WorldWideScience

Sample records for significant oil discovery

  1. New oil and gas discoveries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alazard-Toux, N.

    2004-01-01

    During the period 1999-2003, new oil and gas fields generated additional reserves of nearly 11 000 bcm of natural gas and 62 Gbbl of oil and condensates, volumes very much superior to those discovered in the five previous years. Two-thirds of these discoveries were located offshore, half in deep water. (author)

  2. Panorama 2014 - New oil and gas discoveries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vially, Roland; Hureau, Geoffroy

    2013-12-01

    Spending on exploration increased significantly in 2012, and this growth should continue into 2013. Over a period of ten years, exploration budgets have increased five-fold, leading to major discoveries in regions as yet unexplored. In 2012, 25 billion barrels of oil equivalent (Gboe) were revealed. This is more than the average for the whole decade, but less than the amount for the previous year. Although knowledge of the volumes that have been discovered is still very fragmented, they should continue to fall into 2013. The main reason lies in the fact that spending on exploration is being shifted towards assessing discoveries made in previous years in the particularly prolific basins of Brazil and East Africa, while the exploration of border regions - such as the West African pre-salt formation - is still only in its early stages. (authors)

  3. Significance of abolishing British National Oil Corporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mabro, R

    1985-04-01

    The decision to abolish British National Oil Corporation has greater significance than any commentator, so far, has cared to admit. Mr. Mabro says the Government has done much more than get rid of an institution it had previously weakened and emasculated; in effect, it had abdicated its responsibilities for the pricing of North Sea oil. He further observes that these moves may be consistent with the tenets of a simplistic free-market ideology: they betray, however, a lack of understanding of the economics of oil, and of the UK economic interest in oil.

  4. Technical summaries of Scotian Shelf - significant and commercial discoveries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickey, J.E.; Bigelow, S.F.; Edens, J.A.; Brown, D.E.; Smith, B.; Makrides, C.; Mader, R.

    1997-03-01

    An independent assessment of the recoverable hydrocarbon resource currently held under' Significant and Commercial Discovery' status offshore Nova Scotia was presented. A generalized description of the regulatory issues regarding the discovered resources within the Scotian Basin was included. Twenty discoveries have been declared significant and two have been declared commercial, pursuant to the Canada-Nova Scotia Offshore Petroleum Resources Accord Implementation Acts. Salient facts about each discovery were documented. The information included the wells drilled within the structure, significant flow tests, geological and geophysical attributes, structural cross-section and areal extent, petrophysical parameters, hydrocarbons in place and anticipated hydrocarbon recoverable resource. tabs., figs

  5. Insect-Specific Virus Discovery: Significance for the Arbovirus Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bethany G. Bolling

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses, especially those transmitted by mosquitoes, are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in humans and animals worldwide. Recent discoveries indicate that mosquitoes are naturally infected with a wide range of other viruses, many within taxa occupied by arboviruses that are considered insect-specific. Over the past ten years there has been a dramatic increase in the literature describing novel insect-specific virus detection in mosquitoes, which has provided new insights about viral diversity and evolution, including that of arboviruses. It has also raised questions about what effects the mosquito virome has on arbovirus transmission. Additionally, the discovery of these new viruses has generated interest in their potential use as biological control agents as well as novel vaccine platforms. The arbovirus community will benefit from the growing database of knowledge concerning these newly described viral endosymbionts, as their impacts will likely be far reaching.

  6. Panorama 2017 - New conventional oil and gas discoveries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hureau, Geoffroy; Vially, Roland

    2017-01-01

    In 2016, spending on exploration is expected to decline by approximately 35% for the second consecutive year (total exploration-production is down 24%). However, volumes discovered through conventional exploration should only fall by 25% due to several significant discoveries, particularly in Alaska and West Africa. The largest discovery in 2016 was an unconventional Permian shale basin in the United States, which could alone contain as many hydrocarbons as all of the year's conventional discoveries combined

  7. Explaining the price of oil 1971–2014 : The need to use reliable data on oil discovery and to account for ‘mid-point’ peak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentley, Roger; Bentley, Yongmei

    2015-01-01

    This paper explains, in broad terms, the price of oil from 1971 to 2014 and focuses on the large price increases after 1973 and 2004. The explanation for these increases includes the quantity of conventional oil (i.e. oil in fields) discovered, combined with the decline in production of this oil that occurs typically once ‘mid-point’ is passed. Many past explanations of oil price have overlooked these two constraints, and hence provided insufficient explanations of oil price. Reliable data on conventional oil discovery cannot come from public-domain proved (‘1P’) oil reserves, as such data are very misleading. Instead oil industry backdated proved-plus-probable (‘2P’) data must be used. It is recognised that accessing 2P data can be expensive, or difficult. The ‘mid-point’ peak of conventional oil production results from a region's field-size distribution, its fall-off in oil discovery, and the physics of field decline. In terms of the future price of oil, estimates of the global recoverable resource of conventional oil show that the oil price will remain high on average, unless dramatic changes occur in the volume of production and cost of non-conventional oils, or if the overall demand for oil were to decline. The paper concludes with policy recommendations. - Highlights: • We show that understanding the oil price is assisted by reliable data on oil discovery. • These data need to be combined with the ‘peak at mid-point’ concept. • Results show that the world has probably entered an era of constrained oil supply. • Oil price stays high unless non-conventional supply, or demand, change significantly.

  8. The Discovery of Deep Oil Plumes at the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill Site (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diercks, A. R.; Asper, V. L.; Highsmith, R. C.; Woolsey, M.; Lohrenz, S. E.; McLetchie, K.; Gossett, A.; Lowe, M., III; Joung, D.; McKay, L.

    2010-12-01

    was discovered at 1200 to 1400 m depth. This layer was detected by three independent sensors, CDOM (colored dissolved organic matter) fluorometer, beam transmissometer, and dissolved oxygen sensor. All three instruments responded in unison with greater fluorescence and beam attenuation and decreased O2 concentration. These signals were first observed at a station 5 miles from the accident site. Second and third station measurements at 2.5 miles, and at 1.25 miles from the spill site, showed the same signal but with significantly greater magnitude. Following this discovery, the sampling plan for the remaining days of the cruise was changed to map the newly discovered feature. This paper will discuss our data acquired during this cruise aboard the RV Pelican and its original discovery of the deep oil plumes from the Deepwater Horizon well.

  9. Impact of the discovery of crude oil on inter-group relations between ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Impact of the discovery of crude oil on inter-group relations between Isoko and her immediate neighbours in the western Niger Delta of Nigeria. ... The article shows that the discovery of crude oil petroleum in the western Niger Delta marked a watershed in the history of intergroup relations in the area. Keywords: Discovery ...

  10. Panorama 2015 - New conventional oil and gas discoveries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hureau, Geoffroy; Vially, Roland

    2014-12-01

    Exploration expenditure rose sharply in 2013, as in the previous year. The overall results for 2014 are likely to show more modest growth at around 5%. In ten years, exploration budgets have increased fivefold, which has led to some major discoveries; but since 2010, the volumes discovered have fallen every year despite the continuing increase in spending. In 2013, 17 billion barrels of oil equivalent (Gboe) were discovered. This is less than both the amount for the previous year and the ten-year average. The initial estimates for 2014 suggest a stabilization of volumes discovered at the same level as 2013. The continuing decline in offshore discoveries in Brazil and East Africa, where operators have cut back on their exploration programmes, appears to have been partly offset by the increase in border areas, such as the pre-salt reservoirs in West Africa and the Russian Arctic. (authors)

  11. An Empirical Analysis of the Price Discovery Function of Shanghai Fuel Oil Futures Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Zhen; Liu Zhenhai; Chen Chao

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyzes the role of price discovery of Shanghai fuel oil futures market by using methods, such as unit root test, co-integration test, error correction model, Granger causality test, impulse-response function and variance decomposition. The results showed that there exists a strong relationship between the spot price of Huangpu fuel oil spot market and the futures price of Shanghai fuel oil futures market. In addition, the Shanghai fuel oil futures market exhibits a highly effective price discovery function.

  12. Panorama 2016 - New conventional oil and gas discoveries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hureau, Geoffroy; Vially, Roland

    2015-12-01

    Following a decline in 2014, spending on exploration is expected to drop by more than 20% in 2015, a clear shift from the consistently upward trend observed for over ten years, with the exception of a slight dip in 2009 and 2010. On the other hand, there is no expectation that the downward trend in volumes discovered will reverse itself, having fallen every year for the past five years despite a sharp rise in exploration budgets between 2010 and 2014. Notwithstanding, this overall decline in exploration performance worldwide has been accompanied by some spectacular successes, such as the two massive Pobeda discoveries in the Kara Sea in 2014, and the 2015 Zohr discovery in Egyptian offshore waters. (authors)

  13. Discovery of new lactones in sweet cream butter oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarrazin, Elise; Frerot, Eric; Bagnoud, Alain; Aeberhardt, Kasia; Rubin, Mark

    2011-06-22

    Sweet cream butter oil was analyzed to identify new volatile compounds that may contribute to its flavor, with an emphasis on lactones. The volatile part of butter oil was obtained by using short-path distillation. As some previously unknown lactones were detected in this first extract, it was fractionated further. The fatty acids were removed, and the extract was fractionated by flash chromatography. Three lactonic fractions possessing a creamy, buttery, and fatty character were investigated in depth by gas chromatography (GC) and mass spectrometry (MS) (EI and CI) and high-resolution GC-time-of-flight MS. Many lactones were identified by their mass fragmentation and by comparison with reference materials synthesized during this work. Six γ-lactones, five δ-lactones, and one ε-lactone were identified for the first time in butter oil, seven of them for the first time in a natural product. The possible contribution of these new lactones to the aroma of butter oil is briefly discussed.

  14. Aldehydic acids in frying oils: formation, toxicological significance and analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal-Eldin, Afaf

    1996-10-01

    Full Text Available Aldehydic acids are generated in oxidized lipids as a result of decomposition of hydroperoxides by (β-scission reactions. Aldehydes are known to interact with proteins and DNA and to impair enzymatic functions. Aldehydic esters from oxidized lipids were reabsorbed to a significant extent in rats. This paper reviews the mechanism of formation of esterified aldehydic acids in frying oils and their physiological/toxicological effects. The paper also gives an overview of relevant basic analytical techniques that needs to be improved to establish reliable quantitative method (s.

    Ácidos aldehídicos son producidos en lípidos oxidados como resultado de la descomposición de hidroperóxidos por reacciones de (β-escición. Es conocido que los aldehídos interaccionan con las proteínas y el ADN y debilitan las funciones enzimáticas. Los esteres aldehídicos de lípidos oxidados fueron reabsorbidos en una cantidad significativa en ratas. Este artículo revisa los mecanismos de formación de ácidos aldehídicos esterificados en aceites de fritura y sus efectos fisiológicos/toxicológicos. El artículo también ofrece una visión de conjunto de las técnicas analíticas básicas que necesitan ser mejoradas para establecer métodos cuantitativos fiables.

  15. Offshore oil production not significant polluter, says government report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danenberger, E.P.

    1977-11-01

    Only 0.0028% of the oil produced in the Gulf of Mexico from 1971 through 1975 was spilled. World-wide, natural seeps introduce nearly 7 times more oil into the sea than offshore activity, while transportation, the worst offender, puts in 25 times more than offshore oil. The report includes data for spills of 50 bbl or less; about 85.5% of the total spill volume was from 5 of the 5857 incidents. In only one case was environmental damage reported, when minor amounts of oil reached 1000 ft of beach on the Chandeleur Islands after the 9/9/74 Cobia pipeline break. The report states that 50 ppm discharges cause no adverse effect, and that hydrocarbons in this concentration may even benefit microbial sea life.

  16. The Improvement of Screening the Significant Factors of Oil Blends as Bio lubricant Base Stock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noor Hajarul Ashikin Shamsuddin; Rozaini Abdullah; Zainab Hamzah; Siti Jamilah Hanim Mohd Yusof

    2015-01-01

    A new formulation bio lubricant base stock was developed by blending of waste cooking oil (WCO) with Jatropha curcas oil (JCO). The objective of this research is to evaluate significant factors contributing to the production of oil blends for bio lubricant application. The significant factors used in this study were oil ratio (WCO:JCO), agitation times (min) and agitation speed (rpm). The blended oil bio based lubricant was used to determine the saponification, acid, peroxide and iodine values. The experimental design used in this study was the 2 level-factorial design. In this experiment, it was found that the effect of oil ratio and interaction of oil ratio and agitation speed gave the most significant effect in oil blends as bio lubricant base stock. The highest ratio of oil blend 80 %:20 % WCO:JCO, with low agitation speed of 300 rpm and low agitation time of 30 minutes gave the optimum results. The acid, saponification, peroxide and iodine values obtained were 0.517±0.08 mg KOH/ g, 126.23±1.62 mg/ g, 7.5±2.0 m eq/ kg and 50.42±2.85 mg/ g respectively. A higher ratio of waste cooking oil blends was found to be favourable as bio lubricant base stock. (author)

  17. Revealing Significant Relations between Chemical/Biological Features and Activity: Associative Classification Mining for Drug Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Pulan

    2012-01-01

    Classification, clustering and association mining are major tasks of data mining and have been widely used for knowledge discovery. Associative classification mining, the combination of both association rule mining and classification, has emerged as an indispensable way to support decision making and scientific research. In particular, it offers a…

  18. Using concepts in literature-based discovery : Simulating Swanson's Raynaud-fish oil and migraine-magnesium discoveries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weeber, M; Klein, Henny; de Jong-van den Berg, LTW; Vos, R

    Literature-based discovery has resulted in new knowledge. In the biomedical context, Don R. Swanson has generated several literature-based hypotheses that have been corroborated experimentally and clinically. In this paper, we propose a two-step model of the discovery process in which hypotheses are

  19. Emulsion oil droplet size significantly affects satiety: A pre-ingestive approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lett, Aaron M; Norton, Jennifer E; Yeomans, Martin R

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that the manipulation of oil droplet size within oil-in-water emulsions significantly affects sensory characteristics, hedonics and expectations of food intake, independently of energy content. Smaller oil droplets enhanced perceived creaminess, increased Liking and generated greater expectations of satiation and satiety, indicating that creaminess is a satiety-relevant sensory cue within these systems. This paper extends these findings by investigating the effect of oil droplet size (d4,3: 2 and 50 μm) on food intake and appetite. Male participants (n = 34 aged 18-37; BMI of 22.7 ± 1.6 kg/m(2); DEBQ restricted eating score of 1.8 ± 0.1.) completed two test days, where they visited the laboratory to consume a fixed-portion breakfast, returning 3 h later for a "drink", which was the emulsion preload containing either 2 or 50 μm oil droplets. This was followed 20 min later with an ad libitum pasta lunch. Participants consumed significantly less at the ad libitum lunch after the preload containing 2 μm oil droplets than after the 50 μm preload, with an average reduction of 12% (62.4 kcal). Despite the significant differences in intake, no significant differences in sensory characteristics were noted. The findings show that the impact that an emulsion has on satiety can be enhanced without producing significantly perceivable differences in sensory properties. Therefore, by introducing a processing step which results in a smaller droplets, emulsion based liquid food products can be produced that enhance satiety, allowing covert functional redesign. Future work should consider the mechanism responsible for this effect. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Krill oil significantly decreases 2-arachidonoylglycerol plasma levels in obese subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giordano Elena

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We have previously shown that krill oil (KO, more efficiently than fish oil, was able to downregulate the endocannabinoid system in different tissues of obese zucker rats. We therefore aimed at investigating whether an intake of 2 g/d of either KO or menhaden oil (MO, which provides 309 mg/d of EPA/DHA 2:1 and 390 mg/d of EPA/DHA 1:1 respectively, or olive oil (OO for four weeks, is able to modify plasma endocannabinoids in overweight and obese subjects. The results confirmed data in the literature describing increased levels of endocannabinoids in overweight and obese with respect to normo-weight subjects. KO, but not MO or OO, was able to significantly decrease 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG, although only in obese subjects. In addition, the decrease of 2-AG was correlated to the plasma n-6/n-3 phospholipid long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA ratio. These data show for the first time in humans that relatively low doses of LCPUFA n-3 as KO can significantly decrease plasma 2-AG levels in obese subjects in relation to decrease of plasma phospholipid n-6/n-3 LCPUFA ratio. This effect is not linked to changes of metabolic syndrome parameters but is most likely due to a decrease of 2-AG biosynthesis caused by the replacement of 2-AG ultimate precursor, arachidonic acid, with n-3 PUFAs, as previously described in obese Zucker rats.

  1. Discovery of CDH23 as a Significant Contributor to Progressive Postlingual Sensorineural Hearing Loss in Koreans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bong Jik Kim

    Full Text Available CDH23 mutations have mostly been associated with prelingual severe-to-profound sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL in either syndromic or nonsyndromic SNHL (DFNB12. Herein, we demonstrate the contribution of CDH23 mutations to postlingual nonsyndromic SNHL (NS-SNHL. We screened 32 Korean adult probands with postlingual NS-SNHL sporadically or in autosomal recessive fashion using targeted panel or whole exome sequencing. We identified four (12.5%, 4/32 potential postlingual DFNB12 families that segregated the recessive CDH23 variants, qualifying for our criteria along with rapidly progressive SNHL. Three of the four families carried one definite pathogenic CDH23 variant previously known as the prelingual DFNB12 variant in a trans configuration with rare CDH23 variants. To determine the contribution of rare CDH23 variants to the postlingual NS-SNHL, we checked the minor allele frequency (MAF of CDH23 variants detected from our postlingual NS-SNHL cohort and prelingual NS-SNHL cohort, among the 2040 normal control chromosomes. The allele frequency of these CDH23 variants in our postlingual cohort was 12.5%, which was significantly higher than that of the 2040 control chromosomes (5.53%, confirming the contribution of these rare CDH23 variants to postlingual NS-SNHL. Furthermore, MAF of rare CDH23 variants from the postlingual NS-SNHL group was significantly higher than that from the prelingual NS-SNHL group. This study demonstrates an important contribution of CDH23 mutations to poslingual NS-SNHL and shows that the phenotypic spectrum of DFNB12 can be broadened even into the presbycusis, depending on the pathogenic potential of variants. We also propose that pathogenic potential of CDH23 variants and the clinical fate of DFNB12 may be predicted by MAF.

  2. The origins of disquieting discoveries by Melanie Klein: the possible significance of the case of 'Erna'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, C; Weiss, H

    1996-12-01

    Using the example of the analysis of 6-year-old Erna, which extended over more than two years and was the longest treatment conducted by Melanie Klein in her Berlin years, the authors demonstrate the importance of her early child analyses for the development of some of her concepts and hence for a decisive advance in psychoanalysis itself. For this purpose they adduce unpublished original documents found among Klein's papers in London, which include autobiographical material, the text of her Würzburg lecture on her obsessional-neurotic little patient, handwritten session notes, and drawings by Erna herself. Although in the author's view Klein attempted to accommodate her findings within Freud's theoretical framework, her clinical experience of the psychic reality of the relational world of early oedipality eventually called for the introduction of new concepts. The combined parent figure, primary sadism, the paranoid-schizoid position, splitting, the relevance of the death drive to the superego, and later formulations on reparation, envy and gratitude are all shown to be foreshadowed in Klein's account of the treatment of Erna. After some retrospective considerations of Erna's analysis and a fleeting glimpse of Erna as an adult, the authors conclude by emphasising the significance of Klein's emigration to England for the subsequent flowering of her work.

  3. 21 CFR 201.303 - Labeling of drug preparations containing significant proportions of wintergreen oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... proportions of wintergreen oil. (a) Because methyl salicylate (wintergreen oil) manifests no toxicity in the... poisoning. (c) This statement of interpretation in no way exempts methyl salicylate (wintergreen oil) or its... provisions of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act any drug containing more than 5 percent methyl...

  4. Will Venezuelan extra-heavy oil be a significant source of petroleum in the next decades?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sena, Marcelo Fonseca Monteiro de; Rosa, Luiz Pinguelli; Szklo, Alexandre

    2013-01-01

    Unconventional oil resources are needed to complement petroleum supply in the next decades. However, given the restrictions that pertain to the production of these resources, this article evaluates the availability of Venezuelan unconventional oil for helping meet the future worldwide petroleum demand. Venezuela has the world's second-largest oil reserves, but the majority of it is unconventional extra-heavy oil from the Orinoco Oil Belt. The perspective of Venezuelan production, the ways in which PDVSA, the state oil company, will raise funds for planned investments and the future oil price predictions are used to assess Venezuela's ability to serve as a source of unconventional oil in the coming years. Findings indicate that Venezuelan crude oil will be increasingly able to provide part of the marginal petroleum supply at a level predicted in global scenarios but short of that predicted by the country's government. Operational difficulties and the effort to raise financial resources for the oil production in the Belt require urgency in overcoming difficulties. As conventional production in Venezuela will stabilise in the coming years and the country is dependent on oil production, Venezuela will rely on extra-heavy oil extraction to ensure increased oil production and the stabilisation of internal accounts. - Highlights: • We analyse the future unconventional oil production capacity of Venezuela. • The study is based on operational capacity, investments capacity and future prices. • The study indicates a production shorter than that predicted by the Venezuelan government. • Venezuela can provide part of the marginal petroleum supply in the coming years

  5. Crude oil He and Ar isotopic characteristics and their geochemical significance: an example from the Gangxi oil field in the Huanghua depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Chenpeng

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Sampled from the Gangxi oil field in the Huanghua depression, Bohaiwan Basin, the crude oil He and Ar isotopic compositions and their geochemical significance were investigated. The result shows that i the 3He/4He values of the six oil samples free from air contamination indicate a mantle helium contribution ranging between 13.9% and 32.8% and averaging 24.1%, which means that the Gangxi oil field once had a tectonic background of the mantle-derived helium input and higher geothermal flow with an average of 75.0 mWm-2; ii deduced from the 40Ar/36Ar aging effect the Gangxi oil should be derived from the Tertiary; iii water injection is the main reason for the air contamination for the Gangxi oil noble gases and the relations between 3He/4He and 4He/20Ne as well as 40Ar/36Ar and 4He/20Ne are of an applicative potential in estimating the water injection effect and the connectivity of producing formations. The search for the crude oil He and Ar isotopes provides a new approach to inferring natural gas and oil sources, tectonic backgrounds, geothermal flow and water injection effect.

  6. Environmental significance of atmospheric emission resulting from in situ burning of oiled salt marsh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devai, I.; DeLaune, R.D.; Henry, C.B. Jr.; Roberts, P.O.; Lindau, C.W.

    1998-01-01

    The environmental significance of atmospheric emissions resulting from in-situ burning used as remediation technique for removal of petroleum hydrocarbons entering Louisiana coastal salt marshes was quantified. Research conducted documented atmospheric pollutants produced and emitted to the atmosphere as the result of burning of oil contaminated wetlands. Samples collected from the smoke plume contained a variety of gaseous sulfur and carbon compounds. Carbonyl sulfide and carbon disulfide were the main volatile sulfur compounds. In contrast, concentrations of sulfur dioxide were almost negligible. Concentrations of methane and carbon dioxide in the smoke plume increased compared to ambient levels. Air samples collected for aromatic hydrocarbons in the smoke plume were dominated by pyrogenic or combustion derived aromatic hydrocarbons. The particulate fraction was dominated by phenanthrene and the C-1 and C-2 alkylated phenanthrene homologues. The vapor fraction was dominated by naphthalene and the C-1 to C-3 naphthalene homologues. (author)

  7. Biological, medicinal and toxicological significance of Eucalyptus leaf essential oil: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhakad, Ashok K; Pandey, Vijay V; Beg, Sobia; Rawat, Janhvi M; Singh, Avtar

    2018-02-01

    The genus Eucalyptus L'Heritier comprises about 900 species, of which more than 300 species contain volatile essential oil in their leaves. About 20 species, within these, have a high content of 1,8-cineole (more than 70%), commercially used for the production of essential oils in the pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. However, Eucalyptus is extensively planted for pulp, plywood and solid wood production, but its leaf aromatic oil has astounding widespread biological activities, including antimicrobial, antiseptic, antioxidant, chemotherapeutic, respiratory and gastrointestinal disorder treatment, wound healing, and insecticidal/insect repellent, herbicidal, acaricidal, nematicidal, and perfumes, soap making and grease remover. In the present review, we have made an attempt to congregate the biological ingredients of leaf essential oil, leaf oil as a natural medicine, and pharmacological and toxicological values of the leaf oil of different Eucalyptus species worldwide. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Application of Satellite SAR for Discovery and Quantification of Natural Marine Oil Seeps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amos, J.; Lai, R.; Zimmer, B.; Leiva, A.; MacDonald, I.

    2006-12-01

    Natural marine oil seeps discharge gassy drops from the seafloor. Oil drops and gas bubbles reach the surface from water depths as great as 3000m. The oil spreads rapidly, forming an invisible layer that drifts down-wind and down-current in long, linear streaks called slicks. Oil slicks are visible in SAR data because the surfactant dampens capillary waves and reduces backscatter. Application of SAR as an exploration tool in energy prospecting is well-established. We have applied this technique for discovering the chemosynthetic communities that colonize the seafloor in the vicinity of deep-water seeps on the continental margin of the Gulf of Mexico. The management goal for this effort is to prevent harmful impact to these communities resulting from exploration or production activities. The scientific goals are to delineate the zoogeography of the chemosynthetic fauna, which is widespread on continental margins, and to establish study sites where their life history can be investigated. In the course of an ongoing, multidisciplinary study in the spring and summer of 2006, we explored 20 possible sites where SAR and geophysical data indicated seeps might occur. SAR was only partly diagnostic: all sites with SAR-detected slicks were found to have biologic communities, but communities were also found at geophysical anomalies that did not produce slicks. We acquired over 60 RADARSAT SAR images from the northern Gulf of Mexico in cooperation with the Alaska Satellite Facility. The ship RV ATLANTIS was at sea during the acquisition and collected synoptic weather and oceanographic data. To automate interpretation of large image dataset we have employed texture recognition with use of a library of textons applied iteratively to the images. This treatment shows promise in distinguishing floating oil from false targets generated by rain fronts and other phenomena. One goal of the analysis is to delineate bounding boxes to quantify the ocean area covered by the thin oil layer

  9. Oil and mucilage cells in Annona (Annonaceae) and their systematic significance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, M.E.; Gerritsen, A.F.

    1992-01-01

    The morphology and distribution patterns of oil and/or mucilage cells, i.e. idioblasts, in the leaf of 37 Annona species are described. Idioblasts are always present in the spongy parenchyma in all species and in most cases also in the palisade parenchyma. Usually both oil cells and mucilage cells

  10. A procedure to improve the information flow in the assessment of discoveries of oil and gas resources in the Brazilian context

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosa, Henrique; Suslick, Saul B.; Sousa, Sergio H.G. de [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Inst. of Geosciences; Castro, Jonas Q. [ANP - Brazilian National Petroleum Agency, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    This paper is focused on the elaboration of a standardization model for the existing flow of information between the Petroleum National Agency (ANP) and the concessionaire companies in the event of the discovery of any potentially commercial hydrocarbon resources inside their concession areas. The method proposed by Rosa (2003) included the analysis of a small sample of Oil and Gas Discovery Assessment Plans (PADs), elaborated by companies that operate in exploratory blocks in Brazil, under the regulatory context introduced by the Petroleum Law (Law 9478, August, 6th, 1997). The analysis of these documents made it possible to identify and target the problems originated from the lack of standardization. The results obtained facilitated the development of a model that helps the creation process of Oil and Gas Discovery Assessment Plans. It turns out that the standardization procedures suggested provide considerable advantages while speeding up several technical and regulatory steps. A software called 'ePADs' was developed to consolidate the automation of the several steps in the model for the standardization of the Oil and Gas Discovery Assessment Plans. A preliminary version has been tested with several different types of discoveries indicating a good performance by complying with all regulatory aspects and operational requirements. (author)

  11. Economic impacts of natural resources on a regional economy: the case of the pre-salt oil discoveries in Espirito Santo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Amaral Haddad

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian government has recently confirmed the discovery of a huge oil and natural gas field in the pre-salt layer of the country’s southeastern coast. It has been said that the oil fields can boost Brazil’s oil production and turn the country into one of the largest oil producers in the world. The fields are spatially concentrated in the coastal areas of a few Brazilian states that may directly benefit from oil production. This paper uses an interregional computable general equilibrium model to assess the impacts of pre-salt on the economy of the State of Espírito Santo, a region already characterized by an economic base that is heavily reliant on natural resources. We focus our analysis on the structural economic impacts on the local economy

  12. Discovery of a Giant Chameleon-Like Lizard (Anolis) on Hispaniola and Its Significance to Understanding Replicated Adaptive Radiations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahler, D Luke; Lambert, Shea M; Geneva, Anthony J; Ng, Julienne; Hedges, S Blair; Losos, Jonathan B; Glor, Richard E

    2016-09-01

    We report a new chameleon-like Anolis species from Hispaniola that is ecomorphologically similar to congeners found only on Cuba. Lizards from both clades possess short limbs and a short tail and utilize relatively narrow perches, leading us to recognize a novel example of ecomorphological matching among islands in the well-known Greater Antillean anole radiation. This discovery supports the hypothesis that the assembly of island faunas can be substantially deterministic and highlights the continued potential for basic discovery to reveal new insights in well-studied groups. Restricted to a threatened band of midelevation transitional forest near the border of the Dominican Republic and Haiti, this new species appears to be highly endangered.

  13. Viet Nam, once isolated, poised for significant role in oil and gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that Viet Nam is on its way up in the petroleum world. After years of international isolation, the country is poised for a flurry of exploration by international oil companies in the early 1990s. Viet Nam has joined the Soviet Union as the only members of the now dissolved, formerly Moscow dominated, 10 nation Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (CMEA) that are self-sufficient in oil production. Moreover, Viet Nam has far outstripped neighboring China, which was not a CMEA member, in offshore oil flow even though China has a much larger Outer Continental Shelf. Prospects are that Viet Nam will continue to lead China in offshore oil production until 1995 at least

  14. Plucking the Golden Goose: Higher Royalty Rates on the Oil Sands Generate Significant Increases in Government Revenue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth J. McKenzie

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The Alberta government’s 2009 New Royalty Framework elicited resistance on the part of the energy industry, leading to subsequent reductions in the royalties imposed on natural gas and conventional oil. However, the oil sands sector, subject to different terms, quickly accepted the new arrangement with little complaint, recognizing it as win-win situation for industry and the government. Under the framework, Alberta recoups much more money in royalties — about $1 billion over the two year period of 2009 and 2010 — without impinging significantly on investment in the oil sands. This brief paper demonstrates that by spreading the financial risks and benefits to everyone involved, the new framework proves it’s possible to generate increased revenue without frightening off future investment. The same model could conceivably be applied to the conventional oil and natural gas sectors.

  15. Correlation of structural lineaments with oil discoveries in Potwar sub-basin, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, M.; Ali, S.M.

    2001-01-01

    The Potwar sub-basin is located in the foothills of western Himalayas. It is developed as a result of continent collision between the Indian and Eurasian plates. This sub-basin is one of the major oil and gas producing-region of the country. Clastics of Cambrian, Permian, Jurassic, Paleocene, and carbonates of Permian, Paleocene, and Eocene are producing reservoir. Fractured and eocene carbonate reservoirs (Sakesar and Chorgali) are the main producing horizons in the region. Shale of infra-Cambrian-Cambrian and Paleocene are the main source rocks in the area. Interpretation of satellite data for lineament analysis coupled with stress models indicate that 63% of oil and gas fields fall along and 37% within 2-5 km radius of extensional lineaments and their corresponding open fractured zones developed due to various stress regimes. It is therefore suggested that exploration for hydrocarbon may be targeted in the strike extension of the mentioned lineaments in areas where optimum conditions for hydrocarbon generation exist. (author)

  16. Empirical Assessment of Expectations Associated with the Recent Discovery of Commercialisable Oil in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwarteng Ernest

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper aim at assessing empirically the various expectations held by people in the economy in the face of oil revenue in order to contribute to the body of knowledge that exist in expectation formation. The study is based on descriptive quantitative survey of students in first and third year marketing department of Sunyani Polytechnic offering Higher National Diploma programme. A sample size of 70 respondents was used and was selected using non probability (convenience sampling method. Questionnaires were prepared using the Likert scale and were distributed to the students. Data were analysed using SPSS and the result presented in tables. Results indicate that respondents hold mixed expectation in the face of the oil revenue. There was gender, age, religion, employment differences in some of the expectations held by respondents. Future research should look at issues such as why there are these differences in opinions and the effect of macroeconomic variables such as inflation, GDP on public confidence as well as ways of managing these expectations.

  17. The significance of different diacylgycerol synthesis pathways on plant oil composition and bioengineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip David Bates

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The unique properties of vegetable oils from different plants utilized for food, industrial feedstocks, and fuel is dependent on the fatty acid (FA composition of triacylglycerol (TAG. Plants can use two main pathways to produce diacylglycerol (DAG, the immediate precursor molecule to TAG synthesis: 1 De novo DAG synthesis, and 2 conversion of the membrane lipid phosphatidylcholine (PC to DAG. The FA esterified to PC are also the substrate for FA modification (e.g. desaturation, hydroxylation, etc., such that the FA composition of PC-derived DAG can be substantially different than that of de novo DAG. Since DAG provides two of the three FA in TAG, the relative flux of TAG synthesis from de novo DAG or PC-derived DAG can greatly affect the final oil FA composition. Here we review how the fluxes through these two alternate pathways of DAG/TAG synthesis are determined and present evidence that suggests which pathway is utilized in different plants. Additionally, we present examples of how the endogenous DAG synthesis pathway in a transgenic host plant can produce bottlenecks for engineering of plant oil FA composition, and discuss alternative strategies to overcome these bottlenecks to produce crop plants with designer vegetable oil compositions.

  18. A History of the Discovery of Random X Chromosome Inactivation in the Human Female and its Significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophia Balderman

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Genetic determinants of sex in placental mammals developed by the evolution of primordial autosomes into the male and female sex chromosomes. The Y chromosome determines maleness by the action of the gene SRY, which encodes a protein that initiates a sequence of events prompting the embryonic gonads to develop into testes. The X chromosome in the absence of a Y chromosome results in a female by permitting the conversion of the embryonic gonads into ovaries. We trace the historical progress that resulted in the discovery that one X chromosome in the female is randomly inactivated in early embryogenesis, accomplishing approximate equivalency of X chromosome gene dosage in both sexes. This event results in half of the somatic cells in a tissue containing proteins encoded by the genes of the maternal X chromosome and half having proteins encoded by the genes of the paternal X chromosome, on average, accounting for the phenotype of a female heterozygote with an X chromosome mutation. The hypothesis of X chromosome inactivation as a random event early in embryogenesis was first described as a result of studies of variegated coat color in female mice. Similar results were found in women using the X chromosome-linked gene, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, studied in red cells. The random inactivation of the X chromosome-bearing genes for isoenzyme types A and B of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase was used to establish the clonal origin of neoplasms in informative women with leiomyomas. Behind these discoveries are the stories of the men and women scientists whose research enlightened these aspects of X chromosome function and their implication for medicine.

  19. Significance of cytochrome P450 system responses and levels of bile fluorescent aromatic compounds in marine wildlife following oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, R.F.; Anderson, J.W.

    2005-01-01

    The relationships among cytochrome P450 induction in marine wildlife species, levels of fluorescent aromatic compounds (FAC) in their bile, the chemical composition of the inducing compounds, the significance of the exposure pathway, and any resulting injury, as a consequence of exposure to crude oil following a spill, are reviewed. Fish collected after oil spills often show increases in cytochrome P450 system activity, cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) and bile fluorescent aromatic compounds (FAC), that are correlated with exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in the oil. There is also some evidence for increases in bile FAC and induction of cytochrome P450 in marine birds and mammals after oil spills. However, when observed, increases in these exposure indicators are transitory and generally decrease to background levels within one year after the exposure. Laboratory studies have shown induction of cytochrome P450 systems occurs after exposure of fish to crude oil in water, sediment or food. Most of the PAH found in crude oil (dominantly 2- and 3-ring PAH) are not strong inducers of cytochrome P450. Exposure to the 4-ring chrysenes or the photooxidized products of the PAH may account for the cytochrome P450 responses in fish collected from oil-spill sites. The contribution of non-spill background PAH, particularly combustion-derived (pyrogenic) PAH, to bile FAC and cytochrome P450 system responses can be confounding and needs to be considered when evaluating oil spill effects. The ubiquity of pyrogenic PAH makes it important to fully characterize all sources of PAH, including PAH from natural resources, e.g. retene, in oil spill studies. In addition, such parameters as species, sex, age, ambient temperature and season need to be taken into account. While increases in fish bile FAC and cytochrome P450 system responses, can together, be sensitive general indicators of PAH exposure after an oil spill, there is little unequivocal evidence to suggest a linkage to

  20. Significant reductions in oil quality and lipid content of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) under climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Namazkar, Shahla; Egsgaard, Helge; Frenck, Georg

    2015-01-01

    Despite of the potential importance to food and bioenergy purposes, effects from climate change on plant oil quality have hardly been characterized.On a global basis Brassica napus L., rapeseed or oilseed rape, is the second largest source of vegetable oil after soybean and the predominant oil crop...... in Europe. We found significant changes in oil quality and quantity of four cultivars of oilseed rape grown in five future climate scenarios with elevated [CO2], [O-3] temperature and combinations hereof (similar to RCP8.5,(1)). Populations of the cultivars were grown under ambient and climate change...... conditions in a climate-phytotron. The treatments were ambient (360 ppm CO2, 19/12 degrees C (day/night), 20/20 ppb O-3 (day/night)), all factors elevated (650 ppm CO2, 24/17 degrees C, 60/20 ppb O-3), as well as two- and single-factor treatments with the elevated factors.The overall trend was that oil...

  1. The oil boom in the US is the most significant fact of 2012, according to BP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2013-01-01

    In 2012 the USA reached a peak in their production of oil (more than 1 million barrels) thanks to shale gas. The world economic recession that concerned most of OECD countries led to a decrease in energy consumption in the USA, European Union and Japan but because of the energy thirst of the BRICS countries the consumption of energy increased at the world scale as well as the CO 2 level. The world consumption of coal increased by 2.5% which is less than in the previous years but for the first time since 1970 coal reached almost 30% of the world consumption of primary energy. The article includes 3 tables giving the 2012 world consumption of oil, of coal according to continents and listing the places and quantities of proved reserves of natural gas. (A.C.)

  2. The quantitative significance of Syntrophaceae and syntrophic partnerships in methanogenic degradation of crude oil alkanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, N D; Sherry, A; Grant, R J; Rowan, A K; Hubert, C R J; Callbeck, C M; Aitken, C M; Jones, D M; Adams, J J; Larter, S R; Head, I M

    2011-11-01

    Libraries of 16S rRNA genes cloned from methanogenic oil degrading microcosms amended with North Sea crude oil and inoculated with estuarine sediment indicated that bacteria from the genera Smithella (Deltaproteobacteria, Syntrophaceace) and Marinobacter sp. (Gammaproteobacteria) were enriched during degradation. Growth yields and doubling times (36 days for both Smithella and Marinobacter) were determined using qPCR and quantitative data on alkanes, which were the predominant hydrocarbons degraded. The growth yield of the Smithella sp. [0.020 g(cell-C)/g(alkane-C)], assuming it utilized all alkanes removed was consistent with yields of bacteria that degrade hydrocarbons and other organic compounds in methanogenic consortia. Over 450 days of incubation predominance and exponential growth of Smithella was coincident with alkane removal and exponential accumulation of methane. This growth is consistent with Smithella's occurrence in near surface anoxic hydrocarbon degrading systems and their complete oxidation of crude oil alkanes to acetate and/or hydrogen in syntrophic partnership with methanogens in such systems. The calculated growth yield of the Marinobacter sp., assuming it grew on alkanes, was [0.0005 g(cell-C)/g(alkane-C)] suggesting that it played a minor role in alkane degradation. The dominant methanogens were hydrogenotrophs (Methanocalculus spp. from the Methanomicrobiales). Enrichment of hydrogen-oxidizing methanogens relative to acetoclastic methanogens was consistent with syntrophic acetate oxidation measured in methanogenic crude oil degrading enrichment cultures. qPCR of the Methanomicrobiales indicated growth characteristics consistent with measured rates of methane production and growth in partnership with Smithella. © 2011 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Pegasus project. DLC coating and low viscosity oil reduce energy losses significantly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerwald, Dave; Jacobs, Ruud [Hauzer Techno Coating (Netherlands). Tribological Coatings

    2012-03-15

    Pegasus, the flying horse from Greek mythology, is a suitable name for the research project initiated by a German automotive OEM with participation of Hauzer Techno Coating and several automotive suppliers. It will enable future automotive vehicles to reduce fuel consumption without losing power. The project described in this article focuses on the rear differential, because reducing friction here can contribute considerably to efficiency improvement of the whole vehicle. Surfaces, coating and oil viscosity have been investigated and interesting conclusions have been reached. (orig.)

  4. Structural Characteristics of Paleozoic and Geological Significance of Oil and Gas of Dongpu Depression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨世刚

    2003-01-01

    The Dongpu depression has experienced a complicated evolution of structure since Mesozoic. The Paleozoic carbonate rock has been strongly reformed and the buried hills with different characteristics of structure are developed in the depression. There exist lots of groups of fault structures with strikes of NNE(or NE),NW, near NS and EW etc., of which the faults with strikes of NNE and NW play an important controlling role on present-day structural framework of the depression. The faults with near NS-striking and EW-striking deeply affect the establishment of structural framework of basement of the depression. Although most of the fractures are filled by calcite and other minerals, under the action of later structural stress, the earlier fractures could change their features into tensional ones. Therefore, much attention should be paid to the exploration and exploitation of Paleozoic oil and gas in Dongpu depression.

  5. Eri silkworm: a source of edible oil with a high content of α-linolenic acid and of significant nutritional value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longvah, Thingnganing; Manghtya, Korra; Qadri, Syed S Y H

    2012-07-01

    The study was undertaken to provide value addition to spent eri silkworm as an alternative source of edible oil for the food and feed industry by carrying out a short-term nutritional and toxicological evaluation of eri silkworm pupae oil using Wistar NIN rats. Growth performance of rats fed either sunflower oil (Control) or eri silkworm pupae oil (Experimental) was comparable. Histopathological examination of the various tissues showed no signs of toxicity even after feeding the eri silkworm oil for 18 weeks. Serum cholesterol and triglyceride was significantly reduced (P oil. The study showed that eri silkworm pupae oil is safe and nutritionally equivalent to commonly used vegetable oils. Eri silkworm pupae can be harvested to provide a cost effective alternative edible oil that can be used to nutritional advantage in the food and feed industry. Therefore eri silkworm and its host plants offer an excellent example of multiple product crops and of sustainable agricultural practice with excellent opportunity for economic and nutritional benefits. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Some properties of castor oil affecting its performance as a capacitor impregnant and their significance to future impregnant research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boicourt, G.P.

    1975-01-01

    For a considerable time castor oil and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) have been the principal impregnants used in energy-storage capacitors. Castor oil has proven to be better than PCB for pulsed applications. PCB's have come under attack as an environmental hazard, while castor oil is a vegetable product and its supply and quality are subject to fluctuation. These two facts make the development of new impregnants desirable. The properties of PCB as a capacitor impregnant are well known. This paper first compares a number of properties of castor oil and PCB's. A comparison is made between the lives of castor oil capacitors and comparable PCB energy-storage capacitors. Some of the physical and chemical properties of castor oil which make it a good pulse capacitor impregnant are examined. These properties can be used as a guide for future research on new pulse capacitor impregnants

  7. Genomics-Based Discovery of Plant Genes for Synthetic Biology of Terpenoid Fragrances: A Case Study in Sandalwood oil Biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celedon, J M; Bohlmann, J

    2016-01-01

    Terpenoid fragrances are powerful mediators of ecological interactions in nature and have a long history of traditional and modern industrial applications. Plants produce a great diversity of fragrant terpenoid metabolites, which make them a superb source of biosynthetic genes and enzymes. Advances in fragrance gene discovery have enabled new approaches in synthetic biology of high-value speciality molecules toward applications in the fragrance and flavor, food and beverage, cosmetics, and other industries. Rapid developments in transcriptome and genome sequencing of nonmodel plant species have accelerated the discovery of fragrance biosynthetic pathways. In parallel, advances in metabolic engineering of microbial and plant systems have established platforms for synthetic biology applications of some of the thousands of plant genes that underlie fragrance diversity. While many fragrance molecules (eg, simple monoterpenes) are abundant in readily renewable plant materials, some highly valuable fragrant terpenoids (eg, santalols, ambroxides) are rare in nature and interesting targets for synthetic biology. As a representative example for genomics/transcriptomics enabled gene and enzyme discovery, we describe a strategy used successfully for elucidation of a complete fragrance biosynthetic pathway in sandalwood (Santalum album) and its reconstruction in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). We address questions related to the discovery of specific genes within large gene families and recovery of rare gene transcripts that are selectively expressed in recalcitrant tissues. To substantiate the validity of the approaches, we describe the combination of methods used in the gene and enzyme discovery of a cytochrome P450 in the fragrant heartwood of tropical sandalwood, responsible for the fragrance defining, final step in the biosynthesis of (Z)-santalols. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Characterisation of Tertiary Catalan lacustrine oil shales: Discovery of extremely organic sulphur-rich type I kerogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Las Heras, F.X.C. de; Bergen, P.F. van; Leeuw, J.W. de

    1993-01-01

    The kerogens of three Tertiary Catalan lacustrine oil shales were analyzed by light microscopy, flash pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and bulk composition methods (elemental analysis, Rock Eval pyrolysis). Two of the three kerogens (Ribesalbes and Campins) are extremely rich in

  9. Porphyrins from Messel oil shale (Eocene, Germany): Structure elucidation, geochemical and biological significance, and distribution as a function of depth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ocampo, R.; Bauder, C.; Callot, H.J.; Albrecht, P. (Univ. Louis Pasteur, Strasbourg (France))

    1992-02-01

    The extraction and isolation procedures of twenty nickel porphyrins (seven alkylporphyrins, thirteen carboxylic acids) from lacustrine Messel shale (Eocene, Germany), as well as the unequivocal structural assignments (obtained using 200 and 400 MHz nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), nuclear Overhauser effect, mass spectrometry, and total or partial synthesis of six reference compounds) are described. Ten porphyrins could be specifically correlated with biological precursors: algal chlorophyll c (4), bacteriochlorophylls d (3), and heme (3), while the remaining ones may arise from several chlorophylls. The structures of these fossil pigments mostly confirm the classical Treibs scheme,' including the origin of some porphyrins from nonchlorophyll sources. They also show that, even in a very immature sediment, deep modifications occur, including, in particular, extensive degradation of chlorophyll E ring. The composition of the porphyrin fractions of Messel oil shale was also studied as a function of depth. A porphyrin acids/alkylporphyrins ratio varying from 0.35 to 24.8 demonstrated that the apparent homogeneity of the shale is not reflected on the molecular scale. This was confirmed when the abundance of the twenty individual porphyrins of known structure was measured along the core. Significant correlations between individual porphyrins were found: fossils of bacteriochlorophylls d, homolog pairs of porphyrins (3-H/3-ethyl), etc.

  10. Porphyrins from Messel oil shale (Eocene, Germany): Structure elucidation, geochemical and biological significance, and distribution as a function of depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocampo, Rubén; Bauder, Claude; Callot, Henry J.; Albrecht, Pierre

    1992-02-01

    The extraction and isolation procedures of twenty nickel porphyrins (seven alkylporphyrins, thirteen carboxylic acids) from lacustrine Messel shale (Eocene, Germany), as well as the unequivocal structural assignments (obtained using 200 and 400 MHz nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), nuclear Overhauser effect, mass spectrometry and total or partial synthesis of six reference compounds) are described. Ten porphyrins could be specifically correlated with biological precursors: algal chlorophyll c (4), bacteriochlorophylls d (3) and heme (3), while the remaining ones may arise from several chlorophylls. The structures of these fossil pigments mostly confirm the classical "Treibs scheme," including the origin of some porphyrins from nonchlorophyll sources. They also show that, even in a very immature sediment, deep modifications occur, including, in particular, extensive degradation of chlorophyll E ring. The composition of the porphyrin fractions of Messel oil shale was also studied as a function of depth. A porphyrin acids/alkylporphyrins ratio varying from 0.35 to 24.8 demonstrated that the apparent homogeneity of the shale is not reflected on the molecular scale. This was confirmed when the abundance of the twenty individual porphyrins of known structure was measured along the core. Significant correlations between individual porphyrins were found: fossils of bacteriochlorophylls d, homolog pairs of porphyrins (3-H/3-ethyl), etc.

  11. Characterization of Tertiary Catalan lacustrine oil shales: Discovery of extrmely organic sulphur-rich Type I kerogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinninghe Damste, J.S.; Heras, F.X.C. De Las; Bergen, P.F. Van; Leeuw, J.W. De (Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands))

    1993-01-01

    The kerogens of three Tertiary Catalan lacustrine oil shales were analyzed by light microscopy, flash pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and bulk composition methods (elemental analysis, Rock Eval pyrolysis). Two of the three kerogens (Ribesalbes and Campins) are extremely rich in organic sulfur (atomic S[sub org]/C ratio > 0.04) and hydrogen (atomic ratio H/C ratio > 1.5) and are, consequently, classified as Type I-S kerogens. Very characteristic distribution patterns of flash pyrolysis products (e.g., alkan-9- and -10-ones, alkadienes) of the Ribesalbes kerogen revealed that it is predominantly composed of fossilized organic matter of the freshwater alga Botryococcus braunii. These two findings demonstrate that sulfurization of organic matter may also occur in lacustrine sediments provided that sulfate is supplied by external sources. Data on the third kerogen sample (Cerdanya) suggest that the freshwater alga Pediastrum may contain a (partly) aromatic biomacromolecule that is selectively preserved upon diagenesis. These findings testify to the large variability in palaeodepositional conditions in lacutrine environments. A comparison of the biomarker composition of the extract of the Ribesalbes oil shale with the kerogen composition indicate that biomarkers often cannot be used to assess the major sources of organic matter in such settings. A similar conclusion can be drawn from a comparison of literature data concerning the Messel Oil Shale. 75 refs., 18 figs., 7 tabs.

  12. Characterization of Tertiary Catalan lacustrine oil shales: Discovery of extremely organic sulphur-rich Type I kerogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.; de las Heras, F. Xavier C.; van Bergen, Pim F.; de Leeuw, Jan W.

    1993-01-01

    The kerogens of three Tertiary Catalan lacustrine oil shales were analyzed by light microscopy, flash pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and bulk composition methods (elemental analysis, Rock Eval pyrolysis). Two of the three kerogens (Ribesalbes and Campins) are extremely rich in organic sulphur (atomic S org/C ratio > 0.04) and hydrogen (atomic ratio H/C ratio > 1.5) and are, consequently, classified as Type I-S kerogens. Very characteristic distribution patterns of flash pyrolysis products (e.g., alkan-9- and -10-ones, alkadienes) of the Ribesalbes kerogen revealed that it is predominantly composed of fossilized organic matter of the freshwater alga Botryococcus braunii. These two findings demonstrate that sulphurization of organic matter may also occur in lacustrine sediments provided that sulphate is supplied by external sources. Data on the third kerogen sample (Cerdanya) suggest that the freshwater alga Pediastrum may contain a (partly) aromatic biomacromolecule that is selectively preserved upon diagenesis. These findings testify to the large variability in palaeodepositional conditions in lacustrine environments. A comparison of the biomarker composition of the extract of the Ribesalbes oil shale with the kerogen composition indicate that biomarkers often cannot be used to assess the major sources of organic matter in such settings. A similar conclusion can be drawn from a comparison of literature data concerning the Messel Oil Shale.

  13. Significance of Cooking Oil to Bioaccessibility of Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) and Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) in Raw and Cooked Fish: Implications for Human Health Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Xiu-Bo; Su, Yang; Bao, Lian-Jun; Tao, Shu; Zeng, Eddy Y

    2017-04-26

    The present study examined the bioacessibility of DDTs and PBDEs in cooked fish (yellow grouper; Epinephelus awoara) with and without heating using the colon extended physiologically based extraction test. The bioaccessibility of DDTs and PBDEs increased from 60 and 26% in raw fish to 83 and 63%, respectively, after the addition of oil to raw fish. However, they decreased from 83 to 66% and from 63 to 40%, respectively, when oil-added fish were cooked. Human health risk assessment based on bioaccessible concentrations of DDTs and PBDEs in fish showed that the maximum allowable daily fish consumption rates decreased from 25, 59, and 86 g day -1 to 22, 53, and 77 g day -1 for children, youths, and adults, respectively, after fish were cooked with oil. These findings indicated that the significance of cooking oil to the bioaccessibility of DDTs and PBDEs in food should be considered in assessments of human health risk.

  14. "Eureka, Eureka!" Discoveries in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Pankaj

    2011-01-01

    Accidental discoveries have been of significant value in the progress of science. Although accidental discoveries are more common in pharmacology and chemistry, other branches of science have also benefited from such discoveries. While most discoveries are the result of persistent research, famous accidental discoveries provide a fascinating…

  15. Oil and gas developments in western Canada in 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hay, P.W.; Robertson, D.C.

    1982-12-01

    In 1981 there was a marked slump in drilling activity in western Canada, resulting from the combined effects of the National Energy Program (NEP), economic recession and a worldwide oil surplus. The number of wells drilled dropped by 22% to a total of 6,904. Exploratory drilling decreased 19% to 3,074 wells, and development drilling decreased 25% to 3,830 wells. The exploratory success rate also decreased to 62% in 1981, based on 740 oil discoveries and 1,172 gas discoveries. The development success rate decreased slightly to 88%, with 1,334 oil discoveries and 2,034 gas discoveries. Average well depth increased in four of the five western areas, but total revenue from land sales plummetted to half of the previous years' record totals. Average price per hectare also dropped. In Alberta, significant exploration activity was centred in the Shekilie, Golden-Evi and West Pembina areas, while major gas discoveries were made at Whiskey and Elmworth, and oil discoveries at Tangent. No significant new discoveries were made in British Columbia or Saskatchewan, but the 1980 Manitoba oil discovery at Waskada continued to stimulate activity. Preliminary results from the Nechako Basin drilling in central British Columbia proved to be disappointing with three successive dry holes. In the Arctic Islands, two major oil discoveries were made at Skate and Cisco, off Lougheed Island and a gas discovery at MacLean. Beaufort Sea drilling was hampered by weather, but nonetheless resulted in major oil discoveries a Koakoak and at a Kopanoar follow-up well. The year 1981 will probably be viewed as a major turning point in exploration in western Canada, with interest shifting from the provinces to the frontiers, and the participants now mainly Canadian-controlled companies.

  16. Ecodynamics of oil-degrading bacteria and significance of marine mixed populations in the degradation of petroleum compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkateswaran, Kasthuri; Tanaka, Hiroki; Komukai, Shyoko

    1993-01-01

    Ecological studies, screening of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria, and studies of the potentials of various single and mixed bacterial populations in the utilization of petroleum compounds were carried out to understand the microbial hydrocarbon degradation process in marine ecosystems. Populations of hydrocarbon utilizers were larger in coastal regions than in pelagic environments. Ecological observations indicated that oil-degrading bacteria were ubiquitously distributed in both temperate and tropical environments, irrespective of oil-polluted and unpolluted ecosystem. Bacteria were grown with n-tet-radecane, pristane, propylbenzene, phenanthrene, and crude oil as the sole carbon source; and substrate specificities of the purified strains were characterized. Based on the assimilation characteristics of the isolated strains, an artificial mixed-culture system was constructed. Biodegradation of crude oil by the natural mixed population was found to be higher than by the artificial mixed population. However, when some of the substrate-specific degraders were artificially mixed with natural microflora, the degradation of hard-to-degrade aromatic hydrocarbon fractions of crude oil was enhanced

  17. First discovery of acetone extract from cottonseed oil sludge as a novel antiviral agent against plant viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lei; Feng, Chaohong; Hou, Caiting; Hu, Lingyun; Wang, Qiaochun; Wu, Yunfeng

    2015-01-01

    A novel acetone extract from cottonseed oil sludge was firstly discovered against plant viruses including Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), Rice stripe virus (RSV) and Southern rice black streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV). Gossypol and β-sitosterol separated from the acetone extract were tested for their effects on anti-TMV and analysed by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) assay. In vivo and field trials in different geographic distributions and different host varieties declared that this extract mixture was more efficient than the commercial agent Ningnanmycin with a broad spectrum of anti-plant-viruses activity. No phytotoxic activity was observed in the treated plants and environmental toxicology showed that this new acetone extract was environmentally friendly, indicating that this acetone extract has potential application in the control of plant virus in the future.

  18. Oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabbri, S

    1909-11-29

    Mineral, shale, and like oils are treated successively with sulfuric acid, milk of lime, and a mixture of calcium oxide, sodium chloride, and water, and finally a solution of naphthalene in toluene is added. The product is suitable for lighting, and for use as a motor fuel; for the latter purpose, it is mixed with a light spirit.

  19. Computer-aided discovery of biological activity spectra for anti-aging and anti-cancer olive oil oleuropeins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corominas-Faja, Bruna; Santangelo, Elvira; Cuyàs, Elisabet; Micol, Vicente; Joven, Jorge; Ariza, Xavier; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; García, Jordi; Menendez, Javier A

    2014-09-01

    Aging is associated with common conditions, including cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and Alzheimer's disease. The type of multi-targeted pharmacological approach necessary to address a complex multifaceted disease such as aging might take advantage of pleiotropic natural polyphenols affecting a wide variety of biological processes. We have recently postulated that the secoiridoids oleuropein aglycone (OA) and decarboxymethyl oleuropein aglycone (DOA), two complex polyphenols present in health-promoting extra virgin olive oil (EVOO), might constitute a new family of plant-produced gerosuppressant agents. This paper describes an analysis of the biological activity spectra (BAS) of OA and DOA using PASS (Prediction of Activity Spectra for Substances) software. PASS can predict thousands of biological activities, as the BAS of a compound is an intrinsic property that is largely dependent on the compound's structure and reflects pharmacological effects, physiological and biochemical mechanisms of action, and specific toxicities. Using Pharmaexpert, a tool that analyzes the PASS-predicted BAS of substances based on thousands of "mechanism-effect" and "effect-mechanism" relationships, we illuminate hypothesis-generating pharmacological effects, mechanisms of action, and targets that might underlie the anti-aging/anti-cancer activities of the gerosuppressant EVOO oleuropeins.

  20. Characteristic differences in essential oil composition of six Zanthoxylum bungeanum Maxim. (Rutaceae) cultivars and their biological significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shu-Ming; Wang, Shi-Jun; Song, Si-Yao; Zou, Yong; Wang, Jun-Ru; Sun, Bing-Yin

    Great variations have been found in composition and content of the essential oil of Zanthoxylum bungeanum Maxim. (Rutaceae), resulting from various factors such as harvest time, drying and extraction methods (Huang et al., 2006; Shao et al., 2013), solvent and herbal parts used (Zhang, 1996; Cao and Zhang, 2010; Wang et al., 2011). However, in terms of artificial introduction and cultivation, there is little research on the chemical composition of essential oil extracted from Z. bungeanum Maxim. cultivars, which have been introduced from different origins. In this study, the composition and content of essential oil from six cultivars (I-VI) have been investigated. They were introduced and cultivated for 11 years in the same cultivation conditions. Cultivars were as followings: Qin'an (I) cultivar originally introduced from Qin'an City in Gansu Province; Dahongpao A (II) from She County in Hebei Province; Dahongpao B (III) from Fuping County; Dahongpao C (IV) from Tongchuan City; Meifengjiao (V) from Feng County; and, Shizitou (VI) from Hancheng City, in Shaanxi Province, China. This research is expected to provide a theoretical basis for further introduction, cultivation, and commercial development of Z. bungeanum Maxim.

  1. Assessment of volatile compound profiles and the deduced sensory significance of virgin olive oils from the progeny of Picual×Arbequina cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Ana G; de la Rosa, Raúl; Pascual, Mar; Sánchez-Ortiz, Araceli; Romero-Segura, Carmen; León, Lorenzo; Sanz, Carlos

    2016-01-08

    Volatile compounds are responsible for most of the sensory qualities of virgin olive oil and they are synthesized when enzymes and substrates come together as olive fruit is crushed during the industrial process to obtain the oil. Here we have studied the variability among the major volatile compounds in virgin olive oil prepared from the progeny of a cross of Picual and Arbequina olive cultivars (Olea europaea L.). The volatile compounds were isolated by SPME, and analyzed by HRGC-MS and HRGC-FID. Most of the volatile compounds found in the progeny's oil are produced by the enzymes in the so-called lipoxygenase pathway, and they may be clustered into different groups according to their chain length and polyunsaturated fatty acid origin (linoleic and linolenic acids). In addition, a group of compounds derived from amino acid metabolism and two terpenes also contributed significantly to the volatile fraction, some of which had significant odor values in most of the genotypes evaluated. The volatile compound content of the progeny was very varied, widely transgressing the progenitor levels, suggesting that in breeding programs it might be more effective to consider a larger number of individuals within the same cross than using different crosses with fewer individuals. Multivariate analysis allowed genotypes with particularly interesting volatile compositions to be identified and their flavor quality deduced. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Oil and Gas in the Netherlands - Is there a future?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herber, R.; de Jager, J.

    The impact of oil and, in particular, gas fields discovered in the Dutch subsurface has been very significant. However, 50 years after the discovery of the giant Groningen gas field the Netherlands has become very mature for exploration of oil and gas, and the gas volume left to be discovered in

  3. Future directions conventional oil supply, Western Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, G.R.; Hayward, J.

    1997-01-01

    The history of the Canadian oil industry was briefly sketched and the future outlook for crude oil and natural gas liquids in western Canada was forecast. The historical review encompassed some of the significant events in history of the Canadian oil industry, including the Leduc discovery in 1947, the Swan Hills discovery in 1957, the start of commercial production from the Athabasca oil sands in 1967, the discovery of the Hibernia oilfield offshore Newfoundland in 1979, and the onset of the use of horizontal production wells in western Canada in 1987. The resource base, supply costs, and the technology that is being developed to reduce costs and to improve recovery, were reviewed. Future oil prices were predicted, taking into account the costs associated with technological developments. It was suggested that the character of the industry is undergoing a change from an industry dominated by conventional supply to a mixed industry with increasing volume of heavy oil, primary bitumen, synthetic oil and frontier supply replacing 'conventional' light crude oil. Projections into the future are subject to uncertainty both on the supply as well as on the demand side. The potential impact of technology can significantly affect demand, and technological developments can yield additional supplies which exceed current expectations. 10 figs

  4. Oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cobbett, G T.B.

    1907-07-08

    Crude petroleum having a density of 850 to 900 is purified with sulfuric acid, decanted, mixed with benzine or petrol, and again treated with sulfuric acid and decanted. The remaining acid and coloring-matter are removed by washing with water, or treating with oxalic acid, zinc carbonate, lead carbonate, calcium carbonate, or oxide of zinc. The product is used as a fuel for internal-combustion engines. Specifications No. 28,104, A.D. 1906, and No. 12,606, A.D. 1907, are referred to. According to the Provisional Specification, the process is applicable to shale or schist oil.

  5. Esters of 3-chloro-1,2-propanediol (3-MCPD) in vegetable oils: significance in the formation of 3-MCPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seefelder, W; Varga, N; Studer, A; Williamson, G; Scanlan, F P; Stadler, R H

    2008-04-01

    3-Mono-chloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) is a contaminant that occurs in food in its free (diol) form as well as in an esterified (with fatty acids) form. Using a simple intestinal model, it was demonstrated that 3-MCPD monoesters and 3-MCPD diesters are accepted by intestinal lipase as substrates in vitro. Under the chosen conditions, the yield of 3-MCPD from a 3-MCPD monoester was greater than 95% in approximately 1 min. Release from the diesters was slower, reaching about 45, 65 and 95% of 3-MCPD after 1, 5 and 90 min of incubation, respectively. However, in human, the hydrolysis of 3-MCPD esters is unlikely to release 100% as 3-MCPD, as triglycerides and phospholipids are hydrolysed in the intestine liberating 2-monoglycerides. Assuming a similar metabolism for 3-MCPD esters as that known for acylglycerols in humans in vivo, the de-esterification in positions 1 and 3 would thus be favoured by pancreatic lipases. Therefore, 3-MCPD, and 3-MCPD-2 monoesters would be released, respectively, from the 1-/3-monoesters, and the diesters potentially present in food. Hence, information on the exact amounts of the partial fatty acid chloroesters, i.e. 3-MCPD mono- and diesters, is important to assess the contribution of foods to the bioavailability of 3-MCPD. Therefore, a rapid method for the determination of the ratio of 3-MCPD monoesters to diesters in fats and oils was developed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and isotopically labelled 3-MCPD esters as internal standards. The analysis of 11 different samples of fat mixes typically employed in food manufacturing demonstrated that a maximum of about 15% of the total amount of 3-MCPD bound in esters is present in the monoesterified form. The potentially slower release of 3-MCPD from 3-MCPD diesters, and the mono- to diesters ratio suggest that 3-MCPD esters may in fact contribute only marginally to the overall dietary exposure to 3-MCPD. Further work on the bioavailability, metabolism and possible

  6. Volatility Discovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dias, Gustavo Fruet; Scherrer, Cristina; Papailias, Fotis

    The price discovery literature investigates how homogenous securities traded on different markets incorporate information into prices. We take this literature one step further and investigate how these markets contribute to stochastic volatility (volatility discovery). We formally show...... that the realized measures from homogenous securities share a fractional stochastic trend, which is a combination of the price and volatility discovery measures. Furthermore, we show that volatility discovery is associated with the way that market participants process information arrival (market sensitivity......). Finally, we compute volatility discovery for 30 actively traded stocks in the U.S. and report that Nyse and Arca dominate Nasdaq....

  7. A New Long Term Assessment of Energy Return on Investment (EROI) for U.S. Oil and Gas Discovery and Production

    OpenAIRE

    Guilford, Megan C.; Hall, Charles A.S.; O’Connor, Peter; Cleveland, Cutler J.

    2011-01-01

    Oil and gas are the main sources of energy in the United States. Part of their appeal is the high Energy Return on Energy Investment (EROI) when procuring them. We assessed data from the United States Bureau of the Census of Mineral Industries, the Energy Information Administration (EIA), the Oil and Gas Journal for the years 1919–2007 and from oil analyst Jean Laherrere to derive EROI for both finding and producing oil and gas. We found two general patterns in the relation of energy gains co...

  8. New discovery in study of remote sensing image characteristics at sandstone-type uranium deposits in China and its important significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Dechang; Huang Xianfang; Ye Fawang

    2004-01-01

    Sandstone-type uranium deposit now is one of main targets in uranium prospecting in China. During the prospecting, the study is often emphasized on those ore-controlling factors such as the lithology and lithofacies of ore-hosting strata. While the ore-controlling factor of fault structure is usually neglected. By means of systematic research on remote sensing image features of sandstone-type uranium deposits, it is found that fault structure is always present at most main sandstone-type uranium ore districts. Based on above research achievements characteristics of ore-controlling fault and its ore-controlling role are analysed and a new metallogenetic model--'structural-geochemical barrier model' is put forward. Finally, the difference between the sturctural-geochemical barrier model and traditional interlayer oxidation zone front model is elaborated and its important significance is discussed. (authors)

  9. Discovery of Highly Potent Tyrosinase Inhibitor, T1, with Significant Anti-Melanogenesis Ability by zebrafish in vivo Assay and Computational Molecular Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wang-Chuan; Tseng, Tien-Sheng; Hsiao, Nai-Wan; Lin, Yun-Lian; Wen, Zhi-Hong; Tsai, Chin-Chuan; Lee, Yu-Ching; Lin, Hui-Hsiung; Tsai, Keng-Chang

    2015-01-01

    Tyrosinase is involved in melanin biosynthesis and the abnormal accumulation of melanin pigments leading to hyperpigmentation disorders that can be treated with depigmenting agents. A natural product T1, bis(4-hydroxybenzyl)sulfide, isolated from the Chinese herbal plant, Gastrodia elata, is a strong competitive inhibitor against mushroom tyrosinase (IC50 = 0.53 μM, Ki = 58 +/- 6 nM), outperforms than kojic acid. The cell viability and melanin quantification assay demonstrate that 50 μM of T1 apparently attenuates 20% melanin content of human normal melanocytes without significant cell toxicity. Moreover, the zebrafish in vivo assay reveals that T1 effectively reduces melanogenesis with no adverse side effects. The acute oral toxicity study evidently confirms that T1 molecule is free of discernable cytotoxicity in mice. Furthermore, the molecular modeling demonstrates that the sulfur atom of T1 coordinating with the copper ions in the active site of tyrosinase is essential for mushroom tyrosinase inhibition and the ability of diminishing the human melanin synthesis. These results evident that T1 isolated from Gastrodia elata is a promising candidate in developing pharmacological and cosmetic agents of great potency in skin-whitening.

  10. A New Long Term Assessment of Energy Return on Investment (EROI for U.S. Oil and Gas Discovery and Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cutler J. Cleveland

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Oil and gas are the main sources of energy in the United States. Part of their appeal is the high Energy Return on Energy Investment (EROI when procuring them. We assessed data from the United States Bureau of the Census of Mineral Industries, the Energy Information Administration (EIA, the Oil and Gas Journal for the years 1919–2007 and from oil analyst Jean Laherrere to derive EROI for both finding and producing oil and gas. We found two general patterns in the relation of energy gains compared to energy costs: a gradual secular decrease in EROI and an inverse relation to drilling effort. EROI for finding oil and gas decreased exponentially from 1200:1 in 1919 to 5:1 in 2007. The EROI for production of the oil and gas industry was about 20:1 from 1919 to 1972, declined to about 8:1 in 1982 when peak drilling occurred, recovered to about 17:1 from 1986–2002 and declined sharply to about 11:1 in the mid to late 2000s. The slowly declining secular trend has been partly masked by changing effort: the lower the intensity of drilling, the higher the EROI compared to the secular trend. Fuel consumption within the oil and gas industry grew continuously from 1919 through the early 1980s, declined in the mid-1990s, and has increased recently, not surprisingly linked to the increased cost of finding and extracting oil.

  11. The outlook for the world and Australian oil markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donaldson, K.; Fok, G.

    1996-01-01

    Global demand for oil is projected to continue its upward trend to 2000-1, with growth in the transport sector expected to underpin future increases in oil consumption. World oil consumption is projected to be matched by global production, keeping the average annual oil price relatively stable. In many countries, the diversion of oil revenue to other projects is threatening to constrain increases in production capacity, particularly in the OPEC countries. The encouragement of foreign investment in state oil industries is a likely method of easing the constraint. Australian exploration activity is rising steadily with the prospect of stable oil prices, expanding gas markets and the incentives provided by a number of recent discoveries. While the geographical pattern of Australian production has now changed, with Western Australian production exceeding Victoria production, Australia is expected to maintain its position in the world oil market as a significant producer, importer and exporter. (author). 6 figs., 23 refs

  12. Floating oil-covered debris from Deepwater Horizon: identification and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carmichael, Catherine A; Lemkau, Karin L; Nelson, Robert K; Reddy, Christopher M; Arey, J Samuel; Graham, William M; Linn, Laura J

    2012-01-01

    The discovery of oiled and non-oiled honeycomb material in the Gulf of Mexico surface waters and along coastal beaches shortly after the explosion of Deepwater Horizon sparked debate about its origin and the oil covering it. We show that the unknown pieces of oiled and non-oiled honeycomb material collected in the Gulf of Mexico were pieces of the riser pipe buoyancy module of Deepwater Horizon. Biomarker ratios confirmed that the oil had originated from the Macondo oil well and had undergone significant weathering. Using the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s records of the oil spill trajectory at the sea surface, we show that the honeycomb material preceded the front edge of the uncertainty of the oil slick trajectory by several kilometers. We conclude that the observation of debris fields deriving from damaged marine materials may be incorporated into emergency response efforts and forecasting of coastal impacts during future offshore oil spills, and ground truthing predicative models. (letter)

  13. Beyond Discovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Steffen; Sassmannshausen, Sean Patrick

    2017-01-01

    In this chapter we explore four alternatives to the dominant discovery view of entrepreneurship; the development view, the construction view, the evolutionary view, and the Neo-Austrian view. We outline the main critique points of the discovery presented in these four alternatives, as well...

  14. Chemical Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Herbert C.

    1974-01-01

    The role of discovery in the advance of the science of chemistry and the factors that are currently operating to handicap that function are considered. Examples are drawn from the author's work with boranes. The thesis that exploratory research and discovery should be encouraged is stressed. (DT)

  15. Geoperspective | Oil and Gas in the Netherlands – Is there a future?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herber, R.; Jager, J. de

    2010-01-01

    The impact of oil and, in particular, gas fields discovered in the Dutch subsurface has been very significant. However, 50 years after the discovery of the giant Groningen gas field the Netherlands has become very mature for exploration of oil and gas, and the gas volume left to be discovered in

  16. Arborvitae (Thuja plicata essential oil significantly inhibited critical inflammation- and tissue remodeling-related proteins and genes in human dermal fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuesheng Han

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Arborvitae (Thuja plicata essential oil (AEO is becoming increasingly popular in skincare, although its biological activity in human skin cells has not been investigated. Therefore, we sought to study AEO's effect on 17 important protein biomarkers that are closely related to inflammation and tissue remodeling by using a pre-inflamed human dermal fibroblast culture model. AEO significantly inhibited the expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1, intracellular cell adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1, interferon gamma-induced protein 10 (IP-10, interferon-inducible T-cell chemoattractant (I-TAC, monokine induced by interferon gamma (MIG, and macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF. It also showed significant antiproliferative activity and robustly inhibited collagen-I, collagen-III, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1, and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 and 2 (TIMP-1 and TIMP-2. The inhibitory effect of AEO on increased production of these protein biomarkers suggests it has anti-inflammatory property. We then studied the effect of AEO on the genome-wide expression of 21,224 genes in the same cell culture. AEO significantly and diversely modulated global gene expression. Ingenuity pathway analysis (IPA showed that AEO robustly affected numerous critical genes and signaling pathways closely involved in inflammatory and tissue remodeling processes. The findings of this study provide the first evidence of the biological activity and beneficial action of AEO in human skin cells.

  17. On testing the significance of atmospheric response to smoke from the Kuwaiti oil fires using the Los Alamos general circulation model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kao, C.J.; Glatzmaier, G.A.; Malone, R.C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    1994-07-01

    The response of the Los Alamos atmospheric general circulation model to the smoke from the Kuwaiti oil fires set in 1991 is examined. The model has an interactive soot transport module that uses a Lagrangian tracer particle scheme. The statistical significance of the results is evaluated using a methodology based on the classic Student`s t test. Among various estimated smoke emission rates and associated visible absorption coefficients, the worst- and best-case scenarios are selected. In each of the scenarios, an ensemble of 10 30-day June simulations are conducted with the smoke and are compared to the same 10 June simulations without the smoke. The results of the worst-case scneario show that a statistically significant wave train pattern propagates eastward-poleward downstream from the source. The signals favorably compare with the observed climate anomalies in summer 1991, albeit some possible El Nino-Southern Oscillation effects were involved in the actual climate. The results of the best-case (i.e., least-impact) scenario show that the significance is rather small but that its general pattern is quite similar to that in the worst-case scenario.

  18. On testing the significance of atmospheric response to smoke from the Kuwaiti oil fires using the Los Alamos general circulation model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chih-Yue Jim Kao; Glatzmaier, G.A.; Malone, R.C. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1994-07-20

    The response of the Los Alamos atmospheric general circulation model to the smoke from the Kuwaiti oil fires set in 1991 is examined. The model has an interactive soot transport module that uses a Lagrangian tracer particle scheme. The statistical significance of the results is evaluated using a methodology based on the classic Student`s t test. Among various estimated smoke emission rates and associated visible absorption coefficients, the worst- and best-case scenarios are selected. In each of the scenarios, an ensemble of 10, 30-day June simulations are conducted with the smoke, and are compared to the same 10 June simulations without the smoke. The results of the worst-case scenario show that a statistically significant wave train pattern propagates eastward-poleward downstream from the source. The signals favorably compare with the observed climate anomalies in summer 1991, albeit some possible El Nino-Southern Oscillation effects were involved in the actual climate. The results of the best-case (i.e., least-impact) scenario show that the significance is rather small but that its general pattern is quite similar to that in the worst-case scenario. 24 refs., 5 figs.

  19. Higgs Discovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sannino, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    has been challenged by the discovery of a not-so-heavy Higgs-like state. I will therefore review the recent discovery \\cite{Foadi:2012bb} that the standard model top-induced radiative corrections naturally reduce the intrinsic non-perturbative mass of the composite Higgs state towards the desired...... via first principle lattice simulations with encouraging results. The new findings show that the recent naive claims made about new strong dynamics at the electroweak scale being disfavoured by the discovery of a not-so-heavy composite Higgs are unwarranted. I will then introduce the more speculative......I discuss the impact of the discovery of a Higgs-like state on composite dynamics starting by critically examining the reasons in favour of either an elementary or composite nature of this state. Accepting the standard model interpretation I re-address the standard model vacuum stability within...

  20. Advanced cell culture technology for essential oil production and micro array studies leading to discovery of genes for fragrance compounds in Michelia alba (Cempaka Putih)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rusli Ibrahim; Norazlina Nordin; Edrina Azlan

    2006-01-01

    Michelia spp. is known to produce high value essential oil for perfumery industry. The essence of world's most expensive perfumes, such as JOY and Jadore, is based on the oil of Michelia spp. One major problem anticipated in this approach, based on our early experiments, is limited amount of fragrance produced in cell cultures. The appropriate strategy is to superimpose DNA micro array studies on top of the cell culture project. The study covers natural flower development phases that led to the identification of genes or sets of genes that regulate the production of the fragrance. Seven developmental stages of Michelia alba flower namely Stage 5 to 11 were investigated for their volatile constituents. The essential oil was isolated by Simultaneous Distillation Extraction technique and the oil obtained was subjected to GC-MS analysis. In total, seventy-seven compounds representing 93-98% of the overall volatiles compounds were identified on the basis of mass spectra and retention indices. Thirty-three of these compounds belonged to isoprenoids group which comprised 30-50% of the total volatile compounds whereas the remaining belonged to fatty acid derivatives, benzenoid, phenylpropanoid and other hydrocarbon compounds. Studies were conducted to optimize culture parameters for scaling-up the production of callus, suspension cell cultures and somatic and product accumulation of essential oils using bioreactor technology. (Author)

  1. Defining Creativity with Discovery

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Nicholas Charles; Martin, Lee

    2017-01-01

    The standard definition of creativity has enabled significant empirical and theoretical advances, yet contains philosophical conundrums concerning the nature of novelty and the role of recognition and values. In this work we offer an act of conceptual valeting that addresses these issues and in doing so, argue that creativity definitions can be extended through the use of discovery. Drawing on dispositional realist philosophy we outline why adding the discovery and bringing into being of new ...

  2. Application of backflush and micro-flow techniques to the analysis of C5-C13 hydrocarbons in crude oils and its geochemical significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    An Agilent 6890N GC equipped with both FID and Agilent 5975 MSD analyzer has been employed to analyze C5-C13 hydrocarbon fractions of crude oils. A technical combination of program temperature volatilizer injection, backflush and micro-flow controller afforded a fine separation of C5-C13 compounds on a PONA column with the heavy part of crude oils being cut off before entering the analytical column. Both GC-FID chromatogram and GC-MS mass chromatograrns (MID and full scan) could be obtained at the same time. The retension time differences of nC6-nC13 alkanes between GC and TIC were in the range of 0.02-0. 58 minutes. Totally 286 peaks have been assigned group compositions. Results on 8 typical oil samples from CNPC Key Laboratory Crude Oil Library showed that the characteristics of C6-C13 hydrocarbon group composition could be used in oil-oil correlation studies.

  3. Modelling long-term oil price and extraction with a Hubbert approach: The LOPEX model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehrl, Tobias; Friedrich, Rainer

    2006-01-01

    The LOPEX (Long-term Oil Price and EXtraction) model generates long-term scenarios about future world oil supply and corresponding price paths up to the year 2100. In order to determine oil production in non-OPEC countries, the model uses Hubbert curves. Hubbert curves reflect the logistic nature of the discovery process and the associated constraint on temporal availability of oil. Extraction paths and world oil price path are both derived endogenously from OPEC's intertemporally optimal cartel behaviour. Thereby OPEC is faced with both the price-dependent production of the non-OPEC competitive fringe and the price-dependent world oil demand. World oil demand is modelled with a constant price elasticity function and refers to a scenario from ACROPOLIS-POLES. LOPEX results indicate a significant higher oil price from around 2020 onwards compared to the reference scenario, and a stagnating market share of maximal 50% to be optimal for OPEC

  4. Assessing the date of the global oil peak: The need to use 2P reserves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentley, R.W.; Mannan, S.A.; Wheeler, S.J.

    2007-01-01

    Combining geological knowledge with proved plus probable ('2P') oil discovery data indicates that over 60 countries are now past their resource-limited peak of conventional oil production. The data show that the global peak of conventional oil production is close. Many analysts who rely only on proved ('1P') oil reserves data draw a very different conclusion. But proved oil reserves contain no information about the true size of discoveries, being variously under-reported, over-reported and not reported. Reliance on 1P data has led to a number of misconceptions, including the notion that past oil forecasts were incorrect, that oil reserves grow very significantly due to technology gain, and that the global supply of oil is ensured provided sufficient investment is forthcoming to 'turn resources into reserves'. These misconceptions have been widely held, including within academia, governments, some oil companies, and organisations such as the IEA. In addition to conventional oil, the world contains large quantities of non-conventional oil. Most current detailed models show that past the conventional oil peak the non-conventional oils are unlikely to come on-stream fast enough to offset conventional's decline. To determine the extent of future oil supply constraints calculations are required to determine fundamental rate limits for the production of non-conventional oils, as well as oil from gas, coal and biomass, and of oil substitution. Such assessments will need to examine technological readiness and lead-times, as well as rate constraints on investment, pollution, and net-energy return

  5. Methodology for the identification of significant environmental aspects of oil refining process; Metodologia para identifcacao de aspectos ambientais significativos nos processos de refino de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ugaya, Cassia Maria Lie; Henschel, Jefferson [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica do Parana (CEFET-PR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The oil-producing sector have been developing several actions in order to reduce its environmental impacts, an example is the implementation of the Environmental Management System (EMS). It requires the identification of the environmental aspects which are relevant, but it does not specify the methodology for it. Some authors suggest the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) as it is a scientific, rigorous and possible subject to be reproduced. Life Cycle Assessment aims the reduction of the environmental impacts generated by a product, process or service, since the extraction of the natural resources until it's discard. This work seeks to adapt this methodology to the demands, needs and inherent reality of an oil-refinery. An analyses of the natural resources inputs and residues of the most common pollutants for each process has been carried out. After that, equations were gathered in order to create a computer software, based on Delphi. This program is been tested. (author)

  6. Peak oil demand: the role of fuel efficiency and alternative fuels in a global oil production decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Adam R; Millard-Ball, Adam; Ganser, Matthew; Gorelick, Steven M

    2013-07-16

    Some argue that peak conventional oil production is imminent due to physical resource scarcity. We examine the alternative possibility of reduced oil use due to improved efficiency and oil substitution. Our model uses historical relationships to project future demand for (a) transport services, (b) all liquid fuels, and (c) substitution with alternative energy carriers, including electricity. Results show great increases in passenger and freight transport activity, but less reliance on oil. Demand for liquids inputs to refineries declines significantly after 2070. By 2100 transport energy demand rises >1000% in Asia, while flattening in North America (+23%) and Europe (-20%). Conventional oil demand declines after 2035, and cumulative oil production is 1900 Gbbl from 2010 to 2100 (close to the U.S. Geological Survey median estimate of remaining oil, which only includes projected discoveries through 2025). These results suggest that effort is better spent to determine and influence the trajectory of oil substitution and efficiency improvement rather than to focus on oil resource scarcity. The results also imply that policy makers should not rely on liquid fossil fuel scarcity to constrain damage from climate change. However, there is an unpredictable range of emissions impacts depending on which mix of substitutes for conventional oil gains dominance-oil sands, electricity, coal-to-liquids, or others.

  7. Discovery Mondays

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Many people don't realise quite how much is going on at CERN. Would you like to gain first-hand knowledge of CERN's scientific and technological activities and their many applications? Try out some experiments for yourself, or pick the brains of the people in charge? If so, then the «Lundis Découverte» or Discovery Mondays, will be right up your street. Starting on May 5th, on every first Monday of the month you will be introduced to a different facet of the Laboratory. CERN staff, non-scientists, and members of the general public, everyone is welcome. So tell your friends and neighbours and make sure you don't miss this opportunity to satisfy your curiosity and enjoy yourself at the same time. You won't have to listen to a lecture, as the idea is to have open exchange with the expert in question and for each subject to be illustrated with experiments and demonstrations. There's no need to book, as Microcosm, CERN's interactive museum, will be open non-stop from 7.30 p.m. to 9 p.m. On the first Discovery M...

  8. Dietary gamma oryzanol plays a significant role in the anti-inflammatory activity of rice bran oil by decreasing pro-inflammatory mediators secreted by peritoneal macrophages of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Y Poorna Chandra; Sugasini, D; Lokesh, B R

    2016-10-28

    Ricebran oil (RBO) is promoted as heart friendly oil because of its ability to maintain serum lipids at desirable levels. Inflammation also plays an important role on cardiovascular health. The role of minor constituents present in unsaponifiable fraction (UF) of RBO on inflammatory markers is not well understood. To evaluate this, we have taken RBO with UF (RBO-N), RBO stripped of UF (RBO-MCR) and RBO-MCR supplemented with UF from RBO (UFRBO) or Gamma-Oryzanol (γ-ORY) were added in AIN-93 diets which was then fed to Wistar rats for a period of 60 days. Groundnut oil with UF (GNO-N), UF removed GNO (GNO-MCR) and GNO-MCR supplemented with UF from RBO or γ-ORY was also used for comparison. The peritoneal macrophages from the rats were activated and pro-inflammatory mediators such as Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS), eicosanoids, cytokines, hydrolytic enzymes of lysosomal origin were monitored. The results indicated that UF of RBO and γ-ORY supplemented in the dietary oils play a significant role in reducing the secretion of pro-inflammatory mediators by macrophages. Hence γ-ORY in RBO significantly contributed to the anti-inflammatory properties of RBO. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Oil crises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linderoth, H.

    1992-01-01

    The author's aim was to give very precise information on the many causes and effects of the oil crises that have occurred since 1900, and at the same time offer the reader the possibility to build up a basic knowledge of the oil industry and market, as he feels that the public is often subjected to misleading information. Political and economical aspects are elaborated. First-hand sources such as statistics and investigations have been used as far as possible to give information on the oil market. An oil crisis is defined by the author as a significant change in the price of oil compared to prices of other goods. Changes can be in the form of either rising or falling prices. A special chapter concentrates on Denmark in relation to the oil crises. (AB) (165 refs.)

  10. Reactivity of dolomite in water-saturated supercritical carbon dioxide: Significance for carbon capture and storage and for enhanced oil and gas recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiuyu; Alvarado, Vladimir; Swoboda-Colberg, Norbert; Kaszuba, John P.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Dolomite reactivity with wet and dry supercritical CO 2 were evaluated. ► Dolomite does not react with dry CO 2 . ► H 2 O-saturated supercritical CO 2 dissolves dolomite and precipitates carbonate mineral. ► Temperature/reaction time control morphology and extent of carbonate mineralization. ► Reaction with wet CO 2 may impact trapping, caprock integrity, and CCS/EOR injectivity. - Abstract: Carbon dioxide injection in porous reservoirs is the basis for carbon capture and storage, enhanced oil and gas recovery. Injected carbon dioxide is stored at multiple scales in porous media, from the pore-level as a residual phase to large scales as macroscopic accumulations by the injection site, under the caprock and at reservoir internal capillary pressure barriers. These carbon dioxide saturation zones create regions across which the full spectrum of mutual CO 2 –H 2 O solubility may occur. Most studies assume that geochemical reaction is restricted to rocks and carbon dioxide-saturated formation waters, but this paradigm ignores injection of anhydrous carbon dioxide against brine and water-alternating-gas flooding for enhanced oil recovery. A series of laboratory experiments was performed to evaluate the reactivity of the common reservoir mineral dolomite with water-saturated supercritical carbon dioxide. Experiments were conducted at reservoir conditions (55 and 110 °C, 25 MPa) and elevated temperature (220 °C, 25 MPa) for approximately 96 and 164 h (4 and 7 days). Dolomite dissolves and new carbonate mineral precipitates by reaction with water-saturated supercritical carbon dioxide. Dolomite does not react with anhydrous supercritical carbon dioxide. Temperature and reaction time control the composition, morphology, and extent of formation of new carbonate minerals. Mineral dissolution and re-precipitation due to reaction with water-saturated carbon dioxide may affect the contact line between phases, the carbon dioxide contact angle, and the

  11. Effects of a significant New Madrid Seismic Zone event on oil and natural gas pipelines and their cascading effects to critical infrastructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, Damon E.

    Critical Infrastructure Protection (CIP) is a construct that relates preparedness and responsiveness to natural or man-made disasters that involve vulnerable assets deemed essential for the functioning of our economy and society. Infrastructure systems (power grids, bridges, airports, etc.) are vulnerable to disastrous types of events--natural or man-made. Failures of these systems can have devastating effects on communities and entire regions. CIP relates our willingness, ability, and capability to defend, mitigate, and re-constitute those assets that succumb to disasters affecting one or more infrastructure sectors. This qualitative research utilized ethnography and employed interviews with subject matter experts (SMEs) from various fields of study regarding CIP with respect to oil and natural gas pipelines in the New Madrid Seismic Zone. The study focused on the research question: What can be done to mitigate vulnerabilities in the oil and natural gas infrastructures, along with the potential cascading effects to interdependent systems, associated with a New Madrid fault event? The researcher also analyzed National Level Exercises (NLE) and real world events, and associated After Action Reports (AAR) and Lessons Learned (LL) in order to place a holistic lens across all infrastructures and their dependencies and interdependencies. Three main themes related to the research question emerged: (a) preparedness, (b) mitigation, and (c) impacts. These themes comprised several dimensions: (a) redundancy, (b) node hardening, (c) education, (d) infrastructure damage, (e) cascading effects, (f) interdependencies, (g) exercises, and (h) earthquake readiness. As themes and dimensions are analyzed, they are considered against findings in AARs and LL from previous real world events and large scale exercise events for validation or rejection.

  12. New discoveries in Upper and Middle Magdalena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carta Petrolera

    1998-01-01

    In six association contracts and one risk participation contract may give Colombia the possibility of finding new oil reserves. These prospects, located in the Upper and Middle Magdalena Valleys and the Eastern Plains. the completion process, evaluation, confirmation and commercialization should be in the next two years, these new discoveries also reveal interesting geological aspects; some in fractured limestone, similar to the found at Maracaibo lake in Venezuela, where vast oil fields were discovered

  13. Resource-estimation models and predicted discovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, G.W.

    1982-01-01

    Resources have been estimated by predictive extrapolation from past discovery experience, by analogy with better explored regions, or by inference from evidence of depletion of targets for exploration. Changes in technology and new insights into geological mechanisms have occurred sufficiently often in the long run to form part of the pattern of mature discovery experience. The criterion, that a meaningful resource estimate needs an objective measure of its precision or degree of uncertainty, excludes 'estimates' based solely on expert opinion. This is illustrated by development of error measures for several persuasive models of discovery and production of oil and gas in USA, both annually and in terms of increasing exploration effort. Appropriate generalizations of the models resolve many points of controversy. This is illustrated using two USA data sets describing discovery of oil and of U 3 O 8 ; the latter set highlights an inadequacy of available official data. Review of the oil-discovery data set provides a warrant for adjusting the time-series prediction to a higher resource figure for USA petroleum. (author)

  14. Characteristics of source rocks of the Datangpo Fm, Nanhua System, at the southeastern margin of Sichuan Basin and their significance to oil and gas exploration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zengye Xie

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, much attention has been paid to the development environment, biogenetic compositions and hydrocarbon generation characteristics of ancient source rocks in the deep strata of the Sichuan Basin because oil and gas exploration extends continuously to the deep and ultra-deep strata and a giant gas field with the explored reserves of more than 1 × 1012 m3 was discovered in the Middle and Upper Proterozoic–Lower Paleozoic strata in the stable inherited paleo-uplift of the central Sichuan Basin. Based on the previous geological research results, outcrop section of the Datangpo Fm, Nanhua System, at the southeastern margin of the Sichuan Basin was observed and the samples taken from the source rocks were tested and analyzed in terms of their organic geochemistry and organic petrology. It is shown that high-quality black shale source rocks of the Datangpo Fm are developed in the tensional background at the southeastern margin of the Sichuan Basin between two glacial ages, i.e., Gucheng and Nantuo ages in the Nanhua Period. Their thickness is 16–180 m and mineral compositions are mainly clay minerals and clastic quartz. Besides, shale in the Datangpo Fm is of high-quality sapropel type source rock with high abundance at an over-mature stage, and it is characterized by low pristane/phytane ratios (0.32–0.83, low gammacerane abundance, high-abundance tricyclic terpane and higher-content C27 and C29 gonane, indicating that biogenetic compositions are mainly algae and microbes in a strong reducing environment with low salinity. It is concluded that the Datangpo Fm source rocks may be developed in the rift of Nanhua System in central Sichuan Basin. Paleo-uplifts and paleo-slopes before the Caledonian are the favorable locations for the accumulation of dispersed liquid hydrocarbons and paleo-reservoirs derived from the Datangpo Fm source rocks. In addition, scale accumulation zones of dispersed organic matter cracking gas and paleo

  15. Artificial intelligence exploration of unstable protocells leads to predictable properties and discovery of collective behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Points, Laurie J; Taylor, James Ward; Grizou, Jonathan; Donkers, Kevin; Cronin, Leroy

    2018-01-30

    Protocell models are used to investigate how cells might have first assembled on Earth. Some, like oil-in-water droplets, can be seemingly simple models, while able to exhibit complex and unpredictable behaviors. How such simple oil-in-water systems can come together to yield complex and life-like behaviors remains a key question. Herein, we illustrate how the combination of automated experimentation and image processing, physicochemical analysis, and machine learning allows significant advances to be made in understanding the driving forces behind oil-in-water droplet behaviors. Utilizing >7,000 experiments collected using an autonomous robotic platform, we illustrate how smart automation cannot only help with exploration, optimization, and discovery of new behaviors, but can also be core to developing fundamental understanding of such systems. Using this process, we were able to relate droplet formulation to behavior via predicted physical properties, and to identify and predict more occurrences of a rare collective droplet behavior, droplet swarming. Proton NMR spectroscopic and qualitative pH methods enabled us to better understand oil dissolution, chemical change, phase transitions, and droplet and aqueous phase flows, illustrating the utility of the combination of smart-automation and traditional analytical chemistry techniques. We further extended our study for the simultaneous exploration of both the oil and aqueous phases using a robotic platform. Overall, this work shows that the combination of chemistry, robotics, and artificial intelligence enables discovery, prediction, and mechanistic understanding in ways that no one approach could achieve alone.

  16. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the Cretaceous Nanushuk and Torok Formations, Alaska North Slope, and summary of resource potential of the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska, 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houseknecht, David W.; Lease, Richard O.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Rouse, William A.; Jarboe, Palma B.; Whidden, Katherine J.; Garrity, Christopher P.; Lewis, Kristen A.; Heller, Samuel; Craddock, William H.; Klett, Timothy R.; Le, Phuong A.; Smith, Rebecca; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Woodall, Cheryl A.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Finn, Thomas M.

    2017-12-22

    The U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean undiscovered, technically recoverable resources of 8.7 billion barrels of oil and 25 trillion cubic feet of natural gas (associated and nonassociated) in conventional accumulations in the Cretaceous Nanushuk and Torok Formations in the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska, adjacent State and Native lands, and State waters. The estimated undiscovered oil resources in the Nanushuk and Torok Formations are significantly higher than previous estimates, owing primarily to recent, larger than anticipated oil discoveries.

  17. The case for a large heavy oil stream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reimer, P.

    2005-01-01

    EnCana Corporation markets significant proprietary and third party crude oil production in North America. This presentation presented details of EnCana's projected resources as well as estimated proved reserves in Canadian oil sands. Details of the Western Canadian heavy oil market were presented. Issues concerning Western Canadian Select (WCS) were also presented, including details of distillation and asphalt characteristics. Details of the WCS synthetic bitumen synergy were examined, as well as quality management issues. It was suggested that further optimization of WCS facilities include reduced operating complexity; less tank proliferation; delivery quality consistency; and reliability. WCS refiner advantages were also evaluated. Shipping and ramping details were discussed, along with growth potential. It was noted that WCS satisfies all the criteria for a benchmark crude. It was concluded that the case for a large Canadian heavy oil stream includes reduced operating complexity; optimized logistics; delivery quality consistency; improved stream liquidity; and enhanced price discovery. tabs., figs

  18. Gas revenue increasingly significant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Megill, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    This paper briefly describes the wellhead prices of natural gas compared to crude oil over the past 70 years. Although natural gas prices have never reached price parity with crude oil, the relative value of a gas BTU has been increasing. It is one of the reasons that the total amount of money coming from natural gas wells is becoming more significant. From 1920 to 1955 the revenue at the wellhead for natural gas was only about 10% of the money received by producers. Most of the money needed for exploration, development, and production came from crude oil. At present, however, over 40% of the money from the upstream portion of the petroleum industry is from natural gas. As a result, in a few short years natural gas may become 50% of the money revenues generated from wellhead production facilities

  19. Usability of Discovery Portals

    OpenAIRE

    Bulens, J.D.; Vullings, L.A.E.; Houtkamp, J.M.; Vanmeulebrouk, B.

    2013-01-01

    As INSPIRE progresses to be implemented in the EU, many new discovery portals are built to facilitate finding spatial data. Currently the structure of the discovery portals is determined by the way spatial data experts like to work. However, we argue that the main target group for discovery portals are not spatial data experts but professionals with limited spatial knowledge, and a focus outside the spatial domain. An exploratory usability experiment was carried out in which three discovery p...

  20. Factors Affecting Oil Palm Production in Ondo State of Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The discovery of crude oil and the civil war adversely affected oil palm production in Nigeria. This has resulted in scarcity and high cost of palm products and palm oil. The study therefore investigated the factors influencing oil palm production in Ondo State, Nigeria. One hundred and fifty respondents were selected from ...

  1. Usability of Discovery Portals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bulens, J.D.; Vullings, L.A.E.; Houtkamp, J.M.; Vanmeulebrouk, B.

    2013-01-01

    As INSPIRE progresses to be implemented in the EU, many new discovery portals are built to facilitate finding spatial data. Currently the structure of the discovery portals is determined by the way spatial data experts like to work. However, we argue that the main target group for discovery portals

  2. Discovery and the atom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    ''Discovery and the Atom'' tells the story of the founding of nuclear physics. This programme looks at nuclear physics up to the discovery of the neutron in 1932. Animation explains the science of the classic experiments, such as the scattering of alpha particles by Rutherford and the discovery of the nucleus. Archive film shows the people: Lord Rutherford, James Chadwick, Marie Curie. (author)

  3. Chemometric techniques in oil classification from oil spill fingerprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Azimah; Toriman, Mohd Ekhwan; Juahir, Hafizan; Kassim, Azlina Md; Zain, Sharifuddin Md; Ahmad, Wan Kamaruzaman Wan; Wong, Kok Fah; Retnam, Ananthy; Zali, Munirah Abdul; Mokhtar, Mazlin; Yusri, Mohd Ayub

    2016-10-15

    Extended use of GC-FID and GC-MS in oil spill fingerprinting and matching is significantly important for oil classification from the oil spill sources collected from various areas of Peninsular Malaysia and Sabah (East Malaysia). Oil spill fingerprinting from GC-FID and GC-MS coupled with chemometric techniques (discriminant analysis and principal component analysis) is used as a diagnostic tool to classify the types of oil polluting the water. Clustering and discrimination of oil spill compounds in the water from the actual site of oil spill events are divided into four groups viz. diesel, Heavy Fuel Oil (HFO), Mixture Oil containing Light Fuel Oil (MOLFO) and Waste Oil (WO) according to the similarity of their intrinsic chemical properties. Principal component analysis (PCA) demonstrates that diesel, HFO, MOLFO and WO are types of oil or oil products from complex oil mixtures with a total variance of 85.34% and are identified with various anthropogenic activities related to either intentional releasing of oil or accidental discharge of oil into the environment. Our results show that the use of chemometric techniques is significant in providing independent validation for classifying the types of spilled oil in the investigation of oil spill pollution in Malaysia. This, in consequence would result in cost and time saving in identification of the oil spill sources. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Vegetable oil spills : oil properties and behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fingas, M.; Fieldhouse, B.; Jokuty, P.

    2001-01-01

    In 1997, the United States Environmental Protection Agency conducted a thorough review of the issue regarding vegetable oil spills. Recent attention has refocused on this issue as a result of an incident where 20 tons of canola oil was spilled in the Vancouver Harbour in 2000. In the past, vegetable oils were suggested to be a useful test material because they were thought to be innocuous. It was even suggested they be used to remove petroleum oil residues from beaches. However, recent studies have shown that spills of vegetable oils can have major environmental consequences, equivalent to those of petroleum oil spills. The spills have devastating effects on birds and intertidal organisms. This paper presented a summary of historical vegetable spills from around the world. In this study, specific behaviour tests were examined for several oils including canola, soy bean, olive, castor and corn oils. Evaporation, water-in-oil emulsification and chemical dispersion were measured and were found to be nearly zero, suggesting that vegetable oil spills are not very soluble in water. The aquatic toxicity of vegetable oil is low, but their fate is quite different from petroleum. Vegetable oils do not evaporate to a significant degree, they do not form water-in-oil emulsions, nor do they disperse in water. The physical properties of vegetable oils were also measured, including density and viscosity. This paper presented the aquatic toxicity of several vegetable oils along with other environmental data including the degradation rates noted in the literature. Most environmental damage reported in the literature is by contact with birds feathers resulting in hypothermia and secondly by smothering of intertidal organisms. The effect of vegetable oil on fish has not been well studied, but it is expected that there will be little destructive effect except where smothering can occur. 35 refs., 3 tabs

  5. Vegetable oil spills : oil properties and behaviour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fingas, M.; Fieldhouse, B.; Jokuty, P. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Emergencies Science Div

    2001-07-01

    In 1997, the United States Environmental Protection Agency conducted a thorough review of the issue regarding vegetable oil spills. Recent attention has refocused on this issue as a result of an incident where 20 tons of canola oil was spilled in the Vancouver Harbour in 2000. In the past, vegetable oils were suggested to be a useful test material because they were thought to be innocuous. It was even suggested they be used to remove petroleum oil residues from beaches. However, recent studies have shown that spills of vegetable oils can have major environmental consequences, equivalent to those of petroleum oil spills. The spills have devastating effects on birds and intertidal organisms. This paper presented a summary of historical vegetable spills from around the world. In this study, specific behaviour tests were examined for several oils including canola, soy bean, olive, castor and corn oils. Evaporation, water-in-oil emulsification and chemical dispersion were measured and were found to be nearly zero, suggesting that vegetable oil spills are not very soluble in water. The aquatic toxicity of vegetable oil is low, but their fate is quite different from petroleum. Vegetable oils do not evaporate to a significant degree, they do not form water-in-oil emulsions, nor do they disperse in water. The physical properties of vegetable oils were also measured, including density and viscosity. This paper presented the aquatic toxicity of several vegetable oils along with other environmental data including the degradation rates noted in the literature. Most environmental damage reported in the literature is by contact with birds feathers resulting in hypothermia and secondly by smothering of intertidal organisms. The effect of vegetable oil on fish has not been well studied, but it is expected that there will be little destructive effect except where smothering can occur. 35 refs., 3 tabs.

  6. Topology Discovery Using Cisco Discovery Protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez, Sergio R.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we address the problem of discovering network topology in proprietary networks. Namely, we investigate topology discovery in Cisco-based networks. Cisco devices run Cisco Discovery Protocol (CDP) which holds information about these devices. We first compare properties of topologies that can be obtained from networks deploying CDP versus Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) and Management Information Base (MIB) Forwarding Database (FDB). Then we describe a method of discovering topology ...

  7. Brazil: World Oil Report 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that Brazil's state oil company Petrobras has racked up a significant period of achievement over the last 12 months. Average daily oil production hit a new high. A small portion of deepwater giant Marlim field came onstream. Risk contracts ended, and the firm assumed all responsibility for exploration activity in Brazil. Furthermore, Santos basin proved to be the nation's most recent oil province after two discoveries. Last, but not least, Petrobras assumed a dominant position worldwide in development of new deepwater technology, as evidenced by papers presented at the 1991 Offshore Technology Conference. What is remarkable is that all this was achieved while the company was experiencing political turmoil. Last Oct. 19, Petrobras President Luis Octavio Motta Veiga resigned in a dispute with the Ministry of Economy (MOE) over refined product pricing levels. His replacement, interestingly enough, was the 36-year-old executive secretary of the MOE, Eduardo de Freitas Teixeira. His term at Petrobras lasted less than six months

  8. Coconut, date and oil palm genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    A review of genomics research is presented for the three most economically important palm crops, coconut (Cocos nucifera), date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) and oil palm (Elaeis guineensis), encompassing molecular markers studies of genetic diversity, genetic mapping, quantitative trait loci discovery...

  9. Mismanagement of Oil and Gas Resource Revenues in Africa: Lessons for Ghana’s Budding Oil and Gas Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-13

    discovered in Venezuela in the 1920s and the country immediately set about diversifying its production and export structure. Prior to the oil discovery... exports of coffee and cocoa and dependence on its agricultural structure (Di John 2009, 19). After the discovery of oil, the country became a...32 Venezuela as a Case Study

  10. Palm Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palm oil is obtained from the fruit of the oil palm tree. Palm oil is used for preventing vitamin A deficiency, cancer, ... blood pressure, high cholesterol, and cyanide poisoning. Palm oil is used for weight loss and increasing the ...

  11. Diesel oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oil ... Diesel oil ... Diesel oil poisoning can cause symptoms in many parts of the body. EYES, EARS, NOSE, AND THROAT Loss of ... most dangerous effects of hydrocarbon (such as diesel oil) poisoning are due to inhaling the fumes. NERVOUS ...

  12. Oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsouros, M.H.

    1992-01-01

    The world annually transports 1.7 billion tons of oil by sea, and oil spills, often highly concentrated discharges, are increasing from a variety of sources. The author discusses sources of oils spills: natural; marine transportation; offshore oil production; atmospheric sources; municipal industrial wastes and runoff. Other topics include: the fate of the spilled oil; the effects of the oil; the response to oil spills; and prevention of oil spills. 30 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs

  13. Oil Spills

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... up. How Oil Harms Animals and Plants in Marine Environments In general, oil spills can affect animals and plants in two ways: from the oil ... up. How Oil Harms Animals and Plants in Marine Environments In general, oil spills can affect animals and plants in two ways: from the oil ...

  14. Gas, gas, gas... discoveries and developments booming worldwide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxwell, F.

    2000-01-01

    Deep water exploration is yielding more than billion barrel oil fields. Unocal's 3 May discovery of 2-3 Tcf of gas in its Kutei block of Indonesia marks the first major discovery of natural gas in the deep water frontier: Wildcats Gula and Gada were drilled in over 1800 m of water as part of an aggressive search for gas instigated by Unocal last year. The author makes a survey of gas exploration and development throughout the world. (author)

  15. Service Discovery At Home

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sundramoorthy, V.; Scholten, Johan; Jansen, P.G.; Hartel, Pieter H.

    Service discovery is a fady new field that kicked off since the advent of ubiquitous computing and has been found essential in the making of intelligent networks by implementing automated discovery and remote control between deviies. This paper provides an ovewiew and comparison of several prominent

  16. Academic Drug Discovery Centres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Henriette Schultz; Valentin, Finn

    2014-01-01

    Academic drug discovery centres (ADDCs) are seen as one of the solutions to fill the innovation gap in early drug discovery, which has proven challenging for previous organisational models. Prior studies of ADDCs have identified the need to analyse them from the angle of their economic...

  17. Decades of Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    For the past two-and-a-half decades, the Office of Science at the U.S. Department of Energy has been at the forefront of scientific discovery. Over 100 important discoveries supported by the Office of Science are represented in this document.

  18. Service discovery at home

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sundramoorthy, V.; Scholten, Johan; Jansen, P.G.; Hartel, Pieter H.

    2003-01-01

    Service discovery is a fairly new field that kicked off since the advent of ubiquitous computing and has been found essential in the making of intelligent networks by implementing automated discovery and remote control between devices. This paper provides an overview and comparison of several

  19. Oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spaulding, M.L.; Reed, M.

    1990-01-01

    Public awareness and concern for the potential short and long term impacts of oil spills on the marine environment has generally been high, particularly for regions of special ecological importance or where significant numbers of marine mammals and birds are present. This awareness was further heightened by the extraordinary number of recent large spills in coastal U.S. water: Exxon Valdez, Alaska; World Prodigy, Rhode Island; Presidente Rivera, Delaware; Rachel-B, Texas and American Trader, California. The occurrence of so many spills in a one year period is unprecedented in U.S. spill history. The legislative response to these spills has been immediate. New legislative initiative are rapidly being developed. Improved ways to organize spill response efforts are being devised and implemented. Funds are being allocated to further develop and improve spill response equipment and damage assessment methodologies. These spill events will have a significant impact in both the short and long term on oil exploration, development and transport in marine waters. They will result in major changes in management and operation of oil exploration and development. The purpose of this conference was to provide a forum for discussion of the changes which are currently taking place in oil spill legislation, management, and response strategies

  20. Giant Oil Fields - The Highway to Oil: Giant Oil Fields and their Importance for Future Oil Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robelius, Fredrik

    2007-01-01

    Since the 1950s, oil has been the dominant source of energy in the world. The cheap supply of oil has been the engine for economic growth in the western world. Since future oil demand is expected to increase, the question to what extent future production will be available is important. The belief in a soon peak production of oil is fueled by increasing oil prices. However, the reliability of the oil price as a single parameter can be questioned, as earlier times of high prices have occurred without having anything to do with a lack of oil. Instead, giant oil fields, the largest oil fields in the world, can be used as a parameter. A giant oil field contains at least 500 million barrels of recoverable oil. Only 507, or 1 % of the total number of fields, are giants. Their contribution is striking: over 60 % of the 2005 production and about 65 % of the global ultimate recoverable reserve (URR). However, giant fields are something of the past since a majority of the largest giant fields are over 50 years old and the discovery trend of less giant fields with smaller volumes is clear. A large number of the largest giant fields are found in the countries surrounding the Persian Gulf. The domination of giant fields in global oil production confirms a concept where they govern future production. A model, based on past annual production and URR, has been developed to forecast future production from giant fields. The results, in combination with forecasts on new field developments, heavy oil and oil sand, are used to predict future oil production. In all scenarios, peak oil occurs at about the same time as the giant fields peak. The worst-case scenario sees a peak in 2008 and the best-case scenario, following a 1.4 % demand growth, peaks in 2018

  1. The Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill: Ecogenomics of the Deep-Sea Plume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazen, T. C.

    2012-12-01

    The explosion on April 20, 2010 at the BP-leased Deepwater Horizon drilling rig in the Gulf of Mexico off the coast of Louisiana, resulted in oil and gas rising to the surface and the oil coming ashore in many parts of the Gulf, it also resulted in the dispersment of an immense oil plume 4,000 feet below the surface of the water. Despite spanning more than 600 feet in the water column and extending more than 10 miles from the wellhead, the dispersed oil plume was gone within weeks after the wellhead was capped - degraded and diluted to undetectable levels. Furthermore, this degradation took place without significant oxygen depletion. Ecogenomics enabled discovery of new and unclassified species of oil-eating bacteria that apparently lives in the deep Gulf where oil seeps are common. Using 16s microarrays, functional gene arrays, clone libraries, lipid analysis and a variety of hydrocarbon and micronutrient analyses we were able to characterize the oil degraders. Metagenomic sequence data was obtained for the deep-water samples using the Illumina platform. In addition, single cells were sorted and sequenced for the some of the most dominant bacteria that were represented in the oil plume; namely uncultivated representatives of Colwellia and Oceanospirillum. In addition, we performed laboratory microcosm experiments using uncontaminated water collected from The Gulf at the depth of the oil plume to which we added oil and COREXIT. These samples were characterized by 454 pyrotag. The results provide information about the key players and processes involved in degradation of oil, with and without COREXIT, in different impacted environments in The Gulf of Mexico. We are also extending these studies to explore dozens of deep sediment samples that were also collected after the oil spill around the wellhead. This data suggests that a great potential for intrinsic bioremediation of oil plumes exists in the deep-sea and other environs in the Gulf of Mexico.

  2. European gas oil markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, D.

    1991-04-01

    The developments over the past five years of the bulk markets for gas oil in Europe are examined using advanced econometric techniques to study the related issues of pricing efficiency and hedge efficiency. The study attempts to preserve the fluctuations of the actual data as these provide insights into the process of price discovery. The markets studied include the spot, forward and futures markets and looks for evidence of differentiated markets. (UK)

  3. Iranian-Oil-Free Zone and international oil prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farzanegan, Mohammad Reza; Raeisian Parvari, Mozhgan

    2014-01-01

    One of the main elements of economic sanctions against Iran due to its nuclear and military programs is crude oil exportation restrictions in addition to investment in Iranian energy related projects. Senders of such sanction are interested in understanding the impacts of such embargos on international oil prices. We apply unrestricted vector autoregressive (VAR) model, using impulse response functions (IRF) and variance decomposition analysis (VDA) tools with annual data from 1965 to 2012 to analyze the dynamic response of international oil prices to Iranian oil export sanction. Controlling for the supply of non-Iranian oil, the world GDP per capita, and post-Islamic revolution exogenous dummy variables, we show that international oil prices respond negatively and statistically significant to increasing shock in absolute negative changes of the Iranian oil exports – our proxy of Iran oil sanctions – following the first 2 years after shock. The main reason is the positive response of the non-Iranian oil supply to negative shocks in Iranian oil exports, filling the missing supply of Iranian oil in international markets. - Highlights: • We analyze the interconnections between Iranian oil supply and global oil prices. • We use VAR modeling and annual data from 1965 to 2012 for the case of Iran. • There are no inflationary effects of Iranian oil sanction on world oil prices. • Non-Iranian oil supply offsets the missing Iranian oil in the market

  4. Secret story of the Algerian oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malti, H.

    2010-01-01

    This book unravels some obscure aspects of oil exploitation in Algeria, from its historical aspects (the first discoveries, the collaboration with French oil companies during the 1960's, the nationalization in 1971) to the drift of the Algerian regime towards corruption and conflicts between the power clans with the connivance of big democracies

  5. Distribution and quantitative assessment of world crude oil reserves and resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, Charles D.; Root, David H.; Dietzman, William D.

    1983-01-01

    World Demonstrated Reserves of crude oil are approximately 723 billion barrels of oil (BBO). Cumulative production is 445 BBO and annual production is 20 BBO. Demonstrated Reserves of crude-oil have declined over the past 10 years consistent with discoveries lagging production over the same period. The assessment of Undiscovered Resources shows a 90 percent probability that the amount discoverable lies between 321 and 1,417 BBO, 550 BBO being the most likely value. The most likely value for Ultimate recoverable resources is 1,718 BBO. The distribution of Ultimate Resources of crude oil will remain highly skewed toward the Middle East; no frontier areas that have potentials large enough to significantly affect present distribution are recognized. Rates of discovery have continued to decline over the past 20 years even though exploration activity has increased in recent years. Prudence dictates, therefore, that the low side of the assessment of Undiscovered Resources be responsibly considered and that alternate energy sources be a part of future planning. Extra-heavy oil and bitumen are assessed separately, with Reserves being figured as the annual productive capacity of installed facilities times 25 years. The annual production of extra-heavy oil is about 8 million barrels and of bitumen about 60 million barrels.

  6. Gas reserves, discoveries and production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saniere, A.

    2006-01-01

    Between 2000 and 2004, new discoveries, located mostly in the Asia/Pacific region, permitted a 71% produced reserve replacement rate. The Middle East and the offshore sector represent a growing proportion of world gas production Non-conventional gas resources are substantial but are not exploited to any significant extent, except in the United States, where they account for 30% of U.S. gas production. (author)

  7. Saudi Arabia's oil policy after 1. oil crisis explained with the help of a cartel model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linderoth, H.

    1992-01-01

    Saudi Arabian oil policy is analyzed by using a cartel model where Saudi Arabia's oil production is a function of oil price and oil production in other OPEC countries. Elasticities for oil production and oil price are estimated covering oil crises and 3 intercrises periods. During all intercrises periods, production elasticity is not significantly different from 1 which, to a considerable extent, shows that the oil production in Saudi Arabia followed that of the other OPEC countries. During oil crisis periods, production elasticities were either significantly negative or not significantly different from zero. In most cases, the price elasticity was not significantly different from zero. (au)

  8. The Greatest Mathematical Discovery?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, David H.; Borwein, Jonathan M.

    2010-05-12

    What mathematical discovery more than 1500 years ago: (1) Is one of the greatest, if not the greatest, single discovery in the field of mathematics? (2) Involved three subtle ideas that eluded the greatest minds of antiquity, even geniuses such as Archimedes? (3) Was fiercely resisted in Europe for hundreds of years after its discovery? (4) Even today, in historical treatments of mathematics, is often dismissed with scant mention, or else is ascribed to the wrong source? Answer: Our modern system of positional decimal notation with zero, together with the basic arithmetic computational schemes, which were discovered in India about 500 CE.

  9. Prospects for world oil supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esser, R.W.

    1991-01-01

    Surprises lie ahead for world oil supplies, which are expected to increase rapidly throughout the 1990s before leveling off by the end of the century. The extent of this increase could be the major surprise of the decade. Large increases in the capacity in Gulf countries accompanied by smaller increases in the non-Middle East OPEC countries will be augmented by a gradual increase in non-OPEC capacity into the late 1990s. By 2000, declining capacity in the latter two areas will offset continued capacity increases in the Gulf countries. Overall capacity in the non-OPEC countries (excluding China, Eastern Europe, and the Soviet Union), is expected to increase by 1.1 million BOPD from the low point in the early 1990s to a mid 1990s peak. The increase will be led by a large increase in capacity from the United Kingdom and smaller contributions from the non-Middle East OPEC countries and Mexico. In the forecast, emphasis has been placed on a detailed evaluation of recent significant discoveries made in non-OPEC countries and non-Middle East OPEC countries since 1983, which when taken together, are expected to add 8 million BOPD new capacity as soon as 1995. These discoveries have taken place in both existing and evolving exploration hotspots that are expected to receive increasing industry emphasis in the 1990s

  10. Detection of argan oil adulterated with vegetable oils: New markers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ourrach, I.; Rada, M.; Perez-Camino, M. C.; Benaissa, M.; Guinda, A

    2012-07-01

    This work aims to contribute to controlling the authenticity of pure argan oil, a valuable Moroccan product. Fatty acids, hydrocarbon fraction, 3,5-stigmastadiene, the alkyl esters of fatty acids, chlorophyllic pigments and physical properties such as viscosity, density and refractive index were studied in order to detect the adulteration of argan oil with edible vegetable oils. The results found in this study show that 3,5-stigmastadiene, kaurene and pheophytin-a can be used as possible new markers for argan oil blends of up to 5% with refined, sunflower and virgin olive oils. Due to the similarity of the fatty acid compositions of the edible oils studied and argan oil, fatty acids can be employed as markers for the detection of argan oil adulteration at levels higher than 10%. Among the physical properties studied, the refractive index shows significant differences for sunflower oil and its blend at 10% with argan oil. (Author) 35 refs.

  11. Multidimensional process discovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ribeiro, J.T.S.

    2013-01-01

    Typically represented in event logs, business process data describe the execution of process events over time. Business process intelligence (BPI) techniques such as process mining can be applied to get strategic insight into business processes. Process discovery, conformance checking and

  12. Fateful discovery almost forgotten

    CERN Multimedia

    1989-01-01

    "The discovery of the fission of uranium exactly half a century ago is at risk of passing unremarked because of the general ambivalence towards the consequences of this development. Can that be wise?" (4 pages)

  13. Toxins and drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Alan L

    2014-12-15

    Components from venoms have stimulated many drug discovery projects, with some notable successes. These are briefly reviewed, from captopril to ziconotide. However, there have been many more disappointments on the road from toxin discovery to approval of a new medicine. Drug discovery and development is an inherently risky business, and the main causes of failure during development programmes are outlined in order to highlight steps that might be taken to increase the chances of success with toxin-based drug discovery. These include having a clear focus on unmet therapeutic needs, concentrating on targets that are well-validated in terms of their relevance to the disease in question, making use of phenotypic screening rather than molecular-based assays, and working with development partners with the resources required for the long and expensive development process. Copyright © 2014 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. The impacts of mega discoveries of oil and natural gas in the pre-salt Santos Basin: Brazil 2000 - 2030 - 2050; Os impactos das mega descobertas de oleo e gas natural no pre-sal da Bacia de Santos: Brasil 2000 - 2030 - 2050

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahia, Raymundo Ruy; Reis, Lucio Eduardo Solano [Universidade da Amazonia (GEPEE/UNAMA), Belem, PA (Brazil). Nucleo de Socio-economia. Grupo de Estudos e Pesquisas Economicas Energeticas], e-mail: ruybahia@uol.com.br, e-mail: lereis2000@gmail.com

    2008-07-01

    This paper is a follow-up of four papers presented at the V CBPE 2006 e XI CBE 2006 updating the investment needs to expand the electric energy (EE) Offer. Such analysis revealed an hydro matrix over cost investments of 293 bi US$ (10bi US$/year) as compared to the hydro thermo matrix. Such data proof the unviability to supply the Southern, Southeastern and Central-West regions demand with Amazonian hydroelectricity. Furthermore, evaluations about the impacts of the huge underestimate volumes of proved reserves of oil and NG of 20 Gboe from the Projects Tupi, Carioca and Parati and Jupiter discoveries are limited to a small geographic area of 15,000 sqkm (122 x 122 km) that is only 9 percent of the Pre-Salt total area of 160,000 sqkm supporting the hypothesis of 160 Gboe for the ultimate ROR for both Campos and Pre-Salt Basins plus all others exploratory fronts offshore and onshore. In this probable case the mid-points of oil and NG will migrate to the 2070 year. Under these circumstances either scenarios will support the oil and NG self-sufficiencies for those regions Southern, Southeastern and Central-West regions, up to the 2050 year and probably extended to the 2070 year. The estimated volume of the potential proved reserve NG Jupiter Project is also underestimate but large enough (7,0 Gboe = 1,100 billion of cubic meter= Gmc) to supply 80 percent (80 GW) of the total 101 GW expansion offer of EE up to the 2030 year. Finally there is not a single good reason to justify the supply the EE demand of the Southern, Southeastern and Central-West regions with the unviable Amazonian hydroelectricity. (author)

  15. On the antiproton discovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piccioni, O.

    1989-01-01

    The author of this article describes his own role in the discovery of the antiproton. Although Segre and Chamberlain received the Nobel Prize in 1959 for its discovery, the author claims that their experimental method was his idea which he communicated to them informally in December 1954. He describes how his application for citizenship (he was Italian), and other scientists' manipulation, prevented him from being at Berkeley to work on the experiment himself. (UK)

  16. Discovery Driven Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bukh, Per Nikolaj

    2009-01-01

    Anmeldelse af Discovery Driven Growh : A breakthrough process to reduce risk and seize opportunity, af Rita G. McGrath & Ian C. MacMillan, Boston: Harvard Business Press. Udgivelsesdato: 14 august......Anmeldelse af Discovery Driven Growh : A breakthrough process to reduce risk and seize opportunity, af Rita G. McGrath & Ian C. MacMillan, Boston: Harvard Business Press. Udgivelsesdato: 14 august...

  17. The π discovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, P.H.

    1988-01-01

    The paper traces the discovery of the Π meson. The discovery was made by exposure of nuclear emulsions to cosmic radiation at high altitudes, with subsequent scanning of the emulsions for meson tracks. Disintegration of nuclei by a negative meson, and the decay of a Π meson were both observed. Further measurements revealed the mass of the meson. The studies carried out on the origin of the Π-mesons, and their mode of decay, are both described. (U.K.)

  18. CO2 Enhanced Oil Recovery from the Residual Zone - A Sustainable Vision for North Sea Oil Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Jamie; Haszeldine, Stuart; Wilkinson, Mark; Johnson, Gareth

    2014-05-01

    This paper presents a 'new vision for North Sea oil production' where previously unattainable residual oil can be produced with the injection of CO2 that has been captured at power stations or other large industrial emitters. Not only could this process produce incremental oil from a maturing basin, reducing imports, it also has the capability to store large volumes of CO2 which can offset the emissions of additional carbon produced. Around the world oil production from mature basins is in decline and production from UK oil fields peaked in 1998. Other basins around the world have a similar story. Although in the UK a number of tax regimes, such as 'brown field allowances' and 'new field allowances' have been put in place to re-encourage investment, it is recognised that the majority of large discoveries have already been made. However, as a nation our demand for oil remains high and in the last decade imports of crude oil have been steadily increasing. The UK is dependent on crude oil for transport and feedstock for chemical and plastics production. Combined with the necessity to provide energy security, there is a demand to re-assess the potential for CO2 Enhanced Oil Recovery (CO2-EOR) in the UK offshore. Residual oil zones (ROZ) exist where one of a number of natural conditions beyond normal capillary forces have caused the geometry of a field's oil column to be altered after filling [1]. When this re-structuring happens the primary interest to the hydrocarbon industry has in the past been in where the mobile oil has migrated to. However it is now considered that significant oil resource may exist in the residual zone play where the main oil column has been displaced. Saturations within this play are predominantly close to residual saturation (Sr) and would be similar to that of a water-flooded field [2]. Evidence from a number of hydrocarbon fairways shows that, under certain circumstances, these residual zones in US fields are comparable in thickness to the

  19. Updated Hubbert curves analyze world oil supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanhoe, L.F.

    1996-01-01

    The question is not whether, but when, world crude oil production will start to decline, ushering in the permanent oil shock era. While global information for predicting this event is not so straightforward as the data M. King Hubbert used in creating his famous Hubbert Curve that predicted the US (Lower 48 states, or US/48) 1970 oil production peak, there are strong indications that most of the world's large exploration targets have now been found. Meanwhile, the earth's population is exploding along with the oil needs of Asia's developing nations. This article reviews Hubbert's original analyses on oil discovery and production curves for the US/48 and projects his proven methodology onto global oil discoveries and production as of 1992. The world's oil discovery curve peaked in 1962, and thence declined, as a Hubbert Curve predicts. However, global production was restricted after the 1973 Arab oil embargo. Otherwise, world production would have peaked in the mid-1990s. Two graphs show alternate versions of future global oil production

  20. Oil Spills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oil spills often happen because of accidents, when people make mistakes or equipment breaks down. Other causes include natural disasters or deliberate acts. Oil spills have major environmental and economic effects. Oil ...

  1. Considering extraction constraints in long-term oil price modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rehrl, Tobias; Friedrich, Rainer; Voss, Alfred

    2005-12-15

    Apart from divergence about the remaining global oil resources, the peak oil discussion can be reduced to a dispute about the time rate at which these resources can be supplied. On the one hand it is problematic to project oil supply trends without taking both - prices as well as supply costs - explicitly into account. On the other hand are supply cost estimates however itself heavily dependent on the underlying extraction rates and are actually only valid within a certain business-as-usual extraction rate scenario (which itself is the task to determine). In fact, even after having applied enhanced recovery technologies, the rate at which an oil field can be exploited is quite restricted. Above a certain level an additional extraction rate increase can only be costly achieved at risks of losses in the overall recoverable amounts of the oil reservoir and causes much higher marginal cost. This inflexibility in extraction can be overcome in principle by the access to new oil fields. This indicates why the discovery trend may roughly form the long-term oil production curve, at least for price-taking suppliers. The long term oil discovery trend itself can be described as a logistic process with the two opposed effects of learning and depletion. This leads to the well-known Hubbert curve. Several attempts have been made to incorporate economic variables econometrically into the Hubbert model. With this work we follow a somewhat inverse approach and integrate Hubbert curves in our Long-term Oil Price and EXtraction model LOPEX. In LOPEX we assume that non-OPEC oil production - as long as the oil can be profitably discovered and extracted - is restricted to follow self-regulative discovery trends described by Hubbert curves. Non-OPEC production in LOPEX therefore consists of those Hubbert cycles that are profitable, depending on supply cost and price. Endogenous and exogenous technical progress is extra integrated in different ways. LOPEX determines extraction and price

  2. Considering extraction constraints in long-term oil price modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehrl, Tobias; Friedrich, Rainer; Voss, Alfred

    2005-01-01

    Apart from divergence about the remaining global oil resources, the peak oil discussion can be reduced to a dispute about the time rate at which these resources can be supplied. On the one hand it is problematic to project oil supply trends without taking both - prices as well as supply costs - explicitly into account. On the other hand are supply cost estimates however itself heavily dependent on the underlying extraction rates and are actually only valid within a certain business-as-usual extraction rate scenario (which itself is the task to determine). In fact, even after having applied enhanced recovery technologies, the rate at which an oil field can be exploited is quite restricted. Above a certain level an additional extraction rate increase can only be costly achieved at risks of losses in the overall recoverable amounts of the oil reservoir and causes much higher marginal cost. This inflexibility in extraction can be overcome in principle by the access to new oil fields. This indicates why the discovery trend may roughly form the long-term oil production curve, at least for price-taking suppliers. The long term oil discovery trend itself can be described as a logistic process with the two opposed effects of learning and depletion. This leads to the well-known Hubbert curve. Several attempts have been made to incorporate economic variables econometrically into the Hubbert model. With this work we follow a somewhat inverse approach and integrate Hubbert curves in our Long-term Oil Price and EXtraction model LOPEX. In LOPEX we assume that non-OPEC oil production - as long as the oil can be profitably discovered and extracted - is restricted to follow self-regulative discovery trends described by Hubbert curves. Non-OPEC production in LOPEX therefore consists of those Hubbert cycles that are profitable, depending on supply cost and price. Endogenous and exogenous technical progress is extra integrated in different ways. LOPEX determines extraction and price

  3. The Factors Influencing on Consumption of Palm Cooking Oil in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ermy Teti

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Cooking oil is one of the most sensitive basic needs in Indonesia. The aims of the researchare to analyze factors influencing consumption of cooking oil, the cooking oil price, and theCrude Palm Oil price in Indonesia. Using simultaneous equation model, the study show thatpalm cooking oil consumption is significantly affected by domestic palm cooking oil priceand number of population. Whilst palm cooking oil price is significantly influenced by thecooking palm oil production and the domestic Crude Palm Oil price. Finally, the domesticCrude Palm Oil is significantly affected by international Crude Palm Oil price.Keywords: consumption, cooking oil price, crude palm oil price and cooking oil

  4. Long term prediction of unconventional oil production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohr, S.H.; Evans, G.M.

    2010-01-01

    Although considerable discussion surrounds unconventional oil's ability to mitigate the effects of peaking conventional oil production, very few models of unconventional oil production exist. The aim of this article was to project unconventional oil production to determine how significant its production may be. Two models were developed to predict the unconventional oil production, one model for in situ production and the other for mining the resources. Unconventional oil production is anticipated to reach between 18 and 32 Gb/y (49-88 Mb/d) in 2076-2084, before declining. If conventional oil production is at peak production then projected unconventional oil production cannot mitigate peaking of conventional oil alone.

  5. Discovery of charm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldhaber, G.

    1984-11-01

    In my talk I will cover the period 1973 to 1976 which saw the discoveries of the J/psi and psi' resonances and most of the Psion spectroscopy, the tau lepton and the D 0 ,D + charmed meson doublet. Occasionally I will refer briefly to more recent results. Since this conference is on the history of the weak-interactions I will deal primarily with the properties of naked charm and in particular the weakly decaying doublet of charmed mesons. Most of the discoveries I will mention were made with the SLAC-LBL Magnetic Detector or MARK I which we operated at SPEAR from 1973 to 1976. 27 references

  6. Oil concession agreements and the evolution of the oil industry in the UAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizvi, S.N.A.

    1993-01-01

    A historical and analytical development of the oil industry in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) is presented in this paper. Oil concession agreements are identified and examined in three distinct groups: old agreements, new agreements and participation agreements. Oil discoveries and production in other Emirates are also described. The gradual acquisition of control over these industries by their respective governments is a key feature of the paper. (UK)

  7. Bio-crude transcriptomics: Gene discovery and metabolic network reconstruction for the biosynthesis of the terpenome of the hydrocarbon oil-producing green alga, Botryococcus braunii race B (Showa*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molnár István

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microalgae hold promise for yielding a biofuel feedstock that is sustainable, carbon-neutral, distributed, and only minimally disruptive for the production of food and feed by traditional agriculture. Amongst oleaginous eukaryotic algae, the B race of Botryococcus braunii is unique in that it produces large amounts of liquid hydrocarbons of terpenoid origin. These are comparable to fossil crude oil, and are sequestered outside the cells in a communal extracellular polymeric matrix material. Biosynthetic engineering of terpenoid bio-crude production requires identification of genes and reconstruction of metabolic pathways responsible for production of both hydrocarbons and other metabolites of the alga that compete for photosynthetic carbon and energy. Results A de novo assembly of 1,334,609 next-generation pyrosequencing reads form the Showa strain of the B race of B. braunii yielded a transcriptomic database of 46,422 contigs with an average length of 756 bp. Contigs were annotated with pathway, ontology, and protein domain identifiers. Manual curation allowed the reconstruction of pathways that produce terpenoid liquid hydrocarbons from primary metabolites, and pathways that divert photosynthetic carbon into tetraterpenoid carotenoids, diterpenoids, and the prenyl chains of meroterpenoid quinones and chlorophyll. Inventories of machine-assembled contigs are also presented for reconstructed pathways for the biosynthesis of competing storage compounds including triacylglycerol and starch. Regeneration of S-adenosylmethionine, and the extracellular localization of the hydrocarbon oils by active transport and possibly autophagy are also investigated. Conclusions The construction of an annotated transcriptomic database, publicly available in a web-based data depository and annotation tool, provides a foundation for metabolic pathway and network reconstruction, and facilitates further omics studies in the absence of a genome

  8. The determinants of oil prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelier, J-P.

    1991-01-01

    In recent years, swings in oil prices have been of unprecendented severity and frequency. Three factors work together to determine the price of oil: in the short term, the balance between supply and demand; in the medium term, the structure of the oil industry; and in the long term, the marginal production cost consistent with world oil demand. An oil price forecast is presented based on these considerations, and it is predicted that in the year 2000, oil prices will not be significantly different from those of today. 28 refs

  9. Quantification of rice bran oil in oil blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, R.; Sharma, H. K.; Sengar, G.

    2012-11-01

    Blends consisting of physically refined rice bran oil (PRBO): sunflower oil (SnF) and PRBO: safflower oil (SAF) in different proportions were analyzed for various physicochemical parameters. The quantification of pure rice bran oil in the blended oils was carried out using different methods including gas chromatographic, HPLC, ultrasonic velocity and methods based on physico-chemical parameters. The physicochemical parameters such as ultrasonic velocity, relative association and acoustic impedance at 2 MHz, iodine value, palmitic acid content and oryzanol content reflected significant changes with increased proportions of PRBO in the blended oils. These parameters were selected as dependent parameters and % PRBO proportion was selected as independent parameters. The study revealed that regression equations based on the oryzanol content, palmitic acid composition, ultrasonic velocity, relative association, acoustic impedance, and iodine value can be used for the quantification of rice bran oil in blended oils. The rice bran oil can easily be quantified in the blended oils based on the oryzanol content by HPLC even at a 1% level. The palmitic acid content in blended oils can also be used as an indicator to quantify rice bran oil at or above the 20% level in blended oils whereas the method based on ultrasonic velocity, acoustic impedance and relative association showed initial promise in the quantification of rice bran oil. (Author) 23 refs.

  10. Oil risk in oil stocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtens, Bert; Wang, L

    2008-01-01

    We assess the oil price sensitivities and oil risk premiums of NYSE listed oil & gas firms' returns by using a two-step regression analysis under two different arbitrage pricing models. Thus, we apply the Fama and French (1992) factor returns in a study of oil stocks. In all, we find that the return

  11. Discovery: Pile Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mestre, Neville

    2017-01-01

    Earlier "Discovery" articles (de Mestre, 1999, 2003, 2006, 2010, 2011) considered patterns from many mathematical situations. This article presents a group of patterns used in 19th century mathematical textbooks. In the days of earlier warfare, cannon balls were stacked in various arrangements depending on the shape of the pile base…

  12. Discovery and Innovation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Discovery and Innovation is a journal of the African Academy of Sciences (AAS) ... World (TWAS) meant to focus attention on science and technology in Africa and the ... of Non-wood Forest Products: Potential Impacts and Challenges in Africa ...

  13. Discovery of TUG-770

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Elisabeth; Hansen, Steffen V F; Urban, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Free fatty acid receptor 1 (FFA1 or GPR40) enhances glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from pancreatic β-cells and currently attracts high interest as a new target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. We here report the discovery of a highly potent FFA1 agonist with favorable physicochemical...

  14. The discovery of fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKay, H.A.C.

    1978-01-01

    In this article by the retired head of the Separation Processes Group of the Chemistry Division, Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Harwell, U.K., the author recalls what he terms 'an exciting drama, the unravelling of the nature of the atomic nucleus' in the years before the Second World War, including the discovery of fission. 12 references. (author)

  15. The Discovery of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Paul S.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses a model for explaining the spread of human population explosion on North American continent since its discovery 12,000 years ago. The model may help to map the spread of Homo sapiens throughout the New World by using the extinction chronology of the Pleistocene megafauna. (Author/PS)

  16. Outlook for Saskatchewan heavy oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youzwa, P.

    1993-01-01

    Some of the opportunities and challenges currently facing the heavy oil industry in Saskatchewan are discussed from a government perspective. By the end of September 1993, 220 heavy oil wells were drilled in the province, and 26% of the land sales in 1993 were in heavy oil areas. About 41% of the wells drilled in heavy oil areas were horizontal oil wells. Of the total horizontal wells drilled in Saskatchewan, 48% are for heavy oil, and horizontal well production averages 85 bbl/d. Initial trends suggest that horizontal wells both accelerate production and contribute to ultimate recovery. Total heavy oil production in 1992 reached 28.9 million bbl and recoverable reserves in 1991 were 262.3 million bbl, or 1.5% of total oil in place. The low recovery is not only due to technical factors such as high viscosity but also to low investment in the heavy oil sector due to poor economics. It is hoped that lower interest and exchange rates, the success of horizontal wells and the provincial royalty structure will maintain the recent increase in heavy oil activity. The provincial government recently launched a comprehensive energy strategy in which development of a heavy oil strategy is an important component. Total heavy oil reserves exceed those of light and medium oil and have significant development potential. The Saskatchewan government wishes to adopt a cooperative and partnership approach in its dealings with the heavy oil industry to help realize this potential. 9 figs

  17. The future of oil supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Richard G; Sorrell, Steven R

    2014-01-13

    Abundant supplies of oil form the foundation of modern industrial economies, but the capacity to maintain and grow global supply is attracting increasing concern. Some commentators forecast a peak in the near future and a subsequent terminal decline in global oil production, while others highlight the recent growth in 'tight oil' production and the scope for developing unconventional resources. There are disagreements over the size, cost and recoverability of different resources, the technical and economic potential of different technologies, the contribution of different factors to market trends and the economic implications of reduced supply. Few debates are more important, more contentious, more wide-ranging or more confused. This paper summarizes the main concepts, terms, issues and evidence that are necessary to understand the 'peak oil' debate. These include: the origin, nature and classification of oil resources; the trends in oil production and discoveries; the typical production profiles of oil fields, basins and producing regions; the mechanisms underlying those profiles; the extent of depletion of conventional oil; the risk of an approaching peak in global production; and the potential of various mitigation options. The aim is to introduce the subject to non-specialist readers and provide a basis for the subsequent papers in this Theme Issue.

  18. The end of cheap oil: Current status and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsoskounoglou, Miltos; Ayerides, George; Tritopoulou, Efi

    2008-01-01

    This paper, analyses the factors impacting the price of crude oil in order to examine the likely evolution of the oil market and attempts to answer the question, whether cheap oil is already a thing of the past. Based on data made publicly available mostly by the major oil companies, it examines the effects of demand and supply, the evolution of world oil reserves, the trends in new discoveries of new oilfields, the evolution of world Gross Domestic Product (GDP), and the depletion of oil resources. The analysis concludes that the world peak in conventional oil production-the point beyond which oil production will irreversibly start declining-is approaching and will be reached, even according to the most optimistic scenarios, before 2040 and quite possibly much sooner. If the appropriate solutions for substituting crude oil and for conserving the use of energy are not implemented in time, then the current upward trend in oil prices is bound to continue

  19. Compositional modification of crude oil during oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Yangming; Weng, Huanxin [Department of Earth Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Chen, Zulin; Chen, Qi [Petroleum Geochemistry Research Center, Jianghan Petroleum University, Jingzhou, Hubei (China)

    2003-05-01

    Ten crude oils from two recovery stages spanning 5-10-year interval of five productive wells in the Tarim Basin, northwest China were analyzed for their compositional modification during production process. Significant compositional changes in polar and nonpolar fractions between the previous oil samples and the latter ones were noted at both bulk and molecular level. The latter oil samples appear to contain more aromatic fraction and less asphaltenes and resin, and their gas chromatography (GC) data for whole oil show reduced alkanes with low molecular weight and enhanced high homologue relative to the previous oil samples. Compared with the oils collected from the previous recovery stage, the concentration of basic type of nitrogen-containing compounds and organic acids in oils from the latter recovery stage have a reducing trend, suggesting the occurrence of interaction between crude oil and reservoir rock.

  20. Oil exploitation and the environmental Kuznets curve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esmaeili, Abdoulkarim; Abdollahzadeh, Negar

    2009-01-01

    This study refers to a panel estimation of an environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) for oil to determine the factors most affecting oil exploitation in 38 oil-producing countries during 1990-2000. Control variables such as oil reserves, oil price, population, political rights, and the Gini index were used to determine its contribution to the main EKC model. The empirical results fully support the existence of an EKC for oil exploitation. Furthermore, the result indicates that the proved oil reserves has a significant and positive role in oil production, but oil price and population do not significantly affect crude oil production. Also, increased freedoms and a better income distribution will reduce the rate of oil exploitation. Thus, policies aiming at enhancing democratic society and better income distribution would be more compatible with sustainability. (author)

  1. Oil exploitation and the environmental Kuznets curve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esmaeili, Abdoulkarim; Abdollahzadeh, Negar [Department of Agricultural Economics, College of Agriculture, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Fars (Iran)

    2009-01-15

    This study refers to a panel estimation of an environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) for oil to determine the factors most affecting oil exploitation in 38 oil-producing countries during 1990-2000. Control variables such as oil reserves, oil price, population, political rights, and the Gini index were used to determine its contribution to the main EKC model. The empirical results fully support the existence of an EKC for oil exploitation. Furthermore, the result indicates that the proved oil reserves has a significant and positive role in oil production, but oil price and population do not significantly affect crude oil production. Also, increased freedoms and a better income distribution will reduce the rate of oil exploitation. Thus, policies aiming at enhancing democratic society and better income distribution would be more compatible with sustainability. (author)

  2. Significant Tsunami Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, P. K.; Furtney, M.; McLean, S. J.; Sweeney, A. D.

    2014-12-01

    Tsunamis have inflicted death and destruction on the coastlines of the world throughout history. The occurrence of tsunamis and the resulting effects have been collected and studied as far back as the second millennium B.C. The knowledge gained from cataloging and examining these events has led to significant changes in our understanding of tsunamis, tsunami sources, and methods to mitigate the effects of tsunamis. The most significant, not surprisingly, are often the most devastating, such as the 2011 Tohoku, Japan earthquake and tsunami. The goal of this poster is to give a brief overview of the occurrence of tsunamis and then focus specifically on several significant tsunamis. There are various criteria to determine the most significant tsunamis: the number of deaths, amount of damage, maximum runup height, had a major impact on tsunami science or policy, etc. As a result, descriptions will include some of the most costly (2011 Tohoku, Japan), the most deadly (2004 Sumatra, 1883 Krakatau), and the highest runup ever observed (1958 Lituya Bay, Alaska). The discovery of the Cascadia subduction zone as the source of the 1700 Japanese "Orphan" tsunami and a future tsunami threat to the U.S. northwest coast, contributed to the decision to form the U.S. National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program. The great Lisbon earthquake of 1755 marked the beginning of the modern era of seismology. Knowledge gained from the 1964 Alaska earthquake and tsunami helped confirm the theory of plate tectonics. The 1946 Alaska, 1952 Kuril Islands, 1960 Chile, 1964 Alaska, and the 2004 Banda Aceh, tsunamis all resulted in warning centers or systems being established.The data descriptions on this poster were extracted from NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) global historical tsunami database. Additional information about these tsunamis, as well as water level data can be found by accessing the NGDC website www.ngdc.noaa.gov/hazard/

  3. The neutron discovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Six, J.

    1987-01-01

    The neutron: who had first the idea, who discovered it, who established its main properties. To these apparently simple questions, multiple answers exist. The progressive discovery of the neutron is a marvellous illustration of some characteristics of the scientific research, where the unforeseen may be combined with the expected. This discovery is replaced in the context of the 1930's scientific effervescence that succeeded the revolutionary introduction of quantum mechanics. This book describes the works of Bothe, the Joliot-Curie and Chadwick which led to the neutron in an unexpected way. A historical analysis allows to give a new interpretation on the hypothesis suggested by the Joliot-Curie. Some texts of these days will help the reader to revive this fascinating story [fr

  4. Atlas of Astronomical Discoveries

    CERN Document Server

    Schilling, Govert

    2011-01-01

    Four hundred years ago in Middelburg, in the Netherlands, the telescope was invented. The invention unleashed a revolution in the exploration of the universe. Galileo Galilei discovered mountains on the Moon, spots on the Sun, and moons around Jupiter. Christiaan Huygens saw details on Mars and rings around Saturn. William Herschel discovered a new planet and mapped binary stars and nebulae. Other astronomers determined the distances to stars, unraveled the structure of the Milky Way, and discovered the expansion of the universe. And, as telescopes became bigger and more powerful, astronomers delved deeper into the mysteries of the cosmos. In his Atlas of Astronomical Discoveries, astronomy journalist Govert Schilling tells the story of 400 years of telescopic astronomy. He looks at the 100 most important discoveries since the invention of the telescope. In his direct and accessible style, the author takes his readers on an exciting journey encompassing the highlights of four centuries of astronomy. Spectacul...

  5. Viral pathogen discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Charles Y

    2015-01-01

    Viral pathogen discovery is of critical importance to clinical microbiology, infectious diseases, and public health. Genomic approaches for pathogen discovery, including consensus polymerase chain reaction (PCR), microarrays, and unbiased next-generation sequencing (NGS), have the capacity to comprehensively identify novel microbes present in clinical samples. Although numerous challenges remain to be addressed, including the bioinformatics analysis and interpretation of large datasets, these technologies have been successful in rapidly identifying emerging outbreak threats, screening vaccines and other biological products for microbial contamination, and discovering novel viruses associated with both acute and chronic illnesses. Downstream studies such as genome assembly, epidemiologic screening, and a culture system or animal model of infection are necessary to establish an association of a candidate pathogen with disease. PMID:23725672

  6. Fateful discovery almost forgotten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    The paper reviews the discovery of the fission of uranium, which took place fifty years ago. A description is given of the work of Meitner and Frisch in interpreting the Fermi data on the bombardment of uranium nuclei with neutrons, i.e. proposing fission. The historical events associated with the development and exploitation of uranium fission are described, including the Manhattan Project, Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Shippingport, and Chernobyl. (U.K.)

  7. Discovery as a process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loehle, C.

    1994-05-01

    The three great myths, which form a sort of triumvirate of misunderstanding, are the Eureka! myth, the hypothesis myth, and the measurement myth. These myths are prevalent among scientists as well as among observers of science. The Eureka! myth asserts that discovery occurs as a flash of insight, and as such is not subject to investigation. This leads to the perception that discovery or deriving a hypothesis is a moment or event rather than a process. Events are singular and not subject to description. The hypothesis myth asserts that proper science is motivated by testing hypotheses, and that if something is not experimentally testable then it is not scientific. This myth leads to absurd posturing by some workers conducting empirical descriptive studies, who dress up their study with a ``hypothesis`` to obtain funding or get it published. Methods papers are often rejected because they do not address a specific scientific problem. The fact is that many of the great breakthroughs in silence involve methods and not hypotheses or arise from largely descriptive studies. Those captured by this myth also try to block funding for those developing methods. The third myth is the measurement myth, which holds that determining what to measure is straightforward, so one doesn`t need a lot of introspection to do science. As one ecologist put it to me ``Don`t give me any of that philosophy junk, just let me out in the field. I know what to measure.`` These myths lead to difficulties for scientists who must face peer review to obtain funding and to get published. These myths also inhibit the study of science as a process. Finally, these myths inhibit creativity and suppress innovation. In this paper I first explore these myths in more detail and then propose a new model of discovery that opens the supposedly miraculous process of discovery to doser scrutiny.

  8. Lavender oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavender oil is an oil made from the flowers of lavender plants. Lavender poisoning can occur when ... further instructions. This is a free and confidential service. All local poison control centers in the United ...

  9. Petroleum Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Different types of crude oil and refined product, of all different chemical compositions, have distinct physical properties. These properties affect the way oil spreads and breaks down, its hazard to marine and human life, and the likelihood of threat.

  10. Economic effects of peak oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutz, Christian; Lehr, Ulrike; Wiebe, Kirsten S.

    2012-01-01

    Assuming that global oil production peaked, this paper uses scenario analysis to show the economic effects of a possible supply shortage and corresponding rise in oil prices in the next decade on different sectors in Germany and other major economies such as the US, Japan, China, the OPEC or Russia. Due to the price-inelasticity of oil demand the supply shortage leads to a sharp increase in oil prices in the second scenario, with high effects on GDP comparable to the magnitude of the global financial crises in 2008/09. Oil exporting countries benefit from high oil prices, whereas oil importing countries are negatively affected. Generally, the effects in the third scenario are significantly smaller than in the second, showing that energy efficiency measures and the switch to renewable energy sources decreases the countries' dependence on oil imports and hence reduces their vulnerability to oil price shocks on the world market. - Highlights: ► National and sectoral economic effects of peak oil until 2020 are modelled. ► The price elasticity of oil demand is low resulting in high price fluctuations. ► Oil shortage strongly affects transport and indirectly all other sectors. ► Global macroeconomic effects are comparable to the 2008/2009 crisis. ► Country effects depend on oil imports and productivity, and economic structures.

  11. Uranium chemistry: significant advances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazzanti, M.

    2011-01-01

    The author reviews recent progress in uranium chemistry achieved in CEA laboratories. Like its neighbors in the Mendeleev chart uranium undergoes hydrolysis, oxidation and disproportionation reactions which make the chemistry of these species in water highly complex. The study of the chemistry of uranium in an anhydrous medium has led to correlate the structural and electronic differences observed in the interaction of uranium(III) and the lanthanides(III) with nitrogen or sulfur molecules and the effectiveness of these molecules in An(III)/Ln(III) separation via liquid-liquid extraction. Recent work on the redox reactivity of trivalent uranium U(III) in an organic medium with molecules such as water or an azide ion (N 3 - ) in stoichiometric quantities, led to extremely interesting uranium aggregates particular those involved in actinide migration in the environment or in aggregation problems in the fuel processing cycle. Another significant advance was the discovery of a compound containing the uranyl ion with a degree of oxidation (V) UO 2 + , obtained by oxidation of uranium(III). Recently chemists have succeeded in blocking the disproportionation reaction of uranyl(V) and in stabilizing polymetallic complexes of uranyl(V), opening the way to to a systematic study of the reactivity and the electronic and magnetic properties of uranyl(V) compounds. (A.C.)

  12. Analgesic Potential of Essential Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ferreira Sarmento-Neto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Pain is an unpleasant sensation associated with a wide range of injuries and diseases, and affects approximately 20% of adults in the world. The discovery of new and more effective drugs that can relieve pain is an important research goal in both the pharmaceutical industry and academia. This review describes studies involving antinociceptive activity of essential oils from 31 plant species. Botanical aspects of aromatic plants, mechanisms of action in pain models and chemical composition profiles of the essential oils are discussed. The data obtained in these studies demonstrate the analgesic potential of this group of natural products for therapeutic purposes.

  13. Oil shale technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.

    1991-01-01

    Oil shale is undoubtedly an excellent energy source that has great abundance and world-wide distribution. Oil shale industries have seen ups and downs over more than 100 years, depending on the availability and price of conventional petroleum crudes. Market forces as well as environmental factors will greatly affect the interest in development of oil shale. Besides competing with conventional crude oil and natural gas, shale oil will have to compete favorably with coal-derived fuels for similar markets. Crude shale oil is obtained from oil shale by a relatively simple process called retorting. However, the process economics are greatly affected by the thermal efficiencies, the richness of shale, the mass transfer effectiveness, the conversion efficiency, the design of retort, the environmental post-treatment, etc. A great many process ideas and patents related to the oil shale pyrolysis have been developed; however, relatively few field and engineering data have been published. Due to the vast heterogeneity of oil shale and to the complexities of physicochemical process mechanisms, scientific or technological generalization of oil shale retorting is difficult to achieve. Dwindling supplied of worldwide petroleum reserves, as well as the unprecedented appetite of mankind for clean liquid fuel, has made the public concern for future energy market grow rapidly. the clean coal technology and the alternate fuel technology are currently of great significance not only to policy makers, but also to process and chemical researchers. In this book, efforts have been made to make a comprehensive text for the science and technology of oil shale utilization. Therefore, subjects dealing with the terminological definitions, geology and petrology, chemistry, characterization, process engineering, mathematical modeling, chemical reaction engineering, experimental methods, and statistical experimental design, etc. are covered in detail

  14. Oil biodegradation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahsepar, Shokouhalsadat; Langenhoff, Alette A.M.; Smit, Martijn P.J.; Eenennaam, van Justine S.; Murk, Tinka; Rijnaarts, Huub H.M.

    2017-01-01

    During the Deepwater Horizon (DwH) oil spill, interactions between oil, clay particles and marine snow lead to the formation of aggregates. Interactions between these components play an important, but yet not well understood, role in biodegradation of oil in the ocean water. The aim of this study

  15. Deceased Slabs Drive Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, H. J.; Hannah, J. L.

    2017-12-01

    The application of Re-Os isotope geochemistry to dating single oils is a nascent field [1,2]. Challenges include dissection of oils into asphaltene-maltene (ASPH-MALT) components in a way that preserves meaningful chronologic and source information. Significantly, oil-water mixing rapidly transfers Os to the oil, while Re exchange is sluggish [3]. The Os initial ratio of the oil is shifted in the direction of Os carried in the aqueous fluid, whereas the Re-Os isotopic age is preserved. We show that this phenomenon is operative in natural systems. Further, we show that deserpentinization of old oceanic slabs [4], may be linked to expulsion of Os-enriched waters into overlying sedimentary sections - a process that may be of fundamental importance for oil generation. This conclusion does not diminish the role of traditional organic-rich shales as source rocks for the hydrocarbon, but shows that external fluids are essential to petroleum generation. Moreover, the external fluids may be an important driver for expulsion and migration of oils. We have taken apart several petroleum systems from source rock, to residual oil, to tar mat development, to in situ live oil, through to produced oil. In many cases, a fluid with low 187Os/188Os - unlike that of normal basinal brines - provides a critical component to the oil-water mixture. Funding - CHRONOS project supported by Norwegian petroleum industry (Eni-Norge, Lundin, Aker BP) Acknowledgement - Christine Fichler [4], who first queried us on old slabs and oil, and stimulated ideas. [1] Georgiev, S.V., Stein, H.J., Hannah, J.L., Galimberti, R., Nali, M., Yang, G., and Zimmerman, A. (2016) Re-Os dating of maltenes and asphaltenes within single samples of crude oil: Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 179: 53-75. [doi.org/10.1016/j.gca.2016.01.016] [2] DiMarzio, J., Georgiev, S.V., Stein, H.J., and Hannah, J.L. (in press) Residency of rhenium and osmium in a heavy crude oil: Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta. [3] Hurtig, N.C., Georgiev, S

  16. On reliable discovery of molecular signatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björkegren Johan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Molecular signatures are sets of genes, proteins, genetic variants or other variables that can be used as markers for a particular phenotype. Reliable signature discovery methods could yield valuable insight into cell biology and mechanisms of human disease. However, it is currently not clear how to control error rates such as the false discovery rate (FDR in signature discovery. Moreover, signatures for cancer gene expression have been shown to be unstable, that is, difficult to replicate in independent studies, casting doubts on their reliability. Results We demonstrate that with modern prediction methods, signatures that yield accurate predictions may still have a high FDR. Further, we show that even signatures with low FDR may fail to replicate in independent studies due to limited statistical power. Thus, neither stability nor predictive accuracy are relevant when FDR control is the primary goal. We therefore develop a general statistical hypothesis testing framework that for the first time provides FDR control for signature discovery. Our method is demonstrated to be correct in simulation studies. When applied to five cancer data sets, the method was able to discover molecular signatures with 5% FDR in three cases, while two data sets yielded no significant findings. Conclusion Our approach enables reliable discovery of molecular signatures from genome-wide data with current sample sizes. The statistical framework developed herein is potentially applicable to a wide range of prediction problems in bioinformatics.

  17. Delta: the first pion nucleon resonance - its discovery and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagle, D.E.

    1984-07-01

    It is attempted to recapture some of the fun and excitement of the pion-scattering work that led to the discovery of what is now called the delta particle. How significant this discovery was became apparent only gradually. That the delta is alive today and thriving at Los Alamos (as well as other places) is described

  18. 14 CFR 406.143 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discovery. 406.143 Section 406.143... Transportation Adjudications § 406.143 Discovery. (a) Initiation of discovery. Any party may initiate discovery... after a complaint has been filed. (b) Methods of discovery. The following methods of discovery are...

  19. Interest grows in African oil and gas opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knott, D.

    1997-01-01

    As African countries continue a slow drift towards democratic government and market economics, the continent is increasingly attractive to international oil and gas companies. Though Africa remains politically diverse, and its volatile politics remains a major barrier to petroleum companies, a number of recent developments reflect its growing significance for the industry. Among recent projects and events reflecting changes in Africa: oil and gas exporter Algeria has invited foreign oil companies to help develop major gas discoveries, with a view to boosting exports to Europe; oil and gas producer Egypt invited foreign companies to explore in the Nile Delta region, and the result appears to be a flowering world scale gas play; west African offshore exploration has entered deep water and new areas, and a number of major projects are expected in years to come; Nigeria's reputation as a difficult place to operate has been justified by recent political and civil events, but a long-planned liquefied natural gas (LNG) export plant is being built there; South Africa, which has returned to the international scene after years of trade isolation because of apartheid, is emerging as a potential driver for energy industry schemes throughout the continent. Activities are discussed

  20. Interest grows in African oil and gas opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knott, D.

    1997-05-12

    As African countries continue a slow drift towards democratic government and market economics, the continent is increasingly attractive to international oil and gas companies. Though Africa remains politically diverse, and its volatile politics remains a major barrier to petroleum companies, a number of recent developments reflect its growing significance for the industry. Among recent projects and events reflecting changes in Africa: oil and gas exporter Algeria has invited foreign oil companies to help develop major gas discoveries, with a view to boosting exports to Europe; oil and gas producer Egypt invited foreign companies to explore in the Nile Delta region, and the result appears to be a flowering world scale gas play; west African offshore exploration has entered deep water and new areas, and a number of major projects are expected in years to come; Nigeria`s reputation as a difficult place to operate has been justified by recent political and civil events, but a long-planned liquefied natural gas (LNG) export plant is being built there; South Africa, which has returned to the international scene after years of trade isolation because of apartheid, is emerging as a potential driver for energy industry schemes throughout the continent. Activities are discussed.

  1. Brine crude oil interactions at the oil-water interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chakravarty, Krishna Hara; Fosbøl, Philip Loldrup; Thomsen, Kaj

    2015-01-01

    The impact of brine salinity and its ionic composition on oil displacement efficiency has been investigated extensively in recent years due to the potential of enhanced oil recovery (EOR). Wettability alterations through relative interactions at the mineral surface have been the basis of proposed...... in enhancing oil emulsion formation by increasing interactions between polar acids and brine solutions. The results propose the potential use of HPO42- ions in reservoirs having inactive mineral surfaces. The relative oil affinity of different ions including K+, Na+, Mg2+, and Ca2+ (cations), and Cl-, SO42...... and thus reduces the interfacial viscoelasticity of the trapped oil. These results show significant correlation between oil emulsion formation and increased oil recovery. Copyright 2015; Society of Petroleum Engineers...

  2. The Brazilian 2010 oil regulatory framework and its crowding-out investment effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Florêncio, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    Investment is an essential variable in the oil sector. It is even more important in the vast Brazilian pre-salt domains, where the technological requirements are high and sophisticated. The Brazilian National Oil Company, Petrobras, is facing severe financial limitations to undertake these disbursements. Other oil companies will therefore have to be significantly engaged in the endeavour, which reinforces further the importance of attracting investments in Brazil. Yet this article shows that the governance architecture established in the 2010 Brazilian oil framework will deter investments in several ways, giving rise to agency problems among entities and moral hazard situations because of contractual legal liabilities. There are some credible indications that the government of President Lula overestimated the attractiveness of the Brazilian pre-salt oil discoveries and their capacity to draw investments when proposing the 2010 changes. Little attention was given to the careful examination of how the framework would affect investors, under the assumption that the favourable geological conditions would be sufficiently attractive in themselves. Even though the 2010 reforms have brought some minor advancements and there have been some signs that the government has been recently attempting to mitigate some of the problems examined in this article, that is not enough. - Highlights: • The Brazilian regulatory oil framework deters investments in the country. • The governance setting between entities is one of its worse aspects. • It causes agency problems and moral hazard situations. • Brazil has to urgently tackle these investment hindrances.

  3. Causality discovery technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, M.; Ertl, T.; Jirotka, M.; Trefethen, A.; Schmidt, A.; Coecke, B.; Bañares-Alcántara, R.

    2012-11-01

    Causality is the fabric of our dynamic world. We all make frequent attempts to reason causation relationships of everyday events (e.g., what was the cause of my headache, or what has upset Alice?). We attempt to manage causality all the time through planning and scheduling. The greatest scientific discoveries are usually about causality (e.g., Newton found the cause for an apple to fall, and Darwin discovered natural selection). Meanwhile, we continue to seek a comprehensive understanding about the causes of numerous complex phenomena, such as social divisions, economic crisis, global warming, home-grown terrorism, etc. Humans analyse and reason causality based on observation, experimentation and acquired a priori knowledge. Today's technologies enable us to make observations and carry out experiments in an unprecedented scale that has created data mountains everywhere. Whereas there are exciting opportunities to discover new causation relationships, there are also unparalleled challenges to benefit from such data mountains. In this article, we present a case for developing a new piece of ICT, called Causality Discovery Technology. We reason about the necessity, feasibility and potential impact of such a technology.

  4. Automated Supernova Discovery (Abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, R. S.

    2015-12-01

    (Abstract only) We are developing a system of robotic telescopes for automatic recognition of Supernovas as well as other transient events in collaboration with the Puckett Supernova Search Team. At the SAS2014 meeting, the discovery program, SNARE, was first described. Since then, it has been continuously improved to handle searches under a wide variety of atmospheric conditions. Currently, two telescopes are used to build a reference library while searching for PSN with a partial library. Since data is taken every night without clouds, we must deal with varying atmospheric and high background illumination from the moon. Software is configured to identify a PSN, reshoot for verification with options to change the run plan to acquire photometric or spectrographic data. The telescopes are 24-inch CDK24, with Alta U230 cameras, one in CA and one in NM. Images and run plans are sent between sites so the CA telescope can search while photometry is done in NM. Our goal is to find bright PSNs with magnitude 17.5 or less which is the limit of our planned spectroscopy. We present results from our first automated PSN discoveries and plans for PSN data acquisition.

  5. Oil troubles waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bravo, E.

    1998-01-01

    The sea provides a vast array of natural resources for thousands of local communities in the tropics. But the presence of the oil industry has significant social and environmental impacts, both from accidents and from routine activities like seismic exploration, drilling and the generation of polluting wastes. When accidents occur, sessile life (species attached to surface such as rocks or the seabed) is the first to be affected; its mortality increases as oil accumulates, although certain organisms, like gastropods, tolerate it better

  6. Computational methods in drug discovery

    OpenAIRE

    Sumudu P. Leelananda; Steffen Lindert

    2016-01-01

    The process for drug discovery and development is challenging, time consuming and expensive. Computer-aided drug discovery (CADD) tools can act as a virtual shortcut, assisting in the expedition of this long process and potentially reducing the cost of research and development. Today CADD has become an effective and indispensable tool in therapeutic development. The human genome project has made available a substantial amount of sequence data that can be used in various drug discovery project...

  7. Representation Discovery using Harmonic Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Mahadevan, Sridhar

    2008-01-01

    Representations are at the heart of artificial intelligence (AI). This book is devoted to the problem of representation discovery: how can an intelligent system construct representations from its experience? Representation discovery re-parameterizes the state space - prior to the application of information retrieval, machine learning, or optimization techniques - facilitating later inference processes by constructing new task-specific bases adapted to the state space geometry. This book presents a general approach to representation discovery using the framework of harmonic analysis, in particu

  8. Hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foorwood, G F; Taplay, J G

    1916-12-12

    Hydrocarbon oils are hydrogenated, cracked, or treated for the removal of sulfur by bringing their vapors mixed with steam at temperatures between 450 and 600/sup 0/C into contact with a form of carbon that is capable of decomposing steam with the production of nascent hydrogen at those temperatures. The forms of carbon used include lamp-black, soot, charcoals derived from wood, cellulose, and lignite, and carbons obtained by carbonizing oil residues and other organic bodies at temperatures below 600/sup 0/C. The process is applied to the treatment of coal oil, shale oil, petroleum, and lignite oil. In examples, kerosene is cracked at 570/sup 0/C, cracked spirit is hydrogenated at 500/sup 0/C, and shale spirit is desulfurized at 530/sup 0/C. The products are led to a condenser and thence to a scrubber, where they are washed with creosote oil. After desulfurization, the products are washed with dilute caustic soda to remove sulfurretted hydrogen.

  9. Predictors of timing of pregnancy discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Molly; Upadhyay, Ushma; Biggs, M Antonia; Anthony, Renaisa; Holl, Jennifer; Roberts, Sarah Cm

    2018-04-01

    Earlier pregnancy discovery is important in the context of prenatal and abortion care. We evaluated characteristics associated with later pregnancy discovery among women seeking abortion care. Data come from a survey of women seeking abortion care at four family planning facilities in Utah. The participants completed a survey during the state-mandated abortion information visit they are required to complete prior to having an abortion. The outcome in this study was pregnancy discovery before versus after 6 weeks since respondents' last menstrual period (LMP). We used logistic regression to estimate the relationship between sociodemographic and health-related independent variables of interest and pregnancy discovery before versus after 6 weeks. Among the 458 women in the sample, 28% discovered their pregnancy later than 6 weeks since LMP. Most (n=366, 80%) knew the exact date of their LMP and a significant minority estimated it (n=92, 20%). Those who estimated the date of their LMP had higher odds of later pregnancy discovery than those who knew the exact date (adjusted odds ratio (aOR)=1.81[1.07-3.07]). Those who used illicit drugs weekly, daily, or almost daily had higher odds of later pregnancy discovery (aOR=6.33[2.44, 16.40]). Women who did not track their menstrual periods and those who frequently used drugs had higher odds of discovering their pregnancies later. Women who estimated the date of their LMP and who frequently used drugs may benefit from strategies to help them recognize their pregnancies earlier and link them to care when they discover their pregnancies later. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Oil and gas, the hot spots of the planet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delage, St.

    2009-01-01

    Despite the economic crisis, more than 400 billion dollars have been in,vested in 2009 in oil and gas exploration and production. Oil companies and their suppliers from the para-petroleum industry are still working hard to exploit new discoveries. This paper makes a worldwide overview of the most promising oil and gas fields in particular in Brazil, Australia, Ghana and qatar (investments, partners, production, reserves). (J.S.)

  11. Oil pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mankabady, Samir.

    1994-08-01

    Oil enters the marine environment when it is discharged, or has escaped, during transport, drilling, shipping, accidents, dumping and offshore operations. This book serves as a reference both on the various complex international operational and legal matters of oil pollution using examples such as the Exxon Valdez, the Braer and Lord Donaldson's report. The chapters include the development of international rules on the marine environment, the prevention of marine pollution from shipping activities, liability for oil pollution damage, the conflict of the 1990 Oil Pollution Act and the 1992 protocols and finally the cooperation and response to pollution incidents. (UK)

  12. Comparative Effect of Dietary Soybean Oil, Fish Oil, and Coconut Oil on Performance, Egg Quality and Some Blood Parameters in Laying Hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, X F; Liu, S; Tong, J M

    2018-04-14

    Two hundred and sixteen 28-wk-old Hy-line laying hens were randomly distributed to three dietary treatments and fed 1of 3 diets containing 8% soybean oil, fish oil, or coconut oil from 28 to 47 wk of age to investigate comparative effect of dietary soybean oil, fish oil, and coconut oil on the performance, egg quality and blood malondialdehyde (MDA), aspartate transaminase (AST) and uric acid (UA). Hens fed fish oil showed poor performance compared with soybean oil or coconut oil, and especially egg weight throughout the trial was significantly and consistently decreased (P oil. Unexpectedly, shell reflectivity throughout the majority of the trial was consistently and significantly higher (P oil than that when fed soybean oil or coconut oil. Dietary treatments affected (P oil treatment was higher (P oil group. Albumen height, Haugh unit and yolk color were influenced by dietary treatments only at 1 or 2 time points. However, average albumen height and Haugh unit in fish oil treatment were higher (P soybean oil or coconut oil treatments and average yolk color in coconut oil treatment was higher (P soybean oil group. Serum MDA, AST and UA concentrations were increased (P oil during the majority of the first 2 mo of the trial. These data suggested that the inclusion of fish oil into feed may reduce the performance of laying hens, especially the egg weight, decrease the intensity of egg brown color and increase blood MDA, AST and UA levels compared with soybean oil or coconut oil. As a result, hens fed fish oil may lay smaller, longer and lighter-brown eggs whereas those fed coconut oil produce blunter and darker-brown eggs relative to soybean oil.

  13. Hippocampus discovery First steps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliasz Engelhardt

    Full Text Available The first steps of the discovery, and the main discoverers, of the hippocampus are outlined. Arantius was the first to describe a structure he named "hippocampus" or "white silkworm". Despite numerous controversies and alternate designations, the term hippocampus has prevailed until this day as the most widely used term. Duvernoy provided an illustration of the hippocampus and surrounding structures, considered the first by most authors, which appeared more than one and a half century after Arantius' description. Some authors have identified other drawings and texts which they claim predate Duvernoy's depiction, in studies by Vesalius, Varolio, Willis, and Eustachio, albeit unconvincingly. Considering the definition of the hippocampal formation as comprising the hippocampus proper, dentate gyrus and subiculum, Arantius and Duvernoy apparently described the gross anatomy of this complex. The pioneering studies of Arantius and Duvernoy revealed a relatively small hidden formation that would become one of the most valued brain structures.

  14. Oil supply and oil politics: Deja Vu all over again

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleveland, Cutler J.; Kaufmann, Robert K.

    2003-01-01

    President Bush has identified US dependence on imported oil as an urgent energy, economic, and national security concern. The President's energy plan promotes the development of domestic resources, based on the assumption that economic incentives and the opening of frontier areas for exploration will increase domestic production. If realized, this will reduce dependence on imported oil and reduce OPEC's ability to affect aggregate oil supply and price. The evidence suggests, however, that this policy will not increase significantly US production of crude oil, will not reduce significantly OPEC's influence, and it will distort the US macroeconomy. Even if allowed, production from the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge will have a negligible impact on the world oil markets. Further subsidies to the oil industry will divert resources from other more productive investments. Conservation and energy efficiency merit greater emphasis in US energy policy given their ability to reduce the use of cost-effective and environmentally beneficial ways

  15. Oil supply and oil politics: Deja Vu all over again

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleveland, C.J.; Kaufmann, R.K.

    2003-01-01

    President Bush has identified US dependence on imported oil as an urgent energy, economic, and national security concern. The President's energy plan promotes the development of domestic resources, based on the assumption that economic incentives and the opening of frontier areas for exploration will increase domestic production. If realized, this will reduce dependence on imported oil and reduce OPEC's ability to affect aggregate oil supply and price. The evidence suggests, however, that this policy will not increase significantly US production of crude oil, will not reduce significantly OPEC's influence, and it will distort the US macroeconomy. Even if allowed, production from the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge will have a negligible impact on the world oil markets. Further subsidies to the oil industry will divert resources from other more productive investments. Conservation and energy efficiency merit greater emphasis in US energy policy given their ability to reduce the use of cost-effective and environmentally beneficial ways. (author)

  16. ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY USING LOCAL ALKALINE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    the discovery of new oil producing fields and the ever increasing ... followed by water flooding is between 35 to 50% of the ... involved and lack of scale up and is considered among ... carbonate alkaline chemical reacts with certain types of ... reservoirs because of the profusion of calcium and the ... damage the formation.

  17. Oil analysis in machine diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaehaeoja, P.

    2006-07-01

    This study concentrates on developing and tuning various oil analysis methods to meet the requirements of modern industry and environmental analytics. Oil analysis methods form a vital part of techniques used to monitor the condition of machines and may help to improve the overall equipment effectiveness value of a factory in a significant manner. Worm gears are used in various production machines, and their breakdowns may cause significant production losses. Wearing of these gears is relatively difficult to monitor with vibration analysis. Analysis of two indicator metals, copper and iron, may reveal wearing phenomena of worm gears effectively, and savings can be significant. Effective wear metal analysis requires good tools. ICP-OES with kerosene dilution is widely used in wear metal analysis, but purchasing and using of ICP-OES is expensive. A cheaper FAAS technique with similar pre-treatment of oil samples was tested and it proved to be useful especially in analyzing small amounts of samples. The accuracy of FAAS was sufficient for quantitative work in machine diagnostics and waste oil characterization. Solid debris analyses are useful in oil contamination control as well as in detection of wearing mechanisms. Membrane filtration, optical microscopy, SEM and automatic particle counting were applied in analysis of rolling and gear oils. Particle counting is an effective way to detect oil contamination, but in the studied cases even larger particles than those detected in normal ISO classes would be informative. However, membrane filtration and optical microscopy may reveal the wearing machine element exactly. Additives provide oils with desired properties thus they should be monitored intensively. A FTIR method for quantitative analysis of fatty alcohols and fatty acid esters in machinery oils was developed during this work. It has already been used successfully in quantitative and qualitative analysis of machinery oil samples. Various kinds of oils may be

  18. Oil Volatility Risk and Expected Stock Returns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Pan, Xuhui (Nick)

    return between the quintile of stocks with low exposure and high exposure to oil volatility is significant at 0.66% per month, and oil volatility risk carries a significant risk premium of -0.60% per month. In the post-financialization period, oil volatility risk is strongly related with various measures...

  19. Characterization of Oxidative Stability of Fish Oil- and Plant Oil-Enriched Skimmed Milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saga, Linda C.; Kristinova, Vera; Kirkhus, Bente

    2013-01-01

    oat oil and camelina oil to protect fish oil in bulk and as fish oil-enriched skimmed milk emulsions was evaluated. Results of oxidative stability of bulk oils and blends assessed by the Schaal oven weight gain test and by the rancimat method showed significant increase in oxidative stability when oat...... oil was added to fish oil in only 5 and 10 %, whereas no protective effect of camelina oil was observed when evaluated by these methods. Moreover, fish oil blended with oat oil conferred the lowest PV and lower amounts of volatile compounds during the storage period of 14 days at 4 °C. Surprisingly......, skimmed milk supplemented with fish-oat oil blend gave the highest scores for off-flavors in the sensory evaluation, demonstrating that several methods, including sensory analysis, should be combined to illustrate the complete picture of lipid oxidation in emulsions....

  20. Materials Discovery | Materials Science | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Discovery Materials Discovery Images of red and yellow particles NREL's research in materials characterization of sample by incoming beam and measuring outgoing particles, with data being stored and analyzed Staff Scientist Dr. Zakutayev specializes in design of novel semiconductor materials for energy

  1. Service discovery using Bloom filters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goering, P.T.H.; Heijenk, Geert; Lelieveldt, B.P.F.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.; de Laat, C.T.A.M.; Heijnsdijk, J.W.J.

    A protocol to perform service discovery in adhoc networks is introduced in this paper. Attenuated Bloom filters are used to distribute services to nodes in the neighborhood and thus enable local service discovery. The protocol has been implemented in a discrete event simulator to investigate the

  2. On the pulse of discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    What started 50 years ago as a `smudge' on paper has flourished into a fundamental field of astrophysics replete with unexpected applications and exciting discoveries. To celebrate the discovery of pulsars, we look at the past, present and future of pulsar astrophysics.

  3. seed oil

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wara

    Neem seed oil from the neem tree (Azadiracta indica) finds wide usage one of which is its utilization for cosmetics particularly .... obtained which is higher than that of olive oil 17. mgKOH/g (Davine ... The skin tolerance of shea fat employed as ...

  4. Vertcal integration: origins of oil industry integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rainbow, R.

    2001-01-01

    This article examines the structure of the US oil industry in relation to the history of the industry, capital market assumptions, and advice on the enhancement of 'shareholder value'. The driving forces behind the attempts to establish cartels and vertical integration are considered, and the emergence of US companies resulting from the break-up of the Standard Oil Trust cartel, the influence of costs and logistics on the structure of the industry outside the USA , and the structure of the natural gas industry are discussed along with the discovery of large Middle East oil reserves, the enormous growth in demand for oil products in Europe and Japan, and the formation of the OPEC cartel. Details are given of the breaking down of vertical integration in the big oil companies, the theory of conglomerates, the success of big companies, the importance of scale to balance exploration risks, and the need to adjust in time to shifts in the business environment

  5. Oil reserves are a dynamic quantity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aeberli, O. E.

    2006-01-01

    In this exclusive interview with Rolf Hartl, head of the Oil Association of Switzerland, questions on developments in the consumption area and on future perspectives for the oil business are dealt with. The extent of oil reserves is looked at and the opinions of various experts on the subject are discussed. The 'energy-hunger' of China and third-world countries is discussed and the question is asked as to whether the maximum of oil-extraction has already been reached. Price developments and their possible effect on consumption are discussed, as are the effects of political conflicts on price developments. Finally, perspectives for the development of new oil discoveries are looked at

  6. The Factors Influencing on Consumption of Palm Cooking Oil in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Teti, Ermy; Hutabarat, Sakti; Nofionna, Asriati

    2011-01-01

    Cooking oil is one of the most sensitive basic needs in Indonesia. The aims of the researchare to analyze factors influencing consumption of cooking oil, the cooking oil price, and theCrude Palm Oil price in Indonesia. Using simultaneous equation model, the study show thatpalm cooking oil consumption is significantly affected by domestic palm cooking oil priceand number of population. Whilst palm cooking oil price is significantly influenced by thecooking palm oil production and the domestic ...

  7. The Factors Influencing on Consumption of Palm Cooking Oil in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Teti, Ermy; Hutabarat, Sakti; Nofionna, Asriati

    2009-01-01

    Cooking oil is one of the most sensitive basic needs in Indonesia. The aims of the researchare to analyze factors influencing consumption of cooking oil, the cooking oil price, and theCrude Palm Oil price in Indonesia. Using simultaneous equation model, the study show thatpalm cooking oil consumption is significantly affected by domestic palm cooking oil priceand number of population. Whilst palm cooking oil price is significantly influenced by thecooking palm oil production and the domestic ...

  8. Biodegradability of northern crude oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, F D; Westlake, D W.S.

    1976-01-01

    Field studies on the microbiological degradation of crude oils encompassed the placing of oil-soaked plots in two areas in the Northwest Territories and Alberta. Replicate plots received amendments of fertilizer, oil-utilizing bacteria, fertilizer plus bacteria or were untreated except for the oil. Changes in microbial numbers and chemical composition of recovered oil were determined periodically. The initial stimulatory effect on bacterial numbers brought about by the addition of fertilizers to oil-soaked plots diminished two years after the application to a point where the differences were no longer significant. Experiments carried out in the Norman Wells area to determine the effect of the amount of fertilizer applied on oil degradation have yielded inconclusive results. The data suggest that at least 2.7 kg of urea-phosphate fertilizer per kl of oil is required to maintain a reasonable oil degradation rate. Preliminary studies on the use of fertilizer coated with chemicals to increase its hydrophobic character indicate that they could be useful in treating wet-land oil spills. Soils from the McKenzie River drainage basin indicate that bacteria are present which can use oil under mesophilic conditions. However, the ability to use the same oil under psychrophilic conditions is more restricted. At least one bacterial species from each mixed population studied was capable of bringing about chemical changes in oil similar to those observed for the original mixed culture. The potential hazards and uses of the seeding of oil spills is discussed relative to the environmental conditions found in the northern part of Canada. 35 refs., 2 figs., 15 tabs.

  9. 29 CFR 2700.56 - Discovery; general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...(c) or 111 of the Act has been filed. 30 U.S.C. 815(c) and 821. (e) Completion of discovery... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discovery; general. 2700.56 Section 2700.56 Labor... Hearings § 2700.56 Discovery; general. (a) Discovery methods. Parties may obtain discovery by one or more...

  10. 19 CFR 207.109 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discovery. 207.109 Section 207.109 Customs Duties... and Committee Proceedings § 207.109 Discovery. (a) Discovery methods. All parties may obtain discovery under such terms and limitations as the administrative law judge may order. Discovery may be by one or...

  11. 30 CFR 44.24 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discovery. 44.24 Section 44.24 Mineral... Discovery. Parties shall be governed in their conduct of discovery by appropriate provisions of the Federal... discovery. Alternative periods of time for discovery may be prescribed by the presiding administrative law...

  12. 19 CFR 356.20 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discovery. 356.20 Section 356.20 Customs Duties... § 356.20 Discovery. (a) Voluntary discovery. All parties are encouraged to engage in voluntary discovery... sanctions proceeding. (b) Limitations on discovery. The administrative law judge shall place such limits...

  13. 24 CFR 180.500 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discovery. 180.500 Section 180.500... OPPORTUNITY CONSOLIDATED HUD HEARING PROCEDURES FOR CIVIL RIGHTS MATTERS Discovery § 180.500 Discovery. (a) In general. This subpart governs discovery in aid of administrative proceedings under this part. Discovery in...

  14. 15 CFR 25.21 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discovery. 25.21 Section 25.21... Discovery. (a) The following types of discovery are authorized: (1) Requests for production of documents for..., discovery is available only as ordered by the ALJ. The ALJ shall regulate the timing of discovery. (d...

  15. 39 CFR 963.14 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discovery. 963.14 Section 963.14 Postal Service... PANDERING ADVERTISEMENTS STATUTE, 39 U.S.C. 3008 § 963.14 Discovery. Discovery is to be conducted on a... such discovery as he or she deems reasonable and necessary. Discovery may include one or more of the...

  16. 22 CFR 224.21 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discovery. 224.21 Section 224.21 Foreign....21 Discovery. (a) The following types of discovery are authorized: (1) Requests for production of... parties, discovery is available only as ordered by the ALJ. The ALJ shall regulate the timing of discovery...

  17. The environmental handling in the Oil Wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carta Petrolera

    1998-01-01

    The oil industry bears environmental impacts related to the resources, soil, air, water, fauna and the socioeconomic aspects of the environment; for this reason the search of the petroleum goes beyond what is believed, it embraces other spheres because, after discovery, it is necessary to extract it, to transport it and to treat it to put it to the service of the humanity's development and in all this long and complex process, is the environmental responsibility, a serious concern as the same discovery of the hydrocarbons. In the beginnings of the oil industry in Colombia this activity was approached without the biggest forecasts as for contamination it refers; however, the environmental laws of the world and the constant concern to preserve the environment, it took to our country to the creation of severe legislations in the matter. In Colombia today in day an environmental legislation exists in all the related with the handling of waters, air and soils inside the oil activity

  18. A critical review of IEA's oil demand forecast for China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nel, Willem P.; Cooper, Christopher J.

    2008-01-01

    China has a rapidly growing economy with a rapidly increasing demand for oil. The International Energy Agency (IEA) investigated possible future oil demand scenarios for China in the 2006 World Energy Outlook. The debate on whether oil supplies will be constrained in the near future, because of limited new discoveries, raises the concern that the oil industry may not be able to produce sufficient oil to meet this demand. This paper examines the historical relationship between economic growth and oil consumption in a number of countries. Logistic curve characteristics are observed in the relationship between per capita economic activity and oil consumption. This research has determined that the minimum statistical (lower-bound) annual oil consumption for developed countries is 11 barrels per capita. Despite the increase reported in total energy efficiency, no developed country has been able to reduce oil consumption below this lower limit. Indeed, the IEA projections to 2030 for the OECD countries show no reduction in oil demand on a per capita basis. If this lower limit is applied to China, it is clear that the IEA projections for China are under-estimating the growth in demand for oil. This research has determined that this under-estimation could be as high as 10 million barrels per day by 2025. If proponents of Peak Oil such as Laherrere, Campbell and Deffeyes are correct about the predicted peak in oil production before 2020 then the implications of this reassessment of China's oil demand will have profound implications for mankind

  19. Discovery Mondays: Surveyors' Tools

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Surveyors of all ages, have your rulers and compasses at the ready! This sixth edition of Discovery Monday is your chance to learn about the surveyor's tools - the state of the art in measuring instruments - and see for yourself how they work. With their usual daunting precision, the members of CERN's Surveying Group have prepared some demonstrations and exercises for you to try. Find out the techniques for ensuring accelerator alignment and learn about high-tech metrology systems such as deviation indicators, tracking lasers and total stations. The surveyors will show you how they precisely measure magnet positioning, with accuracy of a few thousandths of a millimetre. You can try your hand at precision measurement using different types of sensor and a modern-day version of the Romans' bubble level, accurate to within a thousandth of a millimetre. You will learn that photogrammetry techniques can transform even a simple digital camera into a remarkable measuring instrument. Finally, you will have a chance t...

  20. Discovery radiomics via evolutionary deep radiomic sequencer discovery for pathologically proven lung cancer detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiee, Mohammad Javad; Chung, Audrey G; Khalvati, Farzad; Haider, Masoom A; Wong, Alexander

    2017-10-01

    While lung cancer is the second most diagnosed form of cancer in men and women, a sufficiently early diagnosis can be pivotal in patient survival rates. Imaging-based, or radiomics-driven, detection methods have been developed to aid diagnosticians, but largely rely on hand-crafted features that may not fully encapsulate the differences between cancerous and healthy tissue. Recently, the concept of discovery radiomics was introduced, where custom abstract features are discovered from readily available imaging data. We propose an evolutionary deep radiomic sequencer discovery approach based on evolutionary deep intelligence. Motivated by patient privacy concerns and the idea of operational artificial intelligence, the evolutionary deep radiomic sequencer discovery approach organically evolves increasingly more efficient deep radiomic sequencers that produce significantly more compact yet similarly descriptive radiomic sequences over multiple generations. As a result, this framework improves operational efficiency and enables diagnosis to be run locally at the radiologist's computer while maintaining detection accuracy. We evaluated the evolved deep radiomic sequencer (EDRS) discovered via the proposed evolutionary deep radiomic sequencer discovery framework against state-of-the-art radiomics-driven and discovery radiomics methods using clinical lung CT data with pathologically proven diagnostic data from the LIDC-IDRI dataset. The EDRS shows improved sensitivity (93.42%), specificity (82.39%), and diagnostic accuracy (88.78%) relative to previous radiomics approaches.

  1. Oils; gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Day, D T

    1922-09-18

    Oils and gas are obtained from shale or oil-bearing sand by immersing the shale in and passing it through a bath of liquid oil, cracking the oil-soaked shale, and condensing the vapor and using the condensate to replenish the bath, preferably by passing the gases and vapors direct into the oil-bath container. Shale is fed continuously from a hopper to a bath of oil in an inclined chamber, is carried to the outlet by a conveyer, and through cracking tubes to an outlet pipe by conveyers. The gases and vapors escape by the pipe, a part condensing in the chamber and a run-back pipe and replenishing the bath, and the remainder passing through a condensing tower and condenser connected to reservoirs; the gas is further passed through a scrubber and a pipe to the burner of the retort. The oil condensed in the chamber overflows to the reservoir through a pipe provided with an open pipe to prevent siphoning. The conveyers and a valve on the pipe are operated by gearing. The operation may be conducted at reduced, normal, or increased pressure, e.g., 70 lbs. The temperature of the retort should be about 900 to 1400/sup 0/F, that of the inside of the tubes about 550 to 700/sup 0/F, and that of the chamber about 300/sup 0/F. The chamber and pipe may be insulated or artificially cooled.

  2. Middle East oil and gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This study is intended to shed light on structural changes occurring in six Middle East countries (Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates) that can be expected to have a significant impact on their oil and gas industry. These six countries provide 42% of the world's traded crude oil, on which Member countries of the International Energy Agency (IEA) are increasingly dependent. They also contain about 65% and 30% of the world's proven oil and natural gas reserves, respectively, and command a strategic location between Europe and Asia. The Middle East has been one of the most volatile parts of the world where war, revolution and embargoes have caused major upheavals that have led to oil supply disruptions. The oil resources of all six countries were initially developed by international oil companies and all are members of the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC). In 1994, their crude oil production capacity was about 23 million barrels per day (mbd) and is planned to expand to about 28 mbd by the year 2000. Revenue from the sale of oil accounts for more than 80% of each nation's total exports and about 75% of each government's income. The objectives of this study are: to detail their announced oil and gas development plans, to describe the major trends occurring in these countries, to outline the government responses to the trends, and to analyse the impact of government policies on oil and gas development. (J.S.). 121 refs., 136 figs., 212 tabs

  3. An overview of the upstream oil and gas industry in Australia in 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, D.C.K.

    1997-01-01

    The Australian oil and gas exploration and production industry entered 1997 with high expectations and the promise of significant further discoveries and potential developments. This optimism is based on the results from a busy 1996 in which more exploration wells were drilled than any year since 1991. Offshore seismic acquisition, which is an indication of the future health of the industry, also increased almost four times; onshore, slightly less seismic than the previous year was recorded. Major projects and future prospects are highlighted. It is estimated that for many of these projects to eventuate it will be necessary for world wide gas demand to increase significantly and for oil and gas prices to improve and for the markets and economies in India and China (potential large markets) to mature

  4. Moringa Seed Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana O. Ilesanmi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the effects of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss and moringa (Moringa oleifera seed oils on the storability of cowpea grain. Cowpea samples were treated with various concentrations (0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 mL/200 g cowpea of pure neem and moringa oils and their mixtures in ratios of 1:1, 1:2, and 1:3. The treated cowpea samples were stored for 180 days. Data were collected every 30 days on number of eggs laid, total weevil population, and percentage of uninfested grains and analysed statistically. Significantly different means were compared using LSD at <.05. Increasing oil concentration resulted in better cowpea protection, for example, in oviposition where the control had 6513 eggs, only 8 eggs were recorded in pure neem oil-treated sample at 0.5 mL/200 g. Generally, better results were obtained with higher oil concentrations either in their pure forms or mixtures. The control had a total weevil population of 4988, while most treated samples had none. The control samples had 0% uninfested grains, while 73–94% of uninfested grains were observed in treated samples after 6 months of storage. Therefore, mixture of the oils at 1.5 mL/200 g can be effectively used to store cowpea.

  5. Alberta's new oil boom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikiforuk, A.

    1997-01-01

    A massive expansion of Canada's oil sands and the oil-mining business is underway. The prediction is that within five years there will be at least three, possibly six, huge new open pit mines north of Fort McMurray, Alberta. It was suggested that within 20 years, possibly half of Canada's oil supply will come from the oil sands industry which has already attracted $10 billion worth of developments. Unlike conventional crude, the oil sands contain bitumen, water, clay, minerals and lots of sands. Shallow deposits are mined like coal. Deeper formations make use of in-situ thermal recovery techniques. Extraction costs are presently at $15 per barrel, aiming for $12 by 1999. Return on investment is in double digits. Estimates of reserves in the Athabasca, Cold Lake, Peace River and Wabasca deposits go as high as 1.7 trillion barrels, or about twice as much as Saudi Arabia's conventional crude reserves. Syncrude has built a $5 billion production facility and two pipelines have already been proposed to transport the oil sands crude to midwestern US refineries. US refineries prize synthetic crude as excellent mixing stock. The major problem with oil sands is that unlike conventional oil, these reserves require an enormous amount of energy to exploit, which in turn means lots of foul air and greenhouse gases. There are many environmental unknowns, and without a clear management framework in sight the addition of two or three Syncrude-size operations has the potential to create a real and significant acid rain problem in the Western Canada Basin

  6. Oil refineries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehmer, S.; Winter, B.

    2001-01-01

    In refineries in particular attention is paid to the minimization of the generation of waste. Therefor catalysts in many processes are regenerated, absorbents are recycled and oily by-products are re-refined or used as fuels. This study discusses the origin and utilization of by-products from the oil industry. The processing of crude oils causes by-products and waste resulting from the crude oil itself or from cleaning measures for water pre-treatment, effluent treatment and flue gas treatment. (author)

  7. Fluid diversion in oil recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nimir, Hassan B.

    1999-01-01

    In any oil recovery process, large scale heterogeneities, such as fractures, channels, or high-permeability streaks, can cause early break through of injected fluid which will reduce oil recovery efficiency. In waterflooding, enhanced oil recovery, and acidizing operations, this problem is particularly acute because of the cost of the injected fluid. On the other hand coping with excess water production is always a challenging task for field operators. The cost of handling and disposing produced water can significantly shorten the economic production life of an oil well. The hydrostatic pressure created by high fluid levels in a well (water coning) is also detrimental to oil production. In this paper, the concept of fluid diversion is explained. Different methods that are suggested to divert the fluid into the oil-bearing-zones are briefly discussed, to show their advantages and disadvantages. Methods of reducing water production in production well are also discussed. (Author)

  8. 'The Lusiads', poem of discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha Furlan Felizi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The article proposes reading Os Lusíadas as a discovery journey. Discovery here read as aletheia or “revelation”, as proposed by Sophia de Mello Brey­ner Andresen in 1980. Using Martin Heidegger’s notion of aletheia in the book Parmenides along with Jorge de Sena and Sophia de Mello Breyner Andresen reflections on Camões, I’ll seek to point out alternative readings for Os Lusíadas as a “discovery journey”.

  9. The first boom: Industrious ancestors traced by trail-blazing impact assessment done for oil mega projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, G.

    2003-08-01

    Impact studies done for the mammoth oil projects in the Alberta oil sand deposits have enabled archaeologists to intensively study the archaeological record of the Athabasca lowlands, that until about thirty years ago was an almost complete void. The first major discoveries were done in 1973: the Beaver River Quarry Site on the south bank of the Beaver River, found during an impact assessment study undertaken for Syncrude, yielded hundreds of thousands of artifacts, showing how sandstone was manufactured into tools and projectile points some 10,000 years ago. This discovery was followed by scores of new Historical Resources Impact Assessments (HRIAs) as part of the petroleum industry's expansion of oil sands country. These studies reveal that humans could have been living in the areas as far back as 10,000 years ago, as evidenced by a complex of ancient campsites and stone tool workshops discovered along the shore of the Athabasca River. Other sites and the archaeological significance of artifacts found near Nezu Lake, in the Cree Burn Lake area, and in the Fort Hills area north of Fort McKay are also described. The density of sites and artifacts from the oil sands leases suggest that the sites have been most intensely occupied during the period between 9,600 and 6,000 years ago.

  10. Oil and gas field database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young In; Han, Jung Kuy [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    As agreed by the Second Meeting of the Expert Group of Minerals and Energy Exploration and Development in Seoul, Korea, 'The Construction of Database on the Oil and Gas Fields in the APEC Region' is now under way as a GEMEED database project for 1998. This project is supported by Korean government funds and the cooperation of GEMEED colleagues and experts. During this year, we have constructed the home page menu (topics) and added the data items on the oil and gas field. These items include name of field, discovery year, depth, the number of wells, average production (b/d), cumulative production, and API gravity. The web site shows the total number of oil and gas fields in the APEC region is 47,201. The number of oil and gas fields by member economics are shown in the table. World oil and gas statistics including reserve, production consumption, and trade information were added to the database for the users convenience. (author). 13 refs., tabs., figs.

  11. Oil and gas field database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young In; Han, Jung Kuy [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    As agreed by the Second Meeting of the Expert Group of Minerals and Energy Exploration and Development in Seoul, Korea, 'The Construction of Database on the Oil and Gas Fields in the APEC Region' is now under way as a GEMEED database project for 1998. This project is supported by Korean government funds and the cooperation of GEMEED colleagues and experts. During this year, we have constructed the home page menu (topics) and added the data items on the oil and gas field. These items include name of field, discovery year, depth, the number of wells, average production (b/d), cumulative production, and API gravity. The web site shows the total number of oil and gas fields in the APEC region is 47,201. The number of oil and gas fields by member economics are shown in the table. World oil and gas statistics including reserve, production consumption, and trade information were added to the database for the users convenience. (author). 13 refs., tabs., figs.

  12. Discovery of natural resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guild, P.W.

    1976-01-01

    Mankind will continue to need ores of more or less the types and grades used today to supply its needs for new mineral raw materials, at least until fusion or some other relatively cheap, inexhaustible energy source is developed. Most deposits being mined today were exposed at the surface or found by relatively simple geophysical or other prospecting techniques, but many of these will be depleted in the foreseeable future. The discovery of deeper or less obvious deposits to replace them will require the conjunction of science and technology to deduce the laws that governed the concentration of elements into ores and to detect and evaluate the evidence of their whereabouts. Great theoretical advances are being made to explain the origins of ore deposits and understand the general reasons for their localization. These advances have unquestionable value for exploration. Even a large deposit is, however, very small, and, with few exceptions, it was formed under conditions that have long since ceased to exist. The explorationist must suppress a great deal of "noise" to read and interpret correctly the "signals" that can define targets and guide the drilling required to find it. Is enough being done to ensure the long-term availability of mineral raw materials? The answer is probably no, in view of the expanding consumption and the difficulty of finding new deposits, but ingenuity, persistence, and continued development of new methods and tools to add to those already at hand should put off the day of "doing without" for many years. The possibility of resource exhaustion, especially in view of the long and increasing lead time needed to carry out basic field and laboratory studies in geology, geophysics, and geochemistry and to synthesize and analyze the information gained from them counsels against any letting down of our guard, however (17). Research and exploration by government, academia, and industry must be supported and encouraged; we cannot wait until an eleventh

  13. Supernovae Discovery Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Colin

    2018-01-01

    Abstract:We present supernovae (SN) search efficiency measurements for recent Hubble Space Telescope (HST) surveys. Efficiency is a key component to any search, and is important parameter as a correction factor for SN rates. To achieve an accurate value for efficiency, many supernovae need to be discoverable in surveys. This cannot be achieved from real SN only, due to their scarcity, so fake SN are planted. These fake supernovae—with a goal of realism in mind—yield an understanding of efficiency based on position related to other celestial objects, and brightness. To improve realism, we built a more accurate model of supernovae using a point-spread function. The next improvement to realism is planting these objects close to galaxies and of various parameters of brightness, magnitude, local galactic brightness and redshift. Once these are planted, a very accurate SN is visible and discoverable by the searcher. It is very important to find factors that affect this discovery efficiency. Exploring the factors that effect detection yields a more accurate correction factor. Further inquires into efficiency give us a better understanding of image processing, searching techniques and survey strategies, and result in an overall higher likelihood to find these events in future surveys with Hubble, James Webb, and WFIRST telescopes. After efficiency is discovered and refined with many unique surveys, it factors into measurements of SN rates versus redshift. By comparing SN rates vs redshift against the star formation rate we can test models to determine how long star systems take from the point of inception to explosion (delay time distribution). This delay time distribution is compared to SN progenitors models to get an accurate idea of what these stars were like before their deaths.

  14. Mobil positioning itself to become Canada's premier oil and gas company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, A.

    1994-01-01

    To achieve its goal of becoming Canada's premier oil and gas company by the year 2000, Mobil Oil Canada is empowering its employees and applying appropriate technology to unlock resources and create value. Mobil produces 4.1 million m 3 of oil and natural gas liquids, 5.6 million m 3 /y of natural gas and 438,000 tonnes/y of sulfur. It also operates over 3,000 wells in western Canada and eleven gas processing plants, manages 1,700 km of pipeline, and has 33% interest in the Hibernia project on the Grand Banks. Oil lifting costs have decreased over the past three years from $3.40/bbl to $2.80/bbl and development costs are under $2/bbl. Innovative technology used to achieve high production and low costs include the use of three dimensional seismic surveys and horizontal drilling. Other techniques used at particular sites include installation of downhole injection regulators to control problems of segregation and metering between different water injection zones at the Carson Creek field, use of artificial lifts in gas wells, and a dual gas lift at the Rainbow Lake oil field. At the Lone Pine gas plant, the first Superclaus-99 sulfur recovery process was installed, reducing sulfur emissions by 60% and increasing recovery efficiency from 95% to 98%. Mobil has operated in Canada since 1940 and has made significant discoveries, including Canada's largest producing oil field, the Pembina. In 1971, Mobil discovered gas of commercial significance off the east coast and helped discover the Hibernia and Venture fields. The Hibernia project is scheduled to come on stream in 1997 and Mobil expects the economics of the project to be favorable, with a $12-13/bbl oil price needed to break even. 7 figs

  15. The Atlantic Basin: A New Africa-Americas Oil and Gas Geopolitical Arena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auge, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    The Atlantic Ocean (North and Latin America, Africa and Europe) is bordered by states experiencing a significant change in their relationships regarding hydrocarbons. The rapid development of shale oil and gas in USA allows the country more and more independence from African states in the gulf of Guinea. Some of these producing countries like Nigeria are worried that the special political and security ties with America will turn into a mere trade relationship. Africa's excess oil and gas capacity, no longer sold to USA, is bought by Latin America and Europe (alongside countries such as India). Oil and gas transactions are creating new networks and fresh ties between countries from these zones that previously had to do with each other. From a geological perspective, the Atlantic Ocean is bordered by coastal countries with multiple similarities, and which we will refer to as the Atlantic basin. Millions of years back, they formed one single continent. Oil companies, bearing this geological similarity in mind and profiting from better technology, apply for oil blocks on one side of the Atlantic basin whenever a discovery is made on the opposite side. New relationships are thus flourishing between Latin-American and African states. New players, competing to control new zones, gives rise to a fresh geopolitical situation that we are going to examine in this article

  16. From rocks to oil : researchers become the first in the world to determine the age of oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawshaw, C

    2005-06-10

    This article discussed the discovery of a method to accurately determine the age of oil. The discovery was made by two geologists at the University of Alberta, and provides critical information about the formation of oil which will help to better understand oil deposits. The scientists have suggested that the giant oil sand deposits in Alberta were formed 112 million years ago and not 60 million years ago as was previously thought. They used isotopes of rhenium and osmium, elements found in trace amounts in oil, to pinpoint when oil formed in the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin (WCSB), which contains much of the world's oil sands. It was previously thought that the time at which oil was produced from a rock and migrated as fluid could be deduced from looking at geologic relationships. This is the first time that a direct determination using any isotopic method has be applied to determine age. The research findings are expected to change the way geologists understand the evolution of the basin. It was concluded that while the discovery answers some questions about hydrocarbons, many others remain. However, the presence of an absolute number will help geologists to re-evaluate other knowledge. 1 fig.

  17. Peak Oil, threat or energy worlds' phantasm?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Favennec, Jean-Pierre

    2011-01-01

    The concept of Peak Oil is based on the work of King Hubbert, a petroleum geologist who worked for Shell in the USA in the 1960's. Based on the fact that discoveries in America reached a maximum in the 1930's, he announced that American production would reach a maximum in 1969, which did actually occur. Geologists members of the Association for the Study of Peak Oil have extrapolated this result to a worldwide scale and, since oil discoveries reached a peak in the 1960's, argued that production will peak in the very near future. It is clear that hydrocarbon reserves are finite and therefore exhaustible. But little is known regarding the level of ultimate (i.e. total existing) reserves. There are probably very large reserves of non conventional oil in addition to the reserves of conventional oil. An increasing number of specialists put maximum production at less than 100 Mb/d more for geopolitical than physical reasons. Attainable peak production will probably vary from year to year and will depend on how crude oil prices develop

  18. Concentrations of viable oil-degrading microorganisms are increased in feces from Calanus finmarchicus feeding in petroleum oil dispersions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Størdal, Ingvild Fladvad; Olsen, Anders Johny; Jenssen, Bjørn Munro; Netzer, Roman; Hansen, Bjørn Henrik; Altin, Dag; Brakstad, Odd Gunnar

    2015-09-15

    Zooplankton are suggested to be biotic contributors to the transport and weathering of oil in marine environments due to their ingestion of oil. In the present experiment, feeding activity and microbial communities in feces from Calanus finmarchicus feeding in oil dispersions were characterized. Feeding activity was significantly reduced in oil dispersions. The microbial communities in clean and oil-containing copepod feces were dominated by Rhodobacteraceae family bacteria (Lesingera, Phaeobacter, Rugeria, and Sulfitobacter), which were suggested to be indigenous to copepod feces. The results also indicated that these bacteria were metabolizing oil compounds, as a significant increase in the concentrations of viable oil degrading microorganisms was observed in oil-containing feces. This study shows that bacteria in feces from copepods feeding in dilute oil dispersions have capacity for degradation of oil. Zooplankton may therefore contribute to weathering of oil by excreting feces with microbial communities already adapted to degradation of oil. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Peppermint Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... T U V W X Y Z Peppermint Oil Share: On This Page Background How Much Do ... sheet provides basic information about peppermint and peppermint oil—common names, usefulness and safety, and resources for ...

  20. OIL BOND®

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technical product bulletin: this miscellaneous oil spill control agent is a solidifier used in cleanups. It absorbs and solidifies hydrocarbon spills on freshwater and saltwater or land applications. Ring spill with booms or pillows before treatment.

  1. Mineral oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schult-Bornemann, Karl-Heinz

    2015-01-01

    The dominant theme in the world energy market was the fall in oil prices in 2014. From 115 US-$/bbl in June it dropped to below 50 US-$/bbl in January 2015. Thereby the shale oil revolution has had the strong impact on the global energy situation, to this point has been predicted for three years. Although no one could predict the exact height of the fall in oil prices, but with oil as a reserve currency for all other fuels, it has not only had an impact on the gas and coal prices, but other commodities, such as copper, have also yielded. About cause and effect, there is a lot of speculation - not all of which are supported by wisdom. [de

  2. Belated recognition: Lise Meitner's role in the discovery of fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sime, R.L.

    1990-01-01

    Although physicist Lise Meitner is known for the first theoretical explanation of nuclear fission, the discovery itself is generally attributed only to her co-workers Otto Hahn and Fritz Strassmann. In fact, however, Meitner was essential to the discovery at every phase: she brought the uranium investigation to Berlin, led the Berlin group for four years, and, even after fleeing Germany, provided the critical direction which culminated in the identification of barium in December 1983. Recognition of Lise Meitner's contributions remedies a significant historical omission, and places the discovery itself in its proper scientific context. (author) 48 refs

  3. The effect of oil pulling with pure coconut oil on Streptococcus mutans: A randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varsha Komath Pavithran

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Oil pulling as described in ancient Ayurveda involves the use of edible vegetable oils as oral antibacterial agents. It is a practice of swishing oil in the mouth for oral and systemic health benefits. Pure coconut oil has antimicrobial properties and is commonly available in all Indian households. Aim: This study aims to assess the effect of oil pulling therapy with pure coconut oil on Streptococcus mutans count and to compare its efficacy against sesame oil and saline. Materials and Methods: A randomized controlled concurrent parallel- triple blinded clinical trial was conducted. Thirty participants in age range of 20–23 years were randomly allocated into Group A (coconut oil, Group B (sesame oil, and Group C (saline, with 10 in each group. The participants were instructed to swish and pull 10 ml of oil on empty stomach, early morning for 10–15 min. Unstimulated saliva collected before and after oil pulling procedure was analyzed for colony forming units (CFU per ml saliva of S. mutans. The data were analyzed using paired t-test, ANOVA, and post hoc analysis using Tukey's honest significant difference. Statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. Results: A statistically significant reduction in S. mutans CFU count after oil pulling with pure coconut oil (P = 0.001 was found. There was no statistically significant difference between sesame oil and coconut oil (P = 0.97 and between sesame oil and saline (P = 0.061. When efficacy of coconut oil against saline was evaluated, a statistical significant difference (P = 0.039 was found. Conclusion: Oil pulling is an effective method for oral hygiene maintenance as it significantly reduces S. mutans count in the saliva.

  4. Can reserve additions in mature crude oil provinces attenuate peak oil?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okullo, S.J.; Reynes, F.G.D.

    2011-01-01

    Following the peak in US crude oil production 30 years ago, more and more non-OPEC producers have seen their production decline as a result of resource depletion. OPEC, on the other hand has extracted a comparatively smaller proportion of its reserve base. Given that new non-OPEC discoveries are

  5. Oil vaporizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumontier, F

    1904-03-31

    An oil burner particularly applicable to heavy oils, composed essentially of one or more gasification chambers, heated by the flame from the burners, to which the combustible gases are fed by the collectors suitably fixed on the chambers, all parts of the apparatus and especially the gasification chambers being easily demountable to permit cleaning, and all arranged in such a manner as to avoid fouling by reducing or localizing the deposition of solid deposits in the coking chamber.

  6. Oil on seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boerresen, J.A.

    1993-01-01

    The present book discusses the effects of oil spills at sea. Topics covered are as follow: Petroleum properties; oil spills at sea; harmfulness of oil spills; effects from acute oil spills; experience of oil spills; oil spill contingency planning in Norway; oil spill protecting equipment and methods; emergency of unloading equipment. 252 refs., 86 figs., 54 tabs

  7. RAS - Screens & Assays - Drug Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    The RAS Drug Discovery group aims to develop assays that will reveal aspects of RAS biology upon which cancer cells depend. Successful assay formats are made available for high-throughput screening programs to yield potentially effective drug compounds.

  8. Antibody informatics for drug discovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shirai, Hiroki; Prades, Catherine; Vita, Randi

    2014-01-01

    to the antibody science in every project in antibody drug discovery. Recent experimental technologies allow for the rapid generation of large-scale data on antibody sequences, affinity, potency, structures, and biological functions; this should accelerate drug discovery research. Therefore, a robust bioinformatic...... infrastructure for these large data sets has become necessary. In this article, we first identify and discuss the typical obstacles faced during the antibody drug discovery process. We then summarize the current status of three sub-fields of antibody informatics as follows: (i) recent progress in technologies...... for antibody rational design using computational approaches to affinity and stability improvement, as well as ab-initio and homology-based antibody modeling; (ii) resources for antibody sequences, structures, and immune epitopes and open drug discovery resources for development of antibody drugs; and (iii...

  9. Discovery of the iron isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuh, A.; Fritsch, A.; Heim, M.; Shore, A.; Thoennessen, M.

    2010-01-01

    Twenty-eight iron isotopes have been observed so far and the discovery of these isotopes is discussed here. For each isotope a brief summary of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  10. Discovery of the silver isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuh, A.; Fritsch, A.; Ginepro, J.Q.; Heim, M.; Shore, A.; Thoennessen, M.

    2010-01-01

    Thirty-eight silver isotopes have been observed so far and the discovery of these isotopes is discussed here. For each isotope a brief summary of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  11. Synthetic biology of antimicrobial discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakeri, Bijan; Lu, Timothy K.

    2012-01-01

    Antibiotic discovery has a storied history. From the discovery of penicillin by Sir Alexander Fleming to the relentless quest for antibiotics by Selman Waksman, the stories have become like folklore, used to inspire future generations of scientists. However, recent discovery pipelines have run dry at a time when multidrug resistant pathogens are on the rise. Nature has proven to be a valuable reservoir of antimicrobial agents, which are primarily produced by modularized biochemical pathways. Such modularization is well suited to remodeling by an interdisciplinary approach that spans science and engineering. Herein, we discuss the biological engineering of small molecules, peptides, and non-traditional antimicrobials and provide an overview of the growing applicability of synthetic biology to antimicrobials discovery. PMID:23654251

  12. Discovery of the cadmium isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amos, S.; Thoennessen, M.

    2010-01-01

    Thirty-seven cadmium isotopes have been observed so far and the discovery of these isotopes is discussed here. For each isotope a brief summary of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  13. Discoveries of isotopes by fission

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    country of discovery as well as the production mechanism used to produce the isotopes. ... the disintegration products of bombarded uranium, as a consequence of a ..... advanced accelerator and newly developed separation and detection ...

  14. Synthetic biology of antimicrobial discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakeri, Bijan; Lu, Timothy K

    2013-07-19

    Antibiotic discovery has a storied history. From the discovery of penicillin by Sir Alexander Fleming to the relentless quest for antibiotics by Selman Waksman, the stories have become like folklore used to inspire future generations of scientists. However, recent discovery pipelines have run dry at a time when multidrug-resistant pathogens are on the rise. Nature has proven to be a valuable reservoir of antimicrobial agents, which are primarily produced by modularized biochemical pathways. Such modularization is well suited to remodeling by an interdisciplinary approach that spans science and engineering. Herein, we discuss the biological engineering of small molecules, peptides, and non-traditional antimicrobials and provide an overview of the growing applicability of synthetic biology to antimicrobials discovery.

  15. The discovery of 'heavy light'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    The history of the discoveries of fundamental quanta is described starting from Maxwell's theory of electromagnetism up to the development of a theory of weak interaction and the detection of the W and Z bosons. (HSI).

  16. Discovery – Development of Rituximab

    Science.gov (United States)

    NCI funded the development of rituximab, one of the first monoclonal antibody cancer treatments. With the discovery of rituximab, more than 70 percent of patients diagnosed with non-hodgkin lymphoma now live five years past their initial diagnosis.

  17. Analysis and functional annotation of expressed sequence tags (ESTs from multiple tissues of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Weng-Wah

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oil palm is the second largest source of edible oil which contributes to approximately 20% of the world's production of oils and fats. In order to understand the molecular biology involved in in vitro propagation, flowering, efficient utilization of nitrogen sources and root diseases, we have initiated an expressed sequence tag (EST analysis on oil palm. Results In this study, six cDNA libraries from oil palm zygotic embryos, suspension cells, shoot apical meristems, young flowers, mature flowers and roots, were constructed. We have generated a total of 14537 expressed sequence tags (ESTs from these libraries, from which 6464 tentative unique contigs (TUCs and 2129 singletons were obtained. Approximately 6008 of these tentative unique genes (TUGs have significant matches to the non-redundant protein database, from which 2361 were assigned to one or more Gene Ontology categories. Predominant transcripts and differentially expressed genes were identified in multiple oil palm tissues. Homologues of genes involved in many aspects of flower development were also identified among the EST collection, such as CONSTANS-like, AGAMOUS-like (AGL2, AGL20, LFY-like, SQUAMOSA, SQUAMOSA binding protein (SBP etc. Majority of them are the first representatives in oil palm, providing opportunities to explore the cause of epigenetic homeotic flowering abnormality in oil palm, given the importance of flowering in fruit production. The transcript levels of two flowering-related genes, EgSBP and EgSEP were analysed in the flower tissues of various developmental stages. Gene homologues for enzymes involved in oil biosynthesis, utilization of nitrogen sources, and scavenging of oxygen radicals, were also uncovered among the oil palm ESTs. Conclusion The EST sequences generated will allow comparative genomic studies between oil palm and other monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plants, development of gene-targeted markers for the reference genetic map

  18. Effect of safflower oil, flaxseed oil, monensin, and vitamin E on concentration of conjugated linoleic acid in bovine milk fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, J A; Griinari, J M; Kennelly, J J

    2006-02-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) refers to a mixture of conjugated octadecadienoic acids of predominantly ruminant origin. The main isomer in bovine milk fat is the cis-9, trans-11 CLA. Interest in CLA increased after the discovery of its health-promoting properties, including potent anticarcinogenic activity. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate dietary strategies aimed at increasing the concentration of CLA in bovine milk fat. Both experiments were organized as a randomized complete block design with a repeated measures treatment structure. In Experiment 1, 28 Holstein cows received either a control diet or one of 3 treatments for a period of 2 wk. The control diet consisted of 60% forage (barley silage, alfalfa silage, and alfalfa hay) and 40% concentrate on a dry matter (DM) basis, fed as a total mixed ration (TMR). The concentrate was partially replaced in the treatment groups with 24 ppm of monensin (MON), 6% of DM safflower oil (SAFF), or 6% of DM safflower oil plus 24 ppm of monensin (SAFF/M). Average cis-9, trans-11 CLA levels in milk fat after 2 wk of feeding were 0.45, 0.52, 3.36, and 5.15% of total fatty acids for control, MON, SAFF, and SAFF/M, respectively. In Experiment 2, 62 Holstein cows received either a control diet or one of 5 treatment diets for a period of 9 wk. The control diet consisted of 60% forage (barley silage, alfalfa silage, and alfalfa hay) and 40% concentrate on a DM basis, fed as a TMR. The concentrate was partially replaced in the treatment groups with 6% of DM safflower oil (SAFF), 6% of DM safflower oil plus 150 IU of vitamin E/kg of DM (SAFF/E), 6% of DM safflower oil plus 24 ppm of monensin (SAFF/M), 6% of DM safflower oil plus 24 ppm of monensin plus 150 IU of vitamin E/kg of DM (SAFF/ME), or 6% of DM flaxseed oil plus 150 IU of vitamin E/kg of DM (FLAX/E). Average cis-9, trans-11 CLA levels during the treatment period were 0.68, 4.12, 3.48, 4.55, 4.75, and 2.80% of total fatty acids for control, SAFF, SAFF/E, SAFF

  19. Antidepressant-like effects of Perilla frutescens seed oil during a forced swimming test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hsiu-Chuan; Ko, Hsiang-Kai; Huang, Brian E T-G; Chu, Yan-Hwa; Huang, Shih-Yi

    2014-05-01

    Unipolar depressive disorder may become one of the major leading causes of disease burden by 2030 according to the World Health Organization (WHO). Thus, the discovery of antidepressive foods is attractive and could have considerable impacts worldwide. We investigated the antidepressant-like effects of Perilla frutescens seed oil on adult male rats subjected to a forced swimming test (FST). Forty Sprague-Dawley rats were housed and fed various diets, including soybean oil-rich, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)-rich, and P. frutescens seed oil-rich diets for 6 weeks. After the dietary intervention, animals were tested using an FST and were sacrificed after the test. We analyzed the fatty acid profiles of red blood cells (RBCs) and the brain prefrontal cortex (PFC). Levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), serotonin, and dopamine in the PFC were also determined. After the FST, the imipramine, EPA-rich, and P. frutescens seed oil-rich groups showed significant shorter immobility time and longer struggling time than the control group (p < 0.05). Levels of BDNF in the P. frutescens seed oil-rich group and levels of serotonin in the EPA-rich group were significantly (p < 0.05) higher than those of the control group. Moreover, the BDNF concentration in the PFC was significantly positively correlated with the struggling time. However, there were no significant differences in dopamine levels between the intervention groups and the control group. In conclusion, a P. frutescens seed oil-rich diet exhibited antidepressant-like properties through modulation of fatty acid profiles and BDNF expression in the brain during an FST.

  20. Radioactivity. Centenary of radioactivity discovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charpak, G.; Tubiana, M.; Bimbot, R.

    1997-01-01

    This small booklet was edited for the occasion of the exhibitions of the celebration of the centenary of radioactivity discovery which took place in various locations in France from 1996 to 1998. It recalls some basic knowledge concerning radioactivity and its applications: history of discovery, atoms and isotopes, radiations, measurement of ionizing radiations, natural and artificial radioactivity, isotope dating and labelling, radiotherapy, nuclear power and reactors, fission and fusion, nuclear wastes, dosimetry, effects and radioprotection. (J.S.)

  1. The oil market towards 2030 - can OPEC combine high oil price with high market share

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aune, Finn Roar; Glomsroed, Solveig; Lindholt, Lars; Rosendahl, Knut Einar

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we examine within a partial equilibrium model for the oil market whether OPEC can combine high oil prices with a high market share. The oil market model explicitly accounts for reserves, development and production in 4 field categories across 13 regions. Oil companies may invest in new field development or alternatively on improved oil recovery in the decline phase of fields in production. Non-OPEC production is profit-driven, whereas OPEC meets the residual call for OPEC oil at a pre-specified oil price, while maintaining a surplus capacity. The model is run over a range of exogenous oil prices from 15 to 60 $ per barrel. Sustained high oil prices stimulate Non-OPEC production, but its remaining reserves gradually diminish despite new discoveries. Oil demand is only slightly affected by higher prices. Thus, OPEC is able to keep and eventually increase its current market share beyond 2010 even with oil prices around $30 per barrel. In fact, the model simulations indicate that an oil price around $40 is profitable for OPEC, even in the long term. Sensitivity analyses show that the most profitable price level for OPEC is generally above $35 per barrel. Even with several factors working jointly in OPEC's disfavour, the oil price seems to stick to the 30 $ level. Thus, for OPEC there is a trade-off between high prices and high market share in the short to medium term, but not in the long term. For OECD countries, on the other hand, there is a clear trade-off between low oil prices and low import dependence. (Author)

  2. Computational methods in drug discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumudu P. Leelananda

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The process for drug discovery and development is challenging, time consuming and expensive. Computer-aided drug discovery (CADD tools can act as a virtual shortcut, assisting in the expedition of this long process and potentially reducing the cost of research and development. Today CADD has become an effective and indispensable tool in therapeutic development. The human genome project has made available a substantial amount of sequence data that can be used in various drug discovery projects. Additionally, increasing knowledge of biological structures, as well as increasing computer power have made it possible to use computational methods effectively in various phases of the drug discovery and development pipeline. The importance of in silico tools is greater than ever before and has advanced pharmaceutical research. Here we present an overview of computational methods used in different facets of drug discovery and highlight some of the recent successes. In this review, both structure-based and ligand-based drug discovery methods are discussed. Advances in virtual high-throughput screening, protein structure prediction methods, protein–ligand docking, pharmacophore modeling and QSAR techniques are reviewed.

  3. Effects of Microwave Radiation on Oil Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeili, Abdollah

    2011-12-01

    A variety of oil recovery methods have been developed and applied to mature and depleted reservoirs in order to improve the efficiency. Microwave radiation oil recovery method is a relatively new method and has been of great interest in the recent years. Crude oil is typically co-mingled with suspended solids and water. To increase oil recovery, it is necessary to remove these components. The separation of oil from water and solids using gravitational settling methods is typically incomplete. Oil-in-water and oil-water-solid emulsions can be demulsified and separated into their individual layers by microwave radiation. The data also show that microwave separation is faster than gravity separation and can be faster than conventional heating at many conditions. After separation of emulsion into water and oil layers, water can be discharged and oil is collected. High-frequency microwave recycling process can recover oil and gases from oil shale, residual oil, drill cuttings, tar sands oil, contaminated dredge/sediments, tires and plastics with significantly greater yields and lower costs than are available utilizing existing known technologies. This process is environmentally friendly, fuel-generating recycler to reduce waste, cut emissions, and save energy. This paper presents a critical review of Microwave radiation method for oil recovery.

  4. Get Involved in Planetary Discoveries through New Worlds, New Discoveries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shupla, Christine; Shipp, S. S.; Halligan, E.; Dalton, H.; Boonstra, D.; Buxner, S.; SMD Planetary Forum, NASA

    2013-01-01

    "New Worlds, New Discoveries" is a synthesis of NASA’s 50-year exploration history which provides an integrated picture of our new understanding of our solar system. As NASA spacecraft head to and arrive at key locations in our solar system, "New Worlds, New Discoveries" provides an integrated picture of our new understanding of the solar system to educators and the general public! The site combines the amazing discoveries of past NASA planetary missions with the most recent findings of ongoing missions, and connects them to the related planetary science topics. "New Worlds, New Discoveries," which includes the "Year of the Solar System" and the ongoing celebration of the "50 Years of Exploration," includes 20 topics that share thematic solar system educational resources and activities, tied to the national science standards. This online site and ongoing event offers numerous opportunities for the science community - including researchers and education and public outreach professionals - to raise awareness, build excitement, and make connections with educators, students, and the public about planetary science. Visitors to the site will find valuable hands-on science activities, resources and educational materials, as well as the latest news, to engage audiences in planetary science topics and their related mission discoveries. The topics are tied to the big questions of planetary science: how did the Sun’s family of planets and bodies originate and how have they evolved? How did life begin and evolve on Earth, and has it evolved elsewhere in our solar system? Scientists and educators are encouraged to get involved either directly or by sharing "New Worlds, New Discoveries" and its resources with educators, by conducting presentations and events, sharing their resources and events to add to the site, and adding their own public events to the site’s event calendar! Visit to find quality resources and ideas. Connect with educators, students and the public to

  5. Future Oil and Gas Resources of the World: A Coming Supply Crisis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlbrandt, T. S.

    2002-05-01

    Is the world running out of oil? Where will future oil and gas supplies come from? To help answer these questions, the U.S. Geological Survey completed in 2000 a new assessment of the undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources and potential additions to reserves from field growth. One hundred and twenty-eight provinces were assessed in a 100 man-year effort from 1995-2000. The assessed provinces included 76 priority provinces containing 95 percent of the world's discovered oil and gas and an additional 52 "boutique" provinces, many of which may be highly prospective. Total Petroleum Systems (TPS) were identified and described for each of these provinces along with associated Assessment Units (AU) that are the basic units for assessing undiscovered petroleum. The assessment process coupled geologic analysis with a probabilistic methodology to estimate remaining potential. Within the 128 assessed provinces, were 159 TPS and 274 AU. For these provinces, the endowment of recoverable oil, which includes cumulative production, remaining reserves, reserve growth, and undiscovered resources is estimated at about 3 trillion barrels of oil (TBO). The natural gas endowment is estimated at 2.6 trillion barrels of oil equivalent (TBOE). Oil reserves are currently 1.1 TBO; world consumption is about .028 TBO per year. Natural gas reserves are about .8 TBOE; world consumption is about .014 TBOE. Thus, without any additional discoveries of oil, gas or natural gas liquids, we have about 2 TBOE of proved petroleum reserves. Of the oil and gas endowment of about 5.6 TBOE, we estimate that the world has consumed about 1 TBOE, or 18 percent leaving about 82 percent of endowment to be utilized or found. Half of the world's undiscovered potential is offshore. Arctic basins with about 25 percent of undiscovered petroleum resources make up the next great frontier. An additional 279 provinces contain some oil and gas and, if considered, would increase the oil and gas endowment

  6. Discovery of a predynastic elephant burial at Hierakonpolis, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Adams

    1998-11-01

    Full Text Available It has long been known that the ancient Egyptians buried such animals as dogs, baboons and cattle, sometimes in human tombs and sometimes in separate graves of their own. Now excavation in a cemetery associated with the large settlement of Hierakonpolis has led to the unexpected discovery of a 5700-year-old elephant burial. Here the Research Curator of the Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology at UCL describes the discovery and discusses its significance.

  7. Discovery of a predynastic elephant burial at Hierakonpolis, Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Barbara Adams

    1998-01-01

    It has long been known that the ancient Egyptians buried such animals as dogs, baboons and cattle, sometimes in human tombs and sometimes in separate graves of their own. Now excavation in a cemetery associated with the large settlement of Hierakonpolis has led to the unexpected discovery of a 5700-year-old elephant burial. Here the Research Curator of the Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology at UCL describes the discovery and discusses its significance.

  8. Technological advancements revitalize conventional oil sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomson, L.

    2000-01-01

    Maturing reserves in the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin is resulting in a gradual shift of focus from huge new discoveries and wildcat gushers to developing new technologies for exploration and enhanced recovery techniques of production, keeping costs down and reducing environmental impacts, as a means of keeping conventional oil plays a viable force in the oil and gas industry. The value in refocusing efforts towards technology development is given added weight by a recent announcement by the Petroleum Communication Foundation, which stated that in addition to the oil sands and offshore oil and gas developments, one of the country's largest undeveloped oil resource is the 70 per cent of discovered crude oil in western Canadian pools that cannot be recovered by current conventional production techniques. Therefore, development of new technologies to exploit these currently unrecoverable resources is a matter of high priority. To remain competitive, the new techniques must also lower the cost of recovering oil from these sources, given that the cost of oil production in Canada is already higher than that in most other competing countries

  9. Oil in the FFTF secondary loop cover gas piping. Final unusual occurrence report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuechle, J.D.

    1981-01-01

    The final unusual occurrence report describes the discovery of oil in the FFTF secondary sodium system cover gas piping. A thorough evaluation has been performed and corrective actions have been implemented to prevent a recurrence of this event

  10. Bioremediation of oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, M.

    1992-01-01

    For some years now UK and European oil spill response agencies, together with oil companies having an exploration or production interest in the European area, have been developing interest in the possible use of bioremediation techniques in combatting oil spills. The interest has accelerated in the aftermath of Exxon Valdez but there is significant scepticism over the actual value of the technique. The promise of increased rates of oil degradation, using bacteria or nutrients, does not yet appear to have been properly validated and there is concern over possible knock-on environmental effects. In consequence the response agencies are reluctant to bring the technique into their current combat armory. Some of the questions raised are: What efficacious techniques are available and how were they proven? On what type of oils can they be used? What is the scope for their use (at sea, type of coastline, temperature limitations, etc.)? What are the short and long term effects? Does bioremediation really work and offer a potential tool for oil spill clean-up? How do cleaning rates compare with natural recovery? There are many others. The view of the European Commission is that there should be a coordinated effort to answer these questions, but that effort should be properly targeted. I concur strongly with this view. The tasks are too large and varied for piecemeal attention. The European Commission wishes to initiate appropriate coordinated work, directed at the needs of European nations but which will subsequently inform the international response community through the International Maritime Organization and its Oil Pollution Preparedness and Response Cooperation initiative

  11. The Mexican oil industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcos-Giacoman, E.

    1991-01-01

    In the environment of growing domestic demand and enhanced international competitiveness, Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX)-the Mexican national oil company-faces the challenge of not only responding adequately to the rapid changes taking place in the Mexican economy, but making a significant contribution towards solid and stable growth. This paper reports that the relevant concern is how PEMEX is going to live up to these expectations. The Mexican oil industry, especially including the petrochemical sector, has great potential in terms of an ample domestic market as well as external foreign-currency-generating markets

  12. Heavy crude oil and synthetic crude market outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crandall, G.R.

    1997-01-01

    This presentation included an outline of the international heavy crude supply and demand versus Canadian heavy crude supply and disposition, and pricing outlook for synthetic crudes. Differences among crude oils such as light sweet, light sour, heavy and bitumen were described and illustrated with respect to their gravity, API, percentage of sulphur, metals and nitrogen. Internationally, heavy and sour crude supplies are forecast to increase significantly over the next four years. Discoveries of light sour crude in offshore Gulf of Mexico will provide a major new source of sour crude to U.S. Gulf Coast refineries. Venezuela's supplies of heavy and sour crude are also expected to increase over the next few years. Mexico and Canada have plans to increase their heavy crude production. All of the crudes will be aimed at the U.S. Gulf Coast and Midwest markets. Pentanes and condensates are also expected to increase based on the growing Canadian natural gas production. Diluent demand will also grow to match Canadian heavy crude/bitumen production. U.S. midwest refiners are proposing expansions to allow them to process more Canadian heavy crude oil. At present, only a few refineries are equipped to process significant amounts of synthetic crude. It was suggested that to absorb available heavy and synthetic production, increased penetration into both Canadian and U.S. markets will be required. Some refineries may have to be modified to process heavy and synthetic oil supplies. Heavy oil and synthetic producers may need to develop relationships with refiners such as joint ventures and term supply agreements to secure markets. 2 tabs., 12 figs

  13. Oil Volatility Risk and Expected Stock Returns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Pan, Xuhui (Nick)

    After the financialization of commodity futures markets in 2004-05 oil volatility has become a strong predictor of returns and volatility of the overall stock market. Furthermore, stocks' exposure to oil volatility risk now drives the cross-section of expected returns. The difference in average...... return between the quintile of stocks with low exposure and high exposure to oil volatility is significant at 0.66% per month, and oil volatility risk carries a significant risk premium of -0.60% per month. In the post-financialization period, oil volatility risk is strongly related with various measures...

  14. 42 CFR 426.432 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discovery. 426.432 Section 426.432 Public Health... § 426.432 Discovery. (a) General rule. If the ALJ orders discovery, the ALJ must establish a reasonable timeframe for discovery. (b) Protective order—(1) Request for a protective order. Any party receiving a...

  15. 40 CFR 27.21 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discovery. 27.21 Section 27.21... Discovery. (a) The following types of discovery are authorized: (1) Requests for production of documents for..., discovery is available only as ordered by the presiding officer. The presiding officer shall regulate the...

  16. 13 CFR 134.213 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discovery. 134.213 Section 134.213... OFFICE OF HEARINGS AND APPEALS Rules of Practice for Most Cases § 134.213 Discovery. (a) Motion. A party may obtain discovery only upon motion, and for good cause shown. (b) Forms. The forms of discovery...

  17. 37 CFR 41.150 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discovery. 41.150 Section 41... COMMERCE PRACTICE BEFORE THE BOARD OF PATENT APPEALS AND INTERFERENCES Contested Cases § 41.150 Discovery. (a) Limited discovery. A party is not entitled to discovery except as authorized in this subpart. The...

  18. 19 CFR 354.10 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discovery. 354.10 Section 354.10 Customs Duties... ANTIDUMPING OR COUNTERVAILING DUTY ADMINISTRATIVE PROTECTIVE ORDER § 354.10 Discovery. (a) Voluntary discovery. All parties are encouraged to engage in voluntary discovery procedures regarding any matter, not...

  19. 14 CFR 13.220 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discovery. 13.220 Section 13.220... INVESTIGATIVE AND ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES Rules of Practice in FAA Civil Penalty Actions § 13.220 Discovery. (a) Initiation of discovery. Any party may initiate discovery described in this section, without the consent or...

  20. 49 CFR 604.38 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discovery. 604.38 Section 604.38 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION CHARTER SERVICE Hearings. § 604.38 Discovery. (a) Permissible forms of discovery shall be within the discretion of the PO. (b) The PO shall limit the frequency and extent of discovery permitted by...

  1. 15 CFR 719.10 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discovery. 719.10 Section 719.10... Discovery. (a) General. The parties are encouraged to engage in voluntary discovery regarding any matter... the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure relating to discovery apply to the extent consistent with this...

  2. 14 CFR 16.213 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discovery. 16.213 Section 16.213... PRACTICE FOR FEDERALLY-ASSISTED AIRPORT ENFORCEMENT PROCEEDINGS Hearings § 16.213 Discovery. (a) Discovery... discovery permitted by this section if a party shows that— (1) The information requested is cumulative or...

  3. 28 CFR 76.21 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discovery. 76.21 Section 76.21 Judicial... POSSESSION OF CERTAIN CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES § 76.21 Discovery. (a) Scope. Discovery under this part covers... as a general guide for discovery practices in proceedings before the Judge. However, unless otherwise...

  4. 36 CFR 1150.63 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discovery. 1150.63 Section... PRACTICE AND PROCEDURES FOR COMPLIANCE HEARINGS Prehearing Conferences and Discovery § 1150.63 Discovery. (a) Parties are encouraged to engage in voluntary discovery procedures. For good cause shown under...

  5. 10 CFR 13.21 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discovery. 13.21 Section 13.21 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 13.21 Discovery. (a) The following types of discovery are...) Unless mutually agreed to by the parties, discovery is available only as ordered by the ALJ. The ALJ...

  6. 49 CFR 1121.2 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discovery. 1121.2 Section 1121.2 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE RAIL EXEMPTION PROCEDURES § 1121.2 Discovery. Discovery shall follow the procedures set forth at 49 CFR part 1114, subpart B. Discovery may begin upon the filing of the petition for...

  7. 24 CFR 26.18 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discovery. 26.18 Section 26.18... PROCEDURES Hearings Before Hearing Officers Discovery § 26.18 Discovery. (a) General. The parties are encouraged to engage in voluntary discovery procedures, which may commence at any time after an answer has...

  8. 38 CFR 42.21 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discovery. 42.21 Section... IMPLEMENTING THE PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT § 42.21 Discovery. (a) The following types of discovery are... creation of a document. (c) Unless mutually agreed to by the parties, discovery is available only as...

  9. 22 CFR 521.21 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Discovery. 521.21 Section 521.21 Foreign... Discovery. (a) The following types of discovery are authorized: (1) Requests for production of documents for... interpreted to require the creation of a document. (c) Unless mutually agreed to by the parties, discovery is...

  10. 31 CFR 10.71 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discovery. 10.71 Section 10.71 Money... SERVICE Rules Applicable to Disciplinary Proceedings § 10.71 Discovery. (a) In general. Discovery may be... relevance, materiality and reasonableness of the requested discovery and subject to the requirements of § 10...

  11. 42 CFR 426.532 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discovery. 426.532 Section 426.532 Public Health... § 426.532 Discovery. (a) General rule. If the Board orders discovery, the Board must establish a reasonable timeframe for discovery. (b) Protective order—(1) Request for a protective order. Any party...

  12. 39 CFR 955.15 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discovery. 955.15 Section 955.15 Postal Service... APPEALS § 955.15 Discovery. (a) The parties are encouraged to engage in voluntary discovery procedures. In connection with any deposition or other discovery procedure, the Board may issue any order which justice...

  13. 49 CFR 1503.633 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discovery. 1503.633 Section 1503.633... Rules of Practice in TSA Civil Penalty Actions § 1503.633 Discovery. (a) Initiation of discovery. Any party may initiate discovery described in this section, without the consent or approval of the ALJ, at...

  14. 43 CFR 35.21 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discovery. 35.21 Section 35.21 Public... AND STATEMENTS § 35.21 Discovery. (a) The following types of discovery are authorized: (1) Requests...) Unless mutually agreed to by the parties, discovery is available only as ordered by the ALJ. The ALJ...

  15. 14 CFR 1264.120 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discovery. 1264.120 Section 1264.120... PENALTIES ACT OF 1986 § 1264.120 Discovery. (a) The following types of discovery are authorized: (1..., discovery is available only as ordered by the presiding officer. The presiding officer shall regulate the...

  16. 22 CFR 128.6 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discovery. 128.6 Section 128.6 Foreign... Discovery. (a) Discovery by the respondent. The respondent, through the Administrative Law Judge, may... discovery if the interests of national security or foreign policy so require, or if necessary to comply with...

  17. 37 CFR 11.52 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discovery. 11.52 Section 11... Disciplinary Proceedings; Jurisdiction, Sanctions, Investigations, and Proceedings § 11.52 Discovery. Discovery... establishes that discovery is reasonable and relevant, the hearing officer, under such conditions as he or she...

  18. 24 CFR 26.42 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discovery. 26.42 Section 26.42... PROCEDURES Hearings Pursuant to the Administrative Procedure Act Discovery § 26.42 Discovery. (a) General. The parties are encouraged to engage in voluntary discovery procedures, which may commence at any time...

  19. 49 CFR 386.37 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discovery. 386.37 Section 386.37 Transportation... and Hearings § 386.37 Discovery. (a) Parties may obtain discovery by one or more of the following...; and requests for admission. (b) Discovery may not commence until the matter is pending before the...

  20. 29 CFR 1955.32 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discovery. 1955.32 Section 1955.32 Labor Regulations...) PROCEDURES FOR WITHDRAWAL OF APPROVAL OF STATE PLANS Preliminary Conference and Discovery § 1955.32 Discovery... allow discovery by any other appropriate procedure, such as by interrogatories upon a party or request...

  1. 31 CFR 16.21 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discovery. 16.21 Section 16.21 Money... FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT OF 1986 § 16.21 Discovery. (a) The following types of discovery are authorized... to require the creation of a document. (c) Unless mutually agreed to by the parties, discovery is...

  2. 15 CFR 766.9 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discovery. 766.9 Section 766.9... PROCEEDINGS § 766.9 Discovery. (a) General. The parties are encouraged to engage in voluntary discovery... provisions of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure relating to discovery apply to the extent consistent with...

  3. 43 CFR 4.1130 - Discovery methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discovery methods. 4.1130 Section 4.1130... Special Rules Applicable to Surface Coal Mining Hearings and Appeals Discovery § 4.1130 Discovery methods. Parties may obtain discovery by one or more of the following methods— (a) Depositions upon oral...

  4. The oil boom in Equatorial Guinea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frynas, J.G.

    2004-01-01

    In less than a decade, Equatorial Guinea has transformed itself from an African backwater into one of the world's fastest growing economies and a sought-after political partner in the Gulf of Guinea. The sole reason for this transformation has been the discovery of oil and gas. This article outlines the rise of Equatorial Guinea as one of Africa's leading oil-producing countries and investigates the political, economic and social effects of becoming a petro-state. The article is based on the author's field research in Equatorial Guinea in the autumn of 2003 and interviews with senior oil company staff, government officials and staff of international organizations as well as secondary sources. This research demonstrates how reliance on oil and gas exports can lead to profound changes in a country's political economy. (author)

  5. Soybean (Glycine max) oil bodies and their associated phytochemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisk, Ian D; Gray, David A

    2011-01-01

    Soybean oil bodies were isolated from 3 cultivars (Ustie, K98, and Elena) and the occurrence of 2 classes of phytochemicals (tocopherol isoforms and isoflavones) and strength of their association with isolated oil bodies was evaluated. Tocopherol is shown to be closely associated with soybean oil bodies; δ-tocopherol demonstrated a significantly greater association with oil bodies over other tocopherol isoforms. Isoflavones do not show a significant physical association with oil bodies, although there is some indication of a passive association of the more hydrophobic aglycones during oil body isolation. Oil bodies are small droplets of oil that are stored as energy reserves in the seeds of oil seeds, and have the potential to be used as future food ingredients. If oil body suspensions are commercialized on a large scale, knowledge of the association of phytochemicals with oil bodies will be valuable in deciding species of preference and predicting shelf life and nutritional value. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  6. Computational methods for a three-dimensional model of the petroleum-discovery process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuenemeyer, J.H.; Bawiec, W.J.; Drew, L.J.

    1980-01-01

    A discovery-process model devised by Drew, Schuenemeyer, and Root can be used to predict the amount of petroleum to be discovered in a basin from some future level of exploratory effort: the predictions are based on historical drilling and discovery data. Because marginal costs of discovery and production are a function of field size, the model can be used to make estimates of future discoveries within deposit size classes. The modeling approach is a geometric one in which the area searched is a function of the size and shape of the targets being sought. A high correlation is assumed between the surface-projection area of the fields and the volume of petroleum. To predict how much oil remains to be found, the area searched must be computed, and the basin size and discovery efficiency must be estimated. The basin is assumed to be explored randomly rather than by pattern drilling. The model may be used to compute independent estimates of future oil at different depth intervals for a play involving multiple producing horizons. We have written FORTRAN computer programs that are used with Drew, Schuenemeyer, and Root's model to merge the discovery and drilling information and perform the necessary computations to estimate undiscovered petroleum. These program may be modified easily for the estimation of remaining quantities of commodities other than petroleum. ?? 1980.

  7. Myristica oil poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutmeg oil; Myristicin ... Myristica oil ( Myristica fragrans ) can be harmful. It comes from the seed of a nutmeg. ... Myristica oil is found in: Aromatherapy products Mace Nutmeg Other products may also contain myristica oil.

  8. The richness of discovery : Amoco's first fifty years in Canada (1948-1998)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenzie-Brown, P.

    1998-01-01

    A review of Amoco's first fifty years of operations in Canada, including investments, discoveries, and policies was presented. While no claim is made for this attractively produced slim volume to be a definitive history, it does manage to shed light on some of the great achievements and outstanding deeds of the people behind the company. The book provides a glimpse into how Amoco contributed to the growth of the Canadian petroleum industry in diverse areas including the manufacturing sector, the petroleum service sector, oil field technology, oil field infrastructure and petrochemical development. The company enjoyed spectacular success during the 1950s and 1960s. As evidence of that success, in 1997 Amoco Canada was the largest Canadian producer and exporter of natural gas and NGLs, the largest cold producer of heavy oil, the second largest in situ producer of heavy oil, and one of the 10 largest producers of conventional oil. refs., tabs., figs

  9. Reserve growth of the world's giant oil fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klett, T.R.; Schmoker, J.W.

    2005-01-01

    Analysis of estimated total recoverable oil volume (field size) of 186 well-known giant oil fields of the world (>0.5 billion bbl of oil, discovered prior to 1981), exclusive of the United States and Canada, demonstrates general increases in field sizes through time. Field sizes were analyzed as a group and within subgroups of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) and non-OPEC countries. From 1981 through 1996, the estimated volume of oil in the 186 fields for which adequate data were available increased from 617 billion to 777 billion bbl of oil (26%). Processes other than new field discoveries added an estimated 160 billion bbl of oil to known reserves in this subset of the world's oil fields. Although methods for estimating field sizes vary among countries, estimated sizes of the giant oil fields of the world increased, probably for many of the same reasons that estimated sizes of oil fields in the United States increased over the same time period. Estimated volumes in OPEC fields increased from a total of 550 billion to 668 billion bbl of oil and volumes in non-OPEC fields increased from 67 billion to 109 billion bbl of oil. In terms of percent change, non-OPEC field sizes increased more than OPEC field sizes (63% versus 22%). The changes in estimated total recoverable oil volumes that occurred within three 5-year increments between 1981 and 1996 were all positive. Between 1981 and 1986, the increase in estimated total recoverable oil volume within the 186 giant oil fields was 11 billion bbl of oil; between 1986 and 1991, the increase was 120 billion bbl of oil; and between 1991 and 1996, the increase was 29 billion bbl of oil. Fields in both OPEC and non-OPEC countries followed trends of substantial reserve growth.

  10. Purifying oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1930-04-15

    Gasoline, lamp oils, and lubricating or other mineral or shale oils are refined by contacting the vapor with a hot aqueous solution of salts of zinc, cadmium, or mercury, or mixtures thereof which may contain 0-5-3-0 percent of oxide or hydroxide in solution or suspension. Chlorides, bromides, iodides, sulfates, nitrates, and sulfonates of benzol, toluol, xylol, and petroleum are specified. Washing with a solution of sodium or potassium hydroxide or carbonate of calcium hydroxide may follow. The oil may first be purified by sulfuric acid or other known agent, or afterwards caustic alkali and sulfuric acid. The Specification as open to inspection under Sect. 91 (3) (a) describes also the use of salts of copper, iron, chromium, manganese, aluminum, nickel, or cobalt, with or without their oxides or hydroxides. This subject-matter does not appear in the Specification as accepted.

  11. Distilling oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leffer, L G

    1912-01-29

    In a process for converting heavy hydrocarbons, such as petroleum or shale oil, into light hydrocarbons by distilling under the pressure of an inert gas, the operation is conducted at a temperature not exceeding 410/sup 0/C and under an accurately regulated pressure, the gas being circulated through the still and the condenser by means of a pump. The oil in the still may be agitated by stirring vanes or by blowing the gas through it. Hydrogen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, methane, or gases generated in the distillation may be used as pressure media; the gas is heated before its admission to the still. A pressure of from 11 to 12 atmospheres is used in treating gas oil. Specification 10,277/89 is referred to.

  12. A big oil company's approach to significantly reduce fatal incidents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peuscher, W.; Groeneweg, J.

    2012-01-01

    Within the Shell Group of companies (Shell), keeping people safe at work is a deeply held value and the company actively pursues the goal of no harm to people. Shell actively works to build a culture where every employee and contractor takes responsibility for making this goal possible - it is

  13. Visions of Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiao, Raymond Y.; Cohen, Marvin L.; Leggett, Anthony J.; Phillips, William D.; Harper, Charles L., Jr.

    2010-10-01

    List of contributors; Foreword Charles H. Townes; Editors' preface; Preface Freeman J. Dyson; Laureates' preface: reflections from four physics Nobelists Roy J. Glauber, John L. Hall, Theodore W. Hänsch and Wolfgang Ketterle; Acknowledgments; Part I. Illumination: The History and Future of Physical Science and Technology: 1. A short history of light in the Western world John L. Heilbron; 2. Tools and innovation Peter L. Galison; 3. The future of science Freeman J. Dyson; 4. The end of everything: will AI replace humans? Will everything die when the universe freezes over? Michio Kaku; Part II. Fundamental Physics and Quantum Mechanics: 5. Fundamental constants Frank Wilczek; 6. New insights on time symmetry in quantum mechanics Yakir Aharonov and Jeffrey Tollaksen; 7. The major unknowns in particle physics and cosmology David J. Gross; 8. The major unknown in quantum mechanics: Is it the whole truth? Anthony J. Leggett; 9. Precision cosmology and the landscape Raphael Bousso; 10. Hairy black holes, phase transitions, and AdS/CFT Steven S. Gubser; Part III. Astrophysics and Astronomy: 11. The microwave background: a cosmic time machine Adrian T. Lee; 12. Dark matter and dark energy Marc Kamionkowski; 13. New directions and intersections for observational cosmology: the case of dark energy Saul Perlmutter; 14. Inward bound: high-resolution astronomy and the quest for black holes and extrasolar planets Reinhard Genzel; 15. Searching for signatures of life beyond the solar system: astrophysical interferometry and the 150 km Exo-Earth Imager Antoine Labeyrie; 16. New directions for gravitational wave physics via 'Millikan oil drops' Raymond Y. Chiao; 17. An 'ultrasonic' image of the embryonic universe: CMB polarization tests of the inflationary paradigm Brian G. Keating; Part IV. New Approaches in Technology and Science: 18. Visualizing complexity: development of 4D microscopy and diffraction for imaging in space and time Ahmed H. Zewail; 19. Is life based on laws of

  14. The Europa Ocean Discovery mission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, B.C. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Chyba, C.F. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Abshire, J.B. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Greenbelt, MD (United States). Goddard Space Flight Center] [and others

    1997-06-01

    Since it was first proposed that tidal heating of Europa by Jupiter might lead to liquid water oceans below Europa`s ice cover, there has been speculation over the possible exobiological implications of such an ocean. Liquid water is the essential ingredient for life as it is known, and the existence of a second water ocean in the Solar System would be of paramount importance for seeking the origin and existence of life beyond Earth. The authors present here a Discovery-class mission concept (Europa Ocean Discovery) to determine the existence of a liquid water ocean on Europa and to characterize Europa`s surface structure. The technical goal of the Europa Ocean Discovery mission is to study Europa with an orbiting spacecraft. This goal is challenging but entirely feasible within the Discovery envelope. There are four key challenges: entering Europan orbit, generating power, surviving long enough in the radiation environment to return valuable science, and complete the mission within the Discovery program`s launch vehicle and budget constraints. The authors will present here a viable mission that meets these challenges.

  15. TAG Oil hunting elephants in New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2005-01-01

    Calgary-based TAG Oil is an exploration company that manages 4.1 million acres of major producing oil and gas fields in New Zealand. The enormous Maui field, with 4 tcf of natural gas in place, has dominated the gas market in New Zealand by meeting nearly 90 per cent of the country's energy demand at costs much lower than world prices. However, the maturing field is in decline and will cease production by 2008. New gas field discoveries will only meet 60 per cent of the country's energy requirements for 5 additional years. Unless new large reserves of gas are discovered, the supply and demand situation will get worse. Lead time to place new production on-stream requires 5 to 10 years, which creates a large supply gap over the next decade. Public resistance to coal-fired power plants, new hydroelectric dams and nuclear power has left the country with no viable alternative to natural gas. TAG Oil has taken this unique opportunity to create value when gas demand is at its maximum and energy alternatives are at a minimum. This paper presented 8 reasons why New Zealand is a good place for petroleum investment. Most exploration has occurred in the Taranaki Basin, where only 130 exploration wells have been drilled. The rest of the sedimentary basins are essentially unexplored, although many exhibit oil seeps and have hydrocarbon potential. In 1998, an onshore gas discovery was made on the East Coast Basin. Sub-commercial discoveries have also been made in the offshore Canterbury and Great South basins. TAG Oil is focusing on shallow oil and gas pools in the Miocene reservoirs at Taranaki, as well as on deeper gas prospects in Tariki and Kapuni Sands. One of the challenges was a shortage of drilling rigs, so TAG is having a rig built in Calgary and shipped south. 2 figs

  16. Book Review: Dispute Resolution and e-Discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton Luoma

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Garrie, D.B., & Griver, Y.M., Eds. (2012. Dispute Resolution and e-Discovery. Thomson Reuters Westlaw, 570 pages, ISBN-13: 9780314604484, US$149.00.Reviewed by Milton Luoma, JD, (Milt.Luoma@metrostate.eduAs is apparent from its title, this book tackles two very current and difficult legal issues – electronic discovery and dispute resolution. The authors tie the two legal concepts together in an effort to provide litigants and practitioners a less expensive and less time consuming alternative than is typically the case with traditional litigation and court proceedings. By including electronic discovery in the discussions, the authors recognize the importance and significance of electronic discovery in mediation and arbitration as it is in traditional litigation.(see PDF for full review

  17. Advances in Chance Discovery : Extended Selection from International Workshops

    CERN Document Server

    Abe, Akinori

    2013-01-01

    Since year 2000, scientists on artificial and natural intelligences started to study chance discovery - methods for discovering events/situations that significantly affect decision making. Partially because the editors Ohsawa and Abe are teaching at schools of Engineering and of Literature with sharing the interest in chance discovery, this book reflects interdisciplinary aspects of progress: First, as an interdisciplinary melting pot of cognitive science, computational intelligence, data mining/visualization, collective intelligence, … etc, chance discovery came to reach new application domains e.g. health care, aircraft control, energy plant, management of technologies, product designs, innovations, marketing, finance etc. Second, basic technologies and sciences including sensor technologies, medical sciences, communication technologies etc. joined this field and interacted with cognitive/computational scientists in workshops on chance discovery, to obtain breakthroughs by stimulating each other. Third, �...

  18. The discovery and development of uranium in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glasson, K.R.

    1988-01-01

    The history of the discovery of Australia's uranium deposits is reviewed. The exploration can be conveniently divided into three periods - pre-1944, when the only significant discoveries were made by prospectors in South Australia at Radium Hill and Mount Painter; 1944-1960 and post-1967. The second period saw uranium discoveries in the Northern Territory and Queensland, most of which were made by prospectors using hand-held geiger counters and rewarded by the Australian Government. Since 1967 new deposits have been found in the Northern Territory, Queensland, South Australia and Western Australia by companies using maps, airborne radiometric surveys and sophisticated equipment. The step from the discovery of Mary Kathleen by prospectors to finding Roxby Downs by a combination of geophysical methods, geological concepts and deep drilling was a very big one

  19. Oil integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carta Petrolera

    1997-01-01

    Colombia, Mexico and Venezuela agree in to have a bigger exchange of information, technology and experiences in areas of mutual interest that allow in the future, combined developments of the hydrocarbons industry. In such a sense, ECOPETROL narrowed its relationships with the two powerful Latin American oil enterprises, when suiting in Bogota agreements of mutual collaboration with representatives of the respective state companies. To begin, the company signed a cooperation agreement with Petroleos de Venezuela S.A (PDVSA), with the purpose of to narrow the relationships between the two companies and to undertake combined actions in those matters of the oil and petrochemical industry of mutual interest

  20. Geotechnical properties of crude oil contaminated sand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puri, V.K.; Das, B.M.; Cook, E.E.; Shin, E.C.

    1994-01-01

    Contamination of soil due to an oil spill influences its subsequent engineering behavior. An investigation was conducted to study the effect of crude oil contamination on compaction characteristics, shear strength, one-dimensional compression, and coefficient of permeability. Water permeability was also determined by using commercial grade motor oils as contaminants. The test results indicate that the compaction characteristics are influenced by oil contamination. The angle of internal friction of sand (based on total stress condition) decreases due to presence of oil within the pore spaces in sand. One dimensional compression characteristics of sand are significantly influenced by oil contamination resulting in a decrease in the value of constrained modulus with increase in the degree of oil contamination compared to the case of dry sand. Water permeability was observed to be a function of the initial viscosity and the degree of saturation due to the contaminating oil

  1. Oil Market and Prices Prospects for 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Papatulica

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The international crude oil prices started the year 2014 within parameters comparable to those of the precedent year: WTI (USA recorded 92 $/barrel, on the American spot market, considered a minimum value for the last 5 weeks, while Brent (Great Britain had a more stable evolution, on the spot Rotterdam market, staying around a value of 107,50 $/barrel. Despite analysts’ forecasts, which during the last 3 years staked on a lower oil price, as a consequence of the spectacular increase in non-OPEC oil production, namely of shale oil, the international oil price, namely that of Brent, closed each of the last 3 years around the same level, of 108 $/barrel. As for 2014, the great majority of oil analysts estimates again a decline of oil prices, as a result of a significant rise of oil offer globally, which will greatly surpass the demand rise.

  2. Uncovering Discovery Layer Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Sean P.

    2014-01-01

    Today's electronic information landscape is growing exponentially with no signs of slowing. This poses a significant challenge for academic libraries. Librarians must continually learn and adapt to harness this explosion of resources. To fulfill their claim as the leaders in the information field they must be effective in providing access and…

  3. Deep Learning in Drug Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawehn, Erik; Hiss, Jan A; Schneider, Gisbert

    2016-01-01

    Artificial neural networks had their first heyday in molecular informatics and drug discovery approximately two decades ago. Currently, we are witnessing renewed interest in adapting advanced neural network architectures for pharmaceutical research by borrowing from the field of "deep learning". Compared with some of the other life sciences, their application in drug discovery is still limited. Here, we provide an overview of this emerging field of molecular informatics, present the basic concepts of prominent deep learning methods and offer motivation to explore these techniques for their usefulness in computer-assisted drug discovery and design. We specifically emphasize deep neural networks, restricted Boltzmann machine networks and convolutional networks. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Discovery of the Higgs boson

    CERN Document Server

    Sharma, Vivek

    2016-01-01

    The recent observation of the Higgs boson has been hailed as the scientific discovery of the century and led to the 2013 Nobel Prize in physics. This book describes the detailed science behind the decades-long search for this elusive particle at the Large Electron Positron Collider at CERN and at the Tevatron at Fermilab and its subsequent discovery and characterization at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. Written by physicists who played leading roles in this epic search and discovery, this book is an authoritative and pedagogical exposition of the portrait of the Higgs boson that has emerged from a large number of experimental measurements. As the first of its kind, this book should be of interest to graduate students and researchers in particle physics.

  5. Bioinformatics in translational drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooller, Sarah K; Benstead-Hume, Graeme; Chen, Xiangrong; Ali, Yusuf; Pearl, Frances M G

    2017-08-31

    Bioinformatics approaches are becoming ever more essential in translational drug discovery both in academia and within the pharmaceutical industry. Computational exploitation of the increasing volumes of data generated during all phases of drug discovery is enabling key challenges of the process to be addressed. Here, we highlight some of the areas in which bioinformatics resources and methods are being developed to support the drug discovery pipeline. These include the creation of large data warehouses, bioinformatics algorithms to analyse 'big data' that identify novel drug targets and/or biomarkers, programs to assess the tractability of targets, and prediction of repositioning opportunities that use licensed drugs to treat additional indications. © 2017 The Author(s).

  6. The oil industry in 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The various contributions present and comment many data about the evolutions of different parts of the oil industry until 2007: world oil and gas markets, worldwide oil exploration and production, oil exploration and production in France, oil and oil-related industry in France, hydrocarbon supplies, oil refining in France, fuel quality, substitution fuels, inner transportation of oil products, storage of oil products, consumption of oil products, taxing of oils products, price of oil products, distribution of oil products

  7. The oil industry in 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The various contributions present and comment many data about the evolutions of different parts of the oil industry until 2006: world oil and gas markets, worldwide oil exploration and production, oil exploration and production in France, oil and oil-related industry in France, hydrocarbon supplies, oil refining in France, fuel quality, substitution fuels, inner transportation of oil products, storage of oil products, consumption of oil products, taxing of oils products, price of oil products, distribution of oil products

  8. Olive oil increases the magnitude of postprandial chylomicron remnants compared to milk fat and safflower oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashi, K; Ishikawa, T; Shige, H; Tomiyasu, K; Yoshida, H; Ito, T; Nakajima, K; Yonemura, A; Sawada, S; Nakamura, H

    1997-10-01

    The acute effects of olive oil, milk fat and safflower oil on postprandial lipemia and remnant lipoprotein metabolism were investigated. Eight Healthy male volunteers randomly underwent three types of oral fat-vitamin A loading tests. The test drink was a mixture of retinyl palmitate (RP)(50,000 IU of aqueous vitamin A/m2 body surface area) and one of the three types of oils (40 g of fat/m2 body surface area): olive oil (70.7% oleic acid of total fatty acids); milk fat (69.3% saturated fatty acid); safflower oil (74.2% linoleic acid). Olive oil significantly increased plasma triacylglycerol and RP concentrations 4 hours after fat loading, as compared to other fats. Increases of remnant like particle concentrations were higher after olive oil than after the other two fats. These results show that olive oil increases the magnitude of postprandial chylomicrons and chylomicron remnants compared to milk fat and safflower oil.

  9. Oil price fluctuations and U.S. dollar exchange rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lizardo, Radhames A.; Mollick, Andre V.

    2010-01-01

    Adding oil prices to the monetary model of exchange rates, we find that oil prices significantly explain movements in the value of the U.S. dollar (USD) against major currencies from the 1970s to 2008. Our long-run and forecasting results are remarkably consistent with an oil-exchange rate relationship. Increases in real oil prices lead to a significant depreciation of the USD against net oil exporter currencies, such as Canada, Mexico, and Russia. On the other hand, the currencies of oil importers, such as Japan, depreciate relative to the USD when the real oil price goes up. (author)

  10. India Edible Oil Consumption: A Censored Incomplete Demand Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Pan, Suwen; Mohanty, Samarendu; Welch, Mark

    2008-01-01

    A Censored Incomplete Demand System is applied to household expenditures for edible oil in India. The results show that edible peanut oil is still a luxury good in India, whereas expenditure elasticities for other edible oils are relatively low. The food habit, location, education of household heads, and other demographic variables have significant effects on the choice of edible oils.

  11. Strategy of Chavez determines oil future of Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widdershoven, C.

    2008-01-01

    The perspective of the oil and gas industry remains unclear as long as the current president, Hugo Chavez, continues to implement his own political ideas. The announcement of another tax increase on high oil revenues of oil companies will significantly weaken the appeal to invest in the oil sector. [mk] [nl

  12. The discovery of subatomic particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinberg, S.

    1984-01-01

    This book developed from a course for students with no prior training in mathematics of physics to learn about the achievements of 20th century physics and classical physics. It covers the discovery of fundamental particles of ordinary atoms: the electron, the proton, and the neutron. The general outline is historical and it is for readers unfamiliar with classical physics who wish to understand the ideas and experiments that make up the history of 20th century physics. Contents include: A world of particles, the discovery of the electron, the atomic scale, the nucleus, more particles

  13. Coconut Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... known as "medium chain triglycerides." Some of these fats work differently than other types of saturated fat in the body. When applied ... in food amounts. But coconut oil contains a type of fat that can increase cholesterol levels. So people should ...

  14. LINNAEUS OIL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    Crude jatropha oil; Heterogeneous catalyst; Transesterification ... mmage for alternative fuel ... be designed to give higher activity and lifetimes [13]. So, the need for a cheap catalyst for biodiesel synthesis from no ... methanol (High Performance Liquid Chromatography ... ratio and were then charged into the glass reactor.

  15. Conversion factors and oil statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karbuz, Sohbet

    2004-01-01

    World oil statistics, in scope and accuracy, are often far from perfect. They can easily lead to misguided conclusions regarding the state of market fundamentals. Without proper attention directed at statistic caveats, the ensuing interpretation of oil market data opens the door to unnecessary volatility, and can distort perception of market fundamentals. Among the numerous caveats associated with the compilation of oil statistics, conversion factors, used to produce aggregated data, play a significant role. Interestingly enough, little attention is paid to conversion factors, i.e. to the relation between different units of measurement for oil. Additionally, the underlying information regarding the choice of a specific factor when trying to produce measurements of aggregated data remains scant. The aim of this paper is to shed some light on the impact of conversion factors for two commonly encountered issues, mass to volume equivalencies (barrels to tonnes) and for broad energy measures encountered in world oil statistics. This paper will seek to demonstrate how inappropriate and misused conversion factors can yield wildly varying results and ultimately distort oil statistics. Examples will show that while discrepancies in commonly used conversion factors may seem trivial, their impact on the assessment of a world oil balance is far from negligible. A unified and harmonised convention for conversion factors is necessary to achieve accurate comparisons and aggregate oil statistics for the benefit of both end-users and policy makers

  16. Marsh canopy structure changes and the Deepwater Horizon oil spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Elijah W.; Rangoonwala, Amina; Jones, Cathleen E.

    2016-01-01

    Marsh canopy structure was mapped yearly from 2009 to 2012 in the Barataria Bay, Louisiana coastal region that was impacted by the 2010 Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill. Based on the previously demonstrated capability of NASA's UAVSAR polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (PolSAR) image data to map Spartina alterniflora marsh canopy structure, structure maps combining the leaf area index (LAI) and leaf angle distribution (LAD, orientation) were constructed for yearly intervals that were directly relatable to the 2010 LAI-LAD classification. The yearly LAI-LAD and LAI difference maps were used to investigate causes for the previously revealed dramatic change in marsh structure from prespill (2009) to postspill (2010, spill cessation), and the occurrence of structure features that exhibited abnormal spatial and temporal patterns. Water level and salinity records showed that freshwater releases used to keep the oil offshore did not cause the rapid growth from 2009 to 2010 in marsh surrounding the inner Bay. Photointerpretation of optical image data determined that interior marsh patches exhibiting rapid change were caused by burns and burn recovery, and that the pattern of 2010 to 2011 LAI decreases in backshore marsh and extending along some tidal channels into the interior marsh were not associated with burns. Instead, the majority of 2010 to 2011 shoreline features aligned with vectors displaying the severity of 2010 shoreline oiling from the DWH spill. Although the association is not conclusive of a causal oil impact, the coexistent pattern is a significant discovery. PolSAR marsh structure mapping provided a unique perspective of marsh biophysical status that enhanced detection of change and monitoring of trends important to management effectiveness.

  17. RESEARCH OIL RECOVERY MECHANISMS IN HEAVY OIL RESERVOIRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anthony R. Kovscek; William E. Brigham

    1999-06-01

    The United States continues to rely heavily on petroleum fossil fuels as a primary energy source, while domestic reserves dwindle. However, so-called heavy oil (10 to 20{sup o}API) remains an underutilized resource of tremendous potential. Heavy oils are much more viscous than conventional oils. As a result, they are difficult to produce with conventional recovery methods such as pressure depletion and water injection. Thermal recovery is especially important for this class of reservoirs because adding heat, usually via steam injection, generally reduces oil viscosity dramatically. This improves displacement efficiency. The research described here was directed toward improved understanding of thermal and heavy-oil production mechanisms and is categorized into: (1) flow and rock properties; (2) in-situ combustion; (3) additives to improve mobility control; (4) reservoir definition; and (5) support services. The scope of activities extended over a three-year period. Significant work was accomplished in the area of flow properties of steam, water, and oil in consolidated and unconsolidated porous media, transport in fractured porous media, foam generation and flow in homogeneous and heterogeneous porous media, the effects of displacement pattern geometry and mobility ratio on oil recovery, and analytical representation of water influx. Significant results are described.

  18. Pore-Scale Investigation of Crude Oil/CO2 Compositional Effects on Oil Recovery by Carbonated Water Injection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seyyedi, Mojtaba; Sohrabi, Mehran

    2017-01-01

    where the oil has significant dissolved gases. In such studies, oil swelling and oil viscosity reduction had been introduced as the main mechanisms of additional oil recovery by CWI. However, in our direct flow visualization (micro model) studies reported here, we have used live crude oil, and we have...

  19. Advances in knowledge discovery in databases

    CERN Document Server

    Adhikari, Animesh

    2015-01-01

    This book presents recent advances in Knowledge discovery in databases (KDD) with a focus on the areas of market basket database, time-stamped databases and multiple related databases. Various interesting and intelligent algorithms are reported on data mining tasks. A large number of association measures are presented, which play significant roles in decision support applications. This book presents, discusses and contrasts new developments in mining time-stamped data, time-based data analyses, the identification of temporal patterns, the mining of multiple related databases, as well as local patterns analysis.  

  20. Big Data for cardiology: novel discovery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer-Schönberger, Viktor

    2016-03-21

    Big Data promises to change cardiology through a massive increase in the data gathered and analysed; but its impact goes beyond improving incrementally existing methods. The potential of comprehensive data sets for scientific discovery is examined, and its impact on the scientific method generally and cardiology in particular is posited, together with likely consequences for research and practice. Big Data in cardiology changes how new insights are being discovered. For it to flourish, significant modifications in the methods, structures, and institutions of the profession are necessary. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2015. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Prospects for non-OPEC oil supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Dell, S.

    1994-01-01

    An International Energy Agency forecast is provided of non-OPEC oil production over a 15-year horizon. Reference-case forecasts are derived from Hubbert-type resource models, official industry announcements about such matters as oil discoveries and development projects, and an oil industry consensus. Separate regional profiles are provided for North America, Europe, the former Soviet Union, and the rest of non-OPEC countries (South America, Asia, non-OPEC Middle East). Under a flat-price scenario ($18/bbl), total non-OPEC oil supply rises slightly from 41.4 million bbl/d (MBD) in 1995 to 41.9 MBD in 2010. Under a scenario in which prices rise to $28/bbl, oil supply rises to 47.5 MBD in 2010. The latter results depend on specific assumptions concerning economic growth, energy prices, the geological potential of some areas which are not yet well understood, technological advances, and the nature of political developments. Uncertainties regarding these assumptions are discussed, with reference to reserves, price responsiveness, world oil industry investment, technology, and costs. A major uncertainty is the issue of investment in the OPEC countries, since the rising-price scenario assumes that OPEC invests only reluctantly. If major OPEC producers choose to open their upstream sectors to international oil companies, the situation will change completely. Otherwise, oil markets are expected to continue to behave in the manner of the past 20 years, with highest-cost oil being developed first while cheaper oil remains in the ground. 8 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs

  2. Research on oil recovery mechanisms in heavy oil reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovscek, Anthony R.; Brigham, William E., Castanier, Louis M.

    2000-03-16

    The research described here was directed toward improved understanding of thermal and heavy-oil production mechanisms and is categorized into: (1) flow and rock properties, (2) in-situ combustion, (3) additives to improve mobility control, (4) reservoir definition, and (5) support services. The scope of activities extended over a three-year period. Significant work was accomplished in the area of flow properties of steam, water, and oil in consolidated and unconsolidated porous media, transport in fractured porous media, foam generation and flow in homogeneous and heterogeneous porous media, the effects of displacement pattern geometry and mobility ratio on oil recovery, and analytical representation of water influx.

  3. Quarks, history of a discovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Husson, D.

    2000-01-01

    This book gives a presentation of quarks and stresses on the historical aspects of the studies that led to their discovery. The 'aesthetical' motivations of the scientists in their research are explained with only a minimum of mathematical concepts. (J.S.)

  4. On the threshold of discovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherenkov, P.A.

    1986-01-01

    The author, the discoverer of the Cherenkov radiation, recalls some interesting circumstances of his discoery 50 years ago and puts it into the context of the knowledge of the period. The discovery of Cherenkov radiation which today is in practice used especially for the detection of charged particles, was correctly understood and appreciated somewhat belatedly. At first the discovery was met with distrust and the original article announcing it was rejected by the magazine Nature. In effect, the discovery was not the result of any planned experiment but was the by-product of another research. It was, of course, allowed by previous achievements in various fields of physics, namely progress reached in the study of luminescence by S.I. Vavilov and his pupils. The discovery was made during an experimental study of luminescence induced in liquids by the β and γ radiations of uranyl salts. During his attempts to suppress the background radiation from vessel walls the autor found a ''background'' from pure solvent which differed from luminescence by being independent of the concentration, temperature and viscosity of the liquid. A closer examination of the phenomenon more or less by accident revealed its marked spatial asymmetry which had major importance for the development of the theory of the new phenomenon by I.V. Tamm and I.M. Frank. (A.K.)

  5. DISCOVERY IN THE URBAN SPRAWL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    HYMOVITZ, LEON

    FOR A CULTURAL ENRICHMENT PROJECT ("DISCOVERY") IN A DISADVANTAGED PHILADELPIA HIGH SCHOOL, ATTENDANCE AT MUSIC, ART, AND THEATER EVENTS EARNED POINTS TOWARD A CERTIFICATE. THE STUDENTS ELECTED THE EVENTS FROM A PREPARED LIST OF ACTIVITIES, WHICH OFTEN WERE MADE PART OF THE ACADEMIC PROGRAM AND THE SCHOOL ASSEMBLIES. AS WELL AS OFFERING…

  6. Hubble 15 years of discovery

    CERN Document Server

    Lindberg Christensen, Lars; Kornmesser, M

    2006-01-01

    Hubble: 15 Years of Discovery was a key element of the European Space Agency's 15th anniversary celebration activities for the 1990 launch of the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope. As an observatory in space, Hubble is one of the most successful scientific projects of all time, both in terms of scientific output and its immediate public appeal.

  7. Applied metabolomics in drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuperlovic-Culf, M; Culf, A S

    2016-08-01

    The metabolic profile is a direct signature of phenotype and biochemical activity following any perturbation. Metabolites are small molecules present in a biological system including natural products as well as drugs and their metabolism by-products depending on the biological system studied. Metabolomics can provide activity information about possible novel drugs and drug scaffolds, indicate interesting targets for drug development and suggest binding partners of compounds. Furthermore, metabolomics can be used for the discovery of novel natural products and in drug development. Metabolomics can enhance the discovery and testing of new drugs and provide insight into the on- and off-target effects of drugs. This review focuses primarily on the application of metabolomics in the discovery of active drugs from natural products and the analysis of chemical libraries and the computational analysis of metabolic networks. Metabolomics methodology, both experimental and analytical is fast developing. At the same time, databases of compounds are ever growing with the inclusion of more molecular and spectral information. An increasing number of systems are being represented by very detailed metabolic network models. Combining these experimental and computational tools with high throughput drug testing and drug discovery techniques can provide new promising compounds and leads.

  8. Nobel Prize Honors Autophagy Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Japanese cell biologist Yoshinori Ohsumi, PhD, was awarded this year's Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his discovery of autophagy. His groundbreaking studies in yeast cells illuminated how cells break down and recycle damaged material, a process that is critical to the survival of both normal cells and some cancer cells. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  9. Translational medicine and drug discovery

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Littman, Bruce H; Krishna, Rajesh

    2011-01-01

    ..., and examples of their application to real-life drug discovery and development. The latest thinking is presented by researchers from many of the world's leading pharmaceutical companies, including Pfizer, Merck, Eli Lilly, Abbott, and Novartis, as well as from academic institutions and public- private partnerships that support translational research...

  10. Maximum Entropy in Drug Discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Yuan Tseng

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Drug discovery applies multidisciplinary approaches either experimentally, computationally or both ways to identify lead compounds to treat various diseases. While conventional approaches have yielded many US Food and Drug Administration (FDA-approved drugs, researchers continue investigating and designing better approaches to increase the success rate in the discovery process. In this article, we provide an overview of the current strategies and point out where and how the method of maximum entropy has been introduced in this area. The maximum entropy principle has its root in thermodynamics, yet since Jaynes’ pioneering work in the 1950s, the maximum entropy principle has not only been used as a physics law, but also as a reasoning tool that allows us to process information in hand with the least bias. Its applicability in various disciplines has been abundantly demonstrated. We give several examples of applications of maximum entropy in different stages of drug discovery. Finally, we discuss a promising new direction in drug discovery that is likely to hinge on the ways of utilizing maximum entropy.

  11. Structural Biology Guides Antibiotic Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyak, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Modern drug discovery programs require the contribution of researchers in a number of specialist areas. One of these areas is structural biology. Using X-ray crystallography, the molecular basis of how a drug binds to its biological target and exerts its mode of action can be defined. For example, a drug that binds into the active site of an…

  12. Physicochemical Evaluation of Seeds and Oil of Nontraditional Oil Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Ismail Ahmed

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The present work was conducted in the Laboratory of Biochemistry and Food science department, Faculty of Natural Resources and Environmental Studies, University of Kordofan, in order to evaluate some nontraditional oil seeds these are i.e. Marula (Sclerocarya birrea, Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L. seeds and Christ’s thorn (Zizyphus spina-christi seeds. The seeds of the roselle and Christ’s thorn fruits were procured from Elobeid local market, North Kordofan State, while marula fruits were obtained from Elnuhod, West Kordofan State. The proximate composition of the seeds, cake and christ’s thorn pulp was done. Some chemical and physical properties were performed for the extracted oil. The results revealed that proximate composition of the seeds and cake differ statistically among the studied materials. Significant differences were observed among the oil extracted from these species; moreover, these oils differ significantly in color and viscosity only.

  13. Exploratory assessment of the economic gains of a pre-salt oil field in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo Rodrigues, Larissa; Luís Sauer, Ildo

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, Brazil has made public several oil discoveries located in deep waters, below the salt layer. Discoveries are steadily enhancing national reserves and have brought the country into a new role in the global oil industry. This paper aims at investigating the economic gains that could be expected from a Brazilian oil field in the pre-salt region. Analyses were conducted based on the Libra field, the largest oil discovery in Brazil until now, with approximately 10 billion barrels. The results were calculated for different scenarios of oil prices, companies' arrangements and regulatory regimes. The findings suggest that economic gains could be higher for the Brazilian Government if the oil production were conducted under a service contract scheme. However, considering the current production-sharing regime in force for pre-salt areas, economic gains could be higher if a bidding process was conducted, ensuring for the Brazilian Government a higher participation in the oil to be produced. Additionally, the results demonstrate that under the current rules applied for the production-sharing regime, the government quota of oil has decreased over time, putting at risk economic results. - Highlights: • The paper investigates the economic gains of a pre-salt oil field in Brazil. • Government earnings could be higher under a service contract scheme. • The first production-sharing regime bid did not encourage competition. • Under the production-sharing rules government quota of oil decreases over time.

  14. Petrophysical studies in heavy oil sands with early water production - Hamaca area, Orinoco Oil Belt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salisch, H.A.

    1982-07-01

    This study describes the main lines of petrophysical research in the Hamaca-Pao region of the Orinoco Oil Belt. The techniques and parameters most appropriate for petrophysical studies in the area of interest are discussed. Field tests have confirmed the conclusions of this study on early water production and low oil recovery. Steam injection was shown to be a means for increasing oil mobility to such a degree that significant amounts of additional oil can be produced.

  15. Influence of Oil on Refrigerant Evaporator Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong-Soo; Nagata, Karsuya; Katsuta, Masafumi; Tomosugi, Hiroyuki; Kikuchi, Kouichiro; Horichi, Toshiaki

    In vapor compression refrigeration system using oil-lubricated compressors, some amount of oil is always circulated through the system. Oil circulation can have a significant influence on the evaporator performance of automotive air conditioner which is especially required to cool quickly the car interior after a period standing in the sun. An experimental investigation was carried out an electrically heated horizontal tube to measure local heat transfer coefficients for various flow rates and heat fluxes during forced convection boiling of pure refrigerant R12 and refrigerant-oil mixtures (0-11% oil concentration by weight) and the results were compared with oil free performance. Local heat transfer coefficients increased at the region of low vapor quality by the addition of oil. On the other hand, because the oil-rich liquid film was formed on the heat transfer surface, heat transfer coefficients gradually decreased as the vapor quality became higher. Average heat transfer coefficient reached a maximum at about 4% oil concentration and this trend agreed well with the results of Green and Furse. Previous correlations, using the properties of the refrigerant-oil mixture, could not predict satisfactorily the local heat transfer coefficients data. New correlation modified by oil concentration factor was developed for predicting the corresponding heat transfer coefficient for refrigerant-oil mixture convection boiling. The maximum percent deviation between predicted and measured heat transfer coefficient was within ±30%.

  16. Design of three-phase gravity separators for heavy oils; Projeto de separadores trifasicos para oleos pesados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Rosivania P.; Bannwart, Antonio C. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil); Carvalho, Carlos H.M. de [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)

    2004-07-01

    The primary processing of crude oil consists in the separation of oil, gas, water (and solids suspensions, if present), the conditioning of the hydrocarbons for transportation to the refinery, and the water treatment for re-use. With the discovery of significant fields of heavy oil in Brazil, whose densities are close to the density of water and viscosities are about hundreds to thousand times higher than the viscosity of water, the production and primary processing of this fluid with usual technology is not attractive and often unfeasible. It is well known that the demand from the majority of the refineries is that the quantity of water dispersion in the oil (BSW) is below 1%, so this work investigates the behavior of the water dispersion in heavy oil, causing an increase in viscosity and density. Therefore, this work intends to define strategies to efficiently separate these liquids, emphasizing the physical aspects of separation. Mathematica software was used for the equation modeling, which governs the horizontal separation vases dimensioning, allowing the observation of the influence of many variables on the separator dimensions. (author)

  17. The status of world oil depletion at the end of 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, C.J.

    1996-01-01

    An assessment is made of the reserves of conventional and non-conventional oil in the world as of the end of 1995. This takes into account the impacts of new discovery and advances in technology to make plausible estimates. Care is taken to clearly define conventional and non-conventional oil and whether or not natural gas liquids are included. (Author)

  18. Oil sands and the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seeley, R. [Shell Canada Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada). Calgary Research Centre

    2004-07-01

    Oil sands are a significant resource for Alberta and Canada with continuing growth opportunity. There is a need to ensure sustainable development of the oil sands resources from a social, economic and environmental perspective. The industry has succeeded in terms of proven reserves, technology advancements, reduced operating costs, reliability and market accessibility. Some of the major challenges facing the industry include high capital cost, infrastructure, social services and keeping pace with growth. This presentation outlined the proactive measures that the oil sands industry has taken to manage environmental issues such as sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxide emissions, greenhouse gases, water management and land reclamation. tabs., figs.

  19. A new approach to the rationale discovery of polymeric biomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohn, Joachim; Welsh, William J.; Knight, Doyle

    2007-01-01

    This paper attempts to illustrate both the need for new approaches to biomaterials discovery as well as the significant promise inherent in the use of combinatorial and computational design strategies. The key observation of this Leading Opinion Paper is that the biomaterials community has been slow to embrace advanced biomaterials discovery tools such as combinatorial methods, high throughput experimentation, and computational modeling in spite of the significant promise shown by these discovery tools in materials science, medicinal chemistry and the pharmaceutical industry. It seems that the complexity of living cells and their interactions with biomaterials has been a conceptual as well as a practical barrier to the use of advanced discovery tools in biomaterials science. However, with the continued increase in computer power, the goal of predicting the biological response of cells in contact with biomaterials surfaces is within reach. Once combinatorial synthesis, high throughput experimentation, and computational modeling are integrated into the biomaterials discovery process, a significant acceleration is possible in the pace of development of improved medical implants, tissue regeneration scaffolds, and gene/drug delivery systems. PMID:17644176

  20. Extracting oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patart, G

    1926-03-15

    In the hydrogenation or extraction of by-products from organic substances at high temperatures and pressures, the gases or liquids, or both, used are those which are already heated and compressed during industrial operations such as exothermic synthesizing reactions such as the production of methanol from hydrogen and carbon monoxide in a catalytic process. Gases from this reaction may be passed upwardly through a digester packed with pine wood while liquid from the same catalytic process is passed downwardly through the material. The issuing liquid contains methanol, pine oil, acetone, isopropyl alcohol, and acetic acid. The gases contain additional hydrogen, carbon monoxide, methane, ethylene, and its homologs which are condensed upon the catalyser to liquid hydrocarbons. Petroleum oils and coal may be treated similarly.

  1. Recycling used palm oil and used engine oil to produce white bio oil, bio petroleum diesel and heavy fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-abbas, Mustafa Hamid; Ibrahim, Wan Aini Wan; Sanagi, Mohd. Marsin

    2012-09-01

    Recycling waste materials produced in our daily life is considered as an additional resource of a wide range of materials and it conserves the environment. Used engine oil and used cooking oil are two oils disposed off in large quantities as a by-product of our daily life. This study aims at providing white bio oil, bio petroleum diesel and heavy fuel from the disposed oils. Toxic organic materials suspected to be present in the used engine oil were separated using vacuum column chromatography to reduce the time needed for the separation process and to avoid solvent usage. The compounds separated were detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and found to contain toxic aromatic carboxylic acids. Used cooking oils (thermally cracked from usage) were collected and separated by vacuum column chromatography. White bio oil produced was examined by GC-MS. The white bio oil consists of non-toxic hydrocarbons and is found to be a good alternative to white mineral oil which is significantly used in food industry, cosmetics and drugs with the risk of containing polycyclic aromatic compounds which are carcinogenic and toxic. Different portions of the used cooking oil and used engine were mixed to produce several blends for use as heavy oil fuels. White bio oil was used to produce bio petroleum diesel by blending it with petroleum diesel and kerosene. The bio petroleum diesel produced passed the PETRONAS flash point and viscosity specification test. The heat of combustion of the two blends of heavy fuel produced was measured and one of the blends was burned to demonstrate its burning ability. Higher heat of combustion was obtained from the blend containing greater proportion of used engine oil. This study has provided a successful recycled alternative for white bio oil, bio petroleum fuel and diesel which can be an energy source.

  2. Toxicities of Selected Essential Oils, Silicone Oils, and Paraffin Oil against the Common Bed Bug (Hemiptera: Cimicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zha, Chen; Wang, Changlu; Li, Andrew

    2018-02-09

    The common bed bug [Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae)] and tropical bed bug [Cimex hemipterus F. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae)] resurged in the United States and many other countries over the past decades. The need for safe and effective bed bug control products propelled the development of numerous 'green insecticides', mostly with essential oils listed as active ingredients. Various inorganic and organic oils also were used for bed bug management. However, there are no published studies on their toxicities against bed bugs. In this study, we screened 18 essential oils, three silicone oils, and paraffin oil (C5-20 paraffins) for their toxicities against bed bugs. All the oils exhibited insecticidal activity in topical assays. Their toxicities varied significantly; all of the evaluated essential oils were less effective than silicone oils and paraffin oil. The LD50 values of the most effective essential oil (blood orange), paraffin oil, and the most effective silicone oil (dodecamethylpentasiloxane) are 0.184 ± 0.018, 0.069 ± 0.012, and 0.036 ± 0.005 mg per bug, respectively. Direct spray of 1% water solution of 3-[hydroxy (polyethyleneoxy) propyl] heptamethyltrisiloxane, the only silicone oil that mixes well with water, resulted in 92% bed bug mortality after 1 d. Results of this study indicate silicone oils and paraffin oil have the potential to be used as safer alternative bed bug control materials. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Quantifying the Ease of Scientific Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbesman, Samuel

    2011-02-01

    It has long been known that scientific output proceeds on an exponential increase, or more properly, a logistic growth curve. The interplay between effort and discovery is clear, and the nature of the functional form has been thought to be due to many changes in the scientific process over time. Here I show a quantitative method for examining the ease of scientific progress, another necessary component in understanding scientific discovery. Using examples from three different scientific disciplines - mammalian species, chemical elements, and minor planets - I find the ease of discovery to conform to an exponential decay. In addition, I show how the pace of scientific discovery can be best understood as the outcome of both scientific output and ease of discovery. A quantitative study of the ease of scientific discovery in the aggregate, such as done here, has the potential to provide a great deal of insight into both the nature of future discoveries and the technical processes behind discoveries in science.

  4. Arthritis Genetics Analysis Aids Drug Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NIH Research Matters January 13, 2014 Arthritis Genetics Analysis Aids Drug Discovery An international research team identified 42 new ... Edition Distracted Driving Raises Crash Risk Arthritis Genetics Analysis Aids Drug Discovery Oxytocin Affects Facial Recognition Connect with Us ...

  5. Bioinformatics for cancer immunotherapy target discovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Lars Rønn; Campos, Benito; Barnkob, Mike Stein

    2014-01-01

    therapy target discovery in a bioinformatics analysis pipeline. We describe specialized bioinformatics tools and databases for three main bottlenecks in immunotherapy target discovery: the cataloging of potentially antigenic proteins, the identification of potential HLA binders, and the selection epitopes...

  6. A petroleum discovery-rate forecast revisited-The problem of field growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drew, L.J.; Schuenemeyer, J.H.

    1992-01-01

    A forecast of the future rates of discovery of crude oil and natural gas for the 123,027-km2 Miocene/Pliocene trend in the Gulf of Mexico was made in 1980. This forecast was evaluated in 1988 by comparing two sets of data: (1) the actual versus the forecasted number of fields discovered, and (2) the actual versus the forecasted volumes of crude oil and natural gas discovered with the drilling of 1,820 wildcat wells along the trend between January 1, 1977, and December 31, 1985. The forecast specified that this level of drilling would result in the discovery of 217 fields containing 1.78 billion barrels of oil equivalent; however, 238 fields containing 3.57 billion barrels of oil equivalent were actually discovered. This underestimation is attributed to biases introduced by field growth and, to a lesser degree, the artificially low, pre-1970's price of natural gas that prevented many smaller gas fields from being brought into production at the time of their discovery; most of these fields contained less than 50 billion cubic feet of producible natural gas. ?? 1992 Oxford University Press.

  7. Impact of Recent Discoveries on Petroleum and Natural Gas Exploration: Emphasis on India

    OpenAIRE

    Herndon, J. Marvin

    2010-01-01

    Two discoveries have greatly impacted understanding relevant to the origination and emplacement of petroleum and natural gas deposits. One discovery, pertaining to hydrocarbon formation from methane broadens significantly potential regions where abiotic petroleum and natural gas deposits might be found. The other, discovery of the physical impossibility of Earth-mantle convection, restricts the range and domain of geodynamic behavior, and leads to new insights on the formation of petroleum an...

  8. Turbine oil change - the smart way

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlf, J.; Prenzel, H.; Ertelt, R.

    2002-01-01

    The Nuclear Plant Unterweser (KKU) was commissioned in 1978. The gross installed capacity amounts to 1,410 MW. Prior to commissioning the nuclear power plant in 1978, the turbine was filled with fresh oil. This turbine oil did not display any significant ageing or operational restrictions in the following 15 years. Based on our experience, we believe that this behaviour is typical for all initial fillings in new plants. Since the beginning of the 90ies, the contamination of the entire turbine cycle has increased due to the precipitation of oil ageing products and additives decomposed by oxygen. Therefore, the initial filling was replaced by a new oil in 1994, without measures to remove ageing products or additive deposits from the oil cycle. Therefore, it is not surprising that after merely four years this oil filling displayed the same properties as the first filling after 15 years. As a consequence, another oil change was urgently required in 1999. (orig.) [de

  9. Do oil shocks predict economic policy uncertainty?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Mobeen Ur

    2018-05-01

    Oil price fluctuations have influential role in global economic policies for developed as well as emerging countries. I investigate the role of international oil prices disintegrated into structural (i) oil supply shock, (ii) aggregate demand shock and (iii) oil market specific demand shocks, based on the work of Kilian (2009) using structural VAR framework on economic policies uncertainty of sampled markets. Economic policy uncertainty, due to its non-linear behavior is modeled in a regime switching framework with disintegrated structural oil shocks. Our results highlight that Indian, Spain and Japanese economic policy uncertainty responds to the global oil price shocks, however aggregate demand shocks fail to induce any change. Oil specific demand shocks are significant only for China and India in high volatility state.

  10. Enhanced Oil Recovery with Application of Enzymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khusainova, Alsu

    Enzymes have recently been reported as effective enhanced oil recovery (EOR) agents. Both laboratory and field tests demonstrated significant increase in the ultimate oil production. Up to16% of additional oil was produced in the laboratory conditions and up to 269 barrels of additional oil per day...... were recovered in the field applications. The following mechanisms were claimed to be responsible for the enhancement of the oil production due to enzymes: wettability improvement of the rock surface; formation of the emulsions; reduction of oil viscosity; and removal of high molecular weight paraffins....... However, the positive effect of enzymes on oil recovery is not that obvious. In most of the studies commercial enzyme products composed of enzymes, surfactants and stabilisers were used. Application of such samples makes it difficult to assign a positive EOR effect to a certain compound, as several...

  11. The circumstances of minor planet discovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilcher, F.

    1989-01-01

    The circumstances of discoveries of minor planets are presented in tabular form. Complete data are given for planets 2125-4044, together with notes pertaining to these planets. Information in the table includes the permanent number; the official name; for planets 330 and forward, the table includes the provisional designation attached to the discovery apparition and the year, month, the day of discovery, and the discovery place

  12. Floating Oil-Spill Containment Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jack A.

    2012-01-01

    Previous oil containment booms have an open top that allows natural gas to escape, and have significant oil leakage due to wave action. Also, a subsea pyramid oil trap exists, but cannot move relative to moving oil plumes from deepsea oil leaks. The solution is to have large, moveable oil traps. One version floats on the sea surface and has a flexible tarp cover and a lower weighted skirt to completely entrap the floating oil and natural gas. The device must have at least three sides with boats pulling at each apex, and sonar or other system to track the slowly moving oil plume, so that the boats can properly locate the booms. The oil trap device must also have a means for removal of the oil and the natural gas. A second design version has a flexible pyramid cover that is attached by lines to ballast on the ocean floor. This is similar to fixed, metal pyramid oil capture devices in the Santa Barbara Channel off the coast of California. The ballast lines for the improved design, however, would have winches that can move the pyramid to always be located above the oil and gas plume. A third design is a combination of the first two. It uses a submerged pyramid to trap oil, but has no anchor and uses boats to locate the trap. It has ballast weights located along the bottom of the tarp and/or at the corners of the trap. The improved floating oil-spill containment device has a large floating boom and weighted skirt surrounding the oil and gas entrapment area. The device is triangular (or more than three sides) and has a flexible tarp cover with a raised gas vent area. Boats pull on the apex of the triangles to maintain tension and to allow the device to move to optimum locations to trap oil and gas. The gas is retrieved from a higher buoyant part of the tarp, and oil is retrieved from the floating oil layer contained in the device. These devices can be operated in relatively severe weather, since waves will break over the devices without causing oil leaking. Also, natural

  13. Levels of bioactive lipids in cooking oils: olive oil is the richest source of oleoyl serine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Heather B; Leishman, Emma

    2016-05-01

    Rates of osteoporosis are significantly lower in regions of the world where olive oil consumption is a dietary cornerstone. Olive oil may represent a source of oleoyl serine (OS), which showed efficacy in animal models of osteoporosis. Here, we tested the hypothesis that OS as well as structurally analogous N-acyl amide and 2-acyl glycerol lipids are present in the following cooking oils: olive, walnut, canola, high heat canola, peanut, safflower, sesame, toasted sesame, grape seed, and smart balance omega. Methanolic lipid extracts from each of the cooking oils were partially purified on C-18 solid-phase extraction columns. Extracts were analyzed with high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, and 33 lipids were measured in each sample, including OS and bioactive analogs. Of the oils screened here, walnut oil had the highest number of lipids detected (22/33). Olive oil had the second highest number of lipids detected (20/33), whereas grape-seed and high-heat canola oil were tied for lowest number of detected lipids (6/33). OS was detected in 8 of the 10 oils tested and the levels were highest in olive oil, suggesting that there is something about the olive plant that enriches this lipid. Cooking oils contain varying levels of bioactive lipids from the N-acyl amide and 2-acyl glycerol families. Olive oil is a dietary source of OS, which may contribute to lowered prevalence of osteoporosis in countries with high consumption of this oil.

  14. 15 CFR 280.210 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discovery. 280.210 Section 280.210... STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ACCREDITATION AND ASSESSMENT PROGRAMS FASTENER QUALITY Enforcement § 280.210 Discovery. (a) General. The parties are encouraged to engage in voluntary discovery...

  15. 6 CFR 13.21 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discovery. 13.21 Section 13.21 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 13.21 Discovery. (a) In general. (1) The following types of discovery are authorized: (i) Requests for production of...

  16. 42 CFR 1005.7 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discovery. 1005.7 Section 1005.7 Public Health... OF EXCLUSIONS, CIVIL MONEY PENALTIES AND ASSESSMENTS § 1005.7 Discovery. (a) A party may make a... and any forms of discovery, other than those permitted under paragraph (a) of this section, are not...

  17. 42 CFR 405.1037 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discovery. 405.1037 Section 405.1037 Public Health... Appeals Under Original Medicare (Part A and Part B) Alj Hearings § 405.1037 Discovery. (a) General rules. (1) Discovery is permissible only when CMS or its contractor elects to participate in an ALJ hearing...

  18. 45 CFR 99.23 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discovery. 99.23 Section 99.23 Public Welfare... DEVELOPMENT FUND Hearing Procedures § 99.23 Discovery. The Department, the Lead Agency, and any individuals or groups recognized as parties shall have the right to conduct discovery (including depositions) against...

  19. 29 CFR 1603.210 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discovery. 1603.210 Section 1603.210 Labor Regulations... GOVERNMENT EMPLOYEE RIGHTS ACT OF 1991 Hearings § 1603.210 Discovery. (a) Unless otherwise ordered by the administrative law judge, discovery may begin as soon as the complaint has been transmitted to the administrative...

  20. 41 CFR 60-30.33 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Discovery. 60-30.33... 11246 Expedited Hearing Procedures § 60-30.33 Discovery. (a) Any party may serve requests for admissions... with § 60-30.8, the Administrative Law Judge may allow the taking of depositions. Other discovery will...

  1. 45 CFR 150.435 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discovery. 150.435 Section 150.435 Public Welfare... AND INDIVIDUAL INSURANCE MARKETS Administrative Hearings § 150.435 Discovery. (a) The parties must identify any need for discovery from the opposing party as soon as possible, but no later than the time for...

  2. 10 CFR 1013.21 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discovery. 1013.21 Section 1013.21 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES AND PROCEDURES § 1013.21 Discovery. (a) The following types of discovery are authorized: (1) Requests for production of documents for inspection and...

  3. 20 CFR 355.21 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discovery. 355.21 Section 355.21 Employees... UNDER THE PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT OF 1986 § 355.21 Discovery. (a) The following types of discovery are authorized: (1) Requests for production of documents for inspection and copying; (2) Requests...

  4. 34 CFR 81.16 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discovery. 81.16 Section 81.16 Education Office of the... Discovery. (a) The parties to a case are encouraged to exchange relevant documents and information voluntarily. (b) The ALJ, at a party's request, may order compulsory discovery described in paragraph (c) of...

  5. 10 CFR 2.1018 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discovery. 2.1018 Section 2.1018 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY... Geologic Repository § 2.1018 Discovery. (a)(1) Parties, potential parties, and interested governmental participants in the high-level waste licensing proceeding may obtain discovery by one or more of the following...

  6. 45 CFR 213.23a - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discovery. 213.23a Section 213.23a Public Welfare... Discovery. The Department and any party named in the notice issued pursuant to § 213.11 shall have the right to conduct discovery (including depositions) against opposing parties. Rules 26-37 of the Federal...

  7. 29 CFR 2200.208 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discovery. 2200.208 Section 2200.208 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH REVIEW COMMISSION RULES OF PROCEDURE Simplified Proceedings § 2200.208 Discovery. Discovery, including requests for admissions, will only be...

  8. 47 CFR 65.105 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discovery. 65.105 Section 65.105... OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGIES Procedures § 65.105 Discovery. (a) Participants... evidence. (c) Discovery requests pursuant to § 65.105(b), including written interrogatories, shall be filed...

  9. 28 CFR 71.21 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discovery. 71.21 Section 71.21 Judicial... REMEDIES ACT OF 1986 Implementation for Actions Initiated by the Department of Justice § 71.21 Discovery. (a) The following types of discovery are authorized: (1) Requests for production of documents for...

  10. 13 CFR 134.310 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discovery. 134.310 Section 134.310 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION RULES OF PROCEDURE GOVERNING CASES BEFORE THE... Designations § 134.310 Discovery. Discovery will not be permitted in appeals from size determinations or NAICS...

  11. 20 CFR 498.207 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discovery. 498.207 Section 498.207 Employees... § 498.207 Discovery. (a) For the purpose of inspection and copying, a party may make a request to...) Any form of discovery other than that permitted under paragraph (a) of this section, such as requests...

  12. 29 CFR 1905.25 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discovery. 1905.25 Section 1905.25 Labor Regulations... OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ACT OF 1970 Hearings § 1905.25 Discovery. (a) Depositions. (1) For reasons of... discovery. Whenever appropriate to a just disposition of any issue in a hearing, the presiding hearing...

  13. 34 CFR 33.21 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discovery. 33.21 Section 33.21 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT § 33.21 Discovery. (a) The following types of discovery are authorized: (1) Requests for production of documents for inspection and copying...

  14. 42 CFR 93.512 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discovery. 93.512 Section 93.512 Public Health... Process § 93.512 Discovery. (a) Request to provide documents. A party may only request another party to...) Responses to a discovery request. Within 30 days of receiving a request for the production of documents, a...

  15. 49 CFR 209.313 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discovery. 209.313 Section 209.313 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD SAFETY ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES Disqualification Procedures § 209.313 Discovery. (a... parties. Discovery is designed to enable a party to obtain relevant information needed for preparation of...

  16. 12 CFR 1780.26 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discovery. 1780.26 Section 1780.26 Banks and... OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Prehearing Proceedings § 1780.26 Discovery. (a) Limits on discovery. Subject to the limitations set out in paragraphs (b), (d), and (e) of this...

  17. 37 CFR 2.120 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discovery. 2.120 Section 2... COMMERCE RULES OF PRACTICE IN TRADEMARK CASES Procedure in Inter Partes Proceedings § 2.120 Discovery. (a... to disclosure and discovery shall apply in opposition, cancellation, interference and concurrent use...

  18. 45 CFR 160.516 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discovery. 160.516 Section 160.516 Public Welfare... ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS Procedures for Hearings § 160.516 Discovery. (a) A party may make a request to... forms of discovery, other than those permitted under paragraph (a) of this section, are not authorized...

  19. 46 CFR 550.502 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discovery. 550.502 Section 550.502 Shipping FEDERAL... Proceedings § 550.502 Discovery. The Commission may authorize a party to a proceeding to use depositions, written interrogatories, and discovery procedures that, to the extent practicable, are in conformity with...

  20. 28 CFR 18.7 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discovery. 18.7 Section 18.7 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE OFFICE OF JUSTICE PROGRAMS HEARING AND APPEAL PROCEDURES § 18.7 Discovery.... Such order may be entered upon a showing that the deposition is necessary for discovery purposes, and...

  1. 10 CFR 205.198 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discovery. 205.198 Section 205.198 Energy DEPARTMENT OF... of Proposed Disallowance, and Order of Disallowance § 205.198 Discovery. (a) If a person intends to file a Motion for Discovery, he must file it at the same time that he files his Statement of Objections...

  2. 42 CFR 3.516 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discovery. 3.516 Section 3.516 Public Health PUBLIC... AND PATIENT SAFETY WORK PRODUCT Enforcement Program § 3.516 Discovery. (a) A party may make a request... and any forms of discovery, other than those permitted under paragraph (a) of this section, are not...

  3. 12 CFR 908.46 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discovery. 908.46 Section 908.46 Banks and... PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE IN HEARINGS ON THE RECORD Pre-Hearing Proceedings § 908.46 Discovery. (a) Limits on discovery. Subject to the limitations set out in paragraphs (b), (d), and (e) of this section, any party to...

  4. 15 CFR 785.8 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discovery. 785.8 Section 785.8... INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ADDITIONAL PROTOCOL REGULATIONS ENFORCEMENT § 785.8 Discovery. (a) General. The parties are encouraged to engage in voluntary discovery regarding any matter, not...

  5. 22 CFR 35.21 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discovery. 35.21 Section 35.21 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE CLAIMS AND STOLEN PROPERTY PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 35.21 Discovery. (a) The following types of discovery are authorized: (1) Requests for production of documents for...

  6. 29 CFR 22.21 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Discovery. 22.21 Section 22.21 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT OF 1986 § 22.21 Discovery. (a) The following types of discovery are authorized: (1) Requests for production of documents for inspection and copying; (2) Requests...

  7. 42 CFR 430.86 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discovery. 430.86 Section 430.86 Public Health... Plans and Practice to Federal Requirements § 430.86 Discovery. CMS and any party named in the notice issued under § 430.70 has the right to conduct discovery (including depositions) against opposing parties...

  8. 21 CFR 17.23 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discovery. 17.23 Section 17.23 Food and Drugs FOOD... HEARINGS § 17.23 Discovery. (a) No later than 60 days prior to the hearing, unless otherwise ordered by the..., depositions, and any forms of discovery, other than those permitted under paragraphs (a) and (e) of this...

  9. 45 CFR 96.65 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discovery. 96.65 Section 96.65 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION BLOCK GRANTS Hearing Procedure § 96.65 Discovery. The use of interrogatories, depositions, and other forms of discovery shall not be allowed. ...

  10. 7 CFR 1.322 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discovery. 1.322 Section 1.322 Agriculture Office of... Under the Program Fraud Civil Remedies Act of 1986 § 1.322 Discovery. (a) The following types of discovery are authorized: (1) Requests for production, inspection and photocopying of documents; (2...

  11. 45 CFR 1386.103 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discovery. 1386.103 Section 1386.103 Public... Hearing Procedures § 1386.103 Discovery. The Department and any party named in the Notice issued pursuant to § 1386.90 has the right to conduct discovery (including depositions) against opposing parties as...

  12. 45 CFR 79.21 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discovery. 79.21 Section 79.21 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 79.21 Discovery. (a) The following types of discovery are authorized: (1) Requests for production of documents for...

  13. 49 CFR 31.21 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discovery. 31.21 Section 31.21 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 31.21 Discovery. (a) The following types of discovery are authorized: (1) Requests for production of documents for inspection and...

  14. 12 CFR 308.520 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discovery. 308.520 Section 308.520 Banks and... PROCEDURE Program Fraud Civil Remedies and Procedures § 308.520 Discovery. (a) The following types of discovery are authorized: (1) Requests for production of documents for inspection and copying; (2) Requests...

  15. 47 CFR 1.729 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discovery. 1.729 Section 1.729..., and Reports Involving Common Carriers Formal Complaints § 1.729 Discovery. (a) Subject to paragraph (i... seek discovery of any non-privileged matter that is relevant to the material facts in dispute in the...

  16. 7 CFR 283.12 - Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discovery. 283.12 Section 283.12 Agriculture... of $50,000 or More § 283.12 Discovery. (a) Dispositions—(1) Motion for taking deposition. Only upon a... exist if the information sought appears reasonably calculated to lead to the discovery of admissible...

  17. Discovery of inhibitors of bacterial histidine kinases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velikova, N.R.

    2014-01-01

    Discovery of Inhibitors of Bacterial Histidine Kinases Summary

    The thesis is on novel antibacterial drug discovery (http://youtu.be/NRMWOGgeysM). Using structure-based and fragment-based drug discovery approach, we have identified small-molecule histidine-kinase

  18. 29 CFR 18.13 - Discovery methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Discovery methods. 18.13 Section 18.13 Labor Office of the... ADMINISTRATIVE LAW JUDGES General § 18.13 Discovery methods. Parties may obtain discovery by one or more of the following methods: Depositions upon oral examination or written questions; written interrogatories...

  19. Glycoscience aids in biomarker discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serenus Hua1,2 & Hyun Joo An1,2,*

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The glycome consists of all glycans (or carbohydrates within abiological system, and modulates a wide range of important biologicalactivities, from protein folding to cellular communications.The mining of the glycome for disease markers representsa new paradigm for biomarker discovery; however, this effortis severely complicated by the vast complexity and structuraldiversity of glycans. This review summarizes recent developmentsin analytical technology and methodology as applied tothe fields of glycomics and glycoproteomics. Mass spectrometricstrategies for glycan compositional profiling are described, as arepotential refinements which allow structure-specific profiling.Analytical methods that can discern protein glycosylation at aspecific site of modification are also discussed in detail.Biomarker discovery applications are shown at each level ofanalysis, highlighting the key role that glycoscience can play inhelping scientists understand disease biology.

  20. Cyber-Enabled Scientific Discovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, Tony; Jameson, Leland

    2007-01-01

    It is often said that numerical simulation is third in the group of three ways to explore modern science: theory, experiment and simulation. Carefully executed modern numerical simulations can, however, be considered at least as relevant as experiment and theory. In comparison to physical experimentation, with numerical simulation one has the numerically simulated values of every field variable at every grid point in space and time. In comparison to theory, with numerical simulation one can explore sets of very complex non-linear equations such as the Einstein equations that are very difficult to investigate theoretically. Cyber-enabled scientific discovery is not just about numerical simulation but about every possible issue related to scientific discovery by utilizing cyberinfrastructure such as the analysis and storage of large data sets, the creation of tools that can be used by broad classes of researchers and, above all, the education and training of a cyber-literate workforce

  1. Astrobiology, discovery, and societal impact

    CERN Document Server

    Dick, Steven J

    2018-01-01

    The search for life in the universe, once the stuff of science fiction, is now a robust worldwide research program with a well-defined roadmap probing both scientific and societal issues. This volume examines the humanistic aspects of astrobiology, systematically discussing the approaches, critical issues, and implications of discovering life beyond Earth. What do the concepts of life and intelligence, culture and civilization, technology and communication mean in a cosmic context? What are the theological and philosophical implications if we find life - and if we do not? Steven J. Dick argues that given recent scientific findings, the discovery of life in some form beyond Earth is likely and so we need to study the possible impacts of such a discovery and formulate policies to deal with them. The remarkable and often surprising results are presented here in a form accessible to disciplines across the sciences, social sciences, and humanities.

  2. [Artificial Intelligence in Drug Discovery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Takeshi; Kamada, Mayumi; Okuno, Yasushi

    2018-04-01

    According to the increase of data generated from analytical instruments, application of artificial intelligence(AI)technology in medical field is indispensable. In particular, practical application of AI technology is strongly required in "genomic medicine" and "genomic drug discovery" that conduct medical practice and novel drug development based on individual genomic information. In our laboratory, we have been developing a database to integrate genome data and clinical information obtained by clinical genome analysis and a computational support system for clinical interpretation of variants using AI. In addition, with the aim of creating new therapeutic targets in genomic drug discovery, we have been also working on the development of a binding affinity prediction system for mutated proteins and drugs by molecular dynamics simulation using supercomputer "Kei". We also have tackled for problems in a drug virtual screening. Our developed AI technology has successfully generated virtual compound library, and deep learning method has enabled us to predict interaction between compound and target protein.

  3. A quantum causal discovery algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giarmatzi, Christina; Costa, Fabio

    2018-03-01

    Finding a causal model for a set of classical variables is now a well-established task—but what about the quantum equivalent? Even the notion of a quantum causal model is controversial. Here, we present a causal discovery algorithm for quantum systems. The input to the algorithm is a process matrix describing correlations between quantum events. Its output consists of different levels of information about the underlying causal model. Our algorithm determines whether the process is causally ordered by grouping the events into causally ordered non-signaling sets. It detects if all relevant common causes are included in the process, which we label Markovian, or alternatively if some causal relations are mediated through some external memory. For a Markovian process, it outputs a causal model, namely the causal relations and the corresponding mechanisms, represented as quantum states and channels. Our algorithm opens the route to more general quantum causal discovery methods.

  4. Pediatric Age Palm Oil Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Genova, Lorenza; Cerquiglini, Laura; Penta, Laura; Biscarini, Anna; Esposito, Susanna

    2018-04-01

    Palm oil is widely used in the food industry for its chemical/physical properties, low cost and wide availability. Its widespread use has provoked an intense debate about whether it is a potential danger to human health. In a careful review of the scientific literature, we focused on nutritional characteristics and health effects of the use of palm oil with regards to children, seeking to determine whether there is evidence that justifies fears about the health effects of palm oil. Our review showed that palm oil represents a significant source of saturated fatty acids, to which scientific evidence attributes negative health effects when used in excess, especially with regards to cardiovascular diseases. However, to date, there is no evidence about the harmful effects of palm oil on the health of children. Nevertheless, palm oil has possible ill health effects linked to its composition of fatty acids: its consumption is not correlated to risk factors for cardiovascular diseases in young people with a normal weight and cholesterol level; the elderly and patients with dyslipidaemia or previous cardiovascular events or hypertension are at a greater risk. Therefore, the matter is not palm oil itself but the fatty-acid-rich food group to which it belongs. The most important thing is to consume no more than 10% of saturated fatty acids, regardless of their origin and regardless of one's age. Correct information based on a careful analysis of the scientific evidence, rather than a focus on a singular presumed culprit substance, should encourage better lifestyles.

  5. Yemen: a new oil frontier or a flashpoint?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salameh, M.G.

    1994-01-01

    Recent oil discoveries in the newly merged country of Yemen (previously North and South Yemen) should have brought economic security to a country struggling to introduce multi-party democracy. International oil companies such as BP, Elf and Total, while keen to invest in this exciting new prospect for petroleum production, are, however, wary due to border disputes, possibly leading to military conflict between Yemen and Saudi Arabia. The oil finds have been in the disputed Hadramaut region and desert areas of the Southern Arabian basin where borders have never been defined. Early settlement of this dispute could benefit both countries economically and in terms of industrial development. (UK)

  6. Discovery of Approximate Differential Dependencies

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Jixue; Kwashie, Selasi; Li, Jiuyong; Ye, Feiyue; Vincent, Millist

    2013-01-01

    Differential dependencies (DDs) capture the relationships between data columns of relations. They are more general than functional dependencies (FDs) and and the difference is that DDs are defined on the distances between values of two tuples, not directly on the values. Because of this difference, the algorithms for discovering FDs from data find only special DDs, not all DDs and therefore are not applicable to DD discovery. In this paper, we propose an algorithm to discover DDs from data fo...

  7. The discovery of the antiproton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamberlain, Owen

    1989-01-01

    A number of groups of particle physicists competed to provide track evidence of the existence of Dirac's postulated antiproton in the mid-1950s. The work of the several teams is described briefly. The author describes the work of his own group on the Bevatron in more detail, and how they finally observed the antiproton. The article finishes with an assessment of the importance of this discovery. (UK)

  8. Upgrading of bio-oil via acid-catalyzed reactions in alcohols : a mini review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hu, X.; Gunawan, R.; Mourant, D.; Mahmudul Hasan, M.D.; Wu, L.; Song, Y.; Lievens, C.; Li, C.Z.

    2017-01-01

    Bio-oil is a condensable liquid produced from the pyrolysis of biomass, which can be upgraded to biofuels. Bio-oil is corrosive as it contains significant amounts of carboxylic acids, creating difficulties in handling of bio-oil and applications of bio-oil. Acid-treatment of bio-oil in alcohols is

  9. Non-OPEC Oil Supply: Economics and Energy Policy Options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mourik, Maarten van [Paris (France); Shepherd, Richard K. [Perpignan (France)

    2003-07-01

    Apart from the enigmatic FSU, there is little prospect of long term growth for non-OPEC oil supply and a strong likelihood that over the next few years the trend will flatten and then decline irrevocably. Decline will come faster if the spectacular discoveries in the deep water offshore plays of the southern Atlantic and the Gulf of Mexico attract sufficient investment to match the loss of production in the North Sea. Deep water oil supply might be expected to reach a peak of as much as 6-7 million barrels a day by the time the North Sea has lost more than half its current output in the period beyond 2010. But economics play as strong a role as geology in real world oil business. Current indicators suggest that the prolific deep water wells are delivering less oil than expected and for a shorter period. That means less revenue. This paper outlines the disappointing performance of recent offshore fields, in both deep water and conventional water depths, and suggests consequences for global supply in the next decade. The 30 year success story of non-OPEC oil supply stems directly from the oil price revolution of the 1970s, without which the North Sea and most other offshore oil plays would not have been economic. The non-OPEC oil boom was also necessary because access to the cheap oil of the Persian Gulf and a few other plays were simply not available to the international private sector oil industry, as they had been before. That era is now over. It is ending not because oil is too cheap, but because there are powerful reasons for change. Firstly there is not enough oil left to make a difference beyond the next few years. Secondly, the economics of deep water and other offshore oil may not be attractive enough. Thirdly the doors to the Middle East are now being opened again to companies that can write those assets on their balance sheets and generate profits, allowing better return on investment and their higher share prices. There is no more compelling reason for a

  10. Sea Level Rise Data Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quach, N.; Huang, T.; Boening, C.; Gill, K. M.

    2016-12-01

    Research related to sea level rise crosses multiple disciplines from sea ice to land hydrology. The NASA Sea Level Change Portal (SLCP) is a one-stop source for current sea level change information and data, including interactive tools for accessing and viewing regional data, a virtual dashboard of sea level indicators, and ongoing updates through a suite of editorial products that include content articles, graphics, videos, and animations. The architecture behind the SLCP makes it possible to integrate web content and data relevant to sea level change that are archived across various data centers as well as new data generated by sea level change principal investigators. The Extensible Data Gateway Environment (EDGE) is incorporated into the SLCP architecture to provide a unified platform for web content and science data discovery. EDGE is a data integration platform designed to facilitate high-performance geospatial data discovery and access with the ability to support multi-metadata standard specifications. EDGE has the capability to retrieve data from one or more sources and package the resulting sets into a single response to the requestor. With this unified endpoint, the Data Analysis Tool that is available on the SLCP can retrieve dataset and granule level metadata as well as perform geospatial search on the data. This talk focuses on the architecture that makes it possible to seamlessly integrate and enable discovery of disparate data relevant to sea level rise.

  11. A New Universe of Discoveries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Córdova, France A.

    2016-01-01

    The convergence of emerging advances in astronomical instruments, computational capabilities and talented practitioners (both professional and civilian) is creating an extraordinary new environment for making numerous fundamental discoveries in astronomy, ranging from the nature of exoplanets to understanding the evolution of solar systems and galaxies. The National Science Foundation is playing a critical role in supporting, stimulating, and shaping these advances. NSF is more than an agency of government or a funding mechanism for the infrastructure of science. The work of NSF is a sacred trust that every generation of Americans makes to those of the next generation, that we will build on the body of knowledge we inherit and continue to push forward the frontiers of science. We never lose sight of NSF's obligation to "explore the unexplored" and inspire all of humanity with the wonders of discovery. As the only Federal agency dedicated to the support of basic research and education in all fields of science and engineering, NSF has empowered discoveries across a broad spectrum of scientific inquiry for more than six decades. The result is fundamental scientific research that has had a profound impact on our nation's innovation ecosystem and kept our nation at the very forefront of the world's science-and-engineering enterprise.

  12. Discovery of a Makemakean Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Alex H.; Buie, Marc W.; Grundy, Will M.; Noll, Keith S.

    2016-01-01

    We describe the discovery of a satellite in orbit about the dwarf planet (136472) Makemake. This satellite, provisionally designated S/2015 (136472) 1, was detected in imaging data collected with the Hubble Space Telescope's Wide Field Camera 3 on UTC 2015 April 27 at 7.80 +/- 0.04 mag fainter than Makemake and at a separation of 0farcs57. It likely evaded detection in previous satellite searches due to a nearly edge-on orbital configuration, placing it deep within the glare of Makemake during a substantial fraction of its orbital period. This configuration would place Makemake and its satellite near a mutual event season. Insufficient orbital motion was detected to make a detailed characterization of its orbital properties, prohibiting a measurement of the system mass with the discovery data alone. Preliminary analysis indicates that if the orbit is circular, its orbital period must be longer than 12.4 days and must have a semimajor axis > or approx. = 21,000 km. We find that the properties of Makemake's moon suggest that the majority of the dark material detected in the system by thermal observations may not reside on the surface of Makemake, but may instead be attributable to S/2015 (136472) 1 having a uniform dark surface. This dark moon hypothesis can be directly tested with future James Webb Space Telescope observations. We discuss the implications of this discovery for the spin state, figure, and thermal properties of Makemake and the apparent ubiquity of trans-Neptunian dwarf planet satellites.

  13. Socratic Questioning-Guided Discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hakan Türkçapar

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available “Socratic Method” is a way of teaching philosophical thinking and knowledge by asking questions which was used by antique period greek philosopher Socrates. Socrates was teaching knowledge to his followers by asking questions and the conversation between them was named “Socratic Dialogues”. In this meaning, no novel knowledge is taught to the individual but only what is formerly known is reminded and rediscovered. The form of socratic questioning which is used during the process of cognitive behavioral therapy is known as Guided Discovery. In this method it is aimed to make the client notice the piece of knowledge which he could notice but is not aware with a series of questions. Socratic method or guided discovery consists of several steps which are: Identifying the problem by listening to the client and making reflections, finding alternatives by examining and evaluating, reidentification by using the newly found information and questioning the old distorted belief and reaching to a conclusion and applying it. Question types used during these procedures are, questions for gaining information, questions revealing the meanings, questions revealing the beliefs, questions about behaviours during the similar past experiences, analyse questions and analytic synthesis questions. In order to make the patient feel understood it is important to be empathetic and summarising the problem during the interview. In this text, steps of Socratic Questioning-Guided Discovery will be reviewed with sample dialogues after eachstep. [JCBPR 2012; 1(1.000: 15-20

  14. PATH COEFFICIENT ANALYSIS OF SEVERAL COMPONENTS OIL YIELD IN SUNFLOWER (HELIANTHUS ANNUUS L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. MIjić

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of investigation was to analyse oil yield components and their relations by simple coefficient correlations as well as direct and indirect effects to oil yield by path analysis. Twenty-four sunflower hybrids were included in the investigation and their seven traits (plant height, head diameter, 1000 seed weight, hec- tolitar mass, grain yield, oil content and oil yield. Very strong positive correlation was estimated between grain yield and oil yield, strong positive correlation between hectolitar mass and oil yield, and middle corre- lation among oil yield and: 1000 seed weight, plaint height and oil content. There was no correlation between grain yields and oil content. Grain yield showed the strongest effect to oil yield. Oil content had lower effect to oil yield. Other traits showed no significant effect to oil yield, and their effect to oil yield was covered by indirect effect of grain yield.

  15. Application of synthetic fire-resistant oils in oil systems of turbine equipment for NPPs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galimova, L. A.

    2017-10-01

    Results of the investigation of the synthetic fire-resistant turbine oil Fyrquel-L state in oil systems of turbosets under their operation in the equipment and oil supply facilities of nuclear power plants (NPPs) are presented. On the basis of the analysis of the operating experience, it is established that, for reliable and safe operation of the turbine equipment, at which oil systems synthetic fire-resistant oils on the phosphoric acid esters basis are used, special attention should be paid to two main factors, namely, both the guarantee of the normalized oil water content under the operation and storage and temperature regime of the operation. Methods of the acid number maintenance and reduction are shown. Results of the analysis and investigation of influence of temperature and of the variation of the qualitative state of the synthetic fair-resistant oil on its water content are reported. It is shown that the fire-resistant turbine oils are characterized by high hydrophilicity, and, in distinction to the mineral turbine oils, are capable to contain a significant amount of dissolved water, which is not extracted under the use of separation technologies. It is shown that the more degradation products are contained in oil and higher acid number, the more amount of dissolved water it is capable to retain. It is demonstrated that the organization of chemical control of the total water content of fireresistant oils with the use of the coulometric method is an important element to support the reliable operation of oil systems. It is recommended to use automatic controls of water content for organization of daily monitoring of oil state in the oil system. Recommendations and measures for improvement of oil operation on the NPP, the water content control, the use of oil cleaning plants, and the oil transfer for storage during repair works are developed.

  16. Enhanced oil recovery: an update review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarado, V.; Manrique, E.

    2010-01-01

    With the decline in oil discoveries during the last decades it is believed that Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) technologies will play a key role to meet the energy demand in years to come. This paper presents a comprehensive review of EOR status and opportunities to increase final recovery factors in reservoirs ranging from extra heavy oil to gas condensate. Specifically, the paper discusses EOR status and opportunities organized by reservoir lithology (sandstone and carbonates formations and turbiditic reservoirs to a lesser extent) and offshore and onshore fields. Risk and rewards of EOR methods including growing trends in recent years such as CO 2 injection, high pressure air injection (HPAI) and chemical flooding are addressed including a brief overview of CO 2 -EOR project economics. (authors)

  17. Effect Supermint oil (Peppermint oil on children's pain during Colonoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Najafi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pain during colonoscopy, especially in children, including the challenges faced by the medical team. The aim of study was investigation the analgesic effect Supermint oil (peppermint oil on pain in children during colonoscopy. Methods and Materials: In this clinical trial study, 101 children (7-14 years old candidate colonoscopy were randomly divided into two groups, respectively. About half an hour before the colonoscopy case group (n=51 was administrated oral drops Supermint oil (peppermint oil. Patients were filled a pediatric pain questionnaire. In control group (n=50 filled a questionnaire without any administration. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 11.5 and (T-test and Paired sample t-test, Corraletion,Man withney. Results: Mean value of pain, duration of colonoscopy in control group was 5/60+1/85 and in case group was 4/20+1/70 and this diference was significant (P

  18. The Asia-Pacific oil market : prospects for Canadian oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fesharaki, F.

    2004-01-01

    The Asia-Pacific region is among the fastest growing oil markets for which analysts predict healthy growth rates due to high energy demands from developing countries such as China. Increased oil demand will mean new refining capacity needs and increased supplies of crude oil. The indigenous crude supply in the Asia-Pacific region is limited and unable to meet the region's needs. Imports are therefore expected to rise continuously. Although the Middle East will continue to be the dominant player in meeting these growing oil needs, Canada has an opportunity to diversify the supply source and play a significant role in meeting the energy needs of the Asia-Pacific region. tabs., figs

  19. Changes in the world market in oil and oil refinements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ristik, Julija

    1996-01-01

    Since 1980's the world market for crude oil and oil products has faced significant changes that are going to have a grate influence on the supply and consumption of crude oil derivatives in Macedonia. The knowledge of these changes would have a grate contribution in planning the future development of this part of the energetic system of Macedonia. The purpose of this paper (which is a short version of the introductory report for the ZEMAK session with a theme 'Energetic policy and development of energetics in Macedonia') is to present the actual situation on the market for crude oil products, as well as to give the main factors that would have influence on this market in the future. (author). 4 refs., 3 ills

  20. Geopolitical connections problems of oil and gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreatta, F.

    1998-01-01

    The connections between diplomatic alignments and economic policy and the strategic nature of energy resources affect the foreign policies of major powers. The discovery of vast oil and gas deposits in Central Asia and the Transcaucasus represents an important alternative source other than the Middle East. However, it also presents serious geopolitical problems given the persistence of multiple regional conflicts [it

  1. effect of thermoxidised groundnut oil on aminotransferase activity of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. BARTH EKWEME

    age of globalization. Makurdi, Nigeria. 82. Osim, E. E., Owu, D. U., Isong, E. U and Umoh, I. B.,. 1994. Influence of chronic consumption of thermoxidised palm oil diet on basal metabolic rate, body weight and morphology of tissues in rats. Discovery and Innovation (6): 389- 396. Owu, D. U., Osim, E. E and Ebong, P. E., 1998.

  2. Asset Policies during an Oil Windfall: Some Simple Analytics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gunning, J.W.; Collier, P.

    2005-01-01

    Many developing countries are currently experiencing oil windfalls, whether due to discoveries or to price effects. Such windfalls pose a series of policy dilemmas. The literature has focused on one of these: the choice between using windfall savings for public capital formation and investment in

  3. Management of Podrot, Oil Content, and Pod Weight of Benniseed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... yield at the highest plant population of 250,000 plants/ha in the 1st and 2nd seasons. However, yield were highest at combination of 60kg/ha and 250,000 plants/ha in all the seasons investigated. Keywords: Management , Podrot, Oil content, Pod Weight, Benniseed, Ultisols Discovery and Innovation Vol. 19 (3) 2007: pp.

  4. Oil flow in deep waters: comparative study between light oils and heavy oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreolli, Ivanilto [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-12-19

    Ultra deeper waters fields are being exploited due to technological development. Under this scenario, the flow design is accomplished through pipelines subjected to low temperature and high pressure. Moreover, these flow lines are usually long causing a fast fluid cooling, which may affect flow assurance in some cases. Problems during topsides production plant's restart might occur if the oil is viscous and even in steady state a significant different behavior can be noticed, if compared to a less viscous oil. A comparison between light and heavy oil through a case study with the objective to show some heavy oil flow particularities is the purpose of this paper. Permanent and transient analyses for a specific geometry are presented. The results showed that thermal and proper viscosity modeling are required for heavy oil flow, differently from that of light oil flow, due to the exponential viscosity dependence to temperature and because the predominant laminar regime. In addition, on heavier and heavier oil flow systems, it is essential to consider exportation system's restart. (author)

  5. Refining oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunstan, A E

    1921-05-12

    The desulfurization of liquid hydrocarbons, such as kerosene, ligroin, or shale oil, by treatment with alkaline hypochlorite, such as sodium hypochlorite with free alkali is preceded, followed or both preceded and followed by treatment with alkali. The treatment may be effected in a vessel in which brine is being electrolyzed for the production of sodium hypochlorite, and the temperature may be raised to say 120/sup 0/F. The product may be filtered through animal charcoal, fuller's earth, dehydrated alumina, or other adsorbent substance.

  6. Coal and Oil: The Dark Monarchs of Global Energy: Understanding Supply and Extraction Patterns and their Importance for Future Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoeoek, Mikael

    2010-01-01

    The formation of modern society has been dominated by coal and oil, and together these two fossil fuels account for nearly two thirds of all primary energy used by mankind. This makes future production a key question for future social development and this thesis attempts to answer whether it is possible to rely on an assumption of ever increasing production of coal and oil. Both coal and oil are finite resources, created over long time scales by geological processes. It is thus impossible to extract more fossil fuels than geologically available. In other words, there are limits to growth imposed by nature. The concept of depletion and exhaustion of recoverable resources is a fundamental question for the future extraction of coal and oil. Historical experience shows that peaking is a well established phenomenon in production of various natural resources. Coal and oil are no exceptions, and historical data shows that easily exploitable resources are exhausted while more challenging deposits are left for the future. For oil, depletion can also be tied directly to the physical laws governing fluid flows in reservoirs. Understanding and predicting behaviour of individual fields, in particularly giant fields, are essential for understanding future production. Based on comprehensive databases with reserve and production data for hundreds of oilfields, typical patterns were found. Alternatively, depletion can manifest itself indirectly through various mechanisms. This has been studied for coal. Over 60% of the global crude oil production is derived from only around 330 giant oilfields, where many of them are becoming increasingly mature. The annual decline in existing oil production has been determined to be around 6% and it is unrealistic that this will be offset by new field developments, additional discoveries or unconventional oil. This implies that the peak of the oil age is here. For coal a similar picture emerges, where 90% of the global coal production originates

  7. Detecting Novelty and Significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Vera; Bradley, Margaret M.; Codispoti, Maurizio; Lang, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    Studies of cognition often use an “oddball” paradigm to study effects of stimulus novelty and significance on information processing. However, an oddball tends to be perceptually more novel than the standard, repeated stimulus as well as more relevant to the ongoing task, making it difficult to disentangle effects due to perceptual novelty and stimulus significance. In the current study, effects of perceptual novelty and significance on ERPs were assessed in a passive viewing context by presenting repeated and novel pictures (natural scenes) that either signaled significant information regarding the current context or not. A fronto-central N2 component was primarily affected by perceptual novelty, whereas a centro-parietal P3 component was modulated by both stimulus significance and novelty. The data support an interpretation that the N2 reflects perceptual fluency and is attenuated when a current stimulus matches an active memory representation and that the amplitude of the P3 reflects stimulus meaning and significance. PMID:19400680

  8. The effect of fish oil supplements on blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lofgren, R P; Wilt, T J; Nichol, K L; Crespin, L; Pluhar, R; Eckfeldt, J

    1993-01-01

    We conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study to determine the effects of fish oil supplementation on blood pressure in middle-aged men. Subjects were randomly assigned to consume either 20 g of fish oil or safflower oil for 12 weeks and then consume the other oil for an additional 12 weeks after a 4-week washout period. We found no significant changes from the pretreatment value in systolic or diastolic blood pressure with the use of fish oil supplements. In addition, there were no significant differences in the posttreatment blood pressures comparing the fish and safflower oil phases of the study. PMID:8427339

  9. Exocrine pancreatic secretion is stimulated in piglets fed Fish oil compared with those fed Coconut Oil or Lard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedemann, Mette Skou; Pedersen, Asger Roer; Engberg, Ricarda M.

    2001-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to study the effect of feeding diets containing fat sources with different fatty acid composition (fish oil, coconut oil or lard, 10 g/100 g diet) on exocrine pancreatic secretion in piglets after weaning. A total of 16 barrows were weaned at 4 wk of age; 3 d later...... the coconut oil or lard diets. The output [U/(h. kg(0.75))] of lipase was higher in piglets fed fish oil than in piglets fed lard or coconut oil. The output of colipase was greater in piglets fed fish oil and coconut oil than in those fed lard. The dietary treatments did not affect the output of carboxylester...... hydrolase. The output of trypsin was significantly lower in piglets fed lard than in piglets fed fish oil or coconut oil diets and the output of carboxypeptidase B was greater in those fed the fish oil diet. Protein, chymotrypsin, carboxypeptidase A, elastase and amylase outputs did not differ among...

  10. A numerical study on the oil retention of R410A and PVE oil mixture in multi heat pump system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hak Soo; Kim, Min Soo [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    Predicting an amount of discharged oil from a compressor is necessary to charge the compressor with proper amount of oil. The amount of discharged oil can be predicted by calculating the oil retention amount in each component of a heat pump system. This study suggests a method for calculating the oil retention amount in a heat pump system. In addition, flow pattern of refrigerant and oil mixture in horizontal gas line of refrigerant was ascertained by flow visualization. The oil retention amounts in each component of multi heat pump system were calculated with respect to mass flux of refrigerant, Oil circulation ratio (OCR), length of horizontal and vertical lines. Oil retention amounts in horizontal and vertical gas lines of refrigerant were significant. To validate the model for gas lines of refrigerant, comparison between predicted and experimental oil retention amounts was conducted, and mean absolute percentage error was 15.0%.

  11. Significant NRC Enforcement Actions

    Data.gov (United States)

    Nuclear Regulatory Commission — This dataset provides a list of Nuclear Regulartory Commission (NRC) issued significant enforcement actions. These actions, referred to as "escalated", are issued by...

  12. Wash-oil problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chlosta, J

    1941-01-01

    Meier-Grolman and others have deduced from experimental studies of the vapor pressure of solutions of benzene in paraffin oil and Solway oil-paraffin oil mixtures that the higher the proportion of aliphatic compounds in a wash oil, the less suitable it is for benzene scrubbing. This generalization is not supported. Paraffin oils from brown-coal tar and low viscous oils from the Fischer-Tropsch hydrocarbon synthesis process are both being successfully used for benzene scrubbing.

  13. Oil trading manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, D.

    1995-01-01

    This manual provides basic information on all aspects of oil trading. Topics reviewed in Part 1 include physical characteristics and refining and oil pricing arrangements. Part 2 on instruments and markets contains chapters on crude oil markets, product markets, forward and futures contracts, forward paper markets, oil future exchanges, options, swaps and long term oil markets. Part 3 deals with administration and has chapters on operations and logistics, credit control, accounting, taxation of oil trading, contracts and legal and regulatory issues. (UK)

  14. Cyclic Investigation of Geophysical Studies in the Exploration and Discovery of Natural Resources in Our Country

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonulalan, A. U.

    2007-01-01

    Although the methods of exploration geophysics were first utilized after the discovery of an oil field in 1921, they have also applied in the old centuries. Likewise, the half of the total production in the United States of America is covered by new oil fields discovered by utilizing geophysical methods. The industry's energy necessity increases the interest to oil. The investments in the field of geophysics by the companies which makes large amount of money in order to discover new oil fields, widespread use of computers, the developments of space technology and world-wide nuclear competition even though its great danger for human beings have great share in the development of geophysics. Our country has 18 different types mines which has more than 10 billion $ potential. Geophysical engineers have great Kowledge and labor in the discovery of 1,795 trillion wealth from borax to building stone, and 60 billion $ oil and gas. On the other hand, as 1,5 billion investment in the field of geophysics is only 0.08 % of total investments, the increase of investments will add more contribution

  15. Happy oil companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maincent, G.

    2009-01-01

    The decay of demand, the bad financial results of the first half of 2009 and the hypothetical depletion of reserves must not hide a reality: oil companies are passing through the economic crisis without much trouble. Even if profits have marked time in volume (-57% for BP, -65% for Shell..), the net margins have not significantly suffered and the available cash remains comfortable (14 billion euros for Total as an example). The perspectives offered by the new offshore sites (like Santos in Brazil) added to the fabulous promises of the Iraqi market where 'majors' can now make their come-back will be the key of success of oil companies. The overall exploration-production investments should start up again by the beginning of 2011. For the only offshore drilling domain, they should rise up by 32% during the 2009-2013 period which represents a sum of 367 billion dollars. (J.S.)

  16. Converting heavy oils into light oils, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mony, H

    1915-12-22

    A process is described for transforming heavy oils obtained by the carbonization of lignites, peats, coals, shales into light oils, and also the heavy oils of mineral and vegetable origin, consisting of heating the heavy oils or tars in the presence of one or more solid substances or liquids suitably chosen to cause the distillation of the oils under atmospheric pressure at an appropriate temperature; solid and liquid substances which favor the production of light products under the influence of heat being added preferably to the oil to be treated before putting it in the retort and before heating, so that light oils are obtained by treatment of the heavy oils in a single operation.

  17. A hundred years later. Radioactivity, the influence of a discovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bimbot, R.; Charpak, G.; Tubiana, M.

    1999-01-01

    This document brings together short but significant citations about radioactivity and its overall applications. Illustrated with historical and ancient or actual documents and photographies, these texts were written by scientists, doctors, politicians and journalists, know from the public or from the scientific community for their implication in this domain. It comprises also an evocation of the celebration of the centenary of the discovery of radioactivity and was written as a conclusion of this event. It represents a unique document, with a substantial bibliography, which summarizes a century of discoveries and considerations about this topic with multiple parts. (J.S.)

  18. Demand elasticity of oil in Barbados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, Alvon, E-mail: armoore@centralbank.org.bb [Economist, Central Bank of Barbados, Toms Adams Financial Centre, Bridgetown (Barbados)

    2011-06-15

    The importation of oil is a significant component of Barbados' imports, rising from 7% of imports in 1998 to over 20% in 2009. This increase has impacted greatly on the level of foreign reserves. As a price-taker, relying entirely on imported oil for our energy needs could prove a continuous drain on the economy. With a view to formulating an appropriate energy policy for Barbados, this paper analyses the demand for oil using monthly data from 1998 to 2009. The paper estimates the elasticities of demand for oil by employing single equation cointegration approach and comparing the results with countries that rely heavily on imported oil and whose policy objective are to alter their energy structure to rely less on imported oil. The results show that the demand for oil imports is price inelastic in the long run. The consumption of oil is responsive to past consumption, prices, income, electricity consumption and the number of appliances imported in the short-run. A policy framework to reduce the use of oil for electricity consumption via alternative energy sources should be considered and the taxation of oil imports given its elasticity is a good source of revenue. - Highlights: > Demand for oil is price inelastic in the long-run (-0.552). > The relationship between oil demand and income is insignificant in the long run. > As electricity consumption increases by 1%, the demand for oil rises by 1.43%. > Need to determine if investments in alternative sources can offset demand for oil. > Investment in alternative resources may be required before gains are realised.

  19. Demand elasticity of oil in Barbados

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, Alvon

    2011-01-01

    The importation of oil is a significant component of Barbados' imports, rising from 7% of imports in 1998 to over 20% in 2009. This increase has impacted greatly on the level of foreign reserves. As a price-taker, relying entirely on imported oil for our energy needs could prove a continuous drain on the economy. With a view to formulating an appropriate energy policy for Barbados, this paper analyses the demand for oil using monthly data from 1998 to 2009. The paper estimates the elasticities of demand for oil by employing single equation cointegration approach and comparing the results with countries that rely heavily on imported oil and whose policy objective are to alter their energy structure to rely less on imported oil. The results show that the demand for oil imports is price inelastic in the long run. The consumption of oil is responsive to past consumption, prices, income, electricity consumption and the number of appliances imported in the short-run. A policy framework to reduce the use of oil for electricity consumption via alternative energy sources should be considered and the taxation of oil imports given its elasticity is a good source of revenue. - Highlights: → Demand for oil is price inelastic in the long-run (-0.552). → The relationship between oil demand and income is insignificant in the long run. → As electricity consumption increases by 1%, the demand for oil rises by 1.43%. → Need to determine if investments in alternative sources can offset demand for oil. → Investment in alternative resources may be required before gains are realised.

  20. Biochemically enhanced oil recovery and oil treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premuzic, Eugene T.; Lin, Mow

    1994-01-01

    This invention relates to the preparation of new, modified organisms, through challenge growth processes, that are viable in the extreme temperature, pressure and pH conditions and salt concentrations of an oil reservoir and that are suitable for use in microbial enhanced oil recovery. The modified microorganisms of the present invention are used to enhance oil recovery and remove sulfur compounds and metals from the crude oil.

  1. CLARM: An integrative approach for functional modules discovery

    KAUST Repository

    Salem, Saeed M.; Alroobi, Rami; Banitaan, Shadi; Seridi, Loqmane; Brewer, James E.; Aljarah, Ibrahim

    2011-01-01

    Functional module discovery aims to find well-connected subnetworks which can serve as candidate protein complexes. Advances in High-throughput proteomic technologies have enabled the collection of large amount of interaction data as well as gene expression data. We propose, CLARM, a clustering algorithm that integrates gene expression profiles and protein protein interaction network for biological modules discovery. The main premise is that by enriching the interaction network by adding interactions between genes which are highly co-expressed over a wide range of biological and environmental conditions, we can improve the quality of the discovered modules. Protein protein interactions, known protein complexes, and gene expression profiles for diverse environmental conditions from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae were used for evaluate the biological significance of the reported modules. Our experiments show that the CLARM approach is competitive to wellestablished module discovery methods. Copyright © 2011 ACM.

  2. Co-processing of standard gas oil and biocrude oil to hydrocarbon fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agblevor, Foster A.; Mante, O.; McClung, R.; Oyama, S.T.

    2012-01-01

    The major obstacle in thermochemical biomass conversion to hydrocarbon fuels using pyrolysis has been the high oxygen content and the poor stability of the product oils, which cause them to solidify during secondary processing. We have developed a fractional catalytic pyrolysis process to convert biomass feedstocks into a product termed “biocrude oils” (stable biomass pyrolysis oils) which are distinct from unstable conventional pyrolysis oils. The biocrude oils are stable, low viscosity liquids that are storable at ambient conditions without any significant increases in viscosity; distillable at both atmospheric pressure and under vacuum without char or solid formation. About 15 wt% biocrude oils containing 20–25% oxygen were blended with 85 wt% standard gas oil and co-cracked in an Advanced Catalyst Evaluation (ACE™) unit using fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) catalysts to produce hydrocarbon fuels that contain negligible amount of oxygen. For the same conversion of 70% for both the standard gas oil and the biocrude oil/gas oil blends, the product gasoline yield was 44 wt%, light cycle oil (LCO) 17 wt%, heavy cycle oil (HCO) 13 wt%, and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) 16 wt%. However, the coke yield for the standard gas oil was 7.06 wt% compared to 6.64–6.81 wt% for the blends. There appeared to be hydrogen transfer from the cracking of the standard gas oil to the biocrude oil which subsequently eliminated the oxygen in the fuel without external hydrogen addition. We have demonstrated for the first time that biomass pyrolysis oils can be successfully converted into hydrocarbons without hydrogenation pretreatment. -- Highlights: ► The co-processed product had less than 1% oxygen content and contained biocarbons determined by 14 C analysis. ► The co-processing did not affect the yields of gasoline, LCO, and HCO. ► First demonstration of direct conversion of pyrolysis oils into drop-in hydrocarbon fuels.

  3. Coconut oil has less satiating properties than medium chain triglyceride oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsella, R; Maher, T; Clegg, M E

    2017-10-01

    It is well established that the consumption of medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) can increase satiety and reduce food intake. Many media articles promote the use of coconut oil for weight loss advocating similar health benefits to that of MCT. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of MCT oil compared to coconut oil and control oil on food intake and satiety. Following an overnight fast, participants consumed a test breakfast smoothie containing 205kcal of either (i) MCT oil (ii) coconut oil or (iii) vegetable oil (control) on three separate test days. Participants recorded appetite ratings on visual analogue scales and were presented with an ad libitum lunch meal of preselected sandwiches 180min after consumption of the breakfast. The results showed a significant difference in energy and macronutrient intakes at the ad libitum meal between the three oils with the MCT oil reducing food intake compared to the coconut and control oil. Differences in food intake throughout the day were found for energy and fat, with the control having increased food intake compared to the MCT and coconut. The MCT also increased fullness over the three hours after breakfast compared to the control and coconut oils. The coconut oil was also reported as being less palatable than the MCT oil. The results of this study confirm the differences that exist between MCT and coconut oil such that coconut oil cannot be promoted as having similar effects to MCT oil on food intake and satiety. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. DISCOVERY OF A MAKEMAKEAN MOON

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, Alex H.; Buie, Marc W. [Southwest Research Institute, 1050 Walnut Street, Suite 300, Boulder, CO 80302 (United States); Grundy, Will M. [Lowell Observatory, Flagstaff, AZ (United States); Noll, Keith S., E-mail: aparker@boulder.swri.edu [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States)

    2016-07-01

    We describe the discovery of a satellite in orbit about the dwarf planet (136472) Makemake. This satellite, provisionally designated S/2015 (136472) 1, was detected in imaging data collected with the Hubble Space Telescope ’s Wide Field Camera 3 on UTC 2015 April 27 at 7.80 ± 0.04 mag fainter than Makemake and at a separation of 0.″57. It likely evaded detection in previous satellite searches due to a nearly edge-on orbital configuration, placing it deep within the glare of Makemake during a substantial fraction of its orbital period. This configuration would place Makemake and its satellite near a mutual event season. Insufficient orbital motion was detected to make a detailed characterization of its orbital properties, prohibiting a measurement of the system mass with the discovery data alone. Preliminary analysis indicates that if the orbit is circular, its orbital period must be longer than 12.4 days and must have a semimajor axis ≳21,000 km. We find that the properties of Makemake’s moon suggest that the majority of the dark material detected in the system by thermal observations may not reside on the surface of Makemake, but may instead be attributable to S/2015 (136472) 1 having a uniform dark surface. This “dark moon hypothesis” can be directly tested with future James Webb Space Telescope observations. We discuss the implications of this discovery for the spin state, figure, and thermal properties of Makemake and the apparent ubiquity of trans-Neptunian dwarf planet satellites.

  5. Polar Domain Discovery with Sparkler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duerr, R.; Khalsa, S. J. S.; Mattmann, C. A.; Ottilingam, N. K.; Singh, K.; Lopez, L. A.

    2017-12-01

    The scientific web is vast and ever growing. It encompasses millions of textual, scientific and multimedia documents describing research in a multitude of scientific streams. Most of these documents are hidden behind forms which require user action to retrieve and thus can't be directly accessed by content crawlers. These documents are hosted on web servers across the world, most often on outdated hardware and network infrastructure. Hence it is difficult and time-consuming to aggregate documents from the scientific web, especially those relevant to a specific domain. Thus generating meaningful domain-specific insights is currently difficult. We present an automated discovery system (Figure 1) using Sparkler, an open-source, extensible, horizontally scalable crawler which facilitates high throughput and focused crawling of documents pertinent to a particular domain such as information about polar regions. With this set of highly domain relevant documents, we show that it is possible to answer analytical questions about that domain. Our domain discovery algorithm leverages prior domain knowledge to reach out to commercial/scientific search engines to generate seed URLs. Subject matter experts then annotate these seed URLs manually on a scale from highly relevant to irrelevant. We leverage this annotated dataset to train a machine learning model which predicts the `domain relevance' of a given document. We extend Sparkler with this model to focus crawling on documents relevant to that domain. Sparkler avoids disruption of service by 1) partitioning URLs by hostname such that every node gets a different host to crawl and by 2) inserting delays between subsequent requests. With an NSF-funded supercomputer Wrangler, we scaled our domain discovery pipeline to crawl about 200k polar specific documents from the scientific web, within a day.

  6. Guided Discovery with Socratic Questioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hakan Türkçapar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available “The Socratic method” is a way of teaching philosophical thinking and knowledge by asking questions. It was first used by in ancient times by the Greek philosopher Socrates who taught his followers by asking questions; these conversations between them are known as “Socratic dialogues”. In this methodology, no new knowledge is taught to the individual; rather, the individual is guided to remember and rediscover what was formerly known through this process. The main method used in cognitive therapy is guided discovery. There are various methods of guided discovery in cognitive therapy. The form of verbal exchange between the therapist and client which is used during the process of cognitive behavioral therapy is known as “socratic questioning”. In this method the goal is to make the client rediscover, with a series of questions, a piece of knowledge which he could otherwise know but is not presently conscious of. The Socratic Questioning consists of several steps, including: identifying the problem by listening to the client and making reflections, finding alternatives by examining and evaluating, reidentification by using the newly rediscovered information and questioning the old distorted belief, and reaching a new conclusion and applying it. Question types used during these procedures are: questions for collecting information, questions revealing meanings, questions revealing beliefs, questions about behaviours during similar past experiences, analytic questions and analytic synthesis questions. In order to make the patient feel understood, it is important to be empathetic and summarize the problem during the interview. In this text, steps of Socratic Questioning-Guided Discovery will be reviewed with sample dialogues provided for each step. [JCBPR 2015; 4(1.000: 47-53

  7. The North Cape oil spill assessment: PAHs in oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, J.; Boehm, P. D.; Hardestine, J. H.; Douglas, G. S.

    1997-01-01

    The North Cape oil spill in January 1996 resulted in the release of an estimated 827,000 gallons of No. 2 home heating oil into the nearshore turbulent waters of coastal Rhode Island. The oil was mixed into the water column and was transported on the surface as well as below the surface. Some of the spilled oil entered the coastal ponds behind the beaches. Sampling and chemical analysis for detailed suites of petroleum saturated and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was undertaken as part of the assessment of the fate of the oil spill and of the exposure to the marine environment. The ponds were found to contain significant quantities of background petroleum hydrocarbons, including petrogenic PAHs and combustion PAHs. Initial assessment pointed (incorrectly as it turned out) to widespread contamination due only to the North Cape spill. Application of advanced chemical fingerprinting approaches, and geochemical biomarker data illustrated that many of the PAHs consisted of combustion-related 4- and 5-ringed PAHs, attributable to diesel fuel used routinely by boats in the area. The analysis demonstrated that the use of non-specific total PAH data and insufficient fingerprinting and allocation of petrogenic residues has the potential to overestimate contamination and hence injury to the environment in similar oil spill situations

  8. Knowledge discovery from data streams

    CERN Document Server

    Gama, Joao

    2010-01-01

    Since the beginning of the Internet age and the increased use of ubiquitous computing devices, the large volume and continuous flow of distributed data have imposed new constraints on the design of learning algorithms. Exploring how to extract knowledge structures from evolving and time-changing data, Knowledge Discovery from Data Streams presents a coherent overview of state-of-the-art research in learning from data streams.The book covers the fundamentals that are imperative to understanding data streams and describes important applications, such as TCP/IP traffic, GPS data, sensor networks,

  9. Paths of discovery: Comparing the search effectiveness of EBSCO Discovery Service, Summon, Google Scholar, and conventional library resources.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Müge Akbulut

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available It is becoming hard for users to select significant sources among many others as number of scientific publications increase (Henning and Gunn, 2012. Search engines that are using cloud computing methods such as Google can list related documents successfully answering user requirements (Johnson, Levine and Smith, 2009. In order to meet users’ increasing demands, libraries started to use systems which enable users to access printed and electronic sources through a single interface. This study uses quantitative and qualitative methods to compare search effectiveness between Serial Solutions Summon, EBSCO Discovery Service (EDS web discovery tools, Google Scholar (GS and conventional library databases among users from Bucknell University and Illinois Wesleyan University.

  10. Effects of fish oil type, lipid antioxidants and presence of rapeseed oil on oxidative flavour stability of fish oil enriched milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruni Let, Mette; Jacobsen, Charlotte; Meyer, Anne S.

    2004-01-01

    As a part of our ongoing experiments on optimization of the oxidative stability of fish oils in genuine food systems, this study investigated the oxidative deterioration of fish oil enriched milk emulsions during cold storage. The experimental data showed that addition of rapeseed oil to fish oil...... (1:1) prior to emulsification into milk significantly protected the emulsions against oxidative deterioration. Addition of propyl gallate and a citric acid ester to the fish oil prior to emulsification also protected the fish oil enriched milk during storage. Emulsions containing a rapeseed:fish oil...... mixture were oxidatively stable during 11 d at 2 øC. Thus, no additional inhibitory effect of the added antioxidants was observed. The peroxide value and concentrations of five selected volatiles derived from n- 3 PUFA degradation in rapeseed:fish oil mixture emulsions were not significantly different...

  11. Reserve growth in oil pools of Alberta : model and forecast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma, M.; Cook, T. [United States Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States). Central Region

    2010-09-15

    This paper presented a reserve growth study that was conducted on oil pools in Alberta, Canada. Historical oil reserve data were evaluated to assess the potential for future reserve growth in both pools and fields, and reserve growth models and functions were developed to better forecast hydrocarbon volumes. The study also considered the sensitivity of reserve growth to such factors as pool size, porosity, and oil gravity. From 1960 to 2005, the reported known recoverable oil in Alberta, excluding the Athabasca oil sands and including only pools with adequate data, increased from 4.2 to 13.9 billion barrels of oil (BBO). New discoveries contributed 3.7 BBO and reserve growth added 6 BBO. Most reserve growth occurred in pools with more than 125,000 barrels of oil. Light-oil pools account for most of the total known oil volume and consequently showed the lowest growth. Pools with greater than 30 percent porosity grew more than pools with lower porosity reservoirs. Oil field growth was found to be almost twice that of pool growth, possibly because the analysis evaluated fields with two or more pools discovered in different years. The growth in oil volumes in Alberta pools is projected to be about 454 million barrels of oil in the period from 2006 to 2010. Over a 25-year period, the cumulative reserve growth in Alberta oil pools was substantially lower than other major petroleum-producing regions, but the growth at the field level compares well. 8 refs., 2 tabs., 9 figs.

  12. The future for heavy crude oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horsnell, P.

    1995-01-01

    The expectation, still held in 1993, that the light oil-heavy crude oil differential would go on increasing in favour of light oil has not been fulfilled. Current perceptions are that heavy oil will continue to be relatively strong and there is no inevitable upward trend in light-heavy crude differentials. Non-OPEC production has grown significantly lighter overall in recent years and is likely to continue so for several more years. This is due to expanded light oil production in the North Sea, Latin America and the Far East, and contractions in heavy oil production in Russia and the USA. OPEC production has also become lighter with, in particular, an expansion in light oil and contraction in heavy grades from Saudi Arabia. At the same time, the nature of the demand from refineries has changed with the introduction of new units designed to process the residium from heavy oil distillation. Thus the supply of light oil has expanded while demand for it has contracted with the reverse being true for heavy oil. (2 figures, 1 table) (UK)

  13. New oil and gas incentives in Saskatchewan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, B.

    2003-01-01

    Saskatchewan is Canada's second largest producer of crude oil and the third largest producer of natural gas with nearly 400 oil and gas companies operating in the province. The oil ranges from heavy sour to light sweet crude oil. Nearly half of the production is heavy oil, 30 per cent is medium oil and 20 per cent is light oil. In 2002, the Province announced changes to the oil and gas Royalty and Tax Regime in an effort to encourage new oil and gas exploration and development activities in Saskatchewan and to help the industry compete with other jurisdictions around the world. This paper examined the pre-October 2002 Saskatchewan Crown Royalty and freehold production tax structure and compared them to the new structure. The paper also briefly outlined the corporation capital tax, resource surcharge, and flow-through share tax credit initiatives announced in 2001 and 2002. With reductions in the Crown Royalty, freehold production tax and corporation capital taxes, the Province expects that more than 9000 oil and gas wells will be drilled in the next decade, representing new investment of about $4.3 billion and 40,000 new jobs. The flow-through share credit may not attract significant investment because it only benefits those who pay taxes in Saskatchewan. 40 refs

  14. Separation of compressor oil from helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strauss, R.; Perrotta, K.A.

    1982-01-01

    Compression of helium by an oil-sealed rorary screw compressor entrains as much as 4000 parts per million by weight of liquid and vapor oil impurities in the gas. The reduction below about 0.1 ppm for cryogenic applications is discussed. Oil seperation equipment designed for compressed air must be modified significantly to produce the desired results with helium. The main differences between air and helium filtration are described. A description of the coalescers is given with the continuous coalescing of liquid mist from air or other gas illustrated. Oil vapor in helium is discussed in terms of typical compressor oils, experimental procedure for measuring oil vapor concentration, measured volatile hydrocarbons in the lubricants, and calculated concentration of oil vapor in Helium. Liquid oil contamination in helium gas can be reduced well below 0.1 ppm by a properly designed multiple state coalescing filter system containing graded efficiency filter elements. The oil vapor problem is best attached by efficiently treating the oil to remove most of the colatiles before charging the compressor

  15. Recovery of oil from underground drill sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streeter, W.S.; Hutchinson, T.S.; Ameri, S.; Wasson, J.A.; Aminian, K.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that a significant quantity of oil is left in reservoirs after conventional oil recovery techniques have been applied. In West Virginia and Pennsylvania alone, this oil has been estimated at over 4.5 billion barrels (0.72 billion m 3 ). Conventional recovery methods are already being used when applicable. But a new recovery method is needed for use in reservoirs that have been abandoned. One alternative method for recovery of the residual oil is known as oil recovery from underground drill sites. This recovery technology is a combination of proven methods and equipment from the petroleum, mining, and civil construction industries. Underground oil recovery can be an economically viable method of producing oil. This has been shown in producing fields, field tests, and feasibility, studies. Faced with decreasing domestic oil production, the petroleum industry should give serious consideration to the use of oil recovery from underground drill sites as a safe, practical, and environmentally sensitive alternative method of producing oil from many reservoirs

  16. Heavy oil in Saskatchewan: Building on strengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-02-01

    Saskatchewan has reserves of 17.6 billion bbl of heavy oil located in the west-central part of the province. The first oil well was drilled in 1945 and production of heavy oil has increased gradually, reaching 79,000 bbl/d in 1992. In recent years, the production pattern has not matched trends in investment; since 1982/83, the relative proportion of heavy oil drilling has declined significantly. A study is presented which analyzes trends in heavy oil investment, production, economics, and markets, with a focus on determining the causes for lack of investment in the heavy oil sector and evaluating the opportunities and constraints for long-term sustainability of this industry. Industry background is provided, with presentation of the key resource characteristics, reserve potential, and production and investment trends. Markets both in Canada and the USA are analyzed in detail, possible future trends are suggested. The effect of development of refinery capacity on heavy oil developments is examined. The logistics of shipping heavy oil to markets are detailed. The economics of Saskatchewan heavy oil production are established, taking into account all relevant cost components including taxes, royalties, and netbacks to producers. Issues of relevance affecting the heavy oil industry are discussed, including the need for environmental safeguards. 25 figs., 24 tabs

  17. The discovery of uranium fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brix, P.

    1990-01-01

    Uranium was discovered 200 years ago. Its radioactive character was first demonstrated in 1896 and two years later radium was extracted from uranium minerals. In 1911 studies with alpha rays from radioactive decay led to the unexpected discovery of the atomic nucleus. Exposure of beryllium to alpha rays yielded neutrons, first detected in 1932. Starting in 1934, neutron irradiation of uranium produced radioactive substances erroneously attributed to transuranium elements but with confusing properties. Painstaking experiments by chemists left no doubt on 17 December 1938 that barium was produced by these irradiations: the neutrons had split some uranium nuclei. The physics of the fission process was understood two weeks later; after a few months, neutron multiplication was found to be probable. This review deals with the eminent scientists involved, their successes, errors and disappointments, and the unexpected insights which occurred on the paths and detours of scientific research. It is, therefore, instructive also to discuss how fission was not discovered. The momentous discovery must be considered inevitable; the great tragedy was that Germany started World War II just at the time when the possibility of nuclear chain reactions and bombs became known. The consequences and anxieties that remain after 50 years of nuclear fission demand that mankind act with reason and conscience to maintain peace. (author)

  18. Astroparticle physics: puzzles and discoveries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berezinsky, V

    2008-01-01

    Puzzles often give birth to the great discoveries, the false discoveries sometimes stimulate the exiting ideas in theoretical physics. The historical examples of both are described in Introduction and in section 'Cosmological Puzzles'. From existing puzzles most attention is given to Ultra High Energy Cosmic Ray (UHECR) puzzle and to cosmological constant problem. The 40-years old UHECR problem consisted in absence of the sharp steepening in spectrum of extragalactic cosmic rays caused by interaction with CMB radiation. This steepening is known as Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin (GZK) cutoff. It is demonstrated here that the features of interaction of cosmic ray protons with CMB are seen now in the spectrum in the form of the dip and beginning of the GZK cutoff. The most serious cosmological problem is caused by large vacuum energy of the known elementary-particle fields which exceeds at least by 45 orders of magnitude the cosmological vacuum energy. The various ideas put forward to solve this problem during last 40 years, have weaknesses and cannot be accepted as the final solution of this puzzle. The anthropic approach is discussed

  19. Delivering Hubble Discoveries to the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenhamer, B.; Villard, R.; Weaver, D.; Cordes, K.; Knisely, L.

    2013-04-01

    Today's classrooms are significantly influenced by current news events, delivered instantly into the classroom via the Internet. Educators are challenged daily to transform these events into student learning opportunities. In the case of space science, current news events may be the only chance for educators and students to explore the marvels of the Universe. Inspired by these circumstances, the education and news teams developed the Star Witness News science content reading series. These online news stories (also available in downloadable PDF format) mirror the content of Hubble press releases and are designed for upper elementary and middle school level readers to enjoy. Educators can use Star Witness News stories to reinforce students' reading skills while exposing students to the latest Hubble discoveries.

  20. Gideon Mantell and the Discovery of Dinosaurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Dennis R.

    1999-01-01

    Gideon Mantell and the Discovery of Dinosaurs is a scholarly yet accessible biography--the first in a generation--of a pioneering dinosaur hunter and scholar. Gideon Mantell discovered the Iguanodon (a famous tale set right in this book) and several other dinosaur species, spent over twenty-five years restoring Iguanodon fossils, and helped establish the idea of an Age of Reptiles that ended with their extinction at the conclusion of the Mesozoic Era. He had significant interaction with such well-known figures as James Parkinson, Georges Cuvier, Charles Lyell, Roderick Murchison, Charles Darwin, and Richard Owen. Dennis Dean, a well-known scholar of geology and the Victorian era, here places Mantell's career in its cultural context, employing original research in archives throughout the world, including the previously unexamined Mantell family papers in New Zealand.

  1. Financing drug discovery via dynamic leverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montazerhodjat, Vahid; Frishkopf, John J; Lo, Andrew W

    2016-03-01

    We extend the megafund concept for funding drug discovery to enable dynamic leverage in which the portfolio of candidate therapeutic assets is predominantly financed initially by equity, and debt is introduced gradually as assets mature and begin generating cash flows. Leverage is adjusted so as to maintain an approximately constant level of default risk throughout the life of the fund. Numerical simulations show that applying dynamic leverage to a small portfolio of orphan drug candidates can boost the return on equity almost twofold compared with securitization with a static capital structure. Dynamic leverage can also add significant value to comparable all-equity-financed portfolios, enhancing the return on equity without jeopardizing debt performance or increasing risk to equity investors. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Characterization of flaxseed oil emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Pei-En; Choo, Wee-Sim

    2015-07-01

    The emulsifying capacity of surfactants (polysorbate 20, polysorbate 80 and soy lecithin) and proteins (soy protein isolate and whey protein isolate) in flaxseed oil was measured based on 1 % (w/w) of emulsifier. Surfactants showed significantly higher emulsifying capacity compared to the proteins (soy protein isolate and whey protein isolate) in flaxseed oil. The emulsion stability of the flaxseed oil emulsions with whey protein isolate (10 % w/w) prepared using a mixer was ranked in the following order: 1,000 rpm (58 min) ≈ 1,000 rpm (29 min) ≈ 2,000 rpm (35 min) >2,000 rpm (17.5 min). The emulsion stability of the flaxseed oil emulsions with whey protein isolate (10 % w/w) prepared using a homogenizer (Ultra Turrax) was independent of the speed and mixing time. The mean particle size of the flaxseed oil emulsions prepared using the two mixing devices ranged from 23.99 ± 1.34 μm to 47.22 ± 1.99 μm where else the particle size distribution and microstructure of the flaxseed oil emulsions demonstrated using microscopic imaging were quite similar. The flaxseed oil emulsions had a similar apparent viscosity and exhibited shear thinning (pseudoplastic) behavior. The flaxseed oil emulsions had L* value above 70 and was in the red-yellow color region (positive a* and b* values).

  3. Timing and Institutions: Determinants of the Ownership Structure in the Oil and Gas Industry in Canada and Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didier, Thomas

    In response to 1973 oil shock, both the Canadian and Norwegian states expanded public corporate ownership in the oil and gas industry. This thesis questions why the public share of total corporate ownership in the oil industry was greater in Norway than in Canada, and why Petro-Canada was privatized completely while Statoil was not. Two hypotheses are tested from a historical institutionalist perspective. First, the timing of oil development determined whether the private sector would establish itself as the dominant player in the oil and gas industry (in Canada) or not (in Norway) before the 1973 oil shock triggered government interest in public corporate ownership. Second, overlapping jurisdiction over oil resources (in Canada) undermined the effectiveness of mechanisms of reproduction of public corporate ownership. In Norway, the later discovery of oil thus gave the state a stronger bargaining position relative to the oil industry, and in a unitary state the uncontroversial redistributional activities of Statoil attracted more vested interests.

  4. A New Era of Oil Abundance?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoun, Marie-Claire

    2015-09-01

    From 2014 to 2015, the price of oil fell. The price drop is explained by several factors: a significant increase of oil production in the United States, the resumption of Libyan and Iraqi exports, the possible lifting of sanctions against Iran, and slowing growth in developing countries. The situation is having negative effects on oil-producing countries, but the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) remains divided as to its stance on the situation, making it all the more difficult to predict future trends in oil prices. Reprint of an article published in 'Politique Etrangere', vol. 80, no.4, Winter 2015. (author)

  5. A New Era of Oil Abundance?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoun, Marie-Claire

    2015-01-01

    From 2014 to 2015, the price of oil fell. The price drop is explained by several factors: a significant increase of oil production in the United States, the resumption of Libyan and Iraqi exports, the possible lifting of sanctions against Iran, and slowing growth in developing countries. The situation is having negative effects on oil-producing countries, but the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) remains divided as to its stance on the situation, making it all the more difficult to predict future trends in oil prices

  6. Non-Petroleum Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    These include synthetics such as silicone fluids and tung oils, wood-derivative oils such as resin/rosin, animal fats/oil, and seed oils. Many have similar physical properties to petroleum-based, such as water insolubility and formation of slicks.

  7. Oil price fluctuations and the Nigerian economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayadi, O.F.

    2005-01-01

    The single most important issue confronting a growing number of world economies today is the price of oil and its attendant consequences on economic output. Several studies have taken the approach of Hamilton (1983) in investigating the effect of oil price shocks on levels of gross domestic product. The focus of this paper is primarily on the relationship between oil price changes and economic development via industrial production. A vector auto regression model is employed on some macroeconomic variables from 1980 through 2004. The results indicate that oil price changes affect real exchange rates, which, in turn, affect industrial production. However, this indirect effect of oil prices on industrial production is not statistically significant. Therefore, the implication of the results presented in this paper is that an increase in oil prices does not lead to an increase in industrial production in Nigeria. (author)

  8. Oil and influence: the oil weapon examined

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maull, H

    1975-01-01

    The term ''oil weapon'' as used here signifies any manipulation of the price and/or supply of oil by exporting nations with the intention of changing the political behavior of the consumer nations. The political potential of the oil price is fairly restricted so, in effect, the supply interruptions are of prime concern. Manipulating price does, in principle, offer the possibilities of both conferring rewards and inflicting sanctions. Oil could be sold on preferential prices and terms. A precondition for using the oil weapon successfully would be the ability to cause real and serious damage to the consumer countries. Four damaging potentials for using the oil weapon could include its application by: (1) one producer against one consumer; (2) one producer against all consumers; (3) a group of producers against one consumer; and (4) by a group of producers against all consumers. It is concluded that the oil weapon will continue to be a force in the international system. (MCW)

  9. The outlook for crude oil supply and demand in Australia and its energy policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-08-01

    Australia's oil reserves and production have contributed significantly to national economic prosperity and growth since the first large scale discoveries in Bass Strait in the 1960s. As a finite, non-renewable resource, the reserves ultimately must decline. In 1988 the forecast was that Australia's oil production would begin to decline in the mid 1990s and then rapidly tail off by the late 1990s. With this in mind, AMEC Ministers agreed in 1988 that a Working Group should review the energy policy implications of the forecast decline in the production of petroleum. The Working Group's findings are presented in this booklet. Chapter 2 examines the outlook for demand for petroleum products in Australia until 2005. This Chapter is based on current Australian Bureau of Agricultural and Resource Economics (ABARE) forecasts as well as savings in fuel demand that are potentially available from fuel efficiency and fuel switching measures. Chapter 3, which includes BMR's recently revised petroleum production forecasts, looks at the outlook for crude oil and condensate production, also to 2005. Chapter 4 discusses the range of government initiatives already in place to foster the efficient exploration and production of petroleum in Australia. This Chapter also examines the outlook for Australian alternative liquid fuels. Chapter 5, which is based on analysis by ABARE, broadly examines the possible macroeconomic implications of declining oil production for Australia while Chapter 6 examines the issue of energy security and in particular its relationship with oil self sufficiency. Finally, Chapter 7 identifies some energy policy considerations and recommendations arising out of the Working Group's analysis. 7 tabs, 3 figs

  10. A review of shape memory material’s applications in the offshore oil and gas industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Devendra; Song, Gangbing

    2017-09-01

    The continuously increasing demand for oil and gas and the depleting number of new large reservoir discoveries have made it necessary for the oil and gas industry to investigate and design new, improved technologies that unlock new sources of energy and squeeze more from existing resources. Shape memory materials (SMM), with their remarkable properties such as the shape memory effect (SME), corrosion resistance, and superelasticity have shown great potential to meet these demands by significantly improving the functionality and durability of offshore systems. Shape memory alloy (SMA) and shape memory polymer (SMP) are two types of most commonly used SMM’s and are ideally suited for use over a range of robust engineering applications found within the oil and gas industry, such as deepwater actuators, valves, underwater connectors, seals, self-torqueing fasteners and sand management. The potential high strain and high force output of the SME of SMA can be harnessed to create a lightweight, solid state alternative to conventional hydraulic, pneumatic or motor based actuator systems. The phase transformation property enables the SMA to withstand erosive stresses, which is useful for minimizing the effect of erosion often experienced by downhole devices. The superelasticity of the SMA provides good energy dissipation, and can overcome the various defects and limitations suffered by conventional passive damping methods. The higher strain recovery during SME makes SMP ideal for developments of packers and sand management in downhole. The increasing number of SMM related research papers and patents from oil and gas industry indicate the growing research interest of the industry to implement SMM in offshore applications. This paper reviews the recent developments and applications of SMM in the offshore oil and gas industry.

  11. The discovery of radioactivity: the centenary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patil, S.K.

    1995-01-01

    In the last decade of the nineteenth century, a number of fundamental discoveries of outstanding importance were made unexpectedly which marked the beginning of a new era in physics. A cascade of spectacular discoveries began with the announcement of the discovery of x-rays by Roentgen followed by the discoveries, in quick succession, of radioactivity by Becquerel, of Zeeman effect, of electron by J.J. Thomson, and of polonium and radium by the Curies. Both x-rays and radioactivity have wide applications in scientific, medical and industrial fields and have made outstanding contribution to the advancement of human knowledge and welfare. Radioactivity is well known and no other discovery in the field of physics or chemistry has had a more profound effect on our fundamental knowledge of nature. Present article, on the occasion of the centenary of the discovery of radioactivity, makes an attempt to describe some glimpses of the history of radioactivity. (author). 59 refs

  12. Oil and gas business in changing times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brasoveanu Sergiu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The top 5 oil majors (British Petroleum, ExxonMobil, Total, Chevron and Royal Dutch Shell are analyzed in terms of investments, earnings and financial & operational performance along the entire business value chain, for a period of 5 years. One of the key objectives is to understand how the Upstream and Downstream segments may play different roles in the definition of a winning corporate strategy, considering how they may reveal very different strengths and weaknesses during crude oil price crises. When the crude oil price goes down, the upstream sector is running big cost cutting measures, in order to reduce expenditures and keep acceptable gross margins per barrel of oil equivalent. On the other hand, the downstream segment receives cheaper raw material without a significant decrease in the final price of the oil products. Thus, how can oil companies leverage this flexibility in order to pass successfully through periods of crude oil price slides, and even take advantage of those? The paper aims to analyze the correlation between oil price and oil volume produced on one hand, and investments and earnings, split by business segments, on the other hand. The variation of investment and earnings is hence compared to crude oil price fluctuations for a clearer picture of the business profitability per segment during the peak and bottom periods of the oil market. Upstream and Downstream segments are also benchmarked against each other to understand the role that each of them is playing in the industry. The results are expected to provide some trend lines to understand how much the cost cutting measures are impacting the overall business, as well as to appreciate whether the reduction in the oil production, which in theory should be followed by a rise in prices, is indeed in the best interest of the oil majors. Going further into analysis, the paper is trying to define an optimum production interval, that will maximize profits along the entire value

  13. Oil in Syria between Terrorism and Dictatorship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein Almohamad

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The sale of oil and gas is one of the most important components of the Syrian economy. Unfortunately, since the discovery of these resources, the Syrian people have not benefited from the revenues earned. This study deals with the development of oil and gas production and the geographical distribution of fields, as well as production control, deterioration of production, refining and selling mechanisms, and the resulting health and environmental impacts following Islamic State’s (IS control of the majority of oilfields in Syria. Since summer 2015, IS controls 80% of the fields with a production of 65,000 barrels per day (b/d; the Assad regime controls 8% of fields with 10,000 b/d; and Kurdish forces dominate the remaining 12% with 25,000 b/d. IS depends on oil as a major source of financing for its military and civilian activities, and has also managed to set up an extensive network of middlemen in neighbouring territories and countries, with the aim of trading crude oil for cash and other resources. IS produces and exports within its areas of control and sells part of the oil to the Assad regime, and another portion to the liberated areas, as well as to Iraq and Turkey.

  14. Mineral oil hydrocarbons in food - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grob, Koni

    2018-06-12

    Work on mineral oil hydrocarbons (MOH) contaminating food is reviewed up to about 2010, when the subject received broad publicity. It covers the period of the main discoveries and elimination or reduction of the dominant sources: release agents used in industrial bakeries, spraying of rice, additions to animal feed, contamination of edible oils from various sources and migration from paperboard packaging. In most cases highly refined ("white") oils were involved, but also technical oils, e.g. from the environment, and more or less crude oil fractions from jute and sisal bags. There were numerous unexpected sources, and there might still be more of those. The exposure of the consumers to MOH must have been markedly reduced in the meantime. Environmental influx may have become dominant, particularly when taking into account that these MOH go through several degradation processes which might enrich the species resisting metabolic elimination. Major gaps are in the systematic investigation of sources and the largely unavoidable levels from environmental contamination, but also in the toxicological evaluation of the various types of hydrocarbons. A regulation is overdue that avoids the present discrepancy between the low tolerance to MOH perceived as contaminants and the very high legal limits for some applications - the MOH are largely the same.

  15. Development and utilization of sunflower genotypes with altered oil quality

    OpenAIRE

    Cvejić, Sandra; Jocić, Siniša; Miladinović, Dragana; Jocković, Milan; Imerovski, Ivana; Sakač, Zvonimir; Miklič, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    Sunflower oil is among the highest quality oils of plant origin. The oil of standard sunflowers has an average of 10% saturated fatty acids, 20-30% oleic acid and 60-70% linoleic acid. The total content of tocopherols in standard sunflower oil is 700-1000 mg/kg with the predominant being alpha-tocopherol (vitamin-E). Following the trends of the food and non-food industries sunflower breeders have been able to significantly change the fatty acid composition of the oil. The oil of high-oleic hy...

  16. Deterioration of edible oils during food processing by ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemat, F; Grondin, I; Shum Cheong Sing, A; Smadja, J

    2004-01-01

    During food emulsification and processing of sunflower oil (most used edible oil), a metallic and rancid odour has been detected only for insonated oil and foods. Some off-flavour compounds (hexanal and hept-2-enal) resulting from the sono-degradation of sunflower oil have been identified. A wide variety of analytical techniques (GC determination of fatty acids, UV spectroscopy, free fatty acids and GC/MS) were used to follow the quality of insonated sunflower oil and emulsion. Different edible oils (olive, sunflower, soybean, em leader ) show significant changes in their composition (chemical and flavour) due to ultrasound treatment.

  17. Shares, gaps and the economy's response to oil disruptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huntington, Hillard G.

    2004-01-01

    Most previous studies have focused on whether oil price shocks cause economic recessions but fewer studies have investigated whether the impact of an oil price shock can be different under alternative economic conditions. Using an international data set of industrialized economies, this paper explores whether an economy relying more on oil or operating closer to full employment may be more vulnerable to an oil disruption. Although the results for oil dependence are ambiguous, the analysis does find a significant relationship between the impacts of an oil shock and how closely the economy is operating to its full-employment level prior to the disruption. (Author)

  18. Intrastate conflict in oil producing states: A threat to global oil supply?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toft, Peter, E-mail: peter.toft@ec.europa.eu [Institute for Energy, Joint Research Centre of the European Commission, Westerduinweg 3, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands)

    2011-11-15

    In this paper I investigate how often and how much outbreaks of intrastate conflict in oil producing states translates into oil supply shortfalls. The Libyan conflict that broke out in February 2011 highlighted the fear that intrastate conflict in oil producing states may imply shortfalls and ensuing volatile global oil prices. I argue, however, that it is far from certain that shortfalls following conflict outbreak will occur, since both sides in a conflict face incentives simultaneously to protect and maintain oil installations and to strike and destroy these. Based on a quantitative analysis of 39 intrastate wars in oil producing countries (1965-2007) I conclude that outbreak of conflict does not translate into production decline with any certainty. In fact, likelihoods are less than 50% for reductions to occur. In many cases growing production actually followed conflict outbreak. I conclude by investigating four characteristics of intrastate conflict that may explain when oil production is at risk during conflict: (1) proximity of oil producing fields to key battle zones, (2) duration of conflict, (3) separatism and the location of oil in separatist territory, and (4) the relative size of oil production. While the first three factors did not prove important, oil producer size could be significant. But further research is needed to establish this with greater certainty. - Highlights: > Oil shortfall during intrastate conflict is not a given. > Statistical analysis of 39 intrastate conflicts in oil producing countries since 1965. > Examination of four characteristics of intrastate conflict in oil producing countries. > Marginal significance related to large producers and production shortfall.

  19. Intrastate conflict in oil producing states: A threat to global oil supply?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toft, Peter

    2011-01-01

    In this paper I investigate how often and how much outbreaks of intrastate conflict in oil producing states translates into oil supply shortfalls. The Libyan conflict that broke out in February 2011 highlighted the fear that intrastate conflict in oil producing states may imply shortfalls and ensuing volatile global oil prices. I argue, however, that it is far from certain that shortfalls following conflict outbreak will occur, since both sides in a conflict face incentives simultaneously to protect and maintain oil installations and to strike and destroy these. Based on a quantitative analysis of 39 intrastate wars in oil producing countries (1965-2007) I conclude that outbreak of conflict does not translate into production decline with any certainty. In fact, likelihoods are less than 50% for reductions to occur. In many cases growing production actually followed conflict outbreak. I conclude by investigating four characteristics of intrastate conflict that may explain when oil production is at risk during conflict: (1) proximity of oil producing fields to key battle zones, (2) duration of conflict, (3) separatism and the location of oil in separatist territory, and (4) the relative size of oil production. While the first three factors did not prove important, oil producer size could be significant. But further research is needed to establish this with greater certainty. - Highlights: → Oil shortfall during intrastate conflict is not a given. → Statistical analysis of 39 intrastate conflicts in oil producing countries since 1965. → Examination of four characteristics of intrastate conflict in oil producing countries. → Marginal significance related to large producers and production shortfall.

  20. Neptune's Discovery: Le Verrier, Adams, and the Assignment of Credit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, William

    2011-01-01

    As one of the most significant achievements of 19th century astronomy, the discovery of Neptune has been the subject of a vast literature. A large part of this literature--beginning with the period immediately after the optical discovery in Berlin--has been the obsession with assigning credit to the two men who attempted to calculate the planet's position (and initially this played out against the international rivalry between France and England). Le Verrier and Adams occupied much different positions in the Scientific Establishments of their respective countries; had markedly different personalities; and approached the investigation using different methods. A psychiatrist and historian of astronomy tries to provide some new contexts to the familiar story of the discovery of Neptune, and argues that the personalities of these two men played crucial roles in their approaches to the problem they set themselves and the way others reacted to their stimuli. Adams had features of high-functioning autism, while Le Verrier's domineering, obsessive, orderly personality--though it allowed him to be immensely productive--eventually led to serious difficulties with his peers (and an outright revolt). Though it took extraordinary smarts to calculate the position of Neptune, the discovery required social skills that these men lacked--and thus the process to discovery was more bumbling and adventitious than it might have been. The discovery of Neptune occurred at a moment when astronomy was changing from that of heroic individuals to team collaborations involving multiple experts, and remains an object lesson in the sociological aspects of scientific endeavor.