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Sample records for significant metabolic activity

  1. Metabonomics-based analysis of Brachyspira pilosicoli's response to tiamulin reveals metabolic activity despite significant growth inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Roy, Caroline Ivanne; Passey, Jade Louise; Woodward, Martin John; La Ragione, Roberto Marcello; Claus, Sandrine Paule

    2017-06-01

    Pathogenic anaerobes Brachyspira spp. are responsible for an increasing number of Intestinal Spirochaetosis (IS) cases in livestock against which few approved treatments are available. Tiamulin is used to treat swine dysentery caused by Brachyspira spp. and recently has been used to handle avian intestinal spirochaetosis (AIS). The therapeutic dose used in chickens requires further evaluation since cases of bacterial resistance to tiamulin have been reported. In this study, we evaluated the impact of tiamulin at varying concentrations on the metabolism of B. pilosicoli using a 1 H-NMR-based metabonomics approach allowing the capture of the overall bacterial metabolic response to antibiotic treatment. Based on growth curve studies, tiamulin impacted bacterial growth even at very low concentration (0.008 μg/mL) although its metabolic activity was barely affected 72 h post exposure to antibiotic treatment. Only the highest dose of tiamulin tested (0.250 μg/mL) caused a major metabolic shift. Results showed that below this concentration, bacteria could maintain a normal metabolic trajectory despite significant growth inhibition by the antibiotic, which may contribute to disease reemergence post antibiotic treatment. Indeed, we confirmed that B. pilosicoli remained viable even after exposition to the highest antibiotic dose. This paper stresses the need to ensure new evaluation of bacterial viability post bacteriostatic exposure such as tiamulin to guarantee treatment efficacy and decrease antibiotic resistance development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Lycopene metabolism and its biological significance12345

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    The beneficial effects of a high intake of tomatoes and tomato products on the risk of certain chronic diseases have been presented in many epidemiologic studies, with the suggestion that lycopene (a major carotenoid in tomatoes) is a micronutrient with important health benefits. Within the past few years, we have gained greater knowledge of the metabolism of lycopene and the biological effects of lycopene derivatives. In particular, the characterization and study of β-carotene 9′,10′-oxygenase has shown that this enzyme can catalyze the excentric cleavage of both provitamin and non–provitamin A carotenoids to form apo-10′-carotenoids, including apo-10′-lycopenoids from lycopene. This raised an important question of whether the effect of lycopene on various cellular functions and signaling pathways is a result of the direct actions of intact lycopene or its derivatives. Several reports, including our own, support the notion that the biological activities of lycopene can be mediated by apo-10′-lycopenoids. More research is clearly needed to identify and characterize additional lycopene metabolites and their biological activities, which will potentially provide invaluable insights into the mechanisms underlying the effects of lycopene in humans. PMID:23053559

  3. Significance and challenges of stereoselectivity assessing methods in drug metabolism

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    Zhuowei Shen

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Stereoselectivity in drug metabolism can not only influence the pharmacological activities, tolerability, safety, and bioavailability of drugs directly, but also cause different kinds of drug–drug interactions. Thus, assessing stereoselectivity in drug metabolism is of great significance for pharmaceutical research and development (R&D and rational use in clinic. Although there are various methods available for assessing stereoselectivity in drug metabolism, many of them have shortcomings. The indirect method of chromatographic methods can only be applicable to specific samples with functional groups to be derivatized or form complex with a chiral selector, while the direct method achieved by chiral stationary phases (CSPs is expensive. As a detector of chromatographic methods, mass spectrometry (MS is highly sensitive and specific, whereas the matrix interference is still a challenge to overcome. In addition, the use of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR and immunoassay in chiral analysis are worth noting. This review presents several typical examples of drug stereoselective metabolism and provides a literature-based evaluation on current chiral analytical techniques to show the significance and challenges of stereoselectivity assessing methods in drug metabolism.

  4. Prokaryote metabolism activity

    OpenAIRE

    Biederman, Lori

    2017-01-01

    I wrote this activity to emphasize that prokaryotic organisms can carry out 6 different types of metabolisms (as presented in Freeman’s Biological Science textbook) and this contrasts to eukaryotes, which can only use 2 metabolism pathways (photoautotroph and heterotroph).    For in class materials I remove the  red box (upper right corner) and print slides 3-10, place them back-to-back and laminate them.  The students get a key (slide 2) and a two-sided organism sheet...

  5. Lipopolysaccharide significantly influences the hepatic triglyceride metabolism in growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhiqing; Liu, Weifeng; Huang, Yanping; Guo, Jun; Zhao, Ruqian; Yang, Xiaojing

    2015-06-30

    In the practical commercial pig farms, inflammation is a perennial problem, yet most of studies on inflammation are focused on immune response. Actually, inflammation can induce body metabolism disorder which will finally influence animals' growth. In this study, we investigated the effect of acute inflammation on the triglyceride (TG) metabolism in the liver of growing pigs and the possible underlying mechanisms. Twelve male growing pigs were randomly divided into two groups, a control group (received saline) and a LPS group (intramuscular injected with 15 μg/kg LPS). Six hours after LPS injection, the pigs were euthanized and sampled. Biochemical indexes, inflammation factors, lipid metabolism related parameters and mitochondrial function were evaluated. The relationship between glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and the key enzymes of de novo lipogenesis were also investigated by chromatin immunoprecipitation assay (ChIP). LPS induced a serious inflammation in the liver of growing pigs proved by liver morphologic changes, the up-regulated plasma cortisol, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) content and gene expression of inflammation related genes in liver. For de novo lipogenesis, LPS significantly decreased the gene expression of fatty acid synthase (FAS), Acetyl-CoA carboxylase-1 (ACC-1) and Stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD-1), and the protein expression of ACC-1 and SCD-1. For lipolysis, only the gene expression of adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) was decreased. LPS did nothing to the gene expression of hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) and the lipolytic enzymes activities. For β-oxidation, LPS significantly increased the protein expression of CPT-1α, but the gene expression of mitochondrial DNA-encoded genes and the activities of mitochondrial complex IV and V demonstrated no obviously changes. Furthermore, ChIP results showed that LPS significantly decreased the level of GR binding to ACC-1 promoter. LPS infection has a profound impact on hepatic TG metabolism

  6. Transcriptional and metabolic regulation of denitrification in Paracoccus denitrificans allows low but significant activity of nitrous oxide reductase under oxic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Zhi; Bakken, Lars R; Molstad, Lars; Frostegård, Åsa; Bergaust, Linda L

    2016-09-01

    Oxygen is known to repress denitrification at the transcriptional and metabolic levels. It has been a common notion that nitrous oxide reductase (N2 OR) is the most sensitive enzyme among the four N-oxide reductases involved in denitrification, potentially leading to increased N2 O production under suboxic or fluctuating oxygen conditions. We present detailed gas kinetics and transcription patterns from batch culture experiments with Paracoccus denitrificans, allowing in vivo estimation of e(-) -flow to O2 and N2 O under various O2 regimes. Transcription of nosZ took place concomitantly with that of narG under suboxic conditions, whereas transcription of nirS and norB was inhibited until O2 levels approached 0 μM in the liquid. Catalytically functional N2 OR was synthesized and active in aerobically raised cells transferred to vials with 7 vol% O2 in headspace, but N2 O reduction rates were 10 times higher when anaerobic pre-cultures were subjected to the same conditions. Upon oxygen exposure, there was an incomplete and transient inactivation of N2 OR that could be ascribed to its lower ability to compete for electrons compared with terminal oxidases. The demonstrated reduction of N2 O at high O2 partial pressure and low N2 O concentrations by a bacterium not known as a typical aerobic denitrifier may provide one clue to the understanding of why some soils appear to act as sinks rather than sources for atmospheric N2 O. © 2015 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Clinical significance of metabolic superscan in patients with hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotb, M.; Khalafallah, K.; Omar, W.; El-Maghraby, T.; Grace, G.

    2007-01-01

    Hyperthyroid patients commonly complain of generalized bony aches, which are frequently overlooked due to the more prominent symptoms of cardiovascular and nervous disturbances. Hyperthyroid patients are expected to have abnormal bone metabolism as part of the generalized hypermetabolic status. The aim of this study is to verify the presence of metabolic bone superscan in association with the hypermetabolic stats in various groups of hyperthyroidism. Secondly, to correlate these superscan features with the various laboratory results in hyperthyroid patients. Forty-five hyperthyroid patients confirmed by clinical and laboratory results were enrolled in this work. In all patients, a 99 m T c-pertechnetate thyroid uptake scan was acquired. On a different day, total body bone scan was acquired three hours post IV injection of 555-925 MBq of 99 m T c-MDP. Serum FT3, FT4, TSH, Ca ++ , alkaline phosphatase (AP) and parathyroid hormone (PTH) were monitored in all patients as markers of thyroid and bone metabolism. Ten cases with no thyroid diseases were included as a control group. Patients with thyroiditis or long history of antithyroid drugs for more than one year were excluded from the study. The patients were subdivided into three groups: Graves' disease (GD) (n = 30), toxic nodular goiter (TNG) (n = 10) and autonomous toxic adenoma (AT) (n = 5). The TSH for the whole group was significantly suppressed compared to the control group with higher suppression in the Graves' disease group than in the TNG or AT groups. 99m Tc-pertechnetate uptake values in the Graves' disease group were significantly higher than the TNG and AT groups (p + , AP and PTH between the Graves' and non-Graves' groups (p ≥ 0.05). Disturbances in bone metabolism are more prevalent in Graves' disease than in other types of hyperthyroidism. The addition of the bone scan to the diagnostic work up of patients with Graves' disease is a sensitive indicator for metabolic bone changes and could help in the

  8. The significance of liver in metabolism of plutonium 239

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Netchev, Christo.

    1977-01-01

    Plutonium 239 has an important toxicological significance and is widely used in the nuclear industry which makes the study of its metabolism in the organism appear of substantial interest. The role of the liver in the distribution of radionuclide and its barrier capabilities, determining to a certain extent the back transport of the isotope from the blood plasma into the gut is studied. The storage of Plutonium 239 in the organ and its reexcretion by way of the gull is quantitatively demonstrated. This question is related to the exact determination of the coefficient of absorption of the radioisotope in the digestive tract. The radionuclide is inserted into organism as PuCl 3 directly into vein jugularis and vein portae. The peculiarities of its distribution in the liver by the two ways of introduction as well as the essential differences in the radioactivity of the products of excretion by portal application are described. The mechanism of the storage of the radioisotope in the organ is explained to a great extent with its physical and chemical condition in the liver tissue. Plutonium 239 is found in the liver completely as a complex compound with the tissue proteins, the combining with globulines predominating. The dynamics of exchange of the radionuclide in the organ is determined mainly by its complex combination with the globulins. The part of nuclide connected with the other protein fractions of liver is not significant and hence they do not much influence kinetics in the organ

  9. Significant inhibitory impact of dibenzyl trisulfide and extracts of Petiveria alliacea on the activities of major drug-metabolizing enzymes in vitro: An assessment of the potential for medicinal plant-drug interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, J; Picking, D; Lamm, A; McKenzie, J; Hartley, S; Watson, C; Williams, L; Lowe, H; Delgoda, R

    2016-06-01

    Dibenzyl trisulfide (DTS) is the major active ingredient expressed in Petiveria alliacea L., a shrub widely used for a range of conditions, such as, arthritis, asthma and cancer. Given its use alone and concomitantly with prescription medicines, we undertook to investigate its impact on the activities of important drug metabolizing enzymes, the cytochromes P450 (CYP), a key family of enzymes involved in many adverse drug reactions. DTS and seven standardized extracts from the plant were assessed for their impact on the activities of CYPs 1A2, 2C19, 2C9, 2D6 and 3A4 on a fluorometric assay. DTS revealed significant impact against the activities of CYPs 1A2, 2C19 and 3A4 with IC50 values of 1.9, 4.0 and 3.2μM, respectively, which are equivalent to known standard inhibitors of these enzymes (furafylline, and tranylcypromine), and the most potent interaction with CYP1A2 displayed irreversible enzyme kinetics. The root extract, drawn with 96% ethanol (containing 2.4% DTS), displayed IC50 values of 5.6, 3.9 and 4.2μg/mL respectively, against the same isoforms, CYPs 1A2, 2C19 and 3A4. These investigations identify DTS as a valuable CYP inhibitor and P. alliacea as a candidate plant worthy of clinical trials to confirm the conclusions that extracts yielding high DTS may lead to clinically relevant drug interactions, whilst extracts yielding low levels of DTS, such as aqueous extracts, are unlikely to cause adverse herb-drug interactions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Pulmonary metabolism of foreign compounds: Its role in metabolic activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, G.M.

    1990-01-01

    The lung has the potential of metabolizing many foreign chemicals to a vast array of metabolites with different pharmacological and toxicological properties. Because many chemicals require metabolic activation in order to exert their toxicity, the cellular distribution of the drug-metabolizing enzymes in a heterogeneous tissue, such as the lung, and the balance of metabolic activation and deactivation pathways in any particular cell are key factors in determining the cellular specificity of many pulmonary toxins. Environmental factors such as air pollution, cigarette smoking, and diet markedly affect the pulmonary metabolism of some chemicals and, thereby, possibly affect their toxicity

  11. Basic mechanisms of iron metabolism regulation and their clinical significance

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    L. M. Meshсheryakova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is а composition of literature and experimental data of iron metabolism. There were studied the level of DMT-1, ferroportin, hepcidin at different stages of anemia and hemochromatosis. It is clear that the level of DMT-1 regulates by the hepcidin. Increaseing of the hepcidin concentration and decreasing DMT-1 level in patients with hemochromatosis explained good results of treatment.

  12. Basic mechanisms of iron metabolism regulation and their clinical significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Meshсheryakova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is а composition of literature and experimental data of iron metabolism. There were studied the level of DMT-1, ferroportin, hepcidin at different stages of anemia and hemochromatosis. It is clear that the level of DMT-1 regulates by the hepcidin. Increaseing of the hepcidin concentration and decreasing DMT-1 level in patients with hemochromatosis explained good results of treatment.

  13. Causes and significance of variation in mammalian basal metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raichlen, David A; Gordon, Adam D; Muchlinski, Magdalena N; Snodgrass, J Josh

    2010-02-01

    Mammalian basal metabolic rates (BMR) increase with body mass, whichs explains approximately 95% of the variation in BMR. However, at a given mass, there remains a large amount of variation in BMR. While many researchers suggest that the overall scaling of BMR with body mass is due to physiological constraints, variation at a given body mass may provide clues as to how selection acts on BMR. Here, we examine this variation in BMR in a broad sample of mammals and we test the hypothesis that, across mammals, body composition explains differences in BMR at a given body mass. Variation in BMR is strongly correlated with variation in muscle mass, and both of these variables are correlated with latitude and ambient temperature. These results suggest that selection alters BMR in response to thermoregulatory pressures, and that selection uses muscle mass as a means to generate this variation.

  14. Sedentary activity associated with metabolic syndrome independent of physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bankoski, Andrea; Harris, Tamara B; McClain, James J

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the association between objectively measured sedentary activity and metabolic syndrome among older adults.......This study examined the association between objectively measured sedentary activity and metabolic syndrome among older adults....

  15. Sorafenib metabolism is significantly altered in the liver tumor tissue of hepatocellular carcinoma patient.

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    Ling Ye

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sorafenib, the drug used as first line treatment for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC, is metabolized by cytochrome P450 (CYP 3A4-mediated oxidation and uridine diphosphate glucuronosyl transferase (UGT 1A9-mediated glucuronidation. Liver diseases are associated with reduced CYP and UGT activities, which can considerably affect drug metabolism, leading to drug toxicity. Thus, understanding the metabolism of therapeutic compounds in patients with liver diseases is necessary. However, the metabolism characteristic of sorafenib has not been systematically determined in HCC patients. METHODS: Sorafenib metabolism was tested in the pooled and individual tumor hepatic microsomes (THLMs and adjacent normal hepatic microsomes (NHLMs of HCC patients (n = 18. Commercial hepatic microsomes (CHLMs were used as a control. In addition, CYP3A4 and UGT1A9 protein expression in different tissues were measured by Western blotting. RESULTS: The mean rates of oxidation and glucuronidation of sorafenib were significantly decreased in the pooled THLMs compared with those in NHLMs and CHLMs. The maximal velocity (Vmax of sorafenib oxidation and glucuronidation were approximately 25-fold and 2-fold decreased in the pooled THLMs, respectively, with unchanged Km values. The oxidation of sorafenib in individual THLMs sample was significantly decreased (ranging from 7 to 67-fold than that in corresponding NHLMs sample. The reduction of glucuronidation in THLMs was observed in 15 out of 18 patients' samples. Additionally, the level of CYP3A4 and UGT1A9 expression were both notably decreased in the pooled THLMs. CONCLUSIONS: Sorafenib metabolism was remarkably decreased in THLMs. This result was associated with the down regulation of the protein expression of CYP3A4 and UGT1A9.

  16. VISCOSITY DICTATES METABOLIC ACTIVITY of Vibrio ruber

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    Maja eBoric

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about metabolic activity of bacteria, when viscosity of their environment changes. In this work, bacterial metabolic activity in media with viscosity ranging from 0.8 to 29.4 mPas was studied. Viscosities up to 2.4 mPas did not affect metabolic activity of Vibrio ruber. On the other hand, at 29.4 mPas respiration rate and total dehydrogenase activity increased 8 and 4-fold, respectively. The activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase increased up to 13-fold at higher viscosities. However, intensified metabolic activity did not result in faster growth rate. Increased viscosity delayed the onset as well as the duration of biosynthesis of prodigiosin. As an adaptation to viscous environment V. ruber increased metabolic flux through the pentose phosphate pathway and reduced synthesis of a secondary metabolite. In addition, V. ruber was able to modify the viscosity of its environment.

  17. Metabolic assessments during extra-vehicular activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osipov, Yu. Yu.; Spichkov, A. N.; Filipenkov, S. N.

    Extra-vehicular activity (EVA) has a significant role during extended space flights. It demonstrates that humans can survive and perform useful work outside the Orbital Space Stations (OSS) while wearing protective space suits (SS). When the International Space Station 'Alpha'(ISSA) is fully operational, EVA assembly, installation, maintenance and repair operations will become an everyday repetitive work activity in space. It needs new ergonomic evaluation of the work/rest schedule for an increasing of the labor amount per EVA hour. The metabolism assessment is a helpful method to control the productivity of the EVA astronaut and to optimize the work/rest regime. Three following methods were used in Russia to estimate real-time metabolic rates during EVA: 1. Oxygen consumption, computed from the pressure drop in a high pressure bottle per unit time (with actual thermodynamic oxygen properties under high pressure and oxygen leakage taken into account). 2. Carbon dioxide production, computed from CO 2 concentration at the contaminant control cartridge and gas flow rate in the life support subsystem closed loop (nominal mode) or gas leakage in the SS open loop (emergency mode). 3. Heat removal, computed from the difference between the temperatures of coolant water or gas and its flow rate in a unit of time (with assumed humidity and wet oxygen state taken into account). Comparison of heat removal values with metabolic rates enables us to determine the thermal balance during an operative medical control of EVA at "Salyut-6", "Salyut-7" and "Mir" OSS. Complex analysis of metabolism, body temperature and heat rate supports a differential diagnosis between emotional and thermal components of stress during EVA. It gives a prognosis of human homeostasis during EVA. Available information has been acquired into an EVA data base which is an effective tool for ergonomical optimization.

  18. Volunteering as Students significant social activities

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    I. A. Zaitseva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the involvement of students in volunteer activities, examines the organization of students volunteer activities and volunteer projects realization at the university. The potential of volunteerism as an effective mechanism for addressing the urgent social problems is revealed.Theauthorstudiesexperience of volunteer services organization the I.A. Bunin State University in Yelets.

  19. Industry as a metabolic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, B

    1992-02-01

    The concept of "industrial economic metabolism" can provide a bridge to better understanding between environmentalists and industry. In nature each individual or species reacts to natural stimuli, competing with others for resources, extending its domain until it loses comparative advantage and comes to equilibrium with an adjacent competitor. Those species that succeed over time flourish; those that do not, diminish or disappear. Nature's rule book has no moral or ethical ingredient beyond self-interest. Corporate metabolisms are remarkably similar to those of nature. They too react to stimuli, collect and use resources, and grow or perish based on how effectively they compete. Corporate management recognizes and responds naturally and efficiently to cost and price signals. Through them it selects resources and converts them into useful products. The efficiency with which this is done is measured by profit, the lifeblood of the corporation and its means of growth. Profit thus provides a discipline on corporate behavior, encouraging efficient performers, and, by its absence, weeding out others. Unfettered by influences other than economics, the path to corporate success is unlikely to be a compassionate one. The dilemma of the manager is that to do what is socially "right" often conflicts with what must be done to survive and prosper. Fortunately, corporations' behavior can be altered by society when their purely economic role comes into conflict with other human values. The environment and the economy are not separate systems but intertwined to form a complex natural and social setting. The human-designed economic system depends on natural resource inputs, and in turn its metabolic wastes can overload the ecological system, threatening the long-term survivability of both. Increasing concern for the environment now gives the farsighted manager new latitude. There are competitive benefits in some pollution prevention. But there are not sufficiently strong forces to

  20. AMPK Activation Affects Glutamate Metabolism in Astrocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voss, Caroline Marie; Pajęcka, Kamilla; Stridh, Malin H

    2015-01-01

    acid (TCA) cycle was studied using high-performance liquid chromatography analysis supplemented with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry technology. It was found that AMPK activation had profound effects on the pathways involved in glutamate metabolism since the entrance of the glutamate carbon...... on glutamate metabolism in astrocytes was studied using primary cultures of these cells from mouse cerebral cortex during incubation in media containing 2.5 mM glucose and 100 µM [U-(13)C]glutamate. The metabolism of glutamate including a detailed analysis of its metabolic pathways involving the tricarboxylic...... skeleton into the TCA cycle was reduced. On the other hand, glutamate uptake into the astrocytes as well as its conversion to glutamine catalyzed by glutamine synthetase was not affected by AMPK activation. Interestingly, synthesis and release of citrate, which are hallmarks of astrocytic function, were...

  1. Metabolic rates are significantly lower in abyssal Holothuroidea than in shallow-water Holothuroidea

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oevelen, Dick

    2018-01-01

    Recent analyses of metabolic rates in fishes, echinoderms, crustaceans and cephalopods have concluded that bathymetric declines in temperature- and mass-normalized metabolic rate do not result from resource-limitation (e.g. oxygen or food/chemical energy), decreasing temperature or increasing hydrostatic pressure. Instead, based on contrasting bathymetric patterns reported in the metabolic rates of visual and non-visual taxa, declining metabolic rate with depth is proposed to result from relaxation of selection for high locomotory capacity in visual predators as light diminishes. Here, we present metabolic rates of Holothuroidea, a non-visual benthic and benthopelagic echinoderm class, determined in situ at abyssal depths (greater than 4000 m depth). Mean temperature- and mass-normalized metabolic rate did not differ significantly between shallow-water (less than 200 m depth) and bathyal (200–4000 m depth) holothurians, but was significantly lower in abyssal (greater than 4000 m depth) holothurians than in shallow-water holothurians. These results support the dominance of the visual interactions hypothesis at bathyal depths, but indicate that ecological or evolutionary pressures other than biotic visual interactions contribute to bathymetric variation in holothurian metabolic rates. Multiple nonlinear regression assuming power or exponential models indicates that in situ hydrostatic pressure and/or food/chemical energy availability are responsible for variation in holothurian metabolic rates. Consequently, these results have implications for modelling deep-sea energetics and processes. PMID:29892403

  2. Significance of family and peer support for metabolic control of type 1 diabetes in adolescents

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    Đurović Dušanka

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper was to explore the significance of family and peer support for metabolic control of Type 1 diabetes in adolescents. Metabolic control refers to maintenance of acceptable blood glucose level thus diminishing risk for chronic complications. It involves regular insulin shots, measuring blood glucose and keeping diary, as the daily based self-control. Regular visits to endocrinologist and screening for chronic complications are compulsory. The sample comprised 79 adolescents age 10-17 years with diagnose of Type 1 diabetes and properly treated at the institute. The sample was divided in two groups - with good (N=40 and poor (N=39 metabolic control. A criterium for good metabolic control was glycosilated hemoglobin less than 7,6%. Social support was measured by Social Support Scale consisting of two parts - the first for estimation of registered family support (based upon modified Perceived Social Support Family Scale and the second for estimation of registered friends' support (modified Perceived Social Support Friend Scale. Adolescents with good metabolic control referred statistically more significant social support in the family, unlike the group with poor metabolic control. Considering peer social support, there was no statistically significant difference. Positive family history for diabetes also appeared to be directly linked to good metabolic control.

  3. Regulation of Metabolic Activity by p53

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    Jessica Flöter

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic reprogramming in cancer cells is controlled by the activation of multiple oncogenic signalling pathways in order to promote macromolecule biosynthesis during rapid proliferation. Cancer cells also need to adapt their metabolism to survive and multiply under the metabolically compromised conditions provided by the tumour microenvironment. The tumour suppressor p53 interacts with the metabolic network at multiple nodes, mostly to reduce anabolic metabolism and promote preservation of cellular energy under conditions of nutrient restriction. Inactivation of this tumour suppressor by deletion or mutation is a frequent event in human cancer. While loss of p53 function lifts an important barrier to cancer development by deleting cell cycle and apoptosis checkpoints, it also removes a crucial regulatory mechanism and can render cancer cells highly sensitive to metabolic perturbation. In this review, we will summarise the major concepts of metabolic regulation by p53 and explore how this knowledge can be used to selectively target p53 deficient cancer cells in the context of the tumour microenvironment.

  4. The potential significance of microbial activity in radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCabe, A.M.

    1987-12-01

    The aim of this report is to assess the potential significance of microbial activity in radioactive waste disposal. It outlines the major factors which need to be considered in order to evaluate the importance of microbiological action. These include water and nutritional sources (particularly carbon) hostile conditions (particularly the effects of radiation and pH), the establishment of pH micro-environments and the degradative effect of microbial metabolic by-products on the disposed waste forms. Before an active microbial population can develop there are certain basic requirements for life. These are outlined and the possibility of colonisation occurring within the chemical, radiological and nutritional constraints of a repository are considered. Once colonisation is assumed, the effect of microbial activity is discussed under five headings, i.e. (i) direct attack, (ii) physical disruption (which includes consideration of fissuring processes and void formation), (iii) gas generation (which may be of particular importance), (iv) radionuclide uptake and finally (v) alteration of groundwater chemistry. Particular attention is paid to the possibility of environments becoming established both within the waste form itself (allowing microbes to attack from the inside of the repository outward) or attack on the encapsulant materials (microbes attacking from the outside inward). (author)

  5. Metabolic benefits of physical activity

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    Špela Volčanšek

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity is the most beneficial intervention in prevention and treatment of chronic diseases. Life style, which has become mostly sedentary, leads to growing incidence in obesity, what could cause the first so far reduction in life expectancy in developed countries.Physical activity reduces the chronic low-grade inflammation, which plays an important role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and certain types of cancer. Regular physical activity exerts two anti-inflammatory effects: reduction of visceral fat, which produces the majority of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and production of myokines. It has been proposed that cytokines and other peptides that are produced by muscle fibers should be classified as myokines that exert autocrine, paracrine and endocrine effects. Myokines induce muscle hypertrophy and myogenesis, stimulate fat oxidation, improve insulin sensitivity and have an anti-inflammatory effect.  Therefore, skeletal muscle has been identified as a secretory organ and this provides the basis for understanding how muscles communicate with other organs, such as adipose tissue, liver, pancreas, gut, bones and brain. Physical inactivity leads to an altered myokine profile, associating sedentary life style with some chronic diseases.Physical activity is recommended as a tool for weight management and prevention of weight gain, for weight loss and for prevention of weight regain. High quality studies have confirmed the important impact of exercise on improving blood glucose control in diabetic patients, and on preventing or delaying the onset of type 2 diabetes in predisposed populations. Prescribing specific exercise tailored to individual's needs is an intervention strategy for health improvement. Physical fitness counteracts the detrimental effects of obesity reducing morbidity and mortality.

  6. Significance of Metabolic Super scan in Patients With Locally Advanced Bladder Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotb, M.H.; El-Kholy, E.; Omar, W.; El-Refaei, S.; Taher, A.N.; El-Marakby, H.

    2011-01-01

    was more frequent in patients with SCC (P<0.001). Out of 401 documented bone lesions, 302 proved to be metabolic related, 97 metastatic and 2 non-metabolic benign bone lesions. The sensitivity and specificity of bone scanning in documentation of bone lesions were 100% and 91%, respectively. Serum creatinine level for metabolic group was significantly elevated (3.91 ± 1.76 compared to 1.16 ± 0.47 and 1.07 ± 0.5) for normal and metastatic groups, respectively (P<0.001). Back pressure changes were significantly higher in metabolic group (90%) compared to 20% and 17% for normal and metastatic groups, respectively (P<0.001). Regarding the mortality rate, no difference was found between the metabolic and normal groups (15.7% and 15.2%, respectively) while patients in the metabolic group showed a much higher incidence of morbidity as compared to the normal group. It could be concluded that the disturbance in bone metabolism is strongly evident in locally advanced bladder cancer patients with renal impairment. Metabolic bone changes seem to be higher in SCC patients as compared to TCC. MSS features are significantly better than bio markers in detection of metabolic changes. Integration of bone scan in the diagnostic work up of locally advanced bladder cancer is a simple reliable tool of dual benefit that may improve patient management through monitoring and differentiating between metabolic changes and skeletal metastases

  7. High-fat diet induces significant metabolic disorders in a mouse model of polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Hao; Jia, Xiao; Yu, Qiuxiao; Zhang, Chenglu; Qiao, Jie; Guan, Youfei; Kang, Jihong

    2014-11-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common female endocrinopathy associated with both reproductive and metabolic disorders. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is currently used to induce a PCOS mouse model. High-fat diet (HFD) has been shown to cause obesity and infertility in female mice. The possible effect of an HFD on the phenotype of DHEA-induced PCOS mice is unknown. The aim of the present study was to investigate both reproductive and metabolic features of DHEA-induced PCOS mice fed a normal chow or a 60% HFD. Prepubertal C57BL/6 mice (age 25 days) on the normal chow or an HFD were injected (s.c.) daily with the vehicle sesame oil or DHEA for 20 consecutive days. At the end of the experiment, both reproductive and metabolic characteristics were assessed. Our data show that an HFD did not affect the reproductive phenotype of DHEA-treated mice. The treatment of HFD, however, caused significant metabolic alterations in DHEA-treated mice, including obesity, glucose intolerance, dyslipidemia, and pronounced liver steatosis. These findings suggest that HFD induces distinct metabolic features in DHEA-induced PCOS mice. The combined DHEA and HFD treatment may thus serve as a means of studying the mechanisms involved in metabolic derangements of this syndrome, particularly in the high prevalence of hepatic steatosis in women with PCOS. © 2014 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  8. Natural Killer Cell Activity and Interleukin-12 in Metabolically Healthy versus Metabolically Unhealthy Overweight Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minjoo; Kim, Minkyung; Yoo, Hye Jin; Lee, Jong Ho

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the immune system is involved in the different metabolic circumstances in healthy and unhealthy overweight individuals. We examined the metabolic and immune characteristics of 117 overweight individuals. Subjects were classified as metabolically healthy overweight (MHO, n = 72) or metabolically unhealthy overweight (MUO, n = 45). The immune response was measured by circulating levels of natural killer (NK) cell activity and cytokines. Both groups were comparable with regards to age, sex distribution, smoking and drinking status, and body mass index. When compared to the MHO group, the MUO group showed higher systolic and diastolic blood pressure, serum levels of triglyceride, glucose, glucose-related markers, and lower levels of HDL cholesterol. Compared to the MHO group, the MUO group showed 39% lower interferon-γ levels (not significant) and 41% lower interleukin (IL)-12 levels (significant). The MUO group also showed lower NK cell activity at E:T ratios of 10:1, 5:1, 2.5:1, and 1.25:1 (all Ps < 0.05) than the MHO group. This study indicates that individuals displaying the MUO phenotype present an unfavorable immune system with lower NK cell activities under all assay conditions and lower serum levels of IL-12 than the activities and levels in similarly overweight MHO individuals. This result suggests that the immune system may be altered in overweight individuals who are at risk for overweight/obesity-related comorbidities. PMID:29238351

  9. Natural Killer Cell Activity and Interleukin-12 in Metabolically Healthy versus Metabolically Unhealthy Overweight Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minjoo Kim

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine whether the immune system is involved in the different metabolic circumstances in healthy and unhealthy overweight individuals. We examined the metabolic and immune characteristics of 117 overweight individuals. Subjects were classified as metabolically healthy overweight (MHO, n = 72 or metabolically unhealthy overweight (MUO, n = 45. The immune response was measured by circulating levels of natural killer (NK cell activity and cytokines. Both groups were comparable with regards to age, sex distribution, smoking and drinking status, and body mass index. When compared to the MHO group, the MUO group showed higher systolic and diastolic blood pressure, serum levels of triglyceride, glucose, glucose-related markers, and lower levels of HDL cholesterol. Compared to the MHO group, the MUO group showed 39% lower interferon-γ levels (not significant and 41% lower interleukin (IL-12 levels (significant. The MUO group also showed lower NK cell activity at E:T ratios of 10:1, 5:1, 2.5:1, and 1.25:1 (all Ps < 0.05 than the MHO group. This study indicates that individuals displaying the MUO phenotype present an unfavorable immune system with lower NK cell activities under all assay conditions and lower serum levels of IL-12 than the activities and levels in similarly overweight MHO individuals. This result suggests that the immune system may be altered in overweight individuals who are at risk for overweight/obesity-related comorbidities.

  10. Significance of Tl-201 redistribution on infarcted region assessed by coronary sinus flow and lactate metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Takao; Yamabe, Hiroshi; Suda, Kenichirou; Ohnishi, Masataka; Shiotani, Hideyuki; Kurimoto, Yasuyuki; Kobayashi, Katsuya; Maeda, Kazumi; Fukuzaki, Hisashi

    1987-01-01

    To clarify the significance of Tl-201 redistribution on infarcted regions, coronary sinus and great cardiac vein flow response and lactate metabolism assessed by Webster catheter on 14 infarcted regions after dipyridamole administration were compared with Tl-201 redistribution phenomenon. The regional coronary flow response and lactate extraction ratio in 11 regions with Tl-201 redistribution were lower than those in 3 regions without Tl-201 redistribution. Only 5 regions in 11 with Tl-201 redistribution showed lactate production. The coronary flow response in 5 regions with lactate production was not different from those in 6 without lactate production (1.16 ± 0.89 vs. 1.47 ± 0.67; n.s.). The degree of Tl-201 redistribution assessed by relative activity was not different between regions with and without lactate production. The left ventricular end-diastolic pressure elevated in 5 regions with lactate production (17.8 ± 5.4 mmHg to 29.6 ± 4.9 mmHg; p < 0.05), but didn't in 6 regions without lactate production. Five regions with lactate production contained 4 hypokinetic regions, on the other hand 6 regions without lactate production contained only 3 hypokinetic regions. In conclusion, Tl-201 redistribution on infarcted region revealed not only ischemia but also decreased coronary flow response without lactate production and/or left ventricular dysfunction. (author)

  11. Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are More Common in People With Type 1 Diabetes Metabolic Syndrome Your Child's Weight Healthy Eating Endocrine System Blood Test: Basic Metabolic Panel (BMP) Activity: Endocrine System Growth Disorders Diabetes Center Thyroid Disorders Your Endocrine System Movie: Endocrine ...

  12. Metabolic disposition and biological significance of simple phenols of dietary origin: hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Morató, Jose; Boronat, Anna; Kotronoulas, Aristotelis; Pujadas, Mitona; Pastor, Antoni; Olesti, Eulalia; Pérez-Mañá, Clara; Khymenets, Olha; Fitó, Montserrat; Farré, Magí; de la Torre, Rafael

    2016-05-01

    Hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol are dietary phenolic compounds present in virgin olive oil and wine. Both compounds are also endogenously synthesized in our body as byproducts of dopamine and tyramine metabolisms, respectively. Over the last decades, research into hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol has experienced an increasing interest due to the role that these compounds may play in the prevention of certain pathologies (e.g. cardiovascular, metabolic, neurodegenerative diseases and cancer). The translation of promising in vitro and in vivo biological effects from preclinical studies to the context of human disease prevention initially depends on whether the dose ingested becomes available at the site of action. In this regard, information regarding the bioavailability and metabolic disposition of hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol is of most importance to evaluate the impact they may have on human health. In this review, we discuss and summarize the state of the art of the scientific evidence regarding the processes of absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of both hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol. We also examine the impact of these compounds and their metabolites on biological activity in terms of beneficial health effects. Finally, we evaluate the different analytical approaches that have been developed to measure the plasma and urinary levels of hydroxytyrosol, tyrosol and their metabolites.

  13. Effects of diabetes on brain metabolism - is brain glycogen a significant player?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sickmann, Helle M; Waagepetersen, Helle S.

    2015-01-01

    Brain glycogen, being an intracellular glucose reservoir, contributes to maintain energy and neurotransmitter homeostasis under physiological as well as pathological conditions. Under conditions with a disturbance in systemic glucose metabolism such as in diabetes, the supply of glucose to the br......Brain glycogen, being an intracellular glucose reservoir, contributes to maintain energy and neurotransmitter homeostasis under physiological as well as pathological conditions. Under conditions with a disturbance in systemic glucose metabolism such as in diabetes, the supply of glucose...... to the brain may be affected and have important impacts on brain metabolism and neurotransmission. This also implies that brain glycogen may serve an essential role in the diabetic state to sustain appropriate brain function. There are two main types of diabetes; type 1 and type 2 diabetes and both types may...... understanding of how brain energy and neurotransmitter metabolism is affected in diabetes. There will be a particular focus on the role of brain glycogen to support glycolytic and TCA cycle activity as well as glutamate-glutamine cycle in type 1 and type 2 diabetes....

  14. Clinical significance of biochemical markers of bone metabolism in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Bashan; Zeng Longhong; Lai Fudi

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the clinical significance of changes of levels of biochemical markers of bone metabolism in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods: Serum osteocalcin (BGP, with RIA), Ca alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and random specimen urinary deoxypyridinoline (DPD, with chemiluminescence assay), Ca, creatinine levels were measured in 40 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and 31 controls. Results: Serum BGP levels in diabetic patients were much lower than those in the controls (P<0.05); while urinary DPD/Cr ratio and Ca/Cr ratio were significantly higher in the patients than those in the controls (P<0.05, P<0.05). Serum Ca and ALP levels were about the same in the two groups. Conclusion: Loss of bone mass in diabetic patients are due to both decreased bone formation and increased bone resorption. Determination of the levels of the biochemical markers of bone metabolism (BGP, DPD......) could be applied for early detection of osteoporosis. (authors)

  15. Significantly increased risk of carotid atherosclerosis with arsenic exposure and polymorphisms in arsenic metabolism genes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsieh, Yi-Chen; Lien, Li-Ming; Chung, Wen-Ting; Hsieh, Fang-I; Hsieh, Pei-Fan; Wu, Meei-Maan; Tseng, Hung-Pin; Chiou, Hung-Yi; Chen, Chien-Jen

    2011-01-01

    Individual susceptibility to arsenic-induced carotid atherosclerosis might be associated with genetic variations in arsenic metabolism. The purpose of this study is to explore the interaction effect on risk of carotid atherosclerosis between arsenic exposure and risk genotypes of purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP), arsenic (+3) methyltransferase (As3MT), and glutathione S-transferase omega 1 (GSTO1) and omega 2 (GSTO2). A community-based case-control study was conducted in northeastern Taiwan to investigate the arsenic metabolic-related genetic susceptibility to carotid atherosclerosis. In total, 863 subjects, who had been genotyped and for whom the severity of carotid atherosclerosis had been determined, were included in the present study. Individual well water was collected and arsenic concentration determined using hydride generation combined with flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The result showed that a significant dose-response trend (P=0.04) of carotid atherosclerosis risk associated with increasing arsenic concentration. Non-significant association between genetic polymorphisms of PNP Gly51Ser, Pro57Pro, As3MT Met287Thr, GSTO1 Ala140Asp, and GSTO2 A-183G and the risk for development of carotid atherosclerosis were observed. However, the significant interaction effect on carotid atherosclerosis risk was found for arsenic exposure (>50 μg/l) and the haplotypes of PNP (p=0.0115). A marked elevated risk of carotid atherosclerosis was observed in subjects with arsenic exposure of >50 μg/l in drinking water and those who carried the PNP A-T haplotype and at least either of the As3MT risk polymorphism or GSTO risk haplotypes (OR, 6.43; 95% CI, 1.79-23.19). In conclusion, arsenic metabolic genes, PNP, As3MT, and GSTO, may exacerbate the formation of atherosclerosis in individuals with high levels of arsenic concentration in well water (>50 μg/l). - Highlights: →Arsenic metabolic genes might be associated with carotid atherosclerosis. → A case

  16. Significantly increased risk of carotid atherosclerosis with arsenic exposure and polymorphisms in arsenic metabolism genes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsieh, Yi-Chen [School of Public Health, College of Public Health and Nutrition, Taipei Medical University, 250 Wusing St., Taipei 11031, Taiwan (China); Lien, Li-Ming [Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); School of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Neurology, Shin Kong WHS Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chung, Wen-Ting [Department of Neurology, Wanfang Hospital, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Hsieh, Fang-I; Hsieh, Pei-Fan [School of Public Health, College of Public Health and Nutrition, Taipei Medical University, 250 Wusing St., Taipei 11031, Taiwan (China); Wu, Meei-Maan [School of Public Health, College of Public Health and Nutrition, Taipei Medical University, 250 Wusing St., Taipei 11031, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Basic Medicine, College of Medicine, Fu-Jen Catholic University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Tseng, Hung-Pin [Department of Neurology, Lotung Poh-Ai Hospital, I-Lan, Taiwan (China); Chiou, Hung-Yi, E-mail: hychiou@tmu.edu.tw [School of Public Health, College of Public Health and Nutrition, Taipei Medical University, 250 Wusing St., Taipei 11031, Taiwan (China); Chen, Chien-Jen [Genomics Research Center, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2011-08-15

    Individual susceptibility to arsenic-induced carotid atherosclerosis might be associated with genetic variations in arsenic metabolism. The purpose of this study is to explore the interaction effect on risk of carotid atherosclerosis between arsenic exposure and risk genotypes of purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP), arsenic (+3) methyltransferase (As3MT), and glutathione S-transferase omega 1 (GSTO1) and omega 2 (GSTO2). A community-based case-control study was conducted in northeastern Taiwan to investigate the arsenic metabolic-related genetic susceptibility to carotid atherosclerosis. In total, 863 subjects, who had been genotyped and for whom the severity of carotid atherosclerosis had been determined, were included in the present study. Individual well water was collected and arsenic concentration determined using hydride generation combined with flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The result showed that a significant dose-response trend (P=0.04) of carotid atherosclerosis risk associated with increasing arsenic concentration. Non-significant association between genetic polymorphisms of PNP Gly51Ser, Pro57Pro, As3MT Met287Thr, GSTO1 Ala140Asp, and GSTO2 A-183G and the risk for development of carotid atherosclerosis were observed. However, the significant interaction effect on carotid atherosclerosis risk was found for arsenic exposure (>50 {mu}g/l) and the haplotypes of PNP (p=0.0115). A marked elevated risk of carotid atherosclerosis was observed in subjects with arsenic exposure of >50 {mu}g/l in drinking water and those who carried the PNP A-T haplotype and at least either of the As3MT risk polymorphism or GSTO risk haplotypes (OR, 6.43; 95% CI, 1.79-23.19). In conclusion, arsenic metabolic genes, PNP, As3MT, and GSTO, may exacerbate the formation of atherosclerosis in individuals with high levels of arsenic concentration in well water (>50 {mu}g/l). - Highlights: {yields}Arsenic metabolic genes might be associated with carotid atherosclerosis. {yields

  17. Nucleons II: cryopreservation and metabolic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, R; Flores-Alonso, J C; Rodríguez-Hernández, H M; Merchant-Larios, H M; Delgado, N M

    2001-01-01

    The establishment of intracytoplasmatic sperm injection (ICSI) as a routine procedure in assisted fertilization has been used in the treatment of male infertility. The major technical problem that has arisen with the use of immotile sperm for ICSI has been differentiating between live and dead cells. Nucleons from human, pig, hamster, mouse, rat, and bull have been able to induce their chromatin decondensation by the action of heparin/GSH. Cryopreservation is deleterious to sperm function, killing more than 50% of the spermatozoa during the process. Nucleon cryostorage was performed at 5 and -5 degrees C and analyzed for total area (mu2), perimeter (mu), width (mu), and length (mu), using Metamorph Imaging System software. On the other hand, fluorescein diacetate (FDA) is hydrolyzed by intracellular estereases to produce fluorescein, which exhibits green fluorescence when excited by blue light. This fact is a striking result since the presence of this metabolic activity opens the possibility to select the nucleons for ICSI. In the present study, the authors decided to search for a suitable metabolic test, which might reflect the metabolism and viability of these chromatin structures. This is a simple cryostorage technique that after months of cryopreservation, allow the use of nucleons for ICSI with suitable fertilization and pregnancies rates.

  18. A non-traditional model of the metabolic syndrome: the adaptive significance of insulin resistance in fasting-adapted seals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorian S Houser

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Insulin resistance in modern society is perceived as a pathological consequence of excess energy consumption and reduced physical activity. Its presence in relation to the development of cardiovascular risk factors has been termed the metabolic syndrome, which produces increased mortality and morbidity and which is rapidly increasing in human populations. Ironically, insulin resistance likely evolved to assist animals during food shortages by increasing the availability of endogenous lipid for catabolism while protecting protein from use in gluconeogenesis and eventual oxidation. Some species that incorporate fasting as a predictable component of their life history demonstrate physiological traits similar to the metabolic syndrome during prolonged fasts. One such species is the northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris, which fasts from food and water for periods of up to three months. During this time, ~90% of the seals metabolic demands are met through fat oxidation and circulating non-esterified fatty acids are high (0.7-3.2 mM. All life history stages of elephant seal studied to date demonstrate insulin resistance and fasting hyperglycemia as well as variations in hormones and adipocytokines that reflect the metabolic syndrome to some degree. Elephant seals demonstrate some intriguing adaptations with the potential for medical advancement; for example, ketosis is negligible despite significant and prolonged fatty acid oxidation and investigation of this feature might provide insight into the treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis. The parallels to the metabolic syndrome are likely reflected to varying degrees in other marine mammals, most of which evolved on diets high in lipid and protein content but essentially devoid of carbohydrate. Utilization of these natural models of insulin resistance may further our understanding of the pathophysiology of the metabolic syndrome in humans and better assist the development of preventative measures

  19. A non-traditional model of the metabolic syndrome: the adaptive significance of insulin resistance in fasting-adapted seals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houser, Dorian S; Champagne, Cory D; Crocker, Daniel E

    2013-11-01

    Insulin resistance in modern society is perceived as a pathological consequence of excess energy consumption and reduced physical activity. Its presence in relation to the development of cardiovascular risk factors has been termed the metabolic syndrome, which produces increased mortality and morbidity and which is rapidly increasing in human populations. Ironically, insulin resistance likely evolved to assist animals during food shortages by increasing the availability of endogenous lipid for catabolism while protecting protein from use in gluconeogenesis and eventual oxidation. Some species that incorporate fasting as a predictable component of their life history demonstrate physiological traits similar to the metabolic syndrome during prolonged fasts. One such species is the northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris), which fasts from food and water for periods of up to 4 months. During this time, ∼90% of the seals metabolic demands are met through fat oxidation and circulating non-esterified fatty acids are high (0.7-3.2 mM). All life history stages of elephant seal studied to date demonstrate insulin resistance and fasting hyperglycemia as well as variations in hormones and adipocytokines that reflect the metabolic syndrome to some degree. Elephant seals demonstrate some intriguing adaptations with the potential for medical advancement; for example, ketosis is negligible despite significant and prolonged fatty acid oxidation and investigation of this feature might provide insight into the treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis. The parallels to the metabolic syndrome are likely reflected to varying degrees in other marine mammals, most of which evolved on diets high in lipid and protein content but essentially devoid of carbohydrate. Utilization of these natural models of insulin resistance may further our understanding of the pathophysiology of the metabolic syndrome in humans and better assist the development of preventative measures and therapies.

  20. The significance of adiponectin as a biomarker in metabolic syndrome and/or coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojanović, Sanja; Ilić, Marina Deijanin; Ilić, Stevan; Petrović, Dejan; Djukić, Svetlana

    2015-09-01

    BACKGROUND/AIM. Adiponectin exerts profound protective actions during insulin resistence or prediabetes progression towards more severe clinical entities such as metabolic syndrome and/or cardiovascular disease. Since hypoadiponectinaemia contributes to the pathophysiology of the metabolic syndrome and coronary artery disease the level of circulating adiponectin may be an early marker of cardiovascular events. The aim of this study was to determine the relationships between serum adiponectin levels and parameters of both insulin sensitivity and obesity in patients with the metabolic syndrome and/or coronary artery disease, as well as to assess predictive value of adiponectin serum levels as a biomarker of these entitetis. The study included 100 patients with metabolic syndrome and/or coronary artery disease with different degree of insulin resistance and healthy, normoglycemic individuals. The control group comprising healthy, normoglycemic individuals was used for comparison. Serum level of adiponectin, fasting glucose, fasting insulinemia Homeostasis Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) index and anthropometric parameters were determined in all the subjects. Adiponectin was measured by using the ultrasensitive ELISA method. Insulinemia was measured by the radioimmunoassay (RIA) method. The presence of glycemic disorders was assessed on the basis of oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Results. Adiponectin level was inversely correlated with age (ρ = -0.015), parameters of both obesity (R = 0.437;p insulin resistance (R = 0.374; p insulin resistance. Most importantly, a statistically significant rapid decrease ih adiponectin was in the prediabetic stages (p < 0.01). The predictor value of adiponectin was 1,356.32 ± 402.65 pg/mL. The obtained resultats suggest that adiponectin may be a useful marker in identification of individuals with risk of developing metabolic syndrome and coronary artery disease, as well as a predictor of prediabetes.

  1. The significance of adiponectin as a biomarker in metabolic syndrome and/or coronary artery disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Sanja

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction/Aim. Adiponectin exerts profound protective actions during insulin resistence or prediabetes progression towards more severe clinical entities such as metabolic syndrome and/or cardiovascular disease. Since hypoadiponectinaemia contributes to the pathophysiology of the metabolic syndrome and coronary artery disease the level of circulating adiponectin may be an early marker of cardiovascular events. The aim of this study was to determine the relationships between serum adiponectin levels and parameters of both insulin sensitivity and obesity in patients with the metabolic syndrome and/or coronary artery disease, as well as to assess predictive value of adiponectin serum levels as a biomarker of these entitetis. Methods. The study included 100 patients with metabolic syndrome and/or coronary artery disease with different degree of insulin resistance and healthy, normoglycemic individuals. The control group comprising healthy, normoglycemic individuals was used for comparison. Serum level of adiponectin, fasting glucose, fasting insulinemia Homeostasis Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMAIR index and anthropometric parameters were determined in all the subjects. Adiponectin was measured by using the ultrasensitive ELISA method. Insulinemia was measured by the radioimmunoassay (RIA method. The presence of glycemic disorders was assessed on the basis of oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT. Results. Adiponectin level was inversely correlated with age (ρ = - 0.015, parameters of both obesity (R = 0.437; p < 0.001 and insulin resistance (R = 0.374; p < 0.01. Decreasing in the level of adiponectin was strongly implicated in the development of insulin resistance. Most importantly, a statistically significant rapid decrease in adiponectin was in the prediabetic stages (p < 0.01. The predictor value of adiponectin was 1,356.32 ± 402.65 рg/mL. Conclusions. The obtained resultats suggest that adiponectin may be a useful marker in

  2. Physical activity as a metabolic stressor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, E F

    2000-08-01

    Both physical activity and diet stimulate processes that, over time, alter the morphologic composition and biochemical function of the body. Physical activity provides stimuli that promote very specific and varied adaptations according to the type, intensity, and duration of exercise performed. There is further interest in the extent to which diet or supplementation can enhance the positive stimuli. Prolonged walking at low intensity presents little metabolic, hormonal, or cardiovascular stress, and the greatest perturbation from rest appears to be from increased fat oxidation and plasma free fatty acid mobilization resulting from a combination of increased lipolysis and decreased reesterification. More intense jogging or running largely stimulates increased oxidation of glycogen and triacylglycerol, both of which are stored directly within the muscle fibers. Furthermore, these intramuscular stores of carbohydrate and fat appear to be the primary substrates for the enhanced oxidative and performance ability derived from endurance training-induced increases in muscle mitochondrial density. Weightlifting that produces fatigue in brief periods (ie, in 15-90 s and after 15 repetitive contractions) elicits a high degree of motor unit recruitment and muscle fiber stimulation. This is a remarkably potent stimulus for altering protein synthesis in muscle and increasing neuromuscular function. The metabolic stress of physical activity can be measured by substrate turnover and depletion, cardiovascular response, hormonal perturbation, accumulation of metabolites, or even the extent to which the synthesis and degradation of specific proteins are altered, either acutely or by chronic exercise training.

  3. CYP2C8 Genotype Significantly Alters Imatinib Metabolism in Chronic Myeloid Leukaemia Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barratt, Daniel T; Cox, Hannah K; Menelaou, Andrew; Yeung, David T; White, Deborah L; Hughes, Timothy P; Somogyi, Andrew A

    2017-08-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the effects of the CYP2C8*3 and *4 polymorphisms on imatinib metabolism and plasma imatinib concentrations in chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) patients. We genotyped 210 CML patients from the TIDELII trial receiving imatinib 400-800 mg/day for CYP2C8*3 (rs11572080, rs10509681) and *4 (rs1058930). Steady-state trough total plasma N-desmethyl imatinib (major metabolite):imatinib concentration ratios (metabolic ratios) and trough total plasma imatinib concentrations were compared between genotypes (one-way ANOVA with Tukey post hoc). CYP2C8*3 (n = 34) and *4 (n = 15) carriers had significantly higher (P  50% higher for CYP2C8*1/*4 than for CYP2C8*1/*1 and CYP2C8*3 carriers (2.18 ± 0.66 vs. 1.45 ± 0.74 [P < 0.05] and 1.36 ± 0.98 μg/mL [P < 0.05], respectively). CYP2C8 genotype significantly alters imatinib metabolism in patients through gain- and loss-of-function mechanisms.

  4. Significant Locus and Metabolic Genetic Correlations Revealed in Genome-Wide Association Study of Anorexia Nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Laramie; Yilmaz, Zeynep; Gaspar, Helena; Walters, Raymond; Goldstein, Jackie; Anttila, Verneri; Bulik-Sullivan, Brendan; Ripke, Stephan; Thornton, Laura; Hinney, Anke; Daly, Mark; Sullivan, Patrick F; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Breen, Gerome; Bulik, Cynthia M

    2017-09-01

    The authors conducted a genome-wide association study of anorexia nervosa and calculated genetic correlations with a series of psychiatric, educational, and metabolic phenotypes. Following uniform quality control and imputation procedures using the 1000 Genomes Project (phase 3) in 12 case-control cohorts comprising 3,495 anorexia nervosa cases and 10,982 controls, the authors performed standard association analysis followed by a meta-analysis across cohorts. Linkage disequilibrium score regression was used to calculate genome-wide common variant heritability (single-nucleotide polymorphism [SNP]-based heritability [h 2 SNP ]), partitioned heritability, and genetic correlations (r g ) between anorexia nervosa and 159 other phenotypes. Results were obtained for 10,641,224 SNPs and insertion-deletion variants with minor allele frequencies >1% and imputation quality scores >0.6. The h 2 SNP of anorexia nervosa was 0.20 (SE=0.02), suggesting that a substantial fraction of the twin-based heritability arises from common genetic variation. The authors identified one genome-wide significant locus on chromosome 12 (rs4622308) in a region harboring a previously reported type 1 diabetes and autoimmune disorder locus. Significant positive genetic correlations were observed between anorexia nervosa and schizophrenia, neuroticism, educational attainment, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and significant negative genetic correlations were observed between anorexia nervosa and body mass index, insulin, glucose, and lipid phenotypes. Anorexia nervosa is a complex heritable phenotype for which this study has uncovered the first genome-wide significant locus. Anorexia nervosa also has large and significant genetic correlations with both psychiatric phenotypes and metabolic traits. The study results encourage a reconceptualization of this frequently lethal disorder as one with both psychiatric and metabolic etiology.

  5. Alteration In Bones Metabolism In Active Rheumatoid Arthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salem, E.S.

    2013-01-01

    The strength and integrity of the human skeleton depends on a delicate equilibrium between bone resorption and bone formation. Osteocalcin (OC) is synthesized by osteoblasts and is considered to be a marker of bone formation and helps in corporating calcium into bone tissue. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune inflammatory joint disease characterized by bone complication including bone pain, erosion and osteoporosis. The aim of the present study is to evaluate some factors responsible in bone metabolism termed OC, vitamin D (vit. D), oncostatin M (OSM), ionized calcium and alkaline phosphatase. Fifty pre-menopausal female patients with active RA and twenty healthy controls of the same age were included in the present study. Radioimmunoassay (RIA) was used to estimate serum OC and active vitamin D. The quantitative determination of ionized calcium and alkaline phosphatase were carried out colorimetrically. OSM was measured by ELISA and serum levels of OC and active vitamin D were significantly decreased in RA patients as compared to those of the control group. On the other hand, the levels of serum OSM, ionized calcium and alkaline phosphatase were significantly increased in the RA patients as compared to their healthy control subjects. The results of this study indicated that early investigation and therapy of disturbances of bone metabolism in active RA are necessary for better prognosis and exhibited the importance of OC as a diagnostic tool of alterations of bone metabolism in RA patients.

  6. Significant differences in parameters of glucose metabolism in children of hypertensive and normotensive parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gryko, Anna; Głowińska-Olszewska, Barbara; Płudowska, Katarzyna; Smithson, W Henry; Owłasiuk, Anna; Żelazowska-Rutkowska, Beata; Wojtkielewicz, Katarzyna; Milewski, Robert; Chlabicz, Sławomir

    2017-01-01

    In the recent years, alterations in the carbohydrate metabolism, including insulin resistance, are considered as risk factors in the development of hypertension and its complications in young age. Hypertension is associated with significant cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The onset of pathology responsible for the development of hypertension, as well as levels of biomarkers specific for early stages of atherosclerosis are poorly understood. To compare a group of children whose parents have a history of hypertension (study group) with a group of children with normotensive parents (reference group), with consideration of typical risk factors for atherosclerosis, parameters of lipid and carbohydrate metabolism, anthropometric data and new biomarkers of early cardiovascular disease (hsCRP, adiponectin, sICAM-1). The study population consists of 84 children. Of these, 40 children (mean age 13.6±2.7 years) had a parental history of hypertension, and 44 aged 13.1±3.7 yrs were children of normotensive parents. Anthropometric measurements were taken, and measurements of blood pressure, lipid profile, glucose and insulin levels were carried out. The insulin resistance index (HOMA IR) was calculated. Levels of hsCRP, soluble cell adhesion molecules (sICAM) and adiponectin were measured. There were no statistically significant differences in anthropometric parameters (body mass, SDS BMI, skin folds) between groups. Values of systolic blood pressure were statistically significantly higher in the study group (Me 108 vs. 100 mmHg, p= 0.031), as were glycaemia (Me 80 vs. 67 mg/dl pchildren of hypertensive parents) (Me 1.68 vs. 0.80 mmol/l × mU/l, p=0.007). Lower adiponectin levels (Me 13959.45 vs. 16822 ng/ml, p=0.020) were found in children with a family history of hypertension. No significant differences were found in the levels of sICAM, hsCRP, and parameters of lipid metabolism. Family history of hypertension is correlated with higher values of systolic blood

  7. Lack of significant metabolic abnormalities in mice with liver-specific disruption of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lavery, Gareth G

    2012-07-01

    Glucocorticoids (GC) are implicated in the development of metabolic syndrome, and patients with GC excess share many clinical features, such as central obesity and glucose intolerance. In patients with obesity or type 2 diabetes, systemic GC concentrations seem to be invariably normal. Tissue GC concentrations determined by the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and local cortisol (corticosterone in mice) regeneration from cortisone (11-dehydrocorticosterone in mice) by the 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) enzyme, principally expressed in the liver. Transgenic mice have demonstrated the importance of 11β-HSD1 in mediating aspects of the metabolic syndrome, as well as HPA axis control. In order to address the primacy of hepatic 11β-HSD1 in regulating metabolism and the HPA axis, we have generated liver-specific 11β-HSD1 knockout (LKO) mice, assessed biomarkers of GC metabolism, and examined responses to high-fat feeding. LKO mice were able to regenerate cortisol from cortisone to 40% of control and had no discernible difference in a urinary metabolite marker of 11β-HSD1 activity. Although circulating corticosterone was unaltered, adrenal size was increased, indicative of chronic HPA stimulation. There was a mild improvement in glucose tolerance but with insulin sensitivity largely unaffected. Adiposity and body weight were unaffected as were aspects of hepatic lipid homeostasis, triglyceride accumulation, and serum lipids. Additionally, no changes in the expression of genes involved in glucose or lipid homeostasis were observed. Liver-specific deletion of 11β-HSD1 reduces corticosterone regeneration and may be important for setting aspects of HPA axis tone, without impacting upon urinary steroid metabolite profile. These discordant data have significant implications for the use of these biomarkers of 11β-HSD1 activity in clinical studies. The paucity of metabolic abnormalities in LKO points to important compensatory effects by HPA

  8. Significance of personal characteristics for entrepreneurial youth activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruta Adamoniene

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The economic policy of the European Union is based on the encouragement of every resident’s economic activity. The greatest attention is paid to motivating the youth to work and encouraging their entrepreneurial activity. Scientists are actively discussing the impact of personal characteristics on entrepreneurial activity, and entrepreneurship is analyzed under two key aspects in terms of this research. Scientists describe entrepreneurship differently: some claim entrepreneurship is simply initiative, others that these are natural and acquired human characteristics, which enable his/her innovative behaviours and active performance and risk. The research aim is, after having identified personal youth characteristics, to define their significance for entrepreneurial activity. During the research the significance of personal entrepreneurial characteristics was indicated, and their links to value principles and specific influential factors on youth entrepreneurial activity.

  9. Metabolic studies in older mentally retarded patients: significance of metabolic testing and correlation with the clinical phenotype.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buggenhout, G.J.C.M. van; Trijbels, J.M.F.; Wevers, R.A.; Trommelen, J.C.M.; Hamel, B.C.J.; Brunner, H.G.; Fryns, J.P.

    2001-01-01

    In 471 adult mentally retarded adult patients (mean age 46 years; 92.6% males) living in an institution for the mentally retarded, a clinical examination, cytogenetic and molecular studies were done. 306 patients were screened for metabolic disorders. In 7 additional patients a metabolic disorder

  10. Clinical significance of bone metabolic parameters and serum thyroid hormone levels in patients with hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Jinhua; Wang Yaping; Sun Junming; Hua Wenjing

    2002-01-01

    To study the changes in bone metabolic parameters and serum thyroid hormone levels in patients with hyperthyroidism, seventy patients with hyperthyroidism and sixty healthy controls were investigated by means of radioimmunoassay (RIA) for serum ICTP, chemiluminescent immunoassay for BAP and serum thyroid hormone and meanwhile bone mineral density was measured. The results showed that the levels of serum BAP, ICTP and thyroid hormone in patients with hyperthyroidism were dramatically higher than those in control group (all P<0.01), BMD was significantly decreased in the study group (P<0.01). The correlation analysis showed that both BAP and ICTP were negatively correlated with BMD (all P<0.05). The results from this investigation indicated that increased bone turnover is significantly associated with an increased thyroid hormone in patients with hyperthyroidism, and bone resorption is greater than formation resulting in a bone mass loss. Measurement of serum BAP and ICTP levels may be of help to judge the severity of bone metabolism, study the state of an illness in hyperthyroidism

  11. Effects of vasoactive and metabolic active substances (measurement of RCBF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrschaft, H.

    1986-09-29

    Methods, principles, normal values, reproducibility and clinical indications of rCBF-measurements, using the intraartrial 133-Xenon-clearance-technique, are presented. The effect of vaso- and metabolically active drugs on cerebral blood flow was examined in 215 patients, suffering from cerebral ischemia. Significant increase of rCBF was ascertained after intravenous injection of centrophenoxine, pyrithioxine, extractum sanguis deproteinatus, piracetam and solutions of low molecular dextran. All the other drugs tested proved to be either without any effect or caused decrease of rCBF. In 130 patients with obstructive disease of internal carotid artery after surgery at an interval of 6 - 8 weeks and 1 year a significant increase of CBF could be stated. The rank of psychological tests and quantitative EEF-investigations relating to evidence of efficacy of metabolically active drugs is discussed critically. Therapeutic efficacy and clinical relevance of vaso- and metabolically active drugs in cerebral ischemia of man are to be substantiated only by double-blind controlled studies.

  12. Effects of vasoactive and metabolic active substances (measurement of RCBF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrschaft, H.

    1986-01-01

    Methods, principles, normal values, reproducibility and clinical indications of rCBF-measurements, using the intraartrial 133-Xenon-clearance-technique, are presented. The effect of vaso- and metabolically active drugs on cerebral blood flow was examined in 215 patients, suffering from cerebral ischemia. Significant increase of rCBF was ascertained after intravenous injection of centrophenoxine, pyrithioxine, extractum sanguis deproteinatus, piracetam and solutions of low molecular dextran. All the other drugs tested proved to be either without any effect or caused decrease of rCBF. In 130 patients with obstructive disease of internal carotid artery after surgery at an interval of 6 - 8 weeks and 1 year a significant increase of CBF could be stated. The rank of psychological tests and quantitative EEF-investigations relating to evidence of efficacy of metabolically active drugs is discussed critically. Therapeutic efficacy and clinical relevance of vaso- and metabolically active drugs in cerebral ischemia of man are to be substantiated only by double-blind controlled studies. (orig.) [de

  13. Mutagenicity of vinyl chloride after metabolic activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rannug, U; Johansson, A; Ramel, C; Wachtmeister, C A

    1974-01-01

    Vinyl chloride has recently been shown to cause a malignant liver tumor disease in man after occupational exposure in PVC plants. This actualizes the problem of whether such hazards could be avoided or at least diminished in the future by a screening for mutagenicity of chemicals used in industries. The basis for such a screening procedure is the close correlation between carcinogenic and mutagenic effects of chemicals. Experiments with Salmonella bacteria showed that the carcinogenic hazard of vinyl chloride could have been traced by means of mutagenicity tests. The data indicate that vinyl chloride is not mutagenic per se but becomes mutagenic after a metabolic activation in the liver. 24 references, 1 figure, 4 tables.

  14. Metabolic syndrome and cognitive decline: the role of physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rinaldi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic Syndrome (MetS is a cluster of conditions, each of which represents a risk factor for cardiovascular disease: central obesity, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia and hypertension. Any of these conditions and MetS itself have been associated to Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia. In recent years there is a growing evidence for the role of physical activity in preventing metabolic diseases and cognitive decline. In our research we assessed the prevalence of MetS in a sample of 154 elderly people. Furthermore, we evaluated cognition (with Mini Mental State Examination, MMSE  and the physical activity level in every patient. We found a significant association between MetS, borderline cognitive impairment and sedentary lifestyle.

  15. Significance of changes of serum osteocalcin levels in healthy subjects and patients with metabolic bone diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Liren; Dai Yaozong; Liang Minwen

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To study the significance of serum osteocalcin changes in healthy subjects and pathological conditions. Methods: The levels of S-BGP were measured with RIA in 270 normal subjects of different age groups (every 10 yrs as an age group), 60 patients with carebrovascular disease (CVD) and 85 patients with metabolic bone disease. Results: (1) The mean value of S-BGP in umbilical blood was 19.3 +- 16.8 μg/L (n = 89), in 3 day sold newborn infant was 7.4 +- 2.3 μg/L (n = 22), in healthy subjects (from 11 to 60 yrs, average age 39 yrs) was 5.2 +- 1.35 μg/L (n = 100), 5.3 +- 1.4 μg/L (n = 47) in males and 5.1 +- 1.34 μg/L (n = 53) in females. In old healthy subjects the mean value was 3.9 +- 1.48 μg/L (n = 30). The level of S-BGP was negatively correlated with the age significantly (r = -0.383, P < 0.001). (2) The mean levels of S-BGP in 85 patients with metabolic bone disease were: 21.7 +- 20.46 μg/L in patients with hyperthyroidism (n = 55, age from 21 to 60 yrs, average 37 yrs), being significantly higher than in healthy subjects (P < 0.01); 2.6 +- 0.99 μg/L in patients with NIDDM (n 30, from 60 to 79 yrs, average age 69 yrs), being significantly higher than in the old healthy subjects (P < 0.01). (3) In 60 patients with CVD (from 60 to 80 yrs, average age 66 yrs) the mean valve was 2.2 +- 1.1 μg/L in cerebral infarction (n = 30) and 2.5 +- 1.2 μg/L in cerebral hemorrhage (n = 30), both significantly higher than in old healthy subjects (P < 0.01). Conclusion: RIA of S-BGP is an important means for detecting changes of bone metabolism in normal and pathological condition

  16. Identification of sequence motifs significantly associated with antisense activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peek Andrew S

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Predicting the suppression activity of antisense oligonucleotide sequences is the main goal of the rational design of nucleic acids. To create an effective predictive model, it is important to know what properties of an oligonucleotide sequence associate significantly with antisense activity. Also, for the model to be efficient we must know what properties do not associate significantly and can be omitted from the model. This paper will discuss the results of a randomization procedure to find motifs that associate significantly with either high or low antisense suppression activity, analysis of their properties, as well as the results of support vector machine modelling using these significant motifs as features. Results We discovered 155 motifs that associate significantly with high antisense suppression activity and 202 motifs that associate significantly with low suppression activity. The motifs range in length from 2 to 5 bases, contain several motifs that have been previously discovered as associating highly with antisense activity, and have thermodynamic properties consistent with previous work associating thermodynamic properties of sequences with their antisense activity. Statistical analysis revealed no correlation between a motif's position within an antisense sequence and that sequences antisense activity. Also, many significant motifs existed as subwords of other significant motifs. Support vector regression experiments indicated that the feature set of significant motifs increased correlation compared to all possible motifs as well as several subsets of the significant motifs. Conclusion The thermodynamic properties of the significantly associated motifs support existing data correlating the thermodynamic properties of the antisense oligonucleotide with antisense efficiency, reinforcing our hypothesis that antisense suppression is strongly associated with probe/target thermodynamics, as there are no enzymatic

  17. Clinical significance of reduced cerebral metabolism in multiple sclerosis. A combined PET and MRI study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Xiayan; Tanaka, Makoto; Kondo, Susumu; Okamoto, Koichi; Hirai, Shunsaku

    1998-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) has provided major insights into the disease's natural history, and many studies have focussed on possible correlations between MRI findings and the clinical manifestations of MS. In contrast, there are few reports on possible relationships between functional imaging data and cognitive function. The present study assessed the relationship between clinical presentation and combined anatomical and functional imaging data in MS. Twenty patients with definite MS underwent MRI and positron emission tomography (PET) to evaluate cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and oxygen metabolism (rCMRO 2 ). The relationships between these neuroimaging findings and clinical data, including the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS), Mini-mental status scale, Hasegawa Dementia Scale and relapse time, were evaluated with Spearman's rank correlation coefficients. A general reduction in rCBF and rCMRO 2 in the gray and white matter were found in the MS patients. EDSS was correlated with the number and size of the lesions on MRI and was negatively correlated with rCMRO 2 . A correlation between the decrease in rCMRO 2 and the level of cognitive impairment was also found. The severity of cerebral hypometabolism was also related to the number of relapses. Morphological and functional findings obtained by MRI and PET are closely related to the clinical status in MS. Our results suggest that measurement of cerebral metabolism in MS has the potential to be an objective marker for monitoring disease activity and to provide prognostic information. (author)

  18. Physical activity, BMI and metabolic risk in Portuguese adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Karina dos Santos

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2016v18n1p103   It has been reported, in the last decades, a significant decrease in physical activity (PA levels, with a consequent increase in obesity and metabolic risk factors among youth. The aims of this study were to describe PA levels, the prevalence of overweight/obesity and metabolic risk factors, and to examine the association between PA and body mass index (BMI with metabolic risk among Portuguese youth. The sample comprises 212 Portuguese adolescents (12-16 years old. Height and weight were measured. PA was estimated with the Bouchard questionnaire (3 days recall, as well as with the use of a pedometer (used for 5 consecutive days. Metabolic risk factors comprised fasting glucose, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, systolic blood pressure and waist circumference. Subjects were classified as normal weight, overweight or obese according to BMI; the maturational status was indirectly estimated with the maturity offset procedure. A continuous metabolic risk score was computed (zMR and PA values were divided into tertiles. Qui-square test, t-test and ANOVA were used in statistical analyses. SPSS 18.0 and WinPepi softwares were used and p<0.05. A moderate to high prevalence of overweight/obesity and HDL-cholesterol was found, as well as a high prevalence of high blood pressure and low to moderate PA levels among Portuguese youth. The relationship between BMI and zMR showed that obese adolescents have higher zMR when compared to normal weight or overweight adolescents. This finding suggests that increased levels of PA and reduction in the prevalence of overweight/obesity may have a positive role against the development of metabolic risk factors.

  19. FHR patterns that become significant in connection with ST waveform changes and metabolic acidosis at birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosén, Karl G; Norén, Håkan; Carlsson, Ann

    2018-04-18

    Recent developments have produced new CTG classification systems and the question is to what extent these may affect the model of FHR + ST interpretation? The two new systems (FIGO2015 and SSOG2017) classify FHR + ST events differently from the current CTG classification system used in the STAN interpretation algorithm (STAN2007). Identify the predominant FHR patterns in connection with ST events in cases of cord artery metabolic acidosis missed by the different CTG classification systems. Indicate to what extent STAN clinical guidelines could be modified enhancing the sensitivity. Provide a pathophysiological rationale. Forty-four cases with umbilical cord artery metabolic acidosis were retrieved from a European multicenter database. Significant FHR + ST events were evaluated post hoc in consensus by an expert panel. Eighteen cases were not identified as in need of intervention and regarded as negative in the sensitivity analysis. In 12 cases, ST changes occurred but the CTG was regarded as reassuring. Visual analysis of the FHR + ST tracings revealed specific FHR patterns: Conclusion: These findings indicate FHR + ST analysis may be undertaken regardless of CTG classification system provided there is a more physiologically oriented approach to FHR assessment in connection with an ST event.

  20. Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lin), which signals cells to increase their anabolic activities. Metabolism is a complicated chemical process, so it's not ... how those enzymes or hormones work. When the metabolism of body chemicals is ... Hyperthyroidism (pronounced: hi-per-THIGH-roy-dih-zum). Hyperthyroidism ...

  1. Fibroblast activation protein (FAP) as a novel metabolic target

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sánchez-Garrido, Miguel Angel; Habegger, Kirk M; Clemmensen, Christoffer

    2016-01-01

    to block FAP enzymatic activity. RESULTS: TB administration to diet-induced obese (DIO) animals led to profound decreases in body weight, reduced food consumption and adiposity, increased energy expenditure, improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity, and lowered cholesterol levels. Total...... (TB), we explored the impact of FAP inhibition on metabolic regulation in mice. METHODS: To address this question we evaluated the pharmacology of TB in various mouse models including those deficient in FGF21, GLP1 and GIP signaling. We also studied the ability of FAP to process FGF21 in vitro and TB...... and intact plasma FGF21 were observed to be elevated in TB-treated DIO mice but not lean animals where the metabolic impact of TB was significantly attenuated. Furthermore, and in stark contrast to naïve DIO mice, the administration of TB to obese FGF21 knockout animals demonstrated no appreciable effect...

  2. Prediction of residual metabolic activity after treatment in NSCLC patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rios Velazquez, Emmanuel; Aerts, Hugo J.W.L.; Oberije, Cary; Ruysscher, Dirk De; Lambin, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. Metabolic response assessment is often used as a surrogate of local failure and survival. Early identification of patients with residual metabolic activity is essential as this enables selection of patients who could potentially benefit from additional therapy. We report on the development of a pre-treatment prediction model for metabolic response using patient, tumor and treatment factors. Methods. One hundred and one patients with inoperable NSCLC (stage I-IV), treated with 3D conformal radical (chemo)-radiotherapy were retrospectively included in this study. All patients received a pre and post-radiotherapy fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography FDG-PET-CT scan. The electronic medical record system and the medical patient charts were reviewed to obtain demographic, clinical, tumor and treatment data. Primary outcome measure was examined using a metabolic response assessment on a post-radiotherapy FDG-PET-CT scan. Radiotherapy was delivered in fractions of 1.8 Gy, twice a day, with a median prescribed dose of 60 Gy. Results. Overall survival was worse in patients with residual metabolic active areas compared with the patients with a complete metabolic response (p=0.0001). In univariate analysis, three variables were significantly associated with residual disease: larger primary gross tumor volume (GTVprimary, p=0.002), higher pre-treatment maximum standardized uptake value (SUV max , p=0.0005) in the primary tumor and shorter overall treatment time (OTT, p=0.046). A multivariate model including GTVprimary, SUV max , equivalent radiation dose at 2 Gy corrected for time (EQD2, T) and OTT yielded an area under the curve assessed by the leave-one-out cross validation of 0.71 (95% CI, 0.65-0.76). Conclusion. Our results confirmed the validity of metabolic response assessment as a surrogate of survival. We developed a multivariate model that is able to identify patients at risk of residual disease. These patients may benefit from

  3. Effects of Cola-Flavored Beverages and Caffeine on Streptococcus mutans Biofilm Formation and Metabolic Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotsey, Roger P; Moser, Elizabeth A S; Eckert, George J; Gregory, Richard L

    To examine the effects of cola-flavored beverages and caffeine on growth and metabolism of Streptococcus mutans biofilm. This study was designed to determine if carbonated beverages or caffeine can increase S. mutans growth and biofilm formation and metabolic activity in vitro, potentially leading to increased S. mutans-associated cariogenicity in children that consume them. Six different cola-flavored products, plus pure caffeine, and pure high fructose corn syrup (HFCS), at different concentrations similar to those in the beverages were tested. A 16-hour culture of S. mutans was treated with different dilutions in bacteriological media. To test for the effect on biofilm formation, the biofilm was stained with crystal violet. The absorbance was determined to evaluate biofilm growth. Biofilm metabolic activity was measured based on biofilm having the ability to reduce XTT to a water-soluble orange compound. The inclusion of HFCS in the beverages, as well as pure HFCS, significantly enhanced bacterial biofilm formation and metabolic activity. Pure caffeine and the presence of caffeine in beverages did not significantly increase biofilm formation, but pure caffeine significantly increased metabolism, and Diet Coke had significantly greater metabolic activity than Caffeine-Free Diet Coke. HFCS increases both the biofilm formation and metabolism of S. mutans, and caffeine in some cases increases metabolism of S. mutans.

  4. The Halogenated Metabolism of Brown Algae (Phaeophyta, Its Biological Importance and Its Environmental Significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane La Barre

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Brown algae represent a major component of littoral and sublittoral zones in temperate and subtropical ecosystems. An essential adaptive feature of this independent eukaryotic lineage is the ability to couple oxidative reactions resulting from exposure to sunlight and air with the halogenations of various substrates, thereby addressing various biotic and abiotic stresses i.e., defense against predators, tissue repair, holdfast adhesion, and protection against reactive species generated by oxidative processes. Whereas marine organisms mainly make use of bromine to increase the biological activity of secondary metabolites, some orders of brown algae such as Laminariales have also developed a striking capability to accumulate and to use iodine in physiological adaptations to stress. We review selected aspects of the halogenated metabolism of macrophytic brown algae in the light of the most recent results, which point toward novel functions for iodide accumulation in kelps and the importance of bromination in cell wall modifications and adhesion properties of brown algal propagules. The importance of halogen speciation processes ranges from microbiology to biogeochemistry, through enzymology, cellular biology and ecotoxicology.

  5. Significance of glycolytic metabolism-related protein expression in colorectal cancer, lymph node and hepatic metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, Sandra Fernandes; Amorim, Ricardo; Viana-Pereira, Marta; Pinheiro, Céline; Costa, Ricardo Filipe Alves; Silva, Patrícia; Couto, Carla; Alves, Sara; Fernandes, Sara; Vilaça, Sónia; Falcão, Joaquim; Marques, Herlander; Pardal, Fernando; Rodrigues, Mesquita; Preto, Ana; Reis, Rui Manuel; Longatto-Filho, Adhemar; Baltazar, Fátima

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common malignancies and a leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Most cancer cells display high rates of glycolysis with production of lactic acid, which is then exported to the microenvironment by monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs). The main aim of this study was to evaluate the significance of MCT expression in a comprehensive series of primary CRC cases, lymph node and hepatic metastasis. Expressions of MCT1, MCT4, CD147 and GLUT1 were studied in human samples of CRC, lymph node and hepatic metastasis, by immunohistochemistry. All proteins were overexpressed in primary CRC, lymph node and hepatic metastasis, when compared with non-neoplastic tissue, with exception of MCT1 in lymph node and hepatic metastasis. MCT1 and MCT4 expressions were associated with CD147 and GLUT1 in primary CRC. These markers were associated with clinical pathological features, reflecting the putative role of these metabolism-related proteins in the CRC setting. These findings provide additional evidence for the pivotal role of MCTs in CRC maintenance and progression, and support the use of MCTs as biomarkers and potential therapeutic targets in primary and metastatic CRC

  6. Metabolic Equivalent in Adolescents, Active Adults and Pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Melzer

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available “Metabolic Equivalent” (MET represents a standard amount of oxygen consumed by the body under resting conditions, and is defined as 3.5 mL O2/kg × min or ~1 kcal/kg × h. It is used to express the energy cost of physical activity in multiples of MET. However, universal application of the 1-MET standard was questioned in previous studies, because it does not apply well to all individuals. Height, weight and resting metabolic rate (RMR, measured by indirect calorimetry were measured in adolescent males (n = 50 and females (n = 50, women during pregnancy (gestation week 35–41, n = 46, women 24–53 weeks postpartum (n = 27, and active men (n = 30, and were compared to values predicted by the 1-MET standard. The RMR of adolescent males (1.28 kcal/kg × h was significantly higher than that of adolescent females (1.11 kcal/kg × h, with or without the effects of puberty stage and physical activity levels. The RMR of the pregnant and post-pregnant subjects were not significantly different. The RMR of the active normal weight (0.92 kcal/kg × h and overweight (0.89 kcal/kg × h adult males were significantly lower than the 1-MET value. It follows that the 1-MET standard is inadequate for use not only in adult men and women, but also in adolescents and physically active men. It is therefore recommended that practitioners estimate RMR with equations taking into account individual characteristics, such as sex, age and Body Mass Index, and not rely on the 1-MET standard.

  7. Linking neuronal brain activity to the glucose metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Göbel, Britta; Oltmanns, Kerstin M; Chung, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Background Energy homeostasis ensures the functionality of the entire organism. The human brain as a missing link in the global regulation of the complex whole body energy metabolism is subject to recent investigation. The goal of this study is to gain insight into the influence of neuronal brain activity on cerebral and peripheral energy metabolism. In particular, the tight link between brain energy supply and metabolic responses of the organism is of interest. We aim to identifying regul...

  8. Adjuvant activity of peptidoglycan monomer and its metabolic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halassy, Beata; Krstanović, Marina; Frkanec, Ruza; Tomasić, Jelka

    2003-02-14

    Peptidoglycan monomer (PGM) is a natural compound of bacterial origin. It is a non-toxic, non-pyrogenic, water-soluble immunostimulator potentiating humoral immune response to ovalbumin (OVA) in mice. It is fast degraded and its metabolic products-the pentapeptide (PP) and the disaccharide (DS)-are excreted from the mammalian organism upon parenteral administration. The present study investigates: (a). whether PGM could influence the long-living memory generation; (b). whether metabolic products retain adjuvant properties of the parent compound and contribute to its adjuvanticity. We report now that mice immunised twice with OVA+PGM had significantly higher anti-OVA IgG levels upon challenge with antigen alone 6 months later in comparison to control group immunised with OVA only. PP and DS were prepared enzymatically in vitro as apyrogenic and chemically pure compounds. When mice were immunised with OVA plus PP and DS, respectively, the level of anti-OVA IgGs in sera was not higher than in mice immunised with OVA alone, while PGM raised the level of specific antibodies. Results implicate that the adjuvant active molecule, capable of enhancing long-living memory generation, is PGM itself, and none of its metabolic products.

  9. Metabolism features in the active rheumatoid disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cossermelli, W; Carvalho, N; Papaleo Netto, M [Sao Paulo Univ. (Brazil). Centro de Medicina Nuclear

    1974-02-01

    The /sup 131/I-labelled albumin metabolism was studied in fourteen female patients with rheumatoid arthritis. The half-life of distribution was increased while the turnover half-life and turnover rate was within normal limits. These results led to assume that synthesis and catabolism may not change this disease, not being the responsible mechanism of hypoalbuminemia. Hypoalbuminemia would appear as compensatory mechanism in view of other protein alterations, as hypergammaglobulinemia, without changes of stabilizing and metabolic properties of albumin, perhaps due to albumin molecular alterations.

  10. Metabolism features in the active rheumatoid disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cossermelli, W.; Carvalho, N.; Papaleo Netto, M.

    1974-01-01

    It was studied the 131 I-labelled albumin metabolism in fourteen female patients with rheumatoid arthritis. The half-life of distribution was increased while the turnover half-life and turnover rate was within normal limits. These results led to assume that synthesis and catabolism may not change this disease, not being the responsible mechanism of hypoalbuminemia. Hypoalbuminemia would appear as compensatory mechanism in view of other protein alterations, as hypergammaglobulinemia, without changes of stabilizing and metabolic properties of albumin, perhaps due to albumin molecular alterations [pt

  11. In vivo enzyme activity in inborn errors of metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, G.N.; Walter, J.H.; Leonard, J.V.; Halliday, D. (Clinical Research Centre, Harrow (England))

    1990-08-01

    Low-dose continuous infusions of (2H5)phenylalanine, (1-13C)propionate, and (1-13C)leucine were used to quantitate phenylalanine hydroxylation in phenylketonuria (PKU, four subjects), propionate oxidation in methylmalonic acidaemia (MMA, four subjects), and propionic acidaemia (PA, four subjects) and leucine oxidation in maple syrup urine disease (MSUD, four subjects). In vivo enzyme activity in PKU, MMA, and PA subjects was similar to or in excess of that in adult controls (range of phenylalanine hydroxylation in PKU, 3.7 to 6.5 mumol/kg/h, control 3.2 to 7.9, n = 7; propionate oxidation in MMA, 15.2 to 64.8 mumol/kg/h, and in PA, 11.1 to 36.0, control 5.1 to 19.0, n = 5). By contrast, in vivo leucine oxidation was undetectable in three of the four MSUD subjects (less than 0.5 mumol/kg/h) and negligible in the remaining subject (2 mumol/kg/h, control 10.4 to 15.7, n = 6). These results suggest that significant substrate removal can be achieved in some inborn metabolic errors either through stimulation of residual enzyme activity in defective enzyme systems or by activation of alternate metabolic pathways. Both possibilities almost certainly depend on gross elevation of substrate concentrations. By contrast, only minimal in vivo oxidation of leucine appears possible in MSUD.

  12. In vivo enzyme activity in inborn errors of metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, G.N.; Walter, J.H.; Leonard, J.V.; Halliday, D.

    1990-01-01

    Low-dose continuous infusions of [2H5]phenylalanine, [1-13C]propionate, and [1-13C]leucine were used to quantitate phenylalanine hydroxylation in phenylketonuria (PKU, four subjects), propionate oxidation in methylmalonic acidaemia (MMA, four subjects), and propionic acidaemia (PA, four subjects) and leucine oxidation in maple syrup urine disease (MSUD, four subjects). In vivo enzyme activity in PKU, MMA, and PA subjects was similar to or in excess of that in adult controls (range of phenylalanine hydroxylation in PKU, 3.7 to 6.5 mumol/kg/h, control 3.2 to 7.9, n = 7; propionate oxidation in MMA, 15.2 to 64.8 mumol/kg/h, and in PA, 11.1 to 36.0, control 5.1 to 19.0, n = 5). By contrast, in vivo leucine oxidation was undetectable in three of the four MSUD subjects (less than 0.5 mumol/kg/h) and negligible in the remaining subject (2 mumol/kg/h, control 10.4 to 15.7, n = 6). These results suggest that significant substrate removal can be achieved in some inborn metabolic errors either through stimulation of residual enzyme activity in defective enzyme systems or by activation of alternate metabolic pathways. Both possibilities almost certainly depend on gross elevation of substrate concentrations. By contrast, only minimal in vivo oxidation of leucine appears possible in MSUD

  13. The significance of human factors in nuclear activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weil, L.; Berg, H.P.

    1999-01-01

    Human factors is an aspect increasingly investigated in the last few years in efforts and programmes for enhancing the operational safety of nuclear systems. Methodology has been elaborated for analysis and evaluation of human reliability, or development of instruments supporting the decisions to be taken by the operators at the man-control room interface of nuclear installations, as well as initial approaches to introduce organisational factors which may influence the man-machine function allocation, and thus are an element of the safety culture concept. The significance of human factors in nuclear activities, as well as activities at the national and international level for optimisation of the man-machine interface and the man-organisation interface are discussed. (orig./CB) [de

  14. Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior Associated with Components of Metabolic Syndrome among People in Rural China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Xiao

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome is prevalent worldwide and its prevalence is related to physical activity, race, and lifestyle. Little data is available for people living in rural areas of China. In this study we examined associations of physical activity and sedentary behaviors with metabolic syndrome components among people in rural China.The Nantong Metabolic Syndrome Study recruited 13,505 female and 6,997 male participants between 2007 and 2008. Data of socio-demographic characteristics and lifestyle were collected. The associations of physical activity and sedentary behaviors with metabolic syndrome components were analyzed.Prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 21.6%. It was significantly lower in men than in women. Low risks of metabolic syndrome were observed in those who did less sitting and engaged in more vigorous physical activity. The highest tertile of vigorous physical activity was associated with 15-40% decreased odds of metabolic syndrome and all of its components, except for low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in men. Women with the highest tertile of moderate physical activity had 15-30% lower odds of central obesity, high glucose, and high triglycerides compared with those in the lowest tertile. Sitting time >42 hours per week had a 4%-12% attributable risk of metabolic syndrome, central obesity, and high triglycerides in both genders, and abnormal glucose and diastolic blood pressure in women. Sleeping for more than 8 hours per day was associated with risk of high serum glucose and lipids.Our data suggested that physical activity has a preventive effect against metabolic syndrome and all its abnormal components, and that longer sitting time and sleep duration are associated with an increased risk of metabolic syndrome components, including central obesity and high triglycerides, glucose, and diastolic blood pressure. This study could provide information for future investigation into these associations. Also, recommendations are

  15. Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior Associated with Components of Metabolic Syndrome among People in Rural China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jing; Shen, Chong; Chu, Min J; Gao, Yue X; Xu, Guang F; Huang, Jian P; Xu, Qiong Q; Cai, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is prevalent worldwide and its prevalence is related to physical activity, race, and lifestyle. Little data is available for people living in rural areas of China. In this study we examined associations of physical activity and sedentary behaviors with metabolic syndrome components among people in rural China. The Nantong Metabolic Syndrome Study recruited 13,505 female and 6,997 male participants between 2007 and 2008. Data of socio-demographic characteristics and lifestyle were collected. The associations of physical activity and sedentary behaviors with metabolic syndrome components were analyzed. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 21.6%. It was significantly lower in men than in women. Low risks of metabolic syndrome were observed in those who did less sitting and engaged in more vigorous physical activity. The highest tertile of vigorous physical activity was associated with 15-40% decreased odds of metabolic syndrome and all of its components, except for low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in men. Women with the highest tertile of moderate physical activity had 15-30% lower odds of central obesity, high glucose, and high triglycerides compared with those in the lowest tertile. Sitting time >42 hours per week had a 4%-12% attributable risk of metabolic syndrome, central obesity, and high triglycerides in both genders, and abnormal glucose and diastolic blood pressure in women. Sleeping for more than 8 hours per day was associated with risk of high serum glucose and lipids. Our data suggested that physical activity has a preventive effect against metabolic syndrome and all its abnormal components, and that longer sitting time and sleep duration are associated with an increased risk of metabolic syndrome components, including central obesity and high triglycerides, glucose, and diastolic blood pressure. This study could provide information for future investigation into these associations. Also, recommendations are developed to reduce

  16. Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptors and Lipoprotein Metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kersten, A.H.

    2008-01-01

    Plasma lipoproteins are responsible for carrying triglycerides and cholesterol in the blood and ensuring their delivery to target organs. Regulation of lipoprotein metabolism takes place at numerous levels including via changes in gene transcription. An important group of transcription factors that

  17. Dynamic metabolome profiling reveals significant metabolic changes during grain development of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhen, Shoumin; Dong, Kun; Deng, Xiong; Zhou, Jiaxing; Xu, Xuexin; Han, Caixia; Zhang, Wenying; Xu, Yanhao; Wang, Zhimin; Yan, Yueming

    2016-08-01

    Metabolites in wheat grains greatly influence nutritional values. Wheat provides proteins, minerals, B-group vitamins and dietary fiber to humans. These metabolites are important to human health. However, the metabolome of the grain during the development of bread wheat has not been studied so far. In this work the first dynamic metabolome of the developing grain of the elite Chinese bread wheat cultivar Zhongmai 175 was analyzed, using non-targeted gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) for metabolite profiling. In total, 74 metabolites were identified over the grain developmental stages. Metabolite-metabolite correlation analysis revealed that the metabolism of amino acids, carbohydrates, organic acids, amines and lipids was interrelated. An integrated metabolic map revealed a distinct regulatory profile. The results provide information that can be used by metabolic engineers and molecular breeders to improve wheat grain quality. The present metabolome approach identified dynamic changes in metabolite levels, and correlations among such levels, in developing seeds. The comprehensive metabolic map may be useful when breeding programs seek to improve grain quality. The work highlights the utility of GC/MS-based metabolomics, in conjunction with univariate and multivariate data analysis, when it is sought to understand metabolic changes in developing seeds. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Behavioral and physiological significance of minimum resting metabolic rate in king penguins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halsey, L G; Butler, P J; Fahlman, A; Woakes, A J; Handrich, Y

    2008-01-01

    Because fasting king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus) need to conserve energy, it is possible that they exhibit particularly low metabolic rates during periods of rest. We investigated the behavioral and physiological aspects of periods of minimum metabolic rate in king penguins under different circumstances. Heart rate (f(H)) measurements were recorded to estimate rate of oxygen consumption during periods of rest. Furthermore, apparent respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) was calculated from the f(H) data to determine probable breathing frequency in resting penguins. The most pertinent results were that minimum f(H) achieved (over 5 min) was higher during respirometry experiments in air than during periods ashore in the field; that minimum f(H) during respirometry experiments on water was similar to that while at sea; and that RSA was apparent in many of the f(H) traces during periods of minimum f(H) and provides accurate estimates of breathing rates of king penguins resting in specific situations in the field. Inferences made from the results include that king penguins do not have the capacity to reduce their metabolism to a particularly low level on land; that they can, however, achieve surprisingly low metabolic rates at sea while resting in cold water; and that during respirometry experiments king penguins are stressed to some degree, exhibiting an elevated metabolism even when resting.

  19. Metabolic Syndrome and Physical Activity in Hemodialysis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    derya atik

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This descriptive study was carried out to reveal the level of physical activity in patients who receive hemodialysis due to chronic kidney failure and to identify its relationship with the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS. Material and method: The study was conducted with 55 patients at the hemodialysis units of Alanya State Hospital and Private Alanya Anadolu Hospital between 10 and 30 June 2013. The study data were collected using the National Cholesterol Education Program, the Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATP III, a data collection form containing Metabolic Syndrome Diagnosis Criteria, and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ. The data were analyzed using arithmetic mean +/- standard deviation (SD, number and percentage distributions, independent sample t test, crosstabs, One Way Anova, and Pearson and #8217;s Correlation Analysis. Conclusion and suggestions: It was found that 41.8% of the patients were between 50 and 65 years of age, the majority of them were male (58.2%, hemodialysis had been administered to 69.1% of them for at least 36 months, and 50.9% of them met three and more of the MetS criteria. There was no statistically significant relationship between MetS and physical activity levels, but the length of physical activity was longer in those who did not meet the MetS diagnosis criteria (p>0.05. An increase in sedentary time raised the MetS criteria (p<0.05. Conclusion: Nearly 1/2 of the patients were at risk of MetS. Physical activity level being statistically ineffective on MetS can be associated with low physical activity level and longer sedentary time. It can be said that being completely sedentary increases BMI and therefore MetS. The study can be repeated on different samples and the results can be compared. [J Contemp Med 2014; 4(2.000: 69-75

  20. Compounds from Terminalia mantaly L. (Combretaceae Stem Bark Exhibit Potent Inhibition against Some Pathogenic Yeasts and Enzymes of Metabolic Significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marthe Aimée Tchuente Tchuenmogne

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pathogenic yeasts resistance to current drugs emphasizes the need for new, safe, and cost-effective drugs. Also, new inhibitors are needed to control the effects of enzymes that are implicated in metabolic dysfunctions such as cancer, obesity, and epilepsy. Methods: The anti-yeast extract from Terminalia mantaly (Combretaceae was fractionated and the structures of the isolated compounds established by means of spectroscopic analysis and comparison with literature data. Activity was assessed against Candida albicans, C. parapsilosis and C. krusei using the microdilution method, and against four enzymes of metabolic significance: glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, human erythrocyte carbonic anhydrase I and II, and glutathione S-transferase. Results: Seven compounds, 3,3′-di-O-methylellagic acid 4′-O-α-rhamnopyranoside; 3-O-methylellagic acid; arjungenin or 2,3,19,23-tetrahydroxyolean-12-en-28-oïc acid; arjunglucoside or 2,3,19,23-tetrahydroxyolean-12-en-28-oïc acid glucopyranoside; 2α,3α,24-trihydroxyolean-11,13(18-dien-28-oïc acid; stigmasterol; and stigmasterol 3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside were isolated from the extract. Among those, 3,3′-di-O-methylellagic acid 4′-O-α-rhamnopyranoside, 3-O-methylellagic acid, and arjunglucoside showed anti-yeast activity comparable to that of reference fluconazole with minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC below 32 µg/mL. Besides, Arjunglucoside potently inhibited the tested enzymes with 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50 below 4 µM and inhibitory constant (Ki <3 µM. Conclusions: The results achieved indicate that further SAR studies will likely identify potent hit derivatives that should subsequently enter the drug development pipeline.

  1. Significance of insulin for glucose metabolism in skeletal muscle during contractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hespel, P; Vergauwen, Lieven; Vandenberghe, K

    1996-01-01

    is essentially effected via increased blood flow, significantly contributes to stimulate glucose uptake. Again, however, increased glucose delivery appears to be a more potent stimulus of muscle glucose uptake as the circulating insulin level is increased. Furthermore, contractions and elevated flow prove...... is effected primarily via mechanisms exerted within the muscle cell related to the contractile activity per se. Yet contractions become a more potent stimulus of muscle glucose uptake as the plasma insulin level is increased. In addition, enhanced glucose delivery to muscle, which during exercise...... to be additive stimuli of muscle glucose uptake at any plasma insulin level. In conclusion, the extent to which muscle glucose uptake is stimulated during exercise depends on various factors, including 1) the intensity of the contractile activity, 2) the magnitude of the exercise-associated increase in muscle...

  2. The Significance of Epidermal Lipid Metabolism in Whole-Body Physiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, Vibeke; Neess, Ditte; Færgeman, Nils J

    2017-01-01

    The skin is the largest sensory organ of the human body. The skin not only prevents loss of water and other components of the body, but also is involved in regulation of body temperature and serves as an essential barrier, protecting mammals from both routine and extreme environments. Given...... the importance of the skin in temperature regulation, it is surprising that adaptive alterations in skin functions and morphology only vaguely have been associated with systemic physiological responses. Despite that impaired lipid metabolism in the skin often impairs the epidermal permeability barrier...... and insulation properties of the skin, its role in regulating systemic physiology and metabolism is yet to be recognized....

  3. Leisure-time exercise, physical activity during work and commuting, and risk of metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwahara, Keisuke; Honda, Toru; Nakagawa, Tohru; Yamamoto, Shuichiro; Akter, Shamima; Hayashi, Takeshi; Mizoue, Tetsuya

    2016-09-01

    Data are limited regarding effect of intensity of leisure-time physical activity on metabolic syndrome. Furthermore, no prospective data are available regarding effect of occupational and commuting physical activity on metabolic syndrome. We compared metabolic syndrome risk by intensity level of leisure-time exercise and by occupational and commuting physical activity in Japanese workers. We followed 22,383 participants, aged 30-64 years, without metabolic syndrome until 2014 March (maximum, 5 years of follow-up). Physical activity was self-reported. Metabolic syndrome was defined by the Joint Statement criteria. We used Cox regression models to estimate the hazard ratios (HRs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) of metabolic syndrome. During a mean follow-up of 4.1 years, 5361 workers developed metabolic syndrome. After adjustment for covariates, compared with engaging in no exercise, the HRs (95 % CIs) for metabolic equivalent hours of exercise per week were 0.99 (0.90, 1.08), 0.99 (0.90, 1.10), and 0.95 (0.83, 1.08), respectively, among individuals engaging in moderate-intensity exercise alone; 0.93 (0.75, 1.14), 0.81 (0.64, 1.02), and 0.84 (0.66, 1.06), among individuals engaging in vigorous-intensity exercise alone; and 0.90 (0.70, 1.17), 0.74 (0.62, 0.89), and 0.81 (0.69, 0.96) among individuals engaging in the two intensities. Higher occupational physical activity was weakly but significantly associated with lower risk of metabolic syndrome. Walking to and from work was not associated with metabolic syndrome. Vigorous-intensity exercise alone or vigorous-intensity combined with moderate-intensity exercise and worksite intervention for physical activity may help prevent metabolic syndrome for Japanese workers.

  4. Adhesive ability and biofilm metabolic activity of Listeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SWEET

    2012-07-31

    Jul 31, 2012 ... monocytogenes strains were able to adhere to abiotic materials with different degrees. In fact, cold stressed strains ... packaging. Biofilms allow .... reduction of a tetrazolium salt by metabolically active cells to a colored water ...

  5. the prevalence of metabolic syndrome among active sportsmen

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    ABSTRACT. This study sought to establish the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) among active .... Table 1: General characteristic of the studied population stratified by exercise. Parameters ..... Prolonged adaptation to fat- rich diet ...

  6. Cytosolic Calcium Coordinates Mitochondrial Energy Metabolism with Presynaptic Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouhan, Amit K.; Ivannikov, Maxim V.; Lu, Zhongmin; Sugimori, Mutsuyuki; Llinas, Rodolfo R.; Macleod, Gregory T.

    2012-01-01

    Most neurons fire in bursts, imposing episodic energy demands, but how these demands are coordinated with oxidative phosphorylation is still unknown. Here, using fluorescence imaging techniques on presynaptic termini of Drosophila motor neurons (MNs), we show that mitochondrial matrix pH (pHm), inner membrane potential (Δψm), and NAD(P)H levels ([NAD(P)H]m) increase within seconds of nerve stimulation. The elevations of pHm, Δψm, and [NAD(P)H]m indicate an increased capacity for ATP production. Elevations in pHm were blocked by manipulations which blocked mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake, including replacement of extracellular Ca2+ with Sr2+, and application of either tetraphenylphosphonium chloride or KB-R7943, indicating that it is Ca2+ that stimulates presynaptic mitochondrial energy metabolism. To place this phenomenon within the context of endogenous neuronal activity, the firing rates of a number of individually identified MNs were determined during fictive locomotion. Surprisingly, although endogenous firing rates are significantly different, there was little difference in presynaptic cytosolic Ca2+ levels ([Ca2+]c) between MNs when each fires at its endogenous rate. The average [Ca2+]c level (329±11nM) was slightly above the average Ca2+ affinity of the mitochondria (281±13nM). In summary, we show that when MNs fire at endogenous rates [Ca2+]c is driven into a range where mitochondria rapidly acquire Ca2+. As we also show that Ca2+ stimulates presynaptic mitochondrial energy metabolism, we conclude that [Ca2+]c levels play an integral role in coordinating mitochondrial energy metabolism with presynaptic activity in Drosophila MNs. PMID:22279208

  7. Significant Locus and Metabolic Genetic Correlations Revealed in Genome-Wide Association Study of Anorexia Nervosa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duncan, Laramie; Yilmaz, Zeynep; Gaspar, Helena; Walters, Raymond K.; Goldstein, Jackie; Anttila, Verneri; Bulik-Sullivan, Brendan; Ripke, Stephan; Thornton, Laura M.; Hinney, Anke; Daly, Mark J.; Sullivan, Patrick F; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Breen, Gerome; Bulik, Cynthia M.; Adan, RAH

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The authors conducted a genome-wide association study of anorexia nervosa and calculated genetic correlations with a series of psychiatric, educational, and metabolic phenotypes. Method: Following uniformquality control and imputation procedures using the 1000 Genomes Project (phase 3) in

  8. Significant locus and metabolic genetic correlations revealed in genome-wide association study of anorexia nervosa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duncan, Laramie; Yilmaz, Zeynep; Gaspar, Helena; Walters, Raymond; Goldstein, Jackie; Anttila, Verneri; Bulik-Sullivan, Brendan; Ripke, Stephan; Thornton, Laura; Hinney, Anke; Daly, Mark; Sullivan, Patrick F; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Breen, Gerome; Bulik, Cynthia M; Kas, Martinus J.H.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The authors conducted a genome-wide association study of anorexia nervosa and calculated genetic correlations with a series of psychiatric, educational, and metabolic phenotypes. METHOD: Following uniform quality control and imputation procedures using the 1000 Genomes Project (phase 3)

  9. Clinical significance of determination of changes of plasma ET-1 and CGRP contents in elderly males with metabolic syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Xiaoming; Luo Nanping; Bai Lu; Wang Xueping

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the significance of changes of plasma endothelin-1 (ET-1) and calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP) contents in elderly males with metabolic syndrome. Methods: Plasma ET-1 and CGRP contents were measured with RIA in 65 elderly males with hypertension and 65 elderly males with diabetes. The blood lipid and sugar contents were measured simultaneously. 35 controls entered this study. Results: The plasma ET-1 contents in elderly males with simple hypertension, diabetes and metabolic syndrome were all significantly higher than those in controls (P<0.01, P<0.05, P<0.05). Levels in hypertensives were significantly higher than those in diabetics (P<0.05). The plasma CGRP levels in the elderly males with hypertension and with metabolic syndrome were all significantly lower than those in controls (P<0.05, P<0.05). The CGRP levels in these subjects were significantly negatively correlated with the ET-1 levels (r= -0.75, P<0.01; r=-0.53, P<0.01). Conclusion: Changes of plasma ET-1 and CGRP levels in elderly males with metabolic syndrome were clinically significant, especially in the pathogenesis of hypertension. (authors)

  10. Activating transcription factor 3 regulates immune and metabolic homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rynes, Jan; Donohoe, Colin D; Frommolt, Peter; Brodesser, Susanne; Jindra, Marek; Uhlirova, Mirka

    2012-10-01

    Integration of metabolic and immune responses during animal development ensures energy balance, permitting both growth and defense. Disturbed homeostasis causes organ failure, growth retardation, and metabolic disorders. Here, we show that the Drosophila melanogaster activating transcription factor 3 (Atf3) safeguards metabolic and immune system homeostasis. Loss of Atf3 results in chronic inflammation and starvation responses mounted primarily by the larval gut epithelium, while the fat body suffers lipid overload, causing energy imbalance and death. Hyperactive proinflammatory and stress signaling through NF-κB/Relish, Jun N-terminal kinase, and FOXO in atf3 mutants deregulates genes important for immune defense, digestion, and lipid metabolism. Reducing the dose of either FOXO or Relish normalizes both lipid metabolism and gene expression in atf3 mutants. The function of Atf3 is conserved, as human ATF3 averts some of the Drosophila mutant phenotypes, improving their survival. The single Drosophila Atf3 may incorporate the diversified roles of two related mammalian proteins.

  11. Association between physical activity and metabolic syndrome among Malay adults in a developing country, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Anne H Y; Moy, F M

    2014-03-01

    Metabolic syndrome is a highly prevalent health problem within the adult population in developing countries. We aimed to study the association of physical activity levels and metabolic risk factors among Malay adults in Malaysia. Cross-sectional. Body mass index, waist circumference, and systolic/diastolic blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, fasting triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were measured in 686 Malay participants (aged 35-74 years). Self-reported physical activity was obtained with the validated International Physical Activity Questionnaire (Malay version) and categorized into low, moderate or high activity levels. Individuals who were classified as overweight and obese predominated (65.6%). On the basis of the modified NCEP ATP III criteria, metabolic syndrome was diagnosed in 31.9% of all participants, of whom 46.1% were men and 53.9% were women. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome among participants with low, moderate or high activity levels was 13.3%, 11.7% and 7.0%, respectively (p<0.001). Statistically significant negative associations were found between a number of metabolic risk factors and activity categories (p<0.05). The odds ratios for metabolic syndrome in the moderate and high activity categories were 0.42 (95% CI: 0.27-0.65) and 0.52 (95% CI: 0.35-0.76), respectively, adjusted for gender. Moderate and high activity levels were each associated with reduced odds for metabolic syndrome independent of gender. Although a slightly lower prevalence of metabolic syndrome was associated with high activity than with moderate activity, potential health benefits were observed when moderate activity was performed. Copyright © 2013 Sports Medicine Australia. All rights reserved.

  12. In Vitro Effects of Sports and Energy Drinks on Streptococcus mutans Biofilm Formation and Metabolic Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinson, LaQuia A; Goodlett, Amy K; Huang, Ruijie; Eckert, George J; Gregory, Richard L

    2017-09-15

    Sports and energy drinks are being increasingly consumed and contain large amounts of sugars, which are known to increase Streptococcus mutans biofilm formation and metabolic activity. The purpose of this in vitro study was to investigate the effects of sports and energy drinks on S. mutans biofilm formation and metabolic activity. S. mutans UA159 was cultured with and without a dilution (1:3 ratio) of a variety of sports and energy drinks in bacterial media for 24 hours. The biofilm was washed, fixed, and stained. Biofilm growth was evaluated by reading absorbance of the crystal violet. Biofilm metabolic activity was measured by the biofilm-reducing XTT to a water-soluble orange compound. Gatorade Protein Recovery Shake and Starbucks Doubleshot Espresso Energy were found to significantly increase biofilm (30-fold and 22-fold, respectively) and metabolic activity (2-fold and 3-fold, respectively). However, most of the remaining drinks significantly inhibited biofilm growth and metabolic activity. Several sports and energy drinks, with sugars or sugar substitutes as their main ingredients inhibited S. mutans biofilm formation. Among the drinks evaluated, Gatorade Protein Recovery Chocolate Shake and Starbucks Doubleshot Energy appear to have cariogenic potential since they increased the biofilm formation and metabolic activity of S. mutans.

  13. Peroxisome Proliferators-Activated Receptor (PPAR Modulators and Metabolic Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Chul Cho

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Overweight and obesity lead to an increased risk for metabolic disorders such as impaired glucose regulation/insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and hypertension. Several molecular drug targets with potential to prevent or treat metabolic disorders have been revealed. Interestingly, the activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR, which belongs to the nuclear receptor superfamily, has many beneficial clinical effects. PPAR directly modulates gene expression by binding to a specific ligand. All PPAR subtypes (α,γ, and σ are involved in glucose metabolism, lipid metabolism, and energy balance. PPAR agonists play an important role in therapeutic aspects of metabolic disorders. However, undesired effects of the existing PPAR agonists have been reported. A great deal of recent research has focused on the discovery of new PPAR modulators with more beneficial effects and more safety without producing undesired side effects. Herein, we briefly review the roles of PPAR in metabolic disorders, the effects of PPAR modulators in metabolic disorders, and the technologies with which to discover new PPAR modulators.

  14. Clinical significance of determination of serum leptin, insulin levels and blood sugar in pregnant women with glucose metabolism disturbances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Suqing; Li Yusheng; Wang Lin; Chu Kaiqiu

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the changes of serum leptin, insulin levels and blood sugar contents in pregnant women with gestational glucose metabolism disturbances. Methods: Fasting and 3h after oral 50g glucose serum levels of leptin were measured with RIA in 36 pregnant women with glucose metabolism disturbances (gestational diabetes mellitus or gestational impaired glucose tolerance) and 34 controls. Also, fasting serum insulin levels (with CLIA) and blood sugar contents 1h after oral 50 glucose (with glucose oxidase method) were determined in all these subjects. Results: 1. Serum levels of leptin in pregnant women with glucose metabolism disturbances were 14.9 ± 4.3 μg/L (vs controls 9.8 ± 1.7 μg/L, P<0.01). 2. The serum levels of insulin and 1 h post - 50g glucose blood sugar contents in pregnant women with glucose metabolism disturbances were 12.9±4.3mU/L and 11.0±1.4mmol/L respectively, which were both significantly positively correlated with the serum leptin levels (r=0.835, r=0.758 respectively) (vs levels in controls: 8.45±3.0mU/L and 7.84±1.3mmol/L). Conclusion: Elevation of fasting serum levels of leptin was demonstrated in pregnant women with glucose metabolism disturbances and the level of leptin was positively correlated with that of insulin and blood sugar. (authors)

  15. Linking neuronal brain activity to the glucose metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göbel, Britta; Oltmanns, Kerstin M; Chung, Matthias

    2013-08-29

    Energy homeostasis ensures the functionality of the entire organism. The human brain as a missing link in the global regulation of the complex whole body energy metabolism is subject to recent investigation. The goal of this study is to gain insight into the influence of neuronal brain activity on cerebral and peripheral energy metabolism. In particular, the tight link between brain energy supply and metabolic responses of the organism is of interest. We aim to identifying regulatory elements of the human brain in the whole body energy homeostasis. First, we introduce a general mathematical model describing the human whole body energy metabolism. It takes into account the two central roles of the brain in terms of energy metabolism. The brain is considered as energy consumer as well as regulatory instance. Secondly, we validate our mathematical model by experimental data. Cerebral high-energy phosphate content and peripheral glucose metabolism are measured in healthy men upon neuronal activation induced by transcranial direct current stimulation versus sham stimulation. By parameter estimation we identify model parameters that provide insight into underlying neurophysiological processes. Identified parameters reveal effects of neuronal activity on regulatory mechanisms of systemic glucose metabolism. Our examinations support the view that the brain increases its glucose supply upon neuronal activation. The results indicate that the brain supplies itself with energy according to its needs, and preeminence of cerebral energy supply is reflected. This mechanism ensures balanced cerebral energy homeostasis. The hypothesis of the central role of the brain in whole body energy homeostasis as active controller is supported.

  16. STAT3 Activities and Energy Metabolism: Dangerous Liaisons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camporeale, Annalisa, E-mail: annalisa.camporeale@unito.it [Molecular Biotechnology Center and Department of Molecular Biotechnology and Life Sciences, University of Turin, Via Nizza 52, Turin 10126 (Italy); Demaria, Marco [Buck Institute for Research on Aging, 8001 Redwood Blvd, Novato, CA 94945 (United States); Monteleone, Emanuele [Molecular Biotechnology Center and Department of Molecular Biotechnology and Life Sciences, University of Turin, Via Nizza 52, Turin 10126 (Italy); Giorgi, Carlotta [Department of Experimental and Diagnostic Medicine, Section of General Pathology, Laboratory for Technologies of Advances Therapies (LTTA), University of Ferrara, Via Fossato di Mortara 70, Ferrara 44121 (Italy); Wieckowski, Mariusz R. [Nencki Institute of Experimental Biology, Department of Biochemistry, Pasteur Str. 3, Warsaw 02-093 (Poland); Pinton, Paolo [Department of Experimental and Diagnostic Medicine, Section of General Pathology, Laboratory for Technologies of Advances Therapies (LTTA), University of Ferrara, Via Fossato di Mortara 70, Ferrara 44121 (Italy); Poli, Valeria, E-mail: annalisa.camporeale@unito.it [Molecular Biotechnology Center and Department of Molecular Biotechnology and Life Sciences, University of Turin, Via Nizza 52, Turin 10126 (Italy)

    2014-07-31

    STAT3 mediates cytokine and growth factor receptor signalling, becoming transcriptionally active upon tyrosine 705 phosphorylation (Y-P). Constitutively Y-P STAT3 is observed in many tumors that become addicted to its activity, and STAT3 transcriptional activation is required for tumor transformation downstream of several oncogenes. We have recently demonstrated that constitutively active STAT3 drives a metabolic switch towards aerobic glycolysis through the transcriptional induction of Hif-1α and the down-regulation of mitochondrial activity, in both MEF cells expressing constitutively active STAT3 (Stat3{sup C/C}) and STAT3-addicted tumor cells. This novel metabolic function is likely involved in mediating pre-oncogenic features in the primary Stat3{sup C/C} MEFs such as resistance to apoptosis and senescence and rapid proliferation. Moreover, it strongly contributes to the ability of primary Stat3{sup C/C} MEFs to undergo malignant transformation upon spontaneous immortalization, a feature that may explain the well known causative link between STAT3 constitutive activity and tumor transformation under chronic inflammatory conditions. Taken together with the recently uncovered role of STAT3 in regulating energy metabolism from within the mitochondrion when phosphorylated on Ser 727, these data place STAT3 at the center of a hub regulating energy metabolism under different conditions, in most cases promoting cell survival, proliferation and malignant transformation even though with distinct mechanisms.

  17. STAT3 Activities and Energy Metabolism: Dangerous Liaisons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camporeale, Annalisa; Demaria, Marco; Monteleone, Emanuele; Giorgi, Carlotta; Wieckowski, Mariusz R.; Pinton, Paolo; Poli, Valeria

    2014-01-01

    STAT3 mediates cytokine and growth factor receptor signalling, becoming transcriptionally active upon tyrosine 705 phosphorylation (Y-P). Constitutively Y-P STAT3 is observed in many tumors that become addicted to its activity, and STAT3 transcriptional activation is required for tumor transformation downstream of several oncogenes. We have recently demonstrated that constitutively active STAT3 drives a metabolic switch towards aerobic glycolysis through the transcriptional induction of Hif-1α and the down-regulation of mitochondrial activity, in both MEF cells expressing constitutively active STAT3 (Stat3 C/C ) and STAT3-addicted tumor cells. This novel metabolic function is likely involved in mediating pre-oncogenic features in the primary Stat3 C/C MEFs such as resistance to apoptosis and senescence and rapid proliferation. Moreover, it strongly contributes to the ability of primary Stat3 C/C MEFs to undergo malignant transformation upon spontaneous immortalization, a feature that may explain the well known causative link between STAT3 constitutive activity and tumor transformation under chronic inflammatory conditions. Taken together with the recently uncovered role of STAT3 in regulating energy metabolism from within the mitochondrion when phosphorylated on Ser 727, these data place STAT3 at the center of a hub regulating energy metabolism under different conditions, in most cases promoting cell survival, proliferation and malignant transformation even though with distinct mechanisms

  18. Physical activity effects on bone metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, E L; Gilligan, C

    1991-01-01

    The incidence of osteoporotic fractures rises exponentially with age and is increasing faster than the demographic increase in the aging population. Physical activity has great potential to reduce the risk for osteoporotic fractures. Three independent but interactive factors contribute to the risk of fractures: bone strength, the risk of falling, and the effectiveness of neuromuscular response that protects the skeleton from injury. Exercise can reduce fracture risk not only by preventing bone loss, but by decreasing the risk of falling and the force of impact by improving strength, flexibility, balance, and reaction time. Extreme inactivity causes rapid bone loss of up to 40%, while athletic activity results in bone hypertrophy of up to 40%. Exercise intervention programs have reduced bone loss or increased bone mass in both men and women of various ages and initial bone status. These benefits have been shown for arm bone mineral content, total body calcium, spine, calcium bone index, tibia, and calcaneus. In both middle-aged and elderly women, physical activity intervention reduced bone loss or increased bone mass. The mechanisms for maintenance of skeletal integrity rely on a cellular response to hormonal and mechanical load stimuli. Studies in animal models show that training affects cellular activity. In osteoporotics, cellular erosion is increased and mineral apposition rate (MAR) decreased compared with normal age-matched controls. In contrast to this, sows trained on a treadmill 20 min per day for 20 weeks had greater active periosteal surface, periosteal MAR, and osteonal MAR than untrained sows.

  19. Metabolic-epigenetic crosstalk in macrophage activation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baardman, Jeroen; Licht, Iris; de Winther, Menno P. J.; van den Bossche, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Epigenetic enzymes are emerging as crucial controllers of macrophages, innate immune cells that determine the outcome of many inflammatory diseases. Recent studies demonstrate that the activity of particular chromatin-modifying enzymes is regulated by the availability of specific metabolites like

  20. Effects of activation of endocannabinoid system on myocardial metabolism

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    Agnieszka Polak

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Endocannabinoids exert their effect on the regulation of energy homeostasis via activation of specific receptors. They control food intake, secretion of insulin, lipids and glucose metabolism, lipid storage. Long chain fatty acids are the main myocardial energy substrate. However, the heart exerts enormous metabolic flexibility emphasized by its ability to utilzation not only fatty acids, but also glucose, lactate and ketone bodies. Endocannabinoids can directly act on the cardiomyocytes through the CB1 and CB2 receptors present in cardiomyocytes. It appears that direct activation of CB1 receptors promotes increased lipogenesis, pericardial steatosis and bioelectrical dysfunction of the heart. In contrast, stimulation of CB2 receptors exhibits cardioprotective properties, helping to maintain appropriate amount of ATP in cardiomyocytes. Furthermore, the effects of endocannabinoids at both the central nervous system and peripheral tissues, such as liver, pancreas, or adipose tissue, resulting indirectly in plasma availability of energy substrates and affects myocardial metabolism. To date, there is little evidence that describes effects of activation of the endocannabinoid system in the cardiovascular system under physiological conditions. In the present paper the impact of metabolic diseases, i. e. obesity and diabetes, as well as the cardiovascular diseases - hypertension, myocardial ischemia and myocardial infarction on the deregulation of the endocannabinoid system and its effect on the metabolism are described.

  1. Glucose metabolism regulates T cell activation, differentiation and functions

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    Clovis Steve Palmer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The adaptive immune system is equipped to eliminate both tumors and pathogenic microorganisms. It requires a series of complex and coordinated signals to drive the activation, proliferation and differentiation of appropriate T cell subsets. It is now established that changes in cellular activation are coupled to profound changes in cellular metabolism. In addition, emerging evidence now suggest that specific metabolic alterations associated with distinct T cell subsets may be ancillary to their differentiation and influential in their immune functions. The Warburg effect originally used to describe a phenomenon in which most cancer cells relied on aerobic glycolysis for their growth is a key process that sustain T cell activation and differentiation. Here we review how different aspects of metabolism in T cells influence their functions, focusing on the emerging role of key regulators of glucose metabolism such as HIF-1α. A thorough understanding of the role of metabolism in T cell function could provide insights into mechanisms involved in inflammatory-mediated conditions, with the potential for developing novel therapeutic approaches to treat these diseases.

  2. Significance of magnetic resonance imaging for early rheumatoid arthritis activity

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    E Y Pogozeva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assess possibility of magnetic resonance image (MRI application for rheu- matoid arthritis (RA activity and severity assessment.Material and methods. 100 pts with RA who fulfilled the 1987 ACR criteria with disease duration less than 12 months were included. Standard clinical examination with evaluation of tender and swollen joint counts, acute phase markers, hand and foot X-ray and hand MRI with 0,2 T Artoscan apparatus (ESAOTE Biomedica, Italy were performed.Results. MRI showed hand joint synovitis in 94,5%, erosions – in 67,3% of cases. X-ray examination revealed erosions in only 20,8% of pts. Localization of erosions revealed by X-ray and MRI coincided in 36,4% of cases and in 61,8% of pts erosions were detected only by MRI. MRI confirmed clinical conclusion about presence or absence of metacarpophalangeal and wrist joint synovitis in 64,5% and 74,5% of cases respectively. In8,2% and 21,8% MRI revealed signs of synovitis in clinically intact joints. MRI synovitis score correlated with clinical and laboratory measures of disease activity – DAS 28 (r=0,37, p=0,001, CRP(r=0,30, p=0,001, ESR (r=0,42, p=0,001, HAQ (r=0,24, p=0,001. Weak correlation was revealed between ESR and presence of erosions (r=0,29, CRP, ESR and MRI signs of bone marrow edema (r=0,27, p=0,005 and r=0,29, p=0,002 respectively. Relationship between laboratory and clinical features was weaker and referred only to CRP level and swollen joint count (p=0,05.Conclusion. MRI signs may be used as additional and independent measures of inflammatory activity (particularly synovitis score and severity of RA

  3. Pedometer assessed physical activity of people with metabolic syndrome in Poland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Owlasiuk

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available introduction. Metabolic syndrome is a contemporary disease of civilization, an effect of lack of healthy behaviour, a consequence of lifestyle devoid of physical activity, eating poor quality food rich in calories and excessive stress. Apart from a proper diet, physical activity remains an important part of metabolic syndrome management. objective. The main objective of the work was to evaluate the physical activity of an adult population of patients with metabolic syndrome. materials and method. Adults aged 35–70 fulfilling the criteria of metabolic syndrome according to International Diabetes Federation (IDF were included. New Lifestyles NL-2000 pedometers were used to assess locomotive physical activity during an entire week. results. In the group of 100 subjects, as many as 61 people (61% represented low or sedentary activity, while nearly one fourth of the respondents – 23 (32% represented the negligible activity type. Average weekly physical activity of those in the study was 6,743 steps/day (in 100 individuals and ranged from 1,781–15,169. A great diversity was found in the study group, since the highest number of steps per day was 23,347 and the lowest – 409. No significant differences in the number of steps on weekdays and at weekends were observed (mean: 6,676/day and 6,913/day, espectively. A statistically significant negative correlation (r = -0.29 was observed between age and physical activity, between the average daily number of steps in the week and Waist Hip Ratio (WHR (r = 0.201, as well as between the average daily number of steps in the week and Body Mass Index (BMI (r = 0.226. conclusions. The majority of people with metabolic syndrome represent a low or sedentary activity type and decrease of physical activity corresponds to increasing age, BMI and WHR. No significant differences in physical activity are observed between working days and free days (weekends.

  4. III. Cellular ultrastructures in situ as key to understanding tumor energy metabolism: biological significance of the Warburg effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witkiewicz, Halina; Oh, Phil; Schnitzer, Jan E

    2013-01-01

    cell cycle through mitosis, indicated that Warburg effect had a fundamental biological significance extending to non-malignant tissues. The approach used here could facilitate integration of accumulated cyber knowledge on cancer metabolism into predictive science.

  5. HIV protease inhibitors disrupt lipid metabolism by activating endoplasmic reticulum stress and inhibiting autophagy activity in adipocytes.

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    Beth S Zha

    Full Text Available HIV protease inhibitors (PI are core components of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART, the most effective treatment for HIV infection currently available. However, HIV PIs have now been linked to lipodystrophy and dyslipidemia, which are major risk factors for cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome. Our previous studies have shown that HIV PIs activate endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress and disrupt lipid metabolism in hepatocytes and macrophages. Yet, little is known on how HIV PIs disrupt lipid metabolism in adipocytes, a major cell type involved in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome.Cultured and primary mouse adipocytes and human adipocytes were used to examine the effect of frequently used HIV PIs in the clinic, lopinavir/ritonavir, on adipocyte differentiation and further identify the underlying molecular mechanism of HIV PI-induced dysregulation of lipid metabolism in adipocytes. The results indicated that lopinavir alone or in combination with ritonavir, significantly activated the ER stress response, inhibited cell differentiation, and induced cell apoptosis in adipocytes. In addition, HIV PI-induced ER stress was closely linked to inhibition of autophagy activity. We also identified through the use of primary adipocytes of CHOP(-/- mice that CHOP, the major transcriptional factor of the ER stress signaling pathway, is involved in lopinavir/ritonavir-induced inhibition of cell differentiation in adipocytes. In addition, lopinavir/ritonavir-induced ER stress appears to be associated with inhibition of autophagy activity in adipocytes.Activation of ER stress and impairment of autophagy activity are involved in HIV PI-induced dysregulation of lipid metabolism in adipocytes. The key components of ER stress and autophagy signaling pathways are potential therapeutic targets for HIV PI-induced metabolic side effects in HIV patients.

  6. Recent earthquake activity in Trichonis region and its tectonic significance

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    N. DELIBASIS

    1977-06-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY. - The aftershock activity associated with the central Greece
    (Trichonis Lake earthquake of |une-Dec. 1975, has been studied, with emphasis
    on the time and magnitude distribution. It has been found that the value of b,
    in Gutenberg - R i c h t e r ' s relationship was near the same for the primary as
    well as the secondary or second order aftershocks of the sequences, but depends
    upon the focal depth.
    A correlation between the calculated focal mechanisms and the associated
    stress components to the distribution pattern of meizoseismic effects as well
    as to the geological structure of the seismic region was found.
    The seismic region lies at the top of an anticline which was found moving
    downwards, apparently due to compressional stresses.
    Within the series of three earthquakes the progress of the destruction of
    the buildings was observed and reported. The interest is concentrated to modern
    buildings out of reinforced concrete and infill brick walls. The relatively unexpected
    rather bad performance of the later case of buildings was compared to that
    of the traditional small houses out of brick or stone masonry, the behaviour of
    which may be considered as better from what it was expected.

  7. Metabolic activation of the bladder carcinogen 4-nitrobiphenyl (NBP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swaminathan, S.

    1986-01-01

    The metabolism of NBP, a dog bladder carcinogen, was examined in vitro using rat liver tissues. NBP was metabolized by enzymes localized both in the microsomes and cytosol. The microsomal enzyme activity was inducible by Aroclor 1254 and phenobarbital. High pressure liquid chromatography analysis of the ethyl acetate extract of the reaction mixture, following incubation of [ 3 H]NBP with NADPH and microsomes, revealed four radioactive and UV absorbing peaks with retention times of 5, 8, 14 and 28 min. The peaks at 8, 14 and 28 min corresponded with 4-aminobiphenyl (ABP), NBP and azoxy biphenyl, respectively. The early eluting component with a retention time of 5 min has been tentatively identified as a ring hydroxylated derivative. In contrast to microsomal metabolism, cytosol-mediated metabolism yielded only one major metabolite identified as ABP. Cytosol-mediate reduction was inhibited by the xanthine oxidase inhibitor allopurinol. In vitro incubation of NBP with NADH and commercial preparations of xanthine oxidase also yielded ABP and the formation of the latter was blocked by allopurinol. Xanthine oxidase catalyzed also the binding of [ 3 H]NBP to DNA and proteins; the binding was inhibited by allopurinol. These data support the hypothesis that the nitro reduction step is involved in the activation of the bladder carcinogen NBP, and that the nitroreductases occur in both the microsomes and cytosol. The cytosolic activity is primarily due to xanthine oxidase

  8. Effectiveness of physical activity intervention among government employees with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huei Phing, Chee; Abu Saad, Hazizi; Barakatun Nisak, M Y; Mohd Nasir, M T

    2017-12-01

    Our study aimed to assess the effects of physical activity interventions via standing banners (point-of-decision prompt) and aerobics classes to promote physical activity among individuals with metabolic syndrome. We conducted a cluster randomized controlled intervention trial (16-week intervention and 8-week follow-up). Malaysian government employees in Putrajaya, Malaysia, with metabolic syndrome were randomly assigned by cluster to a point-of-decision prompt group (n = 44), an aerobics group (n = 42) or a control group (n = 103) based on sample size calculation formula. Step counts were evaluated by Lifecorder e-STEP accelerometers for all participants. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the 'harmonizing' definition, in which individuals who have at least three of the five metabolic risk factors (waist circumference, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, fasting glucose levels, systolic and diastolic blood pressure) will be classified as having metabolic syndrome. A total of 80% of the enrolled government employees with metabolic syndrome completed the programme. Data were analyzed using SPSS for Windows (version 20, SPSS, Chicago, IL). There were significantly higher step counts on average in the aerobics group compared to the control group over assessments. Assessments at baseline, post-intervention and follow-up showed a significant difference in step counts between the intervention and control groups. The greatest reductions in the proportions of individuals with metabolic syndrome were observed in the aerobics group with a reduction of 79.4% in the post-intervention assessment compared to the assessment at baseline. The findings of this study suggest that physical activity intervention via aerobics classes is an effective strategy for improving step counts and reducing the prevalence of metabolic syndrome.

  9. Activating Transcription Factor 3 Regulates Immune and Metabolic Homeostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rynes, Jan; Donohoe, Colin D.; Frommolt, Peter; Brodesser, Susanne; Jindra, Marek

    2012-01-01

    Integration of metabolic and immune responses during animal development ensures energy balance, permitting both growth and defense. Disturbed homeostasis causes organ failure, growth retardation, and metabolic disorders. Here, we show that the Drosophila melanogaster activating transcription factor 3 (Atf3) safeguards metabolic and immune system homeostasis. Loss of Atf3 results in chronic inflammation and starvation responses mounted primarily by the larval gut epithelium, while the fat body suffers lipid overload, causing energy imbalance and death. Hyperactive proinflammatory and stress signaling through NF-κB/Relish, Jun N-terminal kinase, and FOXO in atf3 mutants deregulates genes important for immune defense, digestion, and lipid metabolism. Reducing the dose of either FOXO or Relish normalizes both lipid metabolism and gene expression in atf3 mutants. The function of Atf3 is conserved, as human ATF3 averts some of the Drosophila mutant phenotypes, improving their survival. The single Drosophila Atf3 may incorporate the diversified roles of two related mammalian proteins. PMID:22851689

  10. Metabolic activation of 2-methylfuran by rat microsomal systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravindranath, V.; Boyd, M.R.

    1985-01-01

    2-Methylfuran (2-MF), a constituent of cigarette smoke and coffee, causes necrosis of liver, lungs, and kidneys in rodents. 2-MF is metabolically activated by mixed-function oxidases to acetylacrolein, a reactive metabolite that binds covalently to microsomal protein. The hepatic microsomal metabolism of 2-MF to reactive metabolite required the presence of NADPH and oxygen and was dependent on incubation time and substrate concentration. The microsomal metabolism of 2-MF was inducible by pretreatment of rats with phenobarbital and was inhibited by piperonyl butoxide and N-octyl imidazole, which indicates that the metabolism of 2-MF may be mediated by cytochrome P-450. Acetylacrolein was a potent inhibitor of mixed-function oxidase and completely inhibited the microsomal metabolism of 2-MF, indicating that 2-MF is a suicide substrate for the enzyme. The sulfhydryl nucleophile cysteine was a better trapping agent of the reactive metabolite of 2-MF than N-acetylcysteine or glutathione. Lysine decreased the covalent binding of 2-MF metabolites, presumably by reacting with the aldehyde group of acetylacrolein. In addition, in the presence of NADPH, 2-MF was bioactivated by both pulmonary and renal cortical microsomes to reactive metabolites that were covalently bound to microsomal proteins

  11. Significant biochemical, biophysical and metabolic diversity in circulating human cord blood reticulocytes.

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    Benoît Malleret

    Full Text Available The transition from enucleated reticulocytes to mature normocytes is marked by substantial remodeling of the erythrocytic cytoplasm and membrane. Despite conspicuous changes, most studies describe the maturing reticulocyte as a homogenous erythropoietic cell type. While reticulocyte staging based on fluorescent RNA stains such as thiazole orange have been useful in a clinical setting; these 'sub-vital' stains may confound delicate studies on reticulocyte biology and may preclude their use in heamoparasite invasion studies.Here we use highly purified populations of reticulocytes isolated from cord blood, sorted by flow cytometry into four sequential subpopulations based on transferrin receptor (CD71 expression: CD71high, CD71medium, CD71low and CD71negative. Each of these subgroups was phenotyped in terms of their, morphology, membrane antigens, biomechanical properties and metabolomic profile.Superficially CD71high and CD71medium reticulocytes share a similar gross morphology (large and multilobular when compared to the smaller, smooth and increasingly concave reticulocytes as seen in the in the CD71low and CD71negativesamples. However, between each of the four sample sets we observe significant decreases in shear modulus, cytoadhesive capacity, erythroid receptor expression (CD44, CD55, CD147, CD235R, and CD242 and metabolite concentrations. Interestingly increasing amounts of boric acid was found in the mature reticulocytes.Reticulocyte maturation is a dynamic and continuous process, confounding efforts to rigidly classify them. Certainly this study does not offer an alternative classification strategy; instead we used a nondestructive sampling method to examine key phenotypic changes of in reticulocytes. Our study emphasizes a need to focus greater attention on reticulocyte biology.

  12. 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase, metabolism and exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschenbach, William G; Sakamoto, Kei; Goodyear, Laurie J

    2004-01-01

    The 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a member of a metabolite-sensing protein kinase family that functions as a metabolic 'fuel gauge' in skeletal muscle. AMPK is a ubiquitous heterotrimeric protein, consisting of an alpha catalytic, and beta and gamma regulatory subunits that exist in multiple isoforms and are all required for full enzymatic activity. During exercise, AMPK becomes activated in skeletal muscle in response to changes in cellular energy status (e.g. increased adenosine monophosphate [AMP]/adenosine triphosphate [ATP] and creatine/phosphocreatine ratios) in an intensity-dependent manner, and serves to inhibit ATP-consuming pathways, and activate pathways involved in carbohydrate and fatty-acid metabolism to restore ATP levels. Recent evidence shows that although AMPK plays this key metabolic role during acute bouts of exercise, it is also an important component of the adaptive response of skeletal muscles to endurance exercise training because of its ability to alter muscle fuel reserves and expression of several exercise-responsive genes. This review discusses the putative roles of AMPK in acute and chronic exercise responses, and suggests avenues for future AMPK research in exercise physiology and biochemistry.

  13. Association of physical activity with metabolic syndrome in a predominantly rural Nigerian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguoma, Victor M; Nwose, Ezekiel U; Skinner, Timothy C; Richards, Ross S; Digban, Kester A; Onyia, Innocent C

    2016-01-01

    Physical activity is an essential determinant of health. However, there is dearth of evidence regarding prevalence of physical activity in developing countries, especially its association with metabolic syndrome risk factors. This study assessed the association of physical activity with metabolic syndrome in a Nigerian population. A cross-sectional study was carried out on apparently healthy persons who are ≥ 18 years old. The World Health Organisation (WHO) Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ) was used to collect five domains of physical activity. Participants were classified as physically active or inactive based on meeting the cut-off value of 600 MET-min/week. Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed using the Joint Scientific Statement on Harmonizing the Metabolic Syndrome criteria. Overall prevalence of physically active individuals was 50.1% (CI: 45.6-54.7%). Physical inactivity is significantly more in females (p40 years old (pmetabolic syndrome appeared more likely to be physically active (OR=1.48, CI: 0.71-3.09); physical inactivity showed to exist more among participants who were living in urban area (OR=6.61, CI: 3.40-12.85, pmetabolic syndrome risk factors. The high prevalence of physical inactivity in this study population is a clear indication that concerted efforts to improve physical activity may be required. However, it seems that metabolic syndrome is not improved by being physically active. This suggests that interventions directed at physical activity alone may not produce optimal efficacy in this study population. Copyright © 2015 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Postprandial Monocyte Activation in Individuals With Metabolic Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Ilvira M.; Pokharel, Yashashwi; Dadu, Razvan T.; Lewis, Dorothy E.; Hoogeveen, Ron C.; Wu, Huaizhu

    2016-01-01

    Context: Postprandial hyperlipidemia has been suggested to contribute to atherogenesis by inducing proinflammatory changes in monocytes. Individuals with metabolic syndrome (MS), shown to have higher blood triglyceride concentration and delayed triglyceride clearance, may thus have increased risk for development of atherosclerosis. Objective: Our objective was to examine fasting levels and effects of a high-fat meal on phenotypes of monocyte subsets in individuals with obesity and MS and in healthy controls. Design, Setting, Participants, Intervention: Individuals with obesity and MS and gender- and age-matched healthy controls were recruited. Blood was collected from participants after an overnight fast (baseline) and at 3 and 5 hours after ingestion of a high-fat meal. At each time point, monocyte phenotypes were examined by multiparameter flow cytometry. Main Outcome Measures: Baseline levels of activation markers and postprandial inflammatory response in each of the three monocyte subsets were measured. Results: At baseline, individuals with obesity and MS had higher proportions of circulating lipid-laden foamy monocytes than controls, which were positively correlated with fasting triglyceride levels. Additionally, the MS group had increased counts of nonclassical monocytes, higher CD11c, CX3CR1, and human leukocyte antigen-DR levels on intermediate monocytes, and higher CCR5 and tumor necrosis factor-α levels on classical monocytes in the circulation. Postprandial triglyceride increases in both groups were paralleled by upregulation of lipid-laden foamy monocytes. MS, but not control, subjects had significant postprandial increases of CD11c and percentages of IL-1β+ and tumor necrosis factor-α+ cells in nonclassical monocytes. Conclusions: Compared to controls, individuals with obesity and MS had increased fasting and postprandial monocyte lipid accumulation and activation. PMID:27575945

  15. Functional relationships between plasmids and their significance for metabolism and symbiotic performance of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stasiak, Grażyna; Mazur, Andrzej; Wielbo, Jerzy; Marczak, Małgorzata; Zebracki, Kamil; Koper, Piotr; Skorupska, Anna

    2014-11-01

    Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii TA1 (RtTA1) is a soil bacterium establishing a highly specific symbiotic relationship with clover, which is based on the exchange of molecular signals between the host plant and the microsymbiont. The RtTA1 genome is large and multipartite, composed of a chromosome and four plasmids, which comprise approximately 65 % and 35 % of the total genome, respectively. Extrachromosomal replicons were previously shown to confer significant metabolic versatility to bacteria, which is important for their adaptation in the soil and nodulation competitiveness. To investigate the contribution of individual RtTA1 plasmids to the overall cell phenotype, metabolic properties and symbiotic performance, a transposon-based elimination strategy was employed. RtTA1 derivatives cured of pRleTA1b or pRleTA1d and deleted in pRleTA1a were obtained. In contrast to the in silico predictions of pRleTA1b and pRleTA1d, which were described as chromid-like replicons, both appeared to be completely curable. On the other hand, for pRleTA1a (symbiotic plasmid) and pRleTA1c, which were proposed to be unessential for RtTA1 viability, it was not possible to eliminate them at all (pRleTA1c) or entirely (pRleTA1a). Analyses of the phenotypic traits of the RtTA1 derivatives obtained revealed the functional significance of individual plasmids and their indispensability for growth, certain metabolic pathways, production of surface polysaccharides, autoaggregation, biofilm formation, motility and symbiotic performance. Moreover, the results allow us to suggest broad functional cooperation among the plasmids in shaping the phenotypic properties and symbiotic capabilities of rhizobia.

  16. Inactivation of adipose angiotensinogen reduces adipose tissue macrophages and increases metabolic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeMieux, Monique J; Ramalingam, Latha; Mynatt, Randall L; Kalupahana, Nishan S; Kim, Jung Han; Moustaïd-Moussa, Naïma

    2016-02-01

    The adipose renin-angiotensin system (RAS) has been linked to obesity-induced inflammation, though mechanisms are not completely understood. In this study, adipose-specific angiotensinogen knockout mice (Agt-KO) were generated to determine whether Agt inactivation reduces inflammation and alters the metabolic profile of the Agt-KO mice compared to wild-type (WT) littermates. Adipose tissue-specific Agt-KO mice were created using the Cre-LoxP system with both Agt-KO and WT littermates fed either a low-fat or high-fat diet to assess metabolic changes. White adipose tissue was used for gene/protein expression analyses and WAT stromal vascular cells for metabolic extracellular flux assays. No significant differences were observed in body weight or fat mass between both genotypes on either diet. However, improved glucose clearance was observed in Agt-KO compared to WT littermates, consistent with higher expression of genes involved in insulin signaling, glucose transport, and fatty acid metabolism. Furthermore, Agt inactivation reduced total macrophage infiltration in Agt-KO mice fed both diets. Lastly, stroma vascular cells from Agt-KO mice revealed higher metabolic activity compared to WT mice. These findings indicate that adipose-specific Agt inactivation leads to reduced adipose inflammation and increased glucose tolerance mediated in part via increased metabolic activity of adipose cells. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  17. What is the clinical significance of 5-oxoproline (pyroglutamic acid) in high anion gap metabolic acidosis following paracetamol (acetaminophen) exposure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liss, D B; Paden, M S; Schwarz, E S; Mullins, M E

    2013-11-01

    Paracetamol (acetaminophen) ingestion is the most frequent pharmaceutical overdose in the developed world. Metabolic acidosis sometimes occurs, but the acidosis is infrequently persistent or severe. A growing number of case reports and case series describe high anion gap metabolic acidosis (HAGMA) following paracetamol exposure with subsequent detection or measurement of 5-oxoproline (also called pyroglutamic acid) in blood, urine, or both. Typically 5-oxoprolinuria or 5-oxoprolinemia occurs in the setting of inborn genetic errors in glutathione metabolism. It is unknown whether 5-oxoprolinemia in the setting of paracetamol exposure reflects an acquired or transient derangement of glutathione metabolism or previously unrecognized genetic defects. We reviewed the published cases of 5-oxoprolinemia or 5-oxoprolinuria among patients with HAGMA in the setting of paracetamol exposure. Our goal was to identify any consistent features that might increase our understanding of the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of similar cases. We searched the medical literature using PUBMED and EMBASE from inception to 28 August 2013 applying search terms ("oxoproline" OR "pyroglutamic acid" AND "paracetamol" OR "acetaminophen"). The intersection of these two searches returned 77 articles, of which 64 involved human subjects and were in English. Two articles, one each in Spanish and Dutch, were reviewed. An additional Google Scholar search was done with the same terms. We manually searched the reference lists of retrieved articles to identify additional four relevant articles. We focused on articles including measured 5-oxoproline concentrations in urine or blood. Twenty-two articles included quantified 5-oxoproline concentrations. Several additional articles mentioned only qualitative detection of 5-oxoproline in urine or blood without concentrations being reported. Our manual reference search yielded four additional articles for a total of 24 articles describing 43 patients

  18. Physical activity, body composition and metabolic syndrome in young adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minna K Salonen

    Full Text Available Low physical activity (PA is a major risk factor for cardiovascular and metabolic disorders in all age groups. We measured intensity and volume of PA and examined the associations between PA and the metabolic syndrome (MS, its components and body composition among young Finnish adults.The study comprises 991 men and women born 1985-86, who participated in a clinical study during the years 2009-11 which included assessments of metabolism, body composition and PA. Objectively measured (SenseWear Armband five-day PA data was available from 737 participants and was expressed in metabolic equivalents of task (MET.The prevalence of MS ranged between 8-10%. Higher total mean volume (MET-hours or intensity (MET were negatively associated with the risk of MS and separate components of MS, while the time spent at sedentary level of PA was positively associated with MS.MS was prevalent in approximately every tenth of the young adults at the age of 24 years. Higher total mean intensity and volume rates as well as longer duration spent at moderate and vigorous PA level had a beneficial impact on the risk of MS. Longer time spent at the sedentary level of PA increased the risk of MS.

  19. Activity syndromes and metabolism in giant deep-sea isopods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Alexander D. M.; Szekeres, Petra; Violich, Mackellar; Gutowsky, Lee F. G.; Eliason, Erika J.; Cooke, Steven J.

    2017-03-01

    Despite growing interest, the behavioural ecology of deep-sea organisms is largely unknown. Much of this scarcity in knowledge can be attributed to deepwater animals being secretive or comparatively 'rare', as well as technical difficulties associated with accessing such remote habitats. Here we tested whether two species of giant marine isopod (Bathynomus giganteus, Booralana tricarinata) captured from 653 to 875 m in the Caribbean Sea near Eleuthera, The Bahamas, exhibited an activity behavioural syndrome across two environmental contexts (presence/absence of food stimulus) and further whether this syndrome carried over consistently between sexes. We also measured routine metabolic rate and oxygen consumption in response to a food stimulus in B. giganteus to assess whether these variables are related to individual differences in personality. We found that both species show an activity syndrome across environmental contexts, but the underlying mechanistic basis of this syndrome, particularly in B. giganteus, is unclear. Contrary to our initial predictions, neither B. giganteus nor B. tricarinata showed any differences between mean expression of behavioural traits between sexes. Both sexes of B. tricarinata showed strong evidence of an activity syndrome underlying movement and foraging ecology, whereas only male B. giganteus showed evidence of an activity syndrome. Generally, individuals that were more active and bolder, in a standard open arena test were also more active when a food stimulus was present. Interestingly, individual differences in metabolism were not related to individual differences in behaviour based on present data. Our study provides the first measurements of behavioural syndromes and metabolism in giant deep-sea isopods.

  20. Biological role, clinical significance, and therapeutic possibilities of the recently discovered metabolic hormone fibroblastic growth factor 21.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias, Pedro; Selgas, Rafael; Romero, Sara; Díez, Juan J

    2012-09-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), a 181 amino acid circulating protein, is a member of the FGF superfamily, with relevant metabolic actions. It acts through the interaction with specific FGF receptors and a cofactor called β-Klotho, whose expression is predominantly detected in metabolically active organs. FGF21 stimulates glucose uptake in adipocytes via the induction of glucose transporter-1. This action is additive and independent of insulin. β-Cell function and survival are preserved, and glucagon secretion is reduced by this protein, thus decreasing hepatic glucose production and improving insulin sensitivity. Lipid profile has been shown to be improved by FGF21 in several animal models. FGF21 increases energy expenditure in rodents and induces weight loss in diabetic nonhuman primates. It also exerts favorable effects on hepatic steatosis and reduces tissue lipid content in rodents. Adaptive metabolic responses to fasting, including stimulation of ketogenesis and fatty acid oxidation, seem to be partially mediated by FGF21. In humans, serum FGF21 concentrations have been found elevated in insulin-resistant states, such as impaired glucose tolerance and type 2 diabetes. FGF21 levels are correlated with hepatic insulin resistance index, fasting blood glucose, HbA1c, and blood glucose after an oral glucose tolerance test. A relationship between FGF21 levels and long-term diabetic complications, such as nephropathy and carotid atheromatosis, has been reported. FGF21 levels decreased in diabetic patients after starting therapy with insulin or oral agents. Increased FGF21 serum levels have also been found to be associated with obesity. In children, it is correlated with BMI and leptin levels, whereas in adults, FGF21 levels are mainly related to several components of the metabolic syndrome. Serum FGF21 levels have been found to be elevated in patients with ischemic heart disease. In patients with renal disease, FGF21 levels exhibited a progressive increase as

  1. Adiponectin activates the AMPK signaling pathway to regulate lipid metabolism in bovine hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hui; Zhang, Liang; Li, Xinwei; Li, Xiaobing; Sun, Guoquan; Yuan, Xue; Lei, Liancheng; Liu, Juxiong; Yin, Liheng; Deng, Qinghua; Wang, Jianguo; Liu, Zhaoxi; Yang, Wentao; Wang, Zhe; Zhang, Hui; Liu, Guowen

    2013-11-01

    Adiponectin (Ad) plays a crucial role in hepatic lipid metabolism. However, the regulating mechanism of hepatic lipid metabolism by Ad in dairy cows is unclear. Hepatocytes from a newborn female calf were cultured in vitro and treated with different concentrations of Ad and BML-275 (an AMPKα inhibitor). The results showed that Ad significantly increased the expression of two Ad receptors. Furthermore, the phosphorylation and activity of AMPKα, as well as the expression levels and transcriptional activity of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-α (PPARα) and its target genes involved in lipid oxidation, showed a corresponding trend of upregulation. However, the expression levels and transcriptional activity of sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c) and carbohydrate-responsive element-binding protein (ChREBP) decreased in a similar manner. When BML-275 was added, the p-AMPKα level as well as the expression and activity of PPARα and its target genes were significantly decreased. However, the expression levels of SREBP-1c, ChREBP and their target genes showed a trend of upregulation. Furthermore, the triglyceride (TG) content was significantly decreased in the Ad-treated groups. These results indicate that Ad activates the AMPK signaling pathway and mediates lipid metabolism in bovine hepatocytes cultured in vitro by promoting lipid oxidation, suppressing lipid synthesis and reducing hepatic lipid accumulation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Acetic acid activates the AMP-activated protein kinase signaling pathway to regulate lipid metabolism in bovine hepatocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinwei Li

    Full Text Available The effect of acetic acid on hepatic lipid metabolism in ruminants differs significantly from that in monogastric animals. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the regulation mechanism of acetic acid on the hepatic lipid metabolism in dairy cows. The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK signaling pathway plays a key role in regulating hepatic lipid metabolism. In vitro, bovine hepatocytes were cultured and treated with different concentrations of sodium acetate (neutralized acetic acid and BML-275 (an AMPKα inhibitor. Acetic acid consumed a large amount of ATP, resulting in an increase in AMPKα phosphorylation. The increase in AMPKα phosphorylation increased the expression and transcriptional activity of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α, which upregulated the expression of lipid oxidation genes, thereby increasing lipid oxidation in bovine hepatocytes. Furthermore, elevated AMPKα phosphorylation reduced the expression and transcriptional activity of the sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c and the carbohydrate responsive element-binding protein, which reduced the expression of lipogenic genes, thereby decreasing lipid biosynthesis in bovine hepatocytes. In addition, activated AMPKα inhibited the activity of acetyl-CoA carboxylase. Consequently, the triglyceride content in the acetate-treated hepatocytes was significantly decreased. These results indicate that acetic acid activates the AMPKα signaling pathway to increase lipid oxidation and decrease lipid synthesis in bovine hepatocytes, thereby reducing liver fat accumulation in dairy cows.

  3. Influence of metabolism on endocrine activities of bisphenol S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skledar, Darja Gramec; Schmidt, Jan; Fic, Anja; Klopčič, Ivana; Trontelj, Jurij; Dolenc, Marija Sollner; Finel, Moshe; Mašič, Lucija Peterlin

    2016-08-01

    Bisphenol S (BPS; bis[4-hydroxyphenyl]sulfone) is commonly used as a replacement for bisphenol A in numerous consumer products. The main goal of this study was to examine the influence of different metabolic reactions that BPS undergoes on the endocrine activity. We demonstrate that hydroxylation of the aromatic ring of BPS, catalyzed mainly by the cytochrome P450 enzymes CYP3A4 and CYP2C9, is its major in-vitro phase I biotransformation. Nevertheless, coupled oxidative-conjugative reactions analyses revealed that glucuronidation and formation of BPS glucuronide is the predominant BPS metabolic pathway. BPS reactive metabolites that can be tracked as glutathione conjugates were not detected in the present study. Two in-vitro systems were used to evaluate the endocrine activity of BPS and its two main metabolites, BPS glucuronide and hydroxylated BPS 4-(4-hydroxy-benzenesulfonyl)-benzene-1,2-diol (BPSM1). In addition, we have tested two structural analogs of BPS, bis[4-(2-hydroxyetoxy)phenyl]sulfone (BHEPS) and 4,4-sulfonylbis(2-methylphenol) (dBPS). The test systems were yeast cells, for evaluating estrogenic and androgenic activities, and the GH3.TRE-Luc reporter cell line for measuring thyroid hormone activity. BPS and BPSM1 were weak agonists of the estrogen receptor, EC50 values of 8.4 × 10(-5) M and 6.7 × 10(-4) M, respectively. Additionally, BPSM1 exhibited weak antagonistic activity toward the thyroid hormone receptor, with an IC50 of 4.3 × 10(-5) M. In contrast to BPSM1, BPS glucuronide was inactive in these assays, inhibiting neither the estrogen nor the thyroid hormone receptors. Hence, glucuronidation appears to be the most important pathway for both BPS metabolism and detoxification. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Alternate radiolabeled markers for detecting metabolic activity of Mycobacterium leprae residing in murine macrophages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasad, H.K.; Hastings, R.C.

    1985-05-01

    This study demonstrated the utility of using 4% NaOH as a murine macrophage cell-solubilizing agent to discriminate between host macrophage metabolism and that of intracellular Mycobacterium leprae. A 4% concentration of NaOH had no deleterious effect on labeled mycobacteria. Thereby, alternate radiolabeled indicators of the metabolic activity of intracellular M. leprae could be experimented with. Significant incorporation of /sup 14/C-amino acid mixture, (/sup 14/C)leucine, (/sup 14/C)uridine, and carrier-free /sup 32/P was observed in cultures containing freshly extracted (''live'') strains of M. leprae as compared with control cultures containing autoclaved bacilli.

  5. Alternate radiolabeled markers for detecting metabolic activity of Mycobacterium leprae residing in murine macrophages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, H.K.; Hastings, R.C.

    1985-01-01

    This study demonstrated the utility of using 4% NaOH as a murine macrophage cell-solubilizing agent to discriminate between host macrophage metabolism and that of intracellular Mycobacterium leprae. A 4% concentration of NaOH had no deleterious effect on labeled mycobacteria. Thereby, alternate radiolabeled indicators of the metabolic activity of intracellular M. leprae could be experimented with. Significant incorporation of 14 C-amino acid mixture, [ 14 C]leucine, [ 14 C]uridine, and carrier-free 32 P was observed in cultures containing freshly extracted (''live'') strains of M. leprae as compared with control cultures containing autoclaved bacilli

  6. Changes in serum markers of iron metabolism and their clinical significance in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OU Qiang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo investigate the changes in the serum markers of iron metabolism and their clinical significance in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. MethodsA total of 68 NAFLD patients who were admitted to The Eighth People′s Hospital of Shanghai from July 2014 to April 2016 were enrolled as NAFLD group, and 70 healthy persons who underwent physical examination were enrolled as healthy control group. Among the 68 patients in the NAFLD group, 24 had NAFLD alone and 44 were complicated by abnormal alanine aminotransferase (ALT level. The levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST, ALT, total cholesterol (TC, triglyceride (TG, and serum markers of iron metabolism [serum iron (SI, serum ferritin (SF, and serum hepcidin (HEPC] were measured for all patients, and the correlations between abnormal ALT level and serum markers of iron metabolism were analyzed. The independent samples t-test was used for comparison of continuous data between groups, the chi-square test was used for comparison of categorical data between groups, and the Pearson correlation coefficient was used to investigate the correlation between two variables. ResultsThe NAFLD group had significantly higher body mass index and serum levels of ALT, AST, TC, and TG than the healthy control group (t=9.8, 8.6, 8.5, 9.2, and 2.7, all P<0.05. Compared with the healthy control group, the NAFLD group had significantly higher levels of SI (21.7±7.1 μmol/L vs 187±6.9 μmol/L, t=2.3, P=0.02 and SF (340.2±257.6 μg/L vs 119.1±81.2 μg/L, t=6.7, P<0.01 and a significantly lower level of HEPC (12.2±5.3 μg/L vs 22.2±6.5 μg/L, t=9.9, P<0.01. Compared with those with NAFLD alone, the patients complicated by abnormal ALT level had significantly higher serum levels of ALT (89±58 U/L vs 26±8 U/L, t=7.1, P<0.01, SI (23.4±6.2 μmol/L vs 19.6±7.9 μmol/L, t=2.2, P=0.03, and SF (406.2±290.0 μg/L vs 219.4±112.0 μg/L, t=3.7, P<0.01, as well as a significantly

  7. Simple glycolipids of microbes: Chemistry, biological activity and metabolic engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Mohammad Abdel-Mawgoud

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Glycosylated lipids (GLs are added-value lipid derivatives of great potential. Besides their interesting surface activities that qualify many of them to act as excellent ecological detergents, they have diverse biological activities with promising biomedical and cosmeceutical applications. Glycolipids, especially those of microbial origin, have interesting antimicrobial, anticancer, antiparasitic as well as immunomodulatory activities. Nonetheless, GLs are hardly accessing the market because of their high cost of production. We believe that experience of metabolic engineering (ME of microbial lipids for biofuel production can now be harnessed towards a successful synthesis of microbial GLs for biomedical and other applications. This review presents chemical groups of bacterial and fungal GLs, their biological activities, their general biosynthetic pathways and an insight on ME strategies for their production.

  8. [Interaction between CYP450 enzymes and metabolism of traditional Chinese medicine as well as enzyme activity assay].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Tu-lin; Su, Lian-lin; Ji, De; Gu, Wei; Mao, Chun-qin

    2015-09-01

    Drugs are exogenous compounds for human bodies, and will be metabolized by many enzymes after administration. CYP450 enzyme, as a major metabolic enzyme, is an important phase I drug metabolizing enzyme. In human bodies, about 75% of drug metabolism is conducted by CYP450 enzymes, and CYP450 enzymes is the key factor for drug interactions between traditional Chinese medicine( TCM) -TCM, TCM-medicine and other drug combination. In order to make clear the interaction between metabolic enzymes and TCM metabolism, we generally chose the enzymatic activity as an evaluation index. That is to say, the enhancement or reduction of CYP450 enzyme activity was used to infer the inducing or inhibitory effect of active ingredients and extracts of traditional Chinese medicine on enzymes. At present, the common method for measuring metabolic enzyme activity is Cocktail probe drugs, and it is the key to select the suitable probe substrates. This is of great significance for study drug's absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME) process in organisms. The study focuses on the interaction between TCMs, active ingredients, herbal extracts, cocktail probe substrates as well as CYP450 enzymes, in order to guide future studies.

  9. Clinical significance of plasminogen activator inhibitor activity in patients with exercise-induced ischemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakata, K.; Kurata, C.; Taguchi, T.; Suzuki, S.; Kobayashi, A.; Yamazaki, N.; Rydzewski, A.; Takada, Y.; Takada, A.

    1990-01-01

    To assess the fibrinolytic system in patients with exercise-induced ischemia and its relation to ischemia and severity of coronary artery disease (CAD), 47 patients with CAD confirmed by results of coronary angiography underwent symptom-limited multistage exercise thallium-201 emission computed tomography. All patients with CAD had exercise-induced ischemia as assessed from thallium-201 images. Pre- and peak exercise blood samples from each patient and preexercise blood samples from control subjects were assayed for several fibrinolytic components and were also assayed for plasma adrenaline. The extent of ischemia was defined as delta visual uptake score (total visual uptake score in delayed images minus total visual uptake score in initial images) and the severity of CAD as the number of diseased vessels. In the basal condition, plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI) activity was significantly higher in patients with exercise-induced ischemia as compared to control subjects (p less than 0.01), although there were no significant differences in other fibrinolytic variables between the two groups. Moreover, PAI activity in the basal condition displayed a significantly positive correlation with the extent of ischemia (r = 0.47, p less than 0.01). Patients with exercise-induced ischemia were divided into two groups (24 with single-vessel disease and 23 with multivessel disease). There were no significant differences in coronary risk factors, hemodynamics, or plasma adrenaline levels during exercise between single-vessel and multivessel disease except that delta visual uptake score was significantly higher in multivessel disease (p less than 0.01)

  10. An active principle of Nigella sativa L., thymoquinone, showing significant antimicrobial activity against anaerobic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randhawa, Mohammad Akram; Alenazy, Awwad Khalaf; Alrowaili, Majed Gorayan; Basha, Jamith

    2017-01-01

    Thymoquinone (TQ) is the major active principle of Nigella sativa seed (black seed) and is known to control many fungi, bacteria, and some viruses. However, the activity of TQ against anaerobic bacteria is not well demonstrated. Anaerobic bacteria can cause severe infections, including diarrhea, aspiration pneumonia, and brain abscess, particularly in immunodeficient individuals. The present study aimed to investigate the in vitro antimicrobial activity of TQ against some anaerobic pathogens in comparison to metronidazole. Standard, ATCC, strains of four anaerobic bacteria ( Clostridium difficile , Clostridium perfringens , Bacteroides fragilis , and Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron ), were initially isolated on special Brucella agar base (with hemin and vitamin K). Then, minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of TQ and metronidazole were determined against these anaerobes when grown in Brucella agar, using serial agar dilution method according to the recommended guidelines for anaerobic organisms instructed by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. TQ showed a significant antimicrobial activity against anaerobic bacteria although much weaker than metronidazole. MICs of TQ and metronidazole against various anaerobic human pathogens tested were found to be between 10-160 mg/L and 0.19-6.25 mg/L, respectively. TQ controlled the anaerobic human pathogenic bacteria, which supports the use of N. sativa in the treatment of diarrhea in folk medicine. Further investigations are in need for determination of the synergistic effect of TQ in combination with metronidazole and the activity of derivatives of TQ against anaerobic infections.

  11. Bone metabolic activity in hyperostosis cranialis interna measured with {sup 18}F-fluoride PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waterval, Jerome J.; Dongen, Thijs M.A. van; Stokroos, Robert J.; Manni, Johannes J. [Maastricht University Medical Center, Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, Maastricht (Netherlands); Teule, Jaap G.J.; Kemerink, Gerrit J.; Brans, Boudewijn [Maastricht University Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Maastricht (Netherlands); Nieman, Fred H.M. [Maastricht University Medical Center, Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Medical Technology Assessment, Maastricht (Netherlands)

    2011-05-15

    {sup 18}F-Fluoride PET/CT is a relatively undervalued diagnostic test to measure bone metabolism in bone diseases. Hyperostosis cranialis interna (HCI) is a (hereditary) bone disease characterised by endosteal hyperostosis and osteosclerosis of the skull and the skull base. Bone overgrowth causes entrapment and dysfunction of several cranial nerves. The aim of this study is to compare standardised uptake values (SUVs) at different sites in order to quantify bone metabolism in the affected anatomical regions in HCI patients. Nine affected family members, seven non-affected family members and nine non-HCI non-family members underwent {sup 18}F-fluoride PET/CT scans. SUVs were systematically measured in the different regions of interest: frontal bone, sphenoid bone, petrous bone and clivus. Moreover, the average {sup 18}F-fluoride uptake in the entire skull was measured by assessing the uptake in axial slides. Visual assessment of the PET scans of affected individuals was performed to discover the process of disturbed bone metabolism in HCI. {sup 18}F-Fluoride uptake is statistically significantly higher in the sphenoid bone and clivus regions of affected family members. Visual assessment of the scans of HCI patients is relevant in detecting disease severity and the pattern of disturbed bone metabolism throughout life. {sup 18}F-Fluoride PET/CT is useful in quantifying the metabolic activity in HCI and provides information about the process of disturbed bone metabolism in this specific disorder. Limitations are a narrow window between normal and pathological activity and the influence of age. This study emphasises that {sup 18}F-fluoride PET/CT may also be a promising diagnostic tool for other metabolic bone disorders, even those with an indolent course. (orig.)

  12. Bone metabolic activity in hyperostosis cranialis interna measured with 18F-fluoride PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waterval, Jerome J.; Dongen, Thijs M.A. van; Stokroos, Robert J.; Manni, Johannes J.; Teule, Jaap G.J.; Kemerink, Gerrit J.; Brans, Boudewijn; Nieman, Fred H.M.

    2011-01-01

    18 F-Fluoride PET/CT is a relatively undervalued diagnostic test to measure bone metabolism in bone diseases. Hyperostosis cranialis interna (HCI) is a (hereditary) bone disease characterised by endosteal hyperostosis and osteosclerosis of the skull and the skull base. Bone overgrowth causes entrapment and dysfunction of several cranial nerves. The aim of this study is to compare standardised uptake values (SUVs) at different sites in order to quantify bone metabolism in the affected anatomical regions in HCI patients. Nine affected family members, seven non-affected family members and nine non-HCI non-family members underwent 18 F-fluoride PET/CT scans. SUVs were systematically measured in the different regions of interest: frontal bone, sphenoid bone, petrous bone and clivus. Moreover, the average 18 F-fluoride uptake in the entire skull was measured by assessing the uptake in axial slides. Visual assessment of the PET scans of affected individuals was performed to discover the process of disturbed bone metabolism in HCI. 18 F-Fluoride uptake is statistically significantly higher in the sphenoid bone and clivus regions of affected family members. Visual assessment of the scans of HCI patients is relevant in detecting disease severity and the pattern of disturbed bone metabolism throughout life. 18 F-Fluoride PET/CT is useful in quantifying the metabolic activity in HCI and provides information about the process of disturbed bone metabolism in this specific disorder. Limitations are a narrow window between normal and pathological activity and the influence of age. This study emphasises that 18 F-fluoride PET/CT may also be a promising diagnostic tool for other metabolic bone disorders, even those with an indolent course. (orig.)

  13. Metabolic activation of pyrrolizidine alkaloids: insights into the structural and enzymatic basis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Jianqing; Yang, Mengbi; Fu, Peter; Ye, Yang; Lin, Ge

    2014-06-16

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are natural toxins widely distributed in plants. The toxic potencies of different PAs vary significantly. PAs are mono- or diesters of necine acids with a necine base. On the basis of the necine bases, PAs are classified into three types: retronecine-type, otonecine-type, and platynecine-type. Hepatotoxic PAs contain an unsaturated necine base. PAs exert hepatotoxicity through metabolic activation by hepatic cytochromes P450s (CYPs) to generate reactive intermediates which form pyrrole-protein adducts. These adducts provide a mechanism-based biomarker to assess PA toxicity. In the present study, metabolic activation of 12 PAs from three structural types was investigated first in mice to demonstrate significant variations in hepatic metabolic activation of different PAs. Subsequently, the structural and enzymatic factors affecting metabolic activation of these PAs were further investigated by using human liver microsomes and recombinant human CYPs. Pyrrole-protein adducts were detected in the liver and blood of mice and the in vitro systems treated with toxic retronecine-type and otonecine-type PAs having unsaturated necine bases but not with a platynecine-type PA containing a saturated necine base. Retronecine-type PAs produced more pyrrole-protein adducts than otonecine-type PAs with similar necine acids, demonstrating that the structure of necine base affected PA toxic potency. Among retronecine-type PAs, open-ring diesters generated the highest amount of pyrrole-protein adducts, followed by macrocyclic diesters, while monoesters produced the least. Only CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 activated otonecine-type PAs, while all 10 CYPs studied showed the ability to activate retronecine-type PAs. Moreover, the contribution of major CYPs involved also varied significantly among retronecine-type PAs. In conclusion, our findings provide a scientific basis for predicting the toxicities of individual PAs in biological systems based on PA structural

  14. Effects of bagging on sugar metabolism and the activity of sugar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To investigate the effects of bagging on sugar metabolism and the activity of sugar metabolism related enzymes in Qingzhong loquat fruit development, the contents of sucrose, glucose and soluble solids as well as the activities of sugar metabolism related enzymes were evaluated. The content of sucrose, glucose and ...

  15. Physical Activity Dimensions Associated with Impaired Glucose Metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amadid, Hanan; Johansen, Nanna B.; Bjerregaard, Anne-Louise

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Physical activity (PA) is important in the prevention of Type 2 diabetes, yet little is known about the role of specific dimensions of PA, including sedentary time in subgroups at risk for impaired glucose metabolism (IGM). We applied a data-driven decision tool to identify dimensions of PA...... identified subgroups in which different activity dimensions were associated with IGM. Methodology and results from this study may suggest a preliminary step toward the goal of tailoring and targeting PA interventions aimed at Type 2 diabetes prevention....... associated with IGM across age, sex, and body mass index (BMI) groups. Methods This cross-sectional study included 1501 individuals (mean (SD) age, 65.6 (6.8) yr) at high risk for Type 2 diabetes from the ADDITION-PRO study. PA was measured by an individually calibrated combined accelerometer and heart rate...

  16. Metabolic Activity Interferometer: A Powerful Tool for Testing Antibiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel R. P. Machado

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available It is demonstrated that the efficiency of antibiotics can be tested using an interferometric method. Two antibiotics were used as models to show that an interferometric method to monitor the metabolic activity of slowly growing bacteria can be a safer method to judge antimicrobial properties of substances than conventional methods. The susceptibility of Mycobacterium bovis to hexane extract of Pterodon emarginatus and to the well-known antibiotic rifampicin was tested with the interferometric method and with the conventional microplate method. The microplate method revealed a potential activity of hexane extract against M. bovis. However, the interferometric method showed that the action of this substance is rather limited. Also in the case of rifampicin, the interferometric method was able to detect resistant bacteria.

  17. Changes and significance of oxygen-metabolism and SHH signal pathway in soldiers trained in high altitude after returning to plains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li LIU

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To observe the changes in oxygen metabolism and sonic hedgehog (SHH signaling pathway in soldiers returning to plains after being stationed and trained for 6 months in a plateau. Methods  Eighty male officers and soldiers, aged 20-30 (22.3±2.9 years, after being stationed and trained on plateau (altitude 3960m for 6 months and returned to plain region (altitude 200m, were selected as subjects. Before their returning to plateau, 6 months after their station and training in plateau, and 2 days after their returning to plain, fasting venous blood samples were collected, the serum levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD, malondialdehyde (MDA and Sonic Hedgehog (SHH were determined by ELISA, the transcription of SHH mRNA was assayed by RT-PCR, and the expressions of SMO and nucleoprotein GLI2 were detected by Western blotting. All the data mentioned above were collected for statistical analysis. Results  As the subjects entered and garrisoned in plateau for 6 months, the activity of SOD decreased and the content of MDA increased significantly (P < 0.05. Both the protein expression and mRNA transcription of SHH were significantly higher after staying in plateau than in plain. When they returned to plain, both parameters decreased significantly, but were still higher than that when they lived in plain (P < 0.01. The expressions of SMO and nucleoprotein GLI2 showed a same tendency of changes. Conclusion  High altitude environment may have a great influence on oxygen metabolism of organism and SHH signal pathway, and the hypoxic environment of high altitude region is one of the conditions in activating the SHH signal pathway.

  18. Does physical activity during pregnancy adversely influence markers of the metabolic syndrome in adult offspring?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Inge; Granström, Charlotta; Rytter, Dorte

    2013-01-01

    It is unknown whether physical activity during pregnancy (PA) has long-term impact on the metabolic profile of the offspring. We investigated associations of PA with markers of the metabolic syndrome (MS) in 20y old offspring.......It is unknown whether physical activity during pregnancy (PA) has long-term impact on the metabolic profile of the offspring. We investigated associations of PA with markers of the metabolic syndrome (MS) in 20y old offspring....

  19. Reusable sunlight activated photocatalyst Ag3PO4 and its significant antibacterial activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiyagarajan, Shankar; Singh, Sarika; Bahadur, D.

    2016-01-01

    A simple and surfactant free soft chemical approach is adopted for the successful synthesis of Ag 3 PO 4 nanoparticles (NPs) at room temperature. The obtained Ag 3 PO 4 NPs are nearly spherical in shape with a size of 250 ± 50 nm. These NPs are highly efficient for the degradation of three organic dyes (methylene blue, rhodamine B and methyl orange) under four different types of light sources. In this case, the superior photocatalytic activity is mainly driven by singlet oxygen radicals and it is confirmed through the electron spin resonance (ESR) spin trapping technique, using several quenchers/sources. Notably, these NPs have the ability to absorb large portion of solar spectrum and therefore it displays higher efficiency under sunlight as compared to UV-C light and a 60 W household compact fluorescence lamp (CFL). Furthermore, these NPs exhibit excellent colloidal stability and recycling capability for the degradation of dyes. In addition, it possesses significant antibacterial activity with complete inhibition of bacterial pathogen, Escherichia coli at a very low concentration (0.01 mg/mL) after a mere 15 min of incubation time. The inhibition of bacterial growth is also suggested from the generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) in E. coli by fluorescence microscopy. Thus, these NPs may provide a potential outcome for the environmental remediation. - Graphical abstract: Schematic representation of the mechanism involved in photodegradation of organic dyes and inhibition of bacterial growth using Ag 3 PO 4 nanoparticles. - Highlights: • Excellent catalytic activity for dyes degradation under different light sources. • Mechanism involving catalyst mediated ROS generation in photocatalysis suggested. • Good recycling capability of Ag 3 PO 4 even after the fifth cycles. • Extraordinary antibacterial activity of Ag 3 PO 4 after a very short incubation time. • Detection of intracellular ROS in bacterial cells by fluorescence

  20. Significant Modules and Biological Processes between Active Components of Salvia miltiorrhiza Depside Salt and Aspirin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to examine and compare the similarities and differences between active components of S. miltiorrhiza depside salt and aspirin using perspective of pharmacological molecular networks. Active components of S. miltiorrhiza depside salt and aspirin’s related genes were identified via the STITCH4.0 and GeneCards Database. A text search engine (Agilent Literature Search 2.71 and MCODE software were applied to construct network and divide modules, respectively. Finally, 32, 2, and 28 overlapping genes, modules, and pathways were identified between active components of S. miltiorrhiza depside salt and aspirin. A multidimensional framework of drug network showed that two networks reflected commonly in human aortic endothelial cells and atherosclerosis process. Aspirin plays a more important role in metabolism, such as the well-known AA metabolism pathway and other lipid or carbohydrate metabolism pathways. S. miltiorrhiza depside salt still plays a regulatory role in type II diabetes mellitus, insulin resistance, and adipocytokine signaling pathway. Therefore, this study suggests that aspirin combined with S. miltiorrhiza depside salt may be more efficient in treatment of CHD patients, especially those with diabetes mellitus or hyperlipidemia. Further clinical trials to confirm this hypothesis are still needed.

  1. Pressurized Martian-Like Pure CO2 Atmosphere Supports Strong Growth of Cyanobacteria, and Causes Significant Changes in their Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murukesan, Gayathri; Leino, Hannu; Mäenpää, Pirkko; Ståhle, Kurt; Raksajit, Wuttinun; Lehto, Harry J.; Allahverdiyeva-Rinne, Yagut; Lehto, Kirsi

    2016-03-01

    Surviving of crews during future missions to Mars will depend on reliable and adequate supplies of essential life support materials, i.e. oxygen, food, clean water, and fuel. The most economical and sustainable (and in long term, the only viable) way to provide these supplies on Martian bases is via bio-regenerative systems, by using local resources to drive oxygenic photosynthesis. Selected cyanobacteria, grown in adequately protective containment could serve as pioneer species to produce life sustaining substrates for higher organisms. The very high (95.3 %) CO2 content in Martian atmosphere would provide an abundant carbon source for photo-assimilation, but nitrogen would be a strongly limiting substrate for bio-assimilation in this environment, and would need to be supplemented by nitrogen fertilizing. The very high supply of carbon, with rate-limiting supply of nitrogen strongly affects the growth and the metabolic pathways of the photosynthetic organisms. Here we show that modified, Martian-like atmospheric composition (nearly 100 % CO2) under various low pressure conditions (starting from 50 mbar to maintain liquid water, up to 200 mbars) supports strong cellular growth. Under high CO2 / low N2 ratio the filamentous cyanobacteria produce significant amount of H2 during light due to differentiation of high amount of heterocysts.

  2. Genome-wide association study identifies TF as a significant modifier gene of iron metabolism in HFE hemochromatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Tayrac, Marie; Roth, Marie-Paule; Jouanolle, Anne-Marie; Coppin, Hélène; le Gac, Gérald; Piperno, Alberto; Férec, Claude; Pelucchi, Sara; Scotet, Virginie; Bardou-Jacquet, Edouard; Ropert, Martine; Bouvet, Régis; Génin, Emmanuelle; Mosser, Jean; Deugnier, Yves

    2015-03-01

    Hereditary hemochromatosis (HH) is the most common form of genetic iron loading disease. It is mainly related to the homozygous C282Y/C282Y mutation in the HFE gene that is, however, a necessary but not a sufficient condition to develop clinical and even biochemical HH. This suggests that modifier genes are likely involved in the expressivity of the disease. Our aim was to identify such modifier genes. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) using DNA collected from 474 unrelated C282Y homozygotes. Associations were examined for both quantitative iron burden indices and clinical outcomes with 534,213 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) genotypes, with replication analyses in an independent sample of 748 C282Y homozygotes from four different European centres. One SNP met genome-wide statistical significance for association with transferrin concentration (rs3811647, GWAS p value of 7×10(-9) and replication p value of 5×10(-13)). This SNP, located within intron 11 of the TF gene, had a pleiotropic effect on serum iron (GWAS p value of 4.9×10(-6) and replication p value of 3.2×10(-6)). Both serum transferrin and iron levels were associated with serum ferritin levels, amount of iron removed and global clinical stage (pHFE-associated HH (HFE-HH) patients, identified the rs3811647 polymorphism in the TF gene as the only SNP significantly associated with iron metabolism through serum transferrin and iron levels. Because these two outcomes were clearly associated with the biochemical and clinical expression of the disease, an indirect link between the rs3811647 polymorphism and the phenotypic presentation of HFE-HH is likely. Copyright © 2014 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Activation of SAT1 engages polyamine metabolism with p53-mediated ferroptotic responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Yang; Wang, Shang-Jui; Li, Dawei; Chu, Bo; Gu, Wei

    2016-11-01

    Although p53-mediated cell-cycle arrest, senescence, and apoptosis remain critical barriers to cancer development, the emerging role of p53 in cell metabolism, oxidative responses, and ferroptotic cell death has been a topic of great interest. Nevertheless, it is unclear how p53 orchestrates its activities in multiple metabolic pathways into tumor suppressive effects. Here, we identified the SAT1 (spermidine/spermine N 1 -acetyltransferase 1) gene as a transcription target of p53. SAT1 is a rate-limiting enzyme in polyamine catabolism critically involved in the conversion of spermidine and spermine back to putrescine. Surprisingly, we found that activation of SAT1 expression induces lipid peroxidation and sensitizes cells to undergo ferroptosis upon reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced stress, which also leads to suppression of tumor growth in xenograft tumor models. Notably, SAT1 expression is down-regulated in human tumors, and CRISPR-cas9-mediated knockout of SAT1 expression partially abrogates p53-mediated ferroptosis. Moreover, SAT1 induction is correlated with the expression levels of arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase (ALOX15), and SAT1-induced ferroptosis is significantly abrogated in the presence of PD146176, a specific inhibitor of ALOX15. Thus, our findings uncover a metabolic target of p53 involved in ferroptotic cell death and provide insight into the regulation of polyamine metabolism and ferroptosis-mediated tumor suppression.

  4. Regulation of the yeast metabolic cycle by transcription factors with periodic activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pellegrini Matteo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background When growing budding yeast under continuous, nutrient-limited conditions, over half of yeast genes exhibit periodic expression patterns. Periodicity can also be observed in respiration, in the timing of cell division, as well as in various metabolite levels. Knowing the transcription factors involved in the yeast metabolic cycle is helpful for determining the cascade of regulatory events that cause these patterns. Results Transcription factor activities were estimated by linear regression using time series and genome-wide transcription factor binding data. Time-translation matrices were estimated using least squares and were used to model the interactions between the most significant transcription factors. The top transcription factors have functions involving respiration, cell cycle events, amino acid metabolism and glycolysis. Key regulators of transitions between phases of the yeast metabolic cycle appear to be Hap1, Hap4, Gcn4, Msn4, Swi6 and Adr1. Conclusions Analysis of the phases at which transcription factor activities peak supports previous findings suggesting that the various cellular functions occur during specific phases of the yeast metabolic cycle.

  5. Fisetin disposition and metabolism in mice: Identification of geraldol as an active metabolite. : Fisetin disposition and metabolism in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Touil, Yasmine,; Auzeil, Nicolas; Boulinguez, François; Saighi, Hanane; Regazzetti, Anne; Scherman, Daniel; Chabot, Guy,

    2011-01-01

    International audience; Although the natural flavonoid fisetin (3,3',4',7-tetrahydroxyflavone) has been recently identified as an anticancer agent with antiangiogenic properties in mice, its in vivo pharmacokinetics and metabolism are presently not characterized. Our purpose was to determine the pharmacokinetics and metabolism of fisetin in mice and determine the biological activity of a detected fisetin metabolite. After fisetin administration of an efficacious dose of 223 mg/kg i.p. in mice...

  6. Sense of coherence is significantly associated with both metabolic syndrome and lifestyle in Japanese computer software office workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusaku Morita

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Sense of coherence (SOC is an individual characteristic related to a positive life orientation, leading to effective coping. Little is known about the relationship between SOC and metabolic syndrome (MetS. This cross-sectional study aimed at testing the hypothesis that workers with a strong SOC have fewer atherosclerotic risk factors, including MetS, and healthier lifestyle behaviors. Material and Methods: One hundred and sixty-seven computer software workers aged 20–64 years underwent a periodical health examination including assessment of body mass index, waist circumference, blood pressure, blood lipid levels, fasting blood sugar (FBS levels and lifestyle behaviors (walking duration, smoking status, nutrition, alcohol consumption, and sleep duration. During this period, the participants also completed a 29-item questionnaire of SOC and the Brief Job Stress Questionnaire to assess job stressors such as job strain and workplace social support. Results: Our results showed that the participants with a stronger SOC were likely to walk for at least 1 h a day, to eat slowly or at a moderate speed, and to sleep for at least 6 h. Compared with the participants with the weakest SOC, those with the strongest SOC had a significantly lower odds ratio (OR for being overweight (OR = 0.31; 95% confidence interval (CI: 0.11–0.81, and having higher FBS levels (OR = 0.11; 95% CI: 0.02–0.54, dyslipidemia (OR = 0.29; 95% CI: 0.09–0.84, and MetS (OR = 0.12; 95% CI: 0.02–0.63, even after adjusting for age, gender and job stressors. Conclusions: High SOC is associated with a healthy lifestyle and fewer atherosclerotic risk factors, including MetS.

  7. Trends in space activities in 2014: The significance of the space activities of governments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paikowsky, Deganit; Baram, Gil; Ben-Israel, Isaac

    2016-01-01

    This article addresses the principal events of 2014 in the field of space activities, and extrapolates from them the primary trends that can be identified in governmental space activities. In 2014, global space activities centered on two vectors. The first was geopolitical, and the second relates to the matrix between increasing commercial space activities and traditional governmental space activities. In light of these two vectors, the article outlines and analyzes trends of space exploration, human spaceflights, industry and technology, cooperation versus self-reliance, and space security and sustainability. It also reviews the space activities of the leading space-faring nations.

  8. Influence of carbofuran on certain metabolic and symbiotic activities of a cowpea Rhizobium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palaniappan, S.; Balasubramanian, A.

    1983-01-01

    Using carbon 14 radioisotope an in-vitro study of the effect of insecticides, carbofuran, on the metabolic and symbiotic activities of Rhizobium sp. cowpea group, was carried out. The study indicated that at 10 ppm carbofuran inhibited the in-vitro growth of the bacterium, suppressed the oxidation of all the Trichloroacetic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates, significantly reduced glucose oxidation and translocation and affected the growth and symbiotic activities of the cowpea as reflected by a reduction in the dry matter production and total nitrogen content. The insecticide was itself degraded by the Rhizobium sp. within 30 days of incubation

  9. The metabolic activator FOXO1 binds hepatitis B virus DNA and activates its transcription

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shlomai, Amir; Shaul, Yosef

    2009-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a small DNA virus that targets the liver and infects humans worldwide. Recently we have shown that the metabolic regulator PGC-1α coactivates HBV transcription thereby rendering the virus susceptible to fluctuations in the nutritional status of the liver. PGC-1α coactivation of HBV is mediated through the liver-enriched nuclear receptor HNF4α and through another yet unknown transcription factor(s). Here we show that the forkhead transcription factor FOXO1, a known target for PGC-1α coactivation and a central mediator of glucose metabolism in the liver, binds HBV core promoter and activates its transcription. This activation is further enhanced in the presence of PGC-1α, implying that FOXO1 is a target for PGC-1α coactivation of HBV transcription. Thus, our results identify another key metabolic regulator as an activator of HBV transcription, thereby supporting the principle that HBV gene expression is regulated in a similar way to key hepatic metabolic genes.

  10. Transcriptional responses of Leptospira interrogans to host innate immunity: significant changes in metabolism, oxygen tolerance, and outer membrane.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Xue

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Leptospira interrogans is the major causative agent of leptospirosis. Phagocytosis plays important roles in the innate immune responses to L. interrogans infection, and L. interrogans can evade the killing of phagocytes. However, little is known about the adaptation of L. interrogans during this process. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To better understand the interaction of pathogenic Leptospira and innate immunity, we employed microarray and comparative genomics analyzing the responses of L. interrogans to macrophage-derived cells. During this process, L. interrogans altered expressions of many genes involved in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, energy production, signal transduction, transcription and translation, oxygen tolerance, and outer membrane proteins. Among them, the catalase gene expression was significantly up-regulated, suggesting it may contribute to resisting the oxidative pressure of the macrophages. The expressions of several major outer membrane protein (OMP genes (e.g., ompL1, lipL32, lipL41, lipL48 and ompL47 were dramatically down-regulated (10-50 folds, consistent with previous observations that the major OMPs are differentially regulated in vivo. The persistent down-regulations of these major OMPs were validated by immunoblotting. Furthermore, to gain initial insight into the gene regulation mechanisms in L. interrogans, we re-defined the transcription factors (TFs in the genome and identified the major OmpR TF gene (LB333 that is concurrently regulated with the major OMP genes, suggesting a potential role of LB333 in OMPs regulation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first report on global responses of pathogenic Leptospira to innate immunity, which revealed that the down-regulation of the major OMPs may be an immune evasion strategy of L. interrogans, and a putative TF may be involved in governing these down-regulations. Alterations of the leptospiral OMPs up interaction with host antigen

  11. Preoperative Metabolic Syndrome Is Predictive of Significant Gastric Cancer Mortality after Gastrectomy: The Fujian Prospective Investigation of Cancer (FIESTA Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Hu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome (MetS has been shown to be associated with an increased risk of gastric cancer. However, the impact of MetS on gastric cancer mortality remains largely unknown. Here, we prospectively examined the prediction of preoperative MetS for gastric cancer mortality by analyzing a subset of data from the ongoing Fujian prospective investigation of cancer (FIESTA study. This study was conducted among 3012 patients with gastric cancer who received radical gastrectomy between 2000 and 2010. The latest follow-up was completed in 2015. Blood/tissue specimens, demographic and clinicopathologic characteristics were collected at baseline. During 15-year follow-up, 1331 of 3012 patients died of gastric cancer. The median survival time (MST of patients with MetS was 31.3 months, which was significantly shorter than that of MetS-free patients (157.1 months. The coexistence of MetS before surgery was associated with a 2.3-fold increased risk for gastric cancer mortality (P < 0.001. The multivariate-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs were increased with invasion depth T1/T2 (HR = 2.78, P < 0.001, regional lymph node metastasis N0 (HR = 2.65, P < 0.001, positive distant metastasis (HR = 2.53, P < 0.001, TNM stage I/II (HR = 3.00, P < 0.001, intestinal type (HR = 2.96, P < 0.001, negative tumor embolus (HR = 2.34, P < 0.001, and tumor size ≤4.5 cm (HR = 2.49, P < 0.001. Further survival tree analysis confirmed the top splitting role of TNM stage, followed by MetS or hyperglycemia with remarkable discrimination ability. In this large cohort study, preoperative MetS, especially hyperglycemia, was predictive of significant gastric cancer mortality in patients with radical gastrectomy, especially for early stage of gastric cancer.

  12. Octulosonic acid derivatives from Roman chamomile (Chamaemelum nobile) with activities against inflammation and metabolic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jianping; Khan, Shabana I; Wang, Mei; Vasquez, Yelkaira; Yang, Min Hye; Avula, Bharathi; Wang, Yan-Hong; Avonto, Cristina; Smillie, Troy J; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2014-03-28

    Six new octulosonic acid derivatives (1-6) were isolated from the flower heads of Roman chamomile (Chamaemelum nobile). Their structures were elucidated by means of spectroscopic interpretation. The biological activity of the isolated compounds was evaluated toward multiple targets related to inflammation and metabolic disorder such as NAG-1, NF-κB, iNOS, ROS, PPARα, PPARγ, and LXR. Similar to the action of NSAIDs, all the six compounds (1-6) increased NAG-1 activity 2-3-fold. They also decreased cellular oxidative stress by inhibiting ROS generation. Compounds 3, 5, and 6 activated PPARγ 1.6-2.1-fold, while PPARα was activated 1.4-fold by compounds 5 and 6 only. None of the compounds showed significant activity against iNOS or NF-κB. This is the first report of biological activity of octulosonic acid derivatives toward multiple pathways related to inflammation and metabolic disorder. The reported anti-inflammatory, hypoglycemic, antiedemic, and antioxidant activities of Roman chamomile could be partly explained as due to the presence of these constituents.

  13. Physical activity does not attenuate the relationship between daily cortisol and metabolic syndrome in obese youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guseman, Emily Hill; Pfeiffer, Karin A; Carlson, Joseph J; Stansbury, Kathy; Eisenmann, Joey C

    2016-01-01

    We examined the associations among daily cortisol, physical activity (MVPA) and continuous metabolic syndrome score (cMetS) in obese youth. Fifty adolescents (mean age 14.8 ± 1.9 years) were recruited from medical clinics. Daily MVPA (min/day) was assessed by accelerometry. Saliva was sampled at prescribed times: immediately upon waking; 30 min after waking; and 3, 6 and 9 h after waking. Fasting lipids, glucose, waist circumference and blood pressure were used to calculate a continuous metabolic syndrome score (cMetS). Multiple linear regression analysis was used to examine associations among variables. The mean cMetS score was 4.16 ± 4.30 and did not differ by clinic or sex. No significant relationship was found between cortisol area under the curve (cAUC) and cMetS, nor did the interaction of MVPA with cAUC significantly predict cMetS. Physical activity, cortisol, and metabolic risk were not associated in this sample of obese adolescents. Future research should examine the role of insulin sensitivity in these relationships.

  14. Metabolic signals and innate immune activation in obesity and exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringseis, Robert; Eder, Klaus; Mooren, Frank C; Krüger, Karsten

    2015-01-01

    The combination of a sedentary lifestyle and excess energy intake has led to an increased prevalence of obesity which constitutes a major risk factor for several co-morbidities including type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Intensive research during the last two decades has revealed that a characteristic feature of obesity linking it to insulin resistance is the presence of chronic low-grade inflammation being indicative of activation of the innate immune system. Recent evidence suggests that activation of the innate immune system in the course of obesity is mediated by metabolic signals, such as free fatty acids (FFAs), being elevated in many obese subjects, through activation of pattern recognition receptors thereby leading to stimulation of critical inflammatory signaling cascades, like IκBα kinase/nuclear factor-κB (IKK/NF- κB), endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced unfolded protein response (UPR) and NOD-like receptor P3 (NLRP3) inflammasome pathway, that interfere with insulin signaling. Exercise is one of the main prescribed interventions in obesity management improving insulin sensitivity and reducing obesity- induced chronic inflammation. This review summarizes current knowledge of the cellular recognition mechanisms for FFAs, the inflammatory signaling pathways triggered by excess FFAs in obesity and the counteractive effects of both acute and chronic exercise on obesity-induced activation of inflammatory signaling pathways. A deeper understanding of the effects of exercise on inflammatory signaling pathways in obesity is useful to optimize preventive and therapeutic strategies to combat the increasing incidence of obesity and its comorbidities. Copyright © 2015 International Society of Exercise and Immunology. All rights reserved.

  15. Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids: Metabolic Activation Pathways Leading to Liver Tumor Initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Peter P

    2017-01-17

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) and PA N-oxides are a class of phytochemical carcinogens contained in over 6000 plant species spread around the world. It has been estimated that approximately half of the 660 PAs and PA N-oxides that have been characterized are cytotoxic, genotoxic, and tumorigenic. It was recently determined that a genotoxic mechanism of liver tumor initiation mediated by PA-derived DNA adducts is a common metabolic activation pathway of a number of PAs. We proposed this set of PA-derived DNA adducts could be a common biological biomarker of PA exposure and a potential biomarker of PA-induced liver tumor formation. We have also found that several reactive secondary pyrrolic metabolites can dissociate and interconvert to other secondary pyrrolic metabolites, resulting in the formation of the same exogenous DNA adducts. This present perspective reports the current progress on these new findings and proposes future research needed for obtaining a greater understanding of the role of this activation pathway and validating the use of this set of PA-derived DNA adducts as a biological biomarker of PA-induced liver tumor initiation.

  16. Testosterone affects hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) activity and lipid metabolism in the left ventricle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langfort, Jozef; Jagsz, Slawomir; Dobrzyn, Pawel

    2010-01-01

    tissue suggests that testosterone regulates HSL activity. To test whether this is also true in the heart, we measured HSL activity in the left ventricle of sedentary male rats that had been treated with testosterone supplementation or orchidectomy with or without testosterone substitution. Left ventricle...... HSL activity against TG was significantly elevated in intact rats supplemented with testosterone. HSL activity against both TG and diacylglyceride was reduced by orchidectomy, whereas testosterone replacement fully reversed this effect. Moreover, testosterone increased left ventricle free fatty acid...... levels, caused an inhibitory effect on carbohydrate metabolism in the heart, and elevated left ventricular phosphocreatine and ATP levels as compared to control rats. These data indicate that testosterone is involved in cardiac HSL activity regulation which, in turn, may affect cardiac lipid...

  17. The relationship between metabolic presbycusis and serum paraoxonase/arylesterase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keleş, Erol; Kapusuz, Zeliha; Gürsu, Mehmet Ferit; Karlıdag, Turgut; Kaygusuz, Irfan; Bulmuş, Funda Gülcü; Yalcın, Sinasi

    2014-01-01

    To determine the presence of a relationship between metabolic presbycusis and serum paraoxonase/arylesterase activity. A total of 30 patients who had been admitted to the Ear, Nose, and Throat (ENT) Clinic of Fırat University Medical Faculty and diagnosed as metabolic presbycusis were included in the study. The control group was composed of 30 healthy volunteers. Pure tone audiometry and impedencemeter were performed on all subjects included in the study at the audiometry laboratory of the ENT clinic. The presence of a regular hearing curve, a symmetrical sensorineural hearing loss more than 25 dB with preserved speech discrimination were accepted as criteria for metabolic presbycusis. Blood samples were drawn from the patients prior to the hearing tests. The sera were separated for measurements of total cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein, very low-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, human serum paraoxonase and arylesterase levels, respectively. No statistically significant difference was found between the patient and the control groups in terms of age and gender. Paraoxonase, arylesterase and paraoxonase/arylesterase, high-density lipoprotein levels were found to decrease in the study group and the difference was found to be statistically significant compared to the control group (P presbycusis. Furthermore, the results of this study make us think that there could be a relationship between metabolic presbycusis and cardiovascular diseases. In this case, metabolic presbycusis may be a determining parameter in the early diagnosis of cardiovascular diseases. We consider that this study may be the pioneer for further studies conducted with larger patient numbers.

  18. Assessment of chitosan-affected metabolic response by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor bioluminescent imaging-guided transcriptomic analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Hung Kao

    Full Text Available Chitosan has been widely used in food industry as a weight-loss aid and a cholesterol-lowering agent. Previous studies have shown that chitosan affects metabolic responses and contributes to anti-diabetic, hypocholesteremic, and blood glucose-lowering effects; however, the in vivo targeting sites and mechanisms of chitosan remain to be clarified. In this study, we constructed transgenic mice, which carried the luciferase genes driven by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR, a key regulator of fatty acid and glucose metabolism. Bioluminescent imaging of PPAR transgenic mice was applied to report the organs that chitosan acted on, and gene expression profiles of chitosan-targeted organs were further analyzed to elucidate the mechanisms of chitosan. Bioluminescent imaging showed that constitutive PPAR activities were detected in brain and gastrointestinal tract. Administration of chitosan significantly activated the PPAR activities in brain and stomach. Microarray analysis of brain and stomach showed that several pathways involved in lipid and glucose metabolism were regulated by chitosan. Moreover, the expression levels of metabolism-associated genes like apolipoprotein B (apoB and ghrelin genes were down-regulated by chitosan. In conclusion, these findings suggested the feasibility of PPAR bioluminescent imaging-guided transcriptomic analysis on the evaluation of chitosan-affected metabolic responses in vivo. Moreover, we newly identified that downregulated expression of apoB and ghrelin genes were novel mechanisms for chitosan-affected metabolic responses in vivo.

  19. GABAA receptor activity modulating piperine analogs: In vitro metabolic stability, metabolite identification, CYP450 reaction phenotyping, and protein binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabela, Volha; Hettich, Timm; Schlotterbeck, Götz; Wimmer, Laurin; Mihovilovic, Marko D; Guillet, Fabrice; Bouaita, Belkacem; Shevchenko, Bénédicte; Hamburger, Matthias; Oufir, Mouhssin

    2018-01-01

    In a screening of natural products for allosteric modulators of GABA A receptors (γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptor), piperine was identified as a compound targeting a benzodiazepine-independent binding site. Given that piperine is also an activator of TRPV1 (transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1) receptors involved in pain signaling and thermoregulation, a series of piperine analogs were prepared in several cycles of structural optimization, with the aim of separating GABA A and TRPV1 activating properties. We here investigated the metabolism of piperine and selected analogs in view of further cycles of lead optimization. Metabolic stability of the compounds was evaluated by incubation with pooled human liver microsomes, and metabolites were analyzed by UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS. CYP450 isoenzymes involved in metabolism of compounds were identified by reaction phenotyping with Silensomes™. Unbound fraction in whole blood was determined by rapid equilibrium dialysis. Piperine was the metabolically most stable compound. Aliphatic hydroxylation, and N- and O-dealkylation were the major routes of oxidative metabolism. Piperine was exclusively metabolized by CYP1A2, whereas CYP2C9 contributed significantly in the oxidative metabolism of all analogs. Extensive binding to blood constituents was observed for all compounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Clinical and diagnostic significance of activity of enzymes participating in endoergic reactions of patients systemic lupus erythematosus and systemic sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LA Zborovskaya

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To improve quality of diagnosis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE and systemic sclerosis (SS. Material and methods. 30 pts with SLE and 30 with SS were included. Besides complex clinical, instrumental and laboratory examination activity and isoenzymes of succinate dehydrogenase (SDG, fumarate hydrase (FH, malate dehydrogenase (MDG, cytochrome oxidase (CO were evaluated trice (at admission, after two weeks and at discharge with original methods. 30 healthy persons were included in the control group. Results. SLE and SS pts had significant changes of energy metabolism enzymes depended on clinical features of the disease. Enzyme indices at minimal activity of SLE and SS were more informative than most of traditional laboratory tests. Comparative analysis of enzyme indices in SLE and SS pts revealed some features with along with clinical, instrumental and traditional laboratory data should be consider in diagnosis of these diseases. Enzyme indices correlated with changes of pts clinical state what allow to use them as criteria of treatment efficacy.

  1. Basal metabolic regulatory responses and rhythmic activity of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Rattus sp. Low concentrations of kola nut extract stimulated the heart by increasing rate and force of contraction as well as metabolic rate. Higher concentrations reduced rate and amplitude of beat resulting, at still higher concentrations in heart failure. Keywords: Kolanut, extract, basal metabolic rate, mammalian heart ...

  2. Body mass index, metabolic factors, and striatal activation during stressful and neutral-relaxing states: an FMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastreboff, Ania M; Potenza, Marc N; Lacadie, Cheryl; Hong, Kwangik A; Sherwin, Robert S; Sinha, Rajita

    2011-02-01

    Stress is associated with alterations in neural motivational-reward pathways in the ventral striatum (VS), hormonal/metabolic changes, and weight increases. The relationship between these different factors is not well understood. We hypothesized that body mass index (BMI) status and hormonal/metabolic factors would be associated with VS activation. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to compare brain responses of overweight and obese (OW/OB: BMI ≥ 25 kg/m(2): N=27) individuals with normal weight (NW: BMI<18.5-24.9 kg/m(2): N=21) individuals during exposure to personalized stress, alcohol cue, and neutral-relaxing situations using a validated, autobiographical, script-driven, guided-imagery paradigm. Metabolic factors, including fasting plasma glucose (FPG), insulin, and leptin, were examined for their association with VS activation. Consistent with previous studies, stress and alcohol cue exposure each increased activity in cortico-limbic regions. Compared with NW individuals, OW/OB individuals showed greater VS activation in the neutral-relaxing and stress conditions. FPG was correlated with VS activation. Significant associations between VS activation and metabolic factors during stress and relaxation suggest the involvement of metabolic factors in striatal dysfunction in OW/OB individuals. This relationship may contribute to non-homeostatic feeding in obesity.

  3. Glycoprotein Ib activation by thrombin stimulates the energy metabolism in human platelets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corona de la Peña, Norma; Gutiérrez-Aguilar, Manuel; Hernández-Reséndiz, Ileana; Marín-Hernández, Álvaro

    2017-01-01

    Thrombin-induced platelet activation requires substantial amounts of ATP. However, the specific contribution of each ATP-generating pathway i.e., oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos) versus glycolysis and the biochemical mechanisms involved in the thrombin-induced activation of energy metabolism remain unclear. Here we report an integral analysis on the role of both energy pathways in human platelets activated by several agonists, and the signal transducing mechanisms associated with such activation. We found that thrombin, Trap-6, arachidonic acid, collagen, A23187, epinephrine and ADP significantly increased glycolytic flux (3–38 times vs. non-activated platelets) whereas ristocetin was ineffective. OxPhos (33 times) and mitochondrial transmembrane potential (88%) were increased only by thrombin. OxPhos was the main source of ATP in thrombin-activated platelets, whereas in platelets activated by any of the other agonists, glycolysis was the principal ATP supplier. In order to establish the biochemical mechanisms involved in the thrombin-induced OxPhos activation in platelets, several signaling pathways associated with mitochondrial activation were analyzed. Wortmannin and LY294002 (PI3K/Akt pathway inhibitors), ristocetin and heparin (GPIb inhibitors) as well as resveratrol, ATP (calcium-release inhibitors) and PP1 (Tyr-phosphorylation inhibitor) prevented the thrombin-induced platelet activation. These results suggest that thrombin activates OxPhos and glycolysis through GPIb-dependent signaling involving PI3K and Akt activation, calcium mobilization and protein phosphorylation. PMID:28817667

  4. Abnormal metabolic network activity in REM sleep behavior disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtbernd, Florian; Gagnon, Jean-François; Postuma, Ron B; Ma, Yilong; Tang, Chris C; Feigin, Andrew; Dhawan, Vijay; Vendette, Mélanie; Soucy, Jean-Paul; Eidelberg, David; Montplaisir, Jacques

    2014-02-18

    To determine whether the Parkinson disease-related covariance pattern (PDRP) expression is abnormally increased in idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) and whether increased baseline activity is associated with greater individual risk of subsequent phenoconversion. For this cohort study, we recruited 2 groups of RBD and control subjects. Cohort 1 comprised 10 subjects with RBD (63.5 ± 9.4 years old) and 10 healthy volunteers (62.7 ± 8.6 years old) who underwent resting-state metabolic brain imaging with (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose PET. Cohort 2 comprised 17 subjects with RBD (68.9 ± 4.8 years old) and 17 healthy volunteers (66.6 ± 6.0 years old) who underwent resting brain perfusion imaging with ethylcysteinate dimer SPECT. The latter group was followed clinically for 4.6 ± 2.5 years by investigators blinded to the imaging results. PDRP expression was measured in both RBD groups and compared with corresponding control values. PDRP expression was elevated in both groups of subjects with RBD (cohort 1: p abnormalities in subjects with idiopathic RBD are associated with a greater likelihood of subsequent phenoconversion to a progressive neurodegenerative syndrome.

  5. Objectively measured sedentary time, physical activity, and metabolic risk: the Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle Study (AusDiab).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Genevieve N; Wijndaele, Katrien; Dunstan, David W; Shaw, Jonathan E; Salmon, Jo; Zimmet, Paul Z; Owen, Neville

    2008-02-01

    We examined the associations of objectively measured sedentary time and physical activity with continuous indexes of metabolic risk in Australian adults without known diabetes. An accelerometer was used to derive the percentage of monitoring time spent sedentary and in light-intensity and moderate-to-vigorous-intensity activity, as well as mean activity intensity, in 169 Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle Study (AusDiab) participants (mean age 53.4 years). Associations with waist circumference, triglycerides, HDL cholesterol, resting blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, and a clustered metabolic risk score were examined. Independent of time spent in moderate-to-vigorous-intensity activity, there were significant associations of sedentary time, light-intensity time, and mean activity intensity with waist circumference and clustered metabolic risk. Independent of waist circumference, moderate-to-vigorous-intensity activity time was significantly beneficially associated with triglycerides. These findings highlight the importance of decreasing sedentary time, as well as increasing time spent in physical activity, for metabolic health.

  6. Kynurenine pathway metabolic balance influences microglia activity: Targeting kynurenine monooxygenase to dampen neuroinflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, Allison M; Parrott, Jennifer M; Tuñon, Arnulfo; Delgado, Jennifer; Redus, Laney; O'Connor, Jason C

    2018-08-01

    Chronic stress or inflammation increases tryptophan metabolism along the kynurenine pathway (KP), and the generation of neuroactive kynurenine metabolites contributes to subsequent depressive-like behaviors. Microglia regulate KP balance by preferentially producing oxidative metabolites, including quinolinic acid. Research has focused on the interplay between cytokines and HPA axis-derived corticosteroids in regulating microglial activity and effects of KP metabolites directly on neurons; however, the potential role that KP metabolites have directly on microglial activity is unknown. Here, murine microglia were stimulated with lipopolysaccharide(LPS). After 6 h, mRNA expression of interleukin(IL)-1β, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor(TNF)-α and inducible nitric oxide synthase(iNOS) was dose-dependently increased along with the rate-limiting enzymes for oxidative KP metabolism, indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase(IDO)-1 and kynurenine 3-monooxygenase(KMO). By 24 h post-LPS, kynurenine and quinolinic acid in the media was elevated. Inhibiting KMO with Ro 61-8048 during LPS challenge attenuated extracellular nitrite accumulation and expression of KMO and TNF-α in response to LPS. Similarly, primary microglia isolated from KMO -/- mice exhibited a significantly reduced pro-inflammatory response to LPS compared to WT controls. To determine whether the substrate (kynurenine) or end product (quinolinic acid) of KMO-dependent metabolism modulates the LPS response, microglia were treated with increasing concentrations of L-kynurenine or quinolinic acid in combination with LPS or saline. Interestingly, quinolinic acid did not impact the microglial LPS response. However, L-kynurenine had dose-dependent inhibitory effect on the LPS response. These data are the first to show an anti-inflammatory effect of KMO inhibition on microglia during immune challenge and suggest that KP metabolic balance may play a direct role in regulating microglia activity. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Metabolic activity of Glomus intraradices in Arum- and Paris-type arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Aarle, IM; Cavagnaro, TR; Smith, SE; Dickson, S

    Colonization of two plant species by Glomus intraradices was studied to investigate the two morphological types (Arum and Paris), their symbiotic interfaces and metabolic activities. Root pieces and sections were stained to observe the colonization and metabolic activity of all mycorrhizal

  8. Blood flow to long bones indicates activity metabolism in mammals, reptiles and dinosaurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, Roger S; Smith, Sarah L; White, Craig R; Henderson, Donald M; Schwarz-Wings, Daniela

    2012-02-07

    The cross-sectional area of a nutrient foramen of a long bone is related to blood flow requirements of the internal bone cells that are essential for dynamic bone remodelling. Foramen area increases with body size in parallel among living mammals and non-varanid reptiles, but is significantly larger in mammals. An index of blood flow rate through the foramina is about 10 times higher in mammals than in reptiles, and even higher if differences in blood pressure are considered. The scaling of foramen size correlates well with maximum whole-body metabolic rate during exercise in mammals and reptiles, but less well with resting metabolic rate. This relates to the role of blood flow associated with bone remodelling during and following activity. Mammals and varanid lizards have much higher aerobic metabolic rates and exercise-induced bone remodelling than non-varanid reptiles. Foramen areas of 10 species of dinosaur from five taxonomic groups are generally larger than from mammals, indicating a routinely highly active and aerobic lifestyle. The simple measurement holds possibilities offers the possibility of assessing other groups of extinct and living vertebrates in relation to body size, behaviour and habitat.

  9. Ruptured human Achilles tendon has elevated metabolic activity up to 1 year after repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eliasson, Pernilla; Couppé, Christian; Lonsdale, Markus

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Following Achilles tendon rupture, running is often allowed after 6 months. However, tendon healing is slow and the metabolic status of the tendon at this point is unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate tendon metabolism (glucose uptake) and vascularization at 3, 6 and 12...... demonstrate that the healing process as determined by metabolic activity and vascularization continues for 6 months after injury when large loads are typically allowed on the tendon. Indeed, metabolic activity remained elevated for more than 1 year after injury despite normalized vascularization. The robust...... negative correlation between tendon metabolism and patient-reported outcome suggests that a high metabolic activity 6 months after the injury may be related to a poor clinical healing outcome....

  10. Transcriptional activity of the giant barrel sponge, Xestospongia muta Holobiont: Molecular Evidence for Metabolic Interchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cara L Fiore

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Compared to our understanding of the taxonomic composition of the symbiotic microbes in marine sponges, the functional diversity of these symbionts is largely unknown. Furthermore, the application of genomic, transcriptomic, and proteomic techniques to functional questions on sponge host-symbiont interactions is in its infancy. In this study, we generated a transcriptome for the host and a metatranscriptome of its microbial symbionts for the giant barrel sponge, Xestospongia muta, from the Caribbean. In combination with a gene-specific approach, our goals were to 1 characterize genetic evidence for nitrogen cycling in X. muta, an important limiting nutrient on coral reefs 2 identify which prokaryotic symbiont lineages are metabolically active and, 3 characterize the metabolic potential of the prokaryotic community. Xestospongia muta expresses genes from multiple nitrogen transformation pathways that when combined with the abundance of this sponge, and previous data on dissolved inorganic nitrogen fluxes, shows that this sponge is an important contributor to nitrogen cycling on coral reefs. Additionally, we observed significant differences in gene expression of the archaeal amoA gene, which is involved in ammonia oxidation, between coral reef locations consistent with differences in the fluxes of dissolved inorganic nitrogen previously reported. In regards to symbiont metabolic potential, the genes in the biosynthetic pathways of several amino acids were present in the prokaryotic metatranscriptome dataset but in the host-derived transcripts only the catabolic reactions for these amino acids were present. A similar pattern was observed for the B vitamins (riboflavin, biotin, thiamin, cobalamin. These results expand our understanding of biogeochemical cycling in sponges, and the metabolic interchange highlighted here advances the field of symbiont physiology by elucidating specific metabolic pathways where there is high potential for host

  11. Metabolic profiles and free radical scavenging activity of Cordyceps bassiana fruiting bodies according to developmental stage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun-Hee Hyun

    Full Text Available The metabolic profiles of Cordyceps bassiana according to fruiting body developmental stage were investigated using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. We were able to detect 62 metabolites, including 48 metabolites from 70% methanol extracts and 14 metabolites from 100% n-hexane extracts. These metabolites were classified as alcohols, amino acids, organic acids, phosphoric acids, purine nucleosides and bases, sugars, saturated fatty acids, unsaturated fatty acids, or fatty amides. Significant changes in metabolite levels were found according to developmental stage. Relative levels of amino acids, purine nucleosides, and sugars were higher in development stage 3 than in the other stages. Among the amino acids, valine, isoleucine, lysine, histidine, glutamine, and aspartic acid, which are associated with ABC transporters and aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis, also showed higher levels in stage 3 samples. The free radical scavenging activities, which were significantly higher in stage 3 than in the other stages, showed a positive correlation with purine nucleoside metabolites such as adenosine, guanosine, and inosine. These results not only show metabolic profiles, but also suggest the metabolic pathways associated with fruiting body development stages in cultivated C. bassiana.

  12. Metabolic rate and thyroid activity of hens in relation to the state of feathering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietras, M

    1981-01-01

    Heat production, rectal temperature and thyroid activity were determined in NH X Lg hens that were 40 and 80% defeathered. Within individual groups there was a significant increase in heat production only in hens that were 80% defeathered. In comparison with the control group, defeathered chickens had higher metabolic rates during each examined period. During the third week of the experiment there was a temporary drop in the rectal temperature of the experimental birds. After nine weeks chicken with the greatest degree of defeathering had the highest thyroid weight and the highest levels of thyroxin in the blood plasma.

  13. Dietary patterns as compared with physical activity in relation to metabolic syndrome among Chinese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Y; Li, Y; Lai, J; Wang, D; Zhang, J; Fu, P; Yang, X; Qi, L

    2013-10-01

    To examine the nationally-representative dietary patterns and their joint effects with physical activity on the likelihood of metabolic syndrome (MS) among 20,827 Chinese adults. CNNHS was a nationally representative cross-sectional observational study. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the Joint Interim Statement definition. The "Green Water" dietary pattern, characterized by high intakes of rice and vegetables and moderate intakes in animal foods was related to the lowest prevalence of MS (15.9%). Compared to the "Green Water" dietary pattern, the "Yellow Earth" dietary pattern, characterized by high intakes of refined cereal products, tubers, cooking salt and salted vegetable was associated with a significantly elevated odds of MS (odds ratio 1.66, 95%CI: 1.40-1.96), after adjustment of age, sex, socioeconomic status and lifestyle factors. The "Western/new affluence" dietary pattern characterized by higher consumption of beef/lamb, fruit, eggs, poultry and seafood also significantly associated with MS (odds ratio: 1.37, 95%CI: 1.13-1.67). Physical activity showed significant interactions with the dietary patterns in relation to MS risk (P for interaction = 0.008). In the joint analysis, participants with the combination of sedentary activity with the "Yellow Earth" dietary pattern or the "Western/new affluence" dietary pattern both had more than three times (95%CI: 2.8-6.1) higher odds of MS than those with active activity and the "Green Water" dietary pattern. Our findings from the large Chinese national representative data indicate that dietary patterns affect the likelihood of MS. Combining healthy dietary pattern with active lifestyle may benefit more in prevention of MS. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Alimentary Habits, Physical Activity, and Framingham Global Risk Score in Metabolic Syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Thays Soliman; Piovesan, Carla Haas; Gustavo, Andréia da Silva; Macagnan, Fabrício Edler; Bodanese, Luiz Carlos; Feoli, Ana Maria Pandolfo, E-mail: anamariafeoli@hotmail.com [Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul (PUCRS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2014-04-15

    Metabolic syndrome is a complex disorder represented by a set of cardiovascular risk factors. A healthy lifestyle is strongly related to improve Quality of Life and interfere positively in the control of risk factors presented in this condition. To evaluate the effect of a program of lifestyle modification on the Framingham General Cardiovascular Risk Profile in subjects diagnosed with metabolic syndrome. A sub-analysis study of a randomized clinical trial controlled blind that lasted three months. Participants were randomized into four groups: dietary intervention + placebo (DIP), dietary intervention + supplementation of omega 3 (fish oil 3 g/day) (DIS3), dietary intervention + placebo + physical activity (DIPE) and dietary intervention + physical activity + supplementation of omega 3 (DIS3PE). The general cardiovascular risk profile of each individual was calculated before and after the intervention. The study included 70 subjects. Evaluating the score between the pre and post intervention yielded a significant value (p < 0.001). We obtained a reduction for intermediate risk in 25.7% of subjects. After intervention, there was a significant reduction (p < 0.01) on cardiovascular age, this being more significant in groups DIP (5.2%) and DIPE (5.3%). Proposed interventions produced beneficial effects for reducing cardiovascular risk score. This study emphasizes the importance of lifestyle modification in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases.

  15. Alimentary Habits, Physical Activity, and Framingham Global Risk Score in Metabolic Syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, Thays Soliman; Piovesan, Carla Haas; Gustavo, Andréia da Silva; Macagnan, Fabrício Edler; Bodanese, Luiz Carlos; Feoli, Ana Maria Pandolfo

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is a complex disorder represented by a set of cardiovascular risk factors. A healthy lifestyle is strongly related to improve Quality of Life and interfere positively in the control of risk factors presented in this condition. To evaluate the effect of a program of lifestyle modification on the Framingham General Cardiovascular Risk Profile in subjects diagnosed with metabolic syndrome. A sub-analysis study of a randomized clinical trial controlled blind that lasted three months. Participants were randomized into four groups: dietary intervention + placebo (DIP), dietary intervention + supplementation of omega 3 (fish oil 3 g/day) (DIS3), dietary intervention + placebo + physical activity (DIPE) and dietary intervention + physical activity + supplementation of omega 3 (DIS3PE). The general cardiovascular risk profile of each individual was calculated before and after the intervention. The study included 70 subjects. Evaluating the score between the pre and post intervention yielded a significant value (p < 0.001). We obtained a reduction for intermediate risk in 25.7% of subjects. After intervention, there was a significant reduction (p < 0.01) on cardiovascular age, this being more significant in groups DIP (5.2%) and DIPE (5.3%). Proposed interventions produced beneficial effects for reducing cardiovascular risk score. This study emphasizes the importance of lifestyle modification in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases

  16. Metabolic activity of sodium, measured by neutron activation, in the hands of patients suffering from bone diseases: concise communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinks, T.J.; Bewley, D.K.; Paolillo, M.; Vlotides, J.; Joplin, G.F.; Ranicar, A.S.O.

    1980-01-01

    Turnover of sodium in the human hand was studied by neutron activation. Patients suffering from various metabolic abnormalities affecting the skeleton, who were undergoing routine neutron activation for the measurement of calcium, were investigated along with a group of healthy volunteers. Neutron activation labels the sodium atoms simultaneously and with equal probability regardless of the turnover time of individual body compartments. The loss of sodium can be described either by a sum of two exponentials or by a single power function. Distinctions between patients and normal subjects were not apparent from the exponential model but were brought out by the power function. The exponent of time in the latter is a measure of clearance rate. The mean values of this parameter in (a) a group of patients suffering from acromegaly; (b) a group including Paget's disease, osteoporosis, Cushing's disease, and hyperparathyroidism; and (c) a group of healthy subjects, were found to be significantly different from each other

  17. Overweight adult cats have significantly lower voluntary physical activity than adult lean cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Godoy, Maria Rc; Shoveller, Anna K

    2017-12-01

    Objectives The objectives of the current pilot study were to evaluate whether body condition score (BCS) and body weight are significantly related to physical activity counts, and to evaluate potential interaction between BCS and voluntary physical activity measured over a 14 day period. Methods Ten (five lean, five overweight), neutered, adult American Shorthair cats were selected for this study (median age 4 ± 0.5 years). Cats with a BCS of ⩽3.0 were considered lean, whereas cats with a BCS >3.0 were considered overweight, using a 5-point scale. Cats were housed in a free-living environment with indoor/outdoor access and were individually fed once daily a commercially available dry extruded diet and allowed 1 h to eat. Voluntary physical activity was measured consecutively for 14 days using the Actical Activity Monitors that were worn parallel to the ribs and attached via a harness. Results Lean cats had a greater mean total daily voluntary physical activity ( P = 0.0059), and a greater voluntary physical activity during light ( P = 0.0023) and dark ( P = 0.0446) periods, with overweight cats having 60% of the physical activity of lean cats. Lean cats were more active before feeding and during animal care procedures. These data suggest that lean cats have a greater anticipatory physical activity prior to feeding and are more eager to have social interaction with humans than overweight cats. A significant interaction was observed between day of physical activity measurement and BCS for total daily voluntary physical activity ( P = 0.0133) and activity during the light period ( P = 0.0016) where lean cats were consistently more active than overweight cats. In general, cats were more active during weekdays vs weekends. Conclusions and relevance The results of this study suggest that overweight cats are less active than lean cats and that voluntary physical activity level appears to be influenced by social interaction with humans.

  18. Spheroid cancer stem cells display reprogrammed metabolism and obtain energy by actively running the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Masakazu; Kawana, Kei; Adachi, Katsuyuki; Fujimoto, Asaha; Yoshida, Mitsuyo; Nakamura, Hiroe; Nishida, Haruka; Inoue, Tomoko; Taguchi, Ayumi; Takahashi, Juri; Eguchi, Satoko; Yamashita, Aki; Tomio, Kensuke; Wada-Hiraike, Osamu; Oda, Katsutoshi; Nagamatsu, Takeshi; Osuga, Yutaka; Fujii, Tomoyuki

    2016-05-31

    The Warburg effect is a metabolic hallmark of cancer cells; cancer cells, unlike normal cells, exclusively activate glycolysis, even in the presence of enough oxygen. On the other hand, intratumoral heterogeneity is currently of interest in cancer research, including that involving cancer stem cells (CSCs). In the present study, we attempted to gain an understanding of metabolism in CSCs that is distinct from that in non-CSCs. After forming spheroids from the OVTOKO (ovarian clear cell adenocarcinoma) and SiHa (cervical squamous cell carcinoma) cell lines, the metabolites of these cells were compared with the metabolites of cancer cells that were cultured in adherent plates. A principle components analysis clearly divided their metabolic features. Amino acids that participate in tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle reactions, such as serine and glutamine, were significantly increased in the spheroids. Indeed, spheroids from each cell line contained more total adenylates than did their corresponding cells in adherent cultures. This study demonstrated that cancer metabolism is not limited to aerobic glycolysis (i.e. the Warburg effect), but is flexible and context-dependent. In addition, activation of TCA cycles was suggested to be a metabolic feature of CSCs that was distinct from non-CSCs. The amino acid metabolic pathways discussed here are already considered as targets for cancer therapy, and they are additionally proposed as potential targets for CSC treatment.

  19. An in vitro model for screening estrogen activity of environmental samples after metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chahbane, N.; Schramm, K.W. [GSF - Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit Neuherberg GmbH, Oberschleissheim (Germany). Inst. fuer Oekologische Chemie; Kettrup, A. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Freising (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Oekologische Chemie

    2004-09-15

    For a few years, yeast estrogen assay (YES) was accepted as a reliable and economic model for screening of environmental estrogens. Though the chemicals directly act with estrogen receptor (ER) can be filtered out by this model, there are still chemicals act with ER only after metabolism and some chemicals eliminate their estrogen activities after metabolism. That is to say, their metabolites exert or have stronger estrogen activities than themselves, which can be called bio-activation. In this case, for the lack of the metabolism enzyme system as human and other animals, only the assay with recombinant yeast cells is insufficient. So, it is necessary to combine the YES with metabolism procedure to evaluate the estrogen activities of these chemicals. The most common method used currently for in vitro metabolic activation in mutagenicity testing and also be applied to the estrogen screening field is S-9 mixture. Also, there is an attempt to develop a chemical model for cytochrome P450 as a bio-mimetic metabolic activation system. All these methods can be used as in vitro models for metabolism. Compare with these models, using whole H4II E cells for metabolism is an alternative and with superiorities. It has the excellence of short experiment period as all other in vitro models, but is much more close to the real surroundings as in vivo. Furthermore, the activity of 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) can be easily measured during the whole incubation period for us to discuss the metabolic activities in a quantitative foundation, not only in qualitative. Methoxychlor is one of the chemicals with bio-activation ability. When directly used in the YES, it shows weak estrogen activity. But a main metabolite of methoxychlor, 2,2-bis (p-hydroxyphenyl) - 1,1,1-trichloroethane (HPTE) is a known estrogen mimic. For the long time using methoxychlor as a pesticide and its clear background, it is an ideal chemical to establish this in vitro system.

  20. High-intensity interval training (swimming) significantly improves the adverse metabolism and comorbidities in diet-induced obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motta, Victor F; Aguila, Marcia B; Mandarim-DE-Lacerda, Carlos A

    2016-05-01

    Controlling obesity and other comorbidities in the population is a challenge in modern society. High-intensity interval training (HIIT) combines short periods of high-intensity exercise with long recovery periods or a low-intensity exercise. The aim was to assess the impact of HIIT in the context of diet-induced obesity in the animal model. C57BL/6 mice were fed one of the two diets: standard chow (lean group [LE]) or a high-fat diet (obese group [OB]). After twelve weeks, the animals were divided into non-trained groups (LE-NT and OB-NT) and trained groups (LE-T and OB-T), and began an exercise protocol. For biochemical analysis of inflammatory and lipid profile, we used a colorimetric enzymatic method and an automatic spectrophotometer. One-way ANOVA was used for statistical analysis of the experimental groups with Holm-Sidak post-hoc Test. Two-way ANOVA analyzed the interactions between diet and HIIT protocol. HIIT leads to significant reductions in body mass, blood glucose, glucose tolerance and hepatic lipid profile in T-groups compared to NT-groups. HIIT was able to reduce plasma levels of inflammatory cytokines. Additionally, HIIT improves the insulin immunodensity in the islets, reduces the adiposity and the hepatic steatosis in the T-groups. HIIT improves beta-oxidation and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-alpha and reduces lipogenesis and PPAR-gamma levels in the liver. In skeletal muscle, HIIT improves PPAR-alpha and glucose transporter-4 and reduces PPAR-gamma levels. HIIT leads to attenuate the adverse effects caused by a chronic ingestion of a high-fat diet.

  1. Elicitor Mixtures Significantly Increase Bioactive Compounds, Antioxidant Activity, and Quality Parameters in Sweet Bell Pepper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Garcia-Mier

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sweet bell peppers are greatly appreciated for their taste, color, pungency, and aroma. Additionally, they are good sources of bioactive compounds with antioxidant activity, which can be improved by the use of elicitors. Elicitors act as metabolite-inducing factors (MIF by mimic stress conditions. Since plants rarely experience a single stress condition one by one but are more likely to be exposed to simultaneous stresses, it is important to evaluate the effect of elicitors on plant secondary metabolism as mixtures. Jasmonic acid (JA, hydrogen peroxide (HP, and chitosan (CH were applied to fruits and plants of bell pepper as mixtures. Bioactive compounds, antioxidant activity, and quality parameters were evaluated. The assessed elicitor cocktail leads to an increase in the variables evaluated (P ≤ 0.05 when applied to mature fruits after harvest, whereas the lowest values were observed in the treatment applied to immature fruits. Therefore, the application of the elicitor cocktail to harvested mature fruits is recommended in order to improve bioactive compounds and the antioxidant activity of sweet bell peppers.

  2. Teaching physical activities to students with significant disabilities using video modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannella-Malone, Helen I; Mizrachi, Sharona V; Sabielny, Linsey M; Jimenez, Eliseo D

    2013-06-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effectiveness of video modeling on teaching physical activities to three adolescents with significant disabilities. The study implemented a multiple baseline across six physical activities (three per student): jumping rope, scooter board with cones, ladder drill (i.e., feet going in and out), ladder design (i.e., multiple steps), shuttle run, and disc ride. Additional prompt procedures (i.e., verbal, gestural, visual cues, and modeling) were implemented within the study. After the students mastered the physical activities, we tested to see if they would link the skills together (i.e., complete an obstacle course). All three students made progress learning the physical activities, but only one learned them with video modeling alone (i.e., without error correction). Video modeling can be an effective tool for teaching students with significant disabilities various physical activities, though additional prompting procedures may be needed.

  3. Future role and significance of space activities in reflection of global social, technological and economic trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diekmann, Andreas; Richarz, Hans.-Peter

    The paper describes the interrelation of space activities and global socio-economic trends like "globalisation of markets" and "renaissance of fine arts". The interrelation reveals the economic strategic, technological and scientific dimension of space activities and their benefits to mankind. Then, the significance and perspectives of space activities in these dimensions are examined in more detail. The paper calls (1) for a more visible initiative to employ space activities to tackle urgent questions of global change and development, and (2) for a stronger impetus to secure European economic position in space sector as a key industry of the 21st century.

  4. Effects of three types of physical activity on reduction of metabolic parameters involved in cardiovascular risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović-Oggiano Gordana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of present study was to investigate the effects of three different types of physical activity on reduction of the metabolic parameters mainly responsible for cardiovascular diseases. This prospective-intervention study was performed at the 'ČIGOTA' Thyroid Institute on Mt. Zlatibor (Serbia between August 2004 and June 2006. Sixty-eight overweight/obese patients aged 40-70 years with hyperlipidemia were divided into three groups according to their weight and overall health. The program of physical workout included: group I - fast walking; group II - gymnastic exercises and specially chosen exercises in the swimming pool; and group III - combined physical training of higher intensity and greater length. All patients were also on a special reduced diet of 1000 kcal per day, the AHA step-2 diet. We monitored the body mass index, body composition, glucose, cholesterol (total, LDL-, and HDL-, and triglycerides before, during, and after the intervention. After 2 and particularly 12 weeks of intervention, a significant improvement of all metabolic parameters was achieved in all three groups of patients. Although most patients completed the study with normal values of all parameters, the most desirable results were achieved in group III (combined exercises with an average energy expenditure of 900 kcal per day. Our research indicates that a specially conceived program of physical activity and diet intervention resulted in significant reduction of cardiovascular risk factors.

  5. Kaempferol ameliorates symptoms of metabolic syndrome by regulating activities of liver X receptor-β.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Minh-Hien; Jia, Yaoyao; Mok, Boram; Jun, Hee-jin; Hwang, Kwang-Yeon; Lee, Sung-Joon

    2015-08-01

    Kaempferol is a dietary flavonol previously shown to regulate cellular lipid and glucose metabolism. However, its molecular mechanisms of action and target proteins have remained elusive, probably due to the involvement of multiple proteins. This study investigated the molecular targets of kaempferol. Ligand binding of kaempferol to liver X receptors (LXRs) was quantified by time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer and surface plasmon resonance analyses. Kaempferol directly binds to and induces the transactivation of LXRs, with stronger specificity for the β-subtype (EC50 = 0.33 μM). The oral administration of kaempferol in apolipoprotein-E-deficient mice (150 mg/day/kg body weight) significantly reduced plasma glucose and increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and insulin sensitivity compared with the vehicle-fed control. Kaempferol also reduced plasma triglyceride concentrations and did not cause liver steatosis, a common side effect of potent LXR activation. In immunoblotting analysis, kaempferol reduced the nuclear accumulation of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 (SREBP-1). Our results show that the suppression of SREBP-1 activity and the selectivity for LXR-β over LXR-α by kaempferol contribute to the reductions of plasma and hepatic triglyceride concentrations in mice fed kaempferol. They also suggest that kaempferol activates LXR-β and suppresses SREBP-1 to enhance symptoms in metabolic syndrome. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Dietary patterns as compared with physical activity in relation to metabolic syndrome among Chinese adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, Y.; Li, Y.; Lai, J.; Wang, D.; Zhang, J.; Fu, P.; Yang, X.; Qi, L.

    2013-01-01

    Aims: To examine the nationally-representative dietary patterns and their joint effects with physical activity on the likelihood of metabolic syndrome (MS) among 20,827 Chinese adults. Methods and results: CNNHS was a nationally representative cross-sectional observational study. Metabolic syndrome

  7. Physical activity and sedentary behavior in metabolically healthy obese young women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies of physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB) in metabolically healthy obese (MHO) have been limited to postmenopausal white women. We sought to determine whether PA and SB differ between MHO and metabolically abnormal obese (MAO), in young black and white women....

  8. [Effects of waterlogging on the growth and energy-metabolic enzyme activities of different tree species].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gui-Bin; Cao, Fu-Liang; Zhang, Xiao-Yan; Zhang, Wang-Xiang

    2010-03-01

    Aimed to understand the waterlogging tolerance and adaptation mechanisms of different tree species, a simulated field experiment was conducted to study the growth and energy-metabolic enzyme activities of one-year-old seedlings of Taxodium distichum, Carya illinoensis, and Sapium sebiferum. Three treatments were installed, i. e., CK, waterlogging, and flooding, with the treatment duration being 60 days. Under waterlogging and flooding, the relative growth of test tree species was in the order of T. distichum > C. illinoensis > S. sebiferum, indicating that T. distichum had the strongest tolerance against waterlogging and flooding, while S. sebiferum had the weakest one. Also under waterlogging and flooding, the root/crown ratio of the three tree species increased significantly, suggesting that more photosynthates were allocated in roots, and the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) activities of the tree species also had a significant increase. Among the test tree species, T. distichum had the lowest increment of LDH and ADH activities under waterlogging and flooding, but the increment could maintain at a higher level in the treatment duration, while for C. illinoensis and S. sebiferum, the increment was larger during the initial and medium period, but declined rapidly during the later period of treatment. The malate dehydrogenase (MDH), phosphohexose (HPI), and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) -6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGDH) activities of the tree species under waterlogging and flooding had a significant decrease, and the decrement was the largest for T. distichum, being 35.6% for MDH, 21.0% for HPI, and 22.7% for G6PDH - 6PGDH under flooding. It was suggested that under waterlogging and flooding, the tree species with strong waterlogging tolerance had a higher ability to maintain energy-metabolic balance, and thus, its growth could be maintained at a certain level.

  9. Natural AMPK Activators: An Alternative Approach for the Treatment and Management of Metabolic Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Hitender; Kumar, Sunil

    2017-01-01

    This review covers recent discoveries of phytoconstituents, herbal extracts and some semi-synthetic compounds for treating metabolic syndrome with AMPK activation as one of their mechanisms of action. Recent researches have demonstrated AMPK activation to ameliorate multiple components of metabolic syndrome by regulating a balance between anabolic and catabolic cellular reactions. The review attempts to delineate the AMPK activation by natural agents from the perspective of its functional consequences on enzymes, transcription factors and signaling molecules and also on other potential factors contributing in the amelioration of metabolic syndrome. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  10. The metabolic ER stress sensor IRE1α suppresses alternative activation of macrophages and impairs energy expenditure in obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Bo; Wang, Xiaoxia; Wu, Ying; Xu, Chi; Xia, Zhixiong; Dai, Jianli; Shao, Mengle; Zhao, Feng; He, Shengqi; Yang, Liu; Zhang, Mingliang; Nan, Fajun; Li, Jia; Liu, Jianmiao; Liu, Jianfeng; Jia, Weiping; Qiu, Yifu; Song, Baoliang; Han, Jing-Dong J; Rui, Liangyou; Duan, Sheng-Zhong; Liu, Yong

    2017-05-01

    Obesity is associated with metabolic inflammation and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, both of which promote metabolic disease progression. Adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) are key players orchestrating metabolic inflammation, and ER stress enhances macrophage activation. However, whether ER stress pathways underlie ATM regulation of energy homeostasis remains unclear. Here, we identified inositol-requiring enzyme 1α (IRE1α) as a critical switch governing M1-M2 macrophage polarization and energy balance. Myeloid-specific IRE1α abrogation in Ern1 f/f ; Lyz2-Cre mice largely reversed high-fat diet (HFD)-induced M1-M2 imbalance in white adipose tissue (WAT) and blocked HFD-induced obesity, insulin resistance, hyperlipidemia and hepatic steatosis. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) activity, WAT browning and energy expenditure were significantly higher in Ern1 f/f ; Lyz2-Cre mice. Furthermore, IRE1α ablation augmented M2 polarization of macrophages in a cell-autonomous manner. Thus, IRE1α senses protein unfolding and metabolic and immunological states, and consequently guides ATM polarization. The macrophage IRE1α pathway drives obesity and metabolic syndrome through impairing BAT activity and WAT browning.

  11. Modeling and Classification of Kinetic Patterns of Dynamic Metabolic Biomarkers in Physical Activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Breit

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this work were the classification of dynamic metabolic biomarker candidates and the modeling and characterization of kinetic regulatory mechanisms in human metabolism with response to external perturbations by physical activity. Longitudinal metabolic concentration data of 47 individuals from 4 different groups were examined, obtained from a cycle ergometry cohort study. In total, 110 metabolites (within the classes of acylcarnitines, amino acids, and sugars were measured through a targeted metabolomics approach, combining tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS with the concept of stable isotope dilution (SID for metabolite quantitation. Biomarker candidates were selected by combined analysis of maximum fold changes (MFCs in concentrations and P-values resulting from statistical hypothesis testing. Characteristic kinetic signatures were identified through a mathematical modeling approach utilizing polynomial fitting. Modeled kinetic signatures were analyzed for groups with similar behavior by applying hierarchical cluster analysis. Kinetic shape templates were characterized, defining different forms of basic kinetic response patterns, such as sustained, early, late, and other forms, that can be used for metabolite classification. Acetylcarnitine (C2, showing a late response pattern and having the highest values in MFC and statistical significance, was classified as late marker and ranked as strong predictor (MFC = 1.97, P < 0.001. In the class of amino acids, highest values were shown for alanine (MFC = 1.42, P < 0.001, classified as late marker and strong predictor. Glucose yields a delayed response pattern, similar to a hockey stick function, being classified as delayed marker and ranked as moderate predictor (MFC = 1.32, P < 0.001. These findings coincide with existing knowledge on central metabolic pathways affected in exercise physiology, such as β-oxidation of fatty acids, glycolysis, and glycogenolysis. The presented modeling

  12. Plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 levels and nonalcoholic fatty liver in individuals with features of metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Larrañaga, Gabriela; Wingeyer, Silvia Perés; Graffigna, Mabel; Belli, Susana; Bendezú, Karla; Alvarez, Silvia; Levalle, Oscar; Fainboim, Hugo

    2008-07-01

    Fatty liver represents the liver component of metabolic syndrome and may be involved in plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) synthesis. We studied plasma PAI-1 levels and relationships with risk factors for metabolic syndrome, including fatty liver, in 170 patients. Liver ultrasound scan was performed on all patients, and a liver biopsy was performed on those patients with chronically elevated transaminase levels. Plasma PAI-1 levels correlated significantly (P < .05) with body mass index, degree of steatosis, insulin resistance, insulin level, waist circumference, triglycerides, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) -cholesterol. However, only body mass index (beta = .455) and HDL-cholesterol (beta = .293) remained predictors of PAI-1 levels. Liver biopsy revealed a significant correlation (P < .05) between insulin resistance (r = 0.381) or insulin level (r = 0.519) and liver fibrosis. In patients presenting features of metabolic syndrome, plasma PAI-1 levels were mainly conditioned by the whole-body fat content.

  13. Fibroblast activation protein (FAP as a novel metabolic target

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Angel Sánchez-Garrido

    2016-10-01

    Conclusions: We conclude that pharmacological inhibition of FAP enhances levels of FGF21 in obese mice to provide robust metabolic benefits not observed in lean animals, thus validating this enzyme as a novel drug target for the treatment of obesity and diabetes.

  14. Activating transcription factor 3 regulates immune and metabolic homeostasis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ryneš, J.; Donohoe, C. D.; Frommolt, P.; Brodesser, S.; Jindra, Marek; Uhlířová, M.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 19 (2012), s. 3949-3962 ISSN 0270-7306 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GD204/09/H058 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : metabolic homeostasis Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 5.372, year: 2012

  15. Quantifying interictal metabolic activity in human temporal lobe epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henry, T.R.; Mazziotta, J.C.; Engel, J. Jr.; Christenson, P.D.; Zhang, J.X.; Phelps, M.E.; Kuhl, D.E.

    1990-01-01

    The majority of patients with complex partial seizures of unilateral temporal lobe origin have interictal temporal hypometabolism on [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET) studies. Often, this hypometabolism extends to ipsilateral extratemporal sites. The use of accurately quantified metabolic data has been limited by the absence of an equally reliable method of anatomical analysis of PET images. We developed a standardized method for visual placement of anatomically configured regions of interest on FDG PET studies, which is particularly adapted to the widespread, asymmetric, and often severe interictal metabolic alterations of temporal lobe epilepsy. This method was applied by a single investigator, who was blind to the identity of subjects, to 10 normal control and 25 interictal temporal lobe epilepsy studies. All subjects had normal brain anatomical volumes on structural neuroimaging studies. The results demonstrate ipsilateral thalamic and temporal lobe involvement in the interictal hypometabolism of unilateral temporal lobe epilepsy. Ipsilateral frontal, parietal, and basal ganglial metabolism is also reduced, although not as markedly as is temporal and thalamic metabolism

  16. Diminished neuronal metabolic activity in Alzheimer's disease. Review article

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salehi, A.; Swaab, D. F.

    1999-01-01

    An increasing number of studies have appeared in the literature suggesting that Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a hypometabolic brain disorder. Decreased metabolism in AD has been revealed by a variety of in vivo and postmortem methods and techniques including positron emission tomography and glucose

  17. Chronic innate immune activation of TBK1 suppresses mTORC1 activity and dysregulates cellular metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Maroof; Gonugunta, Vijay K; Dobbs, Nicole; Ali, Aktar; Palchik, Guillermo; Calvaruso, Maria A; DeBerardinis, Ralph J; Yan, Nan

    2017-01-24

    Three-prime repair exonuclease 1 knockout (Trex1 -/- ) mice suffer from systemic inflammation caused largely by chronic activation of the cyclic GMP-AMP synthase-stimulator of interferon genes-TANK-binding kinase-interferon regulatory factor 3 (cGAS-STING-TBK1-IRF3) signaling pathway. We showed previously that Trex1-deficient cells have reduced mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) activity, although the underlying mechanism is unclear. Here, we performed detailed metabolic analysis in Trex1 -/- mice and cells that revealed both cellular and systemic metabolic defects, including reduced mitochondrial respiration and increased glycolysis, energy expenditure, and fat metabolism. We also genetically separated the inflammatory and metabolic phenotypes by showing that Sting deficiency rescued both inflammatory and metabolic phenotypes, whereas Irf3 deficiency only rescued inflammation on the Trex1 -/- background, and many metabolic defects persist in Trex1 -/- Irf3 -/- cells and mice. We also showed that Leptin deficiency (ob/ob) increased lipogenesis and prolonged survival of Trex1 -/- mice without dampening inflammation. Mechanistically, we identified TBK1 as a key regulator of mTORC1 activity in Trex1 -/- cells. Together, our data demonstrate that chronic innate immune activation of TBK1 suppresses mTORC1 activity, leading to dysregulated cellular metabolism.

  18. Quantification of metabolically active transient storage (MATS) in two reaches with contrasting transient storage and ecosystem respiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alba Argerich; Roy Haggerty; Eugènia Martí; Francesc Sabater; Jay. Zarnetske

    2011-01-01

    Water transient storage zones are hotspots for metabolic activity in streams although the contribution of different types of transient storage zones to the whole�]reach metabolic activity is difficult to quantify. In this study we present a method to measure the fraction of the transient storage that is metabolically active (MATS) in two consecutive reaches...

  19. Association of Objectively Measured Physical Activity and Metabolic Syndrome Among US Adults With Osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shao-Hsien; Waring, Molly E; Eaton, Charles B; Lapane, Kate L

    2015-10-01

    To investigate the association between objectively measured physical activity and metabolic syndrome among adults with osteoarthritis (OA). Using cross-sectional data from the 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, we identified 566 adults with OA with available accelerometer data assessed using Actigraph AM-7164 and measurements necessary to determine metabolic syndrome by the Adult Treatment Panel III. Analysis of variance was conducted to examine the association between continuous variables in each activity level and metabolic syndrome components. Logistic models estimated the relationship of quartile of daily minutes of different physical activity levels to odds of metabolic syndrome adjusted for socioeconomic and health factors. Among persons with OA, most were women average age of 62.1 years and average disease duration of 12.9 years. Half of adults with OA had metabolic syndrome (51.0%; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 44.2%-57.8%), and only 9.6% engaged in the recommended 150 minutes per week of moderate/vigorous physical activity. Total sedentary time was associated with higher rates of metabolic syndrome and its components, while light and objectively measured moderate/vigorous physical activity was inversely associated with metabolic syndrome and its components. Higher levels of light activity were associated with lower prevalence of metabolic syndrome (quartile 4 versus quartile 1: adjusted odds ratio 0.45, 95% CI 0.24-0.84, P for linear trend physical activity, especially in light intensity, is more likely to be associated with decreasing prevalence of metabolic syndrome among persons with OA. © 2015, American College of Rheumatology.

  20. Diet composition and activity level of at risk and metabolically healthy obese American adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankinson, Arlene L; Daviglus, Martha L; Van Horn, Linda; Chan, Queenie; Brown, Ian; Holmes, Elaine; Elliott, Paul; Stamler, Jeremiah

    2013-03-01

    Obesity often clusters with other major cardiovascular disease risk factors, yet a subset of the obese appears to be protected from these risks. Two obesity phenotypes are described, (i) "metabolically healthy" obese, broadly defined as body mass index (BMI) ≥ 30 kg/m(2) and favorable levels of blood pressure, lipids, and glucose; and (ii) "at risk" obese, BMI ≥ 30 with unfavorable levels of these risk factors. More than 30% of obese American adults are metabolically healthy. Diet and activity determinants of obesity phenotypes are unclear. We hypothesized that metabolically healthy obese have more favorable behavioral factors, including less adverse diet composition and higher activity levels than at risk obese in the multi-ethnic group of 775 obese American adults ages 40-59 years from the International Population Study on Macro/Micronutrients and Blood Pressure (INTERMAP) cohort. In gender-stratified analyses, mean values for diet composition and activity behavior variables, adjusted for age, race, and education, were compared between metabolically healthy and at risk obese. Nearly one in five (149/775 or 19%) of obese American INTERMAP participants were classified as metabolically healthy obese. Diet composition and most activity behaviors were similar between obesity phenotypes, although metabolically healthy obese women reported higher sleep duration than at risk obese women. These results do not support hypotheses that diet composition and/or physical activity account for the absence of cardiometabolic abnormalities in metabolically healthy obese. Copyright © 2012 The Obesity Society.

  1. Natural compounds regulate energy metabolism by the modulating the activity of lipid-sensing nuclear receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Tsuyoshi; Kim, Young-Il; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Kawada, Teruo

    2013-01-01

    Obesity causes excess fat accumulation in various tissues, most notoriously in the adipose tissue, along with other insulin-responsive organs such as skeletal muscle and the liver, which predisposes an individual to the development of metabolic abnormalities. The molecular mechanisms underlying obesity-induced metabolic abnormalities have not been completely elucidated; however, in recent years, the search for therapies to prevent the development of obesity and obesity-associated metabolic disorders has increased. It is known that several nuclear receptors, when activated by specific ligands, regulate carbohydrate and lipid metabolism at the transcriptional level. The expression of lipid metabolism-related enzymes is directly regulated by the activity of various nuclear receptors via their interaction with specific response elements in promoters of those genes. Many natural compounds act as ligands of nuclear receptors and regulate carbohydrate and lipid metabolism by regulating the activities of these nuclear receptors. In this review, we describe our current knowledge of obesity, the role of lipid-sensing nuclear receptors in energy metabolism, and several examples of food factors that act as agonists or antagonists of nuclear receptors, which may be useful for the management of obesity and the accompanying energy metabolism abnormalities. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Altered fatty acid metabolism and reduced stearoyl-coenzyme a desaturase activity in asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Perez, N; Schiavi, E; Frei, R; Ferstl, R; Wawrzyniak, P; Smolinska, S; Sokolowska, M; Sievi, N A; Kohler, M; Schmid-Grendelmeier, P; Michalovich, D; Simpson, K D; Hessel, E M; Jutel, M; Martin-Fontecha, M; Palomares, O; Akdis, C A; O'Mahony, L

    2017-11-01

    Fatty acids and lipid mediator signaling play an important role in the pathogenesis of asthma, yet this area remains largely underexplored. The aims of this study were (i) to examine fatty acid levels and their metabolism in obese and nonobese asthma patients and (ii) to determine the functional effects of altered fatty acid metabolism in experimental models. Medium- and long-chain fatty acid levels were quantified in serum from 161 human volunteers by LC/MS. Changes in stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase (SCD) expression and activity were evaluated in the ovalbumin (OVA) and house dust mite (HDM) murine models. Primary human bronchial epithelial cells from asthma patients and controls were evaluated for SCD expression and activity. The serum desaturation index (an indirect measure of SCD) was significantly reduced in nonobese asthma patients and in the OVA murine model. SCD1 gene expression was significantly reduced within the lungs following OVA or HDM challenge. Inhibition of SCD in mice promoted airway hyper-responsiveness. SCD1 expression was suppressed in bronchial epithelial cells from asthma patients. IL-4 and IL-13 reduced epithelial cell SCD1 expression. Inhibition of SCD reduced surfactant protein C expression and suppressed rhinovirus-induced IP-10 secretion, which was associated with increased viral titers. This is the first study to demonstrate decreased fatty acid desaturase activity in humans with asthma. Experimental models in mice and human epithelial cells suggest that inhibition of desaturase activity leads to airway hyper-responsiveness and reduced antiviral defense. SCD may represent a new target for therapeutic intervention in asthma patients. © 2017 EAACI and John Wiley and Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley and Sons Ltd.

  3. Effects of total solar eclipse on the behavioural and metabolic activities of tropical intertidal animals

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Parulekar, A.H.; Ansari, Z.A.; Verlecar, X.N.; Harkantra, S.N.

    To study the effects of total solar eclipse of 16th Feb. 1980, on the behaviour and metabolic activities of intertidal invertebrates - nematodes, gastropods and bivalves - having different habitat preference a set of relevant observations, covering...

  4. A specific metabolic pattern related to the hallucinatory activity in schizophrenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huret, J.D.; Martinot, J.L.; Lesur, A.; Mazoyer, B.; Pappata, S.; Syrota, A.; Baron, J.C.; Lemperiere, T.

    1988-01-01

    A clinical and PEI study using 18 F - fluorodesoxyglucose for measuring local cerebral glucose metabolism with the aim of showing a specific pattern related to the hallucinatory activity, is presented in schizophrenic patients all experiencing hallucinations or pseudo-halluccinations

  5. Cardiac Autonomic Nervous System Activation and Metabolic Profile in Young Children : The ABCD Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrijkotte, Tanja G M; van den Born, Bert-Jan H; Hoekstra, Christine M C A; Gademan, Maaike G J; van Eijsden, Manon; de Rooij, Susanne R; Twickler, Marcel T B

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In adults, increased sympathetic and decreased parasympathetic nervous system activity are associated with a less favorable metabolic profile. Whether this is already determined at early age is unknown. Therefore, we aimed to assess the association between autonomic nervous system

  6. Mutagenicity of silver nanoparticles in CHO cells dependent on particle surface functionalization and metabolic activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guigas, Claudia; Walz, Elke; Gräf, Volker; Heller, Knut J.; Greiner, Ralf

    2017-06-01

    The potential of engineered nanomaterials to induce genotoxic effects is an important aspect of hazard identification. In this study, cytotoxicity and mutagenicity as a function of metabolic activation of three silver nanoparticle (AgNP) preparations differing in surface coating were determined in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) subclone K1 cells. Three silver nanoparticle preparations ( x 90,0 culture medium containing 10% fetal calf serum (FCS) than in medium without FCS. The HPRT test without metabolic activation system S9 revealed that compared to the other AgNP formulations, citrate-coated Ag showed a lower genotoxic effect. However, addition of S9 increased the mutation frequency of all AgNPs and especially influenced the genotoxicity of Citrate-Ag. The results showed that exogenous metabolic activation of nanosilver is crucial even if interactions of the metabolic activation system, nanosilver, and cells are not really understood up to now.

  7. Effectiveness of physical activity intervention among government employees with metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chee Huei Phing

    2017-12-01

    Conclusion: The findings of this study suggest that physical activity intervention via aerobics classes is an effective strategy for improving step counts and reducing the prevalence of metabolic syndrome.

  8. Metabolic activity of boar semen stored in different extenders supplemented with ostrich egg yolk lipoproteins

    OpenAIRE

    Dziekońska Anna; Kinder Marek; Fraser Leyland; Strzeżek Jerzy; Kordan Władysław

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of lipoprotein fraction isolated from ostrich egg yolk (LPFo) on the metabolic activity of boar spermatozoa following liquid semen storage in different extenders and temperatures.

  9. Metabolic activity of boar semen stored in different extenders supplemented with ostrich egg yolk lipoproteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dziekońska Anna

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of lipoprotein fraction isolated from ostrich egg yolk (LPFo on the metabolic activity of boar spermatozoa following liquid semen storage in different extenders and temperatures.

  10. An Acute Lateral Ankle Sprain Significantly Decreases Physical Activity across the Lifespan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tricia Hubbard-Turner, Erik A. Wikstrom, Sophie Guderian, Michael J. Turner

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We do not know the impact an ankle sprain has on physical activity levels across the lifespan. With the negative consequences of physical inactivity well established, understanding the effect of an ankle sprain on this outcome is critical. The objective of this study was to measure physical activity across the lifespan after a single ankle sprain in an animal model. Thirty male mice (CBA/J were randomly placed into one of three groups: the transected calcaneofibular ligament (CFL group, the transected anterior talofibular ligament (ATFL/CFL group, and a SHAM group. Three days after surgery, all of the mice were individually housed in a cage containing a solid surface running wheel. Physical activity levels were recorded and averaged every week across the mouse’s lifespan. The SHAM mice ran significantly more distance each day compared to the remaining two running groups (post hoc p = 0.011. Daily duration was different between the three running groups (p = 0.048. The SHAM mice ran significantly more minutes each day compared to the remaining two running groups (post hoc p=0.046 while the ATFL/CFL mice ran significantly less minutes each day (post hoc p = 0.028 compared to both the SHAM and CFL only group. The SHAM mice ran at a faster daily speed versus the remaining two groups of mice (post hoc p = 0.019 and the ATFL/CFL mice ran significantly slower each day compared to the SHAM and CFL group (post hoc p = 0.005. The results of this study indicate that a single ankle sprain significantly decreases physical activity across the lifespan in mice. This decrease in physical activity can potentially lead to the development of numerous chronic diseases. An ankle sprain thus has the potential to lead to significant long term health risks if not treated appropriately.

  11. In vivo metabolic activity of hamster suprachiasmatic nuclei: use of anesthesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, W.J.

    1987-01-01

    In vivo glucose utilization was measured in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) of Golden hamsters using the 14 C-labeled deoxyglucose technique. A circadian rhythm of SCN metabolic activity could be measured in this species, but only during pentobarbital sodium anesthesia when the surrounding background activity of adjacent hypothalamus was suppressed. Both the SCN's metabolic oscillation and its time-keeping ability are resistant to general anesthesia

  12. Effectiveness of physical activity intervention among government employees with metabolic syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Chee Huei Phing; Hazizi Abu Saad; M.Y. Barakatun Nisak; M.T. Mohd Nasir

    2017-01-01

    Background/Objective: Our study aimed to assess the effects of physical activity interventions via standing banners (point-of-decision prompt) and aerobics classes to promote physical activity among individuals with metabolic syndrome. Methods: We conducted a cluster randomized controlled intervention trial (16-week intervention and 8-week follow-up). Malaysian government employees in Putrajaya, Malaysia, with metabolic syndrome were randomly assigned by cluster to a point-of-decision prom...

  13. Activity of carbohydrate metabolism enzymes of bone marrow cells of rats affected by radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sukhomlinov, B.F.; Grinyuk, Yu.S.; Sibirnaya, N.A.; Starikovich, L.S.; Khmil', M.V.

    1990-01-01

    The influence of ionizing radiation (154.8 mC/kg on activity of some carbohydrate metabolism dehydrogenases in cells of the whole and fractionated rat bone marrow has been investigated. Different glucose metabolism units differently responded to radiation, the highest radiation response being exhibited by pentosophosphate cycle processes. The pattern of changes in the enzyme activity of different myelocaryocyte populations was shown to depend directly on the functional specilization of cells and the energy exchange types predominated in them

  14. Metabolic Activity of Radish Sprouts Derived Isothiocyanates in Drosophila melanogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nieves Baenas

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We used Drosophila melanogaster as a model system to study the absorption, metabolism and potential health benefits of plant bioactives derived from radish sprouts (Raphanus sativus cv. Rambo, a Brassicaceae species rich in glucosinolates and other phytochemicals. Flies were subjected to a diet supplemented with lyophilized radish sprouts (10.6 g/L for 10 days, containing high amounts of glucoraphenin and glucoraphasatin, which can be hydrolyzed by myrosinase to the isothiocyanates sulforaphene and raphasatin, respectively. We demonstrate that Drosophila melanogaster takes up and metabolizes isothiocyanates from radish sprouts through the detection of the metabolite sulforaphane-cysteine in fly homogenates. Moreover, we report a decrease in the glucose content of flies, an upregulation of spargel expression, the Drosophila homolog of the mammalian PPARγ-coactivator 1 α, as well as the inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase in vitro. Overall, we show that the consumption of radish sprouts affects energy metabolism in Drosophila melanogaster which is reflected by lower glucose levels and an increased expression of spargel, a central player in mitochondrial biogenesis. These processes are often affected in chronic diseases associated with aging, including type II diabetes mellitus.

  15. Metabolic Activity of Radish Sprouts Derived Isothiocyanates in Drosophila melanogaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baenas, Nieves; Piegholdt, Stefanie; Schloesser, Anke; Moreno, Diego A.; García-Viguera, Cristina; Rimbach, Gerald; Wagner, Anika E.

    2016-01-01

    We used Drosophila melanogaster as a model system to study the absorption, metabolism and potential health benefits of plant bioactives derived from radish sprouts (Raphanus sativus cv. Rambo), a Brassicaceae species rich in glucosinolates and other phytochemicals. Flies were subjected to a diet supplemented with lyophilized radish sprouts (10.6 g/L) for 10 days, containing high amounts of glucoraphenin and glucoraphasatin, which can be hydrolyzed by myrosinase to the isothiocyanates sulforaphene and raphasatin, respectively. We demonstrate that Drosophila melanogaster takes up and metabolizes isothiocyanates from radish sprouts through the detection of the metabolite sulforaphane-cysteine in fly homogenates. Moreover, we report a decrease in the glucose content of flies, an upregulation of spargel expression, the Drosophila homolog of the mammalian PPARγ-coactivator 1 α, as well as the inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase in vitro. Overall, we show that the consumption of radish sprouts affects energy metabolism in Drosophila melanogaster which is reflected by lower glucose levels and an increased expression of spargel, a central player in mitochondrial biogenesis. These processes are often affected in chronic diseases associated with aging, including type II diabetes mellitus. PMID:26901196

  16. Alimentary habits, physical activity, and Framingham global risk score in metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Thays Soliman; Piovesan, Carla Haas; Gustavo, Andréia da Silva; Macagnan, Fabrício Edler; Bodanese, Luiz Carlos; Feoli, Ana Maria Pandolfo

    2014-04-01

    Metabolic syndrome is a complex disorder represented by a set of cardiovascular risk factors. A healthy lifestyle is strongly related to improve Quality of Life and interfere positively in the control of risk factors presented in this condition. To evaluate the effect of a program of lifestyle modification on the Framingham General Cardiovascular Risk Profile in subjects diagnosed with metabolic syndrome. A sub-analysis study of a randomized clinical trial controlled blind that lasted three months. Participants were randomized into four groups: dietary intervention + placebo (DIP), dietary intervention + supplementation of omega 3 (fish oil 3 g/day) (DIS3), dietary intervention + placebo + physical activity (DIPE) and dietary intervention + physical activity + supplementation of omega 3 (DIS3PE). The general cardiovascular risk profile of each individual was calculated before and after the intervention. The study included 70 subjects. Evaluating the score between the pre and post intervention yielded a significant value (p study emphasizes the importance of lifestyle modification in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases.

  17. Metabolism and prebiotics activity of anthocyanins from black rice (Oryza sativa L.) in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yongsheng; Sun, Hanju; He, Shudong; Lou, Qiuyan; Yu, Min; Tang, Mingming; Tu, Lijun

    2018-01-01

    Anthocyanins are naturally active substances. In this study, anthocyanins from black rice were obtained by membrane filtration and column chromatography separation. Five anthocyanin monomers in black rice extract were identified by HPLC-MS/MS, and the major anthocyanin monomer (cyanidin-3-glucoside, C3G) was purified by preparative HPLC (Pre-HPLC). The proliferative effects of the anthocyanins on Bifidobacteria and Lactobacillus were investigated by determining the media pH, bacterial populations and metabolic products. After anaerobic incubation at 37 °C for 48 h, not only the pH of the media containing C3G was lower than that of the extract of black rice anthocyanin (BRAE), but the numbers of both Bifidobacteria and Lactobacillus were also significantly increased. Furthermore, hydroxyphenylpropionic, hydroxyphenylacetic, and hydroxybenzoic acids and other metabolites were detected by GC-MS in vitro. Our results revealed that the anthocyanins and anthocyanin monomers from black rice had prebiotic activity and they were metabolized into several small molecules by Bifidobacteria and Lactobacillus.

  18. The role of active brown adipose tissue in human metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozguven, Salih; Turoglu, H.T. [S.B. Marmara Universitesi Pendik Egitim ve Arastirma Hastanesi, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Istanbul (Turkey); Ones, Tunc [S.B. Marmara Universitesi Pendik Egitim ve Arastirma Hastanesi, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Istanbul (Turkey); Kozyatagi/Kadikoy, Istanbul (Turkey); Yilmaz, Yusuf; Imeryuz, Nese [S.B. Marmara Universitesi Pendik Egitim ve Arastirma Hastanesi, Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2016-02-15

    The presence of activated brown adipose tissue (ABAT) has been associated with a reduced risk of obesity in adults. We aimed to investigate whether the presence of ABAT in patients undergoing {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT examinations was related to blood lipid profiles, liver function, and the prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We retrospectively and prospectively analysed the {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT scans from 5,907 consecutive patients who were referred to the Nuclear Medicine Department of the Marmara University School of Medicine from outpatient oncology clinics between July 2008 and June 2014 for a variety of diagnostic reasons. Attenuation coefficients for the liver and spleen were determined for at least five different areas. Blood samples were obtained before PET/CT to assess the blood lipid profiles and liver function. A total of 25 of the 5,907 screened individuals fulfilling the inclusion criteria for the study demonstrated brown fat tissue uptake [ABAT(+) subjects]. After adjustment for potential confounders, 75 individuals without evidence of ABAT on PET [ABAT(-) subjects] were enrolled for comparison purposes. The ABAT(+) group had lower total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, alanine aminotransferase, and aspartate transaminase levels (p < 0.01), whereas we found no significant differences in the serum triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels between the two groups. The prevalence of NAFLD was significantly lower in ABAT(+) than in ABAT(-) subjects (p < 0.01). Our study showed that the presence of ABAT in adults had a positive effect on their blood lipid profiles and liver function and was associated with reduced prevalence of NAFLD. Thus, our data suggest that activating brown adipose tissue may be a potential target for preventing and treating dyslipidaemia and NAFLD. (orig.)

  19. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its relationship with physical activity in suburban Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei-Hong; Xue, Peng; Yao, Meng-Ying; Chang, Hai-Min; Wu, Yan; Zhang, Lei

    2013-01-01

    The present study aimed to estimate the up-to-date prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its relationship with physical activity among suburban adults in Beijing, China. A cross-sectional survey in a representative sample of 19,003 suburban adults aged 18-76 years was carried out in 2007-2008. Data was collected via questionnaires and blood pressure, anthropometric, and laboratory measurements. Of the residents aged 18-76 years in suburban Beijing, 25.9% (27.3% in men and 25.1% in women), 21.3% (19.4% in men and 22.9% in women), and 25.3% (24.2% in men and 26.1% in women) had 1 component, 2 components, and 3 or more components of metabolic syndrome, respectively. The age-standardized prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components, including abdominal obesity, elevated triglycerides, reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, elevated blood pressure, and elevated fasting plasma glucose, decreased across categories with increasing physical activity. After adjusting for age, sex, education level, smoking, and alcohol consumption, residents were more likely to have metabolic syndrome across categories with decreasing physical activity; a similar relationship also applied to components of metabolic syndrome. A high prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components is commonly present in suburban Beijing. Increasing physical activity can reduce the relative risk of metabolic syndrome and it components.

  20. Assessment of energetic costs of AhR activation by β-naphthoflavone in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) hepatocytes using metabolic flux analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nault, Rance; Abdul-Fattah, Hiba; Mironov, Gleb G.; Berezovski, Maxim V.; Moon, Thomas W.

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to environmental contaminants such as activators of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) leads to the induction of defense and detoxification mechanisms. While these mechanisms allow organisms to metabolize and excrete at least some of these environmental contaminants, it has been proposed that these mechanisms lead to significant energetic challenges. This study tests the hypothesis that activation of the AhR by the model agonist β-naphthoflavone (βNF) results in increased energetic costs in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) hepatocytes. To address this hypothesis, we employed traditional biochemical approaches to examine energy allocation and metabolism including the adenylate energy charge (AEC), protein synthesis rates, Na + /K + -ATPase activity, and enzyme activities. Moreover, we have used for the first time in a fish cell preparation, metabolic flux analysis (MFA) an in silico approach for the estimation of intracellular metabolic fluxes. Exposure of trout hepatocytes to 1 μM βNF for 48 h did not alter hepatocyte AEC, protein synthesis, or Na + /K + -ATPase activity but did lead to sparing of glycogen reserves and changes in activities of alanine aminotransferase and citrate synthase suggesting altered metabolism. Conversely, MFA did not identify altered metabolic fluxes, although we do show that the dynamic metabolism of isolated trout hepatocytes poses a significant challenge for this type of approach which should be considered in future studies. - Highlights: • Energetic costs of AhR activation by βNF was examined in rainbow trout hepatocytes. • Metabolic flux analysis was performed on a fish cell preparation for the first time. • Exposure to βNF led to sparing of glycogen reserves and altered enzyme activities. • Adenylate energy charge was maintained despite temporal changes in metabolism

  1. Assessment of energetic costs of AhR activation by β-naphthoflavone in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) hepatocytes using metabolic flux analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nault, Rance, E-mail: naultran@msu.edu [Ottawa-Carleton Institute of Biology, Department of Biology and Centre for Advanced Research in Environmental Genomics, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, K1N 6N5 (Canada); Abdul-Fattah, Hiba [Ottawa-Carleton Institute of Biology, Department of Biology and Centre for Advanced Research in Environmental Genomics, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, K1N 6N5 (Canada); Mironov, Gleb G.; Berezovski, Maxim V. [Ottawa-Carleton Institute of Biology, Department of Biology and Centre for Advanced Research in Environmental Genomics, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, K1N 6N5 (Canada); Department of Chemistry, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, K1N 6N5 (Canada); Moon, Thomas W. [Ottawa-Carleton Institute of Biology, Department of Biology and Centre for Advanced Research in Environmental Genomics, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, K1N 6N5 (Canada)

    2013-08-15

    Exposure to environmental contaminants such as activators of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) leads to the induction of defense and detoxification mechanisms. While these mechanisms allow organisms to metabolize and excrete at least some of these environmental contaminants, it has been proposed that these mechanisms lead to significant energetic challenges. This study tests the hypothesis that activation of the AhR by the model agonist β-naphthoflavone (βNF) results in increased energetic costs in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) hepatocytes. To address this hypothesis, we employed traditional biochemical approaches to examine energy allocation and metabolism including the adenylate energy charge (AEC), protein synthesis rates, Na{sup +}/K{sup +}-ATPase activity, and enzyme activities. Moreover, we have used for the first time in a fish cell preparation, metabolic flux analysis (MFA) an in silico approach for the estimation of intracellular metabolic fluxes. Exposure of trout hepatocytes to 1 μM βNF for 48 h did not alter hepatocyte AEC, protein synthesis, or Na{sup +}/K{sup +}-ATPase activity but did lead to sparing of glycogen reserves and changes in activities of alanine aminotransferase and citrate synthase suggesting altered metabolism. Conversely, MFA did not identify altered metabolic fluxes, although we do show that the dynamic metabolism of isolated trout hepatocytes poses a significant challenge for this type of approach which should be considered in future studies. - Highlights: • Energetic costs of AhR activation by βNF was examined in rainbow trout hepatocytes. • Metabolic flux analysis was performed on a fish cell preparation for the first time. • Exposure to βNF led to sparing of glycogen reserves and altered enzyme activities. • Adenylate energy charge was maintained despite temporal changes in metabolism.

  2. A review of Ramadan fasting and regular physical activity on metabolic syndrome indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Reza Attarzadeh Hosseini

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Metabolic syndrome constitutes a cluster of risk factors such as obesity, hyperglycemia,  hypertension, and dyslipidemia, which increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases and type II diabetes mellitus. In this review article, we aimed to discuss the possible effects of fasting and regular physical activity on risk factors for cardiovascular diseases.  Methods: Online databases including Google Scholar, SID, PubMed, and MagIran were searched, using the following keywords:  “training”, “exercise”, “physical activity”, “fasting”, “Ramadan”, “metabolic syndrome”, “fat percentage”, “blood pressure”, “blood sugar”, “cholesterol”, “triglyceride”, and “lowdensity lipoprotein-cholesterol”. All articles including research studies, review articles, descriptive and analytical studies, and ross-sectional research, published during 2006-2015, were reviewed. In case of any errors in the methodologyof articles, they were removed from our analysis. Results:Based on our literature review, inconsistent findings have been reported on risk factors formetabolic syndrome. However, the majority of conducted studies have suggested the positive effects offasting on reducing the risk factors for metabolic syndrome. Conclusion: Although fasting in different seasons of the year has no significant impacts on mental health or physical fitness, it can reduce the risk of various diseases such as cardiovascular diseases. Also, based on the conducted studies, if individuals adhere to a proper diet, avoid excessive eating, drink sufficient amounts of fluids, and keep a healthy level of physical activity, fasting can improve their physical health.

  3. Changes in Cholinesterase Activity in Blood of Adolescent with Metabolic Syndrome after Supplementation with Extract from Aronia melanocarpa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Duchnowicz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS are growing problems among children and adolescents. There are no reports of changes in the activity of butyrylcholinesterase (BChE in children and adolescents with metabolic syndrome especially after supplementation with extract from Aronia melanocarpa. Materials studied included plasma and erythrocytes isolated from peripheral blood of patients with MetS and healthy subjects. We have estimated the following parameters: acetylcholinesterase (AChE and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE activity, lipid peroxidation and lipids levels in plasma, and erythrocytes membrane. In patients with MetS, a significant increase in AChE and BChE activity, higher LDL-cholesterol and triacylglycerol levels, and lower HDL-cholesterol level were observed. Supplementation with A. melanocarpa extract resulted in mild but statistically significant reduction of total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and triacylglycerol levels and caused an increase in HDL-cholesterol level and a decrease in lipid peroxidation in plasma patients with MetS. Additionally, a decrease in lipid peroxidation and cholesterol level and a decrease in AChE activity in the erythrocyte membranes after supplementation with A. melanocarpa were noted. Summarizing, an increase in AChE and BChE activity and disruption of lipid metabolism in patients with MetS were observed. After supplementation of MetS patients with A. melanocarpa extract, a decrease in AChE activity and oxidative stress was noted.

  4. Subjective Significance Shapes Arousal Effects on Modified Stroop Task Performance: A Duality of Activation Mechanisms Account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbir, Kamil K

    2016-01-01

    Activation mechanisms such as arousal are known to be responsible for slowdown observed in the Emotional Stroop and modified Stroop tasks. Using the duality of mind perspective, we may conclude that both ways of processing information (automatic or controlled) should have their own mechanisms of activation, namely, arousal for an experiential mind, and subjective significance for a rational mind. To investigate the consequences of both, factorial manipulation was prepared. Other factors that influence Stroop task processing such as valence, concreteness, frequency, and word length were controlled. Subjective significance was expected to influence arousal effects. In the first study, the task was to name the color of font for activation charged words. In the second study, activation charged words were, at the same time, combined with an incongruent condition of the classical Stroop task around a fixation point. The task was to indicate the font color for color-meaning words. In both studies, subjective significance was found to shape the arousal impact on performance in terms of the slowdown reduction for words charged with subjective significance.

  5. Subjective Significance Shapes Arousal Effects on Modified Stroop Task Performance: a Duality of Activation Mechanisms Account

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil Konrad Imbir

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Activation mechanisms such as arousal are known to be responsible for slowdown observed in the Emotional Stroop (EST and modified Stroop tasks. Using the duality of mind perspective, we may conclude that both ways of processing information (automatic or controlled should have their own mechanisms of activation, namely, arousal for an experiential mind, and subjective significance for a rational mind. To investigate the consequences of both, factorial manipulation was prepared. Other factors that influence Stroop task processing such as valence, concreteness, frequency and word length were controlled. Subjective significance was expected to influence arousal effects. In the first study, the task was to name the color of font for activation charged words. In the second study, activation charged words were, at the same time, combined with an incongruent condition of the classical Stroop task around a fixation point. The task was to indicate the font color for color-meaning words. In both studies, subjective significance was found to shape the arousal impact on performance in terms of the slowdown reduction for words charged with subjective significance.

  6. Promiscuous activities of heterologous enzymes lead to unintended metabolic rerouting in Saccharomyces cerevisiae engineered to assimilate various sugars from renewable biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Eun Ju; Oh, Eun Joong; Liu, Jing-Jing; Yu, Sora; Kim, Dong Hyun; Kwak, Suryang; Kim, Kyoung Heon; Jin, Yong-Su

    2018-01-01

    Understanding the global metabolic network, significantly perturbed upon promiscuous activities of foreign enzymes and different carbon sources, is crucial for systematic optimization of metabolic engineering of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae . Here, we studied the effects of promiscuous activities of overexpressed enzymes encoded by foreign genes on rerouting of metabolic fluxes of an engineered yeast capable of assimilating sugars from renewable biomass by profiling intracellular and extracellular metabolites. Unbiased metabolite profiling of the engineered S. cerevisiae strain EJ4 revealed promiscuous enzymatic activities of xylose reductase and xylitol dehydrogenase on galactose and galactitol, respectively, resulting in accumulation of galactitol and tagatose during galactose fermentation. Moreover, during glucose fermentation, a trisaccharide consisting of glucose accumulated outside of the cells probably owing to the promiscuous and transglycosylation activity of β-glucosidase expressed for hydrolyzing cellobiose. Meanwhile, higher accumulation of fatty acids and secondary metabolites was observed during xylose and cellobiose fermentations, respectively. The heterologous enzymes functionally expressed in S. cerevisiae showed promiscuous activities that led to unintended metabolic rerouting in strain EJ4. Such metabolic rerouting could result in a low yield and productivity of a final product due to the formation of unexpected metabolites. Furthermore, the global metabolic network can be significantly regulated by carbon sources, thus yielding different patterns of metabolite production. This metabolomic study can provide useful information for yeast strain improvement and systematic optimization of yeast metabolism to manufacture bio-based products.

  7. Active Learning with Rationales for Identifying Operationally Significant Anomalies in Aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Manali; Das, Kamalika; Bilgic, Mustafa; Matthews, Bryan; Nielsen, David Lynn; Oza, Nikunj C.

    2016-01-01

    A major focus of the commercial aviation community is discovery of unknown safety events in flight operations data. Data-driven unsupervised anomaly detection methods are better at capturing unknown safety events compared to rule-based methods which only look for known violations. However, not all statistical anomalies that are discovered by these unsupervised anomaly detection methods are operationally significant (e.g., represent a safety concern). Subject Matter Experts (SMEs) have to spend significant time reviewing these statistical anomalies individually to identify a few operationally significant ones. In this paper we propose an active learning algorithm that incorporates SME feedback in the form of rationales to build a classifier that can distinguish between uninteresting and operationally significant anomalies. Experimental evaluation on real aviation data shows that our approach improves detection of operationally significant events by as much as 75% compared to the state-of-the-art. The learnt classifier also generalizes well to additional validation data sets.

  8. Effects of ozone on adult and aged lung oxygen consumption, glucose metabolism and G6PDH activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raska-Emery, P.; Balis, J.U.; Montgomery, M.R.

    1991-01-01

    Fischer-344 male adult (4-6 mo) and aged (24-26 mo) rats were exposed to 0-3.0 ppm O 3 for 8h, sacrificed immediately, and O 2 consumption, 1 C 14 -glucose metabolism and G6PDH activity were determined. For O 2 consumption, the exp to 0.5 ppm O 3 produced a stimulation in both age groups. Decrements in O 2 consumption were only evident in aged rats after 1.5 and 3.0 ppm. Glucose metabolism showed a marked difference rats were 40% adult rats. Control values in aged rats were 40% of adults. Exp to 0.5 ppm was stimulatory in adults and aged, while 1.5 and 3.0 pp, decreased glucose metabolism in both groups. No age-related difference in G6PDH activity between control and exposed was seen. However, in both age groups, 0.5 ppm O 3 resulted in a significant increase in activity (33-41%)l 1.5 and 3.0 ppm were without effect. The combined results show a biphasic response of adult and aged lung to severe, acute O 3 exp. One-half ppm O 3 for 8h is stimulatory for all three parameters examined in both age groups. Three ppm O 3 inhibits O 2 consumption and glucose metabolism in both age groups but is ineffective on G6PDH activity

  9. Cathodic electrochemical activation of Co3O4 nanoarrays: a smart strategy to significantly boost the hydrogen evolution activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Li; Zhou, Huang; Qin, Xin; Guo, Xiaodong; Cui, Guanwei; Asiri, Abdullah M; Sun, Xuping

    2018-02-22

    Co(hydro)oxides show unsatisfactory catalytic activity for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) in alkaline media, and it is thus highly desirable but still remains a challenge to design and develop Co(hydro)oxide derived materials as superb hydrogen-evolving catalysts using a facile, rapid and less energy-intensive method. Here, we propose a cathodic electrochemical activation strategy toward greatly boosted HER activity of a Co 3 O 4 nanoarray via room-temperature cathodic polarization in sodium hypophosphite solution. After activation, the overpotential significantly decreases from 260 to 73 mV to drive a geometrical catalytic current density of 10 mA cm -2 in 1.0 M KOH. Notably, this activated electrode also shows strong long-term electrochemical durability with the retention of its catalytic activity at 100 mA cm -2 for at least 40 h.

  10. Metabolic activity is necessary for activation of T suppressor cells by B cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elkins, K.L.; Stashak, P.W.; Baker, P.J.

    1990-01-01

    Ag-primed B cells must express cell-surface IgM, but not IgD or Ia Ag, and must remain metabolically active, in order to activate suppressor T cells (Ts) specific for type III pneumococcal polysaccharide. Ag-primed B cells that were gamma-irradiated with 1000r, or less, retained the ability to activate Ts; however, Ag-primed B cells exposed to UV light were not able to do so. gamma-Irradiated and UV-treated Ag-primed B cells both expressed comparable levels of cell-surface IgM, and both localized to the spleen after in vivo transfer; neither could proliferate in vitro in response to mitogens. By contrast, gamma-irradiated primed B cells were still able to synthesize proteins, whereas UV-treated primed B cells could not. These findings suggest that in order for Ag-primed B cells to activate Ts, they must (a) express cell-associated IgM (sIgM) antibody bearing the idiotypic determinants of antibody specific for type III pneumococcal polysaccharide, and (b) be able to synthesize protein for either the continued expression of sIgM after cell transfer, or for the elaboration of another protein molecule that is also required for the activation of Ts; this molecule does not appear to be Ia Ag

  11. A Copolymer Scaffold Functionalized with Nanodiamond Particles Enhances Osteogenic Metabolic Activity and Bone Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassin, Mohammed A; Mustafa, Kamal; Xing, Zhe; Sun, Yang; Fasmer, Kristine Eldevik; Waag, Thilo; Krueger, Anke; Steinmüller-Nethl, Doris; Finne-Wistrand, Anna; Leknes, Knut N

    2017-06-01

    Functionalizing polymer scaffolds with nanodiamond particles (nDPs) has pronounced effect on the surface properties, such as improved wettability, an increased active area and binding sites for cellular attachment and adhesion, and increased ability to immobilize biomolecules by physical adsorption. This study aims to evaluate the effect of poly(l-lactide-co-ε-caprolactone) (poly(LLA-co-CL)) scaffolds, functionalized with nDPs, on bone regeneration in a rat calvarial critical size defect. Poly(LLA-co-CL) scaffolds functionalized with nDPs are also compared with pristine scaffolds with reference to albumin adsorption and seeding efficiency of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs). Compared with pristine scaffolds, the experimental scaffolds exhibit a reduction in albumin adsorption and a significant increase in the seeding efficiency of BMSCs (p = 0.027). In the calvarial defects implanted with BMSC-seeded poly(LLA-co-CL)/nDPs scaffolds, live imaging at 12 weeks discloses a significant increase in osteogenic metabolic activity (p = 0.016). Microcomputed tomography, confirmed by histological data, reveals a substantial increase in bone volume (p = 0.021). The results show that compared with conventional poly(LLA-co-CL) scaffolds those functionalized with nDPs promote osteogenic metabolic activity and mineralization capacity. It is concluded that poly(LLA-co-CL) composite matrices functionalized with nDPs enhance osteoconductivity and therefore warrant further study as potential scaffolding material for bone tissue engineering. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Association of physical activity with metabolic syndrome in a predominantly rural Nigerian population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oguoma, Victor M.; Nwose, Ezekiel U.; Nwose, Ezekiel U.

    2016-01-01

    Aims Physical activity is an essential determinant of health. However, there is dearth of evidence regarding prevalence of physical activity in developing countries, especially its association with metabolic syndrome risk factors. This study assessed the association of physical activity with meta...

  13. Monocrotophos induces the expression and activity of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes in pre-sensitized cultured human brain cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinay K Tripathi

    Full Text Available The expression and metabolic profile of cytochrome P450s (CYPs is largely missing in human brain due to non-availability of brain tissue. We attempted to address the issue by using human brain neuronal (SH-SY5Y and glial (U373-MG cells. The expression and activity of CYP1A1, 2B6 and 2E1 were carried out in the cells exposed to CYP inducers viz., 3-methylcholanthrene (3-MC, cyclophosphamide (CPA, ethanol and known neurotoxicant- monocrotophos (MCP, a widely used organophosphorous pesticide. Both the cells show significant induction in the expression and CYP-specific activity against classical inducers and MCP. The induction level of CYPs was comparatively lower in MCP exposed cells than cells exposed to classical inducers. Pre-exposure (12 h of cells to classical inducers significantly added the MCP induced CYPs expression and activity. The findings were concurrent with protein ligand docking studies, which show a significant modulatory capacity of MCP by strong interaction with CYP regulators-CAR, PXR and AHR. Similarly, the known CYP inducers- 3-MC, CPA and ethanol have also shown significantly high docking scores with all the three studied CYP regulators. The expression of CYPs in neuronal and glial cells has suggested their possible association with the endogenous physiology of the brain. The findings also suggest the xenobiotic metabolizing capabilities of these cells against MCP, if received a pre-sensitization to trigger the xenobiotic metabolizing machinery. MCP induced CYP-specific activity in neuronal cells could help in explaining its effect on neurotransmission, as these CYPs are known to involve in the synthesis/transport of the neurotransmitters. The induction of CYPs in glial cells is also of significance as these cells are thought to be involved in protecting the neurons from environmental insults and safeguard them from toxicity. The data provide better understanding of the metabolizing capability of the human brain cells against

  14. Green tea polyphenols alter lipid metabolism in the livers of broiler chickens through increased phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinbao Huang

    Full Text Available Our previous results showed that green tea polyphenols (GTPs significantly altered the expression of lipid-metabolizing genes in the liver of chickens. However, the underlying mechanism was not elucidated. In this study, we further characterized how GTPs influence AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK in the regulation of hepatic fat metabolism. Thirty-six male chickens were fed GTPs at a daily dose of 0, 80 or 160 mg/kg of body weight for 4 weeks. The results demonstrated that oral administration of GTPs significantly reduced hepatic lipid content and abdominal fat mass, enhanced the phosphorylation levels of AMPKα and ACACA, and altered the mRNA levels and enzymatic activities of lipid-metabolizing enzymes in the liver. These results suggested that the activation of AMPK is a potential mechanism by which GTPs regulate hepatic lipid metabolism in such a way that lipid synthesis is reduced and fat oxidation is stimulated.

  15. Energy metabolism during activity-promoting video games practice in subjects with spinal cord injury: evidences for health promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaffurini, P; Bissolotti, L; Calza, S; Calabretto, C; Orizio, C; Gobbo, M

    2013-02-01

    Activity promoting video game (APVG) practice significantly affects energy metabolism through energy expenditure (EE) increase and has been recently included in strategies for health promotion. It is not known if the APVG practice provides similar outcomes in subjects with spinal cord injury (SCI). Aim of the study was to evaluate cardio-pulmonary and metabolic adaptations during APVG practice and to find whether EE increase above resting condition could suggest the inclusion of this exercise in a more general strategy for health promotion and body weight control in subjects with SCI. Repeated measures study. Rehabilitation Institute. Ten male subjects with SCI (lesion levels from C7 to L1) age 26 to 55 years. We recorded pulmonary ventilation (VE), oxygen consumption (VO2) for EE esteem and heart rate (HR) at rest and while playing virtual bowling, tennis and boxing games using a portable metabolimeter equipped with ECG electrodes. The standard metabolic equivalent of task (METs) was calculated offline. The metabolic and functional parameters were referred to the 10th minute of each activity. Metabolic and functional parameters increased significantly from rest to bowling, tennis and boxing. METs exceeded in average 3 during boxing. One hour of APVG can increase daily EE by about 6% (bowling), 10% (tennis) and 15% (boxing). These considerable results suggest that physical exertion during APVG practice in subjects with SCI could contribute to health promotion as well as caloric balance control, especially when boxing is considered. This can be safely achieved at home with regular activity. These findings substantiate the potential for novel exercise modalities to counteract deconditioning due to inactivity in subjects with SCI by promoting physical activity through implementation of APVG exercise programs.

  16. Metabolic and environmental aspects of fusion reactor activation products: niobium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Easterly, C.E.; Shank, K.E.

    1977-11-01

    A summary of the metabolic and environmental aspects of niobium is presented. The toxicological symptoms from exposure to niobium are given, along with lethal concentration values for acute and chronic exposures. Existing human data are presented; animal uptake and retention data are analyzed for various routes of administration. Recommended metabolic values are also presented along with comments concerning their use and appropriateness. The natural distribution of niobium is given for freshwater, seawater, and the biosphere. Concentration factors and retention of 95 Nb in the environment are discussed with reference to: plant retention via leaf absorption; plant retention via root uptake; uptake in terrestrial animals from plants; uptake in freshwater organisms; uptake in marine organisms; and movement in soil. Conclusions are drawn regarding needs for future work in these areas. This review was undertaken because niobium is expected to be a key metal in the development of commercial fusion reactors. It is recognized that niobium will likely not be used in the first generation reactors as a structural material but will appear as an alloy in such materials as superconducting wire

  17. Metabolic and environmental aspects of fusion reactor activation products: niobium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Easterly, C.E.; Shank, K.E.

    1977-11-01

    A summary of the metabolic and environmental aspects of niobium is presented. The toxicological symptoms from exposure to niobium are given, along with lethal concentration values for acute and chronic exposures. Existing human data are presented; animal uptake and retention data are analyzed for various routes of administration. Recommended metabolic values are also presented along with comments concerning their use and appropriateness. The natural distribution of niobium is given for freshwater, seawater, and the biosphere. Concentration factors and retention of /sup 95/Nb in the environment are discussed with reference to: plant retention via leaf absorption; plant retention via root uptake; uptake in terrestrial animals from plants; uptake in freshwater organisms; uptake in marine organisms; and movement in soil. Conclusions are drawn regarding needs for future work in these areas. This review was undertaken because niobium is expected to be a key metal in the development of commercial fusion reactors. It is recognized that niobium will likely not be used in the first generation reactors as a structural material but will appear as an alloy in such materials as superconducting wire.

  18. [Sedentary lifestyle is associated with metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors independent of physical activity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiva, Ana María; Martínez, María Adela; Cristi-Montero, Carlos; Salas, Carlos; Ramírez-Campillo, Rodrigo; Díaz Martínez, Ximena; Aguilar-Farías, Nicolás; Celis-Morales, Carlos

    2017-04-01

    Sedentary behavior is a main risk factor for cardiovascular disease and mortality. To investigate the association between sedentary behavior and metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors. We assessed 322 participants aged between 18 to 65 years. Physical activity and sedentary behavior were measured with accelerometers (Actigraph®). Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, percentage of body fat, diet and blood markers (glucose, lipid profile, insulin and HOMA-IR) were measured with standardized protocols. Thirty four percent of participants were physically inactive and spent on average 8.7 h/day on sedentary activities. Per one hour increase in sedentary behavior there were significant adverse changes in glucose (4.79 mg/dl), insulin (2.73 pmol/l), HOMA-IR (0.75), BMI (0.69 kg/m²), waist circumference (1.95 cm), fat mass (1.03%), total cholesterol (9.73 mg/dl), HDL-cholesterol (-3.50 mg/dl), LDL-cholesterol (10.7 mg/dl) and triglycerides (12.4 mg/dl). These findings were independent of main confounding factors including total physical activity, dietary factors, BMI and socio-demographics. The detrimental effect of sedentary behaviors on cardiometabolic and obesity-related traits is independent of physical activity levels. Therefore, reducing sedentary time should be targeted in the population apart from increasing their physical activity levels.

  19. Nonlinear Dielectric Spectroscopy as an Indirect Probe of Metabolic Activity in Thylakoid Membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John H. Miller

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonlinear dielectric spectroscopy (NDS is a non-invasive probe of cellular metabolic activity with potential application in the development of whole-cell biosensors. However, the mechanism of NDS interaction with metabolic membrane proteins is poorly understood, partly due to the inherent complexity of single cell organisms. Here we use the light-activated electron transport chain of spinach thylakoid membrane as a model system to study how NDS interacts with metabolic activity. We find protein modification, as opposed to membrane pump activity, to be the dominant source of NDS signal change in this system. Potential mechanisms for such protein modifications include reactive oxygen species generation and light-activated phosphorylation.

  20. Physical activity is associated with retained muscle metabolism in human myotubes challenged with palmitate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, C J; Bunprajun, T; Pedersen, B K

    2013-01-01

    in satellite cells challenged with palmitate. Although the benefits of physical activity on whole body physiology have been well investigated, this paper presents novel findings that both diet and exercise impact satellite cells directly. Given the fact that satellite cells are important for muscle maintenance......  The aim of this study was to investigate whether physical activity is associated with preserved muscle metabolism in human myotubes challenged with saturated fatty acids. Human muscle satellite cells were isolated from sedentary or active individuals and differentiated into myocytes in culture...... and correlated positively to JNK phosphorylation. In conclusion, muscle satellite cells retain metabolic differences associated with physical activity. Physical activity partially protects myocytes from fatty acid-induced insulin resistance and inactivity is associated with dysregulation of metabolism...

  1. The Neurological Significance of Abnormal Natural Killer Cell Activity in Chronic Toxigenic Mold Exposures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebere Anyanwu

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxigenic mold activities produce metabolites that are either broad-spectrum antibiotics or mycotoxins that are cytotoxic. Indoor environmental exposure to these toxigenic molds leads to adverse health conditions with the main outcome measure of frequent neuroimmunologic and behavioral consequences. One of the immune system disorders found in patients presenting with toxigenic mold exposure is an abnormal natural killer cell activity. This paper presents an overview of the neurological significance of abnormal natural killer cell (NKC activity in chronic toxigenic mold exposure. A comprehensive review of the literature was carried out to evaluate and assess the conditions under which the immune system could be dysfunctionally interfered with leading to abnormal NKC activity and the involvement of mycotoxins in these processes. The functions, mechanism, the factors that influence NKC activities, and the roles of mycotoxins in NKCs were cited wherever necessary. The major presentations are headache, general debilitating pains, nose bleeding, fevers with body temperatures up to 40�C (104�F, cough, memory loss, depression, mood swings, sleep disturbances, anxiety, chronic fatigue, vertigo/dizziness, and in some cases, seizures. Although sleep is commonly considered a restorative process that is important for the proper functioning of the immune system, it could be disturbed by mycotoxins. Most likely, mycotoxins exert some rigorous effects on the circadian rhythmic processes resulting in sleep deprivation to which an acute and transient increase in NKC activity is observed. Depression, psychological stress, tissue injuries, malignancies, carcinogenesis, chronic fatigue syndrome, and experimental allergic encephalomyelitis could be induced at very low physiological concentrations by mycotoxin-induced NKC activity. In the light of this review, it is concluded that chronic exposures to toxigenic mold could lead to abnormal NKC activity with a wide

  2. The significance of reduced respiratory chain enzyme activities: clinical, biochemical and radiological associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mordekar, S R; Guthrie, P; Bonham, J R; Olpin, S E; Hargreaves, I; Baxter, P S

    2006-03-01

    Mitochondrial diseases are an important group of neurometabolic disorders in children with varied clinical presentations and diagnosis that can be difficult to confirm. To report the significance of reduced respiratory chain enzyme (RCE) activity in muscle biopsy samples from children. Retrospective odds ratio was used to compare clinical and biochemical features, DNA studies, neuroimaging, and muscle biopsies in 18 children with and 48 without reduced RCE activity. Children with reduced RCE activity were significantly more likely to have consanguineous parents, to present with acute encephalopathy and lactic acidaemia and/or within the first year of life; to have an axonal neuropathy, CSF lactate >4 mmol/l; and/or to have signal change in the basal ganglia. There were positive associations with a maternal family history of possible mitochondrial cytopathy; a presentation with failure to thrive and lactic acidaemia, ragged red fibres, reduced fibroblast fatty acid oxidation and with an abnormal allopurinol loading test. There was no association with ophthalmic abnormalities, deafness, epilepsy or myopathy. The association of these clinical, biochemical and radiological features with reduced RCE activity suggests a possible causative link.

  3. Significance of determination of serum cytidine deaminase (CD) levels for diagnosis of active rheumatoid arthritis (RA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Chuangqing; Jang Xiaogong; He Yunnan

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To determine the clinical value of measurement of serum cytidine deaminase (CD) levels in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods: Serum levels of CD were detected with spectrophotometry, in 33 patients with active RA and 60 controls. The erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and CRP content were also determined in both groups. Results: The ser- um CD contents in patients with active RA(14.80 ± 2.11U/ml) were significantly higher than those in controls(4.86±1.86 U/ml,P<0.01). The CRP contents (51.46 ± 20.43mg/L) and ESR readings(85.03 ± 27.6mm/h) in the patients were also significantly higher than those in the controls(3.40 ± 2.21mg/L and 13.04 ± 4.89mm/h respectively, all P<0.01). In the patients, the serum CD contents were linearly positively correlated with the ESR contents and CRP readings (r=0.6324 and 0.8013 respectively, P <0.01). Conclusion: Serum CD is an early biochemical marker for diagnosis of active rheumatoid arthritis and is also of prognostic value. (authors)

  4. Effect of CAR activation on selected metabolic pathways in normal and hyperlipidemic mouse livers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezen, Tadeja; Tamasi, Viola; Lövgren-Sandblom, Anita; Björkhem, Ingemar; Meyer, Urs A; Rozman, Damjana

    2009-08-19

    Detoxification in the liver involves activation of nuclear receptors, such as the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), which regulate downstream genes of xenobiotic metabolism. Frequently, the metabolism of endobiotics is also modulated, resulting in potentially harmful effects. We therefore used 1,4-Bis [2-(3,5-dichloropyridyloxy)] benzene (TCPOBOP) to study the effect of CAR activation on mouse hepatic transcriptome and lipid metabolome under conditions of diet-induced hyperlipidemia. Using gene expression profiling with a dedicated microarray, we show that xenobiotic metabolism, PPARalpha and adipocytokine signaling, and steroid synthesis are the pathways most affected by TCPOBOP in normal and hyperlipidemic mice. TCPOBOP-induced CAR activation prevented the increased hepatic and serum cholesterol caused by feeding mice a diet containing 1% cholesterol. We show that this is due to increased bile acid metabolism and up-regulated removal of LDL, even though TCPOBOP increased cholesterol synthesis under conditions of hyperlipidemia. Up-regulation of cholesterol synthesis was not accompanied by an increase in mature SREBP2 protein. As determined by studies in CAR -/- mice, up-regulation of cholesterol synthesis is however CAR-dependent; and no obvious CAR binding sites were detected in promoters of cholesterogenic genes. TCPOBOP also affected serum glucose and triglyceride levels and other metabolic processes in the liver, irrespective of the diet. Our data show that CAR activation modulates hepatic metabolism by lowering cholesterol and glucose levels, through effects on PPARalpha and adiponectin signaling pathways, and by compromising liver adaptations to hyperlipidemia.

  5. The influence of physical activity on components of metabolic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal for Physical Activity and Health Sciences ... Inactivity causes obesity which is related to insulin resistance, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, ... of physical activity (PA) on the MS components and vascular function in children and ...

  6. Blocking hexose entry into glycolysis activates alternative metabolic conversion of these sugars and upregulates pentose metabolism in Aspergillus nidulans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khosravi, Claire; Battaglia, Evy; Kun, Roland S.; Dalhuijsen, Sacha; Visser, Jaap; Aguilar-Pontes, Maria V.; Zhou, Miamiao; Heyman, Heino M.; Kim, Young-Mo; Baker, Scott E.; de Vries, Ronald P.

    2018-03-22

    Background: Plant biomass is the most abundant carbon source for many fungal species. In the biobased industry fungi are used to produce lignocellulolytic enzymes to degrade agricultural waste biomass. Here we evaluated if it would be possible to create an Aspergillus nidulans strain that releases but does not metabolize hexoses from plant biomass. For this purpose, metabolic mutants were generated that were impaired in glycolysis, by using hexokinase (hxkA) and glucokinase (glkA) negative strains. To prevent repression of enzyme production due to the hexose accumulation, strains were generated that combined these mutations with a deletion in creA, the repressor involved in regulating preferential use of different carbon catabolic pathways. Results: Phenotypic analysis revealed reduced growth for the hxkA1 glkA4 mutant on wheat bran. However, hexoses did not accumulate during growth of the mutants on wheat bran, suggesting that glucose metabolism is re-routed towards alternative carbon catabolic pathways. The creAΔ4 mutation in combination with preventing initial phosphorylation in glycolysis resulted in better growth than the hxkA/glkA mutant and an increased expression of pentose catabolic and pentose phosphate pathway genes. This indicates that the reduced ability to use hexoses as carbon sources created a shift towards the pentose fraction of wheat bran as a major carbon source to support growth. Conclusion: Blocking the direct entry of hexoses to glycolysis activates alternative metabolic conversion of these sugars in A. nidulans during growth on plant biomass, but also upregulates conversion of other sugars, such as pentoses.

  7. Metabolic Syndrome Remodels Electrical Activity of the Sinoatrial Node and Produces Arrhythmias in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albarado-Ibañez, Alondra; Avelino-Cruz, José Everardo; Velasco, Myrian; Torres-Jácome, Julián; Hiriart, Marcia

    2013-01-01

    In the last ten years, the incidences of metabolic syndrome and supraventricular arrhythmias have greatly increased. The metabolic syndrome is a cluster of alterations, which include obesity, hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia, glucose intolerance and insulin resistance, that increase the risk of developing, among others, atrial and nodal arrhythmias. The aim of this study is to demonstrate that metabolic syndrome induces electrical remodeling of the sinus node and produces arrhythmias. We induced metabolic syndrome in 2-month-old male Wistar rats by administering 20% sucrose in the drinking water. Eight weeks later, the rats were anesthetized and the electrocardiogram was recorded, revealing the presence of arrhythmias only in treated rats. Using conventional microelectrode and voltage clamp techniques, we analyzed the electrical activity of the sinoatrial node. We observed that in the sinoatrial node of “metabolic syndrome rats”, compared to controls, the spontaneous firing of all cells decreased, while the slope of the diastolic depolarization increased only in latent pacemaker cells. Accordingly, the pacemaker currents If and Ist increased. Furthermore, histological analysis showed a large amount of fat surrounding nodal cardiomyocytes and a rise in the sympathetic innervation. Finally, Poincaré plot denoted irregularity in the R-R and P-P ECG intervals, in agreement with the variability of nodal firing potential recorded in metabolic syndrome rats. We conclude that metabolic syndrome produces a dysfunction SA node by disrupting normal architecture and the electrical activity, which could explain the onset of arrhythmias in rats. PMID:24250786

  8. Total physical activity volume, physical activity intensity, and metabolic syndrome: 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churilla, James R; Fitzhugh, Eugene C

    2012-02-01

    This study examined the association of total physical activity volume (TPAV) and physical activity (PA) from three domains [leisure-time physical activity (LTPA), domestic, transportation] with metabolic syndrome. We also investigated the relationship between LTPA intensity and metabolic syndrome risk. Sample included adults who participated in the 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Physical activity measures were created for TPAV, LTPA, domestic PA, and transportational PA. For each, a six-level measure based upon no PA (level 1) and quintiles (levels 2-6) of metabolic equivalents (MET)·min·wk(-1) was created. A three-level variable associated with the current Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) PA recommendation was also created. SAS and SUDAAN were used for the statistical analysis. Adults reporting the greatest volume of TPAV and LTPA were found to be 36% [odds ratio (OR) 0.64; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.49-0.83] and 42% (OR 0.58; 95% CI 0.43-0.77), respectively, less likely to have metabolic syndrome. Domestic and transportational PA provided no specific level of protection from metabolic syndrome. Those reporting a TPAV that met the DHHS PA recommendation were found to be 33% (OR 0.67; 95%; CI 0.55-0.83) less likely to have metabolic syndrome compared to their sedentary counterparts. Adults reporting engaging in only vigorous-intensity LTPA were found to be 37% (OR 0.63; 95 CI 0.42-0.96) to 56% (OR 0.44; 95% CI 0.29-0.67) less likely to have metabolic syndrome. Volume, intensity, and domain of PA may all play important roles in reducing the prevalence and risk of metabolic syndrome.

  9. A Metabolic Biofuel Cell: Conversion of Human Leukocyte Metabolic Activity to Electrical Currents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui X Tracy

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract An investigation of the electrochemical activity of human white blood cells (WBC for biofuel cell (BFC applications is described. WBCs isolated from whole human blood were suspended in PBS and introduced into the anode compartment of a proton exchange membrane (PEM fuel cell. The cathode compartment contained a 50 mM potassium ferricyanide solution. Average current densities between 0.9 and 1.6 μA cm-2 and open circuit potentials (Voc between 83 and 102 mV were obtained, which were both higher than control values. Cyclic voltammetry was used to investigate the electrochemical activity of the activated WBCs in an attempt to elucidate the mechanism of electron transfer between the cells and electrode. Voltammograms were obtained for the WBCs, including peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs - a lymphocyte-monocyte mixture isolated on a Ficoll gradient, a B lymphoblastoid cell line (BLCL, and two leukemia cell lines, namely K562 and Jurkat. An oxidation peak at about 363 mV vs. SCE for the PMA (phorbol ester activated primary cells, with a notable absence of a reduction peak was observed. Oxidation peaks were not observed for the BLCL, K562 or Jurkat cell lines. HPLC confirmed the release of serotonin (5-HT from the PMA activated primary cells. It is believed that serotonin, among other biochemical species released by the activated cells, contributes to the observed BFC currents.

  10. Metaproteomics: extracting and mining proteome information to characterize metabolic activities in microbial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Paul E; Giannone, Richard J; Xiong, Weili; Hettich, Robert L

    2014-06-17

    Contemporary microbial ecology studies usually employ one or more "omics" approaches to investigate the structure and function of microbial communities. Among these, metaproteomics aims to characterize the metabolic activities of the microbial membership, providing a direct link between the genetic potential and functional metabolism. The successful deployment of metaproteomics research depends on the integration of high-quality experimental and bioinformatic techniques for uncovering the metabolic activities of a microbial community in a way that is complementary to other "meta-omic" approaches. The essential, quality-defining informatics steps in metaproteomics investigations are: (1) construction of the metagenome, (2) functional annotation of predicted protein-coding genes, (3) protein database searching, (4) protein inference, and (5) extraction of metabolic information. In this article, we provide an overview of current bioinformatic approaches and software implementations in metaproteome studies in order to highlight the key considerations needed for successful implementation of this powerful community-biology tool. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  11. Development and validation of the activity significance personal evaluation (ASPEn) scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallinson, Trudy; Schepens Niemiec, Stacey L; Carlson, Mike; Leland, Natalie; Vigen, Cheryl; Blanchard, Jeanine; Clark, Florence

    2014-12-01

    Engagement in desired occupations can promote health and wellbeing in older adults. Assessments of engagement often measure frequency, amount or importance of specific activities. This study aimed to develop a scale to measure older adults' evaluation of the extent to which their everyday activities are contributing to their health and wellness. Eighteen items, each scored with a seven-point rating scale, were initially developed by content experts, covering perceptions of how daily activities contribute to physical and mental health, as well as satisfaction and activity participation in the last six months. Rasch analysis methods were used to refine the scale using the pencil and paper responses of 460 community-living older adults. Initial Rasch analysis indicated three unlabelled rating scale categories were seldom used, reducing measurement precision. Five items were conceptually different by misfit statistics and principal component analysis. Subsequently, those items were removed and the number of rating scale steps reduced to 4. The remaining 13-item, 4-step scale, termed the Activity Significance Personal Evaluation (ASPEn), formed a unidimensional hierarchy with good fit statistics and targeting. Person separation reliability (2.7) and internal consistency (.91) indicated the tool is appropriate for individual person measurement. Relative validity indicated equivalence between Rasch measures and total raw scores. ASPEn is a brief, easily administered assessment of older adults' perception of the contribution of everyday activities to personal health and wellness. ASPEn may facilitate occupational therapy practice by enabling clinicians to assess change in meaning of an older adult's activity over time. © 2014 Occupational Therapy Australia.

  12. Changes in dietary habits, physical activity and status of metabolic syndrome among expatriates in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzeidan, Rasmieh A; Rabiee, Fatemeh; Mandil, Ahmed A; Hersi, Ahmad S; Ullah, Anhar A

    2018-03-05

    The aim of this paper is to assess the impact of living in Saudi Arabia on expatriate employees and their families' behavioural cardiovascular risk factors (BCVRFs), and to examine the association between changes in BCVRFs and metabolic syndrome (MetS). A cross-sectional study was conducted on 1437 individuals, aged ≥ 18 years, from King Saud University in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. We used the World Health Organization STEPS questionnaire to ask every participant questions about BCVRFs twice: (1) to reflect their period of living in Saudi Arabia and (2) to shed light upon life in their country of origin. Their mean age was 40.9 (11.7) years. The prevalence of BCVRFs was as follows: tobacco use in 156 (11%), physical inactivity in 1049 (73%) low intake of fruit and vegetables in 1264 (88%) and MetS in 378 (26%). Residing in Saudi Arabia had reduced physical activity and intake of fruit and vegetables. There was also a significant increase in the fast food consumption. In conclusion, living in Saudi Arabia had a significant negative effect on BCVRFs. However, there was no statistically significant association between changes in fruit and vegetable intake and physical activity and MetS status, except that intake of fast food was lower among participants with MetS.

  13. Age related changes in NAD+ metabolism oxidative stress and Sirt1 activity in wistar rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nady Braidy

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The cofactor nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+ has emerged as a key regulator of metabolism, stress resistance and longevity. Apart from its role as an important redox carrier, NAD+ also serves as the sole substrate for NAD-dependent enzymes, including poly(ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP, an important DNA nick sensor, and NAD-dependent histone deacetylases, Sirtuins which play an important role in a wide variety of processes, including senescence, apoptosis, differentiation, and aging. We examined the effect of aging on intracellular NAD+ metabolism in the whole heart, lung, liver and kidney of female wistar rats. Our results are the first to show a significant decline in intracellular NAD+ levels and NAD:NADH ratio in all organs by middle age (i.e.12 months compared to young (i.e. 3 month old rats. These changes in [NAD(H] occurred in parallel with an increase in lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyls (o- and m- tyrosine formation and decline in total antioxidant capacity in these organs. An age dependent increase in DNA damage (phosphorylated H2AX was also observed in these same organs. Decreased Sirt1 activity and increased acetylated p53 were observed in organ tissues in parallel with the drop in NAD+ and moderate over-expression of Sirt1 protein. Reduced mitochondrial activity of complex I-IV was also observed in aging animals, impacting both redox status and ATP production. The strong positive correlation observed between DNA damage associated NAD+ depletion and Sirt1 activity suggests that adequate NAD+ concentrations may be an important longevity assurance factor.

  14. Metabolic activity in dormant conidia of Aspergillus niger and developmental changes during conidial outgrowth

    OpenAIRE

    Novodvorska, Michaela; Stratford, Malcolm; Blythe, Martin J.; Wilson, Raymond; Beniston, Richard G.; Archer, David B.

    2016-01-01

    The early stages of development of Aspergillus niger conidia during outgrowth were explored by combining genome-wide gene expression analysis (RNAseq), proteomics, Warburg manometry and uptake studies. Resting conidia suspended in water were demonstrated for the first time to be metabolically active as low levels of oxygen uptake and the generation of carbon dioxide were detected, suggesting that low-level respiratory metabolism occurs in conidia for maintenance. Upon triggering of spore germ...

  15. Cardiac Autonomic Nervous System Activation and Metabolic Profile in Young Children: The ABCD Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja G M Vrijkotte

    Full Text Available In adults, increased sympathetic and decreased parasympathetic nervous system activity are associated with a less favorable metabolic profile. Whether this is already determined at early age is unknown. Therefore, we aimed to assess the association between autonomic nervous system activation and metabolic profile and its components in children at age of 5-6 years.Cross-sectional data from an apparently healthy population (within the ABCD study were collected at age 5-6 years in 1540 children. Heart rate (HR, respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA; parasympathetic activity and pre-ejection period (PEP; sympathetic activity were assessed during rest. Metabolic components were waist-height ratio (WHtR, systolic blood pressure (SBP, fasting triglycerides, glucose and HDL-cholesterol. Individual components, as well as a cumulative metabolic score, were analyzed.In analysis adjusted for child's physical activity, sleep, anxiety score and other potential confounders, increased HR and decreased RSA were associated with higher WHtR (P< 0.01, higher SBP (p<0.001 and a higher cumulative metabolic score (HR: p < 0.001; RSA: p < 0.01. Lower PEP was only associated with higher SBP (p <0.05. Of all children, 5.6% had 3 or more (out of 5 adverse metabolic components; only higher HR was associated with this risk (per 10 bpm increase: OR = 1.56; p < 0.001.This study shows that decreased parasympathetic activity is associated with central adiposity and higher SBP, indicative of increased metabolic risk, already at age 5-6 years.

  16. One stone, two birds: silica nanospheres significantly increase photocatalytic activity and colloidal stability of photocatalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasamani, Kowsalya D.; Foley, Jonathan J., IV; Sun, Yugang

    2018-03-01

    Silver-doped silver chloride [AgCl(Ag)] nanoparticles represent a unique class of visible-light-driven photocatalysts, in which the silver dopants introduce electron-abundant mid-gap energy levels to lower the bandgap of AgCl. However, free-standing AgCl(Ag) nanoparticles, particularly those with small sizes and large surface areas, exhibit low colloidal stability and low compositional stability upon exposure to light irradiation, leading to easy aggregation and conversion to metallic silver and thus a loss of photocatalytic activity. These problems could be eliminated by attaching the small AgCl(Ag) nanoparticles to the surfaces of spherical dielectric silica particles with submicrometer sizes. The high optical transparency in the visible spectral region (400-800 nm), colloidal stability, and chemical/electronic inertness displayed by the silica spheres make them ideal for supporting photocatalysts and significantly improving their stability. The spherical morphology of the dielectric silica particles can support light scattering resonances to generate significantly enhanced electric fields near the silica particle surfaces, on which the optical absorption cross-section of the AgCl(Ag) nanoparticles is dramatically increased to promote their photocatalytic activity. The hybrid silica/AgCl(Ag) structures exhibit superior photocatalytic activity and stability, suitable for supporting photocatalysis sustainably; for instance, their efficiency in the photocatalytic decomposition of methylene blue decreases by only ˜9% even after ten cycles of operation.

  17. METABOLIC SYNDROME AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY IN CHILEAN IMMIGRANTS LIVING IN RIO GALLEGOS, SANTA CRUZ, ARGENTINA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inger Sally Padilla

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available To study the frequency of metabolic syndrome, its components and its relationship with physical activity in Chilean immigrants living in Río Gallegos, Santa Cruz, Argentina.314 Chilean immigrants (165 women and 149 men were interviewed in Rio Gallegos in 2010, with healthy status in medical records (2000. Anthropometry, blood pressure control, blood test to measure glucose, triglycerides and HDL cholesterol were determined. Metabolic syndrome was established by criteria of the NCEPATPIII.The metabolic syndrome had an overall prevalence of 28.9% (95%CI: 23.9 to 34. Metabolic syndrome prevalence was larger in women (32.1% than in men (25.5%. The prevalence of its components were: abdominal obesity 56%, low levels of HDL cholesterol 48.3%, high levels of triglycerides 68.1%, hypertension 46.1% and high levels of glucose 72.5%. Inadequate physical activity was 66.2% (95%CI: 60.1 to 71.5. Immigrants had more likelihood of metabolic syndrome living in Río Gallegos for 15 years or more(β: 5.74,95%CI:2,81-11,73, p=0.000 and with inadequate physical activity (β: 3.36, 95%CI: 1.57to7.21,p=0.002. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Chilean immigrants living in Río Gallegos is higher than that reported in Argentina and Chile

  18. Physical activity and risk of Metabolic Syndrome in an urban Mexican cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huitrón Gerardo

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the Mexican population metabolic syndrome (MS is highly prevalent. It is well documented that regular physical activity (PA prevents coronary diseases, type 2 diabetes and MS. Most studies of PA have focused on moderate-vigorous leisure-time activity, because it involves higher energy expenditures, increase physical fitness, and decrease the risk of MS. However, for most people it is difficult to get a significant amount of PA from only moderately-vigorous leisure activity, so workplace activity may be an option for working populations, because, although may not be as vigorous in terms of cardio-respiratory efforts, it comprises a considerable proportion of the total daily activity with important energy expenditure. Since studies have also documented that different types and intensity of daily PA, including low-intensity, seem to confer important health benefits such as prevent MS, we sought to assess the impact of different amounts of leisure-time and workplace activities, including low-intensity level on MS prevention, in a sample of urban Mexican adults. Methods The study population consisted of 5118 employees and their relatives, aged 20 to 70 years, who were enrolled in the baseline evaluation of a cohort study. MS was assessed according to the criteria of the National Cholesterol Education Program, ATP III and physical activity with a validated self-administered questionnaire. Associations between physical activity and MS risk were assessed with multivariate logistic regression models. Results The prevalence of the components of MS in the study population were: high glucose levels 14.2%, high triglycerides 40.9%, high blood pressure 20.4%, greater than healthful waist circumference 43.2% and low-high density lipoprotein 76.9%. The prevalence of MS was 24.4%; 25.3% in men and 21.8% in women. MS risk was reduced among men (OR 0.72; 95%CI 0.57–0.95 and women (OR 0.78; 95%CI 0.64–0.94 who reported an amount of ≥30

  19. Effect of Carbon Monoxide on Active Oxygen Metabolism of Postharvest Jujube

    OpenAIRE

    Shaoying Zhang; Qin Li; Yulan Mao

    2014-01-01

    To prolong the shelf life postharvest jujube, the effect of carbon monoxide (CO) on senescence of postharvest jujube in relation to active oxygen metabolism was investigated. Jujubes were fumigated with CO gas at 5, 10, 20 or 40μmol/L for 1 h, and then stored for 30 days at room temperature. Changes in membrane permeability, malonaldehyde (MDA), H2O2, O2•− content, and activities of active oxygen metabolism associated enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase...

  20. Differential CT Attenuation of Metabolically Active and Inactive Adipose Tissues — Preliminary Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Houchun H.; Chung, Sandra A.; Nayak, Krishna S.; Jackson, Hollie A.; Gilsanz, Vicente

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates differences in CT Hounsfield units (HUs) between metabolically active (brown fat) and inactive adipose tissues (white fat) due to variations in their densities. PET/CT data from 101 pediatric and adolescent patients were analyzed. Regions of metabolically active and inactive adipose tissues were identified and standard uptake values (SUVs) and HUs were measured. HUs of active brown fat were more positive (p<0.001) than inactive fat (−62.4±5.3 versus −86.7±7.0) and the difference was observed in both males and females. PMID:21245691

  1. Reversal of metabolic disorders by pharmacological activation of bile acid receptors TGR5 and FXR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavita Jadhav

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Activation of the bile acid (BA receptors farnesoid X receptor (FXR or G protein-coupled bile acid receptor (GPBAR1; TGR5 improves metabolic homeostasis. In this study, we aim to determine the impact of pharmacological activation of bile acid receptors by INT-767 on reversal of diet-induced metabolic disorders, and the relative contribution of FXR vs. TGR5 to INT-767's effects on metabolic parameters. Methods: Wild-type (WT, Tgr5−/−, Fxr−/−, Apoe−/− and Shp−/− mice were used to investigate whether and how BA receptor activation by INT-767, a semisynthetic agonist for both FXR and TGR5, could reverse diet-induced metabolic disorders. Results: INT-767 reversed HFD-induced obesity dependent on activation of both TGR5 and FXR and also reversed the development of atherosclerosis and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. Mechanistically, INT-767 improved hypercholesterolemia by activation of FXR and induced thermogenic genes via activation of TGR5 and/or FXR. Furthermore, INT-767 inhibited several lipogenic genes and de novo lipogenesis in the liver via activation of FXR. We identified peroxisome proliferation-activated receptor γ (PPARγ and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α (CEBPα as novel FXR-regulated genes. FXR inhibited PPARγ expression by inducing small heterodimer partner (SHP whereas the inhibition of CEBPα by FXR was SHP-independent. Conclusions: BA receptor activation can reverse obesity, NAFLD, and atherosclerosis by specific activation of FXR or TGR5. Our data suggest that, compared to activation of FXR or TGR5 only, dual activation of both FXR and TGR5 is a more attractive strategy for treatment of common metabolic disorders. Keywords: Farnesoid X receptor, TGR5, Atherosclerosis, Obesity, NAFLD

  2. Shell carbon isotope indicators of metabolic activity in the deep-sea mussel Bathymodiolus childressi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riekenberg, P. M.; Carney, R. S.; Fry, B.

    2018-04-01

    The incorporation of metabolic carbon (Cm) into shells of mollusks has been used as an indicator of animal condition and availability of food resources in estuarine and freshwater settings. This study examines Cm in Bathymodiolus childressi, a marine cold seep mussel dependent on methanotrophic symbionts. As seeps develop, mature, and go quiescent, methane supply will vary and affect the amount of metabolic carbon deposited into the growing shell. B. childressi (n = 136) were live-collected from two seep sites over a 17 year period in the Northern Gulf of Mexico to investigate whether changes in Cm were detectable between sites and across years. Significant differences in Cm were observed between mussel populations at Brine Pool (15.4 ± 0.4%) and Bush Hill (10.3 ± 0.3%). Cm also changed significantly within each site across year (Bush Hill 1991: 12.2 ± 0.5%, 1992: 17.3 ± 0.8%) and decadal time scales (Brine Pool 1989: 15.5 ± 0.7%, 2006: 19.5 ± 0.7%). These findings agree with previous studies that found mussel condition was higher at Brine Pool and correlate well with a trophic mixing model that indicated significantly higher methane source utilization at the Brine Pool (65 ± 1.1%) than at Bush Hill (49 ± 1.6%). Further development of this method should allow for assessment of Cm in shell assemblages as an indicator of historical resource availability at both active and former cold seep sites.

  3. The crowded sea: incorporating multiple marine activities in conservation plans can significantly alter spatial priorities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tessa Mazor

    Full Text Available Successful implementation of marine conservation plans is largely inhibited by inadequate consideration of the broader social and economic context within which conservation operates. Marine waters and their biodiversity are shared by a host of stakeholders, such as commercial fishers, recreational users and offshore developers. Hence, to improve implementation success of conservation plans, we must incorporate other marine activities while explicitly examining trade-offs that may be required. In this study, we test how the inclusion of multiple marine activities can shape conservation plans. We used the entire Mediterranean territorial waters of Israel as a case study to compare four planning scenarios with increasing levels of complexity, where additional zones, threats and activities were added (e.g., commercial fisheries, hydrocarbon exploration interests, aquaculture, and shipping lanes. We applied the marine zoning decision support tool Marxan to each planning scenario and tested a the ability of each scenario to reach biodiversity targets, b the change in opportunity cost and c the alteration of spatial conservation priorities. We found that by including increasing numbers of marine activities and zones in the planning process, greater compromises are required to reach conservation objectives. Complex plans with more activities incurred greater opportunity cost and did not reach biodiversity targets as easily as simplified plans with less marine activities. We discovered that including hydrocarbon data in the planning process significantly alters spatial priorities. For the territorial waters of Israel we found that in order to protect at least 10% of the range of 166 marine biodiversity features there would be a loss of ∼15% of annual commercial fishery revenue and ∼5% of prospective hydrocarbon revenue. This case study follows an illustrated framework for adopting a transparent systematic process to balance biodiversity goals and

  4. Metabolic in Vivo Labeling Highlights Differences of Metabolically Active Microbes from the Mucosal Gastrointestinal Microbiome between High-Fat and Normal Chow Diet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oberbach, Andreas; Haange, Sven Bastiaan; Schlichting, Nadine; Heinrich, Marco; Lehmann, Stefanie; Till, Holger; Hugenholtz, Floor; Kullnick, Yvonne; Smidt, Hauke; Frank, Karin; Seifert, Jana; Jehmlich, Nico; Bergen, Von Martin

    2017-01-01

    The gastrointestinal microbiota in the gut interacts metabolically and immunologically with the host tissue in the contact zone of the mucus layer. For understanding the details of these interactions and especially their dynamics it is crucial to identify the metabolically active subset of the

  5. Relationship between intracellular pH, metabolic co-factors and caspase-3 activation in cancer cells during apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergeeva, Tatiana F; Shirmanova, Marina V; Zlobovskaya, Olga A; Gavrina, Alena I; Dudenkova, Varvara V; Lukina, Maria M; Lukyanov, Konstantin A; Zagaynova, Elena V

    2017-03-01

    A complex cascade of molecular events occurs in apoptotic cells but cell-to-cell variability significantly complicates determination of the order and interconnections between different processes. For better understanding of the mechanisms of programmed cell death, dynamic simultaneous registration of several parameters is required. In this paper we used multiparameter fluorescence microscopy to analyze energy metabolism, intracellular pH and caspase-3 activation in living cancer cells in vitro during staurosporine-induced apoptosis. We performed metabolic imaging of two co-factors, NAD(P)H and FAD, and used the genetically encoded pH-indicator SypHer1 and the FRET-based sensor for caspase-3 activity, mKate2-DEVD-iRFP, to visualize these parameters by confocal fluorescence microscopy and two-photon fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy. The correlation between energy metabolism, intracellular pH and caspase-3 activation and their dynamic changes were studied in CT26 cancer cells during apoptosis. Induction of apoptosis was accompanied by a switch to oxidative phosphorylation, cytosol acidification and caspase-3 activation. We showed that alterations in cytosolic pH and the activation of oxidative phosphorylation are relatively early events associated with the induction of apoptosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. LASR-Guided Variability Subtraction: The Linear Algorithm for Significance Reduction of Stellar Seismic Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Sarah; Myers, Sam; Ahlers, Johnathon; Barnes, Jason W.

    2017-10-01

    Stellar seismic activity produces variations in brightness that introduce oscillations into transit light curves, which can create challenges for traditional fitting models. These oscillations disrupt baseline stellar flux values and potentially mask transits. We develop a model that removes these oscillations from transit light curves by minimizing the significance of each oscillation in frequency space. By removing stellar variability, we prepare each light curve for traditional fitting techniques. We apply our model to $\\delta$-Scuti KOI-976 and demonstrate that our variability subtraction routine successfully allows for measuring bulk system characteristics using traditional light curve fitting. These results open a new window for characterizing bulk system parameters of planets orbiting seismically active stars.

  7. Angiogenic activity in patients with psoriasis is significantly decreased by Goeckerman's therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrys, C.; Borska, L.; Pohl, D.; Fiala, Z.; Hamakova, K.; Krejsek, J. [Faculty Hospital, Hradec Kralove (Czech Republic). Dept. of Clinical Immunology & Allergy

    2007-03-15

    Goeckerman's therapy (GT) of psoriasis is based on daily application of pharmacy grade coal tar on affected skin with subsequent exposure to UV light. Goeckerman's therapy is still the first line therapy of psoriasis in the Czech Republic because of its low cost and long-term efficacy. Disturbances in angiogenic activity are characteristic for the immunopathogenesis of psoriasis. An abnormal spectrum of cytokines, growth factors and proangiogenic mediators is produced by keratinocytes and inflammatory cells in patients suffering from the disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of GT of psoriasis on angiogenic activities by comparing serum levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) in 44 patients with psoriasis in peripheral blood samples collected before and after therapy. It was found that the angiogenic potential which is abnormally increased in patients with psoriasis is significantly alleviated by GT.

  8. Antioxidant activities of polysaccharides from Lentinus edodes and their significance for disease prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huoliang; Ju, Ying; Li, Junjie; Yu, Min

    2012-01-01

    The crude polysaccharide (LEP) was extracted by hot water from the fruiting bodies of Lentinus edodes, and further purified by DEAE-cellulose and Sepharose CL-6B chromatography, giving three polysaccharide fractions coded as LEPA1, LEPB1 and LEPC1. In this study, their chemical and physical characteristics of polysaccharide fractions and antioxidant capacities, including scavenging activity against hydroxyl radicals, superoxide radicals and Fe(2+)-chelating ability, were valuated. The results showed that LEPC1 exhibited significantly antioxidant activity at a concentration-dependent manner. Therefore these results indicated that the water-extractable polysaccharide fraction was a potent antioxidant and could be developed to be new health medicine for fighting against various human diseases. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. [Association between occupational stress and aminotransferase activity in patients with metabolic syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, H; Song, L; Qiang, Y; Liu, H R; Qiu, F Y; Li, X Z; Song, H

    2016-12-20

    Objective: To investigate the association between occupational stress and activity of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in patients with metabolic syndrome. Methods: A case-control study was performed. According to inclusion and exclusion criteria, among the staff members of enterprises and public institutions aged 20~60 years who underwent physical examination in The Affiliated Hospital of Ningxia Medical University and The People's Hospital of Wuzhong from October 2011 to October 2012, 622 patients with metabolic syndrome who did not have a blood relationship with each other were enrolled as case group, and 600 healthy staff members who also did not have a blood relationshipwith each otherwere enrolled as control group. Questionnaire investigation, chronic occupational stress investigation, physical examination, and laboratory tests were performed for all subjects. Results: Compared with the control group, the case group had significantly higher serum levels and abnormal rates of AST and ALT ( t =-4.338 and-5.485, χ(2)=11.168 and 34.302, all P occupational stresses in both groups ( F =2.192 and 2.567, χ(2)=2.694 and 5.402, all P >0.05) , but there were significant differencesbetween the subgroups in all subjects ( F =5.005, χ(2)=6.398, all P occupational stresses in the case group, the control group, and all subjects ( F =0.845, 0.450, and 1.416, χ(2)=2.564, 1.344, and 3.147, all P >0.05) . The partial correlation analysis showed that the total score of occupational stress was positively correlated withthe serum level of AST ( r =0.071, P 0.05) , and that the serum level of AST was positively correlated with that of ALT ( r =0.736, P occupational stress was positively correlated with the serum level of AST ( r =0.069, P 0.05) , and the serum level of AST was positively correlated with that of ALT ( r =0.730, P occupational stress ( b =0.131, P =0.013) . Conclusion: Occupational stress is associated with increased serum level

  10. Relationship between metabolism and ovarian activity in dairy cows with different dry period lengths

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, J.C.; Soede, N.M.; Dorland, van H.A.; Remmelink, G.J.; Bruckmaier, R.M.; Kemp, B.; Knegsel, van A.T.M.

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the effects of dry period length on ovarian activity in cows fed a lipogenic or a glucogenic diet within 100 days in milk (DIM) and to determine relationships between ovarian activity and energy balance and metabolic status in early lactation.

  11. Activity in ventromedial prefrontal cortex during self-related processing: positive subjective value or personal significance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyungmi; Johnson, Marcia K

    2015-04-01

    Well-being and subjective experience of a coherent world depend on our sense of 'self' and relations between the self and the environment (e.g. people, objects and ideas). The ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vMPFC) is involved in self-related processing, and disrupted vMPFC activity is associated with disruptions of emotional/social functioning (e.g. depression and autism). Clarifying precise function(s) of vMPFC in self-related processing is an area of active investigation. In this study, we sought to more specifically characterize the function of vMPFC in self-related processing, focusing on two alternative accounts: (i) assignment of positive subjective value to self-related information and (ii) assignment of personal significance to self-related information. During functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), participants imagined owning objects associated with either their perceived ingroup or outgroup. We found that for ingroup-associated objects, vMPFC showed greater activity for objects with increased than decreased post-ownership preference. In contrast, for outgroup-associated objects, vMPFC showed greater activity for objects with decreased than increased post-ownership preference. Our findings support the idea that the function of vMPFC in self-related processing may not be to represent/evaluate the 'positivity' or absolute preference of self-related information but to assign personal significance to it based on its meaning/function for the self. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Mitochondrial thiol modification by a targeted electrophile inhibits metabolism in breast adenocarcinoma cells by inhibiting enzyme activity and protein levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ryan Smith

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Many cancer cells follow an aberrant metabolic program to maintain energy for rapid cell proliferation. Metabolic reprogramming often involves the upregulation of glutaminolysis to generate reducing equivalents for the electron transport chain and amino acids for protein synthesis. Critical enzymes involved in metabolism possess a reactive thiolate group, which can be modified by certain oxidants. In the current study, we show that modification of mitochondrial protein thiols by a model compound, iodobutyl triphenylphosphonium (IBTP, decreased mitochondrial metabolism and ATP in MDA-MB 231 (MB231 breast adenocarcinoma cells up to 6 days after an initial 24 h treatment. Mitochondrial thiol modification also depressed oxygen consumption rates (OCR in a dose-dependent manner to a greater extent than a non-thiol modifying analog, suggesting that thiol reactivity is an important factor in the inhibition of cancer cell metabolism. In non-tumorigenic MCF-10A cells, IBTP also decreased OCR; however the extracellular acidification rate was significantly increased at all but the highest concentration (10 µM of IBTP indicating that thiol modification can have significantly different effects on bioenergetics in tumorigenic versus non-tumorigenic cells. ATP and other adenonucleotide levels were also decreased by thiol modification up to 6 days post-treatment, indicating a decreased overall energetic state in MB231 cells. Cellular proliferation of MB231 cells was also inhibited up to 6 days post-treatment with little change to cell viability. Targeted metabolomic analyses revealed that thiol modification caused depletion of both Krebs cycle and glutaminolysis intermediates. Further experiments revealed that the activity of the Krebs cycle enzyme, aconitase, was attenuated in response to thiol modification. Additionally, the inhibition of glutaminolysis corresponded to decreased glutaminase C (GAC protein levels, although other protein levels were

  13. Intermittent fasting promotes adipose thermogenesis and metabolic homeostasis via VEGF-mediated alternative activation of macrophage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoung-Han; Kim, Yun Hye; Son, Joe Eun; Lee, Ju Hee; Kim, Sarah; Choe, Min Seon; Moon, Joon Ho; Zhong, Jian; Fu, Kiya; Lenglin, Florine; Yoo, Jeong-Ah; Bilan, Philip J; Klip, Amira; Nagy, Andras; Kim, Jae-Ryong; Park, Jin Gyoon; Hussein, Samer Mi; Doh, Kyung-Oh; Hui, Chi-Chung; Sung, Hoon-Ki

    2017-11-01

    Intermittent fasting (IF), a periodic energy restriction, has been shown to provide health benefits equivalent to prolonged fasting or caloric restriction. However, our understanding of the underlying mechanisms of IF-mediated metabolic benefits is limited. Here we show that isocaloric IF improves metabolic homeostasis against diet-induced obesity and metabolic dysfunction primarily through adipose thermogenesis in mice. IF-induced metabolic benefits require fasting-mediated increases of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in white adipose tissue (WAT). Furthermore, periodic adipose-VEGF overexpression could recapitulate the metabolic improvement of IF in non-fasted animals. Importantly, fasting and adipose-VEGF induce alternative activation of adipose macrophage, which is critical for thermogenesis. Human adipose gene analysis further revealed a positive correlation of adipose VEGF-M2 macrophage-WAT browning axis. The present study uncovers the molecular mechanism of IF-mediated metabolic benefit and suggests that isocaloric IF can be a preventive and therapeutic approach against obesity and metabolic disorders.

  14. Intermittent fasting promotes adipose thermogenesis and metabolic homeostasis via VEGF-mediated alternative activation of macrophage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoung-Han; Kim, Yun Hye; Son, Joe Eun; Lee, Ju Hee; Kim, Sarah; Choe, Min Seon; Moon, Joon Ho; Zhong, Jian; Fu, Kiya; Lenglin, Florine; Yoo, Jeong-Ah; Bilan, Philip J; Klip, Amira; Nagy, Andras; Kim, Jae-Ryong; Park, Jin Gyoon; Hussein, Samer MI; Doh, Kyung-Oh; Hui, Chi-chung; Sung, Hoon-Ki

    2017-01-01

    Intermittent fasting (IF), a periodic energy restriction, has been shown to provide health benefits equivalent to prolonged fasting or caloric restriction. However, our understanding of the underlying mechanisms of IF-mediated metabolic benefits is limited. Here we show that isocaloric IF improves metabolic homeostasis against diet-induced obesity and metabolic dysfunction primarily through adipose thermogenesis in mice. IF-induced metabolic benefits require fasting-mediated increases of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in white adipose tissue (WAT). Furthermore, periodic adipose-VEGF overexpression could recapitulate the metabolic improvement of IF in non-fasted animals. Importantly, fasting and adipose-VEGF induce alternative activation of adipose macrophage, which is critical for thermogenesis. Human adipose gene analysis further revealed a positive correlation of adipose VEGF-M2 macrophage-WAT browning axis. The present study uncovers the molecular mechanism of IF-mediated metabolic benefit and suggests that isocaloric IF can be a preventive and therapeutic approach against obesity and metabolic disorders. PMID:29039412

  15. Physical Activity Enhances Metabolic Fitness Independently of Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Marathon Runners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Laye

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available High levels of cardiovascular fitness (CRF and physical activity (PA are associated with decreased mortality and risk to develop metabolic diseases. The independent contributions of CRF and PA to metabolic disease risk factors are unknown. We tested the hypothesis that runners who run consistently >50 km/wk and/or >2 marathons/yr for the last 5 years have superior metabolic fitness compared to matched sedentary subjects (CRF, age, gender, and BMI. Case-control recruitment of 31 pairs of runner-sedentary subjects identified 10 matched pairs with similar VO2max (mL/min/kg (similar-VO2max. The similar-VO2max group was compared with a group of age, gender, and BMI matched pairs who had the largest difference in VO2max (different-VO2max. Primary outcomes that defined metabolic fitness including insulin response to an oral glucose tolerance test, fasting lipids, and fasting insulin were superior in runners versus sedentary controls despite similar VO2max. Furthermore, performance (velocity at VO2max, running economy, improved exercise metabolism (lactate threshold, and skeletal muscle levels of mitochondrial proteins were superior in runners versus sedentary controls with similar VO2max. In conclusion subjects with a high amount of PA have more positive metabolic health parameters independent of CRF. PA is thus a good marker against metabolic diseases.

  16. Characterization of Carbohydrate Active Enzymes Involved in Arabinogalactan Protein Metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knoch, Eva

    and tissues, their functions and synthesis are still poorly understood. The aim of the research presented in the thesis was to characterize carbohydrate active enzymes involved in AGP biosynthesis and modification to gain insights into the biosynthesis of the glycoproteins in plants. Candidate...... glycosyltransferases and glycoside hydrolases were selected based on co-expression profiles from a transcriptomics analysis. Reverse genetics approach on a novel glucuronosyltransferase involved in AGP biosynthesis has revealed that the enzyme activity is required for normal cell elongation in etiolated seedlings....... The enzymatic activity of a hydrolase from GH family 17 was investigated, without successful determination of the activity. Members of hydrolase family 43 appeared to be localized in the Golgi-apparatus, which is also the compartment for glycan biosynthesis. The localization of these glycoside hydrolases...

  17. Metabolic activity and mRNA levels of human cardiac CYP450s involved in drug metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronique Michaud

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Tissue-specific expression of CYP450s can regulate the intracellular concentration of drugs and explain inter-subject variability in drug action. The overall objective of our study was to determine in a large cohort of samples, mRNA levels and CYP450 activity expressed in the human heart.CYP450 mRNA levels were determined by RTPCR in left ventricular samples (n = 68 of explanted hearts from patients with end-stage heart failure. Samples were obtained from ischemic and non-ischemic hearts. In some instances (n = 7, samples were available from both the left and right ventricles. A technique for the preparation of microsomes from human heart tissue was developed and CYP450-dependent activity was determined using verapamil enantiomers as probe-drug substrates.Our results show that CYP2J2 mRNA was the most abundant isoform in all human heart left ventricular samples tested. Other CYP450 mRNAs of importance were CYP4A11, CYP2E1, CYP1A1 and CYP2C8 mRNAs while CYP2B6 and CYP2C9 mRNAs were present at low levels in only some of the hearts analyzed. CYP450 mRNAs did not differ between ischemic and non-ischemic hearts and appeared to be present at similar levels in the left and right ventricles. Incubation of verapamil with heart microsomes led to the formation of nine CYP450-dependent metabolites: a major finding was the observation that stereoselectivity was reversed compared to human liver microsomes, in which the R-enantiomer is metabolized to a greater extent.This study determined cardiac mRNA levels of various CYP450 isozymes involved in drug metabolism and demonstrated the prevalent expression of CYP2J2 mRNA. It revealed that cardiomyocytes can efficiently metabolize drugs and that cardiac CYP450s are highly relevant with regard to clearance of drugs in the heart. Our results support the claim that drug metabolism in the vicinity of a drug effector site can modulate drug effects.

  18. Clinical significance of nailfold capillaroscopy in systemic lupus erythematosus: correlation with endothelial cell activation markers and disease activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuryliszyn-Moskal, A; Ciolkiewicz, M; Klimiuk, P A; Sierakowski, S

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate whether nailfold capillaroscopy (NC) changes are associated with the main serum endothelial cell activation markers and the disease activity of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Serum levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), endothelin-1 (ET-1), soluble E-selectin (sE-selectin), and soluble thrombomodulin (sTM) were determined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in 80 SLE patients and 33 healthy controls. Nailfold capillary abnormalities were seen in 74 out of 80 (92.5%) SLE patients. A normal capillaroscopic pattern or mild changes were found in 33 (41.25%) and moderate/severe abnormalities in 47 (58.75%) of all SLE patients. In SLE patients a capillaroscopic score >1 was more frequently associated with the presence of internal organ involvement (p 1 and controls. SLE patients with severe/moderate capillaroscopic abnormalities showed significantly higher VEGF serum levels than patients with mild changes (p < 0.001). Moreover, there was a significant positive correlation between the severity of capillaroscopic changes and the Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI) (p < 0.005) as well as between capillaroscopic score and VEGF serum levels (p < 0.001). Our findings confirm the usefulness of NC as a non-invasive technique for the evaluation of microvascular involvement in SLE patients. A relationship between changes in NC, endothelial cell activation markers and clinical features of SLE suggest an important role for microvascular abnormalities in clinical manifestation of the disease.

  19. NDRG2 overexpression suppresses hepatoma cells survival during metabolic stress through disturbing the activation of fatty acid oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, Tao; Zhang, Mei; Zhang, Fang; Yan, Guang; Ru, Yi; Wang, Qinhao; Zhang, Yao; Wei, Xuehui; Xu, Xinyuan; Shen, Lan; Zhang, Jian; Wu, Kaichun; Yao, Libo; Li, Xia

    2017-01-01

    Because of the high nutrient consumption and inadequate vascularization, solid tumor constantly undergoes metabolic stress during tumor development. Oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes participated in cancer cells' metabolic reprogramming. N-Myc downstream regulated gene 2 (NDRG2) is a recently identified tumor suppressor gene, but its function in cancer metabolism, particularly during metabolic stress, remains unclear. In this study, we found that NDRG2 overexpression significantly reduced hepatoma cell proliferation and enhanced cell apoptosis under glucose limitation. Moreover, NDRG2 overexpression aggravated energy imbalance and oxidative stress by decreasing the intracellular ATP and NADPH generation and increasing ROS levels. Strikingly, NDRG2 inhibited the activation of fatty acid oxidation (FAO), which preserves ATP and NADPH purveyance in the absence of glucose. Finally, mechanistic investigation showed that NDRG2 overexpression suppressed the glucose-deprivation induced AMPK/ACC pathway activation in hepatoma cells, whereas the expression of a constitutively active form of AMPK abrogated glucose-deprivation induced AMPK activation and cell apoptosis. Thus, as a negative regulator of AMPK, NDRG2 disturbs the induction of FAO genes by glucose limitation, leading to dysregulation of ATP and NADPH, and thus reduces the tolerance of hepatoma cells to glucose limitation. - Highlights: • NDRG2 overexpression reduces the tolerance of hepatoma cells to glucose limitation. • NDRG2 overexpression aggravates energy imbalance and oxidative stress under glucose deprivation. • NDRG2 overexpression disturbs the activation of FAO in hepatoma cells under glucose limitation. • NDRG2 overexpression inhibits the activation of AMPK/ACC pathway in hepatoma cells during glucose starvation.

  20. Physical activity enhances metabolic fitness independently of cardiorespiratory fitness in marathon runners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laye, M J; Nielsen, M B; Hansen, L S

    2015-01-01

    High levels of cardiovascular fitness (CRF) and physical activity (PA) are associated with decreased mortality and risk to develop metabolic diseases. The independent contributions of CRF and PA to metabolic disease risk factors are unknown. We tested the hypothesis that runners who run consisten......High levels of cardiovascular fitness (CRF) and physical activity (PA) are associated with decreased mortality and risk to develop metabolic diseases. The independent contributions of CRF and PA to metabolic disease risk factors are unknown. We tested the hypothesis that runners who run...... consistently >50 km/wk and/or >2 marathons/yr for the last 5 years have superior metabolic fitness compared to matched sedentary subjects (CRF, age, gender, and BMI). Case-control recruitment of 31 pairs of runner-sedentary subjects identified 10 matched pairs with similar VO2max (mL/min/kg) (similar-VO2max......). The similar-VO2max group was compared with a group of age, gender, and BMI matched pairs who had the largest difference in VO2max (different-VO2max). Primary outcomes that defined metabolic fitness including insulin response to an oral glucose tolerance test, fasting lipids, and fasting insulin were superior...

  1. Aspects of igneous activity significant to a repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krier, D.J.; Perry, F.V.

    2004-01-01

    Location, timing, volume, and eruptive style of post-Miocene volcanoes have defined the volcanic hazard significant to a proposed high-level radioactive waste (HLW) and spent nuclear fuel (SNF) repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, as a low-probability, high-consequence event. Examination of eruptive centers in the region that may be analogueues to possible future volcanic activity at Yucca Mountain have aided in defining and evaluating the consequence scenarios for intrusion into and eruption above a repository. The probability of a future event intersecting a repository at Yucca Mountain has a mean value of 1.7 x 10 -8 per year. This probability comes from the Probabilistic Volcanic Hazard Assessment (PVHA) completed in 1996 and updated to reflect change in repository layout. Since that time, magnetic anomalies representing potential buried volcanic centers have been identified fiom magnetic surveys; however these potential buried centers only slightly increase the probability of an event intersecting the repository. The proposed repository will be located in its central portion of Yucca Mountain at approximately 300m depth. The process for assessing performance of a repository at Yucca Mountain has identified two scenarios for igneous activity that, although having a very low probability of occurrence, could have a significant consequence should an igneous event occur. Either a dike swarm intersecting repository drifts containing waste packages, or a volcanic eruption through the repository could result in release of radioactive material to the accessible environment. Ongoing investigations are assessing the mechanisms and significance of the consequence scenarios. Lathrop Wells Cone (∼80,000 yrs), a key analogue for estimating potential future volcanic activity, is the youngest surface expression of apparent waning basaltic volcanism in the region. Cone internal structure, lavas, and ash-fall tephra have been examined to estimate eruptive volume, eruption

  2. Development of a metabolically active, non-replicating sporozoite vaccine to prevent Plasmodium falciparum malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Stephen L; Billingsley, Peter F; James, Eric; Richman, Adam; Loyevsky, Mark; Li, Tao; Chakravarty, Sumana; Gunasekera, Anusha; Chattopadhyay, Rana; Li, Minglin; Stafford, Richard; Ahumada, Adriana; Epstein, Judith E; Sedegah, Martha; Reyes, Sharina; Richie, Thomas L; Lyke, Kirsten E; Edelman, Robert; Laurens, Matthew B; Plowe, Christopher V; Sim, B Kim Lee

    2010-01-01

    Immunization of volunteers by the bite of mosquitoes carrying radiation-attenuated Plasmodium falciparum sporozoites protects greater than 90% of such volunteers against malaria, if adequate numbers of immunizing biting sessions and sporozoite-infected mosquitoes are used. Nonetheless, until recently it was considered impossible to develop, license and commercialize a live, whole parasite P. falciparum sporozoite (PfSPZ) vaccine. In 2003 Sanaria scientists reappraised the potential impact of a metabolically active, non-replicating PfSPZ vaccine, and outlined the challenges to producing such a vaccine. Six years later, significant progress has been made in overcoming these challenges. This progress has enabled the manufacture and release of multiple clinical lots of a 1(st) generation metabolically active, non-replicating PfSPZ vaccine, the Sanaria PfSPZ Vaccine, submission of a successful Investigational New Drug application to the US Food and Drug Administration, and initiation of safety, immunogenicity and protective efficacy studies in volunteers in MD, US. Efforts are now focused on how best to achieve submission of a successful Biologics License Application and introduce the vaccine to the primary target population of African children in the shortest possible period of time. This will require implementation of a systematic, efficient clinical development plan. Short term challenges include optimizing the (1) efficiency and scale up of the manufacturing process and quality control assays, (2) dosage regimen and method of administration, (3) potency of the vaccine, and (4) logistics of delivering the vaccine to those who need it most, and finalizing the methods for vaccine stabilization and attenuation. A medium term goal is to design and build a facility for manufacturing highly potent and stable vaccine for pivotal Phase 3 studies and commercial launch.

  3. Physical Activity and Sedentary Time Associations with Metabolic Health Across Weight Statuses in Children and Adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuzik, Nicholas; Carson, Valerie; Andersen, Lars Bo

    2017-01-01

    classification compared with metabolically healthy (MH) classification for the NW group. More MVPA was associated with lower odds of MU classification than MH classification for NW and overweight groups. For multinomial logistic regressions, more MVPA was associated with lower odds of MH-obesity classification......, as well as MU-NW, -overweight, and -obesity classifications, compared with the MH-NW group. Furthermore, more sedentary time was associated with higher odds of MU-NW classification compared with the MH-NW group. CONCLUSIONS: More MVPA was beneficial for metabolic health and weight status, whereas lower......OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of metabolic health across weight statuses and the associations of physical activity and sedentary time within and across metabolic health-weight status groups. METHODS: Six studies (n = 4,581) from the International Children...

  4. A generic standard for assessing and managing activities with significant risk to health and safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilde, T.S.; Sandquist, G.M.

    2005-01-01

    Some operations and activities in industry, business, and government can present an unacceptable risk to health and safety if not performed according to established safety practices and documented procedures. The nuclear industry has extensive experience and commitment to assessing and controlling such risks. This paper provides a generic standard based upon DOE Standard DOE-STD-3007- 93, Nov 1993, Change Notice No. 1, Sep 1998. This generic standard can be used to assess practices and procedures employed by any industrial and government entity to ensure that an acceptable level of safety and control prevail for such operations. When any activity and operation is determined to involve significant risk to health and safety to workers or the public, the organization should adopt and establish an appropriate standard and methodology to ensure that adequate health and safety prevail. This paper uses DOE experience and standards to address activities with recognized potential for impact upon health and safety. Existing and future assessments of health and safety issues can be compared and evaluated against this generic standard for insuring that proper planning, analysis, review, and approval have been made. (authors)

  5. Metabolic activation of amygdala, lateral septum and accumbens circuits during food anticipatory behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivo, Diana; Caba, Mario; Gonzalez-Lima, Francisco; Rodríguez-Landa, Juan F; Corona-Morales, Aleph A

    2017-01-01

    When food is restricted to a brief fixed period every day, animals show an increase in temperature, corticosterone concentration and locomotor activity for 2-3h before feeding time, termed food anticipatory activity. Mechanisms and neuroanatomical circuits responsible for food anticipatory activity remain unclear, and may involve both oscillators and networks related to temporal conditioning. Rabbit pups are nursed once-a-day so they represent a natural model of circadian food anticipatory activity. Food anticipatory behavior in pups may be associated with neural circuits that temporally anticipate feeding, while the nursing event may produce consummatory effects. Therefore, we used New Zealand white rabbit pups entrained to circadian feeding to investigate the hypothesis that structures related to reward expectation and conditioned emotional responses would show a metabolic rhythm anticipatory of the nursing event, different from that shown by structures related to reward delivery. Quantitative cytochrome oxidase histochemistry was used to measure regional brain metabolic activity at eight different times during the day. We found that neural metabolism peaked before nursing, during food anticipatory behavior, in nuclei of the extended amygdala (basolateral, medial and central nuclei, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis), lateral septum and accumbens core. After pups were fed, however, maximal metabolic activity was expressed in the accumbens shell, caudate, putamen and cortical amygdala. Neural and behavioral activation persisted when animals were fasted by two cycles, at the time of expected nursing. These findings suggest that metabolic activation of amygdala-septal-accumbens circuits involved in temporal conditioning may contribute to food anticipatory activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Low Levels of Serum Paraoxonase Activities are Characteristic of Metabolic Syndrome and May Influence the Metabolic-Syndrome-Related Risk of Coronary Artery Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Martinelli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Low concentrations of plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDLs are characteristic in metabolic syndrome (MS. The antioxidant ability of HDLs is, at least in part, attributable to pleiotropic serum paraoxonase (PON1. Different PON1 activities have been assessed in 293 subjects with (=88 or without MS (=205 and with (=195 or without (=98 angiographically proven coronary artery disease (CAD. MS subjects had low PON1 activities, with a progressively decreasing trend by increasing the number of MS abnormalities. The activity versus 7-O-diethyl phosphoryl,3-cyano,4-methyl,7-hydroxycoumarin (DEPCyMC, which is considered a surrogate marker of PON1 concentration, showed the most significant association with MS, independently of both HDL and apolipoprotein A-I levels. Subjects with MS and low DEPCyMCase activity had the highest CAD risk (OR 4.34 with 95% CI 1.44–13.10, while no significant increase of risk was found among those with MS but high DEPCyMCase activity (OR 1.45 with 95% CI 0.47–4.46. Our results suggest that low PON1 concentrations are typical in MS and may modulate the MS-related risk of CAD.

  7. Low levels of serum paraoxonase activities are characteristic of metabolic syndrome and may influence the metabolic-syndrome-related risk of coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinelli, Nicola; Micaglio, Roberta; Consoli, Letizia; Guarini, Patrizia; Grison, Elisa; Pizzolo, Francesca; Friso, Simonetta; Trabetti, Elisabetta; Pignatti, Pier Franco; Corrocher, Roberto; Olivieri, Oliviero; Girelli, Domenico

    2012-01-01

    Low concentrations of plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDLs) are characteristic in metabolic syndrome (MS). The antioxidant ability of HDLs is, at least in part, attributable to pleiotropic serum paraoxonase (PON1). Different PON1 activities have been assessed in 293 subjects with (n = 88) or without MS (n = 205) and with (n = 195) or without (n = 98) angiographically proven coronary artery disease (CAD). MS subjects had low PON1 activities, with a progressively decreasing trend by increasing the number of MS abnormalities. The activity versus 7-O-diethyl phosphoryl,3-cyano,4-methyl,7-hydroxycoumarin (DEPCyMC), which is considered a surrogate marker of PON1 concentration, showed the most significant association with MS, independently of both HDL and apolipoprotein A-I levels. Subjects with MS and low DEPCyMCase activity had the highest CAD risk (OR 4.34 with 95% CI 1.44-13.10), while no significant increase of risk was found among those with MS but high DEPCyMCase activity (OR 1.45 with 95% CI 0.47-4.46). Our results suggest that low PON1 concentrations are typical in MS and may modulate the MS-related risk of CAD.

  8. Physical activity, stress, and metabolic risk score in 8- to 18-year-old boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Megan E; Eisenmann, Joey C; Ekkekakis, Panteleimon; Gentile, Douglas

    2008-03-01

    We examined whether physical activity modifies the relationship between stress and the metabolic risk score in 8- to 18-year-old males (n = 37). Physical activity (PA) and television (TV)/videogame (VG) use were assessed via accelerometer and questionnaire, respectively. Stress was determined from self-report measures. A metabolic risk score (MRS) was created by summing age-standardized residuals for waist circumference, mean arterial pressure, glycosylated hemoglobin, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Correlations between PA and MRS were low (r adolescents.

  9. [Coactivators in energy metabolism: peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator 1 family].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui; Chang, Yong-sheng; Fang, Fu-de

    2009-12-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 (PGC1) family is highly expressed in tissues with high energy metabolism. They coactivate transcription factors in regulating genes engaged in processes such as gluconeogenesis, adipose beta-oxydation, lipoprotein synthesis and secretion, mitochondrial biogenesis, and oxidative metabolism. Protein conformation studies demonstrated that they lack DNA binding domains and act as coactivators through physical interaction with transcription factors. PGC1 activity is regulated at transcription level or by multiple covalent chemical modifications such as phosphorylation, methylation and acetylation/deacetylation. Abnormal expression of PGC1 coactivators usually is closely correlated with diseases such as diabetes, obesity, hyperglycemia, hyperlipemia, and arterial and brain neuron necrosis diseases.

  10. Compensation in resting metabolism for experimentally increased activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deerenberg, C; Overkamp, GJF; Visser, GH; Daan, S; Heldmaier, G.

    1998-01-01

    To study zebra finch allocation of energy to day and night at two different workloads, we assessed the daily energy turnover from: (1) metabolizable energy of the food, and (2) doubly-labeled water. In both experiments we imposed two levels of activity on captive zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata),

  11. Understanding Fatty Acid Metabolism through an Active Learning Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fardilha, M.; Schrader, M.; da Cruz e Silva, O. A. B.; da Cruz e Silva, E. F.

    2010-01-01

    A multi-method active learning approach (MALA) was implemented in the Medical Biochemistry teaching unit of the Biomedical Sciences degree at the University of Aveiro, using problem-based learning as the main learning approach. In this type of learning strategy, students are involved beyond the mere exercise of being taught by listening. Less…

  12. Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of clothianidin in human lymphocytes with or without metabolic activation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atlı Şekeroğlu, Zülal; Şekeroğlu, Vedat; Uçgun, Ebru; Kontaş Yedier, Seval; Aydın, Birsen

    2018-02-26

    Clothianidin (CHN) is a broad-spectrum neonicotinoid insecticide. Limited studies have been carried out on the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of both CHN using different genotoxicity tests in human cells with or without human metabolic activation system (S9 mix). Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of CHN and its metabolites on human lymphocyte cultures with or without S9 mix using chromosomal aberration (CA) and micronucleus (MN) tests. The cultures were treated with 25, 50, and 100 µg/ml of CHN in the presence (3 h treatment) and absence (48 h treatment) of S9 mix. Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) was used as a solvent control. CHN showed cytotoxic and genotoxic effects due to significant decreases in mitotic index (MI) and nuclear division index (NDI), and significant increases in the CAs, aberrant cells, and MN formation in the absence of S9 mix when compared with solvent control. However, CHN did not significantly induce cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in the presence of S9 mix. Our results indicated that CHN has cytotoxic, cytostatic, and genotoxic potential on human peripheral blood lymphocyte cultures, but not its metabolites under the experimental conditions.

  13. Metabolic Control of Dendritic Cell Activation and Function: Recent Advances and Clinical Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart eEverts

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Dendritic cells (DCs are key regulators of both immunity and tolerance by controlling activation and polarization of effector T helper cell and regulatory T cell responses. Therefore, there is a major focus on developing approaches to manipulate DC function for immunotherapy. It is well known that changes in cellular activation are coupled to profound changes in cellular metabolism. Over the past decade there is a growing appreciation that these metabolic changes also underlie the capacity of immune cells to perform particular functions. This has led to the concept that the manipulation of cellular metabolism can be used to shape innate and adaptive immune responses. While most of our understanding in this area has been gained from studies with T cells and macrophages, evidence is emerging that the activation and function of DCs are also dictated by the type of metabolism these cells commit to. We here discuss these new insights and explore whether targeting of metabolic pathways in DCs could hold promise as a novel approach to manipulate the functional properties of DCs for clinical purposes.

  14. Hepatic injury induces contrasting response in liver and kidney to chemicals that are metabolically activated: Role of male sex hormone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young C.; Yim, Hye K.; Jung, Young S.; Park, Jae H.; Kim, Sung Y.

    2007-01-01

    Injury to liver, resulting in loss of its normal physiological/biochemical functions, may adversely affect a secondary organ. We examined the response of the liver and kidney to chemical substances that require metabolic activation for their toxicities in mice with a preceding liver injury. Carbon tetrachloride treatment 24 h prior to a challenging dose of carbon tetrachloride or acetaminophen decreased the resulting hepatotoxicity both in male and female mice as determined by histopathological examination and increases in serum enzyme activities. In contrast, the renal toxicity of the challenging toxicants was elevated markedly in male, but not in female mice. Partial hepatectomy also induced similar changes in the hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity of a challenging toxicant, suggesting that the contrasting response of male liver and kidney was associated with the reduction of the hepatic metabolizing capacity. Carbon tetrachloride pretreatment or partial hepatectomy decreased the hepatic xenobiotic-metabolizing enzyme activities in both sexes but elevated the renal p-nitrophenol hydroxylase, p-nitroanisole O-demethylase and aminopyrine N-demethylase activities significantly only in male mice. Increases in Cyp2e1 and Cyp2b expression were also evident in male kidney. Castration of males or testosterone administration to females diminished the sex-related differences in the renal response to an acute liver injury. The results indicate that reduction of the hepatic metabolizing capacity induced by liver injury may render secondary target organs susceptible to chemical substances activated in these organs. This effect may be sex-specific. It is also suggested that an integrated approach should be taken for proper assessment of chemical hazards

  15. Metabolic Features of Protochlamydia amoebophila Elementary Bodies – A Link between Activity and Infectivity in Chlamydiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watzka, Margarete; Wultsch, Anna; Tziotis, Dimitrios; Montanaro, Jacqueline; Richter, Andreas; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Horn, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    The Chlamydiae are a highly successful group of obligate intracellular bacteria, whose members are remarkably diverse, ranging from major pathogens of humans and animals to symbionts of ubiquitous protozoa. While their infective developmental stage, the elementary body (EB), has long been accepted to be completely metabolically inert, it has recently been shown to sustain some activities, including uptake of amino acids and protein biosynthesis. In the current study, we performed an in-depth characterization of the metabolic capabilities of EBs of the amoeba symbiont Protochlamydia amoebophila. A combined metabolomics approach, including fluorescence microscopy-based assays, isotope-ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS), ion cyclotron resonance Fourier transform mass spectrometry (ICR/FT-MS), and ultra-performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS) was conducted, with a particular focus on the central carbon metabolism. In addition, the effect of nutrient deprivation on chlamydial infectivity was analyzed. Our investigations revealed that host-free P. amoebophila EBs maintain respiratory activity and metabolize D-glucose, including substrate uptake as well as host-free synthesis of labeled metabolites and release of labeled CO2 from 13C-labeled D-glucose. The pentose phosphate pathway was identified as major route of D-glucose catabolism and host-independent activity of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle was observed. Our data strongly suggest anabolic reactions in P. amoebophila EBs and demonstrate that under the applied conditions D-glucose availability is essential to sustain metabolic activity. Replacement of this substrate by L-glucose, a non-metabolizable sugar, led to a rapid decline in the number of infectious particles. Likewise, infectivity of Chlamydia trachomatis, a major human pathogen, also declined more rapidly in the absence of nutrients. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that D-glucose is utilized by P. amoebophila EBs and provide

  16. Metabolic features of Protochlamydia amoebophila elementary bodies--a link between activity and infectivity in Chlamydiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara S Sixt

    Full Text Available The Chlamydiae are a highly successful group of obligate intracellular bacteria, whose members are remarkably diverse, ranging from major pathogens of humans and animals to symbionts of ubiquitous protozoa. While their infective developmental stage, the elementary body (EB, has long been accepted to be completely metabolically inert, it has recently been shown to sustain some activities, including uptake of amino acids and protein biosynthesis. In the current study, we performed an in-depth characterization of the metabolic capabilities of EBs of the amoeba symbiont Protochlamydia amoebophila. A combined metabolomics approach, including fluorescence microscopy-based assays, isotope-ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS, ion cyclotron resonance Fourier transform mass spectrometry (ICR/FT-MS, and ultra-performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS was conducted, with a particular focus on the central carbon metabolism. In addition, the effect of nutrient deprivation on chlamydial infectivity was analyzed. Our investigations revealed that host-free P. amoebophila EBs maintain respiratory activity and metabolize D-glucose, including substrate uptake as well as host-free synthesis of labeled metabolites and release of labeled CO2 from (13C-labeled D-glucose. The pentose phosphate pathway was identified as major route of D-glucose catabolism and host-independent activity of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA cycle was observed. Our data strongly suggest anabolic reactions in P. amoebophila EBs and demonstrate that under the applied conditions D-glucose availability is essential to sustain metabolic activity. Replacement of this substrate by L-glucose, a non-metabolizable sugar, led to a rapid decline in the number of infectious particles. Likewise, infectivity of Chlamydia trachomatis, a major human pathogen, also declined more rapidly in the absence of nutrients. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that D-glucose is utilized by P. amoebophila

  17. Medicinal significance, pharmacological activities, and analytical aspects of solasodine: A concise report of current scientific literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanika Patel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Alkaloids are well known phytoconstituents for their diverse pharmacological properties. Alkaloids are found in all plant parts like roots, stems, leaves, flowers, fruits and seeds. Solasodine occurs as an aglycone part of glycoalkloids, which is a nitrogen analogue to sapogenins. Solanaceae family comprises of a number of plants with variety of natural products of medicinal significance mainly steroidal lactones, glycosides, alkaloids and flavanoids. It is a steroidal alkaloid based on a C27 cholestane skeleton. Literature survey reveals that solasodine has diuretic, anticancer, antifungal, cardiotonic, antispermatogenetic, antiandrogenic, immunomodulatory, antipyretic and various effects on central nervous system. Isolation and quantitative determination was achieved by several analytical techniques. Present review highlights the pharmacological activity of solasodine, with its analytical and tissue culture techniques, which may be helpful to the researchers to develop new molecules for the treatment of various disorders in the future.

  18. Mechanisms of transcriptional regulation and prognostic significance of activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule in cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Hairu

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM is implicated in the prognosis of multiple cancers with low level expression associated with metastasis and early death in breast cancer. Despite this significance, mechanisms that regulate ALCAM gene expression and ALCAM's role in adhesion of pre-metastatic circulating tumor cells have not been defined. We studied ALCAM expression in 20 tumor cell lines by real-time PCR, western blot and immunochemistry. Epigenetic alterations of the ALCAM promoter were assessed using methylation-specific PCR and bisulfite sequencing. ALCAM's role in adhesion of tumor cells to the vascular wall was studied in isolated perfused lungs. Results A common site for transcription initiation of the ALCAM gene was identified and the ALCAM promoter sequenced. The promoter contains multiple cis-active elements including a functional p65 NF-κB motif, and it harbors an extensive array of CpG residues highly methylated exclusively in ALCAM-negative tumor cells. These CpG residues were modestly demethylated after 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine treatment. Restoration of high-level ALCAM expression using an ALCAM cDNA increased clustering of MDA-MB-435 tumor cells perfused through the pulmonary vasculature of ventilated rat lungs. Anti-ALCAM antibodies reduced the number of intravascular tumor cell clusters. Conclusion Our data suggests that loss of ALCAM expression, due in part to DNA methylation of extensive segments of the promoter, significantly impairs the ability of circulating tumor cells to adhere to each other, and may therefore promote metastasis. These findings offer insight into the mechanisms for down-regulation of ALCAM gene expression in tumor cells, and for the positive prognostic value of high-level ALCAM in breast cancer.

  19. Metabolic changes associated with playing active video game ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twenty adults (10 males and 10 females) between 19 and 25 years of age played Nintendo Wii Boxing™ for 15 minutes. ... the VO2max assessment. ... opponent when compared to when at rest (1.1 ± 0.1 kcal•min-1), while no significant differences were found between the two video game opponents or males and females.

  20. Chronic methamphetamine exposure significantly decreases microglia activation in the arcuate nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Steven A; Corkill, Beau; Bruster, Matthew C; Roberts, Rick L; Shanks, Ryan A

    2017-07-01

    Methamphetamine is a powerful psychostimulant drug and its use and abuse necessitates a better understanding of its neurobiobehavioral effects. The acute effects of binge dosing of methamphetamine on the neurons in the CNS are well studied. However, the long-term effects of chronic, low-dose methamphetamine are less well characterized, especially in other cell types and areas outside of the major dopamine pathways. Mice were administered 5mg/kg/day methamphetamine for ten days and brain tissue was analyzed using histochemistry and image analysis. Increased microglia activity in the striatum confirmed toxic effects of methamphetamine in this brain region using this dosing paradigm. A significant decrease in microglia activity in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus was observed with no effect noted on dopamine neurons in the arcuate nucleus. Given the importance of this area in homeostatic and neuroendocrine regulation, the current study highlights the need to more fully understand the systemic effects of chronic, low-dose methamphetamine use. The novel finding of microglia downregulation after chronic methamphetamine could lead to advances in understanding neuroinflammatory responses towards addiction treatment and protection from psychostimulant-induced neurotoxicity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Leisure time physical activity in middle age predicts the metabolic syndrome in old age: results of a 28-year follow-up of men in the Oslo study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holme, Ingar; Tonstad, Serena; Sogaard, Anne Johanne; Larsen, Per G Lund; Haheim, Lise Lund

    2007-01-01

    Background Data are scarce on the long term relationship between leisure time physical activity, smoking and development of metabolic syndrome and diabetes. We wanted to investigate the relationship between leisure time physical activity and smoking measured in middle age and the occurrence of the metabolic syndrome and diabetes in men that participated in two cardiovascular screenings of the Oslo Study 28 years apart. Methods Men residing in Oslo and born in 1923–32 (n = 16 209) were screened for cardiovascular diseases and risk factors in 1972/3. Of the original cohort, those who also lived in same area in 2000 were invited to a repeat screening examination, attended by 6 410 men. The metabolic syndrome was defined according to a modification of the National Cholesterol Education Program criteria. Leisure time physical activity, smoking, educational attendance and the presence of diabetes were self-reported. Results Leisure time physical activity decreased between the first and second screening and tracked only moderately between the two time points (Spearman's ρ = 0.25). Leisure time physical activity adjusted for age and educational attendance was a significant predictor of both the metabolic syndrome and diabetes in 2000 (odds ratio for moderately vigorous versus sedentary/light activity was 0.65 [95% CI, 0.54–0.80] for the metabolic syndrome and 0.68 [0.52–0.91] for diabetes) (test for trend P < 0.05). However, when adjusted for more factors measured in 1972/3 including glucose, triglycerides, body mass index, treated hypertension and systolic blood pressure these associations were markedly attenuated. Smoking was associated with the metabolic syndrome but not with diabetes in 2000. Conclusion Physical activity during leisure recorded in middle age prior to the current waves of obesity and diabetes had an independent predictive association with the presence of the metabolic syndrome but not significantly so with diabetes 28 years later in life, when

  2. Metabolic activity in striate and extrastriate cortex in the hooded rat: contralateral and ipsilateral eye input

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thurlow, G.A.; Cooper, R.M.

    1988-01-01

    The extent of changes in glucose metabolism resulting from ipsilateral and contralateral eye activity in the posterior cortex of the hooded rat was demonstrated by means of the C-14 2-deoxyglucose autoradiographic technique. By stimulating one eye with square wave gratings and eliminating efferent activation from the other by means of enucleation or intraocular TTX injection, differences between ipsilaterally and contralaterally based visual activity in the two hemispheres were maximized. Carbon-14 levels in layer IV of autoradiographs of coronal sections were measured and combined across sections to form right and left matrices of posterior cortex metabolic activity. A difference matrix, formed by subtracting the metabolic activity matrix of cortex contralateral to the stimulated eye from the ipsilateral depressed matrix, emphasized those parts of the visual cortex that received monocular visual input. The demarcation of striate cortex by means of cholinesterase stain and the examination of autoradiographs from sections cut tangential to the cortical surface aided in the interpretation of the difference matrices. In striate cortex, differences were maximal in the medial monocular portion, and the lateral or binocular portion was shown to be divided metabolically into a far lateral contralaterally dominant strip along the cortical representation of the vertical meridian, and a more medial region of patches of more or less contralaterally dominant binocular input. Lateral peristriate differences were less than those of striate cortex, and regions of greater and lesser monocular input could be distinguished. We did not detect differences between the two hemispheres in either anterior or medial peristriate areas

  3. Regulation of energy metabolism during social interactions in rainbow trout: a role for AMP-activated protein kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmour, K M; Craig, P M; Dhillon, R S; Lau, G Y; Richards, J G

    2017-11-01

    Rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss ) confined in pairs form social hierarchies in which subordinate fish typically experience fasting and high circulating cortisol levels, resulting in low growth rates. The present study investigated the role of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in mediating metabolic adjustments associated with social status in rainbow trout. After 3 days of social interaction, liver AMPK activity was significantly higher in subordinate than dominant or sham (fish handled in the same fashion as paired fish but held individually) trout. Elevated liver AMPK activity in subordinate fish likely reflected a significantly higher ratio of phosphorylated AMPK (phospho-AMPK) to total AMPK protein, which was accompanied by significantly higher AMPKα 1 relative mRNA abundance. Liver ATP and creatine phosphate concentrations in subordinate fish also were elevated, perhaps as a result of AMPK activity. Sham fish that were fasted for 3 days exhibited effects parallel to those of subordinate fish, suggesting that low food intake was an important trigger of elevated AMPK activity in subordinate fish. Effects on white muscle appeared to be influenced by the physical activity associated with social interaction. Overall, muscle AMPK activity was significantly higher in dominant and subordinate than sham fish. The ratio of phospho-AMPK to total AMPK protein in muscle was highest in subordinate fish, while muscle AMPKα 1 relative mRNA abundance was elevated by social dominance. Muscle ATP and creatine phosphate concentrations were high in dominant and subordinate fish at 6 h of interaction and decreased significantly thereafter. Collectively, the findings of the present study support a role for AMPK in mediating liver and white muscle metabolic adjustments associated with social hierarchy formation in rainbow trout. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  4. Genome Sequencing of Streptomyces atratus SCSIOZH16 and Activation Production of Nocardamine via Metabolic Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Li

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The Actinomycetes are metabolically flexible microorganisms capable of producing a wide range of interesting compounds, including but by no means limited to, siderophores which have high affinity for ferric iron. In this study, we report the complete genome sequence of marine-derived Streptomyces atratus ZH16 and the activation of an embedded siderophore gene cluster via the application of metabolic engineering methods. The S. atratus ZH16 genome reveals that this strain has the potential to produce 26 categories of natural products (NPs barring the ilamycins. Our activation studies revealed S. atratus SCSIO ZH16 to be a promising source of the production of nocardamine-type (desferrioxamine compounds which are important in treating acute iron intoxication and performing ecological remediation. We conclude that metabolic engineering provides a highly effective strategy by which to discover drug-like compounds and new NPs in the genomic era.

  5. Biphasic electrical targeting plays a significant role in schwann cell activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, In Sook; Song, Yun Mi; Cho, Tae Hyung; Pan, Hui; Lee, Tae Hyung; Kim, Sung June; Hwang, Soon Jung

    2011-05-01

    Electrical stimulation (ES) is a promising technique for axonal regeneration of peripheral nerve injuries. However, long-term, continuous ES in the form of biphasic electric current (BEC) to stimulate axonal regeneration has rarely been attempted and the effects of BEC on Schwann cells are unknown. We hypothesized that long-term, continuous ES would trigger the activation of Schwann cells, and we therefore investigated the effect of BEC on the functional differentiation of primary human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs) into Schwann cells, as well as the activity of primary Schwann cells. Differentiation of hMSCs into Schwann cells was determined by coculture with rat pheochromocytoma cells (PC12 cell line). We also investigated the in vivo effects of long-term ES (4 weeks) on axonal outgrowth of a severed sciatic nerve with a 7-mm gap after retraction of the nerve ends in rats by implanting an electronic device to serve as a neural conduit. PC12 cells cocultured with hMSCs electrically stimulated during culture in Schwann cell differentiation medium (Group I) had longer neurites and a greater percentage of PC12 cells were neurite-sprouting than when cocultured with hMSCs cultured in growth medium (control group) or unstimulated hMSCs in the same culture conditions as used for Group I (Group II). Group I cells showed significant upregulation of Schwann cell-related neurotrophic factors such as nerve growth factor and glial-derived neurotrophic factor compared to Group II cells at both the mRNA and protein levels. Primary Schwann cells responded to continuous BEC with increased proliferation and the induction of nerve growth factor and glial-derived neurotrophic factor, similar to Group I cells, and in addition, induction of brain-derived neurotrophic factor was observed. Immunohistochemical investigation of sciatic nerve regenerates revealed that BEC increased axonal outgrowth significantly. These results demonstrate that BEC enhanced the functional activity of

  6. Metabolic and Co-Metabolic Transformation of Diclofenac by Enterobacter hormaechei D15 Isolated from Activated Sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aissaoui, Salima; Ouled-Haddar, Houria; Sifour, Mohamed; Harrouche, Kamel; Sghaier, Haitham

    2017-03-01

    The presence of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, such as diclofenac (DCF), in the environment, is an emerging problem due to their harmful effects on non-target organisms, even at low concentrations. We studied the biodegradation of DCF by the strain D15 of Enterobacter hormaechei. The strain was isolated from an activated sludge, and identified as E. hormaechei based on its physiological characteristics and its 16 S RNA sequence. Using HPTLC and GC-MS methods, we demonstrated that this strain metabolized DCF at an elimination rate of 52.8%. In the presence of an external carbon source (glucose), the elimination rate increased to approximately 82%. GC-MS analysis detected and identified one metabolite as 1-(2,6-dichlorophenyl)-1,3-dihydro-2H-indol-2-one; it was produced as a consequence of dehydration and lactam formation reactions.

  7. Alterations in calcium metabolism during human monocyte activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scully, S.P.

    1984-01-01

    Human peripheral blood monocytes have been prepared from plateletpheresis residues by counterflow centrifugal elutriation in sufficient quantities to enable quantitative studies of cell calcium. Kinetic analysis of 45 Ca exchange data in resting monocytes was compatible with a model of cellular calcium containing three exchangeable calcium pools. These pools are thought to represent a putative ectocellular pool, a putative cytoplasmic chelated pool, and a putative organelle sequestered pool. Exposure of monocytes to the plant lectin Con A at a concentration that maximally simulated superoxide production caused an increase in the size and a doubling in the exchange rate of the putative cytoplasmic pool without a change in the other cellular pools. The cytoplasmic ionized calcium, [Ca]/sub i/, measured with the fluorescent probe, Quin 2 rose from a resting level of 83 nM to 165 mN within 30 sec of exposure to Con A. This increase in cytoplasmic calcium preceded the release of superoxide radicals. Calcium transport and calcium ATPase activities were identified and characterized in plasma membrane vesicles prepared from monocytes. Both activities were strictly dependent on ATP and Mg, had a Km/sub Ca/ in the submicromolar range and were stimulated by calmodulin. Thus, it seems that monocyte calcium is in a dynamic steady state that is a balance between efflux and influx rates, and that the activation of these cells results in the transition to a new steady state. The alteration in [Ca]/sub i/ that accompany the new steady state are essential for superoxide production by human monocytes

  8. Nootkatone, a characteristic constituent of grapefruit, stimulates energy metabolism and prevents diet-induced obesity by activating AMPK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murase, Takatoshi; Misawa, Koichi; Haramizu, Satoshi; Minegishi, Yoshihiko; Hase, Tadashi

    2010-08-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a serine/threonine kinase that is implicated in the control of energy metabolism and is considered to be a molecular target for the suppression of obesity and the treatment of metabolic syndrome. Here, we identified and characterized nootkatone, a constituent of grapefruit, as a naturally occurring AMPK activator. Nootkatone induced an increase in AMPKalpha1 and -alpha2 activity along with an increase in the AMP/ATP ratio and an increase the phosphorylation of AMPKalpha and the downstream target acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), in C(2)C(12) cells. Nootkatone-induced activation of AMPK was possibly mediated both by LKB1 and Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase. Nootkatone also upregulated PPARgamma coactivator-1alpha in C(2)C(12) cells and C57BL/6J mouse muscle. In addition, administration of nootkatone (200 mg/kg body wt) significantly enhanced AMPK activity, accompanied by LKB1, AMPK, and ACC phosphorylation in the liver and muscle of mice. Whole body energy expenditure evaluated by indirect calorimetry was also increased by nootkatone administration. Long-term intake of diets containing 0.1% to 0.3% (wt/wt) nootkatone significantly reduced high-fat and high-sucrose diet-induced body weight gain, abdominal fat accumulation, and the development of hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and hyperleptinemia in C57BL/6J mice. Furthermore, endurance capacity, evaluated as swimming time to exhaustion in BALB/c mice, was 21% longer in mice fed 0.2% nootkatone than in control mice. These findings indicate that long-term intake of nootkatone is beneficial toward preventing obesity and improving physical performance and that these effects are due, at least in part, to enhanced energy metabolism through AMPK activation in skeletal muscle and liver.

  9. Diversity of apolipoprotein E genetic polymorphism significance on cardiovascular risk is determined by the presence of metabolic syndrome among hypertensive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Andrei Alkmim; Marrocos, Mauro Sergio; Quinto, Beata Marie Redublo; Dalboni, Maria Aparecida; Rodrigues, Cassio Jose de Oliveira; Carmona, Silmara de Melo; Kuniyoshi, Mariana; Batista, Marcelo Costa

    2014-11-20

    Hypertension has a significant relevance as a cardiovascular risk factor. A consistent increase on world's Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) incidence has been associated with an epidemic cardiovascular risk in different populations. Dislipidemia plays a major role determining the epidemic CV burden attributed to MetS. Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) is involved on cholesterol and triglycerides metabolism regulation. Once ApoE polymorphism may influence lipid metabolism, it is possible that it brings on individual susceptibility consequences for the development of MetS and cardiovascular risk. The objective of the study is to measure the discriminatory power of ApoE polymorphism in determining cardiovascular risk stratification based on the presence MetS in a cohort of hypertensive patients. It was enrolled 383 patients, divided in two groups, classified by MetS presence (IDF criteria): Group 1: 266 patients with MetS (MetS +) and Group 2: 117 patients without Mets (MetS -). Patient's data were collected by clinical evaluation, physical exam, file reviews and laboratory testing. Polymorphic ApoE analysis was performed by PCR amplification. Groups were compared on clinical and laboratory characteristics as well as allele and genotype distribution towards ApoE polymorphism. Mets CVD prevalence was analysed according to E4 allele prevalence. The results evidenced 184 men (48%), 63,7% whites, 45,1% diabetics and 11,7% of patients were smokers. Mean age was 64,0 ± 12,0 years. When genotypic distribution was analyzed, E3/3 genotype and E3 allele frequencies were more prevalent. Among patients with MetS, we observed an independent association between CVD prevalence and E4 allele frequency (OR 2.42 (1.17- 5.0, p < 0,05)). On the opposite direction, in those without MetS, there was lesser CVD burden in E4 allele carriers (OR 0,14 (0,02-0,75)). These associations remained significant even after confounding factor corrections. The results presented demonstrate that the association

  10. Polyomic profiling reveals significant hepatic metabolic alterations in glucagon-receptor (GCGR knockout mice: implications on anti-glucagon therapies for diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molloy Mark P

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glucagon is an important hormone in the regulation of glucose homeostasis, particularly in the maintenance of euglycemia and prevention of hypoglycemia. In type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM, glucagon levels are elevated in both the fasted and postprandial states, which contributes to inappropriate hyperglycemia through excessive hepatic glucose production. Efforts to discover and evaluate glucagon receptor antagonists for the treatment of T2DM have been ongoing for approximately two decades, with the challenge being to identify an agent with appropriate pharmaceutical properties and efficacy relative to potential side effects. We sought to determine the hepatic & systemic consequence of full glucagon receptor antagonism through the study of the glucagon receptor knock-out mouse (Gcgr-/- compared to wild-type littermates. Results Liver transcriptomics was performed using Affymetric expression array profiling, and liver proteomics was performed by iTRAQ global protein analysis. To complement the transcriptomic and proteomic analyses, we also conducted metabolite profiling (~200 analytes using mass spectrometry in plasma. Overall, there was excellent concordance (R = 0.88 for changes associated with receptor knock-out between the transcript and protein analysis. Pathway analysis tools were used to map the metabolic processes in liver altered by glucagon receptor ablation, the most notable being significant down-regulation of gluconeogenesis, amino acid catabolism, and fatty acid oxidation processes, with significant up-regulation of glycolysis, fatty acid synthesis, and cholesterol biosynthetic processes. These changes at the level of the liver were manifested through an altered plasma metabolite profile in the receptor knock-out mice, e.g. decreased glucose and glucose-derived metabolites, and increased amino acids, cholesterol, and bile acid levels. Conclusions In sum, the results of this study suggest that the complete ablation

  11. Basal levels of metabolic activity are elevated in Genetic Absence Epilepsy Rats from Strasbourg (GAERS): measurement of regional activity of cytochrome oxidase and lactate dehydrogenase by histochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufour, Franck; Koning, Estelle; Nehlig, Astrid

    2003-08-01

    The Genetic Absence Epilepsy Rats from Strasbourg (GAERS) are considered an isomorphic, predictive, and homologous model of human generalized absence epilepsy. It is characterized by the expression of spike-and-wave discharges in the thalamus and cortex. In this strain, basal regional rates of cerebral glucose utilization measured by the quantitative autoradiographic [(14)C]2-deoxyglucose technique display a widespread consistent increase compared to a selected strain of genetically nonepileptic rats (NE). In order to verify whether these high rates of glucose metabolism are paralleled by elevated activities of the enzymes of the glycolytic and tricarboxylic acid cycle pathways, we measured by histochemistry the regional activity of the two key enzymes of glucose metabolism, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) for the anaerobic pathway and cytochrome oxidase (CO) for the aerobic pathway coupled to oxidative phosphorylation. CO and LDH activities were significantly higher in GAERS than in NE rats in 24 and 28 of the 30 brain regions studied, respectively. The differences in CO and LDH activity between both strains were widespread, affected all brain systems studied, and ranged from 12 to 63%. The data of the present study confirm the generalized increase in cerebral glucose metabolism in GAERS, occurring both at the glycolytic and at the oxidative step. However, they still do not allow us to understand why the ubiquitous mutation(s) generates spike-and-wave discharges only in the thalamocortical circuit.

  12. Stress during puberty boosts metabolic activation associated with fear-extinction learning in hippocampus, basal amygdala and cingulate cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo-Rodriguez, Maria; Pitiot, Alain; Paus, Tomáš; Sandi, Carmen

    2012-07-01

    Adolescence is characterized by major developmental changes that may render the individual vulnerable to stress and the development of psychopathologies in a sex-specific manner. Earlier we reported lower anxiety-like behavior and higher risk-taking and novelty seeking in rats previously exposed to peri-pubertal stress. Here we studied whether peri-pubertal stress affected the acquisition and extinction of fear memories and/or the associated functional engagement of various brain regions, as assessed with 2-deoxyglucose. We showed that while peri-pubertal stress reduced freezing during the acquisition of fear memories (training) in both sexes, it had a sex-specific effect on extinction of these memories. Moreover hippocampus, basal amygdala and cingulate and motor cortices showed higher metabolic rates during extinction in rats exposed to peri-pubertal stress. Interestingly, activation of the infralimbic cortex was negatively correlated with freezing during extinction only in control males, while only males stressed during puberty showed a significant correlation between behavior during extinction and metabolic activation of hippocampus, amygdala and paraventricular nucleus. No correlations between brain activation and behavior during extinction were observed in females (control or stress). These results indicate that exposure to peri-pubertal stress affects behavior and brain metabolism when the individual is exposed to an additional stressful challenge. Some of these effects are sex-specific. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The mouse liver displays daily rhythms in the metabolism of phospholipids and in the activity of lipid synthesizing enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorné, Lucas D; Acosta-Rodríguez, Victoria A; Pasquaré, Susana J; Salvador, Gabriela A; Giusto, Norma M; Guido, Mario Eduardo

    2015-02-01

    The circadian system involves central and peripheral oscillators regulating temporally biochemical processes including lipid metabolism; their disruption leads to severe metabolic diseases (obesity, diabetes, etc). Here, we investigated the temporal regulation of glycerophospholipid (GPL) synthesis in mouse liver, a well-known peripheral oscillator. Mice were synchronized to a 12:12 h light-dark (LD) cycle and then released to constant darkness with food ad libitum. Livers collected at different times exhibited a daily rhythmicity in some individual GPL content with highest levels during the subjective day. The activity of GPL-synthesizing/remodeling enzymes: phosphatidate phosphohydrolase 1 (PAP-1/lipin) and lysophospholipid acyltransferases (LPLATs) also displayed significant variations, with higher levels during the subjective day and at dusk. We evaluated the temporal regulation of expression and activity of phosphatidylcholine (PC) synthesizing enzymes. PC is mainly synthesized through the Kennedy pathway with Choline Kinase (ChoK) as a key regulatory enzyme or through the phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) N-methyltransferase (PEMT) pathway. The PC/PE content ratio exhibited a daily variation with lowest levels at night, while ChoKα and PEMT mRNA expression displayed maximal levels at nocturnal phases. Our results demonstrate that mouse liver GPL metabolism oscillates rhythmically with a precise temporal control in the expression and/or activity of specific enzymes.

  14. Goutweed (Aegopodium podagraria L. biological activity and the possibilities of its use for the correction of the lipid metabolism disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Tovchiga

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article summarizes data concerning the biological activity of the promising herbal raw material: aerial part of goutweed (Aegopodium podagraria L., Apiaceae. This plant since time immemorial has been used as vegetable and fodder plant as well as in folk medicine including the treatment of the metabolic disorders. Nowadays the interest in this plant increases. The technology of obtaining the extract and the tincture from goutweed aerial part is described, the chemical composition of these preparations is elucidated. Pharmacological effects of the preparations obtained from goutweed are characterized with the special emphasis on the possibilities of the lipid metabolism disorders correction and prevention. The presented experimental results substantiate the efficacy of goutweed extract and the tincture under the conditions of alimentary lipemia together with their safety in the intact animals. Thus, the hypolipidemic activity of goutweed extract (1 g/kg intragastrically and goutweed tincture (1 cm3/kg intragastrically was shown in the test with olive oil loading in rats. The extract appeared to be able to decrease significantly the level of triglycerides in blood plasma, while the tincture reduced the content of plasma total lipids. In the intact rats, the extract at doses of 100 mg/kg and 1 g/kg as well as the tincture at doses of 1 and 5 cm3/kg did not influence on the values of the lipid metabolism after 12 days of administration. Total and HDL cholesterol as well as atherogenic index and plasma total lipids level remained unchanged. In contast to the data previously obtained on the models of hyperuricemia, in the intact rats there were no changes in plasma uric acid concentration (which was determined proceeding from the role of the purine metabolism disorders in metabolic syndrome pathogenesis. Thus, goutweed preparations are characterized with the regulatory mode of action and sufficient level of safety. The development of drugs as

  15. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma and spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase gene expressions are significantly correlated in human colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linsalata, Michele; Giannini, Romina; Notarnicola, Maria; Cavallini, Aldo

    2006-01-01

    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) is a transcription factor that regulates adipogenic differentiation and glucose homeostasis. Spermidine/spermine N 1 -acetyltransferase (SSAT) and ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) are key enzymes involved in the metabolism of polyamines, compounds that play an important role in cell proliferation. While the PPARγ role in tumour growth has not been clearly defined, the involvement of the altered polyamine metabolism in colorectal carcinogenesis has been established. In this direction, we have evaluated the PPARγ expression and its relationship with polyamine metabolism in tissue samples from 40 patients operated because of colorectal carcinoma. Since it is known that the functional role of K-ras mutation in colorectal tumorigenesis is associated with cell growth and differentiation, polyamine metabolism and the PPARγ expression were also investigated in terms of K-ras mutation. PPARγ, ODC and SSAT mRNA levels were evaluated by reverse transcriptase and real-time PCR. Polyamines were quantified by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). ODC and SSAT activity were measured by a radiometric technique. PPARγ expression, as well as SSAT and ODC mRNA levels were significantly higher in cancer as compared to normal mucosa. Tumour samples also showed significantly higher polyamine levels and ODC and SSAT activities in comparison to normal samples. A significant and positive correlation between PPARγ and the SSAT gene expression was observed in both normal and neoplastic tissue (r = 0.73, p < 0.0001; r = 0.65, p < 0.0001, respectively). Moreover, gene expression, polyamine levels and enzymatic activities were increased in colorectal carcinoma samples expressing K-ras mutation as compared to non mutated K-ras samples. In conclusion, our data demonstrated a close relationship between PPARγ and SSAT in human colorectal cancer and this could represent an attempt to decrease polyamine levels and to reduce cell

  16. Physical fitness and activity, metabolic profile, adipokines and endothelial function in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penha, Jociene Terra da; Gazolla, Fernanda Mussi; Carvalho, Cecília Noronha de Miranda; Madeira, Isabel Rey; Rodrigues-Junior, Flávio; Machado, Elisabeth de Amorim; Sicuro, Fernando Lencastre; Farinatti, Paulo; Bouskela, Eliete; Collett-Solberg, Paulo Ferrez

    2018-05-29

    The prevalence of obesity is increasing. The aim of this study was to investigate if there is endothelial dysfunction in children with normal or excess weight, and whether the metabolic profile, adipokines, and endothelial dysfunction would be more strongly associated with physical fitness or with physical activity levels. Cross-sectional study involving children aged 5-12 years. The evaluation included venous occlusion plethysmography, serum levels of adiponectin, leptin and insulin, lipid profile, physical activity score (PAQ-C questionnaire), and physical fitness evaluation (Yo-Yo test). A total of 62 children participated in this study. Based on the body mass index, 27 were eutrophic, 10 overweight and 25 obese. Triglycerides, LDL cholesterol, HOMA-IR, and leptin were higher in the obese and excess-weight groups compared to the eutrophic group (pPAQ-C. The Yo-Yo test was significantly associated with HDL cholesterol (rho=-0.41; p=0.01), and this association remained after adjusting for body mass index z-score (rho=0.28; p=0.03). This study showed that endothelial dysfunction is already present in obese children, suggesting a predisposition to atherosclerotic disease. Moreover, HDL cholesterol levels were correlated with physical fitness, regardless of body mass index. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  17. Adrenal activity and metabolic risk during randomized escitalopram or placebo treatment in PCOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorte Glintborg

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background/aims: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is associated with insulin resistance, adrenal hyperactivity and decreased mental health. We aimed to investigate the changes in adrenal activity, metabolic status and mental health in PCOS during treatment with escitalopram or placebo. Methods: Forty-two overweight premenopausal women with PCOS and no clinical depression were randomized to 12-week SSRI (20 mg escitalopram/day, n = 21 or placebo (n = 21. Patients underwent clinical examination, fasting blood samples, adrenocorticotroph hormone (ACTH test, 3-h oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT and filled in questionnaires regarding mental health and health-related quality of life (HRQoL: WHO Well-Being Index (WHO-5, Major Depression Inventory (MDI, Short Form 36 (SF-36 and PCOS questionnaire. Results: Included women were aged 31 (6 years (mean (s.d. and had body mass index (BMI 35.8 (6.5 kg/m2 and waist 102 (12 cm. Escitalopram was associated with increased waist (median (quartiles change 1 (0; 3 cm, P = 0.005 vs change during placebo and increased cortisol levels (cortisol 0, cortisol 60, peak cortisol and area under the curve for cortisol during ACTH test, all P < 0.05 vs changes during placebo. Escitalopram had no significant effect on measures of insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion, fasting lipids, mental health or HRQoL. Conclusion: Waist circumference and cortisol levels increased during treatment with escitalopram in women with PCOS and no clinical depression, whereas metabolic risk markers, mental health and HRQol were unchanged.

  18. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 is elevated in patients with COPD independent of metabolic and cardiovascular function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waschki, Benjamin; Watz, Henrik; Holz, Olaf; Magnussen, Helgo; Olejnicka, Beata; Welte, Tobias; Rabe, Klaus F; Janciauskiene, Sabina

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), a major inhibitor of fibrinolysis, is associated with thrombosis, obesity, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and premature aging, which all are coexisting conditions of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The role of PAI-1 in COPD with respect to metabolic and cardiovascular functions is unclear. Methods In this study, which was nested within a prospective cohort study, the serum levels of PAI-1 were cross-sectionally measured in 74 stable COPD patients (Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease [GOLD] Stages I–IV) and 18 controls without lung disease. In addition, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, fasting plasma glucose, waist circumference, blood pressure, smoking status, high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), adiponectin, ankle–brachial index, N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide, and history of comorbidities were also determined. Results The serum levels of PAI-1 were significantly higher in COPD patients than in controls, independent of a broad spectrum of possible confounders including metabolic and cardiovascular dysfunction. A multivariate regression analysis revealed triglyceride and hs-CRP levels to be the best predictors of PAI-1 within COPD. GOLD Stages II and III remained independently associated with higher PAI-1 levels in a final regression analysis. Conclusion The data from the present study showed that the serum levels of PAI-1 are higher in patients with COPD and that moderate-to-severe airflow limitation, hypertriglyceridemia, and systemic inflammation are independent predictors of an elevated PAI-1 level. PAI-1 may be a potential biomarker candidate for COPD-specific and extra-pulmonary manifestations. PMID:28356730

  19. Polyphenols from Bee Pollen: Structure, Absorption, Metabolism and Biological Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Rzepecka-Stojko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Bee pollen constitutes a natural source of antioxidants such as phenolic acids and flavonoids, which are responsible for its biological activity. Research has indicated the correlation between dietary polyphenols and cardioprotective, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, anticancerogenic, immunostimulating, antianaemic effects, as well as their beneficial influence on osseous tissue. The beneficial effects of bee pollen on health result from the presence of phenolic acids and flavonoids which possess anti-inflammatory properties, phytosterol and linolenic acid which play an anticancerogenic role, and polysaccharides which stimulate immunological activity. Polyphenols are absorbed in the alimentary tract, metabolised by CYP450 enzymes, and excreted with urine and faeces. Flavonoids and phenolic acids are characterised by high antioxidative potential, which is closely related to their chemical structure. The high antioxidant potential of phenolic acids is due to the presence and location of hydroxyl groups, a carboxyl group in the immediate vicinity of ortho-diphenolic substituents, and the ethylene group between the phenyl ring and the carboxyl group. As regards flavonoids, essential structural elements are hydroxyl groups at the C5 and C7 positions in the A ring, and at the C3′ and C4′ positions in the B ring, and a hydroxyl group at the C3 position in the C ring. Furthermore, both, the double bond between C2 and C3, and a ketone group at the C4 position in the C ring enhance the antioxidative potential of these compounds. Polyphenols have an ideal chemical structure for scavenging free radicals and for creating chelates with metal ions, which makes them effective antioxidants in vivo.

  20. Plateau hypoxia attenuates the metabolic activity of intestinal flora to enhance the bioavailability of nifedipine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Juanhong; Chen, Yuyan; Sun, Yuemei; Wang, Rong; Zhang, Junmin; Jia, Zhengping

    2018-11-01

    Nifedipine is completely absorbed by the gastrointestinal tract and its pharmacokinetics and metabolism may be influenced by microorganisms. If gut microbes are involved in the metabolism of nifedipine, plateau hypoxia may regulate the bioavailability and the therapeutic effect of nifedipine by altering the metabolic activity of the gut microbiota. We herein demonstrated for the first time that gut flora is involved in the metabolism of nifedipine by in vitro experiments. In addition, based on the results of 16S rRNA analysis of feces in rats after acute plateau, we first confirmed that the plateau environment could cause changes in the number and composition of intestinal microbes. More importantly, these changes in flora could lead to a slower metabolic activity of nifedipine in the body after an acute plateau, resulting in increased bioavailability and therapeutic efficacy of nifedipine. Our research will provide basis and new ideas for changes in the fecal flora of human acutely entering the plateau, and contribute to rational drug use of nifedipine.

  1. Effects of whole grain, fish and bilberries on serum metabolic profile and lipid transfer protein activities: a randomized trial (Sysdimet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lankinen

    Full Text Available We studied the combined effects of wholegrain, fish and bilberries on serum metabolic profile and lipid transfer protein activities in subjects with the metabolic syndrome.Altogether 131 subjects (40-70 y, BMI 26-39 kg/m(2 with impaired glucose metabolism and features of the metabolic syndrome were randomized into three groups with 12-week periods according to a parallel study design. They consumed either: a wholegrain and low postprandial insulin response grain products, fatty fish 3 times a week, and bilberries 3 portions per day (HealthyDiet, b wholegrain and low postprandial insulin response grain products (WGED, or c refined wheat breads as cereal products (Control. Altogether 106 subjects completed the study. Serum metabolic profile was studied using an NMR-based platform providing information on lipoprotein subclasses and lipids as well as low-molecular-weight metabolites.There were no significant differences in clinical characteristics between the groups at baseline or at the end of the intervention. Mixed model analyses revealed significant changes in lipid metabolites in the HealthyDiet group during the intervention compared to the Control group. All changes reflected increased polyunsaturation in plasma fatty acids, especially in n-3 PUFAs, while n-6 and n-7 fatty acids decreased. According to tertiles of changes in fish intake, a greater increase of fish intake was associated with increased concentration of large HDL particles, larger average diameter of HDL particles, and increased concentrations of large HDL lipid components, even though total levels of HDL cholesterol remained stable.The results suggest that consumption of diet rich in whole grain, bilberries and especially fatty fish causes changes in HDL particles shifting their subclass distribution toward larger particles. These changes may be related to known protective functions of HDL such as reverse cholesterol transport and could partly explain the known protective

  2. Effects of a Physical Activity Program on Markers of Endothelial Dysfunction, Oxidative Stress, and Metabolic Status in Adolescents with Metabolic Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camarillo-Romero, Eneida; Dominguez-Garcia, Ma Victoria; Amaya-Chavez, Araceli; Camarillo-Romero, Maria del Socorro; Talavera-Piña, Juan; Huitron-Bravo, Gerardo; Majluf-Cruz, Abraham

    2012-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a precursor of diabetes. Physical activity (PA) improves endothelial dysfunction and may benefit patients with MetS. Aims. To evaluate the effect of a physical activity (PA) program on markers of endothelial dysfunction and oxidative stress in adolescents with (MetS). Methods. We carried out a cohort study of 38 adolescents with and without MetS (18 females and 20 males). All participants completed a 3-month PA program. All variables of the MetS as well as markers of endothelial dysfunction and oxidative stress tests were evaluated. Results. Females with and without MetS showed significant differences for almost all components of the MetS, whereas males were significantly different in half of the components. After the PA program, components of the MetS were not different from baseline values except for HDL-C levels. Some baseline endothelial dysfunction markers were significantly different among adolescents with and without MetS; however, after the PA program, most of these markers significantly improved in subjects with and without MetS. Conclusion. PA improves the markers of endothelial dysfunction in adolescents with MetS although other changes in the components of the MetS were not observed. Perhaps the benefits of PA on all components of MetS would appear after a PA program with a longer duration. PMID:22888450

  3. Metabolic disruptions induced by reduced ambulatory activity in free-living humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyfault, John P; Krogh-Madsen, Rikke

    2011-01-01

    Physical inactivity likely plays a role in the development of insulin resistance and obesity; however, direct evidence is minimal and mechanisms of action remain unknown. Studying metabolic outcomes that occur after transitioning from higher to lower levels of physical activity is the best tool t...

  4. Effect of tributyltin (TBT) in the metabolic activity of TBT-resistant and sensitive estuarine bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Andreia; Oliveira, Vanessa; Baptista, Inês; Almeida, Adelaide; Cunha, Angela; Suzuki, Satoru; Mendo, Sónia

    2012-01-01

    The effect of tributyltin (TBT) on growth and metabolic activity of three estuarine bacteria with different TBT resistance profiles was investigated in an organic-rich culture medium (TSB) and in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) buffer. Exposure to TBT was assessed by determining its effect on growth (OD(600 nm) measurement), bacterial productivity (leucine incorporation), viability (CFU counts), aggregation and cell size (from Live/Dead analysis), ATP and NADH concentrations. TBT exposure resulted in decrease of bacterial density, cell size, and metabolic activity. In addition, cell aggregates were observed in the TBT-treated cultures. TBT strongly affected bacterial cell metabolism and seemed to exert an effect on its equilibrium, interfering with cell activity. Also, TBT toxicity was lower when cells were grown in TSB than in PBS, suggesting that a nutrient-rich growth medium can protect cells from TBT toxicity. This study contributes to our understanding of the TBT-resistant cell behavior reflected in its physiology and metabolic activity. This information is of utmost importance for further studies of TBT bioremediation. Copyright © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Physical activity, metabolic syndrome, and coronary risk: the EPIC-Norfolk prospective population study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekhuizen, Lysette N.; Boekholdt, S. Matthijs; Arsenault, Benoit J.; Despres, Jean-Pierre; Stroes, Erik S. G.; Kastelein, John J. P.; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: We investigated the association between physical activity, metabolic syndrome (MS), and the risk of future coronary heart disease (CHD) and mortality due to CHD in middle-aged men and women. Design: Prospective cohort study. Subjects: A total of 10,134 men and women aged 45-79 years at

  6. Complete Sucrose Metabolism Requires Fructose Phosphotransferase Activity in Corynebacterium glutamicum To Ensure Phosphorylation of Liberated Fructose

    OpenAIRE

    Dominguez, H.; Lindley, N. D.

    1996-01-01

    Sucrose uptake by Corynebacterium glutamicum involves a phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent sucrose phosphotransferase (PTS), but in the absence of fructokinase, further metabolism of the liberated fructose requires efflux of the fructose and reassimilation via the fructose PTS. Mutant strains lacking detectable fructose-transporting PTS activity accumulated fructose extracellularly but consumed sucrose at rates comparable to those of the wild-type strain.

  7. Jasmonates: Biosynthesis, metabolism, and signaling by proteins activating and repressing transcription

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wasternack, Claus; Song, S.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 68, č. 6 (2017), s. 1303-1321 ISSN 0022-0957 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Activators * Amino acid conjugates * Biosynthesis * Jasmonic acid * Metabolism * Perception * Repressors * SCFJAZ co-receptor complex COI1 * Signaling Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 5.830, year: 2016

  8. Activities of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes in rat placenta and liver in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fabian, Eric; Wang, Xinyi; Engel, Franziska; Li, Hequn; Landsiedel, Robert; Ravenzwaay, van Bennard

    2016-01-01

    In order to assess whether the placental metabolism of xenobiotic compounds should be taken into consideration for physiologically-based toxicokinetic (PBTK) modelling, the activities of seven phase I and phase II enzymes have been quantified in the 18-day placenta of untreated Wistar rats. To

  9. Metabolic Risk Factors, Leisure Time Physical Activity, and Nutrition in German Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Gerda-Maria; Liepold, Evelyn; Schwandt, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. We assessed the five components of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) as defined by the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) in 6040 (3158 males) youths aged 6–16 years who participated in the Präventions-Erziehungs-Programm (PEP Family Heart Study) in Nuernberg between 2000 and 2007. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to examine associations with lifestyle habits. Results and Discussion. The prevalence of MetS was low in children (1.6%) and adolescents (2.3%). High waist circumference (WC) and low HDL-C were slightly higher in females (9.5% and 7.5%, resp.) than in males (8.8% and 5.7%, resp.). Low leisure time physical activity (LTPA) was significantly associated with low HDL-C (odds ratio [OR] 2.4; 95% CI 1.2–5.0) and inversely associated with hypertension (r = −0.146), hypertriglyceridemia (r = −0.141), and central adiposity (r = −0.258). The risk for low HDL-C (≤1.3 mmol/L) was 1.7-fold (CI 1.0–2.6) higher in youth with high (≥33%) saturated fat consumption. A low polyunsaturated/saturated fat ratio (P/S ratio) was significantly associated with fasting hyperglycemia (OR 1.4; 95% CI 1.0–1.2). PMID:22778928

  10. Oxcarbazepine-induced cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in human lymphocyte cultures with or without metabolic activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atlı Şekeroğlu, Zülal; Kefelioğlu, Haluk; Kontaş Yedier, Seval; Şekeroğlu, Vedat; Delmecioğlu, Berrin

    2017-03-01

    There has been considerable debate about the relationship between epilepsy and cancer. Oxcarbazepine (OXC) is used for treating certain types of seizures in patients with epilepsy. There have been no detailed investigations about genotoxicity of OXC and its metabolites. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of OXC and its metabolites on cultured human lymphocytes. The cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of OXC on human peripheral blood lymphocytes were examined in vitro by sister chromatid exchange (SCE), chromosomal aberration (CA) and micronucleus (MN) tests. Cultures were treated with 125, 250 and 500 μg/ml of OXC in the presence (3 h treatment) and absence (24 h and 48 h treatment) of a metabolic activator (S9 mix). Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) was used as a solvent control. OXC showed cytotoxic activities due to significant decreases in mitotic index (MI), proliferation index (PI) and nuclear division index (NDI) in the absence of S9 mix when compared with solvent control. Metabolites of OXC also significantly reduced MI and PI in cultures with S9 mix. OXC significantly increased the CAs, aberrant cells, SCE and MN values in the presence and absence of S9 mix. Our results indicated that both OXC and its metabolites have cytotoxic, cytostatic and genotoxic potential on human peripheral blood lymphocyte cultures under the experimental conditions. Further studies are necessary to elucidate the relationship between cytotoxic, cytostatic and genotoxic effects, and to make a possible risk assessment in patients receiving therapy with this drug.

  11. Diagnostic significance of pleural fluid adenosine deaminase activity in tuberculous pleurisy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharmeen Ahmed

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Diagnosis of tuberculous pleural effusion (TPE is difficult because of its non-specific clinical presentation and insufficient efficiency of conventional diagnostic methods. The study was carried out to evaluate the utility of adenosine deaminase (ADA activity in pleural fluid for the diagnosis of TPE. ADA activity was measured in pleural fluid of 103 pleural effusion patients by colorimetric method using a commercial ADA assay kit. The diagnosis of TPE was made from pleural fluid examinations (including cytology, biochemistry, and bacteriology and pleural biopsy. Patient with negative result of this methods were diagnosed by response of empirical treatment. Out of 130 cases, 62 (61.1% had TPE and the remaining 41 (39.8% had pleural effusion due to non tuberculous diseases. There was statistically significant difference (p < 0.001 between the mean of pleural fluid ADA levels (70.82±22.54 U/L in TPE group and (30.07±22.93 U/L in non-TPE group. Of 62 TPE cases, microscopy for AFB and culture for M.tuberculosis in pleural fluid revealed positivity in 9.6% and 22.5% cases respectively, and biopsy of pleura showed typical epithelioid granuloma in only 43.5% cases. The cut-off value of ADA for diagnosing TPE was 40 U/L using a ROC curve, with a sensitivity of 94% and specificity of 88%. Positive and negative predictive value of ADA assay were 92% and 90% respectively. The overall test accuracy was 90%. Pleural fluid ADA assay is therefore a simple, rapid, highly sensitive and specific adjunct test for diagnosis of TPE. Ibrahim Med. Coll. J. 2011; 5(1: 1-5

  12. Single-atom catalysts for CO2 electroreduction with significant activity and selectivity improvements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Back, Seoin; Lim, Juhyung; Kim, Na-Young; Kim, Yong-Hyun; Jung, Yousung

    2017-02-01

    A single-atom catalyst (SAC) has an electronic structure that is very different from its bulk counterparts, and has shown an unexpectedly high specific activity with a significant reduction in noble metal usage for CO oxidation, fuel cell and hydrogen evolution applications, although physical origins of such performance enhancements are still poorly understood. Herein, by means of density functional theory (DFT) calculations, we for the first time investigate the great potential of single atom catalysts for CO 2 electroreduction applications. In particular, we study a single transition metal atom anchored on defective graphene with single or double vacancies, denoted M@sv-Gr or M@dv-Gr, where M = Ag, Au, Co, Cu, Fe, Ir, Ni, Os, Pd, Pt, Rh or Ru, as a CO 2 reduction catalyst. Many SACs are indeed shown to be highly selective for the CO 2 reduction reaction over a competitive H 2 evolution reaction due to favorable adsorption of carboxyl (*COOH) or formate (*OCHO) over hydrogen (*H) on the catalysts. On the basis of free energy profiles, we identified several promising candidate materials for different products; Ni@dv-Gr (limiting potential U L = -0.41 V) and Pt@dv-Gr (-0.27 V) for CH 3 OH production, and Os@dv-Gr (-0.52 V) and Ru@dv-Gr (-0.52 V) for CH 4 production. In particular, the Pt@dv-Gr catalyst shows remarkable reduction in the limiting potential for CH 3 OH production compared to any existing catalysts, synthesized or predicted. To understand the origin of the activity enhancement of SACs, we find that the lack of an atomic ensemble for adsorbate binding and the unique electronic structure of the single atom catalysts as well as orbital interaction play an important role, contributing to binding energies of SACs that deviate considerably from the conventional scaling relation of bulk transition metals.

  13. Vascular dysfunction by myofibroblast activation in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and prognostic significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.R. Parra

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we demonstrated the importance of telomerase protein expression and determined the relationships among telomerase, endothelin-1 (ET-1 and myofibroblasts during early and late remodeling of parenchymal and vascular areas in usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP using 27 surgical lung biopsies from patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF. Telomerase+, myofibroblasts α-SMA+, smooth muscle cells caldesmon+, endothelium ET-1+ cellularity, and fibrosis severity were evaluated in 30 fields covering normal lung parenchyma, minimal fibrosis (fibroblastic foci, severe (mural fibrosis, and vascular areas of UIP by the point-counting technique and a semiquantitative score. The impact of these markers was determined in pulmonary functional tests and follow-up until death from IPF. Telomerase and ET-1 expression was significantly increased in normal and vascular areas compared to areas of fibroblast foci. Telomerase and ET-1 expression was inversely correlated with minimal fibrosis in areas of fibroblast foci and directly associated with severe fibrosis in vascular areas. Telomerase activity in minimal fibrosis areas was directly associated with diffusing capacity of the lung for oxygen/alveolar volume and ET-1 expression and indirectly associated with diffusing capacity of the lungs for carbon monoxide and severe fibrosis in vascular areas. Cox proportional hazards regression revealed a low risk of death for females with minimal fibrosis displaying high telomerase and ET-1 expression in normal areas. Vascular dysfunction by telomerase/ET-1 expression was found earlier than vascular remodeling by myofibroblast activation in UIP with impact on IPF evolution, suggesting that strategies aimed at preventing the effect of these mediators may have a greater impact on patient outcome.

  14. Metabolic factors affecting enhanced phosphorus uptake by activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boughton, W H; Gottfried, R J; Sinclair, N A; Yall, I

    1971-10-01

    Activated sludges obtained from the Rilling Road plant located at San Antonio, Tex., and from the Hyperion treatment plant located at Los Angeles, Calif., have the ability to remove all of the orthophosphate normally present in Tucson sewage within 3 hr after being added to the waste water. Phosphorus removal was independent of externally supplied sources of energy and ions, since orthophosphate and (32)P radioactivity were readily removed from tap water, glass-distilled water, and deionized water. Phosphorus uptake by Rilling sludge in the laboratory appears to be wholly biological, as it has an optimum pH range (7.7 to 9.7) and an optimum temperature range (24 to 37 C). It was inhibited by HgCl(2), iodoacetic acid, p-chloromercuribenzoic acid, NaN(3), and 2, 4-dinitrophenol (compounds that affect bacterial membrane permeability, sulfhydryl enzymes, and adenosine triphosphate synthesis). Uptake was inhibited by 1% NaCl but was not affected by 10(-3)m ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid disodium salt (a chelating agent for many metallic ions).

  15. Metabolic activation and carcinogenicity of polycyclic hydrocarbons: A new quantum mechanical theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammad, S.N.

    1986-01-01

    This investigation aims to describe a quantum mechanical theory of cancer, which, on the basis of certain electronic indices calculated for the parent compound, would give prediction of its P-450 mediated metabolic activation and would provide better representation of its relative carcinogenic potency when activated to its PUM. The author's theory is based on the assumption that electronic charge distribution of activated species resembles at least qualitatively the charge distribution of the parent compound, and a careful analysis of electronic characteristics of the parent compound would suffice to give reasonable estimation of the carcinogenic activities of the metabolic products. The details of the theoretical method is given and the results for some alternant and non-alternant PAHs are presented

  16. The normal limits, subclinical significance, related metabolic derangements and distinct biological effects of body site-specific adiposity in relatively healthy population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Ho Yun

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The accumulation of visceral adipose tissue that occurs with normal aging is associated with increased cardiovascular risks. However, the clinical significance, biological effects, and related cardiometabolic derangements of body-site specific adiposity in a relatively healthy population have not been well characterized. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, we consecutively enrolled 608 asymptomatic subjects (mean age: 47.3 years, 27% female from 2050 subjects undergoing an annual health survey in Taiwan. We measured pericardial (PCF and thoracic peri-aortic (TAT adipose tissue volumes by 16-slice multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT (Aquarius 3D Workstation, TeraRecon, San Mateo, CA, USA and related these to clinical characteristics, body fat composition (Tanita 305 Corporation, Tokyo, Japan, coronary calcium score (CCS, serum insulin, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (Hs-CRP level and circulating leukocytes count. Metabolic risk was scored by Adult Treatment Panel III guidelines. RESULTS: TAT, PCF, and total body fat composition all increased with aging and higher metabolic scores (all p<0.05. Only TAT, however, was associated with higher circulating leukocyte counts (ß-coef.:0.24, p<0.05, serum insulin (ß-coef.:0.17, p<0.05 and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (ß-coef.:0.24, p<0.05. These relationships persisted after adjustment in multivariable models (all p<0.05. A TAT volume of 8.29 ml yielded the largest area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC: 0.79, 95%CI: 0.74-0.83 to identify metabolic syndrome. TAT but not PCF correlated with higher coronary calcium score after adjustment for clinical variables (all p<0.05. CONCLUSION: In our study, we observe that age-related body-site specific accumulation of adipose tissue may have distinct biological effects. Compared to other adiposity measures, peri-aortic adiposity is more tightly associated with cardiometabolic risk profiles and

  17. A high-throughput method for quantifying metabolically active yeast cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nandy, Subir Kumar; Knudsen, Peter Boldsen; Rosenkjær, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    By redesigning the established methylene blue reduction test for bacteria and yeast, we present a cheap and efficient methodology for quantitative physiology of eukaryotic cells applicable for high-throughput systems. Validation of themethod in fermenters and highthroughput systems proved....... The drop in metabolic activity associated with the diauxic shift in yeast proved more pronounced for the MBRT-derived curve compared with OD curves, consistent with a dramatic shift in the ratio between live and dead cells at this metabolic event. This method provides a tool with numerous applications, e.......g. characterizing the death phase of stationary phase cultures, or in drug screens with pathogenic yeasts....

  18. Electronic Nose Technology to Measure Soil Microbial Activity and Classify Soil Metabolic Status

    OpenAIRE

    Fabrizio De Cesare; Elena Di Mattia; Simone Pantalei; Emiliano Zampetti; Vittorio Vinciguerra; Antonella Macagnano

    2011-01-01

    The electronic nose (E-nose) is a sensing technology that has been widely used to monitor environments in the last decade. In the present study, the capability of an E-nose, in combination with biochemical and microbiological techniques, of both detecting the microbial activity and estimating the metabolic status of soil ecosystems, was tested by measuring on one side respiration, enzyme activities and growth of bacteria in natural but simplified soil ecosystems over 23 days of incubation thr...

  19. Determination of the activity signature of key carbohydrate metabolism enzymes in phenolic-rich grapevine tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Covington, Elizabeth Dunn; Roitsch, Thomas Georg; Dermastia, Marina

    2016-01-01

    Physiological studies in plants often require enzyme extraction from tissues containing high concentrations of phenols and polyphenols. Unless removed or neutralized, such compounds may hinder extraction, inactivate enzymes, and interfere with enzyme detection. The following protocol for activity...... assays for enzymes of primary carbohydrate metabolism, while based on our recently published one for quantitative measurement of activities using coupled spectrophotometric assays in a 96-well format, is tailored to the complexities of phenolic- and anthocyanin-rich extracts from grapevine leaf...

  20. Impact of nurse-led behavioural counselling to improve metabolic health and physical activity among adults with mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Sarah J; Brown, Wendy J; Whiteford, Harvey A; Burton, Nicola W

    2018-04-01

    The life expectancy of adults with mental illness is significantly less than that of the general population, and this is largely due to poor physical health. Behavioural counselling can improve physical health indicators among people with non-communicable disease. This repeated-measures, single-group intervention trial evaluated the effects of a 19-week behavioural counselling programme on metabolic health indicators and physical activity levels of outpatient adults with mental illness. Sixteen participants completed the intervention that comprised individual face-to-face counselling sessions with a registered nurse every 3 weeks, and progress reviews with a medical practitioner every 6 weeks. Assessment included self-report and objective measurement of physical activity, and measures of blood pressure and anthropometry. Statistically-significant changes were demonstrated between baseline and post intervention for participants' waist circumference (P = 0.035) and waist-to-height ratio (P = 0.037). Non-significant improvements were demonstrated in weight and physical activity. The findings indicated that adults with mental illness can engage in a nurse-led behavioural counselling intervention, with improvements in some metabolic health measures after 19 weeks. It is recommended that behavioural counselling programmes for adults with mental illness be sustained over time and have an 'open door' policy to allow for attendance interruptions, such as hospitalization. © 2017 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  1. Effects of anthropogenic sound on digging behavior, metabolism, Ca2+/Mg2+ ATPase activity, and metabolism-related gene expression of the bivalve Sinonovacula constricta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Chao; Zhao, Xinguo; Liu, Saixi; Shi, Wei; Han, Yu; Guo, Cheng; Jiang, Jingang; Wan, Haibo; Shen, Tiedong; Liu, Guangxu

    2016-01-01

    Anthropogenic sound has increased significantly in the past decade. However, only a few studies to date have investigated its effects on marine bivalves, with little known about the underlying physiological and molecular mechanisms. In the present study, the effects of different types, frequencies, and intensities of anthropogenic sounds on the digging behavior of razor clams (Sinonovacula constricta) were investigated. The results showed that variations in sound intensity induced deeper digging. Furthermore, anthropogenic sound exposure led to an alteration in the O:N ratios and the expression of ten metabolism-related genes from the glycolysis, fatty acid biosynthesis, tryptophan metabolism, and Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle (TCA cycle) pathways. Expression of all genes under investigation was induced upon exposure to anthropogenic sound at ~80 dB re 1 μPa and repressed at ~100 dB re 1 μPa sound. In addition, the activity of Ca2+/Mg2+-ATPase in the feet tissues, which is directly related to muscular contraction and subsequently to digging behavior, was also found to be affected by anthropogenic sound intensity. The findings suggest that sound may be perceived by bivalves as changes in the water particle motion and lead to the subsequent reactions detected in razor clams. PMID:27063002

  2. Effects of anthropogenic sound on digging behavior, metabolism, Ca(2+)/Mg(2+) ATPase activity, and metabolism-related gene expression of the bivalve Sinonovacula constricta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Chao; Zhao, Xinguo; Liu, Saixi; Shi, Wei; Han, Yu; Guo, Cheng; Jiang, Jingang; Wan, Haibo; Shen, Tiedong; Liu, Guangxu

    2016-04-11

    Anthropogenic sound has increased significantly in the past decade. However, only a few studies to date have investigated its effects on marine bivalves, with little known about the underlying physiological and molecular mechanisms. In the present study, the effects of different types, frequencies, and intensities of anthropogenic sounds on the digging behavior of razor clams (Sinonovacula constricta) were investigated. The results showed that variations in sound intensity induced deeper digging. Furthermore, anthropogenic sound exposure led to an alteration in the O:N ratios and the expression of ten metabolism-related genes from the glycolysis, fatty acid biosynthesis, tryptophan metabolism, and Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle (TCA cycle) pathways. Expression of all genes under investigation was induced upon exposure to anthropogenic sound at ~80 dB re 1 μPa and repressed at ~100 dB re 1 μPa sound. In addition, the activity of Ca(2+)/Mg(2+)-ATPase in the feet tissues, which is directly related to muscular contraction and subsequently to digging behavior, was also found to be affected by anthropogenic sound intensity. The findings suggest that sound may be perceived by bivalves as changes in the water particle motion and lead to the subsequent reactions detected in razor clams.

  3. Effects of anthropogenic sound on digging behavior, metabolism, Ca2+/Mg2+ ATPase activity, and metabolism-related gene expression of the bivalve Sinonovacula constricta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Chao; Zhao, Xinguo; Liu, Saixi; Shi, Wei; Han, Yu; Guo, Cheng; Jiang, Jingang; Wan, Haibo; Shen, Tiedong; Liu, Guangxu

    2016-04-01

    Anthropogenic sound has increased significantly in the past decade. However, only a few studies to date have investigated its effects on marine bivalves, with little known about the underlying physiological and molecular mechanisms. In the present study, the effects of different types, frequencies, and intensities of anthropogenic sounds on the digging behavior of razor clams (Sinonovacula constricta) were investigated. The results showed that variations in sound intensity induced deeper digging. Furthermore, anthropogenic sound exposure led to an alteration in the O:N ratios and the expression of ten metabolism-related genes from the glycolysis, fatty acid biosynthesis, tryptophan metabolism, and Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle (TCA cycle) pathways. Expression of all genes under investigation was induced upon exposure to anthropogenic sound at ~80 dB re 1 μPa and repressed at ~100 dB re 1 μPa sound. In addition, the activity of Ca2+/Mg2+-ATPase in the feet tissues, which is directly related to muscular contraction and subsequently to digging behavior, was also found to be affected by anthropogenic sound intensity. The findings suggest that sound may be perceived by bivalves as changes in the water particle motion and lead to the subsequent reactions detected in razor clams.

  4. Do obese but metabolically normal women differ in intra-abdominal fat and physical activity levels from those with the expected metabolic abnormalities? A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walker Mark

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity remains a major public health problem, associated with a cluster of metabolic abnormalities. However, individuals exist who are very obese but have normal metabolic parameters. The aim of this study was to determine to what extent differences in metabolic health in very obese women are explained by differences in body fat distribution, insulin resistance and level of physical activity. Methods This was a cross-sectional pilot study of 39 obese women (age: 28-64 yrs, BMI: 31-67 kg/m2 recruited from community settings. Women were defined as 'metabolically normal' on the basis of blood glucose, lipids and blood pressure. Magnetic Resonance Imaging was used to determine body fat distribution. Detailed lifestyle and metabolic profiles of participants were obtained. Results Women with a healthy metabolic profile had lower intra-abdominal fat volume (geometric mean 4.78 l [95% CIs 3.99-5.73] vs 6.96 l [5.82-8.32] and less insulin resistance (HOMA 3.41 [2.62-4.44] vs 6.67 [5.02-8.86] than those with an abnormality. The groups did not differ in abdominal subcutaneous fat volume (19.6 l [16.9-22.7] vs 20.6 [17.6-23.9]. A higher proportion of those with a healthy compared to a less healthy metabolic profile met current physical activity guidelines (70% [95% CIs 55.8-84.2] vs 25% [11.6-38.4]. Intra-abdominal fat, insulin resistance and physical activity make independent contributions to metabolic status in very obese women, but explain only around a third of the variance. Conclusion A sub-group of women exists who are metabolically normal despite being very obese. Differences in fat distribution, insulin resistance, and physical activity level are associated with metabolic differences in these women, but account only partially for these differences. Future work should focus on strategies to identify those obese individuals most at risk of the negative metabolic consequences of obesity and on identifying other factors that

  5. Spatial localization of the first and last enzymes effectively connects active metabolic pathways in bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Pablo; Cecchi, Guillermo; Stolovitzky, Gustavo

    2014-12-14

    Although much is understood about the enzymatic cascades that underlie cellular biosynthesis, comparatively little is known about the rules that determine their cellular organization. We performed a detailed analysis of the localization of E.coli GFP-tagged enzymes for cells growing exponentially. We found that out of 857 globular enzymes, at least 219 have a discrete punctuate localization in the cytoplasm and catalyze the first or the last reaction in 60% of biosynthetic pathways. A graph-theoretic analysis of E.coli's metabolic network shows that localized enzymes, in contrast to non-localized ones, form a tree-like hierarchical structure, have a higher within-group connectivity, and are traversed by a higher number of feed-forward and feedback loops than their non-localized counterparts. A Gene Ontology analysis of these enzymes reveals an enrichment of terms related to essential metabolic functions in growing cells. Given that these findings suggest a distinct metabolic role for localization, we studied the dynamics of cellular localization of the cell wall synthesizing enzymes in B. subtilis and found that enzymes localize during exponential growth but not during stationary growth. We conclude that active biochemical pathways inside the cytoplasm are organized spatially following a rule where their first or their last enzymes localize to effectively connect the different active pathways and thus could reflect the activity state of the cell's metabolic network.

  6. Urinary Metabolic Phenotyping Reveals Differences in the Metabolic Status of Healthy and Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD Children in Relation to Growth and Disease Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francois-Pierre Martin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Growth failure and delayed puberty are well known features of children and adolescents with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD, in addition to the chronic course of the disease. Urinary metabonomics was applied in order to better understand metabolic changes between healthy and IBD children. Methods: 21 Pediatric patients with IBD (mean age 14.8 years, 8 males were enrolled from the Pediatric Gastroenterology Outpatient Clinic over two years. Clinical and biological data were collected at baseline, 6, and 12 months. 27 healthy children (mean age 12.9 years, 16 males were assessed at baseline. Urine samples were collected at each visit and subjected to 1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR spectroscopy. Results: Using 1H NMR metabonomics, we determined that urine metabolic profiles of IBD children differ significantly from healthy controls. Metabolic differences include central energy metabolism, amino acid, and gut microbial metabolic pathways. The analysis described that combined urinary urea and phenylacetylglutamine—two readouts of nitrogen metabolism—may be relevant to monitor metabolic status in the course of disease. Conclusion: Non-invasive sampling of urine followed by metabonomic profiling can elucidate and monitor the metabolic status of children in relation to disease status. Further developments of omic-approaches in pediatric research might deliver novel nutritional and metabolic hypotheses.

  7. Significance of specific activity and a possible universal unit for its definition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svoboda, K.

    1985-01-01

    The growing importance of specific activity is reviewed. It concerns especially surface phenomena, toxicity, labelling of radiopharmaceuticals, isotope exchange, enzymatic and pharmacological ligand-receptor reactions. The present state of evaluating the specific activity is analyzed. Introduction of the coefficient Dsub(CF) (deviation from true carrier free state) is proposed as a possibility for universal declaration of the specific activity. (author)

  8. Prognostic significance of standardized uptake value and metabolic tumour volume on {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ji Won; Roh, Jong-Lyel; Choi, Seung-Ho; Nam, Soon Yuhl [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Otolaryngology, Asan Medical Centre, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Jungsu S.; Kim, Jae Seung [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Asan Medical Centre, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sang Yoon [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Otolaryngology, Asan Medical Centre, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Biomedical Research Institute, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-15

    Standardized uptake value (SUV) and metabolic tumour volume (MTV) measured by {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT are emerging prognostic biomarkers in human solid cancers. However, their prognostic significance in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) has been investigated in only a few studies and with small cohorts. In the present study we evaluated the ability of SUV, MTV, and total lesion glycolysis (TLG) measured on pretreatment {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT to predict recurrence and survival outcomes in OPSCC. The study included 221 patients with OPSCC who underwent pretreatment {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT imaging and received definitive treatment at our tertiary referral centre. The PET imaging parameters SUV{sub max}, SUV{sub peak}, MTV and TLG were measured in primary tumours with focal {sup 18}F-FDG uptake. Clinical and imaging variables significantly associated with overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) were identified by univariate and multivariate analyses using the Cox proportional hazards model. Overall 5-year OS and DFS rates were 72.0 % and 79.5 %, respectively, during a median follow-up of 61 months (range 18 - 122 months). The cut-off values of tumour SUV{sub max}, SUV{sub peak}, MTV and TLG for prediction of DFS were 7.55, 6.80, 11.06 mL and 78.56 g, respectively. Univariate analyses showed that age >60 years, advanced tumour stage, and high tumour SUV{sub max}, SUV{sub peak}, MTV and TLG were significantly associated with decreased OS and DFS (P < 0.05 each). Age, tumour SUV{sub max} and MTV remained independent variables for OS and DFS (P < 0.05 each) in the multivariate analyses. SUV{sub max} and MTV measured on pretreatment {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT may be useful in predicting the clinical outcomes in OPSCC patients. This study investigated the clinical prognostic value of imaging parameters from pretreatment {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT in 221 patients who underwent definitive treatment for oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. High maximum standardized

  9. Acute and short-term effects of caloric restriction on metabolic profile and brain activation in obese, postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsdottir, S; van Nieuwpoort, I C; van Bunderen, C C; de Ruiter, M B; Twisk, J W R; Deijen, J B; Veltman, D J; Drent, M L

    2016-11-01

    Early anthropometric and metabolic changes during a caloric-restricted diet in obese postmenopausal women and correlations between these factors with activity in brain areas involved in processing of visual food related stimuli were investigated. An 8-week prospective intervention study of 18 healthy postmenopausal women, with a body mass index of 30-35 kg m -2 . The first 2 weeks subjects were on an isocaloric diet and 4 weeks on a 1000 kcal restricted diet followed by 2 weeks on an isocaloric diet. Anthropometric and laboratory analyses were performed weekly during the isocaloric diet and three times a week during the caloric-restricted diet. Functional magnetic resonance imaging scans were obtained before and after the caloric restriction in four separate sessions (fasting or sated). Generalized Estimating Equations analysis was used for data analysis. A mean weight loss of 4.2±0.5 kg (4.8%) and a 4.2±0.4 cm decline in waist circumference were achieved. In the first week of caloric restriction, triglyceride, leptin, resistin and adiponectin levels as well as systolic blood pressure decreased and insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 1 levels increased. During and after weight loss, a significant increase in ghrelin levels was observed. Before weight loss, increased activation of the right amygdala was seen in response to food stimuli, and free fatty acids and glucose correlated with activity in various areas involved in food reward processing. After weight loss, fasting ghrelin and sated leptin levels correlated with activity in these areas. Already in the first week of caloric restriction in obese postmenopausal women, various favourable metabolic changes occur before clinically relevant weight loss is achieved. Activity in the amygdala region and correlations of metabolic factors with activity in brain areas involved in food reward processing differ substantially before and after weight loss.

  10. Neurons have an active glycogen metabolism that contributes to tolerance to hypoxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saez, Isabel; Duran, Jordi; Sinadinos, Christopher; Beltran, Antoni; Yanes, Oscar; Tevy, María F; Martínez-Pons, Carlos; Milán, Marco; Guinovart, Joan J

    2014-01-01

    Glycogen is present in the brain, where it has been found mainly in glial cells but not in neurons. Therefore, all physiologic roles of brain glycogen have been attributed exclusively to astrocytic glycogen. Working with primary cultured neurons, as well as with genetically modified mice and flies, here we report that—against general belief—neurons contain a low but measurable amount of glycogen. Moreover, we also show that these cells express the brain isoform of glycogen phosphorylase, allowing glycogen to be fully metabolized. Most importantly, we show an active neuronal glycogen metabolism that protects cultured neurons from hypoxia-induced death and flies from hypoxia-induced stupor. Our findings change the current view of the role of glycogen in the brain and reveal that endogenous neuronal glycogen metabolism participates in the neuronal tolerance to hypoxic stress. PMID:24569689

  11. Neurons have an active glycogen metabolism that contributes to tolerance to hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saez, Isabel; Duran, Jordi; Sinadinos, Christopher; Beltran, Antoni; Yanes, Oscar; Tevy, María F; Martínez-Pons, Carlos; Milán, Marco; Guinovart, Joan J

    2014-06-01

    Glycogen is present in the brain, where it has been found mainly in glial cells but not in neurons. Therefore, all physiologic roles of brain glycogen have been attributed exclusively to astrocytic glycogen. Working with primary cultured neurons, as well as with genetically modified mice and flies, here we report that-against general belief-neurons contain a low but measurable amount of glycogen. Moreover, we also show that these cells express the brain isoform of glycogen phosphorylase, allowing glycogen to be fully metabolized. Most importantly, we show an active neuronal glycogen metabolism that protects cultured neurons from hypoxia-induced death and flies from hypoxia-induced stupor. Our findings change the current view of the role of glycogen in the brain and reveal that endogenous neuronal glycogen metabolism participates in the neuronal tolerance to hypoxic stress.

  12. Among Metabolic Factors, Significance of Fasting and Postprandial Increases in Acyl and Desacyl Ghrelin and the Acyl/Desacyl Ratio in Obstructive Sleep Apnea before and after Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chihara, Yuichi; Akamizu, Takashi; Azuma, Masanori; Murase, Kimihiko; Harada, Yuka; Tanizawa, Kiminobu; Handa, Tomohiro; Oga, Toru; Mishima, Michiaki; Chin, Kazuo

    2015-08-15

    There are reports suggesting that obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) may itself cause weight gain. However, recent reports showed increases in body mass index (BMI) following continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatments. When considering weight changes, changes in humoral factors that have significant effects on appetite such as acyl (AG) and desacyl ghrelin (DAG), leptin, insulin, and glucose and their interactions, examples of which are AG/DAG and AG/insulin, are important. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that some appetite-related factors had a specific profile before and after CPAP treatment. Metabolic parameters were measured cross-sectionally while fasting and 30, 60, 90, and 120 min following breakfast in no or mild OSA (apnea-hypopnea index fasting and postprandial glucose, insulin, and leptin levels did not differ between no or mild OSA and moderate-to-severe OSA participants, AG and DAG, including AG/DAG and AG/insulin, under fasting and postprandial conditions were significantly increased in the moderate-to-severe OSA patients (p continuous changes in ghrelin secretion in OSA patients existed at least within 3 months of CPAP treatment. Methods to prevent OSA as well as treatment in its early stage may be recommended. © 2015 American Academy of Sleep Medicine.

  13. Relationship between metabolic syndrome and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity in youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado-Rodrigues, Aristides M; Leite, Neiva; Coelho e Silva, Manuel J; Valente-dos-Santos, João; Martins, Raul A; Mascarenhas, Luis P G; Boguszewski, Margaret C S; Padez, Cristina; Malina, Robert M

    2015-01-01

    Associations of metabolic syndrome (MetS) with lifestyle behaviors in youth is potentially important for identifying subgroups at risk and encourage interventions. This study evaluates the associations among the clustering of metabolic risk factors and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in youth. The sample comprised 522 girls and 402 boys (N = 924) aged 11 to 17 years. Height, weight, waist circumference (WC), fasting glucose, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, and blood pressures were measured. Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) was assessed using the 20-m shuttle run test. MVPA was estimated with a 3-day diary. Outcome variables were statistically normalized and expressed as z scores. A clustered metabolic risk score was computed as the mean of z scores. Multiple linear regression was used to test associations between metabolic risk and MVPA by sex, adjusted for age, WC, and CRF. After adjustment for potential confounders, MVPA was inversely associated with the clustering of metabolic risk factors in girls, but not in boys; in addition, after adjusting for WC, the statistical model of that relationship was substantially improved in girls. MVPA was independently associated with increased risk of MetS in girls. Additional efforts are needed to encourage research with different analytical approach and standardization of criteria for MetS in youth.

  14. Efflux pumps of Mycobacterium tuberculosis play a significant role in antituberculosis activity of potential drug candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balganesh, Meenakshi; Dinesh, Neela; Sharma, Sreevalli; Kuruppath, Sanjana; Nair, Anju V; Sharma, Umender

    2012-05-01

    Active efflux of drugs mediated by efflux pumps that confer drug resistance is one of the mechanisms developed by bacteria to counter the adverse effects of antibiotics and chemicals. To understand these efflux mechanisms in Mycobacterium tuberculosis, we generated knockout (KO) mutants of four efflux pumps of the pathogen belonging to different classes. We measured the MICs and kill values of two different compound classes on the wild type (WT) and the efflux pump (EP) KO mutants in the presence and absence of the efflux inhibitors verapamil and l-phenylalanyl-l-arginyl-β-naphthylamide (PAβN). Among the pumps studied, the efflux pumps belonging to the ABC (ATP-binding cassette) class, encoded by Rv1218c, and the SMR (small multidrug resistance) class, encoded by Rv3065, appear to play important roles in mediating the efflux of different chemical classes and antibiotics. Efflux pumps encoded by Rv0849 and Rv1258c also mediate the efflux of these compounds, but to a lesser extent. Increased killing is observed in WT M. tuberculosis cells by these compounds in the presence of either verapamil or PAβN. The efflux pump KO mutants were more susceptible to these compounds in the presence of efflux inhibitors. We have shown that these four efflux pumps of M. tuberculosis play a vital role in mediating efflux of different chemical scaffolds. Inhibitors of one or several of these efflux pumps could have a significant impact in the treatment of tuberculosis. The identification and characterization of Rv0849, a new efflux pump belonging to the MFS (major facilitator superfamily) class, are reported.

  15. In-vivo measurements of regional acetylcholine esterase activity in degenerative dementia: comparison with blood flow and glucose metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herholz, K; Bauer, B; Wienhard, K; Kracht, L; Mielke, R; Lenz, M O; Strotmann, T; Heiss, W D

    2000-01-01

    Memory and attention are cognitive functions that depend heavily on the cholinergic system. Local activity of acetylcholine esterase (AChE) is an indicator of its integrity. Using a recently developed tracer for positron emission tomography (PET), C-11-labeled N-methyl-4-piperidyl-acetate (C11-MP4A), we measured regional AChE activity in 4 non-demented subjects, 4 patients with dementia of Alzheimer type (DAT) and 1 patient with senile dementia of Lewy body type (SDLT), and compared the findings with measurements of blood flow (CBF) and glucose metabolism (CMRGlc). Initial tracer extraction was closely related to CBF. AChE activity was reduced significantly in all brain regions in demented subjects, whereas reduction of CMRGlc and CBF was more limited to temporo-parietal association areas. AChE activity in SDLT was in the lower range of values in DAT. Our results indicate that, compared to non-demented controls, there is a global reduction of cortical AChE activity in dementia. Dementia, cholinergic system, acetylcholine esterase, positron emission tomography, cerebral blood flow, cerebral glucose metabolism.

  16. Reusable sunlight activated photocatalyst Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} and its significant antibacterial activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiyagarajan, Shankar; Singh, Sarika; Bahadur, D., E-mail: dhirenb@iitb.ac.in

    2016-04-15

    A simple and surfactant free soft chemical approach is adopted for the successful synthesis of Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} nanoparticles (NPs) at room temperature. The obtained Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} NPs are nearly spherical in shape with a size of 250 ± 50 nm. These NPs are highly efficient for the degradation of three organic dyes (methylene blue, rhodamine B and methyl orange) under four different types of light sources. In this case, the superior photocatalytic activity is mainly driven by singlet oxygen radicals and it is confirmed through the electron spin resonance (ESR) spin trapping technique, using several quenchers/sources. Notably, these NPs have the ability to absorb large portion of solar spectrum and therefore it displays higher efficiency under sunlight as compared to UV-C light and a 60 W household compact fluorescence lamp (CFL). Furthermore, these NPs exhibit excellent colloidal stability and recycling capability for the degradation of dyes. In addition, it possesses significant antibacterial activity with complete inhibition of bacterial pathogen, Escherichia coli at a very low concentration (0.01 mg/mL) after a mere 15 min of incubation time. The inhibition of bacterial growth is also suggested from the generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) in E. coli by fluorescence microscopy. Thus, these NPs may provide a potential outcome for the environmental remediation. - Graphical abstract: Schematic representation of the mechanism involved in photodegradation of organic dyes and inhibition of bacterial growth using Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} nanoparticles. - Highlights: • Excellent catalytic activity for dyes degradation under different light sources. • Mechanism involving catalyst mediated ROS generation in photocatalysis suggested. • Good recycling capability of Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} even after the fifth cycles. • Extraordinary antibacterial activity of Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} after a very short incubation time. • Detection of intracellular

  17. Distribution, Community Composition, and Potential Metabolic Activity of Bacterioplankton in an Urbanized Mediterranean Sea Coastal Zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richa, Kumari; Balestra, Cecilia; Piredda, Roberta; Benes, Vladimir; Borra, Marco; Passarelli, Augusto; Margiotta, Francesca; Saggiomo, Maria; Biffali, Elio; Sanges, Remo; Scanlan, David J; Casotti, Raffaella

    2017-09-01

    Bacterioplankton are fundamental components of marine ecosystems and influence the entire biosphere by contributing to the global biogeochemical cycles of key elements. Yet, there is a significant gap in knowledge about their diversity and specific activities, as well as environmental factors that shape their community composition and function. Here, the distribution and diversity of surface bacterioplankton along the coastline of the Gulf of Naples (GON; Italy) were investigated using flow cytometry coupled with high-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Heterotrophic bacteria numerically dominated the bacterioplankton and comprised mainly Alphaproteobacteria , Gammaproteobacteria , and Bacteroidetes Distinct communities occupied river-influenced, coastal, and offshore sites, as indicated by Bray-Curtis dissimilarity, distance metric (UniFrac), linear discriminant analysis effect size (LEfSe), and multivariate analyses. The heterogeneity in diversity and community composition was mainly due to salinity and changes in environmental conditions across sites, as defined by nutrient and chlorophyll a concentrations. Bacterioplankton communities were composed of a few dominant taxa and a large proportion (92%) of rare taxa (here defined as operational taxonomic units [OTUs] accounting for coastal zones is of critical importance, considering that these areas are highly productive and anthropogenically impacted. Their richness and evenness, as well as their potential activity, are very important to assess ecosystem health and functioning. Here, we investigated bacterial distribution, community composition, and potential metabolic activity in the GON, which is an ideal test site due to its heterogeneous environment characterized by a complex hydrodynamics and terrestrial inputs of varied quantities and quality. Our study demonstrates that bacterioplankton communities in this region are highly diverse and strongly regulated by a combination of different environmental

  18. Metabolic rates, enzyme activities and chemical compositions of some deep-sea pelagic worms, particularly Nectonemertes mirabilis (Nemertea; Hoplonemertinea) and Poeobius meseres (Annelida; Polychaeta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuesen, Erik V.; Childress, James J.

    1993-05-01

    Investigations of metabolic rate, enzyme activity and chemical composition were undertaken on two abundant deep-sea pelagic worms: Nectonemertes mirabilis (Nemertea; Hoplonemertinea) and Poeobius meseres (Annelida; Polychaeta). Six other species of worms ( Pelagonemertes brinkmanni (Nemertea) and the following polychaetes: Pelagobia species A, Tomopteris nisseni, Tomopteris pacifica, Tomopteris species A, and Traviopsis lobifera) were captured in smaller numbers and used for comparison in the physiological and biochemical measurements. Polychaete worms had the highest oxygen consumption rates and, along with N. mirabilis, displayed significant size effects on metabolic rate. Poeobius meseres had the lowest rates of oxygen consumption and displayed no significant relationship of oxygen consumption rate to wet weight. No significant effect of size on the activities of citrate synthase, lactate dehydrogenase or pyruvate kinase was observed in P. meseres or N. mirabilis. Lipid content was higher than protein content for all the worms in this study. Carbohydrate was of little significance in these worms and was usually metabolic rates. It appears that polychaete worms as a group have higher metabolic rates than bathypelagic shrimps, copepods and fishes, and may be the animals with the highest metabolic rates in the bathypelagic regions of the world's oceans.

  19. Clinicopathological and biological significance of aberrant activation of glycogen synthase kinase-3 in ovarian cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Y

    2014-06-01

    survival. GSK-3 inhibition by lithium chloride, 4-benzyl-2-methyl-1,2,4-thiadiazolidine-3,5-dione (TDZD-8, or GSK-3 small interfering RNA can decrease viability of SKOV3 and SKOV3-TR30 ovarian cancer cells. Additionally, lithium chloride-treated SKOV3 xenograft mice had a significant reduction in tumor growth compared with control-treated animals. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that overexpression and aberrant activation of GSK-3 may contribute to progression and poor prognosis in ovarian cancer. Inhibition of GSK-3 may be a potential therapy for ovarian cancer.Keywords: ovarian carcinoma, immunohistochemistry, lithium chloride, TDZD-8

  20. Metabolic equivalents of task are confounded by adiposity, which disturbs objective measurement of physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuomo T Tompuri

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity refers any bodily movements produced by skeletal muscles that expends energy. Hence the amount and the intensity of physical activity can be assessed by energy expenditure. Metabolic equivalents of task (MET are multiplies of the resting metabolism reflecting metabolic rate during exercise. The standard MET is defined as 3.5 ml/min/kg. However, the expression of energy expenditure by body weight to normalize the size differences between subjects causes analytical hazards: scaling by body weight does not have a physiological, mathematical, or physical rationale. This review demonstrates by examples that false methodology may cause paradoxical observations if physical activity would be assessed by body weight scaled values such as standard METs. While standard METs are confounded by adiposity, lean mass proportional measures of energy expenditure would enable a more truthful choice to assess physical activity. While physical activity as a behavior and cardiorespiratory fitness or adiposity as a state represents major determinants of public health, specific measurements of health determinants must be understood to enable a truthful evaluation of the interactions and their independent role as a health predictor.

  1. Hepatic mTORC1 controls locomotor activity, body temperature, and lipid metabolism through FGF21

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornu, Marion; Oppliger, Wolfgang; Albert, Verena; Robitaille, Aaron M.; Trapani, Francesca; Quagliata, Luca; Fuhrer, Tobias; Sauer, Uwe; Terracciano, Luigi; Hall, Michael N.

    2014-01-01

    The liver is a key metabolic organ that controls whole-body physiology in response to nutrient availability. Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a nutrient-activated kinase and central controller of growth and metabolism that is negatively regulated by the tumor suppressor tuberous sclerosis complex 1 (TSC1). To investigate the role of hepatic mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) in whole-body physiology, we generated liver-specific Tsc1 (L-Tsc1 KO) knockout mice. L-Tsc1 KO mice displayed reduced locomotor activity, body temperature, and hepatic triglyceride content in a rapamycin-sensitive manner. Ectopic activation of mTORC1 also caused depletion of hepatic and plasma glutamine, leading to peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α)–dependent fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) expression in the liver. Injection of glutamine or knockdown of PGC-1α or FGF21 in the liver suppressed the behavioral and metabolic defects due to mTORC1 activation. Thus, mTORC1 in the liver controls whole-body physiology through PGC-1α and FGF21. Finally, mTORC1 signaling correlated with FGF21 expression in human liver tumors, suggesting that treatment of glutamine-addicted cancers with mTOR inhibitors might have beneficial effects at both the tumor and whole-body level. PMID:25082895

  2. Hydrogenase activity in aged, nonviable Desulfovibrio vulgaris cultures and its significance in anaerobic biocorrosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatelus, C; Carrier, P; Saignes, P; Libert, M F; Berlier, Y; Lespinat, P A; Fauque, G; Legall, J

    1987-01-01

    Batch cultures of Desulfovibrio vulgaris stored at 32 degrees C for 10 months have been found to retain 50% of the hydrogenase activity of a 1-day culture. The hydrogenase found in old cultures needs reducing conditions for its activation. Viable cell counts are negative after 6 months, showing that the hydrogenase activity does not depend on the presence of viable cells. These observations are of importance in the understanding of anaerobic biocorrosion of metals caused by depolarization phenomena. PMID:3310883

  3. Metabolic adaptation to intermittent fasting is independent of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guolin; Brocker, Chad N; Yan, Tingting; Xie, Cen; Krausz, Kristopher W; Xiang, Rong; Gonzalez, Frank J

    2018-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARA) is a major regulator of fatty acid oxidation and severe hepatic steatosis occurs during acute fasting in Ppara-null mice. Thus, PPARA is considered an important mediator of the fasting response; however, its role in other fasting regiments such as every-other-day fasting (EODF) has not been investigated. Mice were pre-conditioned using either a diet containing the potent PPARA agonist Wy-14643 or an EODF regimen prior to acute fasting. Ppara-null mice were used to assess the contribution of PPARA activation during the metabolic response to EODF. Livers were collected for histological, biochemical, qRT-PCR, and Western blot analysis. Acute fasting activated PPARA and led to steatosis, whereas EODF protected against fasting-induced hepatic steatosis without affecting PPARA signaling. In contrast, pretreatment with Wy-14,643 did activate PPARA signaling but did not ameliorate acute fasting-induced steatosis and unexpectedly promoted liver injury. Ppara ablation exacerbated acute fasting-induced hypoglycemia, hepatic steatosis, and liver injury in mice, whereas these detrimental effects were absent in response to EODF, which promoted PPARA-independent fatty acid metabolism and normalized serum lipids. These findings indicate that PPARA activation prior to acute fasting cannot ameliorate fasting-induced hepatic steatosis, whereas EODF induced metabolic adaptations to protect against fasting-induced steatosis without altering PPARA signaling. Therefore, PPARA activation does not mediate the metabolic adaptation to fasting, at least in preventing acute fasting-induced steatosis. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  4. Metabolic adaptation to intermittent fasting is independent of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guolin Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARA is a major regulator of fatty acid oxidation and severe hepatic steatosis occurs during acute fasting in Ppara-null mice. Thus, PPARA is considered an important mediator of the fasting response; however, its role in other fasting regiments such as every-other-day fasting (EODF has not been investigated. Methods: Mice were pre-conditioned using either a diet containing the potent PPARA agonist Wy-14643 or an EODF regimen prior to acute fasting. Ppara-null mice were used to assess the contribution of PPARA activation during the metabolic response to EODF. Livers were collected for histological, biochemical, qRT-PCR, and Western blot analysis. Results: Acute fasting activated PPARA and led to steatosis, whereas EODF protected against fasting-induced hepatic steatosis without affecting PPARA signaling. In contrast, pretreatment with Wy-14,643 did activate PPARA signaling but did not ameliorate acute fasting-induced steatosis and unexpectedly promoted liver injury. Ppara ablation exacerbated acute fasting-induced hypoglycemia, hepatic steatosis, and liver injury in mice, whereas these detrimental effects were absent in response to EODF, which promoted PPARA-independent fatty acid metabolism and normalized serum lipids. Conclusions: These findings indicate that PPARA activation prior to acute fasting cannot ameliorate fasting-induced hepatic steatosis, whereas EODF induced metabolic adaptations to protect against fasting-induced steatosis without altering PPARA signaling. Therefore, PPARA activation does not mediate the metabolic adaptation to fasting, at least in preventing acute fasting-induced steatosis. Keywords: PPARA, PPARalpha, Intermittent fasting, Every-other-day fasting, Steatosis, Adaptive fasting response

  5. Physiological community ecology: variation in metabolic activity of ecologically important rocky intertidal invertebrates along environmental gradients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlhoff, Elizabeth P; Stillman, Jonathon H; Menge, Bruce A

    2002-08-01

    Rocky intertidal invertebrates live in heterogeneous habitats characterized by steep gradients in wave activity, tidal flux, temperature, food quality and food availability. These environmental factors impact metabolic activity via changes in energy input and stress-induced alteration of energetic demands. For keystone species, small environmentally induced shifts in metabolic activity may lead to disproportionately large impacts on community structure via changes in growth or survival of these key species. Here we use biochemical indicators to assess how natural differences in wave exposure, temperature and food availability may affect metabolic activity of mussels, barnacles, whelks and sea stars living at rocky intertidal sites with different physical and oceanographic characteristics. We show that oxygen consumption rate is correlated with the activity of key metabolic enzymes (e.g., citrate synthase and malate dehydrogenase) for some intertidal species, and concentrations of these enzymes in certain tissues are lower for starved individuals than for those that are well fed. We also show that the ratio of RNA to DNA (an index of protein synthetic capacity) is highly variable in nature and correlates with short-term changes in food availability. We also observed striking patterns in enzyme activity and RNA/DNA in nature, which are related to differences in rocky intertidal community structure. Differences among species and habitats are most pronounced in summer and are linked to high nearshore productivity at sites favored by suspension feeders and to exposure to stressful low-tide air temperatures in areas of low wave splash. These studies illustrate the great promise of using biochemical indicators to test ecological models, which predict changes in community structure along environmental gradients. Our results also suggest that biochemical indices must be carefully validated with laboratory studies, so that the indicator selected is likely to respond to the

  6. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 is elevated in patients with COPD independent of metabolic and cardiovascular function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waschki B

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Benjamin Waschki,1–3 Henrik Watz,2,3 Olaf Holz,4,5 Helgo Magnussen,2,3 Beata Olejnicka,6 Tobias Welte,5,7 Klaus F Rabe,1,3 Sabina Janciauskiene5,7 1Pneumology, LungenClinic Grosshansdorf, Grosshansdorf, Germany; 2Pulmonary Research Institute at LungenClinic Grosshansdorf, Grosshansdorf, Germany; 3Airway Research Center North (ARCN, German Center for Lung Research (DZL, Grosshansdorf, Germany; 4Fraunhofer Institute for Toxicology and Experimental Medicine, Hannover, Germany; 5Biomedical Research in Endstage and Obstructive Lung Disease Hannover (BREATH, German Center for Lung Research (DZL, Hannover, Germany; 6Department of Medicine, Trelleborg Hospital, Trelleborg, Sweden; 7Department of Respiratory Medicine, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany Introduction: Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1, a major inhibitor of fibrinolysis, is associated with thrombosis, obesity, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and premature aging, which all are coexisting conditions of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. The role of PAI-1 in COPD with respect to metabolic and cardiovascular functions is unclear. Methods: In this study, which was nested within a prospective cohort study, the serum levels of PAI-1 were cross-sectionally measured in 74 stable COPD patients (Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease [GOLD] Stages I–IV and 18 controls without lung disease. In addition, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, fasting plasma glucose, waist circumference, blood pressure, smoking status, high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP, adiponectin, ankle–brachial index, N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide, and history of comorbidities were also determined. Results: The serum levels of PAI-1 were significantly higher in COPD patients than in controls, independent of a broad spectrum of possible confounders including metabolic and cardiovascular dysfunction. A multivariate regression analysis revealed

  7. Effect of Condensed Tannins on Bacterial Diversity and Metabolic Activity in the Rat Gastrointestinal Tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Alexandra H.; Mackie, Roderick I.

    2004-01-01

    The effect of dietary condensed tannins (proanthocyanidins) on rat fecal bacterial populations was ascertained in order to determine whether the proportion on tannin-resistant bacteria increased and if there was a change in the predominant bacterial populations. After 3 weeks of tannin diets the proportion of tannin-resistant bacteria increased significantly (P tannin diet and to 47.2% ± 5.1% with a 2% tannin diet. The proportion of tannin-resistant bacteria returned to preexposure levels in the absence of dietary tannins. A shift in bacterial populations was confirmed by molecular fingerprinting of fecal bacterial populations by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Posttreatment samples were generally still distinguishable from controls after 3.5 weeks. Sequence analysis of DGGE bands and characterization of tannin-resistant isolates indicated that tannins selected for Enterobacteriaceae and Bacteroides species. Dot blot quantification confirmed that these gram-negative bacterial groups predominated in the presence of dietary tannins and that there was a corresponding decrease in the gram-positive Clostridium leptum group and other groups. Metabolic fingerprint patterns revealed that functional activities of culturable fecal bacteria were affected by the presence of tannins. Condensed tannins of Acacia angustissima altered fecal bacterial populations in the rat gastrointestinal tract, resulting in a shift in the predominant bacteria towards tannin-resistant gram-negative Enterobacteriaceae and Bacteroides species. PMID:14766594

  8. New insight for activity intensity relativity, metabolic expenditure during object projection skill performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacko, Ryan S; McIver, Kerry; Brian, Ali; Stodden, David F

    2018-04-02

    This study examined the metabolic cost (METs) of performing object projection skills at three practice trial intervals (6, 12, and 30 seconds). Forty adults (female n = 20) aged 18-30 (M = 23.7 ± 2.9 years) completed three, nine-minute sessions of skill trials performed at 6, 12, and 30 second intervals. Participants performed kicking, throwing and striking trials in a blocked schedule with maximal effort. Average METs during each session were measured using a COSMED K4b2. A three (interval condition) X two (sex) ANOVA was conducted to examine differences in METs across interval conditions and by sex. Results indicated a main effect for interval condition (F(5,114) = 187.02, p < .001, η 2  = 0.76) with decreased interval times yielding significantly higher METs [30 sec = 3.45, 12 sec = 5.68, 6 sec = 8.21]. A main effect for sex (F(5, 114) = 35.39, p < .001, η 2  = 0.24) also was found with men demonstrating higher METs across all intervals. At a rate of only two trials/min, participants elicited moderate physical activity, with 12 and 6-second intervals exhibiting vigorous PA. Demonstrating MVPA during the performance of object projection skill performance has potential implications for PA interventions.

  9. Antiviral activity of tenofovir against Cauliflower mosaic virus and its metabolism in Brassica pekinensis plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spak, Josef; Votruba, Ivan; Pavingerová, Daniela; Holý, Antonín; Spaková, Vlastimila; Petrzik, Karel

    2011-11-01

    The antiviral effect of the acyclic nucleoside phosphonate tenofovir (R)-PMPA on double-stranded DNA Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) in Brassica pekinensis plants grown in vitro on liquid medium was evaluated. Double antibody sandwich ELISA and PCR were used for relative quantification of viral protein and detecting nucleic acid in plants. (R)-PMPA at concentrations of 25 and 50 mg/l significantly reduced CaMV titers in plants within 6-9 weeks to levels detectable neither by ELISA nor by PCR. Virus-free plants were obtained after 3-month cultivation of meristem tips on semisolid medium containing 50 mg/l (R)-PMPA and their regeneration to whole plants in the greenhouse. Studying the metabolism of (R)-PMPA in B. pekinensis revealed that mono- and diphosphate, structural analogs of NDP and/or NTP, are the only metabolites formed. The data indicate very low substrate activity of the enzymes toward (R)-PMPA as substrate. The extent of phosphorylation in the plant's leaves represents only 4.5% of applied labeled (R)-PMPA. In roots, we detected no radioactive peaks of phosphorylated metabolites of (R)-PMPAp or (R)-PMPApp. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Low resting metabolic rate in exercise-associated amenorrhea is not due to a reduced proportion of highly active metabolic tissue compartments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehler, Karsten; Williams, Nancy I; Mallinson, Rebecca J; Southmayd, Emily A; Allaway, Heather C M; De Souza, Mary Jane

    2016-08-01

    Exercising women with menstrual disturbances frequently display a low resting metabolic rate (RMR) when RMR is expressed relative to body size or lean mass. However, normalizing RMR for body size or lean mass does not account for potential differences in the size of tissue compartments with varying metabolic activities. To explore whether the apparent RMR suppression in women with exercise-associated amenorrhea is a consequence of a lower proportion of highly active metabolic tissue compartments or the result of metabolic adaptations related to energy conservation at the tissue level, RMR and metabolic tissue compartments were compared among exercising women with amenorrhea (AMEN; n = 42) and exercising women with eumenorrheic, ovulatory menstrual cycles (OV; n = 37). RMR was measured using indirect calorimetry and predicted from the size of metabolic tissue compartments as measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Measured RMR was lower than DEXA-predicted RMR in AMEN (1,215 ± 31 vs. 1,327 ± 18 kcal/day, P < 0.001) but not in OV (1,284 ± 24 vs. 1,252 ± 17, P = 0.16), resulting in a lower ratio of measured to DEXA-predicted RMR in AMEN (91 ± 2%) vs. OV (103 ± 2%, P < 0.001). AMEN displayed proportionally more residual mass (P < 0.001) and less adipose tissue (P = 0.003) compared with OV. A lower ratio of measured to DXA-predicted RMR was associated with lower serum total triiodothyronine (ρ = 0.38, P < 0.001) and leptin (ρ = 0.32, P = 0.004). Our findings suggest that RMR suppression in this population is not the result of a reduced size of highly active metabolic tissue compartments but is due to metabolic and endocrine adaptations at the tissue level that are indicative of energy conservation.

  11. Long-term follow-up of metabolic activity in human alveolar echinococcosis using FDG-PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuter, S.; Gruener, B.; Kern, P.; Buck, A.K.; Blumstein, N.; Reske, S.N.

    2008-01-01

    Aim: [ 18 F]fluoro-deoxyglucose positron-emission-tomography (FDG-PET) detects metabolic activity in alveolar echinococcosis (AE). The slow changes in metabolic and morphological characteristics require long-term follow-up of patients. This is the first study to evaluate metabolic activity over may years, hereby assessing the utility of FDG-PET for the evaluation of disease progression and response to treatment. Patients, methods: 15 patients received a follow-up FDG-PET combined with computed tomography (integrated PET/CT) with a median of 6.5 years after the first PET in 1999. Number and location of enhanced metabolic activity in the area of AE lesions was determined. Quantification of intensity of metabolic activity was assessed by calculation of mean standardized uptake values. Results: AE lesions in 11/15 patients had been metabolically inactive initially, but only two showed permanent inactivity over the course of 81 months. Interestingly, in two patients metabolic activity was newly detected after 80 and 82 months. Benzimidazole treatment was intermittently discontinued in seven cases. Persisting activity at FDG-PET demanded continued benzimidazole treatment in four patients. Neither treatment duration, lesional size, calcifications nor regressive changes correlated with metabolic activity. Conclusion: treatment responses are heterogeneous and vary from progressive disease despite treatment to long-term inactive disease with discontinued treatment. Lack of metabolic activity indicates suppressed parasite activity and is not equivalent to parasite death. However, metabolic activity may remain suppressed for years, allowing for temporary treatment discontinuation. Relapses are reliably detected with PET and restarting benzimidazole treatment prevents parasite expansion. (orig.)

  12. N-3 fatty acids, neuronal activity and energy metabolism in the brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harbeby Emilie

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The content of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA in brain membranes is of crucial importance for the optimum development of brain functions. A lack of DHA accretion in the brain is accompanied by deficits in learning behavior linked to impairments in neurotransmission processes, which might result from alteration of brain fuel supply and hence energy metabolism. Experimental data we published support the hypothesis that n-3 fatty acids may modulate brain glucose utilization and metabolism. Indeed rats made deficient in DHA by severe depletion of total n-3 fatty acid intake have 1 a lower brain glucose utilization, 2 a decrease of the glucose transporter protein content GLUT1 both in endothelial cells and in astrocytes, 3 a repression of GLUT1 gene expression in basal state as well as upon neuronal activation. This could be due to the specific action of DHA on the regulation of GLUT1 expression since rat brain endothelial cells cultured with physiological doses of DHA had an increased GLUT1 protein content and glucose transport when compared to non-supplemented cells. These experimental data highlight the impact of n-3 fatty acids on the use of brain glucose, thereby constituting a key factor in the control of synaptic activity. This emerging role suggests that dietary intake of n-3 fatty acids can help to reduce the cognitive deficits in the elderly and possibly symptomatic cerebral metabolic alterations in Alzheimer disease by promoting brain glucose metabolism.

  13. Naringin ameliorates metabolic syndrome by activating AMP-activated protein kinase in mice fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Peng; Gao, Dong-Mei; Mohamed, Salim; Chen, Jing; Zhang, Jing; Zhou, Xiao-Ya; Zhou, Nai-Jing; Xie, Jing; Jiang, Hong

    2012-02-01

    Metabolic syndrome is a low-grade inflammatory state in which oxidative stress is involved. Naringin, isolated from the Citrussinensis, is a phenolic compound with anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory activities. The aim of this study was to explore the effects of naringin on metabolic syndrome in mice. The animal models, induced by high-fat diet in C57BL/6 mice, developed obesity, dyslipidemia, fatty liver, liver dysfunction and insulin resistance. These changes were attenuated by naringin. Further investigations revealed that the inhibitory effect on inflammation and insulin resistance was mediated by blocking activation of the MAPKs pathways and by activating IRS1; the lipid-lowering effect was attributed to inhibiting the synthesis way and increasing fatty acid oxidation; the hypoglycemic effect was due to the regulation of PEPCK and G6pase. The anti-oxidative stress of naringin also participated in the improvement of insulin resistance and lipogenesis. All of these depended on the AMPK activation. To confirm the results of the animal experiment, we tested primary hepatocytes exposed to high glucose system. Naringin was protective by phosphorylating AMPKα and IRS1. Taken together, these results suggested that naringin protected mice exposed to a high-fat diet from metabolic syndrome through an AMPK-dependent mechanism involving multiple types of intracellular signaling and reduction of oxidative damage. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Magnesium deficiency and metabolic syndrome: stress and inflammation may reflect calcium activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayssiguier, Yves; Libako, Patrycja; Nowacki, Wojciech; Rock, Edmond

    2010-06-01

    Magnesium (Mg) intake is inadequate in the western diet and metabolic syndrome is highly prevalent in populations around the world. Epidemiological studies suggest that high Mg intake may reduce the risk but the possibility of confounding factors exists, given the strong association between Mg and other beneficial nutriments (vegetables, fibers, cereals). The concept that metabolic syndrome is an inflammatory condition may explain the role of Mg.Mg deficiency results in a stress effect and increased susceptibility to physiological damage produced by stress. Stress activates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) axis and the sympathetic nervous system. The activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system is a factor in the development of insulin resistance by increasing oxidative stress. In both humans and rats, aldosteronism results in an immunostimulatory state and leads to an inflammatory phenotype. Stress response induces the release of large quantities of excitatory amino acids and activates the nuclear factor NFkappaB, promoting translation of molecules involved in cell regulation, metabolism and apoptosis. The rise in neuropeptides is also well documented. Stress-induced HPA activation has been identified to play an important role in the preferential body fat accumulation but evidence that Mg is involved in body weight regulation is lacking. One of the earliest events in the acute response to stress is endothelial dysfunction. Endothelial cells actively contribute to inflammation by elaborating cytokines, synthesizing chemical mediators and expressing adhesion molecules. Experimental Mg deficiency in rats induces a clinical inflammatory syndrome characterized by leukocyte and macrophage activation, synthesis of inflammatory cytokines and acute phase proteins, extensive production of free radicals. An increase in extracellular Mg concentration decreases inflammatory effects, while reduction in extracellular Mg results in cell activation. The

  15. Independent associations of physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness with metabolic risk factors in children: the European youth heart study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekelund, U; Anderssen, S A; Froberg, K

    2007-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: High levels of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and physical activity (PA) are associated with a favourable metabolic risk profile. However, there has been no thorough exploration of the independent contributions of cardiorespiratory fitness and subcomponents of activity (total PA...... the association between activity and clustered risk is independent of adiposity. Our results suggest that fitness and activity affect metabolic risk through different pathways....

  16. Latent myostatin has significant activity and this activity is controlled more efficiently by WFIKKN1 than by WFIKKN2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szláma, György; Trexler, Mária; Patthy, László

    2013-01-01

    Myostatin, a negative regulator of skeletal muscle growth, is produced from myostatin precursor by multiple steps of proteolytic processing. After cleavage by a furin-type protease, the propeptide and growth factor domains remain associated, forming a noncovalent complex, the latent myostatin complex. Mature myostatin is liberated from latent myostatin by bone morphogenetic protein 1/tolloid proteases. Here, we show that, in reporter assays, latent myostatin preparations have significant myostatin activity, as the noncovalent complex dissociates at an appreciable rate, and both mature and semilatent myostatin (a complex in which the dimeric growth factor domain interacts with only one molecule of myostatin propeptide) bind to myostatin receptor. The interaction of myostatin receptor with semilatent myostatin is efficiently blocked by WAP, Kazal, immunoglobulin, Kunitz and NTR domain-containing protein 1 or growth and differentiation factor-associated serum protein 2 (WFIKKN1), a large extracellular multidomain protein that binds both mature myostatin and myostatin propeptide [Kondás et al. (2008) J Biol Chem 283, 23677–23684]. Interestingly, the paralogous protein WAP, Kazal, immunoglobulin, Kunitz and NTR domain-containing protein 2 or growth and differentiation factor-associated serum protein 1 (WFIKKN2) was less efficient than WFIKKN1 as an antagonist of the interactions of myostatin receptor with semilatent myostatin. Our studies have shown that this difference is attributable to the fact that only WFIKKN1 has affinity for the propeptide domain, and this interaction increases its potency in suppressing the receptor-binding activity of semilatent myostatin. As the interaction of WFIKKN1 with various forms of myostatin permits tighter control of myostatin activity until myostatin is liberated from latent myostatin by bone morphogenetic protein 1/tolloid proteases, WFIKKN1 may have greater potential as an antimyostatic agent than WFIKKN2

  17. BAD-dependent regulation of fuel metabolism and K(ATP) channel activity confers resistance to epileptic seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giménez-Cassina, Alfredo; Martínez-François, Juan Ramón; Fisher, Jill K; Szlyk, Benjamin; Polak, Klaudia; Wiwczar, Jessica; Tanner, Geoffrey R; Lutas, Andrew; Yellen, Gary; Danial, Nika N

    2012-05-24

    Neuronal excitation can be substantially modulated by alterations in metabolism, as evident from the anticonvulsant effect of diets that reduce glucose utilization and promote ketone body metabolism. We provide genetic evidence that BAD, a protein with dual functions in apoptosis and glucose metabolism, imparts reciprocal effects on metabolism of glucose and ketone bodies in brain cells. These effects involve phosphoregulation of BAD and are independent of its apoptotic function. BAD modifications that reduce glucose metabolism produce a marked increase in the activity of metabolically sensitive K(ATP) channels in neurons, as well as resistance to behavioral and electrographic seizures in vivo. Seizure resistance is reversed by genetic ablation of the K(ATP) channel, implicating the BAD-K(ATP) axis in metabolic control of neuronal excitation and seizure responses. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Motility, ATP levels and metabolic enzyme activity of sperm from bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burness, Gary; Moyes, Christopher D; Montgomerie, Robert

    2005-01-01

    Male bluegill displays one of two life history tactics. Some males (termed "parentals") delay reproduction until ca. 7 years of age, at which time they build nests and actively courts females. Others mature precociously (sneakers) and obtain fertilizations by cuckolding parental males. In the current study, we studied the relations among sperm motility, ATP levels, and metabolic enzyme activity in parental and sneaker bluegill. In both reproductive tactics, sperm swimming speed and ATP levels declined in parallel over the first 60 s of motility. Although sneaker sperm initially had higher ATP levels than parental sperm, by approximately 30 s postactivation, no differences existed between tactics. No differences were noted between tactics in swimming speed, percent motility, or the activities of key metabolic enzymes, although sperm from parentals had a higher ratio of creatine phosphokinase (CPK) to citrate synthase (CS). In both tactics, with increasing CPK and CS activity, sperm ATP levels increased at 20 s postactivation, suggesting that capacities for phosphocreatine hydrolysis and aerobic metabolism may influence interindividual variation in rates of ATP depletion. Nonetheless, there was no relation between sperm ATP levels and either swimming speed or percent of sperm that were motile. This suggests that interindividual variation in ATP levels may not be the primary determinant of variation in sperm swimming performance in bluegill.

  19. Reactive oxygen species in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus alter sympathetic activity during metabolic syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSIANE CAMPOS CRUZ

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN contains heterogeneous populations of neurons involved in autonomic and neuroendocrine regulation. The PVN plays an important role in the sympathoexcitatory response to increasing circulating levels of angiotensin II (Ang-II, which activates AT1 receptors in the circumventricular organs (OCVs, mainly in the subfornical organ (SFO. Circulating Ang-II induces a de novo synthesis of Ang-II in SFO neurons projecting to pre-autonomic PVN neurons. Activation of AT1 receptors induces intracellular increases in reactive oxygen species (ROS, leading to increases in sympathetic nerve activity (SNA. Chronic sympathetic nerve activation promotes a series of metabolic disorders that characterizes the metabolic syndrome (MetS: dyslipidemia, hyperinsulinemia, glucose intolerance, hyperleptinemia and elevated plasma hormone levels, such as noradrenaline, glucocorticoids, leptin, insulin and Ang-II. This review will discuss the contribution of our laboratory and others regarding the sympathoexcitation caused by peripheral Ang-II-induced reactive oxygen species along the subfornical organ and paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus. We hypothesize that this mechanism could be involved in metabolic disorders underlying MetS.

  20. Fluvoxamine alters the activity of energy metabolism enzymes in the brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela K. Ferreira

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Several studies support the hypothesis that metabolism impairment is involved in the pathophysiology of depression and that some antidepressants act by modulating brain energy metabolism. Thus, we evaluated the activity of Krebs cycle enzymes, the mitochondrial respiratory chain, and creatine kinase in the brain of rats subjected to prolonged administration of fluvoxamine. Methods: Wistar rats received daily administration of fluvoxamine in saline (10, 30, and 60 mg/kg for 14 days. Twelve hours after the last administration, rats were killed by decapitation and the prefrontal cortex, cerebral cortex, hippocampus, striatum, and cerebellum were rapidly isolated. Results: The activities of citrate synthase, malate dehydrogenase, and complexes I, II-III, and IV were decreased after prolonged administration of fluvoxamine in rats. However, the activities of complex II, succinate dehydrogenase, and creatine kinase were increased. Conclusions: Alterations in activity of energy metabolism enzymes were observed in most brain areas analyzed. Thus, we suggest that the decrease in citrate synthase, malate dehydrogenase, and complexes I, II-III, and IV can be related to adverse effects of pharmacotherapy, but long-term molecular adaptations cannot be ruled out. In addition, we demonstrated that these changes varied according to brain structure or biochemical analysis and were not dose-dependent.

  1. Photoperiodism and enzyme activity: towards a model for the control of circadian metabolic rhythms in the crassulacean Acid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiroz, O; Morel, C

    1974-04-01

    Metabolic readjustments after a change from long days to short days appear, in Kalanchoe blossfeldiana, to be achieved through the operation of two main mechanisms: variation in enzyme capacity, and circadian rhythmicity. After a lag time, capacity in phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase and capacity in aspartate aminotransferase increase exponentially and appear to be allometrically linked during 50 to 60 short days; then a sudden fall takes place in the activity of the former. Malic enzyme and alanine aminotransferase behave differently. Thus, the operation of the two sections of the pathway (before and after the malate step) give rise to a continuously changing functional compartmentation in the pathway. Circadian rhythmicity, on the other hand, produces time compartmentation through phase shifts and variation in amplitude, independently for each enzyme. These characteristics suggest that the operation of a so-called biological clock would be involved. We propose the hypothesis that feedback regulation would be more accurate and efficient when applied to an already oscillating, clock-controlled enzyme system.

  2. Ruptured human Achilles tendon has elevated metabolic activity up to 1 year after repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eliasson, Pernilla; Couppe, Christian; Magnusson, S.P.; Lonsdale, Markus; Friberg, Lars; Svensson, Rene B.; Kjaer, Michael; Neergaard, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Following Achilles tendon rupture, running is often allowed after 6 months. However, tendon healing is slow and the metabolic status of the tendon at this point is unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate tendon metabolism (glucose uptake) and vascularization at 3, 6 and 12 months after Achilles tendon rupture as measured using PET and power Doppler ultrasonography (PDUS). The study group comprised 23 patients with surgically repaired Achilles tendon rupture who were investigated at 3 months (n = 7), 6 months (n = 7) and 12 months (n = 9) after surgery. The triceps surae complex was loaded over 20 min of slow treadmill walking while a radioactive tracer ( 18 F-FDG) was administered prior to PET. Vascularization was measured in terms of PDUS flow activity, and patient-reported outcomes were scored using the Achilles tendon rupture score (ATRS) and sports assessment (VISA-A) questionnaire. Relative glucose uptake ( 18 F-FDG) was higher in repaired tendons than in intact tendons at all time-points (6, 3 and 1.6 times higher at 3, 6 and 12 months, respectively; P ≤ 0.001), and was also higher in the tendon core than in the periphery at 3 and 6 months (P ≤ 0.02), but lower at 12 months (P = 0.06). Relative glucose uptake was negatively related to ATRS at 6 months after repair (r = -0.89, P ≤ 0.01). PDUS flow activity was higher in repaired tendons than in intact tendons at 3 and 6 months (P < 0.05 for both), but had normalized by 12 months. These data demonstrate that the healing process as determined by metabolic activity and vascularization continues for 6 months after injury when large loads are typically allowed on the tendon. Indeed, metabolic activity remained elevated for more than 1 year after injury despite normalized vascularization. The robust negative correlation between tendon metabolism and patient-reported outcome suggests that a high metabolic activity 6 months after the injury may be related to a poor clinical healing outcome. (orig.)

  3. Piperidine alkaloids from Piperretrofractum Vahl. protect against high-fat diet-induced obesity by regulating lipid metabolism and activating AMP-activated protein kinase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyung Jin [Department of Biomaterials Science and Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Myoung-Su; Jo, Keunae [Department of Biotechnology, College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Jae-Kwan, E-mail: jkhwang@yonsei.ac.kr [Department of Biomaterials Science and Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Biotechnology, College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Translational Research Center for Protein Functional Control, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-07-22

    Highlights: {yields} Piperidine alkaloids from Piperretrofractum Vahl. (PRPAs), including piperine, pipernonaline, and dehydropipernonaline, are isolated as the anti-obesity constituents. {yields} PRPA administration significantly reduces body weight gain without altering food intake and fat pad mass. {yields} PRPA reduces high-fat diet-induced triglyceride accumulation in liver. {yields} PRPAs attenuate HFD-induced obesity by activating AMPK and PPAR{delta}, and regulate lipid metabolism, suggesting their potential anti-obesity effects. -- Abstract: The fruits of Piperretrofractum Vahl. have been used for their anti-flatulent, expectorant, antitussive, antifungal, and appetizing properties in traditional medicine, and they are reported to possess gastroprotective and cholesterol-lowering properties. However, their anti-obesity activity remains unexplored. The present study was conducted to isolate the anti-obesity constituents from P. retrofractum Vahl. and evaluate their effects in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice. Piperidine alkaloids from P. retrofractum Vahl. (PRPAs), including piperine, pipernonaline, and dehydropipernonaline, were isolated as the anti-obesity constituents through a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {delta} (PPAR{delta}) transactivation assay. The molecular mechanism was investigated in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and L6 myocytes. PRPA treatment activated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling and PPAR{delta} protein and also regulated the expression of lipid metabolism-related proteins. In the animal model, oral PRPA administration (50, 100, or 300 mg/kg/day for 8 weeks) significantly reduced HFD-induced body weight gain without altering the amount of food intake. Fat pad mass was reduced in the PRPA treatment groups, as evidenced by reduced adipocyte size. In addition, elevated serum levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, total lipid, leptin, and lipase were suppressed by PRPA treatment. PRPA also

  4. Piperidine alkaloids from Piperretrofractum Vahl. protect against high-fat diet-induced obesity by regulating lipid metabolism and activating AMP-activated protein kinase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyung Jin; Lee, Myoung-Su; Jo, Keunae; Hwang, Jae-Kwan

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Piperidine alkaloids from Piperretrofractum Vahl. (PRPAs), including piperine, pipernonaline, and dehydropipernonaline, are isolated as the anti-obesity constituents. → PRPA administration significantly reduces body weight gain without altering food intake and fat pad mass. → PRPA reduces high-fat diet-induced triglyceride accumulation in liver. → PRPAs attenuate HFD-induced obesity by activating AMPK and PPARδ, and regulate lipid metabolism, suggesting their potential anti-obesity effects. -- Abstract: The fruits of Piperretrofractum Vahl. have been used for their anti-flatulent, expectorant, antitussive, antifungal, and appetizing properties in traditional medicine, and they are reported to possess gastroprotective and cholesterol-lowering properties. However, their anti-obesity activity remains unexplored. The present study was conducted to isolate the anti-obesity constituents from P. retrofractum Vahl. and evaluate their effects in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice. Piperidine alkaloids from P. retrofractum Vahl. (PRPAs), including piperine, pipernonaline, and dehydropipernonaline, were isolated as the anti-obesity constituents through a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor δ (PPARδ) transactivation assay. The molecular mechanism was investigated in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and L6 myocytes. PRPA treatment activated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling and PPARδ protein and also regulated the expression of lipid metabolism-related proteins. In the animal model, oral PRPA administration (50, 100, or 300 mg/kg/day for 8 weeks) significantly reduced HFD-induced body weight gain without altering the amount of food intake. Fat pad mass was reduced in the PRPA treatment groups, as evidenced by reduced adipocyte size. In addition, elevated serum levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, total lipid, leptin, and lipase were suppressed by PRPA treatment. PRPA also protected against the development of

  5. Stone anchors from Bet Dwarka Island, Gujarat, Coast, India: Significance to historical period maritime activities

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sundaresh; Gaur, A.S.; Tripati, S.; Gudigar, P.; Bandodkar, S.N.

    Bet Dwarka Island is situated on the extreme west of Indian territory in Jamnagar district of Gujarat. Underwater, the most preserved remains of ancient maritime activity could be the stone anchors of different types, as every boat requires...

  6. Prevalence of lipodystrophy and metabolic syndrome among HIV positive individuals on Highly Active Anti-Retroviral treatment in Jimma, South West Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berhane, Tsegay; Yami, Alemishet; Alemseged, Fessahaye; Yemane, Tilahun; Hamza, Leja; Kassim, Mehedi; Deribe, Kebede

    2012-01-01

    Use of highly active antiretroviral therapy has led to significant reductions in morbidity and mortality rates. However, these agents had also given rise to the metabolic and morphologic abnormalities which are modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. Evidences elsewhere indicate growing in prevalence of these problems but studies are lacking in Ethiopia. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of HIV-associated lipodystrophy and metabolic syndrome in patients taking highly active antiretroviral therapy. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2010 on a sample of 313 patients taking highly active antiretroviral therapy in Jimma University specialized hospital. Structured questionnaire was used to assess patients' sociodemographic characteristics and clinical manifestations of metabolic abnormalities. Checklists were used for reviewing charts about clinical manifestations of metabolic abnormalities and immunologic profile of patients. Data was cleaned, entered in and analyzed using SPSS for windows version 16.0. Metabolic syndrome was detected in 21.1% and HIV-lipodystrophy was detected 12.1% of patients. The factors found to be independently associated with metabolic syndrome were taking the antiretroviral therapy for more than 12 months (AOR=4.2; 95% CI=1.24-14.23) and female sex (AOR=2.30; 95% CI=1.0-5.27) and the factor found to be independently associated with HIV-lipodystrophy was taking the antiretroviral therapy (AOR=3.59; 95% CI=1.03-12.54) for more than 12 months. Metabolic abnormalities were relatively common in the study population. The problems were higher among those who took anti-retroviral treatment for longer duration. Therefore, regular screening for and taking action against the metabolic abnormalities is mandatory.

  7. Clinical significance of isometric bite force versus electrical activity in temporal and masseter muscles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakke, Merete; Michler, L; Han, K

    1989-01-01

    significant with respect to unilateral, but not to bilateral force measurements. Only in the masseter muscle was strength of dynamic contractions during chewing significantly correlated to bite force. With the present method it was demonstrated that unilateral bite force is a simple clinical indicator...

  8. [L-arginine metabolism enzyme activities in rat liver subcellular fractions under condition of protein deprivation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopyl'chuk, G P; Buchkovskaia, I M

    2014-01-01

    The features of arginase and NO-synthase pathways of arginine's metabolism have been studied in rat liver subcellular fractions under condition of protein deprivation. During the experimental period (28 days) albino male rats were kept on semi synthetic casein diet AIN-93. The protein deprivation conditions were designed as total absence of protein in the diet and consumption of the diet partially deprived with 1/2 of the casein amount compared to in the regular diet. Daily diet consumption was regulated according to the pair feeding approach. It has been shown that the changes of enzyme activities, involved in L-arginine metabolism, were characterized by 1.4-1.7 fold decrease in arginase activity, accompanied with unchanged NO-synthase activity in cytosol. In mitochondrial fraction the unchanged arginase activity was accompanied by 3-5 fold increase of NO-synthase activity. At the terminal stages of the experiment the monodirectional dynamics in the studied activities have been observed in the mitochondrial and cytosolfractions in both experimental groups. In the studied subcellular fractions arginase activity decreased (2.4-2.7 fold with no protein in the diet and 1.5 fold with partly supplied protein) and was accompanied by NO-synthase activity increase by 3.8 fold in cytosole fraction, by 7.2 fold in mitochondrial fraction in the group with no protein in the diet and by 2.2 and 3.5 fold in the group partialy supplied with protein respectively. The observed tendency is presumably caused by the switch of L-arginine metabolism from arginase into oxidizing NO-synthase parthway.

  9. Associations of occupational, transportation, household and leisure-time physical activity patterns with metabolic risk factors among middle-aged adults in a middle-income country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Anne H Y; Moy, Foong Ming

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates physical activity in different domains and its association with metabolic risk factors among middle-aged adults. The study was performed in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia from August 2010-August 2011. Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, systolic/diastolic blood pressure, and fasting blood glucose/lipid profile were measured in 686 Malay participants (mean age 45.9 ± 6.5 years). Self-reported physical activity was obtained with the validated IPAQ (Malay version) and categorized into low-, moderate- and high-activity levels across occupational, transportation, household and leisure-time domains. Participants spent most of their time on household (567.5, 95% CI: 510-630 MET-minutes/week) and occupational activities (297, 95% CI: 245-330 MET-minutes/week). After adjusted for gender and smoking, participants with low-activity levels in occupational, transport and household domains were associated with significantly higher odds for metabolic syndrome (2.02, 95% CI: 1.33-3.05; 1.49, 95% CI: 1.01-2.21; 1.96, 95% CI: 1.33-2.91). Significantly higher odds for obesity and abdominal obesity were consistently reported among those with low-activity levels across all four domains. High-activity levels in occupational, transportation and household domains were each negatively associated with metabolic syndrome among our cohort. Increase participation of physical activity across all four domains (including leisure-time activity) should be encouraged. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Optimisation and significance of ATP analysis for measuring active biomass in granular activated carbon filters used in water treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Magic-Knezev, A.; Kooij, van der D.

    2004-01-01

    A method for determining the concentration of active microbial biomass in granular activated carbon (GAC) filters used in water treatment was developed to facilitate studies on the interactions between adsorption processes and biological activity in such filters. High-energy sonication at a power

  11. Mast cell granules modulate alveolar macrophage respiratory-burst activity and eicosanoid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rock, M J; Despot, J; Lemanske, R F

    1990-10-01

    Alveolar macrophages (AMs) and mast cells reside in the airway, and both have been demonstrated to contribute independently to allergic inflammatory responses through the generation of respiratory-burst metabolites and the release of biologically active mediators, respectively. Since mast cell granules (MCGs) contain mediators that could potentially interact with the AM respiratory burst, we investigated the effects of isolated MCGs on this important inflammatory pathway of the AM. MCGs and AMs were obtained by peritoneal and tracheoalveolar lavage, respectively, of Sprague-Dawley rats. First, the overall respiratory-burst activity was measured by luminal-enhanced chemiluminescence (CL), and second, the individual oxygen species contributing to CL (superoxide anion [O2-], hydrogen peroxide [H2O2], and hypochlorous acid) were measured. MCGs alone enhanced AM CL responses to an equivalent degree compared to zymosan-stimulated AMs. However, AMs preincubated with MCGs followed by zymosan stimulation significantly and synergistically enhanced the CL responses. This enhanced CL was not due to an increased production of O2-, H2O2, or hypochlorous acid; in fact, there were decreased measured amounts of O2- and H2O2 from zymosan-stimulated AMs in the presence of MCGs, most likely caused by the content of granules of superoxide dismutase and peroxidase, respectively. The lipoxygenase inhibitor, nordihydroguaiaretic acid, completely abolished the enhanced CL of AM preincubated with MCGs and subsequently stimulated by zymosan, but O2- production was not affected by nordihydroguaiaretic acid. Taken together, these results suggest that derivatives of arachidonic acid metabolism, most likely those of the lipoxygenase pathway, are responsible for the enhanced AM CL response observed in the presence of MCGs. Thus, mast cell-macrophage interactions may be important within the airway in enhancing the generation of mediators that contribute to tissue inflammation and bronchospasm.

  12. Metabolism-Activated Multitargeting (MAMUT): An Innovative Multitargeting Approach to Drug Design and Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mátyus, Péter; Chai, Christina L L

    2016-06-20

    Multitargeting is a valuable concept in drug design for the development of effective drugs for the treatment of multifactorial diseases. This concept has most frequently been realized by incorporating two or more pharmacophores into a single hybrid molecule. Many such hybrids, due to the increased molecular size, exhibit unfavorable physicochemical properties leading to adverse effects and/or an inappropriate ADME (absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion) profile. To avoid this limitation and achieve additional therapeutic benefits, here we describe a novel multitargeting strategy based on the synergistic effects of a parent drug and its active metabolite(s). The concept of metabolism-activated multitargeting (MAMUT) is illustrated using a number of examples. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Direct neuronal glucose uptake Heralds activity-dependent increases in cerebral metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgaard, Iben; Li, Baoman; Xie, Lulu

    2015-01-01

    Metabolically, the brain is a highly active organ that relies almost exclusively on glucose as its energy source. According to the astrocyte-to-neuron lactate shuttle hypothesis, glucose is taken up by astrocytes and converted to lactate, which is then oxidized by neurons. Here we show, using two......-photon imaging of a near-infrared 2-deoxyglucose analogue (2DG-IR), that glucose is taken up preferentially by neurons in awake behaving mice. Anaesthesia suppressed neuronal 2DG-IR uptake and sensory stimulation was associated with a sharp increase in neuronal, but not astrocytic, 2DG-IR uptake. Moreover......, hexokinase, which catalyses the first enzymatic steps in glycolysis, was highly enriched in neurons compared with astrocytes, in mouse as well as in human cortex. These observations suggest that brain activity and neuronal glucose metabolism are directly linked, and identify the neuron as the principal locus...

  14. Direct neuronal glucose uptake heralds activity-dependent increases in cerebral metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundgaard, Iben; Li, Baoman; Xie, Lulu; Kang, Hongyi; Sanggaard, Simon; Haswell, John D R; Sun, Wei; Goldman, Siri; Blekot, Solomiya; Nielsen, Michael; Takano, Takahiro; Deane, Rashid; Nedergaard, Maiken

    2015-04-23

    Metabolically, the brain is a highly active organ that relies almost exclusively on glucose as its energy source. According to the astrocyte-to-neuron lactate shuttle hypothesis, glucose is taken up by astrocytes and converted to lactate, which is then oxidized by neurons. Here we show, using two-photon imaging of a near-infrared 2-deoxyglucose analogue (2DG-IR), that glucose is taken up preferentially by neurons in awake behaving mice. Anaesthesia suppressed neuronal 2DG-IR uptake and sensory stimulation was associated with a sharp increase in neuronal, but not astrocytic, 2DG-IR uptake. Moreover, hexokinase, which catalyses the first enzymatic steps in glycolysis, was highly enriched in neurons compared with astrocytes, in mouse as well as in human cortex. These observations suggest that brain activity and neuronal glucose metabolism are directly linked, and identify the neuron as the principal locus of glucose uptake as visualized by functional brain imaging.

  15. BAT Exosomes: Metabolic Crosstalk with Other Organs and Biomarkers for BAT Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goody, Deborah; Pfeifer, Alexander

    2018-04-10

    In the last decade, exosomes have gained interest as a new type of intercellular communication between cells and tissues. Exosomes are circulating, cell-derived lipid vesicles smaller than 200 nm that contain proteins and nucleic acids, including microRNAs (miRNAs), and are able to modify cellular targets. Exosomal miRNAs function as signalling molecules that regulate the transcription of their target genes and can cause phenotypic transformation of recipient cells. Recent studies have shown that brown fat secretes exosomes as a form of communication with other metabolic organs such as the liver. Moreover, it has been shown that levels of miRNAs in BAT-derived exosomes change after BAT activation in vitro and in vivo. Thus, BAT-derived exosomes can be used as potential biomarkers of BAT activity. Here, we review the present knowledge about BAT-derived exosomes and their role in metabolism.

  16. Direct neuronal glucose uptake heralds activity-dependent increases in cerebral metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundgaard, Iben; Li, Baoman; Xie, Lulu; Kang, Hongyi; Sanggaard, Simon; Haswell, John Douglas R; Sun, Wei; Goldman, Siri; Blekot, Solomiya; Nielsen, Michael; Takano, Takahiro; Deane, Rashid; Nedergaard, Maiken

    2015-01-01

    Metabolically, the brain is a highly active organ that relies almost exclusively on glucose as its energy source. According to the astrocyte-to-neuron lactate shuttle hypothesis, glucose is taken up by astrocytes and converted to lactate, which is then oxidized by neurons. Here we show, using 2-photon imaging of a near-infrared 2-deoxyglucose analogue (2DG-IR), that glucose is taken up preferentially by neurons in awake behaving mice. Anesthesia suppressed neuronal 2DG-IR uptake and sensory stimulation was associated with a sharp increase in neuronal, but not astrocytic, 2DG-IR uptake. Moreover, hexokinase, which catalyze the first enzymatic steps in glycolysis, was highly enriched in neurons compared with astrocytes, in mouse as well as in human cortex. These observations suggest that brain activity and neuronal glucose metabolism are directly linked, and identifies the neuron as the principal locus of glucose uptake as visualized by functional brain imaging. PMID:25904018

  17. Variation of glucosinolates and quinone reductase activity among different varieties of Chinese kale and improvement of glucoraphanin by metabolic engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Hongmei; Sun, Bo; Miao, Huiying; Cai, Congxi; Xu, Chaojiong; Wang, Qiaomei

    2015-02-01

    The variation of glucosinolates and quinone reductase (QR) activity in fourteen varieties of Chinese kale (Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra Bailey) was investigated in the present study. Results showed that gluconapin (GNA), instead of glucoraphanin (GRA), was the most predominant glucosinolate in all varieties, and QR activity was remarkably positively correlated with the glucoraphanin level. AOP2, a tandem 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase, catalyzes the conversion of glucoraphanin to gluconapin in glucosinolate biosynthesis. Here, antisense AOP2 was transformed into Gailan-04, the variety with the highest gluconapin content and ratio of GNA/GRA. The glucoraphanin content and corresponding QR activity were notably increased in transgenic plants, while no significant difference at the level of other main nutritional compounds (total phenolics, vitamin C, carotenoids and chlorophyll) was observed between the transgenic lines and the wide-type plants. Taken together, metabolic engineering is a good practice for improvement of glucoraphanin in Chinese kale. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Orbital fluid shear stress promotes osteoblast metabolism, proliferation and alkaline phosphates activity in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aisha, M.D. [Institute of Medical Molecular Biotechnology and Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Sungai Buloh 47000, Selangor (Malaysia); Nor-Ashikin, M.N.K. [Institute of Medical Molecular Biotechnology and Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Sungai Buloh 47000, Selangor (Malaysia); DDH, Universiti Teknologi MARA, ShahAlam 40450, Selangor (Malaysia); Sharaniza, A.B.R. [DDH, Universiti Teknologi MARA, ShahAlam 40450, Selangor (Malaysia); Nawawi, H. [Center for Pathology Diagnostic and Research Laboratories, Clinical Training Center, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Sungai Buloh 47000, Selangor (Malaysia); I-PPerForM, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Selayang 47000 Selangor (Malaysia); Froemming, G.R.A., E-mail: gabriele@salam.uitm.edu.my [Institute of Medical Molecular Biotechnology and Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Sungai Buloh 47000, Selangor (Malaysia); I-PPerForM, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Selayang 47000 Selangor (Malaysia)

    2015-09-10

    Prolonged disuse of the musculoskeletal system is associated with reduced mechanical loading and lack of anabolic stimulus. As a form of mechanical signal, the multidirectional orbital fluid shear stress transmits anabolic signal to bone forming cells in promoting cell differentiation, metabolism and proliferation. Signals are channeled through the cytoskeleton framework, directly modifying gene and protein expression. For that reason, we aimed to study the organization of Normal Human Osteoblast (NHOst) cytoskeleton with regards to orbital fluid shear (OFS) stress. Of special interest were the consequences of cytoskeletal reorganization on NHOst metabolism, proliferation, and osteogenic functional markers. Cells stimulated at 250 RPM in a shaking incubator resulted in the rearrangement of actin and tubulin fibers after 72 h. Orbital shear stress increased NHOst mitochondrial metabolism and proliferation, simultaneously preventing apoptosis. The ratio of RANKL/OPG was reduced, suggesting that orbital shear stress has the potential to inhibit osteoclastogenesis and osteoclast activity. Increase in ALP activity and OCN protein production suggests that stimulation retained osteoblast function. Shear stress possibly generated through actin seemed to hold an anabolic response as osteoblast metabolism and functional markers were enhanced. We hypothesize that by applying orbital shear stress with suitable magnitude and duration as a non-drug anabolic treatment can help improve bone regeneration in prolonged disuse cases. - Highlights: • OFS stress transmits anabolic signals to osteoblasts. • Actin and tubulin fibers are rearranged under OFS stress. • OFS stress increases mitochondrial metabolism and proliferation. • Reduced RANKL/OPG ratio in response to OFS inhibits osteoclastogenesis. • OFS stress prevents apoptosis and stimulates ALP and OCN.

  19. Deletion of Gpr55 Results in Subtle Effects on Energy Metabolism, Motor Activity and Thermal Pain Sensation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikael Bjursell

    Full Text Available The G-protein coupled receptor 55 (GPR55 is activated by cannabinoids and non-cannabinoid molecules and has been speculated to play a modulatory role in a large variety of physiological and pathological processes, including in metabolically perturbed states. We therefore generated male mice deficient in the gene coding for the cannabinoid/lysophosphatidylinositol (LPI receptor Gpr55 and characterized them under normal dietary conditions as well as during high energy dense diet feeding followed by challenge with the CB1 receptor antagonist/GPR55 agonist rimonabant. Gpr55 deficient male mice (Gpr55 KO were phenotypically indistinguishable from their wild type (WT siblings for the most part. However, Gpr55 KO animals displayed an intriguing nocturnal pattern of motor activity and energy expenditure (EE. During the initial 6 hours of the night, motor activity was significantly elevated without any significant effect observed in EE. Interestingly, during the last 6 hours of the night motor activity was similar but EE was significantly decreased in the Gpr55 KO mice. No significant difference in motor activity was detected during daytime, but EE was lower in the Gpr55 KO compared to WT mice. The aforementioned patterns were not associated with alterations in energy intake, daytime core body temperature, body weight (BW or composition, although a non-significant tendency to increased adiposity was seen in Gpr55 KO compared to WT mice. Detailed analyses of daytime activity in the Open Field paradigm unveiled lower horizontal activity and rearing time for the Gpr55 KO mice. Moreover, the Gpr55 KO mice displayed significantly faster reaction time in the tail flick test, indicative of thermal hyperalgesia. The BW-decreasing effect of rimonabant in mice on long-term cafeteria diet did not differ between Gpr55 KO and WT mice. In conclusion, Gpr55 deficiency is associated with subtle effects on diurnal/nocturnal EE and motor activity behaviours but does not

  20. Metabolic mapping of functional activity in human subjects with the [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenberg, J.H.; Reivich, M.; Alavi, A.

    1981-01-01

    The 2-[ 18 F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose technique was used to measure regional cerebral glucose utilization by human subjects during functional activation. Normal male volunteers subjected to one or more sensory stimuli exhibited focal increases in glucose metabolism in response to the stimulus. These results demonstrate that the technique is capable of providing functional maps in vivo related to both body region and submodality of sensory information in the human brain

  1. Radiometric detection of metabolic activity of Paracoccidiodes brasiliensis and its susceptibility to amphotericin B and Diethylstilbestrol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camargo, E.E.; Sato, M.K.; Del Negro, G.M.B.; Lacaz, C.S.

    1987-01-01

    A radiometric assay system has been applied to study the metabolic activity and the effect of drugs (amphotericin B and diethylstilbestrol) on the fungus Paracoccidiodes brasiliensis ''in vitro''. The Y form of the yeast, grown in liquid Sabouraud medium was inoculated into sterile reaction vials containing the 6B aerobic medium along with 2.0μCi of 14 C-substrates. (M.A.C.) [pt

  2. Bace1 activity impairs neuronal glucose metabolism: rescue by beta-hydroxybutyrate and lipoic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A Findlay

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Glucose hypometabolism and impaired mitochondrial function in neurons have been suggested to play early and perhaps causative roles in Alzheimer’s disease (AD pathogenesis. Activity of the aspartic acid protease, beta-site amyloid precursor protein (APP cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1, responsible for beta amyloid peptide generation, has recently been demonstrated to modify glucose metabolism. We therefore examined, using a human neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y cell line, whether increased BACE1 activity is responsible for a reduction in cellular glucose metabolism. Overexpression of active BACE1, but not a protease-dead mutant BACE1, protein in SH-SY5Y cells reduced glucose oxidation and the basal oxygen consumption rate, which was associated with a compensatory increase in glycolysis. Increased BACE1 activity had no effect on the mitochondrial electron transfer process but was found to diminish substrate delivery to the mitochondria by inhibition of key mitochondrial decarboxylation reaction enzymes. This BACE1 activity-dependent deficit in glucose oxidation was alleviated by the presence of beta hydroxybutyrate or α-lipoic acid. Consequently our data indicate that raised cellular BACE1 activity drives reduced glucose oxidation in a human neuronal cell line through impairments in the activity of specific tricarboxylic acid cycle enzymes. Because this bioenergetic deficit is recoverable by neutraceutical compounds we suggest that such agents, perhaps in conjunction with BACE1 inhibitors, may be an effective therapeutic strategy in the early-stage management or treatment of AD.

  3. Effects of temperature and UVR on organic matter fluxes and the metabolic activity of Acropora muricata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucile Courtial

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Coral bleaching events are predicted to occur more frequently in the coming decades with global warming. The susceptibility of corals to bleaching during thermal stress episodes depends on many factors, including the magnitude of thermal stress and irradiance. The interactions among these two factors, and in particular with ultra-violet radiation (UVR, the most harmful component of light, are more complex than assumed, and are not yet well understood. This paper explores the individual and combined effects of temperature and UVR on the metabolism of Acropora muricata, one of the most abundant coral species worldwide. Particulate and dissolved organic matter (POM/DOM fluxes and organic matter (OM degradation by the mucus-associated bacteria were also monitored in all conditions. The results show that UVR exposure exacerbated the temperature-induced bleaching, but did not affect OM fluxes, which were only altered by seawater warming. Temperature increase induced a shift from POM release and DOM uptake in healthy corals to POM uptake and DOM release in stressed ones. POM uptake was linked to a significant grazing of pico- and nanoplankton particles during the incubation, to fulfil the energetic requirements of A. muricata in the absence of autotrophy. Finally, OM degradation by mucus-associated bacterial activity was unaffected by UVR exposure, but significantly increased under high temperature. Altogether, our results demonstrate that seawater warming and UVR not only affect coral physiology, but also the way corals interact with the surrounding seawater, with potential consequences for coral reef biogeochemical cycles and food webs.

  4. [Placental gene activity of significant angiogenetic factors in the background of intrauterine growth restriction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, Péter; Rab, Attila; Szentpéteri, Imre; Joó, József Gábor; Kornya, László

    2017-04-01

    Placental vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) gene and endoglin gene are both overexpressed in placental samples obtained from pregnancies with intrauterine growth restriction compared to normal pregnancies. In the background of these changes a mechanism can be supposed, in which the increased endoglin activity in intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) leads to impaired placental circulation through an antioangiogenetic effect. This results in the development of placental vascular dysfunction and chronic fetal hypoxia. It is chronic hypoxia that turns on VEGF-A as a compensatory mechanism to improve fetal vascular blood supply by promoting placental blood vessel formation. Although the maternal serum placental growth factor (PlGF) level is a potential predictor for both IUGR and praeeclampsia, placental PlGF gene activity may be less of an active in the regulation of placental circulation in IUGR pregnancies during the later stages of gestation. Orv. Hetil., 2017, 158(16), 612-617.

  5. Brain metabolism is significantly impaired at blood glucose below 6 mM and brain glucose below 1 mM in patients with severe traumatic brain injury

    OpenAIRE

    Meierhans, Roman; B?chir, Markus; Ludwig, Silke; Sommerfeld, Jutta; Brandi, Giovanna; Haberth?r, Christoph; Stocker, Reto; Stover, John F

    2010-01-01

    Introduction The optimal blood glucose target following severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) must be defined. Cerebral microdialysis was used to investigate the influence of arterial blood and brain glucose on cerebral glucose, lactate, pyruvate, glutamate, and calculated indices of downstream metabolism. Methods In twenty TBI patients, microdialysis catheters inserted in the edematous frontal lobe were dialyzed at 1 ?l/min, collecting samples at 60 minute intervals. Occult metabolic alteratio...

  6. Manipulation of dopamine metabolism contributes to attenuating innate high locomotor activity in ICR mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Takeshi; Nagasawa, Mao; Ikeda, Hiromi; Kodaira, Momoko; Minaminaka, Kimie; Chowdhury, Vishwajit S; Yasuo, Shinobu; Furuse, Mitsuhiro

    2017-06-15

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is defined as attention deficiency, restlessness and distraction. The main characteristics of ADHD are hyperactivity, impulsiveness and carelessness. There is a possibility that these abnormal behaviors, in particular hyperactivity, are derived from abnormal dopamine (DA) neurotransmission. To elucidate the mechanism of high locomotor activity, the relationship between innate activity levels and brain monoamines and amino acids was investigated in this study. Differences in locomotor activity between ICR, C57BL/6J and CBA/N mice were determined using the open field test. Among the three strains, ICR mice showed the greatest amount of locomotor activity. The level of striatal and cerebellar DA was lower in ICR mice than in C57BL/6J mice, while the level of L-tyrosine (L-Tyr), a DA precursor, was higher in ICR mice. These results suggest that the metabolic conversion of L-Tyr to DA is lower in ICR mice than it is in C57BL/6J mice. Next, the effects of intraperitoneal injection of (6R)-5, 6, 7, 8-tetrahydro-l-biopterin dihydrochloride (BH 4 ) (a co-enzyme for tyrosine hydroxylase) and L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) on DA metabolism and behavior in ICR mice were investigated. The DA level in the brain was increased by BH 4 administration, but the increased DA did not influence behavior. However, L-DOPA administration drastically lowered locomotor activity and increased DA concentration in several parts of the brain. The reduced locomotor activity may have been a consequence of the overproduction of DA. In conclusion, the high level of locomotor activity in ICR mice may be explained by a strain-specific DA metabolism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Metabolic activation of polycyclic and heterocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and DNA damage: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue Weiling; Warshawsky, David

    2005-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heterocyclic aromatic compounds (HACs) constitute a major class of chemical carcinogens present in the environment. These compounds require activation to electrophilic metabolites to exert their mutagenic or carcinogenic effects. There are three principal pathways currently proposed for metabolic activation of PAH and HAC: the pathway via bay region dihydrodiol epoxide by cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs), the pathway via radical cation by one-electron oxidation, and the ortho-quinone pathway by dihydrodiol dehydrogenase (DD). In addition to these major pathways, a brief description of a minor metabolic activation pathway, sulfonation, for PAHs that contain a primary benzylic alcoholic group or secondary hydroxyl group(s) is included in this review. The DNA damages caused through the reactive metabolites of PAH/HAC are described involving the DNA covalent binding to form stable or depurinating adducts, the formation of apurinic sites, and the oxidative damage. The review emphasizes the chemical/biochemical reactions involved in the metabolic processes and the chemical structures of metabolites and DNA adducts

  8. Metabolic activity in dormant conidia of Aspergillus niger and developmental changes during conidial outgrowth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novodvorska, Michaela; Stratford, Malcolm; Blythe, Martin J; Wilson, Raymond; Beniston, Richard G; Archer, David B

    2016-09-01

    The early stages of development of Aspergillus niger conidia during outgrowth were explored by combining genome-wide gene expression analysis (RNAseq), proteomics, Warburg manometry and uptake studies. Resting conidia suspended in water were demonstrated for the first time to be metabolically active as low levels of oxygen uptake and the generation of carbon dioxide were detected, suggesting that low-level respiratory metabolism occurs in conidia for maintenance. Upon triggering of spore germination, generation of CO2 increased dramatically. For a short period, which coincided with mobilisation of the intracellular polyol, trehalose, there was no increase in uptake of O2 indicating that trehalose was metabolised by fermentation. Data from genome-wide mRNA profiling showed the presence of transcripts associated with fermentative and respiratory metabolism in resting conidia. Following triggering of conidial outgrowth, there was a clear switch to respiration after 25min, confirmed by cyanide inhibition. No effect of SHAM, salicylhydroxamic acid, on respiration suggests electron flow via cytochrome c oxidase. Glucose entry into spores was not detectable before 1h after triggering germination. The impact of sorbic acid on germination was examined and we showed that it inhibits glucose uptake. O2 uptake was also inhibited, delaying the onset of respiration and extending the period of fermentation. In conclusion, we show that conidia suspended in water are not completely dormant and that conidial outgrowth involves fermentative metabolism that precedes respiration. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. The H159A mutant of yeast enolase 1 has significant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, J M; Holland, M J; Lebioda, L

    2000-10-05

    The function of His159 in the enolase mechanism is disputed. Recently, Vinarov and Nowak (Biochemistry (1999) 38, 12138-12149) prepared the H159A mutant of yeast enolase 1 and expressed this in Escherichia coli. They reported minimal (ca. 0.01% of the native value) activity, though the protein appeared to be correctly folded, according to its CD spectrum, tryptophan fluorescence, and binding of metal ion and substrate. We prepared H159A enolase using a multicopy plasmid and expressed the enzyme in yeast. Our preparations of H159A enolase have 0.2-0.4% of the native activity under standard assay conditions and are further activated by Mg(2+) concentrations above 1 mM to 1-1.5% of the native activity. Native enolase 1 (and enolase 2) are inhibited by such Mg(2+) concentrations. It is possible that His159 is necessary for correct folding of the enzyme and that expression in E. coli leads to largely misfolded protein. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  10. The activity of hyperthermophilic glycosynthases is significantly enhanced at acidic pH

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perugino, G.; Trincone, A.; Giordano, A.; Oost, van der J.; Kaper, T.; Rossi, M.; Moracci, M.

    2003-01-01

    We have previously shown that the hyperthermophilic glycosynthase from Sulfolobus so fataricus (Ssbeta-glyE387G) can promote the synthesis of branched oligosaccharides from activated beta-glycosides, at pH 6.5, in the presence of 2 M sodium formate as an external nucleophile. In an effort to

  11. Intrinsic Xenobiotic Metabolizing Enzyme Activities in Early Life Stages of Zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otte, Jens C; Schultz, Bernadette; Fruth, Daniela; Fabian, Eric; van Ravenzwaay, Bennard; Hidding, Björn; Salinas, Edward R

    2017-09-01

    Early life stages of zebrafish (Danio rerio, zf) are gaining attention as an alternative invivo test system for drug discovery, early developmental toxicity screenings and chemical testing in ecotoxicological and toxicological testing strategies. Previous studies have demonstrated transcriptional evidence for xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes (XME) during early zf development. However, elaborate experiments on XME activities during development are incomplete. In this work, the intrinsic activities of representative phase I and II XME were monitored by transformation of putative zf model substrates analyzed using photometry and high pressure liquid chromatography techniques. Six different defined stages of zf development (between 2.5 h postfertilization (hpf) to 120 hpf) were investigated by preparing a subcellular fraction from whole organism homogenates. We demonstrated that zf embryos as early as 2.5 hpf possess intrinsic metabolic activities for esterase, Aldh, Gst, and Cyp1a above the methodological detection limit. The activities of the enzymes Cyp3a and Nat were measurable during later stages in development. Activities represent dynamic patterns during development. The role of XME activities revealed in this work is relevant for the assessing toxicity in this test system and therefore contributes to a valuable characterization of zf embryos as an alternative testing organism in toxicology. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. The relationship between microbial metabolic activity and biocorrosion of carbon steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzierzewicz, Z; Cwalina, B; Chodurek, E; Wilczok, T

    1997-12-01

    The effect of metabolic activity (expressed by generation time, rate of H2S production and the activity of hydrogenase and adenosine phosphosulphate (APS)-reductase enzymes) of the 8 wild strains of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans and of their resistance to metal ions (Hg2+, Cu2+, Mn2+, Zn2+, Ni2+, Cr3+) on the rate of corrosion of carbon steel was studied. The medium containing lactate as the carbon source and sulphate as the electron acceptor was used for bacterial metabolic activity examination and in corrosive assays. Bacterial growth inhibition by metal ions was investigated in the sulphate-free medium. The rate of H2S production was approximately directly proportional to the specific activities of the investigated enzymes. These activities were inversely proportional to the generation time. The rate of microbiologically induced corrosion (MIC) of carbon steel was directly proportional to bacterial resistance to metal ions (correlation coefficient r = 0.95). The correlation between the MIC rate and the activity of enzymes tested, although weaker, was also observed (r = 0.41 for APS-reductase; r = 0.69 for hydrogenase; critical value rc = 0.30, p = 0.05, n = 40).

  13. The significance of meaningful and enjoyable activities for nursing home resident's experiences of dignity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slettebø, Åshild; Saeteren, Berit; Caspari, Synnøve

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Living in a nursing home may be challenging to the residents' experience of dignity. Residents' perception of how their dignity is respected in everyday care is important. AIM: To examine how nursing home residents experience dignity through the provision of activities that foster...... meaning and joy in their daily life. METHOD: A qualitative design was used and 28 individual semistructured interviews conducted with nursing home residents from six nursing homes in Denmark, Norway and Sweden. The data were analysed with qualitative content analysis. Independent ethical committees in all...... participating countries granted their approval for the study. FINDINGS: The participants highlight two dimensions of the activities that foster experiences of dignity in nursing homes in Scandinavia. These two categories were (i) fostering dignity through meaningful participation and (ii) fostering dignity...

  14. The functional significance of the autolysis loop in protein C and activated protein C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Likui; Manithody, Chandrashekhara; Rezaie, Alireza R

    2005-07-01

    The autolysis loop of activated protein C (APC) is five residues longer than the autolysis loop of other vitamin K-dependent coagulation proteases. To investigate the role of this loop in the zymogenic and anticoagulant properties of the molecule, a protein C mutant was constructed in which the autolysis loop of the protein was replaced with the corresponding loop of factor X. The protein C mutant was activated by thrombin with approximately 5-fold higher rate in the presence of Ca2+. Both kinetics and direct binding studies revealed that the Ca2+ affinity of the mutant has been impaired approximately 3-fold. The result of a factor Va degradation assay revealed that the anticoagulant function of the mutant has been improved 4-5-fold in the absence but not in the presence of protein S. The improvement was due to a better recognition of both the P1-Arg506 and P1-Arg306 cleavage sites by the mutant protease. However, the plasma half-life of the mutant was markedly shortened due to faster inactivation by plasma serpins. These results suggest that the autolysis loop of protein C is critical for the Ca(2+)-dependence of activation by thrombin. Moreover, a longer autolysis loop in APC is not optimal for interaction with factor Va in the absence of protein S, but it contributes to the lack of serpin reactivity and longer half-life of the protease in plasma.

  15. Medicinal significance, pharmacological activities, and analytical aspects of anthocyanidins ‘delphinidin’: A concise report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanika Patel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Herbal medicines have been used for the treatment of various disorders in the world since a very early age due to easily available and less side effect. A large number of phytochemicals have been derived directly or indirectly from natural sources in the form of oils, food supplement, neutraceuticals, and colour pigments. Anthocyanins are classes of phytoconstituents mainly responsible for the different colors of plants material. Literature report revealed the presence of different anthocyanidins such as cyanidin, delphinidin, petunidin, peonidin, pelargonidin, malvidin, cyaniding etc. These anthocyanidins showed a wide range of pharmacological activities. Anthocyanins have an attractive profile in the food industry as natural colorants due to its possible health benefits and safety issues compared to the synthetic dye. Delphinidin is an important anthocyanidins mainly present in the epidermal tissues of flowers and fruits. Delphinidin showed various pharmacological activities such as antioxidant, antimutagenesis, anti-inflammatory and antiangiogenic etc. This review was aimed to elaborate the medicinal importance, pharmacological activities and analytical aspects of anthocyanidins ‘delphinidin’. This review will be benificial to the scientist, manufacturer and consumers in order to explore the potential health benefits of delphinidin.

  16. Culture, Leadership, and Activism: Translating Fink's Taxonomy of Significant Learning into Pedagogical Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Toby S.

    2016-01-01

    Through the article, I share the theoretical foundations, structure, knowledge acquisition, and outcomes of a cultural leadership course. The process for course development integrates several theories and research methods into practice: L. Dee Fink's Taxonomy of Significant Learning, Feminist Theory, Critical Race Theory, and…

  17. Functional significance and structure–activity relationship of food-derived α-glucosidase inhibitors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stefano, Di Elisa; Oliviero, Teresa; Udenigwe, Chibuike C.

    2018-01-01

    The ageing population, together with unhealthy diets, physical inactivity and obesity are the main drivers of the increased prevalence of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Apart from pharmacological treatments, the food industries can play a significant role in the management of T2DM. One of the main

  18. Investigation on the Metabolic Regulation of pgi gene knockout Escherichia coli by Enzyme Activities and Intracellular Metabolite Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor ‘Aini, A. R.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available An integrated analysis of the cell growth characteristics, enzyme activities, intracellular metabolite concentrations was made to investigate the metabolic regulation of pgi gene knockout Escherichia coli based on batch culture and continuous culture which was performed at the dilution rate of 0.2h-1. The enzymatic study identified that pathways of pentose phosphate, ED pathway and glyoxylate shunt were all active in pgi mutant. The glycolysis enzymes i.e glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, fructose diphosphatase, pyruvate kinase, triose phosphate isomerase were down regulated implying that the inactivation of pgi gene reduced the carbon flux through glycolytic pathway. Meanwhile, the pentose phosphate pathway was active as a major route for intermediary carbohydrate metabolism instead of glycolysis. The pentose phosphate pathway generates most of the major reducing co-factor NADPH as shown by the increased of NADPH/NADP+ ratio in the mutant when compared with the parent strain. The fermentative enzymes such as acetate kinase and lactate dehydrogenase were down regulated in the mutant. Knockout of pgi gene results in the significant increase in the intracellular concentration of glucose-6-phosphate and decrease in the concentration of oxaloacetate. The slow growth rate of the mutant was assumed to be affected by the accumulation of glucose-6-phosphate and imbalance of NADPH reoxidation.

  19. Specific SIRT1 activation mimics low energy levels and protects against diet-induced metabolic disorders by enhancing fat oxidation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feige, Jérôme N.; Lagouge, Marie; Canto, Carles; Strehle, Axelle; Houten, Sander M.; Milne, Jill C.; Lambert, Philip D.; Mataki, Chikage; Elliott, Peter J.; Auwerx, Johan

    2008-01-01

    The NAD(+)-dependent deacetylase SIRT1 controls metabolic processes in response to low nutrient availability. We report the metabolic phenotype of mice treated with SRT1720, a specific and potent synthetic activator of SIRT1 that is devoid of direct action on AMPK. SRT1720 administration robustly

  20. [Important application of intestinal transporters and metabolism enzymes on gastrointestinal disposal of active ingredients of Chinese materia medica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Xiaolin; Du, Qiu; Di, Liuqing

    2010-02-01

    Oral drug bioavailability depends on gastrointestinal absorption, intestinal transporters and metabolism enzymes are the important factors in drug gastrointestinal absorption and they can also be induced or inhibited by the active ingredients of Chinese materia medica. This article presents important application of intestinal transporters and metabolism enzymes on gastrointestinal disposal of the active ingredients of Chinese materia medica, and points out the importance of research on transport and metabolism of the active ingredients of Chinese materia medica in Chinese extract and Chinese medicinal formulae.

  1. Drug metabolism in human brain: high levels of cytochrome P4503A43 in brain and metabolism of anti-anxiety drug alprazolam to its active metabolite.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varsha Agarwal

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Cytochrome P450 (P450 is a super-family of drug metabolizing enzymes. P450 enzymes have dual function; they can metabolize drugs to pharmacologically inactive metabolites facilitating their excretion or biotransform them to pharmacologically active metabolites which may have longer half-life than the parent drug. The variable pharmacological response to psychoactive drugs typically seen in population groups is often not accountable by considering dissimilarities in hepatic metabolism. Metabolism in brain specific nuclei may play a role in pharmacological modulation of drugs acting on the CNS and help explain some of the diverse response to these drugs seen in patient population. P450 enzymes are also present in brain where drug metabolism can take place and modify therapeutic action of drugs at the site of action. We have earlier demonstrated an intrinsic difference in the biotransformation of alprazolam (ALP in brain and liver, relatively more alpha-hydroxy alprazolam (alpha-OHALP is formed in brain as compared to liver. In the present study we show that recombinant CYP3A43 metabolizes ALP to both alpha-OHALP and 4-hydroxy alprazolam (4-OHALP while CYP3A4 metabolizes ALP predominantly to its inactive metabolite, 4-OHALP. The expression of CYP3A43 mRNA in human brain samples correlates with formation of relatively higher levels of alpha-OH ALP indicating that individuals who express higher levels of CYP3A43 in the brain would generate larger amounts of alpha-OHALP. Further, the expression of CYP3A43 was relatively higher in brain as compared to liver across different ethnic populations. Since CYP3A enzymes play a prominent role in the metabolism of drugs, the higher expression of CYP3A43 would generate metabolite profile of drugs differentially in human brain and thus impact the pharmacodynamics of psychoactive drugs at the site of action.

  2. Are barriers to physical activity similar for adults with and without abnormal glucose metabolism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hume, Clare; Dunstan, David; Salmon, Jo; Healy, Genevieve; Andrianopoulos, Nick; Owen, Neville

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine perceived barriers to physical activity among adults with and without abnormal glucose metabolism (AGM), and whether barriers varied according to physical activity status. The 1999 to 2000 Australian Diabetes, Obesity, and Lifestyle Study (AusDiab) was a population-based cross-sectional study among adults aged > or =25 years. AGM was identified through an oral glucose tolerance test. The previous week's physical activity and individual, social, and environmental barriers to physical activity were self-reported. Logistic regression analyses examined differences in barriers to physical activity between those with and without AGM, and for those with and without AGM who did and did not meet the minimum recommendation of 150 minutes/week of moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity. Of the 7088 participants (47.5 +/- 12.7 years; 46% male), 18.5% had AGM. Approximately 47.5% of those with AGM met the physical activity recommendation, compared to 54.7% of those without AGM (P barriers to physical activity included lack of time, other priorities, and being tired. Following adjustment for sociodemographic and behavioral factors, there were few differences in barriers to physical activity between those with and without AGM, even after stratifying according to physical activity. Adults with AGM report similar barriers to physical activity, as do those without AGM. Programs for those with AGM can therefore focus on the known generic adult-reported barriers to physical activity.

  3. Alterations of autonomic nervous activity and energy metabolism by capsaicin ingestion during aerobic exercise in healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Ki Ok; Moritani, Toshio

    2007-04-01

    We investigated whether capsaicin ingestion (150 mg) enhances substrate oxidation associated with thermogenic sympathetic activity as an energy metabolic modulator without causing prolongation of the cardiac OT interval during aerobic exercise in humans. Ten healthy males [24.4 (4.3) y] volunteered for this study. The cardiac autonomic nervous activities evaluated by means of heart rate variability of power spectral analysis, energy metabolism, and ECG QT interval were continuously measured during 5-min rest and 30-min exercise at 50% of maximal ventilatory threshold (50% VT(max)) on a stationary ergometer with placebo or capsaicin oral administration chosen at random. The results indicated that there were no significant differences in heart rate during rest or exercise between the two trials. Autonomic nervous activity increased in the capsaicin tablet trial during exercise, but the difference did not reach statistical significance. Capsaicin, however, significantly induced a lower respiratory gas exchange ratio [0.92 (0.02) vs. 0.94 (0.02), means (SE), p means (SE), p < 0.05] during exercise. On the other hand, the data on the cardiac OT interval showed no significant difference, indicating that oral administration of capsaicin did not cause any adverse effect on cardiac depolarization-repolarization. In conclusion, it may be considered that capsaicin consumption 1 h before low intensity exercise (50% VT(max)) is a valuable supplement for the treatment of individuals with hyperlipidemia and/or obesity because it improves lipolysis without any adverse effects on the cardiac depolarization and repolarization process.

  4. Physical activity and not sedentary time per se influences on clustered metabolic risk in elderly community-dwelling women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Nilsson

    Full Text Available Whether amount of time spent in sedentary activities influences on clustered metabolic risk in elderly, and to what extent such an influence is independent of physical activity behavior, remain unclear. Therefore, the aim of the study was to examine cross-sectional associations of objectively assessed physical activity and sedentary behavior on metabolic risk outcomes in a sample of elderly community-dwelling women.Metabolic risk outcomes including waist circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, fasting levels of plasma glucose, HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides were assessed in 120 community-dwelling older women (65-70 yrs. Accelerometers were used to retrieve daily sedentary time, breaks in sedentary time, daily time in light (LPA and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA, and total amount of accelerometer counts. Multivariate regression models were used to examine influence of physical activity and sedentary behavior on metabolic risk outcomes including a clustered metabolic risk score.When based on isotemporal substitution modeling, replacement of a 10-min time block of MVPA with a corresponding time block of either LPA or sedentary activities was associated with an increase in clustered metabolic risk score (β = 0.06 to 0.08, p < 0.05, and an increase in waist circumference (β = 1.78 to 2.19 p < 0.01. All associations indicated between sedentary time and metabolic risk outcomes were lost once variation in total accelerometer counts was adjusted for.Detrimental influence of a sedentary lifestyle on metabolic health is likely explained by variations in amounts of physical activity rather than amount of sedentary time per se. Given our findings, increased amounts of physical activity with an emphasis on increased time in MVPA should be recommended in order to promote a favorable metabolic health profile in older women.

  5. Walking on high heels changes muscle activity and the dynamics of human walking significantly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Erik B; Svendsen, Morten Bo Søndergaard; Nørreslet, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the distribution of net joint moments in the lower extremities during walking on high-heeled shoes compared with barefooted walking at identical speed. Fourteen female subjects walked at 4 km/h across three force platforms while they were filmed by five...... digital video cameras operating at 50 frames/second. Both barefooted walking and walking on high-heeled shoes (heel height: 9 cm) were recorded. Net joint moments were calculated by 3D inverse dynamics. EMG was recorded from eight leg muscles. The knee extensor moment peak in the first half of the stance...... phase was doubled when walking on high heels. The knee joint angle showed that high-heeled walking caused the subjects to flex the knee joint significantly more in the first half of the stance phase. In the frontal plane a significant increase was observed in the knee joint abductor moment and the hip...

  6. Joint association of physical activity in leisure and total sitting time with metabolic syndrome amongst 15,235 Danish adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Christina Bjørk; Nielsen, Asser Jon; Bauman, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    and total daily sitting time were assessed by self-report in 15,235 men and women in the Danish Health Examination Survey 2007-2008. Associations between leisure time physical activity, total sitting time and metabolic syndrome were investigated in logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Adjusted odds ratios......BACKGROUND: Recent studies suggest that physical inactivity as well as sitting time are associated with metabolic syndrome. Our aim was to examine joint associations of leisure time physical activity and total daily sitting time with metabolic syndrome. METHODS: Leisure time physical activity...... (OR) for metabolic syndrome were 2.14 (95% CI: 1.88-2.43) amongst participants who were inactive in leisure time compared to the most active, and 1.42 (95% CI: 1.26-1.61) amongst those who sat for ≥10h/day compared to physical activity, sitting time...

  7. UNESCO active learning approach in optics and photonics leads to significant change in Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrada, K.; Channa, R.; Outzourhit, A.; Azizan, M.; Oueriagli, A.

    2014-07-01

    There are many difficulties in teaching science and technology in developing countries. Several different teaching strategies have to be applied in these cases. More specifically, for developing countries competencies in teaching science in the introductory classroom has attracted much attention. As a specific example we will consider the Moroccan system. In most developing countries everything is moving so slowly that the progress stays static for development. Also, any change needs time, effort and engagement. In our case we discovered that many teachers feel uncomfortable when introducing new teaching methods and evaluation in classes at introductory physics. However, the introduction of an Active Learning in our curricula showed difficulties that students have in understanding physics and especially concepts. Students were interested in having Active Learning courses much more than passive and traditional ones. Changing believes on physical phenomena and reality of the world students become more attractive and their way of thinking Science changed. The main philosophy of fostering modern hands-on learning techniques -adapted to local needs and availability of teaching resources- is elaborated. The Active Learning program provides the teachers with a conceptual evaluation instrument, drawn from relevant physics education research, giving teachers an important tool to measure student learning. We will try to describe the UNESCO Chair project in physics created in 2010 at Cadi Ayyad University since our first experience with UNESCO ALOP program. Many efforts have been done so far and the project helps now to develop more national and international collaborations between universities and Regional Academies of Education and Training. As a new result of these actions and according to our local needs, the translation of the ALOP program into Arabic is now available under the auspice of UNESCO and encouragement of international partners SPIE, ICTP, ICO and OSA.

  8. Restriction on an energy-dense diet improves markers of metabolic health and cellular aging in mice through decreasing hepatic mTOR activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schloesser, Anke; Campbell, Graeme; Glüer, Claus-Christian; Rimbach, Gerald; Huebbe, Patricia

    2015-02-01

    Dietary restriction (DR) on a normal low-fat diet improves metabolic health and may prolong life span. However, it is still uncertain whether restriction of an energy-dense, high-fat diet would also be beneficial and mitigate age-related processes. In the present study, we determined biomarkers of metabolic health, energy metabolism, and cellular aging in obesity-prone mice subjected to 30% DR on a high-fat diet for 6 months. Dietary-restricted mice had significantly lower body weights, less adipose tissue, lower energy expenditure, and altered substrate oxidation compared to their ad libitum-fed counterparts. Hepatic major urinary proteins (Mup) expression, which is linked to glucose and energy metabolism, and biomarkers of metabolic health, including insulin, glucose, cholesterol, and leptin/adiponectin ratio, were likewise reduced in high-fat, dietary-restricted mice. Hallmarks of cellular senescence such as Lamp2a and Hsc70 that mediate chaperone-mediated autophagy were induced and mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling mitigated upon high-fat DR. In contrast to DR applied in low-fat diets, anti-oxidant gene expression, proteasome activity, as well as 5'-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation were not changed, suggesting that high-fat DR may attenuate some processes associated with cellular aging without the induction of cellular stress response or energy deprivation.

  9. On the distributive patterns of ATPase activity and its functional significance in retinae of certain birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewari, H B; Tyagi, H R

    1977-01-01

    The present study incorporates the details of distribution of adenosine triphosphatase amongst the various constituents of retinae of Passer, Psittacula, Streptopelia and Athene. The outer segments in all the cases are intensely positive for the enzyme. This is the part where the light strikes first and initiates the visual processes. The nuclear layers are also positive for the enzyme activity. It is interesting to note that inner plexiform layers show clear-out demarcations of various sub-synaptic layers in all the birds except Psittacula. The ganglion cells and optic nerve fibres are also positive for the enzyme.

  10. Tributyltin toxicity in abalone (Haliotis diversicolor supertexta) assessed by antioxidant enzyme activity, metabolic response, and histopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jin; Zhu, Xiao-shan; Cai, Zhong-hua

    2010-11-15

    A toxicity test was performed to investigate the possible harmful effects of tributyltin (TBT) on abalone (Haliotis diversicolor supertexta). Animals were exposed to TBT in a range of environmentally relevant concentrations (2, 10 and 50 ng/L) for 30 days under laboratory conditions. TBT-free conditions were used as control treatments. The activity of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD), and malondialdehyde (MDA), along with levels of haemolymph metabolites, and hepatopancreas histopathology were analyzed. The results showed that TBT decreased SOD activity, and increased POD level and MDA production in a dose-dependent way, indicating that oxidative injury was induced by TBT. Haemolymph metabolite measurements showed that TBT increased alanine and glutamate levels, and decreased glucose content, which suggested perturbation of energy metabolism. Elevated levels of acetate and pyruvate in the haemolymph indicated partial alteration of lipid metabolism. A decrease in lactate and an increase in succinate, an intermediate of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, indicated disturbance of amino acid metabolism. Hepatopancreas tissues also exhibited inflammatory responses characterized by histopathological changes such as cell swelling, granular degeneration, and inflammation. Taken together, these results demonstrated that TBT was a potential toxin with a variety of deleterious effects on abalone. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Moderate daily exercise activates metabolic flexibility to prevent prenatally induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Jennifer L; Huber, Korinna; Thompson, Nichola M; Davison, Michael; Breier, Bernhard H

    2009-01-01

    Obesity and its associated comorbidities are of major worldwide concern. It is now recognized that there are a number of metabolically distinct pathways of obesity development. The present paper investigates the effect of moderate daily exercise on the underlying mechanisms of one such pathway to obesity, through interrogation of metabolic flexibility. Pregnant Wistar rats were either fed chow ad libitum or undernourished throughout pregnancy, generating control or intrauterine growth restricted (IUGR) offspring, respectively. At 250 d of age, dual-emission x-ray absorptiometry scans and plasma analyses showed that moderate daily exercise, in the form of a measured amount of wheel running (56 m/d), prevented the development of obesity consistently observed in nonexercised IUGR offspring. Increased plasma C-peptide and hepatic atypical protein kinase Czeta levels explained increased glucose uptake and increased hepatic glycogen storage in IUGR offspring. Importantly, whereas circulating levels of retinol binding protein 4 were elevated in obese, nonexercised IUGR offspring, indicative of glucose sparing without exercise, retinol binding protein 4 levels were normalized in the exercised IUGR group. These data suggest that IUGR offspring have increased flexibility of energy storage and use and that moderate daily exercise prevents obesity development through activation of distinct pathways of energy use. Thus, despite a predisposition to develop obesity under sedentary conditions, obesity development was prevented in IUGR offspring when exercise was available. These results emphasize the importance of tailored lifestyle changes that activate distinct pathways of metabolic flexibility for obesity prevention.

  12. Icariin Is A PPARα Activator Inducing Lipid Metabolic Gene Expression in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Fu Lu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Icariin is effective in the treatment of hyperlipidemia. To understand the effect of icariin on lipid metabolism, effects of icariin on PPARα and its target genes were investigated. Mice were treated orally with icariin at doses of 0, 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg, or clofibrate (500 mg/kg for five days. Liver total RNA was isolated and the expressions of PPARα and lipid metabolism genes were examined. PPARα and its marker genes Cyp4a10 and Cyp4a14 were induced 2-4 fold by icariin, and 4-8 fold by clofibrate. The fatty acid (FA binding and co-activator proteins Fabp1, Fabp4 and Acsl1 were increased 2-fold. The mRNAs of mitochondrial FA β-oxidation enzymes (Cpt1a, Acat1, Acad1 and Hmgcs2 were increased 2-3 fold. The mRNAs of proximal β-oxidation enzymes (Acox1, Ech1, and Ehhadh were also increased by icariin and clofibrate. The expression of mRNAs for sterol regulatory element-binding factor-1 (Srebf1 and FA synthetase (Fasn were unaltered by icariin. The lipid lysis genes Lipe and Pnpla2 were increased by icariin and clofibrate. These results indicate that icariin is a novel PPARα agonist, activates lipid metabolism gene expressions in liver, which could be a basis for its lipid-lowering effects and its beneficial effects against diabetes.

  13. Nur77 modulates hepatic lipid metabolism through suppression of SREBP1c activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pols, Thijs W.H.; Ottenhoff, Roelof; Vos, Mariska; Levels, Johannes H.M.; Quax, Paul H.A.; Meijers, Joost C.M.; Pannekoek, Hans; Groen, Albert K.; Vries, Carlie J.M. de

    2008-01-01

    NR4A nuclear receptors are induced in the liver upon fasting and regulate hepatic gluconeogenesis. Here, we studied the role of nuclear receptor Nur77 (NR4A1) in hepatic lipid metabolism. We generated mice expressing hepatic Nur77 using adenoviral vectors, and demonstrate that these mice exhibit a modulation of the plasma lipid profile and a reduction in hepatic triglyceride. Expression analysis of >25 key genes involved in lipid metabolism revealed that Nur77 inhibits SREBP1c expression. This results in decreased SREBP1c activity as is illustrated by reduced expression of its target genes stearoyl-coA desaturase-1, mitochondrial glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase, fatty acid synthase and the LDL receptor, and provides a mechanism for the physiological changes observed in response to Nur77. Expression of LXR target genes Abcg5 and Abcg8 is reduced by Nur77, and may suggest involvement of LXR in the inhibitory action of Nur77 on SREBP1c expression. Taken together, our study demonstrates that Nur77 modulates hepatic lipid metabolism through suppression of SREBP1c activity

  14. Phenolic Compositions and Antioxidant Activities Differ Significantly among Sorghum Grains with Different Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuyu Shen

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Sorghum grains with different applications had different phenolic profiles, which were corresponded to various antioxidant capacities. In this study, total phenolic, proanthocyanidins and flavonoids contents, as well as contents of individual phenolic compounds from sorghum grains with various applications were determined, and their antioxidant capacities were evaluated. Total phenolic contents (TPC and total proanthocyanidins contents (TPAC showed strong correlation with antioxidant activities (r > 0.95, p < 0.01. Hongyingzi (S-1, one of the brewing sorghums, showed the highest level of TPC and TPAC, while white grain sorghum (S-8 had the lowest. Except for black grain sorghum (S-7, that contained the highest contents of ferulic acid, brewing sorghum grains contained the higher contents of the most individual phenolic compounds, especially the variety S-1. The correlation among individual phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities indicated that the free forms of protocatechuic acid (r = 0.982 of FRAPassay, p < 0.01 and taxifolin (r = 0.826 of FRAP assay, p < 0.01 may be the main functional compounds. These results indicate that brewing sorghum grains can also be utilized as effective materials for functional foods.

  15. What basal ganglia changes underlie the parkinsonian state? The significance of neuronal oscillatory activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroga-Varela, A.; Walters, J.R.; Brazhnik, E.; Marin, C.; Obeso, J.A.

    2014-01-01

    One well accepted functional feature of the parkinsonian state is the recording of enhanced beta oscillatory activity in the basal ganglia. This has been demonstrated in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and in animal models such as the rat with 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced lesion and 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-treated monkeys, all of which are associated with severe striatal dopamine depletion. Neuronal hyper-synchronization in the beta (or any other) band is not present despite the presence of bradykinetic features in the rat and monkey models, suggesting that increased beta band power may arise when nigro-striatal lesion is advanced and that it is not an essential feature of the early parkinsonian state. Similar observations and conclusions have been previously made for increased neuronal firing rate in the subthalamic and globus pallidus pars interna nuclei. Accordingly, it is suggested that early parkinsonism may be associated with dynamic changes in basal ganglia output activity leading to reduced movement facilitation that may be an earlier feature of the parkinsonian state. PMID:23727447

  16. AMP-activated protein kinase: Role in metabolism and therapeutic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimmack, Greg; Defronzo, Ralph A; Musi, Nicolas

    2006-11-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is an enzyme that works as a fuel gauge which becomes activated in situations of energy consumption. AMPK functions to restore cellular ATP levels by modifying diverse metabolic and cellular pathways. In the skeletal muscle, AMPK is activated during exercise and is involved in contraction-stimulated glucose transport and fatty acid oxidation. In the heart, AMPK activity increases during ischaemia and functions to sustain ATP, cardiac function and myocardial viability. In the liver, AMPK inhibits the production of glucose, cholesterol and triglycerides and stimulates fatty acid oxidation. Recent studies have shown that AMPK is involved in the mechanism of action of metformin and thiazolidinediones, and the adipocytokines leptin and adiponectin. These data, along with evidence that pharmacological activation of AMPK in vivo improves blood glucose homeostasis, cholesterol concentrations and blood pressure in insulin-resistant rodents, make this enzyme an attractive pharmacological target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, ischaemic heart disease and other metabolic diseases.

  17. The Rab-GTPase-activating protein TBC1D1 regulates skeletal muscle glucose metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szekeres, Ferenc; Chadt, Alexandra; Tom, Robby Z

    2012-01-01

    The Rab-GTPase-activating protein TBC1D1 has emerged as a novel candidate involved in metabolic regulation. Our aim was to determine whether TBC1D1 is involved in insulin as well as energy-sensing signals controlling skeletal muscle metabolism. TBC1D1-deficient congenic B6.SJL-Nob1.10 (Nob1.10(SJL...... be explained partly by a 50% reduction in GLUT4 protein, since proximal signaling at the level of Akt, AMPK, and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) was unaltered. Paradoxically, in vivo insulin-stimulated 2-deoxyglucose uptake was increased in EDL and tibialis anterior muscle from TBC1D1-deficient mice......)) and wild-type littermates were studied. Glucose and insulin tolerance, glucose utilization, hepatic glucose production, and tissue-specific insulin-mediated glucose uptake were determined. The effect of insulin, AICAR, or contraction on glucose transport was studied in isolated skeletal muscle. Glucose...

  18. Physical activity energy expenditure vs cardiorespiratory fitness level in impaired glucose metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lidegaard, Lærke P; Hansen, Anne-Louise Smidt; Johansen, Nanna B

    2015-01-01

    Aim/hypothesis: Little is known about the relative roles of physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) as determinants of glucose regulation. The aim of this study was to examine the associations of PAEE and CRF with markers of glucose metabolism, and to test...... the hypothesis that CRF modifies the association between PAEE and glucose metabolism. Methods: We analysed cross-sectional data from 755 adults from the Danish ADDITION-PRO study. On the basis of OGTT results, participants without known diabetes were classified as having normal glucose tolerance, isolated...... impaired fasting glycaemia (i-IFG), isolated impaired glucose tolerance (i-IGT), combined IFG + IGT or screen-detected diabetes mellitus. Markers of insulin sensitivity and beta cell function were determined. PAEE was measured using a combined heart rate and movement sensor. CRF (maximal oxygen uptake...

  19. Metabolic Activation of the Tumorigenic Pyrrolizidine Alkaloid, Retrorsine, Leading to DNA Adduct Formation In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming W. Chou

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Pyrrolizidine alkaloids are naturally occurring genotoxic chemicals produced by a large number of plants. The high toxicity of many pyrrolizidine alkaloids has caused considerable loss of free-ranging livestock due to liver and pulmonary lesions. Chronic exposure of toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids to laboratory animals induces cancer. This investigation studies the metabolic activation of retrorsine, a representative naturally occurring tumorigenic pyrrolizidine alkaloid, and shows that a genotoxic mechanism is correlated to the tumorigenicity of retrorsine. Metabolism of retrorsine by liver microsomes of F344 female rats produced two metabolites, 6, 7-dihydro-7-hydroxy-1-hydroxymethyl-5H-pyrrolizine (DHP, at a rate of 4.8 ± 0.1 nmol/mg/min, and retrorsine-N-oxide, at a rate of 17.6±0.5 nmol/mg/min. Metabolism was enhanced 1.7-fold by using liver microsomes prepared from dexamethasone-treated rats. DHP formation was inhibited 77% and retrorsine N-oxide formation was inhibited 29% by troleandomycin, a P450 3A enzyme inhibitor. Metabolism of retrorsine with lung, kidney, and spleen microsomes from dexamethasone-treated rats also generated DHP and the N-oxide derivative. When rat liver microsomal metabolism of retrorsine occurred in the presence of calf thymus DNA, a set of DHP-derived DNA adducts was formed; these adducts were detected and quantified by using a previously developed 32P-postlabeling/HPLC method. These same DNA adducts were also found in liver DNA of rats gavaged with retrorsine. Since DHP-derived DNA adducts are suggested to be potential biomarkers of riddelliine-induced tumorigenicity, our results indicate that (i similar to the metabolic activation of riddelliine, the mechanism of retrorsine-induced carcinogenicity in rats is also through a genotoxic mechanism involving DHP; and (ii the set of DHP-derived DNA adducts found in liver DNA of rats gavaged with retrorsine or riddelliine can serve as biomarkers for the

  20. Metabolic Activation of the Tumorigenic Pyrrolizidine Alkaloid, Retrorsine, Leading to DNA Adduct Formation In Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu-Ping; Fu, Peter P.; Chou, Ming W.

    2005-01-01

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids are naturally occurring genotoxic chemicals produced by a large number of plants. The high toxicity of many pyrrolizidine alkaloids has caused considerable loss of free-ranging livestock due to liver and pulmonary lesions. Chronic exposure of toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids to laboratory animals induces cancer. This investigation studies the metabolic activation of retrorsine, a representative naturally occurring tumorigenic pyrrolizidine alkaloid, and shows that a genotoxic mechanism is correlated to the tumorigenicity of retrorsine. Metabolism of retrorsine by liver microsomes of F344 female rats produced two metabolites, 6, 7-dihydro-7-hydroxy-1-hydroxymethyl-5H-pyrrolizine (DHP), at a rate of 4.8 ± 0.1 nmol/mg/min, and retrorsine-N-oxide, at a rate of 17.6±0.5 nmol/mg/min. Metabolism was enhanced 1.7-fold by using liver microsomes prepared from dexamethasone-treated rats. DHP formation was inhibited 77% and retrorsine N-oxide formation was inhibited 29% by troleandomycin, a P450 3A enzyme inhibitor. Metabolism of retrorsine with lung, kidney, and spleen microsomes from dexamethasone-treated rats also generated DHP and the N-oxide derivative. When rat liver microsomal metabolism of retrorsine occurred in the presence of calf thymus DNA, a set of DHP-derived DNA adducts was formed; these adducts were detected and quantified by using a previously developed 32P-postlabeling/HPLC method. These same DNA adducts were also found in liver DNA of rats gavaged with retrorsine. Since DHP-derived DNA adducts are suggested to be potential biomarkers of riddelliine-induced tumorigenicity, our results indicate that (i) similar to the metabolic activation of riddelliine, the mechanism of retrorsine-induced carcinogenicity in rats is also through a genotoxic mechanism involving DHP; and (ii) the set of DHP-derived DNA adducts found in liver DNA of rats gavaged with retrorsine or riddelliine can serve as biomarkers for the tumorigenicity induced by

  1. Metabolic activation of hepatotoxic drug (benzbromarone) induced mitochondrial membrane permeability transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirakawa, Maho; Sekine, Shuichi; Tanaka, Ayaka [The Laboratory of Biopharmaceutics, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chiba University, Chiba (Japan); Horie, Toshiharu [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Teikyo Heisei University, Tokyo (Japan); Ito, Kousei, E-mail: itokousei@chiba-u.jp [The Laboratory of Biopharmaceutics, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chiba University, Chiba (Japan)

    2015-10-01

    The risk of drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is of great concern to the pharmaceutical industry. It is well-known that metabolic activation of drugs to form toxic metabolites (TMs) is strongly associated with DILI onset. Drug-induced mitochondrial dysfunction is also strongly associated with increased risk of DILI. However, it is difficult to determine the target of TMs associated with exacerbation of DILI because of difficulties in identifying and purifying TMs. In this study, we propose a sequential in vitro assay system to assess TM formation and their ability to induce mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) in a one-pot process. In this assay system, freshly-isolated rat liver mitochondria were incubated with reaction solutions of 44 test drugs preincubated with liver microsomes in the presence or absence of NADPH; then, NADPH-dependent MPT pore opening was assessed as mitochondrial swelling. In this assay system, several hepatotoxic drugs, including benzbromarone (BBR), significantly induced MPT in a NADPH-dependent manner. We investigated the rationality of using BBR as a model drug, since it showed the most prominent MPT in our assay system. Both the production of a candidate toxic metabolite of BBR (1′,6-(OH){sub 2} BBR) and NADPH-dependent MPT were inhibited by several cytochrome P450 (CYP) inhibitors (clotrimazole and SKF-525A, 100 μM). In summary, this assay system can be used to evaluate comprehensive metabolite-dependent MPT without identification or purification of metabolites. - Highlights: • We constructed a sequential assay system for toxic metabolite induced MPT in one pot. • 14 drugs (e.g. benzbromarone (BBR)) induced toxic metabolite dependent MPT. • Both the production of toxic metabolite and MPT could be inhibited by CYP inhibitors. • This system could evaluate the comprehensive MPT without purification of metabolites.

  2. Low Levels of Physical Activity Are Associated with Increased Metabolic Syndrome Risk Factors in Korean Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Hoon Lee

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundLow levels of physical activity (PA are strongly associated with the development of metabolic syndrome (MetS and chronic diseases. However, few studies have examined this association in Koreans. The primary purpose of this study was to examine the associations between PA and MetS risks in Korean adults.MethodsA total of 1,016 Korean adults (494 males and 522 females participated in this study. PA levels were assessed using the International PA Questionnaire. MetS risk factors were determined using clinically established diagnostic criteria.ResultsCompared with the highest PA group, the group with the lowest level of PA was at greater risk of high triglyceride (TG in males (odds ratio [OR], 1.87; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.07 to 3.24 and of hemoglobin A1c ≥5.5% in females (OR, 1.75; 95% CI, 1.00 to 3.04 after adjusting for age and body mass index. Compared with subjects who met the PA guidelines, those who did not meet the guidelines were more likely to have low high density lipoprotein cholesterol in both males (OR, 1.69; 95% CI, 1.11 to 2.58, and females (OR, 1.82; 95% CI, 1.20 to 2.77. Furthermore, those who did not meet the PA guidelines were at increased risk of high TG levels in males (OR, 1.69; 95% CI, 1.23 to 2.86 and abnormal fasting glucose (OR, 1.93; 95% CI, 1.17 to 3.20 and MetS (OR, 2.10; 95% CI, 1.15 to 3.84 in females.ConclusionIncreased levels of PA are significantly associated with a decreased risk of abnormal MetS components.

  3. Cardiorespiratory Fitness, Sedentary Behaviour and Physical Activity Are Independently Associated with the Metabolic Syndrome, Results from the SCAPIS Pilot Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Örjan Ekblom

    Full Text Available Previous studies on the relation between lifestyle and the metabolic syndrome lack one or several aspects of the physical activity pattern in the analyses or cardiorespiratory fitness. Likewise, both uni- and triaxial accelerometry have been used, though, the predictive validity of these two modes has not been compared.The aims of the present study were firstly to investigate the independent relation between cardiorespiratory fitness and physical activity pattern to the metabolic syndrome (MetS and secondly to examine the predictive validity of uni- and triaxial accelerometry, respectively.Data was extracted from the SCAPIS pilot study (n=930, mean age 57.7 yrs. Physical activity pattern was assessed by accelerometry. Cardiorespiratory fitness was estimated using cycle ergometry. MetS was defined per the Adult Treatment Panel III from the National Cholesterol Education Program definition.Time spent sedentary (OR: 2.38, 95% CI: 1.54-4.24 for T3 vs T1, in light intensity (OR: 0.50, 95% CI: 0.28-0.90 and in moderate-to-vigorous activity (OR: 0.33, 95% CI: 0.18-0.61, as well as cardiorespiratory fitness (OR: 0.24, 95% CI:0.12-0.48, were all independently related to the prevalence of MetS after adjustment for potential confounders, fitness and/or the other aspects of the physical activity pattern. In addition, we found that triaxial analyses were more discriminant, with ORs farther away from the reference group and additional significant ORs.The finding that several aspects of the physical activity pattern reveal independent relations to the MetS makes new possible targets for behaviour change of interest, focusing on both exercise and everyday life. When assessing the risk status of a patient, it is advised that triaxial accelerometry is used.

  4. [Lipid and metabolic profiles in adolescents are affected more by physical fitness than physical activity (AVENA study)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Artero, Enrique; Ortega, Francisco B; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Mesa, José L; Delgado, Manuel; González-Gross, Marcela; García-Fuentes, Miguel; Vicente-Rodríguez, Germán; Gutiérrez, Angel; Castillo, Manuel J

    2007-06-01

    To determine whether the level of physical activity or physical fitness (i.e., aerobic capacity and muscle strength) in Spanish adolescents influences lipid and metabolic profiles. From a total of 2859 Spanish adolescents (age 13.0-18.5 years) taking part in the AVENA (Alimentación y Valoración del Estado Nutricional en Adolescentes) study, 460 (248 male, 212 female) were randomly selected for blood analysis. Their level of physical activity was determined by questionnaire. Aerobic capacity was assessed using the Course-Navette test. Muscle strength was evaluated using manual dynamometry, the long jump test, and the flexed arm hang test. A lipid-metabolic cardiovascular risk index was derived from the levels of triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC), and glucose. No relationship was found between the level of physical activity and lipid-metabolic index in either sex. In contrast, there was an inverse relationship between the lipid-metabolic index and aerobic capacity in males (P=.003) after adjustment for physical activity level and muscle strength. In females, a favorable lipid-metabolic index was associated with greater muscle strength (P=.048) after adjustment for aerobic capacity. These results indicate that, in adolescents, physical fitness, and not physical activity, is related to lipid and metabolic cardiovascular risk. Higher aerobic capacity in males and greater muscle strength in females were associated with lower lipid and metabolic risk factors for cardiovascular disease.

  5. Physical activity and metabolic disease among people with affective disorders: Prevention, management and implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vancampfort, Davy; Stubbs, Brendon

    2017-12-15

    One in ten and one in three of people with affective disorders experience diabetes and metabolic syndrome respectively. Physical activity (PA) and sedentary behaviour (SB) are key risk factors that can ameliorate the risk of metabolic disease among this population. However, PA is often seen as luxury and/or a secondary component within the management of people with affective disorders. The current article provides a non-systematic best-evidence synthesis of the available literature, detailing a number of suggestions for the implementation of PA into clinical practice. Whilst the evidence is unequivocal for the efficacy of PA to prevent and manage metabolic disease in the general population, it is in its infancy in this patient group. Nonetheless, action must be taken now to ensure that PA and reducing SB are given a priority to prevent and manage metabolic diseases and improve wider health outcomes. PA should be treated as a vital sign and all people with affective disorders asked about their activity levels and if appropriate advised to increase this. There is a need for investment in qualified exercise specialists in clinical practice such as physiotherapists to undertake and oversee PA in practice. Behavioural strategies such as the self-determined theory should be employed to encourage adherence. Funding is required to develop the evidence base and elucidate the optimal intervention characteristics. PA interventions should form an integral part of the multidisciplinary management of people with affective disorders and our article outlines the evidence and strategies to implement this in practice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Inventive activity of the Department of Metabolism Regulation of the Palladin Institute of Biochemistry of NAS of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Danilova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the inventive activity of the Department of Metabolism Regulation of the Palladin Institute of Biochemistry of NAS of Ukraine in the context of the history of its inception, development and the research activities of its founder, academician of NAS of Ukraine M. F. Guly as well as his students and followers. It briefly tells about practical achievements of M. F. Guly which were as significant, immense and diverse as his scientific accomplishments. The paper analyses in detail the practical results of scientific research of his students and followers aimed to solve practical problems of medicine, food-processing, agriculture, and which are essentially a continuation of the ideas and projects of M. F. Guly.

  7. [Inventive activity of the Department of Metabolism Regulation of the Palladin Institute of Biochemistry of NAS of Ukraine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danilova, V M; Vynogradova, R P; Chernysh, I G; Petrenko, T M

    2016-01-01

    The article is devoted to the inventive activity of the Department of Metabolism Regulation of the Palladin Institute of Biochemistry of NAS of Ukraine in the context of the history of its inception, development and the research activities of its founder, academician of NAS of Ukraine M. F. Guly as well as his students and followers. It briefly tells about practical achievements of M. F. Guly which were as significant, immense and diverse as his scientific accomplishments. The paper analyses in detail the practical results of scientific research of his students and followers aimed to solve practical problems of medicine, food-processing, agriculture, and which are essentially a continuation of the ideas and projects of M. F. Guly.

  8. Bone metabolic activity measured with positron emission tomography and [18F] fluoride ion in renal osteodystrophy: Correlation with bone histomorphometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Messa, C.; Goodman, W.G.; Hoh, C.K.; Choi, Y.; Nissenson, A.R.; Salusky, I.B.; Phelps, M.E.; Hawkins, R.A.

    1993-01-01

    The authors evaluated the bone metabolic activity in patients with renal osteodystrophy using positron emission tomography and [ 18 F] fluoride ion. Eight patients had secondary hyperparathyroidism (HPT), and three had low-turnover bone disease. Eleven normal subjects were also studied, and three of the eight HPT patients were reevaluated after therapy. A rate constant (K) describing the net transport of [ 18 F] fluoride ion into a bound compartment in bone was calculated using both a three-compartment model and Patlak graphical analysis. Values of K were compared with biochemical data and with histomorphometric indices. The results indicate that K is significantly higher (P 18 F] fluoride ion can differentiate low turnover from high turnover lesions of renal osteodystropy and provide quantitative estimates of bone cell activity that correlate with histomorphometric data

  9. Significance of Graphitic Surfaces in Aurodicyanide Adsorption by Activated Carbon: Experimental and Computational Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Dhiman; Depci, Tolga; Prisbrey, Keith; Miller, Jan D.

    Despite tremendous developments in industrial use of activated carbon (AC) for gold adsorption, specific aurodicyanide [Au(CN)2-] adsorption sites on the carbon have intrigued researchers. The graphitic structure of AC has been well established. Previously radiochemical and now, XPS and Raman characterizations have demonstrated higher site-specific gold adsorption on graphitic edges. Morphological characterizations have revealed the presence of slit-pores (5-10 Å). Molecular-dynamics-simulation (MDS) performed on graphitic slit-pores illustrated gold-cyanide ion-pair preferentially adsorbs on edges. Ab-initio simulations predicted lower barrier for electron sharing in pores with aurodic yanide, indicating tighter bonding than graphitic surface and was well supported by Gibbs energy calculations too. Interaction energy as function of the separation distance indicated tighter bonding of gold cyanide to the graphite edges than water molecules. Selective adsorption of aurodicyanide ion-pair seems to be related to low polarity of gold complex and its accommodation at graphitic edges.

  10. Metabolic and behavioral responses to high-fat feeding in mice selectively bred for high wheel-running activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaanholt, L. M.; Jonas, I.; Doornbos, M.; Schubert, K. A.; Nyakas, C.; Garland, T.; Visser, G. H.; van Dijk, G.; Garland Jr., T.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Increased dietary fat intake is a precipitating factor for the development of obesity and associated metabolic disturbances. Physically active individuals generally have a reduced risk of developing these unhealthy states, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. In the

  11. Metabolic stabilization of acetylcholine receptors in vertebrate neuromuscular junction by muscle activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rotzler, S.; Brenner, H.R.

    1990-01-01

    The effects of muscle activity on the growth of synaptic acetylcholine receptor (AChR) accumulations and on the metabolic AChR stability were investigated in rat skeletal muscle. Ectopic end plates induced surgically in adult soleus muscle were denervated early during development when junctional AChR number and stability were still low and, subsequently, muscles were either left inactive or they were kept active by chronic exogenous stimulation. AChR numbers per ectopic AChR cluster and AChR stabilities were estimated from the radioactivity and its decay with time, respectively, of end plate sites whose AChRs had been labeled with 125 I-alpha-bungarotoxin (alpha-butx). The results show that the metabolic stability of the AChRs in ectopic clusters is reversibly increased by muscle activity even when innervation is eliminated very early in development. 1 d of stimulation is sufficient to stabilize the AChRs in ectopic AChR clusters. Muscle stimulation also produced an increase in the number of AChRs at early denervated end plates. Activity-induced cluster growth occurs mainly by an increase in area rather than in AChR density, and for at least 10 d after denervation is comparable to that in normally developing ectopic end plates. The possible involvement of AChR stabilization in end plate growth is discussed

  12. A Protein Scaffold Coordinates SRC-Mediated JNK Activation in Response to Metabolic Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kant, Shashi; Standen, Claire L; Morel, Caroline; Jung, Dae Young; Kim, Jason K; Swat, Wojciech; Flavell, Richard A; Davis, Roger J

    2017-09-19

    Obesity is a major risk factor for the development of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. How obesity contributes to metabolic syndrome is unclear. Free fatty acid (FFA) activation of a non-receptor tyrosine kinase (SRC)-dependent cJun NH 2 -terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathway is implicated in this process. However, the mechanism that mediates SRC-dependent JNK activation is unclear. Here, we identify a role for the scaffold protein JIP1 in SRC-dependent JNK activation. SRC phosphorylation of JIP1 creates phosphotyrosine interaction motifs that bind the SH2 domains of SRC and the guanine nucleotide exchange factor VAV. These interactions are required for SRC-induced activation of VAV and the subsequent engagement of a JIP1-tethered JNK signaling module. The JIP1 scaffold protein, therefore, plays a dual role in FFA signaling by coordinating upstream SRC functions together with downstream effector signaling by the JNK pathway. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A Protein Scaffold Coordinates SRC-Mediated JNK Activation in Response to Metabolic Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashi Kant

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a major risk factor for the development of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. How obesity contributes to metabolic syndrome is unclear. Free fatty acid (FFA activation of a non-receptor tyrosine kinase (SRC-dependent cJun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK signaling pathway is implicated in this process. However, the mechanism that mediates SRC-dependent JNK activation is unclear. Here, we identify a role for the scaffold protein JIP1 in SRC-dependent JNK activation. SRC phosphorylation of JIP1 creates phosphotyrosine interaction motifs that bind the SH2 domains of SRC and the guanine nucleotide exchange factor VAV. These interactions are required for SRC-induced activation of VAV and the subsequent engagement of a JIP1-tethered JNK signaling module. The JIP1 scaffold protein, therefore, plays a dual role in FFA signaling by coordinating upstream SRC functions together with downstream effector signaling by the JNK pathway.

  14. Impact of changes in metabolic control on progression to photocoagulation for clinically significant macular oedema:a 20 year study of type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sander, B.; Larsen, M.; Andersen, Elisabeth Wreford

    2013-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis Although increasing hyperglycaemia, arterial hypertension and longer duration of diabetes raise the risk of progression of diabetic retinopathy, short-term benefits in terms of improved metabolic control and lowered blood pressure have not been demonstrated. We therefore examined ...

  15. [The significance of free radicals and antioxidants due to the load induced by sport activity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holecek, V; Liska, J; Racek, J; Rokyta, R

    2004-01-01

    Sport performance is followed by a high production of free radicals. The main reasons are reperfusion after the previous imbalance between the increased need of the organism and the ability of blood supply by oxygen, increased production of ATP, decomposition of the cells particularly white blood cells, oxidation of the purin basis from DNA, stress, output of epinephrine release of free iron, increased temperature in the muscle and its inflammation, and the reception of free radicals from external environment. Peroxidation of lipids, proteins, DNA and other compounds follows the previous biochemical steps. Antioxidants are consumed by free radicals, antioxidative enzymes are released into blood plasma, intracellular calcium is increased, the production of nitric oxide rises, the levels of hydrogen peroxide and hypochlorous acid increase. These penetrate through the membranes and oxidatively damage the tissues. Training improves the ability of the organism to balance the increased load of free radicals. The damage can be lowered by the application of a mixture of antioxidants, the most important are vitamin C, A, E, glutathione, selenium, carnosine, eventually bioflavonoids and ginkgo biloba. The lack of antioxidants can significantly diminish the sport performance and therefore the supplementation with antioxidants is for top sportsmen but also for aged people advisable.

  16. Agricultural Land and Land Tax – Significant Indicators of Agriculture Business Activities in the Slovak Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krajčírová Renáta

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is focused on the consideration between the agricultural land acreage and the amount of land tax in the selected sample of companies of agricultural primary production in the Slovak Republic within the period from 2010 to 2014 based on the data from departmental database of enterprises with primary agricultural production drawn from the factsheets of Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development of the Slovak Republic presented by the selected statistical methods. In particular, the article presents the agricultural land and land tax from the accounting and tax perspective of the Slovak Republic and the European Union. It can be resulted that a slightly declining trend of the mean acreage of agricultural land was recorded for the evaluated group of agricultural enterprises within the reported period, while the mean land tax value per hectare of agricultural land had increasing trend. Results of the survey on significances of differences in the values of the dependent variables at the level of combinations of factors of year and enterprise indicate that the acreage of agricultural land and the volume of the land tax are statistically dependant at the level of year, however there are not dependent at the level of combination of factors of year and enterprise within the surveyed period.

  17. Prognostic significance of metabolic tumor burden by positron emission tomography/computed tomography in patients with relapsed/refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tateishi, Ukihide; Tatsumi, Mitsuaki; Terauchi, Takashi; Ando, Kiyoshi; Niitsu, Nozomi; Kim, Won Seog; Suh, Cheolwon; Ogura, Michinori; Tobinai, Kensei

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the feasibility of measuring metabolic tumor burden using [F-18] fluorodeoxyglucose ((18) F-FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) in patients with relapsed or refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) treated with bendamustine-rituximab. Because the standardized uptake value is a critical parameter of tumor characterization, we carried out a phantom study of (18) F-FDG PET/CT to ensure quality control for 28 machines in the 24 institutions (Japan, 17 institutions; Korea,