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Sample records for significant minor depression

  1. Depression is not associated with diabetes control in minority elderly.

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    Palta, Priya; Golden, Sherita Hill; Teresi, Jeanne A; Palmas, Walter; Trief, Paula; Weinstock, Ruth S; Shea, Steven; Manly, Jennifer J; Luchsinger, Jose A

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the longitudinal association of depression, with and without cognitive dysfunction, with hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), systolic blood pressure (SBP), and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) in a predominantly minority cohort. There were 613 participants. Presence of depression was defined by a score ≥7 on the Short-CARE depression scale. We tested participants for executive dysfunction using the Color Trails Test (CTT), part 2, and for memory dysfunction using the total recall task of the Selective Reminding Test (TR-SRT). We classified performance in these tests as abnormal based on standardized score cutoffs (<16th percentile and one standard deviation below the sample mean). Random effects models were used to compare repeated measures of the diabetes control measures between those with depression versus those without depression and ever versus never cognitively impaired. Baseline depression was present in 36% of participants. Over a median follow-up of 2 years, depression was not related to worse HbA1c, SBP, or LDL. The presence of (1) abnormal performance on a test of executive function and depression (n=57) or (2) abnormal performance on a test of verbal recall and depression (n=43) was also not associated with clinically significant worse change in diabetes control. Depression, with or without low performance in tests of executive function and memory, may not affect clinically significant measures of diabetes control in the elderly. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. First evidence for glial pathology in late life minor depression:S100B is increased in males with minor depression

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    Maryna ePolyakova

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Minor depression is diagnosed when a patient suffers from two to four depressive symptoms for at least two weeks. Though minor depression is a widespread phenomenon, its pathophysiology has hardly been studied. To get a first insight into the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying this disorder we assessed serum levels of biomarkers for plasticity, glial and neuronal function: brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, S100B and neuron specific enolase (NSE. 27 subjects with minor depressive episode and 82 healthy subjects over 60 years of age were selected from the database of the Leipzig population-based study of civilization diseases (LIFE. Serum levels of BDNF, S100B and NSE were compared between groups, and correlated with age, body-mass index, and degree of white matter hyperintensities (score on Fazekas scale. S100B was significantly increased in males with minor depression in comparison to healthy males, whereas other biomarkers did not differ between groups (p=0.10-0.66. NSE correlated with Fazekas score in patients with minor depression (r=0.436, p=0.048 and in the whole sample (r=0.252, p=0.019. S100B correlated with body mass index (r=0.246, p=0.031 and with age in healthy subjects (r=0.345, p=0.002. Increased S100B in males with minor depression, without alterations in BDNF and NSE, supports the glial hypothesis of depression. Correlation between white matter hyperintensities and NSE underscores the vascular hypothesis of late life depression.

  3. Economic costs of minor depression: a population-based study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuijpers, P.; Smit, H.F.E.; Oostenbrink, J.; de Graaf, R.; ten Have, M.; Beekman, A.T.F.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Although the clinical relevance of minor depression has been demonstrated in many studies, the economic costs are not well explored. In this study, we examine the economic costs of minor depression. Method: In a large-scale, population-based study in the Netherlands (n = 5504) the costs

  4. Economic costs of minor depression: a population-based study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuijpers, P.; Smit, H.F.E.; Oostenbrink, J.; Graaf, de R.; Have, M. ten; Beekman, A.T.F.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Although the clinical relevance of minor depression has been demonstrated in many studies, the economic costs are not well explored. In this study, we examine the economic costs of minor depression. Method: In a large-scale, population-based study in the Netherlands (n ¼ 5504) the costs

  5. Economic costs of minor depression: a population-based study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuijpers, P.; Smit, H.F.E.; Oostenbrink, J.; de Graaf, R.; ten Have, M.; Beekman, A.T.F.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Although the clinical relevance of minor depression has been demonstrated in many studies, the economic costs are not well explored. In this study, we examine the economic costs of minor depression. Method: In a large-scale, population-based study in the Netherlands (n = 5504) the costs

  6. Sexual Minority Status, Peer Harassment, and Adolescent Depression

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    Martin-Storey, Alexa; Crosnoe, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The well-documented higher rates of depression among sexual minority youth are increasingly viewed by developmentalists as a byproduct of the stigmatization of sexual minority status in American society and of the negative impact this stigma has on the processes associated with depression. This study attempted to spur future research by testing…

  7. Social networks and risk for depressive symptoms in a national sample of sexual minority youth.

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    Hatzenbuehler, Mark L; McLaughlin, Katie A; Xuan, Ziming

    2012-10-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the social networks of sexual minority youths and to determine the associations between social networks and depressive symptoms. Data were obtained from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), a nationally representative cohort study of American adolescents (N = 14,212). Wave 1 (1994-1995) collected extensive information about the social networks of participants through peer nomination inventories, as well as measures of sexual minority status and depressive symptoms. Using social network data, we examined three characteristics of adolescents' social relationships: (1) social isolation; (2) degree of connectedness; and (3) social status. Sexual minority youths, particularly females, were more isolated, less connected, and had lower social status in peer networks than opposite-sex attracted youths. Among sexual minority male (but not female) youths, greater isolation as well as lower connectedness and status within a network were associated with greater depressive symptoms. Moreover, greater isolation in social networks partially explained the association between sexual minority status and depressive symptoms among males. Finally, a significant 3-way interaction indicated that the association between social isolation and depression was stronger for sexual minority male youths than non-minority youths and sexual minority females. These results suggest that the social networks in which sexual minority male youths are embedded may confer risk for depressive symptoms, underscoring the importance of considering peer networks in both research and interventions targeting sexual minority male adolescents. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Sexual Minority Status, Peer Harassment, and Adolescent Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Storey, Alexa; Crosnoe, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The well-documented higher rates of depression among sexual minority youth are increasingly viewed by developmentalists as a byproduct of the stigmatization of sexual minority status in American society and of the negative impact this stigma has on the processes associated with depression. This study attempted to spur future research by testing Hatzenbuehler’s (2009) psychological mediation framework to investigate the ways in which peer harassment related to sexuality puts young people at risk by influencing the cognitive, social, and regulatory factors associated with depression. Analyses of 15 year olds in the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development revealed that sexual minority status was largely associated with depressive outcomes via harassment, which was subsequently associated with depression via cognitive and social factors. Results point to various avenues for exploring the importance of the social world and self-concept for the outcomes of sexual minority adolescents in the future. PMID:22401842

  9. Factors Influencing Depression and Anxiety among Black Sexual Minority Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis F. Graham

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary aim of this study was to examine the relationships between depression and anxiety, and ethnic and sexual identity development, and discrimination and harassment (DH among Black sexual minority men. Additional aims were to determine whether an interaction effect existed between ethnic and sexual identity and whether coping skills level moderated these relationships. Using an observational cross-sectional design, 54 participants recruited through snowball sampling completed self-administered online surveys. Stepwise multiple regression analysis was used. Sixty-four percent of the variance in depression scores and 53% of the variance in anxiety scores were explained by DH and internalized homonegativity together. Thirty percent of the sample had scale scores indicating likelihood of depression and anxiety. Experience of DH and internalized homonegativity explained a large portion of the variability in depression and anxiety among Black sexual minority men. The study showed high prevalence of mental distress among this sample.

  10. Cyber Victimization and Depressive Symptoms in Sexual Minority College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Jaimi L.; DiLalla, Lisabeth F.; McCrary, Megan K.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the relations between sexual orientation, cyber victimization, and depressive symptoms in college students. Study aims were to determine whether sexual minority college students are at greater risk for cyber victimization and to examine whether recent cyber victimization (self-reported cyber victimization over the last…

  11. Gender Minority Stress and Depressive Symptoms in Transitioned Swiss Transpersons

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    Tiziana Jäggi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Compared to the general population, transpersons are exposed to higher levels of discrimination and violence. The stigmatization of transpersons can lead to physical and psychological problems. In particular, transindividuals exhibit a higher prevalence of depression compared to the cispopulation. The gender minority stress model (GMSM provides a comprehensive theoretical basis to interpret these biopsychosocial interactions. Using the GMSM, this study aimed to identify associations between experience of stigmatization and the mental health of transitioned transpersons using correlational analyses and multiple regression models. In total, 143 transpersons were recruited. Multivariate analyses identified three variables (i.e., unemployment, nonaffirmation of gender identity, and internalized transphobia to explain variance of depressive symptoms. Furthermore, a mediation of the proximal factors between distal factors and depressive symptoms was found. However, the moderating effect of resilience factors was not demonstrated. The results confirmed the importance of distal and proximal minority stressors for the mental health of transpersons. At the same time, the protective influence of resilience factors seemed to be surprisingly minor. In the treatment of transpersons, practitioners should not only focus on somatic aspects, but also consider the person’s previous experiences of stigmatization.

  12. Gender Minority Stress and Depressive Symptoms in Transitioned Swiss Transpersons

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    Corbisiero, Salvatore; Schaefer, Dirk J.; Jenewein, Josef; Schneeberger, Andres; Kuhn, Annette; Garcia Nuñez, David

    2018-01-01

    Compared to the general population, transpersons are exposed to higher levels of discrimination and violence. The stigmatization of transpersons can lead to physical and psychological problems. In particular, transindividuals exhibit a higher prevalence of depression compared to the cispopulation. The gender minority stress model (GMSM) provides a comprehensive theoretical basis to interpret these biopsychosocial interactions. Using the GMSM, this study aimed to identify associations between experience of stigmatization and the mental health of transitioned transpersons using correlational analyses and multiple regression models. In total, 143 transpersons were recruited. Multivariate analyses identified three variables (i.e., unemployment, nonaffirmation of gender identity, and internalized transphobia) to explain variance of depressive symptoms. Furthermore, a mediation of the proximal factors between distal factors and depressive symptoms was found. However, the moderating effect of resilience factors was not demonstrated. The results confirmed the importance of distal and proximal minority stressors for the mental health of transpersons. At the same time, the protective influence of resilience factors seemed to be surprisingly minor. In the treatment of transpersons, practitioners should not only focus on somatic aspects, but also consider the person's previous experiences of stigmatization. PMID:29850581

  13. Depression and Sexual Orientation During Young Adulthood: Diversity Among Sexual Minority Subgroups and the Role of Gender Nonconformity.

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    Li, Gu; Pollitt, Amanda M; Russell, Stephen T

    2016-04-01

    Sexual minority individuals are at an elevated risk for depression compared to their heterosexual counterparts, yet less is known about how depression status varies across sexual minority subgroups (i.e., mostly heterosexuals, bisexuals, and lesbians and gay men). Moreover, studies on the role of young adult gender nonconformity in the relation between sexual orientation and depression are scarce and have yielded mixed findings. The current study examined the disparities between sexual minorities and heterosexuals during young adulthood in concurrent depression near the beginning of young adulthood and prospective depression 6 years later, paying attention to the diversity within sexual minority subgroups and the role of gender nonconformity. Drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 9421), we found that after accounting for demographics, sampling weight, and sampling design, self-identified mostly heterosexual and bisexual young adults, but not lesbians and gay men, reported significantly higher concurrent depression compared to heterosexuals; moreover, only mostly heterosexual young adults were more depressed than heterosexuals 6 years later. Furthermore, while young adult gender nonconforming behavior was associated with more concurrent depression regardless of sexual orientation, its negative impact on mental health decreased over time. Surprisingly, previous gender nonconformity predicted decreased prospective depression among lesbians and gay men whereas, among heterosexual individuals, increased gender nonconformity was not associated with prospective depression. Together, the results suggested the importance of investigating diversity and the influence of young adult gender nonconformity in future research on the mental health of sexual minorities.

  14. Perceived interpersonal discrimination and depressive symptoms among sexual minority youth: Is religious affiliation a protective factor?

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    Gattis, Maurice N.; Woodford, Michael R.; Han, Yoonsun

    2015-01-01

    Researchers have examined perceived discrimination as a risk factor for depression among sexual minorities; however, the role of religion as a protective factor is under-investigated, especially among sexual minority youth. Drawing on a cross-sectional study investigating campus climate at a large public university in the U.S. Midwest, we examined the role of affiliation with a gay-affirming denomination (i.e., endorsing same-sex marriage) as a moderating factor in the discrimination-depression relationship among self-identified sexual minority (n = 393) and heterosexual youth (n = 1,727). Using multivariate linear regression analysis, religious affiliation was found to moderate the discrimination-depression relationship among sexual minorities. Specifically, the results indicated that the harmful effects of discrimination among sexual minority youth affiliated with denominations that endorsed same-sex marriage were significantly less than those among peers who affiliated with denominations opposing same-sex marriage, as well as those among peers who identified as secular. In contrast, religious affiliation with gay-affirming denominations did not moderate the discrimination-depression relationship among heterosexual participants. The findings suggest that although religion and same-sex sexuality are often seen as incompatible topics, it is important when working with sexual minority clients for clinicians to assess religious affiliation, as it could be either a risk or a protective factor, depending on the religious group’s stance toward same-sex sexuality. To promote the well-being of sexual minority youth affiliated with denominations opposed to same-sex marriage, the results suggest these faith communities may be encouraged to reconsider their position and/or identify ways to foster youth’s resilience to interpersonal discrimination. PMID:25119387

  15. Minor and major depression in the general population: does dysfunctional thinking play a role?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaf, LE.; Huibers, M.J.H.; Cuijpers, P.; Arntz, A.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Although most research suggests that minor depression is part of a depression continuum, conflicting results have also been found. Moreover, little is known about dysfunctional thinking in minor depression and how this varies along the continuum. Especially, research on the form of

  16. Acculturative stress and experiential avoidance: relations to depression, suicide, and anxiety symptoms among minority college students.

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    Zvolensky, Michael J; Jardin, Charles; Garey, Lorra; Robles, Zuzuky; Sharp, Carla

    2016-11-01

    Although college campuses represent strategic locations to address mental health disparity among minorities in the US, there has been strikingly little empirical work on risk processes for anxiety/depression among this population. The present investigation examined the interactive effects of acculturative stress and experiential avoidance in relation to anxiety and depressive symptoms among minority college students (n = 1,095; 78.1% female; Mage = 21.92, SD = 4.23; 15.1% African-American (non-Hispanic), 45.3% Hispanic, 32.5% Asian, and 7.1% other races/ethnicities. Results provided empirical evidence of an interaction between acculturative stress and experiential avoidance for suicidal, social anxiety, and anxious arousal symptoms among the studied sample. Inspection of the significant interactions revealed that acculturative stress was related to greater levels of suicidal symptoms, social anxiety, and anxious arousal among minority college students with higher, but not lower, levels of experiential avoidance. However, in contrast to prediction, there was no significant interaction for depressive symptoms. Together, these data provide novel empirical evidence for the clinically-relevant interplay between acculturative stress and experiential avoidance in regard to a relatively wide array of negative emotional states among minority college students.

  17. Syndemic Factors Mediate the Relationship between Sexual Stigma and Depression among Sexual Minority Women and Gender Minorities.

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    Logie, Carmen H; Lacombe-Duncan, Ashley; Poteat, Tonia; Wagner, Anne C

    Stigma and discrimination contribute to elevated depression risks among sexual minority women (SMW) and gender minority (GM) people who identify as lesbian, bisexual, or queer. Syndemics theory posits that adverse psychosocial outcomes cluster to negatively impact health and mental health outcomes among sexual minorities. We tested whether a syndemic condition composed of low social support, low self-rated health, low self-esteem, and economic insecurity mediated the relationship between sexual stigma and depressive symptoms among SMW/GM. We implemented a cross-sectional, Internet-based survey with SMW and GM in Toronto, Canada. We conducted structural equation modeling using maximum likelihood estimation to test a conceptual model of pathways between sexual stigma, syndemic factors, and depressive symptoms. A total of 391 SMW/GM with a mean age of 30.9 (SD = 7.62) were included in the analysis. The model fit for a latent syndemics construct consisting of psychosocial variables (low social support, low self-rated health, low self-esteem, economic insecurity) was very good (χ 2  = 6.022, df = 2, p = .049; comparative fit index = 0.973, Tucker-Lewis index = 0.918, root-mean square error of approximation = 0.072). In the simultaneous model, sexual stigma had a significant direct effect on depression. When the syndemic variable was added as a mediator, the direct path from sexual stigma to depression was no longer significant, suggesting mediation. The model fit the data well: χ2 = 33.50, df = 12, p = .001; comparative fit index = 0.951, Tucker-Lewis index = 0.915, root-mean square error of approximation = 0.068. Our results highlight the salience of considering both sexual stigma and syndemic factors to explain mental health disparities experienced by SMW and GM. Addressing sexual stigma in the context of co-occurring psychosocial factors and economic insecurity will be key to achieving optimal health for SMW and GM. Copyright © 2017 Jacobs

  18. Depression in Racial and Ethnic Minorities: the Impact of Nativity and Discrimination.

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    Budhwani, Henna; Hearld, Kristine Ria; Chavez-Yenter, Daniel

    2015-03-01

    This research examines factors associated with lifetime major depressive disorder in racial and ethnic minorities residing in the USA, with an emphasis on the impact of nativity, discrimination, and health lifestyle behaviors. The Healthy Migrant Effect and Health Lifestyle Theory were used to inform the design of this project. The use of these frameworks not only provides insightful results but also expands their application in mental health disparities research. Logistic regression models were implemented to examine risk factors associated with lifetime major depressive disorder, comparing immigrants to their American-born counterparts as well as to American-born Whites. Data were derived from the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys (n = 17,249). Support was found for the hypothesis that certain immigrants, specifically Asian and Afro-Caribbean, have lower odds of depression as compared their non-immigrant counterparts. Although, Hispanic immigrants directionally had lower odds of depression, this finding was not statistically significant. Furthermore, engaging in excessive alcohol consumption was associated with higher rates of depression (odds ratio (OR) = 2.09, p < 0.001), and the effect of discrimination on depression was found to be significant, even when controlling for demographics. Of all racial and ethnic groups, foreign-born Afro-Caribbeans had the lowest rate of depression at 7 % followed by foreign-born Asians at 8 %.

  19. The Social Context of Depression Symptomology in Sexual Minority Male Youth: Determinants of Depression in a Sample of Grindr Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Jeremy J; Rice, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand which social context factors most influence depression symptomology among sexual minority male youth (SMMY). In 2011, 195 SMMY who use Grindr were recruited to complete an online survey in Los Angeles, California. Items focused on social context variables and depression symptomology. Hierarchical multiple regressions were conducted using an ecological framework. The best fitting model accounted for 29.5% of the variance in depression. Experiences of homophobia, gay community connection, presence of an objecting network member, and emotional support were found to be significant predictors. Past experiences of homophobia continuing to affect youth indicates the need for intervention to reduction of homophobia in youths' social contexts. Interventions that teach youth skills to manage objecting viewpoints or help youth to reorganize their social networks may help to reduce the impact of an objecting network alter.

  20. The scars of childhood adversity: minor stress sensitivity and depressive symptoms in remitted recurrently depressed adult patients.

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    Gemma Kok

    Full Text Available Childhood adversity may lead to depressive relapse through its long-lasting influence on stress sensitivity. In line with the stress sensitization hypothesis, minor (daily stress is associated with depressive relapse. Therefore, we examine the impact of childhood adversity on daily stress and its predictive value on prospectively assessed depressive symptoms in recurrently depressed patients.Daily stress was assessed in recurrently depressed adult patients, enrolled into two randomized trials while remitted. The reported intensity and frequency of dependent and independent daily stress was assessed at baseline. Independent stress is externally generated, for example an accident happening to a friend, while dependent stress is internally generated, for example getting into a fight with a neighbor. Hierarchical regression analyses were performed with childhood adversity, independent and dependent daily stress as predictor variables of prospectively measured depressive symptoms after three months of follow-up (n = 138.We found that childhood adversity was not significantly associated with a higher frequency and intensity of daily stress. The intensity of both independent and dependent daily stress was predictive of depressive symptom levels at follow-up (unadjusted models respectively: B = 0.47, t = 2.05, p = 0.041, 95% CI = 0.02-0.92; B = 0.29, t = 2.20, p = 0.028, 95% CI = 0.03-0.55. No associations were found between childhood adversity and depressive symptoms at follow-up.No evidence was found supporting stress sensitization due to the experience of childhood adversity in this recurrently depressed but remitted patient group. Nevertheless, our research indicates that daily stress might be a target for preventive treatment.Trial A: Nederlands Trial Register NTR1907 Trial B: Nederlands Trial Register NTR2503.

  1. Fluoxetine increases suicide ideation less than placebo during treatment of adults with minor depressive disorder.

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    Garlow, Steven J; Kinkead, Becky; Thase, Michael E; Judd, Lewis L; Rush, A John; Yonkers, Kimberly A; Kupfer, David J; Frank, Ellen; Schettler, Pamela J; Rapaport, Mark Hyman

    2013-09-01

    Some reports suggest an increase in suicide ideations and behaviors in patients treated with antidepressants. This is an analysis of the impact of fluoxetine on suicide ideations in outpatients with minor depressive disorder. Research subjects were adult outpatients with minor depressive disorder (N = 162), who received fluoxetine or placebo in a prospective, 12-week, double-blind randomized trial. The research participants were evaluated weekly with standard rating scales that included four suicide-related items: item 3 of the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD), item 18 of Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology (IDS-C), and items 15 and 59 of the Hopkins Symptom Checklist (SCL-90). Clinically significant intensification of suicide ideation was defined as an increase of ≥2 points on any of these items. Overall 60/162 subjects (37%) had an increase of ≥1 point during treatment and 17/162 (10.5%) of ≥2 points on at least one suicide item, with 12/81 (14.8%) placebo and 5/81 (6.2%) fluoxetine-treated subjects having a ≥2 point gain. Of the study participants with baseline suicide ideation, 9/22 (40.9%) placebo and 3/24 (12.5%) fluoxetine treated had ≥2 point increase (p = 0.04). Survival analysis revealed that subjects on placebo were significantly more likely (p = 0.050) to experience a ≥2 point increase on one or more item, a difference that emerged early and continued throughout the 12-week trial. Compared to placebo, fluoxetine was not associated with a clinically significant increase in suicide ideation among adults with minor depressive disorder during 12 weeks of treatment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Food Allergy and Anxiety and Depression among Ethnic Minority Children and Their Caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Renee D; Rodgin, Sandra; Goldman, Rachel; Rodriguez, Juliana; deVos, Gabriele; Serebrisky, Denise; Feldman, Jonathan M

    2017-08-01

    To investigate the relationship between food allergy and symptoms of anxiety and depression among ethnic minority, low socioeconomic status (SES) children and their caregivers. Pediatric patients ages 4-12 years with and without food allergy and their caregivers were recruited from urban pediatric outpatient clinics. Statistical analyses were used to examine the prevalence of symptoms of anxiety and depression among patients and their caregivers with and without food allergy, adjusting for asthma. Eighty patients ranging from ages 4 to 12 years, with a mean age of 8.1 years, and their caregivers participated in the study. Food allergy was associated with significantly higher t scores on the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children (MASC) Total (P = .007), MASC Humiliation Rejection, (P = .02) and MASC Social Anxiety (P = .02) among pediatric patients, adjusting for asthma. Food allergy was not associated with child depression symptoms, nor was there a significant difference in anxiety or depression symptoms among caregivers of patients with and without food allergy. Food allergy appears to be associated with increased symptoms of social anxiety and higher levels of anxiety overall, but not depression, in ethnic minority children of lower socioeconomic status. This finding was not due to confounding by asthma. Food allergy was not associated with higher levels of depression or anxiety symptoms among caregivers of pediatric patients with food allergy. Future studies should investigate potential pathways between food allergy and anxiety that may be unique to children in underserved populations, and develop interventions to reduce anxiety in children with food allergy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The scars of childhood adversity : Minor stress sensitivity and depressive symptoms in remitted recurrently depressed adult patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, Gemma; van Rijsbergen, Gerard; Burger, Huibert; Elgersma, Hermien; Riper, Heleen; Cuijpers, Pim; Dekker, Jack; Smit, Filip; Bockting, Claudi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Childhood adversity may lead to depressive relapse through its long-lasting influence on stress sensitivity. In line with the stress sensitization hypothesis, minor (daily) stress is associated with depressive relapse. Therefore, we examine the impact of childhood adversity on daily

  4. Harassment Due to Gender Nonconformity Mediates the Association Between Sexual Minority Identity and Depressive Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Storey, Alexa; August, Elana G

    2016-01-01

    The visibility of a stigmatized identity is central in determining how individuals experience that identity. Sexual minority status (e.g., identifying as gay, lesbian, or bisexual) has traditionally been identified as a concealable stigma, compared with race/ethnicity or physical disability status. This conceptualization fails to recognize, however, the strong link between sexual minority status and a visible stigma: gender nonconformity. Gender nonconformity, or the perception that an individual fails to conform to gendered norms of behavior and appearance, is strongly stigmatized, and is popularly associated with sexual minority status. The hypothesis that harassment due to gender nonconformity mediates the association between sexual minority status and depressive symptoms was tested. Heterosexual and sexual minority-identified college and university students (N = 251) completed questionnaires regarding their sexual minority identity, experiences of harassment due to gender nonconformity, harassment due to sexual minority status, and depressive symptoms. A mediational model was supported, in which the association between sexual minority identity and depressive symptoms occurred via harassment due to gender nonconformity. Findings highlight harassment due to gender nonconformity as a possible mechanism for exploring variability in depressive symptoms among sexual minorities.

  5. Prevalence of depressive symptoms among patients with a chronic nonspecific lung disease in five ethnic minority groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perini, Wilco; Snijder, Marieke B; Schene, Aart H; Kunst, Anton E

    2015-01-01

    Earlier studies found chronic nonspecific lung disease (CNSLD) to be associated with depressive symptoms. We aimed to assess whether the association between CNSLD and depressive symptoms varies between ethnic groups. We used questionnaire data from 10916 participants of the HELIUS study in Amsterdam from six different ethnic groups. We applied logistic regression analysis to determine the association between CNSLD and depressive symptoms and interaction terms to test whether this association varied between ethnic groups. CNSLD prevalence was higher among South-Asian Surinamese, Turkish and Moroccans (10.1% to 12.5%) than African Surinamese, Dutch and Ghanaians (4.8% to 6.3%). The prevalence of depressive symptoms was higher among participants with CNSLD (28.4% vs. 13.7%). This association was not significantly different between ethnic groups. The absolute prevalence of depressive symptoms was higher among the CNSLD patients from ethnic minority groups (19.2 % to 35.6%) as compared with the Dutch-origin majority group (11.2%). CNSLD is associated with a high risk of depressive symptoms, especially among the five ethnic minority groups. These results imply a need to monitor the mental health of CNSLD patients in particular when a patient is from an ethnic minority group. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Lesbian, gay, & bisexual older adults: linking internal minority stressors, chronic health conditions, and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoy-Ellis, Charles P; Fredriksen-Goldsen, Karen I

    2016-11-01

    This study aims to: (1) test whether the minority stressors disclosure of sexual orientation; and (2) internalized heterosexism are predictive of chronic physical health conditions; and (3) depression; (4) to test direct and indirect relationships between these variables; and (5) whether chronic physical health conditions are further predictive of depression, net of disclosure of sexual orientation and internalized heterosexism. Secondary analysis of national, community-based surveys of 2349 lesbian, gay, and bisexual adults aged 50 and older residing in the US utilizing structural equation modeling. Congruent with minority stress theory, disclosure of sexual orientation is indirectly associated with chronic physical health conditions and depression, mediated by internalized heterosexism with a suppressor effect. Internalized heterosexism is directly associated with chronic physical health conditions and depression, and further indirectly associated with depression mediated by chronic physical health conditions. Finally, chronic physical health conditions have an additional direct relationship with depression, net of other predictor variables. Minority stressors and chronic physical health conditions independently and collectively predict depression, possibly a synergistic effect. Implications for depression among older sexual minority adults are discussed.

  7. Discrimination and depressive symptoms among sexual minority youth: is gay-affirming religious affiliation a protective factor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gattis, Maurice N; Woodford, Michael R; Han, Yoonsun

    2014-11-01

    Researchers have examined perceived discrimination as a risk factor for depression among sexual minorities; however, the role of religion as a protective factor is under-investigated, especially among sexual minority youth. Drawing on a cross-sectional study investigating campus climate at a large public university in the U.S. midwest, we examined the role of affiliation with a gay-affirming denomination (i.e., endorsing same-sex marriage) as a moderating factor in the discrimination-depression relationship among self-identified sexual minority (n = 393) and heterosexual youth (n = 1,727). Using multivariate linear regression analysis, religious affiliation was found to moderate the discrimination-depression relationship among sexual minorities. Specifically, the results indicated that the harmful effects of discrimination among sexual minority youth affiliated with denominations that endorsed same-sex marriage were significantly less than those among peers who affiliated with denominations opposing same-sex marriage or who identified as secular. In contrast, religious affiliation with gay-affirming denominations did not moderate the discrimination-depression relationship among heterosexual participants. The findings suggest that, although religion and same-sex sexuality are often seen as incompatible topics, it is important when working with sexual minority clients for clinicians to assess religious affiliation, as it could be either a risk or a protective factor, depending on the religious group's stance toward same-sex sexuality. To promote the well-being of sexual minority youth affiliated with denominations opposed to same-sex marriage, the results suggest these faith communities may be encouraged to reconsider their position and/or identify ways to foster youth's resilience to interpersonal discrimination.

  8. Correlates of symptomatic, minor and major depression in the elderly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Berg, MD; Oldehinkel, AJ; Brilman, EI; Bouhuys, AL; Ormel, J

    2000-01-01

    Background: Associations between different types of depression with clinical characteristics and putative vulnerability factors from several domains (health, disability, personality, familial psychopathology) were studied in a sample of elderly subjects, in order to find arguments that support or

  9. The Association Between Supportive High School Environments and Depressive Symptoms and Suicidality Among Sexual Minority Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, Simon; Lucassen, Mathijs F G; Stuart, Jaimee; Fleming, Theresa; Bullen, Pat; Peiris-John, Roshini; Rossen, Fiona V; Utter, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if sexual minority students in supportive school environments experienced fewer depressive symptoms and lower rates of suicide ideation, plans and attempts ("suicidality") than sexual minority students in less supportive school environments. In 2007, a nationally representative sample (N = 9,056) of students from 96 high schools in New Zealand used Internet tablets to complete a health and well-being survey that included questions on sexual attractions, depressive symptoms, and suicidality. Students reported their experience of supportive environments at school and gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender (GLBT) bullying, and these items were aggregated to the school level. Teachers (n = 2,901) from participating schools completed questionnaires on aspects of school climate, which included how supportive their schools were toward sexual minority students. Multilevel models were used to estimate school effects on depressive symptoms and suicidality controlling for background characteristics of students. Sexual minority students were more likely to report higher levels of depressive symptoms and suicidality than their opposite-sex attracted peers (p school environments for GLBT students were associated with fewer depressive symptoms among male sexual minority students (p = .006) but not for female sexual minority students (p = .09). Likewise in schools where students reported a more supportive school environment, male sexual minority students reported fewer depressive symptoms (p = .006) and less suicidality (p schools where students reported less favorable school climates. These results suggest that schools play an important role in providing safe and supportive environments for male sexual minority students.

  10. Sexual minority youth and depressive symptoms or depressive disorder: A systematic review and meta-analysis of population-based studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucassen, Mathijs Fg; Stasiak, Karolina; Samra, Rajvinder; Frampton, Christopher Ma; Merry, Sally N

    2017-08-01

    Research has suggested that sexual minority young people are more likely to have depressive symptoms or depressive disorder, but to date most studies in the field have relied on convenience-based samples. This study overcomes this limitation by systematically reviewing the literature from population-based studies and conducting a meta-analysis to identify whether depressive disorder and depressive symptoms are elevated in sexual minority youth. A systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted and informed by the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement to determine if rates of depressive symptoms or depressive disorder differ for sexual minority youth, relative to heterosexual adolescents. MEDLINE, PsycINFO, EMBASE and ERIC databases were searched. Studies reporting depressive symptom data or the prevalence of depressive disorder in population-based samples of adolescents, which included sexual minority youth and heterosexual young people, were included in the review. A meta-analysis was conducted to examine differences between groups. Twenty-three articles met the inclusion criteria. The proportion of sexual minority youth in the studies ranged from 2.3% to 12%. Sexual minority youth reported higher rates of depressive symptoms and depressive disorder (odds ratio = 2.94, p depressive symptoms when compared to male sexual minority youth (standardized mean difference, d = 0.34, p depressive symptoms or depressive disorder was measured. There is robust evidence that rates of depressive disorder and depressive symptoms are elevated in sexual minority youth in comparison to heterosexual young people. Despite the elevated risk of depressive symptoms or depressive disorder for sexual minority youth, the treatment for this group of young people has received little attention.

  11. Problem-Solving Treatment and Coping Styles in Primary Care for Minor Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxman, Thomas E.; Hegel, Mark T.; Hull, Jay G.; Dietrich, Allen J.

    2008-01-01

    Research was undertaken to compare problem-solving treatment for primary care (PST-PC) with usual care for minor depression and to examine whether treatment effectiveness was moderated by coping style. PST-PC is a 6-session, manual-based, psychosocial skills intervention. A randomized controlled trial was conducted in 2 academic, primary care…

  12. Randomized Controlled Trial of Problem-Solving Therapy for Minor Depression in Home Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gellis, Zvi D.; McGinty, Jean; Tierney, Lynda; Jordan, Cindy; Burton, Jean; Misener, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Data are presented from a pilot research program initiated to develop, refine, and test the outcomes of problem-solving therapy that targets the needs of older adults with minor depression in home care settings. Method: A pilot randomized clinical trial compares the impact of problem-solving therapy for home care to treatment as usual…

  13. Stress eating and sleep disturbance as mediators in the relationship between depression and obesity in low-income, minority women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jessica; Fei, Kezhen; Fox, Ashley; Negron, Rennie; Horowitz, Carol

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore potential mediators of the relationship between depression and obesity in a sample of low-income, minority women. Data were extracted from a sample of 535 women enrolled in a weight loss intervention for the prevention of type 2 diabetes. Using a non-parametric bootstrapping procedure, the potential mediation effects of stress eating and sleep disturbance on the relationship between depression and obesity were tested. Results of a single mediation model indicated that depressive symptomatology was significantly associated with obesity (β=0.800, SE=0.290, p=0.006), and that stress eating (β=0.166, 95% CI [0.046, 0.328]) and sleep disturbance (β=1.032, 95% CI [0.612, 1.427]) were significant independent mediators of this relationship. Sleep disturbance remained a significant mediator in a combined mediation model (β=1.009, 95% CI [0.653, 1.399]). Findings add to the growing literature on the psychosocial factors implicated in the link between depression and obesity, particularly among disadvantaged populations. Future longitudinal research should aim to establish causal pathways between obesity, stress eating, sleep disturbance, and depression. Copyright © 2015 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The epidemiology of PTSD and depression in refugee minors who have resettled in developed countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reavell, James; Fazil, Qulsom

    2017-02-01

    With an increasing number of refugees migrating across continents, the crisis is very apparent. A literature review of patterns, risk factors and effects of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression in refugee minors was carried out involving those who have resettled in different developed countries. Papers were narrowed down by reading the abstracts and methods to ascertain whether the refugee children had resettled in developed countries and to ensure that they had not just been internally displaced. High incidences of PTSD and depression were found in refugee minors and poorer mental health was correlated with increased exposure to violence. Factors such as social support and family security were important in reducing the rates of PTSD and depression, whereas the implications of age and gender were unclear. Long-term effects from these mental illnesses indicated scholastic issues, but no further worsening of symptoms. Further research is needed regarding the follow-up of refugee minors with PTSD and depression to allow the establishment of more effective support systems, as long-term outcomes become more clearly understood. Few papers discuss the influence of religion, which may be an interesting line of future research as refugees move to more secular societies.

  15. Sexual Identity Mobility and Depressive Symptoms: A Longitudinal Analysis of Sexual Minority Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, Bethany; Talley, Amelia; Hughes, Tonda; Wilsnack, Sharon; Johnson, Timothy P.

    2016-01-01

    Sexual minority identity (bisexual, lesbian) is a known risk factor for depression in women. This study examines a facet of minority stress prevalent among women—sexual identity mobility—as an identity-related contributor to higher levels of depressive symptoms. We used three waves of data from the Chicago Health and Life Experiences of Women (CHLEW) study, a longitudinal study of sexual minority women (N = 306). Random effects OLS regression models were constructed to examine the effect of sexual-identity changes on depressive symptoms. We found that 25.6% of the sample reported a sexual-identity change between Wave I and Wave II, and 24.91% reported a sexual identity change between Waves II and III. Women who reported a change in sexual identity also reported more depressive symptoms subsequent to identity change. This effect was moderated by the number of years participants’ had reported their baseline identity and by whether the participant had initiated a romantic relationship with a male partner. PMID:27255306

  16. The relationship of dysthymia, minor depression, and gender to changes in smoking for current and former smokers: longitudinal evaluation in the U.S. population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberger, Andrea H; Pilver, Corey E; Desai, Rani A; Mazure, Carolyn M; McKee, Sherry A

    2013-01-01

    Although data clearly link major depression and smoking, little is known about the association between dysthymia and minor depression and smoking behavior. The current study examined changes in smoking over 3 years for current and former smokers with and without dysthymia and minor depression. Participants who were current or former daily cigarette smokers at Wave 1 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions and completed the Wave 2 assessment were included in these analyses (n=11,973; 46% female). Analyses examined the main and gender-specific effects of current dysthymia, lifetime dysthymia, and minor depression (a single diagnostic category that denoted current and/or lifetime prevalence) on continued smoking for Wave 1 current daily smokers and continued abstinence for Wave 1 former daily smokers. Wave 1 current daily smokers with current dysthymia (OR=2.13, 95% CI=1.23, 3.70) or minor depression (OR=1.53, 95% CI=1.07, 2.18) were more likely than smokers without the respective diagnosis to report continued smoking at Wave 2. Wave 1 former daily smokers with current dysthymia (OR=0.44, 95% CI=0.20, 0.96) and lifetime dysthymia (OR=0.37, 95% CI=0.15, 0.91) were less likely than those without the diagnosis to remain abstinent from smoking at Wave 2. The gender-by-diagnosis interactions were not significant, suggesting that the impact of dysthymia and minor depression on smoking behavior is similar among men and women. Current dysthymia and minor depression are associated with a greater likelihood of continued smoking; current and lifetime dysthymia are associated with a decreased likelihood of continued smoking abstinence. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Anxiety and depression symptoms in Brazilian sexual minority ecstasy and LSD users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lysa S. Remy

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study examined drug use patterns and psychiatric symptoms of anxiety and depression among young Brazilian sexual minority ecstasy and LSD users and compared findings with those reported for their heterosexual peers. Method This cross-sectional study employed targeted sampling and ethnographic mapping approaches via face-to-face interviews conducted at bars and electronic music festivals using an adapted, semi-structured version of the Global Appraisal of Individual Needs questionnaire. The sample comprised 240 male and female young adults who had used ecstasy and/or LSD in the 90 days prior to the interview and who were not on treatment for alcohol and drug abuse. Results Of the 240 subjects enrolled (mean age: 22.9±4.5 years, 28.7% were gay or bisexuals. Multivariate regression analysis showed that the prevalence of depression symptoms in the past 12 months in the sexual minority group was 37% higher than among heterosexuals (prevalence ratio [PR]=1.79; 95% confidence interval [95%CI] 1.03-3.11; p=0.037. Conclusion Strategies should be developed to assess and address individual needs and treatment approaches should be tailored to address depressive symptoms in young, sexual minority club drug users.

  18. Ethnic identity, perceived support, and depressive symptoms among racial minority immigrant-origin adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tummala-Narra, Pratyusha

    2015-01-01

    Although racial minority immigrant-origin adolescents compose a rapidly growing sector of the U.S. population, few studies have examined the role of contextual factors in mental health among these youth. The present study examined the relationship between ethnic identity and depressive symptoms, the relationship between perceived social support and depressive symptoms, and the relationship between sociodemographic factors (ethnicity, gender, and socioeconomic status) and depressive symptoms, among a culturally diverse group of adolescents. In addition, the potential moderating role of nativity status (U.S. born vs. foreign born) was examined in these associations. Participants were 9th and 10th graders (N = 341; 141 foreign born and 200 U.S. born, from Asian, Latino(a), and Afro-Caribbean backgrounds), attending an urban high school. Consistent with previous research, ethnic identity was negatively associated with depressive symptomatology in the overall sample. Nativity status did not moderate the relationship between ethnic identity and depressive symptoms. Among the sociodemographic factors examined, only gender was associated with depressive symptoms, with girls reporting higher levels of depressive symptoms compared with boys. Contrary to expectations, there were no differences in the degree of depressive symptomatology between U.S.-born and foreign-born adolescents, and perceived social support was not associated with fewer depressive symptoms. The findings suggest the importance of gender and ethnic identity in mental health and, more broadly, the complexity of social location in mental health outcomes among U.S.-born and foreign-born immigrant-origin adolescents. Implications for research and interventions with immigrant-origin adolescents are discussed.

  19. A tool for sexual minority mental health research: The Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) as a depressive symptom severity measure for sexual minority women in Viet Nam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Trang Quynh; Bandeen-Roche, Karen; Bass, Judith K; German, Danielle; Nguyen, Nam Thi Thu; Knowlton, Amy R

    In a context with limited attention to mental health and prevalent sexual prejudice, valid measurements are a key first step to understanding the psychological suffering of sexual minority populations. We adapted the Patient Health Questionnaire as a depressive symptom severity measure for Vietnamese sexual minority women, ensuring its cultural relevance and suitability for internet-based research. Psychometric evaluation found that the scale is mostly unidimensional and has good convergent validity, good external construct validity, and excellent reliability. The sample's high endorsement of scale items emphasizes the need to study minority stress and mental health in this population.

  20. Variations in the experiences and expressions of depression among ethnic minorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waite, Roberta L

    2006-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the ethnic differences in the experiences and expressions of depressive symptoms. Also, a discussion is presented regarding the effects that depression has on the individual and consequently the adverse impact it will have on society. Because the expressions of depression are so varied, appropriate measures are required to account for the differences of these expressions in individuals in order to facilitate appropriate diagnosing Both in the United States and throughout the world, depression accounts for a significant proportion of psychiatric disorders, with women and the poor experiencing a disproportionate burden of morbidity. It is essential to remember that clinical depression is never normal and should not be accepted as a normal part of life for any individual, regardless of race, age, or life situation. Depression is a chronic, often relapsing illness, especially if initially under-treated. With depression, it is also essential to identify the role that certain biological variations and particularly the role that ethnicity and gender may play. In other words, because of environmental and certain biological variations, there may be diferences in not only the life experiences but also the mode of expression that depression takes, particularly in women and ethnic people of color. It is essential to identify these significant differences. Certainly, minimizing the risk of psychiatric misdiagnosis is critical to achieving optimal health.

  1. Clinical significance of conventional rib series in patients with minor thoracic trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffstetter, P.; Dornia, C.; University Medical Center Regensburg; Wagner, M.; Niessen, C.; Dendl, L.M.; Stroszczynski, C.; Schreyer, A.G.; Al Suwaidi, M.H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Conventional rib series (RS) represent a dedicated radiographic technique to visualize the bony parts of the chest wall. The method is commonly used to evaluate minor thoracic trauma, frequently in combination with chest radiographs (CRs). The aim of this study is to asses the clinical relevance of rib fractures diagnosed by RS in minor thoracic trauma. Methods: Retrospective study of 669 patients who received RS for the evaluation of minor thoracic trauma. 405 of the 669 patients received an additional CR. Radiological reports were classified into fracture versus no fracture. Patients were divided into four groups depending on the clinical follow-up. The findings of RS and CR were analyzed using the McNemar test. The statistical significance between the results of the radiographic examinations and the clinical follow-up was analyzed by the Chi-Square test and the Kruskal-Wallis test. Results: We included 669 patients (61.4% men, 38.6% women, median age: 51 years, range: 13-92 years). Analyzing the reports of 669 patients who received RS, 157 (23.5%) patients were diagnosed with at least one fractured rib while no fracture was found in 512 (76.5%) patients. Considering the 157 patients with fractured ribs, 73 (46.8%) had a single fracture, 38 (24.4%) and two fractures and 45 (28.8%) had more than two fractures. When assessing the 405 CRs, we detected 69 (17%) fractures while the corresponding RS of the same patients revealed 87 (21.5%) fractures (p < 0.05). Concerning all patients with rib fractures, 63.1% received medical therapy, while 64.5% of those patients without a radiologically documented fracture also received therapy (p = 0.25). Conclusion: Our results suggest a limited clinical value of detected rib fractures based on RS. Despite being superior compared to CR in diagnosing rib fractures, the results from RS seem to have no significant influence on further clinical management and therapeutic measures. Minor thoracic trauma should be evaluated

  2. Clinical significance of conventional rib series in patients with minor thoracic trauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffstetter, P.; Dornia, C. [Asklepios Medical Center, Bad Abbach (Germany). Radiology; University Medical Center Regensburg (Germany). Radiology; Wagner, M.; Niessen, C.; Dendl, L.M.; Stroszczynski, C.; Schreyer, A.G. [University Medical Center Regensburg (Germany). Radiology; Al Suwaidi, M.H. [Asklepios Medical Center, Bad Abbach (Germany). Rheumatology/Clinical Immmunology

    2014-09-15

    Background: Conventional rib series (RS) represent a dedicated radiographic technique to visualize the bony parts of the chest wall. The method is commonly used to evaluate minor thoracic trauma, frequently in combination with chest radiographs (CRs). The aim of this study is to asses the clinical relevance of rib fractures diagnosed by RS in minor thoracic trauma. Methods: Retrospective study of 669 patients who received RS for the evaluation of minor thoracic trauma. 405 of the 669 patients received an additional CR. Radiological reports were classified into fracture versus no fracture. Patients were divided into four groups depending on the clinical follow-up. The findings of RS and CR were analyzed using the McNemar test. The statistical significance between the results of the radiographic examinations and the clinical follow-up was analyzed by the Chi-Square test and the Kruskal-Wallis test. Results: We included 669 patients (61.4% men, 38.6% women, median age: 51 years, range: 13-92 years). Analyzing the reports of 669 patients who received RS, 157 (23.5%) patients were diagnosed with at least one fractured rib while no fracture was found in 512 (76.5%) patients. Considering the 157 patients with fractured ribs, 73 (46.8%) had a single fracture, 38 (24.4%) and two fractures and 45 (28.8%) had more than two fractures. When assessing the 405 CRs, we detected 69 (17%) fractures while the corresponding RS of the same patients revealed 87 (21.5%) fractures (p < 0.05). Concerning all patients with rib fractures, 63.1% received medical therapy, while 64.5% of those patients without a radiologically documented fracture also received therapy (p = 0.25). Conclusion: Our results suggest a limited clinical value of detected rib fractures based on RS. Despite being superior compared to CR in diagnosing rib fractures, the results from RS seem to have no significant influence on further clinical management and therapeutic measures. Minor thoracic trauma should be evaluated

  3. The impact of civil union legislation on minority stress, depression, and hazardous drinking in a diverse sample of sexual-minority women: A quasi-natural experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, Bethany G; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L; Hughes, Tonda L

    2016-11-01

    A small but growing body of research documents associations between structural forms of stigma (e.g., same-sex marriage bans) and sexual minority health. These studies, however, have focused on a limited number of outcomes and have not examined whether sociodemographic characteristics, such as race/ethnicity and education, influence the relationship between policy change and health among sexual minorities. To determine the effect of civil union legalization on sexual minority women's perceived discrimination, stigma consciousness, depressive symptoms, and four indicators of hazardous drinking (heavy episodic drinking, intoxication, alcohol dependence symptoms, adverse drinking consequences) and to evaluate whether such effects are moderated by race/ethnicity or education. During the third wave of data collection in the Chicago Health and Life Experiences of Women study (N = 517), Illinois passed the Religious Freedom Protection and Civil Union Act, legalizing civil unions in Illinois and resulting in a quasi-natural experiment wherein some participants were interviewed before and some after the new legislation. Generalized linear models and interactions were used to test the effects of the new legislation on stigma consciousness, perceived discrimination, depression, and hazardous drinking indicators. Interactions were used to assess whether the effects of policy change were moderated by race/ethnicity or education. Civil union legislation was associated with lower levels of stigma consciousness, perceived discrimination, depressive symptoms, and one indicator of hazardous drinking (adverse drinking consequences) for all sexual minority women. For several other outcomes, the benefits of this supportive social policy were largely concentrated among racial/ethnic minority women and women with lower levels of education. Results suggest that policies supportive of the civil rights of sexual minorities improve the health of all sexual minority women, and may be most

  4. Clinical Significance of the Number of Depressive Symptoms in Major Depressive Disorder: Results from the CRESCEND Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seon-Cheol; Sakong, Jeongkyu; Koo, Bon Hoon; Kim, Jae-Min; Jun, Tae-Youn; Lee, Min-Soo; Kim, Jung-Bum; Yim, Hyeon-Woo; Park, Yong Chon

    2016-04-01

    Our study aimed to establish the relationship between the number of depressive symptoms and the clinical characteristics of major depressive disorder (MDD). This would enable us to predict the clinical significance of the number of depressive symptoms in MDD patients. Using data from the Clinical Research Center for Depression (CRESCEND) study in Korea, 853 patients with DSM-IV MDD were recruited. The baseline and clinical characteristics of groups with different numbers of depressive symptoms were compared using the χ(2) test for discrete variables and covariance (ANCOVA) for continuous variables. In addition, the scores of these groups on the measurement tools were compared by ANCOVA after adjusting the potential effects of confounding variables. After adjusting the effects of monthly income and history of depression, a larger number of depressive symptoms indicated higher overall severity of depression (F [4, 756] = 21.458, P depressive symptoms (F [4, 767] = 19.145, P depressive symptoms can be used as an index of greater illness burden in clinical psychiatry.

  5. Understanding How Sexual and Gender Minority Stigmas Influence Depression Among Trans Women and Men Who Have Sex with Men in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrapani, Venkatesan; Vijin, Pandara Purayil; Logie, Carmen H; Newman, Peter A; Shunmugam, Murali; Sivasubramanian, Murugesan; Samuel, Miriam

    2017-06-01

    Few studies have assessed how sexual and gender minority stigmas affect the mental health of trans women and self-identified men who have sex with men (MSM) in India, populations with a high HIV burden. We tested whether social support and resilient coping act as mediators of the effect of sexual and gender minority stigmas on depression as proposed by Hatzenbuehler's psychological mediation framework, or as moderators based on Meyer's minority stress theory. We conducted a cross-sectional survey among trans women (n = 300) and MSM (n = 300) recruited from urban and rural sites in India. Standardized scales were used to measure depression (outcome variable), transgender identity stigma/MSM stigma (predictor variables), and social support and resilient coping (tested as moderators and parallel mediators). The mediation and moderation models were tested separately for trans women and MSM, using Hayes' PROCESS macro in SPSS. Participants' mean age was 29.7 years (standard deviation 8.1). Transgender identity stigma and MSM stigma were significant predictors (significant total and direct effects) of depression, as were social support and resilient coping. Among trans women and MSM, social support and resilient coping mediated (i.e., significant specific indirect effects), but did not moderate, the effect of stigma on depression, supporting the psychological mediation framework. Sexual and gender minority stigmas are associated with depression, with social support and resilient coping as mediators. In addition to stigma reduction interventions at the societal level, future interventions should focus on improving social support and promoting resilience among trans women and MSM in India.

  6. Risk factors of significant pain syndrome 90 days after minor thoracic injury: trajectory analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daoust, Raoul; Emond, Marcel; Bergeron, Eric; LeSage, Natalie; Camden, Stéphanie; Guimont, Chantal; Vanier, Laurent; Chauny, Jean-Marc

    2013-11-01

    The objective was to identify the risk factors of clinically significant pain at 90 days in patients with minor thoracic injury (MTI) discharged from the emergency department (ED). A prospective, multicenter, cohort study was conducted in four Canadian EDs from November 2006 to November 2010. All consecutive patients aged 16 years or older with MTI were eligible at discharge from EDs. They underwent standardized clinical and radiologic evaluations at 1 and 2 weeks, followed by standardized telephone interviews at 30 and 90 days. A pain trajectory model characterized groups of patients with different pain evolutions and ascertained specific risk factors in each group through multivariate analysis. In this cohort of 1,132 patients, 734 were eligible for study inclusion. The authors identified a pain trajectory that characterized 18.2% of the study population experiencing clinically significant pain (>3 of 10) at 90 days after a MTI. Multivariate modeling found two or more rib fractures, smoking, and initial oxygen saturation below 95% to be predictors of this group of patients. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first prospective study of trajectory modeling to detect risk factors associated with significant pain at 90 days after MTI. These factors may help in planning specific treatment strategies and should be validated in another prospective cohort. © 2013 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  7. A longitudinal examination of perceived discrimination and depressive symptoms in ethnic minority youth: The roles of attributional style, positive ethnic/racial affect, and emotional reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Gabriela L; Supple, Andrew J; Huq, Nadia; Dunbar, Angel S; Prinstein, Mitchell J

    2016-02-01

    Although perceived ethnic/racial discrimination is well established as a risk factor for depressive symptoms in ethnic minority youth, few studies have examined their longitudinal relationship over time. This study examined whether a negative attributional style, positive ethnic/racial affect, and emotional reactivity moderated the longitudinal relationship of perceived peer or adult discrimination and depressive symptoms in a sample of African American and Latino high school students (n = 155). African American and Latino youth who experienced increases in perceived peer discrimination also reported greater depressive symptoms over time, but positive ethnic/racial affect buffered the longitudinal association. Emotional reactivity also served as a significant moderator but only of the baseline association between perceived peer discrimination and depressive symptoms. Thus, perceived ethnic/racial discrimination appears to play a significant role in the development of depressive symptoms for ethnic minority youth, especially those who start high school with lower levels of positive ethnic/racial affect. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved.

  8. Community Engagement Compared With Technical Assistance to Disseminate Depression Care Among Low-Income, Minority Women: A Randomized Controlled Effectiveness Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherbourne, Cathy; Chung, Bowen; Tang, Lingqi; Wright, Aziza L.; Whittington, Yolanda; Wells, Kenneth; Miranda, Jeanne

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To compare the effectiveness of a (CEP) versus a technical assistance approach (Resources for Services, or RS) to disseminate depression care for low-income ethnic minority women. Methods. We conducted secondary analyses of intervention effects for largely low-income, minority women subsample (n = 595; 45.1% Latino and 45.4% African American) in a matched, clustered, randomized control trial conducted in 2 low-resource communities in Los Angeles, California, between 2010 and 2012. Outcomes assessed included mental health, socioeconomic factors, and service use at 6- and 12-month follow-up. Results. Although we found no intervention difference for depressive symptoms, there were statistically significant effects for mental health quality of life, resiliency, homelessness risk, and financial difficulties at 6 months, as well as missed work days, self-efficacy, and care barriers at 12 months favoring CEP relative to RS. CEP increased use of outpatient substance abuse services and faith-based depression visits at 6 months. Conclusions. Engaging health care and social community programs may offer modest improvements on key functional and socioeconomic outcomes, reduce care barriers, and increase engagement in alternative depression services for low-income, predominantly ethnic minority women. PMID:27552274

  9. Depressive Symptoms among Latino Sexual Minority Men and Latina Transgender Women in a New Settlement State: The Role of Perceived Discrimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina J. Sun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Little is known about the role of discrimination on depression among Latino sexual and gender identity minorities. This manuscript examined the relationship between ethnic/racial discrimination and sexual discrimination on clinically significant depressive symptoms among Latino sexual minority men (i.e., gay and bisexual men and other men who have sex with men and Latina transgender women. Methods. A community-based participatory research partnership recruited participants (N = 186; 80.6% cisgender men in North Carolina to a social network-based HIV intervention. Using baseline data, we quantified the amount of perceived discrimination and conducted mixed-effects logistic regression analyses to examine correlates of clinically significant depressive symptoms. Results. A high percentage of participants reported ethnic/racial discrimination (73.7% and sexual discrimination (53.8%. In the multivariable models, ethnic/racial discrimination, sexual discrimination, masculinity, fatalism, and social support were significantly associated with clinically significant depressive symptoms. Discussion. Improving mental health requires multilevel interventions that address pertinent individual, interpersonal, and system level factors.

  10. Ethnic Minority Status, Depression, and Cognitive Failures in Relation to Marital Adjustment in Ethnically Diverse Older Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laganá, Luciana; Spellman, Therese; Wakefield, Jennifer; Oliver, Taylor

    2011-04-01

    The authors investigated the relationship between marital adjustment and ethnic minority status, depressive symptomatology, and cognitive failures among 78 married, community-dwelling, and predominantly non-European-American older women (ages 57-89). Respondents were screened to rule out dementia. Level of depressive symptoms, self-report of cognitive failures, and marital adjustment were obtained. As hypothesized, higher depressive symptomatology and cognitive failures were associated with worse marital adjustment ( p socioemotional selectivity theory (Carstensen, 1992) applied to marriage in older age, a conceptualization formulated by Bookwala and Jacobs in 2004.

  11. Minority Stress and Mechanisms of Risk for Depression and Suicidal Ideation among Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baams, Laura; Grossman, Arnold H.; Russell, Stephen T.

    2015-01-01

    The experience of minority stress is often named as a cause for mental health disparities among lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) youth, including higher levels of depression and suicidal ideation. The processes or mechanisms through which these disparities occur are understudied. The interpersonal-psychological theory of suicide posits 2 key…

  12. The Influence of Racial Microaggressions and Social Rank on Risk for Depression among Minority Graduate and Professional Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilly, Flavius R. W.; Owens, Jenny; Bailey, TaShara C.; Ramirez, Amy; Brown, Whitney; Clawson, Clancy

    2018-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the association between positive screening for depression, current exposure to microaggressions, distress evoked by microaggressions, and subjective social status among high-achieving minorities. Methods: An observational cross-sectional study was conducted using the Racial Microaggressions Scale, MacArthur Scale of…

  13. Significance of periventricular hyperintensity in T2 weighted MRI on memory dysfunction and depression after stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bokura, Hirokazu; Kobayashi, Shotai; Yamaguchi, Shuhei; Yamashita, Kazuya; Koide, Hiromi

    1994-01-01

    We studied the effect of periventricular hyperintensity (PVH) in T2 weighted MRI on memory function and post-stroke depression in 159 patients with cerebrovacular disease. Memory function was assessed with Hasegawa's scale, and depressive state was estimated with Zung's self-rating depression scale. Patients showing diffusely distributed PVH had significantly low scores in memory function tests. Localized PVH around the anterior horns of the laterals ventricle was also associated with impaired memory function when the area of PVH was large. The incidence of post-stroke depression was high in patients with large PVH around the anterior horn in comparison with patients with PVH around the posterior horn. The severity of PVH around the posterior horn did not affect memory function and post-stroke depression. These findings suggest that memory dysfunction and post-stroke depression were accelerated by the diffusely or anteriorly distributed PVH. (author)

  14. Minority Stress, Depression, Relationship Quality, and Alcohol Use: Associations with Overweight and Obesity Among Partnered Young Adult Lesbians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Tyler B; Lewis, Robin J

    2015-12-01

    Although lesbian women are more likely to be obese compared to heterosexual women, relatively little research has examined correlates of overweight and obesity among lesbians. The purpose of this study was to examine the association of minority stress and depression, relationship quality, and alcohol-use variables to overweight and obesity among lesbians in relationships. Self-identified lesbians (n=737) in current relationships completed measures of demographics, minority stress, depressive symptoms, relationship variables, and alcohol use. Overweight and obesity were associated with more public identification as a lesbian, more depressive symptoms, increased heavy drinking, longer relationship length, and lower relationship consensus. Health promotion and weight loss intervention programs for lesbians should incorporate psychological, relationship, and alcohol use components to reduce overweight and obesity among lesbians.

  15. Depression among unaccompanied minor refugees: the relative contribution of general and acculturation-specific daily hassles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keles, Serap; Friborg, Oddgeir; Idsøe, Thormod; Sirin, Selcuk; Oppedal, Brit

    2016-01-01

    This study is designed to provide an empirical conceptualization of daily hassles among unaccompanied refugees, and whether they might affect mental health of young refugees after resettlement. First, we examined the underlying structure of daily hassles conceptualized as measuring general and acculturation-specific hassles. Second, we examined whether these two distinct categories of daily hassles significantly contribute to depression above and beyond the impact of premigration trauma. The study was based on self-report questionnaire data collected from 895 unaccompanied refugees who had been granted residence in Norway. Using structural equation modeling, the results confirmed the grouping of hassles in two general categories, which explained 43% of the variance in depression. The findings underscore the importance of current life conditions for unaccompanied refugees' mental health.

  16. Parenting Self-Efficacy, Parent Depression, and Healthy Childhood Behaviors in a Low-Income Minority Population: A Cross-Sectional Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heerman, William J; Taylor, Julie Lounds; Wallston, Kenneth A; Barkin, Shari L

    2017-05-01

    Objectives Childhood obesity prevention and treatment depends, in part, on parents acting as agents of change for their children. Our objective was to measure the associations between parenting self-efficacy, parent depressive symptoms, and preschool child behaviors that support healthy growth. Methods We performed a cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from a randomized controlled trial. Parenting self-efficacy was measured using a 5-item version of the Parenting Sense of Competence (PSOC-5) scale (α= 0.8). Parent depressive symptoms were measured using the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression (CESD) scale. Child outcomes included diet (24 h diet recall), physical activity (accelerometry), sleep (parent-report), and media use during meals (parent-report). We performed separate multiple linear regressions for each outcome controlling for other covariates. Results The sample consisted of 601 parent-child pairs. Median child age was 4.3 (IQR 3.6-5.1) years; median child body mass index (BMI) percentile was 79.1% (IQR 66.8-88.5%); 90% of children were Hispanic/Latino, and 6% of children were non-Hispanic Black. Median parent age was 31.5 (IQR 27.6-36.0) years; 22% of parents met criteria for depression. Parenting self-efficacy (median PSOC-5 25; IQR 24-28) was negatively correlated with depressive symptoms (ρ = -0.16; p self-efficacy was associated with duration of child's sleep and fewer meals eaten in front of a TV (p self-efficacy and parental depressive symptoms on child sleep duration (p self-efficacy and depressive symptoms were not significantly associated with child physical activity or child diet. Conclusions In this minority population, higher parenting self-efficacy was associated with longer child sleep and fewer meals in front the TV, but parent depressive symptoms mitigated that protective effect for child sleep duration.

  17. Microaggressions and depressive symptoms in sexual minority youth : The roles of rumination and social support.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaufman, Tessa M. L.; Baams, Laura; Dubas, Judith Semon

    Mental health disparities between sexual minority and heterosexual youth are often explained by discriminatory experiences and rejection. Although many studies focus on explicit victimization, the consequences of subtle, everyday discriminations (“microaggressions”) against sexual minority youth are

  18. Triaging TIA/minor stroke patients using the ABCD2 score does not predict those with significant carotid disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, J; Isherwood, J; Eveson, D; Naylor, A R

    2012-05-01

    'Rapid Access' TIA Clinics use the ABCD(2) score to triage patients as it is not possible to see everyone with a suspected TIA TIA/minor stroke or 'carotid territory' TIA/minor stroke. Between 1.10.2008 and 31.04.2011, 2452 patients were referred to the Leicester Rapid Access TIA Service. After Stroke Physician review, 1273 (52%) were thought to have suffered a minor stroke/TIA. Of these, both FD/ED referrer and Specialist Stroke Consultant ABCD(2) scores and carotid Duplex ultrasound studies were available for 843 (66%). The yield for identifying a ≥50% stenosis or carotid occlusion was 109/843 (12.9%) in patients with 'any territory' TIA/minor stroke and 101/740 (13.6%) in those with a clinical diagnosis of 'carotid territory' TIA/minor stroke. There was no association between ABCD(2) score and the likelihood of encountering significant carotid disease and analyses of the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) for FD/ED referrer and stroke specialist ABCD(2) scores showed no prediction of carotid stenosis (FD/ED: AUC 0.50 (95%CI 0.44-0.55, p = 0.9), Specialist: AUC 0.51 (95%CI 0.45-0.57, p = 0.78). The ABCD(2) score was unable to identify TIA/minor stroke patients with a higher prevalence of clinically important ipsilateral carotid disease. Copyright © 2012 European Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Minority Stress and Mechanisms of Risk for Depression and Suicidal Ideation among Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Youth

    OpenAIRE

    Baams, Laura; Grossman, Arnold H.; Russell, Stephen T.

    2015-01-01

    The experience of minority stress is often named as a cause for mental health disparities among lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) youth, including higher levels of depression and suicidal ideation. The processes or mechanisms through which these disparities occur are understudied. The interpersonal-psychological theory of suicide posits two key mechanisms for suicidal ideation: perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness (Joiner, 2009). The aim of the current study is to assess the men...

  20. Current intimate relationship status, depression, and alcohol use among bisexual women: The mediating roles of bisexual-specific minority stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Yamile; Marquez, Jacob H; Logan, Diane E; Leeson, Carissa J; Balsam, Kimberly F; Kaysen, Debra L

    2015-07-01

    Current intimate relationship characteristics, including gender and number of partner(s), may affect one's visibility as a bisexual individual and the minority stressors they experience, which may in turn influence their health. The current study tested four hypotheses: 1) minority stressors vary by current intimate relationship status; 2) higher minority stressors are associated with higher depressive symptoms and alcohol-related outcomes; 3) depressive symptoms and alcohol-related outcomes vary by current intimate relationship status; and 4) minority stressors will mediate differences in these outcomes. Participants included 470 self-identified bisexual women (65% Caucasian, mean age: 21) from a sample of sexual minority women recruited from different geographic regions in the United States through advertisements on social networking sites and Craigslist. Participants completed a 45 minute survey. Respondents with single partners were first grouped by partner gender (male partner: n=282; female partner: n=56). Second, women were grouped by partner gender/number (single female/male partner: n = 338; women with multiple female and male partners: n=132). Women with single male partners and women with multiple male and female partners exhibited elevated experienced bi-negativity and differences in outness (H1). Experienced and internalized bi-negativity were associated with health outcomes, but not outness (H2). Differences in outcomes emerged by partner number and partner number/gender (H3); these differences were mediated by experienced bi-negativity (H4). These results suggest that experiences of discrimination may underlie differences in health related to bisexual women's relationship structure and highlight the importance of evaluating women's relational context as well as sexual identification in understanding health risk behaviors.

  1. Current intimate relationship status, depression, and alcohol use among bisexual women: The mediating roles of bisexual-specific minority stressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Yamile; Marquez, Jacob H.; Logan, Diane E.; Leeson, Carissa J.; Balsam, Kimberly F.; Kaysen, Debra L.

    2015-01-01

    Current intimate relationship characteristics, including gender and number of partner(s), may affect one's visibility as a bisexual individual and the minority stressors they experience, which may in turn influence their health. The current study tested four hypotheses: 1) minority stressors vary by current intimate relationship status; 2) higher minority stressors are associated with higher depressive symptoms and alcohol-related outcomes; 3) depressive symptoms and alcohol-related outcomes vary by current intimate relationship status; and 4) minority stressors will mediate differences in these outcomes. Participants included 470 self-identified bisexual women (65% Caucasian, mean age: 21) from a sample of sexual minority women recruited from different geographic regions in the United States through advertisements on social networking sites and Craigslist. Participants completed a 45 minute survey. Respondents with single partners were first grouped by partner gender (male partner: n=282; female partner: n=56). Second, women were grouped by partner gender/number (single female/male partner: n = 338; women with multiple female and male partners: n=132). Women with single male partners and women with multiple male and female partners exhibited elevated experienced bi-negativity and differences in outness (H1). Experienced and internalized bi-negativity were associated with health outcomes, but not outness (H2). Differences in outcomes emerged by partner number and partner number/gender (H3); these differences were mediated by experienced bi-negativity (H4). These results suggest that experiences of discrimination may underlie differences in health related to bisexual women's relationship structure and highlight the importance of evaluating women's relational context as well as sexual identification in understanding health risk behaviors. PMID:26456995

  2. Minority stress and mechanisms of risk for depression and suicidal ideation among lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baams, Laura; Grossman, Arnold H; Russell, Stephen T

    2015-05-01

    The experience of minority stress is often named as a cause for mental health disparities among lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) youth, including higher levels of depression and suicidal ideation. The processes or mechanisms through which these disparities occur are understudied. The interpersonal-psychological theory of suicide posits 2 key mechanisms for suicidal ideation: perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness (Joiner et al., 2009). The aim of the current study is to assess the mental health and adjustment among LGB youth emphasizing the minority stress model (Meyer, 2003) and the interpersonal-psychological theory of suicide (Joiner et al., 2009). With a survey of 876 LGB self-identified youth, levels of coming-out stress, sexual orientation victimization, perceived burdensomeness, thwarted belongingness, depression, and suicidal ideation were examined. The results of a multigroup mediation model show that for all gender and sexual identity groups, the association of sexual orientation victimization with depression and suicidal ideation was mediated by perceived burdensomeness. For gay, lesbian, and bisexual girls coming-out stress was also found to be related to depression and suicidal ideation, mediated by perceived burdensomeness. The results suggest that feeling like a burden to "people in their lives" is a critical mechanism in explaining higher levels of depression and suicidal ideation among LGB youth. These results have implications for community and social support groups, many of which base their interventions on decreasing social isolation rather than addressing youths' beliefs of burdensomeness. Implications for future research, clinical and community settings are discussed. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. LGBT Identity, Untreated Depression, and Unmet Need for Mental Health Services by Sexual Minority Women and Trans-Identified People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Leah S; Daley, Andrea; Curling, Deone; Gibson, Margaret F; Green, Datejie C; Williams, Charmaine C; Ross, Lori E

    2017-02-01

    Previous studies have found that transgender, lesbian, and bisexual people report poorer mental health relative to heterosexuals. However, available research provides little information about mental health service access among the highest need groups within these communities: bisexual women and transgender people. This study compared past year unmet need for mental health care and untreated depression between four groups: heterosexual cisgender (i.e., not transgender) women, cisgender lesbians, cisgender bisexual women, and transgender people. This was a cross-sectional Internet survey. We used targeted sampling to recruit 704 sexual and gender minority people and heterosexual cisgendered adult women across Ontario, Canada. To ensure adequate representation of vulnerable groups, we oversampled racialized and low socioeconomic status (SES) women. Trans participants were 2.4 times (95% confidence intervals [CI] = 1.6-3.8, p mental healthcare as cisgender heterosexual women. Trans participants were also 1.6 times (95% CI = 1.0-27, p = 0.04) more likely to report untreated depression. These differences were not seen after adjustment for social context factors such as discrimination and social support. We conclude that there are higher rates of unmet need and untreated depression in trans and bisexual participants that are partly explained by differences in social factors, including experiences of discrimination, lower levels of social support, and systemic exclusion from healthcare. Our findings suggest that the mental health system in Ontario is not currently meeting the needs of many sexual and gender minority people.

  4. Clinical significance of exercise induced ST segment depression after successful percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Toshikazu; Konishi, Tokuji; Futagami, Yasuo

    1989-01-01

    To evaluate the clinical significance of ST segment depression during repeated Treadmill exercise after successful PTCA, Thallium-201 SPECT was performed. The Thallium-201 SPECT was performed before, one week after and 3-6 months after PTCA. All thirty-five patients had one vessel disease and positive Thallium-201 exercise test. During follow-up period for 3-6 months, 11 of 35 patients had persistent ST segment depression. Restenosis of dilated coronary lesion was demonstrated in 6 of 11 patients. In another 3 of 35 patients, exercise induced ST segment depression was disappered during follow-up Treadmill exercise. In 14 patients with persistent or transient ST segment depression after PTCA, Thallium-201 SPECT demonstrated transient ischemia in 5 of 6 patients with restenosis. In other 8 patients without restenosis, SPECT images did not demonstrate myocardial ischemia and coronary arteriographic findings could not verify side branch stenosis or intimal dissection which might cause myocardial ischemia. The etiology of ST segment depression after successful PTCA in one vessel disease is not produced by exercise induced myocardial ischemia but still unknown mechanisms may be present. (author)

  5. Change in Depressive Symptoms among Treatment-Seeking College Students Who Are Sexual Minorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effrig, Jessica C.; Maloch, Janelle K.; McAleavey, Andrew; Locke, Benjamin D.; Bieschke, Kathleen J.

    2014-01-01

    Changes in students' depressive symptoms during the course of treatment at college counseling centers were examined by sexual orientation. In Study 1, results showed that depressive symptoms decreased similarly across sexual orientation groups during the course of treatment. In Study 2, family support did not moderate the relationship between…

  6. Depressive Symptom Trajectories, Aging-Related Stress, and Sexual Minority Stress Among Midlife and Older Gay Men: Linking Past and Present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wight, Richard G; Harig, Frederick; Aneshensel, Carol S; Detels, Roger

    2016-05-01

    We concatenate 28 years of historical depressive symptoms data from a longitudinal cohort study of U.S. gay men who are now midlife and older (n = 312), with newly collected survey data to analyze trajectories of depressive symptomatology over time and their impact on associations between current stress and depressive symptoms. Symptoms are high over time, on average, and follow multiple trajectories. Aging-related stress, persistent life-course sexual minority stress, and increasing sexual minority stress are positively associated with depressive symptoms, net of symptom trajectories. Men who had experienced elevated and increasing trajectories of depressive symptoms are less susceptible to the damaging effects of aging-related stress than those who experienced a decrease in symptoms over time. Intervention efforts aimed at assisting gay men as they age should take into account life-course depressive symptom histories to appropriately contextualize the health effects of current social stressors. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. Cognitive Bias by Gender Interaction on N170 Response to Emotional Facial Expressions in Major and Minor Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xingqu; Chen, Jiu; Jia, Ting; Ma, Wentao; Zhang, Yan; Deng, Zihe; Yang, Laiqi

    2016-03-01

    States of depression are considered to relate to a cognitive bias reactivity to emotional events. Moreover, gender effect may influence differences in emotional processing. The current study is to investigate whether there is an interaction of cognitive bias by gender on emotional processing in minor depression (MiD) and major depression (MaD). N170 component was obtained during a visual emotional oddball paradigm to manipulate the processing of emotional information in 33 MiD, 36 MaD, and 32 controls (CN). Compared with CN, in male, both MiD and MaD had lower N170 amplitudes for happy faces, but MaD had higher N170 amplitudes for sad faces; in female, both MiD and MaD had lower N170 amplitudes for happy and neutral faces, but higher N170 amplitudes for sad faces. Compared with MaD in male, MiD had higher N170 amplitudes for happy faces, lower N170 amplitudes for sad faces; in female, MiD only had higher N170 amplitudes for sad faces. Interestingly, a negative relationship was observed between N170 amplitude and the HDRS score for identification of happy faces in depressed patients while N170 amplitude was positively correlated with the HDRS score for sad faces identification. These results provide novel evidence for the mood-brightening effect with an interaction of cognitive bias by gender on emotional processing. It further suggests that female depression may be more vulnerable than male during emotional face processing with the unconscious negative cognitive bias and depressive syndromes may exist on a spectrum of severity on emotional face processing.

  8. Selective neurocognitive deficits and poor life functioning are associated with significant depressive symptoms in alcoholism-HIV infection comorbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassoon, Stephanie A; Rosenbloom, Margaret J; Fama, Rosemary; Sullivan, Edith V; Pfefferbaum, Adolf

    2012-09-30

    Alcoholism, HIV, and depressive symptoms frequently co-occur and are associated with impairment in cognition and life function. We administered the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), measures of life function, and neurocognitive tests to 67 alcoholics, 56 HIV+ patients, 63 HIV+ alcoholics, and 64 controls to examine whether current depressive symptom level (significant, BDI-II>14 vs. minimal, BDI-IIalcoholism-HIV comorbidity. Participants with significant depressive symptoms demonstrated slower manual motor speed and poorer visuospatial memory than those with minimal depressive symptoms. HIV patients with depressive symptoms showed impaired manual motor speed. Alcoholics with depressive symptoms showed impaired visuospatial memory. HIV+ alcoholics with depressive symptoms reported the poorest quality of life; alcoholics with depressive symptoms, irrespective of HIV status, had poorest life functioning. Thus, significant depressive symptoms were associated with poorer selective cognitive and life functioning in alcoholism and in HIV infection, even though depressive symptoms had neither synergistic nor additive effects on cognition in alcoholism-HIV comorbidity. The results suggest the relevance of assessing and treating current depressive symptoms to reduce cognitive compromise and functional disability in HIV infection, alcoholism, and their comorbidity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Sensitivity to changes during antidepressant treatment: a comparison of unidimensional subscales of the Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology (IDS-C) and the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) in patients with mild major, minor or subsyndromal depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmreich, Isabella; Wagner, Stefanie; Mergl, Roland; Allgaier, Antje-Kathrin; Hautzinger, Martin; Henkel, Verena; Hegerl, Ulrich; Tadić, André

    2012-06-01

    In the efficacy evaluation of antidepressant treatments, the total score of the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) is still regarded as the 'gold standard'. We previously had shown that the Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology (IDS) was more sensitive to detect depressive symptom changes than the HAMD17 (Helmreich et al. 2011). Furthermore, studies suggest that the unidimensional subscales of the HAMD, which capture the core depressive symptoms, outperform the full HAMD regarding the detection of antidepressant treatment effects. The aim of the present study was to compare several unidimensional subscales of the HAMD and the IDS regarding their sensitivity to changes in depression symptoms in a sample of patients with mild major, minor or subsyndromal depression (MIND). Biweekly IDS-C28 and HAMD17 data from 287 patients of a 10-week randomised, placebo-controlled trial comparing the effectiveness of sertraline and cognitive-behavioural group therapy in patients with MIND were converted to subscale scores and analysed during the antidepressant treatment course. We investigated sensitivity to depressive change for all scales from assessment-to-assessment, in relation to depression severity level and placebo-verum differences. The subscales performed similarly during the treatment course, with slight advantages for some subscales in detecting treatment effects depending on the treatment modality and on the items included. Most changes in depressive symptomatology were detected by the IDS short scale, but regarding the effect sizes, it performed worse than most subscales. Unidimensional subscales are a time- and cost-saving option in judging drug therapy outcomes, especially in antidepressant treatment efficacy studies. However, subscales do not cover all facets of depression (e.g. atypical symptoms, sleep disturbances), which might be important for comprehensively understanding the nature of the disease depression. Therefore, the cost-to-benefit ratio must be

  10. Diagnostic significance of rib series in minor thorax trauma compared to plain chest film and computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffstetter, Patrick; Dornia, Christian; Schäfer, Stephan; Wagner, Merle; Dendl, Lena M; Stroszczynski, Christian; Schreyer, Andreas G

    2014-01-01

    Rib series (RS) are a special radiological technique to improve the visualization of the bony parts of the chest. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of rib series in minor thorax trauma. Retrospective study of 56 patients who received RS, 39 patients where additionally evaluated by plain chest film (PCF). All patients underwent a computed tomography (CT) of the chest. RS and PCF were re-read independently by three radiologists, the results were compared with the CT as goldstandard. Sensitivity, specificity, negative and positive predictive value were calculated. Significance in the differences of findings was determined by McNemar test, interobserver variability by Cohens kappa test. 56 patients were evaluated (34 men, 22 women, mean age =61 y.). In 22 patients one or more rib fracture could be identified by CT. In 18 of these cases (82%) the correct diagnosis was made by RS, in 16 cases (73%) the correct number of involved ribs was detected. These differences were significant (p = 0.03). Specificity was 100%, negative and positive predictive value were 85% and 100%. Kappa values for the interobserver agreement was 0.92-0.96. Sensitivity of PCF was 46% and was significantly lower (p = 0.008) compared to CT. Rib series does not seem to be an useful examination in evaluating minor thorax trauma. CT seems to be the method of choice to detect rib fractures, but the clinical value of the radiological proof has to be discussed and investigated in larger follow up studies.

  11. Urinary free cortisol excretion in elderly persons with minor and major depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oldehinkel, AJ; van den Berg, MD; Flentge, F; Bouhuys, AL; ter Horst, GJ; Ormel, J

    2001-01-01

    Several studies have found that cortisol hypersecretion may occur in severely depressed patients who are characterized by melancholic features. On the other hand, illness chronicity seems to be related to low, rather than high, cortisol levels. This study aims to trace factors associated with 24-h

  12. Sexual minority-related victimization as a mediator of mental health disparities in sexual minority youth: a longitudinal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Chad M; Marshal, Michael P; Chisolm, Deena J; Sucato, Gina S; Friedman, Mark S

    2013-03-01

    Sexual minority youth (youth who are attracted to the same sex or endorse a gay/lesbian/bisexual identity) report significantly higher rates of depression and suicidality than heterosexual youth. The minority stress hypothesis contends that the stigma and discrimination experienced by sexual minority youth create a hostile social environment that can lead to chronic stress and mental health problems. The present study used longitudinal mediation models to directly test sexual minority-specific victimization as a potential explanatory mechanism of the mental health disparities of sexual minority youth. One hundred ninety-seven adolescents (14-19 years old; 70 % female; 29 % sexual minority) completed measures of sexual minority-specific victimization, depressive symptoms, and suicidality at two time points 6 months apart. Compared to heterosexual youth, sexual minority youth reported higher levels of sexual minority-specific victimization, depressive symptoms, and suicidality. Sexual minority-specific victimization significantly mediated the effect of sexual minority status on depressive symptoms and suicidality. The results support the minority stress hypothesis that targeted harassment and victimization are partly responsible for the higher levels of depressive symptoms and suicidality found in sexual minority youth. This research lends support to public policy initiatives that reduce bullying and hate crimes because reducing victimization can have a significant impact on the health and well-being of sexual minority youth.

  13. The efficacy of St. John's Wort in patients with minor depressive symptoms or dysthymia--a double-blind placebo-controlled study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Randløv, C; Mehlsen, J; Thomsen, C F

    2006-01-01

    We studied the efficacy of St. John's Wort compared with placebo in patients with minor depressive symptoms or dysthymia, with the main focus on which diagnostic entities are optimally amenable to treatment with two different doses of Hypericum, and which are not.......We studied the efficacy of St. John's Wort compared with placebo in patients with minor depressive symptoms or dysthymia, with the main focus on which diagnostic entities are optimally amenable to treatment with two different doses of Hypericum, and which are not....

  14. Selective neurocognitive deficits and poor life functioning are associated with significant depressive symptoms in alcoholism-HIV infection comorbidity

    OpenAIRE

    Sassoon, Stephanie A.; Rosenbloom, Margaret J.; Fama, Rosemary; Sullivan, Edith V.; Pfefferbaum, Adolf

    2012-01-01

    Alcoholism, HIV, and depressive symptoms frequently co-occur and are associated with impairment in cognition and life function. We administered the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), measures of life function, and neurocognitive tests to 67 alcoholics, 56 HIV+ patients, 63 HIV+ alcoholics, and 64 controls to examine whether current depressive symptom level (significant, BDI-II ≥ 14 vs. minimal, BDI-II < 14) was associated with poorer cognitive or psychosocial function in alcoholism-HIV co...

  15. The efficacy of St. John's Wort in patients with minor depressive symptoms or dysthymia--a double-blind placebo-controlled study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Randløv, C; Mehlsen, J; Thomsen, C F

    2006-01-01

    We studied the efficacy of St. John's Wort compared with placebo in patients with minor depressive symptoms or dysthymia, with the main focus on which diagnostic entities are optimally amenable to treatment with two different doses of Hypericum, and which are not....

  16. Rumination as a Vulnerability Factor to Depression in Adolescents in Mainland China: Lifetime History of Clinically Significant Depressive Episodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Wei; Abela, John R. Z.; Cohen, Joseph R.; Sheshko, Dana M.; Shi, Xiao Ting; Hamel, Anton Van; Starrs, Claire

    2010-01-01

    The current study tested the vulnerability and sex differences hypotheses of the response styles theory of depression (Nolen-Hoeksema, 1991). Participants included 494 tenth-grade students (M = 15.25 years, SD = 0.47) recruited from two secondary schools in Beijing, China. Participants completed self-report measures assessing rumination and…

  17. Relationship between obesity and the risk of clinically significant depression: Mendelian randomisation study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hung, Chi-Fa

    2014-07-01

    Obesity has been shown to be associated with depression and it has been suggested that higher body mass index (BMI) increases the risk of depression and other common mental disorders. However, the causal relationship remains unclear and Mendelian randomisation, a form of instrumental variable analysis, has recently been employed to attempt to resolve this issue.

  18. The risk of being depressed is significantly higher in cancer patients than in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartung, T J; Brähler, E; Faller, H

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Depression is a common co-morbidity of cancer that has a detrimental effect on quality of life, treatment adherence and potentially survival. We conducted an epidemiological multi-center study including a population-based random comparison sample and estimated the prevalence...... of depressive symptoms by cancer site, thereby identifying cancer patients with the highest prevalence of depression. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We included 4020 adult cancer inpatients and outpatients from five distinct regions across Germany in a proportional stratified random sample based on the nationwide cancer......% participated (51% women, mean age = 58 years). We estimated that one in four cancer patients (24%) is depressed (PHQ-9 ≥ 10). The odds of being depressed among cancer patients were more than five times higher than in the general population (OR, 5.4; 95% CI, 4.6-6.2). Patients with pancreatic (M = 8.0, SD = 5...

  19. Structural Characteristics of Paleozoic and Geological Significance of Oil and Gas of Dongpu Depression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨世刚

    2003-01-01

    The Dongpu depression has experienced a complicated evolution of structure since Mesozoic. The Paleozoic carbonate rock has been strongly reformed and the buried hills with different characteristics of structure are developed in the depression. There exist lots of groups of fault structures with strikes of NNE(or NE),NW, near NS and EW etc., of which the faults with strikes of NNE and NW play an important controlling role on present-day structural framework of the depression. The faults with near NS-striking and EW-striking deeply affect the establishment of structural framework of basement of the depression. Although most of the fractures are filled by calcite and other minerals, under the action of later structural stress, the earlier fractures could change their features into tensional ones. Therefore, much attention should be paid to the exploration and exploitation of Paleozoic oil and gas in Dongpu depression.

  20. Prognostic significance of social network, social support and loneliness for course of major depressive disorder in adulthood and old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Brink, R H S; Schutter, N; Hanssen, D J C; Elzinga, B M; Rabeling-Keus, I M; Stek, M L; Comijs, H C; Penninx, B W J H; Oude Voshaar, R C

    2018-06-01

    Poor recovery from depressive disorder has been shown to be related to low perceived social support and loneliness, but not to social network size or frequency of social interactions. Some studies suggest that the significance of social relationships for depression course may be greater in younger than in older patients, and may differ between men and women. None of the studies examined to what extent the different aspects of social relationships have unique or overlapping predictive values for depression course. It is the aim of the present study to examine the differential predictive values of social network characteristics, social support and loneliness for the course of depressive disorder, and to test whether these predictive associations are modified by gender or age. Two naturalistic cohort studies with the same design and overlapping instruments were combined to obtain a study sample of 1474 patients with a major depressive disorder, of whom 1181 (80.1%) could be studied over a 2-year period. Social relational variables were assessed at baseline. Two aspects of depression course were studied: remission at 2-year follow-up and change in depression severity over the follow-up period. By means of logistic regression and random coefficient analysis, the individual and combined predictive values of the different social relational variables for depression course were studied, controlling for potential confounders and checking for effect modification by age (below 60 v. 60 years or older) and gender. Multiple aspects of the social network, social support and loneliness were related to depression course, independent of potential confounders - including depression severity - but when combined, their predictive values were found to overlap to a large extent. Only the social network characteristic of living in a larger household, the social support characteristic of few negative experiences with the support from a partner or close friend, and limited feelings of

  1. Sexual Minority-Related Victimization as a Mediator of Mental Health Disparities in Sexual Minority Youth: A Longitudinal Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Chad M.; Marshal, Michael P.; Chisolm, Deena J.; Sucato, Gina S.; Friedman, Mark S.

    2013-01-01

    Sexual minority youth (youth who are attracted to the same sex or endorse a gay/lesbian/bisexual identity) report significantly higher rates of depression and suicidality than heterosexual youth. The minority stress hypothesis contends that the stigma and discrimination experienced by sexual minority youth create a hostile social environment that…

  2. Depression Care for Low-Income, Minority, Safety Net Clinic Populations with Comorbid Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ell, Kathleen; Lee, Pey-Jiuan; Xie, Bin

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Increasingly, mental health care is provided within the general health care sector. Accompanying this significant change is the demand for evidence-based as well as cost-effective or cost-neutral care models. Method: The authors present a pooled analysis of three large randomized clinical trials in which social workers provide…

  3. Confounding and Statistical Significance of Indirect Effects: Childhood Adversity, Education, Smoking, and Anxious and Depressive Symptomatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mashhood Ahmed Sheikh

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The life course perspective, the risky families model, and stress-and-coping models provide the rationale for assessing the role of smoking as a mediator in the association between childhood adversity and anxious and depressive symptomatology (ADS in adulthood. However, no previous study has assessed the independent mediating role of smoking in the association between childhood adversity and ADS in adulthood. Moreover, the importance of mediator-response confounding variables has rarely been demonstrated empirically in social and psychiatric epidemiology. The aim of this paper was to (i assess the mediating role of smoking in adulthood in the association between childhood adversity and ADS in adulthood, and (ii assess the change in estimates due to different mediator-response confounding factors (education, alcohol intake, and social support. The present analysis used data collected from 1994 to 2008 within the framework of the Tromsø Study (N = 4,530, a representative prospective cohort study of men and women. Seven childhood adversities (low mother's education, low father's education, low financial conditions, exposure to passive smoke, psychological abuse, physical abuse, and substance abuse distress were used to create a childhood adversity score. Smoking status was measured at a mean age of 54.7 years (Tromsø IV, and ADS in adulthood was measured at a mean age of 61.7 years (Tromsø V. Mediation analysis was used to assess the indirect effect and the proportion of mediated effect (% of childhood adversity on ADS in adulthood via smoking in adulthood. The test-retest reliability of smoking was good (Kappa: 0.67, 95% CI: 0.63; 0.71 in this sample. Childhood adversity was associated with a 10% increased risk of smoking in adulthood (Relative risk: 1.10, 95% CI: 1.03; 1.18, and both childhood adversity and smoking in adulthood were associated with greater levels of ADS in adulthood (p < 0.001. Smoking in adulthood did not significantly

  4. Mindfulness significantly reduces self-reported levels of anxiety and depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Würtzen, Hanne; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg; Elsass, Peter

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: As the incidence of and survival from breast cancer continue to raise, interventions to reduce anxiety and depression before, during and after treatment are needed. Previous studies have reported positive effects of a structured 8-week group mindfulness-based stress reduction program...

  5. Self-care self-efficacy, religious participation and depression as predictors of poststroke self-care among underserved ethnic minorities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne M. Robertson

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Underserved ethnic minorities have multiple chronic disease risk factors, including tobacco, alcohol and substance use, which contribute to increased incidence of stroke. Self-efficacy (self-care self-efficacy, religious participation and depression may directly and indirectly influence engagement in post stroke self-care behaviors. The primary aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of self-care self-efficacy, religious participation and depression, on tobacco, alcohol and substance use in a sample of largely ethnic minority, underserved stroke survivors (n=52. Participants previously recruited for a culturally tailored secondary stroke prevention self-care intervention were included. The treatment group received three stroke self-care sessions. The usual care group completed assessments only. Both groups were included in these analyses. Main outcome measures included tobacco, alcohol and substance use. Self-care self-efficacy, religious participation and depression were also assessed. Logistic regression analyses, using self-efficacy, religious practice and depression as the referents, were used to predict binary outcomes of tobacco, alcohol and substance use at 4-weeks post-stroke. Higher depression and self-care self-efficacy were associated with reduced odds of smoking and substance use. Greater participation in religious activities was associated with lower odds of alcohol use. We can conclude that incorporating depression treatment and techniques to increase self-care self-efficacy, and encouraging religious participation may help to improve stroke self-care behaviors for underserved and low socioeconomic status individuals. Results are discussed in the context of stroke self-management.

  6. Prognostic significance of precordial ST segment depression during inferior myocardial infarction in the thrombolytic era: Results in 16,521 patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.D. Peterson; W.R. Hathaway; K.M. Zabel; K.S. Pieper (Karen); C.B. Granger (Christopher); G.S. Wagner (Galen); E.J. Topol (Eric); E.R. Bates (Eric); M.L. Simoons (Maarten); R.M. Califf (Robert)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractObjectives. We examined the prognostic significance of precordial ST segment depression among patients with an acute inferior myocardial infarction. Background. Although precordial ST segment depression has been associated with a poor prognosis, this correlation has not been adequately

  7. Sexual Minority-Related Victimization as a Mediator of Mental Health Disparities in Sexual Minority Youth: A Longitudinal Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Burton, Chad M.; Marshal, Michael P.; Chisolm, Deena J.; Sucato, Gina S.; Friedman, Mark S.

    2013-01-01

    Sexual minority youth (youth who are attracted to the same sex or endorse a gay/lesbian/bisexual identity) report significantly higher rates of depression and suicidality than heterosexual youth. The minority stress hypothesis contends that the stigma and discrimination experienced by sexual minority youth create a hostile social environment that can lead to chronic stress and mental health problems. The present study used longitudinal mediation models to directly test sexual minority-specifi...

  8. Deep Brain Stimulation Target Selection in an Advanced Parkinson's Disease Patient with Significant Tremor and Comorbid Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amar S. Patel

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Clinical Vignette: A 67-year-old female with advanced Parkinson's disease (PD, medically refractory tremor, and a history of significant depression presents for evaluation of deep brain stimulation (DBS candidacy.  Clinical Dilemma: Traditionally, stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN has been the preferred target for patients with significant PD tremor. However, STN stimulation is avoided in patients with a significant pre-surgical history of mood disorder.  Clinical Solution: Bilateral DBS of the globus pallidus interna led to significant short term improvement in PD motor symptoms, including significant tremor reduction.  Gap in Knowledge: There is insufficient evidence to support or refute clinicians' traditional preference for STN stimulation in treating refractory PD tremor. Similarly, the available evidence for risk of worsening depression and/or suicidality after STN DBS is mixed. Both questions require further clarification to guide patient and clinician decision-making.

  9. Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in the winter. Depression is one part of bipolar disorder. There are effective treatments for depression, including antidepressants, talk therapy, or both. NIH: National Institute of Mental Health

  10. Depressive status explains a significant amount of the variance in COPD assessment test (CAT) scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miravitlles, Marc; Molina, Jesús; Quintano, José Antonio; Campuzano, Anna; Pérez, Joselín; Roncero, Carlos

    2018-01-01

    COPD assessment test (CAT) is a short, easy-to-complete health status tool that has been incorporated into the multidimensional assessment of COPD in order to guide therapy; therefore, it is important to understand the factors determining CAT scores. This is a post hoc analysis of a cross-sectional, observational study conducted in respiratory medicine departments and primary care centers in Spain with the aim of identifying the factors determining CAT scores, focusing particularly on the cognitive status measured by the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and levels of depression measured by the short Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). A total of 684 COPD patients were analyzed; 84.1% were men, the mean age of patients was 68.7 years, and the mean forced expiratory volume in 1 second (%) was 55.1%. Mean CAT score was 21.8. CAT scores correlated with the MMSE score (Pearson's coefficient r =-0.371) and the BDI ( r =0.620), both p CAT scores and explained 45% of the variability. However, a model including only MMSE and BDI scores explained up to 40% and BDI alone explained 38% of the CAT variance. CAT scores are associated with clinical variables of severity of COPD. However, cognitive status and, in particular, the level of depression explain a larger percentage of the variance in the CAT scores than the usual COPD clinical severity variables.

  11. Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... reasons why a woman may have depression: Family history . Women with a family history of depression may be more at risk. But depression can also happen in women who don’t have a family history of depression. Brain changes. The brains of people ...

  12. School Connectedness and Protection from Symptoms of Depression in Sexual Minority Adolescents Attending School in Atlantic Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Maria N.; Asbridge, Mark; Langille, Donald B.

    2018-01-01

    Background: In examining associations of sexual orientation, school connectedness (SC), and depression, no studies have used a continuum of sexual orientation. Additionally, no study has examined whether individuals with higher SC within subgroups of the continuum of sexual orientation are protected from symptoms of depression when compared to…

  13. The significance of recruiting underrepresented minorities in medicine: an examination of the need for effective approaches used in admissions by higher education institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obed Figueroa

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to examine the significance of recruiting underrepresented minorities in medicine (URM. This would include African Americans, Hispanics, and Native Americans. The research findings support the belief that URMs, upon graduating, are more likely to become practitioners in underserved communities, thereby becoming a resource that prompts us to find effective ways to help increase their college enrollments statewide. This paper analyzes the recruitment challenges for institutions, followed by a review of creative and effective approaches used by organizations and universities. The results have shown positive outcomes averaging a 50% increase in minority enrollments and retention. In other areas, such as cognitive development, modest gains were achieved in programs that were shorter in duration. The results nevertheless indicated steps in the right direction inspiring further program developments.

  14. Depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Veddel; Bukh, Jens Drachmann

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of depression is not clearly established, but estimated to 3-4% in a Danish questionnaire study. Lifetime's prevalences of 12-17% are reported in other community samples. In the current diagnostic system depression is defined categorically and operationally. It has been argued......, that these diagnostic criteria represent an oversimplification, which has blurred the concept of depression. We suggest a greater emphasis on the depressed mood as the core symptom of depression, which may increase the specificity of the diagnosis. Furthermore, basic principles for the treatment of depression...

  15. Geological significance of paleo-aulacogen and exploration potential of reef flat gas reservoirs in the Western Sichuan Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu Liu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Confirming thick hydrocarbon generation center and discovering thick porous reservoirs are two key factors to start the Permian gas exploration of the Western Sichuan Depression. In this paper, the Sinian-Cambrian structures of this area were studied by adopting the layer-flattening technology and the Lower Paleozoic thickness map was prepared in order to describe the Permian hydrocarbon generation center. Then, combined with seismic facies analysis and field outcrop bioherm discovery, the distribution of Middle Permian reef flat reservoirs were predicted. Finally, the favorable conditions for reef flat reservoir dolomitization were analyzed based on fault features. The study indicates that: (1 Sinian top represents a huge depression in the profile flatted by the reflecting interface of Permian bottom, with normal faults filled by thick Lower Paleozoic sediments at both sides, revealing that a aulacogen formed during the Khanka taphrogeny exists in the Western Sichuan Depression, where very thick Cambrian strata may contain hydrocarbon generation center, making Permian strata have the material conditions for the formation of large gas pools; (2 the Middle Permian strata in the Western Sichuan Depression exhibit obvious abnormal response in reef flat facies, where three large abnormal bands are developed, which are predicted as bioherm complex combined with the Middle Permian bioherm outcrop discoveries in surface; and (3 deep and large extensional faults are developed in reef flat margin, manifesting as favorable conditions for the development of dolomite reservoirs. The results show that the Middle Permian traps in the Western Sichuan Depression contain resources up to 7400 × 108 m3, showing significant natural gas exploration prospects. By far, one risk exploration well has been deployed.

  16. Reducing Eating Disorder Onset in a Very High Risk Sample with Significant Comorbid Depression: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, C. Barr; Kass, Andrea E.; Trockel, Mickey; Cunning, Darby; Weisman, Hannah; Bailey, Jakki; Sinton, Meghan; Aspen, Vandana; Schecthman, Kenneth; Jacobi, Corinna; Wilfley, Denise E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Eating disorders (EDs) are serious problems among college-age women and may be preventable. An indicated on-line eating disorder (ED) intervention, designed to reduce ED and comorbid pathology, was evaluated. Method 206 women (M age = 20 ± 1.8 years; 51% White/Caucasian, 11% African American, 10% Hispanic, 21% Asian/Asian American, 7% other) at very high risk for ED onset (i.e., with high weight/shape concerns plus a history of being teased, current or lifetime depression, and/or non-clinical levels of compensatory behaviors) were randomized to a 10-week, Internet-based, cognitive-behavioral intervention or wait-list control. Assessments included the Eating Disorder Examination (EDE to assess ED onset), EDE-Questionnaire, Structured Clinical Interview for DSM Disorders, and Beck Depression Inventory-II. Results ED attitudes and behaviors improved more in the intervention than control group (p = 0.02, d = 0.31); although ED onset rate was 27% lower, this difference was not significant (p = 0.28, NNT = 15). In the subgroup with highest shape concerns, ED onset rate was significantly lower in the intervention than control group (20% versus 42%, p = 0.025, NNT = 5). For the 27 individuals with depression at baseline, depressive symptomatology improved more in the intervention than control group (p = 0.016, d = 0.96); although ED onset rate was lower in the intervention than control group, this difference was not significant (25% versus 57%, NNT = 4). Conclusions An inexpensive, easily disseminated intervention might reduce ED onset among those at highest risk. Low adoption rates need to be addressed in future research. PMID:26795936

  17. Reducing eating disorder onset in a very high risk sample with significant comorbid depression: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, C Barr; Kass, Andrea E; Trockel, Mickey; Cunning, Darby; Weisman, Hannah; Bailey, Jakki; Sinton, Meghan; Aspen, Vandana; Schecthman, Kenneth; Jacobi, Corinna; Wilfley, Denise E

    2016-05-01

    Eating disorders (EDs) are serious problems among college-age women and may be preventable. An indicated online eating disorder (ED) intervention, designed to reduce ED and comorbid pathology, was evaluated. 206 women (M age = 20 ± 1.8 years; 51% White/Caucasian, 11% African American, 10% Hispanic, 21% Asian/Asian American, 7% other) at very high risk for ED onset (i.e., with high weight/shape concerns plus a history of being teased, current or lifetime depression, and/or nonclinical levels of compensatory behaviors) were randomized to a 10-week, Internet-based, cognitive-behavioral intervention or waitlist control. Assessments included the Eating Disorder Examination (EDE, to assess ED onset), EDE-Questionnaire, Structured Clinical Interview for DSM Disorders, and Beck Depression Inventory-II. ED attitudes and behaviors improved more in the intervention than control group (p = .02, d = 0.31); although ED onset rate was 27% lower, this difference was not significant (p = .28, NNT = 15). In the subgroup with highest shape concerns, ED onset rate was significantly lower in the intervention than control group (20% vs. 42%, p = .025, NNT = 5). For the 27 individuals with depression at baseline, depressive symptomatology improved more in the intervention than control group (p = .016, d = 0.96); although ED onset rate was lower in the intervention than control group, this difference was not significant (25% vs. 57%, NNT = 4). An inexpensive, easily disseminated intervention might reduce ED onset among those at highest risk. Low adoption rates need to be addressed in future research. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Depressants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Teens / Depressants Print en español Depresores del sistema nervioso What They Are: Tranquilizers and other depressants ... of Use Notice of Nondiscrimination Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on TeensHealth® is for ...

  19. Depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cizza, G; Ravn, Pernille; Chrousos, G P

    2001-01-01

    Existing studies of the relationship between depression and osteoporosis have been heterogeneous in their design and use of diagnostic instruments for depression, which might have contributed to the different results on the comorbidity of these two conditions. Nevertheless, these studies reveal...... a strong association between depression and osteoporosis. Endocrine factors such as depression-induced hypersecretion of corticotropin-releasing hormone and hypercortisolism, hypogonadism, growth hormone deficiency and increased concentration of circulating interleukin 6, might play a crucial role...... in the bone loss observed in subjects suffering from major depression....

  20. Minority engineering scholarships, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    Scholarships for Minority Students Studying Engineering and Science: Support will make scholarships available to minority students : interested in engineering and science and will increase significantly the number of minority students that Missouri S...

  1. Late-Onset PTSD in Unaccompanied Refugee Minors: Exploring the Predictive Utility of Depression and Anxiety Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smid, Geert E.; Lensvelt-Mulders, Gerty J. L. M.; Knipscheer, Jeroen W.; Gersons, Berthold P. R.; Kleber, Rolf J.

    2011-01-01

    Following resettlement in Western countries, unaccompanied refugee minors (URM) are at risk of developing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). It is unclear to what extent PTSD in this group may become manifest at later stages following resettlement and which factors are associated with late onset. We examined data from URM collected 1 (T1) and 2…

  2. Depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pouwer, Frans

    2017-01-01

    There is ample evidence that depression is000  a common comorbid health issue in people with type 1 or type 2 diabetes. Reviews have also concluded that depression in diabetes is associated with higher HbA1c levels, less optimal self-care behaviours, lower quality of life, incident vascular...... complications and higher mortality rates. However, longitudinal studies into the course of depression in people with type 1 diabetes remain scarce. In this issue of Diabetologia, Kampling and colleagues (doi: 10.1007/s00125-016-4123-0 ) report the 5 year trajectories of depression in adults with newly diagnosed...... type 1 diabetes (mean age, 28 years). Their baseline results showed that shortly after the diagnosis of type 1 diabetes a major depressive episode was diagnosed in approximately 6% of participants, while 8% suffered from an anxiety disorder. The longitudinal depression data showed that, in a 5 year...

  3. Measuring individual significant change on the Beck Depression Inventory-II through IRT-based statistics.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, D.; Meijer, R.R.; Zevalkink, D.J.

    2013-01-01

    Several researchers have emphasized that item response theory (IRT)-based methods should be preferred over classical approaches in measuring change for individual patients. In the present study we discuss and evaluate the use of IRT-based statistics to measure statistical significant individual

  4. Depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Jon O. J.

    2013-01-01

    Nyhederne er fulde af historier om depression. Overskrifter som: ’Danskerne propper sig med lykkepiller’ eller ‘depression er stadigvæk tabu’ går tit igen i dagspressen. Men hvor er nuancerne, og hvorfor gider vi læse de samme historier igen og igen? Måske er det fordi, vores egne forestillinger er...

  5. Ecological Momentary Assessment of Pain, Fatigue, Depressive, and Cognitive Symptoms Reveals Significant Daily Variability in Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratz, Anna L; Murphy, Susan L; Braley, Tiffany J

    2017-11-01

    To describe the daily variability and patterns of pain, fatigue, depressed mood, and cognitive function in persons with multiple sclerosis (MS). Repeated-measures observational study of 7 consecutive days of home monitoring, including ecological momentary assessment (EMA) of symptoms. Multilevel mixed models were used to analyze data. General community. Ambulatory adults (N=107) with MS recruited through the University of Michigan and surrounding community. Not applicable. EMA measures of pain, fatigue, depressed mood, and cognitive function rated on a 0 to 10 scale, collected 5 times a day for 7 days. Cognitive function and depressed mood exhibited more stable within-person patterns than pain and fatigue, which varied considerably within person. All symptoms increased in intensity across the day (all Pfatigue showing the most substantial increase. Notably, this diurnal increase varied by sex and age; women showed a continuous increase from wake to bedtime, whereas fatigue plateaued after 7 pm for men (wake-bed B=1.04, P=.004). For the oldest subgroup, diurnal increases were concentrated to the middle of the day compared with younger subgroups, which showed an earlier onset of fatigue increase and sustained increases until bed time (wake-3 pm B=.04, P=.01; wake-7 pm B=.03, P=.02). Diurnal patterns of cognitive function varied by education; those with advanced college degrees showed a more stable pattern across the day, with significant differences compared with those with bachelor-level degrees in the evening (wake-7 pm B=-.47, P=.02; wake-bed B=-.45, P=.04). Findings suggest that chronic symptoms in MS are not static, even over a short time frame; rather, symptoms-fatigue and pain in particular-vary dynamically across and within days. Incorporation of EMA methods should be considered in the assessment of these chronic MS symptoms to enhance assessment and treatment strategies. Copyright © 2017 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier

  6. Application of mixed-methods design in community-engaged research: Lessons learned from an evidence-based intervention for Latinos with chronic illness and minor depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguado Loi, Claudia X; Alfonso, Moya L; Chan, Isabella; Anderson, Kelsey; Tyson, Dinorah Dina Martinez; Gonzales, Junius; Corvin, Jaime

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this paper is to share lessons learned from a collaborative, community-informed mixed-methods approach to adapting an evidence-based intervention to meet the needs of Latinos with chronic disease and minor depression and their family members. Mixed-methods informed by community-based participatory research (CBPR) were employed to triangulate multiple stakeholders' perceptions of facilitators and barriers of implementing the adapted intervention in community settings. Community partners provided an insider perspective to overcome methodological challenges. The study's community informed mixed-methods: research approach offered advantages to a single research methodology by expanding or confirming research findings and engaging multiple stakeholders in data collection. This approach also allowed community partners to collaborate with academic partners in key research decisions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) versus acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) for dementia family caregivers with significant depressive symptoms: Results of a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losada, Andrés; Márquez-González, María; Romero-Moreno, Rosa; Mausbach, Brent T; López, Javier; Fernández-Fernández, Virginia; Nogales-González, Celia

    2015-08-01

    The differential efficacy of acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) and cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for dementia family caregivers' is analyzed through a randomized controlled trial. Participants were 135 caregivers with high depressive symptomatology who were randomly allocated to the intervention conditions or a control group (CG). Pre-, postintervention, and follow-up measurements assessed depressive symptomatology, anxiety, leisure, dysfunctional thoughts, and experiential avoidance. Depression: Significant effects of interventions compared with CG were found for CBT (p dementia caregivers. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. No significant difference in depression rate in employed and unemployed in a pair-matched study design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihai, Adriana; Ricean, Alina; Voidazan, Septimiu

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to evaluate the differences of depression rate in employed and unemployed persons in the period of financial and economic crisis in Romania, in a pair-matched study design. The cross-sectional study uses a pair match design (395 pairs) of two groups of employed and unemployed persons. Other socio-demographic risk factors of depression (gender, age, marital status, residence, ethnicity, educational level, and profession) were controlled. The study was done in a historical period of economic crisis, 2009-2010. For the screening of depression we used the patient health questionnaire-9. There were no statistical differences (p = 0.054) between the depression rates in the employed (17.98%) and unemployed (23.80%) samples. The depression rate in both groups was higher in females, age (51-55), marital status (divorced), living in the rural area, with a low level of education and poverty. Suicidal ideas are more frequent in men, employed persons with low level of education and in unemployed persons with medium level of education. The exposure to short term unemployment status was not associated with change in depression rate in the period of financial and economic crisis in Romania, comparing with controls pair-matched. Unemployment status increases the depression rate only in vulnerable groups such as single or divorced women; and suicidal ideas were associated with the unemployment status (longer than 8 months) in men from rural area with medium level of education.

  9. Recruitment and retention of low-income minority women in a behavioral intervention to reduce smoking, depression, and intimate partner violence during pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murray Kennan B

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Researchers have frequently encountered difficulties in the recruitment and retention of minorities resulting in their under-representation in clinical trials. This report describes the successful strategies of recruitment and retention of African Americans and Latinos in a randomized clinical trial to reduce smoking, depression and intimate partner violence during pregnancy. Socio-demographic characteristics and risk profiles of retained vs. non-retained women and lost to follow-up vs. dropped-out women are presented. In addition, subgroups of pregnant women who are less (more likely to be retained are identified. Methods Pregnant African American women and Latinas who were Washington, DC residents, aged 18 years or more, and of 28 weeks gestational age or less were recruited at six prenatal care clinics. Potentially eligible women were screened for socio-demographic eligibility and the presence of the selected behavioral and psychological risks using an Audio Computer-Assisted Self-Interview. Eligible women who consented to participate completed a baseline telephone evaluation after which they were enrolled in the study and randomly assigned to either the intervention or the usual care group. Results Of the 1,398 eligible women, 1,191 (85% agreed to participate in the study. Of the 1,191 women agreeing to participate, 1,070 completed the baseline evaluation and were enrolled in the study and randomized, for a recruitment rate of 90%. Of those enrolled, 1,044 were African American women. A total of 849 women completed the study, for a retention rate of 79%. Five percent dropped out and 12% were lost-to-follow up. Women retained in the study and those not retained were not statistically different with regard to socio-demographic characteristics and the targeted risks. Retention strategies included financial and other incentives, regular updates of contact information which was tracked and monitored by a computerized data

  10. The mediational significance of negative/depressive affect in the relationship of childhood maltreatment and eating disorder features in adolescent psychiatric inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopwood, C J; Ansell, E B; Fehon, D C; Grilo, C M

    2011-03-01

    Childhood maltreatment is a risk factor for eating disorder and negative/depressive affect appears to mediate this relation. However, the specific elements of eating- and body-related psychopathology that are influenced by various forms of childhood maltreatment remain unclear, and investigations among adolescents and men/boys have been limited. This study investigated the mediating role of negative affect/depression across multiple types of childhood maltreatment and eating disorder features in hospitalized adolescent boys and girls. Participants were 148 adolescent psychiatric inpatients who completed an assessment battery including measures of specific forms of childhood maltreatment (sexual, emotional, and physical abuse), negative/depressive affect, and eating disorder features (dietary restriction, binge eating, and body dissatisfaction). Findings suggest that for girls, negative/depressive affect significantly mediates the relationships between childhood maltreatment and eating disorder psychopathology, although effects varied somewhat across types of maltreatment and eating disorder features. Generalization of mediation effects to boys was limited.

  11. No significant difference in depression rate in employed and unemployed in a pair-matched study design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana eMihai

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to evaluate the differences of depression rate in employed and unemployed persons in the period of financial and economic crisis in Romania, in a pair-matched study design.Method: The cross sectional study uses a pair match design (395 pairs of two groups of employed and unemployed persons. Other socio-demographic risk factors of depression (gender, age, marital status, residence, ethnicity, educational level and profession were controlled. The study was done in a historical period of economic crisis, 2009-2010. For the screening of depression we used the Patient Health Questionnaire PHQ – 9.Results: There were no statistical differences (p=0.054 between the depression rates in the employed (17.98% and unemployed (23.80% samples. The depression rate in both groups was higher in females, age (51-55, marital status (divorced, living in the rural area, with a low level of education, poverty. Suicidal ideas are more frequent in men, employed persons with low level of education and in unemployed persons with medium level of education.Conclusion: The exposure to short term unemployment status was not associated with change in depression rate in the period of financial and economic crisis in Romania, comparing with controls pair-matched. Unemployment status increases the depression rate only in vulnerable groups such as single or divorced women; and suicidal ideas were associated with the unemployment status (longer than 8 months in men from rural area with medium level of education.

  12. Prevalence and predictors of clinically significant depressive symptoms among Chinese and Malawian children: a cross-cultural comparative cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zgambo, Maggie; Kalembo, Fatch Welcome; Wang, Honghong; He, Guoping; Chen, Sanmei

    2014-08-14

    Multicultural comparative studies have recently increased scientific knowledge base regarding the mental health of diverse populations. This cross-cultural study was cross-sectionally designed to assess differences in the prevalence and predictors of clinically significant depressive symptoms between Chinese and Malawian children. A total of 478 children (237 Chinese and 241 Malawians) were randomly recruited in the study. The participants completed a Children Depression Inventory in the dimensions of Negative Mood, Interpersonal Problems, Ineffectiveness, Anhedonia, and Negative Self- Esteem. They further provided demographic and family structure information. Data were analyzed by Student's t-test, Chi-square test, and logistic regression. The prevalence of clinically significant depressive symptoms was 16% and 12.4% for Chinese and Malawian study participants, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that fighting among siblings (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 4.1, 95% CI, 3.5-5.9), fighting among children and parents (aOR = 7.7, 95% CI, 4.6-9.8) and living with father only (aOR = 4.1, 95% CI, 3.4-6.7) were significant predictors of clinically significant depressive symptoms among Chinese study participants. On the other hand, clinically significant depressive symptoms were predicted by employment status of a mom only among Malawian study participants (aOR = 3.0, 95% CI, 2.3-5.9). We conclude that diverse cultures affect children's mental health differently and this cluster of children has a noticeable amount of depressive symptoms that in the least requires further diagnosis and preventive measures.

  13. Minority engineering scholarships renewal, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    Scholarships for Minority Students Studying Engineering and Science : Support will make scholarships available to minority students : interested in engineering and science and will increase significantly the number of minority students that Missouri ...

  14. Minorities and majorities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijman, J.E.; Fassbender, B.; Peters, A.

    2012-01-01

    This chapter discusses the paradox of minorities as a constitutive Other of international law. While minorities have been viewed as outside the international legal system for centuries, minorities have at the same time made a significant and fundamental contribution to precisely that system, as they

  15. Socioeconomic Status Is Significantly Associated with the Dietary Intakes of Folate and Depression Scales in Japanese Workers (J-HOPE Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takuro Shimbo

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The association of socioeconomic status (SES with nutrient intake attracts public attention worldwide. In the current study, we examined the associations of SES with dietary intake of folate and health outcomes in general Japanese workers. This Japanese occupational cohort consisted off 2266 workers. SES was assessed by a self-administered questionnaire. Intakes of all nutrients were assessed with a validated, brief and self-administered diet history questionnaire (BDHQ. The degree of depressive symptoms was measured by the validated Japanese version of the K6 scale. Multiple linear regression and stratified analysis were used to evaluate the associations of intake with the confounding factors. Path analysis was conducted to describe the impacts of intake on health outcomes. Education levels and household incomes were significantly associated with intake of folate and depression scales (p < 0.05. After adjusting for age, sex and total energy intake, years of education significantly affect the folate intake (β = 0.117, p < 0.001. The structural equation model (SEM shows that the indirect effect of folate intake is statistically significant and strong (p < 0.05, 56% of direct effect in the pathway of education level to depression scale. Our study shows both education and income are significantly associated with depression scales in Japanese workers, and the effort to increase the folate intake may alleviate the harms of social disparities on mental health.

  16. The association of minor and major depression with health problem-solving and diabetes self-care activities in a clinic-based population of adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Na; Hill-Briggs, Felicia; Langan, Susan; Payne, Jennifer L; Lyketsos, Constantine; Golden, Sherita Hill

    2017-05-01

    We examined whether problem-solving and diabetes self-management behaviors differ by depression diagnosis - major depressive disorder (MDD) and minor depressive disorder (MinDD) - in adults with Type 2 diabetes (T2DM). We screened a clinical sample of 702 adults with T2DM for depression, identified 52 positive and a sample of 51 negative individuals, and performed a structured diagnostic psychiatric interview. MDD (n=24), MinDD (n=17), and no depression (n=62) were diagnosed using Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV (DSM-IV) Text Revised criteria. Health Problem-Solving Scale (HPSS) and Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities (SDSCA) questionnaires determined problem-solving and T2DM self-management skills, respectively. We compared HPSS and SDSCA scores by depression diagnosis, adjusting for age, sex, race, and diabetes duration, using linear regression. Total HPSS scores for MDD (β=-4.38; pdepression. Total SDSCA score for MDD (β=-10.1; pdepression, and was partially explained by total HPSS. MinDD and MDD individuals with T2DM have impaired problem-solving ability. MDD individuals had impaired diabetes self-management, partially explained by impaired problem-solving. Future studies should assess problem-solving therapy to treat T2DM and MinDD and integrated problem-solving with diabetes self-management for those with T2DM and MDD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Mid-term follow-up of whiplash with Bournemouth Questionnaire: the significance of the initial depression to pain ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griggs, R K L; Cook, J; Gargan, M; Bannister, G; Amirfeyz, R

    2015-01-01

    The Bournemouth Questionnaire (BQ) was used to report the short to mid-term outcome of a prospective cohort of patients who had sustained Whiplash Associated Disorder (WAD), and establish whether outcome could be predicted on initial assessment. One hundred patients with WAD grades I-III on the Quebec Task Force Classification were referred for physiotherapy (neck posture advice, initially practised under the direct supervision of a therapist). BQ scores were recorded on the first visit, at six weeks, then at final follow-up. Seventy-six percent of patients were available at final follow-up, 58% women. The mean age was 43.2 years old and follow-up time 38 months (28-48). Symptoms plateaued after six weeks in the majority and improved gradually thereafter. When the individual BQ components on initial presentation were reassessed, patients who score disproportionately highly in BQ Question 5 (Depression) had a worse outcome. To quantify this, the ratio of BQ Questions 5 (Depression)/1 (Pain) was calculated. BQ5/1 ratio greater than 1 on initial presentation had an odds ratio of 2 for poor outcome (p= 0.02). The BQ can therefore be used to identify patients with a disproportionately high depression score (BQ5) who are highly likely to clinically deteriorate in the medium term.

  18. Sexual orientation and depression in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Roger L; Lasiuk, Gerri; Norris, Colleen M

    2017-03-01

    Depression is a global concern and it is well known that certain segments of the population are at greater risk. Sexual minorities are recognized as being more likely to suffer from depression due to social stigma and prejudice. The aim of this study was to describe the relationship between sexual orientation and depression in the Canadian population. The study used the 2012 Canadian Community Health Survey - Mental Health data. The sample comprised 24,788 Canadians living in the ten provinces. Logistic regression analyses were used to examine the relationship of depression and sexual orientation. After adjusting for known risk factors for depression, there was no difference in prevalence of past 12-month or lifetime major depressive episode between sexual minorities and heterosexuals. Bisexuals did have a near significant trend towards higher prevalence of both past 12-month and lifetime depression as a combined group, but there were not clear differences when stratified by sex. This study supports important emerging trends in the relationship between sexual orientation and depression. Research on the mental health of sexual minority people must take into account differences between sexual minority groups and avoid aggregating mental health disorders into broad categories. These findings have implications for public health planning and clinical recommendations.

  19. Screening for major and minor depression in a multiethnic sample of Asian primary care patients: a comparison of the nine-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and the 16-item Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology - Self-Report (QIDS-SR16 ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Sharon Cohan; Low, Charity Cheng Hong; Fung, Daniel Shuen Sheng; Chan, Yiong Huak

    2013-12-01

    Depression is common, disabling, and the single most important factor leading to suicide, yet it is underdiagnosed in busy primary care settings. A key challenge facing primary care clinicians in Asia is the selection of instruments to facilitate depression screening. Although the nine-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and 16-item Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology - Self-Report (QIDS-SR16 ) are used internationally, they have not been directly compared or widely validated in Asian primary care populations. This study aimed to validate the PHQ-9 and QIDS-SR16 against a structured interview diagnosis of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, 4th Edition, depression based on the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview in a multiethnic Asian sample. From April through August 2011, we enrolled 400 English-speaking Singaporean primary care patients. Participants completed a demographic data form, the PHQ-9, and the QIDS-SR16 . They were assessed independently for major and minor depression using the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Sensitivity and specificity for diagnosing major depression were 91.7% and 72.2%, respectively, for the PHQ-9 (optimal cutoff score of 6), and 83.3% and 84.7%, respectively, for the QIDS-SR16 (optimal cutoff score of 9). The QIDS-SR16 also detected minor depression at an optimal cutoff score of 7, with a sensitivity of 94.4% and specificity of 77.9%. The PHQ-9 and QIDS-SR16 showed good internal consistency (Cronbach's α: 0.87 and 0.79, respectively) and good convergent validity (correlation coefficient: r = 0.73, P depressive disorders was 9%. The PHQ-9 and QIDS-SR16 appear to be valid and reliable for depression screening in Asian primary care settings. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  20. A putatively functional polymorphism in the HTR2C gene is associated with depressive symptoms in white females reporting significant life stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beverly H Brummett

    Full Text Available Psychosocial stress is well known to be positively associated with subsequent depressive symptoms. Cortisol response to stress may be one of a number of biological mechanisms that links psychological stress to depressive symptoms, although the precise causal pathway remains unclear. Activity of the x-linked serotonin 5-HTR2C receptor has also been shown to be associated with depression and with clinical response to antidepressant medications. We recently demonstrated that variation in a single nucleotide polymorphism on the HTR2C gene, rs6318 (Ser23Cys, is associated with different cortisol release and short-term changes in affect in response to a series of stress tasks in the laboratory. Based on this observation, we decided to examine whether rs6318 might moderate the association between psychosocial stress and subsequent depressive symptoms. In the present study we use cross-sectional data from a large population-based sample of young adult White men (N = 2,366 and White women (N = 2,712 in the United States to test this moderation hypothesis. Specifically, we hypothesized that the association between self-reported stressful life events and depressive symptoms would be stronger among homozygous Ser23 C females and hemizygous Ser23 C males than among Cys23 G carriers. In separate within-sex analyses a genotype-by-life stress interaction was observed for women (p = .022 but not for men (p = .471. Homozygous Ser23 C women who reported high levels of life stress had depressive symptom scores that were about 0.3 standard deviations higher than female Cys23 G carriers with similarly high stress levels. In contrast, no appreciable difference in depressive symptoms was observed between genotypes at lower levels of stress. Our findings support prior work that suggests a functional SNP on the HTR2C gene may confer an increased risk for depressive symptoms in White women with a history of significant life stress.

  1. A graduated food addiction classifications approach significantly differentiates depression, anxiety and stress among people with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, Karren-Lee; Kannis-Dymand, Lee; Lovell, Geoff P

    2017-10-01

    To examine differences in depression, anxiety, and stress across people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (t2d) classified according to a four level processed food addiction (PFA) severity indicator dichotomy. Four hundred and eight participants with a t2d diagnoses completed an online survey including the Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS) and the DASS-21. Based on YFAS symptom counts participants were classified as either: non-PFA; mild-PFA; moderate-PFA; or severe-PFA. Multivariate, λ=0.422, F(9,978.51)=46.286, pstress scores F(3,408)=129.714, pstress χ 2 (12)=240.875, pstress, and that the adopted four level PFA severity indicator dichotomy is valid and useful. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Socioeconomic status is significantly associated with the dietary intakes of folate and depression scales in Japanese workers (J-HOPE Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyaki, Koichi; Song, Yixuan; Taneichi, Setsuko; Tsutsumi, Akizumi; Hashimoto, Hideki; Kawakami, Norito; Takahashi, Masaya; Shimazu, Akihito; Inoue, Akiomi; Kurioka, Sumiko; Shimbo, Takuro

    2013-02-18

    The association of socioeconomic status (SES) with nutrient intake attracts public attention worldwide. In the current study, we examined the associations of SES with dietary intake of folate and health outcomes in general Japanese workers. This Japanese occupational cohort consisted off 2266 workers. SES was assessed by a self-administered questionnaire. Intakes of all nutrients were assessed with a validated, brief and self-administered diet history questionnaire (BDHQ). The degree of depressive symptoms was measured by the validated Japanese version of the K6 scale. Multiple linear regression and stratified analysis were used to evaluate the associations of intake with the confounding factors. Path analysis was conducted to describe the impacts of intake on health outcomes. Education levels and household incomes were significantly associated with intake of folate and depression scales (p workers, and the effort to increase the folate intake may alleviate the harms of social disparities on mental health.

  3. Self-reported interpersonal problems and impact messages as perceived by significant others are differentially associated with the process and outcome of depression therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altenstein-Yamanaka, David; Zimmermann, Johannes; Krieger, Tobias; Dörig, Nadja; Grosse Holtforth, Martin

    2017-07-01

    Interpersonal factors play a major role in causing and maintaining depression. This study sought to investigate how patients' self-perceived interpersonal problems and impact messages as perceived by significant others are interrelated, change over therapy, and differentially predict process and outcome in psychotherapy of depression. For the present study, we used data from 144 outpatients suffering from major depression that were treated within a psychotherapy study. Interpersonal variables were assessed pre- and posttherapy with the self-report Inventory of Interpersonal Problems-Circumplex Scale (IIP-32; Thomas, Brähler, & Strauss, 2011) and with the informant-based Impact Message Inventory (Caspar, Berger, Fingerle, & Werner, 2016). Patients' levels on the dimensions of Agency and Communion were calculated from both measures; their levels on Interpersonal Distress were measured with the IIP. Depressive and general symptomatology was assessed at pre-, post-, and at 3-month follow-up; patient-reported process measures were assessed during therapy. The Agency scores of IIP and IMI correlated moderately, but the Communion scores did not. IIP Communion was positively associated with the quality of the early therapeutic alliance and with the average level of cognitive-emotional processing during therapy. Whereas IIP Communion and IMI Agency increased over therapy, IIP Distress decreased. A pre-post-decrease in IIP Distress was positively associated with pre-postsymptomatic change over and above the other interpersonal variables, but pre-post-increase in IMI Agency was positively associated with symptomatic improvement from post- to 3-month follow-up. These findings suggest that significant others seem to provide important additional information about the patients' interpersonal style. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. School absenteeism and mental health among sexual minority youth and heterosexual youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Chad M; Marshal, Michael P; Chisolm, Deena J

    2014-02-01

    Adolescent school absenteeism is associated with negative outcomes such as conduct disorders, substance abuse, and dropping out of school. Mental health factors, such as depression and anxiety, have been found to be associated with increased absenteeism from school. Sexual minority youth (youth who are attracted to the same sex or endorse a gay, lesbian, or bisexual identity) are a group at risk for increased absenteeism due to fear, avoidance, and higher rates of depression and anxiety than their heterosexual peers. The present study used longitudinal data to compare sexual minority youth and heterosexual youth on excused and unexcused absences from school and to evaluate differences in the relations between depression and anxiety symptoms and school absences among sexual minority youth and heterosexual youth. A total of 108 14- to 19-years-old adolescents (71% female and 26% sexual minority) completed self-report measures of excused and unexcused absences and depression and anxiety symptoms. Compared to heterosexual youth, sexual minority youth reported more excused and unexcused absences and more depression and anxiety symptoms. Sexual minority status significantly moderated the effects of depression and anxiety symptoms on unexcused absences such that depression and anxiety symptoms were stronger predictors of unexcused absences for sexual minority youth than for heterosexual youth. The results demonstrate that sexual minority status and mental health are important factors to consider when assessing school absenteeism and when developing interventions to prevent or reduce school absenteeism among adolescents. Copyright © 2014 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Subsyndromal symptomatic depression: a new concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadek, N; Bona, J

    2000-01-01

    Although DSM-IV acknowledged the clinical significance of some subthreshold forms of unipolar depression, such as minor depression (MinD) and recurrent brief depression (RBD), clinicians continued to struggle with the concept of "subthreshold" depression. A substantial number of patients continued to present with depressive symptoms that still did not satisfy any DSM-IV diagnosis. Generally, these patients failed to complain of anhedonia and depressed mood, a criterion that DSM-IV mandates for any diagnosis of depression. Therefore, researchers reexamined the question of whether this cluster of depressive symptoms, in the absence of anhedonia and depressed mood, was clinically significant. Some researchers labeled this cluster of symptoms, "subsyndromal symptomatic depression" (SSD). Specifically, SSD is defined as a depressive state having two or more symptoms of depression of the same quality as in major depression (MD), excluding depressed mood and anhedonia. The symptoms must be present for more than 2 weeks and be associated with social dysfunction. Using Medline Search, the authors reviewed the literature on the epidemiology, demographics, clinical characteristics, and psychosocial impairment of SSD. SSD is found to be comparable in demographics and clinical characteristics to MD, MinD, and dysthymia. SSD is also associated with significant psychosocial dysfunction as compared with healthy subjects. Further; it has significant risk for suicide and future MD. Few studies have been conducted on the treatment of SSD. The high prevalence of SSD, the significant psychosocial impairment associated with it, and the chronicity of its course make subsyndromal symptomatic depression a matter for serious consideration by clinicians and researchers.

  6. Significant Need for a French Network of Expert Centers Enabling a Better Characterization and Management of Treatment-Resistant Depression (Fondation FondaMental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine Yrondi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundMajor depression is characterized by (i a high lifetime prevalence of 16–17% in the general population; (ii a high frequency of treatment resistance in around 20–30% of cases; (iii a recurrent or chronic course; (iv a negative impact on the general functioning and quality of life; and (v a high level of comorbidity with various psychiatric and non-psychiatric disorders, high occurrence of completed suicide, significant burden along with the personal, societal, and economic costs. In this context, there is an important need for the development of a network of expert centers for treatment-resistant depression (TRD, as performed under the leadership of the Fondation FondaMental.MethodsThe principal mission of this national network is to establish a genuine prevention, screening, and diagnosis policy for TRD to offer a systematic, comprehensive, longitudinal, and multidimensional evaluation of cases. A shared electronic medical file is used referring to a common exhaustive and standardized set of assessment tools exploring psychiatric, non-psychiatric, metabolic, biological, and cognitive dimensions of TRD. This is paralleled by a medico-economic evaluation to examine the global economic burden of the disease and related health-care resource utilization. In addition, an integrated biobank has been built by the collection of serum and DNA samples for the measurement of several biomarkers that could further be associated with the treatment resistance in the recruited depressed patients. A French observational long-term follow-up cohort study is currently in progress enabling the extensive assessment of resistant depressed patients. In those unresponsive cases, each expert center proposes relevant therapeutic options that are classically aligned to the international guidelines referring to recognized scientific societies.DiscussionThis approach is expected to improve the overall clinical assessments and to provide evidence

  7. Minorities in Iran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elling, Rasmus Christian

    Contrary to the popular understanding of Iran as a Persian nation, half of the country's population consists of minorities, among whom there has been significant ethnic mobilization at crucial stages in Iranian history. One such stage is now: suppressed minority demands, identity claims, and deba......Contrary to the popular understanding of Iran as a Persian nation, half of the country's population consists of minorities, among whom there has been significant ethnic mobilization at crucial stages in Iranian history. One such stage is now: suppressed minority demands, identity claims......, and debates on diversity have entered public discourse and politics. In 2005–2007, Iran was rocked by the most widespread ethnic unrest experienced in that country since the revolution. The same period was also marked by the re-emergence of nationalism. This interdisciplinary book takes a long-overdue step...

  8. Prognostic significance of functional somatic symptoms in adolescence: a 15-year community-based follow-up study of adolescents with depression compared with healthy peers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bohman Hannes

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a lack of population-based long-term longitudinal research on mental health status and functional physical/somatic symptoms. Little is known about the long-term mental health outcomes associated with somatic symptoms or the temporal relationship between depression and such symptoms. This 15-year study followed up adolescents with depression and matched controls, screened from a population-based sample, who reported different numbers of somatic symptoms. Methods The total population of 16–17-year-olds in Uppsala, Sweden, was screened for depression in 1991–1993. Adolescents who screened positive and an equal number of healthy controls took part in a semi-structured diagnostic interview. In addition, 21 different self-rated somatic symptoms were assessed. Sixty-four percent of those adolescents participated in a follow-up structured interview 15 years later. Results Somatic symptoms in adolescence predicted depression and other adult mental disorders regardless of the presence of adolescent depression. In adolescents with depression, the number of functional somatic symptoms predicted, in a dose response relationship, suicidal behavior, bipolar episodes, and psychotic episodes as well as chronic and recurrent depression. Contrary to expectations, the somatic symptoms of abdominal pain and perspiration without exertion better predicted depression than all DSM-IV depressive symptoms. Abdominal pain persisted as an independent strong predictor of depression and anxiety, even after controlling for other important confounders. Conclusions Somatic symptoms in adolescence can predict severe adult mental health disorders. The number of somatic symptoms concurrent with adolescent depression is, in a stepwise manner, linked to suicidal attempts, bipolar disorders, psychotic disorders, and recurrent and chronic depression. These findings can be useful in developing treatment guidelines for patients with somatic symptoms.

  9. Studies on clinical significance of exercise-induced ST-segment depression at non-infarct-related leads in the patients with prior myocardial infarction using the stress scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohkubo, Toshitaka

    1988-01-01

    Stress Tl-201 myocardial imaging and stress radionuclide ventriculography were performed in a total of 67 patients with prior myocardial infarction (MI) to assess the clinical significance of exercise induced ST-segment depression at non-infarct-related leads on ECG during the chronic stage. The patients consisted of 12 with inferior MI with single vessel disease (SVD) that showed no precordial ST-segment depression; 7 with inferior MI with SVD accompanied by precordial ST-segment depression; 13 with inferior MI with multivessel disease (MVD); 20 with anterior MI with SVD that showed no inferior ST-segment depression; 4 with anterior MI with SVD accompanied by inferior ST-segment depression; and 11 with anterior MI with MVD. In cases of SVD, the incidence of ST-segment depression at non-infarct-related leads was higher for inferior MI (36.8%) than anterior MI (16.7%). Myocardial imaging revealed large infarct and infarct extending into the inferoseptal wall of the left ventricle (LV) in cases of exercise induced precordial ST-segment depression; and infarct extending into the lateral wall of LV in cases of exercise induced inferior ST-segment depression. In detecting MVD, stress Tl-201 myocardial imaging was superior to exercise electrocardiography and stress radionuclide ventriculography, but this was not statistically significant. Prognostic value of error rate for detecting MVD was significantly improved with a discriminant analysis. Exercise induced ST-segment depression on ECG should be of clinical significance in reflecting myocardial ischemia around an infarcted area. (Namekawa, K)

  10. Improving self-help e-therapy for depression and anxiety among sexual minorities: an analysis of focus groups with lesbians and gay men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozbroj, Tomas; Lyons, Anthony; Pitts, Marian; Mitchell, Anne; Christensen, Helen

    2015-03-11

    E-therapies for depression and anxiety rarely account for lesbian and gay users. This is despite lesbians and gay men being at heightened risk of mood disorders and likely to benefit from having access to tailored self-help resources. We sought to determine how e-therapies for depression and anxiety could be improved to address the therapeutic needs of lesbians and gay men. We conducted eight focus groups with lesbians and gay men aged 18 years and older. Focus groups were presented with key modules from the popular e-therapy "MoodGYM". They were asked to evaluate the inclusiveness and relevance of these modules for lesbians and gay men and to think about ways that e-therapies in general could be modified. The focus groups were analyzed qualitatively using a thematic analysis approach to identify major themes. The focus groups indicated that some but not all aspects of MoodGYM were suitable, and suggested ways of improving e-therapies for lesbian and gay users. Suggestions included avoiding language or examples that assumed or implied users were heterosexual, improving inclusiveness by representing non-heterosexual relationships, providing referrals to specialized support services and addressing stigma-related stress, such as "coming out" and experiences of discrimination and harassment. Focus group participants suggested that dedicated e-therapies for lesbians and gay men should be developed or general e-therapies be made more inclusive by using adaptive logic to deliver content appropriate for a user's sexual identity. Findings from this study offer in-depth guidance for developing e-therapies that more effectively address mental health problems among lesbians and gay men.

  11. Significance of exercise-induced ST segment depression in patients with myocardial infarction involving the left circumflex artery. Evaluation by exercise thallium-201 myocardial single photon emission computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koitabashi, Norimichi; Toyama, Takuji; Hoshizaki, Hiroshi

    2000-01-01

    The significance of exercise-induced ST segment depression in patients with left circumflex artery involvement was investigated by comparing exercise electrocardiography with exercise thallium-201 single photon emission computed tomography (Tl-SPECT) and the wall motion estimated by left ventriculography. Tl-SPECT and exercise electrocardiography were simultaneously performed in 51 patients with left circumflex artery involvement (angina pectoris 30, myocardial infarction 21). In patients with myocardial infarction, exercise-induced ST depression was frequently found in the V 2 , V 3 and V 4 leads. In patients with angina pectoris, ST depression was frequently found in the II, III, aV F , V 5 and V 6 leads. There was no obvious difference in the leads of ST depression in patients with myocardial infarction with ischemia and without ischemia on Tl-SPECT images. In patients with myocardial infarction, the lateral wall motion of the infarcted area evaluated by left ventriculography was more significantly impaired in the patients with ST depression than without ST depression (p<0.01). Exercise-induced ST depression in the precordial leads possibly reflects wall motion abnormality rather than ischemia in the lateral infarcted myocardium. (author)

  12. Minority stressors, rumination, and psychological distress in monozygotic twins discordant for sexual minority status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmins, Liam; Rimes, Katharine A; Rahman, Qazi

    2017-11-07

    Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals report higher levels of depression and anxiety than heterosexual people. Genetic factors may be a 'common cause' of sexual minority status and psychological distress. Alternatively, these may be correlated because of non-genetic environmental factors (e.g. minority stressors). This study investigated minority stressors and distress in monozygotic twins discordant for sexual minority status. This design provides a test of the role of non-shared environmental factors while minimizing differences due to genetics. Thirty-eight twin pairs in which one was heterosexual and the other was LGB completed a survey. Differences between twin pairs in minority stressors, rumination, psychological distress, and gender non-conformity were examined. Associations between these variables were also tested. Although there were no significant group differences for distress, LGB twins had higher rumination, a vulnerability factor for distress, than heterosexual co-twins. LGB twins also had higher scores than heterosexual co-twins on expectations of rejection, active concealment, self-stigma, prejudice events, childhood gender non-conformity, and lower scores on sexual orientation disclosure. Differences between twin pairs in rumination were positively associated with differences in acceptance concerns and self-stigma. Finally, self-stigma was positively associated with rumination in the full sample of heterosexual co-twins and microaggressions were positively associated with rumination when looking at exclusively heterosexual co-twins. These results support environmental factors as a causal explanation for disparities in rumination between LGB and heterosexual individuals. These factors likely include minority stressors. Rumination may also be associated with minority stressors in heterosexual MZ co-twins of LGB individuals.

  13. Study on Character of Micro-Canal Deposit and Its Significance in Petroleum Geology --Case study of Tuo-147-well in north zone of Dongying depression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴李泉; 曹代勇; 刘里勤; 刘艳华

    2003-01-01

    Exploration on reservoir of glutenite segment in steep slope zone of half graben-like basin is one of the hot spot targets at present and in the future for new reservoirs; And the study of sediment character of sandy-conglomerate bodies is the keystone and also the difficult problem. Taking Tuo-147-well area in north zone of Dongying depression as an example, the micro-canal sedimentation was researched. The result shows that many micro-canals exist at the end of slope grain-flow in steep slope zone of half graben-like basin; The micro-canals grow at the end of subaqueous grain-flow deposited bodies of 3rd member of the Shahejie formation. The main condition of micro-canal formation is the slope angle less than 18° and a long suitable sedimentary slope. These micro-canals may communicate the reservoir of glutenite segment in steep slope zone and the hydrocarbon stratum as a bridge role. Therefore, it is significant in theory and practice for discovering a series of micro-canals at the end of slope grain-flow in steep slope zone of half graben-like basin.

  14. Crude oil He and Ar isotopic characteristics and their geochemical significance: an example from the Gangxi oil field in the Huanghua depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Chenpeng

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Sampled from the Gangxi oil field in the Huanghua depression, Bohaiwan Basin, the crude oil He and Ar isotopic compositions and their geochemical significance were investigated. The result shows that i the 3He/4He values of the six oil samples free from air contamination indicate a mantle helium contribution ranging between 13.9% and 32.8% and averaging 24.1%, which means that the Gangxi oil field once had a tectonic background of the mantle-derived helium input and higher geothermal flow with an average of 75.0 mWm-2; ii deduced from the 40Ar/36Ar aging effect the Gangxi oil should be derived from the Tertiary; iii water injection is the main reason for the air contamination for the Gangxi oil noble gases and the relations between 3He/4He and 4He/20Ne as well as 40Ar/36Ar and 4He/20Ne are of an applicative potential in estimating the water injection effect and the connectivity of producing formations. The search for the crude oil He and Ar isotopes provides a new approach to inferring natural gas and oil sources, tectonic backgrounds, geothermal flow and water injection effect.

  15. Major depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depression - major; Depression - clinical; Clinical depression; Unipolar depression; Major depressive disorder ... providers do not know the exact causes of depression. It is believed that chemical changes in the ...

  16. Minority Games

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metzler, R

    2005-01-01

    New branches of scientific disciplines often have a few paradigmatic models that serve as a testing ground for theories and a starting point for new inquiries. In the late 1990s, one of these models found fertile ground in the growing field of econophysics: the Minority Game (MG), a model for speculative markets that combined conceptual simplicity with interesting emergent behaviour and challenging mathematics. The two basic ingredients were the minority mechanism (a large number of players have to choose one of two alternatives in each round, and the minority wins) and limited rationality (each player has a small set of decision rules, and chooses the more successful ones). Combining these, one observes a phase transition between a crowded and an inefficient market phase, fat-tailed price distributions at the transition, and many other nontrivial effects. Now, seven years after the first paper, three of the key players-Damien Challet, Matteo Marsili and Yi-Cheng Zhang-have published a monograph that summarizes the current state of the science. The book consists of two parts: a 100-page overview of the various aspects of the MG, and reprints of many essential papers. The first chapters of Part I give a well-written description of the motivation and the history behind the MG, and then go into the phenomenology and the mathematical treatment of the model. The authors emphasize the 'physics' underlying the behaviour and give coherent, intuitive explanations that are difficult to extract from the original papers. The mathematics is outlined, but calculations are not carried out in great detail (maybe they could have been included in an appendix). Chapter 4 then discusses how and why the MG is a model for speculative markets, how it can be modified to give a closer fit to observed market statistics (in particular, reproducing the 'stylized facts' of fat-tailed distributions and volatility clustering), and what conclusions one can draw from the behaviour of the MG when

  17. Minority Games

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metzler, R [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Wuerzburg, Am Hubland, D-97074 Wuerzburg (Germany)

    2005-02-25

    New branches of scientific disciplines often have a few paradigmatic models that serve as a testing ground for theories and a starting point for new inquiries. In the late 1990s, one of these models found fertile ground in the growing field of econophysics: the Minority Game (MG), a model for speculative markets that combined conceptual simplicity with interesting emergent behaviour and challenging mathematics. The two basic ingredients were the minority mechanism (a large number of players have to choose one of two alternatives in each round, and the minority wins) and limited rationality (each player has a small set of decision rules, and chooses the more successful ones). Combining these, one observes a phase transition between a crowded and an inefficient market phase, fat-tailed price distributions at the transition, and many other nontrivial effects. Now, seven years after the first paper, three of the key players-Damien Challet, Matteo Marsili and Yi-Cheng Zhang-have published a monograph that summarizes the current state of the science. The book consists of two parts: a 100-page overview of the various aspects of the MG, and reprints of many essential papers. The first chapters of Part I give a well-written description of the motivation and the history behind the MG, and then go into the phenomenology and the mathematical treatment of the model. The authors emphasize the 'physics' underlying the behaviour and give coherent, intuitive explanations that are difficult to extract from the original papers. The mathematics is outlined, but calculations are not carried out in great detail (maybe they could have been included in an appendix). Chapter 4 then discusses how and why the MG is a model for speculative markets, how it can be modified to give a closer fit to observed market statistics (in particular, reproducing the 'stylized facts' of fat-tailed distributions and volatility clustering), and what conclusions one can draw from the

  18. Anxiety and Related Disorders and Concealment in Sexual Minority Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Jeffrey M; Blasey, Christine; Barr Taylor, C; Weiss, Brandon J; Newman, Michelle G

    2016-01-01

    Sexual minorities face greater exposure to discrimination and rejection than heterosexuals. Given these threats, sexual minorities may engage in sexual orientation concealment in order to avoid danger. This social stigma and minority stress places sexual minorities at risk for anxiety and related disorders. Given that three fourths of anxiety disorder onset occurs before the age of 24, the current study investigated the symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder, social phobia, panic disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, and depression in sexual minority young adults relative to their heterosexual peers. Secondarily, the study investigated sexual orientation concealment as a predictor of anxiety and related disorders. A sample of 157 sexual minority and 157 heterosexual young adults matched on age and gender completed self-report measures of the aforementioned disorders, and indicated their level of sexual orientation concealment. Results revealed that sexual minority young adults reported greater symptoms relative to heterosexuals across all outcome measures. There were no interactions between sexual minority status and gender, however, women had higher symptoms across all disorders. Sexual minority young women appeared to be at the most risk for clinical levels of anxiety and related disorders. In addition, concealment of sexual orientation significantly predicted symptoms of social phobia. Implications are offered for the cognitive and behavioral treatment of anxiety and related disorders in this population. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Self-perceived vs. actual physical attractiveness: Associations with depression as a function of sexual orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlinger, Peter P; Blashill, Aaron J

    2016-01-01

    A commonly held belief about physical attractiveness is that attractive individuals are psychologically healthier than less attractive individuals (i.e., the "beauty is good" stereotype). To date, the data on this stereotype and its relationship with depression is limited, with a paucity of literature comparing subjective and objective appearance evaluations and depressive symptoms. Additionally, there is no known research on this relationship among sexual minorities (i.e., gay and bisexual individuals), a highly vulnerable population. The primary aims of the study were to assess the prediction of depression symptoms by subjective and objective appearance evaluation, and secondary aims were to assess the interaction of subjective and objective appearance with sexual orientation. Participants were 4882 American emerging adults (M age=22 years; 2253 males, 2629 females) taken from a U.S. nationally representative dataset (Add Health) Increased negative subjective appearance evaluation was associated with elevated rates of depressive symptoms (B=-.27, p<.001), while objective appearance evaluation was not significantly related to depressive symptoms. Sexual orientation significantly moderated the relationship between subjective appearance and depression (B=.19, p=.009), with a stronger positive association between negative appearance evaluation and depressive symptoms noted among sexual minority vs. heterosexual participants. Limitations include cross-sectional design and self-report nature of questionnaires. Findings suggest that the 'beauty is good' stereotype may not be valid in regard to depressive symptoms, and that subjective appearance evaluation is a robust predictor of depression, particularly for sexual minority individuals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Minority Language Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O Riagain, Padraig; Shuibhne, Niamh Nic

    1997-01-01

    A survey of literature since 1990 on minority languages and language rights focuses on five issues: definition of minorities; individual vs. collective rights; legal bases for minority linguistic rights; applications and interpretations of minority language rights; and assessments of the impact of minority rights legislation. A nine-item annotated…

  1. Depression (Major Depressive Disorder)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... generally miserable or unhappy without really knowing why. Depression symptoms in children and teens Common signs and ... in normal activities, and avoidance of social interaction. Depression symptoms in older adults Depression is not a ...

  2. The Taxonomic Status of Mazama bricenii and the Significance of the Táchira Depression for Mammalian Endemism in the Cordillera de Mérida, Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Eliécer E.; Maldonado, Jesús E.; Radosavljevic, Aleksandar; Molinari, Jesús; Patterson, Bruce D.; Martínez-C., Juan M.; Rutter, Amy R.; Hawkins, Melissa T. R.; Garcia, Franger J.; Helgen, Kristofer M.

    2015-01-01

    We studied the taxonomy and biogeography of Mazama bricenii, a brocket deer classified as Vulnerable by the IUCN, drawing on qualitative and quantitative morphology and sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome-b gene. We used Ecological Niche Modeling (ENM) to evaluate the hypothesis that M. bricenii of the Venezuelan Cordillera de Mérida (CM) might have become isolated from populations of its putative sister species, Mazama rufina, in the Colombian Cordillera Oriental (CO). This hypothesis assumes that warm, dry climatic conditions in the Táchira Depression were unsuitable for the species. Our analyses did not reveal morphological differences between specimens geographically attributable to M. bricenii and M. rufina, and phylogenetic analyses of molecular data recovered M. bricenii nested within the diversity of M. rufina. These results indicate that M. bricenii should be regarded as a junior synonym of M. rufina. ENM analyses revealed the existence of suitable climatic conditions for M. rufina in the Táchira Depression during the last glacial maximum and even at present, suggesting that gene flow between populations in the CO and CM may have occurred until at least the beginning of the current interglacial period and may continue today. Because this pattern might characterize other mammals currently considered endemic to the CM, we examined which of these species match two criteria that we propose herein to estimate if they can be regarded as endemic to the CM with confidence: (1) that morphological or molecular evidence exists indicating that the putative endemic taxon is distinctive from congeneric populations in the CO; and (2) that the putative endemic taxon is restricted to either cloud forest or páramo, or both. Only Aepeomys reigi, Cryptotis meridensis, and Nasuella meridensis matched both criteria; hence, additional research is necessary to assess the true taxonomic status and distribution of the remaining species thought to be CM endemics. PMID

  3. Ethnic socialization, perceived discrimination, and psychological adjustment among transracially adopted and nonadopted ethnic minority adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Tara; Braje, Sopagna Eap; Kawahara, Debra; Shuman, Tara

    2016-01-01

    Little is known on how transracial adoptees (TRA) navigate issues of race and ethnicity. Using Shared Fate Theory as a framework, this study was interested in the moderating role of adoption status among a group of ethnic minority adults in explaining the relationship between ethnic socialization, perceived discrimination, and mental health outcomes. Nonadopted (NA; n = 83) and TRA (n = 87) ethnic minorities responded to measures on ethnic socialization, perceived discrimination, and psychological outcomes administered online. TRA and NA ethnic minorities reported similar levels of ethnic socialization, perceived discrimination, and psychological outcomes (depression and self-esteem). Perceived discrimination was significantly associated with depression for both TRA and NA ethnic minorities. Ordinal Least Squares (OLS) regressions that were run for a moderated moderational analysis suggest that the protective role of ethnic socialization depended on adoption status. Among the different forms of ethnic socialization, cultural socialization and preparation for bias significantly buffered against the effects of perceived discrimination, but the effects were more pronounced for TRA than for NA ethnic minorities. Because NA and TRA ethnic minorities were similarly affected by discrimination, it suggests that being a TRA does not confer any additional risk when experiencing discrimination. Additionally, the study found that ethnic socialization may continue to serve a protective role against the effects of discrimination into adulthood for TRA, but less so for NA ethnic minorities. These results have policy implications regarding the role of parental ethnicity in adoption decisions as well as the importance of educating adopted parents about ethnic socialization for ethnic minority children. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Criterion and Divergent Validity of the Sexual Minority Adolescent Stress Inventory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy T. Goldbach

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Sexual minority adolescents (SMA consistently report health disparities compared to their heterosexual counterparts, yet the underlying mechanisms of these negative health outcomes remain unclear. The predominant explanatory model is the minority stress theory; however, this model was developed largely with adults, and no valid and comprehensive measure of minority stress has been developed for adolescents. The present study validated a newly developed instrument to measure minority stress among racially and ethnically diverse SMA. A sample of 346 SMA aged 14–17 was recruited and surveyed between February 2015 and July 2016. The focal measure of interest was the 64-item, 11-factor Sexual Minority Adolescent Stress Inventory (SMASI developed in the initial phase of this study. Criterion validation measures included measures of depressive symptoms, suicidality and self-harm, youth problem behaviors, and substance use; the general Adolescent Stress Questionnaire (ASQ was included as a measure of divergent validity. Analyses included Pearson and tetrachoric correlations to establish criterion and divergent validity and structural equation modeling to assess the explanatory utility of the SMASI relative to the ASQ. SMASI scores were significantly associated with all outcomes but only moderately associated with the ASQ (r = −0.13 to 0.51. Analyses revealed significant associations of a latent minority stress variable with both proximal and distal health outcomes beyond the variation explained by general stress. Results show that the SMASI is the first instrument to validly measure minority stress among SMA.

  5. Relations between Spouses’ Depressive Symptoms and Marital Conflict: A Longitudinal Investigation of the Role of Conflict Resolution Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du Rocher Schudlich, Tina D.; Papp, Lauren M.; Cummings, E. Mark

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated longitudinal relations between spouses’ depressive symptoms and styles of conflict resolution displayed by husbands and wives in marital conflict, including angry, depressive, and constructive patterns of expression. Behavioral observations were made from a community sample of 276 couples during marital conflict resolution tasks once a year for three years. Couples were observed engaging in a major and minor conflict resolution task. Constructive, angry, and depressive conflict resolution styles were derived from the behavioral observation coding. Couples self-reported on depressive symptoms and marital dissatisfaction. Path analyses provided support for an extension of the marital discord model of depression (Beach and colleagues, 1990). Specifically, angry, depressive, and constructive styles of conflict each mediated the link between marital dissatisfaction and depressive symptoms. Significant cross-spouse effects were found. Implications for the treatment of depressed and/or relationally-discordant couples are discussed. PMID:21668119

  6. Relations between spouses' depressive symptoms and marital conflict: a longitudinal investigation of the role of conflict resolution styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du Rocher Schudlich, Tina D; Papp, Lauren M; Cummings, E Mark

    2011-08-01

    This study investigated longitudinal relations between spouses' depressive symptoms and styles of conflict resolution displayed by husbands and wives in marital conflict, including angry, depressive, and constructive patterns of expression. Behavioral observations were made from a community sample of 276 couples during marital conflict resolution tasks once a year for 3 years. Couples were observed engaging in a major and minor conflict resolution task. Constructive, angry, and depressive conflict resolution styles were derived from the behavioral observation coding. Couples self-reported on depressive symptoms and marital dissatisfaction. Path analyses provided support for an extension of the marital discord model of depression (Beach, Sandeen, & O'Leary, 1990). Specifically, angry, depressive, and constructive styles of conflict each mediated the link between marital dissatisfaction and depressive symptoms. Significant cross-spouse effects were found. Implications for the treatment of depressed and/or relationally discordant couples are discussed.

  7. Self-care and depression in patients with chronic heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzapfel, Nicole; Löwe, Bernd; Wild, Beate; Schellberg, Dieter; Zugck, Christian; Remppis, Andrew; Katus, Hugo A; Haass, Markus; Rauch, Bernhard; Jünger, Jana; Herzog, Wolfgang; Müller-Tasch, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Although chronic heart failure (CHF) is often complicated by comorbid depression and poor self-care, little is known about their specific association in patients with CHF. To investigate self-care behavior among patients with CHF with different degrees of depression severity. A total of 287 patients with documented CHF, New York Heart Association functional class II to IV, completed the European Heart Failure Self-Care Behavior Scale. The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM (SCID) IV served as the criterion standard for the presence of a depressive disorder. Analyses of covariance and linear regression analyses revealed that patients with CHF with minor depression reported significantly lower levels of self-care than patients with major depression (P = .003) and nondepressed patients (P = .014). In addition to minor depression, age (P < or = .001), multimorbidity (P = .01), left ventricular ejection fraction (P = .001), and family status (P = .01) were determinants of self-care. Our results demonstrate that patients with CHF with minor depression and not major depression are at higher risk for poor self-care and its resulting consequences, such as symptom deterioration and frequent hospitalization.

  8. Minority Breast Cancer Survivors: The Association between Race/Ethnicity, Objective Sleep Disturbances, and Physical and Psychological Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinky H. Budhrani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Limited research has been conducted on the moderating effect of race/ethnicity on objective sleep disturbances in breast cancer survivors (BCSs. Objective. To explore racial/ethnic differences in objective sleep disturbances among BCSs and their relationship with self-reported symptoms. Intervention/Methods. Sleep disturbance and symptoms were measured using actigraphy for 72 hours and self-reported questionnaires, respectively, among 79 BCSs. Analysis of covariance, Pearson’s correlation, and multivariate regression were used to analyze data. Results. Sixty (75.9% participants listed their ethnicity as white, non-Hispanic and 19 (24.1% as minority. Total sleep time was 395.9 minutes for white BCSs compared to 330.4 minutes for minority BCSs. Significant correlations were seen between sleep onset latency (SOL and depression, SOL and fatigue, and sleep efficiency (SE and fatigue among minority BCSs. Among white BCSs, significant correlations were seen between SE and pain and wake after sleep onset (WASO and pain. The association between depression and SOL and fatigue and SOL appeared to be stronger in minority BCSs than white BCSs. Conclusions. Results indicate that white BCSs slept longer than minority BCSs, and race/ethnicity modified the effect of depression and fatigue on SOL, respectively. Implications for Practice. As part of survivorship care, race/ethnicity should be included as an essential component of comprehensive symptom assessments.

  9. The relationship between sexual orientation and depression in a national population sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Roger L; Lasiuk, Gerri; Norris, Colleen

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between sexual orientation and depression in a nationally representative population to determine if sexual minorities report higher levels of depression than the remainder of the population. Depression is a highly prevalent and disabling chronic disorder worldwide. Prior research utilizing national population samples have reported that members of sexual minorities are at higher risk for depression when compared to heterosexual people. More recent studies have revealed differences in depression risk based on sexual orientation, sexual activity and sex. There have been significant shifts in societal attitudes towards sexual minorities in recent decades. Continuing research into predictors for reporting depression amongst sexual minorities is needed. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey cycles 2005-2012 were used to identify sexual minority status based on declared sexual orientation and presence of same-sex sexual activity. Complex samples logistic and multivariate regression models were used to predict depression adjusted for sexual orientation, sexual activity, age, sex, marital status, education, income, race/ethnicity, employment and health status. Sexual orientation was not a significant independent predictor of depressive symptoms overall. Gay men reported lower levels of depressive symptoms than heterosexual men. In the sex stratified analyses, men who reported having sex with men were five times more likely to report depressive symptomatology compared to men who reported opposite sex partners (2005-2008 adjusted odds ratios: 5·00; 95% confidence interval: 1·44-17·38; 2009-2012 adjusted odds ratios: 5·10; 95% confidence interval: 1·33-19·54) after controlling for sexual orientation. Results of our analyses indicate that homosexually experienced heterosexual men appear to be at highest risk for depression. Furthermore, reported physical health status was a significant independent predictor

  10. Elevated alanine aminotransferase independently predicts new onset of depression in employees undergoing health screening examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelber-Sagi, S; Toker, S; Armon, G; Melamed, S; Berliner, S; Shapira, I; Halpern, Z; Santo, E; Shibolet, O

    2013-12-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT). NAFLD is associated with insulin resistance and hepatic inflammation. Similarly, patients with depression exhibit insulin resistance and increased inflammatory markers. However, no study has shown a clear association between elevated ALT and the development of depression. The aim of the study was to test whether elevated ALT, a surrogate marker for NAFLD, predicts the development of depression. The present prospective cohort study investigated 12 180 employed adults referred for health examinations that included fasting blood tests and anthropometric measurements between 2003 and 2010. Exclusion criteria were: baseline minor/major depression, excessive alcohol consumption and other causes for ALT elevation. Depression was evaluated by the eight-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-8) score. The final cohort included 5984 subjects [69.4% men, aged 45.0 (s.d. = 10.24) years]. The incidence rate of minor and major depression was 3.8% and 1.4%, respectively. Elevated ALT was a significant independent predictor for the occurrence of minor [odds ratio (OR) 2.02, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.40-2.92] and major (OR 3.132, 95% CI 1.81-5.40) depression after adjusting for age, gender, body mass index, education level, serum levels of lipids, glucose, smoking and physical activity. Adding subjective health and affective state parameters (sleep disturbances, self-rated health, anxiety and burnout) as potential mediators only slightly ameliorated the association. Persistently elevated ALT was associated with the greatest risk for minor or major depression as compared with elevation only at baseline or follow-up (p for trend depressive symptoms, thus suggesting that NAFLD may represent an independent modifiable risk factor for depression.

  11. Depression and Associated Factors Among Gay and Heterosexual Male University Students in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oginni, Olakunle A; Mosaku, Kolawole S; Mapayi, Boladale M; Akinsulore, Adesanmi; Afolabi, Temitope O

    2018-05-01

    Homosexuality is a recognized risk factor for depression in high-income countries; however, there is little research investigating the relationship between depression and sexual orientation in developing countries, especially in Africa. In this first study to investigate psychopathology in sexual minority men in Nigeria, the prevalence rates of depression in Nigerian gay and heterosexual individuals were compared as well as the explanatory power of risk and resilience factors in both groups. Eighty-one gay and 81 heterosexual male university students were, respectively, recruited from the Obafemi Awolowo University. Both groups were assessed for depression and other clinical factors, including alcohol and other substance use, suicidal ideation, and resilience. Gay students were further assessed for sexuality-related variables, including minority stress factors such as internalized homophobia and perceived stigma. The prevalence rates of depression among gay and heterosexual students were, respectively, 16 and 4.9% (OR 3.7; 95% CI 1.15-11.82), and this increased likelihood for depression was significantly attenuated by resilience. Clinical factors correlated significantly with depression in both groups, explaining 31% of the variance in depression in gay and heterosexual students, respectively. Sexuality-related variables including internalized homophobia and perceived stigma were further associated with depression in gay students-accounting for a further 14% of the variance of depression in gay students. The findings highlight the importance of minority stress factors in understanding depression among non-heterosexual individuals in a developing country, and the need for further research to investigate the mechanisms of these relationships in such settings.

  12. Depression associated with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutzmann, H; Qazi, A

    2015-06-01

    Depression and cognitive disorders, including dementia and mild cognitive impairment, are common disorders in old age. Depression is frequent in dementia, causing distress, reducing the quality of life, exacerbating cognitive and functional impairment and increasing caregiver stress. Even mild levels of depression can significantly add to the functional impairment of dementia patients and the severity of psychopathological and neurological impairments increases with increasing severity of depression. Depressive symptoms may be both a risk factor for, as well as a prodrome of dementia. Major depressive syndrome of Alzheimer's disease may be among the most common mood disorders of older adults. Treating depression is therefore a key clinical priority to improve the quality of life both of people with dementia as well as their carergivers. Nonpharmacological approaches and watchful waiting should be attempted first in patients who present with mild to moderate depression and dementia. In cases of severe depression or depression not able to be managed through nonpharmacological means, antidepressant therapy should be considered.

  13. Depression - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources - depression ... Depression is a medical condition. If you think you may be depressed, see a health care provider. ... following organizations are good sources of information on depression : American Psychological Association -- www.apa.org/topics/depression/ ...

  14. Dictionary of Minor Planet Names

    CERN Document Server

    Schmadel, Lutz D

    2007-01-01

    Dictionary of Minor Planet Names, Fifth Edition, is the official reference for the field of the IAU, which serves as the internationally recognised authority for assigning designations to celestial bodies and any surface features on them. The accelerating rate of the discovery of minor planets has not only made a new edition of this established compendium necessary but has also significantly altered its scope: this thoroughly revised edition concentrates on the approximately 10,000 minor planets that carry a name. It provides authoritative information about the basis for all names of minor planets. In addition to being of practical value for identification purposes, this collection provides a most interesting historical insight into the work of those astronomers who over two centuries vested their affinities in a rich and colorful variety of ingenious names, from heavenly goddesses to more prosaic constructions. The fifth edition serves as the primary reference, with plans for complementary booklets with newl...

  15. Distress and functioning in mixed anxiety and depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Małyszczak, Krzysztof; Pawłowski, Tomasz

    2006-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the validity of mixed anxiety and depressive disorder (MADD) with reference to functional characteristics and symptomatic characteristics in comparison with anxiety disorders, depressive disorders, and groups showing subthreshold symptoms (exclusively depressive or anxiety related). The present study was carried out in the following three medical settings: two psychiatric and one primary care. Patients seeking care in psychiatric institutions due to anxiety and depressive symptoms and attending primary medical settings for any reason were taken into account. A total of 104 patients (65 women and 39 men, mean age 41.1 years) were given a General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-30), Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) and Present State Examination questionnaire, a part of Schedules for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry, Version 2.0. There were no statistically relevant differences between MADD and anxiety disorders in median GHQ score (19 vs 16) and median GAF score (median 68.5 vs 65). When considering depressive disorders the median GHQ score (28) was higher, and median GAF score (59) was lower than that in MADD. In groups with separated subthreshold anxiety or depressive symptoms, median GHQ scores (12) were lower and median GAF scores (75) were higher than that in MADD. The most frequent symptoms of MADD are symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and depression. Mixed anxiety and depressive disorder differs significantly from GAD only in higher rates of depressed mood and lower rates of somatic anxiety symptoms. Distinction from depression was clearer; six of 10 depressive symptoms are more minor in severity in MADD than in the case of depression. Distress and interference with personal functions in MADD are similar to that of other anxiety disorders. A pattern of MADD symptoms locates this disorder between depression and GAD.

  16. Depression and incident diabetic foot ulcers: a prospective cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Lisa H.; Rutter, Carolyn M.; Katon, Wayne J.; Reiber, Gayle E.; Ciechanowski, Paul; Heckbert, Susan R.; Lin, Elizabeth H.B.; Ludman, Evette J.; Oliver, Malia M.; Young, Bessie A.; Von Korff, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Objective To test whether depression is associated with an increased risk of incident diabetic foot ulcers. Methods The Pathways Epidemiologic Study is a population-based prospective cohort study of 4839 patients with diabetes in 2000–2007. The present analysis included 3474 adults with type 2 diabetes and no prior diabetic foot ulcers or amputations. Mean follow-up was 4.1 years. Major and minor depression assessed by the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) were the exposures of interest. The outcome of interest was incident diabetic foot ulcers. We computed the hazard ratio (HR) and 95% CI for incident diabetic foot ulcers, comparing patients with major and minor depression to those without depression and adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, medical comorbidity, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), diabetes duration, insulin use, number of diabetes complications, body mass index, smoking status, and foot self-care. Sensitivity analyses also adjusted for peripheral neuropathy and peripheral arterial disease as defined by diagnosis codes. Results Compared to patients without depression, patients with major depression by PHQ-9 had a two-fold increase in the risk of incident diabetic foot ulcers (adjusted HR 2.00, 95% CI: 1.24, 3.25). There was no statistically significant association between minor depression by PHQ-9 and incident diabetic foot ulcers (adjusted HR 1.37, 95% CI: 0.77, 2.44). Conclusion Major depression by PHQ-9 is associated with a two-fold higher risk of incident diabetic foot ulcers. Future studies of this association should include better measures of peripheral neuropathy and peripheral arterial disease, which are possible confounders and/or mediators. PMID:20670730

  17. Depression in patients with colorectal cancer in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaheen Al Ahwal, Mahmoud; Al Zaben, Faten; Khalifa, Doaa Ahmed; Sehlo, Mohammad Gamal; Ahmad, Rami Ghazi; Koenig, Harold G

    2015-09-01

    Persons with colon cancer experience considerable psychological stress due to physical and social changes brought on by illness, increasing their risk of depressive disorder (DD). We examine the prevalence of DD and depressive symptoms and determine baseline demographic, social, psychological, and physical health correlates. A convenience sample of 70 cancer patients in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, was screened for DD using an abbreviated version of the Structured Clinical Interview for Depression (SCID) and for depressive symptoms using the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS). Demographic, psychosocial, psychiatric, and physical health characteristics were also assessed, along with past treatments for colon cancer. Bivariate and multivariate analyses identified predictors of DD and symptoms. The 1-month prevalence of DD was 30.0% (12.9% major depression, 5.7% minor depression, and 11.4% for dysthymia) and significant depressive symptoms were present in 57.1% (HDRS 8 or higher), including having persistent suicidal thoughts for 2 weeks or longer wthin the past month (14.3%) . Low social support and having a co-morbid psychiatric illness (particularly anxiety) independently predicted DD based on the SCID. Saudi nationality, poor financial situation, low social support, and co-morbid psychiatric illness independently predicted depressive symptoms on the HDRS. Surprisingly, stage of cancer, duration of cancer, and treatments for cancer were unrelated to DD or depressive symptoms. DD and significant depressive symptoms are common in patients with colon cancer in Saudi Arabia, and are predicted by a distinct set of demographic and psychosocial risk factors that may help with identification. Demographic and psychological risk factors were more likely to be associated with depression than cancer characteristics in this sample. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Depression (Major Depressive Disorder)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your mood. Chronic pain causes a number of problems that can lead to depression, such as trouble sleeping and stress. Disabling pain can cause low self-esteem due to work, legal or financial issues. Depression ...

  19. Behandlingsresistent depression kan behandles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinberg, Maj; Levinsen, Mette Frandsen; Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2011-01-01

    Depression is considered resistant when two treatment attempts with antidepressants from different classes fail to produce significant clinical improvement. In cases of treatment-resistant depression, it is recommended to reevaluate the diagnosis, clarify comorbidity, substance abuse and lack of ...

  20. The Economics of Minorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles, Flournoy A., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    This article discusses some of the more important economic problems of minorities in the United States, identifying the economics of minorities with the economics of poverty, discrimination, exploitation, urban life, and alienation. (JM)

  1. Modeling minority stress effects on homelessness and health disparities among young men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Douglas; Stall, Ron; Fata, Aimee; Campbell, Richard T

    2014-06-01

    Sexual minority youth are more likely to experience homelessness, and homeless sexual minority youth report greater risk for mental health and substance abuse symptoms than homeless heterosexual youth, yet few studies have assessed determinants that help explain the disparities. Minority stress theory proposes that physical and mental health disparities among sexual minority populations may be explained by the stress produced by living in heterosexist social environments characterized by stigma and discrimination directed toward sexual minority persons. We used data from a sample of 200 young men who have sex with men (YMSM) (38 % African American, 26.5 % Latino/Hispanic, 23.5 % White, 12 % multiracial/other) to develop an exploratory path model measuring the effects of experience and internalization of sexual orientation stigma on depression and substance use via being kicked out of home due to sexual orientation and current homelessness. Direct significant paths were found from experience of sexual orientation-related stigma to internalization of sexual orientation-related stigma, having been kicked out of one's home, experiencing homelessness during the past year, and major depressive symptoms during the past week. Having been kicked out of one's home had a direct significant effect on experiencing homelessness during the past 12 months and on daily marijuana use. Internalization of sexual orientation-related stigma and experiencing homelessness during the past 12 months partially mediated the direct effect of experience of sexual orientation-related stigma on major depressive symptoms. Our empirical testing of the effects of minority stress on health of YMSM advances minority stress theory as a framework for investigating health disparities among this population.

  2. The relationships among self-esteem, stress, coping, eating behavior, and depressive mood in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martyn-Nemeth, Pamela; Penckofer, Sue; Gulanick, Meg; Velsor-Friedrich, Barbara; Bryant, Fred B

    2009-02-01

    The prevalence of adolescent overweight is significant, almost 25% in some minorities, and often is associated with depressive symptoms. Psychological and psychosocial factors as well as poor coping skills have been correlated with unhealthy eating and obesity. The purpose of this study was to examine relationships among self-esteem, stress, social support, and coping; and to test a model of their effects on eating behavior and depressive mood in a sample of 102 high school students (87% minority). Results indicate that (a) stress and low self-esteem were related to avoidant coping and depressive mood, and that (b) low self-esteem and avoidant coping were related to unhealthy eating behavior. Results suggest that teaching adolescents skills to reduce stress, build self-esteem, and use more positive approaches to coping may prevent unhealthy eating and subsequent obesity, and lower risk of depressive symptoms. 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Exploring Discrimination and Mental Health Disparities Faced By Black Sexual Minority Women Using a Minority Stress Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese, Sarah K.; Meyer, Ilan H.; Overstreet, Nicole M.; Haile, Rahwa; Hansen, Nathan B.

    2015-01-01

    Black sexual minority women are triply marginalized due to their race, gender, and sexual orientation. We compared three dimensions of discrimination—frequency (regularity of occurrences), scope (number of types of discriminatory acts experienced), and number of bases (number of social statuses to which discrimination was attributed)—and self-reported mental health (depressive symptoms, psychological well-being, and social well-being) between 64 Black sexual minority women and each of two groups sharing two of three marginalized statuses: (a) 67 White sexual minority women and (b) 67 Black sexual minority men. Black sexual minority women reported greater discrimination frequency, scope, and number of bases and poorer psychological and social well-being than White sexual minority women and more discrimination bases, a higher level of depressive symptoms, and poorer social well-being than Black sexual minority men. We then tested and contrasted dimensions of discrimination as mediators between social status (race or gender) and mental health outcomes. Discrimination frequency and scope mediated the association between race and mental health, with a stronger effect via frequency among sexual minority women. Number of discrimination bases mediated the association between gender and mental health among Black sexual minorities. Future research and clinical practice would benefit from considering Black sexual minority women's mental health in a multidimensional minority stress context. PMID:26424904

  4. Exploring Discrimination and Mental Health Disparities Faced By Black Sexual Minority Women Using a Minority Stress Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese, Sarah K; Meyer, Ilan H; Overstreet, Nicole M; Haile, Rahwa; Hansen, Nathan B

    2015-09-01

    Black sexual minority women are triply marginalized due to their race, gender, and sexual orientation. We compared three dimensions of discrimination-frequency (regularity of occurrences), scope (number of types of discriminatory acts experienced), and number of bases (number of social statuses to which discrimination was attributed)-and self-reported mental health (depressive symptoms, psychological well-being, and social well-being) between 64 Black sexual minority women and each of two groups sharing two of three marginalized statuses: (a) 67 White sexual minority women and (b) 67 Black sexual minority men. Black sexual minority women reported greater discrimination frequency, scope, and number of bases and poorer psychological and social well-being than White sexual minority women and more discrimination bases, a higher level of depressive symptoms, and poorer social well-being than Black sexual minority men. We then tested and contrasted dimensions of discrimination as mediators between social status (race or gender) and mental health outcomes. Discrimination frequency and scope mediated the association between race and mental health, with a stronger effect via frequency among sexual minority women. Number of discrimination bases mediated the association between gender and mental health among Black sexual minorities. Future research and clinical practice would benefit from considering Black sexual minority women's mental health in a multidimensional minority stress context.

  5. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Depression in an Older Gay Man: A Clinical Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satterfield, Jason M.; Crabb, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    Although strong evidence supports cognitive-behavioral therapy for late-life depression and depression in racial and ethnic minorities, there are no empirical studies on the treatment of depression in older sexual minorities. Three distinct literatures were tapped to create a depression treatment protocol for an older gay male. Interventions were…

  6. Role of Botulinum Toxin in Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsaik, Ajay K; Mascarenhas, Sonia S; Hashmi, Aqeel; Prokop, Larry J; John, Vineeth; Okusaga, Olaoluwa; Singh, Balwinder

    2016-03-01

    The goal of this review was to consolidate the evidence concerning the efficacy of botulinum toxin type A (onabotulinumtoxinA) in depression. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane, and Scopus through May 5, 2014, for studies evaluating the efficacy of botulinum toxin A in depression. Only randomized controlled trials were included in the meta-analysis. A pooled mean difference in primary depression score, and pooled odds ratio for response and remission rate with 95% confidence interval (CI) were estimated using the random-effects model. Heterogeneity was assessed using Cochran Q test and χ statistic. Of the 639 articles that were initially retrieved, 5 studies enrolling 194 subjects (age 49±9.6 y) were included in the systematic review, and 3 randomized controlled trials enrolling 134 subjects were included in the meta-analysis. The meta-analysis showed a significant decrease in mean primary depression scores among patients who received botulinum toxin A compared with placebo (-9.80; 95% CI, -12.90 to -6.69) with modest heterogeneity between the studies (Cochran Q test, χ=70). Response and remission rates were 8.3 and 4.6 times higher, respectively, among patients receiving botulinum toxin A compared with placebo, with no heterogeneity between the studies. The 2 studies excluded from the meta-analysis also found a significant decrease in primary depression scores in patients after receiving botulinum toxin A. A few subjects had minor side effects, which were similar between the groups receiving botulinum toxin and those receiving placebo. This study suggests that botulinum toxin A can produce significant improvement in depressive symptoms and is a safe adjunctive treatment for patients receiving pharmacotherapy for depression. Future trials are needed to evaluate the antidepressant effect per se of botulinum toxin A and to further elucidate the underlying antidepressant mechanism of botulinum toxin A.

  7. Minor Electrocardiographic ST-T Change and Risk of Stroke in the General Japanese Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Joji; Hirose, Hideo; Schwartz, Joseph E; Ishikawa, Shizukiyo

    2018-06-25

    Minor ST-T changes are frequently observed on the electrocardiogram (ECG), but the risk of stroke associated with such changes is unclear.Methods and Results:In 10,642 subjects from the Japanese general population, we evaluated minor and major ST-T changes (major ST depression ≥0.1 mV) on ECGs obtained at annual health examinations. At baseline, minor ST-T changes were found in 10.7% of the subjects and 0.5% had major ST-T changes. Minor ST-T changes were associated with older age, female gender, higher systolic blood pressure, presence of hyperlipidemia, and use of antihypertensive medication. There were 375 stroke events during the follow-up period (128.7±28.1 months). In all subjects, minor ST-T changes (HR, 2.10; 95% CI: 1.57-2.81) and major ST-T changes (HR, 8.64; 95% CI: 4.44-16.82) were associated with an increased risk of stroke, but the stroke risk associated with minor ST-T changes had borderline significance after adjustment for conventional risk factors (P=0.055). In subgroup analysis, the risk of stroke was significantly associated with minor ST-T changes in subjects who had hyperlipidemia (HR, 1.75; 95% CI: 1.15-2.67) compared to those without hyperlipidemia (HR, 1.01; 95% CI: 0.64-1.59; P for interaction=0.016), even after adjustment for ECG-diagnosed left ventricular hypertrophy. Minor ST-T changes were particularly associated with a higher risk of stroke in subjects with hyperlipidemia and this association was independent of electrocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy.

  8. Sexual orientation and treatment-seeking for depression in a multilingual worldwide sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutter, Tara M; Flentje, Annesa; Dilley, James W; Barakat, Suzanne; Liu, Nancy H; Gross, Margaret S; Muñoz, Ricardo F; Leykin, Yan

    2016-12-01

    Prior research has found higher rates of mental health problems among sexual minority individuals. We examine treatment-seeking for depression, as well as its relationship with sexual orientation, in a large, multilingual, international sample. Participants in an automated, quintilingual internet-based depression screening tool were screened for depression, and completed several background measures, including sexual orientation (with an option to decline to state) and past and current depression treatment seeking. 3695 participants screened positive for current or past depression and responded to the sexual orientation question. Those who declined to state their sexual orientation were far less likely to seek any treatment than individuals endorsing any orientation; they were especially unlikely to seek psychotherapy. Individuals identifying as bisexual sought both psychotherapy and alternative treatments at a higher rate than other groups. An interaction was observed between sexual orientation and gender, such that lesbian women were especially likely to have used psychotherapy. Other variables that emerged as significant predictors of treatment-seeking for depression included age and participant's language. Limitations include possible misinterpretation of translated terms due to regional differences, and possible limits to generalizability due to this study being conducted on the internet. Our results suggest that individuals who decline to state their sexual orientation may be more likely to forgo effective treatments for depression. Further studies of depression service utilization should focus on developing treatment modalities that could better engage sexual minority individuals, especially those who are reluctant to disclose their orientation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Tobacco Use among Sexual Minorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Lawrence O.; Bowman, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    This chapter addresses tobacco use among sexual minorities. It examines research on the prevalence of tobacco use in the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) community and discusses why tobacco use within this group continues to significantly exceed that of the general population.

  10. Effects of a Multicomponent Life-Style Intervention on Weight, Glycemic Control, Depressive Symptoms, and Renal Function in Low-Income, Minority Patients With Type 2 Diabetes: Results of the Community Approach to Lifestyle Modification for Diabetes Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moncrieft, Ashley E; Llabre, Maria M; McCalla, Judith Rey; Gutt, Miriam; Mendez, Armando J; Gellman, Marc D; Goldberg, Ronald B; Schneiderman, Neil

    2016-09-01

    Few interventions have combined life-style and psychosocial approaches in the context of Type 2 diabetes management. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of a multicomponent behavioral intervention on weight, glycemic control, renal function, and depressive symptoms in a sample of overweight/obese adults with Type 2 diabetes and marked depressive symptoms. A sample of 111 adults with Type 2 diabetes were randomly assigned to a 1-year intervention (n = 57) or usual care (n = 54) in a parallel groups design. Primary outcomes included weight, glycosylated hemoglobin, and Beck Depression Inventory II score. Estimated glomerular filtration rate served as a secondary outcome. All measures were assessed at baseline and 6 and 12 months after randomization by assessors blind to randomization. Latent growth modeling was used to examine intervention effects on each outcome. The intervention resulted in decreased weight (mean [M] = 0.322 kg, standard error [SE] = 0.124 kg, p = .010) and glycosylated hemoglobin (M = 0.066%, SE = 0.028%, p = .017), and Beck Depression Inventory II scores (M = 1.009, SE = 0.226, p diabetes. This study is registered at Clinicaltrials.gov ID: NCT01739205.

  11. Evidence of Syndemics and Sexuality-Related Discrimination Among Young Sexual-Minority Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulter, Robert W S; Kinsky, Suzanne M; Herrick, Amy L; Stall, Ron D; Bauermeister, José A

    2015-09-01

    Syndemics, or the co-occurrence and interaction of health problems, have been examined extensively among young men who have sex with men, but their existence remain unexamined, to our knowledge, among sexual-minority (i.e., lesbian, gay, and bisexual) women. Thus, we investigated if syndemics were present among young sexual-minority women, and if sexual-orientation discrimination was an independent variable of syndemic production. A total of 467 sexual-minority women between the ages of 18 and 24 completed a cross-sectional online survey regarding their substance use, mental health, sexual behaviors, height, weight, and experiences of discrimination. We used structural equation modeling to investigate the presence of syndemics and their relationship to sexual-orientation discrimination. Heavy episodic drinking, marijuana use, ecstasy use, hallucinogen use, depressive symptoms, multiple sexual partners, and history of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) comprised syndemics in this population (chi-square=24.989, P=.201; comparative fit index [CFI]=0.946; root mean square error of approximation [RMSEA]=0.023). Sexual-orientation discrimination is significantly and positively associated with the latent syndemic variable (unstandardized coefficient=0.095, Pdiscrimination (unstandardized coefficient=0.602, P>.05). Syndemics appear to be present and associated with sexual-orientation discrimination among young sexual-minority women. Interventions aimed at reducing discrimination or increasing healthy coping may help reduce substance use, depressive symptoms, and sexual risk behaviors in this population.

  12. The Trojan minor planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spratt, Christopher E.

    1988-08-01

    There are (March, 1988) 3774 minor planets which have received a permanent number. Of these, there are some whose mean distance to the sun is very nearly equal to that of Jupiter, and whose heliocentric longitudes from that planet are about 60°, so that the three bodies concerned (sun, Jupiter, minor planet) make an approximate equilateral triangle. These minor planets, which occur in two distinct groups, one preceding Jupiter and one following, have received the names of the heroes of the Trojan war. This paper concerns the 49 numbered minor planets of this group.

  13. Depression in nursing homes: prevalence, recognition, and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Dietmar; Allgaier, Antje-Kathrin; Fejtkova, Sabina; Mergl, Roland; Hegerl, Ulrich

    2009-01-01

    Depression is very common in people above 65 years living in long-term care. However, little is known about how well depression is recognized and how adequately it is treated. Therefore, the present study aimed at assessing accuracy of the unaided clinical diagnosis of the attending physicians, and the medical treatment situation in nursing home residents. A random sample of 97 residents of 10 nursing homes in Munich was examined with the Section A "Affective Syndrome" of the Structured Clinical Interview (SCID) for DSM-IV to detect depression. Information concerning clinical diagnosis and medication was obtained from the subjects' medical records. 14.4% suffered acutely from major depression, 14.4% suffered from minor depression, and 18.6% were diagnosed as depressive according to the physician and nursing records. In total, 27.8% received antidepressants. Merely 42.9% of the subjects with acute major depression were diagnosed by their attending physicians as depressive, and only half of them received an antidepressant; 17.5% received antidepressants without a diagnosis of depression in their physician and nursing records. In accordance with the guidelines, 73.3% of the antidepressants prescribed were SSRIs or newer antidepressants. Only 20.0% were tricyclic antidepressants. Findings show that depression is relatively frequent in residents of nursing homes. Moreover, it is insufficiently recognized by physicians and is even more seldom adequately treated. Also, a significant proportion of residents receive antidepressants without a documented associated indication. Therefore, the recognition and guideline-based treatment of depression should be improved in this high-risk group.

  14. A Comparison of the Mental Health and Well-Being of Sexual Minority and Heterosexual First-Year Medical Students: A Report From the Medical Student CHANGE Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przedworski, Julia M; Dovidio, John F; Hardeman, Rachel R; Phelan, Sean M; Burke, Sara E; Ruben, Mollie A; Perry, Sylvia P; Burgess, Diana J; Nelson, David B; Yeazel, Mark W; Knudsen, John M; van Ryn, Michelle

    2015-05-01

    Research is lacking on psychological distress and disorder among sexual minority medical students (students who identify as nonheterosexual). If left unaddressed, distress may result in academic and professional difficulties and undermine workforce diversity goals. The authors compared depression, anxiety, and self-rated health among sexual minority and heterosexual medical students. This study included 4,673 first-year students who self-reported sexual orientation in the fall 2010 baseline survey of the Medical Student Cognitive Habits and Growth Evaluation Study, a national longitudinal cohort study. The authors used items from published scales to measure depression, anxiety, self-rated health, and social stressors. They conducted bivariate and multivariate analyses to estimate the association between sexual identity and depression, anxiety, and self-rated health. Of 4,673 students, 232 (5.0%) identified as a sexual minority. Compared with heterosexual students, after adjusting for relevant covariates, sexual minority students had greater risk of depressive symptoms (adjusted relative risk [ARR] = 1.59 [95% confidence interval, 1.24-2.04]), anxiety symptoms (ARR = 1.64 [1.08-2.49]), and low self-rated health (ARR = 1.77 [1.15-2.60]). Sexual minority students were more likely to report social stressors, including harassment (22.7% versus 12.7%, P sexual identity and mental and self-reported health measures. First-year sexual minority students experience significantly greater risk of depression, anxiety, and low self-rated health than heterosexual students. Targeted interventions are needed to improve mental health and well-being.

  15. Depression in Hemodialysis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badema Čengić

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Depression is the most frequent psychological complication of haemodialysis (HD patients (pts and has been associated with impaired Quality of Life (QoL. The aim of our study was to investigate the prevalence of depression in HD pts in relation to sociodemographic factors and the relationship between depression and QoL.200 pts from Clinic for haemodialysis in Sarajevo, B&H were participating in the study. Mean age was S7,26±13,78 years and mean HD duration was 64’26±58,18 months. From the test material we applied BDI and SF-36.51% of our pts have shown depression (BDI>11 in various degrees (30%-mild depression, 8,5%-moderate depression and 12,5%-severe depression. As we could expect, the most emphasized symptoms of depression were somatic symptoms. 55,5% of pts have shown QoL lower then average. Sociodemographic data such as gender, marital status and HD duration did not influence significantly on pt’s QoL and occurrence of depression (p>0,05. As the age of the pts increased, level of depression increased too and QoL significantly decreased (p<0,05. Employed pts have shown significantly better QoL and lower level of depression in relation to unemployed pts (p<0,05. As the educational level of pts increased, QoL increased too and level of depression significantly decreased (p<0,05. Pts in 1st HD shift were significantly more depressed and have significantly worse mental health in compare to pts in 3rd HD shift (p<0,05. Our results showed a high prevalence of depressive symptoms among the study group that was linked to trend of poor QoL.

  16. The influence of thoughts of death and suicidal ideation on the course of depression in older depressed patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogers, Ista C H M; Zuidersma, Marij; Boshuisen, Marjolein L; Comijs, Hannie C; Oude Voshaar, Richard C

    2017-08-01

    Thoughts of death are not regularly included in diagnostic instruments and rarely examined separately from thoughts of suicide. This exploratory study examined whether thoughts of death and thoughts of suicide affect the course of late-life depressive disorders. In 378 depressed older persons, thoughts of death and thoughts of suicide were assessed using questions from the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. After 2 years, the presence of a DSM-IV-TR diagnosis of minor or major depression or dysthymia was assessed with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. The Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology was administered every 6 months up till 3-year follow-up. Multinomial logistic regression showed that thoughts of death as well as thoughts of suicide predicted double depression at follow-up (OR = 2.14 [95% CI: 1.04-4.40] and OR = 6.47 [95% CI: 2.22-3.02], respectively), compared with patients without these thoughts. Results became non-significant when adjusted for baseline depression severity (OR = 1.17 [95% CI: 0.52-2.63] and OR = 2.57 [95% CI: 0.79-8.84], respectively). Mixed linear models showed that severity of depression was lowest in the reference group, while symptoms decreased more over time in those with either thoughts of death or suicide. Patients with thoughts of death or with thoughts of suicide were more severely depressed at baseline and follow-up, with the highest risk of being depressed at follow-up for patients with thoughts of suicide. These associations could be explained by baseline depression severity. The results suggest that thoughts of death and thoughts of suicide are important risk markers in predicting the course of depression. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Minorities and Malnutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornegay, Francis A.

    Various aspects of the relationship between minorities and malnutrition are discussed in this brief paper. Malnutrition, one of the byproducts of low economic status, is creating a crisis-proportion health problem affecting minority citizens. Malnutrition seriously affects children, older people in poverty, and chronically unemployed or…

  18. Surveying ethnic minorities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joost Kappelhof

    2015-01-01

    Obtaining accurate survey data on ethnic minorities is not easy. Ethnic minorities are usually underrepresented in surveys, and it is moreover not certain that those who do take part in surveys are representative of the group the researcher is interested in. For example, is it only people with

  19. Autonomy and minority rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barten, Ulrike

    2008-01-01

    on the content of the syllabus. When autonomy is understood in the literal sense, of giving oneself one's own laws, then there is a clear connection. Autonomy is usually connected to politics and a geographically limited territory. Special political rights of minorities - e.g. is the Danish minority party SSW...

  20. Happiness and Sexual Minority Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomeer, Mieke Beth; Reczek, Corinne

    2016-10-01

    We used logistic regression on nationally representative data (General Social Survey, N = 10,668 and N = 6680) to examine how sexual minority status related to happiness. We considered two central dimensions of sexual minority status-sexual behavior and sexual identity. We distinguished between same-sex, both-sex, and different-sex-oriented participants. Because individuals transition between sexual behavior categories over the life course (e.g., from both-sex partners to only same-sex partners) and changes in sexual minority status have theoretical associations with well-being, we also tested the associations of transitions with happiness. Results showed that identifying as bisexual, gay, or lesbian, having both male and female partners since age 18, or transitioning to only different-sex partners was negatively related to happiness. Those with only same-sex partners since age 18 or in the past 5 years had similar levels of happiness as those with only different-sex partners since age 18. Additional tests showed that the majority of these happiness differences became non-significant when economic and social resources were included, indicating that the lower happiness was a product of structural and societal forces. Our findings clearly and robustly underscored the importance of taking a multi-faceted approach to understanding sexuality and well-being, demonstrating that not all sexual minority groups experience disadvantaged happiness. Our study calls for more attention to positive aspects of well-being such as happiness in examinations of sexual minorities and suggests that positive psychology and other happiness subfields should consider the role of sexual minority status in shaping happiness.

  1. Happiness and Sexual Minority Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomeer, Mieke Beth; Reczek, Corinne

    2017-01-01

    We used logistic regression on nationally representative data (General Social Survey, N = 10,668 and N = 6,680) to examine how sexual minority status related to happiness. We considered two central dimensions of sexual minority status—sexual behavior and sexual identity. We distinguished between same-sex, both-sex, and different-sex oriented participants. Because individuals transition between sexual behavior categories over the life course (e.g., from both-sex partners to only same-sex partners) and changes in sexual minority status have theoretical associations with well-being, we also tested the effects of transitions on happiness. Results showed that identifying as bisexual, gay, or lesbian, having both male and female partners since age 18, or transitioning to only different-sex partners was negatively related to happiness. Those with only same-sex partners since age 18 or in the past five years had similar levels of happiness as those with only different-sex partners since age 18. Additional tests showed that the majority of these happiness differences became non-significant when economic and social resources were included, indicating that the lower happiness was a product of structural and societal forces. Our findings clearly and robustly underscored the importance of taking a multi-faceted approach to understanding sexuality and well-being, demonstrating that not all sexual minority groups experience disadvantaged happiness. Our study calls for more attention to positive aspects of well-being such as happiness in examinations of sexual minorities and suggests that positive psychology and other happiness subfields should consider the role of sexual minority status in shaping happiness. PMID:27102605

  2. Prevalence and risk factors of depression in the elderly nursing home residents in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiong, Wei Wei; Yap, Philip; Huat Koh, Gerald Choon; Phoon Fong, Ngan; Luo, Nan

    2013-01-01

    Depression is a common health problem in elderly nursing home (NH) residents and is often under-recognized and under-treated. This study aimed to determine the prevalence rates of depression and identify the risk factors associated with depression in the elderly NH population in Singapore. A sample of 375 residents in six NHs in Singapore, aged 55 years and above, was assessed with the Structural Clinical Interview (SCID), based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition (DSM-IV) criteria. The association of demographic, functional and health-related characteristics with depression was examined using multivariate logistic regression analyses. Overall point prevalence for depression in the elderly NH residents was found to be 21.1% (95% confidence intervals (CI): 17.1%-25.6%). The prevalence rate for minor depression in the elderly NH residents was 14.4% (95% CI: 11.1%-18.5%) and 6.7% (95% CI: 4.5%-9.8%) for major depression. Significant risk factors that were found to be associated with depression were length of stay for more than 2 years, known history of depression, pain, and no or lack of social contact. The prevalence rates for depression were high among NH residents in Singapore. More attention is needed to care for the psychosocial needs of elderly NH residents in Singapore.

  3. Depression in Asian-American and Caucasian undergraduate students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Christina B; Fang, Daniel Z; Zisook, Sidney

    2010-09-01

    Depression is a serious and often under-diagnosed and undertreated mental health problem in college students which may have fatal consequences. Little is known about ethnic differences in prevalence of depression in US college campuses. This study compares depression severity in Asian-American and Caucasian undergraduate students at the University of California San Diego (UCSD). Participants completed the nine item Patient Health Questionnaire and key demographic information via an anonymous online questionnaire. Compared to Caucasians, Asian-Americans exhibited significantly elevated levels of depression. Furthermore, Korean-American students were significantly more depressed than Chinese-American, other minority Asian-American, and Caucasian students. In general, females were significantly more depressed than males. Results were upheld when level of acculturation was considered. The demographic breakdown of the student population at UCSD is not representative to that of the nation. These findings suggest that outreach to female and Asian-American undergraduate students is important and attention to Korean-American undergraduates may be especially worthwhile. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Therapeutics of postpartum depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Michael; Sharma, Verinder

    2017-05-01

    Postpartum depression is a prevalent disorder affecting many women of reproductive age. Despite increasing public awareness, it is frequently underdiagnosed and undertreated leading to significant maternal morbidity and adverse child outcomes. When identified, postpartum depression is usually treated as major depressive disorder. Many studies have identified the postpartum as a period of high risk for first presentations and relapses of bipolar disorder. Areas covered: This article reviews the acute and prophylactic treatment of postpartum major depressive disorder, bipolar depression and major depressive disorder with mixed features. The safety of antidepressant and mood stabilizing medications in pregnancy and breastfeeding will also be reviewed. Expert commentary: Differentiating postpartum major depressive disorder and postpartum bipolar depression can be difficult given their clinical similarities but accurate identification is vital for initiating proper treatment. Antidepressants are the mainstay of drug treatment for postpartum major depressive disorder, yet randomized controlled trials have shown conflicting results. A paucity of evidence exists for the effectiveness of antidepressant prophylaxis in the prevention of recurrences of major depressive disorder. Mood stabilizing medications reduce the risk of postpartum bipolar depression relapse but no randomized controlled trials have examined their use in the acute or prophylactic treatment of postpartum bipolar depression.

  5. Clinical correlates of resilience factors in geriatric depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laird, Kelsey T; Lavretsky, Helen; Paholpak, Pattharee; Vlasova, Roza M; Roman, Michael; St Cyr, Natalie; Siddarth, Prabha

    2018-01-16

    Traditional perspectives conceptualize resilience as a trait and depression as resulting from resilience deficiency. However, research indicates that resilience varies substantially even among adults who are clinically depressed, as well as across the lifespan of an individual. Few studies have investigated resilience in depression, and even fewer have examined resilience in depressed older adults. Three hundred thirty-seven adults ≥60 years with major depressive disorder completed the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC) and measures of mental health, quality of life (QOL), and medical comorbidity. Exploratory factor analysis was used to explore the factor structure of the CD-RISC. Correlations and general linear models were used to examine associations between resilience and other variables. The rotated component matrix indicated a four-factor model. Sorting of items by highest factor loading revealed constructs associated with (1) grit, (2) active coping self-efficacy, (3) accommodative coping self-efficacy, and (4) spirituality. Resilience was significantly correlated with increased age, lower cognitive functioning, greater cerebrovascular risk, and greater medical comorbidity. Resilience was negatively associated with mental health symptoms (depression, apathy, and anxiety) and positively associated with QOL. The final optimal model identified less depression, less apathy, greater medical comorbidity, higher QOL, and minority (non-White) race as factors that significantly explained variability in resilience. Resilience was significantly associated with a range of mental health constructs in a sample of older adults with depression. Future clinical trials and dismantling studies may help determine whether interventions targeting grit, active coping, accommodative coping, and spirituality can increase resilience and help prevent and treat depression in older adults.

  6. Early onset depression: the relevance of anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, G; Wilhelm, K; Asghari, A

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine risk factors that may differentiate early onset from late onset depression. A non-clinical cohort that had been assessed from 1978 to 1993 at 5 yearly intervals and that had a high prevalence rate of lifetime depression took part in the study. We established an appropriate age cut-off to distinguish early onset (i.e. before 26 years) of major and of minor depression, and examined the relevance of a number of possible determinants of early onset depression assessed over the life of the study. Despite several dimensional measures of depression, self-esteem and personality being considered, they generally failed (when assessed early in the study) to discriminate subsequent early onset depression, with the exception of low masculinity scores being a weak predictor of major and/or minor depression. Early onset depression was strongly predicted, however, by a lifetime episode of a major anxiety disorder, with generalised anxiety being a somewhat stronger and more consistent predictor than panic disorder, agoraphobia and minor anxiety disorders (ie social phobia, simple phobia). The possibility that anxiety may act as a key predispositional factor to early onset depression and to a greater number of depressive episodes is important in that clinical assessment and treatment of any existing anxiety disorder may be a more efficient and useful strategy than focussing primarily on the depressive disorder.

  7. Generalized anxiety disorder in racial and ethnic minorities: a case of nativity and contextual factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budhwani, Henna; Hearld, Kristine Ria; Chavez-Yenter, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    Minorities comprise more than one third of the U.S., and research on the correlates and causes of depression, anxiety, and other mental illnesses have yielded mixed results in minority groups necessitating an understanding of causes and correlates of health. Thus, the aim of this paper is to evaluate the relationship between minority status, contextual factors, and lifetime Generalized Anxiety Disorder. Logistic regression models were implemented, comparing immigrants to their American-born counterparts as well as to American-born Whites. Foreign-born Afro-Caribbeans exhibited lower rates of lifetime GAD. A lower percentage of foreign-born minorities met the criteria for GAD as compared to their American-born counterparts, and all racial and ethnic groups met the criteria for lifetime GAD at a lower rate as compared to American-born Whites. By using theory proactively and including contextual factors, this multi-faceted approach to health disparities research yielded findings which both supported historic beliefs but created opportunities for supplemental research looking at immigrants and GAD. Key findings were that health lifestyle choices and exposure to discrimination significantly affected the chance of having GAD. Nativity was protective; however, its effect was ameliorated by exposure to discrimination or engagement in alcohol abuse. Thus, this study offers practical insight into environmental factors for clinicians caring for racial and ethnic minorities diagnosed with GAD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Women in science & engineering and minority engineering scholarships : year 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    Support will make scholarships available to minority and women students interested in engineering and science and will increase : significantly the number of minority and female students that Missouri S&T can recruit to its science and engineering pr...

  9. Women in science & engineering and minority engineering scholarships : year 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    Support will make scholarships available to minority and women students interested in engineering and science and will increase : significantly the number of minority and female students that Missouri S&T can recruit to its science and engineering pr...

  10. Caregiver Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... will not sell or share your name. Caregiver Depression Tweet Bookmark this page | Email | Print Many caregivers ... depression See your doctor Treatment Coping Symptoms of depression Caregiving is hard — and can lead to feelings ...

  11. Depression FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depression affects about 15 million American adults every year. Women are more likely to get depression than men. In general, about one out of every four women will get depression at some point in her life.

  12. Depression Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Depression Screening Substance Abuse Screening Alcohol Use Screening Depression Screening (PHQ-9) - Instructions The following questions are ... this tool, there is also text-only version . Depression Screening - Manual Instructions The following questions are a ...

  13. Symptoms of Depression and Anxiety as Barriers to Participation in Cardiac Rehabilitation Programs Among Arab and Jewish Patients in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilchinsky, Noa; Reges, Orna; Leibowitz, Morton; Khaskia, Abdulrahim; Mosseri, Morris; Kark, Jeremy D

    2018-05-01

    Despite its proven efficacy, low participation rates in cardiac prevention and rehabilitation programs (CPRPs) prevail worldwide, especially among ethnic minorities. This is strongly evident in Israel's Arab minority. Since psychological distress has been found to be associated with CPRP participation and minorities are subjected to higher levels of distress, it is plausible that distress may be an important barrier for CPRP participation among minority patients. The current prospective study assessed the contribution of depression and anxiety symptoms to participation in a CPRP after acute coronary syndrome, both in the enrollment phase and when considering adherence over time, among Jewish (majority) and Arab (minority) patients in Israel. Patients were interviewed during hospitalization about their emotional status and at a 6-mo follow-up concerning participation in a CPRP. Analyses were performed on 397 patients. The Brief Symptom Inventory was used. Logistic regression modeling was applied. Symptoms of depression, but not anxiety, were frequently observed among Arab patients compared with their Jewish counterparts. In analyses adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, and sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, having symptoms of anxiety was associated with less participation in a CPRP, evident for both Jews and Arabs; this association was less evident for symptoms of depression. Multivariable adjusted models did not show a significant association of symptoms of anxiety or depression with adherence in a CPRP. Accounting for psychological distress did not reduce the sharp difference between Jews and Arabs in CPRP participation. Symptoms of distress may serve as barriers to CPRP participation, regardless of ethnic origin.

  14. BCDC Minor Permits

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — An administrative permit can be issued for an activity that qualifies as a minor repair or improvement in a relatively short period of time and without a public...

  15. Minority Veteran Report 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — This report is the first comprehensive report that chronicles the history of racial and ethnic minorities in the military and as Veterans, profiles characteristics...

  16. Minority Veteran Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — This report is the first comprehensive report that chronicles the history of racial and ethnic minorities in the military and as Veterans, profiles characteristics...

  17. Multichoice minority game

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ein-Dor, Liat; Metzler, Richard; Kanter, Ido; Kinzel, Wolfgang

    2001-01-01

    The generalization of the problem of adaptive competition, known as the minority game, to the case of K possible choices for each player, is addressed, and applied to a system of interacting perceptrons with input and output units of a type of K-state Potts spins. An optimal solution of this minority game, as well as the dynamic evolution of the adaptive strategies of the players, are solved analytically for a general K and compared with numerical simulations

  18. An Overview of Depression among Transgender Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beth Hoffman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rates of depression are higher in transgender women than in the general population, warranting an understanding of the variables related to depression in this group. Results of the literature review of depression in transgender women reveal several variables influencing depression, including social support, violence, sex work, and gender identity. The theoretical constructs of minority stress, coping, and identity control theory are explored in terms of how they may predict depression in transgender women. Depression and depressive symptoms have been used to predict high-risk sexual behaviors with mixed results. The implications of the findings on treating depression in transgender women include taking into account the stress of transition and the importance of supportive peers and family. Future studies should explore a model of depression and high-risk behaviors in transgender women.

  19. Promoting the successful development of sexual and gender minority youths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Kenneth H; Garofalo, Robert; Makadon, Harvey J

    2014-06-01

    Because of societal discomfort with atypical expressions of sexual orientation and gender identity, lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) youths have experienced enhanced developmental challenges compared with their heterosexual peers. A recent special issue of the American Journal of Public Health delineated how social stigma affecting LGBT youths has resulted in a wide range of health disparities, ranging from increased prevalence of depression and substance use to downstream effects, such as an increased risk for cancer and cardiovascular disease when older. We review the clinical significance of these findings for health care professionals, who need to become informed about these associations to provide better care for their sexual and gender minority youth patients, and to be able to educate their parents and other caregivers.

  20. Exploring Discrimination and Mental Health Disparities Faced By Black Sexual Minority Women Using a Minority Stress Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Calabrese, Sarah K.; Meyer, Ilan H.; Overstreet, Nicole M.; Haile, Rahwa; Hansen, Nathan B.

    2014-01-01

    Black sexual minority women are triply marginalized due to their race, gender, and sexual orientation. We compared three dimensions of discrimination—frequency (regularity of occurrences), scope (number of types of discriminatory acts experienced), and number of bases (number of social statuses to which discrimination was attributed)—and self-reported mental health (depressive symptoms, psychological well-being, and social well-being) between 64 Black sexual minority women and each of two gro...

  1. Associations of Timing of Sexual Orientation Developmental Milestones and Other Sexual Minority Stressors with Internalizing Mental Health Symptoms Among Sexual Minority Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz-Wise, Sabra L; Rosario, Margaret; Calzo, Jerel P; Scherer, Emily A; Sarda, Vishnudas; Austin, S Bryn

    2017-07-01

    Sexual minorities (mostly heterosexual, bisexual, lesbian/gay) are more likely than heterosexuals to have adverse mental health, which may be related to minority stress. We used longitudinal data from 1461 sexual minority women and men, aged 22-30 years, from Wave 2010 of the Growing Up Today Study, to examine associations between sexual minority stressors and mental health. We hypothesized that sexual minority stressors (earlier timing of sexual orientation developmental milestones categorized into early adolescence, middle adolescence, late adolescence/young adulthood; greater sexual orientation mobility; more bullying victimization) would be positively associated with mental health outcomes (depressive and anxious symptoms). Linear regression models stratified by gender and sexual orientation were fit via generalized estimating equations and controlled for age and race/ethnicity. Models were fit for each stressor predicting each mental health outcome. Reaching sexual minority milestones in early versus middle adolescence was associated with greater depressive and anxious symptoms among lesbians and gay men. Reaching sexual minority milestones in late adolescence/young adulthood versus middle adolescence was associated with greater depressive symptoms among lesbians, but fewer depressive and anxious symptoms among gay men. Greater sexual orientation mobility was associated with greater depressive symptoms among mostly heterosexual women. More bullying victimization was associated with greater depressive symptoms among bisexual women and with greater anxious symptoms among mostly heterosexual women. Sexual minority stressors are associated with adverse mental health among some sexual minority young adults. More research is needed to understand what may be protecting some subgroups from the mental health effects of sexual minority stressors.

  2. Interwar Deflation and Depression

    OpenAIRE

    Dorval, Bill; Smith, Gregor W.

    2013-01-01

    Interwar macroeconomic history is a natural place to look for evidence on the correlations between (a) deflation and depression and (b) unexpected deflation and depression. We apply time-series methods to measure unexpected deflation or inflation for 26 countries from 1922 to 1939. The results suggest much variation across countries in the degree to which the ongoing deflation of the 1930s was unexpected. There is a significant, positive correlation between deflation and depression for the en...

  3. [Programmes against depression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taleb, M; Rouillon, F; Hegerl, U; Hamdani, N; Gorwood, Ph

    2006-01-01

    Depressive disorders represent a major public health concern, regarding their high frequency and their important cost. Depression impair the quality of life more than any other disease, sometimes leading to suicidal ideas or behavior. Indeed, 50% of patients with severe major depression commit suicide. Numerous studies showed that depressive disorders are frequently not recognised, and regularly untreated. In France, where at least 3 millions of inhabitants are concerned, 38% of depressed patients are not using any health system. When they are asking for care, the majority of depressed patients visit their general practitioner (51%), whereas less than 10% visit a psychiatrist. Even when the diagnostic is correct, the treatment prescribed is not systematically relevant. The treatment is, for example, frequently proposed for a too short period, and sometimes the prescribed product does not have proven antidepressive efficacy. Furthermore, as incorrect informations are frequently given to patients, and as there is a general biased judgement about psychotropic drugs in the general population, the compliance is usually poor for antidepressive treatment. Therefore, only a small minority of depressed patients benefits from an adequate care. Public health information methodological asserts. To improve this situation, delivering simple and clear-cut recommendations cannot be considered as sufficiently effective, and public health interventions are required. Different programs improving the recognition of depressive disorders have already been tested in some countries with encouraging results. These programs are based on information campaigns given to the public, and the training of general practitioners about the management of depressive disorders. The "Defeat Depression" campaign in Great-Britain and the "National Depression Screening Day" in the United-States of America may represent informative examples. Restricting these programs to general practitioners only is

  4. Defining minors' abortion rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, A M

    1988-01-01

    The right to abortion is confirmed in the Roe versus Wade case, by the US Supreme Court. It is a fundamental right of privacy but not an absolute right, and must consider state interests. During the first trimester of pregnancy abortion is a decision of the woman and her doctor. During the second trimester of pregnancy the state may control the abortion practice to protect the mothers health, and in the last trimester, it may prohibit abortion, except in cases where the mother's life or health are in danger. The states enacted laws, including one that required parents to give written consent for a unmarried minor's abortion. This law was struck down by the US Court, but laws on notification were upheld as long as there was alternative procedures where the minor's interests are upheld. Many of these law have been challenged successfully, where the minor was judged mature and where it served her best interests. The state must enact laws on parental notification that take into consideration basic rights of the minor woman. Health professionals and workers should be aware of these laws and should encourage the minor to let parents in on the decision making process where possible.

  5. Public beliefs and attitudes towards depression in Italy: a national survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmine Munizza

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that attitudes towards depression may be influenced by country-specific social and cultural factors. A survey was carried out to collect beliefs on and attitudes toward depression in Italy, which has an established community-based mental health system. METHODS: A telephone survey was carried out in a probabilistic sample aged ≥15 years. A 20-item questionnaire was administered to explore knowledge of depression, stigma, causal beliefs, treatment preference, and help-seeking attitudes. RESULTS: Of the 1001 participants, 98% were aware of depression, and 62% had experienced it, either directly or indirectly. A widespread belief (75% was that people suffering from depression should avoid talking about their problem. A minority of the sample viewed depression as a condition that should be managed without recourse to external help or a "socially dangerous" illness. Among perceived causes of depression, most respondents mentioned life stressors or physical strains. Psychologists were often indicated as an adequate source of professional help. Half of the sample believed that depression should be pharmacologically treated, but drugs were often seen as addictive. Referring to a primary care physician (PCP was considered embarrassing; furthermore, many people thought that PCPs are too busy to treat patients suffering from depression. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that depression is seen as a reaction to significant life events that should be overcome with the support of significant others or the help of health professionals (mainly psychologists. However, there are still barriers to the disclosure of depressive symptoms to PCPs, and concerns about the addictive effect of antidepressants. In the presence of a gap between people's beliefs and what health professionals consider appropriate for the treatment of depression, a "shared decision making" approach to treatment selection should be adopted taking into

  6. The impact of minority stress on mental health and substance use among sexual minority women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehavot, Keren; Simoni, Jane M

    2011-04-01

    We examined the direct and indirect impact of minority stress on mental health and substance use among sexual minority women. A combination of snowball and targeted sampling strategies was used to recruit lesbian and bisexual women (N = 1,381) for a cross-sectional, online survey. Participants (M age = 33.54 years; 74% White) completed a questionnaire assessing gender expression, minority stressors (i.e., victimization, internalized homophobia, and concealment), social-psychological resources (i.e., social support, spirituality), and health-related outcomes. We used structural equation modeling to test associations among these factors, with gender expression as an antecedent and social-psychological resources as a mediator between minority stress and health. The final model demonstrated acceptable fit, χ²(79) = 414.00, p accounting for significant portions of the variance in mental health problems (56%) and substance use (14%), as well as the mediator social-psychological resources (24%). Beyond indirect effects of minority stress on health outcomes, direct links emerged between victimization and substance use and between internalized homophobia and substance use. Findings indicate a significant impact of minority stressors and social-psychological resources on mental health and substance use among sexual minority women. The results improve understanding of the distinct role of various minority stressors and their mechanisms on health outcomes. Health care professionals should assess for minority stress and coping resources and refer for evidence-based psychosocial treatments. (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved.

  7. Effectiveness of hypnosis therapy and Gestalt therapy as depression treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth González-Ramírez

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the effectiveness of two psychological therapies to treat depression in the Culiacan population, Mexico. According to criteria of MINI (international Neuropsychiatric interview, 30 individuals from a total of 300 were selected and diagnosed with some kind of depression. Patients were divided in three groups: 1 treatment with hypnosis therapy, 2 treatment with Gestalt-hypnosis therapy, and 3 control group. Before and after the treatments the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI was applied to know the depression level of the analyzed groups. The results show that the three groups were presenting a moderated level of depression. The groups under hypnosis therapy and Gestalt-hypnosis therapy show statistical differences between pre-test and post-test. The hypnosis therapy shows significant statistic differences to treat depression with respect to the other two groups. In conclusion, the therapeutic hypnosis is an effective treatment and has relevance to treat depression, while other therapeutic treatments tend to be slow and with minor result. This study is the first of this kind carried out in Culiacan in Sinaloa, Mexico.

  8. Teaching minority children hygiene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rheinländer, Thilde; Samuelsen, Helle; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2015-01-01

    infrastructures were important barriers for the implementation of safe home child hygiene. Furthermore, the everyday life of highland villages, with parents working away from the households resulted in little daily adult supervision of safe child hygiene practices. While kindergartens were identified......Objectives. Ethnic minority children in Vietnam experience high levels of hygiene- and sanitation-related diseases. Improving hygiene for minority children is therefore vital for improving child health. The study objective was to investigate how kindergarten and home environments influence...... children were further disadvantaged as teaching was only provided in non-minority language. Conclusions. Kindergartens can be important institutions for the promotion of safe hygiene practices among children, but they must invest in the maintenance of hygiene and sanitation infrastructures and adopt...

  9. Self-Esteem Comparisons among Intellectually Gifted Minority/Non-Minority Junior High Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legin-Bucell, Cynthia; And Others

    Differences in self-esteem between 48 minority and 62 non-minority intellectually gifted and 75 intellectually average junior-high students were assessed using the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory. Results indicated a higher level of self-esteem for the gifted students than for the control group. Significant differences were also found to exist…

  10. SEBACEOUS CYSTS MINOR SURGERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Gusti Ayu Agung Laksemi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Minor surgery is small surgery or localized example cut ulcers and boils, cyst excision, and suturing. Somethings that need to be considered in the preparation of the surgery is minor tools, operating rooms and operating tables, lighting, maintenance of tools and equipment, sterilization and desinfection equipment, preparation of patients and anesthesia. In general cysts is walled chamber that consist of fluid, cells and the remaining cells. Cysts are formed not due to inflammation although then be inflamed. Lining of the cysts wall is composed of fibrous tissue and usually coated epithelial cells or endothelial. Cysts formed by dilated glands and closed channels, glands, blood vessels, lymph channels or layers of the epidermis. Contents of the cysts wall consists of the results is serum, lymph, sweat sebum, epithelial cells, the stratum corneum, and hair. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  11. Prevalence and Risk Factors Among Minors for Online Sexual Solicitations and Interactions With Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Santisteban, Patricia; Gámez-Guadix, Manuel

    2017-11-02

    The research on online child sexual victimization has mainly focused on the sexual solicitation of minors (i.e., sexual requests by an adult), with scarce information available on sexual interactions (e.g., cybersex or meeting in person) in which a minor is exploited by an adult. In the present study, we analyzed the prevalence and risk factors associated with both sexual solicitations and interactions of minors with adults. The sample included 2,731 minors between 12 and 15 years old (50.6% female). The minors completed several self-report questionnaires about sexual solicitations and interactions with adults, including possible risk factors (e.g., sociodemographic variables, Internet use, and psychological adjustment). Of the participants, 15.6% of girls and 9.3% of boys reported sexual solicitations, and 8.2% of girls and 7.4% of boys reported sexualized interactions with adults. Among the variables studied, several appeared related to both sexual solicitations and interactions: older age, having been involved in sexting, being a victim of cyberbullying, having unknown people in friends list, using chat, time spent online on a weekday, and depression symptoms. Gender (being female), using video chat, and instant messaging by computer were significant variables for sexual solicitation but not for sexual interaction; participation in online games was significant only for sexual interactions. Finally, minors reporting sexual interactions presented a higher risk profile than those reporting only sexual solicitations. These findings highlight the relevance of distinguishing between sexual solicitations and sexual interactions and suggest important avenues for prevention programs.

  12. Male depression and suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wålinder, J; Rutzt, W

    2001-03-01

    Based on the experiences of the Gotland Study that education of general practitioners about depressive illness resulted in a statistically significant reduction in the number of female suicides, leaving the rate of male suicides almost unaffected, we propose the concept of a male depressive syndrome. This syndrome comprises a low stress tolerance, an acting-out behavior, a low impulse control, substance abuse and a hereditary loading of depressive illness, alcoholism and suicide. This notion is supported by data from The Amish study as well as the concept of van Praag of a stress-precipitated, cortisol-induced, serotonin-related and anxiety-driven depressive illness most often seen in males. In order to identify depressed males, the Gotland Male Depression Scale has been developed. Some preliminary data using the scale in a group of alcohol-dependant patients are presented.

  13. Depression treatment for impoverished mothers by point-of-care providers: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segre, Lisa S; Brock, Rebecca L; O'Hara, Michael W

    2015-04-01

    Depression in low-income, ethnic-minority women of childbearing age is prevalent and compromises infant and child development. Yet numerous barriers prevent treatment delivery. Listening Visits (LV), an empirically supported intervention developed for delivery by British home-visiting nurses, could address this unmet mental health need. This randomized controlled trial (RCT) evaluated the effectiveness of LV delivered at a woman's usual point-of-care, including home visits or an ob-gyn office. Listening Visits were delivered to depressed pregnant women or mothers of young children by their point-of-care provider (e.g., home visitor or physician's assistant), all of whom had low levels of prior counseling experience. Three quarters of the study's participants were low-income. Of those who reported ethnicity, all identified themselves as minorities. Participants from 4 study sites (N = 66) were randomized in a 2:1 ratio, to LV or a wait-list control group (WLC). Assessments, conducted at baseline and 8 weeks, evaluated depression, quality of life, and treatment satisfaction. Depressive severity, depressive symptoms, and quality of life significantly improved among LV recipients as compared with women receiving standard social/health services. Women valued LV as evidenced by their high attendance rates and treatment satisfaction ratings. In a stepped model of depression care, LV can provide an accessible, acceptable, and effective first-line treatment option for at-risk women who otherwise are unlikely to receive treatment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Social inequality in the prevalence of depressive disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, I; Thielen, K; Nygaard, Else

    2009-01-01

    Uncertainties exist about the strength of the relation between socioeconomic position and depressive disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between education, occupation, employment and income and depressive disorders measured as minor and major depression, as well as...

  15. Housing Problems of Minorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Robert

    1975-01-01

    This testimony, before a public hearing of the New York City Commission on Human Rights in May 1974, reviews the status of minority group housing and the effects of federal programs upon it, advocating an approach which recognizes the intrinsic locational and real estate value of many black ghettos. (Author/JM)

  16. Minority Language Teaching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monique Turkenburg

    2001-01-01

    Original title: Onderwijs in alochtone levende talen. At the request of the Dutch Ministry of Education, Culture and Science, an exploratory study was carried out of minority Language teaching for primary school pupils. This exploratory study in seven municipalities not only shows the way in

  17. Ethnic Minorities and Integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mérove Gijsberts

    2005-01-01

    There has been a great deal of discussion in the Netherlands recently about the integration of ethnic minorities. The tenor of that discussion is sombre: some observers speak of a 'multicultural drama', while others claim that the government's integration policy has failed completely. Recent

  18. Becoming (ethnic minority) teenagers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tørslev, Mette Kirstine; Nørredam, Marie Louise; Vitus, Kathrine

    2017-01-01

    and majority students in two school classes from the fifth to seventh grades. Taking a practice approach, the article first analyses school as a social site before turning phenomenological attention to experiences and expectations of becoming teenagers, focusing on the experiences of ethnic minority students...

  19. Britain's Ethnic Minorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Central Office of Information, London (England).

    This pamphlet discusses the situation of ethnic minorities--particularly those of Caribbean, Asian, or African origin--in the United Kingdom. Following introductory material, the background to immigration in Britain is described and the numbers and geographic distribution of the different ethnic groups are discussed. Next comes a general…

  20. Depression in Europe: does migrant integration have mental health payoffs? A cross-national comparison of 20 European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levecque, Katia; Van Rossem, Ronan

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. Depression is a leading cause of ill health and disability. As migrants form an increasing group in Europe, already making up about 8.7% of the population in 2010, knowledge on migrant-related inequalities in depression is of main public health interest. In this study, we first assess whether migrants in Europe are at higher risk for depression compared to the native population. Second, we assess whether the association between migration and depression is dependent on different forms of migrant integration. Migrant integration is looked at both from the individual and from the national level. Design. Hierarchical linear regression analyses based on data for 20 countries in the European Social Survey 2006/2007 (N = 37,076 individuals aged 15 or more). Depression is measured using the center for Epidemiologic Depression Scale. We consider migrant integration over time (first- and second-generation migrants, differentiated according to European Union (EU) or non-EU origin), barriers to integration (low educational level, financial difficulties, being out of the labor market, ethnic minority status, discrimination), and the host country environment (national migrant integration policy). Controls are gender, age, partner relationship, social support, and welfare state regime. Results. Natives and second-generation migrants do not differ significantly in their risk profile for depression. First-generation migrants show higher levels of depression, with those born outside of Europe to be the worst off. This higher risk for depression is not attributable to ethnic minority status but is mainly due to experienced barriers to socioeconomic integration and processes of discrimination. A country's national policy on migrant integration shows not to soften the depressing effect of being a first-generation migrant nor does it have indirect beneficial health effects by reducing barriers to integration. Conclusion. In Europe, first-generation EU and non-EU migrants

  1. Pairwise measures of causal direction in the epidemiology of sleep problems and depression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Rosenström

    Full Text Available Depressive mood is often preceded by sleep problems, suggesting that they increase the risk of depression. Sleep problems can also reflect prodromal symptom of depression, thus temporal precedence alone is insufficient to confirm causality. The authors applied recently introduced statistical causal-discovery algorithms that can estimate causality from cross-sectional samples in order to infer the direction of causality between the two sets of symptoms from a novel perspective. Two common-population samples were used; one from the Young Finns study (690 men and 997 women, average age 37.7 years, range 30-45, and another from the Wisconsin Longitudinal study (3101 men and 3539 women, average age 53.1 years, range 52-55. These included three depression questionnaires (two in Young Finns data and two sleep problem questionnaires. Three different causality estimates were constructed for each data set, tested in a benchmark data with a (practically known causality, and tested for assumption violations using simulated data. Causality algorithms performed well in the benchmark data and simulations, and a prediction was drawn for future empirical studies to confirm: for minor depression/dysphoria, sleep problems cause significantly more dysphoria than dysphoria causes sleep problems. The situation may change as depression becomes more severe, or more severe levels of symptoms are evaluated; also, artefacts due to severe depression being less well presented in the population data than minor depression may intervene the estimation for depression scales that emphasize severe symptoms. The findings are consistent with other emerging epidemiological and biological evidence.

  2. Age- and gender-specific prevalence and risk factors for depressive symptoms in the elderly: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaesmer, H; Riedel-Heller, S; Braehler, E; Spangenberg, L; Luppa, M

    2011-10-01

    Information on the prevalence and risk factors for depressive disorders in old age is of considerable interest for the assessment of future needs of the health care system. The aim of the study is to determine age- and gender-specific prevalence of major depression (MD), minor depression (MiD), and depressive symptoms, and to analyze risk factors associated with depressive symptoms. A representative sample of the German population of 1,659 individuals aged 60 to 85 years were visited at home and answered self-rating questionnaires. Depressive symptoms and syndromes (MD, MiD) were assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). Factors associated with depressive symptoms were determined with linear regression models for the total sample and for men and women separately. Depressive symptoms were found in 28.7% of the participants, while 6.6% were affected by MD or MiD. The highest prevalence of MD and depressive symptoms was found in the oldest age groups. MiD showed an unsteady course across age groups in both sexes. In the total sample as well as in the male subsample, depressive symptoms were significantly associated with increasing age, lower household income, an increasing number of medical conditions, and lower social support. In women only, the number of medical conditions and lacking social support were significantly associated with depressive symptoms. Depressive symptoms are common in old age and occur on a spectrum ranging from very mild forms to MD. The potential modifiability of a number of risk factors for depressive symptoms opens possibilities of secondary prevention such as treatment of chronic diseases as well as support in requirements of daily living.

  3. Risk factors for antenatal depression, postnatal depression and parenting stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milgrom Jeannette

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Given that the prevalence of antenatal and postnatal depression is high, with estimates around 13%, and the consequences serious, efforts have been made to identify risk factors to assist in prevention, identification and treatment. Most risk factors associated with postnatal depression have been well researched, whereas predictors of antenatal depression have been less researched. Risk factors associated with early parenting stress have not been widely researched, despite the strong link with depression. The aim of this study was to further elucidate which of some previously identified risk factors are most predictive of three outcome measures: antenatal depression, postnatal depression and parenting stress and to examine the relationship between them. Methods Primipara and multiparae women were recruited antenatally from two major hoitals as part of the beyondblue National Postnatal Depression Program 1. In this subsidiary study, 367 women completed an additional large battery of validated questionnaires to identify risk factors in the antenatal period at 26–32 weeks gestation. A subsample of these women (N = 161 also completed questionnaires at 10–12 weeks postnatally. Depression level was measured by the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI. Results Regression analyses identified significant risk factors for the three outcome measures. (1. Significant predictors for antenatal depression: low self-esteem, antenatal anxiety, low social support, negative cognitive style, major life events, low income and history of abuse. (2. Significant predictors for postnatal depression: antenatal depression and a history of depression while also controlling for concurrent parenting stress, which was a significant variable. Antenatal depression was identified as a mediator between seven of the risk factors and postnatal depression. (3. Postnatal depression was the only significant predictor for parenting stress and also acted as a mediator

  4. Risk factors for antenatal depression, postnatal depression and parenting stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigh, Bronwyn; Milgrom, Jeannette

    2008-04-16

    Given that the prevalence of antenatal and postnatal depression is high, with estimates around 13%, and the consequences serious, efforts have been made to identify risk factors to assist in prevention, identification and treatment. Most risk factors associated with postnatal depression have been well researched, whereas predictors of antenatal depression have been less researched. Risk factors associated with early parenting stress have not been widely researched, despite the strong link with depression. The aim of this study was to further elucidate which of some previously identified risk factors are most predictive of three outcome measures: antenatal depression, postnatal depression and parenting stress and to examine the relationship between them. Primipara and multiparae women were recruited antenatally from two major hoitals as part of the beyondblue National Postnatal Depression Program 1. In this subsidiary study, 367 women completed an additional large battery of validated questionnaires to identify risk factors in the antenatal period at 26-32 weeks gestation. A subsample of these women (N = 161) also completed questionnaires at 10-12 weeks postnatally. Depression level was measured by the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Regression analyses identified significant risk factors for the three outcome measures. (1). Significant predictors for antenatal depression: low self-esteem, antenatal anxiety, low social support, negative cognitive style, major life events, low income and history of abuse. (2). Significant predictors for postnatal depression: antenatal depression and a history of depression while also controlling for concurrent parenting stress, which was a significant variable. Antenatal depression was identified as a mediator between seven of the risk factors and postnatal depression. (3). Postnatal depression was the only significant predictor for parenting stress and also acted as a mediator for other risk factors. Risk factor profiles for

  5. Serum neuropeptide Y in accident survivors with depression or posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishi, Daisuke; Hashimoto, Kenji; Noguchi, Hiroko; Matsuoka, Yutaka

    2014-06-01

    Although neuropeptide Y (NPY) has received attention for its potential anti-depressive and anti-anxiety effect, evidence in humans has been limited. This study aimed to clarify the relationships between serum NPY and depressive disorders, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in accident survivors. Depressive disorders and PTSD were diagnosed by structural interviews at 1-month follow-up, and serum NPY was measured at the first assessment and 1-month follow-up. Analysis of variance was used to investigate significance of the differences identified. Furthermore, resilience was measured by self-report questionnaires. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to examine the relationship between resilience and serum NPY. Three hundred accident survivors participated in the assessment at the first assessment, and 138 completed the assessment at 1-month follow-up. Twenty-six participants had major depressive disorder and 6 had minor depressive disorder. Nine participants had PTSD and 16 had partial PTSD. No relationship existed between serum NPY and depressive disorders, PTSD, and resilience. The results of cannot be compared with those of NPY in the central nervous system (CNS), but these findings might be due to the nature of depression and PTSD in accident survivors. Further studies are needed to examine the relationships between NPY in CNS and depression and PTSD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and the Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.

  6. Depression (PDQ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Data Conducting Clinical Trials Statistical Tools and Data Terminology Resources NCI Data Catalog Cryo-EM NCI's Role ... that may also cause depression. There are many medical conditions that can cause depression. Medical conditions that ...

  7. Postpartum Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... do not need treatment. The symptoms of postpartum depression last longer and are more severe. You may ... treatment right away, often in the hospital. Postpartum depression can begin anytime within the first year after ...

  8. Depression Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 3286 After hours (404) 639-2888 Contact Media Depression Treatment Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On ... How Do I Know if I Am Experiencing Depression? The following questions may help you determine if ...

  9. Perceived discrimination and depressive symptoms among immigrant-origin adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tummala-Narra, Pratyusha; Claudius, Milena

    2013-07-01

    Although discrimination has been found to contribute to psychological distress among immigrant populations, there are few studies that have examined the relationship between racial and ethnic discrimination in the school setting among foreign-born immigrant and U.S.-born immigrant-origin adolescents. This study examined the relationship between perceived discrimination by adults and peers in the school setting and depressive symptoms in a sample (N = 95) of racial minority immigrant-origin adolescents (13 to 19 years of age) attending an urban high school. We examined the relation between perceived discrimination and depressive symptomology across gender and nativity status (foreign born vs. U.S. born), and the potential moderating role of ethnic identity and social support. Consistent with previous research, girls reported higher levels of depressive symptomology than boys, although the relationship between perceived discrimination and depressive symptoms was significant for both boys and girls. Perceived discrimination by adults and by peers at school was positively related to depressive symptoms for U.S.-born adolescents. For U.S.-born adolescents, ethnic identity mitigated the negative effects of perceived adult discrimination on depressive symptoms. However, ethnic identity did not moderate the relationship between perceived peer discrimination and depressive symptoms. Social support did not moderate the relationship between adult and peer discrimination and depressive symptoms for either foreign-born or U.S.-born adolescents. The findings support previous research concerning the immigrant paradox and highlight the importance of context in the relationship between perceived discrimination and mental health. Implications for future research and intervention are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  10. Teen Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    What is depression in teens? Teen depression is a serious medical illness. It's more than just a feeling of being sad or "blue" for a few days. It is ... trouble focusing and have no motivation or energy. Depression can make you feel like it is hard ...

  11. Depressive realism: effects of depression severity and interpretation time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKendree-Smith, N; Scogin, F

    2000-12-01

    This study examined the theory of depressive realism, which posits that depressed people often are more accurate in perceptions and judgments than nondepressed people. Two possible qualifications to this theory were examined: (1) severity of depression moderates the effect, and (2) length of processing time will impact the presence of bias in depressed people, that is, negative bias will develop over time. College students were presented with a bogus personality profile that actually consisted of items previously rated as neutral in desirability. Participants rated these profiles for desirability initially and then again three days later. Results indicated a significant effect of depression severity on desirability rating. Nondepressed and mildly depressed students found their profiles to be more positive than the moderately/severely depressed students, with both groups having scores in the positive range. However, those participants who were moderately/severely depressed showed a negative bias in their ratings. No support was found for the effect of different times of interpretation.

  12. Depression and physical health in later life : results from the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam (LASA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beekman, ATF; Penninx, BWJH; Deeg, DJH; Ormel, J; Braam, AW; van Tilburg, W

    1997-01-01

    Background: In later life, declining physical health is often thought to be one of the most important risk factors for depression. Major depressive disorders are relatively rare, while depressive syndromes which do not fulfil diagnostic criteria (minor depression) are common. Methods:

  13. Minor burn - first aid - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100213.htm Minor burn - first aid - series—Procedure, part 1 To use ... out of 2 Overview To treat a minor burn, run cool water over the area of the ...

  14. Differences in minor amputation rate in diabetic foot disease throughout Europe are in part explained by differences in disease severity at presentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Battum, P; Schaper, N; Prompers, L

    2011-01-01

    The incidence of minor amputation may vary significantly, and determinants of minor amputation have not been studied systematically. We evaluated minor amputation rate, the determinants of minor amputation and differences in amputation rate between European centres....

  15. Current and Military-Specific Gender Minority Stress Factors and Their Relationship with Suicide Ideation in Transgender Veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Raymond P; Testa, Rylan J; Reger, Mark A; Simpson, Tracy L; Shipherd, Jillian C; Lehavot, Keren

    2018-01-12

    Research suggests the prevalence of suicide ideation and suicide attempts in the transgender veteran community may be upwards of 20 times higher than nontransgender veterans, who are known to be at increased risk than the general US population. This study aimed to understand the potential influence of external and internal minority stress experienced during and after military service on past-year and recent suicide ideation in a sample of 201 transgender veterans. Nonparametric bootstrapping analyses indicated past-year transgender-specific discrimination and rejection (external minority stress) indirectly predicted frequency of both past-year and past 2-week suicide ideation through past-year shame related to gender identity (internal minority stress). This result was significant when controlling for symptoms of depression and demographics. Similar patterns emerged when examining relationships among military external and internal minority stress on suicide outcomes. These results suggest that attempts to reduce both the experience and impact of minority stressors related to gender identity during and after military service may be an important avenue for suicide prevention. © 2018 The American Association of Suicidology.

  16. Minor actinide transmutation using minor actinide burner reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukaiyama, T.; Yoshida, H.; Gunji, Y.

    1991-01-01

    The concept of minor actinide burner reactor is proposed as an efficient way to transmute long-lived minor actinides in order to ease the burden of high-level radioactive waste disposal problem. Conceptual design study of minor actinide burner reactors was performed to obtain a reactor model with very hard neutron spectrum and very high neutron flux in which minor actinides can be fissioned efficiently. Two models of burner reactors were obtained, one with metal fuel core and the other with particle fuel core. Minor actinide transmutation by the actinide burner reactors is compared with that by power reactors from both the reactor physics and fuel cycle facilities view point. (author)

  17. Establishing the reliability and validity of the Zagazig Depression Scale in a UK student population: an online pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Challenor Emily C

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is thought that depressive disorders will be the second leading cause of disability worldwide by 2020. Recently, there is a steady increase in the number of university students diagnosed and treated as depression patients. It can be assumed that depression is a serious mental health problem for university students because it affects all age groups of the students either younger or older equally. The current study aims to establish the reliability and validity of the Zagazig Depression scale in a UK sample. Methods The study was a cross-sectional online survey. A sample of 133 out of 275 undergraduate students from a range of UK Universities in the academic year 2008-2009, aged 20.3 ± 6.3 years old were recruited. A modified back translated version of Zagazig Depression scale was used. In order to validate the Zagazig Depression scale, participants were asked to complete the Patient Health Questionnaire. Statistical analysis includes Kappa analysis, Cronbach's alpha, Spearman's correlation analysis, and Confirmatory Factor analysis. Results Using the recommended cut-off of Zagazig Depression scale for possible minor depression it was found that 30.3% of the students have depression and higher percentage was identified according to the Patient Health Questionnaire (37.4%. Females were more depressed. The mean ZDS score was 8.3 ± 4.2. Rates of depression increase as students get older. The reliability of The ZDS was satisfactory (Cronbach's alpha was .894. For validity, ZDS score was strongly associated with PHQ, with no significant difference (p-value > 0.05, with strong positive correlation (r = +.8, p-value Conclusion The strong, significant correlation between the PHQ and ZDS, along with high internal consistency of the ZDS as a whole provides evidence that ZDS is a reliable measure of depressive symptoms and is promising for the use of the translated ZDS in a large-scale cross-culture study.

  18. Institutional Investors as Minority Shareholders

    OpenAIRE

    Assaf Hamdani; Yishay Yafeh

    2013-01-01

    We examine the link between minority shareholders' rights and corporate governance by studying institutional investors' voting patterns in a concentrated ownership environment. Institutions rarely vote against insider-sponsored proposals even when the law empowers the minority. Institutions vote against compensation-related proposals more often than against related party transactions even when minority shareholders cannot influence outcomes. Potentially conflicted institutions are more likely...

  19. [Primary headache and depression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesztelyi, Gyöngyi

    2004-11-28

    Primary headaches--mainly tension-type headache and migraine--affect a significant portion of the population. Depression is also highly prevalent. The co-existence of a primary headache and depression in the same patient therefore might be a coincidence due to the high prevalence of these conditions, but there might be a causal relationship between them, or headaches and depression might have a common background. This review of the literature summarizes the features of the relationship between primary headaches and depression. Depression is more prevalent in headache patients than in the headache-free population. Prospective epidemiological studies suggest a common genetic, biochemical or environmental background behind primary headaches and depression. This theory is supported by the role of the same neurotransmitter systems (mostly serotonin and dopamine) in headaches as well as in depression. Comorbid depression is associated with female gender, higher age, and higher frequency of headaches. Most depression inventories--questionnaires used to screen for the severity of depressive symptoms--contain transdiagnostic items, therefore their use in their original form is limited in organic diseases: due to the somatic items they might overestimate the severity of depression. When examining a headache patient special attention should be paid to the recognition of comorbid depression. The diagnosis of suspected mood disorder could be supported by using simple screening methods, such as the original or the abbreviated versions of standard depression inventories, but the final diagnosis of major depression needs psychiatric evaluation. Quality of life of the headache patient is affected not only by the characteristics of pain (frequency, duration, severity) but also by the disability caused by headache and the associating mood disorder. Recognizing coexisting mood disorder and disability helps to make the best treatment choice for the acute and preventive treatment of

  20. Twelve-year history of late-life depression and subsequent feelings to God.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braam, Arjan W; Schaap-Jonker, Hanneke; van der Horst, Marleen H L; Steunenberg, Bas; Beekman, Aartjan T F; van Tilburg, Willem; Deeg, Dorly J H

    2014-11-01

    Growing evidence shows several possible relations between religiousness and late-life depression. Emotional aspects of religiousness such as facets of the perceived relationship with God can be crucial in this connection. The aim of the current study was to examine the association between the course of late-life depression and feelings about God and religious coping. Longitudinal survey study; naturalistic; 12-year follow-up. Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam; population-based, in three regions in The Netherlands. A subsample of 343 respondents (mean age: 77.2 years), including all respondents with high levels of depressive symptoms at any measurement cycle between 1992 and 2003 (assessed by using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale and the Diagnostic Interview Schedule) and a random sample of nondepressed respondents who completed a postal questionnaire in 2005. Scales on God Image and Religious Coping. Twelve-year depression course trajectories serve as predicting variables and are specified according to recency and seriousness. Persistent and emergent depression are significantly associated with fear of God, feeling wronged by God, and negative religious coping. In terms of negative religious coping, significant associations were observed after adjustment for concurrent depression with a history of repeated minor depression and previous major depression. Late-life depression seems to maintain a pervasive relationship over time with affective aspects of religiousness. Religious feelings may parallel the symptoms of anhedonia or a dysphoric mood and could represent the experience of an existential void. Copyright © 2014 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. THE NATIONAL MINORITY CONSULTATIVE MECHANISMS - THE COUNCILS OF NATIONAL MINORITIES IN BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar Čorni

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article tries to explore the practical application of the soft law, in concrete terms, the documents adopted by the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, referring to the models of participation of national minorities in public life in the case of Bosnia and Herzegovina. The objective of the research was to assess the legal and political grounds for functioning national minority councils as participation and consultative mechanisms, scope of responsibilities and capacities in relation to their effectiveness and impact and to identify relevant good practices on such mechanisms. The political and decision-making structures in Bosnia and Herzegovina demonstrated lack of actual commitment to the realization of the rights of minorities referring to participation in decision-making processes. Bearing in mind formal position within parliaments, visibility, and a significant promotional capacity for presence in the public sphere, the councils on national minorities may represent a significant body and channel for the minority – majority dialogue. However, at the moment, the national minority councils’ capacity to ensure participation of national minorities in Bosnian political life and their influence in decision-making process remains insufficient. In general, the consultative mechanisms, within their mandated responsibilities, have had insignificant and minimal impact on the practical, political and legislative segment.

  2. Predictors of postpartum depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katon, Wayne; Russo, Joan; Gavin, Amelia

    2014-09-01

    To examine sociodemographic factors, pregnancy-associated psychosocial stress and depression, health risk behaviors, prepregnancy medical and psychiatric illness, pregnancy-related illnesses, and birth outcomes as risk factors for post-partum depression (PPD). A prospective cohort study screened women at 4 and 8 months of pregnancy and used hierarchical logistic regression analyses to examine predictors of PPD. The study sample include 1,423 pregnant women at a university-based high risk obstetrics clinic. A score of ≥10 on the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) indicated clinically significant depressive symptoms. Compared with women without significant postpartum depressive symptoms, women with PPD were significantly younger (pdepressive symptoms (pdepression case finding for pregnant women.

  3. Depression in Coronary Artery Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasser Safaie

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Depression is one of the Common psychological disorders. From the cognitive point of view, the unhealthy attitudes increase the severity of the depression. The aim of this study was to investigate depression and unhealthy attitudes in coronary patients hospitalized at Tabriz Shahid Madani Heart Center. Methods: One hundred twenty eight hospitalized patients having myocardial Infarctions were studied regarding unhealthy attitudes, severity of depression and demographic data. Results: The study showed a significant relation between unhealthy attitudes, BDI (Beck Depression Inventory and severe depression. Moreover, a significant relation existed between gender and depression (P=0.0001. In addition, the level of education increased the intensity of unhealthy attitudes (P=0.0001. Several researches in both outside and inside Iran support the idea. Conclusion: Based on present study and more other investigations, it can be suggested to provide the necessary elements and parameters such as antidepressant medication, psychologists, complementary treatment for coping with negative mood and its unwanted consequences.

  4. BOOK REVIEW: Minority Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzler, R.

    2005-02-01

    New branches of scientific disciplines often have a few paradigmatic models that serve as a testing ground for theories and a starting point for new inquiries. In the late 1990s, one of these models found fertile ground in the growing field of econophysics: the Minority Game (MG), a model for speculative markets that combined conceptual simplicity with interesting emergent behaviour and challenging mathematics. The two basic ingredients were the minority mechanism (a large number of players have to choose one of two alternatives in each round, and the minority wins) and limited rationality (each player has a small set of decision rules, and chooses the more successful ones). Combining these, one observes a phase transition between a crowded and an inefficient market phase, fat-tailed price distributions at the transition, and many other nontrivial effects. Now, seven years after the first paper, three of the key players—Damien Challet, Matteo Marsili and Yi-Cheng Zhang—have published a monograph that summarizes the current state of the science. The book consists of two parts: a 100-page overview of the various aspects of the MG, and reprints of many essential papers. The first chapters of Part I give a well-written description of the motivation and the history behind the MG, and then go into the phenomenology and the mathematical treatment of the model. The authors emphasize the `physics' underlying the behaviour and give coherent, intuitive explanations that are difficult to extract from the original papers. The mathematics is outlined, but calculations are not carried out in great detail (maybe they could have been included in an appendix). Chapter 4 then discusses how and why the MG is a model for speculative markets, how it can be modified to give a closer fit to observed market statistics (in particular, reproducing the `stylized facts' of fat-tailed distributions and volatility clustering), and what conclusions one can draw from the behaviour of the MG

  5. Cross-National Investigation of Health Indicators among Sexual Minorities in Norway and the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan J. Watson

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A cross-national study of young adult sexual minorities was conducted in order to explore the associations between sexual orientation and measures of depression, suicidality, and substance use. Two nationally representative data sets were explored from the United States (N = 14,335 and Norway (N = 2423. Results indicated that sexual minorities experienced multiple health disparities (depression, suicidality, and substance use compared to their heterosexual counterparts. We found similar patterns of depression, suicidality, and substance use for sexual minorities in both the United States and Norway. The highest odds of substance use were among heterosexual-identified Norwegian youth who reported same-sex sexual activity, and the highest odds of suicidality were found for bisexual young adults in Norway. These findings have implications for how we consider culture and social policy as barriers and/or opportunities for sexual minorities.

  6. Depressive Symptoms of Chinese Children: Prevalence and Correlated Factors among Subgroups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi Zhou

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Economic growth and socioeconomic changes have transformed nearly every aspect of childhood in China, and many are worried by the increasing prevalence of mental health issues among children, particularly depression. To provide insight into the distribution of depressive symptoms among children in China and identify vulnerable groups, we use data from the 2012 China Family Panel Survey (CFPS, a survey that collected data from a large, nationally representative sample of the Chinese population. Using the CFPS data, we construct a sample of 2679 children aged 10–15 years old from 25 provinces in China. According to our results, the incidence of depression varies by geographic area. Specifically, we find that rates of depressive symptoms are significantly lower in urban areas (14% of sample children than in rural areas (23% of sample children. Our results also show that children from ethnic minorities, from poorer families, and whose parents are depressed are more likely to be depressed than other children. In contrast, we find that depressive symptoms do not vary by gender.

  7. The use of cognitive behavioral therapy in the treatment of resistant depression in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prieto-Hicks X

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Sarah Hamill-Skoch,1 Paul Hicks,2 Ximena Prieto-Hicks11Department of Psychiatry, 2Department of Family and Community Medicine, University of Arizona, Tuscon, AZ, USAAbstract: Major depressive disorder often begins in adolescence, is chronic and recurrent, and heightens an individual's risk for major depressive disorder in adulthood. Treatment-resistant depression is a problem for a significant minority of adolescents. Few studies have examined treatments for treatment-resistant depression among adolescents, and even fewer have examined the use of cognitive-behavioral therapy as a monotherapy or in combination with pharmacological treatments. Mental health professionals have a strong interest in understanding what treatments are appropriate for adolescents who are treatment resistant. Preliminary evidence from current published trials indicates that the use of cognitive-behavioral therapy in combination with antidepressant medication yields the best outcome for treatment-resistant depression in adolescents. Secondary analyses also suggest that the utility of cognitive behavioral therapy can be increased by ensuring adolescents receive a therapeutic dose of treatment sessions (more than nine sessions and the inclusion of two treatment components: social skills and problem solving training. Guidelines for clinicians as well as areas for future research are discussed.Keywords: cognitive behavior therapy, treatment-resistant depression, adolescent depression

  8. Behandlingsresistent depression kan behandles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinberg, Maj; Levinsen, Mette Frandsen; Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2011-01-01

    Depression is considered resistant when two treatment attempts with antidepressants from different classes fail to produce significant clinical improvement. In cases of treatment-resistant depression, it is recommended to reevaluate the diagnosis, clarify comorbidity, substance abuse and lack...... of compliance. Regarding treatment, evidence is sparse, but switching to a different antidepressant, and combination or augmentation with another agent, admission and treatment with ECT are the options. The choice of treatment must be based on the characteristics of the depression, the severity of treatment...

  9. Sexual minority women's gender identity and expression: challenges and supports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitt, Heidi M; Puckett, Julia A; Ippolito, Maria R; Horne, Sharon G

    2012-01-01

    Sexual minority women were divided into four groups to study their gender identities (butch and femme), and gender expression (traditionally gendered and non-traditionally gendered women who do not identify as butch or femme). Experiences of heterosexist events (discrimination, harassment, threats of violence, victimization, negative emotions associated with these events), mental health (self esteem, stress, depression), and supports for a sexual minority identity (social support, outness, internalized homophobia) were examined across these groups. Findings suggested that butch-identified women experienced more heterosexist events than femme women or women with non-traditional gender expressions. There were no differences in mental health variables. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

  10. Establishing the reliability and validity of the Zagazig Depression Scale in a UK student population: an online pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Ahmed K; Kelly, Shona J; Challenor, Emily C; Glazebrook, Cris

    2010-12-10

    It is thought that depressive disorders will be the second leading cause of disability worldwide by 2020. Recently, there is a steady increase in the number of university students diagnosed and treated as depression patients. It can be assumed that depression is a serious mental health problem for university students because it affects all age groups of the students either younger or older equally. The current study aims to establish the reliability and validity of the Zagazig Depression scale in a UK sample. The study was a cross-sectional online survey. A sample of 133 out of 275 undergraduate students from a range of UK Universities in the academic year 2008-2009, aged 20.3 ± 6.3 years old were recruited. A modified back translated version of Zagazig Depression scale was used. In order to validate the Zagazig Depression scale, participants were asked to complete the Patient Health Questionnaire. Statistical analysis includes Kappa analysis, Cronbach's alpha, Spearman's correlation analysis, and Confirmatory Factor analysis. Using the recommended cut-off of Zagazig Depression scale for possible minor depression it was found that 30.3% of the students have depression and higher percentage was identified according to the Patient Health Questionnaire (37.4%). Females were more depressed. The mean ZDS score was 8.3 ± 4.2. Rates of depression increase as students get older. The reliability of The ZDS was satisfactory (Cronbach's alpha was .894). For validity, ZDS score was strongly associated with PHQ, with no significant difference (p-value > 0.05), with strong positive correlation (r = +.8, p-value depressive symptoms and is promising for the use of the translated ZDS in a large-scale cross-culture study.

  11. Impact of Depressive Disorder on Access and Quality of Care in Veterans With Prevalent Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Pallavi; Butler, Javed; Shroyer, A Laurie; Lacey, Matthew; Parikh, Puja B

    2018-06-15

    Although depressive disorders have been associated with increased risk of worse outcomes with cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), its relation with access to and quality of cardiovascular care is not well studied. Accordingly, we sought to assess the association between depressive disorders and access and quality of care among United States veterans with CVD. The 2013 Centers for Disease Control's Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey was utilized to identify a cohort of 13,126 veterans with CVD. Demographic and clinical history were recorded in adults with and without a depressive disorder (defined as self-reported diagnosis of depression, major depression, minor depression, or dysthymia). Among 13,126 veterans studied, a total of 2,889 (22.0%) adults had a depressive disorder whereas 10,237 (78.0%) did not. The veterans with a depressive disorder were younger, more often female and non-white, and had higher rates of multiple medical co-morbidities. They were more likely to report a delay in receiving medical care and financial barriers to seeking care and taking prescription drugs. They also reported significantly lower rates of aspirin and antihypertensive drug use. In multivariate analysis, depressive disorder was independently associated with higher risk of delay in receiving medical care (OR [odds ratio] 2.07, 95% CI [confidence interval] 1.65 to 2.60), financial barriers to medical care (OR 1.96, 95% CI 1.45 to 2.65), and prescription drugs (OR 1.45, 95% CI 1.02 to 2.08). In conclusion, depressive disorders were associated with impaired access to care among United States veterans with CVD. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Social relationships and depression among people 65 years and over living in rural and urban areas of Quebec.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechakra-Tahiri, Samia; Zunzunegui, Maria Victoria; Préville, Michel; Dubé, Micheline

    2009-11-01

    To compare the prevalence of depression within the elderly Quebec population residing in rural areas, urban areas and metropolitan Montreal, and to assess differences in the associations between social relationships and depression across these urban and rural settings. Data originate from the first wave of the ESA (Etude de Santé des Ainés) longitudinal study on mental health of community dwelling older persons aged over 65 (n = 2670). Depression, including major and minor depression, measured using a computer questionnaire; the ESA-Q developed by the research team and based on the DSM-IV criteria. Assessments of associations between depression and geographic area, informal social networks and community participation were estimated adjusting for demographic, socioeconomic and health characteristics. The prevalence of depression was higher in rural (17%) and urban areas (15.1%) than in metropolitan Montreal (10.3%). The odds ratio of rural (OR = 2.01 95% CI 1.59-2.68) and urban (OR = 1.75; 95% CI 1.25-2.45) areas compared to the metropolitan area increased slightly after adjustment by all social and health covariates. Our study indicated that social support and the lack of conflict in intimate relationships were associated with lower prevalence of depression in all areas. Geographic differences in depression exist within the elderly population in Quebec that may generate significant impact on their health and functional abilities. Further research should be conducted to explain these differences. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Reflections on world citizens and privilege - comparing indigenous and Muslim minorities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Hanne

    2010-01-01

    The article treats the significance of status, citizenship and world-citizenship for two 'minorities' - indigenous people and Muslim.......The article treats the significance of status, citizenship and world-citizenship for two 'minorities' - indigenous people and Muslim....

  14. Depressive Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jacqueline A.; Russell, Samantha; Rasor, Kaitlin

    2017-01-01

    Depression is among the most common mental disorders in the United States. Its diagnosis is often related to impairment of functioning across several domains, including how an individual thinks, feels, and participates in daily activities. Although depression has a relatively high prevalence among adults, the rate is alarmingly higher among…

  15. Postpartum Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... professionals for help. With support and treatment, new mothers with depression can go on to be healthy, happy parents. ... or two, talk to your doctor. A new mother who feels like giving up, who feels that life is not ... depression can last for several months or even longer ...

  16. Prevalence and characteristics of Postpartum Depression symptomatology among Canadian women: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuk Jennifer L

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aims to look at the prevalence and characteristics of postpartum depression symptomatology (PPDS among Canadian women. Studies have found that in developed countries, 10-15% of new mothers were affected by major postpartum depression. Mothers who suffer from postpartum depression may endure difficulties regarding their ability to cope with life events, as well as negative clinical implications for maternal-infant attachment. Methods An analysis based on 6,421 Canadian women, who had a live birth between 2005 and 2006 and were part of the Maternity Experience Survey (MES, was performed. PPDS was measured based on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. Various factors that assessed socio-economic status, demographic factors, and maternal characteristics were considered for the multinomial regression model. Results The national prevalence of minor/major and major PPDS was found to be 8.46% and 8.69% respectively. A mother's stress level during pregnancy, the availability of support after pregnancy, and a prior diagnosis of depression were the characteristics that had the strongest significant association with the development of PPDS. Conclusions A significant number of Canadian women experience symptoms of postpartum depression. Findings from this study may be useful to increase both the attainment of treatment and the rate at which it can be obtained among new mothers. Interventions should target those with the greatest risk of experiencing PPDS, specifically immigrant and adolescent mothers.

  17. Risk For Postpartum Depression Among Immigrant Arabic Women in the United States: A Feasibility Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhasanat, Dalia; Fry-McComish, Judith; Yarandi, Hossein N

    2017-07-01

    Postpartum depression (PPD) affects approximately 14% of women in the United States and 10% to 37% of Arabic women in the Middle East. Evidence suggests that immigrant women experience higher rates, but information on PPD among immigrant women of Arabic descent in the United States is nonexistent. A cross-sectional descriptive feasibility study was conducted to assess the practicality of implementing a larger proposed research study to examine predictors of PPD in US immigrant women of Arabic descent residing in Dearborn, Michigan. Fifty women were recruited from an Arab community center and completed demographic data, the Arabic version of the Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale (EPDS), and the Postpartum Depression Predictors Inventory-Revised (PDPI-R). Among participants, 36% were considered at high risk for developing PPD. Lack of social support, antenatal anxiety, antenatal depression, maternity blues (feeling depressed during the first 4 weeks postpartum), and life stress were significantly related to risk for PPD. Multiple regression analysis revealed that social support (t = -3.77, P postpartum depressive symptoms. Findings of this study describe the prevalence of PPD in a sample of US immigrant women of Arabic descent and support the feasibility of a larger and more in-depth understanding of their immigration and acculturation experiences. Study participants reported high risk for PPD. Maternity blues and lack of social support were significant predictors to the risk for PPD. Future research tailored to this minority group is recommended. © 2017 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.

  18. Sexual Minority Stressors, Internalizing Symptoms, and Unhealthy Eating Behaviors in Sexual Minority Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz-Wise, Sabra L.; Calzo, Jerel P.; Scherer, Emily A.; Sarda, Vishnudas; Jackson, Benita; Haines, Jess; Austin, S. Bryn

    2015-01-01

    Background Sexual minorities are more likely than heterosexuals to engage in unhealthy eating behaviors. Purpose To examine sexual minority stressors and internalizing symptoms as predictors of unhealthy eating behaviors among sexual minority youth. Methods We used longitudinal data from 1461 sexual minority youth in the Growing Up Today Study, across ages 14-28 years. We hypothesized that sexual minority stressors would predict unhealthy eating behaviors, in part due to internalizing symptoms. Linear regression models fit via generalized estimating equations were stratified by gender and sexual orientation. Results Significant positive and inverse associations between stressors and eating behaviors were detected among females and males, with more significant associations among females. Associations were attenuated by up to 71% for females and 12% for males when internalizing symptoms were added to the models. Conclusions Sexual minority stressors predicted unhealthy eating behaviors overall and more so for some sexual orientation and gender groups; associations were partially explained by internalizing symptoms. The conceptual model appears to best describe the experiences of bisexual females. Findings have clinical implications for adolescent health. PMID:26156678

  19. Minor psychiatric disorders in mothers and asthma in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreto do Carmo, Maria Beatriz; Neves Santos, Darci; Alves Ferreira Amorim, Leila Denise; Fiaccone, Rosemeire Leovigildo; Souza da Cunha, Sergio; Cunha Rodrigues, Laura; Barreto, Mauricio L

    2009-05-01

    Recent studies have shown that asthma represents a major health issue not only in children of developed countries but also in urban centers in some middle-income countries. Brazil has one of the highest prevalences of asthma worldwide. Recently, interest has grown in the relationship between psychosocial factors and asthma. This article examines the relationship between maternal mental disorders and the prevalence of asthma in low-income children from an inner city area of Salvador in the state of Bahia, Brazil, and is part of the SCAALA program (Social Change, Allergy and Asthma in Latin America). A total of 1,087 children between the ages of 5 and 12 were investigated, together with their mothers. The mothers' mental health was evaluated using the SRQ-20, an instrument for the psychiatric screening of minor psychiatric disorders (depression, anxiety and somatic complaints). The prevalence of asthma was investigated using the ISAAC survey, a standardized, validated questionnaire for asthma and other allergic diseases. Cases were defined as asthma if the patient reported having had wheezing in the previous 12 months in addition to at least one of the following: having asthma, wheezing while exercising, waking during the night because of wheezing, or having had at least four episodes of wheezing in the previous 12 months. Atopy was defined as a positive skin prick test to allergens. The presence of minor psychiatric disorders in the mothers was significantly associated with the presence of asthma in the children, and this association was consistent with all forms of asthma, irrespective of whether it was atopic or nonatopic. Future studies should be carried out to further investigate this association and the potential biological mechanisms involved. Programs for asthma control should include strategies for stress reduction and psychological support for the families of asthmatic children.

  20. [Music therapy and depression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Assche, E; De Backer, J; Vermote, R

    2015-01-01

    Music therapy is a predominantly non-verbal psychotherapy based on music improvisation, embedded in a therapeutic relationship. This is the reason why music therapy is also used to treat depression. To examine the efficacy of music therapy and to report on the results of recent research into the value of music therapy as a treatment for depression. We reviewed the literature on recent research into music therapy and depression, reporting on the methods used and the results achieved, and we assessed the current position of music therapy for depression in the context of evidence-based scientific research. A wide variety of research methods was used to investigate the effects of using music therapy as a psychotherapy. Most studies focused usually on the added value that music therapy brings to the standard form of psychiatric treatment, when administered with or without psychopharmacological support. Music therapy produced particularly significant and favourable results when used to treat patients with depression. Current research into music therapy and depression points to a significant and persistent reduction in patients' symptoms and to improvements in their quality of life. However, further research is needed with regard to the best methods of illustrating the effects of music therapy.

  1. Perceived racial, sexual identity, and homeless status-related discrimination among Black adolescents and young adults experiencing homelessness: Relations with depressive symptoms and suicidality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gattis, Maurice N; Larson, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    There is a dearth of empirical evidence that addresses how racial minority, sexual minority, and homeless statuses, with their accompanying experiences of stigma and discrimination, are related to mental health in adolescent and young adult populations. The current study addresses this gap by examining the associations between multiple forms of discrimination, depressive symptoms, and suicidality in a sample of 89 Black adolescents and young adults (52% female; 47% nonheterosexual, ages 16-24) experiencing homelessness. Results from a series of ordinary least squares and logistic regressions suggested that perceived homelessness stigma and racial discrimination were associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms, controlling for gender, age, and other types of discrimination, while perceived sexual identity discrimination showed no association. Having ever spent a homeless night on the street, an indicator of homelessness severity, accounted for a substantial amount of the association between homelessness stigma and depressive symptoms. In contrast, suicidality was not significantly associated with any measure of discrimination, homelessness severity, or personal characteristics. We also found no indication that the associations between perceived discrimination targeted at racial and homelessness statuses and mental health differed by sexual minority status. Our results suggest that depressive symptoms and suicidality are prevalent among Black homeless youth, and that depressive symptoms are particularly associated with racial discrimination and indicators of homelessness. The roles of discrimination and a lack of safe housing may be taken into account when designing programs and policies that address the mental health of Black adolescents and young adults experiencing homelessness. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Depressive realism and clinical depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Richard C; Hollon, Steven D; Shelton, Richard C

    2010-04-01

    Depressive realism suggests that depressed individuals make more accurate judgments of control than their nondepressed counterparts. However, most studies demonstrating this phenomenon were conducted in nonclinical samples. In this study, psychiatric patients who met criteria for major depressive disorder underestimated control in a contingent situation and were consistently more negative in their judgments than were nondepressed controls. Depressed patients were less likely than their nondepressed counterparts to overestimate control in a noncontingent situation, but largely because they perceived receiving less reinforcement. Depressed patients were no more likely to use the appropriate logical heuristic to generate their judgments of control than their nondepressed counterparts and each appeared to rely on different primitive heuristics. Depressed patients were consistently more negative than their nondepressed counterparts and when they did appear to be more "accurate" in their judgments of control (as in the noncontingent situation) it was largely because they applied the wrong heuristic to less accurate information. These findings do not support the notion of depressive realism and suggest that depressed patients distort their judgments in a characteristically negative fashion. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Self-regulation in children and minors in institutional care

    OpenAIRE

    Hrbáčková, Karla; Vávrová, Soňa

    2015-01-01

    The study deals with self-regulation in children and minors (aged 11 to 19 years) living in so-called "total institutions". It examines the degree of self-regulation of behaviour from the perspective of the children and minors themselves and from the perspective of their key workers. Children and minors and their key workers differ significantly in perception of the wards' self-regulation of behaviour in the short and long-term context. The lowest rate of self-regulation in children and minor...

  4. Minor physical anomalies and schizophrenia spectrum disorders: a prospective investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiffman, Jason; Ekstrøm, Morten; LaBrie, Joseph

    2002-01-01

    at high risk. RESULTS: Individuals with a high number of minor physical anomalies developed schizophrenia spectrum disorders significantly more often than they developed a no mental illness outcome. Further, individuals with a high number of minor physical anomalies tended to develop schizophrenia......OBJECTIVE: The authors prospectively assessed the relationship between minor physical anomalies identified in childhood and adult psychiatric outcome. METHOD: In 1972, minor physical anomalies were measured in a group of 265 Danish children ages 11-13. The examination was part of a larger study...... spectrum disorders more often than other psychopathology. Among individuals at genetic high risk, higher numbers of minor physical anomalies may interact with pre-existing vulnerabilities for schizophrenia to increase the likelihood of a schizophrenia spectrum disorder outcome. CONCLUSIONS: Minor physical...

  5. Expression and its clinical significance of miR-137 in peripheral blood of patients with depression after ischemic stroke%MiR-137在缺血性卒中后抑郁患者外周血中的表达及其临床意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁豫; 田小军; 史莉瑾; 苏洲; 郭双喜; 王玉梅

    2017-01-01

    Objective To explore the changes of miR-137 of patients with depression after ischemic stroke and its clinical significance.Methods All the patients were separately divided into four groups according to the following rating scales: 2014 diagnostic criteria for acute cerebral infarction, Hamilton depression scale(HAMD-24), Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, the fifth edition (DSM-5)were applied to categorizing.According to the above grouping standards,all the patients were grouped as normal control group (n=20),the depression group (n=20), post-stroke depression group (n=37),no depression after stroke group (n=37).The expression level of microRNA(miR)-137 in each group was detected by quantitative real-time PCR(qRT-PCR),and the results were compared.Results The difference of gender,age,chronic dieases,the site of infarction,NIHSS score had no statistical significance in the four group (all P>0.05).Compared with no depression after stroke group, the number of patients with left cerebral infarction was significantly increased in post-stroke depression group(P0.05).Conclusions Ischemic stroke can induce the low expression of miR-137 which participates in the formation of post-stroke depression.miR-137 may act as a predictive,diagnostic,therapeutic index of poststroke depression.%目的 探讨缺血性卒中后抑郁患者miR-137的变化及临床意义.方法 采用中国急性缺血性脑卒中诊治指南2014急性脑梗死诊断标准、汉密尔顿抑郁量表(HAMD-24项)、精神障碍诊断及统计手册第五版(DSM-5)将研究对象分为正常对照组、抑郁症组各20例,并发抑郁组、未并发抑郁组各37例.运用实时荧光定量PCR方法(qRT-PCR)检测各microRNA(miRNA)-137的表达水平,并对相关结果进行比较.结果 四组样本的性别、年龄、合并高血压病、合并糖尿病、合并心脏病、NIHSS 评分差异无统计学意义(均P >0.05).与未并发抑郁组相比,并发抑郁组左侧

  6. Depression in the Workplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You are here Home » Depression In The Workplace Depression In The Workplace Clinical depression has become one ... will die by suicide vi . Employees' Attitudes Towards Depression Often times a depressed employee will not seek ...

  7. Genetics Home Reference: depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Share: Email Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions Depression Depression Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Depression (also known as major depression or major depressive ...

  8. Depression and mental health among older Mexican American spouses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stimpson, J P; Peek, M K; Markides, K S

    2006-07-01

    Although the association between marriage and well-being is well established, few studies have focused on learning more about the context of marriage and mental health. Recent research studying the mechanisms of marriage and health has focused on contagion of well-being among spouses. This study examined the association of depression with self-esteem, social support, life satisfaction, concern for independence, and cognitive function using baseline data for 553 older, Mexican American couples. Overall, we found evidence to suggest an interdependent relationship between husbands' and wives' emotional states, but the association was not equal for couples. Husbands' depression was significantly associated with the well-being of their wife, but the wife's depression was rarely associated with the husband's well-being. The findings from this study add to the increasing literature on spousal contagion by focusing on an under studied minority group, examining how depression affects well-being, and highlighting unequal effects of marriage on spousal well-being.

  9. Ethnic Minority Dropout in Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Ivo J. M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the first-year study success of minority students in the bachelor program in economics at Erasmus University Rotterdam. We find that the gap in study success between minority and majority students can be attributed to differences in high school education. Students from similar high school tracks show no significant…

  10. Ethnic minority dropout in economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnold, I.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the first-year study success of minority students in the bachelor program in economics at Erasmus University Rotterdam. We find that the gap in study success between minority and majority students can be attributed to differences in high school education. Students from

  11. Male depression in females?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller-Leimkühler, Anne Maria; Yücel, Mete

    2010-02-01

    Scientific evidence for a male-typed depression ("male depression") is still limited, but mainly supports this concept with respect to single externalizing symptoms or symptom clusters. In particular, studies on non-clinical populations including males and females are lacking. The present study aims at assessing general well-being, the risk and the symptoms of male depression dependent on biological sex and gender-role orientation on instrumental (masculine) and expressive (feminine) personality traits in an unselected community sample of males and females. Students (518 males, 500 females) of the Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Germany, were asked to participate in a "stress study" and complete the following self-report questionnaires: the WHO-5 Well-being Index [Bech, P., 1998. Quality of Life in the Psychiatric Patient. Mosby-Wolfe, London], the Gotland Scale for Male Depression [Walinder, J., Rutz, W., 2001. Male depression and suicide. International Clinical Psychopharmacology 16 (suppl 2), 21-24] and the German Extended Personal Attribute Questionnaire [Runge, T.E., Frey, D., Gollwitzer, P.M., et al., 1981. Masculine (instrumental) and feminine (expressive) traits. A comparison between students in the United States and West Germany. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology 12, 142-162]. General well-being of the students was significantly lower compared to population norms. Contrary to expectations, female students had a greater risk of male depression than male students (28.9% vs. 22.4%; p<0.05). Overall, prototypic depressive symptoms as well as externalizing symptoms were more pronounced in females. In the subgroup of those at risk for male depression, biological sex and kind of symptoms were unrelated. Principal component analyses revealed a similar symptom structure for males and females. Low scores on masculinity/instrumentality significantly predicted higher risk of male depression, independent of biological sex. The study sample is not

  12. Regional cerebral blood flow in endogenous depression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagawa, Katsuo; Morinobu, Shigeru; Kawakatsu, Shinobu

    1990-01-01

    The subjects were twenty-nine depressed patients who met the DSM-III rd criteria for bipolar disorder or major depression. The rCBF was determined by the Xe-133 inhalation method (HEADTOME: ring type SPECT). There were no significant differences in the rCBF values between the patients with bipolar depression and normal controls. The rCBF values of patients with unipolar depression were significantly lower than those of controls, especially in the left temporo-parietal region (p L) were more noticeable (p<0.01) in unipolar depression patients than in bipolar depression patients. (author)

  13. Prevalence and predictors of parental grief and depression after the death of a child from cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Maria C; Clarke, Naomi E; Ting, Cheng Lin; Conroy, Rowena; Anderson, Vicki A; Heath, John A

    2010-11-01

    To investigate patterns of grief and depression in a sample of parents whose child had died of cancer, and to examine factors related to burden of illness and end-of-life care as potential predictors of parental grief and depression outcomes. Fifty-eight parents completed standardized self-report questionnaires measuring prolonged grief disorder (Inventory of Complicated Grief-Revised [ICG-R]) and depression (Beck Depression Inventory-Second Edition [BDI-II]) and participated in structured interviews designed to elicit their perceptions of their child's end-of-life care and burden of illness. The majority of participants were mothers (84%) and the mean length of time since child death was 4.5 (standard deviation [SD] = 2.4) years (range, 1.0-9.8 years). Rates of prolonged grief disorder (PGD) were similar to those reported in other bereaved populations (10.3%); however, 41% of parents met diagnostic criteria for grief-related separation distress. Twenty-two percent of parents reported clinically significant depressive symptoms. Time since death and parental perception of the oncologist's care predicted parental grief symptoms but not depressive symptoms. Perceptions of the child's quality of life during the last month, preparedness for the child's death, and economic hardship also predicted grief and depression outcomes. A minority of parents met criteria for PGD and depression, however, almost half the sample was experiencing significant separation distress associated with persistent longing and yearning for their child. Time since death is a significant predictor of parental psychological distress. This study also highlights the importance of end-of-life factors in parents' long-term adjustment and the need for optimal palliative care to ensure the best possible outcomes for parents.

  14. Using Music Techniques To Treat Adolescent Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, C. Bret; Robinson, Beth; Bradley, Loretta J.; Davis, Kenneth

    1999-01-01

    Discusses a school-based therapy program using music for teenagers (N=19) who demonstrated depressive symptoms. Pre- and post-testing indicated a significant decrease in depressive symptoms. Offers recommendations for further research. (Author/MKA)

  15. Strategies employed by sexual minority adolescents to cope with minority stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldbach, J T; Gibbs, J J

    2015-09-01

    Sexual minority adolescents (SMA) experience disparities in health and behavioral health outcomes, including high rates of depression, anxiety, self-harm, substance use, HIV risk behavior, suicidal ideation, and suicide attempts. These outcomes are commonly attributed to minority stress. Stress experiences are different for SMA than their adult counterparts. For example, disclosing their sexual orientation may be more likely to result in homelessness because these youth more often live with parents or other family members. Although stress in this population has been explored in previous research, very little is known about how SMA cope. Relying upon an adolescent coping model, this study examined the coping strategies, responses, and resources of SMA related to stress. Forty-eight racially and ethnically diverse SMA (age 14-19) were recruited for 90-minute tape-recorded interviews. The semi-structured interviews were guided by a life history calendar. Recordings were transcribed verbatim and entered into QSR NVivo. All transcripts were coded by two members of the research team and went through a consensus process. Forty-three unique coping statements emerged that fit with the Compas model of adolescent coping. SMA cope with minority stress in similar ways to heterosexual youth coping with general stress, but findings suggest that SMA may also use different kinds of coping resources. Although further research is needed, the present study identified a variety of ways SMA cope with stress and can inform future research on the development interventions.

  16. Depression, women, and the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollersheim, J P

    1993-01-01

    Depression is a highly prevalent disorder that causes much personal distress and difficulties in functioning at home and in the workplace. In the workplace, as elsewhere, depression can manifest as a variation in normal mood, as a symptom, as a disorder, or as a disease. Occupational health professionals are more concerned with clinical depression, a term used to signify any type of depression that causes significant personal distress and/or problems in functioning. Clinical depression is manifest in the workplace and adversely affects the employee's work satisfaction and performance. For most types of depression, women are at a higher risk than men. A number of events and variables related to women and depression were reviewed. Although the effects of some of these events, such as menopause, can be manifest in the workplace, they are not associated with an increased incidence of clinical depression. Other events, such as victimization (e.g., childhood sexual abuse or battering by an intimate partner), are associated with higher risks of depression in women. Women derive substantial satisfaction from interpersonal relationships but also are at greater risk for depression when strains and conflicts in these relationships occur. In the workplace women who have no difficulty in arranging for child care and whose spouses share in the care of children show lower rates of depression. When marriages are unhappy, women are three times as likely as men to be depressed. These findings speak to the importance of relationships to women. In the workplace, when women are depressed, problems with relationships are likely to be involved. Clinically depressed women are not difficult to identify in work settings. Dejected mood and loss of interest in usual activities are noticeable, along with numerous other symptoms that accompany depression. The effective treatment of depression depends on careful diagnosis and assessment. Both drug therapy and the more structured psychotherapies

  17. MOTHERS' AND FATHERS' PRENATAL REPRESENTATIONS IN RELATION TO MARITAL DISTRESS AND DEPRESSIVE SYMPTOMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlqvist-Björkroth, Sari; Korja, Riikka; Junttila, Niina; Savonlahti, Elina; Pajulo, Marjukka; Räihä, Hannele; Aromaa, Minna

    2016-07-01

    Marital distress, parental depression, and weak quality of parental representations are all known risk factors for parent-child relationships. However, the relation between marital distress, depressive symptoms, and parents' prenatal representation is uncertain, especially regarding fathers. The present study aimed to explore how mothers' and fathers' prenatal experience of marital distress and depressive symptoms affects the organization of their prenatal representations in late pregnancy. Participants were 153 pregnant couples from a Finnish follow-up study called "Steps to the Healthy Development and Well-being of Children" (H. Lagström et al., ). Marital distress (Revised Dyadic Adjustment Scale; D.M. Busby, C. Christensen, D. Crane, & J. Larson, 1995) and depressive symptoms (Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale) were assessed at 20 gestational weeks, and prenatal representations (Working Model of the Child Interview; D. Benoit, K.C.H. Parker, & C.H. Zeanah, 1997; C.H. Zeanah, D. Benoit, M. Barton, & L. Hirshberg, 1996) were assessed between 29 and 32 gestational weeks. The mothers' risks of distorted representations increased significantly when they had at least minor depressive symptoms. Marital distress was associated with the fathers' prenatal representations, although the association was weak; fathers within the marital distress group had less balanced representations. Coexisting marital distress and depressive symptoms were only associated with the mothers' representations; lack of marital distress and depressive symptoms increased the likelihood for mothers to have balanced representations. The results imply that marital distress and depressive symptoms are differently related to the organizations of mothers' and fathers' prenatal representations. © 2016 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  18. Postpartum Depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith-Nielsen, Johanne

    Background: In three academic articles, this PhD thesis investigates maternal postpartum depression (PPD) as a risk factor for the infant-mother attachment and infant development. Previous studies have been contradictory with respect to the question of whether PPD can have long term effects...... on offspring. This may be due to not differing between when PPD is only occurring in the postpartum period and when effects are also due to ongoing or recurrent depression. However, it may also be due to viewing maternal depression as a unitary construct, and not considering underlying maternal psychological...... difficulties which may moderate potential adverse effects. The present thesis investigates two potential maternal moderators of risk:. Comorbid personality disorder and adult attachment insecurity. Moreover, the question of early environmental effects of PPD versus effects of later or ongoing depression...

  19. Frequency of Depressive Syndromes in Elderly Individuals with No Cognitive Impairment, Mild Cognitive Impairment, and Alzheimer's Disease Dementia in a Memory Clinic Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jun Ho; Byun, Min Soo; Yi, Dahyun; Choe, Young Min; Choi, Hyo Jung; Baek, Hyewon; Sohn, Bo Kyung; Kim, Hyun Jung; Lee, Younghwa; Woo, Jong Inn; Lee, Dong Young

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the frequency of various depressive syndromes in elderly individuals with no cognitive impairment (NC), mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and Alzheimer's disease dementia (AD) in a memory clinic setting, and then to test whether severe and milder forms of depressive syndromes are differentially associated with the cognitive groups. For 216 NC, 478 MCI, and 316 AD subjects, we investigated the frequency of depressive syndromes, defined by three different categories: major and minor depressive disorder (MaDD and MiDD) according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition, as well as depression according to the National Institute of Mental Health provisional diagnostic criteria for depression in Alzheimer's disease (NIMH-dAD). The frequency of MaDD did not show any significant difference among NC, MCI, and AD. In contrast, the frequencies of MiDD and NIMH-dAD were higher than those of MaDD and showed significant group differences with a gradual increase from NC to AD. The findings suggest that the degenerative process of Alzheimer's disease contributes to the occurrence of mild depressive conditions, but not to severe depression. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Altered white matter microstructure associated with mild and moderate depressive symptoms in young adults, a diffusion tensor imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazi Sherbaf, Farzaneh; Same, Kaveh; Ashraf-Ganjouei, Amir; Aarabi, Mohammad H

    2018-05-23

    In the context of growing evidence supporting disturbed neural connectivity in the pathogenesis of depressive symptoms, we used the diffusion tensor imaging technique to investigate white matter disruptions in previously undiagnosed and hence treatment-naive young adults with mild and moderate depressive symptoms screened by Beck's Depression Inventory test compared with age-matched and sex-matched healthy controls. This is the first diffusion tensor imaging study to assess minor forms of depression. We hypothesized that subthreshold depressive symptoms share the same neural disruptions as major depressive disorder (MDD). Each group included 47 participants with a mean age of 20.1±1.1 years. The exploratory region of interest method was used to assess integrity (fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity) in 48 regions of the brain based on Mori atlas. Data were recruited from the Southwest University Longitudinal Imaging Multimodal Brain Data Repository. The following pathways showed significant microstructural changes by means of reduced fractional anisotropy in the group with depressive symptoms compared with normal participants: pontine crossing tract; genu of the corpus callosum; posterior limb of the internal capsule (bilaterally); and anterior, posterior, and superior corona radiata (bilaterally). None of the above regions, but the middle cerebellar peduncle and the right superior fronto-occipital fasciculus were shown to differ significantly in the mean diffusivity values between the two groups. On the basis of the current results, our findings provide evidence that the white matter impairments in the interhemispheric connections and frontal-subcortical neural circuits may play a key role in the pathogenesis of depression in young adults. The similarity of neural underpinnings in MDD and minor depressive disorder in this study further proves that these two mood disorders exist in a continuum, and milder depressive symptoms can herald a major episode

  1. Gender Differences in Rating Stressful Events, Depression, and Depressive Cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowa, Claudia J.; Lustman, Patrick J.

    1984-01-01

    Administered the Life Stress Questionnaire, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the Automatic Thought Questionnaire to 140 students. Results showed significant sex differences. Men reported more stressful life change, but women rated the impact of stressors more severely and had higher depression. Men exhibited greater distortions in cognitive…

  2. Depressive disorder due to craniopharyngioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, S A; Taylor, D G; Hirsch, S R

    1995-01-01

    Secondary causes of depression are legion, and must always be considered in patients presenting with features atypical of primary idiopathic depressive disorder. The case described is that of a middle-aged woman presenting initially with a major depressive disorder who was subsequently found to have a craniopharyngioma, leading to a revised diagnosis of mood disorder due to the tumour. Some features of the presentation might have led to earlier diagnosis had their localizing significance been recognized. Diencephalic lesions should always be considered in patients presenting with the hypersomnic-hyperphagic variant of depressive disorder. Images Figure 1 PMID:8544149

  3. Predicting depressive symptoms in unemployed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marić Zorica

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study we review recent research literature focused on relationship between unemployment and depression, and theories emphasizing the mechanisms by which unemployment may contribute to increased levels of depression. Our research investigated depressive symptomatology and its predictors among unemployed people (N = 453 varying in length of unemployment. Results showed that self - mastery, self - esteem, financial strain, gender, intensity of job - seek behavior and length on unemployment were significant predictors of depressive symptoms. Results are discussed in light of current theories of unemployment and mental health and recommendations are made for practice.

  4. Characterizing Depression Issues on Sina Weibo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xianyun; Batterham, Philip; Song, Shuang; Yao, Xiaoxu; Yu, Guang

    2018-04-16

    The prevalence of depression has increased significantly over the past few years both in developed and developing countries. However, many people with symptoms of depression still remain untreated or undiagnosed. Social media may be a tool to help researchers and clinicians to identify and support individuals who experience depression. More than 394,000,000 postings were collected from China's most popular social media website, Sina Weibo. 1000 randomly selected depression-related postings was coded and analyzed to learn the themes of these postings, and a text classifier was built to identify the postings indicating depression. The identified depressed users were compared with the general population on demographic characteristics, diurnal patterns, and patterns of emoticon usage. We found that disclosure of depression was the most popular theme; depression displayers were more engaged with social media compared to non-depression displayers, the depression postings showed geographical variations, depression displayers tended to be active during periods of leisure and sleep, and depression displayers used negative emoticons more frequently than non-depression displayers. This study offers a broad picture of depression references on China's social media, which may be cost effectively developed to detect and help individuals who may suffer from depression disorders.

  5. Characterizing Depression Issues on Sina Weibo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianyun Tian

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of depression has increased significantly over the past few years both in developed and developing countries. However, many people with symptoms of depression still remain untreated or undiagnosed. Social media may be a tool to help researchers and clinicians to identify and support individuals who experience depression. More than 394,000,000 postings were collected from China’s most popular social media website, Sina Weibo. 1000 randomly selected depression-related postings was coded and analyzed to learn the themes of these postings, and a text classifier was built to identify the postings indicating depression. The identified depressed users were compared with the general population on demographic characteristics, diurnal patterns, and patterns of emoticon usage. We found that disclosure of depression was the most popular theme; depression displayers were more engaged with social media compared to non-depression displayers, the depression postings showed geographical variations, depression displayers tended to be active during periods of leisure and sleep, and depression displayers used negative emoticons more frequently than non-depression displayers. This study offers a broad picture of depression references on China’s social media, which may be cost effectively developed to detect and help individuals who may suffer from depression disorders.

  6. Reducing Depression in Pregnancy: Designing Multimodel Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Maddy; Zayas, Luis H.

    2002-01-01

    High levels of stress on low-income, inner-city women from ethnic minority groups often causes both poor maternal functioning and infant development outcomes. This article reviews literature that proposes using several social work treatment options instead a single approach to reduce maternal depression, expand mothers' social networks, and…

  7. [Autobiographical memory in depressive disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Żuchowicz, Paulina; Jasionowska, Justyna; Gałecki, Piotr; Talarowska, Monika

    2017-08-21

    Contemporary research studies regarding autobiographical memory (AM) indicate that its deficits have a significant impact on the development of mental disorders. We find particularly many reports regarding the comorbidity of AM deficits and depressive disorders. The characteristic feature of AM in the people suffering from depressive disorders is the presence of overgeneral autobiographical memory (OGM), i.e. the reminiscences which contain a summary of many emotion-laden situations, yet without significant detail. This type of reminiscences is observed in the patients with depressive disorders and the ones susceptible to the disease but not experiencing presently an episode of depression, as well as the ones being in the phase of disease remission. In recent years, the interest in the significance of negative thinking processes, such as ruminations, as risk factors in the development of depression has been growing. It is emphasized that they are significantly associated with the occurrence of OGM. Research shows that people suffering from OGM and characterised by a rumination-based style of processing experience a greater number of depressive episodes. There are also research studies which confirm that the activities aimed at reducing the number of ruminations influence an improvement of the detail level of reminiscences. These data may serve as valuable therapeutic advice in depression disorders. The aim of the paper is to present results of contemporary research regarding mutual interrelations between autobiographical memory dysfunctions and the occurrence of symptoms of depression and its course.

  8. Postpartum depression in older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strelow, Brittany; Fellows, Nicole; Fink, Stephanie R; OʼLaughlin, Danielle J; Radke, Gladys; Stevens, Joy; Tweedy, Johanna M

    2018-03-01

    Postpartum depression, which affects 10% to 20% of women in the United States, can significantly harm the health and quality of life for mother, child, and family. This article reviews the risk factors, pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment of postpartum depression with specific focus on women of advanced maternal age.

  9. Women in science & engineering and minority engineering scholarships : year 3, report for 2008-2009 activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    Support made scholarships available to minority and women students interested in engineering and science and significantly increased : the number of minority and female students that Missouri S&T can recruit to its science and engineering programs. R...

  10. Women in science & engineering and minority engineering scholarships : year 2 report for 2007-2008 activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-01

    Support will make scholarships available to minority and women students interested in engineering and science and will increase : significantly the number of minority and female students that Missouri S&T can recruit to its science and engineering pr...

  11. Multimodal brain connectivity analysis in unmedicated late-life depression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Tadayonnejad

    Full Text Available Late-life depression (LLD is a common disorder associated with emotional distress, cognitive impairment and somatic complains. Structural abnormalities have been suggested as one of the main neurobiological correlates in LLD. However the relationship between these structural abnormalities and altered functional brain networks in LLD remains poorly understood. 15 healthy elderly comparison subjects from the community and 10 unmedicated and symptomatic subjects with geriatric depression were selected for this study. For each subject, 87 regions of interest (ROI were generated from whole brain anatomical parcellation of resting state fMRI data. Whole-brain ROI-wise correlations were calculated and compared between groups. Group differences were assessed using an analysis of covariance after controlling for age, sex and education with multiple comparison correction using the false discovery rate. Structural connectivity was assessed by tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS. LLD subjects had significantly decreased connectivity between the right accumbens area (rA and the right medial orbitofrontal cortex (rmOFC as well as between the right rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rrACC and bilateral superior frontal gyrus (bsSFG. Altered connectivity of rrACC with the bsSFG was significantly correlated with depression severity in depressed subjects. TBSS analysis showed a 20% reduction in fractional anisotropy (FA in the right Forceps Minor (rFM in depressed subjects. rFM FA values were positively correlated with rA-rmOFC and rrACC-bsFG functional connectivity values in our total study sample. Coordinated structural and functional impairment in circuits involved in emotion regulation and reward pathways play an important role in the pathophysiology of LLD.

  12. Demarketing, minorities, and national attachment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grinstein, A.; Nisan, Udi

    This study addresses two important global trends: protection of public goods, specifically the environment, and the emergence of multiethnic societies with influential minority groups. The study tests the effect of a government proenvironmental demarketing campaign on the deconsumption behavior of

  13. Properties of minor actinide nitrides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takano, Masahide; Itoh, Akinori; Akabori, Mitsuo; Arai, Yasuo; Minato, Kazuo

    2004-01-01

    The present status of the research on properties of minor actinide nitrides for the development of an advanced nuclear fuel cycle based on nitride fuel and pyrochemical reprocessing is described. Some thermal stabilities of Am-based nitrides such as AmN and (Am, Zr)N were mainly investigated. Stabilization effect of ZrN was cleary confirmed for the vaporization and hydrolytic behaviors. New experimental equipments for measuring thermal properties of minor actinide nitrides were also introduced. (author)

  14. Depressive vulnerabilities predict depression status and trajectories of depression over 1 year in persons with acute coronary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Frank; McGee, Hannah; Delaney, Mary; Motterlini, Nicola; Conroy, Ronán

    2011-01-01

    Depression is prevalent in patients hospitalized with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). We determined whether theoretical vulnerabilities for depression (interpersonal life events, reinforcing events, cognitive distortions, Type D personality) predicted depression, or depression trajectories, post-hospitalization. We followed 375 ACS patients who completed depression scales during hospital admission and at least once during three follow-up intervals over 1 year (949 observations). Questionnaires assessing vulnerabilities were completed at baseline. Logistic regression for panel/longitudinal data predicted depression status during follow-up. Latent class analysis determined depression trajectories. Multinomial logistic regression modeled the relationship between vulnerabilities and trajectories. Vulnerabilities predicted depression status over time in univariate and multivariate analysis, even when controlling for baseline depression. Proportions in each depression trajectory category were as follows: persistent (15%), subthreshold (37%), never depressed (48%). Vulnerabilities independently predicted each of these trajectories, with effect sizes significantly highest for the persistent depression group. Self-reported vulnerabilities - stressful life events, reduced reinforcing events, cognitive distortions, personality - measured during hospitalization can identify those at risk for depression post-ACS and especially those with persistent depressive episodes. Interventions should focus on these vulnerabilities. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Technology-facilitated depression care management among predominantly Latino diabetes patients within a public safety net care system: comparative effectiveness trial design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shinyi; Ell, Kathleen; Gross-Schulman, Sandra G; Sklaroff, Laura Myerchin; Katon, Wayne J; Nezu, Art M; Lee, Pey-Jiuan; Vidyanti, Irene; Chou, Chih-Ping; Guterman, Jeffrey J

    2014-03-01

    Health disparities in minority populations are well recognized. Hispanics and Latinos constitute the largest ethnic minority group in the United States; a significant proportion receives their care via a safety net. The prevalence of diabetes mellitus and comorbid depression is high among this group, but the uptake of evidence-based collaborative depression care management has been suboptimal. The study design and baseline characteristics of the enrolled sample in the Diabetes-Depression Care-management Adoption Trial (DCAT) establishes a quasi-experimental comparative effectiveness research clinical trial aimed at accelerating the adoption of collaborative depression care in safety net clinics. The study was conducted in collaboration with the Los Angeles County Department of Health Services at eight county-operated clinics. DCAT has enrolled 1406 low-income, predominantly Hispanic/Latino patients with diabetes to test a translational model of depression care management. This three-group study compares usual care with a collaborative care team support model and a technology-facilitated depression care model that provides automated telephonic depression screening and monitoring tailored to patient conditions and preferences. Call results are integrated into a diabetes disease management registry that delivers provider notifications, generates tasks, and issues critical alerts. All subjects receive comprehensive assessments at baseline, 6, 12, and 18 months by independent English-Spanish bilingual interviewers. Study outcomes include depression outcomes, treatment adherence, satisfaction, acceptance of assessment and monitoring technology, social and economic stress reduction, diabetes self-care management, health care utilization, and care management model cost and cost-effectiveness comparisons. DCAT's goal is to optimize depression screening, treatment, follow-up, outcomes, and cost savings to reduce health disparities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  16. Change in depression across adolescence: The role of early anger socialization and child anger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neal, Colleen R; Weston, Lynsey C; He, Xin; Huang, Keng-Yen; Pine, Daniel S; Kamboukos, Dimitra; Brotman, Laurie Miller

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this longitudinal study was to examine the relations of early socialization of anger with change in adolescent depression, and moderation by child anger. Using a sample of low-income, ethnic minority children at familial risk for psychopathology in the United States (n = 92; ages 3-5; 53% female; 65% African American; 27% Latina/o), early anger socialization (i.e., parent response to child anger) was tested as a predictor of change in depression from preadolescence to adolescence [i.e., age 8 (n = 63), 11 (n = 58), and 13 (n = 44)]. A videotaped parent-child interaction was coded for parental socialization of preschooler anger, and psychiatric interviews of depression were conducted three times across preadolescence and adolescence. Major depression diagnoses increased from preadolescence to adolescence. Latent growth modeling indicated parent discouragement of child anger was a significant predictor of an increase in the child's later depression from preadolescence to adolescence, and child anger intensity was a significant moderator. Copyright © 2017 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. All rights reserved.

  17. Entrepreneurial Education: A Realistic Alternative for Women and Minorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steward, James F.; Boyd, Daniel R.

    1989-01-01

    Entrepreneurial education is a valid, realistic occupational training alternative for minorities and women in business. Entrepreneurship requires that one become involved with those educational programs that contribute significantly to one's success. (Author)

  18. The mental health status of ethnocultural minorities in Ontario and their mental health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, Sherry L; Tan, Yongyao; Cribbie, Robert A; Nguyen, Han; Ritvo, Paul; Irvine, Jane

    2016-02-26

    Mental disorders are a leading cause of disability and early mortality. The objective of this study was to describe and compare psychosocial indicators and mental health service use among ethnoculturally-diverse Ontarians. This is a cross-sectional analysis of the Ontario Health Study pilot investigation. Residents were mailed an invitation to one of 3 assessment centres (urban, rural and northern sites) from March 2009 to July 2010. Participants had an interview with a nurse and completed a questionnaire on a touchscreen kiosk. The questionnaire included sociodemographic items, and scales assessing symptoms of depressive symptoms (CES-D) and anxiety (GAD-7), social support (Lubben Social Network Scale), stressful life events, and mental health service use. Eight thousand two hundred thirty-five residents participated, among whom 6652 (82.4 %) self-reported their ethnocultural background as White, 225 (2.8 %) as South Asian, 222 (2.8 %) East Asian, 214 (2.7 %) Southeast Asian, 197 (2.4 %) Black, and 28 (0.3 %) as Aboriginal. Based on their sociodemographic characteristics, participants from these ethnocultural minority groups were matched to White participants. Black participants reported significantly greater stressful life events than White participants (p = .04), particularly death (p divorce (p = .002) and financial difficulties (p < .001). East Asian participants reported significantly less social support than their White counterparts (p < .001), and this was not confounded by measurement variance. Mental health service use was significantly lower in all ethnocultural minorities except Aboriginals, when compared to White participants (p = .001). There is a high burden of psychosocial distress in several preponderant ethnocultural minorities in Ontario; many of whom are not accessing available mental health services.

  19. Sex Differences and Depression in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canino, Glorisa J.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Examined sex differences in rates of depressive disorders and depressive symptomatology, as measured by the Diagnostic Interview Schedule, for an island-wide probability sample of Puerto Rico. Found depression significantly more prevalent among women than men. Discusses risk factors from a sex-role and cultural perspective. (Author/KS)

  20. Boron accumulation by Lemna minor L. under salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chunguang; Gu, Wancong; Dai, Zheng; Li, Jia; Jiang, Hongru; Zhang, Qian

    2018-06-12

    Excess boron (B) is toxic to aquatic organisms and humans. Boron is often present in water with high salinity. To evaluate the potential of duckweed (Lemna minor L.) for removing B from water under salt stress, we cultured duckweed in water with 2 mg/L of B and sodium chloride (NaCl) concentrations ranging from 0 to 200 mM for 4 days. The results show that with increasing salinity, the capacity of L. minor to accumulate B initially decreased and then increased. L. minor used different mechanisms to accumulate boron at lower and higher levels of salt stress. The growth and chlorophyll synthesis of L. minor were significantly inhibited when the concentration of NaCl reached 100 mM. Our results suggest that L. minor is suitable for the accumulation of B when NaCl salinity is below 100 mM.

  1. Social Epidemiology of Depression and Anxiety by Gender Identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisner, Sari L; Katz-Wise, Sabra L; Gordon, Allegra R; Corliss, Heather L; Austin, S Bryn

    2016-08-01

    This study investigates depression and anxiety in gender minority (i.e., transgender and/or gender nonconforming) compared with nongender minority (cisgender) young adults. Data were from the Growing Up Today Study, a national cohort of U.S. young adults. A two-step method (maternal-reported natal sex in 1996 cross-classified with participant-reported current gender identity in 2010) was used to identify gender minority and nongender minority respondents (n = 7,831; mean age = 26 years). Differences in past week depressive symptoms and anxious symptoms were examined cross-sectionally by gender identity. Gender minority and nongender minority respondents were compared using age-adjusted logistic regression models. In gender minorities, the prevalence of depressive and anxious symptoms meeting clinical cutoffs was 52% and 38%, respectively, compared with nongender minorities (27% and 30% in females and 25% and 14% in males; p identity is an understudied social determinant of mental health. Surveillance efforts to monitor mental health disparities should include survey questions to assess gender identity in epidemiologic research. Research and interventions to understand and ameliorate mental health disparities by gender identity are needed. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Escitalopram treatment for depressive disorder following acute coronary syndrome: a 24-week double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Min; Bae, Kyung-Yeol; Stewart, Robert; Jung, Bo-Ok; Kang, Hee-Ju; Kim, Sung-Wan; Shin, Il-Seon; Hong, Young Joon; Kim, Ju Han; Shin, Hee-Young; Kang, Gaeun; Ahn, Youngkeun; Kim, Jong-Keun; Jeong, Myung Ho; Yoon, Jin-Sang

    2015-01-01

    Depression is common after acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and has adverse effects on prognosis. There are few evidence-based interventions for treating depression in ACS. This study investigated the efficacy and safety of escitalopram in treating depressive disorders identified 2-14 weeks after a confirmed ACS episode. A total of 217 patients with DSM-IV depressive disorders (121 major and 96 minor) and ACS were randomly assigned to receive escitalopram in flexible doses of 5-20 mg/d (n = 108) or placebo (n = 109) for 24 weeks. The study was conducted from 2007 to 2013. The primary outcome measure was the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS). Secondary outcome measures included the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Clinical Global Impressions-Severity of Illness scale (CGI-S), Social and Occupational Functioning Assessment Scale (SOFAS), and World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule-12. Cardiovascular safety outcomes included echocardiography, electrocardiography, laboratory test, body weight, and blood pressure results. Escitalopram was superior to placebo in reducing HDRS scores (mean difference = 2.3, P = .016, effect size = 0.38). Escitalopram was also superior to placebo in decreasing depressive symptoms evaluated by the MADRS, BDI, and CGI-S and in improving SOFAS functioning level. Escitalopram was not associated with any harmful changes in cardiovascular safety measures. Dizziness was significantly more frequently reported in the escitalopram group (P = .018), but there were no significant differences in any other adverse events. These results indicate that escitalopram has clinically meaningful antidepressant effects with no evidence of reduced cardiovascular safety in depressive disorder following ACS. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00419471. © Copyright 2015 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  3. Minority workers or minority human beings? A European dilemma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skutnabb-Kangas, Tove; Phillipson, Robert

    1996-07-01

    "European" identities may be politonymic, toponymic, ethnomyic or linguonymic (Bromley 1984). Each dimension may affect whether migrant minorities are treated as "European", and influence their schooling, integration and rights. Treatment and terminology vary in different states and periods of migration. However, the position for immigrated minorities is that they are still largely seen as workers rather than human beings with equal rights. Lack of success in schools is blamed on the migrants themselves rather than the educational system. This construction of migrants as being deficient is parallel to educational practice which falls within a UN definition of linguistic genocide, and contributes to mis-education. If current efforts in international bodies to codify educational linguistic human rights were to lead to greater support for minorities, this could assist in a redefinition of national identities and a reduction of racism and conflict.

  4. Depression and Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Symptoms Depression Share this page Facebook Twitter Email Depression Depression Fatigue Walking (Gait) Difficulties Numbness or Tingling ... away from addictive substances such as alcohol. Clinical depression It’s important to distinguish between mild, everyday “blues” — ...

  5. Depression in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... here Home » Depression In Older Adults: More Facts Depression In Older Adults: More Facts Depression affects more ... combination of both. [8] Older Adult Attitudes Toward Depression: According to a Mental Health America survey [9] ...

  6. Older Adults and Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... find more information? Reprints Share Older Adults and Depression Download PDF Download ePub Order a free hardcopy ... depression need treatment to feel better. Types of Depression There are several types of depression. The most ...

  7. Depression and Caregiving

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... FCA - A A + A You are here Home Depression and Caregiving Order this publication Printer-friendly version ... a more serious depression over time. Symptoms of Depression People experience depression in different ways. Some may ...

  8. Depression and Suicide Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... due to another medical disorder Relationship Between Depression & Suicide: 1. Depression is the psychiatric diagnosis most commonly associated with ... of patients with treated depression eventually die by suicide. xiv 4. Depression is present in at least 50 percent of ...

  9. Depressive Disorders in Primary Health Care

    OpenAIRE

    Vuorilehto, Maria

    2008-01-01

    The Vantaa Primary Care Depression Study (PC-VDS) is a naturalistic and prospective cohort study concerning primary care patients with depressive disorders. It forms a collaborative research project between the Department of Mental and Alcohol Research of the National Public Health Institute, and the Primary Health Care Organization of the City of Vantaa. The aim is to obtain a comprehensive view on clinically significant depression in primary care, and to compare depressive patients in prima...

  10. Characterizing Depression Issues on Sina Weibo

    OpenAIRE

    Xianyun Tian; Philip Batterham; Shuang Song; Xiaoxu Yao; Guang Yu

    2018-01-01

    The prevalence of depression has increased significantly over the past few years both in developed and developing countries. However, many people with symptoms of depression still remain untreated or undiagnosed. Social media may be a tool to help researchers and clinicians to identify and support individuals who experience depression. More than 394,000,000 postings were collected from China’s most popular social media website, Sina Weibo. 1000 randomly selected depression-related postings wa...

  11. Impact of minor actinide recycling on sustainable fuel cycle options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heidet, F.; Kim, T. K.; Taiwo, T. A.

    2017-11-01

    the repository performance. On the other hand, recycling minor actinides also results in an increase of the recycled fuel characteristics and therefore of the charged fuel. The radioactivity is slightly increased while the decay heat and radiotoxicities are very significantly increased. Despite these differences, the characteristics of the fuel at time of discharge remain similar whether minor actinides are recycled or not, with the exception of the inhalation radiotoxicity which is significantly larger with minor actinide recycling. After some cooling the characteristics of the discharged fuel become larger when minor actinides are recycled, potentially affecting the reprocessing plant requirements. Recycling minor actinides has a negative impact on the characteristics of the fresh fuel and will make it more challenging to fabricate fuel containing minor actinides.

  12. Postpartum Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or guilty. These emotions can affect a woman’s self-esteem and how she deals with stress. Fatigue—Many ... FAQs Exercise After Pregnancy (FAQ131) Depression (FAQ106) Patient Education FAQs Resources & Publications Committee Opinions Practice Bulletins Patient ...

  13. A Korean validation study of the Clinically Useful Anxiety Outcome Scale: Comorbidity and differentiation of anxiety and depressive disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Sang Won; Ko, Young-Hoon; Yoon, Seoyoung; Pae, Chi-Un; Choi, Joonho; Kim, Jae-Min; Yoon, Ho-Kyoung; Lee, Hoseon; Patkar, Ashwin A.; Zimmerman, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Background This study aimed to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Korean version of the Clinically Useful Anxiety Outcome Scale (CUXOS) and to examine the current diagnostic comorbidity and differential severity of anxiety symptoms between major depressive disorder (MDD) and anxiety disorders. Methodology In total, 838 psychiatric outpatients were analyzed at their intake appointment. Diagnostic characteristics were examined using the structured clinical interview from the DSM-IV because the DSM5 was not available at the start of the study. The CUXOS score was measured and compared with that of 3 clinician rating scales and 4 self-report scales. Principal findings The CUXOS showed excellent results for internal consistency (Cronbach’s α = 0.90), test–retest reliability (r = 0.74), and discriminant and convergent validity. The CUXOS significantly discriminated between different levels of anxiety severity, and the measure was sensitive to change after treatment. Approximately 45% of patients with MDD were additionally diagnosed with anxiety disorders while 55% of patients with anxiety disorders additionally reported an MDD. There was a significant difference in CUXOS scores between diagnostic categories (MDD only, anxiety only, both disorders, and no MDD or anxiety disorder). The CUXOS scores differed significantly between all categories of depression (major, minor, and non-depression) except for the comparison between minor depression and non-depression groups. Conclusions The Korean version of the CUXOS is a reliable and valid measure of the severity of anxiety symptoms. The use of the CUXOS could broaden the understanding of coexisting and differentiating characteristics of anxiety and depression. PMID:28604808

  14. A Korean validation study of the Clinically Useful Anxiety Outcome Scale: Comorbidity and differentiation of anxiety and depressive disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Won Jeon

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Korean version of the Clinically Useful Anxiety Outcome Scale (CUXOS and to examine the current diagnostic comorbidity and differential severity of anxiety symptoms between major depressive disorder (MDD and anxiety disorders.In total, 838 psychiatric outpatients were analyzed at their intake appointment. Diagnostic characteristics were examined using the structured clinical interview from the DSM-IV because the DSM5 was not available at the start of the study. The CUXOS score was measured and compared with that of 3 clinician rating scales and 4 self-report scales.The CUXOS showed excellent results for internal consistency (Cronbach's α = 0.90, test-retest reliability (r = 0.74, and discriminant and convergent validity. The CUXOS significantly discriminated between different levels of anxiety severity, and the measure was sensitive to change after treatment. Approximately 45% of patients with MDD were additionally diagnosed with anxiety disorders while 55% of patients with anxiety disorders additionally reported an MDD. There was a significant difference in CUXOS scores between diagnostic categories (MDD only, anxiety only, both disorders, and no MDD or anxiety disorder. The CUXOS scores differed significantly between all categories of depression (major, minor, and non-depression except for the comparison between minor depression and non-depression groups.The Korean version of the CUXOS is a reliable and valid measure of the severity of anxiety symptoms. The use of the CUXOS could broaden the understanding of coexisting and differentiating characteristics of anxiety and depression.

  15. Perceived sibling relationships of sexual minority youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toomey, Russell B; Richardson, Rhonda A

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships of sexual minority youth and their siblings. The participants were 56 lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender individuals ranging in age from 18 to 24 years, who reported information about a total of 107 siblings. Respondents completed a demographic data questionnaire as well as adapted versions of the Sibling Closeness Scale (SCS) and the Sibling Approval of Sexual Behavior Scale (SASBS) to describe their relationship with each of their siblings. Analyses examined birth order and gender in relation to outness to siblings as well as sibling closeness and approval. Results provide information about disclosure of LGBT status to siblings, elements of closeness and acceptance in sibling relationships of sexual minority youth, and the significance of gender and birth order in these sibling relationships.

  16. Minor actinide transmutation in accelerator driven systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friess, Friederike [IANUS, TU Darmstadt (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Transmutation of radioactive waste, the legacy of nuclear energy use, gains rising interest. This includes the development of facilities able to transmute minor actinides (MA) into stable or short-lived isotopes before final disposal. The most common proposal is to use a double-strata approach with accelerator-driven-systems (ADS) for the efficient transmutation of MA and power reactors to dispose plutonium. An ADS consists of a sub-critical core that reaches criticality with neutrons supplied by a spallation target. An MCNP model of the ADS system Multi Purpose Research Reactor for Hightech Applications will be presented. Depletion calculations have been performed for both standard MOX fuel and transmutation fuel with an increased content of minor actinides. The resulting transmutation rates for MAs are compared to published values. Special attention is given to selected fission products such as Tc-99 and I-129, which impact the radiation from the spent fuel significantly.

  17. The increasing burden of depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lépine J-P

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Jean-Pierre Lépine1, Mike Briley21Hôpital Lariboisière Fernand Widal, Assistance Publique Hôpitaux de Paris Unité INSERM 705 CNRS UMR 8206, Université Paris Diderot, Paris, France; 2NeuroBiz Consulting and Communication, Castres, FranceAbstract: Recent epidemiological surveys conducted in general populations have found that the lifetime prevalence of depression is in the range of 10% to 15%. Mood disorders, as defined by the World Mental Health and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition, have a 12-month prevalence which varies from 3% in Japan to over 9% in the US. A recent American survey found the prevalence of current depression to be 9% and the rate of current major depression to be 3.4%. All studies of depressive disorders have stressed the importance of the mortality and morbidity associated with depression. The mortality risk for suicide in depressed patients is more than 20-fold greater than in the general population. Recent studies have also shown the importance of depression as a risk factor for cardiovascular death. The risk of cardiac mortality after an initial myocardial infarction is greater in patients with depression and related to the severity of the depressive episode. Greater severity of depressive symptoms has been found to be associated with significantly higher risk of all-cause mortality including cardiovascular death and stroke. In addition to mortality, functional impairment and disability associated with depression have been consistently reported. Depression increases the risk of decreased workplace productivity and absenteeism resulting in lowered income or unemployment. Absenteeism and presenteeism (being physically present at work but functioning suboptimally have been estimated to result in a loss of $36.6 billion per year in the US. Worldwide projections by the World Health Organization for the year 2030 identify unipolar major depression as the leading cause of disease burden

  18. Minors and Sexting: Legal Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorang, Melissa R; McNiel, Dale E; Binder, Renée L

    2016-03-01

    Sexting is the sending or forwarding of sexually explicit photographs or videos of the sender or someone known to the sender via cell phone. It has become common practice among young people, as cell phones are being given to adolescents at ever younger ages. Youths often send messages without giving appropriate thought to the content of the images. In studies on the subject, rates of minors who have sent sexual images range from 4 to 25 percent, depending on the age of the youths surveyed, the content of the messages and other factors. Because transferring and viewing sexually explicit material when the subject is a minor can be considered child pornography, there can be serious legal consequences. Several states have enacted legislation to help differentiate between child pornography and sexting by minors. The trend reflected in statutes has been that minors involved in sexting without other exacerbating circumstances should be charged with a less serious offense. There is no clear national consensus on how sexting by minors is adjudicated, and therefore we compared several statutes. Case examples are used to illustrate the range of legal outcomes, from felony charges to no charges. Two sexting episodes that were followed by suicide are described. We also address the role of the forensic mental health professional. © 2016 American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law.

  19. Legislative vulnerability of minority groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paula, Carlos Eduardo Artiaga; Silva, Ana Paula da; Bittar, Cléria Maria Lôbo

    2017-12-01

    Minorities are in an inferior position in society and therefore vulnerable in many aspects. This study analyzes legislative vulnerability and aims to categorize as "weak" or "strong" the protection conferred by law to the following minorities: elderly, disabled, LGBT, Indians, women, children/ adolescents and black people. In order to do so, it was developed a documental research in 30 federal laws in which legal provisions were searched to protect minorities. Next, the articles were organized in the following categories: civil, criminal, administrative, labor and procedural, to be analyzed afterwards. Legal protection was considered "strong" when there were legal provisions that observed the five categories and "weak" when it did not meet this criterion. It was noted that six groups have "strong" legislative protection, which elides the assertion that minorities are outside the law. The exception is the LGBT group, whose legislative protection is weak. In addition, consecrating rights through laws strengthens the institutional channels for minorities to demand their rights. Finally, it was observed that the legislative protection granted tominorities is not homogeneous but rather discriminatory, and there is an interference by the majority group in the rights regulation of vulnerable groups.

  20. Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome, Depression, Depressive Illness, and Correlates in a Child and Adolescent Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Renata; Gulisano, Mariangela; Martino, Davide; Robertson, Mary May

    2017-04-01

    Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) and depression are both common disorders. It has been suggested that depression occurs in 13%-76% GTS patients. Despite this, there are few studies into the specific relationships and correlates between the two disorders. There is only some consensus as to the precise relationship between the two disorders. We undertook the study to investigate the relationship between depressive symptomatology and the core clinical features of GTS in a well-characterized clinical population of youth with this disorder. Our aim was to verify the association between depression and comorbid obsessive-compulsive disorder and explore further other potential associations highlighted in some, but not all, of the studies focused on this topic. Our results demonstrated that (1) the GTS patients were significantly older than the controls, (2) the GTS patients were significantly more depressed than controls, (3) depression was associated with tic severity, (4) the Diagnostic Confidence Index scores were higher in GTS patients without depression, (5) anxiety, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), conduct disorder (CD), and behavioral problems were significantly associated with depression, and (6) finally, patients with GTS and depression have a positive family history of depression. However, obsessionality (CY-BOCS) did not differentiate between depressed and not depressed GTS patients. Depression is common in patients with GTS and occurs significantly more in GTS than in controls. Depression is significantly associated with GTS factors such as tic severity, comorbidity with ADHD, and the presence of coexistent anxiety, CDs, and behavior problems. Depression is importantly significantly associated with a positive family history of depression. Intriguingly, depression in our sample was not related to obsessionality.

  1. Moderating Effects of Resilience on Depression, Psychological Distress, and Suicidal Ideation Associated With Interpersonal Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedina, Lisa; Nam, Boyoung; Jun, Hyun-Jin; Shah, Roma; Von Mach, Tara; Bright, Charlotte L; DeVylder, Jordan

    2017-12-01

    Resilience has been found to attenuate the effects of negative mental health symptomology associated with interpersonal victimization; however, existing research has largely focused on resilience traits, such as individual cognitive and environmental factors that promote resilience. In addition, empirical knowledge on the extent to which resilience mitigates suicidal symptomology associated with interpersonal violence victimization is particularly limited. This study assesses whether the relationship between interpersonal violence (i.e., IPV and nonpartner sexual violence) and mental health symptomology (i.e., depression, psychological distress, and suicidal ideation) is moderated by resilience using a general population sample of women ( N = 932). A cross-sectional, observational survey was administered in four U.S. cities (Baltimore, New York City, Philadelphia, and Washington, D.C.). Bivariate results indicated that women exposed to interpersonal violence reported significantly higher rates of suicidal ideation, depression, and psychological distress compared with women without exposure to interpersonal violence. Regression models revealed significant positive associations between interpersonal violence and depression, distress, and suicidal ideation, adjusting for sociodemographics. Resilience did not significantly moderate the relationship between interpersonal violence victimization and any associated mental health outcomes. However, subgroup analyses reveal significant interaction effects between resilience and IPV within specific racial and ethnic minority subgroups, suggesting that attenuating effects of resilience on mental health symptoms (i.e., depression and psychological distress) associated with IPV likely vary across race and ethnicity. Implications for future research and clinical interventions focused on resilience among survivors of interpersonal violence are discussed.

  2. Sexual Orientation and Depressive Symptoms in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luk, Jeremy W; Gilman, Stephen E; Haynie, Denise L; Simons-Morton, Bruce G

    2018-05-01

    Sexual orientation disparities in adolescent depressive symptoms are well established, but reasons for these disparities are less well understood. We modeled sexual orientation disparities in depressive symptoms from late adolescence into young adulthood and evaluated family satisfaction, peer support, cyberbullying victimization, and unmet medical needs as potential mediators. Data were from waves 2 to 6 of the NEXT Generation Health Study ( n = 2396), a population-based cohort of US adolescents. We used latent growth models to examine sexual orientation disparities in depressive symptoms in participants aged 17 to 21 years, conduct mediation analyses, and examine sex differences. Relative to heterosexual adolescents, sexual minority adolescents (those who are attracted to the same or both sexes or are questioning; 6.3% of the weighted sample) consistently reported higher depressive symptoms from 11th grade to 3 years after high school. Mediation analyses indicated that sexual minority adolescents reported lower family satisfaction, greater cyberbullying victimization, and increased likelihood of unmet medical needs, all of which were associated with higher depressive symptoms. The mediating role of cyberbullying victimization was more pronounced among male than female participants. Sexual minority adolescents reported higher depressive symptoms than heterosexual adolescents from late adolescence into young adulthood. Collectively, low family satisfaction, cyberbullying victimization, and unmet medical needs accounted for >45% of differences by sexual orientation. Future clinical research is needed to determine if interventions targeting these psychosocial and health care-related factors would reduce sexual orientation disparities in depressive symptoms and the optimal timing of such interventions. Copyright © 2018 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  3. DNA minor groove alkylating agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, W A

    2001-04-01

    Recent work on a number of different classes of anticancer agents that alkylate DNA in the minor groove is reviewed. There has been much work with nitrogen mustards, where attachment of the mustard unit to carrier molecules can change the normal patterns of both regio- and sequence-selectivity, from reaction primarily at most guanine N7 sites in the major groove to a few adenine N3 sites at the 3'-end of poly(A/T) sequences in the minor groove. Carrier molecules discussed for mustards are intercalators, polypyrroles, polyimidazoles, bis(benzimidazoles), polybenzamides and anilinoquinolinium salts. In contrast, similar targeting of pyrrolizidine alkylators by a variety of carriers has little effect of their patterns of alkylation (at the 2-amino group of guanine). Recent work on the pyrrolobenzodiazepine and cyclopropaindolone classes of natural product minor groove binders is also reviewed.

  4. Bussing of Ethnic Minority Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Gro Hellesdatter

    2015-01-01

    This article concerns the rights and duties of ethnic minority children in education in Denmark. More specifically, it discusses the policy of compulsory bussing of ethnic minority children based on language screenings that was legalized by the Danish Parliament in 2005. The policy concerns...... the meeting between citizens with an ethnic minority background and the Danish state, represented by welfare institutions, in this case public elementary schools, and changes the character of this meeting for the individuals involved. In the article, I concentrate on two rights at stake in this meeting......, namely the right to free choice of school and the right – or duty? – to obtain more-equal opportunities in education. The policy creates a dilemma between these two rights and furthermore between a right and a duty to obtain better education results. The article discusses whether the bussing policy may...

  5. The Willink Minority Commission and minority rights in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Consequently, copious provisions to protect some basic human rights and fundamental freedoms of all Nigerians were enshrined in the independence constitution. This article examines the debates about minority rights in the work of the Willink Commission and the circumstances leading to the enactment of human rights ...

  6. An experimental investigation of emotional reasoning processes in depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berle, David; Moulds, Michelle L

    2013-09-01

    Cognitive models of depression emphasize how distorted thoughts and interpretations contribute to low mood. Emotional reasoning is considered to be one such interpretative style. We used an experimental procedure to determine whether elevated levels of emotional reasoning characterize depression. Participants who were currently experiencing a major depressive episode (n = 27) were compared with those who were non-depressed (n = 25 who had never been depressed and n = 26 previously but not currently depressed) on an emotional reasoning task. Although there were some trends for depressed participants to show greater levels of emotional reasoning relative to non-depressed participants, none of these differences attained significance. Interestingly, previously depressed participants engaged in more non-self-referent emotional reasoning than never-depressed participants. Emotional reasoning does not appear to characterize mild to moderate levels of depression. The lack of significant differences in emotional reasoning between currently depressed and non-depressed participants may have been a consequence of the fact that participants in our currently depressed group were, for the most part, only mildly depressed. Non-self-referent emotional reasoning may nevertheless be a risk factor for subsequent depressive episodes, or else serve as a 'cognitive scar' from previous episodes. In contrast with the predictions of cognitive models of depression, emotional reasoning tendencies may not be especially prominent in currently depressed individuals. Depressed individuals vary greatly in the degree to which they engage in emotional reasoning. Individuals with remitted depression may show elevated of levels non-self-referent emotional reasoning compared with those who have never had a depressive episode, that is, rely on their emotions when forming interpretations about situations. Our findings require replication using alternative indices of emotional reasoning. Our currently

  7. Struggling for clarity : cultural context, gender and a concept of depression in general practice

    OpenAIRE

    Lehti, Arja

    2009-01-01

    Many depressed patients attend primary health care, and minority-group patients often see general practitioners for depressive symptoms. The diagnosis and classification criteria of depression and guidelines for management are based on symptoms. However,expressions of depression can vary with culture and gender but the diagnostic tools and guidelines are not adapted to gendered or cultural context and have shown to be poorly applicable in clinical practice. The purpose of this thesis was to a...

  8. Examination of premenstrual symptoms as a risk factor for depression in postpartum women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttner, Melissa M; Mott, Sarah L; Pearlstein, Teri; Stuart, Scott; Zlotnick, Caron; O'Hara, Michael W

    2013-06-01

    Postpartum depression (PPD) is a significant public health concern with prevalence of major and minor depressions reaching 20 % in the first three postpartum months. Sociodemographic and psychopathology correlates of PPD are well established; however, information on the relationship between premenstrual disorders and the development of PPD is less well established. Thus, the aim of this study was to examine the role of premenstrual syndrome (PMS)/premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) as a risk factor for PPD. Premenstrual symptoms were assessed retrospectively using the premenstrual symptoms screening tool (PSST) and depression was diagnosed according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) criteria and assessed using the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS). A two-stage screening procedure was applied. In the first stage, the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) was employed. In the second stage, women endorsing ≥5 symptoms on the PHQ-9 were administered the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, HDRS, and PSST. Hierarchical linear regression showed that history of depression and PMS/PMDD contributed an additional 2 % of the variance (p PMS/PMDD and PPD (OR = 1.97). The findings of this study suggest that PMS/PMDD is an important risk factor for PPD. Women endorsing a history of PMS/PMDD should be monitored during the perinatal period.

  9. Catastrophizing and Depressive Symptoms as Prospective Predictors of Outcomes Following Total Knee Replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert R Edwards

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Several recent reports suggest that pain-related catastrophizing is a risk factor for poor acute pain outcomes following surgical interventions. However, it has been less clear whether levels of catastrophizing influence longer-term postoperative outcomes. Data were analyzed from a relatively small number (n=43 of patients who underwent total knee replacement and were followed for 12 months after their surgery. Previous research has suggested that high levels of both catastrophizing and depression are associated with elevated acute postoperative pain complaints among patients undergoing knee surgery. In this sample, catastrophizing and depression at each of the assessment points were studied as prospective predictors of pain (both global pain ratings and pain at night at the subsequent assessment point over the course of one year. The predictive patterns differed somewhat across measures of pain reporting; depressive symptoms were unique predictors of greater global pain complaints, while catastrophizing was a specific and unique predictor of elevated nighttime pain. While surgical outcomes following total knee replacement are, on average, quite good, a significant minority of patients continue to experience long-term pain. The present findings suggest that high levels of catastrophizing and depression may promote enhanced pain levels, indicating that interventions designed to reduce catastrophizing and depressive symptoms may have the potential to further improve joint replacement outcomes.

  10. Legal Immigration Status is Associated with Depressive Symptoms among Latina Transgender Women in Washington, DC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thespina Yamanis

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Latina transgender women (LTW are disproportionately vulnerable to depression, although the role of immigration/documentation status (legal authority to live/work in the U.S. in depression has not been explored. LTW in Washington, DC were recruited into a cross-sectional study via convenience sampling. Most were Spanish-speaking Central American immigrants. Participants completed rapid HIV tests, and a Spanish-language survey assessing recent depressive symptoms (PHQ-2, sociodemographics, and factors from the minority stress framework: structural stressors (documentation status, stable housing, social stressors (discrimination, fear of deportation, violence and coping resources (social support, resilience. Among immigrant LTW (n = 38, 24 were undocumented. Among the undocumented, the average PHQ-2 score was 2.7, and among the documented, the average PHQ-2 score was 1.4 (p < 0.05. Undocumented LTW were significantly more likely to experience employment discrimination, recent unstable housing, and fear of deportation. Bivariate and multiple linear regressions were performed to assess the relationship between documentation status and other correlates of past two week depressive symptoms. In multivariate analysis, PHQ-2 scores were inversely associated with being documented (p < 0.01, having an income above the federal poverty level, higher friends’ social support, and increased resiliency. Documentation status is an important correlate of depressive symptoms among LTW that should be considered within the context of health interventions.

  11. Depression in pregnancy and postpartum period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, Mamta; Sood, A K

    2003-01-01

    This prospective study was carried out in a service hospital, with the aim to study the prevalence and incidence of depression in pregnancy and postpartum period. Eighty Four consecutive patients attending the antenatal outpatient in the Obstetrics & Gynaecology department in their last trimester of pregnancy were recruited for the study. They were assessed on Beck Depression Inventory thrice viz. during third trimester of pregnancy, within 3 days of delivery (early postpartum period) & within 4-8 weeks of delivery (late postpartum period).The prevalence of depression was 8.3%, 20% and 12.8% respectively at three ratings. The incidence was 16% and 10% in the early & late postpartum period respectively. Further analysis revealed that depression in pregnancy correlated significantly with depression in early postpartum period, but not with late postpartum period. Depression in early postpartum period correlated with depression in late postpartum period.These findings have implications for early detection and care of women at risk for developing depression.

  12. Persistence among Minority STEM Majors: A Phenomenological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams-Watson, Stacey

    The United States needs to increase the number of science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) graduates to remain competitive in the global market and maintain national security. Minority students, specifically African-American and Hispanic, are underrepresented in STEM fields. As the minority population continues to grow it is essential that higher education institutions improve minority students' persistence in STEM education. This study examined the problem of minority students' lack of persistence in STEM programs. The purpose of this qualitative transcendental phenomenological study was to describe the lived experiences that minority students perceived as contributing to their persistence in STEM. The central research question was: What are the lived experiences of minority STEM students that have contributed to their persistence in a STEM program? The sub-questions were: a) What led participants to majors in STEM?; b) What contributed to students' success and persistence in STEM?; and c) What advice do students have to offer? The researcher interviewed 12 minority STEM students and uncovered 10 themes that described the lived experiences of minority students' persistence in STEM programs. The themes were 1) Childhood experiences and interests; 2) Positive educational experiences in secondary school; 3) Self- motivation; 4) Positive experiences with professors; 5) Family encouragement and values; 6) Lack of minorities; 7) Lack of educational preparation; 8) The need for financial assistance; 9) Clubs and organizations; and 10) Friends within the major. The significance of these findings is the potential to produce changes in curricula, programs, and retention methods that may improve the persistence of minority students in STEM programs.

  13. Impaired cognition in depression and Alzheimer (AD: a gradient from depression to depression in AD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narahyana Bom de Araujo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective To assess cognition in major depressed (MD, Alzheimer's disease (AD, and depression in AD elderly. Method Subjects were evaluated by Mini Mental, Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test, Rey Complex Figure, Digit Span, Similarities, Trail Making A/B, Verbal Fluency and Stroop. One-way ANOVA and multivariate models were used to compare the performance of each group on neuropsychological tests. Results We evaluated 212 subjects. Compared to MD, attention, working memory, processing speed and recall showed significantly better in controls. Controls showed significantly higher performance in all cognitive measures, except in attention compared to AD. Verbal fluency, memory, processing speed and abstract reasoning in MD was significantly higher compared to AD. AD was significantly better in general cognitive state than depression in AD. All other cognitive domains were similar. Conclusion A decreasing gradient in cognition appeared from the control to depression in AD, with MD and AD in an intermediate position.

  14. Veteran preferences for romantic partner involvement in depression treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershenberg, Rachel; Mavandadi, Shahrzad; Klaus, Johanna R; Oslin, David W; Sayers, Steven L

    2014-01-01

    The objective was to examine Veterans' preferences for romantic partner involvement in depression treatment and patient characteristics that are associated with the likelihood of preferred involvement. One hundred seventy-nine Veterans who met criteria for major or minor depression reported if they wanted their partners to give them medication reminders, accompany them to appointments, and speak with their treatment provider. Greater depression severity and wanting a partner to be less critical and more encouraging were associated with greater preferences for involvement. Veterans may view their partners' involvement in depression treatment as one opportunity for partners to decrease blame or understand more about their problems. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Depressive disorders and the menopause transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llaneza, Plácido; García-Portilla, María P; Llaneza-Suárez, David; Armott, Begoña; Pérez-López, Faustino R

    2012-02-01

    Depressive disorders and symptoms are common among middle-aged women. The effects of hormones on depression remain unclear. This review aims to clarify the nature of depressive disorders during the menopause transition as well as their links with climacteric syndrome, sexuality, cardiovascular risk and cognitive function. The recent literature on depressive disorders and menopause is reviewed. Women are more vulnerable than men to depressive disorders. Endocrine influences have been postulated but differences in, for example, coping style and response to stress may also contribute to the gender difference in the prevalence of depressive disorders. Gender differences in socialization may lead to higher rates of depression in women. There are data top suggest that menopause and depression are associated, although there is not a common clear causative factor. Women with climacteric symptoms (hot flushes, night sweats, vaginal dryness and dyspareunia) are more likely to report anxiety and/or depressive symptoms. Bothersome vasomotor symptoms could be associated with sleep disturbances, which in turn can increase reports of anxiety and depressive symptoms. Biopsychosocial and partner factors have a significant influence on middle-aged women's sexuality and depressive disorders, and most antidepressants can have a negative effect on sexual response. Lastly, studies have consistently shown that women with high levels of depressive symptoms are at greater cardiovascular risk and have poorer cognitive function than non-depressed women. At present, a direct relationship between psychiatric symptoms and hormonal changes such as estrogen decrease has not been clearly found. Stress, educational level, ethnicity, socioeconomic factors and partner status may influence the prevalence and clinical course of both menopause symptoms and depressive disorders. Since in many cases depression is a lifelong condition, and is associated with severe comorbid conditions, further studies are

  16. The Relationship between Depression and Religious Attitudes in Students of Qom University of Medical Sciences, Qom, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Ahmari Tehran

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Background and Objectives: Depression is one of the main causes of debility all over the world. Its prevalence is reported to be 10% -64% in students. Various researches indicate that utilizing religious approaches play an efficient and effective role in treating mental disorders. The present study was conducted with the aim of determining the relationship between depression and religious attitudes in students of Qom University of Medical Sciences (QUMS, Qom, Iran.

    Methods: In this descriptive– analytical study, 250 students of QUMS were assessed by means of three questionnaires; a standard depression test questionnaire, and religious attitude questionnaire. The obtained data were analyzed using statistical procedures of Chi-Square, Mann-Whitney, Kruskal- Wallis test and Spearman Correlation Coefficient and P<0/05 was considered as the level of significance.

    Results: The study showed that 44.8%of the subjects had no depression, 37.2% had minor depression, 14.8% were moderately depressed, and 0.8%  were intensely depressed while 2.4% very intensely depressed. The study also showed that 82% of the cases had positive attitudes toward religious beliefs and 18% had negative ones. Moreover, results showed that there was a meaningful but negative relationship between depression and religious attitudes (P<0/02.

    Conclusion: Regarding the positive effects of religious beliefs and practices on mental health, it is recommended to use this potential in community health planning especially when dealing with young adults.

  17. Analysis of Minor Component Segregation in Ternary Powder Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asachi Maryam

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In many powder handling operations, inhomogeneity in powder mixtures caused by segregation could have significant adverse impact on the quality as well as economics of the production. Segregation of a minor component of a highly active substance could have serious deleterious effects, an example is the segregation of enzyme granules in detergent powders. In this study, the effects of particle properties and bulk cohesion on the segregation tendency of minor component are analysed. The minor component is made sticky while not adversely affecting the flowability of samples. The segregation extent is evaluated using image processing of the photographic records taken from the front face of the heap after the pouring process. The optimum average sieve cut size of components for which segregation could be reduced is reported. It is also shown that the extent of segregation is significantly reduced by applying a thin layer of liquid to the surfaces of minor component, promoting an ordered mixture.

  18. Simulations Test Impact Of Education, Employment, And Income Improvements On Minority Patients With Mental Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alegria, Margarita; Drake, Robert E; Kang, Hyeon-Ah; Metcalfe, Justin; Liu, Jingchen; DiMarzio, Karissa; Ali, Naomi

    2017-06-01

    Social determinants of health, such as poverty and minority background, severely disadvantage many people with mental disorders. A variety of innovative federal, state, and local programs have combined social services with mental health interventions. To explore the potential effects of such supports for addressing poverty and disadvantage on mental health outcomes, we simulated improvements in three social determinants-education, employment, and income. We used two large data sets: one from the National Institute of Mental Health that contained information about people with common mental disorders such as anxiety and depression, and another from the Social Security Administration that contained information about people who were disabled due to severe mental disorders such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Our simulations showed that increasing employment was significantly correlated with improvements in mental health outcomes, while increasing education and income produced weak or nonsignificant correlations. In general, minority groups as well as the majority group of non-Latino whites improved in the desired outcomes. We recommend that health policy leaders, state and federal agencies, and insurers provide evidence-based employment services as a standard treatment for people with mental disorders. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  19. "Subthreshold" depression: is the distinction between depressive disorder not otherwise specified and adjustment disorder valid?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Mark; Martinez, Jennifer H; Dalrymple, Kristy; Chelminski, Iwona; Young, Diane

    2013-05-01

    Patients with clinically significant symptoms of depression who do not meet the criteria for major depressive disorder or dysthymic disorder are considered to have subthreshold depression. According to DSM-IV, such patients should be diagnosed with depressive disorder not otherwise specified (NOS) if the development of the symptoms is not attributable to a stressful event or with adjustment disorder if the symptoms follow a stressor. Research on the treatment of subthreshold depression rarely addresses the distinction between depressive disorder NOS and adjustment disorder. In the present report from the Rhode Island Methods to Improve Diagnostic Assessment and Services (MIDAS) project, we examined the validity of this distinction. From December 1995 to June 2011, 3,400 psychiatric patients presenting to the Rhode Island Hospital outpatient practice were evaluated with semistructured diagnostic interviews for DSM-IV Axis I and Axis II disorders and measures of psychosocial morbidity. Slightly less than 10% (n = 300) of the 3,400 patients were diagnosed with depressive disorder NOS or adjustment disorder with depressed mood. The patients with depressive disorder NOS were significantly more often diagnosed with social phobia (P depressive disorder NOS reported more anhedonia, increased appetite, increased sleep, and indecisiveness, whereas the patients with adjustment disorder reported more weight loss, reduced appetite, and insomnia. There was no significant difference between the groups in overall level of severity of depression or impaired functioning. The patients with depressive disorder NOS had a nonsignificantly elevated morbid risk of depression in their first-degree relatives. Clinically significant subthreshold depression was common in psychiatric outpatients, and the present results support the validity of distinguishing between depressive disorder NOS and adjustment disorder with depressed mood. Future studies of the treatment of subthreshold depression

  20. Resilience to Discrimination and Rejection Among Young Sexual Minority Males and Transgender Females: A Qualitative Study on Coping With Minority Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bry, Laura Jane; Mustanski, Brian; Garofalo, Robert; Burns, Michelle Nicole

    2017-09-13

    Sexual minority and transgender status is associated with mental health disparities, which have been empirically and theoretically linked to stressors related to social stigma. Despite exposure to these unique stressors, many sexual minority and transgender individuals will not experience mental health disorders in their lifetime. Little is known about the specific processes that sexual minority and transgender youth use to maintain their wellbeing in the presence of discrimination and rejection. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 10 sexual minority males and transgender females aged 18-22 years, who currently met criteria for an operationalized definition of resilience to depression and anxiety. Data were analyzed qualitatively, yielding information related to a wide variety of problem-solving, support-seeking, and accommodative coping strategies employed by youth in the face of social stigma. Results are discussed in light of their clinical implications.

  1. Relationship between occupational stress and depressive mood among interns and residents in a tertiary hospital, Seoul, Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Keon; Lee, Sunhwa; Choi, Yoon Hee

    2015-06-01

    Occupational stress can have a harmful effect on the individual both physically and psychologically. In Korea, occupational stress of physician is rarely demonstrated. Although it is well reported that physicians tend to have a high incidence of minor psychiatric disorders, the magnitude of the problem remains unclear. Interns and residents are thought to be under substantial amount of stress, and tend to have psychiatric disorder. In this paper, we aimed to evaluate the relationship between the occupational stress and depression of residents. The participants of this study were surgical and medical residents in a tertiary hospital in Korea. For measurement of occupational stress, we used an occupational stress scale. In addition, to evaluate the prevalence of depression, we used the Beck Depression Inventory. Female doctors showed higher degree of occupational stress than the males. The interns and chief residents showed higher degree of occupational stress than the other residents. Interestingly, in this study, most of the participants experienced a depressive mood. Compared with the general population, job demand and culture of workplace were high. Occupational stress was the only significant predictor of a depressive mood. Hospital residents experience a high degree of occupational stress leading to a depressed mood due to various risk factors. Therefore, it is essential to recognize the occupational stress of residents early, to encourage positive competition and peer and social support, and to help improve the residents' ability to cope with stress.

  2. Minority Enrollments in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astin, Alexander

    1975-01-01

    This testimony, by the Director, Cooperative Institutional Research Program, University of California, Los Angeles, before a public hearing of the New York City Commission on Human Rights in May 1974, is stated to place special emphasis on possible explanations for recent changes in earlier trends in minority enrollments. (Author/JM)

  3. Opening the Suburbs to Minorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidoff, Paul

    1975-01-01

    This testimony, before a public hearing of the New York City Commission on Human Rights in May 1974, notes that the Suburban Action Institute is involved actively in assisting the cities by working to open opportunities in the suburbs for minority families, and advocates that New York City become alert and active in combating discriminatory…

  4. Young ethnic minorities in education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørck, Line Lerche

    2007-01-01

    In Danish as well as in international comparative educational research, there is a tendency to foreground lack of skills or lack of achievement in discussions about learning among ethnic minorities[1]. Empirically, this kind of research (see for example Ragnvid, 2005, about the PISA-Copenhagen re......In Danish as well as in international comparative educational research, there is a tendency to foreground lack of skills or lack of achievement in discussions about learning among ethnic minorities[1]. Empirically, this kind of research (see for example Ragnvid, 2005, about the PISA......-Copenhagen results) is based on statistics and test scores - and it often lacks a basis in a theoretical understanding of how learning comes about. Theoretical and qualitative examples of recent educational research about ethnic minorities are often poststructuralist analyses of discourses and social categories...... and transcend negative social categories about a ‘Muslim school girl' as ‘isolated and oppressed' and ‘too studios'. [1] I use the term ethnic minority, not as a distinction with numerical proportions, but rather related to societal power relations (Phoenix, 2001). In that way the Danish Palestinian pupils...

  5. Minority game with SK interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menezes, Pedro Castro; Sherrington, David

    2013-01-01

    A batch minority game with fake random history and additional SK-like quenched interaction is introduced and analysed. A mixing parameter λ quantifies the admixture and dictates the relative dominance of the two contributions: if λ → 0, agent decisions are based on their strategies and point-scores alone, as in the pure minority game, whereas for λ > 0 the agents also communicate with each other directly and update their points accordingly. Keeping the minority game dynamics in which the agents’ points are updated in parallel at each time step, the aim is to understand what happens if instead of simply using the normal strategy-based decisions, the agents also take account of an ‘effective field’ generated by the other agents. It is shown that the SK interaction introduces a ‘noise’ term which is broader than that in the normal minority game and which furthermore kills the normal phase transition. It is also shown that the same effect would occur if, instead of an SK interaction, Gaussian-distributed quenched random fields are added. By calculating order parameters in the time-translational invariant phase we show that the system is persistent in a ergodic phase. Both simulational and analytical results are presented. (paper)

  6. Minority Student Progress Report, 1991.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Porfirio R.; Luan, Jing

    This report offers a consolidated systemwide analysis of key issues and recommendations for improvement of minority recruitment and retention at Arizona State Universities and an evaluation of progress toward achieving Arizona Board of Regents (ABOR) approved recruitment and graduation goals. A description of ABOR system goals notes three goals:…

  7. Disability and comorbidity among major depressive disorder and double depression in African-American adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Elisa R

    2013-09-25

    Few studies have examined differences in disability and comorbity among major depressive disorder (MDD), dysthymia, and double depression in African-Americans (AA). A secondary analysis was performed on AA in the National Survey of American Life. Interviews occurred 2001-2003. A four stage national area probability sampling was performed. DSM-IV-TR diagnoses were obtained with a modified version of the World Health Organization's expanded version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Disability was measured by interview with the World Health Organization's Disability Assessment Schedule II. Compared to non-depressed AA, AA endorsing MDD (t=19.0, p=0.0001) and double depression (t=18.7, p=0.0001) reported more global disability; AA endorsing MDD (t=8.5, p=0.0063) reported more disability in the getting around domain; AA endorsing MDD (t=19.1, p=0.0001) and double depression (t=12.1, p=0.0014) reported more disability in the life activities domain. AA who endorsed double depression reported similar disability and comorbidities with AA who endorsed MDD. Few AA endorsed dysthymia. This was a cross-sectional study subject to recall bias. The NSAL did not measure minor depression. The current study supports the idea of deleting distinct chronic subtypes of depression and consolidating them into a single category termed chronic depression. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Respecting the 'stages' of depression: Considering depression severity and readiness to seek help.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lueck, Jennifer A

    2018-07-01

    Despite knowing the value of message customization, empirical results have failed to provide clear indicators of what make a depression help-seeking message effective. The present research examines stages of depression in response to a prominent communication strategy, gain versus loss framing, to inform possibilities for effective message customization. Two experimental studies were conducted with a student (N = 126) and U.S. adult (N = 738) sample that tested the effects of gain versus loss framing at different stages of depression. A persuasive gain-frame advantage was found for those with mild and severe depression, whereas a boomerang effect was found for both gain and loss framing among those with moderately severe depression. With regards to intention to seek help, neither gain nor loss framing was found to influence intentions. Stages of depression was a strong predictor, with strongest intentions to seek help observed among those with either minor or severe symptoms of depression. Effective health messaging must be matched with unique characteristics and needs of individuals at each 'stage' of depression in order to produce favorable outcomes. 'Stages' of depression should be known and carefully assessed before the creation and launch of communication interventions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Minorities and educational testing in schools in Arctic regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Karen Egedal; Kousholt, Kristine

    2018-01-01

    The conditions that ethnic minorities currently live under in the Western world, where education is a significant condition for social inclusion, have changed drastically in recent decades. Globalization, in particular, seen as a process, has been influential in this context via many routes......, including large international organizations such as the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, or OECD (Lawn & Grek, 2012). In these processes, minorities, including indigenous populations, are vulnerable (e...

  10. Psychometric validation and clinical validity of the Minor Melancholia Mood Checklist (MMCL-32)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Per; Christensen, Ellen Margrethe; Vinberg, Maj

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Minor Melancholia Mood Checklist (MMCL-32) was developed to identify sub-threshold states of major depression. The MMCL-32 can be considered as the counterpole to the Hypomanic Check List (HCL-32). METHODS: Principal component analysis (PCA) without rotation was used to identify a...

  11. Disclosure of minor mental health problems: an exploratory theoretical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, B; Healy, D

    2001-07-01

    The aim of this study was to explore people's experiences, concerns and beliefs about disclosing minor mental health problems by focusing on the ways in which such disclosures are interpreted. Approximately half of people with mental health problems do not seek help. The decision to consult represents just one aspect of the process of revealing one's illness to others. People with mental health problems are known to be reluctant to reveal the existence of those problems through fear of how others might then view them. A qualitative approach was employed. In-depth interviews were carried out with 47 users and nonusers of community mental health services. Interviews were tape-recorded, transcribed and analysed. The data suggest that when people reveal minor mental health problems others interpret these in relation to a number of perceived contextual factors. These include perceptions of the severity and duration of any possible causes, the inner 'strength' of the person, the expected ability of the person to either solve or suppress the experience, and the form and context of the expression itself. The data presented included individuals who were seeking help for relatively 'minor' mental health problems (primarily depression and anxiety) and individuals who had no current mental health problems but routinely managed expressions of their own emotions. Throughout the data there appeared to be no distinct difference between these two groups other than one of the severity of psychological experience. The key elements involved in the interpretation of people's expressions of sadness were essentially the same as those involved in the interpretation of expressions of depression. An appreciation of these contextual factors influencing the interpretation and disclosure of minor mental health problems may aid the development of more person-centred mental health services and inform the content of health education in the mental health field.

  12. Trait Rumination Predicts Elevated Evening Cortisol in Sexual and Gender Minority Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoccola, Peggy M; Manigault, Andrew W; Figueroa, Wilson S; Hollenbeck, Cari; Mendlein, Anna; Woody, Alex; Hamilton, Katrina; Scanlin, Matt; Johnson, Ryan C

    2017-11-09

    Stress may contribute to illness through the impaired recovery or sustained activity of stress-responsive biological systems. Rumination, or mental rehearsal of past stressors, may alter the body's stress-responsive systems by amplifying and prolonging exposure to physiological mediators, such as cortisol. The primary aim of the current investigation was to test the extent to which the tendency to ruminate on stress predicts diminished diurnal cortisol recovery (i.e., elevated evening cortisol) in a sample of sexual and gender minority young adults. Participants included 58 lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender young adults ( M age = 25.0, SD = 4.1) who completed an initial online survey that assessed trait rumination and current depressed mood. Participants completed daily evening questionnaires and provided salivary cortisol samples at wake, 45 min post-wake, 12 h post-wake, and at bedtime over seven consecutive days. Trait rumination predicted significantly higher cortisol concentrations at bedtime, but was unrelated to other cortisol indices (e.g., morning cortisol, diurnal slope, total output). The association with trait rumination was not accounted for by daily negative affect, and was largely independent of depressed mood. These results have implications for identifying and treating those who may be at risk for impaired diurnal cortisol recovery and associated negative health outcomes.

  13. Trait Rumination Predicts Elevated Evening Cortisol in Sexual and Gender Minority Young Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peggy M. Zoccola

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Stress may contribute to illness through the impaired recovery or sustained activity of stress-responsive biological systems. Rumination, or mental rehearsal of past stressors, may alter the body’s stress-responsive systems by amplifying and prolonging exposure to physiological mediators, such as cortisol. The primary aim of the current investigation was to test the extent to which the tendency to ruminate on stress predicts diminished diurnal cortisol recovery (i.e., elevated evening cortisol in a sample of sexual and gender minority young adults. Participants included 58 lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender young adults (Mage = 25.0, SD = 4.1 who completed an initial online survey that assessed trait rumination and current depressed mood. Participants completed daily evening questionnaires and provided salivary cortisol samples at wake, 45 min post-wake, 12 h post-wake, and at bedtime over seven consecutive days. Trait rumination predicted significantly higher cortisol concentrations at bedtime, but was unrelated to other cortisol indices (e.g., morning cortisol, diurnal slope, total output. The association with trait rumination was not accounted for by daily negative affect, and was largely independent of depressed mood. These results have implications for identifying and treating those who may be at risk for impaired diurnal cortisol recovery and associated negative health outcomes.

  14. Differences in the clinical characteristics of adolescent depressive disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Linnea; Pelkonen, Mirjami; Heilä, Hannele; Holi, Matti; Kiviruusu, Olli; Tuisku, Virpi; Ruuttu, Titta; Marttunen, Mauri

    2007-01-01

    Our objective was to analyze differences in clinical characteristics and comorbidity between different types of adolescent depressive disorders. A sample of 218 consecutive adolescent (ages 13-19 years) psychiatric outpatients with depressive disorders was interviewed for DSM-IV Axis I and Axis II diagnoses. We obtained data by interviewing the adolescents themselves and collecting additional background information from the clinical records. Lifetime age of onset for depression, current episode duration, frequency of suicidal behavior, psychosocial impairment, and the number of current comorbid psychiatric disorders varied between adolescent depressive disorder categories. The type of co-occurring disorder was mainly consistent across depressive disorders. Minor depression and dysthymia (DY) presented as milder depressions, whereas bipolar depression (BPD) and double depression [DD; i.e., DY with superimposed major depressive disorder (MDD)] appeared as especially severe conditions. Only earlier lifetime onset distinguished recurrent MDD from first-episode MDD, and newly emergent MDD appeared to be as impairing as recurrent MDD. Adolescent depressive disorder categories differ in many clinically relevant aspects, with most differences reflecting a continuum of depression severity. Identification of bipolarity and the subgroup with DD seems especially warranted. First episode MDD should be considered as severe a disorder as recurring MDD. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Gender minority stress, mental health, and relationship quality: a dyadic investigation of transgender women and their cisgender male partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamarel, Kristi E; Reisner, Sari L; Laurenceau, Jean-Philippe; Nemoto, Tooru; Operario, Don

    2014-08-01

    Research has demonstrated associations between experiences of discrimination, relationship quality, and mental health. However, critical questions remain unanswered with regard to how stigma enacted and experienced at the dyadic-level influences relationship quality and mental health for transgender women and their cisgender (nontransgender) male partners. The present study sought to examine how experiences of transgender-related discrimination (i.e., unfair treatment, harassment) and relationship stigma (i.e., the real or anticipated fear of rejection based on one's romantic affiliation) were associated with both partners relationship quality and mental health. Couples (n = 191) were recruited to participate in cross-sectional survey. Dyadic analyses using actor-partner interdependence models were conducted to examine the influence of minority stressors on clinically significant depressive distress and relationship quality. For both partners, financial hardship, discrimination, and relationship stigma were associated with an increased odds of depressive distress. For both partners, financial hardship was associated with lower relationship quality. Among transgender women, their own and their partner's higher relationship stigma scores were associated with lower relationship quality; however, among male partners, only their partner's greater relationship stigma scores were associated with lower relationship quality. Findings provide preliminary support for dyadic crossover effects of relationship stigma on the health of partners. Findings illustrate the importance of minority stress and dyadic stress frameworks in understanding and intervening upon mental health disparities among transgender women and their male partners. Couples-based interventions and treatment approaches to help transgender women and their male partners cope with minority stressors are warranted to improve the health and well-being of both partners.

  16. Pharmacological treatment of depression in women with breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftegård Andersen, Lærke; Voigt Hansen, Melissa; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    , paroxetine, showed no significant effects on depression compared with placebo. A double-blind, parallel group study comparing a tricyclic antidepressant, amitriptyline, and paroxetine showed a significant and comparable improvement in depression and QOL. Two open label, prospective studies found...

  17. Moving beyond Depression: A Collaborative Approach to Treating Depressed Mothers in Home Visiting Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammerman, Robert T.; Putnam, Frank W.; Teeters, Angelique R.; Van Ginkel, Judith B.

    2014-01-01

    Research indicates that up to half of mothers in home visiting experience clinically significant levels of depression during their participation in services. Depression alters maternal life course, negatively impacts child development, and contributes to poorer home visiting outcomes. This article describes the Moving Beyond Depression (MBD)…

  18. [Gender differences in depression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karger, A

    2014-09-01

    Depression is one of the most prevalent and debilitating diseases. In recent years there has been increased awareness of sex- and gender-specific issues in depression. This narrative review presents and discusses differences in prevalence, symptom profile, age at onset and course, comorbidity, biological and psychosocial factors, the impact of sexual stereotyping, help-seeking, emotion regulation and doctor-patient communication. Typically, women are diagnosed with depression twice as often as men, and their disease follows a more chronic course. Comorbid anxiety is more prevalent in women, whereas comorbid alcohol abuse is a major concern in men. Sucide rates for men are between three and five times higher compared with women. Although there are different symptom profiles in men and women, it is difficult to define a gender-specific symptom profile. Socially mediated gender roles have a significant impact on psychosocial factors associated with risk, sickness behavior and coping strategies. In general, too little attention has been paid to the definition and handling of depression and the gender-related requirements it makes on the healthcare system.

  19. Depression in patients with refractory temporal lobe epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Borges Gonçalves

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the comorbidity of depressive disorders in patients with refractory temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE. METHOD: We evaluated 25 consecutive patients with refractory TLE (16 women and 9 men, using semi-structured psychiatric interviews, according to the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10, and the Beck Depression Inventory. RESULTS: Seventeen of 25 patients (68% had depressive disorder: 6 with dysthymia, three with major depressive episodes and 8 with recurrent depressive disorders. Two (8% were diagnosed with mixed anxiety and depression. Only 5 of 17 patients (29.4% were previously diagnosed with depressive disorder and received prior antidepressant treatment. Duration of epilepsy was significantly higher in patients with depressive disorder (p=0.016, but there was no relationship between depression and seizure frequency. CONCLUSION: This study confirmed that depressive disorders are common and underdiagnosed in patients with TLE refractory to AEDs. Patients with longer duration of epilepsy are at higher risk of having depression.

  20. Stress sensitivity interacts with depression history to predict depressive symptoms among youth: Prospective changes following first depression onset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technow, Jessica R.; Hazel, Nicholas A.; Abela, John R. Z.; Hankin, Benjamin L.

    2015-01-01

    Predictors of depressive symptoms may differ before and after the first onset of major depression due to stress sensitization. Dependent stressors, or those to which characteristics of individuals contribute, have been shown to predict depressive symptoms in youth. The current study sought to clarify how stressors’ roles may differ before and after the first depressive episode. Adolescents (N = 382, aged 11 to 15 at baseline) were assessed at baseline and every three months over the course of two years with measures of stressors and depressive symptoms. Semi-structured interviews were conducted every 6 months to assess for clinically significant depressive episodes. Hierarchical linear modeling showed a significant interaction between history of depression and idiographic fluctuations in dependent stressors to predict prospective elevations of symptoms, such that dependent stressors were more predictive of depressive symptoms after onset of disorder. Independent stressors predicted symptoms, but the strength of the association did not vary by depression history. These results suggest a synthesis of stress sensitization and generation processes that might maintain inter-episode depressive symptoms among youth with a history of clinical depression. PMID:25123081

  1. Stress sensitivity interacts with depression history to predict depressive symptoms among youth: prospective changes following first depression onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technow, Jessica R; Hazel, Nicholas A; Abela, John R Z; Hankin, Benjamin L

    2015-04-01

    Predictors of depressive symptoms may differ before and after the first onset of major depression due to stress sensitization. Dependent stressors, or those to which characteristics of individuals contribute, have been shown to predict depressive symptoms in youth. The current study sought to clarify how stressors' roles may differ before and after the first depressive episode. Adolescents (N = 382, aged 11 to 15 at baseline) were assessed at baseline and every 3 months over the course of 2 years with measures of stressors and depressive symptoms. Semi-structured interviews were conducted every 6 months to assess for clinically significant depressive episodes. Hierarchical linear modeling showed a significant interaction between history of depression and idiographic fluctuations in dependent stressors to predict prospective elevations of symptoms, such that dependent stressors were more predictive of depressive symptoms after onset of disorder. Independent stressors predicted symptoms, but the strength of the association did not vary by depression history. These results suggest a synthesis of dependent stress and stress sensitization processes that might maintain inter-episode depressive symptoms among youth with a history of clinical depression.

  2. Vets prevail online intervention reduces PTSD and depression in veterans with mild-to-moderate symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobfoll, Stevan E; Blais, Rebecca K; Stevens, Natalie R; Walt, Lisa; Gengler, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Despite heightened rates of depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among in Iraq/Afghanistan veterans, the majority of distressed veterans will not receive mental health care. Overcoming barriers to mental health services requires innovative approaches to broaden the reach of evidence-based treatment. The current study examined the efficacy and acceptability of an innovative and dynamic online cognitive-behavioral therapy intervention for PTSD and depression called Vets Prevail. A randomized clinical trial conducted between 2011 and 2013 assessed changes in PTSD and depression in veterans with mild-to-moderate distress. Veterans randomized to Vets Prevail (n = 209) were aged 34.2 ± 7.6 years, mostly male (81.3%), and nonminority (73.7%). Veterans randomized to adjustment as usual (n = 94) were aged 34.7 ± 8.9, mostly male (81.9%), and White (67.0%). Veterans completed the PTSD Checklist-Military Version and the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale (10-item version) postintervention and at 12-week follow-up. Veterans in the Vets Prevail condition reported significantly greater reductions in PTSD, t(250) = 3.24, p = .001 (Mreduction = 5.51, SD = 9.63), and depression, t(252) = 4.37, p = .001 (Mreduction = 2.31, SD = 5.34), at 12-week follow-up compared with veterans in the adjustment as usual condition (PTSD Mreduction = 1.00, SD = 7.32; depression Mreduction = 0.48, SD = 4.95), with moderate effect sizes for PTSD (Cohen's d = 0.42) and depression (Cohen's d = 0.56). Exploratory analysis shows that Vets Prevail may be effective regardless of combat trauma exposure, gender, and ethnic minority status. Vets Prevail circumvents many barriers to care and effectively addresses the dire mental health needs of veterans. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Helping your teen with depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teen depression - helping; Teen depression - talk therapy; Teen depression - medicine ... teen the most. The most effective treatments for depression are: Talk therapy Antidepressant medicines If your teen ...

  4. Atypical depressive symptoms and obesity in a national sample of older adults with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Kee-Lee; Yu, Kar-Ming

    2013-06-01

    The objectives of this study are to present findings on the rate of obesity associated with classic, atypical, and undifferentiated depression by comparing with those without depression in a nationally representative sample of United States older adults. The authors used data from the 2001 to 2002 National Epidemiologic Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC), which included 10,557 adults 60 years of age and older. Chi-square tests were used to compare classic, atypical, and undifferentiated as well as nondepressed control in sociodemographic characteristics. Then, logistic regressions adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics were used to evaluate associations of rate of current obesity (defined as Body Mass Index (BMI) > 30) across the three depressive groups (classic, atypical, and undifferentiated depression) and nondepressed control. Lifetime, current, and past depression were examined. Significant differences were found between atypical and classic depression in sex, age, marital status, race, and personal income. After adjusting for sex, age, marital status, race, and personal income, the rate of obesity was significantly greater for respondents with atypical depression than respondents with classic, undifferentiated depression, or without depression. Same results were found in lifetime, current, and past depression. Our findings suggest that the heterogeneity of depression should be considered when examining the effect of depression on obesity in old age. Prevention measures should be designed and delivered to older adults with atypical depression. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. [Psychological gender in clinical depression. Preliminary study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szpitalak, Malwina; Prochwicz, Katarzyna

    2013-01-01

    Psychosocial and social theories of mood disorders indicate that factors connected with women's gender roles could create a higher risk of depression. The fact that social role is an important factor associated with depressive disorders suggests that not only a biological but also a psychological gender influences the vulnerability to depression. Gender schema theory was applied to investigate a role of femininity in depressive disorders. It was predicted that patients who identify themselves with the traditional feminine gender role will be more depressed than androgynous and undifferentiated patients or individuals with high level of masculinity. Sixty one patients suffering from affective disorder participated in this research. The Polish adaptation of Bem Sex - Role Inventory and Beck Depression Inventory were used to investigate the association between psychological gender and symptoms of depression. The results indicated that there is a significant connection between the type of psychological gender and the level of depression. The highest level of depression was shown by undifferentiated patients, femininity was also found to be associated with a great number of depressive symptoms. These findings also suggest that androgynous individuals and patients with a high level of masculinity tend to be less depressed. Psychological gender is an important factor which interacts to create a higher depression risk in men and women.

  6. The role played by depression associated with somatic symptomatology in accounting for the gender difference in the prevalence of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverstein, B; Edwards, T; Gamma, A; Ajdacic-Gross, V; Rossler, W; Angst, J

    2013-02-01

    A variety of studies suggest the existence of a distinct phenotype of somatic depression, i.e., depression accompanied by significant somatic symptomatology. Previous research suggests that the gender difference in the prevalence of depression is primarily due to a difference in somatic depression. The aim of this study was to compare the gender difference in the prevalence of somatic depression and of depression not accompanied by significant somatic symptomatology (labelled "pure" depression) in two representative samples, the National Comorbidity Survey-Replication (NCS-R) and the Zurich Study. The gender difference in lifetime somatic depression was compared to that of pure depression based on analyses weighted back to the general population in two representative samples. The NCS-R analyses involved a narrow definition of somatic depression with items from the DSM criteria for depression--appetite, sleep, and fatigue. The analysis of the Zurich study added headaches, body image issues, and breathing difficulties to the criteria and comparison to atypical depression. In both samples, the gender difference in depressive prevalence was due to a large difference in somatic depression with other phenotypes showing little or no gender difference. The gender differences were found to be due to the somatic symptoms rather than the number of symptoms and were much larger for somatic than for atypical depression. The gender difference in the prevalence of depression results from the higher prevalence among women of a specific phenotype, somatic depression.

  7. Depression in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Julian; Fazeli, Mandana

    2017-12-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) in children (5-12 years of age) is a confronting and serious psychiatric illness. MDD has significant ramifications for the psychosocial development of the child, yet it remains under-recognised and undertreated. General practice is where these children and their parents will first present. The aim of this article is to provide general practitioners (GPs) with a framework for considering MDD in a child and recommendations for treatment. Children with MDD have the same core features as adolescents and adults, taking into account the child's capacities for cognition and language, and developmental stage. Earlier onset of illness is associated with poorer outcomes and greater psychiatric morbidity persisting into adulthood. MDD is more common than anticipated, and should be considered for any child presenting with depressive symptoms and/or impaired psychosocial functioning. Despite limited evidence, numerous interventions exist that will, ideally, significantly affect the child's developmental trajectory. GPs are in an important position to initiate these interventions.

  8. The Costs of Depression

    OpenAIRE

    Kessler, Ronald C.

    2011-01-01

    Data are reviewed on the societal costs of major depressive disorder (MDD). Early-onset MDD is found to predict difficulties in subsequent role transitions, including low educational attainment, high risk of teen child-bearing, marital disruption, and unstable employment. Among people with specific social and productive roles, MDD is found to predict significant decrements in role functioning (e.g., low marital quality, low work performance, low earnings). MDD is also associated with elevated...

  9. Minor physical anomalies and schizophrenia spectrum disorders: a prospective investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiffman, Jason; Ekstrøm, Morten; LaBrie, Joseph

    2002-01-01

    at high risk. RESULTS: Individuals with a high number of minor physical anomalies developed schizophrenia spectrum disorders significantly more often than they developed a no mental illness outcome. Further, individuals with a high number of minor physical anomalies tended to develop schizophrenia......OBJECTIVE: The authors prospectively assessed the relationship between minor physical anomalies identified in childhood and adult psychiatric outcome. METHOD: In 1972, minor physical anomalies were measured in a group of 265 Danish children ages 11-13. The examination was part of a larger study...... investigating early signs of schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Many of the subjects had a parent with schizophrenia, leaving them at high risk for developing a schizophrenia spectrum disorder. In 1991, adult psychiatric outcome data were obtained for 91.3% (N=242) of the original subjects, including 81 who were...

  10. Reducing the illegal sale of cigarettes to minors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altman, D G; Foster, V; Rasenick-Douss, L; Tye, J B

    1989-01-06

    This study reports on an effort to stop the illegal sale of cigarettes to minors. In Santa Clara County, Calif, 412 stores and 30 vending machines were visited by 18 minors aged 14 through 16 years with the intent to purchase cigarettes; they were successful at 74% of the stores and 100% of the vending machines. After an aggressive six-month campaign using communitywide media, direct merchant education, contact with the chief executive officers of chain stores and franchise operations owned by major companies, and grassroots work with community organizations, the percentage of stores with illegal over-the-counter sale of cigarettes to minors was reduced to 39%. Sales from vending machines were not reduced. While much remains to be accomplished in stopping the illegal sale of tobacco to minors, data from this study illustrate that a well-designed community and merchant education campaign can significantly reduce such sales.

  11. Negative life events and depression in adolescents with HIV: a stress and coping analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Jennifer V; Abramowitz, Susan; Koenig, Linda J; Chandwani, Sulachni; Orban, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of negative life events (NLE) and daily hassles, and their direct and moderated associations with depression, were examined among HIV-infected adolescents. Specifically, we examined whether the negative association with depression of NLE, daily hassles, and/or passive coping were moderated by social support or active coping strategies. Demographic characteristics, depression, coping, social support, NLE, and daily hassles were collected at baseline as part of the Adolescent Impact intervention via face-to-face and computer-assisted interviews. Of 166 HIV-infected adolescents, 53% were female, 72.9% black, 59.6% with perinatally acquired HIV (PIY), the most commonly reported NLE were death in family (81%), violence exposure (68%), school relocation (67%), and hospitalization (61%); and for daily hassles "not having enough money (65%)". Behaviorally infected youth (BIY--acquired HIV later in life) were significantly more likely to experience extensive (14-21) lifetime NLE (38.8% vs. 16.3%, p effect of NLE, such that NLE were associated with greater depression when social support was low, although the effect did not remain statistically significant when main effects of other variables were accounted for. Daily hassles, poor coping, and limited social support can adversely affect the psychological well-being of HIV-infected adolescents, particularly sexual minority youth with behaviorally acquired HIV. Multimodal interventions that enhance social support and teach adaptive coping skills may help youth cope with environmental stresses and improve mental health outcomes.

  12. Minor sources of miner exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strong, J.C.; Green, N.; Brown, K.; O'Riordan, M.C.

    1983-01-01

    The sources of radiation exposure to miners in non-coal mines in addition to radon daughters are thoron daughters in mine air, long-lived radionuclides in mine dust and gamma radiation from the local rocks. A crude estimate of the total annual effective dose equivalent from these minor sources is 2 - 5 mSv which is of secondary importance compared to the dose from radon daughters. (UK)

  13. Co-occurring symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in a population-based sample of adolescents screened for depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundervold, Astri J; Hinshaw, Stephen P; Sørensen, Lin; Posserud, Maj-Britt

    2016-02-25

    Depression is common in adolescents, with a gender bias towards girls. Symptoms associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) tend to co-occur in depressed adolescents. This may be related to common features between the two symptom domains, but co-occurring ADHD symptoms may also inflate the severity of depression. The present study investigates the frequency and influence of ADHD symptoms co-occurring with depression in a gender balanced population-based sample of Norwegian adolescents. A sample of 9614 adolescents (16-19 years) completed a questionnaire including the short version of the Mood and Feelings Questionnaire (sMFQ) and the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS), with items reflecting symptoms associated with depression and ADHD, respectively. The sMFQ sum score was used as a proxy for severity of depression, and adolescents with a score equal to or above the 90th percentile were defined as depressed. A high response on any of the ASRS items was used to define the presence of an ADHD symptom, and the number of high scores was used to indicate severity. ADHD symptoms were frequently reported by the adolescents, with a higher frequency in girls than in boys. The gender differences were, however, minor when the analysis was restricted to the adolescents defined as depressed. Each severe symptom reported on the ASRS contributed significantly to increase the sum score on the sMFQ, and more than 20 % of the adolescents defined as depressed reported six or more symptoms within the ASRS inattention subscale. The results emphasize the importance of screening for symptoms associated with ADHD when assessing adolescents presenting symptoms indicating depression. Although girls reported higher frequency of symptoms within both domains, the gender bias was dependent on the overall symptom severity. Awareness of co-occurrence of symptoms and gender biases are of importance for both clinical work and future research on mental health and service use in

  14. Principal minors and rhombus tilings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenyon, Richard; Pemantle, Robin

    2014-01-01

    The algebraic relations between the principal minors of a generic n × n matrix are somewhat mysterious, see e.g. Lin and Sturmfels (2009 J. Algebra 322 4121–31). We show, however, that by adding in certain almost principal minors, the ideal of relations is generated by translations of a single relation, the so-called hexahedron relation, which is a composition of six cluster mutations. We give in particular a Laurent-polynomial parameterization of the space of n × n matrices, whose parameters consist of certain principal and almost principal minors. The parameters naturally live on vertices and faces of the tiles in a rhombus tiling of a convex 2n-gon. A matrix is associated to an equivalence class of tilings, all related to each other by Yang–Baxter-like transformations. By specializing the initial data we can similarly parameterize the space of Hermitian symmetric matrices over R,C or H the quaternions. Moreover by further specialization we can parametrize the space of positive definite matrices over these rings. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘Cluster algebras mathematical physics’. (paper)

  15. Music therapy for depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aalbers, Sonja; Fusar-Poli, Laura; Freeman, Ruth E; Spreen, Marinus; Ket, Johannes Cf; Vink, Annemiek C; Maratos, Anna; Crawford, Mike; Chen, Xi-Jing; Gold, Christian

    2017-11-16

    authors independently selected studies, assessed risk of bias, and extracted data from all included studies. We calculated standardised mean difference (SMD) for continuous data and odds ratio (OR) for dichotomous data with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We assessed heterogeneity using the I 2 statistic. We included in this review nine studies involving a total of 421 participants, 411 of whom were included in the meta-analysis examining short-term effects of music therapy for depression. Concerning primary outcomes, we found moderate-quality evidence of large effects favouring music therapy and TAU over TAU alone for both clinician-rated depressive symptoms (SMD -0.98, 95% CI -1.69 to -0.27, 3 RCTs, 1 CCT, n = 219) and patient-reported depressive symptoms (SMD -0.85, 95% CI -1.37 to -0.34, 3 RCTs, 1 CCT, n = 142). Music therapy was not associated with more or fewer adverse events than TAU. Regarding secondary outcomes, music therapy plus TAU was superior to TAU alone for anxiety and functioning. Music therapy and TAU was not more effective than TAU alone for improved quality of life (SMD 0.32, 95% CI -0.17 to 0.80, P = 0.20, n = 67, low-quality evidence). We found no significant discrepancies in the numbers of participants who left the study early (OR 0.49, 95% CI 0.14 to 1.70, P = 0.26, 5 RCTs, 1 CCT, n = 293, moderate-quality evidence). Findings of the present meta-analysis indicate that music therapy added to TAU provides short-term beneficial effects for people with depression if compared to TAU alone. Additionally, we are uncertain about the effects of music therapy versus psychological therapies on clinician-rated depression (SMD -0.78, 95% CI -2.36 to 0.81, 1 RCT, n = 11, very low-quality evidence), patient-reported depressive symptoms (SMD -1.28, 95% CI -3.75 to 1.02, 4 RCTs, n = 131, low-quality evidence), quality of life (SMD -1.31, 95% CI - 0.36 to 2.99, 1 RCT, n = 11, very low-quality evidence), and leaving the study early (OR 0.17, 95% CI 0.02 to 1.49, 4

  16. Transient acute renal failure and functional hemispheric depression after cerebral arteriography in diabetic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Tom Skyhøj; Lund, P; Praestholm, J

    1981-01-01

    Cerebral angiography was carried out in two diabetic patients in the evaluation of minor vascular ischemic episodes. A transient acute renal failure following cerebral angiography was accompanied by a transient comatose episode with severe unilateral neurological deficits. A functional depression...

  17. Predicting PTSD, Depression, and Fatigue after Military Deployment: Identification of Biological Vulnerability Factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zuiden, M.

    2012-01-01

    A substantial minority of individuals exposed to severe or traumatic stress subsequently develops long-lasting mental or physical health problems, which may severely impair daily functioning. These stress-related conditions include posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), major depressive disorder

  18. Body Concept, Disability, and Depression in Patients with Spasmodic Torticollis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jahanshahi

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available Eighty-five patients with idiopathic spasmodic torticollis were compared with an equally chronic group of 49 cervical spondylosis sufferers in terms of body concept, depression, and disability. The torticollis patients were significantly more depressed and disabled and had a more negative body concept. Depression had different determinants in the two groups. Extent of disfigurement was a major predictor of depression in torticollis. Neuroticism accounted for the greatest proportion of the variance of depression in cervical spondylosis.

  19. Depressive realism: evidence from false interpersonal perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Zai-Ting; Liu, Shen-Ing

    2007-04-01

    The present study examined the depressive realism hypothesis, which posits that depressed people are often more accurate in their perceptions and judgments than non-depressed people are. Each subject initially generated descriptions of others important to them, both positive and negative important others, in the pretest section, and 3 or 4 weeks later, some subjects were invited into the formal experiment to measure the accuracy of their perceptions in a pseudo-social interaction situation. A total of 52 patients diagnosed with clinical depression and 62 normal matched subjects participated in the experimental procedure. The results indicate that clinically depressed patients provided more accurate, less distorted descriptions of their positive important others than did those in the normal group. However, when information involved the negative important others, the results exhibited a trend, but these results did not provide significant support for the depressive realism hypothesis. The results support the depressive realism hypothesis when tasks involve subjects' own positive important others.

  20. [Risk factors for post partum depression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dois, Angelina; Uribe, Claudia; Villarroel, Luis; Contreras, Aixa

    2012-06-01

    Postpartum depression (PPD) is a public health problem with high prevalence in Chile. Many factors are associated with PPD. To analyze the factors associated with the incidence of depressive symptoms (SD) in women with low obstetric risk. Cross-sectional analytical study on a sample of 105 postpartum women with low obstetric risk assessed by the Edinburgh Depression Scale at the eighth week postpartum. A 37% prevalence of depressive symptoms was found. Univariate analysis showed that the perception of family functioning, overcrowding and number of siblings, were significantly associated with postpartum depressive symptoms. A multiple regression model only accepted family functioning as a predictor of depression. Perception of family functioning was the only variable that explained in part the presence of depressive symptoms in women with low obstetric risk.

  1. Extending the Minority Stress Model to Incorporate HIV-Positive Gay and Bisexual Men's Experiences: a Longitudinal Examination of Mental Health and Sexual Risk Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendina, H Jonathon; Gamarel, Kristi E; Pachankis, John E; Ventuneac, Ana; Grov, Christian; Parsons, Jeffrey T

    2017-04-01

    Minority stress theory represents the most plausible conceptual framework for explaining health disparities for gay and bisexual men (GBM). However, little focus has been given to including the unique stressors experienced by HIV-positive GBM. We explored the role of HIV-related stress within a minority stress model of mental health and condomless anal sex. Longitudinal data were collected on a diverse convenience sample of 138 highly sexually active, HIV-positive GBM in NYC regarding sexual minority (internalized homonegativity and gay-related rejection sensitivity) and HIV-related stressors (internalized HIV stigma and HIV-related rejection sensitivity), emotion dysregulation, mental health (symptoms of depression, anxiety, sexual compulsivity, and hypersexuality), and sexual behavior (condomless anal sex with all male partners and with serodiscordant male partners). Across both sexual minority and HIV-related stressors, internalized stigma was significantly associated with mental health and sexual behavior outcomes while rejection sensitivity was not. Moreover, path analyses revealed that emotion dysregulation mediated the influence of both forms of internalized stigma on symptoms of depression/anxiety and sexual compulsivity/hypersexuality as well as serodiscordant condomless anal sex. We identified two targets of behavioral interventions that may lead to improvements in mental health and reductions in sexual transmission risk behaviors-maladaptive cognitions underlying negative self-schemas and difficulties with emotion regulation. Techniques for cognitive restructuring and emotion regulation may be particularly useful in the development of interventions that are sensitive to the needs of this population while also highlighting the important role that structural interventions can have in preventing these disparities for future generations.

  2. Postpartum Depression - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Русский (Russian) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Postpartum Depression - English PDF Postpartum Depression - Русский (Russian) PDF Postpartum Depression - English MP3 ...

  3. Major Depression Among Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Depressive Episode Among Adolescents Data Sources Share Major Depression Definitions Major depression is one of the most ... Bethesda, MD 20892-9663 Follow Us Facebook Twitter YouTube Google Plus NIMH Newsletter NIMH RSS Feed NIMH ...

  4. Recognizing teen depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000648.htm Recognizing teen depression To use the sharing features on this page, ... life. Be Aware of the Risk for Teen Depression Your teen is more at risk for depression ...

  5. Sadness and Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Sadness and Depression KidsHealth / For Kids / Sadness and Depression Print en ... big difference in your life. When Sadness Is Depression When you're in a sad mood, it ...

  6. Postpartum Depression Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Where can I find more information? Share Postpartum Depression Facts Download PDF Download ePub Download Mobi Order ... for herself or her family. What is postpartum depression? Postpartum depression is a mood disorder that can ...

  7. Depression and College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... depression and other mental health issues? Reference Share Depression and College Students Download PDF Download ePub Order ... Answers to college students’ frequently asked questions about depression Feeling moody, sad, or grouchy? Who doesn’t ...

  8. Mood-congruent true and false memory: effects of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Mark L; Malone, Catherine

    2011-02-01

    The Deese/Roediger-McDermott paradigm was used to investigate the effect of depression on true and false recognition. In this experiment true and false recognition was examined across positive, neutral, negative, and depression-relevant lists for individuals with and without a diagnosis of major depressive disorder. Results showed that participants with major depressive disorder falsely recognised significantly more depression-relevant words than non-depressed controls. These findings also parallel recent research using recall instead of recognition and show that there are clear mood congruence effects for depression on false memory performance. © 2011 Psychology Press, an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group, an Informa business

  9. Depression. Does it affect the comprehension of receptive skills?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashtchi, Mojgan; Zokaee, Zahra; Ghaffarinejad, Ali R; Sadeghi, Mohammad M

    2012-07-01

    To compare the comprehension of depressed and non-depressed male and female Iranian learners of English as a Foreign Language (EFL) in receptive skills, and to investigate whether inefficiency in learning English could be due to depression. We selected 126 boys and 96 girls aged between 15 and 18 by simple random sampling from 2 high schools in Kerman, Iran to examine whether there was any significant relationship between depression and comprehension of receptive skills in males and females. We undertook this descriptive, correlational study between January and May 2011 in Kerman, Iran. After administration of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), we found that 93 students were non-depressed, 65 had minimal depression, 48 mild depression, and 16 suffered from severe depression. The correlation between participants` scores on listening and reading test with depression level indicated a significant relationship between depression and comprehension of both listening, and reading. Males had higher scores in both reading and listening. In listening, there was no significant difference among the levels of depression and males and females. Regarding the reading skill, there was no significant difference among levels of depression; however, the reading comprehension of males and females differed significantly. Learners who show a deficiency in receptive skills should be examined for the possibility of suffering from some degree of depression.

  10. Depression and health behaviors in Brazilian adults – PNS 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilisa Berti de Azevedo Barros

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To evaluate the prevalence of health-related behaviors according to presence and type of depression in Brazilian adults. METHODS Based on a sample of 49,025 adults (18 to 59 years from the National Survey on Health 2013 (PNS 2013, we estimated the prevalence of health-related behaviors (smoking; passive smoking; frequent or risky alcohol consumption; leisure time physical activity; time watching TV; and eating pattern indicators, according to the presence of depression (minor and major, evaluated by the Patient Health Questionnaire – 9 (PHQ-9, and the report of depressive mood (in up to seven days or more than seven days over a two-week period. Prevalence ratios were estimated by Poisson regression. RESULTS Evaluated by the PHQ-9 scale, 9.7% of the Brazilian adults had depression and 3.9% presented major depression. About 21.0% reported depressive mood and, in 34.9% of them, that feeling has been present for more than seven days. In individuals with major depression (PHQ-9, higher prevalence was found in almost all unhealthy behaviors analyzed, in particular, smoking (PR = 1.65, passive smoking (PR = 1.55, risk alcohol consumption (PR = 1.72, TV for ≥ 5 hours/day (PR = 2.13, consumption of fat meat (PR = 1.43 and soft drink (PR = 1.42. The prevalence ratios tended to be lower in those with minor depression. Similar results were observed in adults with depressive mood. CONCLUSIONS This study detected relevant association between depression and health behaviors, in particular for smoking and physical activity. The associations found with the PHQ were similar to those observed with the application of a single question about depressive mood. Our results indicate the importance of assessing the presence of depression and the frequency and severity of symptoms when implementing actions for the promotion of healthy behaviors.

  11. Minority Outlook: Opening the Door in Biomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freiherr, Gregory

    1979-01-01

    The national Minority Biomedical Support (MBS) Program, established in 1972 with National Institutes of Health funds, is described with emphasis on its role in increasing minority representation in biomedical research. (LBH)

  12. Health Risks among Sexual Minority Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sexual Minority Youth Communication Resources Protective Factors for LGBT Youth Survey of Today’s Adolescent Relationships and Transitions ( ... as a result of challenges such as stigma, discrimination, family disapproval, social rejection, and violence. Sexual minority ...

  13. Minority students benefit from mentoring programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, D L; Rodak, B; Fitzgerald, N; Baker, S

    1993-01-01

    Mentoring has been proposed as one strategy to attract minority students to the radiologic sciences profession. This case study describes a minority mentoring program conducted for pre-radiologic science students at a Midwestern university during the 1991-92 academic year. Ten minority radiologic science students enrolled in the mentoring program. The study showed that mentoring may be a viable option to serve the special needs of minorities for recruitment and retention.

  14. Anxiety, depression and tobacco abstinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almadana Pacheco, Virginia; Gómez-Bastero Fernández, Ana Paulina; Valido Morales, Agustín; Luque Crespo, Estefanía; Monserrat, Soledad; Montemayor Rubio, Teodoro

    2017-09-29

    There is evidence of the relationship between mental illness and smoking and increased risk of depressive episodes after quitting smoking, even with specific treatments for abstinence. To assess the influence of a cessation program on the emotional state of patients by measuring levels of anxiety / depression and differences depending on the presence of psychiatric history. A prospective observational study of patients taking part in a combined program (pharmacological and cognitive-behavioral) for giving up smoking. Anxiety (A) and depression (D) were measured using the HADS questionnaire at baseline, first and third month of abstinence. Anxiety and depression showed significant and progressive improvement during treatment (A: baseline 9.2 ± 4.5, 5.9 ± 3.6 1 month, 3 months 4.5 ± 3.1, p.

  15. Depression and anxiety in hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demet, M M; Ozmen, B; Deveci, A; Boyvada, S; Adiguzel, H; Aydemir, O

    2003-09-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence and severity of depression and anxiety in patients with hypothyroidism and to compare this with euthyroid patients. Thirty patients with hypothyroidism and 30 euthyroid controls attending the Endocrinology outpatient department of Celal Bayar University, Medical Faculty were included in the study. The hormonal screening was done by immunoassay and haemagglutination methods. Then, for psychiatric assessment, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HAD), Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D), and Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A) were used. There was no difference between the two groups in terms of demographic features. Total scores obtained from the scales used in the study did not differ significantly (p > 0.05). The frequency of items of both HAM-D and HAM-A did not show any differences in the two groups. By Wilks' Lambda discriminant analysis, depressive mood (HAM-D#1) was found to be the discriminating feature between the hypothyroid group and the euthyroid group. Therefore, depression and anxiety were not outstanding features in hypothyrodism. However, depression was more significant in the hypothyroid than euthyroid group.

  16. Minority Political Representation: Muslim Councilors in Newham and Hackney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eren Tatari

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Scholars have long been intrigued by the role of minority elected officials in representing the interests of their communities. There is an on-going debate on whether distinctive minority agendas exist and whether the existence of minority representatives (descriptive representation is a necessary condition to secure the representation of minority interests (substantive representation. This article analyzes original interview data to examine these issues through a case study of Muslim city councilors and the dynamics of local government in the Newham and Hackney Borough Councils of London. It finds that the exceptionally high ethnic diversity of Newham with no dominant ethnic group, the lack of racial or religious divides among neighborhoods, and low racial tensions shapes the political culture of the Council, as well as the Muslim councilors, and yields high responsiveness for all minorities. It also finds that non-Muslim councilors play a significant role in the substantive representation of minority interests, including Muslim interests. In contrast, the case study of the Hackney Council reveals that beyond high party fragmentation, ethnicity and religiosity of the Muslim councilors vary widely and hinder effective representation. In addition, their political incorporation is low, and the leadership positions they hold seem to have symbolic rather than substantive impact. The political behavior and representative styles of Muslim councilors reveal a balancing perspective, whereby they advocate for group interests with a more moderate tone. These factors account for the low government responsiveness to Muslim interests in Hackney.

  17. National minorities in legislation of Bosnia and Herzegovina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagradić Slobodan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There are 17 recognized national minorities living and working in Bosnia and Herzegovina. At least, they have been enumerated, identified and sanctioned as such by the Law on the Protection of Rights of National Minorities adopted by the Parliamentary Assembly of Bosnia and Herzegovina in 2003. Apart from that law, the rights of national minorities and its members have also been regulated by the whole set of many different laws, from the election, criminal, education and other identity-related laws to the laws addressing the specific areas and/or life issues, all adopted at the level of the state, the entities, the cantons, and the Brcko District of BiH. This paper analyses the content, the significance, and the legal and sociopolitical implications of certain provisions of the Law on the Protection of Rights of National Minorities from the sociological and political views and methods, as well as the relation and the impact of its norms on social sphere and individual existence (in politics, education, culture, the media, employment etc. of minority members within a multi-specific and asymmetric state as post-Dayton Bosnia and Herzegovina. The causa finalis of this tractatus's narrative is to give a better understanding of human rights of minorities, their etiology and determination.

  18. Contested minorities – the case of Upper Silesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gierczak Dariusz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Upper Silesia in terms of ethnicity is a typical example of a historical region in Europe, but in fact, one of the few exceptions in contemporary Poland, where its mixed ethnic and religious structures have at least partly survived until today. While their existence had been denied by Nazi Germany (1933-1945 as well as by the Polish People's Republic (1945-1989, the emancipation of the German and Silesian minorities after the democratic changes of 1989 have evoked strong emotions in the ethnically almost uniform country. Nonetheless, the recent situation of minorities has improved as never before. Minority organisations has been officially recognized and German finally has become the second language in some municipalities of Upper Silesia, but the largest ethnic group in the whole country, the Silesians, have still experienced no formal recognition as a national minority. This article deals with the demographic aspects of the ethnic groups in Upper Silesia since the 19th century until recent times. The census results concerning the ethnic minorities or languages in Upper Silesia have been contested since the first records of that kind have been taken. The outcomes of the both last censuses of 2002 and 2011 concerning the minority question reflected for the first time a much more realistic picture of the status quo. Furthermore, they showed that the idea of Silesian identification found an unexpected high number of supporters. This fact indicates an emerging meaning of regional identification amid significant changes of cultural values in Polish society.

  19. PETOM: Preservice Education for Teachers of Minorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamehameha Journal of Education, 1993

    1993-01-01

    The paper presents an overview of a two-year program called PETOM (Preservice Education for Teachers of Minorities), which receives funding from the Kamehameha Schools and the University of Hawaii to prepare teachers of underachieving minority children. The program educates teachers who can make school successful for Hawaii's minority students.…

  20. The Minority Game : An Economics Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kets, W.

    2007-01-01

    This paper gives a critical account of the minority game literature. The minority game is a simple congestion game: players need to choose between two options, and those who have selected the option chosen by the minority win. The learning model proposed in this literature seems to differ markedly

  1. The Minority Teacher Shortage: Fact or Fable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingersoll, Richard M.; May, Henry

    2011-01-01

    This research examines national data on the status of the minority teacher shortage--the low proportion of minority teachers in comparison to the increasing numbers of students of color in schools. The authors show that efforts over recent decades to recruit more minority teachers, and place them in disadvantaged schools, have been very…

  2. Wellness of Minority Female Counselor Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shillingford, M. Ann; Trice-Black, Shannon; Butler, S. Kent

    2013-01-01

    Minority female counselor educators are faced with numerous challenges. This qualitative study revealed that for female minority counselor educators, these challenges continue to negatively affect their professional and personal experiences. It is through operational wellness practices and optimal balance and functioning that minority female…

  3. 14 CFR 152.419 - Minority business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minority business. 152.419 Section 152.419... AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Nondiscrimination in Airport Aid Program § 152.419 Minority business. Each person subject to this subpart is required to comply with the Minority Business Enterprise Regulations of the...

  4. 7 CFR 795.12 - Minor children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minor children. 795.12 Section 795.12 Agriculture... PROVISIONS COMMON TO MORE THAN ONE PROGRAM PAYMENT LIMITATION General § 795.12 Minor children. (a) A minor child and his parents or guardian (or other person responsible for him) shall be considered as one...

  5. 75 FR 81395 - Minority and Women Inclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-28

    ... 2590-AA28 Minority and Women Inclusion AGENCIES: Federal Housing Finance Board; Federal Housing Finance... and the inclusion of women and minorities in all activities. The final rule implements the provisions.... It also requires each regulated entity to establish an Office of Minority and Women Inclusion, or...

  6. 75 FR 10446 - Minority and Women Inclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-08

    ... 2590-AA28 Minority and Women Inclusion AGENCIES: Federal Housing Finance Board; Federal Housing Finance... minority and women inclusion. Section 1116 of the Housing and Economic Recovery Act of 2008 amended section... Loan Banks to promote diversity and the inclusion of women and minorities in all activities...

  7. Secular trends in the prevalence of dementia and depression in Swedish septuagenarians 1976-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiberg, P; Waern, M; Billstedt, E; Ostling, S; Skoog, I

    2013-12-01

    It is not clear whether the prevalence of dementia and depression among the elderly has changed during the past 30 years. Population-based samples from Gothenburg, Sweden were examined with identical psychiatric and neuropsychiatric examinations at age 70 years in 1976-1977 (n = 404, response rate 78.8%) and 2000-2001 (n = 579, response rate 66.4%), and at age 75 in 1976-1977 (n = 303, response rate 78%) and 2005-2006 (n = 753, response rate 63.4%). Depression was diagnosed according to DSM-IV and dementia according to Kay's criteria. General linear models (GLMs) were used to test for differences between groups. Dementia was related to age but not to birth cohort or sex. Major depression was related to sex (higher in women) but not to birth cohort or age. Minor depression was related to birth cohort, sex (higher in women), age (higher at age 75) and the interaction effect of birth cohort × age; that is, the prevalence of minor depression increased with age in the 2000s but not in the 1970s. Thus, the prevalence of minor depression was higher in 2005-2006 than in 1976-1977 among 75-year-olds for both men (12.4% v. 3.7%) and women (19.1% v. 5.6%) whereas there were no birth cohort differences at age 70. Secular changes were observed only for minor depression, which is considered to be related more to psychosocial factors than major depression. The high prevalence of minor depression in later-born birth cohorts emphasizes the importance of detecting minor depression in the elderly.

  8. Minor Actinides Recycling in PWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delpech, M.; Golfier, H.; Vasile, A.; Varaine, F.; Boucher, L.; Greneche, D.

    2006-01-01

    Recycling of minor actinides in current and near future PWR is considered as one of the options of the general waste management strategy. This paper presents the analysis of this option both from the core physics and fuel cycle point of view. A first indicator of the efficiency of different neutron spectra for transmutation purposes is the capture to fission cross sections ratio which is less favourable by a factor between 5 to 10 in PWRs compared to fast reactors. Another indicator presented is the production of high ranking isotopes like Curium, Berkelium or Californium in the thermal or epithermal spectrum conditions of PWR cores by successive neutron captures. The impact of the accumulation of this elements on the fabrication process of such PWR fuels strongly penalizes this option. The main constraint on minor actinides loadings in PWR (or fast reactors) fuels are related to their direct impact (or the impact of their transmutation products) on the reactivity coefficients, the reactivity control means and the core kinetics parameters. The main fuel cycle physical parameters like the neutron source, the alpha decay power, the gamma and neutrons dose rate and the criticality aspects are also affected. Recent neutronic calculations based on a reference core of the Evolutionary Pressurized Reactor (EPR), indicates typical maximum values of 1 % loadings. Different fuel design options for minor actinides transmutation purposes in PWRs are presented: UOX and MOX, homogeneous and heterogeneous assemblies. In this later case, Americium loading is concentrated in specific pins of a standard UOX assembly. Recycling of Neptunium in UOX and MOX fuels was also studied to improve the proliferation resistance of the fuel. The impact on the core physics and penalties on Uranium enrichment were underlined in this case. (authors)

  9. Cost of depression in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobocki, Patrik; Jönsson, Bengt; Angst, Jules; Rehnberg, Clas

    2006-06-01

    Depression is one of the most disabling diseases, and causes a significant burden both to the individual and to society. WHO data suggests that depression causes 6% of the burden of all diseases in Europe in terms of disability adjusted life years (DALYs). Yet, the knowledge of the economic impact of depression has been relatively little researched in Europe. The present study aims at estimating the total cost of depression in Europe based on published epidemiologic and economic evidence. A model was developed to combine epidemiological and economic data on depression in Europe to estimate the cost. The model was populated with data collected from extensive literature reviews of the epidemiology and economic burden of depression in Europe. The cost data was calculated as annual cost per patient, and epidemiologic data was reported as 12-month prevalence estimates. National and international statistics for the model were retrieved from the OECD and Eurostat databases. The aggregated annual cost estimates were presented in Euro for 2004. In 28 countries with a population of 466 million, at least 21 million were affected by depression. The total annual cost of depression in Europe was estimated at Euro 118 billion in 2004, which corresponds to a cost of Euro 253 per inhabitant. Direct costs alone totalled dollar 42 billion, comprised of outpatient care (Euro 22 billion), drug cost (Euro 9 billion) and hospitalization (Euro 10 billion). Indirect costs due to morbidity and mortality were estimated at Euro 76 billion. This makes depression the most costly brain disorder in Europe, accounting for 33% of the total cost. The cost of depression corresponds to 1% of the total economy of Europe (GDP). Our cost results are in good agreement with previous research findings. The cost estimates in the present study are based on model simulations for countries where no data was available. The predictability of our model is limited to the accuracy of the input data employed. As

  10. Children of ethnic minority backgrounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Stine Liv

    2010-01-01

    media products and toys just as they will have knowledge of different media texts, play genres, rhymes etc. This has consequences for their ability to access social settings, for instance in play. New research in this field will focus on how children themselves make sense of this balancing of cultures......Children of ethnic minority background balance their everyday life between a cultural background rooted in their ethnic origin and a daily life in day care, schools and with peers that is founded in a majority culture. This means, among other things, that they often will have access to different...

  11. PIE analysis for minor actinide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suyama, Kenya

    2005-01-01

    Minor actinide (MA) is generated in nuclear fuel during the operation of power reactor. For fuel design, reactivity decrease due to it should be considered. Out of reactors, MA plays key role to define the property of spent fuel (SF) such as α-radioactivity, neutron emission rate, and criticality of SF. In order to evaluate the calculation codes and libraries for predicting the amount of MA, comparison between calculation results and experimentally obtained data has been conducted. In this report, we will present the status of PIE data of MA taken by post irradiation examinations (PIE) and several calculation results. (author)

  12. Association between obesity and depressive disorder in adolescents at high risk for depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerton, G; Thapar, A; Thapar, A K

    2014-04-01

    To examine the relationship between Body Mass Index (BMI) and depressive disorder in adolescents at high risk for depression. Prospective longitudinal 3-wave study of offspring of parents with recurrent depression. Replication in population-based cohort study. Three hundred and thirty-seven families where offspring were aged 9-17 years at baseline and 10-19 years at the final data point. Replication sample of adolescents from population-based cohort study aged 11-13 years at first assessment and 14-17 years at follow-up. High risk sample used BMI, skin-fold thickness, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition (DSM-IV)-defined major depressive disorder and depression symptoms using the Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Assessment (CAPA). Replication sample used BMI, DSM-IV depressive disorder and depression symptoms using the Development and Well-Being Assessment (DAWBA). Two hundred and eighty-nine adolescents were included in the primary analyses. The mean BMI for each age group in this sample were significantly higher than population norms. There was no significant longitudinal association between categories of weight (or BMI) and new onset depressive disorder or depression symptoms. Similar results were found for skin-fold thickness. The association was also tested in a replication population-based sample and found to be non-significant in the subsample of offspring with mothers who had experienced recurrent depression in the past. BMI at age 12 years was, however, a significant predictor of depression symptoms but not of depressive disorder at age 15 years for the total unselected population. BMI does not significantly predict the development of depression in the offspring of parents with recurrent depression.

  13. Lifetime suicidal ideation and attempt in adults with full major depressive disorder versus sustained depressed mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Hye Jin; Hong, Jin Pyo; Cho, Maeng Je; Fava, Maurizio; Mischoulon, David; Heo, Jung-Yoon; Kim, Kiwon; Jeon, Hong Jin

    2016-10-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a well-known risk factor for suicidality, but depressed mood has been used non-specifically to describe the emotional state. We sought to compare influence of MDD versus sustained depressed mood on suicidality. A total of 12,532 adults, randomly selected through the one-person-per-household method, completed a face-to-face interview using the Korean version of Composite International Diagnostic Interview (K-CIDI) and a questionnaire for lifetime suicidal ideation (LSI) and lifetime suicidal attempt (LSA). Of 12,361 adults, 565 were assessed as 'sustained depressed mood group' having depressed mood for more than two weeks without MDD (4.6%), and 810 adults were assessed as having full MDD (6.55%) which consisted of 'MDD with depressed mood group' (6.0%) and 'MDD without depressed mood group' (0.5%). The MDD with depressed mood group showed higher odds ratios for LSI and LSA than the sustained depressed mood group. Contrarily, no significant differences were found in LSI and LSA between the MDD group with and without depressed mood. MDD showed significant associations with LSI (AOR=2.83, 95%CI 2.12-3.78) and LSA (AOR=2.17, 95%CI 1.34-3.52), whereas sustained depressed mood showed significant associations with neither LSI nor LSA after adjusting for MDD and other psychiatric comorbidities. Interaction effect of sustained depressed mood with MDD was significant for LSI but not for LSA. Sustained depressed mood was not related to LSI and LSA after adjusting for psychiatric comorbidities, whereas MDD was significantly associated with both LSI and LSA regardless of the presence of sustained depressed mood. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Late onset depression: A recent update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananya Mahapatra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Late onset depression has recently emerged as a serious mental health issue in the geriatric population with significant public health implications. It is often challenging to diagnose and treat this entity. Various theories have been postulated to elucidate the etiology of late onset depression, but a unifying hypothesis is lacking. Although the vascular hypothesis is most researched; a complex interaction of multiple vulnerability factors is the current focus of attention. Numerous psychosocial variables have been implicated to play a significant role in predicting the onset and severity of late-life depression. Phenomenological differences have been delineated from depression occurring at a younger age, but the findings are equivocal. A better understanding of the natural trajectory of depression in the elderly is required for early diagnosis and effective treatment. This review attempts to summarize the current status of evidence regarding epidemiology, etiology, clinical features, and treatment options available for late-onset depression.

  15. Impact of childhood trauma on postpartum depression: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Venter, Maud; Smets, Jorien; Raes, Filip; Wouters, Kristien; Franck, Erik; Hanssens, Myriam; Jacquemyn, Yves; Sabbe, Bernard G C; Van Den Eede, Filip

    2016-04-01

    Studies on the impact of childhood trauma on postpartum depression show inconsistencies and methodological limitations. The present study examines the effect of childhood trauma on depression 12 and 24 weeks after childbirth, while controlling for history of depression, depression symptoms during pregnancy and type D personality. During the third trimester of pregnancy, 210 women completed self-report questionnaires assessing depression (current and/or past episodes), childhood trauma and type D personality, of whom 187 participated in the postpartum follow-up, with depression symptoms being reassessed at 12 and 24 weeks after delivery with three depression outcome measures. Eventually, 183 participants were retained for analysis. Results indicated no predictive value of childhood trauma on postpartum depression in the univariate analyses, nor after controlling for previous depression, depression symptoms during pregnancy and type D personality. However, past depression and depression symptoms during pregnancy did independently and convincingly predict postpartum depression, especially at 12 weeks and to a lesser extent at 24 weeks following childbirth. Overall, we found no significant association between childhood trauma and postpartum depression. Past depression and depression symptoms during pregnancy are more relevant factors to assess before childbirth.

  16. ISLAM AND MINORITIES: Managing Identity in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Suaedy

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The Malaysian general election in March 2008 raised an interesting and new phenomenon. For the first time since independence in 1957, the ruling alliance known as the National Front (Barisan Nasional, BN failed to secure two thirds of seats in parliament and lost control of five of Malaysia’s 13 states. This was due to the challenge presented by the new opposition alliance known as the Alternative Front (Barisan Alternatif, BA or the People’s Alliance (Pakatan Rakyat, PK which won more than 36% of seats in parliament and gained control of the five states. In the 2004 election, BN secured the largest ever percentage of seats in parliament with 91%. What is interesting is that it seems that this significant increase in support for the opposition is  due to their offer to change the way minorities and ethnicity is managed. They  propose a move from “Bumiputera Supremacy”, or affirmative action for the approximately 65% of “Bumiputera” Malaysians (the rest being largely of Chinese or Indian ethnicity, to “The People’s Supremacy”, which involves eradicating affirmative action based on ethnicity, basing it instead on need, for  instance need due to poverty. This would potentially increase the likelihood  of justice and equality for all ethnic or racial groups. This paper connects the phenomenon of change, as seen in the about turn in the results between the  2004 and 2008 elections, to the more global trend in which minorities are standing up to demand their rights in this era of globalization, and to the challenge multiculturalism presents to parts of the Muslim world such as Malaysia. Malaysia, a Muslim majority nation that has formally declared Islam the official state religion with Yang di-Pertuan Agong (the King as  Head of the State and symbol of Islam, is one example, though not necessarily  representative, of how Islam and Muslims manage minorities and identity or  multiculturalism within the process of globalization

  17. Remodeling of hippocampal spine synapses in the rat learned helplessness model of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajszan, Tibor; Dow, Antonia; Warner-Schmidt, Jennifer L; Szigeti-Buck, Klara; Sallam, Nermin L; Parducz, Arpad; Leranth, Csaba; Duman, Ronald S

    2009-03-01

    Although it has been postulated for many years that depression is associated with loss of synapses, primarily in the hippocampus, and that antidepressants facilitate synapse growth, we still lack ultrastructural evidence that changes in depressive behavior are indeed correlated with structural synaptic modifications. We analyzed hippocampal spine synapses of male rats (n=127) with electron microscopic stereology in association with performance in the learned helplessness paradigm. Inescapable footshock (IES) caused an acute and persistent loss of spine synapses in each of CA1, CA3, and dentate gyrus, which was associated with a severe escape deficit in learned helplessness. On the other hand, IES elicited no significant synaptic alterations in motor cortex. A single injection of corticosterone reproduced both the hippocampal synaptic changes and the behavioral responses induced by IES. Treatment of IES-exposed animals for 6 days with desipramine reversed both the hippocampal spine synapse loss and the escape deficit in learned helplessness. We noted, however, that desipramine failed to restore the number of CA1 spine synapses to nonstressed levels, which was associated with a minor escape deficit compared with nonstressed control rats. Shorter, 1-day or 3-day desipramine treatments, however, had neither synaptic nor behavioral effects. These results indicate that changes in depressive behavior are associated with remarkable remodeling of hippocampal spine synapses at the ultrastructural level. Because spine synapse loss contributes to hippocampal dysfunction, this cellular mechanism may be an important component in the neurobiology of stress-related disorders such as depression.

  18. Stress-based animal models of depression: Do we actually know what we are doing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xin; Guven, Nuri; Dietis, Nikolas

    2016-12-01

    Depression is one of the leading causes of disability and a significant health-concern worldwide. Much of our current understanding on the pathogenesis of depression and the pharmacology of antidepressant drugs is based on pre-clinical models. Three of the most popular stress-based rodent models are the forced swimming test, the chronic mild stress paradigm and the learned helplessness model. Despite their recognizable advantages and limitations, they are associated with an immense variability due to the high number of design parameters that define them. Only few studies have reported how minor modifications of these parameters affect the model phenotype. Thus, the existing variability in how these models are used has been a strong barrier for drug development as well as benchmark and evaluation of these pre-clinical models of depression. It also has been the source of confusing variability in the experimental outcomes between research groups using the same models. In this review, we summarize the known variability in the experimental protocols, identify the main and relevant parameters for each model and describe the variable values using characteristic examples. Our view of depression and our efforts to discover novel and effective antidepressants is largely based on our detailed knowledge of these testing paradigms, and requires a sound understanding around the importance of individual parameters to optimize and improve these pre-clinical models. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Addiction to indoor tanning: relation to anxiety, depression, and substance use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosher, Catherine E; Danoff-Burg, Sharon

    2010-04-01

    To assess the prevalence of addiction to indoor tanning among college students and its association with substance use and symptoms of anxiety and depression. Two written measures, the CAGE (Cut down, Annoyed, Guilty, Eye-opener) Questionnaire, used to screen for alcoholism, and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fourth Edition, Text Revision) (DSM-IV-TR) criteria for substance-related disorders, were modified to evaluate study participants for addiction to indoor tanning. Standardized self-report measures of anxiety, depression, and substance use also were administered. A large university (approximately 18 000 students) in the northeastern United States. A total of 421 college students were recruited from September through December 2006. Self-reported addiction to indoor tanning, substance use, and symptoms of anxiety and depression. Among 229 study participants who had used indoor tanning facilities, 90 (39.3%) met DSM-IV-TR criteria and 70 (30.6%) met CAGE criteria for addiction to indoor tanning. Students who met DSM-IV-TR and CAGE criteria for addiction to indoor tanning reported greater symptoms of anxiety and greater use of alcohol, marijuana, and other substances than those who did not meet these criteria. Depressive symptoms did not significantly vary by indoor tanning addiction status. Findings suggest that interventions to reduce skin cancer risk should address the addictive qualities of indoor tanning for a minority of individuals and the relationship of this behavior to other addictions and affective disturbance.

  20. Self-Reported Experiences of Discrimination and Depression in Native Hawaiians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonio, Mapuana Ck; Ahn, Hyeong Jun; Ing, Claire Townsend; Dillard, Adrienne; Cassel, Kevin; Kekauoha, B Puni; Kaholokula, Joseph Keawe'aimoku

    2016-09-01

    Discrimination is an acute and chronic stressor that negatively impacts the health of many ethnic groups in the United States. Individuals who perceive increased levels of discrimination are at risk of experiencing psychological distress and symptoms of depression. No study to date has examined the relationship between perceived discrimination and mental health in Native Hawaiians. The purpose of this study is to explore the relationship between perceived discrimination and depression based on the Homestead Health Survey mailed to Native Hawaiian residents of Hawaiian Home Lands. This study also explores the role of cultural identity and how it may impact experiences of discrimination and symptoms of depression. Based on cross-sectional data obtained from 104 Native Hawaiian residents, a significant positive correlation was found between perceived discrimination and symptoms of depression (r= 0.32, Paccounting for differences in socio-demographics and degree of identification with the Native Hawaiian and American cultures. These findings are consistent with other studies that have focused on the effects of discrimination on psychological wellbeing for other ethnic minority populations.

  1. A Relational Model of Sexual Minority Mental and Physical Health: The Negative Effects of Shame on Relationships, Loneliness, and Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mereish, Ethan H.; Poteat, V. Paul

    2015-01-01

    Sexual minorities (e.g., lesbians, gay men, bisexual individuals) are at higher risk for mental and physical health disparities than heterosexuals, and some of these disparities relate to minority stressors such as discrimination. Yet, there is little research elucidating pathways that predict health or that promote resiliency among sexual minorities. Building on the minority stress model, the present study utilized relational cultural theory to situate sexual minority health within a relational framework. Specifically, the study tested mediators of the relationships between distal (i.e., discrimination, rejection, victimization) and proximal stressors (i.e., internalized homophobia, sexual orientation concealment) and psychological and physical distress for sexual minorities. Among 719 sexual minority adults, structural equation modeling analyses were used to test four models reflecting the mediating effects of shame, poorer relationships with a close peer and the LGBT community, and loneliness on the associations between minority stressors and psychological distress (i.e., depression and anxiety) and physical distress (i.e., distressing physical symptoms). As hypothesized, the associations between distal and proximal minority stressors and distress were mediated by shame, poorer relationships with a close peer and the LGBT community, and loneliness. Findings underscore the possible relational and interpersonal mechanisms by which sexual minority stressors lead to psychological and physical distress. PMID:26010289

  2. A relational model of sexual minority mental and physical health: The negative effects of shame on relationships, loneliness, and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mereish, Ethan H; Poteat, V Paul

    2015-07-01

    Sexual minorities (e.g., lesbians, gay men, bisexual individuals) are at an increased risk for poorer mental and physical health outcomes than heterosexuals, and some of these health disparities relate to minority stressors such as discrimination. Yet, there is little research elucidating pathways that predict health or that promote resiliency among sexual minorities. Building on the minority stress model, the present study utilized relational cultural theory to situate sexual minority health within a relational framework. Specifically, the study tested mediators of the relationships between distal (i.e., discrimination, rejection, victimization) and proximal stressors (i.e., internalized homophobia, sexual orientation concealment) and psychological and physical distress for sexual minorities. Among 719 sexual minority adults, structural equation modeling analyses were used to test 4 models reflecting the mediating effects of shame, poorer relationships with a close peer and the lesbian/gay/bisexual/transgender (LGBT) community, and loneliness on the associations between minority stressors and psychological distress (i.e., depression and anxiety) and physical distress (i.e., distressing physical symptoms). As hypothesized, the associations between distal and proximal minority stressors and distress were mediated by shame, poorer relationships with a close peer and the LGBT community, and loneliness. Findings underscore the possible relational and interpersonal mechanisms by which sexual minority stressors lead to psychological and physical distress. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Management of minor salivary gland carcinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parsons, James T.; Mendenhall, William M.; Stringer, Scott P.; Cassisi, Nicholas J.; Million, Rodney R.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the role of radiotherapy alone or in combination with surgery in the treatment of patients with malignant minor salivary gland carcinomas. Methods and Materials: Between October 1964 and November 1992, 95 patients with minor salivary gland carcinomas of the head and neck received radiotherapy with curative intent. Eighty-seven patients were previously untreated, and 8 were treated for postsurgical recurrence. Fifty-one patients were treated with radiotherapy alone, and 44 were treated by surgical resection plus radiotherapy. Patients were staged according to the 1983 American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) staging criteria for squamous cell carcinomas. Results: The 20-year actuarial rate of local control was 57% with no significant difference according to histologic type. When tumor stage was taken into consideration, there were no significant differences in local control according to tumor site. The 12-year actuarial probability of distant metastases was 40% (19% as the only site of failure). In multivariate analyses, local control was significantly affected only by tumor stage and treatment type (combined therapy better than radiotherapy alone); tumor stage was a significant predictor of cause-specific survival and freedom from relapse. Freedom-from-relapse rates were higher for patients who received combined treatment (p = 0.068). Conclusions: Treatment of minor salivary gland carcinomas is usually by combined surgery and radiotherapy, but there are situations where surgery alone or radiotherapy alone may be used. The ability to control these tumors with radiotherapy alone is not widely recognized. In the present series, the tumor was locally controlled in 20 patients with previously untreated primary lesions after radiotherapy alone (2.5 to 21 years) and in 4 other patients who were treated by radiotherapy alone for postsurgical recurrent tumor (3.5 to 14 years after radiotherapy). Contrary to the widely held belief that local recurrence

  4. Disparities in health system input between minority and non-minority counties and their effects on maternal mortality in Sichuan province of western China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yan; Qian, Ping; Duan, Zhanqi; Zhao, Ziling; Pan, Jay; Yang, Min

    2017-09-29

    The maternal mortality rate (MMR) markedly decreased in China, but there has been a significant imbalance among different geographic regions (east, central and west regions), and the mortality in the western region remains high. This study aims to examine how much disparity in the health system and MMR between ethnic minority and non-minority counties exists in Sichuan province of western China and measures conceivable commitments of the health system determinants of the disparity in MMR. The MMR and health system data of 67 minority and 116 non-minority counties were taken from Sichuan provincial official sources. The 2-level Poisson regression model was used to identify health system determinants. A series of nested models with different health system factors were fitted to decide contribution of each factor to the disparity in MMR. The MMR decreased over the last decade, with the fastest declining rate from 2006 to 2010. The minority counties experienced higher raw MMR in 2002 than non-minority counties (94.4 VS. 58.2), which still remained higher in 2014 (35.7 VS. 14.3), but the disparity of raw MMR between minority and non-minority counties decreased from 36.2 to 21.4. The better socio-economic condition, more health human resources and higher maternal health care services rate were associated with lower MMR. Hospital delivery rate alone explained 74.5% of the difference in MMR between minority and non-minority counties. All health system indicators together explained 97.6% of the ethnic difference in MMR, 59.8% in the change trend, and 66.3% county level variation respectively. Hospital delivery rate mainly determined disparity in MMR between minority and non-minority counties in Sichuan province. Increasing hospital birth rates among ethnic minority counties may narrow the disparity in MMR by more than two-thirds of the current level.

  5. Workplace harassment: double jeopardy for minority women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdahl, Jennifer L; Moore, Celia

    2006-03-01

    To date there have been no studies of how both sex and ethnicity might affect the incidence of both sexual and ethnic harassment at work. This article represents an effort to fill this gap. Data from employees at 5 organizations were used to test whether minority women are subject to double jeopardy at work, experiencing the most harassment because they are both women and members of a minority group. The results supported this prediction. Women experienced more sexual harassment than men, minorities experienced more ethnic harassment than Whites, and minority women experienced more harassment overall than majority men, minority men, and majority women.

  6. Aspartokinase in Lemna minor L

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kwan F.; Dennis, David T.

    1973-01-01

    The growth of Lemna minor was followed by means of frond number, fresh weight, and dry weight measurements in the presence of various amino acids at a concentration 0.25 mm. Lysine inhibited growth but not to the same extent as threonine and homoserine. Isoleucine was also an inhibitor of growth. In the presence of methionine there was some growth for 2 to 3 days, but by 5 days most of the plants appeared to be dead. When lysine and threonine were added together, there was no growth at all, and the plants were dead after 5 days. This effect of lysine + threonine could be reversed by adding methionine or homoserine to the growth medium. The isolated aspartokinase from Lemna showed inhibition by lysine and higher concentrations of threonine. When these amino acids were added together at low concentrations, there was a concerted inhibition of the aspartokinase. It is suggested that some effects of amino acids on the growth of L. minor can be explained on the basis of a concerted feedback control of aspartokinase. Images PMID:16658324

  7. Work and minor work contracts

    CERN Document Server

    1999-01-01

    The Work and Minor Work contracts are all of the result-oriented type. The work is specified by CERN and the contractor is given full responsibility for its performance. The contracts are thus very similar to supply contracts. The re-tendering of the existing contracts is almost complete, except for some building maintenance contracts. A new cycle of re-tendering for some activities will be launched in the next twelve months. The total estimated expenditure in the year 2000 for the contracts referred to in this document is 27 750 000 Swiss francs at 1999 prices. The Finance Committee is invited: - to approve the proposed expenditure for the extension of contracts for which the estimated amount for the year 2000 exceeds 750 000 Swiss francs, namely those under references 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 8, 9 and 23, highlighted in Table I; - to take note that all Work and Minor Work contracts have been tendered since 1 January 1994, except the small contracts shown under references 12 and 16 in Table I; - to take note that the ...

  8. Interparental conflict, parenting, and childhood depression in a diverse urban population: the role of general cognitive style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Ellen H; Moreau, Melissa; Cardemil, Esteban V; Pollastri, Alisha

    2010-01-01

    Research on the mechanisms by which interparental conflict (IPC) affects child depression suggests that both parenting and children's conflict appraisals play important roles, but few studies have explored the role of general cognitive style or included both parenting and cognitions in the same design. Moreover, the effects of IPC on minority children are not well understood. In this longitudinal study, parenting was examined as a mediator of the relation between increasing IPC and change in depression. General cognitive style was included as a moderator. The combined influence of parenting and cognitions was also explored. A racially and ethnically diverse sample of 88 fifth and sixth graders from two urban schools reported their cognitive style, depressive symptoms, and perceptions of conflict and parenting at two time points separated by one year. Parental warmth/rejection mediated the relation between IPC and depression, and general cognitive style acted as a moderator. Parenting, cognitive style, and IPC did not significantly interact to predict change in depression over time. Findings indicate that both parenting and children's general cognitive style play a role in understanding the impact of increasing IPC on children's well-being.

  9. Metabotropic glutamate receptor 3 is associated with heroin dependence but not depression or schizophrenia in a Chinese population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Jia

    Full Text Available Metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 3 (mGluR3, encoded by GRM3 plays important roles in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, depression, and drug dependence. GRM3 polymorphisms were reported to be associated with prefrontal activity, cognitive shifting, and memory capability in healthy subjects, as well as susceptibility to schizophrenia and depression. The goal of this study was to replicate the association of GRM3 with schizophrenia and depression and to explore GRM3's potential association with heroin dependence (HD in a Chinese population. Seventeen SNPs throughout the GRM3 gene were genotyped using MALDI-TOF within the MassARRAY system, and the allele and genotype distributions were compared between 619 healthy controls and 433 patients with schizophrenia, 409 patients with major depression, and 584 unrelated addicts. We found that GRM3 polymorphisms modulate the susceptibility to HD but do not significantly influence the risk for schizophrenia or depression. An increased risk of HD was significantly associated with the minor alleles of two GRM3 SNPs, including the T allele of rs274618 (Odds ratio (OR = 1.631, 95% confidence interval (95%CI: 1.317-2.005, the T allele of rs274622 (OR = 1.652, 95% CI: 1.336-2.036, compared with the major alleles. The addicts carrying the minor allele of rs274618 or rs274622 had a shortened duration for transition from first use to dependence (DTFUD in comparison to homozygote for major allele (P<0.0001 for each SNP using log rank test. Additionally, a 6-SNP haplotype within 5' region of the GRM3 including the minor alleles of the two aforementioned SNPs was significantly associated with an increased risk of HD (P = 0.00001, OR = 1.668, 95% CI: 1.335-2.084. Our data indicated that GRM3 polymorphisms do not contribute to genetic susceptibility to schizophrenia and depression, but they confer an increased risk of HD in a Chinese population.

  10. Antidepressant utilization after hospitalization with depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wallach-Kildemoes, Helle; Thomsen, Louise Thirstrup; Kriegbaum, Margit

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Antidepressant (AD) therapy is recommended for patients 4-12 months after remission from depression. The aim was to examine whether immigrants (refugees or family reunited immigrants) from non-Western countries are at greater risk than Danish-born residents of 1) not initiating AD...... therapy after discharge and 2) early AD discontinuation. METHODS: A cohort of immigrants from non-Western countries (n = 132) and matched Danish-born residents (n = 396) discharged after first admission with moderate to severe depression between 1 January 1996 and 31 May 2008 was followed in the Danish...... only minor impact on these associations. CONCLUSION: Immigrants seem less likely to receive the recommended AD treatment after hospitalization with depression. This may indicate a need for a better understanding of the circumstances of this vulnerable group....

  11. Novel Augmentation Strategies in Major Depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martiny, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    Hypothesis The hypotheses of all the four included studies share the common idea that it is possible to augment the effect of antidepressant drug treatment by applying different interventions and with each intervention attain a clinically meaningful better effect compared to a control condition......, and with minor side effects, thus improving the short- and medium-term outcome in major depression. Procedures Study design The basic study design has been the double blind randomised controlled trial (RCT). In the light therapy study, all patients were treated with sertraline for the whole of the study duration...... open psychiatric wards. Only a few patients were re-cruited through advertisements (in the PEMF and Chronos studies). Inclusion criteria Inclusion criteria were major depression according to the DSM-IV, including a depressive episode as part of a bipolar disorder. For the PEMF study, treatment...

  12. Depression and demoralization as distinct syndromes: Preliminary data from a cohort of advanced cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobsen Juliet

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The term demoralization has been used to describe existential distress and despair of patients with advanced disease. Aim: This study sought to determine whether a cluster of symptoms interpreted as demoralization could be identified and distinguished from a cluster of depressive symptoms. Materials and Methods: As part of the Coping with Cancer Study, a federally funded multi-site study of advanced cancer patients, 242 patients were interviewed on a broad range of mental health parameters related to depression, grief, quality of life, self-efficacy, coping and religiousness/spirituality. Results: A principal components analysis revealed separate depression and demoralization/despair factors. Seven symptoms constituted the demoralization/despair factor: loss of control, loss of hope, anger/bitterness, sense of failure, feeling life was a burden, loss of meaning and a belief that life′s meaning is dependent on health and were found to be internally consistent (Cronbach′s a = 0.78. Only 14.8% of subjects with "syndromal demoralization" met DSM-IV criteria for Major Depression (MDD; 7.4% for Minor Depression. Of those with MDD only 28.6% had syndromal level demoralization. Prior history of MDD predicted current MDD, but not syndromal demoralization. Demoralization, not MDD, was significantly associated with the patient′s reported level of inner peacefulness. When compared with MDD, syndromal demoralization was more strongly associated with wish to live and wish to die and equally predictive of mental health service use. Conclusion: The symptoms of demoralization are distinct from depressive symptoms and appear to be associated with the patient′s degree of inner peacefulness.

  13. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Studies of Postpartum Depression: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Fiorelli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Postpartum depression is a frequent and disabling condition whose pathophysiology is still unclear. In recent years, the study of the neural correlates of mental disorders has been increasingly approached using magnetic resonance techniques. In this review we synthesize the results from studies on postpartum depression in the context of structural, functional, and spectroscopic magnetic resonance studies of major depression as a whole. Compared to the relative wealth of data available for major depression, magnetic resonance studies of postpartum depression are limited in number and design. A systematic literature search yielded only eleven studies conducted on about one hundred mothers with postpartum depression overall. Brain magnetic resonance findings in postpartum depression appear to replicate those obtained in major depression, with minor deviations that are not sufficient to delineate a distinct neurobiological profile for this condition, due to the small samples used and the lack of direct comparisons with subjects with major depression. However, it seems reasonable to expect that studies conducted in larger populations, and using a larger variety of brain magnetic resonance techniques than has been done so far, might allow for the identification of neuroimaging signatures for postpartum depression.

  14. Cigarette demand among smokers with elevated depressive symptoms: an experimental comparison with low depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secades-Villa, Roberto; Weidberg, Sara; González-Roz, Alba; Reed, Derek D; Fernández-Hermida, José R

    2018-03-01

    Individuals with depression smoke more than smokers without depression. Research has shown that cigarette demand is a useful tool for quantifying tobacco reinforcement and supposes a clinical predictor of treatment outcomes. Despite previous studies examining the relative reinforcing efficacy of nicotine among different populations of smokers, to date, no study has assessed cigarette demand among individuals with elevated depressive symptoms. The aim of this study was to compare cigarette demand among samples of smokers with low and elevated depressive symptoms. Further, it also sought to examine the relationship between depressive symptomatology and the individual CPT demand indices. Participants (80 non-depressed smokers and 85 depressed smokers) completed the 19-item version of the Cigarette Purchase Task (CPT). Depression symptomatology was assessed using the Beck Depression Inventory-Second Edition (BDI-II). Depressed smokers needed to present at least moderate depressive symptoms as indicated by scoring ≥ 20 on the BDI-II. Depressive symptomatology and nicotine dependence were significantly associated with elasticity of demand (R 2  = 0.112; F(2, 155) = 9.756, p = ≤ 0.001). Depressive symptoms, cigarettes per day, and years of regular smoking also predicted breakpoint scores (R 2  = 0.088; F(4, 153) = 3.697, p = 0.007). As smokers with elevated depressive symptoms are less sensitive to increases in cigarette prices than those with low depressive symptomatology, future studies should consider these cigarette demand indices when designing depression-focused smoking cessation treatments. Providing this difficult-to-treat population with interventions that promote both pleasurable and alternative reinforcing activities is highly encouraged.

  15. Exploring the relationship between physical health, depressive symptoms, and depression diagnoses in Hispanic dementia caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucciare, Michael A; Gray, Heather; Azar, Armin; Jimenez, Daniel; Gallagher-Thompson, Dolores

    2010-04-01

    The present study examined the relationship between self-reported physical health, depressive symptoms, and the occurrence of depression diagnosis in Hispanic female dementia caregivers. Participants were 89 Hispanic female dementia caregivers. This study used a cross-sectional design. Baseline depression and physical health data were collected from participants enrolled in the 'Reducing Stress in Hispanic Anglo Dementia Caregivers' study sponsored by the National Institute on Aging. Physical health was assessed using the Medical Outcome Study Short Form-36 (SF-36), a one-item self-report health rating, body mass index, and the presence or history of self-reported physical illness. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D). The occurrence of depression diagnosis was assessed using the Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID). Multiple linear and logistic regression analysis was used to examine the extent to which indices of physical health and depressive symptoms accounted for variance in participants' depressive symptoms and depressive diagnoses. Self-reported indices of health (e.g., SF-36) accounted for a significant portion of variance in both CES-D scores and SCID diagnoses. Caregivers who reported worsened health tended to report increased symptoms of depression on the CES-D and increased likelihood of an SCID diagnosis of a depressive disorder. Self-reported health indices are helpful in identifying Hispanic dementia caregivers at risk for clinical levels of depression.

  16. Current maternal depression moderates the relation between critical expressed emotion in mothers and depressive symptoms in their adolescent daughters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellick, William; Kalpakci, Allison; Sharp, Carla

    2015-06-30

    Prior studies have examined critical expressed emotion (EE-Crit) in mothers in the intergenerational transmission of depression. However, the potential moderating effect of maternal depression diagnostic status in relation to EE-Crit and youth depressive symptoms has yet to be determined. A total of N=121 biological mother/daughter dyads that differed in maternal depression diagnostic status were recruited for the present study: (1) currently depressed mothers (current depression, n=29); (2) formerly depressed mothers (past depression, n=39); and (3) mothers free from any psychiatric history (healthy controls, n=53). Mothers were administered structured clinical interviews and completed self-report measures of EE-Crit and psychopathology, and daughters self-reported depressive symptoms. Results indicated no significant group differences in EE-Crit; however, current maternal depression status moderated EE-Crit such that the magnitude of the relation between EE-Crit and adolescent depressive symptoms was significantly greater in daughters of currently depressed mothers. These findings highlight the importance of considering current maternal depression, rather than a history of maternal depression, in relation to EE-Crit and adolescent depressive symptoms, providing impetus for future investigations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The Mediating Roles of Rejection Sensitivity and Proximal Stress in the Association Between Discrimination and Internalizing Symptoms Among Sexual Minority Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyar, Christina; Feinstein, Brian A; Eaton, Nicholas R; London, Bonita

    2018-01-01

    The negative impact of discrimination on mental health among lesbian, gay, and bisexual populations has been well documented. However, the possible mediating roles of sexual orientation rejection sensitivity and rejection-based proximal stress in the association between discrimination and internalizing symptoms remain unclear. Rejection-based proximal stress is a subset of proximal stressors that are theorized to arise from concerns about and expectations of sexual orientation-based rejection and discrimination. Drawing on minority stress theory, we tested potential mediating effects using indirect effects structural equation modeling in a sample of 300 sexual minority women. Results indicated that the indirect effect of discrimination on internalizing symptoms (a latent variable indicated by depression and anxiety symptoms) through sexual orientation rejection sensitivity and rejection-based proximal stress (a latent variable indicated by preoccupation with stigma, concealment motivation, and difficulty developing a positive sexual identity) was significant. Additionally, the indirect effects of discrimination on rejection-based proximal stress through sexual orientation rejection sensitivity and of sexual orientation rejection sensitivity on internalizing symptoms through rejection-based proximal stress were also significant. These findings indicate that sexual orientation rejection sensitivity plays an important role in contributing to rejection-based proximal stress and internalizing symptoms among sexual minority women.

  18. Factors affecting minority population proximity to hazardous facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieves, L.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Nieves, A.L. [Wheaton Coll., IL (United States)]|[Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1995-04-01

    Disproportionate exposure of minority groups to environmental hazards has been attributed to ``environmental racism`` by some authors, without systematic investigation of the factors underlying this exposure pattern. This study examines regional differences in the proximity of African-Americans, Hispanics, Asians, and non-Hispanic Whites to a broad range of facility types and explores the effects of urban and income factors. A statistically significant inverse relationship is found between the percentage of non-Hispanic Whites and virtually all facility categories in all regions. Except for Hispanics in the South, all such associations for minority groups show a direct relationship, though some are nonsignificant. The geographic concentration of facilities is more closely tied to urbanization than to economic factors. Controlling for both urban and economic factors, minority population concentration is still a significant explanatory variable for some facility types in some regions. This finding is most consistent for African-Americans.

  19. Depression After Heart Attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Can Be Done to Reduce the Impact of Depression on My Mental and Physical Health? There is some good news here. Depression is ... Can Be Done to Reduce the Impact of Depression on My Mental and Physical Health? What Can I Do About the Depression I’ ...

  20. Depressive symptoms in community-dwelling persons aged ≥60 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objectives of this study were to determine if depression or depressive symptoms were significant problems in this population and to identify possible risk ..... student population in 1991, and results were comparable with those in previous ...

  1. Autobiographical memory in the euthymic phase of recurrent depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spinhoven, Philip; Bockting, Claudi L. H.; Schene, Aart H.; Koeter, Maarten W. J.; Wekking, Elizabeth M.; Williams, J. Mark G.

    2006-01-01

    The authors investigated autobiographical memory specificity in subjects who formerly had depression. In 122 euthymic patients with at least two previous major depressive episodes, memory specificity was significantly impaired compared to matched control participants but not related to residual

  2. Mixed anxiety depression should not be included in DSM-5

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batelaan, N.M.; Spijker, J.; Graaf, R. de; Cuijpers, P.

    2012-01-01

    Subthreshold anxiety and subthreshold depressive symptoms often co-occur in the general population and in primary care. Based on their associated significant distress and impairment, a psychiatric classification seems justified. To enable classification, mixed anxiety depression (MAD) has been

  3. Mixed Anxiety Depression Should Not Be Included in DSM-5

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batelaan, N.M.; Spijker, J.; de Graaf, R.; Cuijpers, P.

    2012-01-01

    Subthreshold anxiety and subthreshold depressive symptoms often co-occur in the general population and in primary care. Based on their associated significant distress and impairment, a psychiatric classification seems justified. To enable classification, mixed anxiety depression (MAD) has been

  4. Anxiety and Depression in Breast Cancer Survivors of Different Sexual Orientations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehmer, Ulrike; Glickman, Mark; Winter, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Objective: We conducted a study comparing anxiety and depression by sexual orientation in long-term breast cancer survivors, testing the hypothesis that sexual minority women (e.g., lesbian and bisexual women) have greater levels of anxiety and depression. Method: From a state cancer registry, we recruited 257 heterosexual and 69 sexual minority…

  5. Physical Symptoms of Stress, Depression, and Suicidal Ideation in High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Sandra L.; Lester, David

    1994-01-01

    Examined depression among 97 adolescents with and without psychosomatic stress symptoms and explored relationship between psychosomatic stress symptoms and preoccupation with suicide. Found that occurrence of minor physical symptoms of stress, but not major psychosomatic disorders, was associated with depression. Physical symptoms were not…

  6. Women's Use of Multi sector Mental Health Services in a Community-Based Perinatal Depression Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Sarah Kye

    2010-01-01

    Low-income and ethnic minority women have been described as at risk for experiencing depression during and around the time of pregnancy, a finding complicated by low levels of mental health service use within this population. This study retrospectively examined data from a community-based perinatal depression project targeting low-income women in…

  7. Fewer self-reported depressive symptoms in young adults exposed to maternal depressed mood during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohsel, Katrin; Holz, Nathalie E; Hohm, Erika; Schmidt, Martin H; Esser, Günter; Brandeis, Daniel; Banaschewski, Tobias; Laucht, Manfred

    2017-02-01

    Depressed mood is prevalent during pregnancy, with accumulating evidence suggesting an impact on developmental outcome in the offspring. However, the long-term effects of prenatal maternal depression regarding internalizing psychopathology in the offspring are as yet unclear. As part of an ongoing epidemiological cohort study, prenatal maternal depressed mood was assessed at the child's age of 3 months. In a sample of n=307 offspring, depressive symptoms were obtained via questionnaire at the ages of 19, 22, 23 and 25 years. At age 25 years, diagnoses of depressive disorder were obtained using a diagnostic interview. In a subsample of currently healthy participants, voxel-based morphometry was conducted and amygdala volume was assessed. In n=85 young adults exposed to prenatal maternal depressed mood, no significantly higher risk for a diagnosis of depressive disorder was observed. However, they reported significantly lower levels of depressive symptoms. This association was especially pronounced when prenatal maternal depressed mood was present during the first trimester of pregnancy and when maternal mood was depressed pre- as well as postnatally. At an uncorrected level only, prenatal maternal depressed mood was associated with decreased amygdala volume. Prenatal maternal depressed mood was not assessed during pregnancy, but shortly after childbirth. No diagnoses of maternal clinical depression during pregnancy were available. Self-reported depressive symptoms do not imply increased, but rather decreased symptom levels in young adults who were exposed to prenatal maternal depressed mood. A long-term perspective may be important when considering consequences of prenatal risk factors. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Binge Drinking, Cannabis and Tobacco Use Among Ethnic Norwegian and Ethnic Minority Adolescents in Oslo, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abebe, Dawit S; Hafstad, Gertrud S; Brunborg, Geir Scott; Kumar, Bernadette Nirmal; Lien, Lars

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the study was to assess prevalence and factors associated with binge drinking, cannabis use and tobacco use among ethnic Norwegians and ethnic minority adolescents in Oslo. We used data from a school-based cross-sectional survey of adolescents in junior- and senior high schools in Oslo, Norway. The participants were 10,934 adolescents aged 14-17 years, and just over half were females. The sample was comprised of 73.2 % ethnic Norwegian adolescents, 9.8 % 1st generation immigrants, and 17 % 2nd generation adolescents from Europe, the US, the Middle East, Asia and Africa. Logistic regression models were applied for the data analyses. Age, gender, religion, parental education, parent-adolescent relationships, depressive symptoms and loneliness were covariates in the regression models. Ethnic Norwegian adolescents reported the highest prevalence of binge drinking (16.1 %), whereas the lowest prevalence was found among 2nd generation adolescents from Asia (2.9 %). Likewise, the past-year prevalence for cannabis use ranged from 10.6 % among 2nd generation Europeans and those from the US to 3.7 % among 2nd generation Asians. For daily tobacco use, the prevalence ranged from 12.9 % among 2nd generation Europeans and the US to 5.1 % among 2nd generation Asians. Ethnicity, age, gender, religion, parental education, and parent-adolescent relationships and mental health status were significantly associated with binge drinking, cannabis and tobacco use. These factors partly explained the observed differences between ethnic Norwegians and ethnic minority adolescents in the current study. There are significant differences in substance use behaviors between ethnic Norwegian and immigrant youth. Factors like age, gender, religion, parental education and relationships and mental health status might influence the relationship between ethnicity and substance abuse. The findings have implications for planning selective- as well as universal prevention interventions.

  9. Depression, Compulsive Sexual Behavior, and Sexual Risk-Taking Among Urban Young Gay and Bisexual Men: The P18 Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storholm, Erik David; Satre, Derek D.; Kapadia, Farzana; Halkitis, Perry N.

    2015-01-01

    Young gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (YMSM) are at increased likelihood of experiencing depression and condomless sexual behaviors The goal of the current investigation was to examine the relationship between negative mood and compulsive sexual behavior (CSB) and to assess for their individual and combined influence on sexual risk-taking behavior among a diverse sample of YMSM in New York City (the P18 Cohort Study). We first analyzed sociodemographic, depressive symptoms, CSB, and sexual risk-taking from the cross-sectional data of 509, 18- or 19-year-old YMSM recruited using non-probability sampling. We found a significant positive correlation between CSB and depression and between CSB and frequency of condomless anal sex acts reported over the past 30 days. Multivariate results found that the presence of both depression and CSB contributed to elevated sexual risk-taking among these urban YMSM. Clinical implications include the importance of assessing for CSB when depression is present and vice versa in order to improve HIV prevention. Informed by Minority Stress Theory and Syndemic Theory, our results suggest that interventions focused on the health of YMSM recognize that mental health, CSB and social context all interact to increase physical health vulnerability vis-a-vis sexual behaviors, depression, and CSB. Thus, HIV prevention and intervention programs need to incorporate mental health components and services that address these needs. PMID:26310878

  10. Depression and Suicidal Ideation During Two Psychosocial Treatments in Older Adults with Major Depression and Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiosses, Dimitris N; Rosenberg, Paul B; McGovern, Amanda; Fonzetti, Pasquale; Zaydens, Hana; Alexopoulos, George S

    2015-01-01

    Depression is prevalent in dementia and contributes to poor outcomes for patients and their families. Antidepressants have limited efficacy in older adults with major depression and dementia, and psychosocial interventions are under-investigated. To examine the course, predictors and moderators of depression and suicidal ideation during 12 weeks of home-delivered Problem Adaptation Therapy (PATH) versus Supportive Therapy for Cognitively Impaired Older Adults (ST-CI) in 39 older adults with major depression and dementia. Thirty-nine older adults with major depression, mild or moderate dementia, and disability participated in a randomized controlled trial that compared the efficacy of PATH versus ST-CI. Depression and suicidal ideation were assessed with Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia Total Score and Suicide Item. PATH participants had significantly greater reduction in depression than ST-CI participants over 12 weeks of treatment. PATH participants with high social support had the greatest reduction in depression. Both treatments had comparable reduction in suicidal ideation. PATH is more effective in reducing depression in older adults with major depression and dementia compared to ST-CI. These results are clinically significant as antidepressants have limited efficacy in this population. Home-delivered psychosocial treatments may reduce suicidal ideation in this population.

  11. Rumination mediates the relationship between overgeneral autobiographical memory and depression in patients with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yansong; Yu, Xinnian; Yang, Bixiu; Zhang, Fuquan; Zou, Wenhua; Na, Aiguo; Zhao, Xudong; Yin, Guangzhong

    2017-03-21

    Overgeneral autobiographical memory has been identified as a risk factor for the onset and maintenance of depression. However, little is known about the underlying mechanisms that might explain overgeneral autobiographical memory phenomenon in depression. The purpose of this study was to test the mediation effects of rumination on the relationship between overgeneral autobiographical memory and depressive symptoms. Specifically, the mediation effects of brooding and reflection subtypes of rumination were examined in patients with major depressive disorder. Eighty-seven patients with major depressive disorder completed the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, Ruminative Response Scale, and Autobiographical Memory Test. Bootstrap mediation analysis for simple and multiple mediation models through the PROCESS macro was applied. Simple mediation analysis showed that rumination significantly mediated the relationship between overgeneral autobiographical memory and depression symptoms. Multiple mediation analyses showed that brooding, but not reflection, significantly mediated the relationship between overgeneral autobiographical memory and depression symptoms. Our results indicate that global rumination partly mediates the relationship between overgeneral autobiographical memory and depressive symptoms in patients with major depressive disorder. Furthermore, the present results suggest that the mediating role of rumination in the relationship between overgeneral autobiographical memory and depression is mainly due to the maladaptive brooding subtype of rumination.

  12. Depression: An Immuno-Inflammatory Cascade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Sharma

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Major depressive disorder also known as clinical depression, unipolar depression or depression is associated with significant morbidity, mortality, high suicidal tendencies and deaths. Preclinical and clinical studies suggest that psychiatric illnesses like MDD, are associated with inflammatory processes. While it is unlikely that major depressive disorder is a primary and lsquo;inflammatory' disorder, there is now evidence to suggest that inflammation play a subtle role in the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder. The inflammation in depression cascade pin points to the origin from immune hyperactivity and thus a new theory that explains role of immune system mediated inflammation has been accepted and researched upon. widely. This theory states that depression is accompanied by altered immune function and activation of the inflammatory response system. This theory is strengthened form the fact that the current therapeutic options which mainly target neurotransmitters, are not effective in many patients and these patients has been found to be associated with elevated levels of inflammatory mediators specifically cytokines. It is reported more recently that other risk factors for depression, including psychosocial stress, psychological trauma, sleep disturbance and pain, also increases inflammatory processes. Thus the intervention in the immune system originated from inflammatory cytokines seems a therapeutically viable option in the field of depression research. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2016; 25(2.000: 223-240

  13. Depression and life satisfaction in Nepal and Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, P L; Schumaker, J F; Dorahy, M J; Shrestha, S N

    1996-12-01

    For this study of cultural differences in the extent of depressive symptomatology and life satisfaction, 311 Australian and 250 Nepalese university students completed the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) and the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS; Diener, Emmons, Larsen, & Griffin, 1985). No significant differences were found in depressive symptomatology. Australian respondents reported significantly higher life satisfaction than Nepalese. A moderate significant inverse relationship was found between depressive symptoms and life satisfaction in the Australian respondents, with a smaller significant inverse relationship observed among the Nepalese respondents. The findings suggest that the experience of depressive symptoms may be partially independent of life satisfaction for this Nepalese sample.

  14. Minority game with arbitrary cutoffs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, N. F.; Hui, P. M.; Zheng, Dafang; Tai, C. W.

    1999-07-01

    We study a model of a competing population of N adaptive agents, with similar capabilities, repeatedly deciding whether to attend a bar with an arbitrary cutoff L. Decisions are based upon past outcomes. The agents are only told whether the actual attendance is above or below L. For L∼ N/2, the game reproduces the main features of Challet and Zhang's minority game. As L is lowered, however, the mean attendances in different runs tend to divide into two groups. The corresponding standard deviations for these two groups are very different. This grouping effect results from the dynamical feedback governing the game's time-evolution, and is not reproduced if the agents are fed a random history.

  15. Resistance to minor groove binders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colmegna, Benedetta; Uboldi, Sarah; Erba, Eugenio; D'Incalci, Maurizio

    2014-03-01

    In this paper multiple resistance mechanisms to minor groove binders (MGBs) are overviewed. MGBs with antitumor properties are natural products or their derivatives and, as expected, they are all substrates of P-glycoprotein (P-gp). However, a moderate expression of P-gp does not appear to reduce the sensitivity to trabectedin, the only MGB so far approved for clinical use. Resistance to this drug is often related to transcriptional mechanisms and to DNA repair pathways, particularly defects in transcription-coupled nucleotide excision repair (TC-NER). Therefore tumors resistant to trabectedin may become hypersensitive to UV rays and other DNA damaging agents acting in the major groove, such as Platinum (Pt) complexes. If this is confirmed in clinic, that will provide the rationale to combine trabectedin sequentially with Pt derivates.

  16. Migrant and Ethnic Minority Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Essink-Bot, Marie-Louise; Agyemang, Charles; Stronks, Karien

    2015-01-01

    in health related to migration and ethnicity. Thereto we will first define the concepts of migration and ethnicity, briefly review the various groups of migrants and ethnic minorities in Europe, and introduce a conceptual model that specifies the link and causal pathways between ethnicity and health......European populations have become increasingly ethnically diverse as a result of migration, and evidence supports the existence of health inequalities between ethnic groups in Europe. This chapter addresses two main issues. First, we examine the pathways that are considered causal to inequalities....... Then we use the example of ethnic inequalities in cardiovascular disease and diabetes to illustrate the conceptual model. The second issue concerns the potential contribution from the health-care system to minimize the ethnic inequalities in health. As a public health sector, we should do all we can...

  17. The relationship of anxiety to childhood depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norvell, N; Brophy, C; Finch, A J

    1985-04-01

    In order to investigate the relationship between anxiety and depression in emotionally disturbed children, 30 hospitalized inpatient children were individually administered the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI), the Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale-Revised (CMAS-R), and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children (STAIC). Results indicated a significant relationship between CDI scores, the CMAS-R and its factors, and the STAIC. Correlations between the various factors of anxiety and depression suggest a complex relationship between the two constructs. Stepwise regression analyses indicated further the complexity of this relationship. Results were discussed in terms of the possible differential role which the different anxiety factors play in depression.

  18. Research progress of functional MRI in depression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Shenghui; Niu Guangming; Han Xiaodong; Qiao Pengfei

    2013-01-01

    The mood disorders of depression are associated with abnormalities of brain structure and function, and exploring their pathological mechanism has important significance for the choice of treatment and the curative effect evaluation. In recent years, the research of MRI on brain structure and function of depression has made great progress, especially in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). fMRI can detect the functional change in real time, and also can display the activity of brain and changes in the nerve pathways in patients with depression. This article summarizes the present research situation and progress of MRI in the diagnosis of depression. (authors)

  19. Minority Stress and Intimate Partner Violence Among Gay and Bisexual Men in Atlanta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Rob; Finneran, Catherine

    2017-07-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) rates are disproportionately high among sexual minority populations. Few studies have examined the plausible relationship between minority stress and IPV among men who have sex with men. This study examines the associations between IPV and three indicators of minority stress: internalized homophobia, sexuality-based discrimination, and racism, in a large venue-based sample of gay and bisexual men from Atlanta, USA. Each of the minority stress measures was found to be significantly associated with increased odds of self-reporting any form of receipt of IPV. Significant associations were also identified between perpetration of IPV and minority stressors, with most types of IPV perpetration linked to internalized homophobia. This study confirms findings in a growing body of research supporting the relationship between minority stress and increased prevalence of IPV among men who have sex with men, and points to the need to address structural factors in IPV prevention programs for male-male couples.

  20. Collaborative care for depression in general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinck-Claussen, Ursula Ødum; Curth, Nadja Kehler; Davidsen, Annette Sofie

    2017-01-01

    Background: Depression is a common illness with great human costs and a significant burden on the public economy. Previous studies have indicated that collaborative care (CC) has a positive effect on symptoms when provided to people with depression, but CC has not yet been applied in a Danish...... context. We therefore developed a model for CC (the Collabri model) to treat people with depression in general practice in Denmark. Since systematic identification of patients is an “active ingredient” in CC and some literature suggests case finding as the best alternative to standard detection, the two...... detection methods are examined as part of the study. The aim is to investigate if treatment according to the Collabri model has an effect on depression symptoms when provided to people with depression in general practice in Denmark, and to examine if case finding is a better method to detect depression...

  1. Maternal Depression and Parent Management Training Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, Jack; McQuillin, Samuel; Butler, Ashley M; Axelrad, Marni E

    2016-09-01

    This study examines the impact of maternal depression on reductions in children's behavior problems severity following implementation of the Brief Behavioral Intervention-a brief, manualized parent management training treatment. The parents of 87 children aged 2-6 years of age received parent management training at a metropolitan hospital. Parents of participants completed measures of externalizing behavior and maternal depression. The association between pre-post treatment change in externalizing behavior and maternal depression was examined using an autoregressive cross-lagged model. Results showed that self-reported maternal depressive symptoms at pre-treatment negatively influenced the overall magnitude of reduction of reported externalizing behaviors in children following treatment. Results indicate that aspects of family functioning not specifically targeted by parent management training, such as maternal depression, significantly affect treatment outcomes. Clinicians providing parent management training may benefit from assessing for maternal depression and modifying treatment as indicated.

  2. A practical approach to assess depression risk and to guide risk reduction strategies in later life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Osvaldo P; Alfonso, Helman; Pirkis, Jane; Kerse, Ngaire; Sim, Moira; Flicker, Leon; Snowdon, John; Draper, Brian; Byrne, Gerard; Goldney, Robert; Lautenschlager, Nicola T; Stocks, Nigel; Scazufca, Marcia; Huisman, Martijn; Araya, Ricardo; Pfaff, Jon

    2011-03-01

    Many factors have been associated with the onset and maintenance of depressive symptoms in later life, although this knowledge is yet to be translated into significant health gains for the population. This study gathered information about common modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors for depression with the aim of developing a practical probabilistic model of depression that can be used to guide risk reduction strategies. A cross-sectional study was undertaken of 20,677 community-dwelling Australians aged 60 years or over in contact with their general practitioner during the preceding 12 months. Prevalent depression (minor or major) according to the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) assessment was the main outcome of interest. Other measured exposures included self-reported age, gender, education, loss of mother or father before age 15 years, physical or sexual abuse before age 15 years, marital status, financial stress, social support, smoking and alcohol use, physical activity, obesity, diabetes, hypertension, and prevalent cardiovascular diseases, chronic respiratory diseases and cancer. The mean age of participants was 71.7 ± 7.6 years and 57.9% were women. Depression was present in 1665 (8.0%) of our subjects. Multivariate logistic regression showed depression was independently associated with age older than 75 years, childhood adverse experiences, adverse lifestyle practices (smoking, risk alcohol use, physical inactivity), intermediate health hazards (obesity, diabetes and hypertension), comorbid medical conditions (clinical history of coronary heart disease, stroke, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, emphysema or cancers), and social or financial strain. We stratified the exposures to build a matrix that showed that the probability of depression increased progressively with the accumulation of risk factors, from less than 3% for those with no adverse factors to more than 80% for people reporting the maximum number of risk factors. Our

  3. SSRIs FOR DEPRESSION IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalani Sinniah

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 BACKGROUND: The question about the safety of SSRI therapy for depression in children cause us to compare the data published and unpublished data on the risks and benefits of these drugs. METHODS: We performed a meta-analysis of data from randomized controlled trials that evaluated SSRIs and placebo in participants aged 5-18 years and were published in the peer-reviewed journal or were unpublished and included a review by the Committee on Safety of Medicines. The results include: recurrence, response to treatment, depressive symptom scores, serious sampig effects, suicidal behavior, and cessation of treatment because of side effects. RESULTS: Data from the two trials showed fluoxetine has a benefit-harm profile is good, and unpublished data lend support to the present invention. Published results from one experiment paroxetine and sertraline two experiments showed equivocal results or gain-loss profile weakly positive. However, in both cases, the addition of no published data showing that more risks than benefits. Data from the trials were not published of citalopram and venlafaxine showed gain-loss profile is not good. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  4. Associations of low grade inflammation and endothelial dysfunction with depression - The Maastricht Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Dooren, Fleur E P; Schram, Miranda T; Schalkwijk, Casper G

    2016-01-01

    E-Selectin) were univariately associated with depressive symptoms and depressive disorder. The sum scores of inflammation and endothelial dysfunction were associated with depressive disorder after adjustment for age, sex, type 2 diabetes, kidney function and prior cardiovascular disease (OR 1.54, p=0.001 and 1......BACKGROUND: The pathogenesis of depression may involve low-grade inflammation and endothelial dysfunction. We aimed to evaluate the independent associations of inflammation and endothelial dysfunction with depressive symptoms and depressive disorder, and the role of lifestyle factors...... in this association. METHODS: In The Maastricht Study, a population-based cohort study (n=852, 55% men, m=59.8±8.5years), depressive symptoms were assessed with the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 and (major and minor) depressive disorder with the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Plasma biomarkers...

  5. Depression in older Chinese migrants to Auckland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Max W; Wong, Sai; Giles, Lynne C; Wong, Sue; Young, Wilson; Au, Ming

    2003-08-01

    This study was conducted to identify risk factors for depressive symptomatology among older Chinese migrants. One hundred and sixty-two Chinese migrants aged 55 years or older, living in the community and recruited via Chinese community organizations and general practitioners, were interviewed using a Chinese version of the Geriatric Depression Scale and measures of stressful life events, morbid conditions, self-rated health, acculturation, social support and service utilization. Twenty-six percent of participants met the criteria for depressive symptomatology. No recent migrants showed symptoms of depression. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that lower emotional support, greater number of visits to a doctor, difficulties in accessing health services and low New Zealand cultural orientation increased the risk of showing symptoms of depression. Significant numbers of older Chinese migrants appear to be depressed or at risk for depression and, while participants with depressive symptoms consulted general practitioners more than their counterparts without such symptoms, they reported greater difficulty in accessing health services. The findings point to the need for further epidemiological study of this growing sector of the population and investigation of the nature of its engagement with health services. Social support and aspects of acculturation may play a significant role in preventing depression. This also requires further investigation.

  6. The association between diabetes and depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Essmat M. Gemeay

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate the frequency of depression among Saudi patients, and to correlate between the presence of depression and type of diabetes. Methods: The research approach was descriptive with a convenient subject of 100 male and female patients (27 subjects with Type 1 diabetes, 29 subjects with Type 2 diabetes, and 44 subjects with gestational diabetes from March to June 2014 at Al-Solimania Primary Health Care Center, Al-Olaya, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Patients were interviewed individually using an interview questionnaire sheet formulated by researchers to assess lifestyle items, and Beck depression inventory was used to screen for depression. Results: Thirty-seven percent of those suffering from Type 1 diabetes, and 37.9% of subjects with Type 2 diabetes were diagnosed with depression, while only 13.6% of subjects with gestational diabetes were diagnosed with depression. The results also showed that more than half of the study subjects do not comply with either glucose check, or diet regimen. Conclusion: This study revealed that there is an association between diabetes and depression although the correlation between depression and diabetes is not significant, while there is significant relation with changes in body image. Patients with diabetes should be screened for depression, provided referral to appropriate social services and psychosocial support, and involvement of mental health professions when needed.

  7. Clinical Perspective Level of depression among adolescents of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... or differences between these two groups. Conclusions: The findings of the study suggest that religious minority adolescents (Christians and Hindus) in Pakistan are inclined to have higher levels of depression than their dominant counterparts (Muslim adolescents). Journal of Child & Adolescent Mental Health 2012, 24(2): ...

  8. Impact of Motivational Pharmacotherapy on Treatment Retention among Depressed Latinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis-Fernández, Roberto; Balán, Iván C.; Patel, Sapana R.; Sánchez-Lacay, J. Arturo; Alfonso, César; Gorritz, Magdaliz; Blanco, Carlos; Schmidt, Andrew; Jiang, Huiping; Schneier, Franklin; Moyers, Theresa B.

    2015-01-01

    Compared to non-Latino Whites, US racial/ethnic minority groups show higher non-adherence with outpatient antidepressant therapy, including lower retention, despite adjusting for sociodemographic and insurance covariates. Culturally salient concerns about antidepressants leading to ambivalence about treatment engagement may contribute to this discrepancy. To improve treatment adherence among depressed Latinos, we developed Motivational Pharmacotherapy, a novel approach that combines Motivational Interviewing, standard pharmacotherapy, and attention to Latino cultural concerns about antidepressants. This 12-week, open-trial, pre-post pilot study assessed the impact of Motivational Pharmacotherapy on antidepressant therapy retention, response (symptoms, functioning, and quality of life), and visit duration among N=50 first-generation Latino outpatients with Major Depressive Disorder. At study endpoint, 20% of patients discontinued treatment, with a mean therapy duration of 74.2 out of 84 days. Patients’ symptoms, psychosocial functioning, and quality of life improved significantly. Mean visit length was 36.7 minutes for visit 1 and 24.3 minutes for subsequent visits, compatible with use in community clinics. Responder and remitter rates were 82% and 68%. Compared to published Latino proportions of non-retention (32-53%) and previous studies at our clinic with similar samples and medications (36-46%), Motivational Pharmacotherapy appears to improve Latino retention in antidepressant therapy, and should be investigated further in controlled designs. PMID:23965261

  9. Depression or depressiveness in patients diagnosed with Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa - pilot research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dêbska, Ewa; Janas, Adam; Bañczyk, Wojciech; Janas-Kozik, Małgorzata

    2011-09-01

    The target of this work is to consider if depressive symptoms intercurrent with patients suffering from Anorexia Nervosa (AN) and Bulimia Nervosa (BN) form a depression complex or whether they are physiological depression accompanying adolescence. We wished to observe the perception of these patients,of their functioning, both social and within their families and also looking for common point in the issues mentioned above trying to locate them within the course of the basic illness. We studied 19 patients suffering from eating disorders, and aged between 12 and 24 years old. 15 of them suffered from the restrictive form of AN and 4 suffered from BN. The control group consisted of 30 healthy girls in the same age interval. In the study authors used the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the Quebec Quality of Life Questionnaire. Comparison of a number of points acquired in the survey using Beck Depression Scale revealed statistic significance at the level pdepression symptoms among persons with eating disorders comparing to control group. The survey using the Questionnaire for Social Quality showed no statistically significant differences between study and control groups (p>0.05). The authors observed a statistically significant increased frequency of suicidal thoughts in the study group compared to the controls. To diagnose depression, depressive symptoms presented by the patients must give the image of depression at the clinical level. The result of the Beck's scale needs to be confronted with the clinical picture. Depression in adolescence requires differentiation from depressiveness.

  10. Maternal bonding in mothers with postpartum anxiety disorder: the crucial role of subclinical depressive symptoms and maternal avoidance behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tietz, A; Zietlow, A-L; Reck, C

    2014-10-01

    Hardly any research has examined the link between postpartum anxiety disorder and maternal bonding. This study examined if postpartum anxiety disorder and maternal bonding are related in the postpartum period. Thereby, subclinical depressive symptoms and specific aspects of an anxious symptomatology were also taken into consideration. The German sample of N = 78 mother-infant dyads is composed of n = 30 mothers with postpartum anxiety disorders but without major or minor depression according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV (DSM-IV) and n = 48 healthy mothers. Subjects were interviewed with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Disorders at an average infant age of M = 4.1 months. Moreover, mothers filled out the Postpartum Bonding Questionnaire-16. The Anxiety Cognitions Questionnaire, the Body Sensations Questionnaire and the Mobility Inventory were chosen to assess different aspects of anxious symptomatology. To control for concurrent subclinical depressive symptoms, we used the German Edinburgh-Postnatal-Depression Scale. Mothers with postpartum anxiety disorder reported significantly lower bonding than healthy mothers. However, in a linear regression analysis, concurrent subclinical depressive symptoms and avoidance of anxiety-related situations in company explained 27 % of the overall variance in maternal bonding. The perceived lower bonding of mothers with anxiety disorder could be due to aspects of a concurrent subclinical depressive symptomatology. This notion emphasizes the need to target even mild depressive symptoms in the treatment of postpartum anxiety disorders. The outcomes also underline that the severity of anxious symptomatology, reflected by avoidance behaviour in company, puts the mother-infant bond at risk.

  11. Public Attitudes and Feelings of Warmth Toward Women and Men Experiencing Depression During the Perinatal Period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felder, Jennifer N; Banchefsky, Sarah; Park, Bernadette; Dimidjian, Sona

    2017-08-01

    Depression is a major public health concern and often goes untreated. In response to a growing body of research documenting stigma as a barrier to depression care, this study focused on examining public stigma toward potentially vulnerable subpopulations. Participants (N=241) were recruited from Amazon's Mechanical Turk and randomly assigned to provide anonymous ratings on attitudes and feelings of warmth toward pregnant women and expectant fathers experiencing depression, mothers and fathers experiencing postpartum depression, or women and men experiencing depression during nonperinatal periods. Participants reported significantly more negative attitudes about depressed men than women, and male participants reported significantly more negative attitudes than female participants toward depressed individuals. Similarly, participants felt significantly less warmth toward depressed men than women, and male participants expressed significantly less warmth than female participants toward depressed individuals. Male participants felt equally warm toward men and women who experienced depression during nonperinatal periods, whereas female participants felt significantly warmer toward women who experienced depression during nonperinatal periods compared with men. Results indicate that the public views depressed men more negatively than depressed women and that males are more likely to hold stigmatizing attitudes toward depression, suggesting the importance of reducing stigma directed toward men with depression and stigma held by men toward persons with depression. Attitudes and feelings toward depressed individuals did not consistently vary by perinatal status. These findings are an initial step in improving depression treatment engagement strategies and in identifying those who would benefit most from stigma reduction programs.

  12. Depression and Related Problems in University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Tiffany; Diego, Miguel; Pelaez, Martha; Deeds, Osvelia; Delgado, Jeannette

    2012-01-01

    Method: Depression and related problems were studied in a sample of 283 university students. Results: The students with high depression scores also had high scores on anxiety, intrusive thoughts, controlling intrusive thoughts and sleep disturbances scales. A stepwise regression suggested that those problems contributed to a significant proportion…

  13. A Case of Depression Screening in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miloseva, Lence

    2016-01-01

    Adolescent clinical and subclinical depression has a significant negative impact on adolescents well being, school performance and consequently produces maladaptive outcomes in terms of subsequent education and occupational functioning. This research is a part of a larger research project with a focus on clinical and subclinical depression during…

  14. Central nervous system depressant activityof Leonurus sibiricus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The methanol extract of aerial parts of Leonurus sibiricus was shown to possess central nervous system depressant action by significantly decreased the time of onset of sleep and potentiated the pentobarbital induced sleeping time in mice. Keywords: Leonurus sibiricus, labiatae, central nervous depressant, sedation

  15. History of Depression in Lung Cancer Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iachina, M; Brønserud, M M; Jakobsen, E

    2017-01-01

    . To estimate the effect of depression on the diagnostic process and the choice of treatment in lung cancer we fitted a logistic regression model and a Cox regression model adjusting for age, gender, resection and stage. RESULTS: Depression in a patient's anamnesis had no significant effect on the delay...

  16. Maternal Depressive Symptoms following Autism Spectrum Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Julie Lounds; Warren, Zachary E.

    2012-01-01

    The current study examined depressive symptoms, concerning the week following autism spectrum diagnosis and an average of 1.4 years later, in mothers (n = 75) of young children diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Over three-quarters of mothers (78.7%) provided retrospective reports of clinically significant depressive symptoms…

  17. Judgment of facial expressions and depression persistence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hale, WW

    1998-01-01

    In research it has been demonstrated that cognitive and interpersonal processes play significant roles in depression development and persistence. The judgment of emotions displayed in facial expressions by depressed patients allows for a better understanding of these processes. In this study, 48

  18. Longitudinal Association of Dementia and Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowden, Mark B; Atkins, David C; Steinman, Lesley E; Bell, Janice F; Bryant, Lucinda L; Copeland, Catherine; Fitzpatrick, Annette L

    2015-09-01

    Depression is an important precursor to dementia, but less is known about the role dementia plays in altering the course of depression. We examined whether depression prevalence, incidence, and severity are higher in those with dementia versus those with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), or normal cognition. Prospective cohort study using the longitudinal Uniform Data Set of the National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center (2005-2013). 34 Alzheimer Disease research centers. 27,776 subjects with dementia, MCI, or normal cognition. Depression status was determined by a clinical diagnosis of depression within the prior 2 years and by a Geriatric Depression Scale-Short Form score >5. Rates of depression were significantly higher in subjects with MCI and dementia compared with those with normal cognition at index visit. Controlling for demographics and common chronic conditions, logistic regression analysis revealed elevated depression in those with MCI (OR: 2.40 [95% CI: 2.25, 2.56]) or dementia (OR: 2.64 [95% CI: 2.43, 2.86]) relative to those with normal cognition. In the subjects without depression at the index visit (N = 18,842), those with MCI and dementia had higher probabilities of depression diagnosis 2 years post index visit than those with normal cognition: MCI = 21.7%, dementia = 24.7%, normal cognition = 10.5%. MCI and dementia were associated with significantly higher rates of depression in concurrent as well as prospective analyses. These findings suggest that efforts to effectively engage and treat older adults with dementia will need also to address co-occurring depression. Copyright © 2015 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Burning minor actinides in a HTR energy spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pohl, Christoph; Rütten, H. Jochem

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Burn-up analysis for varying plutonium/minor actinide fuel compositions. ► The influence of varying heavy metal fuel element loads is investigated. ► Significant burn-up via radiative capture and subsequently fission is observed. ► Difference observed between fuel element burn-up and total actinide burning rate. - Abstract: The generation of nuclear energy by means of the existing nuclear reactor systems is based mainly on the fission of U-235. But this comes along with the capture of neutrons by the U-238 faction and results in a build-up of plutonium isotopes and minor actinides as neptunium, americium and curium. These actinides are dominant for the long time assessment of the radiological risk of a final disposal therefore a minimization of the long living isotopes is aspired. Burning the actinides in a high temperature helium cooled graphite moderated reactor (HTR) is one of these options. The use of plutonium isotopes to sustain the criticality of the system is intended to avoid on the one hand highly enriched uranium because of international regulations and on the other hand low enriched uranium because of the build up of new actinides from neutron capture in the U-238 fraction. Because initial minor actinide isotopes are typically not fissionable by thermal neutrons the idea is to fission instead the intermediate isotopes generated by the first neutron capture. This paper comprises calculations for plutonium/minor actinides/thorium fuel compositions and their correlated final burn-up for a generic pebble bed HTR based on the reference design of the 400 MW PBMR. In particular the cross sections and the neutron balance of the different minor actinide isotopes in the higher thermal energy spectrum of a HTR will be discussed. For a fuel mixture of plutonium and minor actinides a significant burn-up of these actinides up to 20% can be achieved but at the expense of a higher residual fraction of plutonium in the burned fuel. Combining

  20. Prevalence of Depression in Postmenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshari

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Every woman during different stages of her growth faces various crises, and one of these crises, menopause, may create different problems. In modern societies, psychological disorders and particularly depression is one of the problems of menopausal women. Objectives This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of depression in postmenopausal women referred to selected health centers of Ahvaz in 2014. Patients and Methods This study was cross-sectional study. In this study, 1280 postmenopausal women aged between 40 and 65 years old who were referred to selected health centers of Ahvaz in 2014 were randomly enrolled. Hamilton depression scale and demographic questionnaire were used for gathering information. Data were analyzed using SPSS software. To analyze the data, descriptive statistics and analytical statistics (Independent t test, ANOVA, Pearson correlation and logistic regression were carried out (CI 95%. Results The mean ± SD score of depression for the subjects was 9.37 ± 4.62. The results showed that 59.8% of the 1280 samples were depressed; in particular, 39.8% had mild depression, 16% moderate depression, and 4% severe depression. There is a significant and inverse relation between variables of age, exposure to cigarette smoking, and the relationship with their spouses and the level of their depression, so higher age, more exposure to smoking, and better relation with their husbands, lead to the less depression. The results showed that the level of education is associated with depression. The highest rate of depression was in illiterate women; the finding also showed that there is a relationship between income and the severity of depression (Regression Log. T test showed that the mean depression level of employed postmenopausal women is higher than housewives postmenopausal women, and this difference is statistically significant (P < 0.001. Conclusions A significant percentage of women in their menopause experience

  1. Casting of metallic fuel containing minor actinide additions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trybus, C.L.; Henslee, S.P.; Sanecki, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    A significant attribute of the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) concept is the transmutation of long-lived minor actinide fission products. These isotopes require isolation for thousands of years, and if they could be removed from the waste, disposal problems would be reduced. The IFR utilizes pyroprocessing of metallic fuel to separate auranium, plutonium, and the minor actinides from nonfissionable constituents. These materials are reintroduced into the fuel and reirradiated. Spent IFR fuel is expected to contain low levels of americium, neptunium, and curium because the hard neutron spectrum should transmute these isotopes as they are produced. This opens the possibility of using an IFR to trnasmute minor actinide waste from conventional light water reactors (LWRs). A standard IFR fuel is based on the alloy U-20% Pu-10% Zr (in weight percent). A metallic fuel system eases the requirements for reprocessing methods and enables the minor actinide metals to be incorporated into the fuel with simple modifications to the basic fuel casting process. In this paper, the authors report the initial casting experience with minor actinide element addition to an IFR U-Pu-Zr metallic fuel

  2. Safe and effective use of medicines for ethnic minorities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Pernille; El-Souri, Mira Mahmoud; Herborg, Hanne

    2015-01-01

    , there was a need to adapt a previously developed and validated medicine-based intervention “safe and effective use of medicines” to this vulnerable group of unemployed ethnic minority patients. Methods: The objective of this before-after study was to improve medicines adherence, health status and work ability...... of the target group through an individualized pharmacist delivered intervention with focus on safe and effective implementation of medical treatments. The target group was ethnic minorities of non-western origin affiliated with a job center. Results: At baseline, 35.7 % of the patients had a potential adherence...... to the intervention. Conclusion: The counseling program “Safe and effective use of medicines” was successfully adapted to unemployed ethnic minority patients, and tested in a new collaboration between job centers and community pharmacies. The counseling program resulted in statistically significant improvements...

  3. Dynamics of the Minority Game for Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Kyungsik; Yoon, Seong-Min; Yum, Myung-Kul

    2003-01-01

    We analyze the minority game for patients, and the results known from the minority game are applied to the patient problem consulted at the department of pediatric cardiology. We find numerically the standard deviation and the global efficiency, similar to the El Farol bar problem. After the score equation and the scaled utility are introduced, the dynamical behavior of our model is discussed for particular strategies. Our result presented will be compared with the well-known minority games.

  4. LEGAL PROTECTION OF NATIONAL MINORITIES IN SLOVENIA

    OpenAIRE

    Vera Klopčič

    2018-01-01

    The Constitution of the Republic of Slovenia mentions only Italian and Hungarian national minority and Roma community as holders of special collective minority rights. Special rights of the autochthonous Italian and Hungarian national minorities in Slovenia are defined in Article 64. Although data on the ethnic structure in Slovenia reflect more heterogeneous ethnic structure, members of other ethnic groups than Italian and Hungarian national communities and Roma community, at present, do not...

  5. Nutritional composition of minor indigenous fruits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shajib, Md. Tariqul Islam; Kawser, Mahbuba; Miah, Md. Nuruddin

    2013-01-01

    In line of the development of a food composition database for Bangladesh, 10 minor indigenous fruits were analysed for their nutrient composition comprising ascorbic acid, carotenoids and mineral values. Nutrient data obtained have been compared with published data reported in different literatur...... values of these minor fruits would make awareness among the people for their mass consumption for healthy life and to grow more minor fruit trees from extinction in order to maintain biodiversity....

  6. Results from occultations by minor planets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, G.E.

    1982-01-01

    Since the minor planets are believed to consist of primordial matter dating from the time of the formation of the solar system there is great interest in determining their composition. It is therefore necessary to calculate their densities, for which we need accurate masses and sizes. On the rare occasions when a minor planet occults a star, timed observations of the event from a number of observing sites enable an accurate size of the minor planet to be determined. (Auth.)

  7. Behavior changes after minor emergency procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodzinski, Holly; Iyer, Srikant

    2013-10-01

    Procedures are common in pediatric emergency departments and frequently cause distress from pain and/or anxiety. The objective of this study was to describe the incidence, types, and magnitude of long-term behavior changes after procedures in the emergency setting. This is a descriptive pilot study to determine if children display negative behavioral changes after a minor emergency department procedure (abscess drainage or laceration repair). Behavior change was measured at 1 week by telephone follow-up using the 27-item Post Hospitalization Behavior Questionnaire, a well-validated instrument that measures behavior changes across 6 categories: general anxiety, separation anxiety, anxiety about sleep, eating disturbances, aggression toward authority, and apathy/withdrawal. Significant behavior change was defined as 5 or more negative behavior changes on the 27-item questionnaire. Twenty percent of children who underwent abscess drainage (n = 30) and 20% who underwent laceration repair (n = 30) displayed significant negative behavior change at 1 week. Children who displayed significant negative behavior change tended to be younger (3.6 vs 5.9 years) and trended toward being more likely to have received anxiolysis or sedation (16.7% vs 8.3%). Separation anxiety, sleep difficulties, and aggression toward authority were the most common behavior changes. In this pilot study, a significant percentage of children undergoing common emergency procedures exhibited an appreciable burden of negative behavior change at 1 week; these results demonstrate the need for further rigorous investigation of predictors of these changes and interventions, which can ameliorate these changes.

  8. Frequency of depression and anxiety among patients with chronic sciatica; unscreened and undiagnosed cases may represent an iceberg phenomenon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atif, K.; Khan, H.U.

    2017-01-01

    To calculate frequency and grades of undocumented anxiety and depression in patients having unilateral sciatica due to single prolapsed lumbar inter-vertebral disc (PLIVD). Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Combined Military Hospital Lahore, from Mar 2013 to Jun 2014. Material and Methods: Cross-sectional study conducted at Combined Military Hospital Lahore, from March 2013 to Jun 2014, with non-probability consecutive sampling. Cases were taken from neurosurgery department, having sciatica due to single PLIVD. Controls were selected from healthy personnel with neither any current major/minor ailment nor any diagnosed mental or physical health issue. First hundred individuals meeting the inclusion and exclusion criteria were enrolled as controls and cases (100 each). Independent variables were multiple demographic factors; dependent variables were grades of anxiety and depression. Standardized Beck Anxiety Inventory-Udru (BAI-U) and Beck Depression Inventory-Urdu (BDI-U) were selected. Authors assisted the subjects to fill inventories. Statistical analysis was done via descriptive statistics (SPSS-15), data expressed in frequencies, percentages and mean +- SD (standard deviation), cross-tabulation done via chi-square; p-value <0.05 was considered as significant. Results: Out of 200 subjects, frequencies of males and females were 72.0% and 28.0% respectively; mean age 39.15 +- 15.001 years, education grades 9.27 +- 5.87 and income/month 43510.00 +- 53305.32 PKR. Among cases, higher frequencies of anxiety (84%) and depression (55%) were found as compared to controls (anxiety 24%, depression 8%). Anxiety (p-0.03) was more significant than depression (p-0.131); while severe anxiety, severe depression and suicidal ideation were present in 27.0%, 19.0% and 4% respectively. Females were more prone to have anxiety (p-0.003); patients aged 25-60 years had significant depression (p-0.02). Conclusion: Considerable number of patients with

  9. Minority Serving Institutions Reporting System Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The database will be used to track SSA's contributions to Minority Serving Institutions such as Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU), Tribal Colleges...

  10. Quetiapine monotherapy for bipolar depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael E Thase

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Michael E ThaseDepartments of Psychiatry, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA; the Philadelphia Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Philadelphia, PA, USA; and the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA, USAAbstract: Bipolar depression is more common, disabling, and difficult-to-treat than the manic and hypomanic phases that define bipolar disorder. Unlike the treatment of so-called “unipolar” depressions, antidepressants generally are not indicated as monotherapies for bipolar depressions and recent studies suggest that - even when used in combination with traditional mood stabilizers – antidepressants may have questionable value for bipolar depression. The current practice is that mood stabilizers are initiated first as monotherapies; however, the antidepressant efficacy of lithium and valproate is modest at best. Within this context the role of atypical antipsychotics is being evaluated. The combination of olanzapine and the antidepressant fluoxetine was the first treatment to receive regulatory approval in the US specifically for bipolar I depression. Quetiapine was the second medication to be approved for this indication, largely as the result of two pivotal trials known by the acronyms of BOLDER (BipOLar DEpRession I and II. Both studies demonstrated that two doses of quetiapine (300 mg and 600 mg given once daily at bedtime were significantly more effective than placebo, with no increased risk of patients switching into mania. Pooling the two studies, quetiapine was effective for both bipolar I and bipolar II depressions and for patients with (and without a history of rapid cycling. The two doses were comparably effective in both studies. Although the efficacy of quetiapine monotherapy has been established, much additional research is necessary. Further studies are needed to more fully investigate dose-response relationships and comparing quetiapine monotherapy to other mood stabilizers

  11. Phytotoxicity of silver nanoparticles to Lemna minor L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gubbins, Eva J. [Department of Geography and Environmental Science, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Batty, Lesley C., E-mail: l.c.batty@bham.ac.uk [Department of Geography and Environmental Science, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Lead, Jamie R. [Department of Geography and Environmental Science, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2TT (United Kingdom)

    2011-06-15

    The use of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in commercial products has increased significantly in recent years. Although there has been some attempt to determine the toxic effects of AgNPs, there is little information on aquatic plants which have a vital role in ecosystems. This study reports the use of Lemna minor L. clone St to investigate the phytotoxicity of AgNPs under modified OECD test conditions. AgNPs were synthesised, characterised and subsequently presented to the L. minor. Results showed that inhibition of plant growth was evident after exposure to small ({approx}20 nm) and larger ({approx}100 nm) AgNPs at low concentrations (5 {mu}g L{sup -1}) and this effect became more acute with a longer exposure time. There was a linear dose-response relationship after 14 d exposure. Using predicted environmental concentrations for wastewaters it was found that AgNPs may pose a significant potential risk to the environment. - Highlights: > Silver nanoparticles are toxic to Lemna minor at concentrations of 5 {mu}g L{sup -1}. > The effect of silver nanoparticles varies with size and concentration. > Standard toxicity tests are not appropriate for application to NPs. > Silver nanoparticles pose a potential environmental risk based on modelled environmental concentrations. - Silver nanoparticles are toxic to Lemna minor at low concentrations and constitute a significant environmental risk.

  12. Phytotoxicity of silver nanoparticles to Lemna minor L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gubbins, Eva J.; Batty, Lesley C.; Lead, Jamie R.

    2011-01-01

    The use of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in commercial products has increased significantly in recent years. Although there has been some attempt to determine the toxic effects of AgNPs, there is little information on aquatic plants which have a vital role in ecosystems. This study reports the use of Lemna minor L. clone St to investigate the phytotoxicity of AgNPs under modified OECD test conditions. AgNPs were synthesised, characterised and subsequently presented to the L. minor. Results showed that inhibition of plant growth was evident after exposure to small (∼20 nm) and larger (∼100 nm) AgNPs at low concentrations (5 μg L -1 ) and this effect became more acute with a longer exposure time. There was a linear dose-response relationship after 14 d exposure. Using predicted environmental concentrations for wastewaters it was found that AgNPs may pose a significant potential risk to the environment. - Highlights: → Silver nanoparticles are toxic to Lemna minor at concentrations of 5 μg L -1 . → The effect of silver nanoparticles varies with size and concentration. → Standard toxicity tests are not appropriate for application to NPs. → Silver nanoparticles pose a potential environmental risk based on modelled environmental concentrations. - Silver nanoparticles are toxic to Lemna minor at low concentrations and constitute a significant environmental risk.

  13. Major events and minor episodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amaldi, U.

    2014-01-01

    Bruno Pontecorvo was a freshly graduated twenty one years old physicist when he joined, in the summer of 1934, the research group led by Enrico Fermi. In October the Panisperna boys would make their most important discovery – radioactivity induced by slow neutrons – and shortly thereafter would be parted by personal and historical events. This paper describes some episodes of those early years and of later periods, sketching a portrait of the team: starting from the extraordinary human and scientific experience of via Panisperna, up to the patent negotiations in USA, to which Pontecorvo’s flight to URSS put an end with unexpected consequences; getting to his first return in Italy, allowed by the sovietic government in 1978, on the occasion of the conference celebrating Edoardo Amaldi’s 70. anniversary. That was the first of several encounters of the author of this paper with Bruno Pontecorvo, which are here briefly recounted, as minor episodes giving a personal perspective on the man.

  14. Implementation and evaluation of a depression care model for homebound elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden-Baer, Rose; McConnell, Eleanor; Rosati, Robert J; Rosenfeld, Peri; Edison, Ilaina

    2013-01-01

    Depression affects 14% to 46% of homebound elderly and is costly and disabling. Home health agencies face significant challenges delivering effective depression care. In response, an evidence-based depression care model was developed in a home health agency. Twelve-month program evaluation data demonstrated a 2.99 mean reduction in depression scores (P Depression Scale and confirmed that a clinically effective, operationally feasible, and financially sustainable depression care model can be implemented in home health care.

  15. Bias in Peripheral Depression Biomarkers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carvalho, André F; Köhler, Cristiano A; Brunoni, André R

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To aid in the differentiation of individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD) from healthy controls, numerous peripheral biomarkers have been proposed. To date, no comprehensive evaluation of the existence of bias favoring the publication of significant results or inflating effect...

  16. Gender differences in depression severity and symptoms across depressive sub-types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Gordon; Fletcher, Kathryn; Paterson, Amelia; Anderson, Josephine; Hong, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Lifetime rates of depression are distinctly higher in women reflecting both real and artefactual influences. Most prevalence studies quantifying a female preponderance have examined severity-based diagnostic groups such as major depression or dysthymia. We examined gender differences across three depressive sub-type conditions using four differing measures to determine whether any gender differences emerge more from severity or symptom prevalence, reflect nuances of the particular measure, or whether depressive sub-type is influential. A large clinical sample was recruited. Patients completed two severity-weighted depression measures: the Depression in the Medically Ill 10 (DMI-10) and Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptoms-Self-Report (QIDS-SR) and two measures weighting symptoms and illness correlates of melancholic and non-melancholic depressive disorders - the Severity of Depressive Symptoms (SDS) and Sydney Melancholia Prototype Index (SMPI). Analyses were undertaken of three diagnostic groups comprising those with unipolar melancholic, unipolar non-melancholic and bipolar depressive conditions. Women in the two unipolar groups scored only marginally (and non-significantly) higher than men on the depression severity measures. Women in the bipolar depression group, did however, score significantly higher than men on depression severity. On measures weighted to assessing melancholic and non-melancholic symptoms, there were relatively few gender differences identified in the melancholic and non-melancholic sub-sets, while more gender differences were quantified in the bipolar sub-set. The symptoms most commonly and consistently differentiating by gender were those assessing appetite/weight change and psychomotor disturbance. Our analyses of several measures and the minimal differentiation of depressive symptoms and symptom severity argues against any female preponderance in unipolar depression being contributed to distinctly by these depression rating measures

  17. Attributional Style and Depression in Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnett, Peter A.

    2013-01-01

    Several etiologic theories have been proposed to explain depression in the general population. Studying these models and modifying them for use in the multiple sclerosis (MS) population may allow us to better understand depression in MS. According to the reformulated learned helplessness (LH) theory, individuals who attribute negative events to internal, stable, and global causes are more vulnerable to depression. This study differentiated attributional style that was or was not related to MS in 52 patients with MS to test the LH theory in this population and to determine possible differences between illness-related and non-illness-related attributions. Patients were administered measures of attributional style, daily stressors, disability, and depressive symptoms. Participants were more likely to list non-MS-related than MS-related causes of negative events on the Attributional Style Questionnaire (ASQ), and more-disabled participants listed significantly more MS-related causes than did less-disabled individuals. Non-MS-related attributional style correlated with stress and depressive symptoms, but MS-related attributional style did not correlate with disability or depressive symptoms. Stress mediated the effect of non-MS-related attributional style on depressive symptoms. These results suggest that, although attributional style appears to be an important construct in MS, it does not seem to be related directly to depressive symptoms; rather, it is related to more perceived stress, which in turn is related to increased depressive symptoms. PMID:24453767

  18. Depression after CABG: a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Kátya Veras Rodrigues Sampaio Nunes

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Depression during or shortly after hospitalization elevated two to three times the risk of mortality or nonfatal cardiac events, significantly increasing the morbidity and mortality of these patients. OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of revascularization on symptoms of depression in patients with coronary artery disease. METHODS: A prospective cohort study of 57 patients of both sexes undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting between June 2010 and June 2011. We used the SF-36 to assess quality of life, and the Beck Depression Inventory to detect depressive symptoms, applied preoperatively and six months. RESULTS: The prevalence of patients aged 60-69 years was 22 patients (38.60%, 39 men (68.42%, 26 described themselves as mixed race (45.61%, 16 literate (28.07 % and 30 married (52.63%. The beck depression inventory score demonstrated increased after revascularization: 15 patients mild (26.32% at time zero to 17 (29.82% after. And with moderate, seven patients (12.28% before and 10 (17.54% after. In the categories of individuals with decreased minimum degree of 32 (56.14% to 28 (49.12%, and severe of three (5.26% for two (3.51% patients. Association was observed between beck depression inventory, gender, age, lifestyle, comorbidities and quality of life. CONCLUSION: There was a high prevalence of elevated beck depression inventory scores, lowest scores of depressive symptoms among men and association between the improvement of quality of life scores and beck depression inventory.

  19. Marital Satisfaction and Depression as Predictors of Physical Health Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Robert L.; Aved, Barbara M.

    1978-01-01

    Results indicate correlation between physical health status and depression was greater for wives than husbands. For wives, marital satisfaction and depression were related through uncontrolled variance in physical health status. For husbands, significant relationship between marital satisfaction and depression remained when physical health was…

  20. Victims of Rape: Repeated Assessment of Depressive Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkeson, Beverly M.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Investigated depressive symptoms in rape victims (N=115) for one year following their assaults. Depressive symptoms were higher in victims than in controls. By four months postrape, depressive symptoms in the victim group had diminished, and the victims were no longer significantly different from the nonvictim control group. (Author)