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Sample records for significant negative trends

  1. The strategic significance of negative externalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    Negative externalities have competitive relevance in a market when they have selective impacts as, for : example, when a product in use imposes greater costs on consumers of rival products than on other people. : Because managers have discretion ...

  2. Clinical Significance of CK19 Negative Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuyuki Arima

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs by means of One-Step Nucleic Acid Amplification (OSNA is gaining widespread use as a quick and accurate method. This assay detects the expression level of cytokeratin 19 (CK19 which is present in some but not all breast tumors. In this study, the clinical significance of negative CK19 was investigated in 219 cases of primary breast cancer. In 179 patients with clinically negative nodes, OSNA and imprint smear cytology of SLN were performed simultaneously. The OSNA revealed a node-positive rate of 24.6%. Negative CK19 correlated significantly with negative ER/PgR and higher Ki-67 values, and marginally with higher nuclear grade and p53 overexpression. The triple negative subtype showed lower CK19 expression. OSNA revealed that one of the negative CK19 cases was actually a false negative but this was corrected with the use of the imprint smear cytology. In conclusion, CK19 negativity reflected the aggressiveness of primary breast cancer. OSNA assay used to analyze SLN was useful, but there is a possibility that it will mistakenly detect false negatives in CK19 negative tumors. Therefore, in tumors with negative CK19, the imprint smear cytology may be more useful in cases with macrometastasis.

  3. Clinical Significance of CK19 Negative Breast Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujisue, Mamiko; Nishimura, Reiki; Okumura, Yasuhiro; Tashima, Rumiko; Nishiyama, Yasuyuki; Osako, Tomofumi; Toyozumi, Yasuo; Arima, Nobuyuki

    2012-01-01

    Analysis of sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) by means of One-Step Nucleic Acid Amplification (OSNA) is gaining widespread use as a quick and accurate method. This assay detects the expression level of cytokeratin 19 (CK19) which is present in some but not all breast tumors. In this study, the clinical significance of negative CK19 was investigated in 219 cases of primary breast cancer. In 179 patients with clinically negative nodes, OSNA and imprint smear cytology of SLN were performed simultaneously. The OSNA revealed a node-positive rate of 24.6%. Negative CK19 correlated significantly with negative ER/PgR and higher Ki-67 values, and marginally with higher nuclear grade and p53 overexpression. The triple negative subtype showed lower CK19 expression. OSNA revealed that one of the negative CK19 cases was actually a false negative but this was corrected with the use of the imprint smear cytology. In conclusion, CK19 negativity reflected the aggressiveness of primary breast cancer. OSNA assay used to analyze SLN was useful, but there is a possibility that it will mistakenly detect false negatives in CK19 negative tumors. Therefore, in tumors with negative CK19, the imprint smear cytology may be more useful in cases with macrometastasis

  4. Clinical Significance of CK19 Negative Breast Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujisue, Mamiko, E-mail: nishimura.reiki@cityhosp-kumamoto.jp; Nishimura, Reiki; Okumura, Yasuhiro [Department of Breast and Endocrine Surgery, Kumamoto City Hospital, 1-1-60 Kotoh, Kumamoto City, Kumamoto 862-8505 (Japan); Tashima, Rumiko [Department of Surgery, Kumamoto City Hospital, 1-1-60 Kotoh, Kumamoto City, Kumamoto 862-8505 (Japan); Nishiyama, Yasuyuki; Osako, Tomofumi [Department of Breast and Endocrine Surgery, Kumamoto City Hospital, 1-1-60 Kotoh, Kumamoto City, Kumamoto 862-8505 (Japan); Toyozumi, Yasuo; Arima, Nobuyuki [Department of Pathology, Kumamoto City Hospital, 1-1-60 Kotoh, Kumamoto City, Kumamoto 862-8505 (Japan)

    2012-12-21

    Analysis of sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) by means of One-Step Nucleic Acid Amplification (OSNA) is gaining widespread use as a quick and accurate method. This assay detects the expression level of cytokeratin 19 (CK19) which is present in some but not all breast tumors. In this study, the clinical significance of negative CK19 was investigated in 219 cases of primary breast cancer. In 179 patients with clinically negative nodes, OSNA and imprint smear cytology of SLN were performed simultaneously. The OSNA revealed a node-positive rate of 24.6%. Negative CK19 correlated significantly with negative ER/PgR and higher Ki-67 values, and marginally with higher nuclear grade and p53 overexpression. The triple negative subtype showed lower CK19 expression. OSNA revealed that one of the negative CK19 cases was actually a false negative but this was corrected with the use of the imprint smear cytology. In conclusion, CK19 negativity reflected the aggressiveness of primary breast cancer. OSNA assay used to analyze SLN was useful, but there is a possibility that it will mistakenly detect false negatives in CK19 negative tumors. Therefore, in tumors with negative CK19, the imprint smear cytology may be more useful in cases with macrometastasis.

  5. Trends of significant operating events in assessing programmatic issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanning, W.D.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes one part of the U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) program for evaluating significant events and the process for identifying trends that may be indicative of programmatic weaknesses at operating nuclear power plants. A database management system was developed to permit analyses of significant operating events, events of potential safety significance, and certain reactor scrams. The analyses were based on events and problems reported by telephone to the NRC by licensees within hours of the events and, therefore, provided current operational data trend information. The regulatory requirements for reporting significant events, the screening criteria, and the process for identifying outliers for formal evaluation are described herein. This process contributed to an understanding of the underlying causes for events and problems. Examples are included of operating experience assessments that identified plants with a poor operating experience history that was attributable to procedural inadequacies, operator training deficiencies, inadequate root cause analysis, and inadequate control and planning of activities

  6. The clinicopathologic characteristics and prognostic significance of triple-negativity in node-negative breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhee, Jiyoung; Kim, Tae-You; Han, Sae-Won; Oh, Do-Youn; Kim, Jee Hyun; Im, Seock-Ah; Han, Wonshik; Ae Park, In; Noh, Dong-Young; Bang, Yung-Jue

    2008-01-01

    Triple-negative (TN) breast cancer, which is defined as being negative for the estrogen receptor (ER), the progesterone receptor (PR), and the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2), represents a subset of breast cancer with different biologic behaviour. We investigated the clinicopathologic characteristics and prognostic indicators of lymph node-negative TN breast cancer. Medical records were reviewed from patients with node-negative breast cancer who underwent curative surgery at Seoul National University Hospital between Jan. 2000 and Jun. 2003. Clinicopathologic variables and clinical outcomes were evaluated. Among 683 patients included, 136 had TN breast cancer and 529 had non-TN breast cancer. TN breast cancer correlated with younger age (< 35 y, p = 0.003), and higher histologic and nuclear grade (p < 0.001). It also correlated with a molecular profile associated with biological aggressiveness: negative for bcl-2 expression (p < 0.001), positive for the epidermal growth factor receptor (p = 0.003), and a high level of p53 (p < 0.001) and Ki67 expression (p < 0.00). The relapse rates during the follow-up period (median, 56.8 months) were 14.7% for TN breast cancer and 6.6% for non-TN breast cancer (p = 0.004). Relapse free survival (RFS) was significantly shorter among patients with TN breast cancer compared with those with non-TN breast cancer (4-year RFS rate 85.5% vs. 94.2%, respectively; p = 0.001). On multivariate analysis, young age, close resection margin, and triple-negativity were independent predictors of shorter RFS. TN breast cancer had higher relapse rate and more aggressive clinicopathologic characteristics than non-TN in node-negative breast cancer. Thus, TN breast cancer should be integrated into the risk factor analysis for node-negative breast cancer

  7. The impact of North Atlantic wind and cyclone trends on European precipitation and significant wave height in the Atlantic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trigo, Ricardo M; Valente, Maria A; Trigo, Isabel F; Miranda, Pedro M A; Ramos, Alexandre M; Paredes, Daniel; García-Herrera, Ricardo

    2008-12-01

    An analysis of the frequency of cyclones and surface wind velocity for the Euro-Atlantic sector is performed by means of an objective methodology. Monthly and seasonal trends of cyclones and wind speed magnitude are computed and trends between 1960 and 2000 evaluated. Results reveal a significant frequency decrease (increase) in the western Mediterranean (Greenland and Scandinavia), particularly in December, February, and March. Seasonal and monthly analysis of wind magnitude trends shows similar spatial patterns. We show that these changes in the frequency of low-pressure centers and the associated wind patterns are partially responsible for trends in the significant height of waves. Throughout the extended winter months (October-March), regions with positive (negative) wind magnitude trends, of up to 5 cm/s/year, often correspond to regions of positive (negative) significant wave height trends. The cyclone and wind speed trends computed for January-March are well matched by the corresponding trends in significant wave height, with February being the month with the highest trends (negative south of lat 50 degrees N up to -3 cm/year, and positive up to 5 cm/year just north of Scotland). Trends in European precipitation are assessed using the Climatic Research Unit data set. The results of the assessment emphasize the link with the corresponding tendencies of cyclone frequencies. Finally, it is shown that these changes are associated, to a large extent, with the preferred phases of major large-scale atmospheric circulation modes, particularly with the North Atlantic Oscillation, the eastern Atlantic pattern, and the Scandinavian pattern.

  8. Statistical significance of trends in monthly heavy precipitation over the US

    KAUST Repository

    Mahajan, Salil

    2011-05-11

    Trends in monthly heavy precipitation, defined by a return period of one year, are assessed for statistical significance in observations and Global Climate Model (GCM) simulations over the contiguous United States using Monte Carlo non-parametric and parametric bootstrapping techniques. The results from the two Monte Carlo approaches are found to be similar to each other, and also to the traditional non-parametric Kendall\\'s τ test, implying the robustness of the approach. Two different observational data-sets are employed to test for trends in monthly heavy precipitation and are found to exhibit consistent results. Both data-sets demonstrate upward trends, one of which is found to be statistically significant at the 95% confidence level. Upward trends similar to observations are observed in some climate model simulations of the twentieth century, but their statistical significance is marginal. For projections of the twenty-first century, a statistically significant upwards trend is observed in most of the climate models analyzed. The change in the simulated precipitation variance appears to be more important in the twenty-first century projections than changes in the mean precipitation. Stochastic fluctuations of the climate-system are found to be dominate monthly heavy precipitation as some GCM simulations show a downwards trend even in the twenty-first century projections when the greenhouse gas forcings are strong. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

  9. Negative trends for in utero Chernobyl exposure and early childhood leukaemia in Western Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkart, W.; Steiner, M.; Grosche, B.; Kaletsch, U.; Michaelis, J.

    1997-01-01

    A recent report in Nature linked increased incidence of early infant leukaemia in Greece with 137 Cs fallout density, attributing the effect to an increased in utero exposure to ionizing radiation from the Chernobyl accident. As a validation exercise in a similarly affected region, we performed an analysis based on the data of the Childhood Cancer Registry for Western Germany. Using the same definitions as Petridou et al. we also observed an increased incidence of infant leukaemia in a cohort of children who were born after the Chernobyl accident. More detailed analyses of embryonic/foetal doses regarding areas of different contamination levels and dose rate gradients with time since the accident showed non-significant negative trends with exposure. Therefore, we conclude that the observed effect was not caused by exposure to ionizing radiation due to the Chernobyl accident. Dosimetric considerations per se, based on careful assessment of in utero doses in three different exposure categories, show doses much too small relative to natural radiation exposures to account for a significant effect on leukaemia rates. (author)

  10. Publication Trend of Clinical Trials with Negative Results Funded by Pharmaceutical Industries for the 2007-2012 Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evert A. Jiménez-Cotes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Objective: To evaluate the results of clinical trials financed by the pharmaceutical industries during the period 2007-2012 in a general medical journal. Materials and methods: We performed an observational cross sectional study where originals clinical trials financed by the pharmaceutical industry published between 2007 and 2012 in the journal The New England Journal of Medicine (http://www.nejm.org were reviewed. Trend Chi2 test was used to evaluate the results of studies over the years. A database was created with different variables, identifying the number of publications and the period of greater publishing negatives studies, as well as the medical specialty and pharmaceutical industry funding. Results: 321 clinical trials were analyzed. The Odds Ratio was calculated for each year evaluated, finding a Chi2 of linear trend in negatives studies of 2.91 with value p 0.08 and positive studies of 1.16 with value p 0.28. It was found that in the period 2007-2009 123 studies were published, 40 % of which presented negative results; unlike the 2010-2012 period in which 198 clinical trials where published, 142 of them, showed positive results, OR 1.68, 95 % CI (1.02-2.78 value p 0.03. The highest figures of negative results were published in 2007: 44.7 %. Conclusions: A progressive decrease in the number of publications with annual general negative results has been observed. A statistically significant difference in the publication of negative studies per year was not found between the periods 2007-2012. The medical specialty that showed the largest number of total and negative publications in both periods was cardiology. The pharmaceutical industry that sponsored most total clinical trials with negative results in both periods did so through Merck, Glaxo SmithKline, and Sanofi-Aventis. 50% of neurology publications showed negative results.

  11. Divergent estrogen receptor-positive and -negative breast cancer trends and etiologic heterogeneity in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anderson, William F; Rosenberg, Philip S; Petito, Lucia

    2013-01-01

    -period-cohort models to estimate age-specific EAPCs, cohort rate ratios and projections for future time periods (2011-2018). In Denmark, the overall rate of ER-positive cancers rose between 1993 and 2010 by 3.0% per year (95% CI: 2.8-3.3% per year), whereas the overall rate of ER-negative cancers fell by 2.1% per year...... (95% CI: -2.5 to -1.6% per year). The ER-positive rate increased fastest among postmenopausal women and the ER-negative rate decreased fastest among premenopausal women, reflecting that cohorts born after 1944 were at relatively higher risk of ER-positive tumors and lower risk of ER-negative tumors......Long-term breast cancer trends in incidence in the United States (US) show rising estrogen receptor (ER)-positive rates and falling ER-negative rates. We hypothesized that these divergent trends reflect etiologic heterogeneity and that comparable trends should be observed in other countries...

  12. Trends of 9,416 multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria

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    Viviane Decicera Colombo Oliveira

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Summary Objective: a resistance of hospital-acquired bacteria to multiple antibiotics is a major concern worldwide. The objective of this study was to investigate multidrugresistant (MDR bacteria, clinical specimens, origin of specimen and trends, and correlate these with bacterial sensitivity and consumption of antimicrobials. Methods: 9,416 bacteria of nosocomial origin were evaluated in a tertiary hospital, from 1999 to 2008. MDR was defined for Gram-negative bacteria (GNB as resistance to two or more classes/groups of antibiotics. Results: GNB MDR increased by 3.7 times over the study period (p<0.001. Acinetobacter baumannii was the most prevalent (36.2%. Over the study period, there were significant 4.8-fold and 14.6-fold increases for A. baumannii and K. pneumoniae (p<0.001, respectively. Sixty-seven percent of isolates of MDR GNB were isolated in intensive care units. The resistance of A. baumannii to carbapenems increased from 7.4 to 57.5% during the study period and concomitant with an increased consumption. Conclusion: that decade showed prevalence of GNB and a gradual increase in MDR GNB. There was an increase in carbapenem resistance of 50.1% during the study.

  13. Evolving trends: hyperbilirubinemia among newborns delivered to rh negative mothers in southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    N, Girish; S, Santosh; Sr, Keshavamurthy

    2013-11-01

    Neonatal jaundice is the commonest abnormal physical finding in the new born nursery and hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN) among babies born to Rh negative mothers is the most formidable etiology. During last few decades considerable evolution has been observed in this entity secondary to development of several novel preventive, diagnostic and therapeutic modalities. To study the current trends in presentation, management and outcome of hyperbilirubinemia among newborns delivered to Rh negative mothers. This observational descriptive study with prospective data collection included one hundred live born term babies born to Rh negative mothers in our hospital. A predesigned proforma was used to record antenatal and postnatal data .Cord blood collected during delivery for assessment of bilirubin,hematocrit and direct coombs test.Serum bilirubin levels were estimated in babies with clinical jaundice and treated for the same if required.All babies were regularly followed up weekly for one month. Chi square test/Fisher Exact test and Student "t" test has been used to find the significant association of jaundice(incidence,treatment) and study characteristics. Out of 100 babies enrolled, 57 babies developed jaundice. Jaundice is 2.7 times more likely associated with babies born to multiparous Rh-ve mothers with p=0.017*. Jaundice is 3 times more likely associated with Rh+ve babies born to multiparous mothers with p=0.020*. Jaundice is 3.97 times more likely associated with Rh+ve babies born to multiparous mothers who have not received Anti-D with p=0.154. Treatment of jaundice is 2.75 times more likely in Rh+ve babies born to multiparous mothers who have not received Anti-D with p=0.162. Duration of phototherapy is significantly more in Rh+ve babies born to multiparous mothers who had not received Anti-D with p=0.0097*.Exchange transfusion was required in two babies. Although the incidence of Rh isoimmunization has declined dramatically over the years ,it is still an

  14. Global trends in significant wave height and marine wind speed from the ERA-20CM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarnes, Ole Johan; Breivik, Øyvind

    2016-04-01

    The ERA-20CM is one of the latest additions to the ERA-series produced at the European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). This 10 member ensemble is generated with a version of the Integrated Forecast System (IFS), a coupled atmosphere-wave model. The model integration is run as a AMIP (Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project) constrained by CMIP5 recommended radiative forcing and different realizations of sea-surface temperature (SST) and sea-ice cover (SIC) prescribed by the HadISST2 (Met Office Hadley Center). While the ERA-20CM is unable to reproduce the actual synoptic conditions, it is designed to offer a realistic statistical representation of the past climate, spanning the period 1899-2010. In this study we investigate global trends in significant wave height and marine wind speed based on ERA-20CM, using monthly mean data, upper percentiles and monthly/annual maxima. The aim of the study is to assess the quality of the trends and how these estimates are affected by different SST and SIC. Global trends are compared against corresponding estimates obtained with ERA-Interim (1979-2009), but also crosschecked against ERA-20C - an ECMWF pilot reanalysis of the 20th-century, known to most trustworthy in the Northern Hemisphere extratropics. Over the period 1900-2009, the 10 member ensemble yields trends mainly within +/- 5% per century. However, significant trends of opposite signs are found locally. Certain areas, like the eastern equatorial Pacific, highly affected by the El Niño Southern Oscillation, show stronger trends. In general, trends based on statistical quantities further into the tail of the distribution are found less reliable.

  15. Resistance trends in gram-negative bacteria: surveillance results from two Mexican hospitals, 2005–2010

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    Morfin-Otero Rayo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hospital-acquired infections caused by multiresistant gram-negative bacteria are difficult to treat and cause high rates of morbidity and mortality. The analysis of antimicrobial resistance trends of gram-negative pathogens isolated from hospital-acquired infections is important for the development of antimicrobial stewardship programs. The information obtained from antimicrobial resistant programs from two hospitals from Mexico will be helpful in the selection of empiric therapy for hospital-acquired gram-negative infections. Findings Two thousand one hundred thirty two gram-negative bacteria collected between January 2005 and December 2010 from hospital-acquired infections occurring in two teaching hospitals in Mexico were evaluated. Escherichia coli was the most frequently isolated gram-negative bacteria, with >50% of strains resistant to ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin. Klebsiella spp. showed resistance rates similar to Escherichia coli for ceftazidime (33.1% vs 33.2%, but exhibited lower rates for levofloxacin (18.2% vs 56%. Of the samples collected for the third most common gram-negative bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, >12.8% were resistant to the carbapenems, imipenem and meropenem. The highest overall resistance was found in Acinetobacter spp. Enterobacter spp. showed high susceptibility to carbapenems. Conclusions E. coli was the most common nosocomial gram-negative bacilli isolated in this study and was found to have the second-highest resistance to fluoroquinolones (>57.9%, after Acinetobacter spp. 81.2%. This finding represents a disturbing development in a common nosocomial and community pathogen.

  16. Examining National Trends in Educational Placements for Students with Significant Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morningstar, Mary E.; Kurth, Jennifer A.; Johnson, Paul E.

    2017-01-01

    Using the least restrictive environments (LRE) data from annual "Reports to Congress," this study examined national trends in placement between 2000 and 2014 for school-aged students considered to have significant disabilities from among the categories of autism (ASD), intellectual disability (ID), multiple disabilities (MD), and…

  17. Future role and significance of space activities in reflection of global social, technological and economic trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diekmann, Andreas; Richarz, Hans.-Peter

    The paper describes the interrelation of space activities and global socio-economic trends like "globalisation of markets" and "renaissance of fine arts". The interrelation reveals the economic strategic, technological and scientific dimension of space activities and their benefits to mankind. Then, the significance and perspectives of space activities in these dimensions are examined in more detail. The paper calls (1) for a more visible initiative to employ space activities to tackle urgent questions of global change and development, and (2) for a stronger impetus to secure European economic position in space sector as a key industry of the 21st century.

  18. Androgen Receptor Expression in Early Triple-Negative Breast Cancer: Clinical Significance and Prognostic Associations

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    Mirco Pistelli

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Triple-negative breast cancers (TNBC are characterized by aggressive tumour biology resulting in a poor prognosis. Androgen receptor (AR is one of newly emerging biomarker in TNBC. In recent years, ARs have been demonstrated to play an important role in the genesis and in the development of breast cancer, although their prognostic role is still debated. In the present study, we explored the correlation of AR expression with clinical, pathological and molecular features and its impact on prognosis in early TNBC. Patients and Methods: ARs were considered positive in case of tumors with >10% nuclear-stained. Survival distribution was estimated by the Kaplan Meier method. The univariate and multivariate analyses were performed. The difference among variables were calculated by chi-square test. Results: 81 TNBC patients diagnosed between January 2006 and December 2011 were included in the analysis. Slides were stained immunohistochemically for estrogen and progesterone receptors, HER-2, Ki-67, ALDH1, e-cadherin and AR. Of the 81 TNBC samples, 18.8% showed positive immunostaining for AR, 23.5% and 44.4% of patients were negative for e-cadherin and ALDH1, respectively. Positive AR immunostaining was inversely correlated with a higher Ki-67 (p < 0.0001 and a lympho-vascular invasion (p = 0.01, but no other variables. Univariate survival analysis revealed that AR expression was not associated with disease-free survival (p = 0.72 or overall survival (p = 0.93. Conclusions: The expression of AR is associated with some biological features of TNBC, such as Ki-67 and lympho-vascular invasion; nevertheless the prognostic significance of AR was not documented in our analysis. However, since ARs are expressed in a significant number of TNBC, prospective studies in order to determine the biological mechanisms and their potential role as novel treatment target.

  19. Androgen Receptor Expression in Early Triple-Negative Breast Cancer: Clinical Significance and Prognostic Associations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pistelli, Mirco, E-mail: mirco.pistelli@alice.it; Caramanti, Miriam [Clinica di Oncologia Medica, AO Ospedali Riuniti-Ancona, Università Politecnica delle Marche, Ancona 60020 (Italy); Biscotti, Tommasina; Santinelli, Alfredo [Anatomia Patologica, AO Ospedali Riuniti-Ancona, Università Politecnica delle Marche, Ancona 60020 (Italy); Pagliacci, Alessandra; De Lisa, Mariagrazia; Ballatore, Zelmira; Ridolfi, Francesca; Maccaroni, Elena; Bracci, Raffaella; Berardi, Rossana; Battelli, Nicola; Cascinu, Stefano [Clinica di Oncologia Medica, AO Ospedali Riuniti-Ancona, Università Politecnica delle Marche, Ancona 60020 (Italy)

    2014-06-27

    Background: Triple-negative breast cancers (TNBC) are characterized by aggressive tumour biology resulting in a poor prognosis. Androgen receptor (AR) is one of newly emerging biomarker in TNBC. In recent years, ARs have been demonstrated to play an important role in the genesis and in the development of breast cancer, although their prognostic role is still debated. In the present study, we explored the correlation of AR expression with clinical, pathological and molecular features and its impact on prognosis in early TNBC. Patients and Methods: ARs were considered positive in case of tumors with >10% nuclear-stained. Survival distribution was estimated by the Kaplan Meier method. The univariate and multivariate analyses were performed. The difference among variables were calculated by chi-square test. Results: 81 TNBC patients diagnosed between January 2006 and December 2011 were included in the analysis. Slides were stained immunohistochemically for estrogen and progesterone receptors, HER-2, Ki-67, ALDH1, e-cadherin and AR. Of the 81 TNBC samples, 18.8% showed positive immunostaining for AR, 23.5% and 44.4% of patients were negative for e-cadherin and ALDH1, respectively. Positive AR immunostaining was inversely correlated with a higher Ki-67 (p < 0.0001) and a lympho-vascular invasion (p = 0.01), but no other variables. Univariate survival analysis revealed that AR expression was not associated with disease-free survival (p = 0.72) or overall survival (p = 0.93). Conclusions: The expression of AR is associated with some biological features of TNBC, such as Ki-67 and lympho-vascular invasion; nevertheless the prognostic significance of AR was not documented in our analysis. However, since ARs are expressed in a significant number of TNBC, prospective studies in order to determine the biological mechanisms and their potential role as novel treatment target.

  20. Androgen Receptor Expression in Early Triple-Negative Breast Cancer: Clinical Significance and Prognostic Associations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pistelli, Mirco; Caramanti, Miriam; Biscotti, Tommasina; Santinelli, Alfredo; Pagliacci, Alessandra; De Lisa, Mariagrazia; Ballatore, Zelmira; Ridolfi, Francesca; Maccaroni, Elena; Bracci, Raffaella; Berardi, Rossana; Battelli, Nicola; Cascinu, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    Background: Triple-negative breast cancers (TNBC) are characterized by aggressive tumour biology resulting in a poor prognosis. Androgen receptor (AR) is one of newly emerging biomarker in TNBC. In recent years, ARs have been demonstrated to play an important role in the genesis and in the development of breast cancer, although their prognostic role is still debated. In the present study, we explored the correlation of AR expression with clinical, pathological and molecular features and its impact on prognosis in early TNBC. Patients and Methods: ARs were considered positive in case of tumors with >10% nuclear-stained. Survival distribution was estimated by the Kaplan Meier method. The univariate and multivariate analyses were performed. The difference among variables were calculated by chi-square test. Results: 81 TNBC patients diagnosed between January 2006 and December 2011 were included in the analysis. Slides were stained immunohistochemically for estrogen and progesterone receptors, HER-2, Ki-67, ALDH1, e-cadherin and AR. Of the 81 TNBC samples, 18.8% showed positive immunostaining for AR, 23.5% and 44.4% of patients were negative for e-cadherin and ALDH1, respectively. Positive AR immunostaining was inversely correlated with a higher Ki-67 (p < 0.0001) and a lympho-vascular invasion (p = 0.01), but no other variables. Univariate survival analysis revealed that AR expression was not associated with disease-free survival (p = 0.72) or overall survival (p = 0.93). Conclusions: The expression of AR is associated with some biological features of TNBC, such as Ki-67 and lympho-vascular invasion; nevertheless the prognostic significance of AR was not documented in our analysis. However, since ARs are expressed in a significant number of TNBC, prospective studies in order to determine the biological mechanisms and their potential role as novel treatment target

  1. Speciation and Biofilm Production of Coagulase Negative Staphylococcal Isolates from Clinically Significant Specimens and their Antibiogram

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    S. S. Vijayasri Badampudi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Coagulase Negative Staphylococci (CONS are increasingly recognized as significant nosocomial pathogens. Their ability of biofilm formation and multiple drug resistance are causing serious human infections. Aim and Objectives: To isolate, identify, speciate clinically significant CONS from various specimens, to study antibiotic resistance pattern and biofilm production. Material and Methods: Specimens were collected aseptically, processed and identified upto the species level by a simple scheme of tests urease, novobiocin resistance, mannose and mannitol fermentation, ornithine decarboxylase. Antibiotic sensitivity was done with special reference to methicillin resistance. Biofilm formation was detected by Congo Red Agar (CRA method and Tube Method (TM. Results: Study groupOf 100 isolates majority were pus (40, followed by urine (28, blood (16, CSF (5, body fluids (4 and catheter tips and implants (7. The most common species isolated was S. epidermidis (40% followed by S. haemolyticus (26%, S. saprophyticus (15%, S. schleiferi (13%, S. simulans (2%, S. cohnii (2% and S. warneri and S. capitis each 1%. Resistance to penicillin was 91% followed by ampicillin (79%, cotrimoxazole (67%. Methicillin resistance was 72%. Biofilm producers were 69% by CRAmethod and 33% by TM with majority species S. epidermidis (82.5%- CRA and 55%-TM. Biofilm production was significantly associated with MRCONS (p value 0.0036. Control group-Of 30 isolates were S. epidermidis 66.6% followed by S. haemolyticus (16.66%. Biofilm producers were 53.33% by CRA method and 26.65% by TM with majority species S. epidermidis (65%-CRA and 30%-TM.Methicillin resistance was 26.6%. Conclusion: Clinical significance of CONS is increasing day by day, so there is a need for accurate identification to species level and their antibiogram to avoid multidrug resistance. Biofilm producing CONS species pose a risk and CRA method for screening biofilm can be used in all conventional

  2. Gender gaps in life expectancy: generalized trends and negative associations with development indices in OECD countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Arai, Asuna; Kanda, Koji; Lee, Romeo B; Glasser, Jay; Tamashiro, Hiko

    2013-08-01

    Life expectancy (LE) is a major marker of individual survival. It also serves as a guide to highlight both the progress and the gaps in total social and societal health. Comparative LE in concert with measures of gender-specific experience, indices of empowerment and societal happiness and development offer a comparative tool to examine trends and similarities of societal progress as seen through the lens of cross-national experience. To determine the gender gaps in LE (GGLE) trends, we performed a longitudinal analysis, covering a period of 49 years (1960-2008). To examine the association of GGLE with development indices, we used the 2007 GGLE data, the newest happiness data mostly drawn from 2006; the 2006 Human Development Index (HDI) data and the 2006 Gender Empowerment Measure (GEM) data. It revealed that most of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries had a GGLE trend that occurred in an inverted U-curve fashion. We divided them into three subgroups based on the peak years of respective GGLE. The earlier the peak year, the happier the countries, the higher the HDI and the smaller the current GGLE are. Association analysis indicates that Happiness, HDI and GEM are all negatively associated with GGLE. This pattern suggests that GGLE undergoes three phases of growth, peak and stability and decline. Japan will soon be seeing its GGLE gradually shrinking in the foreseeable future. The continuing increases in Happiness, HDI and GEM are associated with a decrease in GGLE, which should be carefully taken into consideration.

  3. Role of tumor microenvironment in triple-negative breast cancer and its prognostic significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tianjian Yu; Genhong Di

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer has been shown to live in the tumor microenvironment,which consists of not only breast cancer cells themselves but also a significant amount of pathophysiologically altered surrounding stroma and cells.Diverse components of the breast cancer microenvironment,such as suppressive immune cells,re-programmed fibroblast cells,altered extracellular matrix (ECM) and certain soluble factors,synergistically impede an effective anti-tumor response and promote breast cancer progression and metastasis.Among these components,stromal cells in the breast cancer microenvironment are characterized by molecular alterations and aberrant signaling pathways,whereas the ECM features biochemical and biomechanical changes.However,triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC),the most aggressive subtype of this disease that lacks effective therapies available for other subtypes,is considered to feature a unique microenvironment distinct from that of other subtypes,especially compared to Luminal A subtype.Because these changes are now considered to significantly impact breast cancer development and progression,these unique alterations may serve as promising prognostic factors of clinical outcome or potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of TNBC.In this review,we focus on the composition of the TNBC microenvironment,concomitant distinct biological alteration,specific interplay between various cell types and TNBC cells,and the prognostic implications of these findings.

  4. High ALK mRNA expression has a negative prognostic significance in rhabdomyosarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonvini, P; Zin, A; Alaggio, R; Pawel, B; Bisogno, G; Rosolen, A

    2013-01-01

    Background: Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) is a receptor tyrosine kinase aberrantly expressed in cancer, but its clinical and functional importance remain controversial. Mutation or amplification of ALK, as well as its expression levels assessed by conventional immunohistochemistry methods, has been linked to prognosis in cancer, although with potential bias because of the semi-quantitative approaches. Herein, we measured ALK mRNA expression in rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) and determined its clinical impact on patients' stratification and outcome. Methods: Specimens were obtained from RMS patients and cell lines, and ALK expression was analysed by quantitative RT–PCR, western blotting, IHC, and copy number analysis. Results: High ALK mRNA expression was detected in the vast majority of PAX3/7-FOXO1-positive tumours, whereas PAX3/7-FOXO1-negative RMS displayed considerably lower amounts of both mRNA and protein. Notably, ALK mRNA distinguished unfavourable PAX3/7-FOXO1-positive tumours from PAX3/7-FOXO1-negative RMS (Ptumour size (PALK mRNA levels were of prognostic relevance by Cox univariate regression analysis and correlated with increased risk of relapse (P=0.001) and survival (P=0.01), whereas by multivariate analysis elevated ALK mRNA expression resulted a negative prognostic marker when clinical stage was not included. Conclusion: Quantitative assessment of ALK mRNA expression helps to improve risk stratification of RMS patients and identifies tumours with adverse biological characteristics and aggressive behaviour. PMID:24149177

  5. HYPE: a WFD tool for the identification of significant and sustained upward trends in groundwater time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Benjamin; Croiset, Nolwenn; Laurence, Gourcy

    2014-05-01

    The Water Framework Directive 2006/11/CE (WFD) on the protection of groundwater against pollution and deterioration asks Member States to identify significant and sustained upward trends in all bodies or groups of bodies of groundwater that are characterised as being at risk in accordance with Annex II to Directive 2000/60/EC. The Directive indicates that the procedure for the identification of significant and sustained upward trends must be based on a statistical method. Moreover, for significant increases of concentrations of pollutants, trend reversals are identified as being necessary. This means to be able to identify significant trend reversals. A specific tool, named HYPE, has been developed in order to help stakeholders working on groundwater trend assessment. The R encoded tool HYPE provides statistical analysis of groundwater time series. It follows several studies on the relevancy of the use of statistical tests on groundwater data series (Lopez et al., 2011) and other case studies on the thematic (Bourgine et al., 2012). It integrates the most powerful and robust statistical tests for hydrogeological applications. HYPE is linked to the French national database on groundwater data (ADES). So monitoring data gathered by the Water Agencies can be directly processed. HYPE has two main modules: - a characterisation module, which allows to visualize time series. HYPE calculates the main statistical characteristics and provides graphical representations; - a trend module, which identifies significant breaks, trends and trend reversals in time series, providing result table and graphical representation (cf figure). Additional modules are also implemented to identify regional and seasonal trends and to sample time series in a relevant way. HYPE has been used successfully in 2012 by the French Water Agencies to satisfy requirements of the WFD, concerning characterization of groundwater bodies' qualitative status and evaluation of the risk of non-achievement of

  6. Global trends in nanomedicine research on triple negative breast cancer: a bibliometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teles, Ramon Handerson Gomes; Moralles, Herick Fernando; Cominetti, Márcia Regina

    2018-01-01

    Nanotechnology has emerged as a promising tool in the clinic to combat several difficult-to-manage diseases, such as cancer, which is the second leading cause of death worldwide. Chemotherapeutic drugs present several limitations such as undesired side effects, low specificity, resistance, and high relapse rates. Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is caused by cells that lack specific receptors in their membrane, such as estrogen (ER+) and progesterone (PR+) receptors, or by cells that do not express the amplification of human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER-2+). This cancer type has poor prognosis, high relapse rates, and no targeted therapies. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the trends of nanotechnology research in TNBC and compare the contribution of research from different regions, institutions, and authors. A search of the studies published between 2012 and 2017, related to nanotechnology and TNBC, with different keyword combinations, was performed in the Scopus database. The keywords found in this search were grouped into four clusters, in which "breast cancer" was the most mentioned (1,133 times) and the word "MCF-7 cell line" is one of the latest hotspots that appeared in the year 2016. A total of 1,932 articles, which were cited 26,450 times, were identified. The USA accounted for 28.36% of the articles and 27.61% of the citations; however, none of its centers appeared in the list of 10 most productive ones in terms of publications. The journals Biomaterials and International Journal of Nanomedicine had the highest number of publications. The USA and China had the highest number of articles produced and cited; however, the highest average citation per article was from Singapore. The studies focused on the research of antineoplastic agents in animal models and cell culture, and these were the most used topics in research with nanotechnology and TNBC.

  7. Trends in space activities in 2014: The significance of the space activities of governments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paikowsky, Deganit; Baram, Gil; Ben-Israel, Isaac

    2016-01-01

    This article addresses the principal events of 2014 in the field of space activities, and extrapolates from them the primary trends that can be identified in governmental space activities. In 2014, global space activities centered on two vectors. The first was geopolitical, and the second relates to the matrix between increasing commercial space activities and traditional governmental space activities. In light of these two vectors, the article outlines and analyzes trends of space exploration, human spaceflights, industry and technology, cooperation versus self-reliance, and space security and sustainability. It also reviews the space activities of the leading space-faring nations.

  8. Significant social events and increasing use of life-sustaining treatment: trend analysis using extracorporeal membrane oxygenation as an example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yen-Yuan; Chen, Likwang; Huang, Tien-Shang; Ko, Wen-Je; Chu, Tzong-Shinn; Ni, Yen-Hsuan; Chang, Shan-Chwen

    2014-03-04

    Most studies have examined the outcomes of patients supported by extracorporeal membrane oxygenation as a life-sustaining treatment. It is unclear whether significant social events are associated with the use of life-sustaining treatment. This study aimed to compare the trend of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation use in Taiwan with that in the world, and to examine the influence of significant social events on the trend of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation use in Taiwan. Taiwan's extracorporeal membrane oxygenation uses from 2000 to 2009 were collected from National Health Insurance Research Dataset. The number of the worldwide extracorporeal membrane oxygenation cases was mainly estimated using Extracorporeal Life Support Registry Report International Summary July 2012. The trend of Taiwan's crude annual incidence rate of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation use was compared with that of the rest of the world. Each trend of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation use was examined using joinpoint regression. The measurement was the crude annual incidence rate of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation use. Each of the Taiwan's crude annual incidence rates was much higher than the worldwide one in the same year. Both the trends of Taiwan's and worldwide crude annual incidence rates have significantly increased since 2000. Joinpoint regression selected the model of the Taiwan's trend with one joinpoint in 2006 as the best-fitted model, implying that the significant social events in 2006 were significantly associated with the trend change of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation use following 2006. In addition, significantly social events highlighted by the media are more likely to be associated with the increase of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation use than being fully covered by National Health Insurance. Significant social events, such as a well-known person's successful extracorporeal membrane oxygenation use highlighted by the mass media, are associated with the use of

  9. Detection of field significant long-term monotonic trends in spring yields

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ledvinka, O.; Lamačová, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 5 (2015), s. 1463-1484 ISSN 1436-3240 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Cross-correlation * Groundwater monitoring * Serial correlation * Spring yields * Trend analysis Subject RIV: DA - Hydrology ; Limnology OBOR OECD: Hydrology Impact factor: 2.237, year: 2015

  10. Are Simulated and Observed Twentieth Century Tropical Pacific Sea Surface Temperature Trends Significant Relative to Internal Variability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coats, S.; Karnauskas, K. B.

    2017-10-01

    Historical trends in the tropical Pacific zonal sea surface temperature gradient (SST gradient) are analyzed herein using 41 climate models (83 simulations) and 5 observational data sets. A linear inverse model is trained on each simulation and observational data set to assess if trends in the SST gradient are significant relative to the stationary statistics of internal variability, as would suggest an important role for external forcings such as anthropogenic greenhouse gasses. None of the 83 simulations have a positive trend in the SST gradient, a strengthening of the climatological SST gradient with more warming in the western than eastern tropical Pacific, as large as the mean trend across the five observational data sets. If the observed trends are anthropogenically forced, this discrepancy suggests that state-of-the-art climate models are not capturing the observed response of the tropical Pacific to anthropogenic forcing, with serious implications for confidence in future climate projections. There are caveats to this interpretation, however, as some climate models have a significant strengthening of the SST gradient between 1900 and 2013 Common Era, though smaller in magnitude than the observational data sets, and the strengthening in three out of five observational data sets is insignificant. When combined with observational uncertainties and the possibility of centennial time scale internal variability not sampled by the linear inverse model, this suggests that confident validation of anthropogenic SST gradient trends in climate models will require further emergence of anthropogenic trends. Regardless, the differences in SST gradient trends between climate models and observational data sets are concerning and motivate the need for process-level validation of the atmosphere-ocean dynamics relevant to climate change in the tropical Pacific.

  11. Significant difference in p53 and p21 protein immunoreactivity in HPV 16 positive and HPV negative breast carcinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hennig, E.M.; Norwegian Radium Hospital, Oslo; Kvinnsland, S.; Holm, R.; Nesland, J.M.

    1999-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) 16 has previously been found in 19/41 breast carcinomas (46%) in women with a history of HPV 16 positive CIN III lesions. There was no significant difference in distribution of histological subtypes, mean or median tumour diameter or number of regional lymph node metastases in the HPV positive and HPV negative breast carcinoma groups. P53, p21 and c-erbB-2 proteins were analyzed by immunohistochemistry in the HPV 16 positive and HPV negative breast carcinomas. There was a significant difference in p53 and p21 protein immunoreactivity between HPV 16 positive and HPV negative breast carcinomas (p=0.0091 and p=0.0040), with a significant less detectable p53 and p21 protein immunoreactivity in the HPV 16 positive cases. There was also a significant difference in the coexpression of p53/p21 between the HPV 16 positive and HPV 16 negative breast carcinomas (p=0.002). No significant difference in immunostaining for c-erbB-2 protein in the two groups was found (p=0.15), or for the coexpression of p53/c-erbB-2 (p=0.19). The significantly lower expression of p53 and p21 proteins in HPV 16 positive than in HPV 16 negative breast carcinomas supports the hypothesis of inactivation and degradation of wild-type p53 proteins by HPV 16 E6 and that p53 mutation is not necessary for transformation in the HPV 16 positive cases. (orig.)

  12. Characterization and management trends of negative and positive impacts of tourism in show caves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heros Augusto Santos Lobo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Caves are one of the most fragile environments on Earth ’s surface, in function of physical, atmospheric and biological specificities. The natural characteristics associated with cultural aspects of local people are the reasons to tourist potential of caves. However, the tourist use of caves can generate negative impacts on the environment. This consequence happens when inappropriate procedures of planning and management of tourism are used. Negative impacts are described in this review, as also indications of management techniques to avoid, decrease or eliminate the negative consequences of tourism in caves. Positive impacts are also presented, in order to achieve a sustainable tourism in show caves. The conclusion argues that the negative impacts should not be considered as impediments to tourism in caves. It is important to know these impacts and use it as a key to get previous answers which allow to raise the sustainability of show caves.

  13. Trends in significant wave height and surface wind speed in the China Seas between 1988 and 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Chongwei; Zhang, Ren; Shi, Weilai; Li, Xin; Chen, Xuan

    2017-10-01

    Wind and waves are key components of the climate system as they drive air-sea interactions and influence weather systems and atmospheric circulation. In marine environments, understanding surface wind and wave fields and their evolution over time is important for conducting safe and efficient human activities, such as navigation and engineering. This study considers long-term trends in the sea surface wind speed (WS) and significant wave height (SWH) in the China Seas over the period 1988-2011 using the Cross-Calibrated Multi-Platform (CCMP) ocean surface wind product and a 24-year hindcast wave dataset obtained from the WAVEWATCH-III (WW3) wave model forced with CCMP winds. The long-term trends in WS and SWH in the China Seas are analyzed over the past 24 years to provide a reference point from which to assess future climate change and offshore wind and wave energy resource development in the region. Results demonstrate that over the period 1988-2011 in the China Seas: 1) WS and SWH showed a significant increasing trend of 3.38 cm s-1 yr-1 and 1.52 cm yr-1, respectively; 2) there were notable regional differences in the long-term trends of WS and SWH; 3) areas with strong increasing trends were located mainly in the middle of the Tsushima Strait, the northern and southern areas of the Taiwan Strait, and in nearshore regions of the northern South China Sea; and 4) the long-term trend in WS was closely associated with El Niño and a significant increase in the occurrence of gale force winds in the region.

  14. Macro-indicators of citation impacts of six prolific countries: InCites data and the statistical significance of trends.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutz Bornmann

    Full Text Available Using the InCites tool of Thomson Reuters, this study compares normalized citation impact values calculated for China, Japan, France, Germany, United States, and the UK throughout the time period from 1981 to 2010. InCites offers a unique opportunity to study the normalized citation impacts of countries using (i a long publication window (1981 to 2010, (ii a differentiation in (broad or more narrow subject areas, and (iii allowing for the use of statistical procedures in order to obtain an insightful investigation of national citation trends across the years. Using four broad categories, our results show significantly increasing trends in citation impact values for France, the UK, and especially Germany across the last thirty years in all areas. The citation impact of papers from China is still at a relatively low level (mostly below the world average, but the country follows an increasing trend line. The USA exhibits a stable pattern of high citation impact values across the years. With small impact differences between the publication years, the US trend is increasing in engineering and technology but decreasing in medical and health sciences as well as in agricultural sciences. Similar to the USA, Japan follows increasing as well as decreasing trends in different subject areas, but the variability across the years is small. In most of the years, papers from Japan perform below or approximately at the world average in each subject area.

  15. Frequencies and trends of significant characteristics of reported events in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farber, G.; Matthes, H.

    2001-01-01

    In the frame of its support to the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety the GRS continuously performs in-depth technical analyses of reported events at operating nuclear power reactors in Germany which can be used for the determination of plant weaknesses with regard to reactor safety. During the last 18 months, in addition to those activities, the GRS has developed a data bank model for the statistical assessment of events. This model is based on a hierarchically structured, detailed coding system with respect to technical and safety relevant characteristics of the plants and the systematic characterization of plant-specific events. The data bank model is ready for practical application. Results of a first statistical evaluation, taking into account the data sets from the time period 1996 to 1999, are meanwhile available. By increasing the amount of data it will become possible to herewith improve the statements concerning trends of safety aspects. This report describes the coding system, the evaluation model, the data input and the evaluations performed during the period beginning in April 2000. (authors)

  16. Frequencies and trends of significant characteristics of reported events in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farber, G.; Matthes, H. [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbH, Koln (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    In the frame of its support to the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety the GRS continuously performs in-depth technical analyses of reported events at operating nuclear power reactors in Germany which can be used for the determination of plant weaknesses with regard to reactor safety. During the last 18 months, in addition to those activities, the GRS has developed a data bank model for the statistical assessment of events. This model is based on a hierarchically structured, detailed coding system with respect to technical and safety relevant characteristics of the plants and the systematic characterization of plant-specific events. The data bank model is ready for practical application. Results of a first statistical evaluation, taking into account the data sets from the time period 1996 to 1999, are meanwhile available. By increasing the amount of data it will become possible to herewith improve the statements concerning trends of safety aspects. This report describes the coding system, the evaluation model, the data input and the evaluations performed during the period beginning in April 2000. (authors)

  17. Prognostic significance of ASXL1, JAK2V617F mutations and JAK2V617F allele burden in Philadelphia-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonal-Hindilerden I

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Ipek Yonal-Hindilerden, Aynur Daglar-Aday, Basak Akadam-Teker, Ceylan Yilmaz, Meliha Nalcaci, Akif Selim Yavuz, Deniz SarginDivision of Hematology, Department of Internal Medicine, Istanbul Medical Faculty, Istanbul University, Fatih-Istanbul, Turkey Background: Despite insights into the genetic basis of Philadelphia-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms (Ph-negative MPNs, a significant proportion of essential thrombocythemia (ET and primary myelofibrosis (PMF patients present with no known MPN disease alleles. There were no previous studies investigating the impact of ASXL1 mutations in Ph-negative MPNs in Turkey. In the current study, we investigated the prognostic significance of ASXL1 mutations in Turkish MPN patients. We also aimed to determine the prognostic significance of JAK2V617F allele burden and the relationship of JAK2V617F mutation with ASXL1 mutations in Ph-negative MPNs. Methods: About 184 patients from a single center diagnosed with Ph-negative MPNs were screened for ASXL1, JAK2V617F mutations, and JAK2V617F allele burden: 107 ET and 77 PMF. Results: A total of 29 ASXL1 mutations were detected in 24.7% of PMF and 8.4% of ET patients. ASXL1-mutated ET patients showed a trend toward an increase in the incidence of cerebrovascular events and higher total leukocyte counts. ASXL1-mutation in PMF was associated with older age and a higher prevalence of bleeding complications. In univariate analysis, overall survival (OS was significantly reduced in ASXL1-mutated PMF patients. In multivariate analysis, Dynamic International Prognostic Scoring System-plus high-risk category and ASXL1 mutation status were independently associated with shorter survival in PMF. In PMF, mutational status and allele burden of JAK2V617F showed no difference in terms of OS and leukemia-free survival. Conclusion: We conclude that ASXL1 mutations are molecular predictors of short OS in PMF. Keywords: Philadelphia-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms (Ph-negative

  18. Clinical significance of histologic chorioamnionitis with a negative amniotic fluid culture in patients with preterm labor and premature membrane rupture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong Woo Park

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effect of histological chorioamnionitis (HCA with a negative amniotic fluid (AF culture on adverse pregnancy and neonatal outcomes and inflammatory status in the AF compartment in women with preterm labor or preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM.This is a retrospective cohort study of 153 women diagnosed as having a preterm labor or PPROM (20-34 weeks who delivered singleton gestations within 48 hours of amniocentesis. AF obtained through amniocentesis was cultured, and interleukin (IL-6, IL-8, and metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9 levels were determined. The placentas were examined histologically.The prevalence of HCA with negative AF culture was 23.5% (36/153. The women with HCA but with a negative AF culture (group 2 and those with a positive AF culture (group 3 had a significantly lower mean gestational age at amniocentesis and delivery than those with a negative AF culture and without HCA (group 1. Women in group 3 had the highest levels of AF IL-6, IL-8, and MMP-9, followed by those in group 2, and those in group 1. Composite neonatal morbidity was significantly higher in groups 2 and 3 than in group 1, but this was no longer significant after adjusting for confounders caused mainly by the impact of gestational age.In the women who delivered preterm neonates, HCA with a negative AF culture was associated with increased risks of preterm birth, intense intra-amniotic inflammatory response, and prematurity-associated composite neonatal morbidity, and its risks are similar to the risk posed by positive AF culture.

  19. Evolving Trends: Hyperbilirubinemia Among Newborns Delivered to Rh Negative Mothers in Southern India

    OpenAIRE

    N, Girish; S, Santosh; SR, Keshavamurthy

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Neonatal jaundice is the commonest abnormal physical finding in the new born nursery and hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN) among babies born to Rh negative mothers is the most formidable etiology. During last few decades considerable evolution has been observed in this entity secondary to development of several novel preventive, diagnostic and therapeutic modalities.

  20. Recent trends in phytochemistry, ethnobotany and pharmacological significance of Alchornea cordifolia (Schumach. & Thonn.) Muell. Arg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boniface, Pone Kamdem; Ferreira, Sabrina Baptista; Kaiser, Carlos Roland

    2016-09-15

    Alchornea cordifolia (Schumach. & Thonn.) Muell. Arg. (Euphorbiaceae) (A. cordifolia) is widely distributed throughout tropical Africa, where it is used extensively in traditional medicine. Conditions for which the plant has enjoyed wide use are: coughs, gonorrhoea, infertility, prostatitis, bacterial infections, diarrhoea, ulcers, pain, inflammation, fever and bronchial troubles. This review summarizes the achievements of the investigations in traditional uses, ethnobotany, phytochemistry, biological activities and toxicological profile of A. cordifolia; this review also describes the shortcomings of studies on this herbal drug and thus serves as the basis of further scientific research and development of this traditional herbal drug. A. cordifolia-related information was collected from various resources including published articles in peer-reviewed journals, unpublished materials, textbooks, government survey reports and scientific databases such as Scifinder®, Pubmed, Science Direct, Wiley, Springer, ACS, Scielo, Web of Science and other web search instruments (Google, Yahoo), published on the subject from 1950 to 2016. 'The Plant List' (www.theplantlist.org) and 'Kew Royal Botanic Gardens' (mpns.kew.org) were used to validate the scientific name of the plant. The literature revealed several reports on traditional uses, biological activities, chemical constituents and toxicological evaluation of A. cordifolia. The phytochemical information indicates identification of 95 compounds including fatty acids, terpenoids, flavonoids, phenolic acids, alkaloids, which exhibited various pharmacological activities such as wound healing, anti-inflammation, anticancer, antioxidant, immunomodulation, antidiarrhoeal, antimicrobial, antidepressant, hepatoprotective, antiplasmodial and anxiolytic. However, there are still significant gaps in the completeness of our understanding of A. cordifolia bioactivity, therapeutic value, and roles played by each of the numerous

  1. Negative and anomalous T-dependent magnetization trend in CoCr2O4 nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamran, M.; Nadeem, K.; Mumtaz, M.

    2017-10-01

    We studied the temperature dependent magnetic properties of cobalt chromite (CoCr2O4) nanoparticles. X-ray diffraction revealed the cubic spinel structure of the nanoparticles and average crystallite size was about 42 nm. Raman and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirmed the formation of single phase spinel structure. ZFC/FC curves revealed a paramagnetic (PM) to ferromagnetic (FiM) transition at TC = 100 K with conical spiral state at TS = 27 K and lock-in state at TL = 13 K. Negative magnetization is observed in the ZFC curve under 50 Oe applied field, which gets suppressed upon the application of higher field. The TC was shifted towards higher temperature with the application of higher field, while TS and TL remain unaffected. M-H loops showed FiM behavior below 100 K and nearly PM at TC = 100 K. Below 75 K, an abnormal decrease in MS is observed down to 5 K, which may be due to presence of stiffed/strong conical spin spiral and lock in states at low temperatures. Modified Kneller's law showed a good fit for temperature dependent Hc at higher temperature and deviated at low temperature (disordered surface spins. Nanoparticles showed slow spin relaxation in both ZFC and FC protocols at 5 K, which signifies the presence of spin-glass like behavior at low temperatures. Both curves were fitted with stretched exponential law and the value of β lies in the spin-glass regime. In summary, CoCr2O4 nanoparticles showed anomalous decrease of MS with decreasing temperature, negative magnetization at low field and rather stiffed/strong conical spin spiral and lock-in states in combination with spin-glass behavior at the low temperatures.

  2. Significance of coagulase negative Staphylococcus from blood cultures: persisting problems and partial progress in resource constrained settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidhu, Shailpreet K; Malhotra, Sita; Devi, Pushpa; Tuli, Arpandeep K

    2016-12-01

    Coagulase negative Staphylococcus (CoNS) is frequently isolated from blood cultures but their significance is difficult to interpret. CoNS bacteria which are often previously dismissed as culture contaminants are attracting greater importance as true pathogens in the past decades. Clinical evaluation of these isolates suggests that although there is a relative increase of CoNS associated bloodstream infections in recent years, the microorganisms still remain the most common contaminants in blood cultures. The objective of this study was to determine the significance of CoNS isolated from blood cultures. A retrospective study was conducted to evaluate the rate of contamination in blood cultures in a tertiary care hospital. The paired specimens of blood were cultured using conventional culture methods and the isolates of coagulase negative staphylococci were identified by standard methodology. Clinical data, laboratory indices, microbiological parameters and patient characteristics were analyzed. Of 3503 blood samples, CoNS were isolated from blood culture of 307 patients (8.76%). The isolates were reported as true pathogens of bloodstream infections in only 74 out of 307 cases (24.1%). In the vast majority, 212 of 307 (69.0%), they were mere blood culture contaminants and reported as insignificant/contaminant. Determining whether a growth in the blood culture is a pathogen or a contaminant is a critical issue and multiple parameters have to be considered before arriving at a conclusion. Ideally, the molecular approach is for the most part a consistent method in determining the significant isolates of CoNS. However, in countries with inadequate resources, species identification and antibiogram tests are recommended when determining significance of these isolates.

  3. Development and application of a methodology for the analysis of significant human related event trends in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, H.Y.

    1981-01-01

    A methodology is developed to identify and flag significant trends related to the safety and availability of U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. The development is intended to aid in reducing likelihood of human errors. To assure that the methodology can be easily adapted to various types of classification schemes of operation data, a data bank classified by the Transient Analysis Classification and Evaluation (TRACE) scheme is selected for the methodology. The significance criteria for human-initiated events affecting the systems and for events caused by human deficiencies were developed. Clustering analysis was used to verify the learning trend in multidimensional histograms. A computer code is developed based on the K-Means algorithm and applied to find the learning period in which error rates are monotonously decreasing with plant age. The Freeman-Tukey (F-T) deviates are used to select generic problems identified by a large positive value (here approximately over 2.0) for the deviate. The identified generic problems are: decision errors which are highly associated with reactor startup operations in the learning period of PWR plants (PWRs), response errors which are highly associated with Secondary Non-Nuclear Systems (SNS) in PWRs, and significant errors affecting systems and which are caused by response action are highly associated with startup reactor mode in BWRS

  4. Outcomes in Young Women With Breast Cancer of Triple-Negative Phenotype: The Prognostic Significance of CK19 Expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parikh, Rahul R.; Yang Qifeng; Higgins, Susan A.; Haffty, Bruce G.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Basal-like carcinoma of the breast is associated with genetic instability and aggressive behavior. In this study, we evaluated the luminal cytokeratin marker CK-19 in young women with breast cancer treated with conservative surgery and radiation therapy (CS+RT). Methods: Primary tumor specimens from a cohort of 158 young premenopausal women (range, 25-49 years) treated with CS+RT with a median follow-up of 6.25 years were constructed into a tissue microarray. The array was stained for ER, PR, HER2, CK19, and p53. The molecular profiles were correlated with clinical-pathologic factors, overall, local, and distant relapse-free survival. The association between CK19, other co-variables, and outcome was assessed in a multivariate model. Results: Positive expression of ER, PR, HER-2/neu, CK19, and p53 were 33.1%, 34.5%, 10.0%, 79.5%, and 20.9%, respectively. With 20 local relapses and 38 distant metastases, the 10-year overall, breast relapse-free, and distant relapse-free survival were 79.65%, 87.29%, and 67.35%, respectively. Tumor stage and nodal status were associated with distant relapse-free and overall survival. In multivariate analysis, CK19 negativity was a predictor poor local (RR, 3.54; 95% CI, 1.87-7.65; p < 0.01) distant (RR, 1.44; 95% CI, 0.86-2.70; p = 0.17), and overall survival (RR, 1.89; 95% CI, 1.04-3.55; p = 0.03). Conclusions: Lack of CK19 expression identifies a subset of patients with a significantly higher risk of local relapse. Distant relapse and overall survival rates also correlated with CK19 negativity. Further evaluation of the prognostic significance of basal and luminal cytokeratins in young women with breast cancer is warranted

  5. Significant changes in sexual behavior after a diagnosis of human papillomavirus-positive and human papillomavirus-negative oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taberna, Miren; Inglehart, Ronald C; Pickard, Robert K L; Fakhry, Carole; Agrawal, Amit; Katz, Mira L; Gillison, Maura L

    2017-04-01

    Sexual behavior and oral human papillomavirus (HPV) infection are risk factors for oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The effects of OSCC diagnosis and treatment on subsequent relationship stress and sexual behavior are unknown. Incident cases of HPV-positive or HPV-negative OSCC in patients who had a partnered relationship and partners of patients with oropharyngeal cancer were eligible for a study in which surveys were administered at diagnosis and at the 6-month follow-up time point to assess relationship distress, HPV transmission and concerns about health consequences, and sexual behavior. The frequency distributions of responses, stratified by tumor HPV status, were compared at baseline and follow-up. In total, 262 patients with OSCC and 81 partners were enrolled. Among the patients, 142 (54.2%) had HPV-positive OSCC, and 120 (45.8%) had HPV-negative OSCC. Relationship distress was infrequently reported, and 69% of patients felt that their relationship had strengthened since the cancer diagnosis. Both HPV-positive patients (25%) and their partners (14%) reported feelings of guilt or responsibility for the diagnosis of an HPV-caused cancer. Concern over sexual, but not nonsexual, HPV transmission to partners was reported by 50%. Significant declines in the frequency of vaginal and oral sexual behaviors were reported at follow-up, regardless of tumor HPV status. From baseline to 6 months, significant increases in abstinence from vaginal sex (from 10% to 34%; P oral sex (from 25% to 80%; P oral sex, regardless of tumor HPV status. Sexual behavior is an important quality-of-life outcome to assess within clinical trials. [See related editorial on pages 000-000, this issue.] Cancer 2017. © 2017 American Cancer Society. Cancer 2017;123:1156-1165. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  6. Characterization and Prognosis Significance of JAK2 (V617F), MPL, and CALR Mutations in Philadelphia-Negative Myeloproliferative Neoplasms

    OpenAIRE

    Singdong, Roongrudee; Siriboonpiputtana, Teerapong; Chareonsirisuthigul, Takol; Kongruang, Adcharee; Limsuwanachot, Nittaya; Sirirat, Tanasan; Chuncharunee, Suporn; Rerkamnuaychoke, Budsaba

    2016-01-01

    Background: The discovery of somatic acquired mutations of JAK2 (V617F) in Philadelphia-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms (Ph-negative MPNs) including polycythemia vera (PV), essential thrombocythemia (ET), and primary myelofibrosis (PMF) has not only improved rational disease classification and prognostication but also brings new understanding insight into the pathogenesis of diseases. Dosage effects of the JAK2 (V617F) allelic burden in Ph-negative MPNs may partially influence clinical ...

  7. THE PROGNOSIS SIGNIFICANCE OF CATHEPSIN-D EXPRESSION IN THE DIFFERENT LOCATIONS IN AXILLARY NODES NEGATIVE CARCINOMA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate Cathepsin-D (Cath-D) expression in different location and its relationship with prognosis in the axillary lymph nodes negative (ANN) breast cancer patients. Methods: Cath-D expression in 192 cases of breast carcinoma were examined by immunohistochemistry. Depending on different parts of expression, three evaluating methods were used, compared and analysed. Results: The positive rate of Cath-D expression in ANN breast cancer with poor prognosis group and axillary nodes positive (ANP) group were significantly higher than that in ANN breast cancer with good prognosis group (x2=23.20, P0.05). Cath-D expression in stromal cells had no statistical difference among the three groups (x2=1.56, P>0.05). When the Cath-D expression in cancer and stromal cells were counted into the positive rate, it was near the same (u1=0.47, u2=1.41, P>0.05). Conclusion: These results suggest that Cath-D expression is one of the powerful prognostic markers in ANN breast cancer. It's a reliable, practical, and convenient method to observe and evaluate Cath-D expression in cancer cells.

  8. Projections of the Population of the Republic of Croatia to the Year 2031: Can Migration Alleviate Future Negative Trends?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snježana Mrđen

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents middle duration projections of Croatia’s population, until the year 2031, determined via the cohort-component method. It outlines eight variants derived from supposed hypotheses in regard to changing birth, migration and death rates. Differences in the variants are exclusively differences in birth and migration rates, since the assumptions in regard to the death rates are the same in all the variants. The corrected estimate of the population on January 1st 2001, according to the most recent census, served as the base population. The results of the projections indicate that in the next thirty years the overall and the natural population reduction of Croatia will continue, and at the end of the period (2031 the population will be demographically older than at the start (2001. The variants differ only in relation to the intensity (i.e. swiftness of the aging process, yet the direction remains the same. Thus, in the variant that assumes a positive migration balance, the process of aging would be somewhat slower. The only variant that assumes a constant proportion of young people (on the 2001 level, gradual demographic growth and at the end of the period a larger population than in 2001, is the variant based on a high birth rate and positive migration. The impact of migration is very important for future demographic processes. Namely, in the short run, migration cannot change the direction of demographic processes, but it can lessen already existing negative trends.

  9. Characterization and Prognosis Significance of JAK2 (V617F), MPL, and CALR Mutations in Philadelphia-Negative Myeloproliferative Neoplasms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singdong, Roongrudee; Siriboonpiputtana, Teerapong; Chareonsirisuthigul, Takol; Kongruang, Adcharee; Limsuwanachot, Nittaya; Sirirat, Tanasan; Chuncharunee, Suporn; Rerkamnuaychoke, Budsaba

    2016-10-01

    Background: The discovery of somatic acquired mutations of JAK2 (V617F) in Philadelphia-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms (Ph-negative MPNs) including polycythemia vera (PV), essential thrombocythemia (ET), and primary myelofibrosis (PMF) has not only improved rational disease classification and prognostication but also brings new understanding insight into the pathogenesis of diseases. Dosage effects of the JAK2 (V617F) allelic burden in Ph-negative MPNs may partially influence clinical presentation, disease progression, and treatment outcome. Material and Methods: Pyrosequencing was performed to detect JAK2 (V617F) and MPL (W515K/L) and capillary electrophoresis to identify CALR exon 9.0 mutations in 100.0 samples of Ph-negative MPNs (38.0 PV, 55 ET, 4 PMF, and 3 MPN-U). Results: The results showed somatic mutations of JAK2 (V617F) in 94.7% of PV, 74.5% of ET, 25.0% of PMF, and all MPN-U. A high proportion of JAK2 (V617F) mutant allele burden (mutational load > 50.0%) was predominantly observed in PV when compared with ET. Although a high level of JAK2 (V617F) allele burden was strongly associated with high WBC counts in both PV and ET, several hematological parameters (hemoglobin, hematocrit, and platelet count) were independent of JAK2 (V617F) mutational load. MPL (W515K/L) mutations could not be detected whereas CALR exon 9.0 mutations were identified in 35.7% of patients with JAK2 negative ET and 33.3% with JAK2 negative PMF. Conclusions: The JAK2 (V617F) allele burden may be involved in progression of MPNs. Furthermore, a high level of JAK2 (V617F) mutant allele appears strongly associated with leukocytosis in both PV and ET. Creative Commons Attribution License

  10. The low risk of precancer after a screening result of human papillomavirus-negative/atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance papanicolaou and implications for clinical management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gage, Julia C; Katki, Hormuzd A; Schiffman, Mark; Castle, Philip E; Fetterman, Barbara; Poitras, Nancy E; Lorey, Thomas; Cheung, Li C; Behrens, Catherine; Sharma, Abha; Zhao, Fang-Hui; Cuzick, Jack; Yang, Zi Hua; Kinney, Walter K

    2014-11-01

    Different US practice guidelines have conflicting recommendations for when women should return after a screening result of human papillomavirus (HPV)-negative with an equivocal Papanicolaou (Pap) result of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) (ie, return in either 3 or 5 years). One way to determine management is to compare the risk of precancer/cancer after an HPV-negative/ASC-US result with the risks after other negative screening results. For example, if the risk after an HPV-negative/ASC-US result was similar to the risk after a negative Pap test, a 3-year return would be preferred because guidelines agree that women with negative Pap test results should return in 3 years. Alternatively, if the risk after an HPV-negative/ASC-US result is similar to that after a cotest-negative result (HPV negative/Pap test negative), a 5-year return would be preferred because guidelines agree that women testing cotest negative should return in 5 years. The authors compared risks of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia of grade 3 or higher (CIN3+) and cervical cancer among women aged 30 years to 64 years at Kaiser Permanente Northern California with the following test results from 2003 through 2012: 17,191 women testing HPV negative/ASC-US; 980,268 women testing Pap test negative (regardless of HPV result); and 892,882 women testing cotest negative. The 5-year CIN3+ and cancer risks after an HPV-negative/ASC-US result were closer to the risks after a negative Pap test result (CIN3+: 0.48% vs 0.31% [P =.0019]; and cancer: 0.043% vs 0.031% [P =.4]) than after a negative cotest (CIN3+: 0.48% vs 0.11% [P<.0001]; and cancer: 0.043% vs 0.014% [P =.016]). Women testing HPV negative/ASC-US were found to have precancer/cancer risks that were more closely aligned with women with negative Pap test results, suggesting that women testing HPV negative/ASC-US should be managed similarly to women testing negative on Pap tests with a 3-year return for screening. © 2014

  11. Significance of definitions of relapse after discontinuation of oral antivirals in HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papatheodoridis, George V; Manolakopoulos, Spilios; Su, Tung-Hung; Siakavellas, Spyros; Liu, Chun-Jen; Kourikou, Anastasia; Yang, Hung-Chih; Kao, Jia-Horng

    2017-08-31

    Relapses are observed in most hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)-negative chronic hepatitis B patients who discontinue treatment with nucleos(t)ide analogues (NAs); however, the rates of relapse vary widely among studies, and whether all patients with relapse need retreatment is unclear. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of different definitions on the rates of posttreatment relapse and therefore on the probability of retreatment in patients who have discontinued effective long-term NA therapy. In total, 130 HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis B patients without cirrhosis and before NA treatment were included. All had on-therapy virological remission for ≥24 months and close follow-up for ≥12 months after stopping NA treatment or until retreatment, which started on stringent predefined criteria. Relapses rates based on several predetermined definitions of virological and perhaps biochemical criteria were assessed. The median duration of therapy was 60 months and the median duration of on-therapy virological remission was 43 months. During a median off-NAs follow-up of 15 months, no patient experienced liver decompensation or died. Cumulative relapse rates were 2%-49%, 4%-73%, 11%-82%, and 16%-90% at 3, 6, 12, and 24 months, respectively, whereas cumulative retreatment rates were 15%, 22%, and 40% at 6, 12, and 24 months, respectively, after discontinuation of NA therapy. No patient characteristic was independently associated with the probability of relapse based on at least two definitions or of retreatment. In HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis B patients who discontinue NA therapy, the definition of relapse has a great impact on off-NAs relapse rates and potentially on the probability of retreatment. Regardless of definition, off-NAs relapses cannot be easily predicted by patient characteristics. A substantial proportion of such patients may not require retreatment if stringent criteria are adopted. (Hepatology 2017). © 2017 by the American Association

  12. Targeted Nanoparticles for Image-guided Treatment of Triple Negative Breast Cancer: Clinical Significance and Technological Advances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller-Kleinhenz, Jasmine M.; Bozeman, Erica N.

    2015-01-01

    Effective treatment of triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) with its aggressive tumor biology, highly heterogeneous tumor cells, and poor prognosis requires an integrated therapeutic approach that addresses critical issues in cancer therapy. Multifunctional nanoparticles with the abilities of targeted drug delivery and non-invasive imaging for monitoring drug delivery and responses to therapy, such as theranostic nanoparticles, hold great promise towards the development of novel therapeutic approaches for the treatment of TNBC using a single therapeutic platform. The biological and pathological characteristics of TNBC provide insight into several potential molecular targets for current and future nanoparticle based therapeutics. Extensive tumor stroma, highly proliferative cells, and a high rate of drug-resistance are all barriers that must be appropriately addressed in order for these nanotherapeutic platforms to be effective. Utilization of the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect coupled with active targeting of cell surface receptors expressed by TNBC cells, and tumor associated endothelial cells, stromal fibroblasts and macrophages is likely to overcome such barriers to facilitate more effective drug delivery. An in depth summary of current studies investigating targeted nanoparticles in preclinical TNBC mouse and human xenograft models is presented. This review aims to outline the current status of nanotherapeutic options for TNBC patients, identification of promising molecular targets, challenges associated with the development of targeted nanotherapeutics, the research done by our group as well as others and future perspectives on the nanomedicine field and ways to translate current preclinical studies into the clinic. PMID:25966677

  13. Targeted nanoparticles for image-guided treatment of triple-negative breast cancer: clinical significance and technological advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller-Kleinhenz, Jasmine M; Bozeman, Erica N; Yang, Lily

    2015-01-01

    Effective treatment of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) with its aggressive tumor biology, highly heterogeneous tumor cells, and poor prognosis requires an integrated therapeutic approach that addresses critical issues in cancer therapy. Multifunctional nanoparticles with the abilities of targeted drug delivery and noninvasive imaging for monitoring drug delivery and responses to therapy, such as theranostic nanoparticles, hold great promise toward the development of novel therapeutic approaches for the treatment of TNBC using a single therapeutic platform. The biological and pathological characteristics of TNBC provide insight into several potential molecular targets for current and future nanoparticle-based therapeutics. Extensive tumor stroma, highly proliferative cells, and a high rate of drug resistance are all barriers that must be appropriately addressed in order for these nanotherapeutic platforms to be effective. Utilization of the enhanced permeability and retention effect coupled with active targeting of cell surface receptors expressed by TNBC cells, and tumor-associated endothelial cells, stromal fibroblasts, and macrophages is likely to overcome such barriers to facilitate more effective drug delivery. An in-depth summary of current studies investigating targeted nanoparticles in preclinical TNBC mouse and human xenograft models is presented. This review aims to outline the current status of nanotherapeutic options for TNBC patients, identification of promising molecular targets, challenges associated with the development of targeted nanotherapeutics, the research done by our group as well as by others, and future perspectives on the nanomedicine field and ways to translate current preclinical studies into the clinic. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. [Significance of journal articles within the scientific literature of various disciplines: trends over the past two decades].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, András; Soós, Sándor

    2015-06-14

    Trends of preferred publication channels in selected categories of Sciences, Social Sciences and Arts & Humanities were studied by determining the percentage share of references in reviews to serials (journals) in all references. It was found that in the period 1995-2014, the fraction of articles published in journals was increasing in all selected areas of science and scholarship. The most dynamical increase was found in Social Sciences.

  15. The mediational significance of negative/depressive affect in the relationship of childhood maltreatment and eating disorder features in adolescent psychiatric inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopwood, C J; Ansell, E B; Fehon, D C; Grilo, C M

    2011-03-01

    Childhood maltreatment is a risk factor for eating disorder and negative/depressive affect appears to mediate this relation. However, the specific elements of eating- and body-related psychopathology that are influenced by various forms of childhood maltreatment remain unclear, and investigations among adolescents and men/boys have been limited. This study investigated the mediating role of negative affect/depression across multiple types of childhood maltreatment and eating disorder features in hospitalized adolescent boys and girls. Participants were 148 adolescent psychiatric inpatients who completed an assessment battery including measures of specific forms of childhood maltreatment (sexual, emotional, and physical abuse), negative/depressive affect, and eating disorder features (dietary restriction, binge eating, and body dissatisfaction). Findings suggest that for girls, negative/depressive affect significantly mediates the relationships between childhood maltreatment and eating disorder psychopathology, although effects varied somewhat across types of maltreatment and eating disorder features. Generalization of mediation effects to boys was limited.

  16. Prognostic significance of the total number of harvested lymph nodes for lymph node-negative gastric cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xin; Bu, Zhao-De; Li, Zi-Yu; Wu, Ai-Wen; Zhang, Lian-Hai; Zhang, Ji; Wu, Xiao-Jiang; Zong, Xiang-Long; Li, Shuang-Xi; Shan, Fei; Jia, Zi-Yu; Ji, Jia-Fu

    2017-08-22

    The relationship between the number of harvested lymph nodes (HLNs) and prognosis of gastric cancer patients without an involvement of lymph nodes has not been well-evaluated. The objective of this study is to further explore this issue. We collected data from 399 gastric cancer patients between November 2006 and October 2011. All of them were without metastatic lymph nodes. Survival analyses showed that statistically significant differences existed in the survival outcomes between the two groups allocated by the total number of HLNs ranging from 16 to 22. Therefore, we adopted 22 as the cut-off value of the total number of HLNs for grouping (group A: HLNs <22; group B: HLNs≥22). The intraoperative and postoperative characteristics, including operative blood loss (P=0.096), operation time (P=0.430), postoperative hospital stay (P=0.142), complications (P=0.552), rate of reoperation (P=0.966) and postoperative mortality (P=1.000), were comparable between the two groups. T-stage-stratified Kaplan-Meier analyses revealed that the 5-year survival rate of patients at the T4 stage was better in group B than in group A (76.9% vs. 58.5%; P=0.004). An analysis of multiple factors elucidated that the total number of HLNs, T stage, operation time and age were independently correlated factors of prognosis. Regarding gastric cancer patients without the involvement of lymph nodes, an HLN number ≥22 would be helpful in prolonging their overall survival, especially for those at T4 stage. The total number of HLNs was an independent prognostic factor for this population of patients.

  17. Fertilization of sea urchin eggs and sperm motility are negatively impacted under low hypergravitational forces significant to space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tash, J. S.; Kim, S.; Schuber, M.; Seibt, D.; Kinsey, W. H.

    2001-01-01

    Sperm and other flagellates swim faster in microgravity (microG) than in 1 G, raising the question of whether fertilization is altered under conditions of space travel. Such alterations have implications for reproduction of plant and animal food and for long-term space habitation by man. We previously demonstrated that microG accelerates protein phosphorylation during initiation of sperm motility but delays the sperm response to the egg chemotactic factor, speract. Thus sperm are sensitive to changes in gravitational force. New experiments using the NiZeMi centrifugal microscope examined whether low hypergravity (hyperG) causes effects opposite to microG on sperm motility, signal transduction, and fertilization. Sperm % motility and straight-line velocity were significantly inhibited by as little as 1.3 G. The phosphorylation states of FP130, an axonemal phosphoprotein, and FP160, a cAMP-dependent salt-extractable flagellar protein, both coupled to motility activation, showed a more rapid decline in hyperG. Most critically, hyperG caused an approximately 50% reduction in both the rate of sperm-egg binding and fertilization. The similar extent of inhibition of both fertilization parameters in hyperG suggests that the primary effect is on sperm rather than eggs. These results not only support our earlier microG data demonstrating that sperm are sensitive to small changes in gravitational forces but more importantly now show that this sensitivity affects the ability of sperm to fertilize eggs. Thus, more detailed studies on the impact of space flight on development should include studies of sperm function and fertilization.

  18. Statistical significance approximation in local trend analysis of high-throughput time-series data using the theory of Markov chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Li C; Ai, Dongmei; Cram, Jacob A; Liang, Xiaoyi; Fuhrman, Jed A; Sun, Fengzhu

    2015-09-21

    Local trend (i.e. shape) analysis of time series data reveals co-changing patterns in dynamics of biological systems. However, slow permutation procedures to evaluate the statistical significance of local trend scores have limited its applications to high-throughput time series data analysis, e.g., data from the next generation sequencing technology based studies. By extending the theories for the tail probability of the range of sum of Markovian random variables, we propose formulae for approximating the statistical significance of local trend scores. Using simulations and real data, we show that the approximate p-value is close to that obtained using a large number of permutations (starting at time points >20 with no delay and >30 with delay of at most three time steps) in that the non-zero decimals of the p-values obtained by the approximation and the permutations are mostly the same when the approximate p-value is less than 0.05. In addition, the approximate p-value is slightly larger than that based on permutations making hypothesis testing based on the approximate p-value conservative. The approximation enables efficient calculation of p-values for pairwise local trend analysis, making large scale all-versus-all comparisons possible. We also propose a hybrid approach by integrating the approximation and permutations to obtain accurate p-values for significantly associated pairs. We further demonstrate its use with the analysis of the Polymouth Marine Laboratory (PML) microbial community time series from high-throughput sequencing data and found interesting organism co-occurrence dynamic patterns. The software tool is integrated into the eLSA software package that now provides accelerated local trend and similarity analysis pipelines for time series data. The package is freely available from the eLSA website: http://bitbucket.org/charade/elsa.

  19. Addendum to the article: Misuse of null hypothesis significance testing: Would estimation of positive and negative predictive values improve certainty of chemical risk assessment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundschuh, Mirco; Newman, Michael C; Zubrod, Jochen P; Seitz, Frank; Rosenfeldt, Ricki R; Schulz, Ralf

    2015-03-01

    We argued recently that the positive predictive value (PPV) and the negative predictive value (NPV) are valuable metrics to include during null hypothesis significance testing: They inform the researcher about the probability of statistically significant and non-significant test outcomes actually being true. Although commonly misunderstood, a reported p value estimates only the probability of obtaining the results or more extreme results if the null hypothesis of no effect was true. Calculations of the more informative PPV and NPV require a priori estimate of the probability (R). The present document discusses challenges of estimating R.

  20. Individuals with clinically significant insomnia symptoms are characterised by a negative sleep-related expectancy bias: Results from a cognitive-experimental assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtauld, Hannah; Notebaert, Lies; Milkins, Bronwyn; Kyle, Simon D; Clarke, Patrick J F

    2017-08-01

    Cognitive models of insomnia consistently suggest that negative expectations regarding the consequences of poor sleep contribute to the maintenance of insomnia. To date, however, no research has sought to determine whether insomnia is indeed characterised by such a negative sleep-related expectancy bias, using objective cognitive assessment tasks which are more immune to response biases than questionnaire assessments. Therefore, the current study employed a reaction-time task assessing biased expectations among a group with clinically significant insomnia symptoms (n = 30) and a low insomnia symptoms group (n = 40). The task involved the presentation of scenarios describing the consequences of poor sleep, and non-sleep related activities, which could be resolved in a benign or a negative manner. The results demonstrated that the high insomnia symptoms group were disproportionately fast to resolve sleep-related scenarios in line with negative outcomes, as compared to benign outcomes, relative to the low insomnia symptoms group. The two groups did not differ in their pattern of resolving non-sleep related scenarios. This pattern of findings is entirely consistent with a sleep-specific expectancy bias operating in individuals with clinically significant insomnia symptoms, and highlights the potential of cognitive-experimental assessment tasks to objectively index patterns of biased cognition in insomnia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. They’re heating up: Internet search query trends reveal significant public interest in heat-not-burn tobacco products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caputi, Theodore L.; Leas, Eric; Dredze, Mark; Cohen, Joanna E.; Ayers, John W.

    2017-01-01

    Heat-not-burn tobacco products, battery powered devices that heat leaf tobacco to approximately 500 degrees Fahrenheit to produce an inhalable aerosol, are being introduced in markets around the world. Japan, where manufacturers have marketed several heat-not-burn brands since 2014, has been the focal national test market, with the intention of developing global marketing strategies. We used Google search query data to estimate, for the first time, the scale and growth potential of heat-not-burn tobacco products. Average monthly searches for heat-not-burn products rose 1,426% (95%CI: 746,3574) between their first (2015) and second (2016) complete years on the market and an additional 100% (95%CI: 60, 173) between the products second (2016) and third years on the market (Jan-Sep 2017). There are now between 5.9 and 7.5 million heat-not-burn related Google searches in Japan each month based on September 2017 estimates. Moreover, forecasts relying on the historical trends suggest heat-not-burn searches will increase an additional 32% (95%CI: -4 to 79) during 2018, compared to current estimates for 2017 (Jan-Sep), with continued growth thereafter expected. Contrasting heat-not-burn’s rise in Japan to electronic cigarettes’ rise in the United States we find searches for heat-not-burn eclipsed electronic cigarette searches during April 2016. Moreover, the change in average monthly queries for heat-not-burn in Japan between 2015 and 2017 was 399 (95% CI: 184, 1490) times larger than the change in average monthly queries for electronic cigarettes in the Unites States over the same time period, increasing by 2,956% (95% CI: 1729, 7304) compared to only 7% (95% CI: 3,13). Our findings are a clarion call for tobacco control leaders to ready themselves as heat-not-burn tobacco products will likely garner substantial interest as they are introduced into new markets. Public health practitioners should expand heat-not-burn tobacco product surveillance, adjust existing tobacco

  2. They're heating up: Internet search query trends reveal significant public interest in heat-not-burn tobacco products.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodore L Caputi

    Full Text Available Heat-not-burn tobacco products, battery powered devices that heat leaf tobacco to approximately 500 degrees Fahrenheit to produce an inhalable aerosol, are being introduced in markets around the world. Japan, where manufacturers have marketed several heat-not-burn brands since 2014, has been the focal national test market, with the intention of developing global marketing strategies. We used Google search query data to estimate, for the first time, the scale and growth potential of heat-not-burn tobacco products. Average monthly searches for heat-not-burn products rose 1,426% (95%CI: 746,3574 between their first (2015 and second (2016 complete years on the market and an additional 100% (95%CI: 60, 173 between the products second (2016 and third years on the market (Jan-Sep 2017. There are now between 5.9 and 7.5 million heat-not-burn related Google searches in Japan each month based on September 2017 estimates. Moreover, forecasts relying on the historical trends suggest heat-not-burn searches will increase an additional 32% (95%CI: -4 to 79 during 2018, compared to current estimates for 2017 (Jan-Sep, with continued growth thereafter expected. Contrasting heat-not-burn's rise in Japan to electronic cigarettes' rise in the United States we find searches for heat-not-burn eclipsed electronic cigarette searches during April 2016. Moreover, the change in average monthly queries for heat-not-burn in Japan between 2015 and 2017 was 399 (95% CI: 184, 1490 times larger than the change in average monthly queries for electronic cigarettes in the Unites States over the same time period, increasing by 2,956% (95% CI: 1729, 7304 compared to only 7% (95% CI: 3,13. Our findings are a clarion call for tobacco control leaders to ready themselves as heat-not-burn tobacco products will likely garner substantial interest as they are introduced into new markets. Public health practitioners should expand heat-not-burn tobacco product surveillance, adjust existing

  3. They're heating up: Internet search query trends reveal significant public interest in heat-not-burn tobacco products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caputi, Theodore L; Leas, Eric; Dredze, Mark; Cohen, Joanna E; Ayers, John W

    2017-01-01

    Heat-not-burn tobacco products, battery powered devices that heat leaf tobacco to approximately 500 degrees Fahrenheit to produce an inhalable aerosol, are being introduced in markets around the world. Japan, where manufacturers have marketed several heat-not-burn brands since 2014, has been the focal national test market, with the intention of developing global marketing strategies. We used Google search query data to estimate, for the first time, the scale and growth potential of heat-not-burn tobacco products. Average monthly searches for heat-not-burn products rose 1,426% (95%CI: 746,3574) between their first (2015) and second (2016) complete years on the market and an additional 100% (95%CI: 60, 173) between the products second (2016) and third years on the market (Jan-Sep 2017). There are now between 5.9 and 7.5 million heat-not-burn related Google searches in Japan each month based on September 2017 estimates. Moreover, forecasts relying on the historical trends suggest heat-not-burn searches will increase an additional 32% (95%CI: -4 to 79) during 2018, compared to current estimates for 2017 (Jan-Sep), with continued growth thereafter expected. Contrasting heat-not-burn's rise in Japan to electronic cigarettes' rise in the United States we find searches for heat-not-burn eclipsed electronic cigarette searches during April 2016. Moreover, the change in average monthly queries for heat-not-burn in Japan between 2015 and 2017 was 399 (95% CI: 184, 1490) times larger than the change in average monthly queries for electronic cigarettes in the Unites States over the same time period, increasing by 2,956% (95% CI: 1729, 7304) compared to only 7% (95% CI: 3,13). Our findings are a clarion call for tobacco control leaders to ready themselves as heat-not-burn tobacco products will likely garner substantial interest as they are introduced into new markets. Public health practitioners should expand heat-not-burn tobacco product surveillance, adjust existing tobacco

  4. The Clinical and Genomic Significance of Donor-Specific Antibody–Positive/C4d-Negative and Donor-Specific Antibody–Negative/C4d-Negative Transplant Glomerulopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayde, Nicole; Bao, Yi; Pullman, James; Ye, Bin; Calder, R. Brent; Chung, Monica; Schwartz, Daniel; Lubetzky, Michelle; Ajaimy, Maria; de Boccardo, Graciela

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background This study investigated the mechanisms involved in development of donor-specific antibody (DSA) and/or C4d-negative transplant glomerulopathy (TGP) by allograft gene expression profiles using microarrays. Design, Setting, Participants, & Measurements This cohort study was conducted in kidney transplant recipients. Patients were eligible for inclusion if they required a clinically indicated biopsy at any time point after their transplant. They were then classified according to their histopathology findings and DSA and C4d results. Eighteen chronic antibody-mediated rejection (CAMR), 14 DSA+/C4d− TGP, 25 DSA−/C4d− TGP, and 47 nonspecific interstitial fibrosis/tubular atrophy (IFTA) biopsy specimens were identified. In a subset of patients from the study population, biopsy specimens in each group and normal transplant kidney specimens were analyzed with Affymetrix Human Gene 1.0 ST Arrays. Results The mean sum score of glomerulitis and peritubular capillaritis increased from 0.28±0.78 in IFTA specimens to 0.75±0.85 in DSA−/C4d− TGP specimens, 1.71±1.49 in DSA+/C4d−/TGP specimens, and 2.11±1.74 in CAMR specimens (PTGP specimens (14.3%), and DSA−/C4d− TGP specimens (16%) (P=0.01). With use of microarrays, comparison of the gene expression profiles of DSA−/C4d− TGP specimens with glomerulitis + peritubular capillaritis scores > 0 to normal and IFTA biopsy specimens revealed higher expression of quantitative cytotoxic T cell–associated transcripts (QCAT). However, both CAMR and DSA+/C4d− TGP specimens had higher expression of not only QCAT but also IFN-γ and rejection-induced, constitutive macrophage-associated, natural killer cell–associated, and DSA-selective transcripts. Endothelial cell–associated transcript expression was upregulated only in CAMR biopsy specimens. Conclusions These results suggested that DSA+/C4d− TGP biopsy specimens may be classified as CAMR. In contrast, DSA−/C4d− TGP specimens showed

  5. The clinical and genomic significance of donor-specific antibody-positive/C4d-negative and donor-specific antibody-negative/C4d-negative transplant glomerulopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayde, Nicole; Bao, Yi; Pullman, James; Ye, Bin; Calder, R Brent; Chung, Monica; Schwartz, Daniel; Lubetzky, Michelle; Ajaimy, Maria; de Boccardo, Graciela; Akalin, Enver

    2013-12-01

    This study investigated the mechanisms involved in development of donor-specific antibody (DSA) and/or C4d-negative transplant glomerulopathy (TGP) by allograft gene expression profiles using microarrays. This cohort study was conducted in kidney transplant recipients. Patients were eligible for inclusion if they required a clinically indicated biopsy at any time point after their transplant. They were then classified according to their histopathology findings and DSA and C4d results. Eighteen chronic antibody-mediated rejection (CAMR), 14 DSA+/C4d- TGP, 25 DSA-/C4d- TGP, and 47 nonspecific interstitial fibrosis/tubular atrophy (IFTA) biopsy specimens were identified. In a subset of patients from the study population, biopsy specimens in each group and normal transplant kidney specimens were analyzed with Affymetrix Human Gene 1.0 ST Arrays. The mean sum score of glomerulitis and peritubular capillaritis increased from 0.28±0.78 in IFTA specimens to 0.75±0.85 in DSA-/C4d- TGP specimens, 1.71±1.49 in DSA+/C4d-/TGP specimens, and 2.11±1.74 in CAMR specimens (PTGP specimens (14.3%), and DSA-/C4d- TGP specimens (16%) (P=0.01). With use of microarrays, comparison of the gene expression profiles of DSA-/C4d- TGP specimens with glomerulitis + peritubular capillaritis scores > 0 to normal and IFTA biopsy specimens revealed higher expression of quantitative cytotoxic T cell-associated transcripts (QCAT). However, both CAMR and DSA+/C4d- TGP specimens had higher expression of not only QCAT but also IFN-γ and rejection-induced, constitutive macrophage-associated, natural killer cell-associated, and DSA-selective transcripts. Endothelial cell-associated transcript expression was upregulated only in CAMR biopsy specimens. These results suggested that DSA+/C4d- TGP biopsy specimens may be classified as CAMR. In contrast, DSA-/C4d- TGP specimens showed increased cytotoxic T cell-associated transcripts, suggesting T cell activation as a mechanism of injury.

  6. Quantifying Forest Spatial Pattern Trends at Multiple Extents: An Approach to Detect Significant Changes at Different Scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludovico Frate

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We propose a procedure to detect significant changes in forest spatial patterns and relevant scales. Our approach consists of four sequential steps. First, based on a series of multi-temporal forest maps, a set of geographic windows of increasing extents are extracted. Second, for each extent and date, specific stochastic simulations that replicate real-world spatial pattern characteristics are run. Third, by computing pattern metrics on both simulated and real maps, their empirical distributions and confidence intervals are derived. Finally, multi-temporal scalograms are built for each metric. Based on cover maps (1954, 2011 with a resolution of 10 m we analyze forest pattern changes in a central Apennines (Italy reserve at multiple spatial extents (128, 256 and 512 pixels. We identify three types of multi-temporal scalograms, depending on pattern metric behaviors, describing different dynamics of natural reforestation process. The statistical distribution and variability of pattern metrics at multiple extents offers a new and powerful tool to detect forest variations over time. Similar procedures can (i help to identify significant changes in spatial patterns and provide the bases to relate them to landscape processes; (ii minimize the bias when comparing pattern metrics at a single extent and (iii be extended to other landscapes and scales.

  7. Trends in survival among extremely-low-birth-weight infants (less than 1000 g without significant bronchopulmonary dysplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botet Francesc

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective The aim of this study was to analyze the evolution from 1997 to 2009 of survival without significant (moderate and severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia (SWsBPD in extremely-low-birth-weight (ELBW infants and to determine the influence of changes in resuscitation, nutrition and mechanical ventilation on the survival rate. Study design In this study, 415 premature infants with birth weights below 1000 g (ELBW were divided into three chronological subgroups: 1997 to 2000 (n = 65, 2001 to 2005 (n = 178 and 2006 to 2009 (n = 172. Between 1997 and 2000, respiratory resuscitation in the delivery room was performed via a bag and mask (Ambu®, Ballerup, Sweden with 40-50% oxygen. If this procedure was not effective, oral endotracheal intubation was always performed. Pulse oximetry was never used. Starting on January 1, 2001, a change in the delivery room respiratory policy was established for ELBW infants. Oxygenation and heart rate were monitored using a pulse oximeter (Nellcor® attached to the newborn’s right hand. If resuscitation was required, ventilation was performed using a face mask, and intermittent positive pressure was controlled via a ventilator (Babylog2, Drägger. In 2001, a policy of aggressive nutrition was also initiated with the early provision of parenteral amino acids. We used standardized parenteral nutrition to feed ELBW infants during the first 12–24 hours of life. Lipids were given on the first day. The glucose concentration administered was increased by 1 mg/kg/minute each day until levels reached 8 mg/kg/minute. Enteral nutrition was started with trophic feeding of milk. In 2006, volume guarantee treatment was instituted and administered together with synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation (SIMV + VG. The complications of prematurity were treated similarly throughout the study period. Patent ductus arteriosus was only treated when hemodynamically significant. Surgical closure of the

  8. Stagnations of increasing trends in negative pressure with repeated cavitation in water/metal Berthelot tubes as a result of mechanical sealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiro, Kazuki; Ohde, Yoshihito; Tanzawa, Yasutoshi

    2003-01-01

    To investigate effects of mechanical sealing on negative pressures in water/metal tube Berthelot systems, trends in negative pressure are observed through runs of temperature cycles below 90 deg. C in two systems made of metals having small amounts of gas inclusions. The first system is a pre-degassed all-stainless-steel tube/plug system. The steel is a special product for vacuum engineering. The second is the same tube sealed with plugs made of silver solidified one-dimensionally in a vacuum furnace. A new type of trend, stagnation for intermediate cycles is found in both systems so long as sealing distortion of each plug is small in amount. The stagnation period for the first system is longer than that for the second one. A metallurgical mechanism of a gas-being-replenished crevice model is proposed: distorted parts of metals undergo heat-treatment during runs of temperature cycles, and the heat-treatment enhances the rates of impurity gas transports to crevices on the metal surface where cavitation occurs, and the transport causes the stagnation for cycles during which the rates are still high

  9. Increased superior frontal gyrus activation during working memory processing in psychosis: Significant relation to cumulative antipsychotic medication and to negative symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Tobias; Smieskova, Renata; Schmidt, André; Walter, Anna; Harrisberger, Fabienne; Eckert, Anne; Lang, Undine E; Riecher-Rössler, Anita; Graf, Marc; Borgwardt, Stefan

    2016-08-01

    Impairment in working memory (WM) is a core symptom in schizophrenia. However, little is known about how clinical features influence functional brain activity specific to WM processing during the development of first-episode psychosis (FEP) to schizophrenia (SZ). We compared functional WM-specific brain activity in FEP and SZ patients, including the effects of the duration of illness, psychopathological factors and antipsychotic medication. Cross-sectional study of male FEP (n=22) and SZ (n=20) patients performing an n-back task when undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Clinical features were collected by semi-structured interviews and medical records. The SZ group performed significantly worse than the FEP group in the 2-back condition. The SZ group also showed significantly higher activation in the left superior frontal gyrus in the 2-back versus 0-back condition (2-back>0-back). This frontal activation correlated positively with negative symptoms and with cumulative antipsychotic medication during the year before the fMRI examination. There were no significant correlations between activation and duration of illness. There was greater frontal neural activation in SZ than in FEP. This indicated differences in WM processing, and was significantly related to cumulative antipsychotic exposure and negative symptoms, but not to the duration of illness. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Significance of a negative exercise thallium test in the presence of a critical residual stenosis after thrombolysis for acute myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutton, J.M.; Topol, E.J.

    1991-01-01

    After thrombolytic therapy for acute myocardial infarction, increasing emphasis is placed on early submaximal exercise testing, with further intervention advocated only for demonstrable ischemia. Although significant residual coronary artery lesions after successful thrombolysis are common, many patients paradoxically have no corresponding provokable ischemia. The relation between significant postthrombolytic residual coronary artery disease and a negative early, submaximal exercise thallium-201 tomogram was studied among 101 consecutive patients with uncomplicated myocardial infarction and at least 70% residual stenosis of the infarct artery. A negative test occurred in 49 (48.5%) patients with a mean 88% residual infarct artery stenosis. Further characteristics of the group were as follows: mean time to treatment was 3.1 hours; mean age was 54 +/- 10 years; 80% were male; 47% had anterior infarction; 39% had multivessel disease; mean left ventricular ejection fraction was 53 +/- 14%; and mean peak creatine kinase level was 3,820 +/- 3,123 IU/ml. A similar group of 52 (51.5%) patients, treated within 3.3 hours from symptom onset, with a mean postthrombolysis stenosis of 90%, had a positive exercise test. Characteristics of this group were as follows: age was 58 +/- 10 years; 92% were male; 56% had anterior infarction; 40% had multivessel disease; and mean left ventricular ejection fraction was 54 +/- 15%. The peak creatine kinase level associated with the infarction, however, was lower: 2,605 +/- 1,805 IU/ml (p = 0.04). There was no difference in performance at exercise testing with respect to peak systolic pressure, peak heart rate, or time tolerated on the treadmill between the two groups. By multivariate logistic regression, only peak creatine kinase level predicted a negative stress result in the presence of a significant residual stenosis

  11. Impact of age on the false negative rate of human papillomavirus DNA test in patients with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Kyu-Hee; Lee, Jae Yeon; Cho, Hye-Yon; Suh, Dong Hoon; No, Jae Hong; Kim, Yong-Beom

    2015-03-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) test was incorporated into the triage of lesser abnormal cervical cytologies: atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) or low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL). This study aimed to evaluate the impact of age on the efficacy of HPV testing in patients with lesser abnormal cervical cytologies. A total of 439 patients with ASCUS or LSIL were included. The association between age groups and the diagnostic performances of HPV test for high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN2+) was evaluated. Median age was 44 years (range, 17 to 75 years). ASCUS was more frequently observed in older patients while LSIL was more common in younger patients (P=0.002). CIN2+ was found in 11.3% (32/284) of the ASCUS patients and 12.9% (20/155) of patients with LSIL. Older patients with ASCUS showed lower HPV infection rates (P=0.025), but not LSIL (P=0.114). However, the prevalence of CIN2+ was similar between the age groups with ASCUS or LSIL. In patients with ASCUS, the false negative rate of HPV test for CIN2+ was 6.2%. The false negative rate of the HPV test became higher with increasing of the age after the age of 50 (P=0.034). Our findings suggest that false negative rate of the HPV test for CIN2+ in ASCUS patients older than 50 years might become higher with increasing of the age. Negative HPV results in patients of the age >50 years with ASCUS should be carefully interpreted.

  12. Foliar δ13C Showed No Altitudinal Trend in an Arid Region and Atmospheric Pressure Exerted a Negative Effect on Plant δ13C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zixun Chen

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have suggested foliar δ13C generally increases with altitude. However, some observations reported no changes or even decreased trends in foliar δ13C. We noted that all the studies in which δ13C increased with elevation were conducted in the human regions, whereas those investigations in which δ13C did not vary or decreased were conducted in areas with water stress. Thus, we proposed that the pattern of increasing δ13C with elevation is not a general one, and that δ13C may remain unchanged or decrease in plants grown in arid environments. To test the hypothesis, we sampled plants along altitude gradients on the shady and sunny slopes of Mount Tianshan characterized by arid and semiarid climates. The measurements of foliar δ13C showed no altitudinal trends for the plants grown on either of the slopes. Therefore, this study supported our hypothesis. In addition, the present study addressed the effect of atmospheric pressure on plant δ13C by accounting for the effects of temperature and precipitation on δ13C. This study found that the residual foliar δ13C increased with increasing altitude, suggesting that atmospheric pressure played a negative role in foliar δ13C.

  13. [Clinical significance of JAK2、CALR and MPL gene mutations in 1 648 Philadelphia chromosome negative myeloproliferative neoplasms patients from a single center].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, M Y; Chao, H Y; Sun, A N; Qiu, H Y; Jin, Z M; Tang, X W; Han, Y; Fu, C C; Chen, S N; Wu, D P

    2017-04-14

    Objective: To explore the prevalences of JAK2, CALR and MPL gene mutations and the mutation types in patients with Philadelphia chromosome negative myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) , and to compare their clinical characteristics of different mutation types with each other and mutation negative group. Methods: The mutations of JAK2 V617F, JAK2 gene at exon 12, CALR gene at exon 9 and MPL gene at exon 10 in 1 648 Ph negative MPNs patients were detected by direct sequencing. Results: ① The JAK2V617F mutation was found in 471 (92.7%) of 508 PV patients, 819 (78.1%) of 1 049 ET patients and 74 (81.3%) of 91 PMF patients respectively, with the total mutation rate as 82.8% (1 364/1 648) . The JAK2 exon12 mutation was found in 9 (1.7%) of 508 PV patients, none was found in ET or PMF patients, with the total mutation rate as 0.5% (9/1 648) . The CALR mutation was found in 132 (12.6%) of 1 049 ET patients and 11 (12.1%) of 91 PMF patients respectively, with the total mutation rate as 8.7% (143/1 648) ; the MPL mutation was found in 9 (0.9%) of 1 049 ET patients and 1 (1.1%) of 91 PMF patients respectively, with the total mutation rate as 0.6% (10/1 648) . The co-occurrence of any two types of driver gene mutations was not detected by direct sequencing. ②The median onset age of patients with JAK2V617F[61 (15-95) y] was significant higher than of with JAK2 exon12 mutation[49 (33-62) y] or without mutations[42 (3-78) y] ( P MPL mutation[59 (22-71) y] ( P >0.05) . Patients with JAK2V617F had higher white blood cell count and hemoglobin level ( P MPL mutation ( P =0.013) . The platelet count of patients with CALR mutation was significantly higher than of with JAK2V617F[966 (400-2 069) ×10(9)/L vs 800 (198-3 730) ×10(9)/L, P MPL gene mutation revealed normal karyotype. Conclusions: Driver gene mutations detection could ensure the diagnosis and prognosis judgment of MPN more reliable, different subtypes of MPNs had different profiles of driver gene mutations, the latter

  14. Prognostic significance of proline, glutamic acid, leucine rich protein 1 (PELP1) in triple-negative breast cancer: a retrospective study on 129 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yanzhi; Dai, Jiali; McNamara, Keely M.; Bai, Bing; Shi, Mumu; Chan, Monica S. M.; Liu, Ming; Sasano, Hironobu; Wang, Xiuli; Li, Xiaolei; Liu, Lijuan; Ma, Ying; Cao, Shuwen; Xing, Yanchun; Zhao, Baoshan; Song, Yinli; Wang, Lin

    2015-01-01

    Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is associated with an aggressive clinical course due to the lack of therapeutic targets. Therefore, identifying reliable prognostic biomarkers and novel therapeutic targets for patients with TNBC is required. Proline, glutamic acid, leucine rich protein 1 (PELP1) is a novel steroidal receptor co-regulator, functioning as an oncogene and its expression is maintained in estrogen receptor (ER) negative breast cancers. PELP1 has been proposed as a prognostic biomarker in hormone-related cancers, including luminal-type breast cancers, but its significance in TNBC has not been studied. PELP1 immunoreactivity was evaluated using immunohistochemistry in 129 patients with TNBC. Results were correlated with clinicopathological variables including patient’s age, tumor size, lymph node stage, tumor grade, clinical stage, histological type, Ki-67 LI, as well as clinical outcome of the patients, including disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). PELP1 was localized predominantly in the nuclei of carcinoma cells in TNBC. With the exception of a positive correlation between PELP1 protein expression and lymph node stage (p = 0.027), no significant associations between PELP1 protein expression and other clinicopathological variables, including DFS and OS, were found. However, when PELP1 and Ki-67 LI were grouped together, we found that patients in the PELP1/Ki-67 double high group (n = 48) demonstrated significantly reduced DFS (p = 0.005, log rank test) and OS (p = 0.002, log rank test) than others (n = 81). Multivariable analysis supported PELP1/Ki-67 double high expression as an independent prognostic factor in patients with TNBC, with an adjusted hazard ratio of 2.020 for recurrence (95 % CL, 1.022–3.990; p = 0.043) and of 2.380 for death (95 % CL, 1.138–4.978; p = 0.021). We found that evaluating both PELP1 and Ki-67 expression in TNBC could enhance the prognostic sensitivity of the two biomarkers. Therefore, we propose

  15. Increasing prevalence of extended-spectrum-betalactamase among Gram-negative bacilli in Latin America: 2008 update from the Study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends (SMART

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Virginia Villegas

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: This analysis of the Study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends (SMART evaluated the susceptibility patterns of Enterobacteriaceae in Latin America in 2008, with emphasis on susceptibility trends of E. coli and K. pneumoniae. METHODS: Clinical isolates were recovered from intra-abdominal infections (IAI from 23 centers in 10 Latin American countries. Isolates were sent to a central laboratory for confirmation of identification, antimicrobial susceptibility and ESBL testing, following the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI guidelines. RESULTS: Of 1,003 Gram-negative bacilli collected from intra-abdominal infections, E. coli and K. pneumoniae were the most commonly isolated organisms, and 26.8% of E. coli and 37.7% of K. pneumoniae were ESBL positive. Ertapenem and imipenem were the most consistently active agents tested; 99% of ESBLpositive E. coli isolates were susceptible to ertapenem and 100% to imipenem as well, and 91% of ESBL-positive K. pneumoniae were susceptible to ertapenem and 98% to imipenem. Quinolones and cephalosporins were less active, achieving 1.5% to 76% inhibition against ESBL-producing E. coli and 3.5% to 61% inhibition against K. pneumoniae. CONCLUSIONS: Local and unit-specific surveillance data is particularly important for selection of empiric therapy and in community-acquired infections as they can help the clinician with antibiotic selection by providing guidance regarding the likely pathogens and their resistance profiles. Our data also confirm the increasing frequency with which ESBL-producing organisms are found in the community setting, with 31.4% of communityacquired and 24.9% of hospital-acquired infections found to produce ESBLs. Imipenem and ertapenem are the most active agents tested for ESBL-positive E. coli and K. pneumoniae.

  16. Age and associated fibrocystic changes are prognostically significant in patients with small node-negative (T1a,bN0) invasive breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durak, Merih Guray; Gonzalez-Angulo, Ana M; Hanrahan, Emer O; Broglio, Kristine R; Valero, Vicente; Hortobagyi, Gabriel N; Hunt, Kelly K; Sahin, Aysegul A

    2011-01-01

    Some patients with small (≤1.0 cm) node-negative (T1a,bN0) invasive breast cancer (IBC) who undergo only local therapy experience recurrences. There is limited information on prognostic factors in these patients. We sought to identify prognostic factors associated with disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) in patients with T1a,bN0 IBC. Histologic sections from 273 T1a,bN0 IBC patients treated at M. D. Anderson Cancer Center (MDACC) between 1980 and 1999 were reviewed. Microscopic tumor size; multifocality; histologic type, grade of tumor; presence, type, grade of associated ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS); presence of fibrocystic changes (FCC) with/without atypia; and lymphovascular invasion were identified. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to evaluate DFS and OS. Median patient age was 58 years, median follow-up period was 10.8 years, and median tumor size was 0.8 cm. Multifocal disease was identified in 26% of cases. At 10 years, the DFS and OS rates were 91% and 88%, respectively. Twenty-one percent of patients had extensive (>50%), and 30% had grade 3 DCIS. Nonproliferative FCC and proliferative FCC with/without atypia were present in 80%, 36%, and 38% of patients, respectively. In univariate analysis, age at diagnosis (p < 0.0001), grade (p = 0.015), and percent (p = 0.046) of DCIS were significantly associated with DFS; presence of FCC was associated with longer DFS and OS. In multivariable models, age and presence of FCC remained significantly associated with survival. Age at diagnosis and associated FCC are significant factors in predicting recurrence in patients with T1a,bN0 IBC. Adjuvant systemic therapy should be discussed with and considered for young patients with T1a,bN0 IBC. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Silibinin and Paclitaxel Cotreatment Significantly Suppress the Activity and Lung Metastasis of Triple Negative 4T1 Mammary Tumor Cell in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing-Ying Ho

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The in vitro and in vivo bioactivities of silibinin (SB, paclitaxel (PTX and SB and PTX in combination (SB+PTX against murine metastatic mammary 4T1 cancer cell line were investigated. Isobologram and combination index (CI analyses showed that SB and PTX can function synergistically in the inhibition of 4T1 cell proliferation with a CI value<1. Both SB and PTX alone or SB+PTX treatment inhibited 4T1 cell migration and motility possibly through downregulation of the serpin protease nexin-1 (PN-1 and N-cadherin expression, inhibition of matrix metalloprotease (MMP-9 activity, and upregulation of E-cadherin. Flow cytometry and Western blot analyses demonstrated that both drugs deregulated cell-cycle mediators and induced apoptosis in 4T1 cells. A real-time in vivo bioluminescence imaging system to monitor the breast cancer cell metastasis in syngeneic BALB/c mice was established using a stable 4T1pGL−COX−2/Luc cell clone carrying a COX-2 promoter driven-luciferase reporter gene. In vivo study using the allograft 4T1pGL−COX−2/Luc metastatic mouse model indicated that SB co-treated with PTX can significantly suppress lung metastasis of 4T1 cells likely through inhibiting cell proliferation and angiogenesis. Together, this study demonstrates that SB could act synergistically with PTX in 4T1 cells, providing a therapeutic option for highly metastatic triple negative breast cancer.

  18. Sunitinib significantly suppresses the proliferation, migration, apoptosis resistance, tumor angiogenesis and growth of triple-negative breast cancers but increases breast cancer stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinchar, Edmund; Makey, Kristina L; Gibson, John; Chen, Fang; Cole, Shelby A; Megason, Gail C; Vijayakumar, Srinivassan; Miele, Lucio; Gu, Jian-Wei

    2014-01-01

    The majority of triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs) are basal-like breast cancers. However there is no reported study on anti-tumor effects of sunitinib in xenografts of basal-like TNBC (MDA-MB-468) cells. In the present study, MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-468, MCF-7 cells were cultured using RPMI 1640 media with 10% FBS. Vascular endothelia growth factor (VEGF) protein levels were detected using ELISA (R & D Systams). MDA-MB-468 cells were exposed to sunitinib for 18 hours for measuring proliferation (3H-thymidine incorporation), migration (BD Invasion Chamber), and apoptosis (ApopTag and ApoScreen Anuexin V Kit). The effect of sunitinib on Notch-1 expression was determined by Western blot in cultured MDA-MB-468 cells. 10(6) MDA-MB-468 cells were inoculated into the left fourth mammary gland fat pad in athymic nude-foxn1 mice. When the tumor volume reached 100 mm(3), sunitinib was given by gavage at 80 mg/kg/2 days for 4 weeks. Tumor angiogenesis was determined by CD31 immunohistochemistry. Breast cancer stem cells (CSCs) isolated from the tumors were determined by flow cytometry analysis using CD44(+)/CD24(-) or low. ELISA indicated that VEGF was much more highly expressed in MDA-MB-468 cells than MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells. Sunitinib significantly inhibited the proliferation, invasion, and apoptosis resistance in cultured basal like breast cancer cells. Sunitinib significantly increased the expression of Notch-1 protein in cultured MDA-MB-468 or MDA-MB-231 cells. The xenograft models showed that oral sunitinib significantly reduced the tumor volume of TNBCs in association with the inhibition of tumor angiogeneisis, but increased breast CSCs. These findings support the hypothesis that the possibility should be considered of sunitinib increasing breast CSCs though it inhibits TNBC tumor angiogenesis and growth/progression, and that effects of sunitinib on Notch expression and hypoxia may increase breast cancer stem cells. This work provides the groundwork for an

  19. Trends in surface wind speed and significant wave height as revealed by ERA-Interim wind wave hindcast in the Central Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shanas, P.R.; SanilKumar, V.

    height. The area average analysis is carried out to investigate the sensitivity of the identified trend results for the point location and found similar trends for extreme wind speed and SWH. The high (>5 m) annual maximum SWH in the study area...

  20. Clinical significance of spasmolytic polypeptide-expressing metaplasia and intestinal metaplasia in Epstein-Barr virus-associated and Epstein-Barr virus-negative gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Chen, Jian-Ning; Dong, Min; Zhang, Zhi-Gang; Zhang, Yi-Wang; Wu, Jun-Yan; Du, Hong; Li, Hai-Gang; Huang, Yan; Shao, Chun-Kui

    2017-05-01

    Spasmolytic polypeptide-expressing metaplasia (SPEM) and intestinal metaplasia (IM) have been recognized as neoplastic precursors in gastric carcinogenesis. We explored the relationship between SPEM and IM in Epstein-Barr virus-associated (EBVaGC) and Epstein-Barr virus-negative (EBVnGC) gastric cancer. Sixty-four EBVaGC and one hundred and fifty-four EBVnGC patients were included. EBV positivity was identified using Epstein-Barr virus-encoded RNA-1 in situ hybridization. SPEM was subclassified into absent, early, and advanced SPEM. Acute and chronic inflammation was graded as absent, mild, moderate, and marked. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to analyze the correlation between SPEM, IM, and inflammation. Our study revealed that SPEM was detected in 87.5% EBVaGC and 85.1% EBVnGC patients. Distribution of patients according to the SPEM classification was significantly different between EBVaGC and EBVnGC groups (P=.038). IM was observed less frequently in EBVaGC when compared with EBVnGC patients (P<.001). No difference was observed between EBVaGC and EBVnGC in the levels of acute and chronic inflammation. A positive correlation between IM and SPEM status was observed in both EBVaGC and EBVnGC patients. Furthermore, advanced SPEM was an independent influential factor to IM in EBVnGC (P=.013). In conclusion, SPEM was associated with both EBVaGC and EBVnGC more frequently than IM. Moreover, advanced SPEM had a stronger association with IM than early SPEM in EBVnGC. These results suggest that identification of SPEM should be used as a high-risk indicator for detecting early gastric carcinoma, and should be brought to the attention of pathologists and clinicians. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Significant role of Fas ligand-binding but defective Fas receptor (CD95) in lymph node hyperplasia composed of abnormal double-negative T cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuzawa, Akio; Shimizu, Motomu; Takeda, Yasutaka; Nagase, Hisashi; Sayama, Kazutoshi; Kimura, Mikio

    2002-01-01

    The functional differences between two mutations of the Fas (CD95) locus, Faslpr (lpr) and Faslprcg (lprcg), were investigated using bone marrow (BM) transplantation on the C3H mouse background. Both lpr/lpr and lprcg/lprcg BM transferred caused lymph node (LN) hyperplasia in lpr/+ and lprcg/+ recipients, although it was clearly smaller than that in lpr/lpr and lprcg/lprcg recipients of lpr/lpr and lprcg/lprcg BM. In addition, both BM induced significantly larger LN hyperplasia in lprcg/+ than lpr/+ recipients. Appearance of CD4− CD8−[double negative (DN)] T cells in the periphery is the most consistent phenotype of Fas mutations. Importantly, the proportion of DN T cells was higher in larger LN hyperplasia in the order of lpr/+, lprcg/+ and lpr/lpr or lprcg/lprcg recipients. On the other hand, both lpr/lpr and lprcg/lprcg BM transferred into wild-type (+/+) mice caused marked LN atrophy. The former, but not the latter, induced wasting syndrome. Faslg1d (gld)-homozygous lpr/lpr BM transferred into +/+ mice elicited LN hyperplasia of the same extent as that in lpr/lpr mice transferred with lpr/lpr BM, but not wasting syndrome. Taken together with the fact that DN T cells massively express Fas ligand (FasL), this study implied that FasL overexpressed on DN cells may be involved in the accumulation of DN T cells in LN, LN atrophy and wasting syndrome, and that lprcg Fas, which can bind to Fas ligand but not transduce apoptosis signal into cells, may modulate these pathological conditions by interfering with the binding of FasL to Fas. PMID:12153509

  2. Local and national trends in general surgery residents' operative experience: do work hour limitations negatively affect case volume in small community-based programs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markelov, Alexey; Sakharpe, Aniket; Kohli, Harjeet; Livert, David

    2011-12-01

    The goals of this study were to analyze the impact of work hour restrictions on the operative case volume at a small community-based general surgery residency training program and compare changes with the national level. Annual national resident case log data from Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) website and case logs of graduating Easton Hospital residents (years 2002-2009) were used for analysis. Weighted average change in total number of cases in our institution was -1.20 (P = 0.52) vs 1.78 (P = 0.07) for the national program average with statistically significant difference on comparison (P = 0.027). We also found significant difference in case volume changes at the national level compared with our institution for the following ACGME defined subcategories: alimentary tract [8.19 (P < 0.01) vs -1.08 (P = 0.54)], abdomen [8.48 (P < 0.01) vs -6.29 (P < 0.01)], breast [1.91 (P = 0.89) vs -3.6 (P = 0.02)], and vascular [4.03 (P = 0.02) vs -3.98 (P = 0.01)]. Comparing the national trend to the community hospital we see that there is total increase in cases at the national level whereas there is a decrease in case volume at the community hospital. These trends can also be followed in ACGME defined subcategories which form the major case load for a general surgical training such as alimentary tract, abdominal, breast, and vascular procedures. We hypothesize that work hour restrictions have been favorable for the larger programs, as these programs were able to better integrate the night float system, restructure their call schedule, and implement institutional modifications which are too resource demanding for smaller training programs.

  3. Non-susceptibility trends among Pseudomonas aeruginosa and other non-fermentative Gram-negative bacteria from bacteraemias in the UK and Ireland, 2001-06.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livermore, David M; Hope, Russell; Brick, Geraldine; Lillie, Mark; Reynolds, Rosy

    2008-11-01

    Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter spp. are important opportunists, notorious for resistance. Pseudomonas spp. are collected in the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy (BSAC) bacteraemia surveillance, with Acinetobacter spp. and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia well represented in the 'other Gram-negatives' group. Data for collected isolates were reviewed together with LabBase bacteraemia reports to the Health Protection Agency (HPA). Isolates with unusual resistances were subjected to molecular investigation. From 2001 to 2006, the BSAC surveillance collected 1226 Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 240 Acinetobacter spp.-125 of them Acinetobacter calcoaceticus/baumannii (Acb) complex-and 165 S. maltophilia. Among P. aeruginosa, non-susceptibility rates to beta-lactams and gentamicin fluctuated, without trend, below 10%; those to ciprofloxacin ranged from 16% to 22%. One P. aeruginosa isolate from 2001 had VIM-2 metallo-beta-lactamase. For Acb, the BSAC data indicated frequent non-susceptibility, except to imipenem, where only five non-susceptible isolates were collected, all after 2003, four of them belonging to the OXA-23 clone 1 lineage which is prevalent in Southeast England. Reports to the HPA indicated rising imipenem non-susceptibility in Acb (P /=16 mg/L for Acb OXA-23 clone 1. Ceftobiprole had higher MICs than ceftazidime for P. aeruginosa, but 81% of the isolates were inhibited at

  4. Critical significance of the region between Helix 1 and 2 for efficient dominant-negative inhibition by conversion-incompetent prion protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuzuru Taguchi

    Full Text Available Prion diseases are fatal infectious neurodegenerative disorders in man and animals associated with the accumulation of the pathogenic isoform PrP(Sc of the host-encoded prion protein (PrP(c. A profound conformational change of PrP(c underlies formation of PrP(Sc and prion propagation involves conversion of PrP(c substrate by direct interaction with PrP(Sc template. Identifying the interfaces and modalities of inter-molecular interactions of PrPs will highly advance our understanding of prion propagation in particular and of prion-like mechanisms in general. To identify the region critical for inter-molecular interactions of PrP, we exploited here dominant-negative inhibition (DNI effects of conversion-incompetent, internally-deleted PrP (ΔPrP on co-expressed conversion-competent PrP. We created a series of ΔPrPs with different lengths of deletions in the region between first and second α-helix (H1∼H2 which was recently postulated to be of importance in prion species barrier and PrP fibril formation. As previously reported, ΔPrPs uniformly exhibited aberrant properties including detergent insolubility, limited protease digestion resistance, high-mannose type N-linked glycans, and intracellular localization. Although formerly controversial, we demonstrate here that ΔPrPs have a GPI anchor attached. Surprisingly, despite very similar biochemical and cell-biological properties, DNI efficiencies of ΔPrPs varied significantly, dependant on location and inversely correlated with the size of deletion. This data demonstrates that H1∼H2 and the region C-terminal to it are critically important for efficient DNI. It also suggests that this region is involved in PrP-PrP interaction and conversion of PrP(C into PrP(Sc. To reconcile the paradox of how an intracellular PrP can exert DNI, we demonstrate that ΔPrPs are subject to both proteasomal and lysosomal/autophagic degradation pathways. Using autophagy pathways ΔPrPs obtain access to the locale

  5. Trends of Bloodstream Infections in a University Greek Hospital during a Three-Year Period: Incidence of Multidrug-Resistant Bacteria and Seasonality in Gram-negative Predominance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolonitsiou, Fevronia; Papadimitriou-Olivgeris, Matthaios; Spiliopoulou, Anastasia; Stamouli, Vasiliki; Papakostas, Vasileios; Apostolopoulou, Eleni; Panagiotopoulos, Christos; Marangos, Markos; Anastassiou, Evangelos D; Christofidou, Myrto; Spiliopoulou, Iris

    2017-07-06

    The aim of the study was to assess the epidemiology, the incidence of multidrug-resistant bacteria and bloodstream infections' (BSIs) seasonality in a university hospital. This retrospective study was carried out in the University General Hospital of Patras, Greece, during 2011-13 y. Blood cultures from patients with clinical presentation suggestive of bloodstream infection were performed by the BacT/ALERT System. Isolates were identified by Vitek 2 Advanced Expert System. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed by the disk diffusion method and E-test. Resistance genes (mecA in staphylococci; vanA/vanB/vanC in enterococci; bla KPC /bla VIM /bla NDM in Klebsiella spp.) were detected by PCR. In total, 4607 (9.7%) blood cultures were positive from 47451 sets sent to Department of Microbiology, representing 1732 BSIs. Gram-negative bacteria (52.3%) were the most commonly isolated, followed by Gram-positive (39.5%), fungi (6.6%) and anaerobes bacteria (1.8%). The highest contamination rate was observed among Gram-positive bacteria (42.3%). Among 330 CNS and 150 Staphylococcus aureus, 281 (85.2%) and 60 (40.0%) were mecA-positive, respectively. From 113 enterococci, eight were vanA, two vanB and two vanC-positives. Of the total 207 carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (73.4%), 202 carried bla KPC , four bla KPC and bla VIM and one bla VIM . A significant increase in monthly BSIs' incidence was shown (R2: 0.449), which may be attributed to a rise of Gram-positive BSIs (R2: 0.337). Gram-positive BSIs were less frequent in spring (P period. The increasing incidence of BSIs can be attributed to an increase of Gram-positive BSI incidence, even though Gram-negative bacteria remained the predominant ones. Seasonality may play a role in the predominance of Gram-negative's BSI.

  6. Lack of clinical AIDS in SIV-infected sooty mangabeys with significant CD4+ T cell loss is associated with double-negative T cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milush, Jeffrey M.; Mir, Kiran D.; Sundaravaradan, Vasudha; Gordon, Shari N.; Engram, Jessica; Cano, Christopher A.; Reeves, Jacqueline D.; Anton, Elizabeth; O’Neill, Eduardo; Butler, Eboneé; Hancock, Kathy; Cole, Kelly S.; Brenchley, Jason M.; Else, James G.; Silvestri, Guido; Sodora, Donald L.

    2011-01-01

    SIV infection of natural host species such as sooty mangabeys results in high viral replication without clinical signs of simian AIDS. Studying such infections is useful for identifying immunologic parameters that lead to AIDS in HIV-infected patients. Here we have demonstrated that acute, SIV-induced CD4+ T cell depletion in sooty mangabeys does not result in immune dysfunction and progression to simian AIDS and that a population of CD3+CD4–CD8– T cells (double-negative T cells) partially compensates for CD4+ T cell function in these animals. Passaging plasma from an SIV-infected sooty mangabey with very few CD4+ T cells to SIV-negative animals resulted in rapid loss of CD4+ T cells. Nonetheless, all sooty mangabeys generated SIV-specific antibody and T cell responses and maintained normal levels of plasma lipopolysaccharide. Moreover, all CD4-low sooty mangabeys elicited a de novo immune response following influenza vaccination. Such preserved immune responses as well as the low levels of immune activation observed in these animals were associated with the presence of double-negative T cells capable of producing Th1, Th2, and Th17 cytokines. These studies indicate that SIV-infected sooty mangabeys do not appear to rely entirely on CD4+ T cells to maintain immunity and identify double-negative T cells as a potential subset of cells capable of performing CD4+ T cell–like helper functions upon SIV-induced CD4+ T cell depletion in this species. PMID:21317533

  7. Variable temperature ion trap studies of CH4+ + H2, HD and D2: negative temperature dependence and significant isotope effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asvany, O.; Savic, I.; Schlemmer, S.; Gerlich, D.

    2004-01-01

    Reactions of methane cations, CH 4 + , with H 2 , HD and D 2 have been studied in a variable temperature 22-pole ion trap from room temperature down to 15 K. The formation of CH 5 + in collisions with H 2 is slow at 300 K, but it becomes faster by at least one order of magnitude when the temperature is lowered to 15 K. This behavior is tentatively explained with a longer complex lifetime at low temperatures. However, since tunneling is most probably not responsible for product formation, other dynamical or statistical restrictions must be responsible for the negative temperature dependence. In collisions of CH 4 + with HD, the CH 5 + product ion (68% at 15 K) prevails over CH 4 D + (32%). Reaction of CH 4 + with D 2 is found to be much slower than with H 2 or HD. The rate coefficient for converting CH 4 + into CH 3 D + by H-D exchange has been determined to be smaller than 10 -12 cm 3 /s, indicating that scrambling in the CH 6 + complex is very unlikely

  8. Elevated endogenous expression of the dominant negative basic helix-loop-helix protein ID1 correlates with significant centrosome abnormalities in human tumor cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gutmann Anja

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background ID proteins are dominant negative inhibitors of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors that have multiple functions during development and cellular differentiation. Ectopic (over-expression of ID1 extends the lifespan of primary human epithelial cells. High expression levels of ID1 have been detected in multiple human malignancies, and in some have been correlated with unfavorable clinical prognosis. ID1 protein is localized at the centrosomes and forced (over-expression of ID1 results in errors during centrosome duplication. Results Here we analyzed the steady state expression levels of the four ID-proteins in 18 tumor cell lines and assessed the number of centrosome abnormalities. While expression of ID1, ID2, and ID3 was detected, we failed to detect protein expression of ID4. Expression of ID1 correlated with increased supernumerary centrosomes in most cell lines analyzed. Conclusions This is the first report that shows that not only ectopic expression in tissue culture but endogenous levels of ID1 modulate centrosome numbers. Thus, our findings support the hypothesis that ID1 interferes with centrosome homeostasis, most likely contributing to genomic instability and associated tumor aggressiveness.

  9. Variable temperature ion trap studies of CH{sub 4}{sup +} + H{sub 2}, HD and D{sub 2}: negative temperature dependence and significant isotope effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asvany, O.; Savic, I.; Schlemmer, S.; Gerlich, D

    2004-03-08

    Reactions of methane cations, CH{sub 4}{sup +}, with H{sub 2}, HD and D{sub 2} have been studied in a variable temperature 22-pole ion trap from room temperature down to 15 K. The formation of CH{sub 5}{sup +} in collisions with H{sub 2} is slow at 300 K, but it becomes faster by at least one order of magnitude when the temperature is lowered to 15 K. This behavior is tentatively explained with a longer complex lifetime at low temperatures. However, since tunneling is most probably not responsible for product formation, other dynamical or statistical restrictions must be responsible for the negative temperature dependence. In collisions of CH{sub 4}{sup +} with HD, the CH{sub 5}{sup +} product ion (68% at 15 K) prevails over CH{sub 4}D{sup +} (32%). Reaction of CH{sub 4}{sup +} with D{sub 2} is found to be much slower than with H{sub 2} or HD. The rate coefficient for converting CH{sub 4}{sup +} into CH{sub 3}D{sup +} by H-D exchange has been determined to be smaller than 10{sup -12} cm{sup 3}/s, indicating that scrambling in the CH{sub 6}{sup +} complex is very unlikely.

  10. Impact of age on the false negative rate of human papillomavirus DNA test in patients with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance

    OpenAIRE

    Won, Kyu-Hee; Lee, Jae Yeon; Cho, Hye-Yon; Suh, Dong Hoon; No, Jae Hong; Kim, Yong-Beom

    2015-01-01

    Objective Human papillomavirus (HPV) test was incorporated into the triage of lesser abnormal cervical cytologies: atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) or low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL). This study aimed to evaluate the impact of age on the efficacy of HPV testing in patients with lesser abnormal cervical cytologies. Methods A total of 439 patients with ASCUS or LSIL were included. The association between age groups and the diagnostic performances of ...

  11. Antimicrobial susceptibility trends among gram-positive and -negative clinical isolates collected between 2005 and 2012 in Mexico: results from the Tigecycline Evaluation and Surveillance Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morfin-Otero, Rayo; Noriega, Eduardo Rodriguez; Dowzicky, Michael J

    2015-12-15

    The Tigecycline Evaluation and Surveillance Trial (T.E.S.T) is a global antimicrobial surveillance study of both gram-positive and gram-negative organisms. This report presents data on antimicrobial susceptibility among organisms collected in Mexico between 2005 and 2012 as part of T.E.S.T., and compares rates between 2005-2007 and 2008-2012. Each center in Mexico submitted at least 200 isolates per collection year; including 65 gram-positive isolates and 135 gram-negative isolates. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined using Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) broth microdilution methodology and antimicrobial susceptibility was established using the 2013 CLSI-approved breakpoints. For tigecycline US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) breakpoints were applied. Isolates of E. coli and K. pneumoniae with a MIC for ceftriaxone of >1 mg/L were screened for ESBL production using the phenotypic confirmatory disk test according to CLSI guidelines. The rates of some key resistant phenotypes changed during this study: vancomycin resistance among Enterococcus faecium decreased from 28.6 % in 2005-2007 to 19.1 % in 2008-2012, while β-lactamase production among Haemophilus influenzae decreased from 37.6 to 18.9 %. Conversely, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus increased from 38.1 to 47.9 %, meropenem-resistant Acinetobacter spp. increased from 17.7 to 33.0 % and multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter spp. increased from 25.6 to 49.7 %. The prevalence of other resistant pathogens was stable over the study period, including extended-spectrum β-lactamase-positive Escherichia coli (39.0 %) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (25.0 %). The activity of tigecycline was maintained across the study years with MIC90s of ≤2 mg/L against Enterococcus spp., S. aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Enterobacter spp., E. coli, K. pneumoniae, Klebsiella oxytoca, Serratia marcescens, H. influenzae, and Acinetobacter spp. All gram

  12. The significance of climate change in the Netherlands. An analysis of historical and future trends (1901-2020) in weather conditions, weather extremes and temperature-related impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visser, H.

    2005-07-01

    A rigorous statistical analysis reveals changes in Dutch climate that are statistically significant over the last century. Annually averaged temperatures have increased by 1.5 about 0.5 degrees Centigrade; the number of summer days has roughly doubled from 14 about 5 to 27 about 9 days; annual precipitation has increased by 120 about 100 mm; and the number of extremely wet days has increased by about 40%, from 19 about 3 to 26 about 3 days. Several other changes in Dutch climate, such as spring temperatures rising more rapidly than winter temperatures, the increase of the coldest temperature in each year by 0.9 degrees Centigrade and the annual maximum day sum of precipitation, turn out to be not (yet) statistically significant. The changes in Dutch climate have already led to several statistically significant impacts. The length of the growing season has increased by nearly a month, and the number of heating-degree days, a measure for the energy needed for the heating of houses and buildings, has decreased by 14 about 5%. Projections of future temperature increase in 2020 based on the statistical analysis closely resemble projections based on climate models: temperatures continue to increase from 10.4 about 0.4 degrees Centigrade in 2003 to 10.7 about 0.6 degrees Centigrade in 2010 and 11.1 about 1.0 degrees Centigrade in 2020. The energy needed for heating of houses and buildings is expected to decrease further. This warming effect is expected to lower projections of future Dutch greenhouse-gas emissions by 3.5 Mton CO2 equivalents, which is relevant in the context of commitments under the Kyoto Protocol. Finally, over the course of the 20th century the chance on an 'Elfstedentocht', an outdoor skating event in the Netherlands, has decreased from once every five years to once every ten years. Even though this impact change is not yet statistically significant, it resides 'on the edge' of significance: within a few years more evidence may

  13. Antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of gram-negative bacteria causing infections collected across India during 2014–2016: Study for monitoring antimicrobial resistance trend report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balaji Veeraraghavan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The emergence of antibiotic resistance among bacterial pathogens in the hospital and community has increased the concern to the health-care providers due to the limited treatment options. Surveillance of antimicrobial resistance (AMR in frequently isolated bacterial pathogens causing severe infections is of great importance. The data generated will be useful for the clinicians to decide empiric therapy on the local epidemiological resistance profile of the antimicrobial agents. This study aims to monitor the distribution of bacterial pathogen and their susceptibility pattern to the commonly used antimicrobial agents. Materials and Methods: This study includes Gram-negative bacilli collected from intra-abdominal, urinary tract and respiratory tract infections during 2014–2016. Isolates were collected from seven hospitals across India. All the study isolates were characterised up to species level, and minimum inhibitory concentration was determined for a wide range of antimicrobials included in the study panel. The test results were interpreted as per standard Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. Results: A total of 2731 isolates of gram-negative bacteria were tested during study period. The most frequently isolated pathogens were 44% of Escherichia coli (n = 1205 followed by 25% of Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 676 and 11% of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n = 308. Among the antimicrobials tested, carbapenems were the most active, followed by amikacin and piperacillin/tazobactam. The rate of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL-positive isolates were ranged from 66%–77% in E. coli to 61%–72% in K. pneumoniae, respectively. Overall, colistin retains its activity in > 90% of the isolates tested and appear promising. Conclusion: Increasing rates of ESBL producers have been noted, which is alarming. Further, carbapenem resistance was also gradually increasing, which needs much attention. Overall, this study data show that

  14. Prevalence and chemotherapy-induced reactivation of occult hepatitis B virus among hepatitis B surface antigen negative patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: Significance of hepatitis B core antibodies screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elbedewy, T.A.; Elashtokhy, H.A.; Rabee, E.S.; Kheder, G.E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Occult hepatitis B infection (OBI) is characterized by negative hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and detectable hepatitis B virus (HBV)-DNA in the liver and/or serum, with or without hepatitis B core antibody (anti-HBc). Anti-HBc is the most sensitive marker of previous HBV. HBV reactivation in patients under immunosuppressive treatment is life-threatening, occurring in both overt and occult HBV especially in hematological malignancies. Aim of the work: To evaluate the prevalence and chemotherapy-induced reactivation of OBI among hepatitis B surface antigen negative patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) patients and to determine the significance of anti-HBc screening among this group of patients before receiving chemotherapy. Patients and methods: This cross-sectional study included 72 DLBCL patients negative for HBsAg, HBsAb and hepatitis C virus antibodies (anti-HCV). Patients were subjected to investigations including anti-HBc. All patients underwent alanine transaminase (ALT) monitoring before each cycle of chemotherapy and monthly for 12 months after the end of chemotherapy. Patients with suspected OBI were tested for HBV-DNA using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results: Anti-HBc was detected in 10 of 72 HBsAg negative sera (13.89%) (95% confidence interval 6.9-22.2%). Five of the 10 anti-HBc positive patients in this study had OBI reactivation. Conclusion: The study concluded that anti-HBc screening is mandatory before chemotherapy. HBsAg-negative/anti-HBc-positive patients should be closely observed for signs of HBV reactivation through the regular monitoring of ALT. Prophylaxis lamivudine is recommended for anti-HBc positive patients before chemotherapy.

  15. Ecohydrological Index, Native Fish, and Climate Trends and Relationships in the Kansas River Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinnathamby, Sumathy; Douglas-Mankin, Kyle R; Muche, Muluken E; Hutchinson, Stacy L; Anandhi, Aavudai

    2018-01-01

    This study quantified climatological and hydrological trends and relationships to presence and distribution of two native aquatic species in the Kansas River Basin over the past half-century. Trend analyses were applied to indicators of hydrologic alteration (IHAs) at 34 streamgages over a 50-year period (1962-2012). Results showed a significant negative trend in annual streamflow for 10 of 12 western streamgages (up to -7.65 mm/50 yr) and smaller negative trends for most other streamgages. Significant negative trends in western Basin streamflow were more widespread in summer (12 stations) than winter or spring (6 stations). The negative-trend magnitude and significance decreased from west to east for maximum-flow IHAs. Minimum- flow IHAs, however, significantly decreased at High Plains streamgages but significantly increased at Central Great Plains streamgages. Number of zero-flow days showed positive trends in the High Plains. Most streamgages showed negative trends in low- and high-flow pulse frequency and high-flow pulse duration, and positive trends in low-flow pulse duration. These results were consistent with increasing occurrence of drought. Shift in occurrence from present (1860-1950) to absent (2000-2012) was significantly related (pBasin sites and had different responses to hydrological index trends at eastern Basin sites. These results demonstrate ecohydrological index changes impact distributions of native fish and suggest target factors for assessment or restoration activities.

  16. Spatial correlation in precipitation trends in the Brazilian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buarque, Diogo Costa; Clarke, Robin T.; Mendes, Carlos Andre Bulhoes

    2010-06-01

    A geostatistical analysis of variables derived from Amazon daily precipitation records (trends in annual precipitation totals, trends in annual maximum precipitation accumulated over 1-5 days, trend in length of dry spell, trend in number of wet days per year) gave results that are consistent with those previously reported. Averaged over the Brazilian Amazon region as a whole, trends in annual maximum precipitations were slightly negative, the trend in the length of dry spell was slightly positive, and the trend in the number of wet days in the year was slightly negative. For trends in annual maximum precipitation accumulated over 1-5 days, spatial correlation between trends was found to extend up to a distance equivalent to at least half a degree of latitude or longitude, with some evidence of anisotropic correlation. Time trends in annual precipitation were found to be spatially correlated up to at least ten degrees of separation, in both W-E and S-N directions. Anisotropic spatial correlation was strongly evident in time trends in length of dry spell with much stronger evidence of spatial correlation in the W-E direction, extending up to at least five degrees of separation, than in the S-N. Because the time trends analyzed are shown to be spatially correlated, it is argued that methods at present widely used to test the statistical significance of climate trends over time lead to erroneous conclusions if spatial correlation is ignored, because records from different sites are assumed to be statistically independent.

  17. Primary pulmonary non-small cell carcinomas: the College of American Pathologists Interlaboratory Comparison Program confirms a significant trend toward subcategorization based upon fine-needle aspiration cytomorphology alone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz-Aktas, Isil Z; Sturgis, Charles D; Barkan, Guliz A; Souers, Rhona J; Fraig, Mostafa M; Laucirica, Rodolfo; Khalbuss, Walid E; Moriarty, Ann T

    2014-01-01

    Context.-Subtyping of non-small cell lung carcinomas (NSCLCs) is necessary for optimal patient management with specific diagnoses triggering specific molecular tests and affecting therapy. Objective.-To assess the accuracy of the participants of the College of American Pathologists Interlaboratory Comparison Program in diagnosing and subtyping NSCLC fine-needle aspiration (FNA) slides, based on morphology alone, considering preparation and participant type and trends over time. Design.-The performance of program participants was reviewed for the 5-year period spanning 2007-2011. Lung FNA challenges with reference diagnoses of adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) were evaluated for diagnostic concordance by using a nonlinear mixed model analysis. Results.-There were 10 493 pathologist and 6378 cytotechnologist responses with concordance rates of 97.4% and 97.9% for malignancy, respectively. Overall concordance rates for subcategorization were 54.6% for adenocarcinoma and 74.9% for SCC. For the exact reference diagnoses, pathologists performed better for adenocarcinoma and cytotechnologists performed better for SCC. Accurate subcategorization of adenocarcinomas significantly increased over time with 31.5% of adenocarcinomas classified as NSCLC in 2007 and 25.5% of adenocarcinomas classified as NSCLC in 2011 (P alone. During the study period, a statistically significant trend was confirmed toward greater accuracy of subcategorization of adenocarcinomas, suggesting that participants are cognizant of the impact that more specific cytomorphologic interpretations have in directing molecular triage and therapy.

  18. Significant reduction of peripheral blood interleukin-35 and CD4+EBI3+ T cells, which are negatively correlated with an increase in the plasma IL-17 and cTnI level, in viral myocarditis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Ouyang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Viral myocarditis (VMC has become an increasingly common heart disease that endangers human health. In the present study, the plasma interleukin-35 (IL-35 level and the percentage of CD4 + EBI3 + T cells in VMC patients were detected to investigate the significance of changes in these parameters in the plasma of VMC patients and their association with the disease. Material and methods: ELISA was performed to detect the plasma IL-35 level and the percentage of peripheral blood CD4 + EBI3 + T cells in 40 VMC patients and in 20 healthy individuals. Moreover, the plasma IL-17 levels in the VMC patients and in the healthy individuals were detected using an ELISA, and the cardiac Troponin-I (cTnI levels were detected using a chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay to compare the differences in the groups. Results : Plasma IL-35 level and the percentage of CD4 + EBI3 + T cells in acute phase VMC patients was lower than that in the healthy control group and the convalescent phase VMC patients. Additionally, the plasma IL-35 level in the VMC patients exhibited a negative correlation with the levels of cTnI and IL-17. The percentage of CD4 + EBI3 + T cells also showed a negative correlation with the levels of cTnI and IL-17. Conclusions : The plasma IL-35 level and the percentage of CD4 + EBI3 + T cells in VMC patients was reduced, and the amount of the decrease was associated with the severity of the disease. These results suggest that IL-35 and CD4 + EBI3 + T might play important roles in the progression of VMC and could be used as indictors of the disease.

  19. When negation is not negation

    OpenAIRE

    Milicevic, Nataša

    2008-01-01

    In this paper I will discuss the formation of different types of yes/no questions in Serbian (examples in (1)), focusing on the syntactically and semantically puzzling example (1d), which involves the negative auxiliary inversion. Although there is a negative marker on the fronted auxiliary, the construction does not involve sentential negation. This coincides with the fact that the negative quantifying NPIs cannot be licensed. The question formation and sentential negation have similar synta...

  20. Negative mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammond, Richard T

    2015-01-01

    Some physical aspects of negative mass are examined. Several unusual properties, such as the ability of negative mass to penetrate any armor, are analysed. Other surprising effects include the bizarre system of negative mass chasing positive mass, naked singularities and the violation of cosmic censorship, wormholes, and quantum mechanical results as well. In addition, a brief look into the implications for strings is given. (paper)

  1. Negative Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Negative Leadership by Colonel David M. Oberlander United States Army United States Army War...SUBTITLE Negative Leadership 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Colonel David M...Dr. Richard C. Bullis Department of Command Leadership , and Management 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING

  2. Negative liability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dari-Mattiacci, G.

    2009-01-01

    Negative and positive externalities pose symmetrical problems to social welfare. The law internalizes negative externalities by providing general tort liability rules. According to such rules, those who cause harm to others should pay compensation. In theory, in the presence of positive

  3. Negative ... concord?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giannakidou, A

    The main claim of this paper is that a general theory of negative concord (NC) should allow for the possibility of NC involving scoping of a universal quantifier above negation. I propose that Greek NC instantiates this option. Greek n-words will be analyzed as polarity sensitive universal

  4. Significância clínica de estafilococos coagulase-negativa isolados de recém-nascidos Clinical significance of coagulase-negative staphylococci isolated from neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Lourdes R.S. Cunha

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: avaliar a significância clínica de estafilococos coagulase-negativa (ECN isolados de processos infecciosos em recém-nascidos da unidade neonatal do Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu. Método: as linhagens de ECN isoladas foram identificadas e classificadas em significativas e contaminantes, com base em uma série de dados clínicos e laboratoriais obtidos dos prontuários dos pacientes internados na unidade neonatal. Foram pesquisados os dados referentes a fatores perinatais de risco para infecção, evolução clínica, alterações do hemograma e/ou positividade de proteína C-reativa e antibioticoterapia. Resultados: das 117 linhagens de ECN isoladas, 60 (51,3% foram classificadas como significativas, e 57 (48,7% como contaminantes. Das 54 crianças com infecção por ECN, 43 (79,6% eram prematuras, e 27 (50,0% tiveram peso ao nascimento Conclusões: a maioria dos recém-nascidos com infecção por ECN apresentou fatores predisponentes importantes para a instalação do processo infeccioso, incluindo o peso de nascimento Objective: to evaluate the clinical significance of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS isolated from newborns’ infections at Neonatal Unit of Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu. Methods: the CNS strains isolated were identified and classified as clinically significant and contaminant, based on a series of clinical and laboratory data obtained from patients who stayed in the Neonatal Unit. The following data were analyzed: risk factors for infections, clinical evolution, abnormal blood cell counts and/or C-reactive protein e antibiotic therapy. Results: among the 117 CNS strains isolated, 60 (51.3% were classified as significant and 57 (48.7% as contaminant. Among the 54 infants infected by CNS, 43 (79.6% presented very low birthweight (< 1,500g. Most of the infants infected by CNS were submitted to two or more invasive procedures (77.8%, including use of

  5. Expression of HIF-1α and Markers of Angiogenesis Are Not Significantly Different in Triple Negative Breast Cancer Compared to Other Breast Cancer Molecular Subtypes: Implications for Future Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yehia, Lamis; Boulos, Fouad; Jabbour, Mark; Mahfoud, Ziyad; Fakhruddin, Najla; El-Sabban, Marwan

    2015-01-01

    Triple negative breast cancer lacks estrogen, progesterone and epidermal growth factor receptors rendering it refractory to available targetedtherapies. TNBC is associated with central fibrosis and necrosis, both indicators of tumor hypoxia. Hypoxia inducible factor 1α is up-regulated under hypoxia and its expression is associated with induction of angiogenesis resulting in proliferation, aggressive tumor phenotype and metastasis. In this study we evaluate the potential use of HIF-1α as aTNBC-specific marker. 62 TNBC, 64 HER2+, and 64 hormone-receptors positive breast cancer cases were evaluated for central fibrosis and necrosis, HIF-1α, HIF-1β, VEGFR3, CD31 expression and microvessel density. RNA extraction from paraffin-embedded samples, followed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) evaluation of HIF-1α and VEGF transcripts was performed on 54 cases (18 from each subtype). HIF-1α protein was expressed in 35.5% TNBC, 45.3% HER2+and 25.0% ER+/PR+ (p = 0.055; χ2 test). PCRanalysis of subgroup of breast cancers, 84.2% expressed HIF-1α protein and its transcripts, while only 66.7% expressed VEGF transcripts simultaneously with the HIF-1α protein and its transcripts. Central fibrosis and necrosis was highest in TNBC (p = 0.015; χ2 test), while MVD was comparable among all groups (p = 0.928; χ2 test). VEGFR3 was highest in TNBC expressing HIF-1α. HIF-1β protein was expressed in 32.0% of HIF-1α(+), and in (44.3%) of HIF-1α(-) breast cancer cases (p = 0.033; χ2 test). Moreover, HIF-1α expression in cases with central fibrosis and necrosis was highest in the HER2+ followed by the TNBC (p = 0.156; χ2 test). A proportion of TNBC express HIF-1α but not in a significantly different manner from other breast cancer subtypes. The potential of anti-HIF-1α targeted therapy is therefore not a candidate for exclusive use in TNBC, but should be considered in all breast cancers, especially in the setting of clinically aggressive or

  6. Non-parametric trend analysis of the aridity index for three large arid and semi-arid basins in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahani, Hossien; Kherad, Mehrzad; Kousari, Mohammad Reza; van Roosmalen, Lieke; Aryanfar, Ramin; Hosseini, Seyyed Mashaallah

    2013-05-01

    Currently, an important scientific challenge that researchers are facing is to gain a better understanding of climate change at the regional scale, which can be especially challenging in an area with low and highly variable precipitation amounts such as Iran. Trend analysis of the medium-term change using ground station observations of meteorological variables can enhance our knowledge of the dominant processes in an area and contribute to the analysis of future climate projections. Generally, studies focus on the long-term variability of temperature and precipitation and to a lesser extent on other important parameters such as moisture indices. In this study the recent 50-year trends (1955-2005) of precipitation (P), potential evapotranspiration (PET), and aridity index (AI) in monthly time scale were studied over 14 synoptic stations in three large Iran basins using the Mann-Kendall non-parametric test. Additionally, an analysis of the monthly, seasonal and annual trend of each parameter was performed. Results showed no significant trends in the monthly time series. However, PET showed significant, mostly decreasing trends, for the seasonal values, which resulted in a significant negative trend in annual PET at five stations. Significant negative trends in seasonal P values were only found at a number of stations in spring and summer and no station showed significant negative trends in annual P. Due to the varied positive and negative trends in annual P and to a lesser extent PET, almost as many stations with negative as positive trends in annual AI were found, indicating that both drying and wetting trends occurred in Iran. Overall, the northern part of the study area showed an increasing trend in annual AI which meant that the region became wetter, while the south showed decreasing trends in AI.

  7. The significance of Lactobacillus crispatus and L. vaginalis for vaginal health and the negative effect of recent sex: a cross-sectional descriptive study across groups of African women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jespers, Vicky; van de Wijgert, Janneke; Cools, Piet; Verhelst, Rita; Verstraelen, Hans; Delany-Moretlwe, Sinead; Mwaura, Mary; Ndayisaba, Gilles F; Mandaliya, Kishor; Menten, Joris; Hardy, Liselotte; Crucitti, Tania

    2015-03-04

    Women in sub-Saharan Africa are vulnerable to acquiring HIV infection and reproductive tract infections. Bacterial vaginosis (BV), a disruption of the vaginal microbiota, has been shown to be strongly associated with HIV infection. Risk factors related to potentially protective or harmful microbiota species are not known. We present cross-sectional quantitative polymerase chain reaction data of the Lactobacillus genus, five Lactobacillus species, and three BV-related bacteria (Gardnerella vaginalis, Atopobium vaginae, and Prevotella bivia) together with Escherichia coli and Candida albicans in 426 African women across different groups at risk for HIV. We selected a reference group of adult HIV-negative women at average risk for HIV acquisition and compared species variations in subgroups of adolescents, HIV-negative pregnant women, women engaging in traditional vaginal practices, sex workers and a group of HIV-positive women on combination antiretroviral therapy. We explored the associations between presence and quantity of the bacteria with BV by Nugent score, in relation to several factors of known or theoretical importance. The presence of species across Kenyan, South African and Rwandan women was remarkably similar and few differences were seen between the two groups of reference women in Kenya and South Africa. The Rwandan sex workers and HIV-positive women had the highest G. vaginalis presence (p = 0.006). Pregnant women had a higher Lactobacillus genus mean log (7.01 genome equivalents (geq)/ml) compared to the reference women (6.08 geq/ml). L. vaginalis (43%) was second to L. iners (81.9%) highly present in women with a normal Nugent score. Recent sexual exposure negatively affected the presence of L. crispatus (studied African countries was similar, the presence of protective species i.e. L. crispatus and L. vaginalis in women with a normal Nugent score appeared lower compared to non-African studies. Furthermore, Lactobacillus species were negatively

  8. Negative CO

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meysman, F.J.R.; Montserrat, F.

    2017-01-01

    Negative emission technologies (NETs) target the removal of carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere, and are being actively investigated as a strategy to limit global warming to within the 1.5–2°C targets of the 2015 UN climate agreement. Enhanced silicate weathering (ESW) proposes to

  9. Negative Certainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariso, José María

    2017-01-01

    The definitions of "negative knowledge" and the studies in this regard published to date have not considered the categorial distinction Wittgenstein established between knowledge and certainty. Hence, the important role that certainty, despite its omission, should have in these definitions and studies has not yet been shown. In this…

  10. Trends in the Information Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Thomas H.

    1987-01-01

    The current president of the American Society for Information Science shares his observations about the information industry, identifying positive and negative trends, and discusses the role ASIS can play in the continuing growth of the industry. (Author/CLB)

  11. Trends in mercury wet deposition and mercury air concentrations across the U.S. and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss-Penzias, Peter S.; Gay, David A.; Brigham, Mark E.; Parsons, Matthew T.; Gustin, Mae S.; ter Shure, Arnout

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the spatial and temporal trends of mercury (Hg) in wet deposition and air concentrations in the United States (U.S.) and Canada between 1997 and 2013. Data were obtained from the National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP) and Environment Canada monitoring networks, and other sources. Of the 19 sites with data records from 1997–2013, 53% had significant negative trends in Hg concentration in wet deposition, while no sites had significant positive trends, which is in general agreement with earlier studies that considered NADP data up until about 2010. However, for the time period 2007–2013 (71 sites), 17% and 13% of the sites had significant positive and negative trends, respectively, and for the time period 2008–2013 (81 sites) 30% and 6% of the sites had significant positive and negative trends, respectively. Non-significant positive tendencies were also widespread. Regional trend analyses revealed significant positive trends in Hg concentration in the Rocky Mountains, Plains, and Upper Midwest regions for the recent time periods in addition to significant positive trends in Hg deposition for the continent as a whole. Sulfate concentration trends in wet deposition were negative in all regions, suggesting a lower importance of local Hg sources. The trend in gaseous elemental Hg from short-term datasets merged as one continuous record was broadly consistent with trends in Hg concentration in wet deposition, with the early time period (1998–2007) producing a significantly negative trend (− 1.5 ± 0.2% year− 1) and the recent time period (2008–2013) displaying a flat slope (− 0.3 ± 0.1% year− 1, not significant). The observed shift to more positive or less negative trends in Hg wet deposition primarily seen in the Central-Western regions is consistent with the effects of rising Hg emissions from regions outside the U.S. and Canada and the influence of long-range transport in the free troposphere.

  12. Selected Trends of the Cybercrime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Požár

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The contribution paid particular attention to trends of the cybercrime in future period dedicated to combating negative phenomena in the context of cyberspace. The structure of article concern of definition of cybercrime, its legal classification especially choosing trends of cybercrime in future period.

  13. Use of genotypic identification by sodA sequencing in a prospective study to examine the distribution of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus species among strains recovered during septic orthopedic surgery and evaluate their significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivadon, V; Rottman, M; Chaverot, S; Quincampoix, J-C; Avettand, V; de Mazancourt, P; Bernard, L; Trieu-Cuot, P; Féron, J-M; Lortat-Jacob, A; Piriou, P; Judet, T; Gaillard, J-L

    2005-06-01

    A total of 212 coagulase-negative Staphylococcus strains recovered prospectively during 119 surgeries for proven or suspected bone and joint infection (BJI) were identified by sodA sequencing. These strains were identified as 151 Staphylococcus epidermidis isolates, 15 S. warneri isolates, 14 S. capitis isolates, 9 S. hominis isolates, 6 S. lugdunensis isolates, 5 S. haemolyticus isolates, 4 S. caprae isolates, 4 S. pasteuri isolates, 3 S. simulans isolates, and 1 S. cohnii isolate. Only S. epidermidis, S. lugdunensis, S. capitis, and S. caprae were found to be infecting organisms and were involved, respectively, in 35 (81.4%), 3 (7.0%), 3 (7.0%), and 2 (4.6%) cases of BJI.

  14. Trend analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, M.; Jones, D.R.

    1991-01-01

    The goal of exploration is to find reserves that will earn an adequate rate of return on the capital invested. Neither exploration nor economics is an exact science. The authors must therefore explore in those trends (plays) that have the highest probability of achieving this goal. Trend analysis is a technique for organizing the available data to make these strategic exploration decisions objectively and is in conformance with their goals and risk attitudes. Trend analysis differs from resource estimation in its purpose. It seeks to determine the probability of economic success for an exploration program, not the ultimate results of the total industry effort. Thus the recent past is assumed to be the best estimate of the exploration probabilities for the near future. This information is combined with economic forecasts. The computer software tools necessary for trend analysis are (1) Information data base - requirements and sources. (2) Data conditioning program - assignment to trends, correction of errors, and conversion into usable form. (3) Statistical processing program - calculation of probability of success and discovery size probability distribution. (4) Analytical processing - Monte Carlo simulation to develop the probability distribution of the economic return/investment ratio for a trend. Limited capital (short-run) effects are analyzed using the Gambler's Ruin concept in the Monte Carlo simulation and by a short-cut method. Multiple trend analysis is concerned with comparing and ranking trends, allocating funds among acceptable trends, and characterizing program risk by using risk profiles. In summary, trend analysis is a reality check for long-range exploration planning

  15. TRENDS IN ROMANIAN TOURISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pirjol Florentina

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Tourism is an industry of the future, having the potential to provide significant revenues, and an industry of 'beauty', because it will protect, preserve and contribute to arranging the environment affected by other human activities. This is why it is very important to know the evolution of this underdeveloped field in our country. This paper is intended as a study on current trends in Romanian tourism without any claim of being an exhaustive research on the industry, describing the main indices of tourist traffic and their influence on Romanian tourism. Nowadays, we witness three main trends in Romanian tourism: sustainability, ecotourism and the increasing presence of cultural tourism. Ecotourism, as a form of tourism, has emerged from people's need to withdraw in nature, to visit and learn about the natural areas which have or have not a national or international protection status. Cultural tourism appears as a type of tourism clearly differentiated from other forms or types of tourism, particularly through motivation. It can be defined as a form of tourist mobility whose primary goal is broadening the horizon of knowledge by uncovering its architectural and artistic heritage and the areas in which it originates. Sustainability for tourism, as for other industries, has three independent aspects: economic, socio-cultural and environmental. Sustainability implies permanence, which means that sustainable tourism requires the optimal use of resources, minimizing the negative economic, socio-cultural and ecological impact, maximizing the benefits upon local communities, national economies and conservation of nature. Regarding statistical data, in what quantity is concerned, there is an increase in Romanian tourism, but in what quality is concerned there is a setback for tourism in the last years. This aspect should make public authorities take concern in improving the infrastructure and the quality of the touristical activity and in diversifying

  16. Seasonal and elevational contrasts in temperature trends in Central Chile between 1979 and 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, F.; Brock, B.; Montecinos, A.

    2018-03-01

    We analyze trends in temperature from 18 temperature stations and one upper air sounding site at 30°-35° S in central Chile between 1979-2015, to explore geographical and season temperature trends and their controls, using regional ocean-atmosphere indices. Significant warming trends are widespread at inland stations, while trends are non-significant or negative at coastal sites, as found in previous studies. However, ubiquitous warming across the region in the past 8 years, suggests the recent period of coastal cooling has ended. Significant warming trends are largely restricted to austral spring, summer and autumn seasons, with very few significant positive or negative trends in winter identified. Autumn warming is notably strong in the Andes, which, together with significant warming in spring, could help to explain the negative mass balance of snow and glaciers in the region. A strong Pacific maritime influence on regional temperature trends is inferred through correlation with the Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation (IPO) index and coastal sea surface temperature, but the strength of this influence rapidly diminishes inland, and the majority of valley, and all Andes, sites are independent of the IPO index. Instead, valley and Andes sites, and mid-troposphere temperature in the coastal radiosonde profile, show correlation with the autumn Antarctic Oscillation which, in its current positive phase, promotes subsidence and warming at the latitude of central Chile.

  17. [Population trends and poverty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmedo, C

    1998-04-01

    Implications of population growth in Ecuador for the quality of life of the poor population are analyzed. It is argued that if the gross national product (GNP) were to grow at a sustained annual rate of 5% or more, demographic trends would not present a significant obstacle to reducing poverty. National economic projections are for growth of only 2.5-3.5% annually. The continuing rapid growth of the poor population despite general slowing of demographic growth, the young age structure, the need for increased formal education to enable the poor to overcome their poverty, and the effect of unemployment on the dependency ratio will tend to hamper improvements in average productivity and per capita GNP. The need for spending on education, health, basic services, and housing will divert funds away from productive investment, generating a direct negative impact on economic growth. Over half of Ecuadorian children suffer from some degree of malnutrition, indicating that food production is inadequate to meet demand. The export-oriented agricultural policy and poor weather have led to a chronic shortage of basic foods. Progressive increase and diversification of agricultural production, along with maintenance of low prices and substantial increases in income levels and agricultural productivity, will be required if the entire population is to be fed adequately. Intense efforts will be needed from all sectors to bring demographic growth into balance with economic and development needs.

  18. [Recent demographic trends].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    A review of demographic trends in Luxembourg in 1982 is presented. A decline in fertility, the first since 1977, is noted, together with an increase in divorce, as well as a negative migration balance for the first time since 1967. Topics covered include natural increase and migration, fertility, marriage and divorce, mortality, adoption, and legislation affecting the family. Special consideration is given to the mortality experience of those who were subjected to compulsory labor during World War II.

  19. Trends in picture communication

    OpenAIRE

    Speidel, Joachim

    1993-01-01

    In the past years significant progress was made with digital transmission of audiovisual services and most interesting trends are visible for the future. Such applications encompass interactive services, like videoconferencing, ISDN-videophone, storage of moving video and audio in computers or on CD, e.g. for multimedia applications. For distribution services, there is an unbroken trend from TV to HDTV. Strong emphasis is on compressed digital video even for transmission to the home.

  20. Trend Analysis of Pahang River Using Non-Parametric Analysis: Mann Kendalls Trend Test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nur Hishaam Sulaiman; Mohd Khairul Amri Kamarudin; Mohd Khairul Amri Kamarudin; Ahmad Dasuki Mustafa; Muhammad Azizi Amran; Fazureen Azaman; Ismail Zainal Abidin; Norsyuhada Hairoma

    2015-01-01

    Flood is common in Pahang especially during northeast monsoon season from November to February. Three river cross station: Lubuk Paku, Sg. Yap and Temerloh were selected as area of this study. The stream flow and water level data were gathered from DID record. Data set for this study were analysed by using non-parametric analysis, Mann-Kendall Trend Test. The results that obtained from stream flow and water level analysis indicate that there are positively significant trend for Lubuk Paku (0.001) and Sg. Yap (<0.0001) from 1972-2011 with the p-value < 0.05. Temerloh (0.178) data from 1963-2011 recorded no trend for stream flow parameter but negative trend for water level parameter. Hydrological pattern and trend are extremely affected by outside factors such as north east monsoon season that occurred in South China Sea and affected Pahang during November to March. There are other factors such as development and management of the areas which can be considered as factors affected the data and results. Hydrological Pattern is important to indicate the river trend such as stream flow and water level. It can be used as flood mitigation by local authorities. (author)

  1. Skiing trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles R. Goeldner; Stacy Standley

    1980-01-01

    A brief historical overview of skiing is presented, followed by a review of factors such as energy, population trends, income, sex, occupation and attitudes which affect the future of skiing. A. C. Neilson's Sports Participation Surveys show that skiing is the second fastest growing sport in the country. Skiing Magazine's study indicates there are...

  2. Billing Trends

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Billing Trends. Internet access: Bandwidth becoming analogous to electric power. Only maximum capacity (load) is fixed; Charges based on usage (units). Leased line bandwidth: Billing analogous to phone calls. But bandwidth is variable.

  3. Food Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwenk, Nancy E.

    1991-01-01

    An overall perspective on trends in food consumption is presented. Nutrition awareness is at an all-time high; consumption is influenced by changes in disposable income, availability of convenience foods, smaller household size, and an increasing proportion of ethnic minorities in the population. (18 references) (LB)

  4. Rainfall trends in the Brazilian Amazon Basin in the past eight decades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satyamurty, Prakki; de Castro, Aline Anderson; Tota, Julio; da Silva Gularte, Lucia Eliane; Manzi, Antonio Ocimar

    2010-01-01

    Rainfall series at 18 stations along the major rivers of the Brazilian Amazon Basin, having data since 1920s or 1930s, are analyzed to verify if there are appreciable long-term trends. Annual, rainy-season, and dry-season rainfalls are individually analyzed for each station and for the region as a whole. Some stations showed positive trends and some negative trends. The trends in the annual rainfall are significant at only six stations, five of which reporting increasing trends (Barcelos, Belem, Manaus, Rio Branco, and Soure stations) and just one (Itaituba station) reporting decreasing trend. The climatological values of rainfall before and after 1970 show significant differences at six stations (Barcelos, Belem, Benjamin Constant, Iaurete, Itaituba, and Soure). The region as a whole shows an insignificant and weak downward trend; therefore, we cannot affirm that the rainfall in the Brazilian Amazon basin is experiencing a significant change, except at a few individual stations. Subregions with upward and downward trends are interspersed in space from the far eastern Amazon to western Amazon. Most of the seasonal trends follow the annual trends, thus, indicating a certain consistency in the datasets and analysis.

  5. Space-time patterns of trends in stratospheric constituents derived from UARS measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randel, William J.; Wu, Fei; Russell, James M.; Waters, Joe

    1999-02-01

    The spatial and temporal behavior of low-frequency changes (trends) in stratospheric constituents measured by instruments on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) during 1991-98 is investigated. The data include CH4, H2O, HF, HCl, O3, and NO2 from the Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE), and O3, ClO, and HNO3 from the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS). Time series of global anomalies are analyzed by linear regression and empirical orthogonal function analysis. Each of the constituents show significant linear trends over at least some region of the stratosphere, and the spatial patterns exhibit coupling between the different species. Several of the constituents (namely CH4, H2O, HF, HCl, O3, and NO2) exhibit a temporal change in trend rates, with strong changes prior to 1996 and weaker (or reversed) trends thereafter. Positive trends are observed in upper stratospheric ClO, with a percentage rate during 1993-97 consistent with stratospheric HCl increases and with tropospheric chlorine emission rates. Significant negative trends in ozone in the tropical middle stratosphere are found in both HALOE and MLS data during 1993-97, together with positive trends in the tropics near 25 km. These trends are very different from the decadal-scale ozone trends observed since 1979, and this demonstrates the variability of trends calculated over short time periods. Positive trends in NO2 are found in the tropical middle stratosphere, and spatial coincidence to the observed ozone decreases suggests the ozone is responding to the NO2 increase. Significant negative trends in HNO3 are found in the lower stratosphere of both hemispheres. These coupled signatures offer a fingerprint of chemical evolution in the stratosphere for the UARS time frame.

  6. Industry trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    This section discusses the US energy supply and demand situation including projections for energy use, the clean coal industry (constraints of regulation on investment in new technologies, technology trends, and current pollution control efficiency), opportunities in clean coal technology (Phase 2 requirements of Title 4 of the Clean Air Act, scrubber demand for lime and limestone, and demand for low sulfur coal), and the international market of clean coal technologies

  7. Cotton trends in India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Graphics. Cotton trends in India. A crop of significant economic importance, valued at over Rs. 15000 Crs. Provides income to 60 million people. Crucial raw material for Rs 83000 Crores textile industry out of which Rs 45754 crores is exports. Approx. 20 Million acres of cotton provides ...

  8. Surveillance of antimicrobial susceptibility of aerobic and facultative Gram-negative bacilli isolated from patients with intra-abdominal infections in China: the 2002-2009 Study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends (SMART).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qiwen; Wang, Hui; Chen, Minjun; Ni, Yuxing; Yu, Yunsong; Hu, Bijie; Sun, Ziyong; Huang, Wenxiang; Hu, Yunjian; Ye, Huifen; Badal, Robert E; Xu, Yingchun

    2010-12-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the distribution and susceptibility of aerobic and facultative Gram-negative bacilli (GNB) isolated from patients with intra-abdominal infections (IAIs) in China. From 2002 to 2009, minimum inhibitory concentrations of 14 antibiotics for 3420 aerobic and facultative GNB from up to eight hospitals in six cities were determined by the broth microdilution method. Enterobacteriaceae comprised 82.9% (2834/3420) of the total isolates, with Escherichia coli (49.2%) being the most commonly isolated species followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (17.0%), Enterobacter cloacae (5.8%) and Citrobacter freundii (2.3%). Amongst the antimicrobial agents tested, the three carbapenems (ertapenem, imipenem and meropenem) were the most active agents against Enterobacteriaceae, with susceptibility rates of 96.1-99.6% (2002-2009), 98.2-100% (2002-2009) and 99.6-100% (2002-2004), respectively, followed by amikacin (86.8-95.1%) and piperacillin/tazobactam (84.5-94.3%). Susceptibility rates of all tested third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins against Enterobacteriaceae declined by nearly 30%, with susceptibility rates of 40.2%, 39.1%, 56.3% and 51.8% in 2009 for ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, ceftazidime and cefepime, respectively. The occurrence of extended-spectrum β-lactamases increased rapidly, especially for E. coli (from 20.8% in 2002 to 64.9% in 2009). Susceptibility of E. coli to ciprofloxacin decreased from 57.6% in 2002 to 24.2% in 2009. The least active agent against Enterobacteriaceae was ampicillin/sulbactam (SAM) (25.3-44.3%). In conclusion, Enterobacteriaceae were the major pathogens causing IAIs, and carbapenems retained the highest susceptibility rates over the 8-year study period. Third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones and SAM may not be ideal choices for empirical therapy of IAIs in China. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  9. Influenza forecasting with Google Flu Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugas, Andrea Freyer; Jalalpour, Mehdi; Gel, Yulia; Levin, Scott; Torcaso, Fred; Igusa, Takeru; Rothman, Richard E

    2013-01-01

    We developed a practical influenza forecast model based on real-time, geographically focused, and easy to access data, designed to provide individual medical centers with advanced warning of the expected number of influenza cases, thus allowing for sufficient time to implement interventions. Secondly, we evaluated the effects of incorporating a real-time influenza surveillance system, Google Flu Trends, and meteorological and temporal information on forecast accuracy. Forecast models designed to predict one week in advance were developed from weekly counts of confirmed influenza cases over seven seasons (2004-2011) divided into seven training and out-of-sample verification sets. Forecasting procedures using classical Box-Jenkins, generalized linear models (GLM), and generalized linear autoregressive moving average (GARMA) methods were employed to develop the final model and assess the relative contribution of external variables such as, Google Flu Trends, meteorological data, and temporal information. A GARMA(3,0) forecast model with Negative Binomial distribution integrating Google Flu Trends information provided the most accurate influenza case predictions. The model, on the average, predicts weekly influenza cases during 7 out-of-sample outbreaks within 7 cases for 83% of estimates. Google Flu Trend data was the only source of external information to provide statistically significant forecast improvements over the base model in four of the seven out-of-sample verification sets. Overall, the p-value of adding this external information to the model is 0.0005. The other exogenous variables did not yield a statistically significant improvement in any of the verification sets. Integer-valued autoregression of influenza cases provides a strong base forecast model, which is enhanced by the addition of Google Flu Trends confirming the predictive capabilities of search query based syndromic surveillance. This accessible and flexible forecast model can be used by

  10. Analysis and prediction of rainfall trends over Bangladesh using Mann-Kendall, Spearman's rho tests and ARIMA model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mohammad Atiqur; Yunsheng, Lou; Sultana, Nahid

    2017-08-01

    In this study, 60-year monthly rainfall data of Bangladesh were analysed to detect trends. Modified Mann-Kendall, Spearman's rho tests and Sen's slope estimators were applied to find the long-term annual, dry season and monthly trends. Sequential Mann-Kendall analysis was applied to detect the potential trend turning points. Spatial variations of the trends were examined using inverse distance weighting (IDW) interpolation. AutoRegressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model was used for the country mean rainfall and for other two stations data which depicted the highest and the lowest trend in the Mann-Kendall and Spearman's rho tests. Results showed that there is no significant trend in annual rainfall pattern except increasing trends for Cox's Bazar, Khulna, Satkhira and decreasing trend for Srimagal areas. For the dry season, only Bogra area represented significant decreasing trend. Long-term monthly trends demonstrated a mixed pattern; both negative and positive changes were found from February to September. Comilla area showed a significant decreasing trend for consecutive 3 months while Rangpur and Khulna stations confirmed the significant rising trends for three different months in month-wise trends analysis. Rangpur station data gave a maximum increasing trend in April whereas a maximum decreasing trend was found in August for Comilla station. ARIMA models predict +3.26, +8.6 and -2.30 mm rainfall per year for the country, Cox's Bazar and Srimangal areas, respectively. However, all the test results and predictions revealed a good agreement among them in the study.

  11. SCIENTIFIC RATIONALITY: ESSENCE, TYPES, TREND FOR INTEGRATION, PRACTICAL SIGNIFICANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fokina Zoya Titovna

    2012-10-01

    It is proven that in the time of substantial advancement of contemporary technology, incorporation of humanitarian values into the domain of natural and engineering sciences and formulation of the issue of ecological and ethical examination of engineering projects will prevent a global ecological catastrophe and collapse of the civilization.

  12. Martensite in steels: its significance, recent developments and trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz-Beenken, A.S.

    1997-01-01

    Martensite is generally known as a hard but brittle microstructure. This is only true for high carbon plate martensite. Recently developed steels with a lath martensite microstructure offer an excellent toughness at yield strength of 1000 MPa yield strength. A transformation into lath martensite by glide as invariant shear mechanism is only possible at a carbon content below 0,03%. The source of both high strength and good toughness is the high dislocation density and the narrow lath width off less than 1 μm. By a thermomechanical treatment, that leads to a finer lath structure both strength and ductility can be improved to a yield strength of 1150 MPa and an elongation of 18%. As, unlike high carbon plate martensite, the hardness of lath martensite is not achieved by the distortion of the tetragonal cell by carbon atoms, the hardness of lath martensite remains stable up during an annealing treatment up to 600 C. This thermal stability of the lath martensit microstructure makes an additional increase of hardness by the precipitation of different types of intermetallic phases possible. The increase of the hardness from 300 HV to 600 HV by precipitation without volume changes and good cold deformability reveals many new application in manufacturing. In plate martensite too, comparatively high toughness values can be achieved, if carbon is replaced by nitrogen. The refining influence of nitrides on the austenite grain sizes and the precipitation of fine nitrides during the annealing process leads to impact values three times higher than those of comparable high carbon plate martensite. (orig.)

  13. Significant Trends in the Development of Ghanaian Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Charles A.

    1976-01-01

    Provides a historical perspective to illustrate the early influence of colonial powers and religious education on Ghanaian education. Contemporary events during the Nkrumah period and the post coupe period are explored, with prime emphasis on the controversy over the inclusion of the vernacular. (Author/AM)

  14. Regional floras, a significant modern trend in plant taxonomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenis, van C.G.G.J.

    1959-01-01

    Besides through monographic work plant taxonomy has a second way of framing synthetic attempts and that is by compiling Florulas and Floras, containing a complete account of the flora of parts of the globe, of cities, islets, islands, states, countries, or continents. Irrespective of their style,

  15. Quantification of Impact of Orbital Drift on Inter-Annual Trends in AVHRR NDVI Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoteshwar R. Nagol

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI time-series data derived from Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR have been extensively used for studying inter-annual dynamics of global and regional vegetation. However, there can be significant uncertainties in the data due to incomplete atmospheric correction and orbital drift of the satellites through their active life. Access to location specific quantification of uncertainty is crucial for appropriate evaluation of the trends and anomalies. This paper provides per pixel quantification of orbital drift related spurious trends in Long Term Data Record (LTDR AVHRR NDVI data product. The magnitude and direction of the spurious trends was estimated by direct comparison with data from MODerate resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS Aqua instrument, which has stable inter-annual sun-sensor geometry. The maps show presence of both positive as well as negative spurious trends in the data. After application of the BRDF correction, an overall decrease in positive trends and an increase in number of pixels with negative spurious trends were observed. The mean global spurious inter-annual NDVI trend before and after BRDF correction was 0.0016 and −0.0017 respectively. The research presented in this paper gives valuable insight into the magnitude of orbital drift related trends in the AVHRR NDVI data as well as the degree to which it is being rectified by the MODIS BRDF correction algorithm used by the LTDR processing stream.

  16. A climatic deconstruction of recent drought trends in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ficklin, Darren L; Maxwell, Justin T; Gholizadeh, Hamed; Letsinger, Sally L

    2015-01-01

    We present high spatial-resolution trends of the Palmer drought severity index (PDSI), potential evapotranspiration (PET), and selected climate variables from 1979–2013 for the contiguous United States in order to gain an understanding of recent drought trends and their climatic forcings. Based on a spatial grouping analysis, four regions of increasing (upper Midwest, Louisiana, southeastern United States (US), and western US) and decreasing (New England, Pacific Northwest, upper Great Plains, and Ohio River Valley) drought trends based on Mann–Kendall Z values were found. Within these regions, partial correlation and multiple regression for trends in climate variables and PDSI were performed to examine potential climatic controls on these droughts. As expected, there was a US-wide concurrence on drought forcing by precipitation. However, there was correspondence of recent PET trends with recent drought trends in many regions. For regions with an increase in recent droughts, average air temperature was generally the second most important variable after precipitation in determining recent drought trends. Across the regions where recent drought trends are decreasing, there was no clear ranking of climate-variable importance, where trends in average temperature, specific humidity and net radiation all played significant regional roles in determining recent drought trends. Deconstructing the trends in drought show that, while there are regions in the US showing positive and negative trends in drought conditions, the climate forcings for these drought trends are regionally specific. The results of this study allow for the interpretation of the role of the changing hydroclimatic cycle in recent drought trends, which also have implications for the current and impending results of climate change. (letter)

  17. Trends in evaporation of a large subtropical lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Cheng; Wang, Yongwei; Wang, Wei; Liu, Shoudong; Piao, Meihua; Xiao, Wei; Lee, Xuhui

    2017-07-01

    How rising temperature and changing solar radiation affect evaporation of natural water bodies remains poor understood. In this study, evaporation from Lake Taihu, a large (area 2400 km2) freshwater lake in the Yangtze River Delta, China, was simulated by the CLM4-LISSS offline lake model and estimated with pan evaporation data. Both methods were calibrated against lake evaporation measured directly with eddy covariance in 2012. Results show a significant increasing trend of annual lake evaporation from 1979 to 2013, at a rate of 29.6 mm decade-1 according to the lake model and 25.4 mm decade-1 according to the pan method. The mean annual evaporation during this period shows good agreement between these two methods (977 mm according to the model and 1007 mm according to the pan method). A stepwise linear regression reveals that downward shortwave radiation was the most significant contributor to the modeled evaporation trend, while air temperature was the most significant contributor to the pan evaporation trend. Wind speed had little impact on the modeled lake evaporation but had a negative contribution to the pan evaporation trend offsetting some of the temperature effect. Reference evaporation was not a good proxy for the lake evaporation because it was on average 20.6 % too high and its increasing trend was too large (56.5 mm decade-1).

  18. Exploring the Link Between Streamflow Trends and Climate Change in Indiana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S.; Kam, J.; Thurner, K.; Merwade, V.

    2007-12-01

    Streamflow trends in Indiana are evaluated for 85 USGS streamflow gaging stations that have continuous unregulated streamflow records varying from 10 to 80 years. The trends are analyzed by using the non-parametric Mann-Kendall test with prior trend-free pre-whitening to remove serial correlation in the data. Bootstrap method is used to establish field significance of the results. Trends are computed for 12 streamflow statistics to include low-, medium- (median and mean flow), and high-flow conditions on annual and seasonal time step. The analysis is done for six study periods, ranging from 10 years to more than 65 years, all ending in 2003. The trends in annual average streamflow, for 50 years study period, are compared with annual average precipitation trends from 14 National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) stations in Indiana, that have 50 years of continuous daily record. The results show field significant positive trends in annual low and medium streamflow statistics at majority of gaging stations for study periods that include 40 or more years of records. In seasonal analysis, all flow statistics in summer and fall (low flow seasons), and only low flow statistics in winter and spring (high flow seasons) are showing positive trends. No field significant trends in annual and seasonal flow statistics are observed for study periods that include 25 or fewer years of records, except for northern Indiana where localized negative trends are observed in 10 and 15 years study periods. Further, stream flow trends are found to be highly correlated with precipitation trends on annual time step. No apparent climate change signal is observed in Indiana stream flow records.

  19. Markov Trends in Macroeconomic Time Series

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Paap (Richard)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractMany macroeconomic time series are characterised by long periods of positive growth, expansion periods, and short periods of negative growth, recessions. A popular model to describe this phenomenon is the Markov trend, which is a stochastic segmented trend where the slope depends on the

  20. Children Treated for Nocturnal Enuresis: Characteristics and Trends over a 15-Year Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushnir, Jonathan; Kushnir, Baruch; Sadeh, Avi

    2013-01-01

    Background: Nocturnal Enuresis (NE) is one of the most prevalent childhood disorders and has significant negative psychosocial impact on the child and family. Objective: To assess the characteristics of children with NE and trends over a 15-year period. Methods: The study included 18,677 children [11,205 (60%) boys and 7,472 (40%) girls] referred…

  1. Trends in price and productivity in the fur sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henning Otte

    2016-01-01

    in the long term. The terms of trade - the ratio between output and input prices - is also unstable but with a clear negative long-term trend. The developments in prices and productivity cause high demands on management both on individual fur farms and further down the value chain.......Price and productivity are two important competitive factors for the fur skin production worldwide. In the paper it is demonstrated that there are significant long-term trends towards increasing productivity and decreasing price ratios. The trend follows the same pattern as for other agricultural...... products. The analysis is based on Danish conditions as a case. By using different measurement methods it is demonstrated that productivity is increasing in several places in fur value chain. The fur skin prices, which are largely determined in international markets, are both very volatile and decreasing...

  2. Tropospheric Ozone Assessment Report: Present-day ozone distribution and trends relevant to human health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoë L. Fleming

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This study quantifies the present-day global and regional distributions (2010–2014 and trends (2000–2014 for five ozone metrics relevant for short-term and long-term human exposure. These metrics, calculated by the Tropospheric Ozone Assessment Report, are: 4th highest daily maximum 8-hour ozone (4MDA8; number of days with MDA8 > 70 ppb (NDGT70, SOMO35 (annual Sum of Ozone Means Over 35 ppb and two seasonally averaged metrics (3MMDA1; AVGMDA8. These metrics were explored at ozone monitoring sites worldwide, which were classified as urban or non-urban based on population and nighttime lights data. Present-day distributions of 4MDA8 and NDGT70, determined predominantly by peak values, are similar with highest levels in western North America, southern Europe and East Asia. For the other three metrics, distributions are similar with North–South gradients more prominent across Europe and Japan. Between 2000 and 2014, significant negative trends in 4MDA8 and NDGT70 occur at most US and some European sites. In contrast, significant positive trends are found at many sites in South Korea and Hong Kong, with mixed trends across Japan. The other three metrics have similar, negative trends for many non-urban North American and some European and Japanese sites, and positive trends across much of East Asia. Globally, metrics at many sites exhibit non-significant trends. At 59% of all sites there is a common direction and significance in the trend across all five metrics, whilst 4MDA8 and NDGT70 have a common trend at ~80% of all sites. Sensitivity analysis shows AVGMDA8 trends differ with averaging period (warm season or annual. Trends are unchanged at many sites when a 1995–2014 period is used; although fewer sites exhibit non-significant trends. Over the longer period 1970–2014, most Japanese sites exhibit positive 4MDA8/SOMO35 trends. Insufficient data exist to characterize ozone trends for the rest of Asia and other world regions.

  3. North Atlantic cyclones; trends, impacts and links to large-scale variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trigo, R. M.; Trigo, I. F.; Ramos, A. M.; Paredes, D.; Garcia-Herrera, R.; Liberato, M. L. R.; Valente, M. A.

    2009-04-01

    Based on the cyclone detection and tracking algorithm previously developed (Trigo, 2006) we have assessed the inter-annual variability and cyclone frequency trends between 1960 and 2000 for the Euro-Atlantic sector using the highest spatial resolution available (1.125° x 1.125°) from the ERA-40 Surface Level Pressure. Additionally, trends for the u and v wind speed components are also computed at the monthly and seasonal scales, using the same dataset. All cyclone and wind speed trend maps were computed with the corresponding statistical significance field. Results reveal a significant frequency decrease (increase) in the western Mediterranean (Greenland and Scandinavia), particularly in December, February and March. Seasonal and monthly analysis of wind speed trends shows similar spatial patterns. We show that these changes in the frequency of low pressure centers and the associated wind patterns are partially responsible for trends of the significant height of waves. Throughout the extended winter months (ONDJFM), regions with positive (negative) wind magnitude trends, of up to 5 cm/s per year, often correspond to regions of positive (negative) significant wave height trends. The cyclone and wind speed trends computed for the JFM months are well matched by the corresponding trends in significant wave height, with February being the month with the highest trends (negative south of 50°N up to -3 cm/year, and positive up to 5cm/year just north of Scotland). Using precipitation data from ECMWF reanalyses and a CRU high resolution dataset we show the impact of these trends in cyclone frequencies upon the corresponding precipitation trends in the influenced areas. It is also shown that these changes are partially linked to major shifts on the indices of large-scale patterns modes, namely the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), the Eastern Atlantic (EA) and the Scandinavian Patterns (SCAN). Trigo, I. F. 2006: Climatology and Interannual Variability of Storm-Tracks in

  4. Spatio-temporal trends in monthly pan evaporation in Aguascalientes, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Alvarez, Osias; Singh, Vijay P.; Medina, Juan Enciso; Munster, Clyde; Kaiser, Ronald; Ontiveros-Capurata, Ronald Ernesto; Diaz-Garcia, Luis Antonio; dos Santos, Carlos Antonio Costa

    2018-05-01

    Emission of greenhouse gases is being alleged to be causing climate change in different regions of the world. The objective of this study was to analyze the spatio-temporal trends of monthly evaporation at 52 weather stations in the state of Aguascalientes (Mexico) which have hydrometeorological records of long periods. The autocorrelation was eliminated with an auto-regressive model, and the trend was determined using the Spearman (S) and Kendall (K) tests. The statistical significance of the trend was determined with the Spearman correlation coefficient (r s) and the Z statistic (the test statistic of the normal distribution) both indicated that that there were statistically significant trends in 107 time series, of these 88 series had negative trends and 19 series had positive trends. Negative trends were present in all months of the year, while positive trends occurred from February to May and from October to December only. The reduction of evaporation from - 4.10 to - 20.50 mm/month/year from June to September showed a hopeful future scenario for rainfed agriculture. Irrigated agriculture during dry months could have a reduction of irrigation requirements as a consequence of the reduction in reference and crop evapotranspiration. The evaporation increase during dry months could increase irrigation requirements and pumping, mainly in March, April, and November when there are trends with increases of about 26.90, 24.60, and 23.90 mm/month/year, respectively. The spatial variability of evaporation trend means that other effects of climate change could vary in different parts of the state. Results of this study will be useful for farmers and institutions in charge of the administration of water resources for developing adaptation and mitigation strategies to climate change.

  5. Arctic Sea Ice Variability and Trends, 1979-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, Claire L.; Cavalieri, Donald J.

    2008-01-01

    Analysis of Arctic sea ice extents derived from satellite passive-microwave data for the 28 years, 1979-2006 yields an overall negative trend of -45,100 +/- 4,600 km2/yr (-3.7 +/- 0.4%/decade) in the yearly averages, with negative ice-extent trends also occurring for each of the four seasons and each of the 12 months. For the yearly averages the largest decreases occur in the Kara and Barents Seas and the Arctic Ocean, with linear least squares slopes of -10,600 +/- 2,800 km2/yr (-7.4 +/- 2.0%/decade) and -10,100 +/- 2,200 km2/yr (-1.5 +/- 0.3%/decade), respectively, followed by Baffin Bay/Labrador Sea, with a slope of -8,000 +/- 2,000 km2/yr) -9.0 +/- 2.3%/decade), the Greenland Sea, with a slope of -7,000 +/- 1,400 km2/yr (-9.3 +/- 1.9%/decade), and Hudson Bay, with a slope of -4,500 +/- 900 km2/yr (-5.3 +/- 1.1%/decade). These are all statistically significant decreases at a 99% confidence level. The Seas of Okhotsk and Japan also have a statistically significant ice decrease, although at a 95% confidence level, and the three remaining regions, the Bering Sea, Canadian Archipelago, and Gulf of St. Lawrence, have negative slopes that are not statistically significant. The 28-year trends in ice areas for the Northern Hemisphere total are also statistically significant and negative in each season, each month, and for the yearly averages.

  6. Trends in PET imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moses, William W.

    2000-01-01

    Positron Emission Tomography (PET) imaging is a well established method for obtaining information on the status of certain organs within the human body or in animals. This paper presents an overview of recent trends PET instrumentation. Significant effort is being expended to develop new PET detector modules, especially those capable of measuring depth of interaction. This is aided by recent advances in scintillator and pixellated photodetector technology. The other significant area of effort is development of special purpose PET cameras (such as for imaging breast cancer or small animals) or cameras that have the ability to image in more than one modality (such as PET / SPECT or PET / X-Ray CT)

  7. Comparison of trends and abrupt changes of the South Asia high from 1979 to 2014 in reanalysis and radiosonde datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Chunhua; Huang, Ying; Guo, Dong; Zhou, Shunwu; Hu, Kaixi; Liu, Yu

    2018-05-01

    The South Asian High (SAH) has an important influence on atmospheric circulation and the Asian climate in summer. However, current comparative analyses of the SAH are mostly between reanalysis datasets and there is a lack of sounding data. We therefore compared the climatology, trends and abrupt changes in the SAH in the Japanese 55-year Reanalysis (JRA-55) dataset, the National Centers for Environmental Prediction Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (NCEP-CFSR) dataset, the European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts Reanalysis Interim (ERA-interim) dataset and radiosonde data from China using linear analysis and a sliding t-test. The trends in geopotential height in the control area of the SAH were positive in the JRA-55, NCEP-CFSR and ERA-interim datasets, but negative in the radiosonde data in the time period 1979-2014. The negative trends for the SAH were significant at the 90% confidence level in the radiosonde data from May to September. The positive trends in the NCEP-CFSR dataset were significant at the 90% confidence level in May, July, August and September, but the positive trends in the JRA-55 and ERA-Interim were only significant at the 90% confidence level in September. The reasons for the differences in the trends of the SAH between the radiosonde data and the three reanalysis datasets in the time period 1979-2014 were updates to the sounding systems, changes in instrumentation and improvements in the radiation correction method for calculations around the year 2000. We therefore analyzed the trends in the two time periods of 1979-2000 and 2001-2014 separately. From 1979 to 2000, the negative SAH trends in the radiosonde data mainly agreed with the negative trends in the NCEP-CFSR dataset, but were in contrast with the positive trends in the JRA-55 and ERA-Interim datasets. In 2001-2014, however, the trends in the SAH were positive in all four datasets and most of the trends in the radiosonde and NCEP-CFSR datasets were significant. It is

  8. Online Marketing Trends

    OpenAIRE

    Horecká, Ivana

    2015-01-01

    This thesis deals with online marketing trends. Its main goal is to define the latest online marketing trends, create a website with the free online marketing trends, and analyse their effectiveness. The theoretical part brings a thorough description of the latest online marketing trends. Moreover, it provides an insight into the latest trends in the website development. The chosen online marketing trends defined in the theoretical part are subsequently applied on a newly created website. All...

  9. Twelve-year analysis of microbial keratitis trends at a UK tertiary hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, S Z; Walkden, A; Au, L; Fullwood, C; Hamilton, A; Qamruddin, A; Armstrong, M; Brahma, A K; Carley, F

    2017-08-01

    PurposeTo investigate the frequencies, trends, and in vitro drug susceptibilities of the causative pathogens in microbial keratitis in Manchester Royal Eye Hospital.Patients and methodsCorneal scrape results recorded by the microbiology service between 2004 and 2015 were extracted from an established database. A total of 4229 corneal scrape specimens were identified from an established database. First-line antibiotic treatment in our centre during the study period was ofloxacin and second line was cefuroxime and gentamicin.ResultsMean age was 45.9±21.0. A total of 1379 samples (32.6%) were culture positive. One hundred forty-eight (10.7%) specimens cultured multiple organisms. Of the 1539 organisms identified, 63.3% were Gram-positive bacteria, 27.3% Gram-negative bacteria, 7.1% fungi, and 2.3% Acanthamoebae. A decreasing trend in Gram-positive isolates was found together with a stable trend in Gram negatives and an increasing trend in Acanthamoeba and fungi. There appeared to be a significant increasing trend of Moraxella infection (P=0.001). In all, 83.1 and 90.8% of Gram-positive and -negative isolates tested were susceptible to ofloxacin, respectively. Cefuroxime covered 86.6% of Gram-positive and 61.4% of Gram-negative isolates, whereas gentamicin covered 88.8 and 96.5% of Gram-positive and -negative isolates, respectively.ConclusionWe found a change in the type of Gram-negative organisms isolated over time, with the Moraxella species on the rise. Reassuringly, no significant increase in resistance was observed in vitro for any of the commonly used antibiotics. Ofloxacin remains a good first-line antibiotic treatment but duo-therapy does have broader coverage and should be considered in non-responsive cases.

  10. Wet-bulb, dew point, and air temperature trends in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moratiel, R.; Soriano, B.; Centeno, A.; Spano, D.; Snyder, R. L.

    2017-10-01

    This study analyses trends of mean ( T m), maximum ( T x), minimum ( T n), dew point ( T d), and wet-bulb temperatures ( T w) on an annual, seasonal, and monthly time scale over Spain during the period 1981-2010. The main purpose was to determine how temperature and humidity changes are impacting on T w, which is probably a better measure of climate change than temperature alone. In this study, 43 weather stations were used to detect data trends using the nonparametric Mann-Kendall test and the Sen method to estimate the slope of trends. Significant linear trends observed for T m, T x, and T n versus year were 56, 58, and 47 % of the weather stations, respectively, with temperature ranges between 0.2 and 0.4 °C per decade. The months with bigger trends were April, May, June, and July with the highest trend for T x. The spatial behaviour of T d and T w was variable, with various locations showing trends from -0.6 to +0.3 °C per decade for T d and from -0.4 to +0.5 °C per decade for T w. Both T d and T w showed negative trends for July, August, September, November, and December. Comparing the trends versus time of each variable versus each of the other variables exhibited poor relationships, which means you cannot predict the trend of one variable from the trend of another variable. The trend of T x was not related to the trend of T n. The trends of T x, T m, and T n versus time were unrelated to the trends versus time of either T d or T w. The trend of T w showed a high coefficient of determination with the trend of T d with an annual value of R 2 = 0.86. Therefore, the T w trend is more related to changes in humidity than temperature.

  11. Tropospheric ozone trend over Beijing from 2002–2010: ozonesonde measurements and modeling analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Wang

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Using a combination of ozonesonde data and numerical simulations of the Chemical Lagrangian Model of the Stratosphere (CLaMS, the trend of tropospheric ozone (O3 during 2002–2010 over Beijing was investigated. Tropospheric ozone over Beijing shows a winter minimum and a broad summer maximum with a clear positive trend in the maximum summer ozone concentration over the last decade. The observed significant trend of tropospheric column ozone is mainly caused by photochemical production (3.1% yr−1 for a mean level of 52 DU. This trend is close to the significant trend of partial column ozone in the lower troposphere (0–3 km resulting from the enhanced photochemical production during summer (3.0% yr−1 for a mean level of 23 DU. Analysis of the CLaMS simulation shows that transport rather than chemistry drives most of the seasonality of tropospheric ozone. However, dynamical processes alone cannot explain the trend of tropospheric ozone in the observational data. Clearly enhanced ozone values and a negative vertical ozone gradient in the lower troposphere in the observational data emphasize the importance of photochemistry within the troposphere during spring and summer, and suggest that the photochemistry within the troposphere significantly contributes to the tropospheric ozone trend over Beijing during the last decade.

  12. Developmental trends in adaptive memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otgaar, Henry; Howe, Mark L; Smeets, Tom; Garner, Sarah R

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have revealed that memory is enhanced when information is processed for fitness-related purposes. The main objective of the current experiments was to test developmental trends in the evolutionary foundation of memory using different types of stimuli and paradigms. In Experiment 1, 11-year-olds and adults were presented with neutral, negative, and survival-related DRM word lists. We found a memory benefit for the survival-related words and showed that false memories were more likely to be elicited for the survival-related word lists than for the other lists. Experiment 2 examined developmental trends in the survival processing paradigm using neutral, negative, and survival-related pictures. A survival processing advantage was found for survival-related pictures in adults, for negative pictures in 11/12-year-olds, and for neutral pictures in 7/8-year-olds. In Experiment 3, 11/12-year-olds and adults had to imagine the standard survival scenario or an adapted survival condition (or pleasantness condition) that was designed to reduce the possibilities for elaborative processing. We found superior memory retention for both survival scenarios in children and adults. Collectively, our results evidently show that the survival processing advantage is developmentally invariant and that certain proximate mechanisms (elaboration and distinctiveness) underlie these developmental trends.

  13. National trends in occupational injuries before and after 1992 and predictors of workers' compensation costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhushan, Abhinav; Leigh, J Paul

    2011-01-01

    Numbers and costs of occupational injuries and illnesses are significant in terms of morbidity and dollars, yet our understanding of time trends is minimal. We investigated trends and addressed some common hypotheses regarding causes of fluctuations. We pulled data on incidence rates (per 100 full-time employed workers) for injuries and illnesses from the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics and on costs and benefits from the National Academy of Social Insurance for 1973 through 2007. Rates reflected all injury and illness cases, lost work-time cases, and cases resulting in at least 31 days away from work. We adjusted dollar costs (premiums) and benefits for inflation and measured them per employed worker. We plotted data in time-trend charts and ran linear regressions. From 1973 to 1991, there was a weak to nonexistent downward trend for injury and illness rates, and rates were strongly and negatively correlated with the unemployment rate. From 1992 to 2007, there were strong, consistent downward trends, but no longer were there statistically significant correlations with unemployment. Significant predictors (and signs) of workers' compensation premiums for 1973-2007 included medical price inflation (positive), number of lost-time injuries (positive), the Dow Jones Industrial Average (negative), and inflation-adjusted interest rate on U.S. Treasury bonds (negative). Dollars of benefits were positively and significantly predicted by medical inflation and number of lost-time cases. For 1992-2007, the Dow Jones variable was the only robust predictor of premiums; the number of injuries was not a significant positive predictor. We had two major conclusions. First, the year 1992 marked a sharp contrast in trends and correlations between unemployment and incidence rates for occupational injuries and illnesses. Second, for the entire time period (1973-2007), insurance carriers' premiums were strongly associated with returns on investments.

  14. Varying negative work assistance at the ankle with a soft exosuit during loaded walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malcolm, Philippe; Lee, Sangjun; Crea, Simona; Siviy, Christopher; Saucedo, Fabricio; Galiana, Ignacio; Panizzolo, Fausto A; Holt, Kenneth G; Walsh, Conor J

    2017-06-26

    Only very recently, studies have shown that it is possible to reduce the metabolic rate of unloaded and loaded walking using robotic ankle exoskeletons. Some studies obtained this result by means of high positive work assistance while others combined negative and positive work assistance. There is no consensus about the isolated contribution of negative work assistance. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to examine the effect of varying negative work assistance at the ankle joint while maintaining a fixed level of positive work assistance with a multi-articular soft exosuit. We tested eight participants during walking at 1.5 ms -1 with a 23-kg backpack. Participants wore a version of the exosuit that assisted plantarflexion via Bowden cables tethered to an off-board actuation platform. In four active conditions we provided different rates of exosuit bilateral ankle negative work assistance ranging from 0.015 to 0.037 W kg -1 and a fixed rate of positive work assistance of 0.19 W kg -1 . All active conditions significantly reduced metabolic rate by 11 to 15% compared to a reference condition, where the participants wore the exosuit but no assistance was provided. We found no significant effect of negative work assistance. However, there was a trend (p = .08) toward greater reduction in metabolic rate with increasing negative work assistance, which could be explained by observed reductions in biological ankle and hip joint power and moment. The non-significant trend of increasing negative work assistance with increasing reductions in metabolic rate motivates the value in further studies on the relative effects of negative and positive work assistance. There may be benefit in varying negative work over a greater range or in isolation from positive work assistance.

  15. Trends of Ozone in Switzerland since 1992 (TROZOS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ordonez, C.; Mathis, H.; Furger, M.; Prevot, A.S.H

    2004-07-01

    This work reports on the trends of the daily afternoon (noon to midnight) maximum ozone concentrations at 15 of the 16 stations of the Swiss air quality monitoring network (NABEL) during the period 1992-2002. The use of numerous meteorological parameters and additional data allowed a detailed seasonal analysis of the influence of the weather on the ozone maxima at the different stations. An analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was performed separately for each station and season in order to detect the parameters which best explain the variability of the daily ozone maximum concentrations. During the warm seasons (summer and spring) the most explanatory parameters are those related to the ozone production, in particular the afternoon temperature. In winter, the most explanatory variables are the ones influencing the vertical mixing and thus the ozone destruction by titration with NO and dry deposition, like the afternoon global radiation. The trends of both the measured and meteorologically corrected ozone maxima were calculated. The year-to-year variability in the ozone maxima was lowered by a factor of 3 by the meteorological correction. Significantly positive trends of corrected ozone maxima of 0.3 - 1.1 ppb/year were found at the low altitude stations in winter and autumn as well as at Lausanne - urban station - in all the seasons, mainly due to the lower loss of ozone by reaction with NO as a consequence of the decreased emissions of primary pollutants during the 90s. This could be partially confirmed by the lower trends of O{sub X} (sum O{sub 3} of and NO{sub 2}) maxima compared to the trends in ozone maxima. The absence of negative trends of the median or mean ozone maxima north of the Alps in summer suggests that the decrease in the emissions of ozone precursors did not have a strong impact on the afternoon maximum ozone concentrations during the last decade. In contrast to the project TOSS (Trends of Ozone in Southern Switzerland), no significantly negative

  16. Trends of Ozone in Switzerland since 1992 (TROZOS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ordonez, C.; Mathis, H.; Furger, M.; Prevot, A.S.H.

    2004-07-01

    This work reports on the trends of the daily afternoon (noon to midnight) maximum ozone concentrations at 15 of the 16 stations of the Swiss air quality monitoring network (NABEL) during the period 1992-2002. The use of numerous meteorological parameters and additional data allowed a detailed seasonal analysis of the influence of the weather on the ozone maxima at the different stations. An analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was performed separately for each station and season in order to detect the parameters which best explain the variability of the daily ozone maximum concentrations. During the warm seasons (summer and spring) the most explanatory parameters are those related to the ozone production, in particular the afternoon temperature. In winter, the most explanatory variables are the ones influencing the vertical mixing and thus the ozone destruction by titration with NO and dry deposition, like the afternoon global radiation. The trends of both the measured and meteorologically corrected ozone maxima were calculated. The year-to-year variability in the ozone maxima was lowered by a factor of 3 by the meteorological correction. Significantly positive trends of corrected ozone maxima of 0.3 - 1.1 ppb/year were found at the low altitude stations in winter and autumn as well as at Lausanne - urban station - in all the seasons, mainly due to the lower loss of ozone by reaction with NO as a consequence of the decreased emissions of primary pollutants during the 90s. This could be partially confirmed by the lower trends of O X (sum O 3 of and NO 2 ) maxima compared to the trends in ozone maxima. The absence of negative trends of the median or mean ozone maxima north of the Alps in summer suggests that the decrease in the emissions of ozone precursors did not have a strong impact on the afternoon maximum ozone concentrations during the last decade. In contrast to the project TOSS (Trends of Ozone in Southern Switzerland), no significantly negative trends of ozone

  17. Optimization of negative central shear discharges in shaped cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turnbull, A.D.; Chu, M.S., Taylor, T.S., Casper, T.A., Rice, B.W.; Greene, J.M., Greenfield, C.M., La Haye, R.J., Lao, L.L., Lee, B.J.; Miller, R.L., Ren, C., Strait, E.J., Tritz, K.; Rettig, C.L., Rhodes, T.L.; Sauter, O.

    1996-10-01

    Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) stability analyses of Negative Central Shear (NCS) equilibria have revealed a new understanding of the limiting MHD instabilities in NCS experiments. Ideal stability calculations show a synergistic effect between cross section shape and pressure profile optimization; strong shaping and broader pressure independently lead to moderately higher Β limits, but broadening of the pressure profile in a strongly dee-shaped cross- section leads to a dramatic increase in the ideal Β limit. Localized resistive interchange (RI) modes can be unstable in the negative shear region and are most restrictive for peaked pressure profiles. Resistive global modes can also be destabilized significantly below the ideal P limit. Experiments largely confirm the general trends, and diagnostic measurements and numerical stability calculations are found to be in good qualitative agreement. Observed disruptions in NCS discharges with L-mode edge and strongly peaked pressure, appear to be initiated by interactions between the RI, and the global ideal and resistive modes

  18. Trends in exotic-atom research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambrecht, R.M.; Horvath, D.

    1983-01-01

    An attempt was made to analyze the trends in the development of exotic-atom research on the basis of a recently compiled bibliography. The analysis of nearly 4000 publications demonstrated that: (1) exotic atoms are nuclear probes used in every field of physics, from the test of quantum electrodynamics (QED) to chemical physics, to materials sciences; (2) the role of nuclear and atomic physics in exotic atom research is decreasing (although it is still significant), while that of materials sciences and chemial physics is exponentially increasing; and (3) prior to 1980 most investigators were mainly interested in atoms with negative muons, while during the last few years the positive muon (μSR) studies have dominated exotic atom research

  19. Negative-ion states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compton, R.N.

    1982-01-01

    In this brief review, we discuss some of the properties of atomic and molecular negative ions and their excited states. Experiments involving photon reactions with negative ions and polar dissociation are summarized. 116 references, 14 figures

  20. Negative ion detachment processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Champion, R.L.; Doverspike, L.D.

    1990-10-01

    This paper discusses the following topics: H - and D - collisions with atomic hydrogen; collisional decomposition of SF 6 - ; two-electron loss processes in negative ion collisions; associative electron detachment; and negative ion desorption from surfaces

  1. 1990-2016 surface solar radiation variability and trend over the Piedmont region (northwest Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manara, Veronica; Bassi, Manuela; Brunetti, Michele; Cagnazzi, Barbara; Maugeri, Maurizio

    2018-05-01

    A new surface solar radiation database of 74 daily series is set up for the Piedmont region (northwest Italy) for the 1990-2016 period. All the series are subjected to a detailed quality control, homogenization and gap-filling procedure and are transformed into relative annual/seasonal anomaly series. Finally, a gridded version (0.5°×0.5°) of the database is generated. The resulting series show an increasing tendency of about + 2.5% per decade at annual scale, with strongest trend in autumn (+ 4% per decade). The only exception is winter, showing a negative but not significant trend. Considering the plain and mountain mean series, the trends are more intense for low than for high elevations with a negative vertical gradient of about - 0.03% per decade per 100 m at annual scale and values up to - 0.07% per decade per 100 m in spring. Focusing on clear days only (selected by CM SAF ClOud fractional cover dataset from METeosat first and second generation—Edition 1 satellite data over the 1991-2015 period), trend significance strongly increases and both low and high elevation records exhibit a positive trend in all seasons. However, the trends result slightly lower than for all-sky days (with the only exception of winter). The differences observed under clear-sky conditions between low and high elevations are more pronounced in winter, where the trend shows a negative vertical gradient of about - 0.1% per decade every 100 m. Overall, this paper shows how a high station density allows performing a more detailed quality control thanks to the higher performances in detecting the inhomogeneities with higher data availability and capturing regional peculiarities otherwise impossible to observe.

  2. Sentential Negation in English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowarin, Macaulay

    2009-01-01

    This paper undertakes a detailed analysis of sentential negation in the English language with Chomsky's Government-Binding theory of Transformational Grammar as theoretical model. It distinguishes between constituent and sentential negation in English. The essay identifies the exact position of Negation phrase in an English clause structure. It…

  3. Salinity Trends within the Upper Layers of the Subpolar North Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesdal, J. E.; Abernathey, R.; Goes, J. I.; Gordon, A. L.; Haine, T. W. N.

    2017-12-01

    Examination of a range of salinity products collectively suggest widespread freshening of the North Atlantic from the mid-2000 to the present. Monthly salinity fields reveal negative trends that differ in magnitude and significance between western and eastern regions of the North Atlantic. These differences can be attributed to the large negative interannual excursions in salinity in the western subpolar gyre and the Labrador Sea, which are not apparent in the central or eastern subpolar gyre. This study demonstrates that temporal trends in salinity in the northwest (including the Labrador Sea) are subject to mechanisms that are distinct from those responsible for the salinity trends in central and eastern North Atlantic. In the western subpolar gyre a negative correlation between near surface salinity and the circulation strength of the subpolar gyre suggests that negative salinity anomalies are connected to an intensification of the subpolar gyre, which is causing increased flux of freshwater from the East Greenland Current and subsequent transport into the Labrador Sea during the melting season. Analyses of sea surface wind fields suggest that the strength of the subpolar gyre is linked to the North Atlantic Oscillation and Arctic Oscillation-driven changes in wind stress curl in the eastern subpolar gyre. If this trend of decreasing salinity continues, it has the potential to enhance water column stratification, reduce vertical fluxes of nutrients and cause a decline in biological production and carbon export in the North Atlantic Ocean.

  4. Negative ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Junzo; Takagi, Toshinori

    1983-01-01

    Negative ion sources have been originally developed at the request of tandem electrostatic accelerators, and hundreds of nA to several μA negative ion current has been obtained so far for various elements. Recently, the development of large current hydrogen negative ion sources has been demanded from the standpoint of the heating by neutral particle beam injection in nuclear fusion reactors. On the other hand, the physical properties of negative ions are interesting in the thin film formation using ions. Anyway, it is the present status that the mechanism of negative ion action has not been so fully investigated as positive ions because the history of negative ion sources is short. In this report, the many mechanisms about the generation of negative ions proposed so far are described about negative ion generating mechanism, negative ion source plasma, and negative ion generation on metal surfaces. As a result, negative ion sources are roughly divided into two schemes, plasma extraction and secondary ion extraction, and the former is further classified into the PIG ion source and its variation and Duoplasmatron and its variation; while the latter into reflecting and sputtering types. In the second half of the report, the practical negative ion sources of each scheme are described. If the mechanism of negative ion generation will be investigated more in detail and the development will be continued under the unified know-how as negative ion sources in future, the development of negative ion sources with which large current can be obtained for any element is expected. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  5. Observed precipitation trends in the Yangtze river catchment from 1951 to 2002

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUBuda; JIANGTong; SHIYafeng; StefanBECKER; MracoGEMMER

    2004-01-01

    The monthly, seasonal, and annual precipitation trends in the Yangtze river catchment have been detected through analysis of 51 meteorological stations' data between 1950-2002 provided by National Meteorological Administration. Results reveal that: 1) Summer precipitation in the Yangtze river catchment shows significant increasing tendency. The Poyanghu lake basin, Dongtinghu lake basin and Taihu lake basin in the middle and lower reaches are the places showing significant positive trends. Summer precipitation in the middle and lower reaches experienced an abrupt change in the year 1992; 2) The monthly precipitation in months just adjoining to summer shows decreasing tendency in the Yangtze river catchment. The upper and middle reaches in Jialingjiang river basin and Hanshui river basin are the places showing significant negative trends; 3) Extreme precipitation events show an increasing tendency in most places, especially in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze river catchment.

  6. Storminess trends in the Gulf and Mexican Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, E. T.; Ojeda, E.; Appendini, C. M.

    2016-12-01

    Numerous studies have focused on whether the attributes of tropical cyclones have varied, or how they are expected to vary in a warming climate and yet, a defined conclusion has not been reached. However, an increase in storm intensity, with the inherent increase of wave height and storm surge, will be responsible of heavy economic loss on coastal areas. This contribution analyzes possible variations in the long term storminess pattern observed in 10 nearshore locations along the southern coasts of the Gulf of Mexico and the Mexican Caribbean using modeled wave data from the last 30 years (Appendini et al., 2013). Storminess is studied in terms of wave energy content focusing on extreme event conditions. Wave storm events are obtained using the Peak Over Threshold method. The wave conditions during the events are separated into those caused by tropical cyclones (TC) and extratropical storm (ETS) events because they are expected to behave differently in response to changing climate conditions. In order to characterize the waves generated by these different phenomena the data set is inspected separating individual storm events into TC and ETS using the IBtracks information. The trend and Mann-Kendall test are performed for each node to account for possible trends in the frequency, mean and maximum significant wave heights, and the mean energy content (taken as E=integral(Hs*dt) of TC and ETS. For the TC and ETS events, the results of the MK test show an absence of significant temporal trends for the majority of the nodes even at the 90% confidence interval. The significant trends in the number of ETS events show differential results (negative trend in the northernmost node and positive trends in the two Caribbean nodes and the easternmost GoM node). Regarding the TC events, the two nodes located in the Caribbean Sea present significant temporal (positive) trends in the energy content of the events. However, this trend is related to an increase in the magnitude of

  7. Polemic and Descriptive Negations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horslund, Camilla Søballe

    2011-01-01

    to semantics and pragmatics, negations can be used in three different ways, which gives rise to a typology of three different types of negations: 1) the descriptive negation, 2) the polemic negation, and 3) the meta-linguistic negation (Nølke 1999, 4). This typology illuminates the fact that the negation...... common in certain social context or genres, while polemic negations are more likely to come up in other genres and social settings. Previous studies have shown a relation between articulatory prominence and register, which may further inform the analysis. Hence, the paper investigates how articulatory...... prominence and register may either work in concert or oppose each other with respect to the cues they provide for the interpretation....

  8. Explaining NDVI trends in northern Burkina Faso

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Kjeld; Fensholt, Rasmus; Fog, Bjarne

    2014-01-01

    by a distinct spatial pattern and strongly dominated by negative trends in Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). The aim of the paper is to explain this distinct pattern. When studied over the period 2000–2012, using NDVI data from the MODIS sensor the spatial pattern of NDVI trends indicates that non......-climatic factors are involved. By relating NDVI trends to landscape elements and land use change we demonstrate that NDVI trends in the north-western parts of the study area are mostly related to landscape elements, while this is not the case in the south-eastern parts, where rapidly changing land use, including....... expansion of irrigation, plays a major role. It is inferred that a process of increased redistribution of fine soil material, water and vegetation from plateaus and slopes to valleys, possibly related to higher grazing pressure, may provide an explanation of the observed pattern of NDVI trends. Further work...

  9. Trends of Bacterial Keratitis Culture Isolates in Jerusalem; a 13- Years Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Politis

    Full Text Available To describe the trends in pathogens and antibacterial resistance of corneal culture isolates in infectious keratitis during a period of 13 years at Hadassah-Hebrew University Medical Center.A Retrospective analysis of bacterial corneal isolates was performed during the months of January 2002 to December 2014 at Hadassah Hebrew University Medical Center. Demographics, microbiological data and antibiotic resistance and sensitivity were collected.A total of 943 corneal isolates were analyzed during a 13 year period. A total of 415 positive bacterial cultures and 37 positive fungal cultures were recovered, representing 48% of the total cultures. The Annual incidence was 34.78 ± 6.54 cases. The most common isolate was coagulase-negative staphylococcus (32%, which had a significant decrease in trend throughout the study period (APC = -8.1, p = 0.002. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA appears to have a decrease trend (APC = -31.2, P = 0.5. There was an increase in the resistance trend of coagulase-negative staphylococci to penicillin (APC = 5.0, P = <0.001. None of the pathogens had developed any resistance to Vancomycin. (P = 0.88.Coagulase negative staphylococci were the predominant bacteria isolated from patients with keratitis. There was no significant change in the annual incidence of cases of bacterial keratitis seen over the past 13 years. Keratitis caused by MRSA appeared to decrease in contrast to the reported literature.

  10. Trends in Middle East climate extreme indices from 1950 to 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuebin; Aguilar, Enric; Sensoy, Serhat; Melkonyan, Hamlet; Tagiyeva, Umayra; Ahmed, Nader; Kutaladze, Nato; Rahimzadeh, Fatemeh; Taghipour, Afsaneh; Hantosh, T. H.; Albert, Pinhas; Semawi, Mohammed; Karam Ali, Mohammad; Said Al-Shabibi, Mansoor Halal; Al-Oulan, Zaid; Zatari, Taha; Al Dean Khelet, Imad; Hamoud, Saleh; Sagir, Ramazan; Demircan, Mesut; Eken, Mehmet; Adiguzel, Mustafa; Alexander, Lisa; Peterson, Thomas C.; Wallis, Trevor

    2005-11-01

    A climate change workshop for the Middle East brought together scientists and data for the region to produce the first area-wide analysis of climate extremes for the region. This paper reports trends in extreme precipitation and temperature indices that were computed during the workshop and additional indices data that became available after the workshop. Trends in these indices were examined for 1950-2003 at 52 stations covering 15 countries, including Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Cyprus, Georgia, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria, and Turkey. Results indicate that there have been statistically significant, spatially coherent trends in temperature indices that are related to temperature increases in the region. Significant, increasing trends have been found in the annual maximum of daily maximum and minimum temperature, the annual minimum of daily maximum and minimum temperature, the number of summer nights, and the number of days where daily temperature has exceeded its 90th percentile. Significant negative trends have been found in the number of days when daily temperature is below its 10th percentile and daily temperature range. Trends in precipitation indices, including the number of days with precipitation, the average precipitation intensity, and maximum daily precipitation events, are weak in general and do not show spatial coherence. The workshop attendees have generously made the indices data available for the international research community.

  11. The effect of submerged aquatic vegetation expansion on a declining turbidity trend in the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hestir, E.L.; Schoellhamer, David H.; Jonathan Greenberg,; Morgan-King, Tara L.; Ustin, S.L.

    2016-01-01

    Submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) has well-documented effects on water clarity. SAV beds can slow water movement and reduce bed shear stress, promoting sedimentation and reducing suspension. However, estuaries have multiple controls on turbidity that make it difficult to determine the effect of SAV on water clarity. In this study, we investigated the effect of primarily invasive SAV expansion on a concomitant decline in turbidity in the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta. The objective of this study was to separate the effects of decreasing sediment supply from the watershed from increasing SAV cover to determine the effect of SAV on the declining turbidity trend. SAV cover was determined by airborne hyperspectral remote sensing and turbidity data from long-term monitoring records. The turbidity trends were corrected for the declining sediment supply using suspended-sediment concentration data from a station immediately upstream of the Delta. We found a significant negative trend in turbidity from 1975 to 2008, and when we removed the sediment supply signal from the trend it was still significant and negative, indicating that a factor other than sediment supply was responsible for part of the turbidity decline. Turbidity monitoring stations with high rates of SAV expansion had steeper and more significant turbidity trends than those with low SAV cover. Our findings suggest that SAV is an important (but not sole) factor in the turbidity decline, and we estimate that 21–70 % of the total declining turbidity trend is due to SAV expansion.

  12. Trends in Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    School Planning & Management, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Several architects, planners, administrators, and contractors answer questions about trends related to school construction, interior design, business, security, and technology. Trends concern funding issues, specialized designs, planning for safety, technological integration, and equity in services. (EV)

  13. Marketing Trends to Watch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Circle, Alison

    2009-01-01

    This article identifies 13 cultural trends that libraries can turn into opportunites to reach patrons. These trends include: Twitter, online reputation management, value added content, mobile marketing, and emotional connection.

  14. Lung Cancer Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Biggest Cancer Killer in Both Men and Women” Stay Informed Trends for Other Kinds of Cancer Breast Cervical Colorectal (Colon) Ovarian Prostate Skin Cancer Home Lung Cancer Trends Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend ...

  15. Negative Ion Density Fronts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igor Kaganovich

    2000-01-01

    Negative ions tend to stratify in electronegative plasmas with hot electrons (electron temperature Te much larger than ion temperature Ti, Te > Ti ). The boundary separating a plasma containing negative ions, and a plasma, without negative ions, is usually thin, so that the negative ion density falls rapidly to zero-forming a negative ion density front. We review theoretical, experimental and numerical results giving the spatio-temporal evolution of negative ion density fronts during plasma ignition, the steady state, and extinction (afterglow). During plasma ignition, negative ion fronts are the result of the break of smooth plasma density profiles during nonlinear convection. In a steady-state plasma, the fronts are boundary layers with steepening of ion density profiles due to nonlinear convection also. But during plasma extinction, the ion fronts are of a completely different nature. Negative ions diffuse freely in the plasma core (no convection), whereas the negative ion front propagates towards the chamber walls with a nearly constant velocity. The concept of fronts turns out to be very effective in analysis of plasma density profile evolution in strongly non-isothermal plasmas

  16. Negative energy solutions and symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidharth, B.G.

    2011-01-01

    We revisit the negative energy solutions of the Dirac (and Klein–Gordon) equation, which become relevant at very high energies in the context of the Feshbach–Villars formulation, and study several symmetries which follow therefrom. Significant consequences are briefly examined. (author)

  17. PREFERRED WATERFLOOD MANAGEMENT PRACTICES FOR THE SPRABERRY TREND AREA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David S. Schechter

    2004-08-31

    The naturally fractured Spraberry Trend Area is one of the largest reservoirs in the domestic U.S. and is the largest reservoir in area extent in the world. Production from Spraberry sands is found over a 2,500 sq. mile area and Spraberry reservoirs can be found in an eight county area in west Texas. Over 150 operators produce 65,000 barrels of oil per day (bopd) from the Spraberry Trend Area from more than 9,000 production wells. Recovery is poor, on the order of 7-10% due to the profoundly complicated nature of the reservoir, yet billions of barrels of hydrocarbons remain. We estimate over 15% of remaining reserves in domestic Class III reservoirs are in Spraberry Trend Area reservoirs. This tremendous domestic asset is a prime example of an endangered hydrocarbon resource in need of immediate technological advancements before thousands of wells are permanently abandoned. This report describes the final work of the project, ''Preferred Waterflood Management Practices for the Spraberry Trend Area.'' The objective of this project is to significantly increase field-wide production in the Spraberry Trend in a short time frame through the application of preferred practices for managing and optimizing water injection. Our goal is to dispel negative attitudes and lack of confidence in water injection and to document the methodology and results for public dissemination to motivate waterflood expansion in the Spraberry Trend. This objective has been accomplished through research in three areas: (1) detail historical review and extensive reservoir characterization, (2) production data management, and (3) field demonstration. This provides results of the final year of the three-year project for each of the three areas.

  18. Trends in family tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heike A. Schänzel

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – Families represent a large and growing market for the tourism industry. Family tourism is driven by the increasing importance placed on promoting family togetherness, keeping family bonds alive and creating family memories. Predictions for the future of family travel are shaped by changes in demography and social structures. With global mobility families are increasingly geographically dispersed and new family markets are emerging. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the trends that shape the understanding of families and family tourism. Design/methodology/approach – This paper examines ten trends that the authors as experts in the field identify of importance and significance for the future of family tourism. Findings – What emerges is that the future of family tourism lies in capturing the increasing heterogeneity, fluidity and mobility of the family market. Originality/value – The paper contributes to the understanding about the changes taking place in family tourism and what it means to the tourism industry in the future.

  19. Spatial variability and trends of the rain intensity over Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kambezidis, H. D.; Larissi, I. K.; Nastos, P. T.; Paliatsos, A. G.

    2010-07-01

    In this study, the spatial and temporal variability of the mean annual rain intensity in Greece are examined during a 41-year period (1962-2002). The meteorological datasets concern monthly rain amounts (mm) and the respective monthly durations (h) recorded at thirty two meteorological stations of the Hellenic National Meteorological Service, which are uniformly distributed on Greek territory, in order to calculate the mean monthly rain intensity. All the rain time series used in the analysis were tested by the application of the short-cut Bartlett test of homogeneity. The spatial distribution of the mean annual rain intensity is studied using the Kriging interpolation method, while the temporal variability, concerning the mean annual rain intensity trends along with their significance (Mann-Kendall test), is analysed. The findings of the analysis show that statistically significant negative trends (95% confidence level) appear mainly in the west sub-regions of Greece, while statistically significant positive trends (95% confidence level) appear in the wider area of Athens and the complex of Cyclades Islands. Further analysis concerning the seasonal rain intensity is needed, because there are different seasonal patterns, taking into account that, convective rain in Greece occurs mainly within the summer season.

  20. Lithium alloy negative electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggins, Robert A.

    The 1996 announcement by Fuji Photo Film of the development of lithium batteries containing convertible metal oxides has caused a great deal of renewed interest in lithium alloys as alternative materials for use in the negative electrode of rechargeable lithium cells. The earlier work on lithium alloys, both at elevated and ambient temperatures is briefly reviewed. Basic principles relating thermodynamics, phase diagrams and electrochemical properties under near-equilibrium conditions are discussed, with the Li-Sn system as an example. Second-phase nucleation, and its hindrance under dynamic conditions plays an important role in determining deviations from equilibrium behavior. Two general types of composite microstructure electrodes, those with a mixed-conducting matrix, and those with a solid electrolyte matrix, are discussed. The Li-Sn-Si system at elevated temperatures, and the Li-Sn-Cd at ambient temperatures are shown to be examples of mixed-conducting matrix microstructures. The convertible oxides are an example of the solid electrolyte matrix type. Although the reversible capacity can be very large in this case, the first cycle irreversible capacity required to convert the oxides to alloys may be a significant handicap.

  1. Evaluation of tropospheric and stratospheric ozone trends over Western Europe from ground-based FTIR network observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Vigouroux

    2008-12-01

    stratosphere at the two mid-latitude stations, and at Ny-Ålesund. We find smaller, but significant trends for the 18–27 km layer at Kiruna, Harestua, Jungfraujoch, and Izaña. The results for the upper layer are quite contrasted: we find significant positive trends at Kiruna, Harestua, and Jungfraujoch, and significant negative trends at Zugspitze and Izaña. These ozone partial columns trends are discussed and compared with previous studies.

  2. Cultural trends and eating disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pike, Kathleen M.; Hoek, Hans W.; Dunne, Patricia E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review Culture has long been recognized as significant to the cause and expression of eating disorders. We reviewed the recent literature about recent trends in the occurrence of eating disorders in different cultures. Recent findings While historically, eating disorders were

  3. Branding trends in Asian markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, Diederich; Segers, Rien

    This chapter examines current branding trends in significant Asian markets, namely Japan, South Korea, and India, with a special focus on one emerging branding nation, China. No generalizations towards the whole of Asia can be drawn from this research. However, research identified some aspects in

  4. Cultural trends and eating disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pike, Kathleen M.; Hoek, Hans W.; Dunne, Patricia E.

    Purpose of review Culture has long been recognized as significant to the cause and expression of eating disorders. We reviewed the recent literature about recent trends in the occurrence of eating disorders in different cultures. Recent findings While historically, eating disorders were

  5. Housing & woodworking: latest trends & impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urs Buehlmann; Matt Bumgardner; Karen. Koenig

    2014-01-01

    Trends in housing and other construction-related sectors continue to have a significant impact on the wood products industry, particularly cabinetry, furniture, millwork and components. This fifth annual survey assesses the market conditions for secondary woodworking manufacturers involved in construction-based sectors and includes information on their status and...

  6. Trends in surface-water quality at selected National Stream Quality Accounting Network (NASQAN) stations, in Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Atiq U.; Fogarty, Lisa R.

    2005-01-01

    -treatment processes, and effective regulations. Phosphorus data for most of the study stations could not be analyzed because of the data limitations for trend tests. The only station with a significant negative trend in total phosphorus concentration is the Clinton River at Mount Clemens. However, scatter-plot analyses of phosphorus data indicate decreasing concentrations with time for most of the study stations. Positive trends in concentration of nitrogen compounds were detected at the Kalamazoo River near Saugatuck and Muskegon River near Bridgeton. Positive trends in both fecal coliform and total fecal coliform were detected at the Tahquamenon River near Paradise. Various different point and nonpoint sources could produce such positive trends, but most commonly the increase in concentrations of nitrogen compounds and fecal coliform bacteria are associated with agricultural practices and sewage-plant discharges. The constituent with the most numerous and geographically widespread significant trend is pH. The pH levels increased at six out of nine stations on all the major rivers in Michigan, with no negative trend at any station. The cause of pH increase is difficult to determine, as it could be related to a combination of anthropogenic activities and natural processes occurring simultaneously in the environment. Trends in concentration of major ions, such as calcium, sodium, magnesium, sulfate, fluoride, chloride, and potassium, were detected at eight out of nine stations. A negative trend was detected only in sulfate and fluoride concentrations; a positive trend was detected only in calcium concentration. The major ions with the most widespread significant trends are sodium and chloride; three positive and two negative trends were detected for sodium, and three negative and two positive trends were detected for chloride. The negative trends in chloride concentrations outnumbered the positive trends. This result indicates a slight improvement in surface-water quality because

  7. A Modality Called 'Negation'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berto, F.

    2015-01-01

    I propose a comprehensive account of negation as a modal operator, vindicating a moderate logical pluralism. Negation is taken as a quantifier on worlds, restricted by an accessibility relation encoding the basic concept of compatibility. This latter captures the core meaning of the operator. While

  8. Negative thermal expansion materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, J.S.O.

    1997-01-01

    The recent discovery of negative thermal expansion over an unprecedented temperature range in ZrW 2 O 8 (which contracts continuously on warming from below 2 K to above 1000 K) has stimulated considerable interest in this unusual phenomenon. Negative and low thermal expansion materials have a number of important potential uses in ceramic, optical and electronic applications. We have now found negative thermal expansion in a large new family of materials with the general formula A 2 (MO 4 ) 3 . Chemical substitution dramatically influences the thermal expansion properties of these materials allowing the production of ceramics with negative, positive or zero coefficients of thermal expansion, with the potential to control other important materials properties such as refractive index and dielectric constant. The mechanism of negative thermal expansion and the phase transitions exhibited by this important new class of low-expansion materials will be discussed. (orig.)

  9. Diurnal temperature range trend over North Carolina and the associated mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayemuzzaman, Mohammad; Mekonnen, Ademe; Jha, Manoj K.

    2015-06-01

    This study seeks to investigate the variability and presence of trend in the diurnal surface air temperature range (DTR) over North Carolina (NC) for the period 1950-2009. The significance trend test and the magnitude of trends were determined using the non-parametric Mann-Kendall test and the Theil-Sen approach, respectively. Statewide significant trends (p < 0.05) of decreasing DTR were found in all seasons and annually during the analysis period. Highest (lowest) temporal DTR trends of magnitude - 0.19 (- 0.031) °C/decade were found in summer (winter). Potential mechanisms for the presence/absence of trend in DTR have been highlighted. Historical data sets of the three main moisture components (precipitation, total cloud cover (TCC), and soil moisture) and the two major atmospheric circulation modes (North Atlantic Oscillation and Southern Oscillation) were used for correlation analysis. The DTRs were found to be negatively correlated with the precipitation, TCC and soil moisture across the state for all the seasons and annual basis. It appears that the moisture components related better to the DTR than to the atmospheric circulation modes.

  10. Quantum entanglement at negative temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furman, G B; Meerovich, V M; Sokolovsky, V L

    2013-01-01

    An isolated spin system that is in internal thermodynamic equilibrium and that has an upper limit to its allowed energy states can possess a negative temperature. We calculate the thermodynamic characteristics and the concurrence in this system over the entire range of positive and negative temperatures. Our calculation was performed for different real structures, which can be used in experiments. It is found that the temperature dependence of the concurrence is substantially asymmetrical similarly to other thermodynamic characteristics. At a negative temperature the maximum concurrence and the absolute temperature of the entanglement appearance are significantly larger than those at a positive temperature. The concurrence can be characterized by two dimensionless parameters: the ratio between the Zeeman and dipolar energies and the ratio of the thermal and dipolar energies. It was shown that for all considered structures the dimensionless temperatures of the transition between entanglement and separability of the first and second spins are independent of spin structure and the number of spins. (paper)

  11. Analysis of reference evapotranspiration (ET0) trends under climate change in Bangladesh using observed and CMIP5 data sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mohammad Atiqur; Yunsheng, Lou; Sultana, Nahid; Ongoma, Victor

    2018-03-01

    ET0 is an important hydro-meteorological phenomenon, which is influenced by changing climate like other climatic parameters. This study investigates the present and future trends of ET0 in Bangladesh using 39 years' historical and downscaled CMIP5 daily climatic data for the twenty-first century. Statistical Downscaling Model (SDSM) was used to downscale the climate data required to calculate ET0. Penman-Monteith formula was applied in ET0 calculation for both the historical and modelled data. To analyse ET0 trends and trend changing patterns, modified Mann-Kendall and Sequential Mann-Kendall tests were, respectively, done. Spatial variations of ET0 trends are presented by inverse distance weighting interpolation using ArcGIS 10.2.2. Results show that RCP8.5 (2061-2099) will experience the highest amount of ET0 totals in comparison to the historical and all other scenarios in the same time span of 39 years. Though significant positive trends were observed in the mid and last months of year from month-wise trend analysis of representative concentration pathways, significant negative trends were also found for some months using historical data in similar analysis. From long-term annual trend analysis, it was found that major part of the country represents decreasing trends using historical data, but increasing trends were observed for modelled data. Theil-Sen estimations of ET0 trends in the study depict a good consistency with the Mann-Kendall test results. The findings of the study would contribute in irrigation water management and planning of the country and also in furthering the climate change study using modelled data in the context of Bangladesh.

  12. Charging of dust grains in a plasma with negative ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamun, A.A.; Shukla, P.K.

    2003-01-01

    The role of negative ions on the charging of dust grains in a plasma is examined. Two models for negative ion distributions are considered. These are streaming negative ions and Boltzmannian negative ions. It is found that the effects of the negative ion number density, negative ion charge, and negative ion streaming speed significantly affect the dust grain surface potential or the dust grain charge

  13. Atomic negative ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brage, T.

    1991-01-01

    We review some of the recent progress in the studies of alkaline-earth, negative ions. Computations of autodetachment rates, electron affinities and transition wavelengths are discussed and some new and improved results are given

  14. On the Nature of Trends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mackinney-Valentin, Maria

    2010-01-01

    A consolidation of the field Trend Studies through mapping, updating and developing trend theory.......A consolidation of the field Trend Studies through mapping, updating and developing trend theory....

  15. Energy Trends 2012; Energie Trends 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Dril, T. (ed.); Gerdes, J. (ed.) [ECN Beleidsstudies, Petten (Netherlands); Marbus, S. (ed.) [Energie-Nederland, Den Haag (Netherlands); Boelhouwer, M. (ed.) [Netbeheer Nederland, Arnhem (Netherlands)

    2012-11-15

    In Energy Trends 2012, all figures and developments in the field of energy in the Netherlands are presented in conjunction. The book provides information on energy use by consumers and businesses, provides insight into the international energy trade, energy production and development of energy networks [Dutch] In Energie Trends 2012 staan alle cijfers en ontwikkelingen op het gebied van energie in Nederland in samenhang gepresenteerd. Het boek biedt informatie over energiegebruik door consumenten en bedrijven, geeft inzage in de internationale energiehandel en energieproductie en biedt inzicht in de ontwikkeling van de energienetten.

  16. Computer architecture technology trends

    CERN Document Server

    1991-01-01

    Please note this is a Short Discount publication. This year's edition of Computer Architecture Technology Trends analyses the trends which are taking place in the architecture of computing systems today. Due to the sheer number of different applications to which computers are being applied, there seems no end to the different adoptions which proliferate. There are, however, some underlying trends which appear. Decision makers should be aware of these trends when specifying architectures, particularly for future applications. This report is fully revised and updated and provides insight in

  17. Offshore Blowouts, Causes and Trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holand, P

    1996-02-01

    The main objective of this doctoral thesis was to establish an improved design basis for offshore installations with respect to blowout risk analyses. The following sub objectives are defined: (1) Establish an offshore blowout database suitable for risk analyses, (2) Compare the blowout risk related to loss of lives with the total offshore risk and risk in other industries, (3) Analyse blowouts with respect to parameters that are important to describe and quantify blowout risk that has been experienced to be able to answer several questions such as under what operations have blowouts occurred, direct causes, frequency of occurrence etc., (4) Analyse blowouts with respect to trends. The research strategy applied includes elements from both survey strategy and case study strategy. The data are systematized in the form of a new database developed from the MARINTEK database. Most blowouts in the analysed period occurred during drilling operations. Shallow gas blowouts were more frequent than deep blowouts and workover blowouts occurred more often than deep development drilling blowouts. Relatively few blowouts occurred during completion, wireline and normal production activities. No significant trend in blowout occurrences as a function of time could be observed, except for completion blowouts that showed a significantly decreasing trend. But there were trends regarding some important parameters for risk analyses, e.g. the ignition probability has decreased and diverter systems have improved. Only 3.5% of the fatalities occurred because of blowouts. 106 refs., 51 figs., 55 tabs.

  18. Negativity Bias in Dangerous Drivers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Chai

    Full Text Available The behavioral and cognitive characteristics of dangerous drivers differ significantly from those of safe drivers. However, differences in emotional information processing have seldom been investigated. Previous studies have revealed that drivers with higher anger/anxiety trait scores are more likely to be involved in crashes and that individuals with higher anger traits exhibit stronger negativity biases when processing emotions compared with control groups. However, researchers have not explored the relationship between emotional information processing and driving behavior. In this study, we examined the emotional information processing differences between dangerous drivers and safe drivers. Thirty-eight non-professional drivers were divided into two groups according to the penalty points that they had accrued for traffic violations: 15 drivers with 6 or more points were included in the dangerous driver group, and 23 drivers with 3 or fewer points were included in the safe driver group. The emotional Stroop task was used to measure negativity biases, and both behavioral and electroencephalograph data were recorded. The behavioral results revealed stronger negativity biases in the dangerous drivers than in the safe drivers. The bias score was correlated with self-reported dangerous driving behavior. Drivers with strong negativity biases reported having been involved in mores crashes compared with the less-biased drivers. The event-related potentials (ERPs revealed that the dangerous drivers exhibited reduced P3 components when responding to negative stimuli, suggesting decreased inhibitory control of information that is task-irrelevant but emotionally salient. The influence of negativity bias provides one possible explanation of the effects of individual differences on dangerous driving behavior and traffic crashes.

  19. Extent of Night Warming and Spatially Heterogeneous Cloudiness Differentiate Temporal Trend of Greenness in Mountainous Tropics in the New Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Mei; Gao, Qiong; Gao, Chunxiao; Wang, Chao

    2017-01-25

    Tropical forests have essential functions in global C dynamics but vulnerable to changes in land cover land use (LCLUC) and climate. The tropics of Caribbean are experiencing warming and drying climate and diverse LCLUC. However, large-scale studies to detect long-term trends of C and mechanisms behind are still rare. Using MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI), we investigated greenness trend in the Greater Antilles Caribbean during 2000-2015, and analyzed trend of vegetation patches without LCLUC to give prominence to climate impacts. We hypothesized that night warming and heavy cloudiness would reduce EVI in this mountainous tropical region. Over the 15 years, EVI decreased significantly in Jamaica, Haiti, Dominican Republic, and Puerto Rico, but increased in Cuba partly due to its strong reforestation. Haiti had the largest decreasing trend because of continuous deforestation for charcoals. After LCLUC was excluded, EVI trend still varied greatly, decreasing in the windward but increasing in the leeward of Puerto Rico. Nighttime warming reinforced by spatially heterogeneous cloudiness was found to significantly and negatively correlate with EVI trend, and explained the spatial pattern of the latter. Although cooled daytime and increased rainfall might enhance EVI, nighttime warming dominated the climate impacts and differentiated the EVI trend.

  20. Bias to negative emotions: a depression state-dependent marker in adolescent major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maalouf, Fadi T; Clark, Luke; Tavitian, Lucy; Sahakian, Barbara J; Brent, David; Phillips, Mary L

    2012-06-30

    The aim of the current research was to examine for the first time the extent to which bias to negative emotions in an inhibitory control paradigm is a state or trait marker in major depressive disorder (MDD) in adolescents. We administered the affective go/no go task which measures the ability to switch attention to or away from positive or negative emotional stimuli to 40 adolescents with MDD (20 in acute episode (MDDa) and 20 in remission (MDDr)) and 17 healthy controls (HC). MDDa were significantly faster on the shift to negative target blocks as compared to shift to positive target blocks while HC and MDDr displayed the opposite pattern as measured by an "emotional bias index" (EBI=latency (shift to negative targets)-latency (shift to positive targets)). There was also a trend for an effect of group on commission errors, suggesting more impulsive responding by MDDa than both MDDr and HC independently of stimulus valence throughout the task. Negative bias was not associated with depression severity or medication status. In conclusion, bias to negative emotional stimuli appears to be present in the acute stage of MDD and absent in remission suggesting that it is a depression state-specific marker of MDD in adolescents. Latency emerges as a better proxy of negative bias than commission errors and accuracy on this inhibitory control task in adolescents with MDD. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. NEGATION AFFIXES IN ENGLISH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dedy Subandowo -

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This research entitled "Negation Affixes in English". This study is aimed to describe the various negation affixes in English, morphological process, morphophonemic and meaning. The research data were taken from various sources of English grammar book, morphology, research journal and the book which relatees to the research. English grammar books used in this study are written by Otto Jesperson, Marcella Frank, Greenbaum and Geoffrey Leech.  The method used in this research is the descriptive-qualitative method. While the data collection techniques are performed by using jot-down method. And the results of analysis are presented in tabular form and descriptive method. The result of the research shows that English has six types of negative affixes which are categorized by the intensity of its appearance, such as dis-, in-, non-, un-, anti- and -less. Based on the function, negation affixes are divided into several categories such as adjectives, nouns, verbs, and adverbs. The morphophonemic affix in- has four allomorphs, they are in-, im-, il- and ir- . While the analysis revealed that negation affixes have some basic meanings, such as ‘not’, ‘without’, and ‘anti’.

  2. Detecting Novelty and Significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Vera; Bradley, Margaret M.; Codispoti, Maurizio; Lang, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    Studies of cognition often use an “oddball” paradigm to study effects of stimulus novelty and significance on information processing. However, an oddball tends to be perceptually more novel than the standard, repeated stimulus as well as more relevant to the ongoing task, making it difficult to disentangle effects due to perceptual novelty and stimulus significance. In the current study, effects of perceptual novelty and significance on ERPs were assessed in a passive viewing context by presenting repeated and novel pictures (natural scenes) that either signaled significant information regarding the current context or not. A fronto-central N2 component was primarily affected by perceptual novelty, whereas a centro-parietal P3 component was modulated by both stimulus significance and novelty. The data support an interpretation that the N2 reflects perceptual fluency and is attenuated when a current stimulus matches an active memory representation and that the amplitude of the P3 reflects stimulus meaning and significance. PMID:19400680

  3. Trends in bromide wet deposition concentrations in the contiguous United States, 2001-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetherbee, Gregory A; Lehmann, Christopher M B; Kerschner, Brian M; Ludtke, Amy S; Green, Lee A; Rhodes, Mark F

    2018-02-01

    Bromide (Br - ) and other solute concentration data from wet deposition samples collected and analyzed by the National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP) from 2001 to 2016, were statistically analyzed for trends both geographically and temporally by precipitation type. Analysis was limited to NADP sites in the contiguous 48 United States. The Br - concentrations for this time period had a high number of values censored at the detection limits with greater than 86 percent of sample concentrations below analytical detection. Bromide was more frequently detected at NADP sites in coastal regions. Analysis using specialized statistical techniques for censored data revealed that Br - concentrations varied by precipitation type with higher concentrations usually observed in liquid versus precipitation containing snow. Negative temporal trends in Br - wet deposition concentrations were observed at a majority of NADP sites; approximately 25 percent of these trend values were statistically significant at less than 0.05 to 0.10 significance levels. Potential causes for the negative trends were explored, including annual and seasonal changes in precipitation depth, reduced emissions of methyl bromide (CH 3 Br) from coastal wetlands, and declining industrial use of bromine compounds. The results indicate that Br - in non-coastal wet-deposition comes mainly from long-range transport, not local sources. Correlations between Br - , chloride, and nitrate concentrations also were evaluated. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Significant NRC Enforcement Actions

    Data.gov (United States)

    Nuclear Regulatory Commission — This dataset provides a list of Nuclear Regulartory Commission (NRC) issued significant enforcement actions. These actions, referred to as "escalated", are issued by...

  5. An evaluation of marine bird population trends following the Exxon Valdez oil spill, Prince William Sound, Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lance, Brian K.; Irons, David B.; Kendall, Steven J.; McDonald, Lyman L.

    2001-01-01

    We examined post-spill trends (1989-1998) of marine bird populations in Prince William Sound (PWS) following the Exxon Valdez oil spill (EVOS) to evaluate recovery of injured taxa. Two criteria were employed. First, we examined population trends of injured taxa only in the oiled area of PWS using regression models. Second, we examined population trends of injured taxa in the oiled area relative to the unoiled area using homogeneity of the slopes tests. We considered a population recovering if there was a positive trend using either criteria. We considered a population not recovering if there was no trend using either criteria or a negative trend in the oiled area. A significant negative trend in the oiled area relative to the unoiled area was considered a continuing and increasing effect. Most taxa for which injury was previously demonstrated were not recovering and some taxa showed evidence of increasing effects nine years after the oil spill. Four taxa (loons Gavia spp, Harlequin Duck Histrionicus histrionicus, Bufflehead Bucephala spp, and North-western Crow Corvus caurinus) showed weak to very weak evidence of recovery. None of these taxa showed positive trends in both winter and summer. Nine taxa (grebes Podiceps spp, cormorants Phalacrocorax spp, Black Oystercatcher Haematopus bachmani, Mew Gull Larus canus, Glaucous-winged Gull Larus glaucescens, terns Sterna spp, murres Uria spp, Pigeon Guillemot Cepphus columba, and murrelets Brachyramphus spp) showed no evidence of recovery during summer or winter. Four taxa (scoters Melanitta spp, mergansers Mergus spp, goldeneyes Bucephala spp, and Black-legged Kittiwake Rissa tridactyla) showed evidence of continuing, increasing effects. We showed evidence of slow recovery, lack of recovery, and divergent population trends in many taxa which utilise shoreline and nearshore habitats where oil is likely to persist. Potential lingering spill effects and natural variability appear to be acting in concert in delaying

  6. On Various Negative Translations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilda Ferreira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Several proof translations of classical mathematics into intuitionistic mathematics have been proposed in the literature over the past century. These are normally referred to as negative translations or double-negation translations. Among those, the most commonly cited are translations due to Kolmogorov, Godel, Gentzen, Kuroda and Krivine (in chronological order. In this paper we propose a framework for explaining how these different translations are related to each other. More precisely, we define a notion of a (modular simplification starting from Kolmogorov translation, which leads to a partial order between different negative translations. In this derived ordering, Kuroda and Krivine are minimal elements. Two new minimal translations are introduced, with Godel and Gentzen translations sitting in between Kolmogorov and one of these new translations.

  7. Negative ion sourcery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Os, C.F.A. van.

    1989-01-01

    The work described in this thesis is involved by current research programs in the field of nuclear-fusion. A brief introduction to fusion is given, anticipated problems related to current drive of the fusion plasma are pinpointed and probable suggestions to overcome these problems are described. One probable means for current drive is highlighted; Neutral Beam Injection (NBI). This is based on injecting a 1 MeV neutral hydrogen or deuterium beam into a fusion plasma. Negative ions are needed as primary particles because they can easily be neutralized at 1 MeV. The two current schemes for production of negative ions are described, volume production and negative surface ionization. The latter method is extensively studied in this thesis. (author). 171 refs.; 55 figs.; 7 tabs

  8. Northeast regional and state trends in anuran occupancy from calling survey data (2001-2011) from the North American Amphibian Monitoring Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, Linda A.; Royle, Andy; Gazenski, Kimberly D.; Villena Carpio, Oswaldo

    2014-01-01

    We present the first regional trends in anuran occupancy from North American Amphibian Monitoring Program (NAAMP) data from 11 northeastern states using an 11 years of data. NAAMP is a long-term monitoring program where observers collect data at assigned random roadside routes using a calling survey technique. We assessed occupancy trends for 17 species. Eight species had statistically significant regional trends, of these seven were negative (Anaxyrus fowleri, Acris crepitans, Pseudacris brachyphona, Pseudacris feriarum-kalmi complex, Lithobates palustris, Lithobates pipiens, and Lithobates sphenocephalus) and one was positive (Hyla versicolor-chrysoscelis complex). We also assessed state level trends for 101 species/state combinations, of these 29 showed a significant decline and nine showed a significant increase in occupancy.

  9. Trend Monitoring and Forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-11

    including breaking news, meme , and commemorative day, on the context patterns. Table 2 shows the example pattern of classifying context pattern feature...used the following rule to find the ‘ meme ’. If the trending topic contains ‘#’ AND ‘subject+verb’, then trending topic is ‘ Meme ’. Table 2 Context

  10. World trends from 2017

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janković Slobodan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Issue of prognosis, analyses of future trends is companion to statecraft, political, economic and military planning. How we plan, what does IR says about scientific prognosis. Jankovic starts with this set of issues in order to pass into prognosis itself based on observable world trends. He claims that European Union has entered its climax comparing it foreign policy situation with that of war situation of Third Reich in 1943. Article is divided in five parts. After presenting and criticizing Anglo-American approach in prognosis, he starts with analysis of the world order changes, of EU trends, Middle, Far East and some trends regarding Africa. Author presents macro trends in North - West Pacific, in Israel-Palestine, in Syria, Iraq, in Europe.

  11. Trends in Surface Level Ozone Observations from Human-health Relevant Metrics: Results from the Tropospheric Ozone Assessment Report (TOAR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Z. L.; von Schneidemesser, E.; Doherty, R. M.; Malley, C.; Cooper, O. R.; Pinto, J. P.; Colette, A.; Xu, X.; Simpson, D.; Schultz, M.; Hamad, S.; Moola, R.; Solberg, S.; Feng, Z.

    2017-12-01

    Ozone is an air pollutant formed in the atmosphere from precursor species (NOx, VOCs, CH4, CO) that is detrimental to human health and ecosystems. The global Tropospheric Ozone Assessment Report (TOAR) initiative has assembled a global database of surface ozone observations and generated ozone exposure metrics at thousands of measurement sites around the world. This talk will present results from the assessment focused on those indicators most relevant to human health. Specifically, the trends in ozone, comparing different time periods and patterns across regions and among metrics will be addressed. In addition, the fraction of population exposed to high ozone levels and how this has changed between 2000 and 2014 will also be discussed. The core time period analyzed for trends was 2000-2014, selected to include a greater number of sites in East Asia. Negative trends were most commonly observed at many US and some European sites, whereas many sites in East Asia showed positive trends, while sites in Japan showed more of a mix of positive and negative trends. More than half of the sites showed a common direction and significance in the trends for all five human-health relevant metrics. The peak ozone metrics indicate a reduction in exposure to peak levels of ozone related to photochemical episodes in Europe and the US. A considerable number of European countries and states within the US have shown a decrease in population-weighted ozone over time. The 2000-2014 results will be augmented and compared to the trend analysis for additional time periods that cover a greater number of years, but by necessity are based on fewer sites. Trends are found to be statistically significant at a larger fraction of sites with longer time series, compared to the shorter (2000-2014) time series.

  12. Relation between trends in late middle age mortality and trends in old age mortality--is there evidence for mortality selection?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, F.; Peeters, A.; Mackenbach, J. P.; Kunst, A. E.

    2005-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To test whether mortality selection was a dominant factor in determining trends in old age mortality, by empirically studying the existence of a negative correlation between trends in late middle age mortality and trends in old age mortality among the same cohorts. DESIGN AND

  13. Assessment of short- and long-term memory in trends of major climatic variables over Iran: 1966-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mianabadi, Ameneh; Shirazi, Pooya; Ghahraman, Bijan; Coenders-Gerrits, A. M. J.; Alizadeh, Amin; Davary, Kamran

    2018-02-01

    In arid and semi-arid regions, water scarcity is the crucial issue for crop production. Identifying the spatial and temporal trends in aridity, especially during the crop-growing season, is important for farmers to manage their agricultural practices. This will become especially relevant when considering climate change projections. To reliably determine the actual trends, the influence of short- and long-term memory should be removed from the trend analysis. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of short- and long-term memory on estimates of trends in two aridity indicators—the inverted De Martonne (ϕ IDM ) and Budyko (ϕ B ) indices. The analysis is done using precipitation and temperature data over Iran for a 50-year period (1966-2015) at three temporal scales: annual, wheat-growing season (October-June), and maize-growing season (May-November). For this purpose, the original and the modified Mann-Kendall tests (i.e., modified by three methods of trend free pre-whitening (TFPT), effective sample size (ESS), and long-term persistence (LTP)) are used to investigate the temporal trends in aridity indices, precipitation, and temperature by taking into account the effect of short- and long-term memory. Precipitation and temperature data were provided by the Islamic Republic of Iran Meteorological Organization (IRIMO). The temporal trend analysis showed that aridity increased from 1966 to 2015 at the annual and wheat-growing season scales, which is due to a decreasing trend in precipitation and an increasing trend in mean temperature at these two timescales. The trend in aridity indices was decreasing in the maize-growing season, since precipitation has an increasing trend for most parts of Iran in that season. The increasing trend in aridity indices is significant in Western Iran, which can be related to the significantly more negative trend in precipitation in the West. This increasing trend in aridity could result in an increasing crop water

  14. Representativeness of single lidar stations for zonally averaged ozone profiles, their trends and attribution to proxies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Zerefos

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper is focusing on the representativeness of single lidar stations for zonally averaged ozone profile variations over the middle and upper stratosphere. From the lower to the upper stratosphere, ozone profiles from single or grouped lidar stations correlate well with zonal means calculated from the Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet Radiometer (SBUV satellite overpasses. The best representativeness with significant correlation coefficients is found within ±15° of latitude circles north or south of any lidar station. This paper also includes a multivariate linear regression (MLR analysis on the relative importance of proxy time series for explaining variations in the vertical ozone profiles. Studied proxies represent variability due to influences outside of the earth system (solar cycle and within the earth system, i.e. dynamic processes (the Quasi Biennial Oscillation, QBO; the Arctic Oscillation, AO; the Antarctic Oscillation, AAO; the El Niño Southern Oscillation, ENSO, those due to volcanic aerosol (aerosol optical depth, AOD, tropopause height changes (including global warming and those influences due to anthropogenic contributions to atmospheric chemistry (equivalent effective stratospheric chlorine, EESC. Ozone trends are estimated, with and without removal of proxies, from the total available 1980 to 2015 SBUV record. Except for the chemistry related proxy (EESC and its orthogonal function, the removal of the other proxies does not alter the significance of the estimated long-term trends. At heights above 15 hPa an inflection point between 1997 and 1999 marks the end of significant negative ozone trends, followed by a recent period between 1998 and 2015 with positive ozone trends. At heights between 15 and 40 hPa the pre-1998 negative ozone trends tend to become less significant as we move towards 2015, below which the lower stratosphere ozone decline continues in agreement with findings of recent literature.

  15. Representativeness of single lidar stations for zonally averaged ozone profiles, their trends and attribution to proxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerefos, Christos; Kapsomenakis, John; Eleftheratos, Kostas; Tourpali, Kleareti; Petropavlovskikh, Irina; Hubert, Daan; Godin-Beekmann, Sophie; Steinbrecht, Wolfgang; Frith, Stacey; Sofieva, Viktoria; Hassler, Birgit

    2018-05-01

    This paper is focusing on the representativeness of single lidar stations for zonally averaged ozone profile variations over the middle and upper stratosphere. From the lower to the upper stratosphere, ozone profiles from single or grouped lidar stations correlate well with zonal means calculated from the Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet Radiometer (SBUV) satellite overpasses. The best representativeness with significant correlation coefficients is found within ±15° of latitude circles north or south of any lidar station. This paper also includes a multivariate linear regression (MLR) analysis on the relative importance of proxy time series for explaining variations in the vertical ozone profiles. Studied proxies represent variability due to influences outside of the earth system (solar cycle) and within the earth system, i.e. dynamic processes (the Quasi Biennial Oscillation, QBO; the Arctic Oscillation, AO; the Antarctic Oscillation, AAO; the El Niño Southern Oscillation, ENSO), those due to volcanic aerosol (aerosol optical depth, AOD), tropopause height changes (including global warming) and those influences due to anthropogenic contributions to atmospheric chemistry (equivalent effective stratospheric chlorine, EESC). Ozone trends are estimated, with and without removal of proxies, from the total available 1980 to 2015 SBUV record. Except for the chemistry related proxy (EESC) and its orthogonal function, the removal of the other proxies does not alter the significance of the estimated long-term trends. At heights above 15 hPa an inflection point between 1997 and 1999 marks the end of significant negative ozone trends, followed by a recent period between 1998 and 2015 with positive ozone trends. At heights between 15 and 40 hPa the pre-1998 negative ozone trends tend to become less significant as we move towards 2015, below which the lower stratosphere ozone decline continues in agreement with findings of recent literature.

  16. Suicide: current trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Rahn K; Patel, Tejas C; Avenido, Jaymie; Patel, Milapkumar; Jaleel, Mohammad; Barker, Narviar C; Khan, Jahanzeb Ali; Ali, Shahid; Jabeen, Shagufta

    2011-07-01

    Suicide is the act of a human being intentionally causing his or her own death. More than 1 million people commit suicide every year. It is the 13th leading cause of death worldwide, with China, India, and Japan accounting for almost half of all suicides. In less than 50 years, the rate of suicide among Sri Lankans has risen from a modest level to one of the highest in the world (118 per 100,000). Suicide is a major preventable cause of premature death. It is influenced by psychosocial, cultural, and environmental risk factors. The impact of suicide can be devastating for all concerned. It is common in people who are living with chronic mental illness. Individuals with severe clinical depression and alcohol use disorders are at highest risk if untreated. On an interpersonal level, friends and families of suicide victims require social support. On a national level, governments need to recognize the causes of suicide and protect those most vulnerable. If governments commit to defining national responses to prevent suicide, significant progress can be made. On a global scale, research and health organizations can identify global trends and encourage the sharing of information in effective prevention activities. In September 2010, World Suicide Prevention Day, with a theme of "Many faces, many places: suicide prevention across the world," encouraged public awareness worldwide to unite in commitment and action to promote understanding about suicide and removal of stigmatization'. There is compelling evidence that adequate prevention and awareness can reduce suicide rates.

  17. Temporal and spatial trends for trace metals in streams and rivers across Sweden (1996–2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Fölster

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Long term data series (1996 through 2009 for trace metals were analyzed from a large number of streams and rivers across Sweden varying in tributary watershed size from 0.05 to 48 193 km2. The final data set included 139 stream sites with data for arsenic (As, cobalt (Co, copper (Cu, chromium (Cr, nickel (Ni, lead (Pb, zinc (Zn, and vanadium (V. Between 7 % and 46 % of the sites analyzed showed significant trends according to the seasonal Kendall test. However, in contrast to previous studies and depositional patterns, a substantial portion of the trends were positive, especially for V (100 %, As (95 %, and Pb (68 %. Other metals (Zn and Cr generally decreased, were mixed (Ni and Zn, or had very few trends (Co over the study period. Trends by region were also analyzed and some showed significant variation between the north and south of Sweden. Regional trends for both Cu and Pb were positive (60 % and 93 %, respectively in the southern region but strongly negative (93 % and 75 %, respectively in the northern region. Kendall's τ coefficients were used to determine dependence between metals and potential in-stream drivers including total organic carbon (TOC, iron (Fe, pH, and sulphate (SO42−. TOC and Fe correlated positively and strongly with As, V, Pb, and Co while pH and SO42− generally correlated weakly, or not at all with the metals studied.

  18. Incisional Negative Pressure Wound Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldig, Nana

    the rate of surgical wound infection and wound exudate post-caesarean and that wound infection had a negative impact on quality of life one month after surgery. Alongside the clinical trial, a trial-based cost-effectiveness analysis demonstrated that the treatment is cost-effective in a high......Women with a pre-gestational body mass index (BMI) above 30 kg/m2 giving birth by caesarean section are at high risk of surgical wound infection compared with women with a BMI below 30 kg/m2. Incisional Negative Pressure Wound Therapy (iNPWT) is one strategy to reduce the rate of surgical wound...... a randomised controlled trial in two tertiary and three teaching hospitals in three regions of Denmark, the Happy Belly Study, investigating the effectiveness of iNPWT in a population of obese women after caesarean section. The Happy Belly Study has demonstrated that prophylactic iNPWT significantly reduced...

  19. Dualising Intuitionictic Negation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Priest

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available One of Da Costa's motives when he constructed the paraconsistent logic Cw was to dualise the negation of intuitionistic logic. In this paper I explore a different way of going about this task. A logic is defined by taking the Kripke semantics for intuitionistic logic, and dualising the truth conditions for negation. Various properties of the logic are established, including its relation to CWo Tableau and natural deduction systems for the logic are produced, as are appropriate algebraic structures. The paper then investigates dualising the intuitionistic conditional in the same way. This establishes various connections between the logic, and a logic called in the literature 'Brouwerian logic' or 'closed-set logic'.

  20. Dualising Intuitionistic Negation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Priest

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available One of Da Costa’s motives when he constructed the paraconsistent logic C! was to dualise the negation of intuitionistic logic. In this paper I explore a different way of going about this task. A logic is defined by taking the Kripke semantics for intuitionistic logic, and dualising the truth conditions for negation. Various properties of the logic are established, including its relation to C!. Tableau and natural deduction systems for the logic are produced, as are appropriate algebraic structures. The paper then investigates dualising the intuitionistic conditional in the same way. This establishes various connections between the logic, and a logic called in the literature ‘Brouwerian logic’ or ‘closed-set logic’.

  1. Spatial patterns of March and September streamflow trends in Pacific Northwest Streams, 1958-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Heejun; Jung, Il-Won; Steele, Madeline; Gannett, Marshall

    2012-01-01

    Summer streamflow is a vital water resource for municipal and domestic water supplies, irrigation, salmonid habitat, recreation, and water-related ecosystem services in the Pacific Northwest (PNW) in the United States. This study detects significant negative trends in September absolute streamflow in a majority of 68 stream-gauging stations located on unregulated streams in the PNW from 1958 to 2008. The proportion of March streamflow to annual streamflow increases in most stations over 1,000 m elevation, with a baseflow index of less than 50, while absolute March streamflow does not increase in most stations. The declining trends of September absolute streamflow are strongly associated with seven-day low flow, January–March maximum temperature trends, and the size of the basin (19–7,260 km2), while the increasing trends of the fraction of March streamflow are associated with elevation, April 1 snow water equivalent, March precipitation, center timing of streamflow, and October–December minimum temperature trends. Compared with ordinary least squares (OLS) estimated regression models, spatial error regression and geographically weighted regression (GWR) models effectively remove spatial autocorrelation in residuals. The GWR model results show spatial gradients of local R 2 values with consistently higher local R 2 values in the northern Cascades. This finding illustrates that different hydrologic landscape factors, such as geology and seasonal distribution of precipitation, also influence streamflow trends in the PNW. In addition, our spatial analysis model results show that considering various geographic factors help clarify the dynamics of streamflow trends over a large geographical area, supporting a spatial analysis approach over aspatial OLS-estimated regression models for predicting streamflow trends. Results indicate that transitional rain–snow surface water-dominated basins are likely to have reduced summer streamflow under warming scenarios

  2. Negative Pressure Wound Therapy in Maxillofacial Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam J. Mellott

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Negative pressure wound therapy has greatly advanced the field of wound healing for nearly two decades, by providing a robust surgical adjunct technique for accelerating wound closure in acute and chronic wounds. However, the application of negative pressure wound therapy in maxillofacial applications has been relatively under utilized as a result of the physical articulations and contours of the head and neck that make it challenging to obtain an airtight seal for different negative pressure wound therapy systems. Adapting negative pressure wound therapies for maxillofacial applications could yield significant enhancement of wound closure in maxillofacial applications. The current review summarizes the basic science underlying negative pressure wound therapy, as well as specific maxillofacial procedures that could benefit from negative pressure wound therapy.

  3. Statistical Analysis of Long-Term Trend of Performance, Production and Cultivated Area of 17 Field Crops Khorasan Razavi Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Zareabyaneh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Any planning for the future requires estimates of future conditions. It is possible to study changes over time series. In this study, changes of production and cultivated area of 17 field crops of Khorasan Razavi province in a 25-year period were determined with Mann - Kendall test, Sen’s Estimator Slope and linear regression. Analysis of the three tests showed that performance of 76.5% from yield, 88.2% from area under cultivation and 55.8% from agricultural production were significant at the 0.01 and 0.05 level. On the other hand, trend of yields 58.8% was increase, 17.7% was reduced and 23.5% was no significant trend. Similarly, trend of 23.5% from area under cultivation was acreage, 64.7% was reduction, and 11.8% was no significant trend. For production variable, 29.4% was significantly increased and 29.4% was significant reduction. More detailed analysis showed that performance, production and area under cultivation of three crops of cotton, grain and tomatoes increased significantly. Results of all three methods showed the highest trend of negatively performance and area under cultivation variation is related to pea and melon respectively. Furthermore, most of the positive trend in production of tomatoes and grain, performance in onions, potatoes and tomatoes and area under cultivation in tomato observed. The results showed that linear trend and the nonparametric tests of important products of province: wheat, barley, sugar beet, cotton, melons, watermelons and tomatoes in 0.01 were significant. This result shows the importance of these yields in gross state province product.

  4. Multiyear Rainfall and Temperature Trends in the Volta River Basin and their Potential Impact on Hydropower Generation in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amos T. Kabo-Bah

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The effects of temperature and rainfall changes on hydropower generation in Ghana from 1960–2011 were examined to understand country-wide trends of climate variability. Moreover, the discharge and the water level trends for the Akosombo reservoir from 1965–2014 were examined using the Mann-Kendall test statistic to assess localised changes. The annual temperature trend was positive while rainfall showed both negative and positive trends in different parts of the country. However, these trends were not statistically significant in the study regions in 1960 to 2011. Rainfall was not evenly distributed throughout the years, with the highest rainfall recorded between 1960 and 1970 and the lowest rainfalls between 2000 and 2011. The Mann-Kendall test shows an upward trend for the discharge of the Akosombo reservoir and a downward trend for the water level. However, the discharge irregularities of the reservoir do not necessarily affect the energy generated from the Akosombo plant, but rather the regular low flow of water into the reservoir affected power generation. This is the major concern for the operations of the Akosombo hydropower plant for energy generation in Ghana.

  5. Healthy food trends -- flaxseeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... seeds; Healthy food trends - linseeds; Healthy snacks - flaxseeds; Healthy diet - flaxseeds; Wellness - flaxseeds ... of nutrition and dietetics: dietary fatty acids for healthy adults. J Acad Nutr Diet . 2014;114(1):136-153. PMID: 24342605 www. ...

  6. Health Plans - Trend Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This page contains several useful trend and competition indicators. Certain files will be updated monthly while others will be updated quarterly. The files are the...

  7. Healthy food trends - kale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy food trends - borecole; Healthy snacks - kale; Weight loss - kale; Healthy diet - kale; Wellness - kale ... Kale is full of vitamins and minerals, including: Vitamin A Vitamin C Vitamin K If you take ...

  8. Dismantling technologies trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devaux, P.

    2009-01-01

    In this work dismantling technologies trends realized by the CEA are reviewed. There following technologies are presented: Data acquisition from facilities; Scenario studies; Remote handling and carriers; Dismantling techniques; Decontamination.

  9. Significant Tsunami Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, P. K.; Furtney, M.; McLean, S. J.; Sweeney, A. D.

    2014-12-01

    Tsunamis have inflicted death and destruction on the coastlines of the world throughout history. The occurrence of tsunamis and the resulting effects have been collected and studied as far back as the second millennium B.C. The knowledge gained from cataloging and examining these events has led to significant changes in our understanding of tsunamis, tsunami sources, and methods to mitigate the effects of tsunamis. The most significant, not surprisingly, are often the most devastating, such as the 2011 Tohoku, Japan earthquake and tsunami. The goal of this poster is to give a brief overview of the occurrence of tsunamis and then focus specifically on several significant tsunamis. There are various criteria to determine the most significant tsunamis: the number of deaths, amount of damage, maximum runup height, had a major impact on tsunami science or policy, etc. As a result, descriptions will include some of the most costly (2011 Tohoku, Japan), the most deadly (2004 Sumatra, 1883 Krakatau), and the highest runup ever observed (1958 Lituya Bay, Alaska). The discovery of the Cascadia subduction zone as the source of the 1700 Japanese "Orphan" tsunami and a future tsunami threat to the U.S. northwest coast, contributed to the decision to form the U.S. National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program. The great Lisbon earthquake of 1755 marked the beginning of the modern era of seismology. Knowledge gained from the 1964 Alaska earthquake and tsunami helped confirm the theory of plate tectonics. The 1946 Alaska, 1952 Kuril Islands, 1960 Chile, 1964 Alaska, and the 2004 Banda Aceh, tsunamis all resulted in warning centers or systems being established.The data descriptions on this poster were extracted from NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) global historical tsunami database. Additional information about these tsunamis, as well as water level data can be found by accessing the NGDC website www.ngdc.noaa.gov/hazard/

  10. World trends from 2017

    OpenAIRE

    Janković Slobodan

    2016-01-01

    Issue of prognosis, analyses of future trends is companion to statecraft, political, economic and military planning. How we plan, what does IR says about scientific prognosis. Jankovic starts with this set of issues in order to pass into prognosis itself based on observable world trends. He claims that European Union has entered its climax comparing it foreign policy situation with that of war situation of Third Reich in 1943. Article is divided in five parts. After presenting and criticizing...

  11. Trends in communications satellites

    CERN Document Server

    Curtin, Denis J

    1979-01-01

    Trends in Communications Satellites offers a comprehensive look at trends and advances in satellite communications, including experimental ones such as NASA satellites and those jointly developed by France and Germany. The economic aspects of communications satellites are also examined. This book consists of 16 chapters and begins with a discussion on the fundamentals of electrical communications and their application to space communications, including spacecraft, earth stations, and orbit and wavelength utilization. The next section demonstrates how successful commercial satellite communicati

  12. Trends in Business Investment

    OpenAIRE

    Lydon, Reamonn; Scally, John

    2014-01-01

    This article examines trends in business investment in Ireland. Consistent with the international evidence on investment cycles, we show that business investment in Ireland exhibits large cyclical movements around a long-run trend relative to GDP. Changes in business investment broadly coincide with the overall business cycle, although swings in investment tend to be far greater, with extended periods of both over- and under-investment relative to GDP. The sharp fall in business investment si...

  13. Suggestibility and negative priming: two replication studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Daniel; Brown, Richard J

    2002-07-01

    Research suggests that inhibiting the effect of irrelevant stimuli on subsequent thought and action (cognitive inhibition) may be an important component of suggestibility. Two small correlation studies were conducted to address the relationship between different aspects of suggestibility and individual differences in cognitive inhibition, operationalized as the degree of negative priming generated by to-be-ignored stimuli in a semantic categorization task. The first study found significant positive correlations between negative priming, hypnotic suggestibility, and creative imagination; a significant negative correlation was obtained between negative priming and interrogative suggestibility, demonstrating the discriminant validity of the study results. The second study replicated the correlation between negative priming and hypnotic suggestibility, using a different suggestibility measurement procedure that assessed subjective experience and hypnotic involuntariness as well as objective responses to suggestions. These studies support the notion that the ability to engage in cognitive inhibition may be an important component of hypnotic responsivity and maybe of other forms of suggestibility.

  14. How well do regional or national Breeding Bird Survey data predict songbird population trends at an intact boreal site?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig S. Machtans

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A study to monitor boreal songbird trends was initiated in 1998 in a relatively undisturbed and remote part of the boreal forest in the Northwest Territories, Canada. Eight years of point count data were collected over the 14 years of the study, 1998-2011. Trends were estimated for 50 bird species using generalized linear mixed-effects models, with random effects to account for temporal (repeat sampling within years and spatial (stations within stands autocorrelation and variability associated with multiple observers. We tested whether regional and national Breeding Bird Survey (BBS trends could, on average, predict trends in our study area. Significant increases in our study area outnumbered decreases by 12 species to 6, an opposite pattern compared to Alberta (6 versus 15, respectively and Canada (9 versus 20. Twenty-two species with relatively precise trend estimates (precision to detect > 30% decline in 10 years; observed SE ≤ 3.7%/year showed nonsignificant trends, similar to Alberta (24 and Canada (20. Precision-weighted trends for a sample of 19 species with both reliable trends at our site and small portions of their range covered by BBS in Canada were, on average, more negative for Alberta (1.34% per year lower and for Canada (1.15% per year lower relative to Fort Liard, though 95% credible intervals still contained zero. We suggest that part of the differences could be attributable to local resource pulses (insect outbreak. However, we also suggest that the tendency for BBS route coverage to disproportionately sample more southerly, developed areas in the boreal forest could result in BBS trends that are not representative of range-wide trends for species whose range is centred farther north.

  15. Trends in Mobile Application Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzer, Adrian; Ondrus, Jan

    Major software companies, such as Apple and Google, are disturbing the relatively safe and established actors of the mobile application business. These newcomers have caused significant structural changes by imposing and enforcing their own rules for the future of mobile application development. The implications of these changes do not only concern the mobile network operators and mobile phone manufacturers. This changed environment also brings additional opportunities and constraints for current mobile application developers. Therefore, developers need to assess what their options are and how they can take advantages of these current trends. In this paper, we take a developer’s perspective in order to explore how the structural changes will influence the mobile application development markets. Moreover, we discuss what aspects developers need to take into account in order to position themselves within the current trends.

  16. A Lagrangian analysis of mid-latitude stratospheric ozone variability and long-term trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, G.; Wernli, H.; Staehelin, J.; Peter, T.

    2002-05-01

    A systematic Lagrangian investigation is performed of wintertime high-resolution stratospheric ozone soundings at Payerne, Switzerland, from January 1970 to March 2001. For every ozone sounding, 10-day backward trajectories have been calculated on 16 isentropic levels using NCEP reanalysis data. Both the minimum/maximum latitude and potential vorticity (PV) averaged along the trajectories are used as indicators of the air parcels' ``origin''. The importance of transport for the understandin g of single ozone profiles is confirmed by a statistical analysis which shows that negative/positive ozone deviations gener ally coincide with transport from regions with climatologically low/high ozone values. The stable relationship between PV and ozone for the 32 year period indicates either no direct chemical impact or no temporal change of this impact. In the upper layer the PV-ozone relationship changes significantly after 1987 and a separate trend analysis for air masses transported from the polar, midlatitude and subtropical regions shows negative ozone trends in all three categories (with a maximum for the polar region). This is not direct evidence for, but would be in agreement with, an increased chemical ozone depletion in the Arctic since the late 1980s. The reasons for the negative trend in the mid-stratospheric air masses with subtropical origin that are in qualitative agreement with recent satellite observations are presently unknown.

  17. Hydro-meteorological trends in the Gidabo catchment of the Rift Valley Lakes Basin of Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belihu, Mamuye; Abate, Brook; Tekleab, Sirak; Bewket, Woldeamlak

    2018-04-01

    The global and regional variability and changes of climate and stream flows are likely to have significant influence on water resource availability. The magnitude and impacts of climate variability and change differs spatially and temporally. This study examines the long term hydroclimatic changes, analyses of the hydro-climate variability and detect whether there exist significant trend or not in the Gidabo catchment, rift valley lakes basin of Ethiopia. Precipitation, temperature and stream flow time series data were used in monthly, seasonal and annual time scales. The precipitation and temperature data span is between 1982 and 2014 and that of stream flow is between 1976 and 2006. To detect trends the analysis were done by using Mann Kendal (MK), Sen's graphical method and to detect change point using the Pettit test. The comparison of trend analysis between MK trend test and Sen graphical method results depict mostly similar pattern. The annual rainfall trends exhibited a significant decrease by about 12 mm per year in the upstream, which is largely driven by the significant decrease in the peak season rainfall. The Pettit test revealed that the years 1997 and 2007 were the change points. It is noted that the rise of temperature over a catchment might have decreased the availability of soil moisture which resulted in less runoff. The temperature analyses also revealed that the catchment was getting warmer; particularly in the upstream. The minimum temperature trend showed a significant increase about 0.08°c per annum. There is generally a decreasing trend in stream flow. The monthly stream flow also exhibited a decreasing trend in February, March and September. The decline in annual and seasonal rainfall and the increase in temperature lead to more evaporation and directly affecting the stream flow negatively. This trend compounded with the growth of population and increasing demand for irrigation water exacerbates the competing demand for water resources. It

  18. Negative ion beam processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayward, T.D.; Lawrence, G.P.; Bentley, R.F.; Malanify, J.J.; Jackson, J.A.

    1975-06-01

    Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory fiscal year 1975 work on production of intense, very bright, negative hydrogen (H - ), ion beams and conversion of a high-energy (a few hundred MeV) negative beam into a neutral beam are described. The ion source work has used a cesium charge exchange source that has produced H - ion beams greater than or equal to 10 mA (about a factor of 10 greater than those available 1 yr ago) with a brightness of 1.4 x 10 9 A/m 2 -rad 2 (about 18 times brighter than before). The high-energy, neutral beam production investigations have included measurements of the 800-MeV H - -stripping cross section in hydrogen gas (sigma/sub -10/, tentatively 4 x 10 -19 cm 2 ), 3- to 6-MeV H - -stripping cross sections in a hydrogen plasma (sigma/sub -10/, tentatively 2 to 4 x 10 -16 cm 2 ), and the small-angle scattering that results from stripping an 800-MeV H - ion beam to a neutral (H 0 ) beam in hydrogen gas. These last measurements were interrupted by the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility shutdown in December 1974, but should be completed early in fiscal year 1976 when the accelerator resumes operation. Small-angle scattering calculations have included hydrogen gas-stripping, plasma-stripping, and photodetachment. Calculations indicate that the root mean square angular spread of a 390-MeV negative triton (T - ) beam stripped in a plasma stripper may be as low as 0.7 μrad

  19. Testing Significance Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachim I. Krueger

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The practice of Significance Testing (ST remains widespread in psychological science despite continual criticism of its flaws and abuses. Using simulation experiments, we address four concerns about ST and for two of these we compare ST’s performance with prominent alternatives. We find the following: First, the 'p' values delivered by ST predict the posterior probability of the tested hypothesis well under many research conditions. Second, low 'p' values support inductive inferences because they are most likely to occur when the tested hypothesis is false. Third, 'p' values track likelihood ratios without raising the uncertainties of relative inference. Fourth, 'p' values predict the replicability of research findings better than confidence intervals do. Given these results, we conclude that 'p' values may be used judiciously as a heuristic tool for inductive inference. Yet, 'p' values cannot bear the full burden of inference. We encourage researchers to be flexible in their selection and use of statistical methods.

  20. Safety significance evaluation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lew, B.S.; Yee, D.; Brewer, W.K.; Quattro, P.J.; Kirby, K.D.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that the Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG and E), in cooperation with ABZ, Incorporated and Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC), investigated the use of artificial intelligence-based programming techniques to assist utility personnel in regulatory compliance problems. The result of this investigation is that artificial intelligence-based programming techniques can successfully be applied to this problem. To demonstrate this, a general methodology was developed and several prototype systems based on this methodology were developed. The prototypes address U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) event reportability requirements, technical specification compliance based on plant equipment status, and quality assurance assistance. This collection of prototype modules is named the safety significance evaluation system

  1. Predicting significant torso trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirula, Ram; Talmor, Daniel; Brasel, Karen

    2005-07-01

    Identification of motor vehicle crash (MVC) characteristics associated with thoracoabdominal injury would advance the development of automatic crash notification systems (ACNS) by improving triage and response times. Our objective was to determine the relationships between MVC characteristics and thoracoabdominal trauma to develop a torso injury probability model. Drivers involved in crashes from 1993 to 2001 within the National Automotive Sampling System were reviewed. Relationships between torso injury and MVC characteristics were assessed using multivariate logistic regression. Receiver operating characteristic curves were used to compare the model to current ACNS models. There were a total of 56,466 drivers. Age, ejection, braking, avoidance, velocity, restraints, passenger-side impact, rollover, and vehicle weight and type were associated with injury (p < 0.05). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (83.9) was significantly greater than current ACNS models. We have developed a thoracoabdominal injury probability model that may improve patient triage when used with ACNS.

  2. Gas revenue increasingly significant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Megill, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    This paper briefly describes the wellhead prices of natural gas compared to crude oil over the past 70 years. Although natural gas prices have never reached price parity with crude oil, the relative value of a gas BTU has been increasing. It is one of the reasons that the total amount of money coming from natural gas wells is becoming more significant. From 1920 to 1955 the revenue at the wellhead for natural gas was only about 10% of the money received by producers. Most of the money needed for exploration, development, and production came from crude oil. At present, however, over 40% of the money from the upstream portion of the petroleum industry is from natural gas. As a result, in a few short years natural gas may become 50% of the money revenues generated from wellhead production facilities

  3. Trend analysis of the wave storminess: the wave direction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas Prat, M.; Sierra, J. P.; Mösso, C.; Sánchez-Arcilla, A.

    2009-09-01

    Climate change has an important role in the current scientific research because of its possible future negative consequences. Concerning the climate change in the coastal engineering field, the apparent sea level rise is one of the key parameters as well as the wave height and the wave direction temporal variations. According to the IPCC (2007), during the last century the sea level has been increasing with a mean rate of 1.7 ± 0.5 mm/yr. However, at local/regional scale the tendency significantly differs from the global trend since the local pressure and wind field variations become more relevant. This appears to be particularly significant in semi-enclosed areas in the Mediterranean Sea (Cushman-Roisin et al., 2001). Even though the existing unsolved questions related to the sea level rise, the uncertainty concerning the wave height is even larger, in which stormy conditions are especially important because they are closely related to processes such as coastal erosion, flooding, etc. Therefore, it is necessary to identify possible existing tendencies of storm related parameters. In many studies, only the maximum wave height and storm duration are analysed, remaining the wave direction in a second term. Note that a possible rotation of the mean wave direction may involve severe consequences since most beach and harbour defence structures have been designed assuming a constant predominant wave incidence. Liste et al. (2004) illustrated this fact with an example in which a rotation of only 2 degrees of the mean energy flux vector could produce a beach retreat of 20 m. Another possible consequence would be a decrease of the harbour operability: increased frequency of storms in the same direction as the harbour entrance orientation would influence the navigability. The present study, which focuses in the Catalan coast (NW Mediterranean Sea), aims to improve the present knowledge of the wave storminess variations at regional scale, specially focusing on the wave

  4. Trend and variability in a new, reconstructed streamflow dataset for West and Central Africa, and climatic interactions, 1950-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidibe, Moussa; Dieppois, Bastien; Mahé, Gil; Paturel, Jean-Emmanuel; Amoussou, Ernest; Anifowose, Babatunde; Lawler, Damian

    2018-06-01

    Over recent decades, regions of West and Central Africa have experienced different and significant changes in climatic patterns, which have significantly impacted hydrological regimes. Such impacts, however, are not fully understood at the regional scale, largely because of scarce hydroclimatic data. Therefore, the aim of this study is to (a) assemble a new, robust, reconstructed streamflow dataset of 152 gauging stations; (b) quantify changes in streamflow over 1950-2005 period, using these newly reconstructed datasets; (c) significantly reveal trends and variability in streamflow over West and Central Africa based on new reconstructions; and (d) assess the robustness of this dataset by comparing the results with those identified in key climatic drivers (e.g. precipitation and temperature) over the region. Gap filling methods applied to monthly time series (1950-2005) yielded robust results (median Kling-Gupta Efficiency >0.75). The study underlines a good agreement between precipitation and streamflow trends and reveals contrasts between western Africa (negative trends) and Central Africa (positive trends) in the 1950s and 1960s. Homogenous dry conditions of the 1970s and 1980s, characterized by reduced significant negative trends resulting from quasi-decadal modulations of the trend, are replaced by wetter conditions in the recent period (1993-2005). The effect of this rainfall recovery (which extends to West and Central Africa) on increased river flows are further amplified by land use change in some Sahelian basins. This is partially offset, however, by higher potential evapotranspiration rates over parts of Niger and Nigeria. Crucially, the new reconstructed streamflow datasets presented here will be available for both the scientific community and water resource managers.

  5. Negative leave balances

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Department

    2005-01-01

    Members of the personnel entitled to annual leave and, where appropriate, saved leave and/or compensatory leave are requested to take note of the new arrangements described below, which were recommended by the Standing Concertation Committee (SCC) at its meeting on 1Â September 2005 and subsequently approved by the Director-General. The changes do not apply to members of the personnel participating in the Progressive Retirement Programme (PRP) or the Part-time Work as a pre-retirement measure, for whom the specific provisions communicated at the time of joining will continue to apply. Â Negative balances in annual leave, saved leave and/or compensatory leave accounts at the end of the leave year (30th September) and on the date on which bonuses are credited to the saved leave account (31st December): Where members of the personnel have a leave account with a negative balance on 30Â September and/or 31Â December, leave will automatically be transferred from one account to another on the relevant dates i...

  6. Negative leave balances

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Department

    2005-01-01

    Members of the personnel entitled to annual leave and, where appropriate, saved leave and/or compensatory leave are requested to take note of the new arrangements described below, which were recommended by the Standing Concertation Committee (SCC) at its meeting on 1 September 2005 and subsequently approved by the Director-General. The changes do not apply to members of the personnel participating in the Progressive Retirement Programme (PRP) or the Part-time Work as a pre-retirement measure, for whom the specific provisions communicated at the time of joining will continue to apply.  Negative balances in annual leave, saved leave and/or compensatory leave accounts at the end of the leave year (30th September) and on the date on which bonuses are credited to the saved leave account (31st December): Where members of the personnel have a leave account with a negative balance on 30 September and/or 31 December, leave will automatically be transferred from one account to another on the relevant dates in or...

  7. Child marriage in Bangladesh: trends and determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, S M Mostafa; Hassan, Che Hashim; Alam, Gazi Mahabubul; Ying, Yang

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the trends and determinants of child marriage among women aged 20-49 in Bangladesh. Data were extracted from the last six nationally representative Demographic and Health Surveys conducted during 1993-2011. Simple cross-tabulation and multivariate binary logistic regression analyses were adopted. According to the survey conducted in 2011, more than 75% of marriages can be categorized as child marriages. This is a decline of 10 percentage points in the prevalence of child marriage compared with the survey conducted in 1993-1994. Despite some improvements in education and other socioeconomic indicators, Bangladeshi society still faces the relentless practice of early marriage. The mean age at first marriage has increased by only 1.4 years over the last one and half decades, from 14.3 years in 1993-1994 to 15.7 years in 2011. Although the situation on risk of child marriage has improved over time, the pace is sluggish. Both the year-of-birth and year-of-marriage cohorts of women suggest that the likelihood of marrying as a child has decreased significantly in recent years. The risk of child marriage was significantly higher when husbands had no formal education or little education, and when the wives were unemployed or unskilled workers. Muslim women living in rural areas have a greater risk of child marriage. Women's education level was the single most significant negative determinant of child marriage. Thus, the variables identified as important determinants of child marriage are: education of women and their husbands, and women's occupation, place of residence and religion. Programmes to help and motivate girls to stay in school will not only reduce early marriage but will also support overall societal development. The rigid enforcement of the legal minimum age at first marriage could be critical in decreasing child marriage.

  8. Tumor significant dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supe, S.J.; Nagalaxmi, K.V.; Meenakshi, L.

    1983-01-01

    In the practice of radiotherapy, various concepts like NSD, CRE, TDF, and BIR are being used to evaluate the biological effectiveness of the treatment schedules on the normal tissues. This has been accepted as the tolerance of the normal tissue is the limiting factor in the treatment of cancers. At present when various schedules are tried, attention is therefore paid to the biological damage of the normal tissues only and it is expected that the damage to the cancerous tissues would be extensive enough to control the cancer. Attempt is made in the present work to evaluate the concent of tumor significant dose (TSD) which will represent the damage to the cancerous tissue. Strandquist in the analysis of a large number of cases of squamous cell carcinoma found that for the 5 fraction/week treatment, the total dose required to bring about the same damage for the cancerous tissue is proportional to T/sup -0.22/, where T is the overall time over which the dose is delivered. Using this finding the TSD was defined as DxN/sup -p/xT/sup -q/, where D is the total dose, N the number of fractions, T the overall time p and q are the exponents to be suitably chosen. The values of p and q are adjusted such that p+q< or =0.24, and p varies from 0.0 to 0.24 and q varies from 0.0 to 0.22. Cases of cancer of cervix uteri treated between 1978 and 1980 in the V. N. Cancer Centre, Kuppuswamy Naidu Memorial Hospital, Coimbatore, India were analyzed on the basis of these formulations. These data, coupled with the clinical experience, were used for choice of a formula for the TSD. Further, the dose schedules used in the British Institute of Radiology fraction- ation studies were also used to propose that the tumor significant dose is represented by DxN/sup -0.18/xT/sup -0.06/

  9. American Exceptionalism: Population Trends and Flight Initiation Distances in Birds from Three Continents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møller, Anders Pape; Samia, Diogo S. M.; Weston, Mike A.; Guay, Patrick-Jean; Blumstein, Daniel T.

    2014-01-01

    Background All organisms may be affected by humans' increasing impact on Earth, but there are many potential drivers of population trends and the relative importance of each remains largely unknown. The causes of spatial patterns in population trends and their relationship with animal responses to human proximity are even less known. Methodology/Principal Finding We investigated the relationship between population trends of 193 species of bird in North America, Australia and Europe and flight initiation distance (FID); the distance at which birds take flight when approached by a human. While there is an expected negative relationship between population trend and FID in Australia and Europe, we found the inverse relationship for North American birds; thus FID cannot be used as a universal predictor of vulnerability of birds. However, the analysis of the joint explanatory ability of multiple drivers (farmland breeding habitat, pole-most breeding latitude, migratory habit, FID) effects on population status replicated previously reported strong effects of farmland breeding habitat (an effect apparently driven mostly by European birds), as well as strong effects of FID, body size, migratory habit and continent. Farmland birds are generally declining. Conclusions/Significance Flight initiation distance is related to population trends in a way that differs among continents opening new research possibilities concerning the causes of geographic differences in patterns of anti-predator behavior. PMID:25226165

  10. Trends in stream nitrogen concentrations for forested reference catchments across the USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argerich, A; Greathouse, E; Johnson, S L; Sebestyen, S D; Rhoades, C C; Knoepp, J D; Adams, M B; Likens, G E; Campbell, J L; McDowell, W H; Scatena, F N; Ice, G G

    2013-01-01

    To examine whether stream nitrogen concentrations in forested reference catchments have changed over time and if patterns were consistent across the USA, we synthesized up to 44 yr of data collected from 22 catchments at seven USDA Forest Service Experimental Forests. Trends in stream nitrogen presented high spatial variability both among catchments at a site and among sites across the USA. We found both increasing and decreasing trends in monthly flow-weighted stream nitrate and ammonium concentrations. At a subset of the catchments, we found that the length and period of analysis influenced whether trends were positive, negative or non-significant. Trends also differed among neighboring catchments within several Experimental Forests, suggesting the importance of catchment-specific factors in determining nutrient exports. Over the longest time periods, trends were more consistent among catchments within sites, although there are fewer long-term records for analysis. These findings highlight the critical value of long-term, uninterrupted stream chemistry monitoring at a network of sites across the USA to elucidate patterns of change in nutrient concentrations at minimally disturbed forested sites. (letter)

  11. NEW TRENDS IN MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micu Alexandra

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Over the last years, management have been facing a series of profound changes in trends coming and going, one being more productive than other or causing more damage when applied improperly. The paper focuses on the last trends in management that have evolved in the last years, trends that have been marked by a Darwinian business environment and made more unforgiving since the financial crisis and the innovations in technology, social media and management philosophy. The paper will present and describe the most important new trends in management that enabled select organisations to remain competitive and overcome the multiple difficulties caused by the ever-changing economy based on a qualitative research. From the “outside innovation” that is considered always to be the key in overcoming the obstacles facing an organization, to the new buzzword “design”, that is said to ensure the organization long-term competitive advantage, the paper will analyse new trends and also will be describing the impact they have on the welfare of the organization. The research has also shown that managers tend to put a greater accent on searching for innovation rather than efficiency in order to ensure a continuous progress in the organization and to maintain business sustainability. The paper will not be comparing the efficiency of these different philosophies, or the results they generated, as time will still be the ultimate judge.

  12. Uranium chemistry: significant advances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazzanti, M.

    2011-01-01

    The author reviews recent progress in uranium chemistry achieved in CEA laboratories. Like its neighbors in the Mendeleev chart uranium undergoes hydrolysis, oxidation and disproportionation reactions which make the chemistry of these species in water highly complex. The study of the chemistry of uranium in an anhydrous medium has led to correlate the structural and electronic differences observed in the interaction of uranium(III) and the lanthanides(III) with nitrogen or sulfur molecules and the effectiveness of these molecules in An(III)/Ln(III) separation via liquid-liquid extraction. Recent work on the redox reactivity of trivalent uranium U(III) in an organic medium with molecules such as water or an azide ion (N 3 - ) in stoichiometric quantities, led to extremely interesting uranium aggregates particular those involved in actinide migration in the environment or in aggregation problems in the fuel processing cycle. Another significant advance was the discovery of a compound containing the uranyl ion with a degree of oxidation (V) UO 2 + , obtained by oxidation of uranium(III). Recently chemists have succeeded in blocking the disproportionation reaction of uranyl(V) and in stabilizing polymetallic complexes of uranyl(V), opening the way to to a systematic study of the reactivity and the electronic and magnetic properties of uranyl(V) compounds. (A.C.)

  13. Meaning and significance of

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ph D Student Roman Mihaela

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The concept of "public accountability" is a challenge for political science as a new concept in this area in full debate and developement ,both in theory and practice. This paper is a theoretical approach of displaying some definitions, relevant meanings and significance odf the concept in political science. The importance of this concept is that although originally it was used as a tool to improve effectiveness and eficiency of public governance, it has gradually become a purpose it itself. "Accountability" has become an image of good governance first in the United States of America then in the European Union.Nevertheless,the concept is vaguely defined and provides ambiguous images of good governance.This paper begins with the presentation of some general meanings of the concept as they emerge from specialized dictionaries and ancyclopaedies and continues with the meanings developed in political science. The concept of "public accontability" is rooted in economics and management literature,becoming increasingly relevant in today's political science both in theory and discourse as well as in practice in formulating and evaluating public policies. A first conclusin that emerges from, the analysis of the evolution of this term is that it requires a conceptual clarification in political science. A clear definition will then enable an appropriate model of proving the system of public accountability in formulating and assessing public policies, in order to implement a system of assessment and monitoring thereof.

  14. Long term precipitation trends and variability within the Mediterranean region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. Philandras

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the trends and variability of annual precipitation totals and annual rain days over land within the Mediterranean region are analyzed. Long term ground-based observations concerning, on one hand, monthly precipitation totals (1900–2010 and rain days (1965–2010 from 40 meteorological stations within the Mediterranean region were obtained from the Hellenic National Meteorological Service and the World Climate Data and Monitoring Programme (WCDMP of the World Meteorological Organization. On the other hand, high spatial resolution (0.5° × 0.5° gridded monthly data CRU TS 3.1 were acquired from the Climatic Research Unit, University of East Anglia, for the period 1901–2009. The two datasets were compared by means of trends and variability, while the influence of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO in the Mediterranean precipitation was examined. In the process, the climatic changes in the precipitation regime between the period 1961–1990 (reference period and the period 2071–2100 (future climate were presented using climate model simulations (RACMO2.1/KNMI. The future climate projections were based on SRES A1B.

    The findings of the analysis showed that statistically significant (95% confidence level negative trends of the annual precipitation totals exist in the majority of Mediterranean regions during the period 1901–2009, with an exception of northern Africa, southern Italy and western Iberian peninsula, where slight positive trends (not statistically significant at 95% CL appear. Concerning the annual number of rain days, a pronounced decrease of 20 %, statistically significant (95% confidence level, appears in representative meteorological stations of east Mediterranean, while the trends are insignificant for west and central Mediterranean. Additionally, NAO index was found to be anticorrelated with the precipitation totals and the number of rain days mainly in Spain, southern France, Italy and Greece. These

  15. Consistency of Trend Break Point Estimator with Underspecified Break Number

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the consistency of trend break point estimators when the number of breaks is underspecified. The consistency of break point estimators in a simple location model with level shifts has been well documented by researchers under various settings, including extensions such as allowing a time trend in the model. Despite the consistency of break point estimators of level shifts, there are few papers on the consistency of trend shift break point estimators in the presence of an underspecified break number. The simulation study and asymptotic analysis in this paper show that the trend shift break point estimator does not converge to the true break points when the break number is underspecified. In the case of two trend shifts, the inconsistency problem worsens if the magnitudes of the breaks are similar and the breaks are either both positive or both negative. The limiting distribution for the trend break point estimator is developed and closely approximates the finite sample performance.

  16. Trends in Job Quality during the Great Recession

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erhel, Christine; Guergoat-Larivière, Mathilde; Leschke, Janine

    and country-level characteristics (institutions and business-cycle indicators) to a possible deterioration in job quality. It shows that some socio-economic groups are more affected by decreasing trends in job quality (other things being equal), especially youth, older workers and low-educated workers. Women......This paper focuses on the consequences of the crisis on job quality in Europe. Its aim is twofold: first, to identify trends in job quality in the EU during the 2007-2009 crisis; secondly, to explore the link between these trends and cyclical as well as institutional factors. It relies on European...... seem less affected by these negative trends than men but are more likely than men to become unemployed or inactive over the period. Cross-country heterogeneity in job quality trends can be related to economic trends (unemployment variation) and, to a minor extent, to the employment distribution...

  17. Significant Radionuclides Determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo A. Ziegler

    2001-07-31

    The purpose of this calculation is to identify radionuclides that are significant to offsite doses from potential preclosure events for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste expected to be received at the potential Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). In this calculation, high-level radioactive waste is included in references to DOE SNF. A previous document, ''DOE SNF DBE Offsite Dose Calculations'' (CRWMS M&O 1999b), calculated the source terms and offsite doses for Department of Energy (DOE) and Naval SNF for use in design basis event analyses. This calculation reproduces only DOE SNF work (i.e., no naval SNF work is included in this calculation) created in ''DOE SNF DBE Offsite Dose Calculations'' and expands the calculation to include DOE SNF expected to produce a high dose consequence (even though the quantity of the SNF is expected to be small) and SNF owned by commercial nuclear power producers. The calculation does not address any specific off-normal/DBE event scenarios for receiving, handling, or packaging of SNF. The results of this calculation are developed for comparative analysis to establish the important radionuclides and do not represent the final source terms to be used for license application. This calculation will be used as input to preclosure safety analyses and is performed in accordance with procedure AP-3.12Q, ''Calculations'', and is subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (DOE 2000) as determined by the activity evaluation contained in ''Technical Work Plan for: Preclosure Safety Analysis, TWP-MGR-SE-000010'' (CRWMS M&O 2000b) in accordance with procedure AP-2.21Q, ''Quality Determinations and Planning for Scientific, Engineering, and Regulatory Compliance Activities''.

  18. Trends in the dietary patterns and prevalence of obesity among Greenlandic school children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schnohr, C; Pedersen, J M; Alcón, M C G

    2004-01-01

    . CONCLUSION: Most of the observed trends are positive, with regard to intake of vegetables and sweets and consumption of soft drinks. The fact that a high proportion of schoolchildren consider themselves to be obese must be assumed to have a negative impact on the psychological well-being of this population......OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to examine the trends in the dietary patterns of selected food items and in the prevalence of self-perceived obesity in a population of Greenlandic schoolchildren. STUDY DESIGN: The study is based on three school surveys among Greenlandic schoolchildren, class 6......,057 and 2,010 pupils, respectively. RESULTS: The intake of vegetables has increased significantly since 1994, and the intake of fruits, sweets and soft drink has decreased significantly at a 5% level. An unchanged high proportion of schoolchildren report to be on a diet or consider themselves obese...

  19. The use of the Hurst exponent to predict changes in trends on the Warsaw Stock Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domino, Krzysztof

    2011-01-01

    The local properties of the time series of the evolution of share prices of 126 significant companies traded on the Warsaw Stock Exchange during the period between 1991-2008 have been investigated. The analysis was applied to daily financial returns. I have used the local DFA to obtain the Hurst exponent (diffusion coefficient) while searching for negative correlations by which changes of long-term trends would be effected. A certain evidence, proving that after the signature of anti-correlation-the drop in the Hurst exponent-the change in the trend and in the return rate of an investment is probable, was pointed out. Hence after further investigation this method may be useful as a part of an investment strategy. As the Warsaw Stock Exchange is relatively smaller and younger than other significant world Stock Exchanges-and as the developing market is less efficient-the generalization for others markets needs further investigation.

  20. Wage Sorting Trends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Jesper; Vejlin, Rune Majlund; Sørensen, Kenneth Lykke

    Using a population-wide Danish Matched Employer-Employee panel from 1980-2006, we document a strong trend towards more positive assortative wage sorting. The correlation between worker and firm fixed effects estimated from a log wage regression increases from -0.07 in 1981 to .14 in 2001. The non......Using a population-wide Danish Matched Employer-Employee panel from 1980-2006, we document a strong trend towards more positive assortative wage sorting. The correlation between worker and firm fixed effects estimated from a log wage regression increases from -0.07 in 1981 to .14 in 2001....... The nonstationary wage sorting pattern is not due to compositional changes in the labor market, primarily occurs among high wage workers, and comprises 41 percent of the increase in the standard deviation of log real wages between 1980 and 2006. We show that the wage sorting trend is associated with worker...

  1. Do `negative' temperatures exist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavenda, B. H.

    1999-06-01

    A modification of the second law is required for a system with a bounded density of states and not the introduction of a `negative' temperature scale. The ascending and descending branches of the entropy versus energy curve describe particle and hole states, having thermal equations of state that are given by the Fermi and logistic distributions, respectively. Conservation of energy requires isentropic states to be isothermal. The effect of adiabatically reversing the field is entirely mechanical because the only difference between the two states is their energies. The laws of large and small numbers, leading to the normal and Poisson approximations, characterize statistically the states of infinite and zero temperatures, respectively. Since the heat capacity also vanishes in the state of maximum disorder, the third law can be generalized in systems with a bounded density of states: the entropy tends to a constant as the temperature tends to either zero or infinity.

  2. Negative incidental emotions augment fairness sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cuizhen; Chai, Jing Wen; Yu, Rongjun

    2016-04-22

    Previous studies have shown that task-unrelated emotions induced incidentally exert carryover effects on individuals' subsequent decisions in financial negotiations. However, the specificity of these emotion effects are not clear. In three experiments, we systematically investigated the role of seven transiently induced basic emotions (disgust, sadness, anger, fear, happiness, surprise and neutral) on rejection of unfair offers using the ultimatum game. We found that all negative emotions (disgust, sadness, anger and fear), but not happiness or surprise, significantly increased rejection rates, suggesting that the effect of incidental negative emotions on fairness is not specific to the type of negative emotion. Our findings highlight the role of fleeting emotions in biasing decision-making processes and suggest that all incidental negative emotions exert similar effects on fairness sensitivity, possibly by potentiating attention towards negative aspects of the situation.

  3. [Stress and attitudes toward negative emotions in adolescence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozawa, Eiji

    2010-12-01

    This study investigated the relationship between stress and attitudes toward negative emotions in adolescents. Adolescent students (N=1500) completed a questionnaire that measured attitudes toward negative emotions, emotional-stress reactions, and stress coping. Analysis of date yielded, two factors of the attitudes toward negative emotions: "Negative feelings about negative emotions" and "Capabilities of switching of negative emotions". In order to examine the theoretical relationships among attitudes toward negative emotions, emotional-stress reactions, and stress coping, a hypothetical model was tested by covariance structure analysis. This model predicted that students who have a high level of attitudes toward negative emotions would report enhanced problem solving which promoted stress coping. The results indicated that "Negative feelings about negative emotions" enhanced avoidable coping, and avoidable coping enhanced stress reactions. "Capabilities of switching of negative emotions" was related to a decrease of avoidable coping. Based on the results from covariance structure analysis and a multiple population analysis, the clinical significance and developmental characteristics were discussed.

  4. Contribuição para o estudo do significado da evolução do coeficiente de mortalidade infantil no município de São Paulo, SP (Brasil nas três última décadas (1950-1979 A contribution to the study of the significance of the trends in infant mortality rates for the city of S. Paulo, Brazil, during the last three decades (1950-1979

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Augusto Monteiro

    1982-02-01

    Full Text Available Buscando contribuir ao estudo da relação evolução da mortalidade infantil - evolução da qualidade de vida, foram examinadas no município de São Paulo as correlações existentes nas três últimas décadas entre as séries históricas da mortalidade e as séries históricas do valor do salário mínimo e da cobertura do abastecimento público de água. Estes dois últimos, salário e água, entendidos como fatores de maior e menor abrangência para o conjunto das condições de vida da população. O descenso da mortalidade na década de 50 e o ascenso da mesma na década de 60 estiveram significativamente relacionados à evolução do salário-mínimo real. Entretanto, a evolução da mortalidade na década de 70, com importante queda a partir de 1974, esteve relacionada especificamente à evolução do abastecimento de água. Conclui-se que no período 1950-1979 são diferentes as implicações para a qualidade de vida que podem ser tiradas a partir da evolução da mortalidade infantil e que parece equivocado afirmar-se que a reversão das altas mortalidades a partir de 1974 tenha significado idêntica reversão na deterioração das condições de vida que ensejaram o ascenso da mortalidade no período anterior.The possible correlations between infant mortality statistics and those, first, on the real value of the legal minimum salary and, sencondly, on the extent of the public water-supply system, for the city of S. Paulo (Brazil over the last three decades, were studied with a view to determining the relationship between the historical trends in the infant mortality rates and in the quality of life. The abovementioned factors - salary and water-supply - are taken as factors of greater and lesser relevance, respectively, for the overall picture of the living conditions of the population. The mortality decline in the 50s and its increase in the 60s were found to be related, significantly, to the trends in the real value of the legal

  5. Negative cognitive errors and positive illusions for negative divorce events: predictors of children's psychological adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, E; Wolchik, S A; Sandler, I N

    1992-12-01

    This study examined the relations among negative cognitive errors regarding hypothetical negative divorce events, positive illusions about those same events, actual divorce events, and psychological adjustment in 38 8- to 12-year-old children whose parents had divorced within the previous 2 years. Children's scores on a scale of negative cognitive errors (catastrophizing, overgeneralizing, and personalizing) correlated significantly with self-reported symptoms of anxiety and self-esteem, and with maternal reports of behavior problems. Children's scores on a scale measuring positive illusions (high self-regard, illusion of personal control, and optimism for the future) correlated significantly with less self-reported aggression. Both appraisal types accounted for variance in some measures of symptomatology beyond that explained by actual events. There was no significant association between children's negative cognitive errors and positive illusions. The implications of these results for theories of negative cognitive errors and of positive illusions, as well as for future research, are discussed.

  6. Travel and tourism trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah J. Chavez

    1995-01-01

    Demographic trends which impact leisure time activities are highlighted, with particular emphasis given to the impacts of the growth of minority populations. Data was collected from recreationists to National Forests and from residents of an urban community. The data indicate a shift in outdoor recreation activities.

  7. Trends in ICT 2003

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessel, Paul van; Rust, Christa

    2003-01-01

    The study "Trends in ICT 2003" surveyed Dutch managers about important IT aspects. Results of the study are presented in brief. Topics treated are security, privacy, e-commerce, use of intranet, monitoring of employee WWW use, who makes IT decisions, implementation of contingency plans, the cause of

  8. Evolutionary trends in Heteroptera

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cobben, R.H.

    1968-01-01

    1. This work, the first volume of a series dealing with evolutionary trends in Heteroptera, is concerned with the egg system of about 400 species. The data are presented systematically in chapters 1 and 2 with a critical review of the literature after each family.

    2. Chapter 3 evaluates facts

  9. Trend Analysis Using Microcomputers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Carl F.

    A trend analysis statistical package and additional programs for the Apple microcomputer are presented. They illustrate strategies of data analysis suitable to the graphics and processing capabilities of the microcomputer. The programs analyze data sets using examples of: (1) analysis of variance with multiple linear regression; (2) exponential…

  10. Summary of Trends

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Summary of Trends. Optical Ethernet: Direct Ethernet connectivity to businesses through optical fiber. Automation of network infrastructure: Cross-connects for interconnections; Intelligence through software for OA&M. New “data-centric” protection mechanisms ...

  11. Trends in corporate greening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Henning; Ulhøi, John Parm

    , if a general change of attitude has taken place in the business community or if companies just comply with the required minimum standard set by legislation. Based on a series of surveys this paper reports on the trends in implementing corporate environmental management in Danish industry up till the entrance...... of the new millennium in order to indicate how practice has evolved....

  12. [Development trend of nanomedicines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Kumiko

    2013-01-01

    Nanotechnology has had a great impact on science, technology, and society since 2000, and its applications in medicine are also progressing in the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease. In this review, international trends in nanomedicine regulation are introduced, including the definition of nanomedicines and the evaluation of liposomes and iron nanoparticles.

  13. Marketing for Camp Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biddle, Alicia

    1998-01-01

    To effectively market a camp, current trends and issues must be considered: specialty programming, the Americans With Disabilities Act, competing recreational programs, changes in the school year, programming for seniors, and accountability. Camps should have a marketing strategy that includes public relations, a marketing plan, a pricing…

  14. Trends in African philosophy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JONATHAN

    In the contention of Oladipo (2006), the debate on the idea of. African philosophy which has been divided into trends or schools, dates back to the 1960's and 70's, which constitute the modern epoch of African philosophy, when some African thinkers began to question the perspective that traditional African beliefs and.

  15. Technological trends in automobiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, E J; Compton, W D

    1984-08-10

    Current technological trends in the automotive industry reflect many diverse disciplines. Electronics and microprocessors, new engine transmission concepts, composite and ceramic materials, and computer-aided design and manufacture will combine to make possible the creation of advanced automobiles offering outstanding quality, fuel economy, and performance. A projected "average" vehicle of the 1990's is described to illustrate the application of these new concepts.

  16. Iowa Population Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tait, John L.; Johnson, Arthur H.

    The trends in population distribution and the composition of Iowa's population are reported in this document in order to provide the leaders and citizens of Iowa with information to assist them in making decisions relating to growth and development. Birth and death rates, rural and urban residence, population by race, and age structure are…

  17. Optical Computing - Research Trends

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 8; Issue 7. Optical Computing - Research Trends. Debabrata Goswami. General Article Volume 8 Issue 7 July 2003 pp 8-21. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/008/07/0008-0021. Keywords.

  18. Trend of Legionella colonization in hospital water supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alessandro, D; Fabiani, M; Cerquetani, F; Orsi, G B

    2015-01-01

    In many nosocomial Legionella outbreaks water distribution systems are the most frequent source of infection. Considering the hospital waterline old age, an investigation on colonization by Legionella spp was carried out in order to evaluate the pipeline system weaknesses and to implement environmental preventive measures. From 2004 to 2010, overall 97 samples from the water line were collected. The samples were analyzed according to the italian Legionella spp standard methods; water temperature, pH and residual free chlorine were determined at the time of collection. X2 test, exact-test and t-test were used to compare proportions and means. Overall 28 samples (23.7%) were positive for Legionella spp, and five of them (17.9%) exceeded the threshold level >104 cfu/L. The number of positive samples varied along the years, showing a significant increasing trend (X2 for trend = 11.5; pLegionella spp by comparison to negative ones showed a lower free chlorine concentration (0.08 mg/L vs 0.15 mg/L) and a higher water temperature (46.1° vs 42.7°). Actually the percentage of positive samples decreased significantly with the increasing in free chlorine in the water (X2 for trend = 8.53; pLegionella. All hospital buildings were colonized by Legionella spp, although 80% of samples >104 cfu/L occurred in the C-building. No cases of nosocomial legionellosis were reported during the study period. Hospital water system showed a diffuse colonization by Legionella spp, although the degree of contamination reached the threshold level (>104 cfu/L) only in a small percentage of samples, showing a substantial effectiveness of the control measures applied.

  19. Microdosimetry of negative pions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amols, H.I.; Dicello, J.F.; Lane, T.F.

    1976-01-01

    The radiation quality of negative and positive pions of initial momentum 168MeV/c has been determined at eight different depths in a liquid phantom. The measurements were made with a 2.5cm diameter spherical proportional counter with Shonka A-150 neutron tissue equivalent plastic walls. The gas pressure in the sensitive volume was chosen to stimulate a diameter of 2μm in unit density material. Dose distributions as a function of lineal energy change slowly in the entrance and plateau regions with a dose mean lineal energy of 6-8keV/μm. Less than 3% of the dose is delivered in excess of 50keV/μm in this region. In the Bragg peak region the distributions change rapidly as a function of depth with the dose mean lineal energy increasing to 38keV/μm at the peak and to 57keV/μm just beyond the peak. On the basis of these microdosimetric data predictions of RBE and OER have been made with the use of both the theory of dual radiation action and also the delta ray theory of cell survival. The former has been used to predict biological response at low doses and the latter at high doses. A comparison is made between the two theories at intermediate doses. The results of these calculations are not inconsistant with recent biological data

  20. Negative legacy of obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohsuke Shirakawa

    Full Text Available Obesity promotes excessive inflammation, which is associated with senescence-like changes in visceral adipose tissue (VAT and the development of type 2 diabetes (T2DM and cardiovascular diseases. We have reported that a unique population of CD44hi CD62Llo CD4+ T cells that constitutively express PD-1 and CD153 exhibit cellular senescence and cause VAT inflammation by producing large amounts of osteopontin. Weight loss improves glycemic control and reduces cardiovascular disease risk factors, but its long-term effects on cardiovascular events and longevity in obese individuals with T2DM are somewhat disappointing and not well understood. High-fat diet (HFD-fed obese mice were subjected to weight reduction through a switch to a control diet. They lost body weight and visceral fat mass, reaching the same levels as lean mice fed a control diet. However, the VAT of weight reduction mice exhibited denser infiltration of macrophages, which formed more crown-like structures compared to the VAT of obese mice kept on the HFD. Mechanistically, CD153+ PD-1+ CD4+ T cells are long-lived and not easily eliminated, even after weight reduction. Their continued presence maintains a self-sustaining chronic inflammatory loop via production of large amounts of osteopontin. Thus, we concluded that T-cell senescence is essentially a negative legacy effect of obesity.

  1. A trending database for human performance events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, D.

    1993-01-01

    An effective Operations Experience program includes a standardized methodology for the investigation of unplanned events and a tool capable of retaining investigation data for the purpose of trending analysis. A database used in conjunction with a formalized investigation procedure for the purpose of trending unplanning event data is described. The database follows the structure of INPO's Human Performance Enhancement System for investigations. The database screens duplicate on-line the HPES evaluation Forms. All information pertaining to investigations is collected, retained and entered into the database using these forms. The database will be used for trending analysis to determine if any significant patterns exist, for tracking progress over time both within AECL and against industry standards, and for evaluating the success of corrective actions. Trending information will be used to help prevent similar occurrences

  2. Trend Estimation and Regression Analysis in Climatological Time Series: An Application of Structural Time Series Models and the Kalman Filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, H.; Molenaar, J.

    1995-05-01

    The detection of trends in climatological data has become central to the discussion on climate change due to the enhanced greenhouse effect. To prove detection, a method is needed (i) to make inferences on significant rises or declines in trends, (ii) to take into account natural variability in climate series, and (iii) to compare output from GCMs with the trends in observed climate data. To meet these requirements, flexible mathematical tools are needed. A structural time series model is proposed with which a stochastic trend, a deterministic trend, and regression coefficients can be estimated simultaneously. The stochastic trend component is described using the class of ARIMA models. The regression component is assumed to be linear. However, the regression coefficients corresponding with the explanatory variables may be time dependent to validate this assumption. The mathematical technique used to estimate this trend-regression model is the Kaiman filter. The main features of the filter are discussed.Examples of trend estimation are given using annual mean temperatures at a single station in the Netherlands (1706-1990) and annual mean temperatures at Northern Hemisphere land stations (1851-1990). The inclusion of explanatory variables is shown by regressing the latter temperature series on four variables: Southern Oscillation index (SOI), volcanic dust index (VDI), sunspot numbers (SSN), and a simulated temperature signal, induced by increasing greenhouse gases (GHG). In all analyses, the influence of SSN on global temperatures is found to be negligible. The correlations between temperatures and SOI and VDI appear to be negative. For SOI, this correlation is significant, but for VDI it is not, probably because of a lack of volcanic eruptions during the sample period. The relation between temperatures and GHG is positive, which is in agreement with the hypothesis of a warming climate because of increasing levels of greenhouse gases. The prediction performance of

  3. Positive Effects of Negative Publicity: When Negative Reviews Increase Sales

    OpenAIRE

    Jonah Berger; Alan T. Sorensen; Scott J. Rasmussen

    2010-01-01

    Can negative information about a product increase sales, and if so, when? Although popular wisdom suggests that "any publicity is good publicity," prior research has demonstrated only downsides to negative press. Negative reviews or word of mouth, for example, have been found to hurt product evaluation and sales. Using a combination of econometric analysis and experimental methods, we unify these perspectives to delineate contexts under which negative publicity about a product will have posit...

  4. Beyond trend analysis: How a modified breakpoint analysis enhances knowledge of agricultural production after Zimbabwe's fast track land reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hentze, Konrad; Thonfeld, Frank; Menz, Gunter

    2017-10-01

    In the discourse on land reform assessments, a significant lack of spatial and time-series data has been identified, especially with respect to Zimbabwe's ;Fast-Track Land Reform Programme; (FTLRP). At the same time, interest persists among land use change scientists to evaluate causes of land use change and therefore to increase the explanatory power of remote sensing products. This study recognizes these demands and aims to provide input on both levels: Evaluating the potential of satellite remote sensing time-series to answer questions which evolved after intensive land redistribution efforts in Zimbabwe; and investigating how time-series analysis of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) can be enhanced to provide information on land reform induced land use change. To achieve this, two time-series methods are applied to MODIS NDVI data: Seasonal Trend Analysis (STA) and Breakpoint Analysis for Additive Season and Trend (BFAST). In our first analysis, a link of agricultural productivity trends to different land tenure regimes shows that regional clustering of trends is more dominant than a relationship between tenure and trend with a slightly negative slope for all regimes. We demonstrate that clusters of strong negative and positive productivity trends are results of changing irrigation patterns. To locate emerging and fallow irrigation schemes in semi-arid Zimbabwe, a new multi-method approach is developed which allows to map changes from bimodal seasonal phenological patterns to unimodal and vice versa. With an enhanced breakpoint analysis through the combination of STA and BFAST, we are able to provide a technique that can be applied on large scale to map status and development of highly productive cropping systems, which are key for food production, national export and local employment. We therefore conclude that the combination of existing and accessible time-series analysis methods: is able to achieve both: overcoming demonstrated limitations of

  5. Sensitivity analysis of monthly reference crop evapotranspiration trends in Iran: a qualitative approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosaedi, Abolfazl; Ghabaei Sough, Mohammad; Sadeghi, Sayed-Hossein; Mooshakhian, Yousof; Bannayan, Mohammad

    2017-05-01

    The main objective of this study was to analyze the sensitivity of the monthly reference crop evapotranspiration (ETo) trends to key climatic factors (minimum and maximum air temperature ( T max and T min), relative humidity (RH), sunshine hours ( t sun), and wind speed ( U 2)) in Iran by applying a qualitative detrended method, rather than the historical mathematical approach. Meteorological data for the period of 1963-2007 from five synoptic stations with different climatic characteristics, including Mashhad (mountains), Tabriz (mountains), Tehran (semi-desert), Anzali (coastal wet), and Shiraz (semi-mountains) were used to address this objective. The Mann-Kendall test was employed to assess the trends of ETo and the climatic variables. The results indicated a significant increasing trend of the monthly ETo for Mashhad and Tabriz for most part of the year while the opposite conclusion was drawn for Tehran, Anzali, and Shiraz. Based on the detrended method, RH and U 2 were the two main variables enhancing the negative ETo trends in Tehran and Anzali stations whereas U 2 and temperature were responsible for this observation in Shiraz. On the other hand, the main meteorological variables affecting the significant positive trend of ETo were RH and t sun in Tabriz and T min, RH, and U 2 in Mashhad. Although a relative agreement was observed in terms of identifying one of the first two key climatic variables affecting the ETo trend, the qualitative and the quantitative sensitivity analysis solutions did never coincide. Further research is needed to evaluate this interesting finding for other geographic locations, and also to search for the major causes of this discrepancy.

  6. Decadal trends in global CO emissions as seen by MOPITT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Y.; Chevallier, F.; Ciais, P.; Broquet, G.; Fortems-Cheiney, A.; Pison, I.; Saunois, M.

    2015-12-01

    Negative trends of carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations are observed in the recent decade by both surface measurements and satellite retrievals over many regions of the globe, but they are not well explained by current emission inventories. Here, we analyse the observed CO concentration decline with an atmospheric inversion that simultaneously optimizes the two main CO sources (surface emissions and atmospheric hydrocarbon oxidations) and the main CO sink (atmospheric hydroxyl radical OH oxidation). Satellite CO column retrievals from Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT), version 6, and surface observations of methane and methyl chloroform mole fractions are assimilated jointly for the period covering 2002-2011. Compared to the model simulation prescribed with prior emission inventories, trends in the optimized CO concentrations show better agreement with that of independent surface in situ measurements. At the global scale, the atmospheric inversion primarily interprets the CO concentration decline as a decrease in the CO emissions (-2.3 % yr-1), more than twice the negative trend estimated by the prior emission inventories (-1.0 % yr-1). The spatial distribution of the inferred decrease in CO emissions indicates contributions from western Europe (-4.0 % yr-1), the United States (-4.6 % yr-1) and East Asia (-1.2 % yr-1), where anthropogenic fuel combustion generally dominates the overall CO emissions, and also from Australia (-5.3 % yr-1), the Indo-China Peninsula (-5.6 % yr-1), Indonesia (-6.7 % y-1), and South America (-3 % yr-1), where CO emissions are mostly due to biomass burning. In contradiction with the bottom-up inventories that report an increase of 2 % yr-1 over China during the study period, a significant emission decrease of 1.1 % yr-1 is inferred by the inversion. A large decrease in CO emission factors due to technology improvements would outweigh the increase in carbon fuel combustions and may explain this decrease. Independent

  7. Negated bio-events: analysis and identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Negation occurs frequently in scientific literature, especially in biomedical literature. It has previously been reported that around 13% of sentences found in biomedical research articles contain negation. Historically, the main motivation for identifying negated events has been to ensure their exclusion from lists of extracted interactions. However, recently, there has been a growing interest in negative results, which has resulted in negation detection being identified as a key challenge in biomedical relation extraction. In this article, we focus on the problem of identifying negated bio-events, given gold standard event annotations. Results We have conducted a detailed analysis of three open access bio-event corpora containing negation information (i.e., GENIA Event, BioInfer and BioNLP’09 ST), and have identified the main types of negated bio-events. We have analysed the key aspects of a machine learning solution to the problem of detecting negated events, including selection of negation cues, feature engineering and the choice of learning algorithm. Combining the best solutions for each aspect of the problem, we propose a novel framework for the identification of negated bio-events. We have evaluated our system on each of the three open access corpora mentioned above. The performance of the system significantly surpasses the best results previously reported on the BioNLP’09 ST corpus, and achieves even better results on the GENIA Event and BioInfer corpora, both of which contain more varied and complex events. Conclusions Recently, in the field of biomedical text mining, the development and enhancement of event-based systems has received significant interest. The ability to identify negated events is a key performance element for these systems. We have conducted the first detailed study on the analysis and identification of negated bio-events. Our proposed framework can be integrated with state-of-the-art event extraction systems. The

  8. Automating Trend Analysis for Spacecraft Constellations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, George; Cooter, Miranda; Updike, Clark; Carey, Everett; Mackey, Jennifer; Rykowski, Timothy; Powers, Edward I. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    missions such as DRACO with the intent that mission operations costs be significantly reduced. The goal of the Constellation Spacecraft Trend Analysis Toolkit (CSTAT) project is to serve as the pathfinder for a fully automated trending system to support spacecraft constellations. The development approach to be taken is evolutionary. In the first year of the project, the intent is to significantly advance the state of the art in current trending systems through improved functionality and increased automation. In the second year, the intent is to add an expert system shell, likely through the adaptation of an existing commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) or government-off-the-shelf (GOTS) tool to implement some level of the trending intelligence that humans currently provide in manual operations. In the third year, the intent is to infuse the resulting technology into a near-term constellation or formation-flying mission to test it and gain experience in automated trending. The lessons learned from the real missions operations experience will then be used to improve the system, and to ultimately incorporate it into a fully autonomous, closed-loop mission operations system that is truly capable of supporting large constellations. In this paper, the process of automating trend analysis for spacecraft constellations will be addressed. First, the results of a survey on automation in spacecraft mission operations in general, and in trending systems in particular will be presented to provide an overview of the current state of the art. Next, a rule-based model for implementing intelligent spacecraft subsystem trending will be then presented, followed by a survey of existing COTS/GOTS tools that could be adapted for implementing such a model. The baseline design and architecture of the CSTAT system will be presented. Finally, some results obtained from initial software tests and demonstrations will be presented.

  9. Decadal Trends and Variability of Tropospheric Ozone over Oil and Gas Regions over 2005 - 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Y.; Mao, H.; Sive, B. C.

    2017-12-01

    Tropospheric ozone (O3), which is produced largely by photochemical oxidation of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and volatile organic compounds, is a serious and ubiquitous air pollutant with strong negative health effects. Recent technological innovations such as horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing have accelerated oil and natural gas production in the U.S. since 2005. The additional input of O3 precursors from expanding natural gas production might prolong the effort to comply the current O3 standard (70 ppbv). The objective of this study is to investigate the impact of oil and gas extractions on variability and long term trends of O3 in the intermountain west under varying meteorological conditions. We investigated long-term O3 trends at 13 rural sites, which were within 100 km of the shale play in the U.S. intermountain west. Significant decreasing trends (-0.35 - -3.38 ppbv yr-1) were found in seasonal O3 design values at six sites in spring, summer, or fall, while no trends were found in wintertime O3 at any sites. Wintertime O3 at each site showed strong and consistent interannual variation over 2006 - 2015, and was negatively correlated with the Arctic Oscillation (AO) Index. The negative correlation was a result of multiple factors, such as in situ O3 photochemical production, stratospheric intrusion, and transport from the Arctic and California. In summer, wildfire emissions were the dominate driver to the interannual variations of high percentiles O3 at each site, while meteorological conditions (i.e., temperature and relative humidity) determined the interannual variations of low percentiles O3. Box model simulations indicated that O3 production rates were 31.51 ppbv h-1 over winters of 2012 - 2014 and 32.12 ppbv h-1 in summer 2014 around shale gas extraction regions.

  10. Current trends in ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gwilliam, R.M.

    2001-01-01

    As semiconductor device dimensions continue to shrink, the drive beyond 250 nm is creating significant problems for the device processor. In particular, trends toward shallower-junctions, lower thermal budgets and simplified processing steps present severe challenges to ion implantation. In parallel with greater control of the implant process goes the need for a better understanding of the physical processes involved during implantation and subsequent activation annealing. For instance, the need for an understanding of dopant-defect interaction is paramount as defects mediate a number of technologically important phenomena such as transient enhanced diffusion and impurity gettering. This paper will outline the current trends in the ion implantation and some of the challenges it faces in the next decade, as described in the semiconductor roadmap. It will highlight some recent positron annihilation work that has made a contribution to addressing one of these challenges, namely the need for tighter control of implant uniformity and dose. Additionally, some vacancy-mediated processes are described with the implication that these may provide areas in which positron annihilation spectroscopy could make a significant contribution. (orig.)

  11. Oil prices: Breaks and trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noguera, José

    2013-01-01

    This paper contributes to the literature of the stationarity of financial time series and the literature on oil and macroeconomics in several ways. First, it uses Kejriwal and Perron (2010) sequential procedure to endogenously determine multiple structural changes in real oil prices without facing the circular testing problem between structural changes and stationary assumptions of previous tests. Second, it performs a diagnostic check to detect the significance and magnitude of the potential breaks. Third, it uses the above information to test for the existence of stochastic trends in real oil prices, and fourth, it speculates about possible explanations for the break dates found in order to encourage further work and discussions. The exercise uses monthly data from January 1861 to August 2011. - Highlights: ► The model endogenously determine multiple structural changes in real oil prices. ► The methods used does not face the circular testing problem. ► It also detect the significance and magnitude of the breaks detected. ► It tests for the existence of stochastic trends. ► It explains the reasons for the break dates found

  12. Magnetic resonance imaging findings in spinal tuberculosis: Comparison of HIV positive and negative patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cameron Michael Anley

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is an increasing incidence of Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and tuberculosis (TB co-infection. This has led to an increasing number of atypical features on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. We postulated that the type 4 hypersensitivity response causing granulomatous inflammation may be disrupted by the HIV resulting in less vertebral body destruction. This study compares the MRI features of spinal tuberculosis in HIV positive and negative patients. Materials and Methods: Fifty patients with confirmed spinal tuberculosis, HIV status and available MRI scans at a single institution from 2003-2009 were identified. HIV status was positive in 20 and negative in 30. Females were predominant (34:16. The HIV positive group was younger at 32.4 versus 46 years (P=0.008. Blood parameters (WCC, ESR, Hb, Lymphocyte count were not significantly different between the HIV groups. MRI scans were reviewed by a radiologist who was blinded to the HIV status. Site, extent of disease, body collapse, abscess location and volume, kyphotic deformity and cord signal were reported. Results: There was no difference between the number of vertebral bodies affection with TB involvement, presence of cord signal or incidence of non-contiguous lesions. The HIV negative group had significantly more total vertebral collapse (P=0.036 and greater kyphosis (P=0.002. The HIV positive group had a trend to larger anterior epidural pus collection (P=0.2. Conclusion: HIV negative patients demonstrate greater tuberculous destruction in terms of total percentage body collapse and resultant kyphosis. There is no difference in the incidence of cord signal or presence of non-contiguous lesions. HIV positive patients show a trend to a greater epidural abscess volume. This difference may be explained by the reduced autoimmune response of the type 4 hypersensitivity reaction caused by the HIV infection.

  13. Persistent collective trend in stock markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balogh, Emeric; Simonsen, Ingve; Nagy, Bálint Zs.; Néda, Zoltán

    2010-12-01

    Empirical evidence is given for a significant difference in the collective trend of the share prices during the stock index rising and falling periods. Data on the Dow Jones Industrial Average and its stock components are studied between 1991 and 2008. Pearson-type correlations are computed between the stocks and averaged over stock pairs and time. The results indicate a general trend: whenever the stock index is falling the stock prices are changing in a more correlated manner than in case the stock index is ascending. A thorough statistical analysis of the data shows that the observed difference is significant, suggesting a constant fear factor among stockholders.

  14. Negative dimensional integrals. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halliday, I.G.; Ricotta, R.M.

    1987-01-01

    We propose a new method of evaluating integrals based on negative dimensional integration. We compute Feynman graphs by considering analytic extensions. Propagators are raised to negative integer powers and integrated over negative integer dimensions. We are left with the problem of computing polynomial integrals and summing finite series. (orig.)

  15. Negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smit, A.L.C.

    1979-01-01

    This thesis describes some aspects of Negative Chemical Ionization (NCI) mass spectrometry. The reasons for the growing interest in NCI are: (i) to extend the basic knowledge of negative ions and their reactions in the gas phase; (ii) to investigate whether or not this knowledge of negative ions can be used successfully to elucidate the structure of molecules by mass spectrometry. (Auth.)

  16. Thermodynamics of negative absolute pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukacs, B.; Martinas, K.

    1984-03-01

    The authors show that the possibility of negative absolute pressure can be incorporated into the axiomatic thermodynamics, analogously to the negative absolute temperature. There are examples for such systems (GUT, QCD) processing negative absolute pressure in such domains where it can be expected from thermodynamical considerations. (author)

  17. Safety system function trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, C.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes research to develop risk-based indicators of plant safety performance. One measure of the safety-performance of operating nuclear power plants is the unavailability of important safety systems. Brookhaven National Laboratory and Science Applications International Corporation are evaluating ways to aggregate train-level or component-level data to provide such an indicator. This type of indicator would respond to changes in plant safety margins faster than the currently used indicator of safety system unavailability (i.e., safety system failures reported in licensee event reports). Trends in the proposed indicator would be one indication of trends in plant safety performance and maintenance effectiveness. This paper summarizes the basis for such an indicator, identifies technical issues to be resolved, and illustrates the potential usefullness of such indicators by means of computer simulations and case studies

  18. Automatic trend estimation

    CERN Document Server

    Vamos¸, C˘alin

    2013-01-01

    Our book introduces a method to evaluate the accuracy of trend estimation algorithms under conditions similar to those encountered in real time series processing. This method is based on Monte Carlo experiments with artificial time series numerically generated by an original algorithm. The second part of the book contains several automatic algorithms for trend estimation and time series partitioning. The source codes of the computer programs implementing these original automatic algorithms are given in the appendix and will be freely available on the web. The book contains clear statement of the conditions and the approximations under which the algorithms work, as well as the proper interpretation of their results. We illustrate the functioning of the analyzed algorithms by processing time series from astrophysics, finance, biophysics, and paleoclimatology. The numerical experiment method extensively used in our book is already in common use in computational and statistical physics.

  19. FEOL technology trend

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taur, Y.; Ning, T.H.

    1998-01-01

    Trends in front-end-of-line technology are discussed. At the chip level, many of the important parameters are published in the National Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors in 1994. At the device and circuit level, both bipolar and CMOS are scalable. However, the large standby power of bipolar circuits severely limits the integration level of bipolar chips. The inherently low standby power of CMOS, on the contrary, allows the integration level of CMOS circuits to continue increasing with scaling. In reality, both the electric field and power density of CMOS devices have been gradually rising over the generations owing to non-scaling effects of thermal voltage and silicon bandgap. As power supply voltage reaches 1.5V and below, circuit performance can only be gained at the expense of higher active or standby power of the chip. Implications of device scaling on contact and silicide technology are addressed. Trends of local and global interconnect scaling are discussed. (orig.)

  20. Trends in radical prostatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastham, James; Tokuda, Yuji; Scardino, Peter

    2009-02-01

    The surgical treatment of prostate cancer ideally removes the entire cancer, avoids excessive blood loss or serious perioperative complications, and results in complete recovery of continence and potency. To achieve this, the surgeon must excise sufficient periprostatic tissue to cure the cancer while preserving the cavernosal nerves required for erectile function and the neuromusculature required for normal urinary and bowel function. Here we will examine recent trends in radical prostatectomy, focusing on surgical technique.

  1. Trends in Mobile Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Chocholová, Petra

    2010-01-01

    The principal aim of this thesis is to assess the state of the mobile marketing as of the first quarter of 2011 and to discuss various scenarios of the future development. This thesis defines the terms "mobile marketing" and "mobile advertising" and identifies the main players in the industry. It explores the main categories of mobile advertising such as mobile messaging, in-content and mobile internet advertising. Later, it analyzes the latest trends in the industry and describes in detail t...

  2. Recent Trends in Counterfeiting

    OpenAIRE

    Arianna Cowling

    2011-01-01

    Under the Reserve Bank Act 1959, the Reserve Bank has sole authority to issue banknotes in Australia. As such, a key responsibility of the Reserve Bank is to maintain public confidence in banknotes, so that they remain an effective payment mechanism and a secure store of wealth. This article examines how counterfeiting can impact on this confidence, and counterfeiting trends in Australia and overseas. The article also discusses the strategies the Reserve Bank employs to minimise the risks of ...

  3. Trends in Internet Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Panchanathan, Nitin

    2005-01-01

    Internet marketing involves the usage of the Internet to market and sell goods or services. In this thesis we wished to seek answers for the following questions with the help of web, email surveys taking into consideration consumer perspective, company perspective and 3rd party internet marketing agency perspective. Our survey sample was based on a small set of companies, consumers and internet marketing agencies. The survey results helped us in predicting the trends in internet marketing. We...

  4. Secular trends in Cherokee cranial morphology: Eastern vs Western bands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutphin, Rebecca; Ross, Ann H; Jantz, Richard L

    2014-01-01

    The research objective was to examine if secular trends can be identified for cranial data commissioned by Boas in 1892, specifically for cranial breadth and cranial length of the Eastern and Western band Cherokee who experienced environmental hardships. Multiple regression analysis was used to test the degree of relationship between each of the cranial measures: cranial length, cranial breadth and cephalic index, along with predictor variables (year-of-birth, location, sex, admixture); the model revealed a significant difference for all craniometric variables. Additional regression analysis was performed with smoothing Loess plots to observe cranial length and cranial breadth change over time (year-of-birth) separately for Eastern and Western Cherokee band females and males born between 1783-1874. This revealed the Western and Eastern bands show a decrease in cranial length over time. Eastern band individuals maintain a relatively constant head breadth, while Western Band individuals show a sharp decline beginning around 1860. These findings support negative secular trend occurring for both Cherokee bands where the environment made a detrimental impact; this is especially marked with the Western Cherokee band.

  5. Impact significance determination-Pushing the boundaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence, David P.

    2007-01-01

    Impact significance determination practice tends to be highly variable. Too often insufficient consideration is given to good practice insights. Also, impact significance determinations are frequently narrowly defined addressing, for example, only individual, negative impacts, focusing on bio-physical impacts, and not seeking to integrate either the Precautionary Principle or sustainability. This article seeks to extend the boundaries of impact significance determination practice by providing an overview of good general impact significance practices, together with stakeholder roles and potential methods for addressing significance determination challenges. Relevant thresholds, criteria, contextual considerations and support methods are also highlighted. The analysis is then extended to address how impact significance determination practices change for positive as compared with negative impacts, for cumulative as compared with individual impacts, for socio-economic as compared with bio-physical impacts, when the Precautionary Principle is integrated into the process, and when sustainability contributions drive the EIA process and related impact significance determinations. These refinements can assist EIA practitioners in ensuring that the scope and nature of impact significance determinations reflect the broadened scope of emerging EIA requirements and practices. Suggestions are included for further refining and testing of the proposed changes to impact significance determination practice

  6. A thirty year, fine-scale, characterization of area burned in Canadian forests shows evidence of regionally increasing trends in the last decade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coops, Nicholas C; Hermosilla, Txomin; Wulder, Michael A; White, Joanne C; Bolton, Douglas K

    2018-01-01

    Fire as a dominant disturbance has profound implications on the terrestrial carbon cycle. We present the first ever multi-decadal, spatially-explicit, 30 meter assessment of fire regimes across the forested ecoregions of Canada at an annual time-step. From 1985 to 2015, 51 Mha burned, impacting over 6.5% of forested ecosystems. Mean annual area burned was 1,651,818 ha and varied markedly (σ = 1,116,119), with 25% of the total area burned occurring in three years: 1989, 1995, and 2015. Boreal forest types contained 98% of the total area burned, with the conifer-dominated Boreal Shield containing one-third of all burned area. While results confirm no significant national trend in burned area for the period of 1985 to 2015, a significant national increasing trend (α = 0.05) of 11% per year was evident for the past decade (2006 to 2015). Regionally, a significant increasing trend in total burned area from 1985 to 2015 was observed in the Montane Cordillera (2.4% increase per year), while the Taiga Plains and Taiga Shield West displayed significant increasing trends from 2006 to 2015 (26.1% and 12.7% increases per year, respectively). The Atlantic Maritime, which had the lowest burned area of all ecozones (0.01% burned per year), was the only ecozone to display a significant negative trend (2.4% decrease per year) from 1985 to 2015. Given the century-long fire return intervals in many of these ecozones, and large annual variability in burned area, short-term trends need to be interpreted with caution. Additional interpretive cautions are related to year used for trend initiation and the nature and extents of spatial regionalizations used for summarizing findings. The results of our analysis provide a baseline for monitoring future national and regional trends in burned area and offer spatially and temporally detailed insights to inform science, policy, and management.

  7. Snow in Castile-León: trends and variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merino, A.; Campos, L.; López, L.; García-Ortega, E.; Sánchez, J. L.; Marcos, J. L.; Guerrero-Higueras, A. M.

    2012-04-01

    The location of Castile and León, inside the Iberian Peninsula, in the Northwestern quadrant, determines, in large measure, the climatic conditions of its territory, granting it very characteristic traits, mostly in the mountainous areas. It is important to note that during a large part of the year, the region is under the influence of Jet Stream, and thus, gives way to very diverse dynamic situations, which turn into different and heterogeneous types of weather. So, in many areas of the region, especially in the most elevated areas, these synoptic and mesoscale situations generate snow precipitation. We should point out that snowfall is one of the principal meteorological risks of Castile and León. Thus, on average, in some mountainous areas there are more than 40 events of snowfall registered annually, with the month of January being the month in which the highest frequency of snowfall appears. The social repercussions of this snowfall are represented in the isolation of places, essentially mountainous, highways being blocked, increase in traffic accidents, etc. As proof of this, it is this type of episode that receives ample coverage by the media, which has a linear relationship with the social perception of risk. As such, the objective of the current work is to analyze the annual trend of days with snow in the different meteorological stations pertaining to AEMET placed in the Community. The period of study is from 1960-2010. Additionally, we have also evaluated trends in annual days of freezing temperature and annual absolute minimum temperature, with the objective of facilitating a meteorological interpretation of the trends obtained on days with snowfall. Finally, the results show that in the majority of stations, a significant negative trend in days with snowfall and annual days with freezing temperatures, and a positive trend in annual absolute minimum temperatures. However, we observed variability in the different regions in the area of study

  8. Housing and Urban Development trends in Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel Schmeidler

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes housing trends in Czech Republic, which are determined by social, economic, technical and cultural changes of last two decades In Central Europe. Those trends have positive and also negative sides: positive can be seen the quantitative and qualitative growth of housing space, variety of architectural solutions for individualised customer. Negative aspect is urban sprawl, which together with individual automobile occupancy destroys nature, space and land values. Future development is inevitable, proper design of housing needs sensitive multidisciplinal attitude and understanding of the needs of man and nature.

  9. Changing epidemiology of central venous catheter-related bloodstream infections: increasing prevalence of Gram-negative pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcos, Miguel; Soriano, Alex; Iñurrieta, Amaia; Martínez, José A; Romero, Alberto; Cobos, Nazaret; Hernández, Cristina; Almela, Manel; Marco, Francesc; Mensa, Josep

    2011-09-01

    Gram-positive microorganisms have been the predominant pathogens in central venous catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSIs). Recent guidelines recommend empirical therapy according to this and restrict coverage for Gram-negatives to specific circumstances. This study aimed to analyse the epidemiological changes in CRBSIs over the 1991-2008 period and to analyse predictors of Gram-negative CRBSIs. A prospectively collected cohort of patients with confirmed CRBSIs was analysed. Strains isolated and antimicrobial susceptibility, as well as clinical and demographic variables were recorded. Differences observed during the study period were analysed by means of a χ² trend test and factors associated with Gram-negative CRBSIs by means of multivariable analysis. Between 1991 and 2008, 1129 episodes of monomicrobial CRBSIs were recorded. There was an increase in the incidence of CRBSIs, from 0.10 (1991-92) to 0.31 (2007-08) episodes/1000 patient-days. A significant increase in the number of Gram-negative strains among the total isolates was also found, from 3 (4.7%) in 1991-92 to 70 (40.23%) in 2007-08, with a parallel decrease in the percentage of Gram-positives. Solid organ transplantation, prior use of penicillins and hospital stay longer than 11 days were independently associated with a significantly higher risk of Gram-negative CRBSIs, while cirrhosis, diabetes and use of quinolones were associated with a higher risk of Gram-positives. Gram-negative strains are an increasing cause of CRBSIs, reaching a prevalence of 40% in the 2007-08 period in our hospital. If this trend is confirmed in other centres, a broad-spectrum empirical therapy should be considered in managing these infections.

  10. Suicide rate trends in the Slovak Republic in 1993-2015

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brazinova, Alexandra; Moravansky, Norbert; Gulis, Gabriel

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Suicide is a significant public health issue worldwide, resulting in loss of lives, and burdening societies. AIMS: To describe and analyze the time trends of suicide rates (SRs) in the Slovak Republic in 1993-2015 for targeted suicide prevention strategies. METHODS: Data for this study...... were obtained from the mortality database of the Statistical Office of the Slovak Republic. Crude and standardized annual SRs were calculated. Trends and relative risks of suicide according to age and sex were analyzed by joinpoint regression and negative binomial regression. RESULTS: In total......, there were 14,575 suicides in the Slovak Republic in the period 1993-2015 (85.3% were men). The overall average age-standardized SR for the study period was 11.45 per 100,000 person years. The rate increases with age, the highest is in men aged 75+ (42.74 per 100,000 person years). Risk of suicide is six...

  11. Increasing negativity of age stereotypes across 200 years: evidence from a database of 400 million words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Reuben; Allore, Heather G; Trentalange, Mark; Monin, Joan K; Levy, Becca R

    2015-01-01

    Scholars argue about whether age stereotypes (beliefs about old people) are becoming more negative or positive over time. No previous study has systematically tested the trend of age stereotypes over more than 20 years, due to lack of suitable data. Our aim was to fill this gap by investigating whether age stereotypes have changed over the last two centuries and, if so, what may be associated with this change. We hypothesized that age stereotypes have increased in negativity due, in part, to the increasing medicalization of aging. This study applied computational linguistics to the recently compiled Corpus of Historical American English (COHA), a database of 400 million words that includes a range of printed sources from 1810 to 2009. After generating a comprehensive list of synonyms for the term elderly for these years from two historical thesauri, we identified 100 collocates (words that co-occurred most frequently with these synonyms) for each of the 20 decades. Inclusion criteria for the collocates were: (1) appeared within four words of the elderly synonym, (2) referred to an old person, and (3) had a stronger association with the elderly synonym than other words appearing in the database for that decade. This yielded 13,100 collocates that were rated for negativity and medicalization. We found that age stereotypes have become more negative in a linear way over 200 years. In 1880, age stereotypes switched from being positive to being negative. In addition, support was found for two potential explanations. Medicalization of aging and the growing proportion of the population over the age of 65 were both significantly associated with the increase in negative age stereotypes. The upward trajectory of age-stereotype negativity makes a case for remedial action on a societal level.

  12. Increasing negativity of age stereotypes across 200 years: evidence from a database of 400 million words.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reuben Ng

    Full Text Available Scholars argue about whether age stereotypes (beliefs about old people are becoming more negative or positive over time. No previous study has systematically tested the trend of age stereotypes over more than 20 years, due to lack of suitable data. Our aim was to fill this gap by investigating whether age stereotypes have changed over the last two centuries and, if so, what may be associated with this change. We hypothesized that age stereotypes have increased in negativity due, in part, to the increasing medicalization of aging. This study applied computational linguistics to the recently compiled Corpus of Historical American English (COHA, a database of 400 million words that includes a range of printed sources from 1810 to 2009. After generating a comprehensive list of synonyms for the term elderly for these years from two historical thesauri, we identified 100 collocates (words that co-occurred most frequently with these synonyms for each of the 20 decades. Inclusion criteria for the collocates were: (1 appeared within four words of the elderly synonym, (2 referred to an old person, and (3 had a stronger association with the elderly synonym than other words appearing in the database for that decade. This yielded 13,100 collocates that were rated for negativity and medicalization. We found that age stereotypes have become more negative in a linear way over 200 years. In 1880, age stereotypes switched from being positive to being negative. In addition, support was found for two potential explanations. Medicalization of aging and the growing proportion of the population over the age of 65 were both significantly associated with the increase in negative age stereotypes. The upward trajectory of age-stereotype negativity makes a case for remedial action on a societal level.

  13. Trends in Overweight and Obesity in Czech Schoolchildren from 1998 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamřík, Zdeněk; Sigmundová, Dagmar; Pavelka, Jan; Kalman, Michal; Sigmund, Erik

    2017-07-01

    Overweight and obesity in adolescents is associated with many health risks and considerable direct and indirect healthcare costs. The purpose of this study is to examine trends in the prevalence of overweight and obesity in 11-, 13- and 15-year-old adolescents in the Czech Republic from 1998 to 2014. Data from five self-reported survey rounds (1998, 2002, 2006, 2010, and 2014) of the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children Study (HBSC) were used to assess trends in overweight and obesity among Czech adolescents. The total sample consisted of 19,103 adolescents (51.2% girls). A logistic regression analysis was used to assess trends in different age and gender categories. From 1998 to 2014 a significant increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity was observed among boys in all age categories (11 years old 22.2% 1998 - 28.3% 2014 ; 13 years old 17.9% 1998 - 26.7% 2014 ; 15 years old 9.8% 1998 - 20.8% 2014 ) and among 15-year-old girls (6.0% 1998 - 10.9% 2014 ). None of the age and gender categories showed an overall decrease over the 16-year period. In boys, the prevalence of overweight was significantly higher with steeper negative trends compared with girls. However, stabilization in overweight rates was observed between 2010 and 2014 in all age and gender groups. Nationally representative self-reported data show a significant increase in overweight (including obesity) prevalence among children from 1998 to 2014 in the Czech Republic. The results also suggest stabilization in overweight prevalence between 2010 and 2014. Continuing research is needed to determine future trends while interventions aimed at reducing overweight and obesity in children should be implemented on different levels of public policy. Copyright© by the National Institute of Public Health, Prague 2017

  14. Trends of tourism development in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryna Skril

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the actual subject - features development of tourism in Ukraine. Tourism in Ukraine legally declared as a priority of national culture and economy. The promotion of Ukraine as a European state requires the development of tourism industry. The modern concept of leisure activities organization leads to increased demand for tourism in those regions, which have the cultural, social, household identity of the nation, local community. These areas are presented in the most regions of Ukraine. Due to the wealth of historical, cultural, recreational, social and economic resources Ukraine has all essential prerequisites for intensive tourism development. Tourism plays an important role in regional development. Currently, most researches are aimed at economic aspects of development, which are usually associated with external (international tourism. However not enough attention were paid to social and environmental aspects of domestic tourism, which may become an important tool for spiritual revival, patriotic education, formation of ecological thinking and future mentality of the Ukrainian society. In the development of tourism in Ukraine there are some features: changing in the ratio of internal and external tourism in favor of external, a small number of foreign tourists, the gradual reduction in the number of citizens covered by domestic tourism. In 2015 the tourist flow was at the level of 2000 and amounted into 2,02 million people. There was a reduction compared to 2013 by almost 40%. Although the highest rates of reduction (30% occurred in 2014, and 10% - in 2015. So the rate of decrease in tourist flow slowed. The number of foreign tourists significantly reduced to a record 0.75% of the total number of travelers. On the contrary, the number of citizens of Ukraine, which travelled abroad remains very high and exceeds 80%. The number of domestic tourists remains at the level of 17%. Unfortunately, the negative trends in

  15. TREND MECHANISMS IN CONTEMPORARY FASHION

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mackinney-Valentin, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Explores a spatial approach to trend mechanisms that is argued to be more contemporary than the traditional temporal appraoch.......Explores a spatial approach to trend mechanisms that is argued to be more contemporary than the traditional temporal appraoch....

  16. [Characteristic and clinical significance of DNA methyltransferase 3B overexpression in endometrial carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Y; Zhou, M; Ba, X J; Si, J W; Li, W T; Wang, Y; Li, D; Li, T

    2016-10-18

    To determine the clinicopathological significance of the DNA methyltransferase 3B (DNMT3B) overexpression in endometrial carcinomas and to evaluate its correlation with hormone receptor status. Immunohistochemistry was performed to assess the expression of DNMT3B and hormone receptors in 104 endometrial carcinomas. DNMT3B overexpression occurred frequently in endometrioid carcinoma (EC, 54.8%) more than in nonendometrioid carcinoma (NEC, 30.0%) with statistical significance (P=0.028). Furthermore, there was a trend that EC with worse clinico-pathological variables and shorter survival had a higher DNMT3B expression, and the correlation between DNMT3B and tumor grade reached statistical significance (P=0.019).A negative correlation between DNMT3B and estrogen receptor (ER) or progesterone receptor (PR) expression was found in EC. NMT3B overexpression occurred frequently in the ER or PR negative subgroups (78.9%, 86.7%) more than in the positive subgroups (47.7%, 47.8%) with statistical significance (P=0.016, P=0.006). In addition, the DNMT3B overexpression increased in tumors with both ER and PR negative expression (92.9%, P=0.002). However, no such correlation was found in NEC (P>0.05). Sequence analyses demonstrated multiple ER and PR binding sites in the promoter regions of DNMT3B gene. This study showed that the expression of DNMT3B in EC and NEC was different. DNMT3B overexpression in EC was associated with the worse clinicopathological variables and might have predictive value. The methylation status of EC and NEC maybe different. In addition, in EC, DNMT3B overexpression negatively correlated with ER or PR expression. In NEC, the correlation between DNMT3B and ER or PR status was not present.

  17. Zika pandemic online trends, incidence and health risk communication: a time trend study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adebayo, Gbenga; Neumark, Yehuda; Gesser-Edelsburg, Anat; Abu Ahmad, Wiessam; Levine, Hagai

    2017-01-01

    We aimed to describe the online search trends of Zika and examine their association with Zika incidence, assess the content of Zika-related press releases issued by leading health authorities and examine the association between online trends and press release timing. Using Google Trends, the 1 May 2015 to 30 May 2016 online trends of Zika and associated search terms were studied globally and in the five countries with the highest numbers of suspected cases. Correlations were then examined between online trends and Zika incidence in these countries. All Zika-related press releases issued by WHO/Pan America Health Organization (PAHO) and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) during the study period were assessed for transparency, uncertainty and audience segmentation. Witte's Extended Parallel Process Model was applied to assess self-efficacy, response efficacy, susceptibility and severity. AutoRegressive Integrated Moving Average with an eXogenous predictor variable (ARIMAX) (p,d,q) regression modelling was used to quantify the association between online trends and the timing of press releases. Globally, Zika online search trends were low until the beginning of 2016, when interest rose steeply. Strong correlations (r=0.748-0.922; ponline trends and the number of suspected Zika cases in four of the five countries studied. Compared with press releases issued by WHO/PAHO, CDC press releases were significantly more likely to provide contact details and links to other resources, include figures/graphs, be risk-advisory in nature and be more readable and briefer. ARIMAX modelling results indicate that online trends preceded by 1 week press releases by WHO (stationary-R 2 =0.345; ponline trends can aid in pandemic surveillance. Identification of shortcomings in the content and timing of Zika press releases can help guide health communication efforts in the current pandemic and future public health emergencies.

  18. Negative snakes in JET: evidence for negative shear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gill, R D; Alper, B; Edwards, A W [Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking; Pearson, D [Reading Univ. (United Kingdom)

    1994-07-01

    The signature of the negative snakes from the soft X-ray cameras is very similar to the more usual snakes except that the localised region of the snake has, compared with its surroundings, decreased rather than increased emission. Circumstances where negative snakes have been seen are reviewed. The negative snake appears as a region of increased resistance and of increased impurity density. The relationship between the shear and the current perturbation is shown, and it seem probable that the magnetic shear is reversed at the point of the negative snake, i.e. that q is decreasing with radius. 6 refs., 6 figs.

  19. Negative snakes in JET: evidence for negative shear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gill, R.D.; Alper, B.; Edwards, A.W.

    1994-01-01

    The signature of the negative snakes from the soft X-ray cameras is very similar to the more usual snakes except that the localised region of the snake has, compared with its surroundings, decreased rather than increased emission. Circumstances where negative snakes have been seen are reviewed. The negative snake appears as a region of increased resistance and of increased impurity density. The relationship between the shear and the current perturbation is shown, and it seem probable that the magnetic shear is reversed at the point of the negative snake, i.e. that q is decreasing with radius. 6 refs., 6 figs

  20. Clinical and neurophysiological findings in oligoclonal band negative multiple sclerosis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mesaroš Šarlota

    2003-01-01

    the groups (Graph 2. The frequency of (multimodal EP abnormalities was higher in the OCB positive group but the differences were not statistically significant, except for bilateral SEP abnormalities (p=0.012. The severity of the AEPs abnormalities was similar in both groups while for the VEPs and SEPs abnormalities were more pronounced in the OCB positive group but not significantly (Table 2. The male preponderance of OCB negative MS patients in our study is in accordance with previous studies [14, 15]. This finding could be potentially ascribed to the well known gender-related differences in both humoral and cellular immune responses [17]. We found no statistically significant differences in either disability or PR between the two patient groups, although OCB negative MS patients had lower EDSS score and PR than OCB positive cases. In accordance with these findings, Fukazawa et al. also failed to show differences in disability between OCB negative and positive MS patients. On the other hand, few studies reported that OCB negative MS patients have a better prognosis [16 18]. The only clinical difference between two groups of patients that we found was that the disease more often started with brainstem symptoms in OCB positive MS patients (p=0.028. OCB positive MS patients had more often bilateral SEPs abnormalities (p=0.012. There was no statistically significant differences between two groups of patients in the severity of trimodal EPs abnormalities and the frequency of BAEPs and VEPs abnormalities although OCB negative patients had trend towards less pronounced EP disturbancies. In conclusion, our results did not reveal significant difference in clinical and neurophysiological(y parameters between two groups of patients. However, they indicate a trend towards better prognosis of the disease in OCB negative MS patients.

  1. High ALK mRNA expression has a negative prognostic significance in rhabdomyosarcoma

    OpenAIRE

    Bonvini, P; Zin, A; Alaggio, R; Pawel, B; Bisogno, G; Rosolen, A

    2013-01-01

    Background: Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) is a receptor tyrosine kinase aberrantly expressed in cancer, but its clinical and functional importance remain controversial. Mutation or amplification of ALK, as well as its expression levels assessed by conventional immunohistochemistry methods, has been linked to prognosis in cancer, although with potential bias because of the semi-quantitative approaches. Herein, we measured ALK mRNA expression in rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) and determined its clin...

  2. Prognostic significance of nuclear expression of UMP-CMP kinase in triple negative breast cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Ning Qing; De Marchi, Tommaso; Timmermans, Annemieke

    2016-01-01

    associated to its expression through gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA). A total of 461 TNBC paraffin-embedded tissues were collected from different academic hospitals in Europe, incorporated into tissue micro-arrays (TMA), and stained for CMPK1 expression. We also collected gene expression data of 60...

  3. Pheochromocytoma with Negative Metanephrines: A Rarity and the Significance of Dopamine Secreting Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Bozin

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available We describe a case of a 25-year-old female with a dopamine secreting PPGL diagnosed retrospectively with biochemical analysis. This finding resulted in change in approach to investigation and management, given their important clinical implications. There are important differences in management of dopamine secreting PPGL compared to classical noradrenaline and adrenaline-secreting PPGL. This includes the risk of peri-operative cardiovascular collapse peri-operatively with alpha/beta blockade, risk of malignancy/recurrence, and associated genetic abnormalities.

  4. Green investment: Trends and determinants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eyraud, Luc; Clements, Benedict; Wane, Abdoul

    2013-01-01

    This paper fills a gap in the macroeconomic literature on renewable sources of energy. It offers a definition of green investment and analyzes the trends and determinants of this investment over the last decade for 35 advanced and emerging countries. We use a new multi-country historical dataset and find that green investment has become a key driver of the energy sector and that its rapid growth is now mostly driven by China. Our econometric results suggest that green investment is boosted by economic growth, a sound financial system conducive to low interest rates, and high fuel prices. We also find that some policy interventions, such as the introduction of carbon pricing schemes or “feed-in-tariffs,” which require use of “green” energy, have a positive and significant impact on green investment. Other interventions, such as biofuel support, do not appear to be associated with higher green investment. - Highlights: • We offer a definition of green investment and review its trend since 2000. • We analyze its determinants from both theoretical and empirical perspectives. • Green investment is boosted by economic growth, interest rates, and fuel prices. • Feed-in-tariffs and carbon pricing schemes impact positively green investment

  5. Changing Trends in Modeling Mobility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aarti Munjal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A phenomenal increase in the number of wireless devices has led to the evolution of several interesting and challenging research problems in opportunistic networks. For example, the random waypoint mobility model, an early, popular effort to model mobility, involves generating random movement patterns. Previous research efforts, however, validate that movement patterns are not random; instead, human mobility is predictable to some extent. Since the performance of a routing protocol in an opportunistic network is greatly improved if the movement patterns of mobile users can be somewhat predicted in advance, several research attempts have been made to understand human mobility. The solutions developed use our understanding of movement patterns to predict the future contact probability for mobile nodes. In this work, we summarize the changing trends in modeling human mobility as random movements to the current research efforts that model human walks in a more predictable manner. Mobility patterns significantly affect the performance of a routing protocol. Thus, the changing trend in modeling mobility has led to several changes in developing routing protocols for opportunistic networks. For example, the simplest opportunistic routing protocol forwards a received packet to a randomly selected neighbor. With predictable mobility, however, routing protocols can use the expected contact information between a pair of mobile nodes in making forwarding decisions. In this work, we also describe the previous and current research efforts in developing routing protocols for opportunistic networks.

  6. A comparison of heat wave climatologies and trends in China based on multiple definitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Qinglong; Jiang, Zhihong; Kong, Lei; Wu, Zhiwei; Bao, Yutao; Kang, Shichang; Pepin, Nick

    2017-06-01

    Heat waves (HWs) can have disastrous impacts on human activities and natural systems, and are one of the current foci of scientific research, particularly in the context of global warming. However, there is no standard definition of a HW, which makes assessment of temporal trends a challenge. In this study, based on daily mean, maximum and minimum temperature, and relative humidity datasets from China Meteorological Administration, the patterns, trends and variations of HW in China during 1961-2014 are investigated. Sixteen previously published HW indices (HIs) are calculated, which are divided into two types using relative and absolute threshold temperatures, respectively. During 1961-2014, both relative and absolute threshold HIs show the highest number of HW in Jianghua and South China, geographically consistent with the climate characteristics of China. The majority of HIs shows negative/positive trends of HW days before/after 1990 over the whole of China, but especially in Jianghua and South China, which reflects rapid warming since 1990. There are significant correlations among different HIs in the same type (both absolute and relative), but correlations are weak between relative and absolute threshold HIs. Because relative and absolute HIs show contrasting trends, the choice of HI is therefore critical for future analysis

  7. Identification of trend in long term precipitation and reference evapotranspiration over Narmada river basin (India)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Brij Kishor; Khare, Deepak

    2018-02-01

    Precipitation and reference evapotranspiration are key parameters in hydro-meteorological studies and used for agricultural planning, irrigation system design and management. Precipitation and evaporative demand are expected to be alter under climate change and affect the sustainable development. In this article, spatial variability and temporal trend of precipitation and reference evapotranspiration (ETo) were investigated over Narmada river basin (India), a humid tropical climatic region. In the present study, 12 and 28 observatory stations were selected for precipitation and ETo, respectively of 102-years period (1901-2002). A rigorous analysis for trend detection was carried out using non parametric tests such as Mann-Kendall (MK) and Spearman Rho (SR). Sen's slope estimator was used to analyze the rate of change in long term series. Moreover, all the stations of basin exhibit positive trend for annual ETo, while 8% stations indicate significant negative trend for mean annual precipitation, respectively. Change points of annual precipitation were identified around the year 1962 applying Buishand's and Pettit's test. Annual mean precipitation reduced by 9% in upper part while increased maximum by 5% in lower part of the basin due temporal changes. Although annual mean ETo increase by 4-12% in most of the region. Moreover, results of the study are very helpful in planning and development of agricultural water resources.

  8. Vegetation greenness trend (2000 to 2009) and the climate controls in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Guo, Huadong; Ji, Lei; Lei, Liping; Wang, Cuizhen; Yan, Dongmei; Li, Bin; Li, Jing

    2013-01-01

    The Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau has been experiencing a distinct warming trend, and climate warming has a direct and quick impact on the alpine grassland ecosystem. We detected the greenness trend of the grasslands in the plateau using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer data from 2000 to 2009. Weather station data were used to explore the climatic drivers for vegetation greenness variations. The results demonstrated that the region-wide averaged normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) increased at a rate of 0.036  yr−1. Approximately 20% of the vegetation areas, which were primarily located in the northeastern plateau, exhibited significant NDVI increase trend (p-value plateau. A strong positive relationship between NDVI and precipitation, especially in the northeastern plateau, suggested that precipitation was a favorable factor for the grassland NDVI. Negative correlations between NDVI and temperature, especially in the southern plateau, indicated that higher temperature adversely affected the grassland growth. Although a warming climate was expected to be beneficial to the vegetation growth in cold regions, the grasslands in the central and southwestern plateau showed a decrease in trends influenced by increased temperature coupled with decreased precipitation.

  9. Trends of Sustainable Residential Architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Narvydas, A

    2014-01-01

    The article is based on Master’s research conducted during Scottish Housing Expo 2010. The aim of the research was to determine the prevailing trends in sustainable residential architecture. Each trend can be described by features detected during visual and technical observation of project data. Based on that architects may predict possible problems related to a specific trend.

  10. Evaluating the Consistency of the 1982–1999 NDVI Trends in the Iberian Peninsula across Four Time-series Derived from the AVHRR Sensor: LTDR, GIMMS, FASIR, and PAL-II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcaraz-Segura, Domingo; Liras, Elisa; Tabik, Siham; Paruelo, José; Cabello, Javier

    2010-01-01

    Successive efforts have processed the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) sensor archive to produce Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) datasets (i.e., PAL, FASIR, GIMMS, and LTDR) under different corrections and processing schemes. Since NDVI datasets are used to evaluate carbon gains, differences among them may affect nations’ carbon budgets in meeting international targets (such as the Kyoto Protocol). This study addresses the consistency across AVHRR NDVI datasets in the Iberian Peninsula (Spain and Portugal) by evaluating whether their 1982–1999 NDVI trends show similar spatial patterns. Significant trends were calculated with the seasonal Mann-Kendall trend test and their spatial consistency with partial Mantel tests. Over 23% of the Peninsula (N, E, and central mountain ranges) showed positive and significant NDVI trends across the four datasets and an additional 18% across three datasets. In 20% of Iberia (SW quadrant), the four datasets exhibited an absence of significant trends and an additional 22% across three datasets. Significant NDVI decreases were scarce (croplands in the Guadalquivir and Segura basins, La Mancha plains, and Valencia). Spatial consistency of significant trends across at least three datasets was observed in 83% of the Peninsula, but it decreased to 47% when comparing across the four datasets. FASIR, PAL, and LTDR were the most spatially similar datasets, while GIMMS was the most different. The different performance of each AVHRR dataset to detect significant NDVI trends (e.g., LTDR detected greater significant trends (both positive and negative) and in 32% more pixels than GIMMS) has great implications to evaluate carbon budgets. The lack of spatial consistency across NDVI datasets derived from the same AVHRR sensor archive, makes it advisable to evaluate carbon gains trends using several satellite datasets and, whether possible, independent/additional data sources to contrast. PMID:22205868

  11. Evaluating the consistency of the 1982-1999 NDVI trends in the Iberian Peninsula across four time-series derived from the AVHRR sensor: LTDR, GIMMS, FASIR, and PAL-II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcaraz-Segura, Domingo; Liras, Elisa; Tabik, Siham; Paruelo, José; Cabello, Javier

    2010-01-01

    Successive efforts have processed the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) sensor archive to produce Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) datasets (i.e., PAL, FASIR, GIMMS, and LTDR) under different corrections and processing schemes. Since NDVI datasets are used to evaluate carbon gains, differences among them may affect nations' carbon budgets in meeting international targets (such as the Kyoto Protocol). This study addresses the consistency across AVHRR NDVI datasets in the Iberian Peninsula (Spain and Portugal) by evaluating whether their 1982-1999 NDVI trends show similar spatial patterns. Significant trends were calculated with the seasonal Mann-Kendall trend test and their spatial consistency with partial Mantel tests. Over 23% of the Peninsula (N, E, and central mountain ranges) showed positive and significant NDVI trends across the four datasets and an additional 18% across three datasets. In 20% of Iberia (SW quadrant), the four datasets exhibited an absence of significant trends and an additional 22% across three datasets. Significant NDVI decreases were scarce (croplands in the Guadalquivir and Segura basins, La Mancha plains, and Valencia). Spatial consistency of significant trends across at least three datasets was observed in 83% of the Peninsula, but it decreased to 47% when comparing across the four datasets. FASIR, PAL, and LTDR were the most spatially similar datasets, while GIMMS was the most different. The different performance of each AVHRR dataset to detect significant NDVI trends (e.g., LTDR detected greater significant trends (both positive and negative) and in 32% more pixels than GIMMS) has great implications to evaluate carbon budgets. The lack of spatial consistency across NDVI datasets derived from the same AVHRR sensor archive, makes it advisable to evaluate carbon gains trends using several satellite datasets and, whether possible, independent/additional data sources to contrast.

  12. News Media Framing of Negative Campaigning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rasmus Tue

    2014-01-01

    that news coverage of negative campaigning does apply the strategic game frame to a significantly larger degree than articles covering positive campaigning. This finding has significant implications for campaigning politicians and for scholars studying campaign and media effects.......News media coverage of election campaigns is often characterized by use of the strategic game frame and a focus on politicians’ use of negative campaigning. However, the exact relationship between these two characteristics of news coverage is largely unexplored. This article theorizes that consumer...... demand and norms of journalistic independence might induce the news media outlets to cover negative campaigning with a strategic game frame. A comprehensive content analysis based on several newspaper types, several election campaigns, and several different measurements of media framing confirms...

  13. Trends in nuclear education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lartigue, J.; Martinez, T.

    2008-01-01

    Today's nuclear curricula have the purpose to fulfil labor requirements of the nuclear market, both power and applications, as well as keeping up the academic level required for research and development in nuclear sciences. This work analyses the power and applications markets and the situation of nuclear education in several countries, including Mexico, as well as collective efforts promoted by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and other organizations. Conclusions are obtained about the status and trends in nuclear education, emphasizing the role of the academic and users sectors to fit the future demand and the availability of skilled personnel. (author)

  14. Trends in corporate greening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Henning; Ulhøi, John Parm

    , if a general change of attitude has taken place in the business community or if companies just comply with the required minimum standard set by legislation. Based on a series of surveys this paper reports on the trends in implementing corporate environmental management in Danish industry up till the entrance......The concept of corporate environmental management has existed for the last two to three decades. Many companies have fully or partly adopted the concept in their efforts to eliminate or reduce the impacts on the natural environment caused by their business activities. The question is, however...

  15. Power reactor design trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hogan, W.J.

    1985-01-01

    Cascade and Pulse Star represent new trends in ICF power reactor design that have emerged in the last few years. The most recent embodiments of these two concepts, and that of the HYLIFE design with which they will compare them, are shown. All three reactors depend upon protecting structural elements from neutrons, x rays and debris by injecting massive amounts of shielding material inside the reaction chamber. However, Cascade and Pulse Star introduce new ideas to improve the economics, safety, and environmental impact of ICF reactors. They also pose different development issues and thus represent technological alternatives to HYLIFE

  16. Measuring trends in leisure

    OpenAIRE

    Mark Aguiar; Erik Hurst

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we use five decades of time-use surveys to document trends in the allocation of time. We find that a dramatic increase in leisure time lies behind the relatively stable number of market hours worked (per working-age adult) between 1965 and 2003. Specifically, we show that leisure for men increased by 6-8 hours per week (driven by a decline in market work hours) and for women by 4-8 hours per week (driven by a decline in home production work hours). This increase in leisure corr...

  17. Social Network Gaming Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Gathwright

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this project was to determine how long the social network game Scratch-Offs, created by game development company Spice Rack Media, will remain financially viable. The game Scratch-Offs is a freeware game (users pay nothing for the actual software and is funded through micro transactions (users must pay small amounts of money to play actual games. This implies a relationship between total games played and revenue earned. Using data provided by Spice Rack, we were able to develop an exponential equation that accurately depicts usage trends over time. This equation was used to determine the date Scratch-Offs will no longer be profitable.

  18. Laser Cutting, Development Trends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Flemming Ove

    1999-01-01

    In this paper a short review of the development trends in laser cutting will be given.The technology, which is the fastest expanding industrial production technology will develop in both its core market segment: Flat bed cutting of sheet metal, as it will expand in heavy industry and in cutting...... of 3-dimensional shapes.The CO2-laser will also in the near future be the dominating laser source in the market, although the new developments in ND-YAG-lasers opens for new possibilities for this laser type....

  19. Negative Attitudes, Network and Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennett, Patrick; la Cour, Lisbeth; Larsen, Birthe

    We consider the impact of negative attitudes against immigrants and immigration on educational choice in a search and wage bargaining model including networking. We consider two cases in terms of the importance of negative attitudes againts immigrants for high and low educated individuals and find...... that more negative attitudes against immigrants has a positive impact on education in one case and a negative impact in the other and has no impact on natives. Immigration improves employment perspectives for immigrants and thereby increases immigrant education whereas endogenous negative attitudes lead...... use Danish register data to find a signficant positive correlation between negative attitudes towards immigrants and high school attendance and find a positive impact of networking on high school attendance. In both the macro and the micro-econometric analysis we run the same regressions for natives...

  20. Negative hydrogen ion production mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacal, M. [UPMC, LPP, Ecole Polytechnique, UMR CNRS 7648, Palaiseau (France); Wada, M. [School of Science and Engineering, Doshisha University, Kyoto 610-0321 (Japan)

    2015-06-15

    Negative hydrogen/deuterium ions can be formed by processes occurring in the plasma volume and on surfaces facing the plasma. The principal mechanisms leading to the formation of these negative ions are dissociative electron attachment to ro-vibrationally excited hydrogen/deuterium molecules when the reaction takes place in the plasma volume, and the direct electron transfer from the low work function metal surface to the hydrogen/deuterium atoms when formation occurs on the surface. The existing theoretical models and reported experimental results on these two mechanisms are summarized. Performance of the negative hydrogen/deuterium ion sources that emerged from studies of these mechanisms is reviewed. Contemporary negative ion sources do not have negative ion production electrodes of original surface type sources but are operated with caesium with their structures nearly identical to volume production type sources. Reasons for enhanced negative ion current due to caesium addition to these sources are discussed.

  1. Benchmarking 2010: Trends in Education Philanthropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bearman, Jessica

    2010-01-01

    "Benchmarking 2010" offers insights into the current priorities, practices and concerns of education grantmakers. The report is divided into five sections: (1) Mapping the Education Grantmaking Landscape; (2) 2010 Funding Priorities; (3) Strategies for Leveraging Greater Impact; (4) Identifying Significant Trends in Education Funding; and (5)…

  2. ANALYSIS OF RAINFALL TREND IN ETHIOPIA INTRODUCTION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    annual, Kiremt (June-September) and Belg (February-May) rainfall, using I 0 selected ... the significance of trends in hydrometer-logical time series (Yue et al., 2002(2)). The .... then the Auto Regressive One (AR (I)) is removed from the r,' by.

  3. Wages, Amenities and Negative Attitudes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waisman, Gisela; Larsen, Birthe

    We exploit the regional variation in negative attitudes towards immigrants to Sweden in order to analyse the consequences of the attitudes on immigrants welfare. We find that attitudes towards immigrants are of importance: they both affect their labour market outcomes and their quality of life. We...... interpret the negative effect on wages as evidence of labour market discrimination. We estimate the welfare effects of negative attitudes, through their wage and local amenities, for immigrants with different levels of skills, origin, gender and age....

  4. Income, Amenities and Negative Attitudes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waisman, Gisela; Larsen, Birthe

    2016-01-01

    We exploit the regional variation in negative attitudes towards immigrants to Sweden in order to analyse the consequences of negative attitudes on refugees’ utility from labour income and amenities. We find that attitudes towards immigrants are important: while they affect mainly the refugees......’ quality of life, they also affect their income. We estimate the utility effects of negative attitudes for refugees with different levels of education and gender. We also analyse how the size of the refugees’ networks relate to their quality of life and income as well as how negative attitudes towards...

  5. Iodide uptake by negatively charged clay interlayers?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, Andrew; Kruichak, Jessica; Mills, Melissa; Wang, Yifeng

    2015-01-01

    Understanding iodide interactions with clay minerals is critical to quantifying risk associated with nuclear waste disposal. Current thought assumes that iodide does not interact directly with clay minerals due to electrical repulsion between the iodide and the negatively charged clay layers. However, a growing body of work indicates a weak interaction between iodide and clays. The goal of this contribution is to report a conceptual model for iodide interaction with clays by considering clay mineral structures and emergent behaviors of chemical species in confined spaces. To approach the problem, a suite of clay minerals was used with varying degrees of isomorphic substitution, chemical composition, and mineral structure. Iodide uptake experiments were completed with each of these minerals in a range of swamping electrolyte identities (NaCl, NaBr, KCl) and concentrations. Iodide uptake behaviors form distinct trends with cation exchange capacity and mineral structure. These trends change substantially with electrolyte composition and concentration, but do not appear to be affected by solution pH. The experimental results suggest that iodide may directly interact with clays by forming ion-pairs (e.g., NaI (aq) ) which may concentrate within the interlayer space as well as the thin areas surrounding the clay particle where water behavior is more structured relative to bulk water. Ion pairing and iodide concentration in these zones is probably driven by the reduced dielectric constant of water in confined space and by the relatively high polarizability of the iodide species. - Highlights: • Iodide sorption experiments were completed with a diverse array of clay minerals. • Iodide uptake trended with CEC and swamping electrolyte identity and concentration. • Results can be explained by considering the formation of ion pairs in clay interlayers

  6. Career Preparedness and School Achievement of Portuguese Children: Longitudinal Trend Articulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Céu Taveira

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Social Cognitive Career Theory suggests that students' preparedness for the school-to-work transition is a developmental process. Middle school children explore various careers, obtain feedback about their academic progress, and develop career self-efficacy and outcome expectations. These processes advance provisional educational/occupational goals. The literature has suggested articulations between career and academic development and how both vary across demographic characteristics, but longitudinal studies linking these processes are scarce. This study tested articulations between career preparedness and academic achievement during middle school years and employed gender and geographical location as potential moderators affecting the linkage between career and school domains. Participants included 429 children (47.8% girls from northern (69.5% and central Portugal (30.5% followed across four occasions of measurement (MageWave1 = 10.23, SD = 0.50. Data was collected with school records, the Multidimensional Scales of Perceived Self-Efficacy, Career Exploratory Outcome Expectations Scale, Childhood Career Exploration Inventory and Childhood Career Development Scale. Average and orthnormalized linear, quadratic and cubic trends were computed. Pearson correlation coefficients suggested positive and statistically significant associations between career exploratory outcome expectations and academic achievement average trends. Career planning and self-efficacy expectations were negatively associated with academic achievement quadratic trends. Multiple linear regression models suggested that career exploratory outcome expectations and career planning were respectively statistically significant predictors of the average and quadratic trends of academic achievement. Gender moderated the association between the career variables and academic achievement linear trends as well as the relation of career planning and self-efficacy with academic achievement

  7. Iodide uptake by negatively charged clay interlayers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Andrew; Kruichak, Jessica; Mills, Melissa; Wang, Yifeng

    2015-09-01

    Understanding iodide interactions with clay minerals is critical to quantifying risk associated with nuclear waste disposal. Current thought assumes that iodide does not interact directly with clay minerals due to electrical repulsion between the iodide and the negatively charged clay layers. However, a growing body of work indicates a weak interaction between iodide and clays. The goal of this contribution is to report a conceptual model for iodide interaction with clays by considering clay mineral structures and emergent behaviors of chemical species in confined spaces. To approach the problem, a suite of clay minerals was used with varying degrees of isomorphic substitution, chemical composition, and mineral structure. Iodide uptake experiments were completed with each of these minerals in a range of swamping electrolyte identities (NaCl, NaBr, KCl) and concentrations. Iodide uptake behaviors form distinct trends with cation exchange capacity and mineral structure. These trends change substantially with electrolyte composition and concentration, but do not appear to be affected by solution pH. The experimental results suggest that iodide may directly interact with clays by forming ion-pairs (e.g., NaI(aq)) which may concentrate within the interlayer space as well as the thin areas surrounding the clay particle where water behavior is more structured relative to bulk water. Ion pairing and iodide concentration in these zones is probably driven by the reduced dielectric constant of water in confined space and by the relatively high polarizability of the iodide species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Temporal trends in sperm count

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levine, Hagai; Jørgensen, Niels; Martino-Andrade, Anderson

    2017-01-01

    a predefined protocol 7518 abstracts were screened and 2510 full articles reporting primary data on SC were reviewed. A total of 244 estimates of SC and TSC from 185 studies of 42 935 men who provided semen samples in 1973-2011 were extracted for meta-regression analysis, as well as information on years.......006, respectively). WIDER IMPLICATIONS: This comprehensive meta-regression analysis reports a significant decline in sperm counts (as measured by SC and TSC) between 1973 and 2011, driven by a 50-60% decline among men unselected by fertility from North America, Europe, Australia and New Zealand. Because......BACKGROUND: Reported declines in sperm counts remain controversial today and recent trends are unknown. A definitive meta-analysis is critical given the predictive value of sperm count for fertility, morbidity and mortality. OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALE: To provide a systematic review and meta-regression...

  9. Technology Trends in Cloud Infrastructure

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2018-01-01

    Cloud computing is growing at an exponential pace with an increasing number of workloads being hosted in mega-scale public clouds such as Microsoft Azure. Designing and operating such large infrastructures requires not only a significant capital spend for provisioning datacenters, servers, networking and operating systems, but also R&D investments to capitalize on disruptive technology trends and emerging workloads such as AI/ML. This talk will cover the various infrastructure innovations being implemented in large scale public clouds and opportunities/challenges ahead to deliver the next generation of scale computing. About the speaker Kushagra Vaid is the general manager and distinguished engineer for Hardware Infrastructure in the Microsoft Azure division. He is accountable for the architecture and design of compute and storage platforms, which are the foundation for Microsoft’s global cloud-scale services. He and his team have successfully delivered four generations of hyperscale cloud hardwar...

  10. The Geomagnetic Control Concept of The Ionospheric Long- Term Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhailov, A. V.

    The geomagnetic control concept has been developed to explain long-term trends of the electron concentration in the F2 and E ionospheric regions. Periods with negative and positive foF2, hmF2 and foE trends correspond to the periods of increasing or decreasing geomagnetic activity with the turning points around the end of 1950s, 1960s, and 1980s where trends change their signs. Strong latitudinal and diurnal variations revealed for the foF2 and hmF2 trends can be explained by neutral composition, temperature and thermospheric wind changes. Particle precipitation is important in the auroral zone. The newly proposed concept proceeds from a natural origin of the F2-layer trends rather than an artificial one related to the greenhouse effect. Using the proposed method a very long-term foF2 and foE trends related with general increase of geomagnetic activity in the 20th century has been revealed for the first time. The firstly revealed relationship of the foE trends with geomagnetic activity is due to nitric oxide variations at the E-region heights. This "natural" relationship of the foE trends with geomagnetic activity breaks down around 1970 on many stations presumably due to chemical polution of the upper atmosphere. The increasing rate of rocket and satellite launchings in the late 1960s is considered as a reason.

  11. Warm weather brings about significant drop in CO{sub 2} emissions in Germany in 2014. Sign of a new trend?; Dank warmer Witterung starker Rueckgang der CO{sub 2}-Emissionen in Deutschland im Jahr 2014. Ist das schon die Wende?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziesing, Hans-Joachim

    2015-05-15

    In 2014 total CO{sub 2} emissions in Germany showed their first ever significant drop. In absolute terms they were as much as 5% lower than in the previous year, while corrected for temperature the decrease was still around 2%. Total greenhouse gas emissions are estimated to have decreased by 4.6% in absolute terms and by 1.7% when corrected for temperature. Judged on the basis of the temperature corrected values the results for 2014 do not yet signify a return to the target course running up to the year 2020 however. To this end greenhouse gas emissions would have had to decrease by at least around 3% in 2014. The need for political action to the protect our climate thus remains urgent.

  12. Adaptation to a warming-drying trend through cropping system adjustment over three decades: A case study in the northern agro-pastural ecotone of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingting; An, Pingli; Pan, Zhihua; Hao, Baozhen; Wang, Liwei; Dong, Zhiqiang; Pan, Xuebiao; Xue, Qingwu

    2015-06-01

    Long-term field monitoring data and historical crop data are useful to assess the impacts of climate change and to manage cropping systems. The objectives of this study are to understand the cropping system response to a warming-drying trend in the northern agro-pastural ecotone (NAE) of China and to document how farmers can adapt to the warming-drying trend by changing cropping system structure and adjusting planting date. The results indicate that a significant warming-drying trend existed in the NAE from 1980 to 2009, and this trend significantly decreased crop (spring wheat, naked oat, and potato) yields. Furthermore, the yield decreased by 16.2%-28.4% with a 1°C increase in maximum temperature and decreased by 6.6%-11.8% with a 10% decrease in precipitation. Considering food security, water use efficiency, and water ecological adaptability in the semi-arid NAE, cropping system structure adjustment (e.g., a shift from wheat to potato as the predominant crop) and planting date adaptation (e.g., a delay in crop planting date) can offset the impact of the warming-drying trend in the NAE. Based on the successful offsetting of the impact of the warming-drying trend in the NAE, we conclude that farmers can reduce the negative effects of climate change and minimize the risk of crop failure by adapting their cropping system structure at the farming level.

  13. Changing trends in diabetes mellitus in pregnancy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Khalifeh, A

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify any changing trends in the incidence and caesarean section (CS) rate of pre-gestational diabetes mellitus (DM) and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) over a 10- year period, between 1999 and 2008. Although the incidence of pre-gestational DM has not significantly changed over the course of the last 10 years, there is an obvious rising trend in the incidence of GDM. Despite an increase in the overall CS rate during this time period, a parallel increase in the CS rate has not been observed among women whose pregnancies are complicated either by gestational or by pre-gestational diabetes (PGD).

  14. Quantitative Communication Research: Review, Trends, and Critique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy R. Levine

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Trends in quantitative communication research are reviewed. A content analysis of 48 articles reporting original communication research published in 1988-1991 and 2008-2011 is reported. Survey research and self-report measurement remain common approaches to research. Null hypothesis significance testing remains the dominant approach to statistical analysis. Reporting the shapes of distributions, estimates of statistical power, and confidence intervals remain uncommon. Trends over time include the increased popularity of health communication and computer mediated communication as topics of research, and increased attention to mediator and moderator variables. The implications of these practices for scientific progress are critically discussed, and suggestions for the future are provided.

  15. Econophysics — complex correlations and trend switchings in financial time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preis, T.

    2011-03-01

    This article focuses on the analysis of financial time series and their correlations. A method is used for quantifying pattern based correlations of a time series. With this methodology, evidence is found that typical behavioral patterns of financial market participants manifest over short time scales, i.e., that reactions to given price patterns are not entirely random, but that similar price patterns also cause similar reactions. Based on the investigation of the complex correlations in financial time series, the question arises, which properties change when switching from a positive trend to a negative trend. An empirical quantification by rescaling provides the result that new price extrema coincide with a significant increase in transaction volume and a significant decrease in the length of corresponding time intervals between transactions. These findings are independent of the time scale over 9 orders of magnitude, and they exhibit characteristics which one can also find in other complex systems in nature (and in physical systems in particular). These properties are independent of the markets analyzed. Trends that exist only for a few seconds show the same characteristics as trends on time scales of several months. Thus, it is possible to study financial bubbles and their collapses in more detail, because trend switching processes occur with higher frequency on small time scales. In addition, a Monte Carlo based simulation of financial markets is analyzed and extended in order to reproduce empirical features and to gain insight into their causes. These causes include both financial market microstructure and the risk aversion of market participants.

  16. Interpreting space-based trends in carbon monoxide with multiple models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Strode

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We use a series of chemical transport model and chemistry climate model simulations to investigate the observed negative trends in MOPITT CO over several regions of the world, and to examine the consistency of time-dependent emission inventories with observations. We find that simulations driven by the MACCity inventory, used for the Chemistry Climate Modeling Initiative (CCMI, reproduce the negative trends in the CO column observed by MOPITT for 2000–2010 over the eastern United States and Europe. However, the simulations have positive trends over eastern China, in contrast to the negative trends observed by MOPITT. The model bias in CO, after applying MOPITT averaging kernels, contributes to the model–observation discrepancy in the trend over eastern China. This demonstrates that biases in a model's average concentrations can influence the interpretation of the temporal trend compared to satellite observations. The total ozone column plays a role in determining the simulated tropospheric CO trends. A large positive anomaly in the simulated total ozone column in 2010 leads to a negative anomaly in OH and hence a positive anomaly in CO, contributing to the positive trend in simulated CO. These results demonstrate that accurately simulating variability in the ozone column is important for simulating and interpreting trends in CO.

  17. Ambient air quality trends in Alberta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    This document provided an overview of ambient air pollutant trends in Alberta. The report discussed the following pollutants having effect on human and environmental health: carbon monoxide (CO), hydrogen sulphide (H2 S ), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ), sulphur dioxide (SO 2 ), ozone (O 3 ), fine particulate matter (PM 2 .5), benzene, and benzopyrene. Each of these pollutants was described. The report provided data on annual average concentration trends and annual 99th percentile concentration as an indicator of peak concentrations. A map illustrating air quality monitoring stations in 2006 was also provided. The findings revealed that mean annual CO levels were the lowest they have been since 1990; hydrogen sulphide concentrations have fluctuated in time since 1990; most Edmonton and Calgary area stations showed significant decreasing trends in annual average NO 2 levels since 1990; and higher SO 2 concentrations have been found in the industrial areas of Alberta, such as the Redwater and Scotford oil sands locations. tabs., figs

  18. Reproductive factors and risk of hormone receptor positive and negative breast cancer: a cohort study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritte, Rebecca; Grote, Verena; Boeing, Heiner; Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Palli, Domenico; Berrino, Franco; Mattiello, Amalia; Tumino, Rosario; Tikk, Kaja; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Quirós, José Ramón; Buckland, Genevieve; Molina-Montes, Esther; Chirlaque, María-Dolores; Ardanaz, Eva; Amiano, Pilar; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Gils, Carla H van; Peeters, Petra HM; Lukanova, Annekatrin; Wareham, Nick; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Key, Timothy J; Travis, Ruth C; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Dumeaux, Vanessa; Lund, Eliv; Sund, Malin; Andersson, Anne; Romieu, Isabelle; Tjønneland, Anne; Rinaldi, Sabina; Vineis, Paulo; Merritt, Melissa A; Riboli, Elio; Kaaks, Rudolf; Olsen, Anja; Overvad, Kim; Dossus, Laure; Fournier, Agnès; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise

    2013-01-01

    The association of reproductive factors with hormone receptor (HR)-negative breast tumors remains uncertain. Within the EPIC cohort, Cox proportional hazards models were used to describe the relationships of reproductive factors (menarcheal age, time between menarche and first pregnancy, parity, number of children, age at first and last pregnancies, time since last full-term childbirth, breastfeeding, age at menopause, ever having an abortion and use of oral contraceptives [OC]) with risk of ER-PR- (n = 998) and ER+PR+ (n = 3,567) breast tumors. A later first full-term childbirth was associated with increased risk of ER+PR+ tumors but not with risk of ER-PR- tumors (≥35 vs. ≤19 years HR: 1.47 [95% CI 1.15-1.88] p trend < 0.001 for ER+PR+ tumors; ≥35 vs. ≤19 years HR: 0.93 [95% CI 0.53-1.65] p trend = 0.96 for ER-PR- tumors; P het = 0.03). The risk associations of menarcheal age, and time period between menarche and first full-term childbirth with ER-PR-tumors were in the similar direction with risk of ER+PR+ tumors (p het = 0.50), although weaker in magnitude and statistically only borderline significant. Other parity related factors such as ever a full-term birth, number of births, age- and time since last birth were associated only with ER+PR+ malignancies, however no statistical heterogeneity between breast cancer subtypes was observed. Breastfeeding and OC use were generally not associated with breast cancer subtype risk. Our study provides possible evidence that age at menarche, and time between menarche and first full-term childbirth may be associated with the etiology of both HR-negative and HR-positive malignancies, although the associations with HR-negative breast cancer were only borderline significant

  19. A Global Assessment of Long-Term Greening and Browning Trends in Pasture Lands Using the GIMMS LAI3g Dataset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin I. Cook

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Pasture ecosystems may be particularly vulnerable to land degradation due to the high risk of human disturbance (e.g., overgrazing, burning, etc., especially when compared with natural ecosystems (non-pasture, non-cultivated where direct human impacts are minimal. Using maximum annual leaf area index (LAImax as a proxy for standing biomass and peak annual aboveground productivity, we analyze greening and browning trends in pasture areas from 1982–2008. Inter-annual variability in pasture productivity is strongly controlled by precipitation (positive correlation and, to a lesser extent, temperature (negative correlation. Linear temporal trends are significant in 23% of pasture cells, with the vast majority of these areas showing positive LAImax trends. Spatially extensive productivity declines are only found in a few regions, most notably central Asia, southwest North America, and southeast Australia. Statistically removing the influence of precipitation reduces LAImax trends by only 13%, suggesting that precipitation trends are only a minor contributor to long-term greening and browning of pasture lands. No significant global relationship was found between LAImax and pasture intensity, although the magnitude of trends did vary between cells classified as natural versus pasture. In the tropics and Southern Hemisphere, the median rate of greening in pasture cells is significantly higher than for cells dominated by natural vegetation. In the Northern Hemisphere extra-tropics, conversely, greening of natural areas is 2–4 times the magnitude of greening in pasture areas. This analysis presents one of the first global assessments of greening and browning trends in global pasture lands, including a comparison with vegetation trends in regions dominated by natural ecosystems. Our results suggest that degradation of pasture lands is not a globally widespread phenomenon and, consistent with much of the terrestrial biosphere, there have been widespread

  20. Recent trends in sea surface temperature off Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lluch-Cota, S.E.; Tripp-Valdéz, M.; Lluch-Cota, D.B.; Lluch-Belda, D.; Verbesselt, J.; Herrera-Cervantes, H.; Bautista-Romero, J.

    2013-01-01

    Changes in global mean sea surface temperature may have potential negative implications for natural and socioeconomic systems; however, measurements to predict trends in different regions have been limited and sometimes contradictory. In this study, an assessment of sea surface temperature change

  1. Trends in contemporary mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Strickland, Elisabetta

    2014-01-01

    This book covers a wide spectrum of hot topics and current trends in mathematics, including noncommutative algebra via deformation theory,  optimal transportation, nonlinear potential theory, kinetic theory and gas dynamics, geometric numerical integration, finite simple groups of small essential dimension, optimal control problems, extended Dynkin diagrams, spin glasses, aspherical closed manifolds, Boltzmann systems, birational geometry of projective varieties and directed graphs, nonlinear diffusion, geometric constructions of extremal metrics on complex manifolds, and Pell’s equation in polynomials. The book comprises a selection of contributions by leading international mathematicians who were speakers at the "INdAM Day", an initiative dating back to 2004 at which the most recent developments in contemporary mathematics are presented.

  2. Trends: cyborg games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Yeoman

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – Wearable technologies are a near future concept and cyborgs are in fact reality. The authors’ proposition is how cyborgisation could and will occur. The paper aims to discuss this issue. Design/methodology/approach – The approach used by this paper is a general review. Findings – The authors explain how the line between humans and technology is becoming more and more blurred as this trends paper explores the concepts of singularity and cyborgs as a future state highlighting the world's first cyborg games. Originality/value – The paper contributes to our understanding that science fiction is fiction to some but reality to others depending on a person's cognition and insight.

  3. Socioeconomic trends in radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barneveld Binkhuysen, F.H.

    1998-01-01

    For radiology the socioeconomic environment is a topic of increasing importance. In addition to the well-known important scientific developments in radiology such as interventional MRI, several other major trends can be recognized: (1) changes in the delivery of health care, in which all kinds of managed care are developing and will influence the practice of radiology, and (2) the process of computerization and digitization. The socioeconomic environment of radiology will be transformed by the developments in managed care, teleradiology and the integration of information systems. If radiologists want to manage future radiology departments they must have an understanding of the changes in the fields of economics and politics that are taking place and that will increasingly influence radiology. Some important and recognizable aspects of these changes will be described here. (orig.)

  4. Trends in cochlear implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Fan-Gang

    2004-01-01

    More than 60,000 people worldwide use cochlear implants as a means to restore functional hearing. Although individual performance variability is still high, an average implant user can talk on the phone in a quiet environment. Cochlear-implant research has also matured as a field, as evidenced by the exponential growth in both the patient population and scientific publication. The present report examines current issues related to audiologic, clinical, engineering, anatomic, and physiologic aspects of cochlear implants, focusing on their psychophysical, speech, music, and cognitive performance. This report also forecasts clinical and research trends related to presurgical evaluation, fitting protocols, signal processing, and postsurgical rehabilitation in cochlear implants. Finally, a future landscape in amplification is presented that requires a unique, yet complementary, contribution from hearing aids, middle ear implants, and cochlear implants to achieve a total solution to the entire spectrum of hearing loss treatment and management.

  5. Dual purpose or not? The significant factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bak, W.; Roland, V.

    1999-01-01

    The development of spent fuel storage systems requires consideration of many factors in making design decisions. A significant issue affecting the design is the need to incorporate transportability of the canister or cask system design, which results in major changes to the storage system design. This paper presents a review of the significant factors affecting storage system design to incorporate transportation requirements and looks at the trends in both the United States and Europe where Transnucleaire and its US affiliated companies Transnuclear Inc., Transnuclear West and PacTec are active. A discussion is also presented relative to the pros and cons of whether the spent fuel storage system vendor should anticipate these transportation needs in the design of their systems. (author)

  6. Variability of the total ozone trend over Europe for the period 1950─2004 derived from reconstructed data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Borkowski

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The total ozone data over Europe are available for only few ground-based stations in the pre-satellite era disallowing examination of the spatial trend variability over the whole continent. A need of having gridded ozone data for a trend analysis and input to radiative transfer models stimulated a reconstruction of the daily ozone values since January 1950. Description of the reconstruction model and its validation were a subject of our previous paper. The data base used was built within the objectives of the COST action 726 "Long-term changes and climatology of UV radiation over Europe". Here we focus on trend analyses. The long-term variability of total ozone is discussed using results of a flexible trend model applied to the reconstructed total ozone data for the period 1950–2004. The trend pattern, which comprises both anthropogenic and "natural" component, is not a priori assumed but it comes from a smooth curve fit to the zonal monthly means and monthly grid values. The ozone long-term changes are calculated separately for cold (October–next year April and warm (May–September seasons. The confidence intervals for the estimated ozone changes are derived by the block bootstrapping. The statistically significant negative trends are found almost over the whole Europe only in the period 1985–1994. Negative trends up to −3% per decade appeared over small areas in earlier periods when the anthropogenic forcing on the ozone layer was weak . The statistically positive trends are found only during warm seasons 1995–2004 over Svalbard archipelago. The reduction of ozone level in 2004 relative to that before the satellite era is not dramatic, i.e., up to ~−5% and ~−3.5% in the cold and warm subperiod, respectively. Present ozone level is still depleted over many popular resorts in southern Europe and northern Africa. For high latitude regions the trend overturning could be inferred in last decade (1995–2004 as the ozone depleted

  7. Trend assessment: applications for hydrology and climate research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallache, M.; Rust, H. W.; Kropp, J.

    2005-02-01

    The assessment of trends in climatology and hydrology still is a matter of debate. Capturing typical properties of time series, like trends, is highly relevant for the discussion of potential impacts of global warming or flood occurrences. It provides indicators for the separation of anthropogenic signals and natural forcing factors by distinguishing between deterministic trends and stochastic variability. In this contribution river run-off data from gauges in Southern Germany are analysed regarding their trend behaviour by combining a deterministic trend component and a stochastic model part in a semi-parametric approach. In this way the trade-off between trend and autocorrelation structure can be considered explicitly. A test for a significant trend is introduced via three steps: First, a stochastic fractional ARIMA model, which is able to reproduce short-term as well as long-term correlations, is fitted to the empirical data. In a second step, wavelet analysis is used to separate the variability of small and large time-scales assuming that the trend component is part of the latter. Finally, a comparison of the overall variability to that restricted to small scales results in a test for a trend. The extraction of the large-scale behaviour by wavelet analysis provides a clue concerning the shape of the trend.

  8. Interannual variations and trends in global land surface phenology derived from enhanced vegetation index during 1982-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoyang; Tan, Bin; Yu, Yunyue

    2014-05-01

    Land surface phenology is widely retrieved from satellite observations at regional and global scales, and its long-term record has been demonstrated to be a valuable tool for reconstructing past climate variations, monitoring the dynamics of terrestrial ecosystems in response to climate impacts, and predicting biological responses to future climate scenarios. This study detected global land surface phenology from the advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data from 1982 to 2010. Based on daily enhanced vegetation index at a spatial resolution of 0.05 degrees, we simulated the seasonal vegetative trajectory for each individual pixel using piecewise logistic models, which was then used to detect the onset of greenness increase (OGI) and the length of vegetation growing season (GSL). Further, both overall interannual variations and pixel-based trends were examined across Koeppen's climate regions for the periods of 1982-1999 and 2000-2010, respectively. The results show that OGI and GSL varied considerably during 1982-2010 across the globe. Generally, the interannual variation could be more than a month in precipitation-controlled tropical and dry climates while it was mainly less than 15 days in temperature-controlled temperate, cold, and polar climates. OGI, overall, shifted early, and GSL was prolonged from 1982 to 2010 in most climate regions in North America and Asia while the consistently significant trends only occurred in cold climate and polar climate in North America. The overall trends in Europe were generally insignificant. Over South America, late OGI was consistent (particularly from 1982 to 1999) while either positive or negative GSL trends in a climate region were mostly reversed between the periods of 1982-1999 and 2000-2010. In the Northern Hemisphere of Africa, OGI trends were mostly insignificant, but prolonged GSL was evident over individual climate regions during the last 3

  9. Backscattering and negative polarization of agglomerate particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubko, Evgenij; Shkuratov, Yuriy; Hart, Matthew; Eversole, Jay; Videen, Gorden

    2003-09-01

    We used the discrete dipole approximation to study the backscattering of agglomerate particles consisting of oblong monomers. We varied the aspect ratio of the monomers from approximately 1 (sphere) to 4, while we kept the total particle volume equivalent to that of an x = 10 sphere for m = 1.59 + i0 and 1.50 + i0 and considered two values of agglomerate packing density: rho = 0.25 and rho = 0.1. We found that these particles do not display a prominent brightness opposition effect but do produce significant negative polarization over a range of near-backscattering angles. Increasing the monomers' aspect ratio can make the negative polarization much more prominent. We have noted also that decreasing m and p can reduce the amplitude of the negative polarization for these particles.

  10. Prostate cancer trends in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akaza, Hideyuki; Onozawa, Mizuki; Hinotsu, Shiro

    2017-06-01

    Differences in the incidence and mortality rates for prostate cancer between East and West are clearly defined, with higher rates in the West and lower rates in the East. Treatment methods are generally selected in accordance with general practice guidelines, but the current reality in Asia is that there is not sufficient clinical data to set Asia-specific guidelines for treatment. This leads to a situation whereby for the large part guidelines based on scientific evidence accumulated in Western countries are followed, but from time to time cases are encountered when such guidelines may not be considered to be the most appropriate for the case at hand. Although there is a relatively large volume of clinical evidence relating to endocrine therapy in Asia, the treatment choices and effects differ to those in the West. These regional differences are thought to be due to various factors, including not only differences in genetic background, but also distinct differences in the living and healthcare environments. If the differences between East and West in terms of trends in prostate cancer could be examined, with positive aspects being adopted and negative aspects being improved, this could also be expected to be of use in developing a better treatment strategy for prostate cancer. The exchanging of information on a broader, global level will enable improvements in prevention, diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer. It is in pursuit of this objective that it is important to promote high-quality clinical trials and joint epidemiological studies in Asia and work to accumulate data that are comparable to data available in Western countries.

  11. Trends and variability of cloud fraction cover in the Arctic, 1982-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccolari, Mauro; Parmiggiani, Flavio

    2018-05-01

    Climatology, trends and variability of cloud fraction cover (CFC) data over the Arctic (north of 70°N), were analysed over the 1982-2009 period. Data, available from the Climate Monitoring Satellite Application Facility (CM SAF), are derived from satellite measurements by AVHRR. Climatological means confirm permanent high CFC values over the Atlantic sector during all the year and during summer over the eastern Arctic Ocean. Lower values are found in the rest of the analysed area especially over Greenland and the Canadian Archipelago, nearly continuously during all the months. These results are confirmed by CFC trends and variability. Statistically significant trends were found during all the months over the Greenland Sea, particularly during the winter season (negative, less than -5 % dec -1) and over the Beaufort Sea in spring (positive, more than +5 % dec -1). CFC variability, investigated by the Empirical Orthogonal Functions, shows a substantial "non-variability" in the Northern Atlantic Ocean. Statistically significant correlations between CFC principal components elements and both the Pacific Decadal Oscillation index and Pacific North America patterns are found.

  12. Secular trends in growth and nutritional status of Mozambican school-aged children and adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Karina dos Santos

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to examine secular changes in growth and nutritional status of Mozambican children and adolescents between 1992, 1999 and 2012. METHODS: 3374 subjects (1600 boys, 1774 girls, distributed across the three time points (523 subjects in 1992; 1565 in 1999; and 1286 in 2012, were studied. Height and weight were measured, BMI was computed, and WHO cut-points were used to define nutritional status. ANCOVA models were used to compare height, weight and BMI across study years; chi-square was used to determine differences in the nutritional status prevalence across the years. RESULTS: Significant differences for boys were found for height and weight (p2012, and those from 2012 had the highest BMI (1999<2012. In general, similar patterns were observed when mean values were analyzed by age. A positive trend was observed for overweight and obesity prevalences, whereas a negative trend emerged for wasting, stunting-wasting (in boys, and normal-weight (in girls; no clear trend was evident for stunting. CONCLUSION: Significant positive changes in growth and nutritional status were observed among Mozambican youth from 1992 to 2012, which are associated with economic, social and cultural transitional processes, expressing a dual burden in this population, with reduction in malnourished youth in association with an increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity.

  13. Isotropic Negative Thermal Expansion Metamaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lingling; Li, Bo; Zhou, Ji

    2016-07-13

    Negative thermal expansion materials are important and desirable in science and engineering applications. However, natural materials with isotropic negative thermal expansion are rare and usually unsatisfied in performance. Here, we propose a novel method to achieve two- and three-dimensional negative thermal expansion metamaterials via antichiral structures. The two-dimensional metamaterial is constructed with unit cells that combine bimaterial strips and antichiral structures, while the three-dimensional metamaterial is fabricated by a multimaterial 3D printing process. Both experimental and simulation results display isotropic negative thermal expansion property of the samples. The effective coefficient of negative thermal expansion of the proposed models is demonstrated to be dependent on the difference between the thermal expansion coefficient of the component materials, as well as on the circular node radius and the ligament length in the antichiral structures. The measured value of the linear negative thermal expansion coefficient of the three-dimensional sample is among the largest achieved in experiments to date. Our findings provide an easy and practical approach to obtaining materials with tunable negative thermal expansion on any scale.

  14. Stratospheric Temperature Trends Observed by TIMED/SABER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xian, T.; Tan, R.

    2017-12-01

    Trends in the stratospheric temperature are studied based on the temperature profile observation from the Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER). The spatially trends are evaluated in different time scales ranging from decadal to monthly resolved. The results indicate a signature of BDC acceleration. There are strong warming trends (up to 9 K/decade) in the middle to upper stratosphere in the high latitude spring, summer, and autumn seasons, accompanied by strong cooling trends in the lower stratosphere. Besides, strong warming trends occurs through the whole stratosphere over the Southern Hemisphere, which confirms Antarctic ozone layer healing since 2000. In addition, the results demonstrate a significant warming trends in the middle of tropical stratosphere, which becomes strongest during June-July-August.

  15. Airborne pollen trends in the Iberian Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galán, C; Alcázar, P; Oteros, J; García-Mozo, H; Aira, M J; Belmonte, J; Diaz de la Guardia, C; Fernández-González, D; Gutierrez-Bustillo, M; Moreno-Grau, S; Pérez-Badía, R; Rodríguez-Rajo, J; Ruiz-Valenzuela, L; Tormo, R; Trigo, M M; Domínguez-Vilches, E

    2016-04-15

    Airborne pollen monitoring is an effective tool for studying the reproductive phenology of anemophilous plants, an important bioindicator of plant behavior. Recent decades have revealed a trend towards rising airborne pollen concentrations in Europe, attributing these trends to an increase in anthropogenic CO2 emissions and temperature. However, the lack of water availability in southern Europe may prompt a trend towards lower flowering intensity, especially in herbaceous plants. Here we show variations in flowering intensity by analyzing the Annual Pollen Index (API) of 12 anemophilous taxa across 12 locations in the Iberian Peninsula, over the last two decades, and detecting the influence of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). Results revealed differences in the distribution and flowering intensity of anemophilous species. A negative correlation was observed between airborne pollen concentrations and winter averages of the NAO index. This study confirms that changes in rainfall in the Mediterranean region, attributed to climate change, have an important impact on the phenology of plants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Global population trends and policy options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezeh, Alex C; Bongaarts, John; Mberu, Blessing

    2012-07-14

    Rapid population growth is a threat to wellbeing in the poorest countries, whereas very low fertility increasingly threatens the future welfare of many developed countries. The mapping of global trends in population growth from 2005-10 shows four distinct patterns. Most of the poorest countries, especially in sub-Saharan Africa, are characterised by rapid growth of more than 2% per year. Moderate annual growth of 1-2% is concentrated in large countries, such as India and Indonesia, and across north Africa and western Latin America. Whereas most advanced-economy countries and large middle-income countries, such as China and Brazil, are characterised by low or no growth (0-1% per year), most of eastern Europe, Japan, and a few western European countries are characterised by population decline. Countries with rapid growth face adverse social, economic, and environmental pressures, whereas those with low or negative growth face rapid population ageing, unsustainable burdens on public pensions and health-care systems, and slow economic growth. Countries with rapid growth should consider the implementation of voluntary family planning programmes as their main policy option to reduce the high unmet need for contraception, unwanted pregnancies, and probirth reproductive norms. In countries with low or negative growth, policies to address ageing and very low fertility are still evolving. Further research into the potential effect of demographic policies on other social systems, social groups, and fertility decisions and trends is therefore recommended. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Multiculturalism: Affirmative or Negative Action?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Lorna

    1995-01-01

    Defines multicultural groups, discusses the evolution of multiculturalism, analyzes the "one-third myth," which says that America will be one-third minority by the year 2000, discusses statistical multicultural theories, and reviews laws and regulations that provide equality in jobs and education. Also examines multicultural trends in…

  18. Negative Attitudes, Network and Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennett, Patrick; la Cour, Lisbeth; Larsen, Birthe

    , the impact of negative attitudes and networking taking into account that these parameters may influence high and uneducated workers as well as immigrants and natives differently, creating different incentives to acquire education for the two ethnic groups. Using rich Danish administrative data, this paper......This paper explores potential explanations behind the educational gap between young natives and immigrants using two measures, negative attitudes towards immigrants and networking, which may influence natives and immigrants differently. The paper considers, both theoretically and empirically...... finds evidence that greater negative attitudes increase incentives for males to acquire education and that networking also increases immigrant education....

  19. Recent trends in cancer mortality in Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garau, M.; Alonso, R.; Musetti, C.; Barrios, E.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To analyze trends in cancer mortality in Uruguay in the period 1989-2008. Methodology: The National Cancer Registry (NCR) collects information from cancer mortality from the death certificates: 147 631 deaths were identified in the period from cancer, which was recorded topography, sex and age. They were calculated for each year mortality rates adjusted for age (TMAE) using as standard the world population. Trends were assessed using the method and calculated the joinpoint Estimated Annual Percent Change (ESPP). Results: The TMAE presents downward trend in both sexes (ESPP = significant -0.60 in men and -0.49 In women). In the period studied, mortality presented decreasing trend when it comes to cancer breast cancer in women (ESPP -0.79, significant), and increased for prostate cancer (ESPP = 0.70) and kidney (ESPP = 1.82 and 1.71 in men and women respectively). As regards the digestive system decreased mortality observed for esophageal cancer (ESPP in = -1.93 men and women = -1.78) and stomach (ESPP = -2.22 men and women -2.24 ). Mortality for cancer of colorectum is stable in men (ESPP = 0.35 No significant (NS)) and shows a decline slight but steady in women (ESPP -0.5). As for cancers that show strong association with smoking, decreased mortality observed lung and laryngeal cancer in men (ESPP = -1.11 and -2.05 respectively), confirming the trend found between 1990 and 2001; in women there is increased mortality from lung cancer (ESPP = 2.76) that is not accompanied by increased mortality from laryngeal cancer (-0.1 ESPP = NS). Mortality from cancers oral cavity and pharynx is stable, but in women a significant increase (ESPP = 1.84) is observed when the oral cavity is analyzed in isolation (lip, tongue, gums, palate). As cervical cancer, mortality trends in 20 years is to increase (ESPP = 1.14), however, if consider only the past decade, mortality appears stabilized (ESPP = 0.57 NS). Conclusions: The overall trend of cancer mortality (all sites

  20. Spatial and Temporal Trends of Snowfall in Central New York - A Lake Effect Dominated Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartnett, Justin Joseph

    Central New York is located in one of the snowiest regions in the United States, with the city of Syracuse, New York the snowiest metropolis in the nation. Snowfall in the region generally begins in mid-November and lasts until late-March. Snow accumulation occurs from a multitude of conditions: frontal systems, mid-latitude cyclones, Nor'easters, and most notably lake-effect storms. Lake effect snowfall (LES) is a difficult parameter to forecast due to the isolated and highly variable nature of the storm. Consequently, studies have attempted to determine changes in snowfall for lake-effect dominated regions. Annual snowfall patterns are of particular concern as seasonal snowfall totals are vital for water resources, winter businesses, agriculture, government and state agencies, and much more. Through the use of snowfall, temperature, precipitation, and location data from the National Weather Service's Cooperative Observer Program (COOP), spatial and temporal changes in snowfall for Central New York were determined. In order to determine climatic changes in snowfall, statistical analyses were performed (i.e. least squares estimation, correlations, principal component analyses, etc.) and spatial maps analyzed. Once snowfall trends were determined, factors influencing the trends were examined. Long-term snowfall trends for CNY were positive for original stations (˜0.46 +/- 0.20 in. yr -1) and homogenously filtered stations (0.23 +/- 0.20 in. yr -1). However, snowfall trends for shorter time-increments within the long-term period were not consistent, as positive, negative, and neutral trends were calculated. Regional differences in snowfall trends were observed for CNY as typical lake-effect areas (northern counties, the Tug Hill Plateau and the Southern Hills) experienced larger snowfall trends than areas less dominated by LES. Typical lake-effect months (December - February) experienced the greatest snowfall trend in CNY compared to other winter months. The

  1. Presence and significance of TT virus in Danish patients on maintenance hemodialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boysen, Trine; Christensen, Jens K; Madsen, Chris D

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of TT virus (TTV) in a population of Danish hemodialysis patients and evaluate possible relations between TTV infection and elevated levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) and hypo-response to treatment with erythropoietin (EPO). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Patients......-positive patients were significantly older than TTV-negative patients (p = 0.011). No relations were found between TTV infection and elevated levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) or CRP or hypo-response to EPO treatment. The mean hemoglobin concentration was 11.24 +/- 1.48 g/dl. Patients with a high TTV viral...... load had a lower level of hemoglobin (10.86 +/- 1.47 g/dl) than the others (p = 0.01). This trend suggested a positive relation between TTV infection and the number of blood transfusions. A restriction fragment length polymorphism assay suggested that patients were infected with different TTV strains...

  2. Presence and significance of TT virus in Danish patients on maintenance hemodialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boysen, T.; Christensen, J. K.; Madsen, C. D.

    2003-01-01

    -positive patients were significantly older than TTV-negative patients (p = 0.011). No relations were found between TTV infection and elevated levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) or CRP or hypo-response to EPO treatment. The mean hemoglobin concentration was 11.24 +/- 1.48 g/dl. Patients with a high TTV viral...... load had a lower level of hemoglobin (10.86 +/- 1.47 g/dl) than the others (p = 0.01). This trend suggested a positive relation between TTV infection and the number of blood transfusions. A restriction fragment length polymorphism assay suggested that patients were infected with different TTV strains......Objectives: To determine the prevalence of TT virus (TTV) in a population of Danish hemodialysis patients and evaluate possible relations between TTV infection and elevated levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) and hypo-response to treatment with erythropoietin (EPO). Material and Methods: Patients...

  3. Recent negative ion source developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alton, G.D.

    1978-01-01

    This report describes recent results obtained from studies associated with the development of negative ion sources which utilize sputtering in a diffuse cesium plasma as a means of ion beam generation. Data are presented which relate negative ion yield and important operational parameters such as cesium oven temperature and sputter probe voltage from each of the following sources: (1) A source based in principle according to the University of Aarhus design and (2) an axial geometry source. The important design aspects of the sources are given--along with a list of the negative ion intensities observed to date. Also a qualitative description and interpretation of the negative ion generation mechanism in sources which utilize sputtering in the presence of cesium is given

  4. Negative Mood Increases Selective Attention to Negatively Valenced Body Parts in Female Adolescents with Anorexia Nervosa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Svaldi

    Full Text Available Previous research has yielded evidence of increased attentional processing of negatively valenced body parts in women with anorexia nervosa (AN, especially for those with high depressive symptomatology. The present study extended previous research by implementing an experimental mood manipulation.In a within-subjects design, female adolescents with AN (n = 12 and an age matched female control group (CG; n = 12 were given a negative and a positive mood induction at a one-week interval. After each mood induction, participants underwent a 3-min mirror exposure, while their eye movements were recorded.After the positive mood induction, both AN and CG participants displayed longer and more frequent gazes towards their self-defined most ugly relative to their self-defined most beautiful body part. However, after the negative mood induction, only females with AN were characterized by increased attention to their most ugly compared to their most beautiful body part, while CG participants' attention distribution was balanced. Furthermore, in the negative (but not in the positive mood induction condition gaze frequency and duration towards the most ugly body part was significantly stronger in the AN group relative to the CG.The results emphasize the role of negative mood in the maintenance of pathological information processing of the self-body. This increased body-related negativity-bias during negative mood may lead to the persistence and aggravation of AN patients' body image disturbance.

  5. Latitudinal and interhemispheric variation of stratospheric effects on mesospheric ice layer trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lübken, F.-J.; Berger, U.

    2011-02-01

    Latitudinal and interhemispheric differences of model results on trends in mesospheric ice layers and background conditions are analyzed. The model nudges to European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts data below ˜45 km. Greenhouse gas concentrations in the mesosphere are kept constant. Temperature trends in the mesosphere mainly come from shrinking of the stratosphere and from dynamical effects. Water vapor increases at noctilucent cloud (NLC) heights and decreases above due to increased freeze drying caused by temperature trends. There is no tendency for ice clouds in the Northern Hemisphere for extending farther southward with time. Trends of NLC albedo are similar to satellite measurements, but only if a time period longer than observations is considered. Ice cloud trends get smaller if albedo thresholds relevant to satellite instruments are applied, in particular at high polar latitudes. This implies that weak and moderate NLC is favored when background conditions improve for NLC formation, whereas strong NLC benefits less. Trends of ice cloud parameters are generally smaller in the Southern Hemisphere (SH) compared to the Northern Hemisphere (NH), consistent with observations. Trends in background conditions have counteracting effects on NLC: temperature trends would suggest stronger ice increase in the SH, and water vapor trends would suggest a weaker increase. Larger trends in NLC brightness or occurrence rates are not necessarily associated with larger (more negative) temperature trends. They can also be caused by larger trends of water vapor caused by larger freeze drying, which in turn can be caused by generally lower temperatures and/or more background water. Trends of NLC brightness and occurrence rates decrease with decreasing latitude in both hemispheres. The latitudinal variation of these trends is primarily determined by induced water vapor trends. Trends in NLC altitudes are generally small. Stratospheric temperature trends vary

  6. Trend analysis of journal metrics: a new academic library service?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokol, Peter

    2017-07-01

    Temporal trends in source normalized impact per paper (SNIP) values for the three top-ranking nursing journals were analyzed and compared to explore whether predicting future SNIP values based on trend analysis could be an innovative service provided by librarians. The International Journal of Nursing Studies, Journal of Nursing Scholarship, and Journal of Advanced Nursing were the three top-ranked nursing journals according to 2015 SNIP values. SNIP values for the selected journals were retrieved from the Scopus database, and extracted data were exported to Joinpoint trend analysis software to perform trend analysis. The trend in SNIP values for the International Journal of Nursing Studies was the most stable and positive, whereas the trend in SNIP values for the Journal of Advanced Nursing was the most negative. The annual percentage change of the most recent trend line, which is the best indicator for predicting future SNIP values, was the largest for the International Journal of Nursing Studies. Predictions of journal metrics based on statistical joinpoint regression may not be completely accurate. Using this technique, however, a librarian can reasonably claim which journal will retain or even improve its prestige in the future and thus safely advise prospective authors on where to publish their research.

  7. Ferroelectric Negative Capacitance Domain Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Hoffmann, Michael; Khan, Asif Islam; Serrao, Claudy; Lu, Zhongyuan; Salahuddin, Sayeef; Pešić, Milan; Slesazeck, Stefan; Schroeder, Uwe; Mikolajick, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Transient negative capacitance effects in epitaxial ferroelectric Pb(Zr$_{0.2}$Ti$_{0.8}$)O$_3$ capacitors are investigated with a focus on the dynamical switching behavior governed by domain nucleation and growth. Voltage pulses are applied to a series connection of the ferroelectric capacitor and a resistor to directly measure the ferroelectric negative capacitance during switching. A time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau approach is used to investigate the underlying domain dynamics. The transien...

  8. Negative magnetic relaxation in superconductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krasnoperov E.P.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It was observed that the trapped magnetic moment of HTS tablets or annuli increases in time (negative relaxation if they are not completely magnetized by a pulsed magnetic field. It is shown, in the framework of the Bean critical-state model, that the radial temperature gradient appearing in tablets or annuli during a pulsed field magnetization can explain the negative magnetic relaxation in the superconductor.

  9. [Trends in hospital care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecina Neto, Gonzalo; Malik, Ana Maria

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyses trends in the delivery of hospital services in Brazil, considering the setting, the current situation and its challenges, examining what still remains to be done. The variables studied for the analysis of the setting are: demography, epidemiological profile, human resources, technology, medicalization, costs, review of the role of the citizen, legislation, equity, hospital-centricity and regionalization, care fractioning and bed availability. The Brazilian setting was studied through the supplementary healthcare model, financing and the healthcare area production chain. The observations of the current situation present external evaluation models, outsourcing, public-private relationships, de-hospitalization and financing. The analysis of the challenges examines the need for long range planning, the quest for new legal models for the 'business', the use of information and information systems, cost controls and the need for enhanced efficiency and compliance with legal directives, guaranteed universal access to full healthcare facilities, the inclusion of primary prevention in healthcare procedures, integrating the public and private sectors and engaging physicians in solving problems.

  10. Future trends in reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rouyer, H.

    1994-01-01

    This paper about future trends in reprocessing essentially reflects French experience and points of view as an example of countries which, like England and Japan, consider that reprocessing is the best solution for the back end of the fuel cycle. In order to know what the future will be, it is necessary to look back at the past and try to find what have been the main reasons for evolution in that period. For reprocessing, it appears that these motivations have been 'safety and economics'. They will remain the motivations for the future. In addition, new motivations for development are starting to appear which are still imprecise but can be expressed as follows: 'which guarantees will public opinion require in order to be convinced that solutions for waste management, proposed by specialists shall ensure that a healthy environment is preserved for the use of future generations'. Consequently the paper examines successively the evolution of reprocessing in the recent past, what the immediate future could be and finally what should be necessary in the long term. (Author)

  11. CLOUD COMPUTING TECHNOLOGY TRENDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian IVANUS

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing has been a tremendous innovation, through which applications became available online, accessible through an Internet connection and using any computing device (computer, smartphone or tablet. According to one of the most recent studies conducted in 2012 by Everest Group and Cloud Connect, 57% of companies said they already use SaaS application (Software as a Service, and 38% reported using standard tools PaaS (Platform as a Service. However, in the most cases, the users of these solutions highlighted the fact that one of the main obstacles in the development of this technology is the fact that, in cloud, the application is not available without an Internet connection. The new challenge of the cloud system has become now the offline, specifically accessing SaaS applications without being connected to the Internet. This topic is directly related to user productivity within companies as productivity growth is one of the key promises of cloud computing system applications transformation. The aim of this paper is the presentation of some important aspects related to the offline cloud system and regulatory trends in the European Union (EU.

  12. Trends in GCC technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmoe, L.E.; Ip, S.

    1992-01-01

    Over the last next decade, a combination of technical, environmental, and economic trends will encourage the commercial deployment of gasification combined cycle (GCC) technology. In the near-term, gas-fired combined cycles will likely be the economic and environmental technology of choice due to currently attractive natural gas prices. As gas prices increase over the next decade, GCC plants will become competitive and, in many cases, more economic than gas-fired options. This paper reports that the degree of penetration of GCC technology into the market will depend to some extent on the successful demonstration of a variety of technology enhancements. Many of these advancements will be proven in projects currently in progress, while others are still on the drawing boards. The first wave of GCC projects will likely take advantage of niche situations or benefit from government funding. but as GCC economics become more widely favorable, the plants will benefit from their flexibility to match grassroots, repowering, refueling, cogeneration, and chemical coproduction opportunities

  13. Trends in nutrients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heathwaite, A.L.; Johnes, P.J.; Peters, N.E.

    1996-01-01

    The roles of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) as key nutrients determining the trophic status of water bodies are examined, and evidence reviewed for trends in concentrations of N and P species which occur in freshwaters, primarily in northern temperate environments. Data are reported for water bodies undergoing eutrophication and acidification, especially water bodies receiving increased nitrogen inputs through the atmospheric deposition of nitrogen oxides (NOx). Nutrient loading on groundwaters and surface freshwaters is assessed with respect to causes and rates of (change, relative rates of change for N and P, and implications of change for the future management of lakes, rivers and groundwaters. In particular, the nature and emphasis of studies for N species and P fractions in lakes versus rivers and groundwaters are contrasted. This review paper primarily focuses on results from North America and Europe, particularly for the UK where a wide range of data sets exists. Few nutrient loading data have been published on water bodies in less developed countries; however, some of the available data are presented to provide a global perspective. In general, N and P concentrations have increased dramatically (>20 times background concentrations) in many areas and causes vary considerably, ranging from urbanization to changes in agricultural practices.

  14. Ozone trends at northern mid- and high latitudes – a European perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. R. P. Harris

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The EU CANDIDOZ project investigated the chemical and dynamical influences on decadal ozone trends focusing on the Northern Hemisphere. High quality long-term ozone data sets, satellite-based as well as ground-based, and the long-term meteorological reanalyses from ECMWF and NCEP are used together with advanced multiple regression models and atmospheric models to assess the relative roles of chemistry and transport in stratospheric ozone changes. This overall synthesis of the individual analyses in CANDIDOZ shows clearly one common feature in the NH mid latitudes and in the Arctic: an almost monotonic negative trend from the late 1970s to the mid 1990s followed by an increase. In most trend studies, the Equivalent Effective Stratospheric Chlorine (EESC which peaked in 1997 as a consequence of the Montreal Protocol was observed to describe ozone loss better than a simple linear trend. Furthermore, all individual analyses point to changes in dynamical drivers, such as the residual circulation (responsible for the meridional transport of ozone into middle and high latitudes playing a key role in the observed turnaround. The changes in ozone transport are associated with variations in polar chemical ozone loss via heterogeneous ozone chemistry on PSCs (polar stratospheric clouds. Synoptic scale processes as represented by the new equivalent latitude proxy, by conventional tropopause altitude or by 250 hPa geopotential height have also been successfully linked to the recent ozone increases in the lowermost stratosphere. These show significant regional variation with a large impact over Europe and seem to be linked to changes in tropospheric climate patterns such as the North Atlantic Oscillation. Some influence in recent ozone increases was also attributed to the rise in solar cycle number 23. Changes from the late 1970s to the mid 1990s were found in a number of characteristics of the Arctic vortex. However, only one trend was found when more recent

  15. Steric and mass-induced Mediterranean sea level trends from 14 years of altimetry data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criado-Aldeanueva, Francisco; Del Río Vera, Jorge; García-Lafuente, Jesús

    2008-02-01

    Long-term series of almost 14 years of altimetry data (1992-2005) have been analysed along with Sea Surface Temperature (SST) and temperature and salinity profiles to investigate sea level trends over the Mediterranean Sea. Although sea level variations are mainly driven by the steric contribution, the mass-induced component plays some role in modulating its oscillation. A spatially averaged positive trend of 2.1 ± 0.6 mm/year has been observed, but a change in sign in 2001 seems to appear. Steric effects (mainly on thermal origin) account for ˜ 55% of sea level trend. Although Mediterranean Sea is a semi-enclosed basin, this value is comparable to that reported for the global ocean. Sea level rise is particularly important in the Levantine basin south of Crete with values up to 10 ± 1 mm/year. Other areas of sea level rise are localised throughout the Levantine basin and in the Adriatic and Alboran Seas, with more moderate values. Sea level drop areas are localised in the Algerian basin, between the Balearic Islands and the African coasts and, particularly, in the Ionian basin. In this area, negative trends as high as - 10 ± 0.8 mm/year are detected mainly due to the mass-induced contribution, which suggests decadal changes of surface circulation. The inferred sea level trends have been correlated with North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) indices and a low but significant correlation has been detected between sea level in the Levantine and Balearic basins and NAO index.

  16. Current Trends in Neonatal Tracheostomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaiah, Amal; Moyer, Kelly; Pereira, Kevin D

    2016-08-01

    The indications for neonatal tracheostomy may have changed with current noninvasive respiratory therapies compared with previous decades. To study the current trends in neonatal tracheostomy and identify the primary indication for the procedure and risk factors for failed extubation. This retrospective medical record review included 47 neonates who underwent tracheostomy from January 1, 2009, to December 31, 2013, at the University of Maryland Children's Hospital. Group 1 included infants undergoing tracheostomy for the primary indication of upper airway obstruction; group 2, infants with primary pulmonary disease. Data on weight, gestational age, comorbid conditions, congenital abnormalities, complications, outcomes, and indications for tracheostomy were compared statistically between groups. Differences in gestational age, birth weight, and age at tracheostomy. Among the 47 infants included in the study (30 boys; 17 girls, mean [SD] age, 113 [73] days), 31 (66%) demonstrated anatomical causes of airway obstruction, and 16 (34%) had significant pulmonary disease. Among infants with anatomical causes, subglottic stenosis represented the largest group (11 of 31 [35%]). The mean age at the time of tracheostomy was significantly lower in the group with airway obstruction (98.9 vs 146.9 days; difference, 48 [95% CI, 4.8-91.2] days; P = .04). No procedure-related morbidity or mortality was encountered. Anatomical upper airway obstruction may be returning as the most common indication for a neonatal tracheostomy, thereby supporting the belief that current respiratory therapies have lowered the burden of chronic lung disease and the need for prolonged ventilatory care.

  17. Trends in Global Vegetation Activity and Climatic Drivers Indicate a Decoupled Response to Climate Change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonius G T Schut

    Full Text Available Detailed understanding of a possible decoupling between climatic drivers of plant productivity and the response of ecosystems vegetation is required. We compared trends in six NDVI metrics (1982-2010 derived from the GIMMS3g dataset with modelled biomass productivity and assessed uncertainty in trend estimates. Annual total biomass weight (TBW was calculated with the LINPAC model. Trends were determined using a simple linear regression, a Thiel-Sen medium slope and a piecewise regression (PWR with two segments. Values of NDVI metrics were related to Net Primary Production (MODIS-NPP and TBW per biome and land-use type. The simple linear and Thiel-Sen trends did not differ much whereas PWR increased the fraction of explained variation, depending on the NDVI metric considered. A positive trend in TBW indicating more favorable climatic conditions was found for 24% of pixels on land, and for 5% a negative trend. A decoupled trend, indicating positive TBW trends and monotonic negative or segmented and negative NDVI trends, was observed for 17-36% of all productive areas depending on the NDVI metric used. For only 1-2% of all pixels in productive areas, a diverging and greening trend was found despite a strong negative trend in TBW. The choice of NDVI metric used strongly affected outcomes on regional scales and differences in the fraction of explained variation in MODIS-NPP between biomes were large, and a combination of NDVI metrics is recommended for global studies. We have found an increasing difference between trends in climatic drivers and observed NDVI for large parts of the globe. Our findings suggest that future scenarios must consider impacts of constraints on plant growth such as extremes in weather and nutrient availability to predict changes in NPP and CO2 sequestration capacity.

  18. SM-1 negative ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Zhenjun; Wang Jianzhen

    1987-01-01

    The working principle and characteristics of SM-1 Negative Ion Source is mainly introduced. In the instrument, there is a device to remove O 3 . This instrument can keep high density of negative ions which is generated by the electrical coronas setting out electricity at negative high voltage and can remove the O 3 component which is harmful to the human body. The density of negative ions is higher than 2.5 x 10 6 p./cm 3 while that of O 3 components is less than 1 ppb at the distance of 50 cm from the panel of the instrument. The instrument sprays negative ions automatically without the help of electric fan, so it works noiselessly. It is widely used in national defence, industry, agriculture, forestry, stock raising, sidelines and in the places with an equipment of low density of negative ion or high concentration of O 3 components. Besides, the instrument may also be used to treat diseases, to prevent against rot, to arrest bacteria, to purify air and so on

  19. Ferroelectric negative capacitance domain dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Michael; Khan, Asif Islam; Serrao, Claudy; Lu, Zhongyuan; Salahuddin, Sayeef; Pešić, Milan; Slesazeck, Stefan; Schroeder, Uwe; Mikolajick, Thomas

    2018-05-01

    Transient negative capacitance effects in epitaxial ferroelectric Pb(Zr0.2Ti0.8)O3 capacitors are investigated with a focus on the dynamical switching behavior governed by domain nucleation and growth. Voltage pulses are applied to a series connection of the ferroelectric capacitor and a resistor to directly measure the ferroelectric negative capacitance during switching. A time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau approach is used to investigate the underlying domain dynamics. The transient negative capacitance is shown to originate from reverse domain nucleation and unrestricted domain growth. However, with the onset of domain coalescence, the capacitance becomes positive again. The persistence of the negative capacitance state is therefore limited by the speed of domain wall motion. By changing the applied electric field, capacitor area or external resistance, this domain wall velocity can be varied predictably over several orders of magnitude. Additionally, detailed insights into the intrinsic material properties of the ferroelectric are obtainable through these measurements. A new method for reliable extraction of the average negative capacitance of the ferroelectric is presented. Furthermore, a simple analytical model is developed, which accurately describes the negative capacitance transient time as a function of the material properties and the experimental boundary conditions.

  20. Global Energy Trends - 2016 edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    of CO_2 emissions is good news compared to previous years. This is mainly due to the relative weakness of economic growth. Achieving the goals discussed at the COP21 (1.5 to 2 deg. temperature increase by the end of the century), in fact requires a lasting stagnation of global energy consumption and a strong reduction of CO_2 emissions. Thus, with a global GDP growth assumption of 3% per year, this would imply an average carbon intensity reduction target of 5 to 6% per year... (Source: EnerFuture Scenarios - Enerdata) If energy consumption is stagnating, however, we find different trends according to the markets: The oil market is particularly linked to the transport sector; the increase in demand recorded in 2015 (+2%) derives primarily from the increase in vehicle fleet (China, India...) and to a lesser extent from lower prices (particularly in the US). The decline in investments in the upstream sector leaves us to predict, however, a decrease in mid-term production capacity and new pressure on supply/demand.. Gas demand remained stable in 2015: The structural increase continues in the US (replacing coal); in a more cyclical manner, the demand benefited from a colder climate in Europe but fell sharply in Russia (economic recession). At the production level, the US is No. 1 worldwide before Russia, but with a downward trend for several months (shale gas). Coal consumption decreases: Confirming the surprise in 2014: thanks to a new decline observed in China (-3.7%) and in the US (-11%), and despite continued strong growth in India, demand for coal shrinks at the G20 level (-2.7%). Stagnation of power consumption: The demand in power has been stagnant for several years in developed countries. The result is more surprising for non-OECD countries, where growth shrinks significantly. Is this a sign of a slowdown of the increasing weight of power in the overall mix? Power mix continues its slow transformation: In recent years, energy policies have shown visible effects

  1. Long-term trends in the total electron content (TEC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laštovička, Jan

    2017-04-01

    The long-term trends in the total electron content (TEC) have very little been studied. Lean et al. (2011; J. Geophys. Res., 116, A00H04, doi:10.1029/2010JA016378) studied trends in TEC globally based on JPL maps for 1995-2010. However, their trends appear to be too positive, which is not plausible taking into account the trends in other ionospheric parameters. Therefore they prefer the less positive trends calculated under the assumption of the same level of solar activity in solar cycle minima 22/23 and 23/24. However, as it is now clear, this is not a correct assumption. Lastovicka (2013; J. Geophys. Res. Space Phys., 118, 3831-3835, doi:10.1002/jgra.50261) selected a region around Florence, Italy, as a region with available historical TEC data based on Faraday rotation measurements and remarkably larger than average trends in TEC by Lean et al. (2011). Historical data from Florence provide no trend in TEC. However, foF2 from Juliusruh provide slight negative trends for 1976-1996 but no trends for 1995-2010. Thus the question of reality of trends by Lean et al. (2011) remained open. Here we use TEC from GIM and JPL data for two European regions with high Lean's trends, regions around Florence and around Prague, using 10-14 LT medians, 1998-2015, yearly average values. A classical approach is applied. First a model of solar activity dependence of TEC is constructed separately for each region from all data. Then model data are subtracted from experimental data and analysis is made with residuals. This analysis shows that early data (1998-2001) are by several TECU lower than they should be according to solar activity, the year 2002 is intermediate and in 2003-2015 the data fit well a weak or rather no trend of TEC. The change in TEC data does not seem to be jump-like, it lasted at least a year, if not longer. Thus the positive TEC trends reported by Lean et al. (2011) appear to be affected by data problem; real trends are evidently less positive if any.

  2. Trends in uranium and their significance for investors in mining shares

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fishlock, D.

    1975-01-01

    After a general introduction on the nuclear industry and uranium the following points are discussed: uranium supply and demand; the financing of exploration and exploitation in order to meet an expected demand of seven or ten times the present world output of uranium within 25 years; the idiosyncrasies of government policies among the uranium-rich nations, and whether and how they can be reconciled with supply and demand; environmental problems, including the activities of nuclear energy's opponents, which in turn could greatly influence supply and demand

  3. Some current trends in nanotechnology, and the significance of apfim in this field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, G.D.W.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: The worldwide interest that is currently being generated by nanotechnology is due to its potentially disruptive nature. In principle, it offers a host of completely new products, for example in the fields of information technology, communication, composite materials, sensors, medical diagnostics and therapeutics. Together with these exciting opportunities, there are also risks, associated in the short term mainly with the possible toxicity of nanoparticles and nanofilaments. In the longer term, a range of other societal and environmental factors need to be taken into account in the development of this technology. These include the potential invasion of privacy that could arise from the widespread introduction of ultra-small sensing and monitoring devices, and the biohazards that could arise if atomic manipulation techniques are used to re-engineer the basic molecules of life. How does the field emission area fit into this overall scene? The answer is that, for the successful commercial development of any technology, there are numerous generic issues that must be addressed. These include measurement, test and inspection of components; product specification and quality control; the development of machine tools for the manufacturing process; and the drawing up of a whole range of design protocols for the development of new devices. Viewed in this context, field emission techniques have a very important role to play in nanotechnology. Because the size of the products is so small, the range of methods available for their production, inspection and testing is limited. Both field electron and field ion emission techniques already play vital roles in nanofabrication. The atom probe technique has a unique contribution to make in the characterization of nanostructures of all kinds. An unexpected, but hugely important, area has arisen as a result of the convergence of three-dimensional atomic scale chemical analysis and three-dimensional atomistic computer modelling of materials. When used together, this combination of experiment and theory provides an extraordinarily incisive way of developing new and improved nanoscale materials and devices. (author)

  4. Statistical significance of trends in monthly heavy precipitation over the US

    KAUST Repository

    Mahajan, Salil; North, Gerald R.; Saravanan, R.; Genton, Marc G.

    2011-01-01

    -parametric and parametric bootstrapping techniques. The results from the two Monte Carlo approaches are found to be similar to each other, and also to the traditional non-parametric Kendall's τ test, implying the robustness of the approach. Two different observational data

  5. Significant Trends Are Now Reshaping the Industry Training for Foodservice and Hospitality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiman, Tyrus

    1984-01-01

    The hospitality industry is one that is not adversely affected by the information revolution. As tourism is stimulated by government economic development efforts, opportunities in the food service and hospitality occupations are increasing, both for the young and for the unemployed who need retraining. (SK)

  6. Trends in Classroom Observation Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casabianca, Jodi M.; Lockwood, J. R.; McCaffrey, Daniel F.

    2015-01-01

    Observations and ratings of classroom teaching and interactions collected over time are susceptible to trends in both the quality of instruction and rater behavior. These trends have potential implications for inferences about teaching and for study design. We use scores on the Classroom Assessment Scoring System-Secondary (CLASS-S) protocol from…

  7. Trends in Global Gender Inequality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorius, Shawn F.; Firebaugh, Glenn

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates trends in gender inequality throughout the world. Using data encompassing a large majority of the world's population, we examine trends in recent decades for key indicators of gender inequality in education, mortality, political representation and economic activity. We find that gender inequality is declining in virtually…

  8. Interior Design Trends in Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sager, Don, Ed.

    2000-01-01

    Four contributing authors discuss perspectives on current trends in library interior design. Articles include: "Trends in Library Furnishings: A Manufacturer's Perspective" (Andrea Johnson); "Libraries, Architecture, and Light: The Architect's Perspective" (Rick McCarthy); "The Library Administrator's Perspective" (Chadwick Raymond); and "The…

  9. Business trend analysis by simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schonenberg, H.; Jian, J.; Sidorova, N.; Aalst, van der W.M.P.; Pernici, B.

    2010-01-01

    Business processes are constantly affected by the environment in which they execute. The environment can change due to seasonal and financial trends. For organisations it is crucial to understand their processes and to be able to estimate the effects of these trends on the processes. Business

  10. Bayesian approaches for detecting significant deterioration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roed, Willy; Aven, Terje

    2009-01-01

    Risk indicators can provide useful input to risk management processes and are given increased attention in the Norwegian petroleum industry. Examples include indicators expressing the proportion of test failures of safety and barrier systems. Such indicators give valuable information about the performance of the systems and provide a basis for trend evaluations. Early warning of a possible deterioration is essential due to the importance of the systems in focus, but what should be the basis for the warning criterion? This paper presents and discusses several Bayesian approaches for the establishment of a warning criterion to disclose significant deterioration. The Norwegian petroleum industry is the starting point for this paper, but the study is relevant for other application areas as well

  11. [New trends in tonometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draeger, J A; Schwenteck, T; Ruokonen, P C

    2006-10-01

    Though the knowledge about the risk of elevated intraocular pressure for pathogenesis for development and progress of glaucoma is more than 400 years old. It took another 300 years before by means of tonometry this elevation could be quantified. After discussion of the key words it is our aim to demonstrate the latest trends in tonometry, specifically by use of modern electronics for instrument design. Goldmann was the founder of the "applanation tonometry", measuring the corelation of applanated area and applied force. Here, the next step was the development of instruments, measuring independent of position or gravity to allow application also at the lying patient. Electronic area detection was the next step to avoid examinor's error. Also important was the introduction of automatic UV-desinfection to avoid contamination of the other eye or other patients. Other tonometers control the force applied by an inductive method, which also allows application independent of position. Airpuff-tonometry uses completely different measuring principles - the resulting change of corneal curvature indicates the intraocular pressure. The impedance principle is applied even through the closed eye lid. The shock waves resulting shall be measured. Direct application of a surface sensor incorporated into a concave surface contact body shall allow direct measurement of intraocular pressure independent of corneal thickness, curvature, astigmatism. This method has been tried for more than 20 years. Also exposition of the eye to count waves of different frequency was an early attempt. Here also change of reflectivity is used to calculate intraocular pressure. Even after use of modern electronic technology the precision of many of these new devices does not lead to better results. This specifically is shown by modern calibration methods.

  12. Impact significance determination-Designing an approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence, David P.

    2007-01-01

    The question of how best to go about determining the significance of impacts has, to date, only been addressed in a partial and preliminary way. The assumption tends to be made that it is either only necessary to provide explicit, justified reasons for a judgment about significance and/or to explicitly apply a prescribed procedure-a procedure usually involving the staged application of thresholds and/or criteria. The detailed attributes, strengths and limitations of such approaches and possible alternative approaches have yet to be explored systematically. This article addresses these deficiencies by analyzing the characteristics, specific methods and positive and negative tendencies of three general impact significance determination approaches-the technical approach, the collaborative approach and the reasoned argumentation approach. A range of potential composite approaches are also described. With an enhanced understanding of these approaches, together with potential combinations, EIA practitioners and other EIA participants can be in a better position to select an approach appropriate to their needs, to reinforce the positive tendencies and offset the negative tendencies of the selected approach and to combine the best qualities of more than one approach

  13. Which Trend is your Friend?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levine, Ari; Heje Pedersen, Lasse

    2016-01-01

    Managed futures funds and commodity trading advisers (CTAs) use heuristics or statistical measures often called “filters” to trade on price trends. Two key statistical measures of trends are “time-series momentum” and “moving-average crossovers.” We show, empirically and theoretically, that these......Managed futures funds and commodity trading advisers (CTAs) use heuristics or statistical measures often called “filters” to trade on price trends. Two key statistical measures of trends are “time-series momentum” and “moving-average crossovers.” We show, empirically and theoretically......, that these trend indicators are closely related. In fact, they are equivalent representations in their most general forms. They also capture many other types of filters, such as the Hodrick–Prescott (HP) filter, the Kalman filter, and all other linear filters. We show how these filters can be represented through...

  14. Significance analysis of lexical bias in microarray data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falkow Stanley

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genes that are determined to be significantly differentially regulated in microarray analyses often appear to have functional commonalities, such as being components of the same biochemical pathway. This results in certain words being under- or overrepresented in the list of genes. Distinguishing between biologically meaningful trends and artifacts of annotation and analysis procedures is of the utmost importance, as only true biological trends are of interest for further experimentation. A number of sophisticated methods for identification of significant lexical trends are currently available, but these methods are generally too cumbersome for practical use by most microarray users. Results We have developed a tool, LACK, for calculating the statistical significance of apparent lexical bias in microarray datasets. The frequency of a user-specified list of search terms in a list of genes which are differentially regulated is assessed for statistical significance by comparison to randomly generated datasets. The simplicity of the input files and user interface targets the average microarray user who wishes to have a statistical measure of apparent lexical trends in analyzed datasets without the need for bioinformatics skills. The software is available as Perl source or a Windows executable. Conclusion We have used LACK in our laboratory to generate biological hypotheses based on our microarray data. We demonstrate the program's utility using an example in which we confirm significant upregulation of SPI-2 pathogenicity island of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium by the cation chelator dipyridyl.

  15. Positive and Negative Peer Influence in Residential Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huefner, Jonathan C; Smith, Gail L; Stevens, Amy L

    2017-10-13

    The potential for negative peer influence has been well established in research, and there is a growing interest in how positive peer influence also impacts youth. No research, however, has concurrently examined positive and negative peer influence in the context of residential care. Clinical records for 886 residential care youth were used in a Hierarchical Linear Model analysis to examine the impact of negative and positive peer influence on naturally occurring patterns of serious problem behavior over time. Negative peer influence, where the majority of youth in a home manifested above the average number of serious behavior problems, occurred 13.7% of the time. Positive peer influence, where the majority of youth manifested no serious problem behaviors for the month, occurred 47.7% of the time. Overall, youth problem behavior improved over time. There were significantly lower rates of serious problem behavior in target youth during positive peer influence months. Conversely, there were significantly higher rates of serious problem behaviors in target youth during negative peer influence months. Negative peer influence had a relatively greater impact on target peers' serious behavior problems than did positive peer influence. Caregiver experience significantly reduced the impact of negative peer influence, but did not significantly augment positive peer influence. Months where negative peer influence was combined with inexperienced caregivers produced the highest rates of serious problem behavior. Our results support the view that residential programs for troubled youth need to create circumstances that promote positive and control for negative peer influence.

  16. Detecting cognizable trends of gene expression in a time series ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This poses difficulties in conducting formal statistical tests of significance of ... The proposed algorithm captured known 'time-trends' in the simulated data with a high probability ... to draw valid inferences even when the sample size is small.

  17. On the urban heat island effect dependence on temperature trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camilloni, I.; Barros, V.

    1997-01-01

    For US, Argentine and Australian cities, yearly mean urban to rural temperature differences (ΔT u-r ) and rural temperatures (T r ) are negatively correlated in almost every case, suggesting that urban heat island intensity depends, among other parameters on the temperature itself. This negative correlation is related to the fact that interannual variability of temperature is generally lower in urban environments than in rural areas. This seems to hold true at low frequencies leading to opposite trends in the two variables. Hence, urban stations are prone to have lower trends in absolute value than rural ones. Therefore, regional data sets including records from urban locations, in addition to urban growth bias may have a second type of urban bias associated with temperature trends. A bulk estimate of this second urban bias trend for the contiguous United States during 1901-1984 indicates that it could be of the same order as the urban growth bias and of opposite sign. If these results could be extended to global data, it could be expected that the spurious influence of urban growth on global temperature trends during warming periods will be offset by the diminishing of the urban heat island intensity. 36 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs

  18. Lack of association between dopaminergic antagonism and negative symptoms in schizophrenia: a positron emission tomography dopamine D2/3 receptor occupancy study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fervaha, Gagan; Caravaggio, Fernando; Mamo, David C.; Mulsant, Benoit H.; Pollock, Bruce G.; Nakajima, Shinichiro; Gerretsen, Philip; Rajji, Tarek K.; Mar, Wanna; Iwata, Yusuke; Plitman, Eric; Chung, Jun Ku; Remington, Gary; Graff-Guerrero, Ariel

    2016-01-01

    Rationale Several pre-clinical studies suggest that antipsychotic medications cause secondary negative symptoms. However, direct evidence for a relationship among antipsychotic medications, their direct effects on neurotransmitter systems, and negative symptoms in schizophrenia remains controversial. Objective The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between antipsychotic-related dopamine D2/3 receptor occupancy and negative symptoms in patients with schizophrenia. Methods Forty-one clinically stable outpatients with schizophrenia participated in this prospective dose reduction positron emission tomography (PET) study. Clinical assessments and [11C]-raclopride PET scans were performed before and after participants underwent gradual dose reduction of their antipsychotic medication by up to 40% from the baseline dose. Results No significant relationship was found between antipsychotic-related dopamine D2/3 receptor occupancy and negative symptom severity at baseline or follow-up. Similar null findings were found for subdomains of negative symptoms (amotivation and diminished expression). Occupancy was significantly lower following dose reduction; however, negative symptom severity did not change significantly, though a trend toward reduction was noted. Examination of change scores between these two variables revealed no systematic relationship. Conclusions Our cross-sectional and longitudinal results failed to find a significant dose-dependent relationship between severity of negative symptoms and antipsychotic-related dopaminergic antagonism in schizophrenia. These findings argue against the notion that antipsychotics necessarily cause secondary negative symptoms. Our results are also in contrast with the behavioural effects of dopaminergic antagonism routinely reported in pre-clinical investigations, suggesting that the role of this variable in the context of chronic treatment and schizophrenia needs to be re-examined. PMID:27557949

  19. Trends in Wind Turbine Generator Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polinder, Henk; Ferreira, Jan Abraham; Jensen, Bogi Bech

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the trends in wind turbine generator systems. After discussing some important requirements and basic relations, it describes the currently used systems: the constant speed system with squirrel-cage induction generator, and the three variable speed systems with doubly fed...... induction generator (DFIG), with gearbox and fully rated converter, and direct drive (DD). Then, possible future generator systems are reviewed. Hydraulic transmissions are significantly lighter than gearboxes and enable continuously variable transmission, but their efficiency is lower. A brushless DFIG...

  20. Temperature and ice layer trends in the summer middle atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lübken, F.-J.; Berger, U.

    2012-04-01

    We present results from our LIMA model (Leibniz Institute Middle Atmosphere Model) which nicely reproduces mean conditions of the summer mesopause region and also mean characteristics of ice layers known as noctilucent clouds. LIMA nudges to ECMWF data in the troposphere and lower stratosphere which influences the background conditions in the mesosphere. We study temperature trends in the mesosphere at middle and polar latitudes and compared with temperature trends from satellites, lidar, and phase height observations. For the first time large observed temperature trends in the summer mesosphere can be reproduced and explained by a model. As will be shown, stratospheric ozone has a major impact on temperature trends in the summer mesosphere. The temperature trend is not uniform in time: it is moderate from 1961 (the beginning of our record) until the beginning of the 1980s. Thereafter, temperatures decrease much stronger until the mid 1990s. Thereafter, temperatures are nearly constant or even increase with time. As will be shown, trends in ozone and carbon dioxide explain most of this behavior. Ice layers in the summer mesosphere are very sensitive to background conditions and are therefore considered to be appropriate tracers for long term variations in the middle atmosphere. We use LIMA background conditions to determine ice layer characteristics in the mesopause region. We compare our results with measurements, for example with albedos from the SBUV satellites, and show that we can nicely reproduce observed trends. It turns out that temperature trends are positive (negative) in the upper (lower) part of the ice layer regime. This complicates an interpretation of NLC long term variations in terms of temperature trends.

  1. A Global Perspective on Trends in Nature-Based Tourism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balmford, Andrew; Beresford, James; Green, Jonathan; Naidoo, Robin; Walpole, Matt; Manica, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    Reports of rapid growth in nature-based tourism and recreation add significant weight to the economic case for biodiversity conservation but seem to contradict widely voiced concerns that people are becoming increasingly isolated from nature. This apparent paradox has been highlighted by a recent study showing that on a per capita basis, visits to natural areas in the United States and Japan have declined over the last two decades. These results have been cited as evidence of “a fundamental and pervasive shift away from nature-based recreation”—but how widespread is this phenomenon? We address this question by looking at temporal trends in visitor numbers at 280 protected areas (PAs) from 20 countries. This more geographically representative dataset shows that while PA visitation (whether measured as total or per capita visit numbers) is indeed declining in the United States and Japan, it is generally increasing elsewhere. Total visit numbers are growing in 15 of the 20 countries for which we could get data, with the median national rate of change unrelated to the national rate of population growth but negatively associated with wealth. Reasons for this reversal of growth in the richest countries are difficult to pin down with existing data, but the pattern is mirrored by trends in international tourist arrivals as a whole and so may not necessarily be caused by disaffection with nature. Irrespective of the explanation, it is clear that despite important downturns in some countries, nature-related tourism is far from declining everywhere, and may still have considerable potential both to generate funds for conservation and to shape people's attitudes to the environment. PMID:19564896

  2. Trends in Alabama teen driving death and injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroe, Kathy; Irons, Elizabeth; Crew, Marie; Norris, Jesse; Nichols, Michele; King, William D

    2014-09-01

    Motor vehicle crashes (MVCs) are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in teens. Alabama has been in the Top 5 states for MVC fatality rate among teens in the United States for several years. Twelve years of teen MVC deaths and injuries were evaluated. Our hypothesis is that the teen driving motor vehicle-related deaths and injuries have decreased related to legislative and community awareness activities. A retrospective analysis of Alabama teen MVC deaths and injury for the years 2000 to 2011 was conducted. MVC data were obtained from a Fatality Analysis Reporting System data set managed by the Center for Advanced Public Safety at the University of Alabama. A Lowess regression-scattergram analysis was used to identify period specific changes in deaths and injury over time. Statistical analysis was conducted using True Epistat 5.0 software. When the Lowess regression was applied, there was an obvious change in the trend line in 2007. To test that observation, we then compared medians in the pre-2007 and post-2007 periods, which validated our observation. Moreover, it provided a near-even number of observations for comparison. The Spearman rank correlation was used to test for correlation of deaths and injury over time. The Mann-Whitney U-test was used to evaluate median differences in deaths and injury comparing pre-2007 and post-2007 data. Alabama teen MVC deaths and injury demonstrated a significant negative correlation over the 12-year period (Rs for deaths and injury, -0.87 [p teen driver deaths and injury have decreased during the 12-year study period, most notably after 2006. Factors that may have contributed to this trend may include stricter laws for teen drivers (enacted in 2002 and updated in 2010), less teen driving because of a nationwide economic downturn, delayed licensing in teens, steady improvements in overall seat belt use, and heightened public awareness of risky behaviors in teen driving.

  3. Aging trends -- the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biddlecom, A E; Domingo, L J

    1996-03-01

    This report presents a description of the trends in growth of the elderly population in the Philippines and their health, disability, education, work status, income, and family support. The proportion of elderly in the Philippines is much smaller than in other Southeast Asian countries, such as Singapore and Malaysia. The elderly population aged over 65 years increased from 2.7% of total population in 1990 to 3.6% in 1990. The elderly are expected to comprise 7.7% of total population in 2025. The proportion of elderly is small due to the high fertility rate. Life expectancy averages 63.5 years. The aged dependency ratio will double from 5.5 elderly per 100 persons aged 15-64 years in 1990 to 10.5/100 in 2025. A 1984 ASEAN survey found that only 11% of elderly rated their health as bad. The 1990 Census reveals that 3.9% were disabled elderly. Most were deaf, blind, or orthopedically impaired. 16% of elderly in the ASEAN survey reported not seeing a doctor even when they needed to. 54% reported that a doctor was not visited due to the great expense. In 1980, 67% of men and 76% of women aged over 60 years had less than a primary education. The proportion with a secondary education in 2020 is expected to be about 33% for men and 33% for women. 66.5% of men and 28.5% of women aged over 60 years were in the formal labor force in 1990. Women were less likely to receive cash income from current jobs or pensions. 65% of earnings from older rural people was income from agricultural production. 60% of income among urban elderly was from children, and 23% was from pensions. Family support is provided to the elderly in the form of coresidence. In 1988, 68% of elderly aged over 60 years lived with at least one child. Retirement or nursing homes are uncommon. The Philippines Constitution states that families have a duty to care for elderly members.

  4. Negative Attitudes, Networks and Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennett, Patrick; la Cour, Lisbeth; Larsen, Birthe

    This paper theoretically and empirically assesses the potential explanations behind the educational gap between young natives and immigrants using two measures, negative attitudes towards immigrants and networking. The paper considers that two these parameters may influence high and uneducated...... workers as well as immigrants and natives differently, creating different incentives to acquire education for the two groups. Using rich Danish administrative data, this paper finds suggestive evidence rejecting the theoretical case where negative attitudes decrease 1st generation immigrant education...... and indications that quality of networks seems to matter more for immigrants than the quantity of individuals in a potential network....

  5. Patch Test Negative Generalized Dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiker, Alison; Mowad, Christen

    2016-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis is a common condition in dermatology. Patch testing is the criterion standard for diagnosis. However, dermatitis is not always caused by an allergen, and patch testing does not identify a culprit in every patient. Generalized dermatitis, defined as eczematous dermatitis affecting greater than 3 body sites, is often encountered in dermatology practice, especially patch test referral centers. Management for patients with generalized dermatitis who are patch test negative is challenging. The purpose of this article is to outline an approach to this challenging scenario and summarize the paucity of existing literature on patch test negative generalized dermatitis.

  6. Precipitation and temperature trends over central Italy (Abruzzo Region): 1951-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scorzini, Anna Rita; Leopardi, Maurizio

    2018-02-01

    This study analyses spatial and temporal trends of precipitation and temperatures over Abruzzo Region (central Italy), using historical climatic data from a dense observation network. The results show a general, although not significant, negative trend in the regionally averaged annual precipitation (- 1.8% of the yearly mean rainfall per decade). This reduction is particularly evident in winter, especially at mountain stations (average - 3% change/decade). Despite this general decreasing trend, a partial rainfall recovery is observed after the 1980s. Furthermore, the majority of meteorological stations register a significant warming over the last 60 years, (mean annual temperature increase of + 0.15 °C/decade), which reflects a rise in both minimum and maximum temperatures, with the latter generally increasing at a faster rate. Spring and summer are the seasons which contribute most to the general temperature increase, in particular at high elevation sites, which exhibit a more pronounced warming (+ 0.24 °C/decade). However, this tendency has not been uniform over 1951-2012, but it has been characterised by a cooling phenomenon in the first 30 years (1951-1981), followed by an even stronger warming during the last three decades (1982-2012). Finally, correlations between the climatic variables and the dominant teleconnection patterns in the Mediterranean basin are analysed to identify the potential influence of large-scale atmospheric dynamics on observed trends in Abruzzo. The results highlight the dominant role of the East-Atlantic pattern on seasonal temperatures, while more spatially heterogeneous associations, depending on the complex topography of the region, are identified between winter precipitation and the North Atlantic Oscillation, East-Atlantic and East-Atlantic/Western Russian patterns.

  7. Future trends in global blindness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serge Resnikoff

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this review is to discuss the available data on the prevalence and causes of global blindness, and some of the associated trends and limitations seen. A literature search was conducted using the terms "global AND blindness" and "global AND vision AND impairment", resulting in seven appropriate articles for this review. Since 1990 the estimate of global prevalence of blindness has gradually decreased when considering the best corrected visual acuity definition: 0.71% in 1990, 0.59% in 2002, and 0.55% in 2010, corresponding to a 0.73% reduction per year over the 2002-2010 period. Significant limitations were found in the comparability between the global estimates in prevalence or causes of blindness or visual impairment. These limitations arise from various factors such as uncertainties about the true cause of the impairment, the use of different definitions and methods, and the absence of data from a number of geographical areas, leading to various extrapolation methods, which in turn seriously limit comparability. Seminal to this discussion on limitations in the comparability of studies and data, is that blindness has historically been defined using best corrected visual acuity.

  8. International nurse migrations: Global trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivković Marija

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents global trends of migration of nurses, as specific qualified personnel in high demand. In the last couple of decades, and especially in the last couple of years, many countries have faced the problem of insufficient healthcare workers, particularly nurses. Reasons for this occurrence might be found in the deficiencies of their education systems, as well as the population aging of northern and western countries. As a response to this deficiency, those countries have begun intensive recruitment of foreign qualified female healthcare workers, which has led to the point that nurse migration today presents a very intense, and by many accounts specific migration flow. Female migrating work force is often in pursuit of low-wage and lowqualified work. Nurse migration is actually an example of motion of qualified female migrants in pursuit for better employment opportunities. While such a way of filling up the vacant positions works for the “importing” countries as a temporary solution, departure of trained female personnel presents a significant loss for the originating countries. In this paper we pay special attention to the countries who are the main “importers”, but also to those who are “exporters” of nursing personnel, and to specific national strategies these countries have applied.

  9. Trends in risk factors and etiology of 606 cases of infective endocarditis over 23 years (1984-2006) in slovakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hricak, V; Liska, B; Kovackova, J; Mikusova, J; Fischer, V; Kovacik, J; Karvaj, M; Jurco, R; Ondrusova, A; Kalavsky, E; Marks, P; Beno, P; Krcmery, V

    2007-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess trends in risk factors, etiology, outcome and treatment strategies for endocarditis over 23 years in Slovakia. A prospective survey of 606 cases of infective endocarditis (IE) was conducted from 1984-2006. Rheumatic fever as well as previous dental surgery showed decreasing trends within the last 23 years. Also embolic complications of IE declined along with increasing rates of surgically treated patients. No significant changes in etiology were detected apart from the fact that culture-negative endocarditis increased from 10.7% to 55.4% between 1998-2001. Surgically treated patients increased from 22.7% (1984-1990) to 50.1% (2002-2006) and mortality dramatically decreased from 26.7% (1984-1990) to 5.3% (2002-2006). Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci were the leading causes (22.4% - 48%) followed by viridans streptococci (12.2%-18.2%) were a relatively stable trend over 23 years of IE in Slovakia.

  10. Trends in uranium supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, M [International Atomic Energy Agency, Division of Nuclear Power and Reactors, Nuclear Materials and Fuel Cycle Section, Vienna (Austria)

    1976-07-01

    Prior to the development of nuclear power, uranium ores were used to a very limited extent as a ceramic colouring agent, as a source of radium and in some places as a source of vanadium. Perhaps before that, because of the bright orange and yellow colours of its secondary ores, it was probably used as ceremonial paint by primitive man. After the discovery of nuclear fission a whole new industry emerged, complete with its problems of demand, resources and supply. Spurred by special incentives in the early years of this new nuclear industry, prospectors discovered over 20 000 occurrences of uranium in North America alone, and by 1959 total world production reached a peak of 34 000 tonnes uranium from mines in South Africa, Canada and United States. This rapid growth also led to new problems. As purchases for military purposes ended, government procurement contracts were not renewed, and the large reserves developed as a result of government purchase incentives, in combination with lack of substantial commercial market, resulted in an over-supply of uranium. Typically, an over-supply of uranium together with national stockpiling at low prices resulted in depression of prices to less than $5 per pound by 1971. Although forecasts made in the early 1970's increased confidence in the future of nuclear power, and consequently the demand for uranium, prices remained low until the end of 1973 when OPEC announced a very large increase in oil prices and quite naturally, prices for coal also rose substantially. The economics of nuclear fuel immediately improved and prices for uranium began to climb in 1974. But the world-wide impact of the OPEC decision also produced negative effects on the uranium industry. Uranium production costs rose dramatically, as did capital costs, and money for investment in new uranium ventures became more scarce and more expensive. However, the uranium supply picture today offers hope of satisfactory development in spite of the many problems to be

  11. Trends in uranium supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, M.

    1976-01-01

    Prior to the development of nuclear power, uranium ores were used to a very limited extent as a ceramic colouring agent, as a source of radium and in some places as a source of vanadium. Perhaps before that, because of the bright orange and yellow colours of its secondary ores, it was probably used as ceremonial paint by primitive man. After the discovery of nuclear fission a whole new industry emerged, complete with its problems of demand, resources and supply. Spurred by special incentives in the early years of this new nuclear industry, prospectors discovered over 20 000 occurrences of uranium in North America alone, and by 1959 total world production reached a peak of 34 000 tonnes uranium from mines in South Africa, Canada and United States. This rapid growth also led to new problems. As purchases for military purposes ended, government procurement contracts were not renewed, and the large reserves developed as a result of government purchase incentives, in combination with lack of substantial commercial market, resulted in an over-supply of uranium. Typically, an over-supply of uranium together with national stockpiling at low prices resulted in depression of prices to less than $5 per pound by 1971. Although forecasts made in the early 1970's increased confidence in the future of nuclear power, and consequently the demand for uranium, prices remained low until the end of 1973 when OPEC announced a very large increase in oil prices and quite naturally, prices for coal also rose substantially. The economics of nuclear fuel immediately improved and prices for uranium began to climb in 1974. But the world-wide impact of the OPEC decision also produced negative effects on the uranium industry. Uranium production costs rose dramatically, as did capital costs, and money for investment in new uranium ventures became more scarce and more expensive. However, the uranium supply picture today offers hope of satisfactory development in spite of the many problems to be

  12. Trends and changes in tropical and summer days at the Adana Sub-Region of the Mediterranean Region, Southern Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer Altın, Türkan; Barak, Belma

    2017-11-01

    In this study, the long-term variability and trends of the annual and seasonal numbers of summer and tropical days of the Adana Sub-region were investigated using nonlinear and linear trend detection tests for the period 1960-2014 at 14 meteorological stations. The results suggest that the annual number of summer and tropical days was generally below the long-term average through to the end of the 1980s. In particular, positive anomaly values could be observed at all stations between the years 1993-2014. With respect to the Kruskal-Wallis homogeneity test, the significant breaking date was 1993. The rapid rise of the annual number of summer (tropical) days after this year led to the inversion of the negative trends observed from 1987 to 1992 into positive ones. The increasing trend is statistically significance at 0.01 level in Yumurtalık, Mersin and Antakya for the annual number of summer and tropical days. Dörtyol, İskenderun and Elbistan were significance at 0.01 level for tropical days. The largest positive anomalies of the summer of 2010 are observed in coastal vicinity (Mersin, Yumurtalık and İskenderun). This indicates that these settlements underwent a long-term warm period and thermal conditions due to increasing temperatures in the spring and summer months. The same conditions are found in high inner areas (Göksun and Elbistan) for tropical days. It is noticed that a tendency for greater warming occurred at stations located above 1000 m in the sub-region. The average number of warm days will increase 2-days per 100-years in southern part of the sub-region. The increasing trend in summer temperatures can be considered a potential risk, notably for human health and for economic and crop losses in the Adana Sub-region, including Çukurova, one of the most important agriculture areas of Turkey.

  13. Observed rainfall trends and precipitation uncertainty in the vicinity of the Mediterranean, Middle East and North Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zittis, G.

    2017-11-01

    The present study investigates the century-long and more recent rainfall trends over the greater region of Middle East and North Africa (MENA). Five up-to-date gridded observational datasets are employed. Besides mean annual values, trends of six indices of drought and extreme precipitation are also considered in the analysis. Most important findings include the significant negative trends over the Maghreb, Levant, Arabian Peninsula, and Sahel regions that are evident since the beginning of the twentieth century and are more or less extended to today. On the other hand, for some Mediterranean regions such as the Balkans and the Anatolian Plateau, precipitation records during the most recent decades indicate a significant increasing trend and a recovering from the dry conditions that occurred during the mid-1970s and mid-1980s. The fact that over parts of the study region the selected datasets were found to have substantial differences in terms of mean climate, trends, and interannual variability, motivated the more thorough investigation of the precipitation observational uncertainty. Several aspects, such as annual and monthly mean climatologies and also discrepancies in the monthly time-series distribution, are discussed using common methods in the field of climatology but also more sophisticated, nonparametric approaches such as the Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn's tests. Results indicate that in the best case, the data sources are found to have statistically significant differences in the distribution of monthly precipitation for about 50% of the study region extent. This percentage is increased up to 70% when particular datasets are compared. Indicatively, the range between the tested rainfall datasets is found to be more than 20% of their mean annual values for most of the extent of MENA, while locally, for the hyper-arid regions, this percentage is increased up to 100%. Precipitation observational uncertainty is also profound for parts of southern Europe. Outlier

  14. Modern trends in contemporary chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javed, H.; Pervez, H.; Qadeer, R.

    1993-01-01

    This publication contains a collection of papers presented at symposium on M odern Trends in Contemporary Chemistry , that was held in Islamabad, Pakistan, March 6-8, 1990. The symposium was divided into five sections for presentation of about 55 scientific and technical papers and 6 review papers. The contents of these papers were of good quality in the widespread concern in new trends of chemistry. The six reviews papers covered fields of ortho metallation reactions, evaluation of heterogeneous electron transfer rate contents, macro reticular ion-exchange resins, spectrochemical analytical techniques, liquid crystal-high technology materials for practical applications and trends in advanced ceramics. (A.B.)

  15. Global Trends of Tropospheric NO2 Observed From Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, P.; van der A, R. J.

    2012-04-01

    Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) is one of the major atmospheric pollutants and is primarily emitted by industrial activity and transport. While observations of NO2 are frequently being carried out at air quality stations, such measurements are not able to provide a global perspective of spatial patterns in NO2 concentrations and their associated trends due to the stations' limited spatial representativity and an extremely sparse and often completely non-existent station coverage in developing countries. Satellite observations of tropospheric NO2 are able to overcome this issue and provide an unprecedented global view of spatial patterns in NO2 levels and due to their homogeneity are well suited for studying trends. Here we present results of a global trend analysis from nearly a decade of NO2 observations made by the SCIAMACHY (SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CartograpHY) instrument onboard the Envisat satellite platform. Using only SCIAMACHY data allows for mapping global and regional trends at an unprecedented spatial resolution since no aggregation to the coarser resolution of other sensors is necessary. Monthly average tropospheric NO2 column data was acquired for the period between August 2002 and August 2011. A trend analysis was subsequently performed by fitting a statistical model including a seasonal cycle and linear trend to the time series extracted at each grid cell. The linear trend component and the trend uncertainty were then mapped spatially at both regional and global scales. The results show that spatially contiguous areas of significantly increasing NO2 levels are found primarily in Eastern China, with absolute trends of up to 4.05 (± 0.41) - 1015 molecules cm-2 yr-1 at the gridcell level and large areas showing rapid relative increases of 10-20 percent per year. In addition, many urban agglomerations in Asia and the Middle East similarly exhibit significantly increasing trends, with Dhaka in Bangladesh being the megacity with

  16. Symmetric relations of finite negativity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaltenbaeck, M.; Winkler, H.; Woracek, H.; Forster, KH; Jonas, P; Langer, H

    2006-01-01

    We construct and investigate a space which is related to a symmetric linear relation S of finite negativity on an almost Pontryagin space. This space is the indefinite generalization of the completion of dom S with respect to (S.,.) for a strictly positive S on a Hilbert space.

  17. Production of negative helium ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toledo, A.S. de; Sala, O.

    1977-01-01

    A negative helium ion source using potassium charge exchange vapor has been developed to be used as an injector for the Pelletron accelerator. 3 He and α beam currents of up to 2μA have been extracted with 75% particle transmission through the machine [pt

  18. Unimode metamaterials exhibiting negative linear compressibility and negative thermal expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudek, Krzysztof K; Attard, Daphne; Caruana-Gauci, Roberto; Grima, Joseph N; Wojciechowski, Krzysztof W

    2016-01-01

    Unimode metamaterials made from rotating rigid triangles are analysed mathematically for their mechanical and thermal expansion properties. It is shown that these unimode systems exhibit positive Poisson’s ratios irrespective of size, shape and angle of aperture, with the Poisson’s ratio exhibiting giant values for certain conformations. When the Poisson’s ratio in one loading direction is larger than +1, the systems were found to exhibit the anomalous property of negative linear compressibility along this direction, that is, the systems expand in this direction when hydrostatically compressed. Also discussed are the thermal expansion properties of these systems under the assumption that the units exhibit increased rotational agitation once subjected to an increase in temperature. The effect of the geometric parameters on the aforementioned thermo-mechanical properties of the system, are discussed, with the aim of identifying negative behaviour. (paper)

  19. Negative Life Events and Antenatal Depression among Pregnant Women in Rural China: The Role of Negative Automatic Thoughts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Wang, Xiaohua; Liu, Fangnan; Jiang, Xiaoning; Xiao, Yun; Dong, Xuehan; Kong, Xianglei; Yang, Xuemei; Tian, Donghua; Qu, Zhiyong

    2016-01-01

    Few studies have looked at the relationship between psychological and the mental health status of pregnant women in rural China. The current study aims to explore the potential mediating effect of negative automatic thoughts between negative life events and antenatal depression. Data were collected in June 2012 and October 2012. 495 rural pregnant women were interviewed. Depressive symptoms were measured by the Edinburgh postnatal depression scale, stresses of pregnancy were measured by the pregnancy pressure scale, negative automatic thoughts were measured by the automatic thoughts questionnaire, and negative life events were measured by the life events scale for pregnant women. We used logistic regression and path analysis to test the mediating effect. The prevalence of antenatal depression was 13.7%. In the logistic regression, the only socio-demographic and health behavior factor significantly related to antenatal depression was sleep quality. Negative life events were not associated with depression in the fully adjusted model. Path analysis showed that the eventual direct and general effects of negative automatic thoughts were 0.39 and 0.51, which were larger than the effects of negative life events. This study suggested that there was a potentially significant mediating effect of negative automatic thoughts. Pregnant women who had lower scores of negative automatic thoughts were more likely to suffer less from negative life events which might lead to antenatal depression.

  20. Computer screen saver hand hygiene information curbs a negative trend in hand hygiene behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helder, Onno K.; Weggelaar, Anne Marie; Waarsenburg, Daniël C. J.; Looman, Caspar W. N.; van Goudoever, Johannes B.; Brug, Johannes; Kornelisse, René F.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Appropriate hand hygiene among health care workers is the most important infection prevention measure; however, compliance is generally low. Gain-framed messages (ie, messages that emphasize the benefits of hand hygiene rather than the risks of noncompliance) may be most effective, but

  1. Computer screen saver hand hygiene information curbs a negative trend in hand hygiene behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Helder MScN (Onno); J.W.M. Weggelaar-Jansen (Anne Marie); D.J.C. Waarsenburg (Daniël); C.W.N. Looman (Caspar); J.B. van Goudoever (Hans); J. Brug (Hans); R.F. Kornelisse (René)

    2012-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abtract__ Background: Appropriate hand hygiene among health care workers is the most important infection prevention measure; however, compliance is generally low. Gain-framed messages (ie, messages that emphasize the benefits of hand hygiene rather than the risks of

  2. Pilot Recruitment of African-Americans: An Examinaton of a Negative Trend

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kaufman, Christopher

    2000-01-01

    ...). The criteria used to select pilot training candidates from eligible AFROTC students were carefully examined to identify factors in the selection process that potentially limit the number of African...

  3. The Malleability of Developmental Trends in Neutral and Negative Memory Illusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Among many legal professionals and memory researchers there exists the assumption that susceptibility to false memory decreases with age. In 4 misinformation experiments, we show that under conditions that focus on the meaning of experiences, children are not always the most susceptible to suggestion-induced false memories. We begin by presenting a short overview of previous developmental false memory studies, the majority of which have found that the susceptibility to misinformation decreases with age. In Experiment 1, 6/7-year-olds, 11/12-year-olds, and adults received a video and were confronted with misinformation about related but nonpresented details. Older children and adults had higher misinformation acceptance rates than younger children. In Experiment 2, we replicated this finding adding a younger child group (4/6-year-olds). In Experiments 3 and 4, we used new material and again found that susceptibility to misinformation increased with age. Together, these experiments show that children’s memory accuracy is not necessarily inferior to that of adults.’ PMID:26709588

  4. Schizophrenia and smoking: impact on negative symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Saliba

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: it has been hypothesized that individuals with schizophrenia use nicotine to reduce negative symptoms and improve cognitive function. There is an inconsistency in the literature suggesting that nicotine could help decrease negative symptoms in schizophrenic patients. Objective: to investigate the effects of nicotine on the expression of the negative symptoms in smokers and non-smokers with schizophrenia. Methods: a cross sectional study, conducted between April and August 2016, 100 inpatients with schizophrenia (54 smokers and 46 non-smokers diagnosed according to DSM-V, at Psychiatric Hospital of the Cross Lebanon, were compared to changes in clinical parameters using CDSS, PANSS, and nicotine dependence using FTND. The Student’s t-test was used to compare between 2 groups, while the ANOVA test was used to compare between 3 or more groups. For categorical variables, the chi-2 test was used. Results: the mean age was 47.16 years (SD = 7.14 for smokers compared to 47.02 years (SD = 7.92 for non-smokers. 64.8% of smokers were males versus 45.7% of non-smokers. Smoking (high nicotine dependence significantly decreases the PANSS negative symptoms score between the 2 groups (p .05 for both variables. Discussion and conclusion: this study is the first to investigate the relationship between the expression of negative symptoms in individuals with schizophrenia and smoking in Lebanon. Cigarette smoking rates remain remarkably high in patients with schizophrenia. Smoking is a complex process which involves psychopathological, biochemical and neuropharmacological aspects among schizophrenic patients. Further studies are needed to acknowledge these findings and the reasons behind it.

  5. Development of Quantitative Framework for Event Significance Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Durk Hun; Kim, Min Chull; Kim, Inn Seock

    2010-01-01

    There is an increasing trend in quantitative evaluation of the safety significance of operational events using Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) technique. An integrated framework for evaluation of event significance has been developed by Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety (KINS), which consists of an assessment hierarchy and a number of matrices. The safety significance of various events, e.g., internal or external initiating events that occurred during at-power or shutdown conditions, can be quantitatively analyzed using this framework, and then, the events rated according to their significance. This paper briefly describes the basic concept of the integrated quantitative framework for evaluation of event significance, focusing on the assessment hierarchy

  6. Negative remodeling at the ostium of the left circumflex artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Y; Mehran, R; Moussa, I; Reyes, A; Moses, J W

    2001-12-01

    We report an ostial lesion with negative remodeling. Coronary angiography revealed a 60% stenosis at the ostium of the left circumflex artery (LCX). Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS)-guided directional atherectomy followed by stenting was planned. However, IVUS images revealed no significant stenosis and negative remodeling at the ostium of the LCX. The lesion did not undergo intervention.

  7. Capillarity Induced Negative Pressure of Water Plugs in Nanochannels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tas, Niels Roelof; Mela, P.; Kramer, Tobias; Berenschot, Johan W.; van den Berg, Albert

    2003-01-01

    We have found evidence that water plugs in hydrophilic nanochannels can be at significant negative pressure due to tensile capillary forces. The negative pressure of water plugs in nanochannels induces bending of the thin channel capping layer, which results in a visible curvature of the liquid

  8. High-latitude tree growth and satellite vegetation indices: Correlations and trends in Russia and Canada (1982-2008)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berner, Logan T.; Beck, Pieter S. A.; Bunn, Andrew G.; Lloyd, Andrea H.; Goetz, Scott J.

    2011-03-01

    Vegetation in northern high latitudes affects regional and global climate through energy partitioning and carbon storage. Spaceborne observations of vegetation, largely based on the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), suggest decreased productivity during recent decades in many regions of the Eurasian and North American boreal forests. To improve interpretation of NDVI trends over forest regions, we examined the relationship between NDVI from the advanced very high resolution radiometers and tree ring width measurements, a proxy of tree productivity. We collected tree core samples from spruce, pine, and larch at 22 sites in northeast Russia and northwest Canada. Annual growth rings were measured and used to generate site-level ring width index (RWI) chronologies. Correlation analysis was used to assess the association between RWI and summer NDVI from 1982 to 2008, while linear regression was used to examine trends in both measurements. The correlation between NDVI and RWI was highly variable across sites, though consistently positive (r = 0.43, SD = 0.19, n = 27). We observed significant temporal autocorrelation in both NDVI and RWI measurements at sites with evergreen conifers (spruce and pine), though weak autocorrelation at sites with deciduous conifers (larch). No sites exhibited a positive trend in both NDVI and RWI, although five sites showed negative trends in both measurements. While there are technological and physiological limitations to this approach, these findings demonstrate a positive association between NDVI and tree ring measurements, as well as the importance of considering lagged effects when modeling vegetation productivity using satellite data.

  9. Population Trends of Central European Montane Birds Provide Evidence for Adverse Impacts of Climate Change on High-Altitude Species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Flousek

    Full Text Available Climate change is among the most important global threats to biodiversity and mountain areas are supposed to be under especially high pressure. Although recent modelling studies suggest considerable future range contractions of montane species accompanied with increased extinction risk, data allowing to test actual population consequences of the observed climate changes and identifying traits associated to their adverse impacts are very scarce. To fill this knowledge gap, we estimated long-term population trends of montane birds from 1984 to 2011 in a central European mountain range, the Giant Mountains (Krkonoše, where significant warming occurred over this period. We then related the population trends to several species' traits related to the climate change effects. We found that the species breeding in various habitats at higher altitudes had more negative trends than species breeding at lower altitudes. We also found that the species moved upwards as a response to warming climate, and these altitudinal range shifts were associated with more positive population trends at lower altitudes than at higher altitudes. Moreover, long-distance migrants declined more than residents or species migrating for shorter distances. Taken together, these results indicate that the climate change, besides other possible environmental changes, already influences populations of montane birds with particularly adverse impacts on high-altitude species such as water pipit (Anthus spinoletta. It is evident that the alpine species, predicted to undergo serious climatically induced range contractions due to warming climate in the future, already started moving along this trajectory.

  10. Agroforestry trends in Punjab, Pakistan

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    The main objectives of the study pertain to agro forestry trend in Punjab, ... further increase it, if the government revives financial/technical incentives and marketing facilities. ...... their socioeconomics, land ownership and sustainable life.

  11. Nitrate | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  12. Sunburn | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  13. Nuclear imaging: Advances and trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herk, G. van

    1986-01-01

    In this article, nuclear imaging instruments that are likely to be of interest to the nuclear medicine community of developing countries are emphasized. The advances, trends, developments, and future directions in the field of nuclear imaging are mentioned

  14. Historical Significant Volcanic Eruption Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — A significant eruption is classified as one that meets at least one of the following criteriacaused fatalities, caused moderate damage (approximately $1 million or...

  15. Exploring historical trends using taxonomic name metadata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schenk Ryan

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Authority and year information have been attached to taxonomic names since Linnaean times. The systematic structure of taxonomic nomenclature facilitates the ability to develop tools that can be used to explore historical trends that may be associated with taxonomy. Results From the over 10.7 million taxonomic names that are part of the uBio system 4, approximately 3 million names were identified to have taxonomic authority information from the years 1750 to 2004. A pipe-delimited file was then generated, organized according to a Linnaean hierarchy and by years from 1750 to 2004, and imported into an Excel workbook. A series of macros were developed to create an Excel-based tool and a complementary Web site to explore the taxonomic data. A cursory and speculative analysis of the data reveals observable trends that may be attributable to significant events that are of both taxonomic (e.g., publishing of key monographs and societal importance (e.g., world wars. The findings also help quantify the number of taxonomic descriptions that may be made available through digitization initiatives. Conclusion Temporal organization of taxonomic data can be used to identify interesting biological epochs relative to historically significant events and ongoing efforts. We have developed an Excel workbook and complementary Web site that enables one to explore taxonomic trends for Linnaean taxonomic groupings, from Kingdoms to Families.

  16. TRENDS IN VARIABILITY OF WATER FLOW OF TELEAJEN RIVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. JIPA

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available TRENDS IN VARIABILITY OF WATER FLOW OF TELEAJEN RIVER. In the context of climate change at global and regional scale, this study intends to identify the trends in variability of the annual and monthly flow of Teleajen river. The study is based on processing the series of mean, maximum and minimum flows at Cheia and Moara Domnească hydrometric stations (these data were taken from the National Institute of Meteorology and Hydrology. The period of analysis is 1966-1998, statistical methods beeing mostly used, among which the Mann – Kendall test, that identifies the liniar trend and its statistic significance, comes into focus. The trends in the variability of water annual and monthly flows are highlighted. The results obtained show downward trends for the mean and maximum annual flows, and for the minimum water discharge, a downward trend for Cheia station and an upward trend for Moara Domnească station. Knowing the trends in the variability of the rivers’ flow is important empirically in view of taking adequate administration measures of the water resources and managment measures for the risks lead by extreme hidrologic events (floods, low-water, according to the possible identified changes.

  17. Del-1 Expression as a Potential Biomarker in Triple-Negative Early Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soo Jung; Lee, Jeeyeon; Kim, Wan Wook; Jung, Jin Hyang; Park, Ho Yong; Park, Ji-Young; Chae, Yee Soo

    2018-01-01

    A differential diagnostic role for plasma Del-1 was proposed for early breast cancer (EBC) in our previous study. We examined tumoral Del-1 expression and analyzed its prognostic impact among patients with EBC. Del-1 mRNA expression was assessed in breast epithelial and cancer cells. Meanwhile, the tumoral expression of Del-1 was determined based on tissue microarrays and immunohistochemistry results from 440 patients. While a high Del-1 mRNA expression was found in all the breast cancer cell lines, the expression was significantly higher in MDA-MB-231. Tumoral expression of Del-1 was also significantly associated with a negative expression of estrogen receptor or progesterone receptor, and low expression of Ki-67, particularly in the case of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) (p breast cancer cell lines exhibited Del-1 expression, the expression rate and intensity were specifically prominent in TNBC. In addition, based on its relationship to an unfavorable histology and worse survival trend, Del-1 could act as a molecular target in TNBC patients. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. PACS: Concepts and Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandon, David; Ratib, Osman; Lovis, Christian; Geissbuhler, Antoine

    Picture Archiving and Communication Systems (PACS) are becoming part of the core components of today's infrastructure for digital radiology. In modern setting they also extend to the whole medical enterprise and integrate into the patient medical record. While local architectures may vary significantly, the major features such as image archiving and retrieval, workflow management, workstations and image acquisition and quality control systems constitute the key elements of such systems. PACS has also vocation to extend beyond the radiological images to become the common platform for hospital wide management of all images. The wireless access can contribute to expand the scope of image distribution.

  19. Adaptive significance of root grafting in trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loehle, C.; Jones, R.

    1988-12-31

    Root grafting has long been observed in forest trees but the adaptive significance of this trait has not been fully explained. Various authors have proposed that root grafting between trees contributes to mechanical support by linking adjacent root systems. Keeley proposes that this trait would be of greatest advantage in swamps where soils provide poor mechanical support. He provides as evidence a greenhouse study of Nyssa sylvatica Marsh in which seedlings of swamp provenance formed between-individual root grafts more frequently than upland provenance seedlings. In agreement with this within-species study, Keeley observed that arid zone species rarely exhibit grafts. Keeley also demonstrated that vines graft less commonly than trees, and herbs never do. Since the need for mechanical support coincides with this trend, these data seem to support his model. In this paper, the authors explore the mechanisms and ecological significance of root grafting, leading to predictions of root grafting incidence. Some observations support and some contradict the mechanical support hypothesis.

  20. Trends of river discharges in Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulaga, F; Kobold, M; Frantar, P

    2008-01-01

    Trends of river discharges are very important in recognition of climate changes and also in water management. In last years droughts and floods are more and more frequent, therefore monitoring and investigating of hydrological situation became one of the guidance scientific approach. In analysis of mean annual discharges made in Agency of the Republic of Slovenia for the Environment in last years, statistical significance trend was find out only by rivers of northwest alpine region [1] [2] [3]. In recent research of time changing discharges, presumption of generally decreasing of water quantity all over Slovenia was confirmed. Our basic conclusion - in Slovenia it is well recognized decreasing of water quantity in long period of observation. This fact and also worsening of water quality became alarming problems of our future, especially in dry months of the year.

  1. Future trends in commercial and military systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, F. E.

    Commercial and military satellite communication systems are addressed, with a review of current applications and typical communication characteristics of the space and earth segments. Drivers for the development of future commercial systems include: the pervasion of digital techniques and services, growing orbit and frequency congestion, demand for more entertainment, and the large potential market for commercial 'roof-top' service. For military systems, survivability, improved flexibility, and the need for service to small mobile terminals are the principal factors involved. Technical trends include the use of higher frequency bands, multibeam antennas and a significant increase in the application of onboard processing. Military systems will employ a variety of techniques to counter both physical and electronic threats. The use of redundant transmission paths is a particularly effective approach. Successful implementation requires transmission standards to achieve the required interoperability among the pertinent networks. For both the military and commercial sectors, the trend toward larger numbers of terminals and more complex spacecraft is still persisting.

  2. Natural gas 1995: Issues and trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    Natural Gas 1995: Issues and Trends addresses current issues affecting the natural gas industry and markets. Highlights of recent trends include: Natural gas wellhead prices generally declined throughout 1994 and for 1995 averages 22% below the year-earlier level; Seasonal patterns of natural gas production and wellhead prices have been significantly reduced during the past three year; Natural gas production rose 15% from 1985 through 1994, reaching 18.8 trillion cubic feet; Increasing amounts of natural gas have been imported; Since 1985, lower costs of producing and transporting natural gas have benefitted consumers; Consumers may see additional benefits as States examine regulatory changes aimed at increasing efficiency; and, The electric industry is being restructured in a fashion similar to the recent restructuring of the natural gas industry.

  3. FluBreaks: early epidemic detection from Google flu trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pervaiz, Fahad; Pervaiz, Mansoor; Abdur Rehman, Nabeel; Saif, Umar

    2012-10-04

    The Google Flu Trends service was launched in 2008 to track changes in the volume of online search queries related to flu-like symptoms. Over the last few years, the trend data produced by this service has shown a consistent relationship with the actual number of flu reports collected by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), often identifying increases in flu cases weeks in advance of CDC records. However, contrary to popular belief, Google Flu Trends is not an early epidemic detection system. Instead, it is designed as a baseline indicator of the trend, or changes, in the number of disease cases. To evaluate whether these trends can be used as a basis for an early warning system for epidemics. We present the first detailed algorithmic analysis of how Google Flu Trends can be used as a basis for building a fully automated system for early warning of epidemics in advance of methods used by the CDC. Based on our work, we present a novel early epidemic detection system, called FluBreaks (dritte.org/flubreaks), based on Google Flu Trends data. We compared the accuracy and practicality of three types of algorithms: normal distribution algorithms, Poisson distribution algorithms, and negative binomial distribution algorithms. We explored the relative merits of these methods, and related our findings to changes in Internet penetration and population size for the regions in Google Flu Trends providing data. Across our performance metrics of percentage true-positives (RTP), percentage false-positives (RFP), percentage overlap (OT), and percentage early alarms (EA), Poisson- and negative binomial-based algorithms performed better in all except RFP. Poisson-based algorithms had average values of 99%, 28%, 71%, and 76% for RTP, RFP, OT, and EA, respectively, whereas negative binomial-based algorithms had average values of 97.8%, 17.8%, 60%, and 55% for RTP, RFP, OT, and EA, respectively. Moreover, the EA was also affected by the region's population size

  4. Spatial trends in leaf size of Amazonian rainforest trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhado, A. C. M.; Malhi, Y.; Whittaker, R. J.; Ladle, R. J.; Ter Steege, H.; Phillips, O. L.; Butt, N.; Aragão, L. E. O. C.; Quesada, C. A.; Araujo-Murakami, A.; Arroyo, L.; Peacock, J.; Lopez-Gonzalez, G.; Baker, T. R.; Anderson, L. O.; Almeida, S.; Higuchi, N.; Killeen, T. J.; Monteagudo, A.; Neill, D.; Pitman, N.; Prieto, A.; Salomão, R. P.; Vásquez-Martínez, R.; Laurance, W. F.

    2009-08-01

    Leaf size influences many aspects of tree function such as rates of transpiration and photosynthesis and, consequently, often varies in a predictable way in response to environmental gradients. The recent development of pan-Amazonian databases based on permanent botanical plots has now made it possible to assess trends in leaf size across environmental gradients in Amazonia. Previous plot-based studies have shown that the community structure of Amazonian trees breaks down into at least two major ecological gradients corresponding with variations in soil fertility (decreasing from southwest to northeast) and length of the dry season (increasing from northwest to south and east). Here we describe the geographic distribution of leaf size categories based on 121 plots distributed across eight South American countries. We find that the Amazon forest is predominantly populated by tree species and individuals in the mesophyll size class (20.25-182.25 cm2). The geographic distribution of species and individuals with large leaves (>20.25 cm2) is complex but is generally characterized by a higher proportion of such trees in the northwest of the region. Spatially corrected regressions reveal weak correlations between the proportion of large-leaved species and metrics of water availability. We also find a significant negative relationship between leaf size and wood density.

  5. Negation switching invariant signed graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepa Sinha

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A signed graph (or, $sigraph$ in short is a graph G in which each edge x carries a value $\\sigma(x \\in \\{-, +\\}$ called its sign. Given a sigraph S, the negation $\\eta(S$ of the sigraph S is a sigraph obtained from S by reversing the sign of every edge of S. Two sigraphs $S_{1}$ and $S_{2}$ on the same underlying graph are switching equivalent if it is possible to assign signs `+' (`plus' or `-' (`minus' to vertices of $S_{1}$ such that by reversing the sign of each of its edges that has received opposite signs at its ends, one obtains $S_{2}$. In this paper, we characterize sigraphs which are negation switching invariant and also see for what sigraphs, S and $\\eta (S$ are signed isomorphic.

  6. Perfect antireflection via negative refraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monzon, Juan J.; Barriuso, Alberto G.; Sanchez-Soto, Luis L.

    2006-01-01

    We suggest a geometrical framework to discuss the action of slabs of negatively refracting materials. We show that these slabs generate the same orbits as normal materials, but traced out in opposite directions. This property allows us to confirm that the action of any lossless multilayer can be optically canceled by putting it together with the multilayer constructed as the inverted mirror image, with ε and μ reversed in sign

  7. Negative ion detachment cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Champion, R.L.; Doverspike, L.D.

    1992-10-01

    The authors have measured absolute cross sections for electron detachment and charge exchange for collision of O and S with atomic hydrogen, have investigated the sputtering and photodesorption of negative ions from gas covered surfaces, and have begun an investigation of photon-induced field emission of electrons from exotic structures. Brief descriptions of these activities as well as future plans for these projects are given below

  8. Weak negation in inquisitive semantics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Punčochář, Vít

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 3 (2015), s. 323-355 ISSN 0925-8531 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-21076S Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : inquisitive semantics * negation * possible worlds * Fitch-style natural deduction * denial Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion Impact factor: 0.450, year: 2015 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10849-015-9219-2

  9. Novel stimuli are negative stimuli: evidence that negative affect is reduced in the mere exposure effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Brent M; Elias, Lorin J

    2005-04-01

    Repeated exposure of a nonreinforced stimulus results in an increased preference for that stimulus, the mere exposure effect. The present study repeatedly presented positive, negative, and neutrally affective faces to 48 participants while they made judgments about the emotional expression. Participants then rated the likeability of novel neutrally expressive faces and some of these previously presented faces, this time in their neutral expression. Faces originally presented as happy were rated as the most likeable, followed by faces originally presented as neutral. Negative and novel faces were not rated significantly differently from each other. These findings support the notion that the increase in preference towards repeatedly presented stimuli is the result of the reduction in negative affect, consistent with the modified two-factor uncertainty-reduction model and classical conditioning model of the mere exposure effect.

  10. Significance evaluation in factor graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Tobias; Hobolth, Asger; Jensen, Jens Ledet

    2017-01-01

    in genomics and the multiple-testing issues accompanying them, accurate significance evaluation is of great importance. We here address the problem of evaluating statistical significance of observations from factor graph models. Results Two novel numerical approximations for evaluation of statistical...... significance are presented. First a method using importance sampling. Second a saddlepoint approximation based method. We develop algorithms to efficiently compute the approximations and compare them to naive sampling and the normal approximation. The individual merits of the methods are analysed both from....... Conclusions The applicability of saddlepoint approximation and importance sampling is demonstrated on known models in the factor graph framework. Using the two methods we can substantially improve computational cost without compromising accuracy. This contribution allows analyses of large datasets...

  11. Significant Lactic Acidosis from Albuterol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Diercks

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Lactic acidosis is a clinical entity that demands rapid assessment and treatment to prevent significant morbidity and mortality. With increased lactate use across many clinical scenarios, lactate values themselves cannot be interpreted apart from their appropriate clinical picture. The significance of Type B lactic acidosis is likely understated in the emergency department (ED. Given the mortality that sepsis confers, a serum lactate is an important screening study. That said, it is with extreme caution that we should interpret and react to the resultant elevated value. We report a patient with a significant lactic acidosis. Though he had a high lactate value, he did not require aggressive resuscitation. A different classification scheme for lactic acidosis that focuses on the bifurcation of the “dangerous” and “not dangerous” causes of lactic acidosis may be of benefit. In addition, this case is demonstrative of the potential overuse of lactates in the ED.

  12. Negative-Pressure Pulmonary Edema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Mallar; Kallet, Richard H; Ware, Lorraine B; Matthay, Michael A

    2016-10-01

    Negative-pressure pulmonary edema (NPPE) or postobstructive pulmonary edema is a well-described cause of acute respiratory failure that occurs after intense inspiratory effort against an obstructed airway, usually from upper airway infection, tumor, or laryngospasm. Patients with NPPE generate very negative airway pressures, which augment transvascular fluid filtration and precipitate interstitial and alveolar edema. Pulmonary edema fluid collected from most patients with NPPE has a low protein concentration, suggesting hydrostatic forces as the primary mechanism for the pathogenesis of NPPE. Supportive care should be directed at relieving the upper airway obstruction by endotracheal intubation or cricothyroidotomy, institution of lung-protective positive-pressure ventilation, and diuresis unless the patient is in shock. Resolution of the pulmonary edema is usually rapid, in part because alveolar fluid clearance mechanisms are intact. In this review, we discuss the clinical presentation, pathophysiology, and management of negative-pressure or postobstructive pulmonary edema. Copyright © 2016 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Long-term trends of foE and geomagnetic activity variations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Mikhailov

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available A relationship between foE trends and geomagnetic activity long-term variations has been revealed for the first time. By analogy with earlier obtained results on the foF2 trends it is possible to speak about the geomagnetic control of the foE long-term trends as well. Periods of increasing geomagnetic activity correspond to negative foE trends, while these trends are positive for the decreasing phase of geomagnetic activity. This "natural" relationship breaks down around 1970 (on some stations later when pronounced positive foE trends have appeared on most of the stations considered. The dependence of foE trends on geomagnetic activity can be related with nitric oxide variations at the E-layer heights. The positive foE trends that appeared after the "break down" effect may also be explained by the [NO] decrease which is not related to geomagnetic activity variations. But negative trends or irregular foE variations on some stations for the same time period require some different mechanism. Chemical pollution of the lower thermosphere due to the anthropogenic activity may be responsible for such abnormal foE behavior after the end of the 1960s.Key words. Ionosphere (ionosphere-atmosphere interactions; ionospheric disturbances

  14. JUVENILE DELINQUENCY: TRENDS (REGIONAL ASPECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. G. Selezneva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available he article analyzes the nature and internal structure of various types of crimes in which involved minors. Describes the main social factors contributing to this anomaly in the period of development of society. Investigated the motivation, the system and the types of crimes of minors in the Volgograd region, are the main trends of development of this phenomenon. The study also discusses the theoretical basis of the problem of the influence of economic stability on the species structure of juvenile delinquency. In this study the analysis of various types of deviance minors in different areas of the city of Volgograd. In the process of rapid modernization of communication processes most of today’s youth have not been able to quickly rebuild their behavior. Currently, the value-perception of the adolescents focused on the material benefits in terms of expanded economic interactions. In these conditions, social processes become increasingly removed from humane and spiritual orientations. The effective functioning of society in its interaction based on cooperation and understanding is of great importance to stimulate the positive trends in social sphere in modern Russia. The modern period of development, coupled with a drastic breaking of the foundations of life, the formation of new social relations and institutions and the destruction of the old, inevitably contributes to social tension, the reassessment of social and moral values and development of deviant behavior of minors. The advantages of this study are the involvement of local archives regional committees on Affairs of minors, was first introduced to active scientific revolution, as well as logical structuring and grouping of the main issues related to the dynamics and changes in the species structure of juvenile crime, which allowed us to perform a fairly extensive archive of statistical material. Based on this analysis, the authors made a

  15. [Current clinical significance of anaerobic bacteremia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirsa, Roman; Marešová, Veronika; Brož, Zdeněk

    2010-10-01

    to estimate tje current clinical significance of anaerobic bacteremia in a group of Czech hospitals. this retrospective analysis comprised 8 444 anaerobic blood cultures in patients admitted to four Czech hospitals between 2004 and 2007. in 16 patients, blood cultures yielded significant anaerobic bacteria. Thus, anaerobic bacteremia accounted for less than 2 % of clinically significant bacteremia. Four patients (18 %) died but none of the deaths could be clearly attributable to anaerobic bacteria in the bloodstream. The most common comorbidities predisposing to anaerobic bacteremia and the most frequent sources of infection were similar to those reported by other authors. The majority of anaerobic bacteremia cases were due to gram-negative bacteria, followed by Clostridium perfringens and, surprisingly, Eubacterium spp. (particularly Eubacterium lentum). anaerobic bacteremia remains rare. The comparison of our data with those by other authors suggests that (despite the reported high mortality) the actual clinical significance of anaerobic bacteremia is rather controversial and that the anaerobic bacteremia might not correspond to more serious pathogenic role of the anaerobic bacteria as the source of infection.

  16. Positive versus negative priming of older adults' generative value: do negative messages impair memory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagood, Elizabeth W; Gruenewald, Tara L

    2018-02-01

    A considerable volume of experimental evidence demonstrates that exposure to aging stereotypes can strongly influence cognitive performance among older individuals. However, whether such effects extend to stereotypes regarding older adults' generative (i.e. contributory) worth is not yet known. The present investigation sought to evaluate the effect of exposure to positive versus negative generative value primes on an important aspect of later life functioning, memory. Participants of age 55 and older (n = 51) were randomly assigned to read a mock news article portraying older individuals as either an asset (positive prime) or a burden (negative prime) to society. Upon reading their assigned article, participants completed a post-priming memory assessment in which they were asked to recall a list of 30 words. Those exposed to the negative prime showed significantly poorer memory performance relative to those exposed to the positive prime (d = 0.75), even when controlling for baseline memory performance and sociodemographic covariates. These findings suggest that negative messages regarding older adults' generative social value impair memory relative to positive ones. Though demonstrated in the short term, these results also point to the potential consequences of long-term exposure to such negative ideologies and may indicate a need to promote more positive societal conceptualizations of older adults' generative worth.

  17. Aquaculture: global status and trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostock, John; McAndrew, Brendan; Richards, Randolph; Jauncey, Kim; Telfer, Trevor; Lorenzen, Kai; Little, David; Ross, Lindsay; Handisyde, Neil; Gatward, Iain; Corner, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Aquaculture contributed 43 per cent of aquatic animal food for human consumption in 2007 (e.g. fish, crustaceans and molluscs, but excluding mammals, reptiles and aquatic plants) and is expected to grow further to meet the future demand. It is very diverse and, contrary to many perceptions, dominated by shellfish and herbivorous and omnivorous pond fish either entirely or partly utilizing natural productivity. The rapid growth in the production of carnivorous species such as salmon, shrimp and catfish has been driven by globalizing trade and favourable economics of larger scale intensive farming. Most aquaculture systems rely on low/uncosted environmental goods and services, so a critical issue for the future is whether these are brought into company accounts and the consequent effects this would have on production economics. Failing that, increased competition for natural resources will force governments to allocate strategically or leave the market to determine their use depending on activities that can extract the highest value. Further uncertainties include the impact of climate change, future fisheries supplies (for competition and feed supply), practical limits in terms of scale and in the economics of integration and the development and acceptability of new bio-engineering technologies. In the medium term, increased output is likely to require expansion in new environments, further intensification and efficiency gains for more sustainable and cost-effective production. The trend towards enhanced intensive systems with key monocultures remains strong and, at least for the foreseeable future, will be a significant contributor to future supplies. Dependence on external feeds (including fish), water and energy are key issues. Some new species will enter production and policies that support the reduction of resource footprints and improve integration could lead to new developments as well as reversing decline in some more traditional systems. PMID:20713392

  18. Aquaculture: global status and trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostock, John; McAndrew, Brendan; Richards, Randolph; Jauncey, Kim; Telfer, Trevor; Lorenzen, Kai; Little, David; Ross, Lindsay; Handisyde, Neil; Gatward, Iain; Corner, Richard

    2010-09-27

    Aquaculture contributed 43 per cent of aquatic animal food for human consumption in 2007 (e.g. fish, crustaceans and molluscs, but excluding mammals, reptiles and aquatic plants) and is expected to grow further to meet the future demand. It is very diverse and, contrary to many perceptions, dominated by shellfish and herbivorous and omnivorous pond fish either entirely or partly utilizing natural productivity. The rapid growth in the production of carnivorous species such as salmon, shrimp and catfish has been driven by globalizing trade and favourable economics of larger scale intensive farming. Most aquaculture systems rely on low/uncosted environmental goods and services, so a critical issue for the future is whether these are brought into company accounts and the consequent effects this would have on production economics. Failing that, increased competition for natural resources will force governments to allocate strategically or leave the market to determine their use depending on activities that can extract the highest value. Further uncertainties include the impact of climate change, future fisheries supplies (for competition and feed supply), practical limits in terms of scale and in the economics of integration and the development and acceptability of new bio-engineering technologies. In the medium term, increased output is likely to require expansion in new environments, further intensification and efficiency gains for more sustainable and cost-effective production. The trend towards enhanced intensive systems with key monocultures remains strong and, at least for the foreseeable future, will be a significant contributor to future supplies. Dependence on external feeds (including fish), water and energy are key issues. Some new species will enter production and policies that support the reduction of resource footprints and improve integration could lead to new developments as well as reversing decline in some more traditional systems.

  19. Marketing: Trends and behaviour patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salai Suzana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In order for marketing to act proactively, it must acknowledge the trends (mega and metatrends which anticipate future changes reagrding the customer as well as changes in consumption, regarding products and rivals. From yesterday's industrial era, through space conquering era and today's dominating information era, the world is turning toward 'the era of the man'. Human potential (talent, innovativeness, creativity grows to be the main determinant of economic development will have to face new reality which will have higher importance for management companies and individuals, as well. Societies and economies underlay significant transformations on a daily basis which occur randomly. Whatsoever, it might seem to the observer that these transformations are almost tangible. For example, the presently overwhelming business models are shored to be redefined in the forecoming period. Present models that rose out of the recent recession have imposed hard times to societies which will probably strengthen them. It will be necessary to reconcept the social system and redefine values. In marketing and business the upcoming of new power calls for new conceptions and practice. Marketers understand the need for a full, cohesive approach that leaves behind traditional marketing. This new holistic conception is based on development, design and realization of marketing programmes, processes and activities by which the width and interrelatedness of effects are acknowledged, e.g. that everything has its importance in marketing and that a wide, integrated perspective is necessary. Changes regarding the customer are headed towards searching for one's identity, while behaviour aims at the way the customer wants himself/herself to be seen by the environment.

  20. Merged SAGE II, Ozone_cci and OMPS ozone profile dataset and evaluation of ozone trends in the stratosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. F. Sofieva

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a merged dataset of ozone profiles from several satellite instruments: SAGE II on ERBS, GOMOS, SCIAMACHY and MIPAS on Envisat, OSIRIS on Odin, ACE-FTS on SCISAT, and OMPS on Suomi-NPP. The merged dataset is created in the framework of the European Space Agency Climate Change Initiative (Ozone_cci with the aim of analyzing stratospheric ozone trends. For the merged dataset, we used the latest versions of the original ozone datasets. The datasets from the individual instruments have been extensively validated and intercompared; only those datasets which are in good agreement, and do not exhibit significant drifts with respect to collocated ground-based observations and with respect to each other, are used for merging. The long-term SAGE–CCI–OMPS dataset is created by computation and merging of deseasonalized anomalies from individual instruments. The merged SAGE–CCI–OMPS dataset consists of deseasonalized anomalies of ozone in 10° latitude bands from 90° S to 90° N and from 10 to 50 km in steps of 1 km covering the period from October 1984 to July 2016. This newly created dataset is used for evaluating ozone trends in the stratosphere through multiple linear regression. Negative ozone trends in the upper stratosphere are observed before 1997 and positive trends are found after 1997. The upper stratospheric trends are statistically significant at midlatitudes and indicate ozone recovery, as expected from the decrease of stratospheric halogens that started in the middle of the 1990s and stratospheric cooling.

  1. The historical significance of oak

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. V. Thirgood

    1971-01-01

    A brief history of the importance of oak in Europe, contrasting the methods used in France and Britain to propagate the species and manage the forests for continued productivity. The significance of oak as a strategic resource during the sailing-ship era is stressed, and mention is made of the early development of oak management in North America. The international...

  2. Onabotulinum toxin A dosage trends over time for adductor spasmodic dysphonia: A 15-year experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Christopher G; Novakovic, Daniel; Mor, Niv; Blitzer, Andrew

    2016-03-01

    Although onabotulinum neurotoxin A (BoNTA) has been used for over three decades for the treatment of adductor spasmodic dysphonia, no study has been performed to look at the trend of BoNTA dosages across time. The goal of this study is to evaluate the dosage trends to determine if the dosage necessary for voice improvement in patients increases over time. Charts were reviewed for patients with 15 years or more of experience. Linear regression analysis was performed to determine correlation coefficients and trends. Fifty-five patients receiving BoNTA injections by the senior author (a.b.) for over 15 years were evaluated. Thirty-nine patients (82% female) met inclusion criteria. Patients received injections over an average of 18.6 years ± 1.36 years, with the longest follow-up of 21.5 years. Of 39 patients, 16 (41%) had a negative correlation coefficient (Pearson's r) suggesting a decrease over time, whereas 23 (59%) had a positive correlation coefficient suggesting an increase over time. The mean correlation coefficient was 0.139 ± 0.534 and P  0.05 in 20 patients. R(2) for all patients were less than 0.75. Onabotulinum neurotoxin A injection dosage trends vary depending on the individual over time. Overall, the dose range appears to be stable in the majority of patients, suggesting that tolerance does not play a significant part in dose variation over time. 4. Laryngoscope, 126:678-681, 2016. © 2015 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  3. Googling trends in conservation biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proulx, Raphaël; Massicotte, Philippe; Pépino, Marc

    2014-02-01

    Web-crawling approaches, that is, automated programs data mining the internet to obtain information about a particular process, have recently been proposed for monitoring early signs of ecosystem degradation or for establishing crop calendars. However, lack of a clear conceptual and methodological framework has prevented the development of such approaches within the field of conservation biology. Our objective was to illustrate how Google Trends, a freely accessible web-crawling engine, can be used to track changes in timing of biological processes, spatial distribution of invasive species, and level of public awareness about key conservation issues. Google Trends returns the number of internet searches that were made for a keyword in a given region of the world over a defined period. Using data retrieved online for 13 countries, we exemplify how Google Trends can be used to study the timing of biological processes, such as the seasonal recurrence of pollen release or mosquito outbreaks across a latitudinal gradient. We mapped the spatial extent of results from Google Trends for 5 invasive species in the United States and found geographic patterns in invasions that are consistent with their coarse-grained distribution at state levels. From 2004 through 2012, Google Trends showed that the level of public interest and awareness about conservation issues related to ecosystem services, biodiversity, and climate change increased, decreased, and followed both trends, respectively. Finally, to further the development of research approaches at the interface of conservation biology, collective knowledge, and environmental management, we developed an algorithm that allows the rapid retrieval of Google Trends data. © 2013 Society for Conservation Biology.

  4. Trends in congenital anomalies in Europe from 1980 to 2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morris, Joan K.; Springett, Anna L.; Greenlees, Ruth

    2018-01-01

    and congenital hydronephrosis trends could not be interpreted due to discrepancies in diagnostic criteria. The trends for club foot and syndactyly disappeared once registries with disparate results were excluded. No decrease in neural tube defects was detected, despite efforts at prevention through folic acid...... of pregnancy for fetal anomaly were analysed with multilevel random- effects Poisson regression models. Results Seventeen anomaly subgroups had statistically significant trends from 2003-2012; 12 increasing and 5 decreasing. Conclusions The annual increasing prevalence of severe congenital heart defects...

  5. Statistical trend analysis methodology for rare failures in changing technical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ott, K.O.; Hoffmann, H.J.

    1983-07-01

    A methodology for a statistical trend analysis (STA) in failure rates is presented. It applies primarily to relatively rare events in changing technologies or components. The formulation is more general and the assumptions are less restrictive than in a previously published version. Relations of the statistical analysis and probabilistic assessment (PRA) are discussed in terms of categorization of decisions for action following particular failure events. The significance of tentatively identified trends is explored. In addition to statistical tests for trend significance, a combination of STA and PRA results quantifying the trend complement is proposed. The STA approach is compared with other concepts for trend characterization. (orig.)

  6. Negative effects of climate warming on maize yield are reversed by the changing of sowing date and cultivar selection in Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhijuan; Hubbard, Kenneth G; Lin, Xiaomao; Yang, Xiaoguang

    2013-11-01

    Northeast China (NEC) accounts for about 30% of the nation's maize production in China. In the past three decades, maize yields in NEC have increased under changes in climate, cultivar selection and crop management. It is important to investigate the contribution of these changing factors to the historical yield increases to improve our understanding of how we can ensure increased yields in the future. In this study, we use phenology observations at six sites from 1981 to 2007 to detect trends in sowing dates and length of maize growing period, and then combine these observations with in situ temperature data to determine the trends of thermal time in the maize growing period, as a measure of changes in maize cultivars. The area in the vicinity of these six sites accounts for 30% of NEC's total maize production. The agricultural production systems simulator, APSIM-Maize model, was used to separate the impacts of changes in climate, sowing dates and thermal time requirements on maize phenology and yields. In NEC, sowing dates trended earlier in four of six sites and maturity dates trended later by 4-21 days. Therefore, the period from sowing to maturity ranged from 2 to 38 days longer in 2007 than it was in 1981. Our results indicate that climate trends alone would have led to a negative impact on maize. However, results from the adaptation assessments indicate that earlier sowing dates increased yields by up to 4%, and adoption of longer season cultivars caused a substantial increase in yield ranging from 13% to 38% over the past 27 years. Therefore, earlier sowing dates and introduction of cultivars with higher thermal time requirements in NEC have overcome the negative effects of climate change and turned what would have otherwise been a loss into a significant increase in maize yield. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. ANCA-negative Churg-Strauss Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Jamil Abdal

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A rare and a disease of unknown etiology, Churg-Strauss syndrome (CSS is a granulomatous necrotizing small vessel vasculitis characterized by the presence of asthma, sinusitis, and hypereosinophilia, which is initially described by Churg and Strauss in 1951. Because of its clinical and pathological features that overlap with those of the other anti-neutrophil antibody (ANCA-associated systemic vasculitides (AASVs and now the disease is classified as AASVs. The ANCA status may dictate the clinical phenotype. ANCA-positive patients are significantly more likely to have disease manifesta­tions associated with small-vessel vasculitis, including oecrotising glomemlonephritis, mononeuritis and purpura, whereas ANCA-negative cases predominantly likely to have cardiac and lung involvement. The objective of this case report is to point out the possibility of vasculitic rash in ANCA-negative CSS in a 35-year-old man and the disease rarely occurs in Bangladeshi population. We analyze the history, clinical examinations and relevant investigations related to the patient to establish the diagnosis in our department. The clinical scenario and biopsy help us to attain the diagnosis. But due to unavailability of patients' cohort we have limitations of comparison of ANCA status in Bangladeshi populations. Though ANCA-positive and ANCA-negative CSS differ phenotypically, primary therapy for both the conditions is systemic glucocorticoids. Additional immunosuppressive agents like cyclophosphamide, mycophenolate mofetil, azathioprine, rituxin1ab are occasionally added in patients with more advanced or refractory disease.

  8. Trends in CANDU licensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snell, V.G.; Grant, S.D.

    1997-01-01

    Modern utilities view nuclear power more and more as a commodity - it must compete 'today' with current alternatives to attract their investment. With its long construction times and large capital investment, nuclear plants are vulnerable to delays once they have been committed. There are two related issues. Where the purchaser and the regulator are experienced in CANDU, the thrust is a very practical one: to identify and resolve major licensing risks at a very early stage in the project. Thus for a Canadian project, the designer (AECL) and the prospective purchaser would deal directly with the AECB. However CANDU has also been successfully licensed in other countries, including Korea, Romania, Argentina, India and Pakistan. Each of these countries has its own regulatory agency responsible for licensing the plant. In addition, however, the foreign customer and regulator may seek input from the AECB, up to and including a statement of licensability in Canada; this is not normally needed for a ''repeat'' plant and/or if the customer is experienced in CANDU, but can be requested if the plant configuration has been modified significantly from an already-operating CANDU. It is thus the responsibility of the designer to initiate early discussions with the AECB so the foreign CANDU meets the expectations of its customers

  9. Epidemiological Trends in Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malcolm R Sears

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Many markers of asthma morbidity have shown substantial increases over the past two decades, including family physician visits, use of anti-asthma medications, emergency room visits and hospital admissions. The reported prevalence of diagnosed asthma and of wheezing has increased, especially in children, with accompanying evidence of increased atopy and increased airway responsiveness. Allergen exposure and parental smoking are significant risk factors for childhood wheezing, whereas the influence of outdoor air pollution is uncertain. Increasing use of beta-agonist treatment, which appears to increase the severity of asthma by increasing early and late responses to allergen, may contribute to increased morbidity and mortality, especially if potent beta-agonists are used. Risk factors for asthma mortality include age, smoking, allergy and airway lability, as well as over-reliance on beta-agonists and poor compliance with other aspects of treatment. Following withdrawal of the potent beta-agonist fenoterol in New Zealand, both hospital admissions and mortality from asthma fell abruptly. Continued patient and physician education, with emphasis on avoidance of risk factors and use of appropriate treatment, should reduce morbidity and mortality from asthma in Canada.

  10. Recovery trends in marine mammal populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna M Magera

    Full Text Available Marine mammals have greatly benefitted from a shift from resource exploitation towards conservation. Often lauded as symbols of conservation success, some marine mammal populations have shown remarkable recoveries after severe depletions. Others have remained at low abundance levels, continued to decline, or become extinct or extirpated. Here we provide a quantitative assessment of (1 publicly available population-level abundance data for marine mammals worldwide, (2 abundance trends and recovery status, and (3 historic population decline and recent recovery. We compiled 182 population abundance time series for 47 species and identified major data gaps. In order to compare across the largest possible set of time series with varying data quality, quantity and frequency, we considered an increase in population abundance as evidence of recovery. Using robust log-linear regression over three generations, we were able to classify abundance trends for 92 spatially non-overlapping populations as Significantly Increasing (42%, Significantly Decreasing (10%, Non-Significant Change (28% and Unknown (20%. Our results were comparable to IUCN classifications for equivalent species. Among different groupings, pinnipeds and other marine mammals (sirenians, polar bears and otters showed the highest proportion of recovering populations, likely benefiting from relatively fast life histories and nearshore habitats that provided visibility and protective management measures. Recovery was less frequent among cetaceans, but more common in coastal than offshore populations. For marine mammals with available historical abundance estimates (n = 47, larger historical population declines were associated with low or variable recent recoveries so far. Overall, our results show that many formerly depleted marine mammal populations are recovering. However, data-deficient populations and those with decreasing and non-significant trends require attention. In particular

  11. Evaluation of reported NOx emission trends between 2005 and 2013 by assimilation of OMI-NO2 data into LOTOS-EUROS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaap, Martijn; Segers, Arjo; Curier, Lyana; Timmermans, Renske

    2016-04-01

    Consistent and long time series of remotely sensed trace gas levels may provide a useful tool to estimate surface emissions and emission trends. We use the OMI-NO2 product in conjunction with the LOTOS-EUROS CTM to estimate European emission trends through correction of the OMI-time series for meteorological variability as well as through assimilation using an ensemble kalman filter system (EnKF). The chemistry transport model captures a large fraction of the variability in NO2 columns at a synoptic timescale, although a seasonal signal in the bias between the modeled and retrieved column data remains. Prior to the assimilation, the OMI-NO2 data have been analyzed to establish the spatially variable temporal and spatial correlation lengths, required for the settings in the EnKF system. The assimilation run for 2005-2013 was performed using constant 2005 emissions to be able to quantify the emission change. The assimilation reduces the model-observation differences considerably. Significant negative trends of 2-3 % per year (as compared to 2005) were found in highly industrialized areas across Western Europe. The assimilation system also identifies the areas with major emission reductions in e.g. northern Spain as identified in earlier studies. Comparison of the trends derived from the assimilation and the data itself shows a high level of agreement, both the trends found in this way are smaller than those reported.

  12. Trend analysis of air temperature and precipitation time series over Greece: 1955-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marougianni, G.; Melas, D.; Kioutsioukis, I.; Feidas, H.; Zanis, P.; Anandranistakis, E.

    2012-04-01

    In this study, a database of air temperature and precipitation time series from the network of Hellenic National Meteorological Service has been developed in the framework of the project GEOCLIMA, co-financed by the European Union and Greek national funds through the Operational Program "Competitiveness and Entrepreneurship" of the Research Funding Program COOPERATION 2009. Initially, a quality test was applied to the raw data and then missing observations have been imputed with a regularized, spatial-temporal expectation - maximization algorithm to complete the climatic record. Next, a quantile - matching algorithm was applied in order to verify the homogeneity of the data. The processed time series were used for the calculation of temporal annual and seasonal trends of air temperature and precipitation. Monthly maximum and minimum surface air temperature and precipitation means at all available stations in Greece were analyzed for temporal trends and spatial variation patterns for the longest common time period of homogenous data (1955 - 2010), applying the Mann-Kendall test. The majority of the examined stations showed a significant increase in the summer maximum and minimum temperatures; this could be possibly physically linked to the Etesian winds, because of the less frequent expansion of the low over the southeastern Mediterranean. Summer minimum temperatures have been increasing at a faster rate than that of summer maximum temperatures, reflecting an asymmetric change of extreme temperature distributions. Total annual precipitation has been significantly decreased at the stations located in western Greece, as well as in the southeast, while the remaining areas exhibit a non-significant negative trend. This reduction is very likely linked to the positive phase of the NAO that resulted in an increase in the frequency and persistence of anticyclones over the Mediterranean.

  13. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-03-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (October - December 1993) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  14. Synthetic definition of biological significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buffington, J.D.

    1975-01-01

    The central theme of the workshop is recounted and the views of the authors are summarized. Areas of broad agreement or disagreement, unifying principles, and research needs are identified. Authors' views are consolidated into concepts that have practical utility for the scientist making impact assessments. The need for decision-makers and managers to be cognizant of the recommendations made herein is discussed. Finally, bringing together the diverse views of the workshop participants, a conceptual definition of biological significance is synthesized

  15. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-11-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (July - September 1992) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  16. Global fertility and population trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongaarts, John

    2015-01-01

    Over the past several decades, the world and most countries have undergone unprecedented demographic change. The most obvious example of this change is the rise in human numbers, and there are also important trends in fertility, family structure, mortality, migration, urbanization, and population aging. This paper summarizes past trends and projections in fertility and population. After reaching 2.5 billion in 1950, the world population grew rapidly to 7.2 billion in 2013 and the projections expect this total to be 10.9 billion by 2100. World regions differ widely in their demographic trends, with rapid population growth and high fertility continuing in the poorest countries, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa, while population decline, population aging, and very low fertility are now a key concern in many developed countries. These trends have important implications for human welfare and are of interest to policy makers. The conclusion comments briefly on policy options to address these adverse trends. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  17. Global scenarios and trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The 21st century brings with it a number of disturbing challenges. They may even threaten to disrupt world order. Many agree the most critical and urgent challenge of all confronting human kind today is climate change. Global warming has reached a level which can trigger drastic shifts in world weather. There is convincing evidence to show that global warming is significantly attributed to mans own activities. If man is responsible for the warming of the planet, then only man can help stop global warming. Only man can reverse climate change. Climate change has the power to literally destruct the world. The adverse effects of global climate change are increasingly evident from the frequency and ferocity of natural disasters like the recent severe drought and flood in Queensland, Australia; the prolonged drought in East Africa; the destructive typhoon Nargis in Myanmar; the terrifying hurricane Katrina which brought New Orleans to its knees; the disastrous Mississippi flood and killer cyclones in USA and the out of season drought and flood in the Yangtze river basin. The list does not end there. Dr. R. K. Pachauri, Chairman of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), in his lecture on 28 April 2011 at UNITEN, entitled Fukushima, Energy and Climate Change reaffirmed that the warming of the earths climate system is unequivocal. That climate change is mans common enemy is no longer in doubt. This is the reason why many see climate change as the single most important driver of the expanding global interest in green technology and a low carbon economy. (author)

  18. Veillonella, Firmicutes: Microbes disguised as Gram negatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesth, Tammi; Ozen, Aslı; Andersen, Sandra C; Kaas, Rolf Sommer; Lukjancenko, Oksana; Bohlin, Jon; Nookaew, Intawat; Wassenaar, Trudy M; Ussery, David W

    2013-12-20

    The Firmicutes represent a major component of the intestinal microflora. The intestinal Firmicutes are a large, diverse group of organisms, many of which are poorly characterized due to their anaerobic growth requirements. Although most Firmicutes are Gram positive, members of the class Negativicutes, including the genus Veillonella, stain Gram negative. Veillonella are among the most abundant organisms of the oral and intestinal microflora of animals and humans, in spite of being strict anaerobes. In this work, the genomes of 24 Negativicutes, including eight Veillonella spp., are compared to 20 other Firmicutes genomes; a further 101 prokaryotic genomes were included, covering 26 phyla. Thus a total of 145 prokaryotic genomes were analyzed by various methods to investigate the apparent conflict of the Veillonella Gram stain and their taxonomic position within the Firmicutes. Comparison of the genome sequences confirms that the Negativicutes are distantly related to Clostridium spp., based on 16S rRNA, complete genomic DNA sequences, and a consensus tree based on conserved proteins. The genus Veillonella is relatively homogeneous: inter-genus pair-wise comparison identifies at least 1,350 shared proteins, although less than half of these are found in any given Clostridium genome. Only 27 proteins are found conserved in all analyzed prokaryote genomes. Veillonella has distinct metabolic properties, and significant similarities to genomes of Proteobacteria are not detected, with the exception of a shared LPS biosynthesis pathway. The clade within the class Negativicutes to which the genus Veillonella belongs exhibits unique properties, most of which are in common with Gram-positives and some with Gram negatives. They are only distantly related to Clostridia, but are even less closely related to Gram-negative species. Though the Negativicutes stain Gram-negative and possess two membranes, the genome and proteome analysis presented here confirm their place within the

  19. Discrepant HPV/cytology cotesting results: Are there differences between cytology-negative versus HPV-negative cervical intraepithelial neoplasia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracht, Jessica M; Davis, Antoinette D; Fasciano, Danielle N; Eltoum, Isam-Eldin A

    2017-10-01

    The objective of this study was to compare cervical high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions subcategorized as cervical intraepithelial neoplasia-3 (CIN-3)-positive after a negative cytology result but positive for high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) testing to those with a negative HR-HPV test but positive cytology (atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance [ASCUS]-positive/HPV-negative) and to assess reasons for discrepancies. The authors retrospectively analyzed women who underwent screening with cytology and HPV testing from 2010 through 2013. After a review of surgical specimens and cytology, discrepancies were classified as sampling or interpretation error. Clinical and pathologic findings were compared. In total, 15,173 women (age range, 25-95 years; 7.1% were aged ASCUS-positive/HPV-positive, 11 that tested negative for intraepithelial lesion or malignancy (NILM)/HPV-positive, 10 that tested ASCUS-positive/HPV-negative, 3 that tested NILM/HPV-negative, and 5 tests that were unsatisfactory. There was no significant difference between NILM/HPV-positive and ASCUS-positive/HPV-negative CIN-3 in terms of size, time to occurrence, the presence of a cytopathic effect, screening history, race, or age. Six of 11 NILM/HPV-positive cases were reclassified as ASCUS, indicating an interpreting error of 55% and a sampling error of 45%. No ASCUS-positive/HPV-negative cases were reclassified. Seven cases of CIN-3 with positive cytology were HPV-negative. There are no significant clinical or pathologic differences between NILM/HPV-positive and ASCUS-positive/HPV-negative CIN-3-positive specimens. Cytologic sampling or interpretation remains the main reason for discrepancies. However, HPV-negative CIN-3 with positive cytology exists and may be missed by primary HPV screening. Cancer Cytopathol 2017;125:795-805. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  20. Perfect imaging without negative refraction

    OpenAIRE

    Leonhardt, Ulf

    2009-01-01

    Perfect imaging has been believed to rely on negative refraction, but here we show that an ordinary positively-refracting optical medium may form perfect images as well. In particular, we establish a mathematical proof that Maxwell's fish eye in two-dimensional integrated optics makes a perfect instrument with a resolution not limited by the wavelength of light. We also show how to modify the fish eye such that perfect imaging devices can be made in practice. Our method of perfect focusing ma...