirulent Escherichia coli strain to prevent symptomatic urinary tract infection for selected patients.

  10. The Paradigm Shift to Non-Treatment of Asymptomatic Bacteriuria

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolle, Lindsay E.

    2016-01-01

    Asymptomatic bacteriuria, also called asymptomatic urinary infection, is a common finding in healthy women, and in women and men with abnormalities of the genitourinary tract. The characterization and introduction of the quantitative urine culture in the 1950s first allowed the reliable recognition of asymptomatic bacteriuria. The observations that a substantial proportion of patients with chronic pyelonephritis at autopsy had no history of symptomatic urinary infection, and the high frequenc...

  11. The Paradigm Shift to Non-Treatment of Asymptomatic Bacteriuria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay E. Nicolle

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Asymptomatic bacteriuria, also called asymptomatic urinary infection, is a common finding in healthy women, and in women and men with abnormalities of the genitourinary tract. The characterization and introduction of the quantitative urine culture in the 1950s first allowed the reliable recognition of asymptomatic bacteriuria. The observations that a substantial proportion of patients with chronic pyelonephritis at autopsy had no history of symptomatic urinary infection, and the high frequency of pyelonephritis observed in pregnant women with untreated asymptomatic bacteriuria, supported a conclusion that asymptomatic bacteriuria was harmful. Subsequent screening and long term follow-up programs for asymptomatic bacteriuria in schoolgirls and women reported an increased frequency of symptomatic urinary tract infection for subjects with asymptomatic bacteriuria, but no increased morbidity from renal failure or hypertension, or increased mortality. Treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria did not decrease the frequency of symptomatic infection. Prospective, randomized, comparative trials enrolling premenopausal women, children, elderly populations, patients with long term catheters, and diabetic patients consistently report no benefits with antimicrobial treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria, and some evidence of harm. Several studies have also reported that antimicrobial treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria increases the short term risk of pyelonephritis. Current investigations are exploring the potential therapeutic intervention of establishing asymptomatic bacteriuria with an avirulent Escherichia coli strain to prevent symptomatic urinary tract infection for selected patients.

  12. Reading Culture and Internet Browsing: A Shift of Paradigm among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Four hypotheses were tested to confirm the average number of hours the participants devout to browsing on one hand and to reading on the other, identify gender difference in respondents' perception of the time they spend and what they use the time for and if their browsing indeed have any impact on their reading habit.

  13. Higher Education Transformation: A Paradigm Shift in South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South Africa\\'s higher education system is struggling to become a socially relevant ivory tower: that is, a university system that pays close attention to its calling of research while staying linked to the existential and political struggles of the people, the primary stakeholders in the system. Africa Insight Vol.34(2/3) 2004: 65-72 ...

  14. Paradigm Shift in HIV Testing; Getting Along or Getting Behind ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the last twenty five years, the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), the causative organism of the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) has assumed a frontline position worldwide in health discourse. In the early days of the characterization of the clinical spectrum caused by infection with this virus, screening ...

  15. Paradigm shifts in medical education: implications for medical/health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Contemporary health and medical education in the present information dispensation must actively engage healthcare providers in opportunities for knowledge seeking, learning to learn, and motivation to continue learning. The favored pedagogical design to achieve this is Problem-Based Learning (PBL) enhanced with the ...

  16. Diagnosis, staging and control of hypertension – the paradigm shift ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hypertension is an important medical and public health issue affecting one billion people worldwide and accounting for approximately 7.1 million deaths per year. The relative importance of systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) has been a subject of much debate since the introduction of ...

  17. Engineering Biomaterials to Integrate and Heal: The Biocompatibility Paradigm Shifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryers, James D.; Giachelli, Cecilia M.; Ratner, Buddy D.

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses on one of the major failure routes of implanted medical devices, the foreign body reaction (FBR)—that is, the phagocytic attack and encapsulation by the body of the so-called “biocompatible” biomaterials comprising the devices. We then review strategies currently under development that might lead to biomaterial constructs that will harmoniously heal and integrate into the body. We discuss in detail emerging strategies to inhibit the FBR by engineering biomaterials that elicit more biologically pertinent responses. PMID:22592568

  18. ISLAMIZATION OF CONTEMPORARY ARCHITECTURE: SHIFTING THE PARADIGM OF ISLAMIC ARCHITECTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustapha Ben- Hamouche

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Islamic architecture is often thought as a history course and thus finds its material limited to the cataloguing and studying of legacies of successive empires or various geographic regions of the Islamic world. In practice, adherent professionals tend to reproduce high styles such as Umayyad, Abassid, Fatimid, Ottoman, etc., or recycle well known elements such as the minarets, courtyards, and mashrabiyyahs. This approach, endorsed by the present comprehensive Islamic revival, is believed to be the way to defend and revitalize the identity of Muslim societies that was initially affected by colonization and now is being offended by globalization. However, this approach often clashes with the contemporary trends in architecture that do not necessarily oppose the essence of Islamic architecture. Furthermore, it sometimes lead to an erroneous belief that consists of relating a priori forms to Islam and that clashes with the timeless and universal character of the Islamic religion. The key question to be asked then is, beyond this historicist view, what would be an “Islamic architec-ture” of nowadays that originates from the essence of Islam and that responds to contemporary conditions, needs, aspirations of present Muslim societies and individuals. To what extends can Islamic architecture bene-fits from modern progress and contemporary thought in resurrecting itself without loosing its essence. The hypothesis of the study is that, just as early Muslim architecture started from the adoption, use and re-use of early pre-Islamic architectures before reaching originality, this process, called Islamization, could also take place nowadays with the contemporary thought that is mostly developed in Western and non-Islamic environ-ments. Mechanisms in Islam that allowed the “absorption” of pre-existing civilizations should thus structure the islamization approach and serve the scholars and professionals to reach the new Islamic architecture. The objectives of the paper consist of counter-criticizing orientalists’ views that overwhelm our libraries and references systems, and that consider the first stage of Islamic civilization, within which architecture is part, as a mere cut-and-paste process and, at best, a synthesis of these pre-Islamic heritages, and overcoming the prevailing historicist approach, and open new scopes for future generations to instate a new era of islamization that permits digesting the contemporary Western thoughts in a conscious, critical, and constructive way.

  19. Paradigm shift: efficient and cost effective real-time nutritional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development ... the assessment of nutritional status and growth monitoring for individuals and at population level. ... water, sanitation, maternal and child health data in the smartphone platform.

  20. Educational Paradigm Shift: Are We Ready to Adopt MOOC?

    OpenAIRE

    Jayakumar Sadhasivam

    2014-01-01

    This paper summarizes the findings from an empirical study carry out the online learning. The impact of information technology in our day-to-day life has been profound. Among many cross disciplines that have been enriched (or benefited) by information technology, educational media is not an exception. MOOC (Massive Open Online Courses brings learning, teaching and assessment. MOOC is a Web-based distance-learning program that is designed for the participation of large numbers of geographicall...

  1. Educational Paradigm Shift: Are We Ready to Adopt MOOC?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayakumar Sadhasivam

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes the findings from an empirical study carry out the online learning. The impact of information technology in our day-to-day life has been profound. Among many cross disciplines that have been enriched (or benefited by information technology, educational media is not an exception. MOOC (Massive Open Online Courses brings learning, teaching and assessment. MOOC is a Web-based distance-learning program that is designed for the participation of large numbers of geographically dispersed students. In addition, Google and other companies are involving to design and fund to low-cost eLearning. Niche market provides nine certification courses via MOOC, to satisfy the employees specific needs. However, in the present day context the opinion on embracing MOOC by an University has been quite debatable. Addressing this debate on both sides, this papers presents the opinion expressed by the stakeholders in education towards embracing MOOC. Based on the findings from the study, the paper will discuss the challenge and broad concerns applicable to eLearning. The survey is focused on providing a consolidated fact that based on penetration of eLearning. This paper is aimed at providing a solid analysis of eLearning with the help of IT infrastructure in India. The survey contains demographic distribution of faculties; student and system administrator ratio is 39.6. Among a total of 792 of 2000 participants. It is focused that eLearning strategy in India.

  2. Paradox of schizophrenia genetics: is a paradigm shift occurring?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doi Nagafumi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genetic research of schizophrenia (SCZ based on the nuclear genome model (NGM has been one of the most active areas in psychiatry for the past two decades. Although this effort is ongoing, the current situation of the molecular genetics of SCZ seems disappointing or rather perplexing. Furthermore, a prominent discrepancy between persistence of the disease at a relatively high prevalence and a low reproductive fitness of patients creates a paradox. Heterozygote advantage works to sustain the frequency of a putative susceptibility gene in the mitochondrial genome model (MGM but not in the NGM. Methods We deduced a criterion that every nuclear susceptibility gene for SCZ should fulfill for the persistence of the disease under general assumptions of the multifactorial threshold model. SCZ-associated variants listed in the top 45 in the SZGene Database (the version of the 23rd December, 2011 were selected, and the distribution of the genes that could meet or do not meet the criterion was surveyed. Results 19 SCZ-associated variants that do not meet the criterion are located outside the regions where the SCZ-associated variants that could meet the criterion are located. Since a SCZ-associated variant that does not meet the criterion cannot be a susceptibility gene, but instead must be a protective gene, it should be linked to a susceptibility gene in the NGM, which is contrary to these results. On the other hand, every protective gene on any chromosome can be associated with SCZ in the MGM. Based on the MGM we propose a new hypothesis that assumes brain-specific antioxidant defenses in which trans-synaptic activations of dopamine- and N-methyl-d-aspartate-receptors are involved. Most of the ten predictions of this hypothesis seem to accord with the major epidemiological facts and the results of association studies to date. Conclusion The central paradox of SCZ genetics and the results of association studies to date argue against the NGM, and in its place the MGM is emerging as a viable option to account for genomic and pathophysiological research findings involving SCZ.

  3. Shifting paradigms in restoration of the world's coral reefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oppen, Madeleine J H; Gates, Ruth D; Blackall, Linda L; Cantin, Neal; Chakravarti, Leela J; Chan, Wing Y; Cormick, Craig; Crean, Angela; Damjanovic, Katarina; Epstein, Hannah; Harrison, Peter L; Jones, Thomas A; Miller, Margaret; Pears, Rachel J; Peplow, Lesa M; Raftos, David A; Schaffelke, Britta; Stewart, Kristen; Torda, Gergely; Wachenfeld, David; Weeks, Andrew R; Putnam, Hollie M

    2017-09-01

    Many ecosystems around the world are rapidly deteriorating due to both local and global pressures, and perhaps none so precipitously as coral reefs. Management of coral reefs through maintenance (e.g., marine-protected areas, catchment management to improve water quality), restoration, as well as global and national governmental agreements to reduce greenhouse gas emissions (e.g., the 2015 Paris Agreement) is critical for the persistence of coral reefs. Despite these initiatives, the health and abundance of corals reefs are rapidly declining and other solutions will soon be required. We have recently discussed options for using assisted evolution (i.e., selective breeding, assisted gene flow, conditioning or epigenetic programming, and the manipulation of the coral microbiome) as a means to enhance environmental stress tolerance of corals and the success of coral reef restoration efforts. The 2014-2016 global coral bleaching event has sharpened the focus on such interventionist approaches. We highlight the necessity for consideration of alternative (e.g., hybrid) ecosystem states, discuss traits of resilient corals and coral reef ecosystems, and propose a decision tree for incorporating assisted evolution into restoration initiatives to enhance climate resilience of coral reefs. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Shifting paradigms of nontuberculous mycobacteria in cystic fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvist, Tavs; Pressler, Tania; Høiby, Niels

    2014-01-01

    . Currently several key areas are being revised: The first outbreak of human NTM transmission has been proven and new evidence of biofilm growth in vivo has been demonstrated. A better understanding of the clinical impact of NTM infection has led to increased diagnostic vigilance and new recommendations...

  5. The need for a paradigm shift in toxicology xx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    This manuscript briefly reviews the impact of the NAS report “Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century: A Vision and A Strategy” and it’s potential impact on the field of toxicology. ). This report provides a strategic and tactical framework for attaining the goals of deter...

  6. Developmental psychopathology: a paradigm shift or just a relabeling?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutter, Michael

    2013-11-01

    Developmental psychopathology is described as a conceptual approach that involves a set of research methods that capitalize on developmental and psychopathological variations to ask questions about mechanisms and processes. Achievements are described in relation to attachment and attachment disorders, autism, schizophrenia, childhood antecedents of adult psychopathology, testing for environmental mediation of risk effects, gene-environment interplay, intellectual and language functioning, effects of mentally ill parents on the children, stress and vulnerability to depression, ethnicity and schizophrenia, and drug response. Continuities and discontinuities over the course of development are discussed in relation to attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, antisocial behavior, eating disorders, substance abuse and dependency, pharmacological and behavioral addictions, and a range of other disorders. Research challenges are considered in relation to spectrum concepts, the adolescent development of a female preponderance for depression, the mechanisms involved in age differences in response to drugs and to lateralized brain injury, the processing of experiences, the biological embedding of experiences, individual differences in response to environmental hazards, nature-nurture integration, and brain plasticity.

  7. Shifting Paradigms: Moving beyond "Trans 101" in Sexuality Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Eli R.

    2010-01-01

    Trans-inclusive sexuality education can be complex, confusing, and outright intimidating for even the most seasoned sexuality educator to teach. Historically, standalone "Trans 101" sessions have successfully raised awareness about the highly marginalized transgender community. However, their potential success has been limited by being taught in…

  8. Paradigm Shift in the Management of the Atrophic Posterior Maxilla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabah Nedir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available When the posterior maxilla is atrophic, the reference standard of care would be to perform sinus augmentation with an autologous bone graft through the lateral approach and delayed implant placement. However, placement of short implants with the osteotome sinus floor elevation technique and without graft can be proposed for an efficient treatment of clinical cases with a maxillary residual bone height of 4 to 8 mm. The use of grafting material is recommended only when the residual bone height is ≤4 mm. Indications of the lateral sinus floor elevation are limited to cases with a residual bone height ≤ 2 mm and fused corticals, uncompleted healing of the edentulous site, and absence of flat cortical bone crest or when the patient wishes to wear a removable prosthesis during the healing period. The presented case report illustrates osteotome sinus floor elevation with and without grafting and simultaneous implant placement in extreme conditions: atrophic maxilla, short implant placement, reduced healing time, and single crown rehabilitation. After 6 years, all placed implants were functional with an endosinus bone gain.

  9. Research Methodologies Explored for a Paradigm Shift in University Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venter, I. M.; Blignaut, R. J.; Stoltz, D.

    2001-01-01

    Innovative teaching methods such as collaborative learning, teamwork, and mind maps were introduced to teach computer science and statistics courses at a South African university. Soft systems methodology was adapted and used to manage the research process of evaluating the effectiveness of the teaching methods. This research method provided proof…

  10. Wildlife and pastoral society--shifting paradigms in disease control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kock, Richard; Kebkiba, Bidjeh; Heinonen, Risto; Bedane, Berhanu

    2002-10-01

    The dramatic changes in the human and animal populations in Africa over the last century demand the re-examination of priorities and policies. The introduction of developed medical and other human technologies into the continent has contributed to increases in population and a rapid, unsustainable increase in the utilization of resources. This in turn has led to the destruction of flora and fauna on an unprecedented scale with little real improvement in the human condition. One factor in this has been the increase in livestock in line with human demographic growth, as it is a traditional livelihood of many African peoples. In recent years the growth in livestock populations has slowed owing to a cycle of degradation and disease, affecting especially traditional pastoral systems with a close physical association between people, livestock, and wild animals. Pathogens benefit hugely from the dynamic state created by animal migration, although to some extent the livestock and certainly wildlife show considerable tolerance to this. One of the grave economic consequences of this increase in disease has been collapse of the export trade. In order for Africa to fully benefit and share in world trade, the zoosanitary situation must show improvement. To do this without destroying the natural resource base and traditional pastoral systems, will require a careful, future-oriented land-use policy along ecologically sound criteria. Export livestock will have to be maintained in areas, probably free of ruminant wildlife, with strict veterinary controls. If this can be balanced with sufficient areas retained for traditional pastoralism and wildlife, with perhaps the main income from recreational tourism and local consumption, the benefits will be considerable. The answer may be community-based, low-cost, decentralized health systems for pastoral communities, with less stringent sanitary mandates, a private/parastatal sector servicing, with specialization in wildlife, dairy or export livestock and a central veterinary policy, related to surveillance and monitoring using small well-resourced professional teams to carry out regulatory and statutory duties.

  11. Social Networking Sites (SNSs- Shifting Paradigm of English Language Usage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hetal K. Kachhia

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available English is the globally accepted language in various nations and professions in different varieties, but the English that has acquired a wider spectrum than all these Englishes is the English used in Social Networking Sites which has changed the scenario of English language usage due to the ease in its accessibility and the kind of flexibility of language usage. The English used in Social Networking Sites like Facebook and Twitter has changed the linguistic behaviour of the people by producing a number of acronyms like BFF, FB etc, creating new verb forms like ‘to tweet’ or nouns like ‘tweeple’ or producing many compound nouns such as ‘netiquette’, changing the meaning of traditional verbs and nouns by introducing new meanings to them, e.g. the word ‘friend’ is used to refer “someone to an online list of acquaintances”, and by making use of prefixes like ‘un’ for the purpose of conveying the meaning of negation as in ‘unlike a comment/update’ by ignoring its original prefix ‘dis’ for referring the antonym of ‘like’. By emphasizing on the aim of communication, grammar and vocabulary are put on the peripheral value in Social Networking Sites. Therefore, the focal point of this paper is to study the changes in the linguistic behaviour of the people caused by the SNSs.

  12. A paradigm shift in organisational safety culture evaluation and training

    OpenAIRE

    Cram, Robert; Sime, Julie-Ann

    2015-01-01

    The focus of this research is to explore the issues surrounding traditional approaches towards understanding the safety culture of an organisation operating in a high risk environment and to identify an effective technique to educate corporate management in how to measure and evaluate the underlying safety culture of their own organisations. The results of the first part of the research highlight the concerns being expressed by both academic and industrial communities that current safety cult...

  13. Tissue engineering skin: a paradigm shift in wound care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, C

    2005-12-01

    Tissue-engineered skin for the treatment of burns and ulcers is a clinical success, but making it commercially viable is more problematic. This article examines the industry, its techniques and suggests the way forward.

  14. Leadership Style Paradigm Shift and Organisational Performance: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mrs Afam

    which leadership approach suits best their organization. Given this ... leadership styles in business organisations ((Boehunke, Bontis, Distefano and. Distefano ..... adjust their leadership styles to the situational circumstances as well as the people .... leadership style on organisational performance: A survey of selected small.

  15. Shifting the paradigm: The need for assessment criteria for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article will explore a case study of a Fine Art Masters student's communitybased research project that required an innovative and alternative methodology of research practice and supervision. I suggest evaluation criteria that accommodate the “public good”. South African Universities are faced with the challenge of ...

  16. Work-Engaged Learning: Towards a Paradigm Shift in Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorke, Mantz

    2011-01-01

    Student engagement with the world of work or voluntary service has become increasingly prominent in higher education curricula as nations and states seek competitive advantage for their economies. Developments in assessment have lagged behind developments in curricula. It is argued that the incorporation of work-engaged learning into curricula…

  17. A Paradigm shift in the concept for making dental impressions

    OpenAIRE

    Nayar, Sanjna; Mahadevan, R.

    2015-01-01

    Digital dental impression is a revolutionary technological advancement that so surpasses the accuracy and efficiency of former techniques for obtaining replicas of prepared teeth for the purpose of fabricating restorations that its adoption by dentists is rapidly eclipsing the use of elastomeric impression materials. The ultimate goals of dentists dedicated to quality restorative dentistry are to make their treatment of patients as accurate, stressless, and efficient as possible. By eliminati...

  18. Municipal resilience: A paradigm shift in emergency and continuity management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solecki, Greg; Luchia, Mike

    More than a decade of emergency and continuity management vision was instrumental in providing the unprecedented level of response and recovery from the great flood of 2013. Earlier assessments, planning and validation promulgated development of corporate continuity, emergency and contingency plans along with tactical, strategic and recovery operations centres that all led to a reliable emergency management model that will continue to provide the backbone for municipal resilience.

  19. Career Management Paradigm Shift: Prosperity for Citizens, Windfalls for Governments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, Philip S.

    The knowledge economy is changing the way people work. New labor market entrants can expect to experience a succession of jobs in a number of industry sectors during their working lives. They may have concurrent part-time jobs at one time, and no paid work at other times. Work periods will be interspersed with periods of learning, either full- or…

  20. Three paradigms of horror

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan Ognjanović

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Starting with the definition of horror as a literary genre the core story of which is based on a meeting with threatening Otherness whose influx into consensual reality and it’s tacit normality creates unrest and awakens fear in the protagonists and the audience, this paper defines the three key paradigms of the horror genre, based on the causes of fear, or rather the “monstrous” Otherness in them. Paradigm 1 concerns the “fear of one’s own self”: the root of the fear is inside, in the individual psyche, in the split, deceived, or in some other way unreliable self which is, consciously or unconsciously, harmful to others, and ultimately to itself. Paradigm 2 deals with the “Fear of others”: the root of fear is outside and is concerned with other people and other creatures which have an urge to occupy a certain human microcosm. Paradigm 3 is concerned with the “Fear of the numinous”: the root of the fear is mostly situated on the outside; however its shape is amorphous, ambivalent and unknowable. The “monster” is faceless; it touches on primary forces of the divine/demonic, and as such is situated on the very border between inside/outside. All three paradigms, with their main approaches and constitutive elements, are modulated through two basic possible treatments: the conservative and the progressive (liberal, which affords a total of six basic variations of horror. Starting from definitions given by John Carpenter, Robin Wood and his own, the author analyzes representative examples from horror literature and film for each paradigm and its variation, with a special accent on the image of Otherness and its connection to the norm, its intrusion into the status quo, anthropocentrism and the presence or absence of a happy ending. The paper demonstrates the richness of connotative potential within the horror genre and provides a basis for its taxonomy.

  1. Three paradigms of horror

    OpenAIRE

    Dejan Ognjanović

    2016-01-01

    Starting with the definition of horror as a literary genre the core story of which is based on a meeting with threatening Otherness whose influx into consensual reality and it’s tacit normality creates unrest and awakens fear in the protagonists and the audience, this paper defines the three key paradigms of the horror genre, based on the causes of fear, or rather the “monstrous” Otherness in them. Paradigm 1 concerns the “fear of one’s own self”: the root of the fear is inside, in the indivi...

  2. Embracing the new paradigm of assessment in residency training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringsted, C; Østergaard, D; Scherpbier, A

    2003-01-01

    Assessment of clinical competence is facing a paradigm shift in more than one sense. The shift relates to test content, which increasingly covers a broader spectrum of competences than mere medical expertise, and to test methods, with an increasing focus on testing performance in realistic settings....... Also there is a shift in the concept of assessment in that instruction and assessment are no longer seen as being separate in time and purpose, but as integral parts of the learning process. The nature of the new paradigm for assessment is well described but the challenge to programme directors...... is to specify the evaluation situations and develop appropriate methods. This paper describes the intrinsic rational validation process in outlining an assessment programme for first-year anaesthesiology residency training according to the new paradigm. The applicability to other residency programmes and higher...

  3. A Cultural Paradigm--Learning by Observing and Pitching In.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogoff, Barbara; Mejía-Arauz, Rebeca; Correa-Chávez, Maricela

    2015-01-01

    We discuss Learning by Observing and Pitching In (LOPI) as a cultural paradigm that provides an interesting alternative to Assembly-Line Instruction for supporting children's learning. Although LOPI may occur in all communities, it appears to be especially prevalent in many Indigenous and Indigenous-heritage communities of the Americas. We explain key features of this paradigm, previewing the chapters of this volume, which examine LOPI as it occurs in the lives of families and communities. In this introductory chapter, we focus especially on one feature of the paradigm that plays an important role in its uptake and maintenance in families, institutions, and communities-the nature of assessment. We consider the power of the dominant paradigm and the challenges in making paradigm shifts. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Fluid Shifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenger, M. B.; Hargens, A. R.; Dulchavsky, S. A.; Arbeille, P.; Danielson, R. W.; Ebert, D. J.; Garcia, K. M.; Johnston, S. L.; Laurie, S. S.; Lee, S. M. C.; hide

    2017-01-01

    Introduction. NASA's Human Research Program is focused on addressing health risks associated with long-duration missions on the International Space Station (ISS) and future exploration-class missions beyond low Earth orbit. Visual acuity changes observed after short-duration missions were largely transient, but now more than 50 percent of ISS astronauts have experienced more profound, chronic changes with objective structural findings such as optic disc edema, globe flattening and choroidal folds. These structural and functional changes are referred to as the visual impairment and intracranial pressure (VIIP) syndrome. Development of VIIP symptoms may be related to elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) secondary to spaceflight-induced cephalad fluid shifts, but this hypothesis has not been tested. The purpose of this study is to characterize fluid distribution and compartmentalization associated with long-duration spaceflight and to determine if a relation exists with vision changes and other elements of the VIIP syndrome. We also seek to determine whether the magnitude of fluid shifts during spaceflight, as well as any VIIP-related effects of those shifts, are predicted by the crewmember's pre-flight status and responses to acute hemodynamic manipulations, specifically posture changes and lower body negative pressure. Methods. We will examine a variety of physiologic variables in 10 long-duration ISS crewmembers using the test conditions and timeline presented in the figure below. Measures include: (1) fluid compartmentalization (total body water by D2O, extracellular fluid by NaBr, intracellular fluid by calculation, plasma volume by CO rebreathe, interstitial fluid by calculation); (2) forehead/eyelids, tibia, and calcaneus tissue thickness (by ultrasound); (3) vascular dimensions by ultrasound (jugular veins, cerebral and carotid arteries, vertebral arteries and veins, portal vein); (4) vascular dynamics by MRI (head/neck blood flow, cerebrospinal fluid

  5. Paradigms in object recognition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutihac, R.; Mutihac, R.C.

    1999-09-01

    A broad range of approaches has been proposed and applied for the complex and rather difficult task of object recognition that involves the determination of object characteristics and object classification into one of many a priori object types. Our paper revises briefly the three main different paradigms in pattern recognition, namely Bayesian statistics, neural networks, and expert systems. (author)

  6. Programming Language Paradigms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartoníček Jan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper's goal is to briefly explain the basic theory behind programming languages and their history while taking a close look at different programming paradigms that are used today as well as describing their differences, benefits, and drawbacks

  7. Deconstructing Research: Paradigms Lost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trifonas, Peter Pericles

    2009-01-01

    In recent decades, proponents of naturalistic and/or critical modes of inquiry advocating the use of ethnographic techniques for the narrative-based study of phenomena within pedagogical contexts have challenged the central methodological paradigm of educational research: that is, the tendency among its practitioners to adhere to quantitative…

  8. Scientific evidence contradicts findings and assumptions of Canadian Safety Panel 6: microwaves act through voltage-gated calcium channel activation to induce biological impacts at non-thermal levels, supporting a paradigm shift for microwave/lower frequency electromagnetic field action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pall, Martin L

    2015-01-01

    This review considers a paradigm shift on microwave electromagnetic field (EMF) action from only thermal effects to action via voltage-gated calcium channel (VGCC) activation. Microwave/lower frequency EMFs were shown in two dozen studies to act via VGCC activation because all effects studied were blocked by calcium channel blockers. This mode of action was further supported by hundreds of studies showing microwave changes in calcium fluxes and intracellular calcium [Ca2+]i signaling. The biophysical properties of VGCCs/similar channels make them particularly sensitive to low intensity, non-thermal EMF exposures. Non-thermal studies have shown that in most cases pulsed fields are more active than are non-pulsed fields and that exposures within certain intensity windows have much large biological effects than do either lower or higher intensity exposures; these are both consistent with a VGCC role but inconsistent with only a heating/thermal role. Downstream effects of VGCC activation include calcium signaling, elevated nitric oxide (NO), NO signaling, peroxynitrite, free radical formation, and oxidative stress. Downstream effects explain repeatedly reported biological responses to non-thermal exposures: oxidative stress; single and double strand breaks in cellular DNA; cancer; male and female infertility; lowered melatonin/sleep disruption; cardiac changes including tachycardia, arrhythmia, and sudden cardiac death; diverse neuropsychiatric effects including depression; and therapeutic effects. Non-VGCC non-thermal mechanisms may occur, but none have been shown to have effects in mammals. Biologically relevant safety standards can be developed through studies of cell lines/cell cultures with high levels of different VGCCs, measuring their responses to different EMF exposures. The 2014 Canadian Report by a panel of experts only recognizes thermal effects regarding safety standards for non-ionizing radiation exposures. Its position is therefore contradicted by each

  9. Paradigms in public policy: theory and practice of paradigm shifts in the EU

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Calvo, Dolores; Burns, Tom R; Carson, Marcus

    2009-01-01

    ... to the understanding of how "ideas matter" in policy and institutional change. Policy action is driven, shaped and regulated by the ways in which cognitive perspectives frame problem situations and analyses - and also call for and legitimize the involvement of particular authorities, experts, problem - definitions and solutions. Over the past twenty years a c...

  10. Converging Paradigms: A Reflection on Parallel Theoretical Developments in Psychoanalytic Metapsychology and Empirical Dream Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmelowszky, Ágoston

    2016-08-01

    In the last decades one can perceive a striking parallelism between the shifting perspective of leading representatives of empirical dream research concerning their conceptualization of dreaming and the paradigm shift within clinically based psychoanalytic metapsychology with respect to its theory on the significance of dreaming. In metapsychology, dreaming becomes more and more a central metaphor of mental functioning in general. The theories of Klein, Bion, and Matte-Blanco can be considered as milestones of this paradigm shift. In empirical dream research, the competing theories of Hobson and of Solms respectively argued for and against the meaningfulness of the dream-work in the functioning of the mind. In the meantime, empirical data coming from various sources seemed to prove the significance of dream consciousness for the development and maintenance of adaptive waking consciousness. Metapsychological speculations and hypotheses based on empirical research data seem to point in the same direction, promising for contemporary psychoanalytic practice a more secure theoretical base. In this paper the author brings together these diverse theoretical developments and presents conclusions regarding psychoanalytic theory and technique, as well as proposing an outline of an empirical research plan for testing the specificity of psychoanalysis in developing dream formation.

  11. The resilience of paradigm mixes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugbjerg, Carsten; Farsund, Arild Aurvåg; Langhelle, Oluf

    2017-01-01

    This paper argues that a policy regime based on a paradigm mix may be resilient when challenged by changing power balances and new agendas. Controversies between the actors can be contained within the paradigm mix as it enables them to legitimize different ideational positions. Rather than engaging...... context changed. The paradigm mix proved sufficiently flexible to accommodate food security concerns and at the same time continue to take steps toward further liberalization. Indeed, the main players have not challenged the paradigm mix....

  12. CHANGE OF ENERGY PARADIGM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionut PURICA

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available We are at the beginning of a change of paradigm in the energy systems of the whole World. Both new resources being found and exploited and the new technologies for energy conversion, transport and distribution, along with the associated artificial intelligence systems, are starting to create new futures, with different living values, for the greatest machine created by men: the energy system. Some relevant elements are presented in the paper along with the position and the perspectives of Romania.

  13. Carbon Capture and Storage Development Trends from a Techno-Paradigm Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobo Zheng

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The world’s energy needs have been continually growing over the past decade, yet fossil fuels are limited. Renewable energies are becoming more prevalent, but are still a long way from being commonplace worldwide. Literature mining is applied to review carbon capture and storage (CCS development trends and to develop and examine a novel carbon capture and storage technological paradigm (CCSTP, which incorporates CCSTP competition, diffusion and shift. This paper first provides an overview of the research and progress in CCS technological development, then applies a techno-paradigm theory to analyze CCSTP development and to provide a guide for future CCS technological trends. CCS could avoid CO2 being released into the atmosphere. Moreover, bioenergy with CCS (BECCS can make a significant contribution to a net removal of anthropogenic CO2 emissions. In this study, we compare the different CCSTP developmental paths and the conventional techno-paradigm by examining the S-curves. The analyses in this paper provide a useful guide for scholars seeking new inspiration in their research and for potential investors who are seeking to invest research funds in more mature technologies. We conclude that political barriers and public acceptance are the major distinctions between the CCSTP and the conventional techno-paradigm. It is expected that policy instruments and economic instruments are going to play a pivotal role in the accomplishment of global carbon reduction scenarios.

  14. The National Terminology Services: a new paradigm | Jordaan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The new dispensation in South Africa necessitated a paradigm shift at the National Terminology Services (NTS). Being part of the Central Government, the NTS has to implement policy as laid down by the government of the day. Former policy, processes and products are described as well as the vision and objectives for the ...

  15. Youth, physical activity and leisure education: Need for a paradigm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The publication of the Surgeon General's Report (1996) on Physical Activity and Health by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services recommended a paradigm shift during the 21st Century from prescribing exercise for fitness, to promoting physical activity and leisure education as an active approach to good ...

  16. Active training paradigm for motor imagery BCI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junhua; Zhang, Liqing

    2012-06-01

    Brain-computer interface (BCI) allows the use of brain activities for people to directly communicate with the external world or to control external devices without participation of any peripheral nerves and muscles. Motor imagery is one of the most popular modes in the research field of brain-computer interface. Although motor imagery BCI has some advantages compared with other modes of BCI, such as asynchronization, it is necessary to require training sessions before using it. The performance of trained BCI system depends on the quality of training samples or the subject engagement. In order to improve training effect and decrease training time, we proposed a new paradigm where subjects participated in training more actively than in the traditional paradigm. In the traditional paradigm, a cue (to indicate what kind of motor imagery should be imagined during the current trial) is given to the subject at the beginning of a trial or during a trial, and this cue is also used as a label for this trial. It is usually assumed that labels for trials are accurate in the traditional paradigm, although subjects may not have performed the required or correct kind of motor imagery, and trials may thus be mislabeled. And then those mislabeled trials give rise to interference during model training. In our proposed paradigm, the subject is required to reconfirm the label and can correct the label when necessary. This active training paradigm may generate better training samples with fewer inconsistent labels because it overcomes mistakes when subject's motor imagination does not match the given cues. The experiments confirm that our proposed paradigm achieves better performance; the improvement is significant according to statistical analysis.

  17. The peopleware paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew, C G

    1996-08-01

    Manufacturing managements and practitioners alike are at long last realizing that the heartbeat of competitive advantage springs from peopleware, not hardware and software. But despite this heightened awareness the problem persists even among manufacturing professionals--they may talk a good game about priortizing people and quality, but all too many have precious little idea of how to go about it with constancy of purpose. This article bridges the gap and addresses the key issues in adopting the powerful new peopleware paradigm that provides the positive motivational climate for the improvement-change journey toward world-class performance through teamwork, innovation, and continuous improvement.

  18. Competitiveness: new economic paradigm?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene Peñaloza

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays competitiveness is made up of “the new” paradigm that allows to prevail in the global World. Thus, it is inevitable to ask, was it required to be competitive to be successful in the international trade arena? Recognizing the discussion about it and its theoretical-conceptual density, the present paper studies this old notion whose meaning, in essence, is always the same one. This applies even though new realities in the present world-wide atmosphere confer to it a distinguishing character and new and old players are forced to organize actions and bring efforts together to obtain the competitive supremacy.

  19. Paradigms and novelty in economics : The history of economic thought as a source of enlightenment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dolfsma, W.A.; Welch, P.

    P>Over time, economics has experienced paradigm shifts, and there is every reason to think this will continue. In economics, as in the development of technological knowledge, paradigms do not emerge from nowhere, but build on precursors, possibly from other fields. Our understanding of current

  20. Understanding Mixed Emotions: Paradigms and Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreibig, Sylvia D.; Gross, James J.

    2017-01-01

    In this review, we examine the paradigms and measures available for experimentally studying mixed emotions in the laboratory. For eliciting mixed emotions, we describe a mixed emotions film library that allows for the repeated elicitation of a specific homogeneous mixed emotional state and appropriately matched pure positive, pure negative, and neutral emotional states. For assessing mixed emotions, we consider subjective and objective measures that fall into univariate, bivariate, and multivariate measurement categories. As paradigms and measures for objectively studying mixed emotions are still in their early stages, we conclude by outlining future directions that focus on the reliability, temporal dynamics, and response coherence of mixed emotions paradigms and measures. This research will build a strong foundation for future studies and significantly advance our understanding of mixed emotions. PMID:28804752

  1. Shield calculations, optimization vs. paradigm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornejo D, N.; Hernandez S, A.; Martinez G, A.

    2006-01-01

    Many shieldings have been designed under the criteria of 'Maximum dose rates of project'. It has created the paradigm of those 'low dose rates', for the one which not few specialists would consider unacceptable levels of dose rate superior to the units of μSv.h -1 , independently of the exposure times. At the present time numerous shieldings are being designed considering dose restrictions in real times of exposure. After these new shieldings, the dose rates could be notably superior to those after traditional shieldings, without it implies inadequate designs or constructive errors. In the work significant differences in levels of dose rates and thickness of shieldings estimated by both methods for some typical facilities. It was concluded that the use of real times of exposure is more adequate for the optimization of the Radiological Protection, although this method demands bigger care in its application. (Author)

  2. Shielding calculations. Optimization vs. Paradigms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornejo Diaz, Nestor; Hernandez Saiz, Alejandro; Martinez Gonzalez, Alina

    2005-01-01

    Many radiation shielding barriers in Cuba have been designed according to the criterion of Maxi-mum Projected Dose Rates. This fact has created the paradigm of low dose rates. Because of this, dose rate levels greater than units of Sv.h-1 would be considered unacceptable by many specialists, regardless of the real exposure times. Nowadays many shielding barriers are being designed using dose constraints in real exposure times. Behind the new barriers, dose rates could be notably greater than those behind the traditional ones, and it does not imply inadequate designs or constructive errors. In this work were obtained significant differences in dose rate levels and shield-ing thicknesses calculated by both methods for some typical installations. The work concludes that real exposure time approach is more adequate in order to optimise Radiation Protection, although this method should be carefully applied

  3. The WIMP Paradigm: Current Status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    The WIMP paradigm is the glue that joins together much of the high energy and cosmic frontiers. It postulates that most of the matter in the Universe is made of weakly-interacting massive particles, with implications for a broad range of experiments and observations. I will review the WIMP paradigm's underlying motivations, its current status in view of rapid experimental progress on several fronts, and recent theoretical variations on the WIMP paradigm theme.

  4. Vascular access surveillance: case study of a false paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulson, William D; Moist, Louise; Lok, Charmaine E

    2013-01-01

    The hemodialysis vascular access surveillance controversy provides a case study of how enthusiasm for a new test or treatment can lead to adoption of a false paradigm. Paradigms are the beliefs and assumptions shared by those in a field of knowledge, and are commonly included in clinical practice guidelines. The guidelines of the National Kidney Foundation Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative recommend that arteriovenous vascular accesses undergo routine surveillance for detection and correction of stenosis. This recommendation is based on the paradigm that surveillance of access blood flow or dialysis venous pressure combined with correction of stenosis improves access outcomes. However, the quality of evidence that supports this paradigm has been widely criticized. We tested the validity of the surveillance paradigm by applying World Health Organization (WHO) criteria for evaluating screening tests to a literature review of published vascular access studies. These criteria include four components: undesired condition, screening test, intervention, and desired outcome. The WHO criteria show that surveillance as currently practiced fails all four components and provides little or no significant benefit, suggesting that surveillance is a false paradigm. Once a paradigm is established, however, challenges to its validity are usually resisted even as new evidence indicates the paradigm is not valid. Thus, it is paramount to apply rigorous criteria when developing guidelines. Regulators may help promote needed changes in paradigms when cost and safety considerations coincide. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Detecting Novelty and Significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Vera; Bradley, Margaret M.; Codispoti, Maurizio; Lang, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    Studies of cognition often use an “oddball” paradigm to study effects of stimulus novelty and significance on information processing. However, an oddball tends to be perceptually more novel than the standard, repeated stimulus as well as more relevant to the ongoing task, making it difficult to disentangle effects due to perceptual novelty and stimulus significance. In the current study, effects of perceptual novelty and significance on ERPs were assessed in a passive viewing context by presenting repeated and novel pictures (natural scenes) that either signaled significant information regarding the current context or not. A fronto-central N2 component was primarily affected by perceptual novelty, whereas a centro-parietal P3 component was modulated by both stimulus significance and novelty. The data support an interpretation that the N2 reflects perceptual fluency and is attenuated when a current stimulus matches an active memory representation and that the amplitude of the P3 reflects stimulus meaning and significance. PMID:19400680

  6. Motor imagery enhancement paradigm using moving rubber hand illusion system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minsu Song; Jonghyun Kim

    2017-07-01

    Motor imagery (MI) has been widely used in neurorehabilitation and brain computer interface. The size of event-related desynchronization (ERD) is a key parameter for successful motor imaginary rehabilitation and BCI adaptation. Many studies have used visual guidance for enhancement/ amplification of motor imagery ERD amplitude, but their enhancements were not significant. We propose a novel ERD enhancing paradigm using body-ownership illusion, or also known as rubber hand illusion (RHI). The system was made by motorized, moving rubber hand which can simulate wrist extension. The amplifying effects of the proposed RHI paradigm were evaluated by comparing ERD sizes of the proposed paradigm with motor imagery and actual motor execution paradigms. The comparison result shows that the improvement of ERD size due to the proposed paradigm was statistically significant (pparadigms.

  7. Negative pressure darwinism: survival of the fittest paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Michael; Bybordi, Farhad

    2009-07-01

    The use of negative pressure for wound healing has been based on a set of parameters and devices that until recently were combined into a single paradigm. Despite historical and more recent evidence providing viable alternative considerations, it is only recently that this paradigm and its tenets have come into question. As the understanding of the limits of the current paradigm and specific instances of its benefits and drawbacks are identified, shifts in the paradigm must take place if the therapy is to evolve, develop, and continue to be efficacious. The pertinence of the concept of survival of the fittest is used to explore the need for a paradigm shift in negative pressure wound therapy.

  8. Dissociating Compatibility Effects and Distractor Costs in the Additional Singleton Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles eFolk

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The interpretation of identity compatibility effects associated with irrelevant items outside the nominal focus of attention has fueled much of the debate over early versus late selection and perceptual load theory. However, compatibility effects have also played a role in the debate over the extent to which the involuntary allocation of spatial attention (i.e., attentional capture is completely stimulus-driven or whether it is contingent on top-down control settings. For example, in the context of the additional singleton paradigm, irrelevant color singletons have been found to produce not only an overall cost in search performance but also significant compatibility effects. This combination of search costs and compatibility effects has been taken as evidence that spatial attention is indeed allocated in a bottom-up fashion to the salient but irrelevant singletons. However, it is possible that compatibility effects in the additional singleton paradigm reflect parallel processing of identity associated with low perceptual load rather than an involuntary shift of spatial attention. In the present experiments, manipulations of load were incorporated into the traditional additional singleton paradigm. Under low load conditions, both search costs and compatibility effects were obtained, replicating previous studies. Under high load conditions, search costs were still present, but compatibility effects were eliminated. This dissociation suggests that the costs associated with irrelevant singletons may reflect filtering processes rather than the allocation of spatial attention.

  9. Crustal layering, simplicity, and the oil industry: The alteration of an epistemic paradigm by a commercial environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anduaga, Aitor

    This paper proposes that the gradual alteration of the predominant epistemic paradigm in crustal seismology in the interwar period-namely, simplicity-came about because of the strong influence of a particular commercial environment, i.e. the oil industry. I begin by demonstrating the interwar predominance of Jeffreys' 'simplicity postulate' and his probabilistic epistemology, highlighting the espousal by several seismologists (Bullen, Stoneley, Byerly), whose crustal models drew on mathematical idealisations. Next, I demonstrate that the renunciation of simplicity in the 1930s came about too quickly, and, above all, too heterodoxically to have been the result of new geological evidence. Rather, I argue, the paradigm shift among seismologists was a result of the significant rise in seismic exploration generated by the oil industry. Driven by market demands, American petroleum companies pioneered new technologies, organised research initiatives, and trained young geophysicists who, through the fusion of experimentalism and field experience, brought about fundamental progress in earthquake seismology. Remarkably, historians of science have almost entirely failed to recognise the interwar primacy of the simplicity paradigm as well as its subsequent renunciation. More importantly, they have failed to acknowledge the role the oil industry played in contributing to this renunciation and to the development of new paradigms in seismology.

  10. Superior refining performance beyond 2000 -- Breaking traditional paradigms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tassel, B. van

    1995-01-01

    Over the last 5 years, refining companies have not performed well financially, generating returns below the cost of capital. Environmental regulations have caused the industry to invest significant amounts of capital, and while new regulations will cause the shutdown of between 500 thousand and 1.2 million barrels per day of capacity, the industry structure will remain poor and financial returns for the average player will likely be volatile, cyclical, and below the cost of capital. Based on this industry outlook, refining companies seeking superior performance will have to break the traditional paradigms and adopt world-class practices used in other industries. Changes required to significantly improve financial returns will include shifts in business strategy to accommodate growth, and development of nontraditional services, as well as initiates to dramatically reshape cost structure and improve profitability. Making the changes to become a superior performer in the refining business will require a clear vision and strong leadership at multiple levels in the organization. The transformation will also require changes in company culture and incentive plans that encourage managers to act as owners. In addition, superior performers will push accountability for results to low levels in the organization. Given the herd mentality of the oil industry, superior performers must take decisive, preemptive action to generate a substantial, competitive advantage

  11. Superior refining performance beyond 2000 -- Breaking traditional paradigms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tassel, B. van [McKinsey and Co., Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Over the last 5 years, refining companies have not performed well financially, generating returns below the cost of capital. Environmental regulations have caused the industry to invest significant amounts of capital, and while new regulations will cause the shutdown of between 500 thousand and 1.2 million barrels per day of capacity, the industry structure will remain poor and financial returns for the average player will likely be volatile, cyclical, and below the cost of capital. Based on this industry outlook, refining companies seeking superior performance will have to break the traditional paradigms and adopt world-class practices used in other industries. Changes required to significantly improve financial returns will include shifts in business strategy to accommodate growth, and development of nontraditional services, as well as initiates to dramatically reshape cost structure and improve profitability. Making the changes to become a superior performer in the refining business will require a clear vision and strong leadership at multiple levels in the organization. The transformation will also require changes in company culture and incentive plans that encourage managers to act as owners. In addition, superior performers will push accountability for results to low levels in the organization. Given the herd mentality of the oil industry, superior performers must take decisive, preemptive action to generate a substantial, competitive advantage.

  12. Toxicogenomics: A New Paradigm for Nanotoxicity Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, Sourabh; Saquib, Quaiser; Ahmad, Bilal; Ansari, Sabiha M; Azam, Ameer; Musarrat, Javed

    2018-01-01

    The wider applications of nanoparticles (NPs) has evoked a world-wide concern due to their possible risk of toxicity in humans and other organisms. Aggregation and accumulation of NPs into cell leads to their interaction with biological macromolecules including proteins, nucleic acids and cellular organelles, which eventually induce toxicological effects. Application of toxicogenomics to investigate molecular pathway-based toxicological consequences has opened new vistas in nanotoxicology research. Indeed, genomic approaches appeared as a new paradigm in terms of providing information at molecular levels and have been proven to be as a powerful tool for identification and quantification of global shifts in gene expression. Toxicological responses of NPs have been discussed in this chapter with the aim to provide a clear understanding of the molecular mechanism of NPs induced toxicity both in in vivo and in vitro test models.

  13. The Consumption Paradigm in Marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eka Ardianto

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available This article elaborates consumption paradigm in marketing. In background, this paper reviews different perspectives of consumption: economic perspective and marketing perspective. In ontology, this work describes various issues regarding consumption view. In epistemology, this article demonstrates how marketers especially researches explore the consumption phenomena. In methodology, the article describes experiential marketing –one of applied consumption paradigm in marketing, which could be an alternative choice of marketing practices.

  14. RENEGOTIATION MINING CONTRACT: LEGAL PARADIGM RECONSTRUCTION EFFORTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilang -

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Renegotiation contract mining is not a priori notion that was born but is driven by the fact that empirical Work Contract (KK and coal mining concessions of the Works Agreement (Cca that are valid for this resulted in profits which are not comparable between countries with investors (domestic and foreign. In addition, Law No. 4 of 2009 about Mineral and Coal Mining (minerba through article 169 have been injected that though the mining contracts during the validity of this, still respected until the end, however, if the implementation of these contracts give rise to distortions for the national interest, then the Government must encourage the investors to do Renegotiation against existing contracts to comply with legislation minerba forever within a period of one year since the enactment of the legislation this minerba. Renegotiation mining contracts that have been approved on the fact of the matter is simply an attempt to reconstruct the ruling paradigm, so with that paradigm shift, both parties can reach the intersection for the benefit of both parties, i.e. the parties proportionately Indonesia suffered no losses on the one hand, and the benefit of the domestic and foreign investors remain in reasonable limits on the other. 

  15. A new paradigm for the development of analysis software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, D.; Harauz, J.

    2012-01-01

    For the CANDU industry, analysis software is an important tool for scientists and engineers to examine issues related to safety, operation, and design. However, the software quality assurance approach currently used for these tools assumes the software is the delivered product. In this paper, we present a model that shifts the emphasis from software being the end-product to software being support for the end-product, the science. We describe a novel software development paradigm that supports this shift and provides the groundwork for re-examining the quality assurance practices used for analysis software. (author)

  16. The shifting beverage landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storey, Maureen

    2010-04-26

    STOREY, M.L. The shifting beverage landscape. PHYSIOL BEHAV, 2010. - Simultaneous lifestyle changes have occurred in the last few decades, creating an imbalance in energy intake and energy expenditure that has led to overweight and obesity. Trends in the food supply show that total daily calories available per capita increased 28% since 1970. Total energy intake among men and women has also increased dramatically since that time. Some have suggested that intake of beverages has had a disproportional impact on obesity. Data collected by the Beverage Marketing Corporation between 1988-2008 demonstrate that, in reality, fewer calories per ounce are being produced by the beverage industry. Moreover, data from the National Cancer Institute show that soft drink intake represents 5.5% of daily calories. Data from NHANES 1999-2003 vs. 2003-06 may demonstrate a shift in beverage consumption for age/gender groups, ages 6 to>60years. The beverages provided in schools have significantly changed since 2006 when the beverage industry implemented School Beverage Guidelines. This voluntary action has removed full-calorie soft drinks from participating schools across the country. This shift to lower-calorie and smaller-portion beverages in school has led to a significant decrease in total beverage calories in schools. These data support the concept that to prevent and treat obesity, public health efforts should focus on energy balance and that a narrow focus on sweetened beverages is unlikely to have any meaningful impact on this complex problem. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. HVDC Transmission an Outlook and Significance for Pakistani Power Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Muhammad; Wang, Zhixin; Wang, Jinjian; Baloach, Mazhar H.; Longxin, Bao; Hua, Qing

    2018-04-01

    Recently a paradigm shift in the power sector is observed, i.e., countries across the globe have deviated their attention to distributed generation rather than conventional centralized bulk generation. Owing to the above narrative, distributed energy resources e.g., wind and PV have gained the adequate attention of governments and researchers courtesy to their eco-friendly nature. On the contrary, the increased infiltration of distributed generation to the power system has introduced many technical and economical glitches such as long-distance transmission, transmission lines efficiency, control capability and cost etc. To mitigate these complications, the utility of high voltage direct current (HVDC) transmission has emerged as a possible solution. In this context, this paper includes a brief discussion on the fundamentals HVDC and its significance in Pakistani power sector. Furthermore, the potential of distributed energy resources for Pakistan is also the subject matter of this paper, so that significance of HVDC transmission can effectively be deliberated.

  18. The P Value Problem in Otolaryngology: Shifting to Effect Sizes and Confidence Intervals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vila, Peter M; Townsend, Melanie Elizabeth; Bhatt, Neel K; Kao, W Katherine; Sinha, Parul; Neely, J Gail

    2017-06-01

    There is a lack of reporting effect sizes and confidence intervals in the current biomedical literature. The objective of this article is to present a discussion of the recent paradigm shift encouraging the use of reporting effect sizes and confidence intervals. Although P values help to inform us about whether an effect exists due to chance, effect sizes inform us about the magnitude of the effect (clinical significance), and confidence intervals inform us about the range of plausible estimates for the general population mean (precision). Reporting effect sizes and confidence intervals is a necessary addition to the biomedical literature, and these concepts are reviewed in this article.

  19. A significant shift in favor of nuclear energy since 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2008-01-01

    A new opinion poll shows a general trend in Europe in favor of nuclear energy: 44% of the people interrogated are for nuclear energy while only 37% were for in 2005. About 40% of the people against nuclear energy would change their mind if a safe and definitive solution for the management of radioactive waste was found. The survey also shows that more people are aware of the assets of nuclear energy in terms of energy independence and greenhouse gas emission. The countries where the support is the strongest are the Czech Republic (64%), Lithuania (64%), Sweden (62%) and Finland (61%). In France, the biggest nuclear energy producer in Europe, the rate of favorable opinion for nuclear energy remains constant at 52%. (A.C.)

  20. Towards new paradigms for the treatment of hypobaric decompression sickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dart, T S; Butler, W

    1998-04-01

    Altitude induced (hypobaric) decompression sickness (DCS) has long been treated with ground level oxygen and U.S. Navy Treatment Tables 5 and 6. These treatment tables originate from surface excursion diving and, when implemented, require significant resource allocation. Although they are effective treatment regimens, these tables were not developed for treating hypobaric DCS which has an etiology similar to saturation diving DCS. In this review, different treatment options for hypobaric DCS are presented. These options include more aggressive use of ground level oxygen and treatment tables using a maximum pressure of 2 atmospheres (ATA). Specific attention is given to USAF Table VIII, an experimental hypobaric DCS treatment-table, and space suit overpressurization treatment. This paradigm shift for DCS treatment is based on a projected increase in hypobaric DCS treatment from exposure to low pressure during several operational conditions: cruise flight in the next generation aircraft (e.g., F-22); high altitude, unpressurized flight by special operations forces; and the extraordinary amount of extravehicular activity (EVA) required to construct the international space station. Anticipating the need to treat DCS encountered during these and other activities, it is proposed that 2 ATA or less hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) treatment conjoined with new collapsible chamber technology can be used to address these issues in a safe and cost effective fashion.

  1. Molecular Mechanisms and New Treatment Paradigm for Atrial Fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirish, Padmini; Li, Ning; Timofeyev, Valeriy; Zhang, Xiao-Dong; Wang, Lianguo; Yang, Jun; Lee, Kin Sing Stephen; Bettaieb, Ahmed; Ma, Sin Mei; Lee, Jeong Han; Su, Demetria; Lau, Victor C; Myers, Richard E; Lieu, Deborah K; López, Javier E; Young, J Nilas; Yamoah, Ebenezer N; Haj, Fawaz; Ripplinger, Crystal M; Hammock, Bruce D; Chiamvimonvat, Nipavan

    2016-05-01

    Atrial fibrillation represents the most common arrhythmia leading to increased morbidity and mortality, yet, current treatment strategies have proven inadequate. Conventional treatment with antiarrhythmic drugs carries a high risk for proarrhythmias. The soluble epoxide hydrolase enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of anti-inflammatory epoxy fatty acids, including epoxyeicosatrienoic acids from arachidonic acid to the corresponding proinflammatory diols. Therefore, the goal of the study is to directly test the hypotheses that inhibition of the soluble epoxide hydrolase enzyme can result in an increase in the levels of epoxyeicosatrienoic acids, leading to the attenuation of atrial structural and electric remodeling and the prevention of atrial fibrillation. For the first time, we report findings that inhibition of soluble epoxide hydrolase reduces inflammation, oxidative stress, atrial structural, and electric remodeling. Treatment with soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitor significantly reduces the activation of key inflammatory signaling molecules, including the transcription factor nuclear factor κ-light-chain-enhancer, mitogen-activated protein kinase, and transforming growth factor-β. This study provides insights into the underlying molecular mechanisms leading to atrial fibrillation by inflammation and represents a paradigm shift from conventional antiarrhythmic drugs, which block downstream events to a novel upstream therapeutic target by counteracting the inflammatory processes in atrial fibrillation. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  2. Mass Customisation and Highly Individualised Solutions. Stretching Mass Customisation Beyond the Traditional Paradigm of Industrial Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morelli, Nicola; Nielsen, Louise Møller

    2007-01-01

    and consumption patterns. The reference to a paradigm shift helps emphasising the inherent limits of industrial production and the elements of changes brought about by the possibility to generate highly individualised solutions. The concept of mass customisation was introduced to extend the domain of industrial...... production beyond its original limitations, however it is strongly linked to the paradigm of industrial production and not always usable to support and explain new ways of organising value creation. This paper proposes an analysis of this paradigm shift through three cases, which emphasise some elements...... of mass customisation that are still relevant to the new paradigm. At the same time the paper emphasises the limits of this concept and the need for a new perspective view to interpret the ongoing change in production and consumption systems....

  3. Embracing the Cloud: Six Ways to Look at the Shift to Cloud Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullman, David F.; Haggerty, Blake

    2010-01-01

    Cloud computing is the latest paradigm shift for the delivery of IT services. Where previous paradigms (centralized, decentralized, distributed) were based on fairly straightforward approaches to technology and its management, cloud computing is radical in comparison. The literature on cloud computing, however, suffers from many divergent…

  4. Micropatch Antenna Phase Shifting

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thursby, Michael

    2000-01-01

    .... We have been looking at the ability of embedded element to adjust the phase shift seen by the element with the goal of being able to remove the phase shifting devices from the antenna and replace...

  5. Micropatch Antenna Phase Shifting

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thursby, Michael

    1999-01-01

    .... We have been looking at the ability of embedded element to adjust the phase shift seen by the element wit the goal of being able to remove the phase shifting devices from the antenna and replace...

  6. PULSE cube: Paradigms and theories for creating opportunities and solving problems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Meissner, Richard

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available (Governability) 9. Interest group corporatism 10.Interest group pluralism 11.Marxism 12.Modernity 13.Neo-liberalism (Liberal pluralism) 14.Neo-realism (Realism) 15.Normative commensalism 16.Political ecology or Green politics 17.Social constructivism 18... are present in the NWRS2 but to a limited extent only. • Support to municipalities. • Education and awareness. • Participatory paradigm - No paradigm shift, but rather top-down participation towards the NWRS2. - Nevertheless, structuralism strongly...

  7. OpenShift Workshop

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Rodriguez Peon, Alberto

    2017-01-01

    Workshop to introduce developers to the OpenShift platform available at CERN. Several use cases will be shown, including deploying an existing application into OpenShift. We expect attendees to realize about OpenShift features and general architecture of the service.

  8. A nomenclature paradigm for benign midmembranous vocal fold lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Clark A; Gartner-Schmidt, Jackie; Hathaway, Bridget; Simpson, C Blake; Postma, Gregory N; Courey, Mark; Sataloff, Robert T

    2012-06-01

    There is a significant lack of uniform agreement regarding nomenclature for benign vocal fold lesions (BVFLs). This confusion results in difficulty for clinicians communicating with their patients and with each other. In addition, BVFL research and comparison of treatment methods are hampered by the lack of a detailed and uniform BVFL nomenclature. Clinical consensus conferences were held to develop an initial BVFL nomenclature paradigm. Perceptual video analysis was performed to validate the stroboscopy component of the paradigm. The culmination of the consensus conferences and the video-perceptual analysis was used to evaluate the BVFL nomenclature paradigm using a retrospective review of patients with BVFL. An initial BVFL nomenclature paradigm was proposed utilizing detailed definitions relating to vocal fold lesion morphology, stroboscopy, response to voice therapy and intraoperative findings. Video-perceptual analysis of stroboscopy demonstrated that the proposed binary stroboscopy system used in the BVFL nomenclature paradigm was valid and widely applicable. Retrospective review of 45 patients with BVFL followed to the conclusion of treatment demonstrated that slight modifications of the initial BVFL nomenclature paradigm were required. With the modified BVFL nomenclature paradigm, 96% of the patients fit into the predicted pattern and definitions of the BVFL nomenclature system. This study has validated a multidimensional BVFL nomenclature paradigm. This vocal fold nomenclature paradigm includes nine distinct vocal fold lesions: vocal fold nodules, vocal fold polyp, pseudocyst, vocal fold cyst (subepithelial or ligament), nonspecific vocal fold lesion, vocal fold fibrous mass (subepithelial or ligament), and reactive lesion. Copyright © 2011 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  9. The synthesis paradigm in genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, William R

    2014-02-01

    Experimental genetics with model organisms and mathematically explicit genetic theory are generally considered to be the major paradigms by which progress in genetics is achieved. Here I argue that this view is incomplete and that pivotal advances in genetics--and other fields of biology--are also made by synthesizing disparate threads of extant information rather than generating new information from experiments or formal theory. Because of the explosive expansion of information in numerous "-omics" data banks, and the fragmentation of genetics into numerous subdisciplines, the importance of the synthesis paradigm will likely expand with time.

  10. Transmission pricing: paradigms and methodologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirmohammadi, Dariush [Pacific Gas and Electric Co., San Francisco, CA (United States); Vieira Filho, Xisto; Gorenstin, Boris [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica (CEPEL), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Pereira, Mario V.P. [Power System Research, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1994-12-31

    In this paper we describe the principles of several paradigms and methodologies for pricing transmission services. The paper outlines some of the main characteristics of these paradigms and methodologies such as where they may be used for best results. Due to their popularity, power flow based MW-mile and short run marginal cost pricing methodologies will be covered in some detail. We conclude the paper with examples of the application of these two pricing methodologies for pricing transmission services in Brazil. (author) 25 refs., 2 tabs.

  11. CNN a paradigm for complexity

    CERN Document Server

    Chua, Leon O

    1998-01-01

    Revolutionary and original, this treatise presents a new paradigm of EMERGENCE and COMPLEXITY, with applications drawn from numerous disciplines, including artificial life, biology, chemistry, computation, physics, image processing, information science, etc.CNN is an acronym for Cellular Neural Networks when used in the context of brain science, or Cellular Nonlinear Networks, when used in the context of emergence and complexity. A CNN is modeled by cells and interactions: cells are defined as dynamical systems and interactions are defined via coupling laws. The CNN paradigm is a universal Tur

  12. [New Paradigms? Current Trends within National and International Psychotherapy Research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauß, Bernhard

    2015-09-01

    This article is devoted to the question which paradigms currently determine psychotherapy and psychotherapy research, and if there are indicators of paradigm changes in this field. The question of the efficacy and effectiveness (including the effectiveness of a transfer of psychotherapeutic knowledge to service) is specifically focussed as well as the question of the central therapeutic factors and the significance of the person of the therapist. It is argued that there are really some signals of a paradigm switch, with a turn away from controlled outcome research, representing only a minor part of patients in need of psychotherapy, towards a more specific process oriented research, also considering differential effects of the therapist. The most prominent indicator of a paradigm change is reflected by an increasing influence of patient oriented psychotherapy research which - consequently - should also be supported by the insurances as well as the funding organisations. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. Programming Language: Concepts and Paradigms

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz Lizama, Edgar

    2014-01-01

    The article presents the concepts that govern around the programming languages and the paradigms of the programming and the influence in the development of the software. El artículo presenta los conceptos que rigen a los lenguajes de programación y los paradigmas de la programación y como estos influyen en el desarrollo del software.

  14. Understanding the land management paradigm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2006-01-01

    There is a worldwide need to build understanding of the land management paradigm and for institutional development to establish sustainable national concepts. This includes creation and adoption of a policy on land development, and an approach that combines the land administration...

  15. Artificial life, the new paradigm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez Paez, Jose Jesus

    1998-01-01

    A chronological synthesis of the most important facts is presented in the theoretical development and computational simulation that they have taken to the formation of a new paradigm that is known as artificial life; their characteristics and their main investigation lines are analyzed. Finally, a description of its work is made in the National University of Colombia

  16. Shift work-related health problems in

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Khavaji

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and aimsShift work is a major feature of working life that affects diverse aspects of human life. The main purposes of this study were to investigate shift work-related health problems and their risk factors among workers of "12-hour shift" schedule.MethodsThis cross-sectional study was carried out at 8 petrochemical industries in Asalooyeh area. Study population consisted of 1203 workers including 549 shift worker (46% and 654 day worker (54%. Data on personal details, shift schedule and adverse effects of shift work werecollected by anonymous questionnaire. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS, version 11.5. The level of significance was set at 5%.ResultsAlthough, the results showed that health problems among shift workers was more prevalent than day workers, but the differences were just significant in gastrointestinal and musculoskeletal disorders (p<0.05. Multiple linear regressions indicated that in addition to shift working, other variants such as long work hours, type of employment, second job, number of children and job title were associated with health problems.ConclusionPrevalence rates of gastrointestinal and musculoskeletal problems among shift workers were significantly higher than that of day workers. Although, working in shift system was the main significant factor associated with the reported problems, but other demographic andwork variables were also found to have association.

  17. Norway 2050: a paradigm vision. Little country, what now?; Norge 2050: et paradigmefremsyn - Lille land, hva naa?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This report provides an overview of some of the main drivers for an upcoming techno-economic paradigm shift towards a resource efficient low carbon society and points out what such a paradigm may mean for Norway. The analysis describes a shift driven by resource scarcity, technological innovation and geopolitical changes. The analysis is also an introduction to paradigm vision as a method. Paradigm vision is an appropriate method in a time of great and fundamental changes, because the perspective is committed to identify and describe the possible implications of profound change and upheaval that we know is coming - in one form or another. Increasing pressure on today's techno-economic paradigm enables the emergence of new solutions. At some point they will achieve adequate distribution and maturity, until they reach a tipping point and become dominant.(auth)

  18. Naloxegol in opioid-induced constipation: a new paradigm in the treatment of a common problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Stephanie C; Bruner, Heather C

    2017-01-01

    Opioid-induced constipation (OIC) imposes a significant burden for patients taking pain medications, often resulting in decreased quality of life. Treatment of OIC with traditional medications for functional constipation can be incompletely effective, leading to nonadherence with opioid treatment and undertreated pain. An emerging class of medications that counteract the adverse effects of opioids in the gastrointestinal tract while preserving central nervous system-based pain relief may represent a paradigm shift in the prevention and treatment of OIC. One of these medications, naloxegol, is a once-daily, oral opioid antagonist that is effective, well-tolerated, and approved for treatment of OIC in patients with noncancer pain. More studies are needed to demonstrate this same utility in patients with cancer-related pain.

  19. Mini-Implants in the Anchorage Armamentarium: New Paradigms in the Orthodontics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaru Yamaguchi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Paradigms have started to shift in the orthodontic world since the introduction of mini-implants in the anchorage armamentarium. Various forms of skeletal anchorage, including miniscrews and miniplates, have been reported in the literature. Recently, great emphasis has been placed on the miniscrew type of temporary anchorage device (TAD. These devices are small, are implanted with a relatively simple surgical procedure, and increase the potential for better orthodontic results. Therefore, miniscrews not only free orthodontists from anchorage-demanding cases, but they also enable clinicians to have good control over tooth movement in 3 dimensions. The miniplate type also produces significant improvements in treatment outcomes and has widened the spectrum of orthodontics. The purpose of this paper is to update clinicians on the current concepts and versatile uses and clinical applications of skeletal anchorage in orthodontics.

  20. Urgency of changing paradigms in radiation hygiene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudritskij, Yu.K.; Karpov, V.I.; Georgievskij, A.B.

    1991-01-01

    A problem has been raised on the necessity to substitute the linear-nonthreshold hypothesis as a paradigm of radiation hygiene for the hypothesis of the biological effectiveness of ionizing irradiations. A comparison of the methodological substantiation for both hypotheses and a conception of 'acceptable risk' has been carried out. It is suggested that the possibility of theoretical substantiation of safety standards for the radiational factor on the basis of adatational hypothesis be acknowledged instead of the linear - nonthreshold conception which has lost its historic significance

  1. EPISTEMOLOGY IN THE CONTEXT OF THE MODERN BIOLOGICAL EVOLUTIONAL PARADIGM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. S. Tokovenko

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the work is finding the reasonability of using bio-evolutionary paradigm for researching ratio morphic cognitive activity. Methodology. Methodological grounds consist of the original principles and conceptual apparatus of evolutionary epistemology. Scientific novelty. The article identifies opportunities for using of biological and evolutionary paradigm to study the peculiarities of ratiomorphic cognitive backgrounds and their influence on the formation and development of human knowledge. Conclusions. The article concludes that together with the idea of hyper cycles (feedback loop with mutual transmission of information in cognitive process the concept of ratiomorphic cognitive backgrounds, as well as attempts to examine cognitive processes based on the scientific criteria (empirical verification, explanatory power and ability to predict should be certainly considered as a positive contribution to the development of evolutionary epistemology into modern epistemological research. However, it is also indicated the fact of narrowing the heuristic possibilities of this epistemological direction because of excessive metaphor of bio-evolutionary paradigm. Further development of evolutionary epistemological research is considered in shifting the emphasis from biological and evolutionary towards cultural and evolutionary paradigm.

  2. Choice Shifts in Groups

    OpenAIRE

    Kfir Eliaz; Debraj Ray

    2004-01-01

    The phenomenon of "choice shifts" in group decision-making is fairly ubiquitous in the social psychology literature. Faced with a choice between a ``safe" and ``risky" decision, group members appear to move to one extreme or the other, relative to the choices each member might have made on her own. Both risky and cautious shifts have been identified in different situations. This paper demonstrates that from an individual decision-making perspective, choice shifts may be viewed as a systematic...

  3. Implementing OpenShift

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, Adam

    2013-01-01

    A standard tutorial-based approach to using OpenShift and deploying custom or pre-built web applications to the OpenShift Online cloud.This book is for software developers and DevOps alike who are interested in learning how to use the OpenShift Platform-as-a-Service for developing and deploying applications, how the environment works on the back end, and how to deploy their very own open source Platform-as-a-Service based on the upstream OpenShift Origin project.

  4. Insomnia in shift work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallières, Annie; Azaiez, Aïda; Moreau, Vincent; LeBlanc, Mélanie; Morin, Charles M

    2014-12-01

    Shift work disorder involves insomnia and/or excessive sleepiness associated with the work schedule. The present study examined the impact of insomnia on the perceived physical and psychological health of adults working on night and rotating shift schedules compared to day workers. A total of 418 adults (51% women, mean age 41.4 years), including 51 night workers, 158 rotating shift workers, and 209 day workers were selected from an epidemiological study. An algorithm was used to classify each participant of the two groups (working night or rotating shifts) according to the presence or absence of insomnia symptoms. Each of these individuals was paired with a day worker according to gender, age, and income. Participants completed several questionnaires measuring sleep, health, and psychological variables. Night and rotating shift workers with insomnia presented a sleep profile similar to that of day workers with insomnia. Sleep time was more strongly related to insomnia than to shift work per se. Participants with insomnia in the three groups complained of anxiety, depression, and fatigue, and reported consuming equal amounts of sleep-aid medication. Insomnia also contributed to chronic pain and otorhinolaryngology problems, especially among rotating shift workers. Work productivity and absenteeism were more strongly related to insomnia. The present study highlights insomnia as an important component of the sleep difficulties experienced by shift workers. Insomnia may exacerbate certain physical and mental health problems of shift workers, and impair their quality of life. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Policy paradigms, transnationalism, and domestic politics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Skogstad, Grace Darlene

    2011-01-01

    Policy Paradigms, Transnationalism, and Domestic Politics offers a variety of perspectives on the development of policy paradigms -- the ideas that structure thinking about what can and should be done in a policy domain...

  6. Effect of Shift Work on Nocturia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Wook

    2016-01-01

    To identify the circadian sensitive component of nocturia by comparing nocturia in patients who voluntarily choose a disrupted circadian rhythm, that is, shift workers, with those who maintain normal day-night cycles. Between 2011 and 2013, a total of 1741 untreated patients, 1376 nonshift workers and 365 shift workers, were compared for nocturia indices based on frequency volume charts (FVCs). General linear model of 8-hour interval urine production and frequency were compared between FVCs of nonshift workers, FVCs of night-shift workers, and FVCs of day-shift workers. Nocturia frequency was increased in the night-shift workers (2.38 ± 1.44) compared with nonshift workers (2.18 ± 1.04) (P night-shift workers, 0.34 ± 0.13 for nonshift workers, P = .24), nocturnal bladder capacity index increased significantly (1.41 ± 1.06 for night-shift workers, 1.26 ± 0.92 for nonshift workers, P shift (P shift changes (P = .35). Patients in alternating work shifts showed increased nocturia, especially during their night shift. These changes tended to be more associated with decreased nocturnal bladder capacity than increased nocturnal polyuria. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Philosophy of science and the emerging paradigm: implications for hypnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osowiec, Darlene A

    2014-01-01

    Within the hypnosis field, there is a disparity between clinical and research worldviews. Clinical practitioners work with patients who are dealing with serious, often unique, real-world problems-lived experience. Researchers adhere to objective measurements, standardization, data, and statistics. Although there is overlap, an ongoing divergence can be counterproductive to the hypnosis field and to the larger professional and social contexts. The purpose of this article is: (1) to examine some of the major assumptions, the history, and the philosophy that undergird the definition of science, which was constructed in the mid-17th century; (2) to discover how science is a product of prevailing social forces and is undergoing a paradigm shift; and (3) to understand the more encompassing, holistic paradigm with implications for the hypnosis field.

  8. Black hole evaporation: a paradigm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashtekar, Abhay; Bojowald, Martin

    2005-01-01

    A paradigm describing black hole evaporation in non-perturbative quantum gravity is developed by combining two sets of detailed results: (i) resolution of the Schwarzschild singularity using quantum geometry methods and (ii) time evolution of black holes in the trapping and dynamical horizon frameworks. Quantum geometry effects introduce a major modification in the traditional spacetime diagram of black hole evaporation, providing a possible mechanism for recovery of information that is classically lost in the process of black hole formation. The paradigm is developed directly in the Lorentzian regime and necessary conditions for its viability are discussed. If these conditions are met, much of the tension between expectations based on spacetime geometry and structure of quantum theory would be resolved

  9. Three Paradigms of Social Assistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre-Marc Daigneault

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available “Ideas,” which are defined as the normative and cognitive beliefs of actors, are fundamental to a full understanding of the welfare state and, in particular, of social assistance. However, policy ideas have been neglected in most typologies of social assistance regimes. Based on a selective review of the literature, this article proposes a brief but systematic analysis of policy paradigms in the field of social assistance. Three ideal types that emphasize the ideational dimension of social assistance are analyzed, namely, the entitlement, workfare, and activation paradigms. The value of the typology lies in its utility for characterizing the ideational orientation of social assistance regimes. Specifically, the typology provides a yardstick for measuring the ideas of policy actors with respect to social assistance and can facilitate the conduct of case studies, comparative research, and causal analyses on this policy sector.

  10. Third ventricle midline shift on computed tomography as an alternative to septum pellucidum shift

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santiago, Carlos Francis A.; Oropilla, Jean Quint L; Alvarez, Victor M.

    2000-01-01

    The cerebral midline shift is measured using the displacement from midline of the third ventricle. It is an easily determined criterion from which CT scans of patients with spontaneous intracerebral hematoma may be investigated. Midline shift is a significant criteria in which to gauge the neurological status of patients. In a retrospective study of 32 patients with spontaneous unilateral intracerebral hemorrhage, a midline third ventricle shift correlated well with septum pellucidum shift. A greater than 7 mm midline third ventricle shift was associated with a significantly lower Glasgow Coma scale score compared a shift less than 7mm. For the septum pellucidum, a greater than 10 mm shift was similarly associated with a significantly lower Glasgow Coma scale score. (Author)

  11. Exploring Paradigms of Crime Reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soothill, Keith; Christoffersen, Mogens N.; Hussain, Azhar

    2010-01-01

    Using Danish registers for a 1980 birth cohort of 29,944 males with parental information and following up these cases for 25 years, the study considers four paradigms of crime reduction (parental child rearing, structural factors around adolescence, locality and individual resources). Focusing on...... have more widespread benefits, but the assumed causal links need to be further explored. The use of population registers, under controlled conditions, provides an important window on criminal careers....

  12. Storytelling, advertising and paradigm fusion

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, David

    2012-01-01

    'The art of storytelling in the modern age is fundamentally important. So, how we create stories for a screen-based culture is vitally important to master' (Hegarty, 2011, p.96-97). This paper explores the potential benefit of fusing aspects of creative writing with the curriculum of the BA Creative Advertising programme (BACAP) at Leeds College of Art (LCA) in order to address Sir John Hegarty's assertion. In particular it will focus on the characteristics of the 'classical paradigms' us...

  13. Mandarin functional MRI Language paradigms

    OpenAIRE

    Ci, He; van Graan, Andre; Gonz?lvez, Gloria; Thompson, Pamela; Hill, Andrea; Duncan, John S.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective The objective of this study was to implement convenient, fast, and accurate Mandarin task paradigms for functional MRI, and to locate the Chinese language functional areas in frontal and temporal lobes. Materials and Methods Nineteen healthy Chinese volunteers participated in this study, which utilized a block design with four language tasks: auditory naming (AN), picture naming (PN), verbal fluency?character (VFC), and verbal fluency?letter (VFL). All functional images wer...

  14. Biogeochemical processes on tree islands in the greater everglades: Initiating a new paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetzel, P.R.; Sklar, Fred H.; Coronado, C.A.; Troxler, T.G.; Krupa, S.L.; Sullivan, P.L.; Ewe, S.; Price, R.M.; Newman, S.; Orem, W.H.

    2011-01-01

    Scientists' understanding of the role of tree islands in the Everglades has evolved from a plant community of minor biogeochemical importance to a plant community recognized as the driving force for localized phosphorus accumulation within the landscape. Results from this review suggest that tree transpiration, nutrient infiltration from the soil surface, and groundwater flow create a soil zone of confluence where nutrients and salts accumulate under the head of a tree island during dry periods. Results also suggest accumulated salts and nutrients are flushed downstream by regional water flows during wet periods. That trees modulate their environment to create biogeochemical hot spots and strong nutrient gradients is a significant ecological paradigm shift in the understanding of the biogeochemical processes in the Everglades. In terms of island sustainability, this new paradigm suggests the need for distinct dry-wet cycles as well as a hydrologic regime that supports tree survival. Restoration of historic tree islands needs further investigation but the creation of functional tree islands is promising. Copyright ?? 2011 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

  15. Shifted Independent Component Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørup, Morten; Madsen, Kristoffer Hougaard; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2007-01-01

    Delayed mixing is a problem of theoretical interest and practical importance, e.g., in speech processing, bio-medical signal analysis and financial data modelling. Most previous analyses have been based on models with integer shifts, i.e., shifts by a number of samples, and have often been carried...

  16. Homogeneous bilateral block shifts

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Douglas class were classified in [3]; they are unilateral block shifts of arbitrary block size (i.e. dim H(n) can be anything). However, no examples of irreducible homogeneous bilateral block shifts of block size larger than 1 were known until now.

  17. OpenShift cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Gulati, Shekhar

    2014-01-01

    If you are a web application developer who wants to use the OpenShift platform to host your next big idea but are looking for guidance on how to achieve this, then this book is the first step you need to take. This is a very accessible cookbook where no previous knowledge of OpenShift is needed.

  18. A P300 brain-computer interface based on a modification of the mismatch negativity paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jing; Sellers, Eric W; Zhou, Sijie; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Xingyu; Cichocki, Andrzej

    2015-05-01

    The P300-based brain-computer interface (BCI) is an extension of the oddball paradigm, and can facilitate communication for people with severe neuromuscular disorders. It has been shown that, in addition to the P300, other event-related potential (ERP) components have been shown to contribute to successful operation of the P300 BCI. Incorporating these components into the classification algorithm can improve the classification accuracy and information transfer rate (ITR). In this paper, a single character presentation paradigm was compared to a presentation paradigm that is based on the visual mismatch negativity. The mismatch negativity paradigm showed significantly higher classification accuracy and ITRs than a single character presentation paradigm. In addition, the mismatch paradigm elicited larger N200 and N400 components than the single character paradigm. The components elicited by the presentation method were consistent with what would be expected from a mismatch paradigm and a typical P300 was also observed. The results show that increasing the signal-to-noise ratio by increasing the amplitude of ERP components can significantly improve BCI speed and accuracy. The mismatch presentation paradigm may be considered a viable option to the traditional P300 BCI paradigm.

  19. Josephson shift registers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Przybysz, J.X.

    1989-01-01

    This paper gives a review of Josephson shift register circuits that were designed, fabricated, or tested, with emphasis on work in the 1980s. Operating speed is most important, since it often limits system performance. Older designs used square-wave clocks, but most modern designs use offset sine waves, with either two or three phases. Operating margins and gate bias uniformity are key concerns. The fastest measured Josephson shift register operated at 2.3 GHz, which compares well with a GaAs shift register that consumes 250 times more power. The difficulties of high-speed testing have prevented many Josephson shift registers from being operated at their highest speeds. Computer simulations suggest that 30-GHz operation is possible with current Nb/Al 2 O 3 /Nb technology. Junctions with critical current densities near 10 kA/cm 2 would make 100-GHz shift registers feasible

  20. The University Corporation for Atmospheric Research's Significant Opportunities in Atmospheric and Related Sciences (UCAR-SOARS) program: A paradigm case for a research based analysis of elements and attributes of a highly successful research experience for undergraduate (REU) program designed to broaden participation in STEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windham, T. L.

    2011-12-01

    REU (research experience for undergraduate) programs in science serve as a centerpiece for: recruitment improved learning, retention and increased graduation rates among students in STEM fields. Structured REUs are highly effective programs for broadening participation and remedying inequities, to increase and diversify the STEM talent pool and professional workforce. Now in its 16th year, SOARS is dedicated to broadening participation in the atmospheric and related sciences. SOARS is an undergraduate through graduate program built on the structure of: a summer research internship, mentoring by professional scientists, and a supportive learning community. SOARS is an exemplar. Its structure serves as a paradigm case for the recruitment, retention, and graduation of students from underserved populations. This research-based examination of SOARS explores its program elements and identifies attributes and practices that contribute to its impact and lasting outcomes.

  1. SCHOOL ECONOMY IN THE INVENTING EDUCATION PARADIGM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoliy Alexandrovich Lepeshev

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Requirements applied to specialists for working in the sixth wave of innovation, i.e. Industry 4.0, determines the necessity of education system improvement concerning training solution and, as a result, creation of inventive ideas. Today in our country this process is stimulated by various competitions, including financing for the implementation of results. In training programs knowledge approach still prevails. The corresponding methods, along with stimulation, are included into educational programs in leading foreign educational institutions, mostly at universities. If in previous decades mostly divergent methods were studied (morphological analysis, the focal objects method, synectics, etc., then now the leading place is taken by theory of inventive problem solving – TRIZ created in the former USSR by G.S. Altshuller in connection with the increasing leading corporations requirement for specialists in TRIZ. This fact gives Russia essential competitive advantages in the innovative way of development. For effective use of this advantage it is important to form the TRIZ-based innovative thinking beginning from school days. For this purpose authors developed new methods in TRIZ-pedagogics, uniting metasubject results (in higher education institutions – competences into the system of innovative thinking. As a result, both educational and economic effects are achieved: the intellectual property created in educational process. For schools it is the possibility of significant improvement of financing causing importance of new mechanisms of intellectual property fixation, protection and implementation. Recommendations about creation of such system are provided in the article. Purpose Defining the opportunities and ways of improving economic effectiveness of educational activities in the paradigm of inventive education. Tasks: – analysis of school education institutions experience in implementation of approaches preceding the inventing education

  2. Shift work as an oxidative stressor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasalar Parvin

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Some medical disorders have higher prevalence in shift workers than others. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of night-shift-working on total plasma antioxidant capacity, with respect to the causative role of oxidative stress in induction of some of these disorders. Methods Two blood samples were taken from 44 workers with a rotational shift schedule, one after their day shift and one after their night shift. The total plasma antioxidant capacity of each worker was measured through the FRAP method. The impacts of age and weight were also assessed. Results The total plasma antioxidant capacity was measured in 44 shift-workers with a mean age of 36.57 years (SD: 10.18 and mean BMI of 26.06 (SD: 4.37 after their day and night shifts. The mean reduction of total plasma antioxidant capacity after the night shift was 105.8 μmol/L (SD: 146.39. Also, a significant correlation was shown between age and weight and total plasma antioxidant capacity. Age and weight were found to be inversely related to total plasma antioxidant capacity; as age and weight increased, the total plasma antioxidant capacity decreased. Conclusion Shift work can act as an oxidative stressor and may induce many medical disorders. Aging and obesity in shift workers makes them more sensitive to this hazardous effect.

  3. Translingual Practice as Spatial Repertoires: Expanding the Paradigm beyond Structuralist Orientations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canagarajah, Suresh

    2018-01-01

    The expanding orientations to translingualism are motivated by a gradual shift from the structuralist paradigm that has been treated as foundational in modern linguistics. Structuralism encouraged scholars to consider language, like other social constructs, as organized as a self-defining and closed structure, set apart from spatiotemporal…

  4. Science-Technology-Society (STS): A New Paradigm in Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, Nasser

    2009-01-01

    Changes in the past two decades of goals for science education in schools have induced new orientations in science education worldwide. One of the emerging complementary approaches was the science-technology-society (STS) movement. STS has been called the current megatrend in science education. Others have called it a paradigm shift for the field…

  5. A paradigm shif in Life Orientation: a review | van deventer | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal for Research in Sport, Physical Education and Recreation ... mission of PE. The profession has failed to articulate PE in terms which are readily understandable to parents, politicians and children. This article focuses on ... a paradigm shift towards Physical and Health Education in Life Orientation

  6. BUSINESS PROCES MANGEMNET SYSTEMS AS A NEW PARADIGM OF IT DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor G. Fiodorov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available It would be wrong to reduce the paradigm shift in IT development to a change in technology, the emergence of new software or hardware. The development of enterprise information systems based on the BPM is a radical change in our views on methods for business process modeling and for organisation management.

  7. From Static Stretching to Dynamic Exercises: Changing the Warm-Up Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Shawna

    2010-01-01

    In the United States, pre-exercise static stretching seems to have become common practice and routine. However, research suggests that it is time for a paradigm shift--that pre-exercise static stretching be replaced with dynamic warm-up exercises. Research indicates that a dynamic warm-up elevates body temperature, decreases muscle and joint…

  8. Propaganda Studies in American Social Science: The Rise and Fall of the Critical Paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sproule, J. Michael

    1987-01-01

    Examines the inability of the propaganda paradigm to maintain its position as the standard framework for rhetorical inquiry in the sociointellectual atmosphere that surrounded World War II and the Cold War. Discusses the epistemological and ideological roots of the shift from propaganda to statistical/experimental communication research. (JD)

  9. "Theory at the Crossroads": Mapping Moments of Mathematics Education Research onto Paradigms of Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinson, David W.; Walshaw, Margaret

    2017-01-01

    In this essay, traveling through the past half-century, the authors illustrate how mathematics education research shifted, theoretical, beyond its psychological and mathematical roots. Mapping four historical moments of mathematics education research onto broader paradigms of inquiry, the authors make a case for the field to take up a theoretical…

  10. Paradigm for new scientific technology; Shinkagaku gijutsu paradigm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shindo, Y [National Chemical Lab. for Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-01-05

    This paper reviews the current status from the standpoint of chemical engineers facing the coming of the 21st century, and surveys the paradigm for new scientific technologies. The criticism is mixed with unique opinions everywhere, such as `departure of students from scientific and engineering faculties is none other than the result of a market principle`, `national burden of trillions of yens should not be spent only under a justice of advancement of the science`, and `the global civilization itself has no other way but to change from the conventional expansive development type of the western country style to the internal development type of the oriental country style`. Values that define the paradigm for new scientific technologies may include such keywords as saturation in technology, baseless expansion of research projects, criticism on science, market principle, and centering human being. It should be looked at seriously that profit from research and development should exceed the cast invested therein in the future, and scientific technologies that serve truly the society should be aimed at. These efforts will result in one of the large pillars that support the future in which creation of new functions is aimed at as a result of structuring the new systems. Trying to overcome the environmental problems is one of them.

  11. The Third Perspective on Shifting Cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukanya Sharma

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT There are two perspectives in which the understanding of food sustainability in the world is entangled. The first perspective which believes that food sustainability can be achieved by technology presents shifting cultivation as a reflection of a lower state of cultural evolution in comparison with more sophisticated societies (O’Brien 2002.The second perspective which believes in culture, in the ‘way of life’ paradigm valorise shifting cultivation as a form of indigenous genius, representing the indigenous people as perhaps the original environmentalist (Bandy et al.1993; Conklin 1957; Grandstaff 1981; Hong 1987. The biasness of both the perspectives is well visible. The task now is to document and evaluate indigenous strategies of shifting cultivation through a process of research and development. This process involves identification of promising indigenous practices, characterization of the practices, validation of the utility of the practice for other communities, extrapolation to other locations, verification with key farmers, and wide-scale extension. This can be treated as the third perspective available to the policy makers. By this, the detrimental effects of shifting cultivation can be mitigated and productivity increased (Mali 2003.

  12. Use of a Green Familiar Faces Paradigm Improves P300-Speller Brain-Computer Interface Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qi; Liu, Shuai; Li, Jian; Bai, Ou

    2015-01-01

    A recent study showed improved performance of the P300-speller when the flashing row or column was overlaid with translucent pictures of familiar faces (FF spelling paradigm). However, the performance of the P300-speller is not yet satisfactory due to its low classification accuracy and information transfer rate. To investigate whether P300-speller performance is further improved when the chromatic property and the FF spelling paradigm are combined. We proposed a new spelling paradigm in which the flashing row or column is overlaid with translucent green pictures of familiar faces (GFF spelling paradigm). We analyzed the ERP waveforms elicited by the FF and proposed GFF spelling paradigms and compared P300-speller performance between the two paradigms. Significant differences in the amplitudes of four ERP components (N170, VPP, P300, and P600f) were observed between both spelling paradigms. Compared to the FF spelling paradigm, the GFF spelling paradigm elicited ERP waveforms of higher amplitudes and resulted in improved P300-speller performance. Combining the chromatic property (green color) and the FF spelling paradigm led to better classification accuracy and an increased information transfer rate. These findings demonstrate a promising new approach for improving the performance of the P300-speller.

  13. Passage of American shad: paradigms and realities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haro, Alex; Castro-Santos, Theodore

    2012-01-01

    Despite more than 250 years of development, the passage of American shad Alosa sapidissima at dams and other barriers frequently remains problematic. Few improvements in design based on knowledge of the swimming, schooling, and migratory behaviors of American shad have been incorporated into passage structures. Large-scale technical fishways designed for the passage of adult salmonids on the Columbia River have been presumed to have good performance for American shad but have never been rigorously evaluated for this species. Similar but smaller fishway designs on the East Coast frequently have poor performance. Provision of effective downstream passage for both juvenile and postspawning adult American shad has been given little consideration in most passage projects. Ways to attract and guide American shad to both fishway entrances and downstream bypasses remain marginally understood. The historical development of passage structures for American shad has resulted in assumptions and paradigms about American shad behavior and passage that are frequently unsubstantiated by supporting data or appropriate experimentation. We propose that many of these assumptions and paradigms are either unfounded or invalid and that significant improvements to American shad upstream and downstream passage can be made via a sequential program of behavioral experimentation, application of experimental results to the physical and hydraulic design of new structures, and controlled tests of large-scale prototype structures in the laboratory and field.

  14. Colloidal paradigm in supercapattery electrode systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kunfeng; Xue, Dongfeng

    2018-01-01

    Among decades of development, electrochemical energy storage systems are now sorely in need of a new design paradigm at the nano size and ion level to satisfy the higher energy and power demands. In this review paper, we introduce a new colloidal electrode paradigm for supercapattery that integrates multiple-scale forms of matter, i.e. ion clusters, colloidal ions, and nanosized materials, into one colloid system, coupled with multiple interactions, i.e. electrostatic, van der Waals forces, and chemical bonding, thus leading to the formation of many redox reactive centers. This colloidal electrode not only keeps the original ionic nature in colloidal materials, but also creates a new attribute of high electroactivity. Colloidal supercapattery is a perfect application example of the novel colloidal electrode, leading to higher specific capacitance than traditional electrode materials. The high electroactivity of the colloidal electrode mainly comes from the contribution of exposed reactive centers, owing to the confinement effect of carbon and a binder matrix. Systematic and thorough research on the colloidal system will significantly promote the development of fundamental science and the progress of advanced energy storage technology.

  15. Effect of Task-Correlated Physiological Fluctuations and Motion in 2D and 3D Echo-Planar Imaging in a Higher Cognitive Level fMRI Paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladstein, Jarle; Evensmoen, Hallvard R; Håberg, Asta K; Kristoffersen, Anders; Goa, Pål E

    2016-01-01

    To compare 2D and 3D echo-planar imaging (EPI) in a higher cognitive level fMRI paradigm. In particular, to study the link between the presence of task-correlated physiological fluctuations and motion and the fMRI contrast estimates from either 2D EPI or 3D EPI datasets, with and without adding nuisance regressors to the model. A signal model in the presence of partly task-correlated fluctuations is derived, and predictions for contrast estimates with and without nuisance regressors are made. Thirty-one healthy volunteers were scanned using 2D EPI and 3D EPI during a virtual environmental learning paradigm. In a subgroup of 7 subjects, heart rate and respiration were logged, and the correlation with the paradigm was evaluated. FMRI analysis was performed using models with and without nuisance regressors. Differences in the mean contrast estimates were investigated by analysis-of-variance using Subject, Sequence, Day, and Run as factors. The distributions of group level contrast estimates were compared. Partially task-correlated fluctuations in respiration, heart rate and motion were observed. Statistically significant differences were found in the mean contrast estimates between the 2D EPI and 3D EPI when using a model without nuisance regressors. The inclusion of nuisance regressors for cardiorespiratory effects and motion reduced the difference to a statistically non-significant level. Furthermore, the contrast estimate values shifted more when including nuisance regressors for 3D EPI compared to 2D EPI. The results are consistent with 3D EPI having a higher sensitivity to fluctuations compared to 2D EPI. In the presence partially task-correlated physiological fluctuations or motion, proper correction is necessary to get expectation correct contrast estimates when using 3D EPI. As such task-correlated physiological fluctuations or motion is difficult to avoid in paradigms exploring higher cognitive functions, 2D EPI seems to be the preferred choice for higher

  16. The Paradigm of Distributed Creativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glaveanu, Vlad Petre

    This presentation aims to focus on and develop the notion of distributed creativity from a cultural psychological perspective. It will start by outlining the need for a cultural psychological paradigm of creative expression and argue that this perspective is primarily concerned with what can...... be called ‘distributed creativity’. Drawing on related literature on distributed cognition (Hutchins, 2000), I will consider here the three inter-related ways in which creative action is distributed: across people, across people and objects, and across time. This particular understanding of creativity...

  17. Psychiatry beyond the current paradigm.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bracken, Pat

    2012-12-01

    A series of editorials in this Journal have argued that psychiatry is in the midst of a crisis. The various solutions proposed would all involve a strengthening of psychiatry\\'s identity as essentially \\'applied neuroscience\\'. Although not discounting the importance of the brain sciences and psychopharmacology, we argue that psychiatry needs to move beyond the dominance of the current, technological paradigm. This would be more in keeping with the evidence about how positive outcomes are achieved and could also serve to foster more meaningful collaboration with the growing service user movement.

  18. [Sleep quality of nurses working in shifts - Hungarian adaptation of the Bergen Shift Work Sleep Questionnaire].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusz, Katalin; Tóth, Ákos; Fullér, Noémi; Müller, Ágnes; Oláh, András

    2015-12-06

    Sleep disorders among shift workers are common problems due to the disturbed circadian rhythm. The Bergen Shift Work Sleep Questionnaire assesses discrete sleep problems related to work shifts (day, evening and night shifts) and rest days. The aim of the study was to develop the Hungarian version of this questionnaire and to compare the sleep quality of nurses in different work schedules. 326 nurses working in shifts filled in the questionnaire. The authors made convergent and discriminant validation of the questionnaire with the Athens Insomnia Scale and the Perceived Stress Questionnaire. The questionnaire based on psychometric characteristics was suitable to assess sleep disorders associated with shift work in a Hungarian sample. The frequency of discrete symptoms significantly (pshifts. Nurses experienced the worst sleep quality and daytime fatigue after the night shift. Nurses working in irregular shift system had worse sleep quality than nurses working in regular and flexible shift system (pworking in shifts should be assessed with the Hungarian version of the Bergen Shift Work Sleep Questionnaire on a nationally representative sample, and the least burdensome shift system could be established.

  19. Nurses' shift reports

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buus, Niels; Hoeck, Bente; Hamilton, Bridget Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To identify reporting practices that feature in studies of nurses' shift reports across diverse nursing specialities. The objectives were to perform an exhaustive systematic literature search and to critically review the quality and findings of qualitative field studies...... of nurses' shift reports. BACKGROUND: Nurses' shift reports are routine occurrences in healthcare organisations that are viewed as crucial for patient outcomes, patient safety and continuity of care. Studies of communication between nurses attend primarily to 1:1 communication and analyse the adequacy...... and accuracy of patient information and feature handovers at the bedside. Still, verbal reports between groups of nurses about patients are commonplace. Shift reports are obvious sites for studying the situated accomplishment of professional nursing at the group level. This review is focused exclusively...

  20. Shift Verification and Validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandya, Tara M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Evans, Thomas M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Davidson, Gregory G [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Johnson, Seth R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Godfrey, Andrew T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-09-07

    This documentation outlines the verification and validation of Shift for the Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL). Five main types of problems were used for validation: small criticality benchmark problems; full-core reactor benchmarks for light water reactors; fixed-source coupled neutron-photon dosimetry benchmarks; depletion/burnup benchmarks; and full-core reactor performance benchmarks. We compared Shift results to measured data and other simulated Monte Carlo radiation transport code results, and found very good agreement in a variety of comparison measures. These include prediction of critical eigenvalue, radial and axial pin power distributions, rod worth, leakage spectra, and nuclide inventories over a burn cycle. Based on this validation of Shift, we are confident in Shift to provide reference results for CASL benchmarking.

  1. Molecular Electronic Shift Registers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beratan, David N.; Onuchic, Jose N.

    1990-01-01

    Molecular-scale shift registers eventually constructed as parts of high-density integrated memory circuits. In principle, variety of organic molecules makes possible large number of different configurations and modes of operation for such shift-register devices. Several classes of devices and implementations in some specific types of molecules proposed. All based on transfer of electrons or holes along chains of repeating molecular units.

  2. Multicolor Holography With Phase Shifting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vikram, Chandra S.

    1996-01-01

    Prototype apparatus constructed to test feasibility of two-color holographic interferometric scheme in which data for reconstructing holographic wavefront obtained with help of phase-shifting technique. Provides two sets of data needed to solve equations for effects of temperature and concentration. Concept extended to holography at three or more wavelengths to measure three or more phenomena associated with significant variations in index of refraction

  3. Sensory Processing: Advances in Understanding Structure and Function of Pitch-Shifted Auditory Feedback in Voice Control

    OpenAIRE

    Charles R Larson; Donald A Robin

    2016-01-01

    The pitch-shift paradigm has become a widely used method for studying the role of voice pitch auditory feedback in voice control. This paradigm introduces small, brief pitch shifts in voice auditory feedback to vocalizing subjects. The perturbations trigger a reflexive mechanism that counteracts the change in pitch. The underlying mechanisms of the vocal responses are thought to reflect a negative feedback control system that is similar to constructs developed to explain other forms of motor ...

  4. A Systemic Integration of Technology for New-Paradigm Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, William R.; Watson, Sunnie Lee; Reigeluth, Charles M.

    2012-01-01

    Educational reform efforts have failed to create widespread improvement. The authors argue that rather than trying to improve the existing system of education, a new learner-centered paradigm is needed that supports individualized learning. Such a significantly different system of education will require the systemic application of technology to…

  5. Aspects of Theories, Frameworks and Paradigms in Mathematics Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoilescu, Dorian

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses major theoretical debates and paradigms from the last decades in general education and their specific influences in mathematics education contexts. Behaviourism, cognitive science, constructivism, situated cognition, critical theory, place-based learning, postmodernism and poststructuralism and their significant aspects in…

  6. Dissonance: scientific paradigms underpinning the study of sound in geography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Paiva

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to approach the different conceptions of sound – and its relations to the underlying scientific paradigms – that emerged throughout the history of geography. There has been a growing interest among geographers in understanding the spatialities of sound, and geographies of sound have become an emerging subfield of the discipline. For this reason, it is the right time to address how the discipline has approached sound throughout its history. Several theoretical perspectives influenced geography in the twentieth century, changing its methodologies and how its subjects were conceived. Sound, like other subjects, has been conceived very differently by geographers of competing paradigms. Concepts such as noise, soundscape, or sound as affect, among others, have dominated geographies of sound at specific periods. Due to the marginality of the subject in the discipline, assessments of these conceptual shifts are rare. I tackle this issue in this article as I provide a first attempt of writing a history of sound in geography. The article reviews debates regarding the name of the subfield, and the conceptions of sound in the successive and competing scientific paradigms in geography.

  7. Night shift work and modifiable lifestyle factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepłońska, Beata; Burdelak, Weronika; Krysicka, Jolanta; Bukowska, Agnieszka; Marcinkiewicz, Andrzej; Sobala, Wojciech; Klimecka-Muszyńska, Dorota; Rybacki, Marcin

    2014-10-01

    Night shift work has been linked to some chronic diseases. Modification of lifestyle by night work may partially contribute to the development of these diseases, nevertheless, so far epidemiological evidence is limited. The aim of the study was to explore association between night shift work and lifestyle factors using data from a cross-sectional study among blue-collar workers employed in industrial plants in Łódź, Poland. The anonymous questionnaire was self-administered among 605 employees (236 women and 369 men, aged 35 or more) - 434 individuals currently working night shifts. Distribution of the selected lifestyle related factors such as smoking, alcohol drinking, physical activity, body mass index (BMI), number of main meals and the hour of the last meal was compared between current, former, and never night shift workers. Adjusted ORs or predicted means were calculated, as a measure of the associations between night shift work and lifestyle factors, with age, marital status and education included in the models as covariates. Recreational inactivity (defined here as less than one hour per week of recreational physical activity) was associated with current night shift work when compared to never night shift workers (OR = 2.43, 95% CI: 1.13-5.22) among men. Alcohol abstinence and later time of the last meal was associated with night shift work among women. Statistically significant positive relationship between night shift work duration and BMI was observed among men (p = 0.029). This study confirms previous studies reporting lower exercising among night shift workers and tendency to increase body weight. This finding provides important public health implication for the prevention of chronic diseases among night shift workers. Initiatives promoting physical activity addressed in particular to the night shift workers are recommended.

  8. Night shift work and modifiable lifestyle factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Pepłońska

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Night shift work has been linked to some chronic diseases. Modification of lifestyle by night work may partially contribute to the development of these diseases, nevertheless, so far epidemiological evidence is limited. The aim of the study was to explore association between night shift work and lifestyle factors using data from a cross-sectional study among blue-collar workers employed in industrial plants in Łódź, Poland. Material and Methods: The anonymous questionnaire was self-administered among 605 employees (236 women and 369 men, aged 35 or more - 434 individuals currently wor­king night shifts. Distribution of the selected lifestyle related factors such as smoking, alcohol drinking, physical activity, body mass index (BMI, number of main meals and the hour of the last meal was compared between current, former, and never night shift workers. Adjusted ORs or predicted means were calculated, as a measure of the associations between night shift work and lifestyle factors, with age, marital status and education included in the models as covariates. Results: Recreational inactivity (defined here as less than one hour per week of recreational physical activity was associated with current night shift work when compared to never night shift workers (OR = 2.43, 95% CI: 1.13-5.22 among men. Alcohol abstinence and later time of the last meal was associated with night shift work among women. Statistically significant positive relationship between night shift work duration and BMI was observed among men (p = 0.029. Conclusions: This study confirms previous studies reporting lower exercising among night shift workers and tendency to increase body weight. This finding provides important public health implication for the prevention of chronic diseases among night shift workers. Initiatives promoting physical activity addressed in particular to the night shift workers are recommended.

  9. Microgrids: An emerging paradigm for meeting building electricity and heat requirements efficiently and with appropriate energy quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marnay, Chris; Firestone, Ryan [Berkeley Lab MS 90R4000 (United States)

    2007-07-01

    The first major paradigm shift in electricity generation, delivery, and control is emerging in the developed world, notably Europe, North America, and Japan. This shift will move electricity supply away from the highly centralised universal service quality model with which we are familiar today towards a more dispersed system with heterogeneous qualities of service. One element of dispersed control is the clustering of sources and sinks into semi-autonomous {mu}grids (microgrids). Research, development, demonstration, and deployment (RD3) of {mu}grids are advancing rapidly on at least three continents, and significant demonstrations are currently in progress. This paradigm shift will result in more electricity generation close to end-uses, often involving combined heat and power application for building heating and cooling, increased local integration of renewables, and the possible provision of heterogeneous qualities of electrical service to match the requirements of various end-uses. In Europe, microgrid RD3 is entering its third major round under the 7th European Commission Framework Programme; in the U.S., one specific microgrid concept is undergoing rigorous laboratory testing, and in Japan, where the most activity exists, four major publicly sponsored and two privately sponsored demonstrations are in progress. This evolution poses new challenges to the way buildings are designed, built, and operated. Traditional building energy supply systems will become much more complex in at least three ways: 1. one cannot simply assume gas arrives at the gas meter, electricity at its meter, and the two systems are virtually independent of one another; rather, energy conversion, heat recovery and use, and renewable energy harvesting may all be taking place simultaneously within the building energy system; 2. the structure of energy flows in the building must accommodate multiple energy processes in a manner that permits high overall efficiency; and 3. multiple qualities

  10. The detour paradigm in animal cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabadayi, Can; Bobrowicz, Katarzyna; Osvath, Mathias

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we review one of the oldest paradigms used in animal cognition: the detour paradigm. The paradigm presents the subject with a situation where a direct route to the goal is blocked and a detour must be made to reach it. Often being an ecologically valid and a versatile tool, the detour paradigm has been used to study diverse cognitive skills like insight, social learning, inhibitory control and route planning. Due to the relative ease of administrating detour tasks, the paradigm has lately been used in large-scale comparative studies in order to investigate the evolution of inhibitory control. Here we review the detour paradigm and some of its cognitive requirements, we identify various ecological and contextual factors that might affect detour performance, we also discuss developmental and neurological underpinnings of detour behaviors, and we suggest some methodological approaches to make species comparisons more robust.

  11. ENVIRONMENTALISM AND CLASSIC PARADIGMS OF INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    D. D. Miniaeva

    2014-01-01

    This article examines an environmentalism integration process into Three classical paradigms of international relations theory (Liberalism, Realism and Marxism) into Three classical paradigms of international relations theory (Liberalism, Realism and Marxism). The main purpose of this study is to reveal the result of this integration. Methods used in this article include analysis and comparison of "ecological" paradigms on selected parameters (the nature of international relations, actors, ta...

  12. The Oral Paradigm and Snapchat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oren Soffer

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this short essay, I argue that the ephemeral nature of emerging instant-messaging applications, such as Snapchat, applies an oral paradigm. While online discourse of computer-mediated communication shares many qualities with oral communication, the case of ephemeral applications is unique, as the oral features are already integrated in the application technology design and as orality is often implemented on highly visual products. Snapchat applies technology that fades visual contents as if they were spoken words fading in the air after utterance. Moreover, Snapchat’s promise to delete all messages from its database after they are viewed echoes a key characteristic of primary oral culture: that is, the inability (and in our case, the obligation not to store knowledge. In this, Snapchat demonstrates counter-logic to the contemporary grammar of new media, which is based on information aggregation.

  13. Emerging Paradigms in Machine Learning

    CERN Document Server

    Jain, Lakhmi; Howlett, Robert

    2013-01-01

    This  book presents fundamental topics and algorithms that form the core of machine learning (ML) research, as well as emerging paradigms in intelligent system design. The  multidisciplinary nature of machine learning makes it a very fascinating and popular area for research.  The book is aiming at students, practitioners and researchers and captures the diversity and richness of the field of machine learning and intelligent systems.  Several chapters are devoted to computational learning models such as granular computing, rough sets and fuzzy sets An account of applications of well-known learning methods in biometrics, computational stylistics, multi-agent systems, spam classification including an extremely well-written survey on Bayesian networks shed light on the strengths and weaknesses of the methods. Practical studies yielding insight into challenging problems such as learning from incomplete and imbalanced data, pattern recognition of stochastic episodic events and on-line mining of non-stationary ...

  14. Adaptation to shift work: physiologically based modeling of the effects of lighting and shifts' start time.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Postnova

    Full Text Available Shift work has become an integral part of our life with almost 20% of the population being involved in different shift schedules in developed countries. However, the atypical work times, especially the night shifts, are associated with reduced quality and quantity of sleep that leads to increase of sleepiness often culminating in accidents. It has been demonstrated that shift workers' sleepiness can be improved by a proper scheduling of light exposure and optimizing shifts timing. Here, an integrated physiologically-based model of sleep-wake cycles is used to predict adaptation to shift work in different light conditions and for different shift start times for a schedule of four consecutive days of work. The integrated model combines a model of the ascending arousal system in the brain that controls the sleep-wake switch and a human circadian pacemaker model. To validate the application of the integrated model and demonstrate its utility, its dynamics are adjusted to achieve a fit to published experimental results showing adaptation of night shift workers (n = 8 in conditions of either bright or regular lighting. Further, the model is used to predict the shift workers' adaptation to the same shift schedule, but for conditions not considered in the experiment. The model demonstrates that the intensity of shift light can be reduced fourfold from that used in the experiment and still produce good adaptation to night work. The model predicts that sleepiness of the workers during night shifts on a protocol with either bright or regular lighting can be significantly improved by starting the shift earlier in the night, e.g.; at 21:00 instead of 00:00. Finally, the study predicts that people of the same chronotype, i.e. with identical sleep times in normal conditions, can have drastically different responses to shift work depending on their intrinsic circadian and homeostatic parameters.

  15. Adaptation to shift work: physiologically based modeling of the effects of lighting and shifts' start time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postnova, Svetlana; Robinson, Peter A; Postnov, Dmitry D

    2013-01-01

    Shift work has become an integral part of our life with almost 20% of the population being involved in different shift schedules in developed countries. However, the atypical work times, especially the night shifts, are associated with reduced quality and quantity of sleep that leads to increase of sleepiness often culminating in accidents. It has been demonstrated that shift workers' sleepiness can be improved by a proper scheduling of light exposure and optimizing shifts timing. Here, an integrated physiologically-based model of sleep-wake cycles is used to predict adaptation to shift work in different light conditions and for different shift start times for a schedule of four consecutive days of work. The integrated model combines a model of the ascending arousal system in the brain that controls the sleep-wake switch and a human circadian pacemaker model. To validate the application of the integrated model and demonstrate its utility, its dynamics are adjusted to achieve a fit to published experimental results showing adaptation of night shift workers (n = 8) in conditions of either bright or regular lighting. Further, the model is used to predict the shift workers' adaptation to the same shift schedule, but for conditions not considered in the experiment. The model demonstrates that the intensity of shift light can be reduced fourfold from that used in the experiment and still produce good adaptation to night work. The model predicts that sleepiness of the workers during night shifts on a protocol with either bright or regular lighting can be significantly improved by starting the shift earlier in the night, e.g.; at 21:00 instead of 00:00. Finally, the study predicts that people of the same chronotype, i.e. with identical sleep times in normal conditions, can have drastically different responses to shift work depending on their intrinsic circadian and homeostatic parameters.

  16. Mechanical spectral shift reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherwood, D.G.; Wilson, J.F.; Salton, R.B.; Fensterer, H.F.

    1981-01-01

    A mechanical spectral shift reactor comprises apparatus for inserting and withdrawing water displacer elements from the reactor core for selectively changing the water-moderator volume in the core thereby changing the reactivity of the core. The apparatus includes drivemechanisms for moving the displacer elements relative to the core and guide mechanisms for guiding the displayer rods through the reactor vessel

  17. Mechanical spectral shift reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherwood, D.G.; Wilson, J.F.; Salton, R.B.; Fensterer, H.F.

    1982-01-01

    A mechanical spectral shift reactor comprises apparatus for inserting and withdrawing water displacer elements from the reactor core for selectively changing the water-moderator volume in the core thereby changing the reactivity of the core. The apparatus includes drive mechanisms for moving the displacer elements relative to the core and guide mechanisms for guiding the displacer rods through the reactor vessel. (author)

  18. Investigation of neural network paradigms for the development of automatic noise diagnostic/reactor surveillance systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korsah, K.; Uhrig, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    The use of artificial intelligence (AI) techniques as an aid in the maintenance and operation of nuclear power plant systems has been recognized for the past several years, and several applications using expert systems technology currently exist. The authors investigated the backpropagation paradigm for the recognition of neutron noise power spectral density (PSD) signatures as a possible alternative to current methods based on statistical techniques. The goal is to advance the state of the art in the application of noise analysis techniques to monitor nuclear reactor internals. Continuous surveillance of reactor systems for structural degradation can be quite cost-effective because (1) the loss of mechanical integrity of the reactor internal components can be detected at an early stage before severe damage occurs, (2) unnecessary periodic maintenance can be avoided, (3) plant downtime can be reduced to a minimum, (4) a high level of plant safety can be maintained, and (5) it can be used to help justify the extension of a plant's operating license. The initial objectives were to use neutron noise PSD data from a pressurized water reactor, acquired over a period of ∼2 years by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Power Spectral Density RECognition (PSDREC) system to develop networks that can (1) differentiate between normal neutron spectral data and anomalous spectral data (e.g., malfunctioning instrumentation); and (2) detect significant shifts in the positions of spectral resonances while reducing the effect of small, random shifts (in neutron noise analysis, shifts in the resonance(s) present in a neutron PSD spectrum are the primary means for diagnosing degradation of reactor internals). 11 refs, 8 figs

  19. Night shift work exposure profile and obesity: Baseline results from a Chinese night shift worker cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Wenting; Wang, Feng; Zhang, Liuzhuo; Wu, Zijun; Li, Zhimin; Zhang, Bo; He, Yonghua; Xie, Shaohua; Li, Mengjie; Fok, Joan P. C.; Tse, Gary; Wong, Martin C. S.; Tang, Jin-ling; Wong, Samuel Y. S.; Vlaanderen, Jelle; Evans, Greg; Vermeulen, Roel; Tse, Lap Ah

    2018-01-01

    Aims This study aimed to evaluate the associations between types of night shift work and different indices of obesity using the baseline information from a prospective cohort study of night shift workers in China. Methods A total of 3,871 workers from five companies were recruited from the baseline survey. A structured self-administered questionnaire was employed to collect the participants’ demographic information, lifetime working history, and lifestyle habits. Participants were grouped into rotating, permanent and irregular night shift work groups. Anthropometric parameters were assessed by healthcare professionals. Multiple logistic regression models were used to evaluate the associations between night shift work and different indices of obesity. Results Night shift workers had increased risk of overweight and obesity, and odds ratios (ORs) were 1.17 (95% CI, 0.97–1.41) and 1.27 (95% CI, 0.74–2.18), respectively. Abdominal obesity had a significant but marginal association with night shift work (OR = 1.20, 95% CI, 1.01–1.43). A positive gradient between the number of years of night shift work and overweight or abdominal obesity was observed. Permanent night shift work showed the highest odds of being overweight (OR = 3.94, 95% CI, 1.40–11.03) and having increased abdominal obesity (OR = 3.34, 95% CI, 1.19–9.37). Irregular night shift work was also significantly associated with overweight (OR = 1.56, 95% CI, 1.13–2.14), but its association with abdominal obesity was borderline (OR = 1.26, 95% CI, 0.94–1.69). By contrast, the association between rotating night shift work and these parameters was not significant. Conclusion Permanent and irregular night shift work were more likely to be associated with overweight or abdominal obesity than rotating night shift work. These associations need to be verified in prospective cohort studies. PMID:29763461

  20. Night shift work exposure profile and obesity: Baseline results from a Chinese night shift worker cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Miaomiao; Feng, Wenting; Wang, Feng; Zhang, Liuzhuo; Wu, Zijun; Li, Zhimin; Zhang, Bo; He, Yonghua; Xie, Shaohua; Li, Mengjie; Fok, Joan P C; Tse, Gary; Wong, Martin C S; Tang, Jin-Ling; Wong, Samuel Y S; Vlaanderen, Jelle; Evans, Greg; Vermeulen, Roel; Tse, Lap Ah

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the associations between types of night shift work and different indices of obesity using the baseline information from a prospective cohort study of night shift workers in China. A total of 3,871 workers from five companies were recruited from the baseline survey. A structured self-administered questionnaire was employed to collect the participants' demographic information, lifetime working history, and lifestyle habits. Participants were grouped into rotating, permanent and irregular night shift work groups. Anthropometric parameters were assessed by healthcare professionals. Multiple logistic regression models were used to evaluate the associations between night shift work and different indices of obesity. Night shift workers had increased risk of overweight and obesity, and odds ratios (ORs) were 1.17 (95% CI, 0.97-1.41) and 1.27 (95% CI, 0.74-2.18), respectively. Abdominal obesity had a significant but marginal association with night shift work (OR = 1.20, 95% CI, 1.01-1.43). A positive gradient between the number of years of night shift work and overweight or abdominal obesity was observed. Permanent night shift work showed the highest odds of being overweight (OR = 3.94, 95% CI, 1.40-11.03) and having increased abdominal obesity (OR = 3.34, 95% CI, 1.19-9.37). Irregular night shift work was also significantly associated with overweight (OR = 1.56, 95% CI, 1.13-2.14), but its association with abdominal obesity was borderline (OR = 1.26, 95% CI, 0.94-1.69). By contrast, the association between rotating night shift work and these parameters was not significant. Permanent and irregular night shift work were more likely to be associated with overweight or abdominal obesity than rotating night shift work. These associations need to be verified in prospective cohort studies.

  1. Testing the membrane paradigm with holography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, J.; Heller, M.P.; Pinzani-Fokeeva, N.

    2015-01-01

    One version of the membrane paradigm states that, as far as outside observers are concerned, black holes can be replaced by a dissipative membrane with simple physical properties located at the stretched horizon. We demonstrate that such a membrane paradigm is incomplete in several aspects. We argue

  2. Programming Paradigms in Computer Science Education

    OpenAIRE

    Bolshakova, Elena

    2005-01-01

    Main styles, or paradigms of programming – imperative, functional, logic, and object-oriented – are shortly described and compared, and corresponding programming techniques are outlined. Programming languages are classified in accordance with the main style and techniques supported. It is argued that profound education in computer science should include learning base programming techniques of all main programming paradigms.

  3. Towards a New Paradigm of Moral Personhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frimer, Jeremy A.; Walker, Lawrence J.

    2008-01-01

    Moral psychology is between paradigms. Kohlberg's model of moral rationality has proved inadequate in explaining action; yet its augmentation--moral personality--awaits empirical embodiment. This article addresses some critical issues in developing a comprehensive empirical paradigm of moral personhood. Is a first-person or a third-person…

  4. Optimized Motor Imagery Paradigm Based on Imagining Chinese Characters Writing Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Zhaoyang; Allison, Brendan Z; Jin, Jing; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Xingyu; Li, Wei; Cichocki, Andrzej

    2017-07-01

    motor imagery (MI) is a mental representation of motor behavior. The MI-based brain computer interfaces (BCIs) can provide communication for the physically impaired. The performance of MI-based BCI mainly depends on the subject's ability to self-modulate electroencephalogram signals. Proper training can help naive subjects learn to modulate brain activity proficiently. However, training subjects typically involve abstract motor tasks and are time-consuming. to improve the performance of naive subjects during motor imagery, a novel paradigm was presented that would guide naive subjects to modulate brain activity effectively. In this new paradigm, pictures of the left or right hand were used as cues for subjects to finish the motor imagery task. Fourteen healthy subjects (11 male, aged 22-25 years, and mean 23.6±1.16) participated in this study. The task was to imagine writing a Chinese character. Specifically, subjects could imagine hand movements corresponding to the sequence of writing strokes in the Chinese character. This paradigm was meant to find an effective and familiar action for most Chinese people, to provide them with a specific, extensively practiced task and help them modulate brain activity. results showed that the writing task paradigm yielded significantly better performance than the traditional arrow paradigm (p paradigm was easier. the proposed new motor imagery paradigm could guide subjects to help them modulate brain activity effectively. Results showed that there were significant improvements using new paradigm, both in classification accuracy and usability.

  5. Understanding paradigms used for nursing research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Kathryn; Olson, Joanne K

    2006-02-01

    The aims of this paper are to add clarity to the discussion about paradigms for nursing research and to consider integrative strategies for the development of nursing knowledge. Paradigms are sets of beliefs and practices, shared by communities of researchers, which regulate inquiry within disciplines. The various paradigms are characterized by ontological, epistemological and methodological differences in their approaches to conceptualizing and conducting research, and in their contribution towards disciplinary knowledge construction. Researchers may consider these differences so vast that one paradigm is incommensurable with another. Alternatively, researchers may ignore these differences and either unknowingly combine paradigms inappropriately or neglect to conduct needed research. To accomplish the task of developing nursing knowledge for use in practice, there is a need for a critical, integrated understanding of the paradigms used for nursing inquiry. We describe the evolution and influence of positivist, postpositivist, interpretive and critical theory research paradigms. Using integrative review, we compare and contrast the paradigms in terms of their philosophical underpinnings and scientific contribution. A pragmatic approach to theory development through synthesis of cumulative knowledge relevant to nursing practice is suggested. This requires that inquiry start with assessment of existing knowledge from disparate studies to identify key substantive content and gaps. Knowledge development in under-researched areas could be accomplished through integrative strategies that preserve theoretical integrity and strengthen research approaches associated with various philosophical perspectives. These strategies may include parallel studies within the same substantive domain using different paradigms; theoretical triangulation to combine findings from paradigmatically diverse studies; integrative reviews; and mixed method studies. Nurse scholars are urged to

  6. Black holes: the membrane paradigm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorne, K.S.; Price, R.H.; Macdonald, D.A.

    1986-01-01

    The physics of black holes is explored in terms of a membrane paradigm which treats the event horizon as a two-dimensional membrane embedded in three-dimensional space. A 3+1 formalism is used to split Schwarzschild space-time and the laws of physics outside a nonrotating hole, which permits treatment of the atmosphere in terms of the physical properties of thin slices. The model is applied to perturbed slowly or rapidly rotating and nonrotating holes, and to quantify the electric and magnetic fields and eddy currents passing through a membrane surface which represents a stretched horizon. Features of tidal gravitational fields in the vicinity of the horizon, quasars and active galalctic nuclei, the alignment of jets perpendicular to accretion disks, and the effects of black holes at the center of ellipsoidal star clusters are investigated. Attention is also given to a black hole in a binary system and the interactions of black holes with matter that is either near or very far from the event horizon. Finally, a statistical mechanics treatment is used to derive a second law of thermodynamics for a perfectly thermal atmosphere of a black hole

  7. Self-organized criticality paradigm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duran, I.; Stoeckel, J.; Hron, M.; Horacek, J.; Jakubka, K.; Kryska, L.

    2000-01-01

    According to the paradigm of the Self-Organized Criticality (SOC), the anomalous transport in tokamaks is caused by fast transient processes - avalanches. One of the manifestations of these phenomena should be 1/f decay of electrostatic fluctuations power spectra in a certain frequency range. In this paper, the frequency spectra of floating potential, density and fluctuation-induced flux, measured by poloidal and radial arrays of Langmuir probes on the CASTOR tokamak, are presented. The floating potential and the fluctuation-induced flux decay from 30 kHz up to 100 kHz as f -1 . The plasma density decays as f -1 in a more narrow band, 20 to 40 kHz. The possible limitation of SOC behavior for frequencies higher than 100 kHz due to intermittency is stressed. For this reason the Probability Distribution Functions (PDFs) of floating potential fluctuations were computed at different time scales using wavelet transform. A clear departure of the computed PDFs from Gaussianity, which is a classical signature of intermittency, is observed at time scales under 10 μs (100 kHz). (author)

  8. MDMA and the "ecstasy paradigm".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Jon C

    2014-01-01

    For nearly 30 years, there has been a steady flow of research papers highlighting the dangers of MDMA and the implications for ecstasy users. After such a long time, it would be reasonable to expect that these dangers would be obvious due to the large number of ecstasy users. The available evidence does not indicate that there are millions of ecstasy users experiencing any problems linked to their ecstasy use. The "precautionary principle" suggests that, in the absence of knowing for certain, "experts" should argue that MDMA be avoided. However, this may have been taken too far, as the dire warnings do not seem to be reducing with the lack of epidemiological evidence of clinically relevant problems. The "ecstasy paradigm" is one way of articulating this situation, in that the needs of research funders and publication bias lead to a specific set of subcultural norms around what information is acceptable in the public domain. By digging a little deeper, it is easy to find problems with the evidence base that informs the public debate around MDMA. The key question is whether it is acceptable to maintain this status quo given the therapeutic potential of MDMA.

  9. Forecasting interest rates with shifting endpoints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Dijk, Dick; Koopman, Siem Jan; Wel, Michel van der

    2014-01-01

    We consider forecasting the term structure of interest rates with the assumption that factors driving the yield curve are stationary around a slowly time-varying mean or ‘shifting endpoint’. The shifting endpoints are captured using either (i) time series methods (exponential smoothing) or (ii......) long-range survey forecasts of either interest rates or inflation and output growth, or (iii) exponentially smoothed realizations of these macro variables. Allowing for shifting endpoints in yield curve factors provides substantial and significant gains in out-of-sample predictive accuracy, relative...... to stationary and random walk benchmarks. Forecast improvements are largest for long-maturity interest rates and for long-horizon forecasts....

  10. Associations between number of consecutive night shifts and impairment of neurobehavioral performance during a subsequent simulated night shift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magee, Michelle; Sletten, Tracey L; Ferguson, Sally A; Grunstein, Ronald R; Anderson, Clare; Kennaway, David J; Lockley, Steven W; Rajaratnam, Shantha Mw

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed to investigate sleep and circadian phase in the relationships between neurobehavioral performance and the number of consecutive shifts worked. Thirty-four shift workers [20 men, mean age 31.8 (SD 10.9) years] worked 2-7 consecutive night shifts immediately prior to a laboratory-based, simulated night shift. For 7 days prior, participants worked their usual shift sequence, and sleep was assessed with logs and actigraphy. Participants completed a 10-minute auditory psychomotor vigilance task (PVT) at the start (~21:00 hours) and end (~07:00 hours) of the simulated night shift. Mean reaction times (RT), number of lapses and RT distribution was compared between those who worked 2-3 consecutive night shifts versus those who worked 4-7 shifts. Following 4-7 shifts, night shift workers had significantly longer mean RT at the start and end of shift, compared to those who worked 2-3 shifts. The slowest and fastest 10% RT were significantly slower at the start, but not end, of shift among participants who worked 4-7 nights. Those working 4-7 nights also demonstrated a broader RT distribution at the start and end of shift and had significantly slower RT based on cumulative distribution analysis (5 (th), 25 (th), 50 (th), 75 (th)percentiles at the start of shift; 75th percentile at the end of shift). No group differences in sleep parameters were found for 7 days and 24 hours prior to the simulated night shift. A greater number of consecutive night shifts has a negative impact on neurobehavioral performance, likely due to cognitive slowing.

  11. Transparency and public participation - the need for a new paradigm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Kjell [Karinta-Konsult, Taeby (Sweden)

    2001-07-01

    Increasing openness, public participation and transparency are considered important for decision-making in public issues. Transparency serves two purposes; for the awareness of decision-makers and for public insight and influence. However, the increasing complexity of today's society, the complexity of decision processes and the complexity of the underlying factual basis are all factors that work against transparency and participation. Furthermore, the decision-making context in controversial issues is not only set up by the factual basis provided by the experts, but also by stakeholder pressure groups, lobbyists and extensive media coverage. The seemingly unlimited availability of information on the Internet and the continuous information flow in TV channels does not make it easier for the layman to get insight and clarity. This paper starts with a discussion about the expert role, a definition of transparency and three rationales for public participation. The two areas of nuclear waste disposal and biotechnology are then used to illustrate problems with transparency, but also initiatives for improving the situation. Frameworks for the evaluation of participative processes are described, as well as the role of media in making complex issues transparent. A central theme in the paper is the need for a shift from the 'experts-agenda paradigm' to the 'values-first paradigm'. We end up with suggestions for how transparency and public participation can be enhanced for the sake of democratic development: 1. We must have a multi-perspective starting point. Participants in participative processes should represent a broad spectrum of views. People must hear each other out to achieve common understanding that there are a variety of legitimate perspectives to consider. 2. The RISCOM model has been shown both innovative and workable in the nuclear waste area. We should extend its application to other areas, biotechnology being one primary candidate. 3

  12. Transparency and public participation - the need for a new paradigm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Kjell

    2001-01-01

    Increasing openness, public participation and transparency are considered important for decision-making in public issues. Transparency serves two purposes; for the awareness of decision-makers and for public insight and influence. However, the increasing complexity of today's society, the complexity of decision processes and the complexity of the underlying factual basis are all factors that work against transparency and participation. Furthermore, the decision-making context in controversial issues is not only set up by the factual basis provided by the experts, but also by stakeholder pressure groups, lobbyists and extensive media coverage. The seemingly unlimited availability of information on the Internet and the continuous information flow in TV channels does not make it easier for the layman to get insight and clarity. This paper starts with a discussion about the expert role, a definition of transparency and three rationales for public participation. The two areas of nuclear waste disposal and biotechnology are then used to illustrate problems with transparency, but also initiatives for improving the situation. Frameworks for the evaluation of participative processes are described, as well as the role of media in making complex issues transparent. A central theme in the paper is the need for a shift from the 'experts-agenda paradigm' to the 'values-first paradigm'. We end up with suggestions for how transparency and public participation can be enhanced for the sake of democratic development: 1. We must have a multi-perspective starting point. Participants in participative processes should represent a broad spectrum of views. People must hear each other out to achieve common understanding that there are a variety of legitimate perspectives to consider. 2. The RISCOM model has been shown both innovative and workable in the nuclear waste area. We should extend its application to other areas, biotechnology being one primary candidate. 3. Experiences from

  13. Transparency and public participation - the need for a new paradigm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Kjell [Karinta-Konsult, Taeby (Sweden)

    2001-07-01

    Increasing openness, public participation and transparency are considered important for decision-making in public issues. Transparency serves two purposes; for the awareness of decision-makers and for public insight and influence. However, the increasing complexity of today's society, the complexity of decision processes and the complexity of the underlying factual basis are all factors that work against transparency and participation. Furthermore, the decision-making context in controversial issues is not only set up by the factual basis provided by the experts, but also by stakeholder pressure groups, lobbyists and extensive media coverage. The seemingly unlimited availability of information on the Internet and the continuous information flow in TV channels does not make it easier for the layman to get insight and clarity. This paper starts with a discussion about the expert role, a definition of transparency and three rationales for public participation. The two areas of nuclear waste disposal and biotechnology are then used to illustrate problems with transparency, but also initiatives for improving the situation. Frameworks for the evaluation of participative processes are described, as well as the role of media in making complex issues transparent. A central theme in the paper is the need for a shift from the 'experts-agenda paradigm' to the 'values-first paradigm'. We end up with suggestions for how transparency and public participation can be enhanced for the sake of democratic development: 1. We must have a multi-perspective starting point. Participants in participative processes should represent a broad spectrum of views. People must hear each other out to achieve common understanding that there are a variety of legitimate perspectives to consider. 2. The RISCOM model has been shown both innovative and workable in the nuclear waste area. We should extend its application to other areas, biotechnology being one primary candidate. 3. Experiences from

  14. Mechanical spectral shift reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, J.F.; Sherwood, D.G.

    1982-01-01

    A mechanical spectral shift reactor comprises a reactive core having fuel assemblies accommodating both water displacer elements and neutron absorbing control rods for selectively changing the volume of water-moderator in the core. The fuel assemblies with displacer and control rods are arranged in alternating fashion so that one displacer element drive mechanism may move displacer elements in more than one fuel assembly without interfering with the movement of control rods of a corresponding control rod drive mechanisms. (author)

  15. Ostracism Online: A social media ostracism paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Wouter; Levordashka, Ana; Ruff, Johanna R; Kraaijeveld, Steven; Lueckmann, Jan-Matthis; Williams, Kipling D

    2015-06-01

    We describe Ostracism Online, a novel, social media-based ostracism paradigm designed to (1) keep social interaction experimentally controlled, (2) provide researchers with the flexibility to manipulate the properties of the social situation to fit their research purposes, (3) be suitable for online data collection, (4) be convenient for studying subsequent within-group behavior, and (5) be ecologically valid. After collecting data online, we compared the Ostracism Online paradigm with the Cyberball paradigm (Williams & Jarvis Behavior Research Methods, 38, 174-180, 2006) on need-threat and mood questionnaire scores (van Beest & Williams Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 91, 918-928, 2006). We also examined whether ostracized targets of either paradigm would be more likely to conform to their group members than if they had been included. Using a Bayesian analysis of variance to examine the individual effects of the different paradigms and to compare these effects across paradigms, we found analogous effects on need-threat and mood. Perhaps because we examined conformity to the ostracizers (rather than neutral sources), neither paradigm showed effects of ostracism on conformity. We conclude that Ostracism Online is a cost-effective, easy to use, and ecologically valid research tool for studying the psychological and behavioral effects of ostracism.

  16. Evolution of the radiological protection paradigms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sordi, Gian Maria A.A.

    2009-01-01

    We consider as initial radiological protection paradigms those in vigour after the release of the atomic energy for pacific usages in 1955. In that occasion, only one paradigm was introduced, presently named dose limitation system. After arguing about the basis that raised the paradigm, we introduced the guidance, that is, the measurements to be implemented to comply with the paradigm. In that occasion, they were two, i.e., the radiation dose monitoring and the workplace classification. Afterwards, the reasons that caused the radiological protection paradigms changes in force until 1995 are discussed. The initial paradigm was modified introducing the justification and the optimization principles, adding that the radiological protection should be economical and effective. The guidance also increased to four: personal monitoring, workplace classification, reference level and workers classification. Afterwards, we give the main justifications for the present paradigms that besides the formers were added the dose constraints, the potential exposure and the annual risk limits. Due to these modifications, the workers classifications were eliminated from the guidance, but the potential exposure and the search for the dose constraints were added. Eventually, we discuss the tendencies for the next future and the main changes introduced by the ICRP in the Publication 103, 2007. (author)

  17. The Cognitive Paradigm Ontology: Design and Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laird, Angela R.

    2013-01-01

    We present the basic structure of the Cognitive Paradigm Ontology (CogPO) for human behavioral experiments. While the experimental psychology and cognitive neuroscience literature may refer to certain behavioral tasks by name (e.g., the Stroop paradigm or the Sternberg paradigm) or by function (a working memory task, a visual attention task), these paradigms can vary tremendously in the stimuli that are presented to the subject, the response expected from the subject, and the instructions given to the subject. Drawing from the taxonomy developed and used by the BrainMap project (www.brainmap.org) for almost two decades to describe key components of published functional imaging results, we have developed an ontology capable of representing certain characteristics of the cognitive paradigms used in the fMRI and PET literature. The Cognitive Paradigm Ontology is being developed to be compliant with the Basic Formal Ontology (BFO), and to harmonize where possible with larger ontologies such as RadLex, NeuroLex, or the Ontology of Biomedical Investigations (OBI). The key components of CogPO include the representation of experimental conditions focused on the stimuli presented, the instructions given, and the responses requested. The use of alternate and even competitive terminologies can often impede scientific discoveries. Categorization of paradigms according to stimulus, response, and instruction has been shown to allow advanced data retrieval techniques by searching for similarities and contrasts across multiple paradigm levels. The goal of CogPO is to develop, evaluate, and distribute a domain ontology of cognitive paradigms for application and use in the functional neuroimaging community. PMID:21643732

  18. Dietary habits among persons hired on shift work

    OpenAIRE

    Joanna Strzemecka; Iwona Bojar; Ewa Strzemecka; Alfred Owoc

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Shift-work determinates irregular nutrition habits. The quality as well as the quantity of meals consumed by shift-workers can significantly affects their health. Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the dietary habits of people performing shift work in the Bogdanka mine. Material and Methods. The study was carried out in the Bogdanka mine in Leczna. The questionnaire, which was designed by the author of this dissertation, was conducted among 700 shift-workers,...

  19. PARADIGM OF EDUCATION FOR THE INFORMATION SOCIETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuriy M. Bogachkov

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Considering total crisis in education in Informational Age, we suggest that to overcome the crisis, it is necessary to promote pedagogical science up from "pre-paradigm stage” to the "paradigm stage". For this purpose it is necessary to separate the "educational science" from "education." “Educational paradigm” in such study will be the subject of the science. The key concepts for the "pedagogical paradigm" should be the concepts of "educational practice", "class of problems" and "educational text". We offer some axioms around these concepts.

  20. Paradigmatic Shifts in Jihadism in Cyberspace: The Emerging Role of Unaffiliated Sympathizers in Islamic State’s Social Media Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yannick Veilleux-Lepage

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available 'This paper provides an overview of the evolution of the concept of jihadism as it presently exists in cyberspace. From its roots during the Chechen conflict to the current use of social media by the Islamic State (IS, this paper identifies and examines three highly significant paradigm shifts: (1 the emergence of rudimentary Web 2.0 platforms and jihadist forums; (2 the advent of advanced Web 2.0 and social media platforms as methods of spreading jihadism; and (3 turn towards ‘lone wolf’ terrorism.  In this paper, the author argues that IS’ extensive reliance on unaffiliated sympathizers, who either re-tweet or re-post content produced and authorized by the IS leadership can be seen as a groundbreaking paradigm shift in the evolution of jihadism in cyberspace. Furthermore, it is also argued that IS’ strategy of empowering of unaffiliated sympathizers represents a further development in the evolution of jihadism in cyberspace and can best be understood as an attempt to normalize and legitimize IS’ existence through its efforts to dominate the ‘IS narrative’ across social media platforms.' ' '

  1. A new energy paradigm for Turkey: A political risk-inclusive cost analysis for sustainable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oksay, Serhan; Iseri, Emre

    2011-01-01

    Implementing sustainable development policies in order to achieve economic and social development while maintaining adequate environmental protection to minimize the damage inflicted by the constantly increasing world population must be a major priority in the 21st century. While the emerging global debate on potential cost-effective responses has produced potential solutions such as cap and trade systems and/or carbon taxes as part of evolving sustainable energy/environmental policies, this kind of intellectual inquiry does not seem to be an issue among Turkish policy-making elites. This is mainly due to their miscalculation that pursuing sustainable energy policies is much more expensive in comparison to the utilization of fossil fuels such as natural gas. Nevertheless, the pegged prices of an energy sector dominated by natural gas are illusive, as both the political risks and environmental damage have not been incorporated into the current cost calculations. This paper evaluates energy policies through a lens of risk management and takes an alternative approach to calculating energy costs by factoring in political risks. This formulation reveals that the cost of traditional fossil-based energy is in fact more expensive than renewable energy. In addition to being environmentally friendly, the paradigm shift towards renewable energy policies would provide Turkey with a significant opportunity to stimulate its economy by being one of the first countries to develop green technologies and as a result this burgeoning sector would prompt job creation as well; mainly due to the externalities. - Research highlights: → This paper evaluates Turkish energy policies through risk management scope and takes an alternative approach on calculating electricity costs by factoring in political risks. → The cost of traditional fossil-based energy turns out to be more expensive than renewable energy. → The paradigm shift towards renewable energy policies could provide Turkey

  2. A new energy paradigm for Turkey: A political risk-inclusive cost analysis for sustainable energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oksay, Serhan, E-mail: serhano@khas.edu.t [Kadir Has University, Department of Business Administration (Turkey); Iseri, Emre, E-mail: eiseri@khas.edu.t [Kadir Has University, Department of International Relations, Cibali Campus, Kadir Has Caddesi 34083, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2011-05-15

    Implementing sustainable development policies in order to achieve economic and social development while maintaining adequate environmental protection to minimize the damage inflicted by the constantly increasing world population must be a major priority in the 21st century. While the emerging global debate on potential cost-effective responses has produced potential solutions such as cap and trade systems and/or carbon taxes as part of evolving sustainable energy/environmental policies, this kind of intellectual inquiry does not seem to be an issue among Turkish policy-making elites. This is mainly due to their miscalculation that pursuing sustainable energy policies is much more expensive in comparison to the utilization of fossil fuels such as natural gas. Nevertheless, the pegged prices of an energy sector dominated by natural gas are illusive, as both the political risks and environmental damage have not been incorporated into the current cost calculations. This paper evaluates energy policies through a lens of risk management and takes an alternative approach to calculating energy costs by factoring in political risks. This formulation reveals that the cost of traditional fossil-based energy is in fact more expensive than renewable energy. In addition to being environmentally friendly, the paradigm shift towards renewable energy policies would provide Turkey with a significant opportunity to stimulate its economy by being one of the first countries to develop green technologies and as a result this burgeoning sector would prompt job creation as well; mainly due to the externalities. - Research highlights: {yields} This paper evaluates Turkish energy policies through risk management scope and takes an alternative approach on calculating electricity costs by factoring in political risks. {yields} The cost of traditional fossil-based energy turns out to be more expensive than renewable energy. {yields} The paradigm shift towards renewable energy policies could

  3. Mechanical spectral shift reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doshi, P.K.; George, R.A.; Dollard, W.J.

    1982-01-01

    A mechanical spectral shift arrangement for controlling a nuclear reactor includes a plurality of reactor coolant displacer members which are inserted into a reactor core at the beginning of the core life to reduce the volume of reactor coolant-moderator in the core at start-up. However, as the reactivity of the core declines with fuel depletion, selected displacer members are withdrawn from the core at selected time intervals to increase core moderation at a time when fuel reactivity is declining. (author)

  4. Spectral shift reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, W.R.; Piplica, E.J.

    1982-01-01

    A spectral shift pressurized water reactor comprising apparatus for inserting and withdrawing water displacer elements having differing neutron absorbing capabilities for selectively changing the water-moderator volume in the core thereby changing the reactivity of the core. The displacer elements comprise substantially hollow cylindrical low neutron absorbing rods and substantially hollow cylindrical thick walled stainless rods. Since the stainless steel displacer rods have greater neutron absorbing capability, they can effect greater reactivity change per rod. However, by arranging fewer stainless steel displacer rods in a cluster, the reactivity worth of the stainless steel displacer rod cluster can be less than a low neutron absorbing displacer rod cluster. (author)

  5. SOME PARADIGMS OF ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE IN FINANCIAL COMPUTER SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Balicki

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses some paradigms of artificial intelligence in the context of their applications in computer financial systems. The proposed approach has a significant po-tential to increase the competitiveness of enterprises, including financial institutions. However, it requires the effective use of supercomputers, grids and cloud computing. A reference is made to the computing environment for Bitcoin. In addition, we characterized genetic programming and artificial neural networks to prepare investment strategies on the stock exchange market.

  6. SOME PARADIGMS OF ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE IN FINANCIAL COMPUTER SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    Jerzy Balicki

    2015-01-01

    The article discusses some paradigms of artificial intelligence in the context of their applications in computer financial systems. The proposed approach has a significant po-tential to increase the competitiveness of enterprises, including financial institutions. However, it requires the effective use of supercomputers, grids and cloud computing. A reference is made to the computing environment for Bitcoin. In addition, we characterized genetic programming and artificial neural networks to p...

  7. Simulation-based medical education: time for a pedagogical shift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaniti, Kaarthigeyan; Campbell, Douglas M

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of medical education at all levels is to prepare physicians with the knowledge and comprehensive skills, required to deliver safe and effective patient care. The traditional 'apprentice' learning model in medical education is undergoing a pedagogical shift to a 'simulation-based' learning model. Experiential learning, deliberate practice and the ability to provide immediate feedback are the primary advantages of simulation-based medical education. It is an effective way to develop new skills, identify knowledge gaps, reduce medical errors, and maintain infrequently used clinical skills even among experienced clinical teams, with the overall goal of improving patient care. Although simulation cannot replace clinical exposure as a form of experiential learning, it promotes learning without compromising patient safety. This new paradigm shift is revolutionizing medical education in the Western world. It is time that the developing countries embrace this new pedagogical shift.

  8. Observation of the Phononic Lamb Shift with a Synthetic Vacuum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Rentrop

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In contrast to classical empty space, the quantum vacuum fundamentally alters the properties of embedded particles. This paradigm shift allows one to explain the discovery of the celebrated Lamb shift in the spectrum of the hydrogen atom. Here, we engineer a synthetic vacuum, building on the unique properties of ultracold atomic gas mixtures, offering the ability to switch between empty space and quantum vacuum. Using high-precision spectroscopy, we observe the phononic Lamb shift, an intriguing many-body effect originally conjectured in the context of solid-state physics. We find good agreement with theoretical predictions based on the Fröhlich model. Our observations establish this experimental platform as a new tool for precision benchmarking of open theoretical challenges, especially in the regime of strong coupling between the particles and the quantum vacuum.

  9. Beyond desertification: New paradigms for dryland landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The dryland desertification paradigm focuses on losses of ecosystem services accompanying transitions from grasslands to systems dominated by bare ground or woody plants unpalatable for domestic livestock. However, recent studies reveal complex transitions across a range of environmental conditions ...

  10. The safety implications of emerging software paradigms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suski, G.J.; Persons, W.L.; Johnson, G.L.

    1994-10-01

    This paper addresses some of the emerging software paradigms that may be used in developing safety-critical software applications. Paradigms considered in this paper include knowledge-based systems, neural networks, genetic algorithms, and fuzzy systems. It presents one view of the software verification and validation activities that should be associated with each paradigm. The paper begins with a discussion of the historical evolution of software verification and validation. Next, a comparison is made between the verification and validation processes used for conventional and emerging software systems. Several verification and validation issues for the emerging paradigms are discussed and some specific research topics are identified. This work is relevant for monitoring and control at nuclear power plants

  11. Major Development Communication Paradigms and Practices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    info

    major paradigms of development and communication practices on graphic ... mobilize, educate and persuade target audience to support human development ... facilitates the understanding of the themes, issues and facts of a campaign.

  12. The Digital Twin Paradigm for Future NASA and U.S. Air Force Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaessgen, Edward H.; Stargel, D. S.

    2012-01-01

    Future generations of NASA and U.S. Air Force vehicles will require lighter mass while being subjected to higher loads and more extreme service conditions over longer time periods than the present generation. Current approaches for certification, fleet management and sustainment are largely based on statistical distributions of material properties, heuristic design philosophies, physical testing and assumed similitude between testing and operational conditions and will likely be unable to address these extreme requirements. To address the shortcomings of conventional approaches, a fundamental paradigm shift is needed. This paradigm shift, the Digital Twin, integrates ultra-high fidelity simulation with the vehicle s on-board integrated vehicle health management system, maintenance history and all available historical and fleet data to mirror the life of its flying twin and enable unprecedented levels of safety and reliability.

  13. New Indivisible Planetary Science Paradigm: Consequence of Questioning Popular Paradigms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marvin Herndon, J.

    2014-05-01

    Progress in science involves replacing less precise understanding with more precise understanding. In science and in science education one should always question popular ideas; ask "What's wrong with this picture?" Finding limitations, conflicts or circumstances that require special ad hoc consideration sometimes is the key to making important discoveries. For example, from thermodynamic considerations, I found that the 'standard model of solar system formation' leads to insufficiently massive planetary cores. That understanding led me to discover a new indivisible planetary science paradigm. Massive-core planets formed by condensing and raining-out from within giant gaseous protoplanets at high pressures and high temperatures, accumulating heterogeneously on the basis of volatility with liquid core-formation preceding mantle-formation; the interior states of oxidation resemble that of the Abee enstatite chondrite. Core-composition was established during condensation based upon the relative solubilities of elements, including uranium, in liquid iron in equilibrium with an atmosphere of solar composition at high pressures and high temperatures. Uranium settled to the central region and formed planetary nuclear fission reactors, producing heat and planetary magnetic fields. Earth's complete condensation included a ~300 Earth-mass gigantic gas/ice shell that compressed the rocky kernel to about 66% of Earth's present diameter. T-Tauri eruptions, associated with the thermonuclear ignition of the Sun, stripped the gases away from the Earth and the inner planets. The T-Tauri outbursts stripped a portion of Mercury's incompletely condensed protoplanet and transported it to the region between Mars and Jupiter where it fused with in-falling oxidized condensate from the outer regions of the Solar System, forming the parent matter of ordinary chondrite meteorites, the main-Belt asteroids, and veneer for the inner planets, especially Mars. With its massive gas/ice shell

  14. Changing the Safety and Mission Assurance (S and MA) Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Roy W.; Safie, Fayssal M.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the change in the work and impact of the Safety and Mission Assurance directorate at Marshall Space Flight Center. It reviews the background and the reasons given for a strong Safety & Mission Assurance presence in all planning for space flight. This was pointed out by the Rogers Commission Report after the Space Challenger accident, by the Columbia Accident Investigation Board (CAIB) and by a 2006 NASA Exploration Safety Study (NESS) Team. The overall objective of the work in this area was to improve and maintain S&MA expertise and skills. Training for this work was improved and the S&MA organization was reorganized. This has resulted in a paradigm shift for NASA's safety efforts, which is described. The presentation then reviews the impact of the new S&MA work in the Ares I design and development.

  15. Information Technology Integration in Teacher Education: Supporting the Paradigm Shift in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kar Tin

    2001-01-01

    Examines the integration of information technology (IT) at the Hong Kong Institute of Education, presenting the rationale for this move, characteristics of IT integration, and program development issues for making IT application a critical component of contemporary teacher education. The paper presents a framework for program development and…

  16. A Need For Paradigm Shift to Improve Supply Chain Management of Fruits & Vegetables in India

    OpenAIRE

    Piali Halder; Simayan Pati

    2011-01-01

    As the Indian population is increasing, the demand for fresh fruits and vegetables is also increasing. Owing to the perishable nature and very short shelf life, these items require proper storage and transportation facilities in order to reach to the customer in fresh state. A lack of investment in agriculture makes the country vulnerable to international price shocks as well as exchange-rate volatility. This requires a considerable amount of effort from the involved parties. The entire chain...

  17. Deep integration: a paradigm shift in the synthesis of active antenna systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maaskant, R.

    2017-01-01

    Deep integration is the visionary future trend of merging conducting, semi-conducting and insulating materials into a single heterogeneous structure that is capable of offering multi-functional RF features. This paper introduces the deep integration concept, describes its potential advantages, lists

  18. Non-invasive Brain Stimulation: A Paradigm Shift in Understanding Brain Oscillations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Vosskuhl

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive neuroscience set out to understand the neural mechanisms underlying cognition. One central question is how oscillatory brain activity relates to cognitive processes. Up to now, most of the evidence supporting this relationship was correlative in nature. This situation changed dramatically with the recent development of non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS techniques, which open up new vistas for neuroscience by allowing researchers for the first time to validate their correlational theories by manipulating brain functioning directly. In this review, we focus on transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS, an electrical brain stimulation method that applies sinusoidal currents to the intact scalp of human individuals to directly interfere with ongoing brain oscillations. We outline how tACS can impact human brain oscillations by employing different levels of observation from non-invasive tACS application in healthy volunteers and intracranial recordings in patients to animal studies demonstrating the effectiveness of alternating electric fields on neurons in vitro and in vivo. These findings likely translate to humans as comparable effects can be observed in human and animal studies. Neural entrainment and plasticity are suggested to mediate the behavioral effects of tACS. Furthermore, we focus on mechanistic theories about the relationship between certain cognitive functions and specific parameters of brain oscillaitons such as its amplitude, frequency, phase and phase coherence. For each of these parameters we present the current state of testing its functional relevance by means of tACS. Recent developments in the field of tACS are outlined which include the stimulation with physiologically inspired non-sinusoidal waveforms, stimulation protocols which allow for the observation of online-effects, and closed loop applications of tACS.

  19. Wide and ultra-wide bandgap oxides: where paradigm-shift photovoltaics meets transparent power electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Tomás, Amador; Chikoidze, Ekaterine; Jennings, Michael R.; Russell, Stephen A. O.; Teherani, Ferechteh H.; Bove, Philippe; Sandana, Eric V.; Rogers, David J.

    2018-03-01

    Oxides represent the largest family of wide bandgap (WBG) semiconductors and also offer a huge potential range of complementary magnetic and electronic properties, such as ferromagnetism, ferroelectricity, antiferroelectricity and high-temperature superconductivity. Here, we review our integration of WBG and ultra WBG semiconductor oxides into different solar cells architectures where they have the role of transparent conductive electrodes and/or barriers bringing unique functionalities into the structure such above bandgap voltages or switchable interfaces. We also give an overview of the state-of-the-art and perspectives for the emerging semiconductor β- Ga2O3, which is widely forecast to herald the next generation of power electronic converters because of the combination of an UWBG with the capacity to conduct electricity. This opens unprecedented possibilities for the monolithic integration in solar cells of both self-powered logic and power electronics functionalities. Therefore, WBG and UWBG oxides have enormous promise to become key enabling technologies for the zero emissions smart integration of the internet of things.

  20. how to understand the parables of jesus. a paradigm shift in parable

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and parables with more than one reference are always discussed in terms of the oldest source while .... 1393a.2831), and Quintilian, in the 11th chapter of the fifth book of his. Institutio Oratoria (Quint ...... Harvard University Press. stern, f. 2006.