WorldWideScience

Sample records for significant market share

  1. 77 FR 6549 - Acquisition of Items for Which Federal Prison Industries Has a Significant Market Share

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-08

    ... Federal Prison Industries Has a Significant Market Share AGENCY: Department of Defense (DoD). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: DoD is issuing this notification to set forth an up-to-date list of product categories for which the Federal Prison Industries' share of the DoD market is greater than five percent. DATES...

  2. 77 FR 8843 - Acquisition of Items for Which Federal Prison Industries Has a Significant Market Share

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Defense Acquisition Regulations System Acquisition of Items for Which Federal Prison Industries Has a Significant Market Share AGENCY: Department of Defense (DoD). ACTION... product categories for which the Federal Prison Industries' share of the DoD market is greater than five...

  3. 78 FR 16479 - Acquisition of Items for Which Federal Prison Industries Has a Significant Market Share

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-15

    ... Federal Prison Industries Has a Significant Market Share AGENCY: Department of Defense (DoD). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: DoD is publishing the annual list of product categories for which the Federal Prison... requirements for purchases from Federal Prison Industries, Inc. (FPI) by requiring DoD to publish an annual...

  4. Stepping stones to significant market shares for renewables. The European forum for market players and decision makers in the renewable energy industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    This invitation to a two-day European Forum for market players and decision makers in the renewable energy business lists the presentations made at the conference in 2007. The programme included contributions in the following areas: Policies and market deployment initiatives, market trends and experience - from support schemes to market experience, opportunities in a changing framework in Switzerland, instruments and infrastructure requirements - how to make the market work and supply and demand aspects of a growing market. The conference examined how renewable forms of energy can gain significant market shares and reach a quota of 50% renewables in 50 years. The first session examined policies and market deployment initiatives, the second market trends and experiences, the third opportunities for Switzerland in a changing framework. The second day featured sessions on instruments and infrastructure requirements as well as on supply and demand aspects in a growing market. The conference was complemented with four workshops.

  5. Stepping stones to significant market shares for renewables. The European forum for market players and decision makers in the renewable energy industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    This invitation to a two-day European Forum for market players and decision makers in the renewable energy business lists the presentations made at the conference in 2007. The programme included contributions in the following areas: Policies and market deployment initiatives, market trends and experience - from support schemes to market experience, opportunities in a changing framework in Switzerland, instruments and infrastructure requirements - how to make the market work and supply and demand aspects of a growing market. The conference examined how renewable forms of energy can gain significant market shares and reach a quota of 50% renewables in 50 years. The first session examined policies and market deployment initiatives, the second market trends and experiences, the third opportunities for Switzerland in a changing framework. The second day featured sessions on instruments and infrastructure requirements as well as on supply and demand aspects in a growing market. The conference was complemented with four workshops.

  6. Strategic Market Entry Factors and Market Share Achievement in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Adrian B Ryans

    1988-01-01

    In developing entry marketing strategies for new product markets companies might be advised to target product markets where significant market shares are likely to be achieved. The literature on market share change is reviewed to identify situational and marketing strategy factors associated with market share achievement. Certain hypotheses suggested by this and related literatures were then tested using a database of products introduced into the Japanese market. The results of this analysis ...

  7. Modeling Dynamic Effects of the Marketing Mix on Market Shares

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Fok (Dennis); R. Paap (Richard); Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractTo comprehend the competitive structure of a market, it is important to understand the short-run and long-run effects of the marketing mix on market shares. A useful model to link market shares with marketing-mix variables, like price and promotion, is the market share attraction model.

  8. GLOBALIZATION IMPACT ON UKRAINIAN MARKET OF SHARES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Zotsenko

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the impact of globalization on the Ukrainian market of shares. Main trends of globalization of world share market are analyzed. The study highlights key elements of the operating share markets of the world leading countries. The research investigates main factors that affect on the level of national market of shares. The findings trace out a number of problems that hinder and distort the role of the Ukrainian share market in capital allocation.

  9. Testing for Unit Roots in Market Shares

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franses, P.H.B.F.; Srinivasan, S.; Boswijk, H.P.

    2001-01-01

    A unique characteristic of marketing data sets is the logical consistency requirement in market share models that market shares are bounded by 0 and 1, and they sum to unity. To take account of this logical consistency requirement, we propose to test for unit roots in individual market share series

  10. GWDC Expands High-End Market Share

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ It is a decision of great significance for GWDC to expand high-end market share in order to realize its transformation of development strategy and improve its development quality. As an important step of GWDC to explore high-end market, Oman PDO Project marks the first time that the Chinese petroleum engineering service team cooperates with the transnational petroleum corporations ranking first three in the world.

  11. Active Market Share: measuring competitiveness in retail energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loomis, D.; Malm, E.

    1999-01-01

    As retail electric and gas markets deregulate, market share measurement becomes critical for marketers, regulators, and incumbent utilities. Yet traditional market share measures miss important features of these network industries. In this paper we model provider choice in network industries and develop two alternate market share measures - The Active Market Share (AMS) and the New Mover Market Share (NMMS), that are based on 'active demand'. These measures are shown to provide more accurate real-time measures of market activity. The NMMS is a special case of the AMS which is easy to measure empirically. Numerical simulations are used to provide comparisons between each measure over time. Both the AMS and NMMS will be important tools for anyone interested in measuring the competitiveness of deregulating markets. (author)

  12. Price Leadership and Unequal Market Sharing

    OpenAIRE

    Dijkstra, Peter T.

    2014-01-01

    We consider experimental markets of repeated homogeneous price-setting duopolies. We investigate the effect on collusion of sequential versus simultaneous price setting. We also examine the effect on collusion of changes in the size of each subject's market share in case both subjects set the same price. Our results show that sequential price setting compared with simultaneous price setting facilitates collusion, if subjects have equal market shares or if the follower has the larger market sh...

  13. Sharing wind power forecasts in electricity markets: A numerical analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Exizidis, Lazaros; Pinson, Pierre; Kazempour, Jalal

    2016-01-01

    In an electricity pool with significant share of wind power, all generators including conventional and wind power units are generally scheduled in a day-ahead market based on wind power forecasts. Then, a real-time market is cleared given the updated wind power forecast and fixed day......-ahead decisions to adjust power imbalances. This sequential market-clearing process may cope with serious operational challenges such as severe power shortage in real-time due to erroneous wind power forecasts in day-ahead market. To overcome such situations, several solutions can be considered such as adding...... flexible resources to the system. In this paper, we address another potential solution based on information sharing in which market players share their own wind power forecasts with others in day-ahead market. This solution may improve the functioning of sequential market-clearing process through making...

  14. Sharing wind power forecasts in electricity markets: A numerical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exizidis, Lazaros; Kazempour, S. Jalal; Pinson, Pierre; Greve, Zacharie de; Vallée, François

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Information sharing among different agents can be beneficial for electricity markets. • System cost decreases by sharing wind power forecasts between different agents. • Market power of wind producer may increase by sharing forecasts with market operator. • Extensive out-of-sample analysis is employed to draw reliable conclusions. - Abstract: In an electricity pool with significant share of wind power, all generators including conventional and wind power units are generally scheduled in a day-ahead market based on wind power forecasts. Then, a real-time market is cleared given the updated wind power forecast and fixed day-ahead decisions to adjust power imbalances. This sequential market-clearing process may cope with serious operational challenges such as severe power shortage in real-time due to erroneous wind power forecasts in day-ahead market. To overcome such situations, several solutions can be considered such as adding flexible resources to the system. In this paper, we address another potential solution based on information sharing in which market players share their own wind power forecasts with others in day-ahead market. This solution may improve the functioning of sequential market-clearing process through making more informed day-ahead schedules, which reduces the need for balancing resources in real-time operation. This paper numerically evaluates the potential value of sharing forecasts for the whole system in terms of system cost reduction. Besides, its impact on each market player’s profit is analyzed. The framework of this study is based on a stochastic two-stage market setup and complementarity modeling, which allows us to gain further insights into information sharing impacts.

  15. [The significance of meat quality in marketing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallweit, E

    1994-07-01

    Food quality in general and meat quality in particular are not only evaluated by means of objective quality traits but the entire production process is gaining more attention by the modern consumer. Due to this development quality programs were developed to define the majority of the processes in all production and marketing steps which are again linked by contracts. Not all of these items are quality relevant, but are concessions to ethic principles (animal welfare etc.). This is demonstrated by the example of Scharrel-pork production. The price differentiation at the pork market is still influenced predominantly by quantitative carcass traits. On the European market quality programs still are of minor significance. Premiums which are paid for high quality standards are more or less compensated by higher production costs and lower lean meat percentages, which must be expected in stress susceptible strains. The high efforts to establish quality programs, however, help to improve the quality level in general, and secure the market shares for local producers.

  16. Markets Share Models for EVs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas Christian; Christensen, Linda

    for the transport sector is announced to be a reduction of greenhouse gas emissions by 20% in 2020 compared to 2005. It is the plan to obtain part of this reduction through the EU targets of 10% renewable energy by 2020 in surface transport and a requirement for EU car producers to lower average CO2 emissions from...... to the end of 2015. More ambitious greenhouse gas reductions are announced and EV’s may contrib-ute to such targets. However, no specific target has been set for the share of electric vehicles. In order to investigate the potential role of electric vehicles (EVs), DTU transport has construct-ed a small car...

  17. Price Leadership and Unequal Market Sharing : Collusion in Experimental Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Peter T.

    2014-01-01

    We consider experimental markets of repeated homogeneous price-setting duopolies. We investigate the effect on collusion of sequential versus simultaneous price setting. We also examine the effect on collusion of changes in the size of each subject's market share in case both subjects set the same

  18. Regression Models for Market-Shares

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birch, Kristina; Olsen, Jørgen Kai; Tjur, Tue

    2005-01-01

    On the background of a data set of weekly sales and prices for three brands of coffee, this paper discusses various regression models and their relation to the multiplicative competitive-interaction model (the MCI model, see Cooper 1988, 1993) for market-shares. Emphasis is put on the interpretat......On the background of a data set of weekly sales and prices for three brands of coffee, this paper discusses various regression models and their relation to the multiplicative competitive-interaction model (the MCI model, see Cooper 1988, 1993) for market-shares. Emphasis is put...... on the interpretation of the parameters in relation to models for the total sales based on discrete choice models.Key words and phrases. MCI model, discrete choice model, market-shares, price elasitcity, regression model....

  19. Promotional Strategy Impacts on Organizational Market Share and Profitability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adesoga Dada Adefulu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper examined promotional strategy impacts on market share and profitability in Coca-Cola and 7up companies in Lagos State, Nigeria. Survey research method was adopted. The study population was the staff in marketing positions in the selected companies. Questionnaire was administered on the samples from Coca-Cola and 7UP companies. The statistical tool employed was the univariate analysis of variance (ANOVA to determine the statistical significance and the extent to which promotional strategy brings about variation in market share and profitability in the selected companies The study revealed the need for a better understanding of the organizational factors that determine the commitment of organizational resources to drive the achievement of marketing goals. In addition, promotional strategy measured by advertising, publicity and sales promotion affected market share and profitability at different percentage rates while Personal selling did not .The study concluded that promotional strategy suitable to a business caused variations in market share and profitability. Managers concerned about maintaining competitive edge in the market may find it appropriate to begin by examining promotional strategy adoption. Suggestions are also made for further research and study limitations are denoted. Researchers are encouraged to devote efforts to identifying what variables may modify the nature of relationship?

  20. Impact of global investment processes on ukrainian share market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.К. Zotsenko

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates the effects of financial and investment processes on the Ukrainian share market. The research analyzed and estimated investment climate in Ukraine. The study highlights a comparison of the domestic share market with share markets of other countries. In terms of share capitalization of listed companies in the GDP determined that equity is the most developed in the USA and UK. Largest share markets with highest capitalization rate characterized. The regional distribution of the share market capitalization by continents are shown. The study of the dynamics of Ukrainian and global share indexes revealed that the Ukrainian share market indexes show a constant volatility and unpredictability. Correlation Ukrainian stock indexes with indexes in Europe, Russia and America is very weak, which is a very negative trend of the stock market of Ukraine. The key problems and risks of the domestic investments are defined which are consequences of downturn in the Ukrainian share market.

  1. An empirical analysis on the effects of marketing communications on market share adjustment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayeh Hozouri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available During the past few years, there has been growing competition between two primary sources of mobile service providers including Hamrah Aval and Irancell in Iran. The competition is so tight that both service providers have spent significant amount of money on marketing planning. Therefore, it is necessary to find important factors influencing on better marketing planning. This paper presents an investigation to analyze the effects of marketing communications on market share adjustment. The proposed study of this paper has used principle component analysis and it has detected four factors environment issues, marketing organization, market development and relationship oriented.

  2. Promotional Strategy Impacts on Organizational Market Share and Profitability

    OpenAIRE

    Adesoga Dada Adefulu

    2015-01-01

    The paper examined promotional strategy impacts on market share and profitability in Coca-Cola and 7up companies in Lagos State, Nigeria. Survey research method was adopted. The study population was the staff in marketing positions in the selected companies. Questionnaire was administered on the samples from Coca-Cola and 7UP companies. The statistical tool employed was the univariate analysis of variance (ANOVA) to determine the statistical significance and the extent to which...

  3. A note on strategic delegation : The market share case

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Thijs; van Lier, Arie; van Witteloostuijn, Arjen

    We consider a two-stage market share delegation game with two competing firms. Each owner delegates the production decision to a manager. Each manager's remuneration is a weighted sum of profits and market share. The market share delegation game results in higher duopoly profits than the sales

  4. Defining the relevant market in the sharing economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Russo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the establishment of commercial sharing economy services like Uber, Blablacar, Lyft, Airbnb, TaskRabbit, etc., the debate about the sharing economy and its effects on competition has generated lively discussions, which have too often dangerously departed from a debate based on objective (market observation to evolve into a quarrel among the supporters and opponents of the online platforms. Undoubtedly, the peculiar features of these new firms’ business models create frictions with the traditional regulatory environment, which currently appears to be incapable of framing them into models and schemes typical of a previous economic phase, such as, for example, one-sided markets, no externalities, and competition mainly on price. Nevertheless, setting aside the more or less impromptu debate about the “social goodness” of these firms, we argue that competition enforcers should look at their effective market power. In fact, as the basic principles of competition law teach us, only when those firms have (more or less legitimate significant market power, will they be subject to special responsibilities and to stringent restrictions and obligations. Toward this aim, it is first necessary to define the relevant market. And, immediately afterwards, to delimit firms’ market position. This, in turn, should help to assess their compliance with the competition rules and the obligations that they are – or rather that they should be – subjected to. This exercise is not an easy one because the traditional regulatory concepts and definitions do not seem to reflect the competition dynamics that characterise the new markets on which we are reflecting. In this paper we focus on a number of challenges that are posed by the sharing economy businesses, suggesting that they could be solved with the traditional competition instruments, although adapted to the peculiar features of the markets that are at stake. These include, among others, multi

  5. The Foreign Investment Risks of Chinese B Share Market

    OpenAIRE

    JIANG, MINCHANG

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this dissertation is to investigate and analyse the risks existing in Chinese B share market for foreign investment. Based on the brief history of B share market as well as background information such as characteristics of Chinese stock exchange, several areas of risks are identified as: macroeconomic risks, stock volatility and return including cross-impacts among market segmentations and different countries’ markets, financial market and currency risks, and finally the poli...

  6. Model of Market Share Affected by Social Media Reputation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Akira; Kawahata, Yasuko; Goto, Ujo

    Proposal of market theory to put the effect of social media into account is presented in this paper. The standard market share model in economics is employed as a market theory and the effect of social media is considered quantitatively using the mathematical model for hit phenomena. Using this model, we can estimate the effect of social media in market share as a simple market model simulation using our proposed method.

  7. Price discovery in dual-class shares across multiple markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandes, Marcelo; Scherrer, Cristina

    We extend the standard price discovery analysis to estimate the information share of dual-class shares across domestic and foreign markets. By examining both common and preferred shares, we aim to extract information not only about the fundamental value of the firm, but also about the dual...... the innovations, the standard information share measure depends heavily on the ordering we attribute to prices in the system. To remain agnostic about which are the leading share class and market, one could for instance compute some weighted average information share across all possible orderings...... or trading platform conveys more information about shocks in the fundamental price. As such, our procedure yields a single measure of information share, which is invariant to the ordering of the variables in the system. Simulations of a simple market microstructure model show that our information share...

  8. Impulse-response analysis of the market share attraction model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Fok (Dennis); Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractWe propose a simulation-based technique to calculate impulse-response functions and their confidence intervals in a market share attraction model [MCI]. As an MCI model implies a reduced form model for the logs of relative market shares, simulation techniques have to be used to obtain

  9. Market Share, R&D Cooperation, and EU Competition Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Richard Rubble; Bruno Versaevel

    2009-01-01

    Working Paper GATE 2009-10; Current EU policy exempts horizontal R&D agreements from antitrust con- cerns when the combined market shares of participants are low enough. This paper argues that existing theory does not support limiting the exemption to low market shares. This is done by introducing a set of non-innovating outside firms to the standard framework to assess what link might exist between the market share of innovating firms and the product market benefits of cooperation. With R&D out...

  10. Smartphone's Operating Systems and market share

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreras Andreu, Javier

    2011-01-01

    During the last decades, mobile phone’s market has changed people’s communication ways. Several technological improvements have been reached mainly in the last fifteen years, making possible to add new features to mobile phones. As devices became more popular and included new services, a market grew around them. The following pages contain a market analysis from the different members of the mobile phone’s industry: manufacturers, operating system companies, operators, developers and custom...

  11. A fuzzy set preference model for market share analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turksen, I. B.; Willson, Ian A.

    1992-01-01

    Consumer preference models are widely used in new product design, marketing management, pricing, and market segmentation. The success of new products depends on accurate market share prediction and design decisions based on consumer preferences. The vague linguistic nature of consumer preferences and product attributes, combined with the substantial differences between individuals, creates a formidable challenge to marketing models. The most widely used methodology is conjoint analysis. Conjoint models, as currently implemented, represent linguistic preferences as ratio or interval-scaled numbers, use only numeric product attributes, and require aggregation of individuals for estimation purposes. It is not surprising that these models are costly to implement, are inflexible, and have a predictive validity that is not substantially better than chance. This affects the accuracy of market share estimates. A fuzzy set preference model can easily represent linguistic variables either in consumer preferences or product attributes with minimal measurement requirements (ordinal scales), while still estimating overall preferences suitable for market share prediction. This approach results in flexible individual-level conjoint models which can provide more accurate market share estimates from a smaller number of more meaningful consumer ratings. Fuzzy sets can be incorporated within existing preference model structures, such as a linear combination, using the techniques developed for conjoint analysis and market share estimation. The purpose of this article is to develop and fully test a fuzzy set preference model which can represent linguistic variables in individual-level models implemented in parallel with existing conjoint models. The potential improvements in market share prediction and predictive validity can substantially improve management decisions about what to make (product design), for whom to make it (market segmentation), and how much to make (market share

  12. The rapid fall of Gasunie's market share

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kok, A.M.

    2000-01-01

    Based on financial data, published in the 1999 annual report, a brief overview is given of the consequences of the liberalization of the market for natural gas in Europe for the Dutch natural gas trading company Gasunie

  13. Determinants of Market Share of For-Profit Hospitals: An Empirical Examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seungchul Lee

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study estimates the effects of a prospective payment system on the growth of for-profit hospitals. The empirical results show that the proportion of patient care paid for by Medicare managed care has a positive, statistically significant relationship with the market share of for-profit hospitals. Medicare managed care reimburses health care providers prospectively, and a larger portion of prospective reimbursements is received by for-profit hospitals, whose market share consequently increases. In addition, the proportion of patients with Medi-Cal and third party managed care has a positive, statistically significant relationship with the market share of for-profit hospitals.

  14. The Effect of Charter School Legislation on Market Share

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Kúscová

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Many proponents of school choice use the claim of the market’s capability to enhance efficiency and improve performance to call for its expansion. But no markets are perfectly competitive, and the local market for public goods is filled with institutional arrangements that make it differ from the neoclassical ideal. In this paper, we look at a particular institution—the provisions of charter school legislation—and assess how it affects the ability of charter schools to gain market share. Using data from the 36 states that had passed charter legislation by 2000, and controlling for a variety of other factors, we estimate a model of the effects of various provisions in the charter laws on charter school market share. We find that two such provisions, one concerning the sponsorship of charters and another their funding sources, appear to have a strong effect on the market share of charter schools.

  15. Motorola’s Market Share Mission

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The American cell phone maker is out to win back Chinese consumers by introducing more handsets tailored to the market Mobile phone maker Motorola Inc.said on April 24 that it lost more money in the first quarter, because global sales in its key mobile unit fell 39 percent.The news came despite the fact that worldwide cellular

  16. Mathematical Formulation of Relationship between Applied Marketing Effort and Potential Ability of Determining Market Share

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mokhtar M. Metwally

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to formulate the mathematical relationship between firms potential ability and their applied efforts to attract the body of unattached customers. A method is devised in this paper by which management techniques imposed by a particular firm can evaluate its market share. This paper demonstrates the relationship between the applied marketing effort of management and the potential ability of the firm in determining its market share. This paper also investigates the effect of a number of simultaneous marketing impulses on the movement of the body of unattached customers and hence on the size of the market share.

  17. Econometric Analysis of the Market Share Attraction Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Fok (Dennis); Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans); R. Paap (Richard)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractMarket share attraction models are useful tools for analyzing competitive structures. The models can be used to infer cross-effects of marketing-mix variables, but also the own effects can be adequately estimated while conditioning on competitive reactions. Important features of

  18. Impact of Open-Market Share Repurchases on Long-Term Stock Returns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Albaity

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available After the Asian financial crisis in 1997, firms listed on Bursa Malaysia were allowed to repurchase their shares on the open market. The number of companies engaged in share buyback is increasing and has become a tool to stabilize price by signaling undervaluation of the share. However, studies on share buyback in Malaysia are limited to the price performance surrounding the buyback events. This study aims to fill this gap by examining long-run price performance after the actual share buyback event over a sampling period of 2 years from 2009 to 2010 for Malaysian firms listed on FTSE Bursa Malaysia. There is no evidence to conclude that there exist long-term abnormal returns using the calendar-time portfolio approach that support the inefficient market hypothesis. On the contrary, buy-and-hold method was found to be significant supporting that the Malaysian stock market is semi-strong efficient.

  19. Takeover Deterrent Effect of On-market Share Buyback in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Hai Trieu Doan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines whether Australian firms use on-market share buybacks to deter unwanted takeover risk. We found a statistically significant and positive relationship between a firm’s ex-ante takeover probability and its on-market share buyback activities. Our result is robust to alternative modelling techniques, namelyTOBIT and Censored Quantile Regressions. This paper found evidence that in a dividend imputation credit taxation system the yield of share buyback is positively related to dividend payments. However, on-market share buyback activity is closely related to temporary cash flows rather than to permanent operating cash flows. This might indicate that, besides dividend payments, Australian firms take advantage of the financial flexibility that comes with share buybacks to redistribute nonpermanent cash flows to their shareholders.

  20. An analysis of market shares on the Danish alcohol market using unobserved components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milhøj, Anders

    2009-01-01

    The Danish alcohol market has three types of alcohol: Beer, Wine and Spirits. The market share of wine has doubled over a 25 year period, while the market share of beer has been declining and the market share of spirits is generally low and fluctuating. In recent years the trending behavior has...... however changed, most likely because of changes in taxation on spirits. In the paper these market shares are analyzed by unobserved components models using Proc Ucm as models with time varying trends etc. are well suited for this type of data. In Denmark the relative prices for the three types of alcohol...... have changed radically because of changes in the taxation and hence the relative prices provide good independent variables in regressions. In SAS version 9.2 Proc Ucm has been extended with a Randomreg statement, that allows for the varying regression coefficients. One result is that the effect...

  1. Price discovery in dual-class shares across multiple markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandes, Marcelo; Scherrer, Cristina

    2018-01-01

    data to study price discovery in dual-class Brazilian stocks and their ADRs. We find that the foreign market is at least as informative as the home market and that shocks in the dual-class premium entail a permanent effect in normal times, but transitory in periods of financial distress......This paper proposes a new measure of price discovery that uses the spectral decomposition. The methodology is especially important in the context of large price systems, such as interest rate parities with spot and futures contracts or dual-class shares in multiple markets. We employ high frequency...

  2. Wind's share in global energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madsen, B.T.

    1997-01-01

    The question of how great of a contribution wind power can really make to the world's energy needs is discussed. Emphasis up until recently has been mainly on improving wind turbine technology and siting practices as it is these that will provide an answer. The International Energy Agency predicts that world energy demand will increase by 30-50% by 2010. More countries than ever are either using wind power now or are preparing for its use. Wind power continues to improve its price competitiveness. There is enough wind to cover our energy needs many times over, according to some reports twice the world's electricity supply could be met by utilizing just 5-10% of areas identified as having average wind speeds of 5 m/s or greater - ignoring population centers, forests and specially protected areas. But a major limiting factor to utilizing the available wind resource is the established grid systems, which can only base 20% of supply on wind power. It is concluded that wind can contribute significantly to the world's energy needs in the next century and beyond. If wind, which has taken giant leaps in improving its competitiveness over the past 20 hears, can be a major energy contributor by early next century, other renewables such as solar and biomass might also evolve to become major contributors too. If so, renewables, including hydro, could conceivably cover 50% of our energy needs by the middle of the next century. Much will depend on decision-makers at the centers of power. For Europe and certain other areas of the world, policies governing cross-border trade of electricity as well as the framework for environmental protection related to energy production will determine the final outcome

  3. Controlling shareholders and market timing in share issuance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Urzua Infante, F.; Larrain, B.

    2013-01-01

    We examine market timing in the equity issuance of firms controlled by large shareholders using a hand-collected data set of controlling shareholders' ownership stakes in Chile between 1990 and 2009. When a firm issues shares, the controlling shareholder can either maintain or change his ownership

  4. AN ESTIMATION OF CONNECTION BETWEEN INDICATORS OF BRAND AWARENESS/PENETRATION AND MARKET SHARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grebennikov V. F.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In marketing practice usually are used various indicators for the description of «brand health». Between which and brand market share possibly exist the statistically significant connection. If such connection is found, it is possible data recovery about a market share when it is absent or is incomplete. In the article application for this regression analysis on the basis of actual data on several local markets is described. The results show that such connection exists for all studied indicators. But force of it significantly differs that leads to a conclusion about priority of use for data recovery part of indicators, and refusal of application of others. Also it is necessary to pay attention to existence of specifics of commodity group and the market which significantly influence by sight and regression equation accuracy.

  5. THE LEGAL STATUS OF THE SHARES TRADED ON RASDAQ MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian GHEORGHE

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available RASDAQ Market was launched in Romania in 1996, appeared as a mirroring of the well-established American market NASDAQ (which stood for National Association of Securities Dealers Automated Quotations. The role designated for RASDAQ was as platform for valuing papers issued in the privatization program in Romania (mass privatization process - MPP. In fact the participating companies to MPP had the legal obligation, under first Romanian Capital Market Law, No 52/1194, to be listed on a stock exchange. Although it attended a US regulatory model, RASDAQ had to adapt to European rules with the accession of Romania to the European Union. The relevant EU rules (i.e., Directive 2004/39/EC on markets in financial instruments – MiFID, about to be replaced by Directive 2014/65/EU – MiFID II provide for only two types of trading systems, i.e. regulated markets and multilateral trading facilities (MTF, while the RASDAQ Market securities fall under none of these two trading systems regulated by MiFID1. After an entire decade of uncertainty concerning the status of the RASDAQ, Romanian legislator settled the situation of shares traded on this market. This regulation means the end for RASDAQ. Law No. 151/2014 provides that the RASDAQ Market is to be closed within twelve months as of the effective date of such law (October 27, 2014. To this end companies listed on the RASDAQ Market will have to opt for listing on a regulated market or on a MTF or for becoming private companies. Such option rests on the hands of shareholders. Going private asks for shareholders’ rights protection so Romanian Financial Supervisory Authority (FSA provides a procedure implementing the right to withdraw from the company of the dissenting shareholders and for computing compensation for their shares (FSA Regulation No. 17/2014.

  6. Market-sharing approach to the world nuclear sales problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribicoff, A.A.

    1976-01-01

    The recent decisions by West Germany and France to sell nuclear fuel facilities to Brazil and Pakistan, respectively, mark the first sharp divergence by major industrial nations from long-established U.S. nonproliferation policy. Thus far, the U.S. has been ineffective in seeking to persuade Germany and France not to proceed with them. This indicates a serious weakness in the execution of American nonproliferation policy, which if left uncorrected, could result in the rapid spread of nuclear weapons material and capability around the world. It is clear that complex problems are raised by the concept of market-sharing. A principal advocate, Dr. Lawrence Scheinman from ERDA, says that traditional arguments against market-sharing do not qualify as reasons against the concept. He does identify three basic arguments against market-sharing, which the author discusses in this article, namely: (1) reactor market-sharing is contrary to U.S. anti-cartel policy and in violation of antitrust laws; (2) other nuclear supplier countries would reject a market-sharing arrangement; and (3) the recipient countries of the Third World would view it as a nuclear cartel and refuse to do business with it. The author advocates that at the very least, the U.S. should enter the next round of supplier negotiations prepared to propose multinational arrangements for closing the commercial nuclear fuel cycle and for making all weapons-grade material generated by the fuel cycle unavailable to any nation on a sovereign basis. The U.S. should also make clear that it would view with the gravest concern the continuation of the present export policies of West Germany and France

  7. The role of new product development on export market share

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Azad

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available There is an ongoing change on customers’ needs on selecting customers’ needs, which may influence requirements on designing products and services as well as export sale and company’s market shares in domestic and international market. In the present study, through descriptive approach with qualitative method and case study, we investigate important key factors influencing on new product development and products’ successive factors at overseas nutritional market. In addition by presenting a new model in accordance with the present condition of the organization we explore the closest product development model and affective factors influencing them. The study investigates 36 factors and extracts six important ones, which influence product development including intelligent information, process research and development, strategy introduced, participation strategy, market survey and differentiation strategy.

  8. Modeling Market Shares of Competing (e)Care Providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ooteghem, Jan; Tesch, Tom; Verbrugge, Sofie; Ackaert, Ann; Colle, Didier; Pickavet, Mario; Demeester, Piet

    In order to address the increasing costs of providing care to the growing group of elderly, efficiency gains through eCare solutions seem an obvious solution. Unfortunately not many techno-economic business models to evaluate the return of these investments are available. The construction of a business case for care for the elderly as they move through different levels of dependency and the effect of introducing an eCare service, is the intended application of the model. The simulation model presented in this paper allows for modeling evolution of market shares of competing care providers. Four tiers are defined, based on the dependency level of the elderly, for which the market shares are determined. The model takes into account available capacity of the different care providers, in- and outflow distribution between tiers and churn between providers within tiers.

  9. Commercial sector gas cooling technology frontier and market share analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pine, G.D.; Mac Donald, J.M.; McLain, H.A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes a method, developed for the Gas Research Institute of the United States, that can assist planning for commercial sector natural gas cooling systems R and D. These systems are higher in first cost than conventional electric chillers. Yet, engine-driven chiller designs exist which are currently competitive in U.S. markets typified by high electricity or demand charges. Section II describes a scenario analysis approach used to develop and test the method. Section III defines the technology frontier, a conceptual tool for identifying new designs with sales potential. Section IV describes a discrete choice method for predicting market shares of technologies with sales potential. Section V shows how the method predicts operating parameter, cost, and/or performance goals for technologies without current sales potential (or for enhancing a frontier technology's sales potential). Section VI concludes with an illustrative example for the Chicago office building retrofit market

  10. Forecasting the Electricity Demand and Market Shares in Retail Electricity Market Based on System Dynamics and Markov Chain

    OpenAIRE

    Qingyou Yan; Chao Qin; Mingjian Nie; Le Yang

    2018-01-01

    Due to the deregulation of retail electricity market, consumers can choose retail electric suppliers freely, and market entities are facing fierce competition because of the increasing number of new entrants. Under these circumstances, forecasting the changes in all market entities, when market share stabilized, is important for suppliers making marketing decisions. In this paper, a market share forecasting model was established based on Markov chain, and a system dynamics model was construct...

  11. Practical Significance of Basin Water Market Construction on Agricultural Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of introducing the concept of water market and the water market research in cluding both domestic market and foreign market,the system design features of water market are analyzed.The features include the prior distribution of agricultural water right,the close construction of market structure,reasonable price of water obtaining right and water pollution-discharge right and scientific stipulation of total volume of water use and total volume of pollution drainage.The practical significances of basin water market construction on Chinese agricultural production are revealed,which clover safeguarding the safety of agricultural water;effectively alleviating agricultural drought;saving the agricultural production water and improving the quality of agricultural products.

  12. The marketing and economic implications of the manipulation of share prices: Nigeria stock exchange experience

    OpenAIRE

    Ajayi Ezekiel Oluwole; Omolekan Olushola Joshua

    2012-01-01

    This paper examined the marketing and economic effects of the manipulation of share prices in the Nigerian Stock Exchange. The survey research design was adopted. Data collected was analyzed using the regression analysis. Student t- test was used to test the two hypotheses formulated at 0.05 level of significance. The findings of the study revealed that capital market infractions such as fraudulent disposal of investor assets, illegal fund management and the wonder bank syndrome, others are i...

  13. Market Share Delegation in a Bertrand Duopoly: Synchronisation and Multistability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Fanti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper tackles the issue of local and global analyses of a duopoly game with price competition and market share delegation. The dynamics of the economy is characterised by a differentiable two-dimensional discrete time system. The paper stresses the importance of complementarity between products as a source of synchronisation in the long term, in contrast to the case of their substitutability. This means that when products are complements, players may coordinate their behaviour even if initial conditions are different. In addition, there exist multiple attractors so that even starting with similar conditions may end up generating very different dynamic patterns.

  14. The marketing and economic implications of the manipulation of share prices: Nigeria stock exchange experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajayi Ezekiel Oluwole

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examined the marketing and economic effects of the manipulation of share prices in the Nigerian Stock Exchange. The survey research design was adopted. Data collected was analyzed using the regression analysis. Student t- test was used to test the two hypotheses formulated at 0.05 level of significance. The findings of the study revealed that capital market infractions such as fraudulent disposal of investor assets, illegal fund management and the wonder bank syndrome, others are insider dealings, corporate accounting fraud and share price manipulations affects the capital market and the economy .The study concluded that share prices manipulation actually influences the marketing and economic values of the shares being manipulated. It was recommended that the Nigerian government must put in place strong regulatory measures and punish the entire offender that has been found guilty. It was also recommended that for the market to rebound, stockbrokers that accessed margin facility from banks should be provided with certain percentage of their contributions to the loan as cushion to help them move on with their business.

  15. Does the market share of generic medicines influence the price level?: a European analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dylst, Pieter; Simoens, Steven

    2011-10-01

    After the expiry of patents for originator medicines, generic medicines can enter the market, and price competition may occur. This process generates savings to the healthcare payer and to patients, but knowledge about the factors affecting price competition in the pharmaceutical market following patent expiry is still limited. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between the market share of generic medicines and the change of the medicine price level in European off-patent markets. Data on medicine volumes and values for 35 active substances were purchased from IMS Health. Ex-manufacturer prices were used, and the analysis was limited to medicines in immediate-release, oral, solid dosage forms. Countries included were Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Germany, France, Italy, the Netherlands, Spain, Sweden and the UK, which constitute a mix of countries with low and high generic medicines market shares. Data were available from June 2002 until March 2007. Market volume has risen in both high and low generic market share countries (+29.27% and +27.40%, respectively), but the cause of the rise is different for the two markets. In low generic market share countries, the rise was caused by the increased use of generic medicines, while in high market share countries, the rise was driven by the increased use of generic medicines and a shift of use from originator to generic medicines. Market value was substantially decreased in high generic market share countries (-26.6%), while the decrease in low generic market share countries was limited (-0.06%). In high generic market share countries, medicine prices dropped by -43.18% versus -21.56% in low market share countries. The extent to which price competition from generic medicines leads to price reductions appears to vary according to the market share of generic medicines. High generic market share countries have seen a larger decrease in medicine prices than low market share countries.

  16. Market-driven spectrum sharing in cognitive radio

    CERN Document Server

    Yi, Changyan

    2016-01-01

    This brief focuses on the current research on mechanism design for dynamic spectrum sharing in cognitive radio (CR) networks. Along with a review of CR architectures and characteristics, this brief presents the motivations, significances and unique challenges of implementing algorithmic mechanism design for encouraging both primary spectrum owners and secondary spectrum users to participate in dynamic spectrum sharing. The brief then focuses on recent advances in mechanism design in CR networks. With an emphasis on dealing with the uncertain spectrum availabilities, mechanisms based on spectrum recall, two-stage spectrum sharing and online spectrum allocation are introduced with the support of theoretic analyses and numerical illustrations. The brief concludes with a discussion of potential research directions and interests, which will motivate further studies on mechanism design for wireless communications. This brief is concise and approachable for researchers, professionals and advanced-level students in w...

  17. Determining firms׳ utility functions and competitive roles from data on market shares using Lotka–Volterra models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Marasco

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we include data on historical and estimated market shares of two markets. In particular, we include annual data on the market shares of the Japanese beer market (1963–2000 and biannual data on the market shares of the mobile phones market in Greece (1998–2007. In addition, we estimate monthly data on market shares for both markets. We show how this data can be used to derive firms’ utility functions and their competitive roles.

  18. Determining firms' utility functions and competitive roles from data on market shares using Lotka-Volterra models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Marasco; A. Picucci; A. Romano (Alessandro)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractIn this article, we include data on historical and estimated market shares of two markets. In particular, we include annual data on the market shares of the Japanese beer market (1963-2000) and biannual data on the market shares of the mobile phones market in Greece (1998-2007). In

  19. Capital Market Integration and Consumption Risk Sharing over the Long Run

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rangvid, Jesper; Santa-Clara, Pedro; Schmeling, Maik

    integration. We also calculate the welfare costs of imperfect capital market integration and risk sharing and find that these costs vary a lot over time. Finally, we show that consumption risk sharing is higher during times of crises, i.e. at times when marginal utility is high and risk sharing is most......We empirically investigate time variation in capital market integration and consumption risk sharing using data for 16 countries from 1875 to 2012. We show that there has been considerable variation over time in the degrees of capital market integration and consumption risk sharing and that higher...... capital market integration forecasts more consumption risk sharing in the future. This finding is robust is to controlling for trade openness and exchange rate volatilities. Hence, financial integration seems to drive consumption risk sharing whereas we find no evidence that risk sharing forecasts market...

  20. The oil market towards 2030 - can OPEC combine high oil price with high market share

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aune, Finn Roar; Glomsroed, Solveig; Lindholt, Lars; Rosendahl, Knut Einar

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we examine within a partial equilibrium model for the oil market whether OPEC can combine high oil prices with a high market share. The oil market model explicitly accounts for reserves, development and production in 4 field categories across 13 regions. Oil companies may invest in new field development or alternatively on improved oil recovery in the decline phase of fields in production. Non-OPEC production is profit-driven, whereas OPEC meets the residual call for OPEC oil at a pre-specified oil price, while maintaining a surplus capacity. The model is run over a range of exogenous oil prices from 15 to 60 $ per barrel. Sustained high oil prices stimulate Non-OPEC production, but its remaining reserves gradually diminish despite new discoveries. Oil demand is only slightly affected by higher prices. Thus, OPEC is able to keep and eventually increase its current market share beyond 2010 even with oil prices around $30 per barrel. In fact, the model simulations indicate that an oil price around $40 is profitable for OPEC, even in the long term. Sensitivity analyses show that the most profitable price level for OPEC is generally above $35 per barrel. Even with several factors working jointly in OPEC's disfavour, the oil price seems to stick to the 30 $ level. Thus, for OPEC there is a trade-off between high prices and high market share in the short to medium term, but not in the long term. For OECD countries, on the other hand, there is a clear trade-off between low oil prices and low import dependence. (Author)

  1. Audit Firm Size and Market Price Per Share of Quoted Companies in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augustine O. Okolie

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the influence which audit firm size exerts on the market value per share of companies in Nigeria. Based on a sample of 342 companies – year observations from the NSE and applying audit firm size as a measure, comprehensive multivariate analyses were conducted on archival data covering 2006 – 2011. The result showed that audit firm size exerts significant relationship and significantly influences market price per share of the companies in the sample. It is suggested that companies in Nigeria should improve their earnings quality only through sales growth and cost control strategies and present distinct reports on earnings quality. Furthermore, company auditors should issue Integrated Audit Quality Assurance Reports based on earnings quality assessment, statutorily backed by earnings monitoring of companies in Nigeria while regulatory agencies should issue authoritative codes of best practice in Nigeria.

  2. Market Reactions to Actual Open-Market Share Repurchases - A non-US empirical study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thinggaard, Frank

    2002-01-01

    with less attention by financial analysts and thus presumably with more general information asymmetry between management and the market. However, contrary to US evidence variables intended to capture intangible assets, idle cash, and prior period profitability are not significant in explaining the market...

  3. Determinants of market prices of shares on the capital market of Bosnia and Herzegovina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alihodžić Almir

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Stock markets are efficient if the prices at any time reflect all publicly available information. Share prices should be adjusted at those points when investors try to take advantage of the new information that was not subject to accounting recognition. The main goal of this paper will be to determine whether the financial statements of a selected group of companies listed on the Sarajevo and Banja Luka Stock Exchange represent a good basis and reflect the market price or simply follow the legal obligations and requirements by regulatory agencies. The paper is based on the regression analysis of dependent and independent variables in the period from 2011 to 2015. The dependent variable will be the closing trading price on the stock exchanges, whereas the independent variables will be: the market price and earnings (PE ratio, earnings per share (EPS, net profit after tax (NP, return on equity (ROE, the market and book value (PB ratio, and the total turnover on the stock exchanges (TR.

  4. Capital Market Integration and Consumption Risk Sharing over the Long Run

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rangvid, Jesper; Santa-Clara, Pedro; Schmeling, Maik

    2016-01-01

    capital market integration forecasts more consumption risk sharing in the future. This finding is robust to controlling for trade openness and exchange rate volatility as alternative drivers of risk sharing. Finally, we calculate the welfare costs of imperfect consumption risk sharing and find......We empirically investigate time variation in capital market integration and consumption risk sharing using data for 16 countries from 1875 to 2012. We show that there has been considerable variation over time in the degrees of capital market integration and consumption risk sharing and that higher...

  5. The role and significance marketing in modern business operation

    OpenAIRE

    Simonović, Zoran; Miletić, Slavomir; Miletić, Vuk

    2012-01-01

    Marketing is a science that deals with the market, market needs and the ways of meeting these needs. Marketing, as a business philosophy of intensive production, is focused on analyzing and noticing all the problems referring to the distribution and selling of the goods from the producer to the consumer. This field is constantly developing together with market expansion and its goal is to set the theoretical background for the market business strategies. In marketing theory, the market succes...

  6. The market share of non-US uranium producers under different US embargo scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franks, W.A.

    1988-01-01

    The imposition of US restrictions on the use of foreign uranium has a potentially far reaching impact. This analysis examines various US import restriction scenarios and their impact on the market both inside and outside the USA. Specifically, the market share that the non-US producers would lose is estimated for a 50% embargo, a 62.5% embargo, and a 100% embargo, with and without the grandfathering of US utilities' foreign contracts. These results are then compared to what the market share would have been in a free market. The increase in the US market share is also briefly discussed. (author)

  7. Tax Incentive, Public Share Proportion, and Firm Performance: Evidence from Indonesian Capital Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vierly Ananta Upa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Indonesian government has changed the taxation law in 2007. The regulation revealed thatcompanies listed on capital market can obtain reduced income tax rate by 5 percent. Decrease inincome tax rates is granted to domestic corporate taxpayers listed on capital market that have publicownership over 40 percent of the total paid shares and the shares owned by at least 300 parties. Thepurpose of this research is to analyze the effectiveness of government regulation (PP No. 81 of 2007.This research used companies listed on Indonesia Stock Exchange (IDX which have right offeringin 2009-2010 as a sample. Sample selection is performed based on purposive sampling method. Theresult indicates that government regulation related to tax incentives, which was aimed to increasethe proportion of public ownership, is still less effective. In addition, this study also showed that theproportion of public ownership has no significant effect on firm performance

  8. Vertical Marketing Systems, Supply Chains and the New Indicators of Retailing’s Significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Segetlija Zdenko

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In modern vertical marketing systems (i.e., in grocery sector, the greatest power is demonstrated by retail chains, and producers depend thereupon. This paper analyzes vertical marketing systems and the role of retailing therein. Specially analyzed is the power of retail chains’ demand with regard to the entire supply chains they head, as well as the present-day new competition in retailing and modern business concepts related to the vertical marketing systems. Additionally, analyzed are also select indicators to examine the significance of retailing in an individual national economy. The purpose of this paper is to emphasize the new indicators of significance of retailing in economy with regard to the realized GDP, as a component of value chains. These indicators complement the usual retailing significance analyses from the point of view of its share in the number of employees and the number of companies.

  9. Measuring market share of petrol stations using conditional probability approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, Shamshuritawati; Lwee, Xue Yin

    2017-05-01

    Oil and gas production is the strength of Malaysia's growth over past decades. It is one of the most strategic economic branches in the world. Since the oil industry is essential for the economic growth of a country, only a few undertakings have been achieved to establish. It is a very risky business. Therefore the dealer must have some information in hand before setting up a new business plan. Understanding the current business situation is an important strategy to avoid risky ventures. In this study, the aim is to deliver a very simple but essential way to identify the market share based on customer's choice factors. This approach is presented to encourage the non-statisticians to use it easily in helping their business performance. From this study, the most important factors differ from one station to another station. The results show that the factors of customer's choice for BHPetrol, Caltex, PETRON, PETRONAS and SHELL are site location, service quality, service quality, size of the petrol station, and brand image, respectively.

  10. Impact of Open-Market Share Repurchases on Long-Term Stock Returns

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed Albaity; Diana Syafiza Said

    2016-01-01

    After the Asian financial crisis in 1997, firms listed on Bursa Malaysia were allowed to repurchase their shares on the open market. The number of companies engaged in share buyback is increasing and has become a tool to stabilize price by signaling undervaluation of the share. However, studies on share buyback in Malaysia are limited to the price performance surrounding the buyback events. This study aims to fill this gap by examining long-run price performance after the actual share buyback...

  11. 17 CFR 160.12 - Limits on sharing account number information for marketing purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ....12 Limits on sharing account number information for marketing purposes. (a) General prohibition on... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Limits on sharing account number information for marketing purposes. 160.12 Section 160.12 Commodity and Securities Exchanges...

  12. A Conceptual Model of Knowledge Sharing and Market Orientation in the Tourism Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Chien M. Yeh; Han N. Hu; Shu H. Tsai

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: Marketing scholars have emphasized the importance of market orientation. While a number of studies discover the positive influence of market orientation on a variety of organizations phenomena, the understanding of factors that facilitate market orientation is limited. This study develops a conceptual model in which knowledge sharing is proposed to be the antecedent to three perspectives of market orientation-customer orientation, competitor orientation ...

  13. Shared Solar. Current Landscape, Market Potential, and the Impact of Federal Securities Regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldman, David [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Brockway, Anna M. [U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Ulrich, Elaine [U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Margolis, Robert [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-04-07

    This report provides a high-level overview of the current U.S. shared solar landscape, the impact that a given shared solar program’s structure has on requiring federal securities oversight, as well as an estimate of market potential for U.S. shared solar deployment.

  14. Shared Solar. Current Landscape, Market Potential, and the Impact of Federal Securities Regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldman, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Brockway, Anna M. [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States); Ulrich, Elaine [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States); Margolis, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-04-01

    This report provides a high-level overview of the current U.S. shared solar landscape and the impact that a given shared solar program’s structure has on requiring federal securities oversight, as well as an estimate of market potential for U.S. shared solar deployment.

  15. [What determines the market shares of the health funds in Israeli localities?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shmueli, Amir; Engelcin-Nissan, Esti

    2011-08-01

    Four health funds operate nationally in Israel, but their local market shares vary dramatically across localities. To identify the main localities' characteristics which affect the size of the market shares of the various health funds. A total of 60 Localities with more than 20,000 inhabitants were chosen. The following Localities' characteristics were retrieved for the year 2004: the market shares of the four health funds, average income, standardized mortality ratio (SMR), periphery index, the age structure, the distance from the nearest general hospital, the share of Arab population, and size. Four market share equations were estimated using SURE (seemingly unrelated regressions estimation), allowing for inter-equation correlations. The results show that the market shares of the different health funds are affected by different factors. Clalit Health Services' (CHS) share increases with the distance from Tel Aviv and SMR, and decreases with the level of mean income and the distance from the nearest CHS hospital. Leumit's market share increases only with the distance from a CHS's hospital. The market share of Maccabi Healthcare Services is higher in central localities, Jewish localities, small cities and further away from a non-CHS hospital. Meuhedet's market share is higher in big cities, rich and healthy localities, and in Localities which are further away from CHS's hospitals. These findings indicate that the presence of the health funds in different Localities varies according to the Localities' characteristics. There appears to be a market segmentation and "specialization" of certain health funds in specific populations, and of the other health funds in the rest of the population.

  16. Determinants of success in Shared Savings Programs: An analysis of ACO and market characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouayogodé, Mariétou H; Colla, Carrie H; Lewis, Valerie A

    2017-03-01

    Medicare's Accountable Care Organization (ACO) programs introduced shared savings to traditional Medicare, which allow providers who reduce health care costs for their patients to retain a percentage of the savings they generate. To examine ACO and market factors associated with superior financial performance in Medicare ACO programs. We obtained financial performance data from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS); we derived market-level characteristics from Medicare claims; and we collected ACO characteristics from the National Survey of ACOs for 215 ACOs. We examined the association between ACO financial performance and ACO provider composition, leadership structure, beneficiary characteristics, risk bearing experience, quality and process improvement capabilities, physician performance management, market competition, CMS-assigned financial benchmark, and ACO contract start date. We examined two outcomes from Medicare ACOs' first performance year: savings per Medicare beneficiary and earning shared savings payments (a dichotomous variable). When modeling the ACO ability to save and earn shared savings payments, we estimated positive regression coefficients for a greater proportion of primary care providers in the ACO, more practicing physicians on the governing board, physician leadership, active engagement in reducing hospital re-admissions, a greater proportion of disabled Medicare beneficiaries assigned to the ACO, financial incentives offered to physicians, a larger financial benchmark, and greater ACO market penetration. No characteristic of organizational structure was significantly associated with both outcomes of savings per beneficiary and likelihood of achieving shared savings. ACO prior experience with risk-bearing contracts was positively correlated with savings and significantly increased the likelihood of receiving shared savings payments. In the first year, performance is quite heterogeneous, yet organizational structure does not

  17. The Revealed Competitiveness of Major Ports in the East Asian Region: An Additive Market Share Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Seung Kim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the single cargo market, the ordinary market share analysis method has been the representative tool for revealed competitiveness analysis. This paper develops and employs an applied market share index called the additive market share (AMS. Data are collected from 15 major container ports for the 1998-2013 period. In comparison to the results of an ordinary market share analysis, the highest AMS is observed for the Bohai Rim port cluster from 2008, not for the Yangtze River cluster or the Pearl River cluster. There are substitutable relationships between Yangtze River and non-Chinese ports and between Pearl River and Bohai Rim ports from 2001. Finally, there is an internal competition at Pearl River and Yangtze River ports, whereas Bohai Rim and non-Chinese ports show internally complementary relationships.

  18. O EFEITO DA DISTRIBUIÇÃO SOBRE O MARKET SHARE EM DIFERENTES CANAIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Angotti Guissoni

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite the advances in studies on the effects of distribution channel strategies, the relation between distribution and market share is still a little explored topic, especially in emerging markets. For that reason, this paper’s core proposal is to investigate the relation between distribution and market share variables in the Brazilian market, specifically in the beverage sector, comparing two important types of consumer market channels: big and small supermarkets. For such, an empirical study was conducted based on a database with more than 180 stock keeping units (SKUs sold by three manufacturers in the southeast of Brazil. By means of statistical analyses, the results indicate a convex and growing relation among the variables studied. In other words, there is an inflection point at which market share growth is more accentuated because of distribution. Furthermore, the curves that describe these variables show different effects when comparing big and small supermarkets.

  19. The mediating effect of financial performance on the relationship between intellectual capital & market share: Evidence from Tehran stock exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mohamad Fahimi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Intellectual capital has an important role in this knowledge based economy era. The purpose of this study is to examine the mediating effect of financial performance on the relationship between intellectual capital and market share in the listed Companies in the Tehran Stock Exchange in this study to assess the intellectual capital, the rate of value-added intellectual capital that developed by Pulic (1998 is used. The sample included 99 companies listed in the Tehran Stock Exchange, for a period of five years from 2011 to 2015. The research findings show a significant positive relationship between intellectual capital and market share. Also the results show that there is no mediating effect of financial performance in the relationship between intellectual capital and market share

  20. Flight to Liquidity on the Tokyo Stock Exchange during the 2008 Share Market Crashes

    OpenAIRE

    Maeda, Brooke Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the existence of the flight-to-liquidity phenomenon for shares which are traded on the Tokyo Stock Exchange during share market crashes. Using data from the First section of the Tokyo Stock Exchange, the existence of a flight-to-liquidity during the 2008 share market crashes is clearly documented. The Tokyo Stock Exchange differs from other major exchanges as price limit rules restrict the daily price movements of shares. It provides a unique setting to test if a flight-to...

  1. Growth in HMO share of the Medicare market, 1989-1994.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, W P

    1996-01-01

    Between 1989 and 1994 the health maintenance organization (HMO) share of the Medicare market grew rapidly. It is still heavily concentrated geographically, however. The most influential factor in this growth is HMO penetration into an area's general health care market. Medicare payment rates and prior Medicare HMO penetration also have an impact, but their effects are much weaker. Thus, payment rate reform is likely to have only a modest impact on Medicare HMO growth in the short term. In the longer term, the HMO share of the Medicare market will continue to grow, because HMO penetration in the general health care market is growing rapidly.

  2. Analysis of Changes in Market Shares of Commercial Banks Operating in Turkey Using Computational Intelligence Algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    Amasyali, M. Fatih; Demırhan, Ayse; Bal, Mert

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to model the change in market share of 30 domestic and foreign banks, which have been operating between the years 1990 and 2009 in Turkey by taking into consideration 20 financial ratios of those banks. Due to the fragile structure of the banking sector in Turkey, this study plays an important role for determining the changes in market share of banks and taking the necessary measures promptly. For this reason, computational intelligence methods have been used in the study. Acc...

  3. Ambulatory surgery center market share and rates of outpatient surgery in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollenbeck, Brent K; Hollingsworth, John M; Dunn, Rodney L; Zaojun Ye; Birkmeyer, John D

    2010-12-01

    Relative to outpatient surgery in hospital settings, ambulatory surgery centers (ASCs) are more efficient and associated with a lower cost per case. However, these facilities may also spur higher overall procedure utilization and thus lead to greater overall health care costs. The authors used the State Ambulatory Surgery Database from the State of Florida to identify Medicare-aged patients undergoing 4 common ambulatory procedures in 2006, including knee arthroscopy, cystoscopy, cataract removal, and colonoscopy. Hospital service areas (HSAs) were characterized according to ASC market share, that is, the proportion of residents undergoing outpatient surgery in these facilities. The authors then examined relationships between ASC market share and rates of each procedure. Age-adjusted rates of ambulatory surgery ranged from 190.5 cases per 1000 to 320.8 cases per 1000 in HSAs with low and high ASC market shares, respectively (P market share. The greatest difference, both in relative and absolute terms, was observed for patients undergoing cystoscopy. In areas of high ASC market share, the age-adjusted rate of cystoscopy was nearly 3-fold higher than in areas with low ASC market share (34.5 vs 11.9 per 1000 population; P elderly. Whether ASCs are meeting unmet clinical demand or spurring overutilization is not clear.

  4. Information Sharing and Information Acqusition in Credit Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karapetyan, A.; Stacescu, B.

    2009-01-01

    Since information asymmetries have been identified as an important source of bank profits, it may seem that the establishment of information sharing arrangements such as credit registers and bureaus will lead to lower investment in acquiring information. However, banks base their decisions on both

  5. 16 CFR 313.12 - Limits on sharing account number information for marketing purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Limits on sharing account number information... REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS PRIVACY OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL INFORMATION Limits on Disclosures § 313.12 Limits on sharing account number information for marketing purposes. (a) General prohibition on...

  6. 12 CFR 216.12 - Limits on sharing account number information for marketing purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Limits on sharing account number information... GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM PRIVACY OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL INFORMATION (REGULATION P) Limits on Disclosures § 216.12 Limits on sharing account number information for marketing purposes. (a) General...

  7. 12 CFR 573.12 - Limits on sharing account number information for marketing purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Limits on sharing account number information..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY PRIVACY OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL INFORMATION Limits on Disclosures § 573.12 Limits on sharing account number information for marketing purposes. (a) General prohibition on disclosure of...

  8. 12 CFR 40.12 - Limits on sharing account number information for marketing purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Limits on sharing account number information... OF THE TREASURY PRIVACY OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL INFORMATION Limits on Disclosures § 40.12 Limits on sharing account number information for marketing purposes. (a) General prohibition on disclosure of...

  9. 12 CFR 332.12 - Limits on sharing account number information for marketing purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Limits on sharing account number information... REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY PRIVACY OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL INFORMATION Limits on Disclosures § 332.12 Limits on sharing account number information for marketing purposes. (a) General prohibition on...

  10. 12 CFR 716.12 - Limits on sharing of account number information for marketing purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Limits on sharing of account number information... REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS PRIVACY OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL INFORMATION Limits on Disclosures § 716.12 Limits on sharing of account number information for marketing purposes. (a) General prohibition on...

  11. Modelling (B, S-Markets, Subject to Aggressive Buying of Shares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elina A. Pilosyan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to modeling (B, S-market with a finite number of aggressive buyers of shares, a theoretical study of such models of markets, have developed an algorithm to calculate the hedging of portfolios of various financial obligations

  12. Evolution of market shares with repeated purchases and heterogeneous network externalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.C.W. Janssen (Maarten); E. Mendys

    2007-01-01

    textabstractWe investigate how market shares change when a new, superior technology exhibiting network externalities is introduced in a market initially dominated by an old technology. This is done under the assumption that consumers are heterogeneous in their valuation of technology quality and

  13. 17 CFR 248.12 - Limits on sharing account number information for marketing purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... account number information for marketing purposes. (a) General prohibition on disclosure of account... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Limits on sharing account number information for marketing purposes. 248.12 Section 248.12 Commodity and Securities Exchanges...

  14. Significance and Differences of Marketing and Sales Controlling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel Havlicek

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Small and medium-sized companies usually perceive controlling in connection with financial management. However, it is a serious mistake which may have very unpleasant consequences for businesses. Such consequences are usually connected with a failure to achieve operational and strategic aims in the area of sales, production, innovation or marketing. For companies, a failure of marketing and sales controlling means that achieving the aims in the area of customer relations management is threatened, which subsequently results in the company´s sales not being fulfilled. This may result in a failure of the corporate strategy in the medium-term, which tends to be followed by a failure of sales and a threat to liquidity. Absence of marketing and sales controlling is usually the most frequent cause of a crisis. Therefore, the aim of the article is to describe the main areas of marketing and sales controlling and its relation to risk management.

  15. Research on Liquidity Risk Evaluation of Chinese A-Shares Market Based on Extension Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai-Qing, Sun; Peng-Xiang, Liu; Lin, Zhang; Yan-Ge, Li

    This research defines the liquidity risk of stock market in matter-element theory and affair-element theory, establishes the indicator system of the forewarning for liquidity risks,designs the model and the process of early warning using the extension set method, extension dependent function and the comprehensive evaluation model. And the paper studies empirically A-shares market through the data of 1A0001, which prove that the model can better describe liquidity risk of China’s A-share market. At last, it gives the corresponding policy recommendations.

  16. ANALYSIS OF THE EFFECT OF MARKET STABILITY FACTORS ON THE CHANGES IN SHARE PRICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Виктор Геннадьевич Семенов

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available According to fundamental analysis, share price tends to its intrinsic value. An appreciably large body of research has been devoted to foreign stock markets; meanwhile, the Russian stock market has been studied insufficiently. The hypothesis of fundamental analysis of the Russian stock market was tested in this paper. The effect of market stability factors (P/E; P/B; P/CF; P/D on changes in share prices was studied. The data from the financial reports on IFRS – GAAP and the data on share prices of 54 companies over the period of 2003–2013 were used. The results give grounds for claiming that the postulates of fundamental analysis cannot be used for the Russian stock market: the market stability factors do not correlate with the changes in share prices. Next, the possible reasons for this speculative behavior of the Russian stock market were considered. The methods for analyzing the reports and the financial and economic situation in order to determine the company value were proposed in this paper.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-9-5

  17. Analysis of Spain´s competitiveness in the European tomato market: An application of the Constant Market Share method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capobianco-Uriarte, M.; Aparicio, J.; Pablo-Valenciano, J. de

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents a quantitative analysis of the competitiveness of Spanish tomato export compared with its major competitors in the European Union market countries (EU28). The methodological framework is implemented through Constant Market Share to analyze variations in exports, allowing the portion attributable to competitiveness and segregation into general or specific competitiveness to be quantified. This analysis was carried out with the 2005-2009 and 2010-2014 periods to see if there had been a recovery from the global financial and economic crisis of 2007 in the Spanish tomato trade. Before the global economic and financial crisis, Spain had a positive structural effect of exports which contributed significantly to the growth of tomato sales to the EU, but had a negative change in the volume of exports to the EU28, mainly due to the negative effect of the competitiveness component. According to the segregation effect of competitiveness, a marked general negative competitive effect was evident, that cannot be offset by the positive effect of specific competitiveness. Since 2010, Spain has experienced a positive change in the volume of its tomato exports to the EU28, the competitiveness component also being positive, due to positive investment of the component of general competitiveness and whose greatest contribution was the positive effect of specific competitiveness. Within the group of competitors, Spain is the only country supplying tomatoes to the EU28 that has experienced a positive change in volume when comparing business performance of 2010-2014 vs 2005-2009.

  18. Analysis of Spain´s competitiveness in the European tomato market: An application of the Constant Market Share method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes Capobianco-Uriarte

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a quantitative analysis of the competitiveness of Spanish tomato export compared with its major competitors in the European Union market countries (EU28. The methodological framework is implemented through Constant Market Share to analyze variations in exports, allowing the portion attributable to competitiveness and segregation into general or specific competitiveness to be quantified. This analysis was carried out with the 2005-2009 and 2010-2014 periods to see if there had been a recovery from the global financial and economic crisis of 2007 in the Spanish tomato trade. Before the global economic and financial crisis, Spain had a positive structural effect of exports which contributed significantly to the growth of tomato sales to the EU, but had a negative change in the volume of exports to the EU28, mainly due to the negative effect of the competitiveness component. According to the segregation effect of competitiveness, a marked general negative competitive effect was evident, that cannot be offset by the positive effect of specific competitiveness. Since 2010, Spain has experienced a positive change in the volume of its tomato exports to the EU28, the competitiveness component also being positive, due to positive investment of the component of general competitiveness and whose greatest contribution was the positive effect of specific competitiveness. Within the group of competitors, Spain is the only country supplying tomatoes to the EU28 that has experienced a positive change in volume when comparing business performance of 2010-2014 vs 2005-2009.

  19. Analysis of Spain´s competitiveness in the European tomato market: An application of the Constant Market Share method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capobianco-Uriarte, M.; Aparicio, J.; Pablo-Valenciano, J. de

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a quantitative analysis of the competitiveness of Spanish tomato export compared with its major competitors in the European Union market countries (EU28). The methodological framework is implemented through Constant Market Share to analyze variations in exports, allowing the portion attributable to competitiveness and segregation into general or specific competitiveness to be quantified. This analysis was carried out with the 2005-2009 and 2010-2014 periods to see if there had been a recovery from the global financial and economic crisis of 2007 in the Spanish tomato trade. Before the global economic and financial crisis, Spain had a positive structural effect of exports which contributed significantly to the growth of tomato sales to the EU, but had a negative change in the volume of exports to the EU28, mainly due to the negative effect of the competitiveness component. According to the segregation effect of competitiveness, a marked general negative competitive effect was evident, that cannot be offset by the positive effect of specific competitiveness. Since 2010, Spain has experienced a positive change in the volume of its tomato exports to the EU28, the competitiveness component also being positive, due to positive investment of the component of general competitiveness and whose greatest contribution was the positive effect of specific competitiveness. Within the group of competitors, Spain is the only country supplying tomatoes to the EU28 that has experienced a positive change in volume when comparing business performance of 2010-2014 vs 2005-2009.

  20. BRAND SIGNIFICANCE IN THE MARKETING OF LUXURY WATCHMAKING. QUALITATIVE RESEARCH ON THE BUCHAREST MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae Alexandru Tiberiu Pop

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In a globalized socio-economic environment, where the 'citizen-consumer' is disillusioned, luxury is a societal response that sociologist Robert Ebguy calls the 'society of consolation'. In an elitist universe, the luxury world is experiencing an impressive transformation, with a constant annual growth rate and continued development aided by the arrival of internet and marketing. The definition of luxury perceptions have changed in a short time. New professions, new markets shaped by evolving needs and cultures come into play, imposing irreversibly different strategies, new reflexes and most importantly, new skills. The association between luxury and mass consumption is no longer a taboo. In this industry, the brand substitutes the product. The brand helps to attract new customers with a persuasive power of attraction. Moreover, a brand is now one of the few assets of a company that can provide long-term competitive advantage. Luxury brands require and trigger an emotional component more powerful than any other consumer good. The need to survive in a competitive environment prompted strong luxury brands to realize the connection between what they represents, in terms of values and characteristics, and how they are perceived. Unlike a large part of luxury brands on the market, especially automotive, cosmetics or clothing, watchmaking is a sector which excels in the manufactural nature of its products. Luxury watchmaking constitute a distinct and relatively clear-shaped area for research on prestigious brands. From the onset of the third millennium without suffering significantly from the financial crisis triggered in 2008, the luxury horology market has seen a continuous upward trend. Enthusiasts and collectors, amateur hoarding or VIPs from media and sport, are moving toward acquiring legendary watches, including Omega, Rolex, Piaget, Cartier, Vacheron Constantin, Patek Philippe, Tag Heurer or Bvlgari, to name some of the most popular brands

  1. The French nuclear team ready to conquer new market shares

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, J.B.; Varin, P.; Verwaerde, D.

    2016-01-01

    In order to reinforce their partnership, EDF, CEA and AREVA have founded the France Nuclear Platform (FNP). FNP is a tripartite body that will allow EDF, CEA and AREVA to build a consistent common position to respond to the worldwide demand in terms of nuclear reactors, fuel cycle or spent fuel processing. Potential clients and particularly first-time buyers want to buy far more than nuclear reactors, they want to buy the whole experience of the most important nuclear operator in the world which is a guarantee of success, safety and security. In order to stay ahead of the competition, the French nuclear industry can rely on high quality standards, a policy of innovation and a well-developed safety culture. Today's promising markets for nuclear energy are concentrated in Asia: in China a growth rate of 60% over the next 15 years is expected for nuclear power, in India projects for the construction of several EPR are ongoing. (A.C.)

  2. Significant factors for enabling knowledge sharing between government agencies within South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avain Mannie

    2013-10-01

    Objectives: This study aimed to validate the significant factors that influence the effectiveness of KM between government agencies in South Africa. The commonly identified pillars of KM in the extant literature served as a primary framework in establishing these factors. Method: Data were gathered using an electronic survey made available to different national government agencies within the security cluster. Responses were analysed using structural equation modelling. Main findings: Existing literature highlighted organisational culture, learning organisation, collaboration, subject matter experts and trust as being determinants for knowledge management. The first two were identified as the most significant factors for knowledge sharing to succeed. Conclusion: Whilst there is universal consent as to the strategic importance of KM, actionable implementation of knowledge sharing initiatives appears to be lacking. This study emphasised the fact that leaders must instil a knowledge sharing culture either through employee performance contracts or methods such as the balanced score card. The study also showed that it is imperative for leaders to acknowledge that KM is a multi-faceted discipline that offers strategic advantages. Leaders of developing countries should note that they are on a developmental journey. This requires their organisations to be learning organisations, which necessitates a change in the organisational culture and knowledge interventions through their academies of learning.

  3. Desktop war - data suppliers competing for bigger market share

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sword, M.

    1999-01-01

    The intense competition among suppliers of computerized data and computer software to the petroleum and natural gas industry in western Canada is discussed. It is estimated that the Canadian oil patch spends a large sum, about $ 400 million annually on geoscience information and related costs and industry is looking for ways to significantly reduce those costs. There is a need for integrated, desktop driven data sets. Sensing the determination of industry to reduce information acquisition costs, data providers are responding with major consolidation of data sets. The major evolution in the industry is on-line access to increase the speed of information delivery. Data vendors continue to integrate land, well, log, production and other data sets whether public or proprietary. The result is stronger foundations as platforms for interpretive software. Another development is the rise of the Internet and Intranets and the re-definition of the role of information technology departments in the industry as both of these are paving the way for electronic delivery of information and software tools to the desktop. Development of proprietary data sets, acquisition of competitors with complimentary data sets that enhances products and services are just some of the ways data vendors are using to get a bigger piece of the exploration and development pie

  4. Renewable energy burden sharing. REBUS. Effects of burden sharing and certificate trade on the renewable electricity market in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voogt, M.H.; Uyterlinde, M.A.; De Noord, M.; Skytte, K.; Nielsen, L.H.; Leonardi, M.; Whiteley, M.H.; Chapman, M.

    2001-05-01

    Creation of an internal market for renewable electricity will involve a political negotiation process, similar to previous European Union (EU) greenhouse gas negotiations. The Energy Ministers in the EU have agreed upon an overall target of 22% of electricity supply from Renewable Energy Sources (RES-E) and a distribution of targets over the individual Member States. The REBUS project provides insights in the effects of implementing targets for renewable electricity generation at EU Member State level and the impact of introducing burden sharing systems within the EU, such as a Tradable Green Certificate (TGC) system. Member States can participate in such burden sharing systems to reduce the costs of achieving RES-E targets. The project concentrated on the development of the REBUS model, which quantifies the impact of trade (in green certificates, quotas or targets), the specification of cost potential curves for renewable electricity options in each of the 15 EU Member States and the implementation of different rules to setting targets at individual Member State level. In addition, utilities and consumer organisations were interviewed on their requirements and expectations for an international burden sharing scheme. 49 refs

  5. The Oral and Skin Microbiomes of Captive Komodo Dragons Are Significantly Shared with Their Habitat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Embriette R; Navas-Molina, Jose A; Song, Se Jin; Kueneman, Jordan G; Ackermann, Gail; Cardona, Cesar; Humphrey, Gregory; Boyer, Don; Weaver, Tom; Mendelson, Joseph R; McKenzie, Valerie J; Gilbert, Jack A; Knight, Rob

    2016-01-01

    Examining the way in which animals, including those in captivity, interact with their environment is extremely important for studying ecological processes and developing sophisticated animal husbandry. Here we use the Komodo dragon ( Varanus komodoensis ) to quantify the degree of sharing of salivary, skin, and fecal microbiota with their environment in captivity. Both species richness and microbial community composition of most surfaces in the Komodo dragon's environment are similar to the Komodo dragon's salivary and skin microbiota but less similar to the stool-associated microbiota. We additionally compared host-environment microbiome sharing between captive Komodo dragons and their enclosures, humans and pets and their homes, and wild amphibians and their environments. We observed similar host-environment microbiome sharing patterns among humans and their pets and Komodo dragons, with high levels of human/pet- and Komodo dragon-associated microbes on home and enclosure surfaces. In contrast, only small amounts of amphibian-associated microbes were detected in the animals' environments. We suggest that the degree of sharing between the Komodo dragon microbiota and its enclosure surfaces has important implications for animal health. These animals evolved in the context of constant exposure to a complex environmental microbiota, which likely shaped their physiological development; in captivity, these animals will not receive significant exposure to microbes not already in their enclosure, with unknown consequences for their health. IMPORTANCE Animals, including humans, have evolved in the context of exposure to a variety of microbial organisms present in the environment. Only recently have humans, and some animals, begun to spend a significant amount of time in enclosed artificial environments, rather than in the more natural spaces in which most of evolution took place. The consequences of this radical change in lifestyle likely extend to the microbes residing

  6. Digging deeper: How do different types of organic consumers influence the increasing organic market share?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Laura Mørch; Lund, Thomas Bøker

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – This article aims to investigate how sub-markets with different degrees of maturity develop during a period of general organic growth, and how different consumer segments behave on these sub-markets. Design/methodology/approach – This paper uses actual purchasing behaviour of six consumer...... segments with different attitudes towards food in general, and organic production and products in particular. The data is from the Danish market for organic foods, which is one of the most mature markets in the world. Findings – The segmentation splits consumers into a positive and a non-positive half......, each half consisting of three different segments. The estimations show that the development in general organic consumption varies between segments, and that their behaviour varies between sub-markets. The positive half of the population has driven the overall growth in organic budget share...

  7. Overcoming the drawbacks of a Revenue Sharing Contract in a marketing channel through a coop program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Giovanni, P.; Roselli, M.

    2012-01-01

    In a marketing channel governed by goodwill dynamics, players adjust their pricing and advertising strategies when shifting from a wholesale price contract (WPC) to a revenue sharing contract (RSC). We demonstrate that this shift is not payoff-Pareto-improving when the retailer, who is the player

  8. Assessing Consequences of Component Sharing across Brands in the Vertical Product Line in the Automotive Market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoef, P.C.; Pauwels, K.; Tuk, M.A.

    Component sharing may look great in the boardroom but not in the showroom. Indeed, savings on research and development and production costs could be offset by a plunge in customer brand attractiveness. The central objective of this paper is to investigate consumer and market responses toward

  9. Integrating market share models with network optimizing models for strategic planning in an oil pipeline company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, L.D.; Moses, S.W.

    1991-01-01

    Mathematical models of market share are constructed to describe the distribution of petroleum products from pipeline terminals, water terminals and refineries in the midcontinental United States. Network distribution models are developed to analyse the constraints and economics of alternative distribution systems. This paper describes how the two types of models were integrated for strategic planning in an oil pipeline company

  10. Use of Internet audience measurement data to gauge market share for online health information services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Fred B; Benson, Dennis; LaCroix, Eve-Marie; Siegel, Elliot R; Fariss, Susan

    2005-07-01

    The transition to a largely Internet and Web-based environment for dissemination of health information has changed the health information landscape and the framework for evaluation of such activities. A multidimensional evaluative approach is needed. This paper discusses one important dimension of Web evaluation-usage data. In particular, we discuss the collection and analysis of external data on website usage in order to develop a better understanding of the health information (and related US government information) market space, and to estimate the market share or relative levels of usage for National Library of Medicine (NLM) and National Institutes of Health (NIH) websites compared to other health information providers. The primary method presented is Internet audience measurement based on Web usage by external panels of users and assembled by private vendors-in this case, comScore. A secondary method discussed is Web usage based on Web log software data. The principle metrics for both methods are unique visitors and total pages downloaded per month. NLM websites (primarily MedlinePlus and PubMed) account for 55% to 80% of total NIH website usage depending on the metric used. In turn, NIH.gov top-level domain usage (inclusive of NLM) ranks second only behind WebMD in the US domestic home health information market and ranks first on a global basis. NIH.gov consistently ranks among the top three or four US government top-level domains based on global Web usage. On a site-specific basis, the top health information websites in terms of global usage appear to be WebMD, MSN Health, PubMed, Yahoo! Health, AOL Health, and MedlinePlus. Based on MedlinePlus Web log data and external Internet audience measurement data, the three most heavily used cancer-centric websites appear to be www.cancer.gov (National Cancer Institute), www.cancer.org (American Cancer Society), and www.breastcancer.org (non-profit organization). Internet audience measurement has proven useful to NLM

  11. The application of the CAPM model on selected shares on the Croatian capital market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zrinka Tolušić

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Capital Asset Pricing Model is a model that describes the relationship between risk, expected return and valuation of securities. The theoretical and practical value of this model has proved unquestionable, but under ideal circumstances. The theory has been utilized by numerous researchers and it confirms the linear relationship between risk and return under the CAPM (Capital Asset Pricing Model model showing that greater exposure to risk provides higher returns. However, empirical research showed there were numerous factors that CAPM model did not take into account since it is based on assumptions which exist in reality, but are invisible. Therefore, it is very interesting to study the application of the CAPM model on selected shares on the Croatian capital market and analyze the possibilities of its application in discovering the misvalued shares. Share price changes on the Croatian capital market suggest there are some unknown factors that also influence share valuation. There is no doubt that the fundamental analysis of shares is not sufficient for evaluating the real share value in light of various invisible elements and all available information available which affect their value as well.

  12. Does the Change in the Company's Name Affect the Share Price? The Case Study of the Polish Capital Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Asyngier

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim/purpose - The paper was aimed to find out if abnormal returns occur before and after changes in the names of companies listed on the Warsaw Stock Exchange. Design/methodology/approach - Due to the fact that this was an early stage of the research, an appropriate methodology was used in the research which took into account indexes of relative force of quotations of some selected companies in relation to the wide Warsaw Stock Exchange WIG index. Findings - The research findings proved the existence of positive abnormal returns before the name changes and negative trends after the name changes in companies in the long term. Comparing the average volume of share trading before and after the name changes in companies, no positive effect was noticed in this scope. Research implications/limitations - The clear and unambiguous results appear to be significant for investors while taking investment decisions. Therefore, the conclusions from the findings of the pilot research need to be confirmed and verified in further studies on the problem, with the use of a more advanced methods. Originality/value/contribution - The paper represents one of the few empirical studies on the impact of the name changes of listed companies on the share prices in relation to the emerging markets, and the first ones concerning the Polish share market. The findings of the study may give grounds to discuss and identify practical causes of market behaviors as a result of changes in companies' names.(original abstract

  13. Strategies for Increasing the Market Share of Recycled Products—A Games Theory Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batzias, Dimitris F.; Pollalis, Yannis A.

    2009-08-01

    A methodological framework (including 28 activity stages and 10 decision nodes) has been designed under the form of an algorithmic procedure for the development of strategies for increasing the market share of recycled products within a games theory context. A case example is presented referring to a paper market, where a recycling company (RC) is in competition with a virgin-raw-material-using company (VC). The strategies of the VC, for increasing its market share, are the strengthening of (and advertisement based on) the high quality (VC1), the high reliability (VC2), the combination quality and reliability, putting emphasis on the first component (VC3), the combination quality and reliability, putting emphasis on the second component (VC4). The strategies of the RC, for increasing its market share, are proper advertisement based on the low price of produced recycled paper satisfying minimum quality requirements (RC1), the combination of low price with sensitization of the public as regards environmental and materials-saving issues, putting emphasis on the first component (RC2), the same combination, putting emphasis on the second component (RC3). Analysis of all possible situations for the case example under examination is also presented.

  14. Increasing market share through consumer marketing: a case study in obstetrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingsley, V H

    1986-05-01

    Consumers are becoming ever more selective in their choice of health care providers. Hospitals that are aware of local preferences and how to reach and influence consumers will gain a competitive advantage. Outlined in this article are consumer marketing techniques that can be utilized for all product lines. The concept is applied here as a case study in obstetrics.

  15. Choose profit over market share: Profit-oriented competitive strategies in contested markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilstein Frank

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available If there was ever an eye-opening moment for us concerning the topic of competitive strategy, then it was this: In the summer of 2003 we presented the CEO of a world-renowned public company with a sophisticated strategy that would secure its path towards profitable growth. She waited with growing impatience for the end of the presentation to crush six months of work with one sentence: "That's all very well and good. But I want to destroy my competitors!" Our objections undoubtedly earned a place in the company's history, but ultimately we failed. Three years have passed since then - three years in which the company has drastically reduced its formerly attractive margins in numerous important markets. And despite strong attacks, the company has not succeeded in ousting even one competitor from its relevant markets.

  16. Local and global dynamics in a duopoly with price competition and market share delegation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fanti, Luciano; Gori, Luca; Mammana, Cristiana; Michetti, Elisabetta

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims at studying a nonlinear dynamic duopoly model with price competition and horizontal product differentiation augmented with managerial firms, where managers behave according to market share delegation contracts. Ownership and management are then separate and managers are paid through adequate incentives in order to achieve a competitive advantage in the market. In this context, we show that complexity arises, related both to the structure of the attractors of the system and the structure of their basins, as multistability occurs. The study is conducted by combining analytical and numerical techniques, and aims at showing that slight different initial conditions may cause very different long-term outcomes

  17. The Stability of Interbank Market Network: A Perspective on Contagion and Risk Sharing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi Xie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As an important part of the financial system, interbank market provides banks with liquidity and credit lending and also is the main channel for risk contagion. In this paper, we test the existence of systematic risk contagion within the Chinese interbank market. By building the networks of the Chinese interbank market for each year and using the measure of mutual information, we quantitatively detect the changes of interbank market networks and observe that the correlations between banks become increasingly tighter in recent years. With the bilateral risk exposure among Chinese listed commercial banks, we find that the possibility of systemic risk contagion in Chinese interbank market is fairly small. But of great concern on each individual bank, the matter is different. Our simulation shows that the failures of three special banks (i.e., Agricultural Bank of China and Bank of China and Industrial and Commercial Bank of China most likely lead to systemic risk contagion. Furthermore, we test the antirisk ability of the Chinese interbank market from the perspective of risk sharing and discover that the interbank market is stable when the loss scale is lower than forty percent of banks’ total core capital.

  18. Shared Solar: Current Landscape, Market Potential, and the Impact of Federal Securities Regulation; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-05-27

    This presentation provides a high-level overview of the current U.S. shared solar landscape, the impact that a given shared solar program's structure has on requiring federal securities oversight, as well as an estimate of market potential for U.S. shared solar deployment.

  19. The survey and criterion of the compass rose in Chinese A-share market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Wenzhao; Wang, Yanxiang; Huo, Zhao; Li, Yilin

    2018-02-01

    The compass rose is one of the few "recurring patterns" found in financial markets. In this paper, the compass rose in Chinese A-share market is comprehensively investigated. It is newly discovered that among the 1331 A-shares, which had been listed for more than 15 years by the end of 2015, only about 20 show the compass rose. The outcome of the analysis shows that there exists a threshold of the ratio of the data points on main rays to all data points. Only when this ratio is above the threshold, the compass rose appears. The reasons why such a threshold exists, and its interrelationship with the data frequency and the tick/volatility ratio are analyzed.

  20. The shift in US oil demand and its impact on OPEC's market share

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jabir, I.

    2001-01-01

    Tremendous political pressure is being exerted on the US government by different political parties to diversify its sources of foreign oil supplies by switching from the reliance on OPEC's oil to that originating from non-OPEC nations. Without a doubt, such a shift would adversely impact the market share of some OPEC members, particularly Saudi Arabia, Venezuela and Nigeria. These countries should therefore consider seriously the negative impact of this scenario and consequently formulate individual or joint production policies aiming at protecting their oil market share. To help OPEC achieve this objective, there is a need to estimate the demand function of US oil imports. This paper proffers an estimate of such a function, taking into account, among other variables, the impact of US Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR)

  1. A study on relationship between market share and cash flow policy

    OpenAIRE

    Somayeh Sadeghi Moghaddam; Fateme Zabihi

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an empirical investigation to study the relationship between cash flow and market share on selected firms from Tehran Stock Exchange over the period 2007-2011. Using regression analysis, the study has detected a positive and meaningful relationship between cash flow on one side and three other investment opportunities, firm size and operating cash flow. In addition, there is a negative and meaningful relationship between leverage and cash flow. However, the study does not ...

  2. A Comparative Analysis of Social Media Marketing by Transportation Network Companies in the Sharing Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Heymans, Alice

    2017-01-01

    The sharing economy is a new business model rapidly expanding. In transportation, many people use innovative services proposed by ride-hailing mobile applications. These technological platforms, operated by networking companies, rely extensively on social media to promote their services, and reach new customers (riders) and providers (drivers). This dissertation focuses on e-marketing communication. It makes a comparative analysis of the information published on several social media (Facebook...

  3. Distributed ledger technology in the capital market : Shared versus private information in a permissioned blockchain

    OpenAIRE

    Piccolo, Alessandro

    2017-01-01

    This master thesis explores how blockchain technologies can be utilized within the financial sector with focus on how to store both private and public information on the blockchain. The capital market is looking into ways of cutting down administrative work through streamlining the financial process by using blockchain technologies. Public key encryption together with hash functions and a consensus mechanism make up the basis for creating a shared trustless database system. The thesis was con...

  4. Beta Coefficient and Market Share: Downloading and Processing Data from DIALOG to LOTUS 1-2-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popovich, Charles J.

    This article briefly describes the topics "beta coefficient"--a measurement of the price volatility of a company's stock in relationship to the overall stock market--and "market share"--an average measurement for the overall stock market based on a specified group of stocks. It then selectively recommends a database (file) on…

  5. Federal R and D Reductions, Market Share, and Aerospace Information Usage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocker, JoAnne; Roncaglia, George

    2000-01-01

    Reductions in federally funded research have a rippling effect over the entire aerospace industry. The decline in federal R&D spending in aerospace in recent years coincides with declines in U.S. aerospace market share, One of the lesser-understood factors in the declining U.S. market share may be the differing ways and intensity with which the U.S. and its competitors approach another trend, the increasing availability of large amounts of aerospace research information on the World Wide Web. The U.S. has been a pioneer in making research information available in electronic form, and the international community has long been a heavy consumer of that information. In essence, the U.S. contributes to the research efforts of its competitors, thus contributing to foreign aerospace consortiums efforts to gain market share in the aerospace industry, This may be a cautionary note to the U.S. aerospace industry to consider the use of R&D output in its own development and strategy because the foreign competition is using the U.S. scientific and technical literature.

  6. Reducing the market impact of large shares of intermittent energy in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Henrik; Zvingilaite, Erika

    2010-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of renewable and intermittent energy sources in the electricity system is creating new challenges for the interaction of the system. In Denmark, high renewable shares have been achieved without great difficulty, mainly due to the flexibility of the nearby Nordic hydro......-power dominated system. Further increases in the share of renewable energy sources require that additional options are considered to facilitate integration with the lowest possible cost. With large shares of intermittent energy, the impact can be observed on wholesale prices, giving both lower prices and higher...... and the attractiveness of additional interconnection capacity. This paper also analyses options for increasing the flexibility of heat generation involving large and decentralized CHP plants and heat generation based on electricity. The incentives that the market provides for shifting demand and using electricity...

  7. THE MARKET VALUE OF THE REAL ESTATE IN A SIGNIFICANT DEVALUATION OF THE NATIONAL CURRENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VORONIN V. A.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Raising of problem. The current state of the real estate market is characterized by high inflation and a significant devaluation of national currency. In markets with mixed prices impact of devaluation and inflation against the foreign currency have most complex nature and usually leads to slower growth in prices in local currency and partial de-dollarization of the market. Provided that the value of the real estate market is denominated in local and foreign currency, it is necessary to solve the problem of correspondence between these prices. With this condition must be satisfied that the market prices in local currency correspond to the state of the real estate market on the valuation date. Purpose. Development of the method, which should take into account the particular valuation procedures in determining the market value of the local currency in terms of the existence of high inflation and a significant devaluation. The study of this problem, especially for the markets of emerging economics, is an urgent and important task of applied economic analysis and, in particular, the theory and practice of evaluation as part of this analysis. Conclusion. To achieve this goal have been developed and used techniques and methods of applied economic analysis and, in particular, the theory and practice of evaluation as part of this analysis. Satisfactory agreement obtained values and the market rent rate, which are responsible of the real estate market in a significant devaluation of local currency, confirm the position that the correction in market conditions ("discount on the offer price" and "market conditions" must be done in determining the market value so and the market rent rate.

  8. Battle for market share: World oil market projections, 1995-2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Considine, J.I.; Reinsch, A.E.

    1995-09-01

    A world-wide market assessment and scenario analyses were described. They were said to suggest a more bearish outlook for crude oil prices relative to last years projections. The price of WTI was projected to weaken over the 1996-1998 period due to rising non-OPEC production, gradual reintegration of Iraqi exports, a lack of unified accommodation by the rest of OPEC for incremental Iraqi volumes, and demand growth insufficient to absorb the additional production at current prices. Crude prices could be expected to lie in the $15.50-$17.50 (US) per barrel range from 1996 to 1998, and in the $14.50-$20.50 per barrel range during the first decade of the 21. century. Long-term price risk was expected to be weighted to the down side. The reasoning behind these predictions was explained in detail. 24 figs., 83 tabs., 70 refs

  9. The impact of the number of retail outlets on the market share of consumer goods' retail brands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlahović Marko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the research results of effects of retail brands of consumer goods on the market share they have in Serbia. In particular, the research includes the impact of the retail format on the growth or decrease in market share. The data were obtained from market retailing research of consumer goods on the Internet and the research carried out by the GFK agency. The study used a statistical method of data processing by the method of descriptive statistics. The survey showed that the Serbian retail market is still underdeveloped, and that the strongest impact on the market share of retail chain stores of consumer goods has the size of the retail network, as well as a strong dominance of traditional trade in comparison to organized one. The retail market in Serbia has a long period of consolidation forthcoming and also taking over such a status that organized trades or TOP 10 retail chains have already had in the most developed countries. The market share of TOP 10 retail chains in Serbia is now at the level slightly bigger than 30%, while those in developed market economies have a market share moving up to 75%.

  10. Assessing the Significance of Telecommunication Deregulation on the Growth of Japan's Mobile Phone Market

    OpenAIRE

    Yuqing Xing

    2001-01-01

    This paper analyzes the development of Japan's mobile phone market. Specifically, it focuses on the regulatory reforms of Japan's mobile communication sector and their impact on the growth of the market. The analysis based on a monopolistic competition model shows that the deregulation policies perform an essential role in fostering the rapid expansion of Japan's mobile phone market. Using quarterly data from 1991 to 1999, the paper tests the significance of the telecommunication deregulation...

  11. Factors Affecting Relative Changes in U.S. Snack Foods Exports Among Countries: A Constant Market Share Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Myles, Albert E.; Allen, Albert J.

    2010-01-01

    This study used Constant Market Share (CMS) analysis to examine the competitiveness of U.S. snack food exports in terms of their revealed market shares and market potentials. The CMS analysis suggested that almost 99 percent of the gains in snack food exports were due to growth in world demand and 1.52 percent to the composition of snack food products between 2004 and 2008. Unfortunately, competitiveness of the world snack food market reduced U.S. exports by 1.52 percent during this same period.

  12. Insider trading under trading ban regulation in China’s A-share market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chafen Zhu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the effects of China’s 2008 trading ban regulation on the insider trading of large shareholders in China’s A-share market. It finds no evidence of insider trading during the ban period (one month before the announcement of a financial report, due to high regulation risk. However, the ban only constrains the profitability of insider trades during the ban period, while trades outside it remain highly profitable. Informed insider trading before the ban period is 2.83 times more profitable than uninformed trading. The regulation has changed insider trading patterns, but has been ineffective in preventing insider trading by large shareholders due to rigid administrative supervision and a lack of civil litigation and flexible market monitoring. This study enhances understanding of large shareholders’ trading behavior and has important implications for regulators.

  13. The Impact of Mergers and Acquisitions on the Market Value of Shares of Erste Bank Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popovici Andreea Nicoleta

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Mergers and acquisitions are ways used by banks to improve their profitability and to obtain other advantages. The purpose of this study is to analyze the impact of mergers and acquisitions on the performance of the bidder bank. For this study, I have chosen to research the impact of acquisitions and mergers of Erste Group during 2000-2011, considering the target bank is in Central and Eastern Europe. Using the event study methodology, the result of the study shows that a merger or an acquisition does not improve the value market of the shares of the bidder bank.

  14. The Oral and Skin Microbiomes of Captive Komodo Dragons Are Significantly Shared with Their Habitat

    OpenAIRE

    Embriette R. Hyde; Jose A. Navas-Molina; Se Jin Song; Jordan G. Kueneman; Gail Ackermann; Cesar Cardona; Gregory Humphrey; Don Boyer; Tom Weaver; Joseph R. Mendelson; Valerie J. McKenzie; Jack A. Gilbert; Rob Knight; Ashley Shade

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Examining the way in which animals, including those in captivity, interact with their environment is extremely important for studying ecological processes and developing sophisticated animal husbandry. Here we use the Komodo dragon (Varanus komodoensis) to quantify the degree of sharing of salivary, skin, and fecal microbiota with their environment in captivity. Both species richness and microbial community composition of most surfaces in the Komodo dragon?s environment are similar t...

  15. Nuclear power and the market value of the shares of electric utilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Joseph T.

    The most basic principle of security valuation is that market prices are determined by investors' expectations of the firm's performance in the future. These expectations are generally understood to be related to the risk that investors will bear by holding the firm's equity. There is considerable evidence that financial statements prepared in accordance with accrual-based accounting standards consistent with Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) have information content relevant to the establishment of market prices. In 2001, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) issued Statement of Financial Accounting Standard No. 143, "Accounting for Asset Retirement Obligations," changing the accounting standards that must be used to prepare financial statements. This paper investigates the effect that investment in nuclear power has on the market value of electric utilities and the impact on the securities markets of the significant changes in financial statement presentation mandated by this new standard.

  16. The Brazilian exports of labor-intensive goods in the 2000s: An analysis using the Constant Market Share Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Benevett Fligenspan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at analyzing international trade in labor-intensive sectors in the 2000s, with a special reference to the Brazilian case. Therefore, we use the constant market share analysis to compare several countries’ export performance. It was observed that Asian countries emerged strengthened from this period. Brazil had a mediocre performance, losing market-share in global markets. Moreover, competition from Asian economies and even from the small Central American countries, such as Guatemala and El Salvador, has undermined the penetration of Brazilian exports in its major trade partners, which are North America and South America.

  17. Future Market Share of Space Solar Electric Power Under Open Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, S. J.; Mahasenan, N.; Clarke, J. F.; Edmonds, J. A.

    2002-01-01

    This paper assesses the value of Space Solar Power deployed under market competition with a full suite of alternative energy technologies over the 21st century. Our approach is to analyze the future energy system under a number of different scenarios that span a wide range of possible future demographic, socio-economic, and technological developments. Scenarios both with, and without, carbon dioxide concentration stabilization policies are considered. We use the comprehensive set of scenarios created for the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (Nakicenovic and Swart 2000). The focus of our analysis will be the cost of electric generation. Cost is particularly important when considering electric generation since the type of generation is, from a practical point of view, largely irrelevant to the end-user. This means that different electricity generation technologies must compete on the basis of price. It is important to note, however, that even a technology that is more expensive than average can contribute to the overall generation mix due to geographical and economic heterogeneity (Clarke and Edmonds 1993). This type of competition is a central assumption of the modeling approach used here. Our analysis suggests that, under conditions of full competition of all available technologies, Space Solar Power at 7 cents per kW-hr could comprise 5-10% of global electric generation by the end of the century, with a global total generation of 10,000 TW-hr. The generation share of Space Solar Power is limited due to competition with lower-cost nuclear, biomass, and terrestrial solar PV and wind. The imposition of a carbon constraint does not significantly increase the total amount of power generated by Space Solar Power in cases where a full range of advanced electric generation technologies are also available. Potential constraints on the availability of these other electric generation options can increase the amount of

  18. Reducing the market impact of large shares of intermittent energy in Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinge Jacobsen, Henrik; Zvingilaite, Erika

    2010-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of renewable and intermittent energy sources in the electricity system is creating new challenges for the interaction of the system. In Denmark, high renewable shares have been achieved without great difficulty, mainly due to the flexibility of the nearby Nordic hydro-power dominated system. Further increases in the share of renewable energy sources require that additional options are considered to facilitate integration with the lowest possible cost. With large shares of intermittent energy, the impact can be observed on wholesale prices, giving both lower prices and higher volatility. A lack of wind that causes high prices is rarely seen because long periods without wind are uncommon. Therefore we focus on the low price effects and the increased value of flexible demand options. On the supply side, there is an increase in the value of other flexible generation technologies and the attractiveness of additional interconnection capacity. This paper also analyses options for increasing the flexibility of heat generation involving large and decentralized CHP plants and heat generation based on electricity. The incentives that the market provides for shifting demand and using electricity for heat production are discussed based on the variability of prices observed from 2006 to 2008.

  19. Spin-off and market share in the Indonesian Islamic banking industry: a difference in difference analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Arif M. Nur Rianto

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available According to The Act No. 21 of 2008 concerning Islamic Banking in Indonesia, the conventional banks are obligated to spun-off their Islamic business units after achieving a certain set of requirements. The spin-off requirements are: (i reach 50% market share asset of its parents; or (ii 15 years after the implementation of the Islamic Banking Act. This study emphasizes the impact of Islamic banks' spin-off on market share. The method used in this study is a difference in difference analysis. This technique is a quasi-experiment separate into two groups, such as the treatment groups (four spin-offs' banks and control group (two fullfledged Islamic banks. This study used quarterly data from 2005 until 2016. The results show that, first, there is a difference in the Islamic banks' market share between pre- and post-spinoff. Second, there is a difference in the market share of spin-offs' banks between pre- and postspin- off. Third, there are there external factors that can affect the Islamic banks' market share, i.e., inflation rate, interest rate, and economic growth rate. The paper is a useful source of information that may provide relevant guidelines in helping the future development of spin-off activity in Islamic banking industry. The finding could be helpful for policymakers to create a supporting strategy to accelerate the development of Islamic banking industry. This result also could be of use for Islamic banking industries in other countries.

  20. Complexity study on the Cournot-Bertrand mixed duopoly game model with market share preference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Junhai; Sun, Lijian; Hou, Shunqi; Zhan, Xueli

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, a Cournot-Bertrand duopoly model with market share preference is established. Assume that there is a degree of product difference between the two firms, where one firm takes the price as a decision variable and the other takes the quantity. Both firms are bounded rational, with linear cost functions and demand functions. The stability of the equilibrium points is analyzed, and the effects of some parameters (α, β, d and v1) on the model stability are studied. Basins of attraction are investigated and the evolution process is shown with the increase in the output adjustment speed. The simulation results show that instability will lead to the increase in the average utility of the firm that determines the quantity and reduce the average utility of the firm that determines price.

  1. First Significant Digits and the Credit Derivative Market During the Financial Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Hofmarcher

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The Credit Default Swap (CDS market has both been lauded for its ability to stabilize the financial system through credit risk transfers and been the source of regulatory concern due to its size and lack of transparency. As a decentralized over-the-counter market, detailed information about pricing mechanisms is rather scarce. To investigate reported CDS prices (spreads more closely, we make use of empirical First Significant Digit (FSD distributions and analyze daily CDS prices for European and US entities during the financial crisis starting in 2007. We find that on a time-aggregated level, the European and US markets obey empirical FSD distributions similar to the theoretical ones. Surprising differences are observed in the development of the FSD distributions between the US and European markets. Whereas the FSD distribution of the US derivative market behaves nearly constantly during the last financial crisis, we find huge fluctuations in the FSD distribution of the European market. One reason for these differences might be the possibility of strategic default for US companies due to Chapter 11 and avoided contagion effects.

  2. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE LIAISON BETWEEN THE PARTICIPANTS IN THE CUSTOMER SERVICE MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia D. IVAN (Trandafiroiu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The major transformations in the supply of goods and services during the last decades entailed the development of some interactive relations between the various participants engaged in commercial operations. These relations, although naturally conflictive as for the classic negotiations between the participants, became, in certain fields, cooperation relations or even partnerships in the service of the clients on the relevant market. In this work, we intend to analyse the most significant participants in the market of lighting sources and devices (SCI and to underline the importance of the cooperation between these participants in the satisfaction of the final client requirements. The specific of this market entails the preparation of some marketing strategies to prevent the conclusion of some partnership relations at the procurement-delivery chain level as well as between the participants in this chain and the so-called market „influencers” (architects, installation companies, builders. The purpose of this approach consists in the preparation of a proposal package dedicated to the companies participating in this market for the purpose of cooperating in providing intelligent lighting solutions.

  3. The Effect of Attractiveness on Food Sharing Preferences in Human Mating Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Stirrat

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study explored how physical attractiveness affects food sharing by studying payment preferences for hypothetical romantic dinner dates (a hypothetical mating market. We analyzed payment preferences, self-rated attractiveness, and rated attractiveness for hypothetical dates in 416 participants. We hypothesized that (1 men would be more likely to prefer to pay than would women, (2 attractive individuals of both sexes would be less willing to pay, and (3 preferences to enter an exchange would be influenced by the attractiveness of prospective partners such that (3a men would prefer to pay for attractive women, and (3b women would prefer to be paid for by attractive men. All hypotheses were supported by our results. Individuals with higher self-rated attractiveness were more likely to prefer that their date would pay for the meal, and we found clear sex differences in how the attractiveness of potential dates affected payment preferences. Male participants preferred to pay for dates that had higher facial attractiveness, while female participants preferred that attractive men would pay. Individuals show condition dependent financial preferences consistent with the provisioning hypothesis in this mating market that are adaptive to evaluations of their own quality and that of prospective partners.

  4. Does market integration buffer risk, erode traditional sharing practices and increase inequality? A test among Bolivian forager-farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurven, Michael; Jaeggi, Adrian V; von Rueden, Chris; Hooper, Paul L; Kaplan, Hillard

    2015-08-01

    Sharing and exchange are common practices for minimizing food insecurity in rural populations. The advent of markets and monetization in egalitarian indigenous populations presents an alternative means of managing risk, with the potential impact of eroding traditional networks. We test whether market involvement buffers several types of risk and reduces traditional sharing behavior among Tsimane Amerindians of the Bolivian Amazon. Results vary based on type of market integration and scale of analysis (household vs. village), consistent with the notion that local culture and ecology shape risk management strategies. Greater wealth and income were unassociated with the reliance on others for food, or on reciprocity, but wealth was associated with a greater proportion of food given to others (i.e., giving intensity) and a greater number of sharing partners (i.e., sharing breadth). Across villages, greater mean income was negatively associated with reciprocity, but economic inequality was positively associated with giving intensity and sharing breadth. Incipient market integration does not necessarily replace traditional buffering strategies but instead can often enhance social capital.

  5. Hybrid Electricity Markets with Long-Term Risk-Sharing Arrangements: Adapting Market Design to Security of Supply and decarbonization Objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ROQUES, Fabien; FINON, Dominique

    2017-01-01

    The re-emergence of policy interventionism in electricity markets raises questions as to how market design can best be adapted to meeting the investment challenge associated with security of supply (SoS) and decarbonization objectives. This paper takes an institutionalist approach in terms of modularity of the market design, and reviews the standard historical approach towards competitive markets, in order to analyse the roles and interactions of the initial and additional market 'modules'. We argue that a number of additional modules is required to achieve long-term policy objectives, such as decarbonization and security of supply (SoS). But, in turn, they destabilise the initial modules of the market design, in particular by the entries of renewables. We review the international experience with hybrid market design and draw a number of policy recommendations at to best practices, as well as suggesting ways in which the initial market modules can be improved to prevent inconsistencies with the new modules. The move towards a hybrid market regime, which relies on a combination of planning, long-term risk sharing arrangements and improved markets entrenched in a function of short-term coordination, appears to be unavoidable where decarbonization policies are adopted. (authors)

  6. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN BRAND LOYALTY AND MARKET SHARE AMONG DURABLE AND NON-DURABLE PRODUCTS

    OpenAIRE

    Ovidiu I. MOISESCU; Andrej BERTONCELJ

    2010-01-01

    Marketing specialists widely accept that brand loyalty, as core component of brand equity, can leverage several positive effects on brand commercial performance and on other dimensions of brand equity, loyalty being both an input and an output from this perspective. Starting from the supposition that higher brand loyalty can generate higher market share, the paper investigates the relationship between the two, considering repurchase and recommend intentions as main measurements of loyalty. An...

  7. Attitude of Supervisors of Yazd Educational Hospitals towards the Role of Personnel Element on the Market Share of Hospital Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Zare Zadeh

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Quality of services extremely depends on how personnel have contact and interaction with the clients. Moreover, the personnel’s attitudes and their behaviors with the clients significantly affect clients’ perception of quality of services and consequently influence their satisfaction as well as their absorption to the services of an institution. This study intends to investigate the supervisor’s attitude towards the effect of persons or the personal element (as one of the elements of the service marketing mix on choosing the hospital by the patients and their companions. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive study conducted in the winter of 2012. The study participant involved 35 supervisors in Yazd educational hospitals of Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences; Shahid Rahnemoun and Afshar. The research data were gleaned via a researcher-made questionnaire on factors of the marketing mix which its validity and reliability were confirmed. Data analysis was performed using SPSS software. Results: Results revealed that supervisor’s belief in the increasing of market share of a hospital services in public hospitals are consist of: 1-Physical evidence 2- Service or product 3- People or persons 4- Efficiency and quality 5- Process 6- Distribution 7-Promotion or propagation and 8- Price. Therefore, the significance of the personnel role in absorption of a definite patient involves the third element in choosing the hospital by the patients. Conclusion: Based on this study, since the third factor in clients’ (patients, etc. choices of hospital are the personnel and persons who provide services, it is confirmed that in service-based organizations like hospitals, the most important elements of quality of services in retaining and absorbing new clients and surviving the organization are the personnel activities who has been connected with organization clients. Moreover, it is regarded as a vital factor in

  8. R&D Expenses and Share Value in The Japanese Stock Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Nivoix

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The growing influence of technology in business activities is driving many firms to devote a greater amount of resources to research and development. It is therefore crucial to understand how the stock market evaluates the benefits of R&D. In this paper, our aim is to investigate whether Japanese investors have rewarded firms that heavily invest in R&D. We first document that R&D expenses have remained fairly stable relative to sales in the past eight years, but with large variations within and between industries. We then show that R&Dfirms have achieved a higher return relative to non-R&D firms. However, our regressions and investment simulations indicate that the relation between R&D intensity and stock returns is not significant, suggesting that the Japanese stock market is semi-strong efficient.

  9. 77 FR 66651 - Salient Advisors, L.P. and MarketShares ETF Trust; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-06

    ... Advisors, L.P. and MarketShares ETF Trust; Notice of Application October 31, 2012 AGENCY: Securities and... ETF Trust (the ``Trust''). Summary of Application: Applicants request an order that permits: (a... statutory trust. The Trust will initially offer one series, the Salient MLP and Energy Infrastructure ETF...

  10. Budget Impact of Increasing Market Share of Patient Self-Testing and Patient Self-Management in Anticoagulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevanović, Jelena; Postma, Maarten J.; Le, Hoa H.

    Background: Patient self-testing (PST) and/or patient self-management (PSM) might provide better coagulation care than monitoring at specialized anticoagulation centers. Yet, it remains an underused strategy in the Netherlands. Methods: Budget-impact analyses of current and new market-share

  11. Share2Quit: Online Social Network Peer Marketing of Tobacco Cessation Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadasivam, Rajani S; Cutrona, Sarah L; Luger, Tana M; Volz, Erik; Kinney, Rebecca; Rao, Sowmya R; Allison, Jeroan J; Houston, Thomas K

    2017-03-01

    Although technology-assisted tobacco interventions (TATIs) are effective, they are underused due to recruitment challenges. We tested whether we could successfully recruit smokers to a TATI using peer marketing through a social network (Facebook). We recruited smokers on Facebook using online advertisements. These recruited smokers (seeds) and subsequent waves of smokers (peer recruits) were provided the Share2Quit peer recruitment Facebook app and other tools. Smokers were incentivized for up to seven successful peer recruitments and had 30 days to recruit from date of registration. Successful peer recruitment was defined as a peer recruited smoker completing the registration on the TATI following a referral. Our primary questions were (1) whether smokers would recruit other smokers and (2) whether peer recruitment would extend the reach of the intervention to harder-to-reach groups, including those not ready to quit and minority smokers. Overall, 759 smokers were recruited (seeds: 190; peer recruits: 569). Fifteen percent (n = 117) of smokers successfully recruited their peers (seeds: 24.7%; peer recruits: 7.7%) leading to four recruitment waves. Compared to seeds, peer recruits were less likely to be ready to quit (peer recruits 74.2% vs. seeds 95.1%), more likely to be male (67.1% vs. 32.9%), and more likely to be African American (23.8% vs. 10.8%) (p marketing quadrupled our engaged smokers and enriched the sample with not-ready-to-quit and African American smokers. Peer recruitment is promising, and our study uncovered several important challenges for future research. This study demonstrates the successful recruitment of smokers to a TATI using a Facebook-based peer marketing strategy. Smokers on Facebook were willing and able to recruit other smokers to a TATI, yielding a large and diverse population of smokers. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For

  12. Where Did They Go? Market Share Trends of Business Student Enrollment at Public, Not-for-Profit, and For-Profit Institutions from 1996 to 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox Garrity, Bonnie Kathleen

    2012-01-01

    The author presents the trends in market share of business student enrollment at public, not-for-profit, and for-profit 4-year-and-above institutions from 1996 to 2008. Although each sector of the institutions has experienced growth in overall enrollments, the relative market share of public and not-for-profit institutions has dropped, whereas the…

  13. Market share scenarios for Gen-DIII and gen-IV reactors in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roelofs, F.; Heek, A. V.; Durpel, L. V. D.

    2008-01-01

    Nuclear energy is back on the agenda worldwide in order to meet growing energy demand and especially the growth in electricity demand. Many objectives direct to an increased use of nuclear energy, i.e. minimising energy costs, reducing climate change effects and others. In the light of the potential renewed growth of nuclear energy, the public demands a clear view on what nuclear energy may contribute towards meeting these objectives and especially how nuclear energy may address some socio-political obstructions with respect to economics, radioactive waste, safety and proliferation of fissile materials. To address these questions, the future nuclear reactor park mix in Europe has been analysed applying an integrated dynamic process modelling technique. Various market share scenarios for nuclear energy are derived including sub-variants with regard to the intra-nuclear options. In the analyses, it is assumed that different types of new reactors may be built, taking into account the introduction date of considered Gen-Ill (i.e. EPR) and Gen-IV (i.e. SCWR, HTR, FR) reactors, and the economic evaluation of the complete fuel cycle. The assessment was undertaken using the DANESS code (Dynamic Analysis of Nuclear Energy System Strategies). The analyses show that given the considered realistic nuclear energy demand and given a limited number of available Gen-III and Gen-IV reactor types, the future European nuclear park will exist of combinations of Gen-III and Gen-IV reactors. This mix will always consist of a set of reactor types each having its specific strengths. The analyses also highlight the triggers influencing the choice between different nuclear energy deployment scenarios. (authors)

  14. What happened to anti-malarial markets after the Affordable Medicines Facility-malaria pilot? Trends in ACT availability, price and market share from five African countries under continuation of the private sector co-payment mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tougher, Sarah; Hanson, Kara; Goodman, Catherine

    2017-04-25

    The private sector supplies anti-malarial treatment for large proportions of patients in sub-Saharan Africa. Following the large-scale piloting of the Affordable Medicines Facility-malaria (AMFm) from 2010 to 2011, a private sector co-payment mechanism (CPM) provided continuation of private sector subsidies for quality-assured artemisinin combination therapies (QAACT). This article analyses for the first time the extent to which improvements in private sector QAACT supply and distribution observed during the AMFm were maintained or intensified during continuation of the CPM through 2015 in Kenya, Madagascar, Nigeria, Tanzania and Uganda using repeat cross-sectional outlet survey data. QAACT market share in all five countries increased during the AMFm period (p private sector QAACT availability were maintained or improved. In 2014/15, private sector QAACT availability was greater than 70% in Nigeria (84.3%), Kenya (70.5%), Tanzania (83.0%) and Uganda (77.1%), but only 11.2% in Madagascar. QAACT market share was maintained or improved post-AMFm in Nigeria, Tanzania and Uganda, but statistically significant declines were observed in Kenya and Madagascar. In 2014/5, QAACT market share was highest in Kenya and Uganda (48.2 and 47.5%, respectively) followed by Tanzania (39.2%), Nigeria (35.0%), and Madagascar (7.0%). Four of the five countries experienced significant decreases in median QAACT price during the AMFm period. Private sector QAACT prices were maintained or further reduced in Tanzania, Nigeria and Uganda, but prices increased significantly in Kenya and Madagascar. SP prices were consistently lower than those of QAACT in the AMFm period, with the exception of Kenya and Tanzania in 2011, where they were equal. In 2014/5 QAACT remained two to three times more expensive than the most popular non-artemisinin therapy in all countries except Tanzania. Results suggest that a private sector co-payment mechanism for QAACT implemented at national scale for 5 years was

  15. A theory of price-fixing/market-sharing rings as applied to OPEC behavior since march 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazushi Uemura

    1992-01-01

    In the past, OPEC has been analyzed as a cartel, but usually without a formal theoretical framework. Don Patinkin's cartel model was occasionally used, but was turned down for being 'too strict' to explain OPEC behavior. One of the most serious short-comings of Patinkin's model is its prediction that high-cost producers would first shut down for the survival of a cartel. In OPEC agreements, it has been seen many times that Saudi Arabia (a low-cost producer) reduced its production for the survival of the cartel. A new and promising cartel theory, A theory of price-fixing/market-sharing rings, has been introduced ('CMT model'). In this paper, it is going to use CMT model's structure and model OPEC's major price-fixing/market-sharing agreements and a period without such an agreement since March, 1982 when OPEC, for the first time in its history, reached a price-fixing/market-sharing agreement. 3 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  16. The significance of interconnector counter-trading in a security constrained electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higgins, P.; Li, K.; Devlin, J.; Foley, A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Throughout the European Union there is an increasing amount of wind generation being dispatched-down due to the binding of power system operating constraints from high levels of wind generation. This paper examines the impact a system non-synchronous penetration limit has on the dispatch-down of wind and quantifies the significance of interconnector counter-trading to the priority dispatching of wind power. A fully coupled economic dispatch and security constrained unit commitment model of the Single Electricity Market of the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland and the British Electricity Trading and Transmission Arrangement was used in this study. The key finding was interconnector counter-trading reduces the impact the system non-synchronous penetration limit has on the dispatch-down of wind. The capability to counter-trade on the interconnectors and an increase in system non-synchronous penetration limit from 50% to 55% reduces the dispatch-down of wind by 311 GW h and decreases total electricity payments to the consumer by €1.72/MW h. In terms of the European Union electricity market integration, the results show the importance of developing individual electricity markets that allow system operators to counter-trade on interconnectors to ensure the priority dispatch of the increasing levels of wind generation. - Highlights: • Interconnector counter-trading reduces the system marginal price in the SEM. • Dispatch-down of wind power is reduced due to interconnector counter-trading. • A 5% increase in the SNSP limit can reduce wind power dispatched-down by 50%. • An increase in the SNSP limit and installed wind capacity reduces the SMP.

  17. Strategic analysis of PKM Duda SA. on Polish meat market with the application of BCG growth-share matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Zielińska-Chmielewska

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this paper was to examine the market position of one leading meat processing enterprise PKM Duda SA. on the domestic meat market. The assessment of the activity portfolio on its three strategic units was undertaken with the usage of BCG matrix. The PKM Duda SA. was chosen for the study because: a processes more than 20 tons of slaughter per week, b is located in the country of origin, c exists on Warsaw Stock Exchange Market, d preserves continuity of its database in Monitor Polski „B”. The analysis proved that all three examined strategic units have different market shares and operate on markets of a different acceleration. The highest income rate brings the meat processing unit (B, the lowest slaughter unit (A. The market position of PKM Duda SA. can be improved when a retail trade unit (B moves away from question marks into stars. Although BCG matrix draws a fast and a complex strategic situation, is not free from disadvantages. That is the reason why further, also portfolio, analysis should be im-plemented.

  18. Corporate Finance and the San Francisco Mining Share Market, 1860-1877

    OpenAIRE

    Oskar, Glenda

    2013-01-01

    Throughout history, capital markets have been central to innovation and the development of new industries, job creation, low unemployment, wealth accumulation, reducing income inequality, improving living standards, and promoting economic growth. In perfect capital markets, firms can easily raise funds for profitable investments. However, market frictions, such as agency costs, liquidity constraints, and asymmetric information, can lead to underinvestment. In this dissertation, I study the fi...

  19. The unexpected stable market share of the bicycle in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Goeverden, C.D.; Van Arem, B.; Godefrooij, T.

    2013-01-01

    In the Netherlands, the share of the bicycle as the main mode in all person trips has been highly constant in the past three decades (about 27%). A constant share is remarkable because a number of developments in this period were unfavourable for bicycle use, like ageing of the population, growing

  20. Factors of Purchase of Bread – Prospect to Regain the Market Share?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislav Skořepa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to assess the consumers’ buying behaviour and decision-making process when purchasing bread and to propose the ways of how to improve the position of bread in the market. 1601 properly filled questionnaires were used for the analysis. Results are presented under the form of frequencies of answers and statistical tests. The analysis included evaluation of statistical hypotheses about the independence (significance level α = 0.01 using the chi-square goodness of fit test and Pearson coefficient of contingency. The significance level was then compared with the value p-value, for p-value > α, the null hypothesis was not rejected. The most important factors of choosing bread are freshness, appearance habit and price. The importance of the price grows with the increasing age of respondents and decreases with the increasing income of questioned consumers. The importance of the brand, as well as the reference or recommendation from the family and friends slightly strengthens with the increasing income of the consumers. Most of the respondents make no difference between both (yeast and rye leaven technologies of baking bread when making their buying decision. We cannot say, however, the preference to the rye leaven bread grows with the increasing age of respondents to the detriment of the yeast bread or vice versa.

  1. The evaluation of competitiveness and innovation factors in order to increase market share

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukajlović Đurđica

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Doing business in modern days is characterized by a large number of suppliers of products and / or services that can meet our needs in the same or similar manner. For this reason, each organization has to constantly monitor the competitiveness of the market, to innovate in order to maintain the existing place on the market or possibly reach new markets. The purpose of conducted research was to assess the factors which are important for achieving a competitive advantage, increasing innovative activities and to identify factors which are crucial for the entry and penetration into new markets, as well as to determine the correlation of these factors with different characteristics of organization (size, level and duration of business. The results have shown that marketing is recognized as the most important factor for achieving a competitive advantage. Innovative activities are usually of imitative character, while consumers and their needs and requirements are largely ignored.

  2. City tourism and the sharing economy – potential effects of online peer-to-peer marketplaces on urban property markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Brauckmann

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate the potential effects of the so-called sharing economy on growing city tourism as well as on urban property markets. Design/methodology/approach – Official statistical data and a geo-information system (GIS are used on a small scale in order to identify concentration processes among overnight visitors and the potential concomitant conflicts with other interest groups. Findings – Currently, the effects of the sharing economy on housing markets and city tourism are barely measurable and are limited to a few central locations. However, a growing demand can be discerned in housing-like accommodation concepts which can be operated via booking platforms. As there is likely to be strong future growth in this area, continuous market observation (monitoring is urgently advised. Research limitations/implications – Official statistics only allow an analysis of overnight guests staying with larger accommodation providers. Booking platforms for holiday homes and other temporary accommodation options have such little interest in data transparency that the overall phenomenon of city tourism can be addressed only in part. Practical implications – Associating various data within the GIS enables municipal administrators and urban planners to identify potential sources of conflict within the property markets in good time and effectively counteract these where possible. Social implications – Increases in property prices directly attributable to growing city tourism may lead to the displacement of less financially secure members of the established population as well as businesses. Originality/value – The sharing economy is a relatively new research topic which will become increasingly important in future. The identification of potential sources of conflict due to tourist accommodation has therefore not yet been comprehensively carried out on a small scale.

  3. A market-based approach to share water and benefits in transboundary river basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjoon, Diane; Tilmant, Amaury; Herrmann, Markus

    2016-04-01

    The equitable sharing of benefits in transboundary river basins is necessary to reach a consensus on basin-wide development and management activities. Benefit sharing arrangements must be collaboratively developed to be perceived as efficient, as well as equitable, in order to be considered acceptable to all riparian countries. The current literature falls short of providing practical, institutional arrangements that ensure maximum economic welfare as well as collaboratively developed methods for encouraging the equitable sharing of benefits. In this study we define an institutional arrangement that distributes welfare in a river basin by maximizing the economic benefits of water use and then sharing these benefits in an equitable manner using a method developed through stakeholder involvement. In this methodology (i) a hydro-economic model is used to efficiently allocate scarce water resources to water users in a transboundary basin, (ii) water users are obliged to pay for water, and (iii) the total of these water charges are equitably redistributed as monetary compensation to users. The amount of monetary compensation, for each water user, is determined through the application of a sharing method developed by stakeholder input, based on a stakeholder vision of fairness, using an axiomatic approach. The whole system is overseen by a river basin authority. The methodology is applied to the Eastern Nile River basin as a case study. The technique ensures economic efficiency and may lead to more equitable solutions in the sharing of benefits in transboundary river basins because the definition of the sharing rule is not in question, as would be the case if existing methods, such as game theory, were applied, with their inherent definitions of fairness.

  4. Trends in market share of leading cigarette brands in the USA: national survey on drug use and health 2002-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Anushree; Fix, Brian V; Delnevo, Cristine; Cummings, K Michael; O'Connor, Richard J

    2016-01-29

    The main objective of this study is to examine trends in market share for leading cigarette brands, both before (2002-2008) and after (2009-2013) Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulation of tobacco products.Design Data come from the annual National Survey on Drug Use and Health from 2002 through 2013. Descriptive statistics, cross tabulations, and logistic regression were employed. Data were weighted to the US population and adjusted for cigarette consumption. Our analysis is restricted to 164,343 current cigarette smokers who were at least 12 years of age or older, had smoked at least one cigarette in the 30 days prior to the survey, and reported a usual cigarette brand at the time of the survey. Over 12 years, 14 brands comprised over 77% of the cigarette market. Marlboro consistently held over 38% of the market. Newport held the second highest market share, and increased from 7.2% in 2002 to 10.9% by 2013. Market share of Pall Mall grew by over 400% (1.7% in 2002 vs 8.9% in 2013), likely aided by the 2009 Federal excise tax increase. No clear associations of changes in market share with the implementation of FDA's regulatory authority over tobacco in 2009 were noted. Tracking market share trends offers clues about brand marketing changing preferences of consumers. Rapidly growing cigarette brands should be monitored to determine if specific marketing practices or design changes are drivers, as these could represent public health concerns. Monitoring trends in cigarette market share could inform regulatory decision-making efforts related to marketing and advertising. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  5. Revenue Share between Layers and Investment Incentive for ISP in the Internet Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unno, Masaru; Xu, Hua

    In this paper, we consider a revenue-sharing and network investment problem between an Internet service provider (ISP) and a content provider (CP) by applying the dynamic agency theory. We formulate the problem as the principal-agent problem where the ISP is the principal and the CP is the agent. The principal-agent problem is transformed to a stochastic optimal control problem in which the objectives of ISP are to find an optimal revenue-sharing strategy and a network investment strategy, and to advise an incentive compatible effort level to the CP. The sufficient conditions for the existence of the optimal revenue-sharing strategy, the optimal investment strategy and the incentive compatible effort to the CP are obtained. A numerical example is solved to show the existence of such strategies. The practical implications of the results obtained in the paper will also be discussed.

  6. Implementing evidence-based practices for youth in an HMO: the roles of external ratings and market share.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, John; Daleiden, Eric; Dopson, Sue

    2011-05-01

    A qualitative study of child clinicians in a non-profit HMO examined implementation of evidence-based practices (EBPs) for anxiety and oppositional defiant disorders using interviews and focus groups with 33 clinicians (97% of participants), and ethnography of emails and meetings. Analysis showed statistical measures of access and service-key elements of rating organizations' "report cards"- were central in creating "pressure" making transition to EBPs difficult. EBPs were secondary to access and service targets. "Research" and "statistics" were perceived as unrealistic, "literature" as lacking authority. Rating organizations should include outcome and fidelity metrics to align market share pressures with children's health.

  7. Regulatory design for RES-E support mechanisms: Learning curves, market structure, and burden-sharing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batlle, C.; Pérez-Arriaga, I.J.; Zambrano-Barragán, P.

    2012-01-01

    Drawing from relevant experiences in power systems around the world, this paper offers a review of existing policy support mechanisms for RES-E, with a detailed analysis of their regulatory implications. While recent studies provide an account of current RES-E support systems, in this paper we focus on some of the impacts these mechanisms have on the overall energy market structure and its performance. Given the rising importance of RES-E in systems everywhere, these impacts should no longer be overlooked. - Highlights: ► This paper offers a critical review of RES-E support mechanisms and their regulatory implications. ► The discussion focuses on how the different schemes impact the performance of the energy markets. ► We propose to redesign of current RES-E mechanisms to optimize incentives and market performance. ► Our recommendation is also to gradually move from price-based mechanisms to auctions.

  8. Cost-Sharing and Drug Pricing Strategies : Introducing Tiered Co-Payments in Reference Price Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suppliet, Moritz; Herr, Annika

    2016-01-01

    Health insurances curb price insensitive behavior and moral hazard of insureds through different types of cost-sharing, such as tiered co-payments or reference pricing. This paper evaluates the effect of newly introduced price limits below which drugs are exempt from co-payments on the pricing

  9. The Consumer Production Journey: Marketing to Consumers as Co-Producers in the Sharing Economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.G.C. Dellaert (Benedict)

    2018-01-01

    textabstractNew digital technologies not only support consumers in better fulfilling their own consumption needs, but also enable them to create greater value for other consumers. These new consumer co- production activities, collectively referred to as the sharing economy, require firms to rethink

  10. A multi-scale energy demand model suggests sharing market risks with intelligent energy cooperatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Methenitis (Georgios); M. Kaisers (Michael); J.A. La Poutré (Han)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper, we propose a multi-scale model of energy demand that is consistent with observations at a macro scale, in our use-case standard load profiles for (residential) electric loads. We employ the model to study incentives to assume the risk of volatile market prices for

  11. Soverign Rating Events and bank Share Prices in the Italian Market

    OpenAIRE

    S. Caselli; G. Gandolfi; M. Soana

    2013-01-01

    The paper examines the spillover effect of Eurozone sovereign rating changes announced by Standard and Poor’s, Moody’s, and Fitch on domestic bank share prices in the period 2002–2012. This spillover effect appears strongly negative in the case of downgrades, but insignificant for upgrades. Bank losses following sovereign downgrades are greater during the financial crisis of 2008 and in the PIIGS countries (Portugal, Ireland, Italy, Greece, and Spain). Surprisingly, announcement of sovereign ...

  12. Share Market Analysis Using Various Economical Determinants to Predict Decision of Investors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Arijit; Roy, Samrat; Bandyopadhyay, Gautam; Choudhuri, Kripasindhu

    2010-10-01

    The following paper tries to develop six major hypotheses in Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE) in India. The paper tries to proof the hypothesis by collecting data from the fields on six sectors: oil prices, gold price, Cash Reserve Ratio, food price inflation, call money rate and Dollar price. The research uses these data as indicators to identify relationship and level of influence on Share prices of Bombay Stock Exchange by rejecting and accepting the null hypothesis.

  13. Decomposing price differentials due to ENERGY STARR labels and energy efficiency features in appliances: proxy for market share tracking?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardner, John; Skumatz, Lisa A.

    2005-01-01

    This paper summarizes recent work using statistical methods to examine the portions of the apparent price differences for a variety of appliances that are attributable to efficiency labels or components of efficient measures. The work stems from research examining progress in market transformation. The goal was to monitor market progress in the premium associated with efficient equipment compared to standard equipment - and potentially track these changes (hopefully, according to logic, declining) over time. However, the incremental cost metric is always confounded by the fact that the 'feature bundle' on appliances and lighting is not consistent ( i.e. , many efficient products are loaded up with other, high-end features). Based on work conducted by the authors some years ago, we adapted statistical models to decompose the price differentials for efficient and standard refrigerators, clothes washers, and dish washers. The authors used site visits and web searches to gather data on appliance prices and features for a set of efficient and standard models. The authors first examined apparent (raw) price differentials between efficient and standard models. Then, using regression techniques to control for differences in features on the measures, the differences attributable to various features - and in particular to energy efficient features and logos - were estimated. The results showed that while the apparent (gross) price differences for efficient measures are high, the percentage and dollar differences decrease dramatically when the price differences statistically attributable to other features of the measure are accounted for. The work illustrates a promising approach for three important applications in program planning and evaluation: tracking market progress within and between states or service territories, using a proxy variable that is less expensive and complicated to measure than direct indicators of sales or market share, identifying appropriate levels for

  14. Distributed Market-Based Algorithms for Multi-Agent Planning with Shared Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    1 Introduction 1 2 Distributed Market-Based Multi-Agent Planning 5 2.1 Problem Formulation...over the deterministic planner, on the “test set” of scenarios with changing economies. . . 50 xi xii Chapter 1 Introduction Multi-agent planning is...representation of the objective (4.2.1). For example, for the supply chain mangement problem, we assumed a sequence of Bernoulli coin flips, which seems

  15. Managed care market share and cesarean section rates in the United States: is there a link?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hueston, W J; Sutton, A

    2000-11-01

    After peaking during the early 1980s, cesarean section rates in the United States have been falling for the last decade. At the same time, managed care enrollment has increased dramatically. This study examines whether managed care penetration in local markets is associated with lower cesarean section rates in those geographic area. A cross-sectional comparison of cesarean section rates and health maintenance organization (HMO) market penetration in 61 selected metropolitan areas in the United States was conducted. National birth certificate data for 1996 were used to calculate crude and race-adjusted cesarean section rates for residents in each area. No relationship between overall cesarean section rates in the metropolitan areas and managed care penetration was observed. Subanalyses of racial groups demonstrated the existence of a weak association between managed care penetration and cesarean section rates for white women (21.2% for the highest quartile of HMO penetration, compared with 19.1% for the lowest quartile; P = .03), but not for African-Americans or other minorities. Managed care penetration in a market may have an association with cesarean section rates for white women, but the strength of this relationship is small. Even if managed care delivery systems reduce cesarean section rates in their own populations, this change is likely to have only a small impact on overall cesarean rates. HMO penetration is unlikely to influence national cesarean section rates, nor does it appear to explain state variations in these rates.

  16. Networks of Food Sharing Reveal the Functional Significance of Multilevel Sociality in Two Hunter-Gatherer Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyble, Mark; Thompson, James; Smith, Daniel; Salali, Gul Deniz; Chaudhary, Nikhil; Page, Abigail E; Vinicuis, Lucio; Mace, Ruth; Migliano, Andrea Bamberg

    2016-08-08

    Like many other mammalian and primate societies [1-4], humans are said to live in multilevel social groups, with individuals situated in a series of hierarchically structured sub-groups [5, 6]. Although this multilevel social organization has been described among contemporary hunter-gatherers [5], questions remain as to the benefits that individuals derive from living in such groups. Here, we show that food sharing among two populations of contemporary hunter-gatherers-the Palanan Agta (Philippines) and Mbendjele BaYaka (Republic of Congo)-reveals similar multilevel social structures, with individuals situated in households, within sharing clusters of 3-4 households, within the wider residential camps, which vary in size. We suggest that these groupings serve to facilitate inter-sexual provisioning, kin provisioning, and risk reduction reciprocity, three levels of cooperation argued to be fundamental in human societies [7, 8]. Humans have a suite of derived life history characteristics including a long childhood and short inter-birth intervals that make offspring energetically demanding [9] and have moved to a dietary niche that often involves the exploitation of difficult to acquire foods with highly variable return rates [10-12]. This means that human foragers face both day-to-day and more long-term energetic deficits that conspire to make humans energetically interdependent. We suggest that a multilevel social organization allows individuals access to both the food sharing partners required to buffer themselves against energetic shortfalls and the cooperative partners required for skill-based tasks such as cooperative foraging. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Innovative business models within niche tourist markets: shared identity, authenticity and flexibile networks. The case of three italian SMEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Montaguti

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Innovative business models within niche tourist markets: shared identity, authenticity and flexibile networks. The case of three italian SMEs The evolution of business models is a crucial challenge for tourism companies, which should understand how they can stimulate their creativity and introduce innovation. However for many firms, in particular for SMEs, this process is not so easy to be adopted. Even more difficult it is to understand how the business model should change to be successful in solving what appears to be one of the main problems for SMEs, especially within mature, tourist destinations, i.e. targeting new profitable segments. The paper discusses the main findings of a research project carried out by the authors about changes in the business models of Italian tourism companies, underlining in particular three case-studies of interest in terms of the innovation put in place and that relate to SMEs. The analysis, based on the business model canvas, the value constellation and the storytelling, found out that these three firms are flexible companies that have characteristics emblematic of the knowledge and information economy business models. They successfully answer the needs of specific niches, finding new opportunities within a mature tourism market and famous destinations, thanks to their ability to develop wide flexible networks, where customers are an active part, and thanks to the value proposed to the clients, centred on the idea of a shared identity between the clients and the company’s founders and of an authenticity guaranteed by the life story of the founders themselves.

  18. Capturing value from external NPD collaboration — the significant role of market information processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tandrup, Thomas

    . By including customers, suppliers, competitors, universities, and other external experts in the development process, firms gain access to information, knowledge, and ideas that otherwise would have been out of reach. Extensive previous research has documented the beneficial effects of collaborating with many...... sources.This study contributes to the existing knowledge of firms’ use of external sources in new product development. A model is presented that tests the effectiveness of external collaboration when multiple external sources have to be managed simultaneously. Also, firms’ ability to process information...... of determining whether it is any more difficult to collaborate with external sources and process information about products that are completely new to the market.This thesis presents a model that points out how difficult it is to collaborate with many external sources unless the firm has the right formal...

  19. Wind up with continuous intra-day electricity markets? The integration of large-share wind power generation in Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karanfil, Fatih; Li, Yuanjing

    2015-01-01

    This paper suggests an innovative idea to examine the functionality of an electricity intra-day market by testing causality among its fundamental components. As fluctuations of poorly predicted wind power generation are challenging the stability of the current electricity system, an intra-day market design can play an important role in managing wind forecast errors. Using Danish and Nordic data, it investigates the main drivers of the price difference between the intra-day and day-ahead markets, and causality between wind forecast errors and their counterparts. Our results show that the wind and conventional generation forecast errors significantly cause the intra-day price to differ from the day-ahead price, and that the relative intra-day price decreases with the unexpected amount of wind generation. Cross-border electricity exchanges are found to be important to handle wind forecast errors. Additionally, some zonal differences with respect to both causality and impulse responses are detected. This paper provides the first evidence on the persuasive functioning of the intra-day market in the case of Denmark, whereby intermittent production deviations are effectively reduced, and wind forecast errors are jointly handled through the responses from demand, conventional generation, and intra-day international electricity trade. (authors)

  20. Shareholder composition, share turnover, and returns in volatile markets : The case of international REITs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brounen, Dirk; Kok, N.; Ling, D.C.

    2012-01-01

    The shareholder composition of listed property companies has changed from the fragmented, retail ownership, to more concentrated, institutional ownership over the past decade. In this paper, we first document significant variation in the composition of the shareholder base across the world's five

  1. Hospital Market Structure and the Behavior of Not-for-Profit Hospitals: Evidence from Responses to California's Disproportionate Share Program

    OpenAIRE

    Mark Duggan

    2000-01-01

    I exploit a plausibly exogenous change in hospital financial incentives to examine whether the behavior of private not-for-profit hospitals varies with the share of nearby hospitals organized as for-profit firms. My results show that not-for-profit hospitals in for-profit intensive areas are significantly more responsive to an increased incentive to treat low-income patients insured by the Medicaid program than are other not-for-profit providers. The heterogeneity in behavior is not due to di...

  2. Got ACTs? Availability, price, market share and provider knowledge of anti-malarial medicines in public and private sector outlets in six malaria-endemic countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Kathryn A; Gatakaa, Hellen; Poyer, Stephen; Njogu, Julius; Evance, Illah; Munroe, Erik; Solomon, Tsione; Goodman, Catherine; Hanson, Kara; Zinsou, Cyprien; Akulayi, Louis; Raharinjatovo, Jacky; Arogundade, Ekundayo; Buyungo, Peter; Mpasela, Felton; Adjibabi, Chérifatou Bello; Agbango, Jean Angbalu; Ramarosandratana, Benjamin Fanomezana; Coker, Babajide; Rubahika, Denis; Hamainza, Busiku; Chapman, Steven; Shewchuk, Tanya; Chavasse, Desmond

    2011-10-31

    Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) is the first-line malaria treatment throughout most of the malaria-endemic world. Data on ACT availability, price and market share are needed to provide a firm evidence base from which to assess the current situation concerning quality-assured ACT supply. This paper presents supply side data from ACTwatch outlet surveys in Benin, the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Madagascar, Nigeria, Uganda and Zambia. Between March 2009 and June 2010, nationally representative surveys of outlets providing anti-malarials to consumers were conducted. A census of all outlets with the potential to provide anti-malarials was conducted in clusters sampled randomly. 28,263 outlets were censused, 51,158 anti-malarials were audited, and 9,118 providers interviewed. The proportion of public health facilities with at least one first-line quality-assured ACT in stock ranged between 43% and 85%. Among private sector outlets stocking at least one anti-malarial, non-artemisinin therapies, such as chloroquine and sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine, were widely available (> 95% of outlets) as compared to first-line quality-assured ACT (sector, first-line quality-assured ACT was available for free in all countries except Benin and the DRC (US$1.29 [Inter Quartile Range (IQR): $1.29-$1.29] and $0.52[IQR: $0.00-$1.29] per adult equivalent dose respectively). In the private sector, first-line quality-assured ACT was 5-24 times more expensive than non-artemisinin therapies. The exception was Madagascar where, due to national social marketing of subsidized ACT, the price of first-line quality-assured ACT ($0.14 [IQR: $0.10, $0.57]) was significantly lower than the most popular treatment (chloroquine, $0.36 [IQR: $0.36, $0.36]). Quality-assured ACT accounted for less than 25% of total anti-malarial volumes; private-sector quality-assured ACT volumes represented less than 6% of the total market share. Most anti-malarials were distributed through the private sector

  3. An exploratory analysis of cigarette price premium, market share and consumer loyalty in relation to continued consumption versus cessation in a national US panel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Michael; Wang, Yanwen; Cahn, Zachary; Berg, Carla J

    2015-11-03

    Brand equity and consumer loyalty play a role in continued purchasing behaviour; however, this research has largely focused on non-addictive products without counter-marketing tactics. We examined the impact of brand equity (price premium, market share) and consumer loyalty (switching rates) on smoking cessation (discontinued cigarette purchases for 1 year) among smokers in a consumer panel. In Spring 2015, we analysed 1077 cigarette-purchasing households in the Nielsen Homescan Panel. We analysed cessation in relation to brand equity, consumer loyalty, other purchasing behaviours (nicotine intake, frequency), sociodemographics and tobacco control activities (per state-specific data) over a 6-year period (2004-2009) using Cox proportional hazard modelling. The sample was 13.28% African-American; the average income was $52,334 (SD=31,445). The average price premium and market share of smokers' dominant brands were $1.31 (SD=0.49) and 15.41% (SD=19.15), respectively. The mean brand loyalty level was 0.90 (SD=0.17), indicating high loyalty. In our final model, a higher price premium and market share were associated with lower quit rates (p=0.039); however, an interaction effect suggested that greater market share was not associated with lower cessation rates for African-American smokers (p=0.006). Consumer loyalty was not associated with cessation. Other predictors of lower quit rates included a higher nicotine intake (p=0.006) and baseline purchase frequency (pconsumer relationships. Thus, continued efforts should aim to regulate tobacco marketing efforts in order to disrupt these relationships to promote cessation. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  4. An exploratory analysis of cigarette price premium, market share and consumer loyalty in relation to continued consumption versus cessation in a national US panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Michael; Wang, Yanwen; Cahn, Zachary; Berg, Carla J

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Brand equity and consumer loyalty play a role in continued purchasing behaviour; however, this research has largely focused on non-addictive products without counter-marketing tactics. We examined the impact of brand equity (price premium, market share) and consumer loyalty (switching rates) on smoking cessation (discontinued cigarette purchases for 1 year) among smokers in a consumer panel. Methods In Spring 2015, we analysed 1077 cigarette-purchasing households in the Nielsen Homescan Panel. We analysed cessation in relation to brand equity, consumer loyalty, other purchasing behaviours (nicotine intake, frequency), sociodemographics and tobacco control activities (per state-specific data) over a 6-year period (2004–2009) using Cox proportional hazard modelling. Results The sample was 13.28% African-American; the average income was $52 334 (SD=31 445). The average price premium and market share of smokers’ dominant brands were $1.31 (SD=0.49) and 15.41% (SD=19.15), respectively. The mean brand loyalty level was 0.90 (SD=0.17), indicating high loyalty. In our final model, a higher price premium and market share were associated with lower quit rates (p=0.039); however, an interaction effect suggested that greater market share was not associated with lower cessation rates for African-American smokers (p=0.006). Consumer loyalty was not associated with cessation. Other predictors of lower quit rates included a higher nicotine intake (p=0.006) and baseline purchase frequency (pconsumer relationships. Thus, continued efforts should aim to regulate tobacco marketing efforts in order to disrupt these relationships to promote cessation. PMID:26534732

  5. Salmonella contamination: a significant challenge to the global marketing of animal food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    L Plym, Forshell; Wierup, M

    2006-08-01

    Salmonellosis is the most common food-borne bacterial disease in the world. Salmonella is a significant pathogen for food-producing animals and these animals are the primary source of salmonellosis. It is estimated that herd prevalence varies between 0% and 90%, depending on the animal species and region. The pathogen is spread by trade in animals and non-heated animal food products. The emergence of strains that are resistant to antimicrobials, often as a result of antimicrobial usage in animals, is a public health hazard of great concern. It is increasingly accepted that the prevalence of Salmonella in animal production must be decreased and, in the European Union, plans to achieve this are currently being implemented. In this paper, the authors propose various risk mitigation strategies. Successful control must focus on a range of preventive actions because there is no simple 'silver bullet' solution to reduce Salmonella contamination. The authors conclude that the key to controlling Salmonella is to follow the general rules that have been successfully applied to other infectious diseases.

  6. Geology and market-dependent significance of rare earth element resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simandl, G. J.

    2014-12-01

    China started to produce rare earth elements (REEs) in the 1980s, and since the mid-1990s, it has become the dominant producer. Rare earth element export quotas first introduced by the Chinese government in the early 2000s were severely reduced in 2010 and 2011. This led to strong government-created disparity between prices within China and the rest of the world. Industrialized countries identified several REEs as strategic metals. Because of rapid price increases of REE outside of China, we have witnessed a world-scale REE exploration rush. The REE resources are concentrated in carbonatite-related deposits, peralkaline igneous rocks, pegmatites, monazite ± apatite veins, ion adsorption clays, placers, and some deep ocean sediments. REE could also be derived as a by-product of phosphate fertilizer production, U processing, mining of Ti-Zr-bearing placers, and exploitation of Olympic Dam subtype iron oxide copper gold (IOCG) deposits. Currently, REEs are produced mostly from carbonatite-related deposits, but ion adsorption clay deposits are an important source of heavy REE (HREE). Small quantities of REE are derived from placer deposits and one peralkaline intrusion-related deposit. The ideal REE development targets would be located in a politically stable jurisdiction with a pro-mining disposition such as Canada and Australia. REE grade, HREE/light REE (LREE) ratio of the mineralization, tonnage, mineralogy, and permissive metallurgy are some of the key technical factors that could be used to screen potential development projects. As REEs are considered strategic metals from economic, national security, and environmental points of view, technical and economic parameters alone are unlikely to be used in REE project development decision-making. Recycling of REE is in its infancy and unless legislated, in the short term, it is not expected to contribute significantly to the supply of REE.

  7. Evaluation of the potential of PV noise barrier technology for electricity production and market share. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goetzberger, A.; Kleiss, G.; Castello, S.; Hille, G.; Reise, C.; Wiemken, E.; Betcke, J.W.H.; Van Dijk, V.A.P.; Pearsall, N.; Hynes, K.; Gaidddon, B.; Nordmann, T.; Froelich, A.

    1999-06-01

    The analysis of existing and planned noise barriers along rails and roads has been carried out by the national partners together with national authorities, which are experts and responsible for the required data. The methodical approach of this study includes the set-up of a grid along longitude and latitudes with 1 by 1 degrees for Germany, Italy, France, United Kingdom and 0.5 by 0.5 degrees for the Netherlands and Switzerland. For each degree the length and orientation of rails and roads, the existing and planned noise barriers are registered and grouped according to their orientations. The solar radiation is based on data of a METEONORM data set. This includes the solar radiation on horizontal orientation as well as various inclination angles for all possible orientations. Moreover, possible shading has been considered. The technical specifications of noise barriers (PVNB) are based on the comprehensive knowledge of TNC GmbH and TNC AG with various plants realised. Technologies have been considered for both state-of-the-art and innovative concepts such as bifacial PVNB. In bifacial PVNB the PV-module is mounted vertically on both sides and is used at the same time as noise reflecting material. Installed PV power and produced electricity have been calculated for: 1. theoretical potential 2. technical potential 3. short-term resp. European extrapolated potential 4. anticipated potential 5. EU-member assessment The result of this study confirms the current activities to implement PV on noise barriers as an important share in the PV market.The report is subdivided into two volumes: Volume 1 contains the main topics and results, and Volume 2 contains additional information on the solar radiation, typical concepts as an excerpt of the various potentials and all country maps with the required explanations. 95 refs

  8. On the (dis)ability of the firm to quantify chains : a marketing prespective on sharing financial rewards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ingenbleek, P.T.M.

    2005-01-01

    Although the marketing discipline originates from agricultural economics, it currently moves to a new logic that is marked by, among other things, customer value, customer satisfaction, rationships, market orientation and resource-based theories. This article uses this evolving logic in marketing to

  9. Inherent Complexity Research on the Bullwhip Effect in Supply Chains with Two Retailers: The Impact of Three Forecasting Methods Considering Market Share

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junhai Ma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An important phenomenon in supply chain management which is known as the bullwhip effect suggests that demand variability increases as one moves up a supply chain. This paper contrasts the bullwhip effect for a two-stage supply chain consisting of one supplier and two retailers under three forecasting methods based on the market share. We can quantify the correlation coefficient between the two retailers clearly, in consideration of market share. The two retailers both employ the order-up-to inventory policy for replenishments. The bullwhip effect is measured, respectively, under the minimum mean squared error (MMSE, moving average (MA, and exponential smoothing (ES forecasting methods. The effect of autoregressive coefficient, lead time, and the market share on a bullwhip effect measure is investigated by using algebraic analysis and numerical simulation. And the comparison of the bullwhip effect under three forecasting methods is conducted. The conclusion suggests that different forecasting methods and various parameters lead to different bullwhip effects. Hence, the corresponding forecasting method should be chosen by the managers under different parameters in practice.

  10. The Effects of Shared Consumption on Product Life Cycles and Advertising Effectiveness : The Case of the Motion Picture Market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delre, Sebastiano A.; Broekhuizen, Thijs L.J.; Bijmolt, Tammo H.A.

    2016-01-01

    Consumers frequently consume hedonic products together with other consumers and derive value from this shared experience. This article investigates the impact of shared consumption, a type of social influence that determines the enjoyment of joint experiences, in the context of a typical hedonic

  11. The effect of business cycle fluctuations on private-label share : What has marketing conduct got to do with it?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamey, L.; Deleersnyder, B.; Steenkamp, J.E.B.M.; Dekimpe, M.G.

    2012-01-01

    The authors investigate whether, and to what extent, marketing conduct varies over the business cycle and how this contributes to the growing popularity of private labels. To address this issue, they examine a unique data set that combines a broad set of seven marketing-mix instruments with

  12. Production sharing agreements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This paper, which was presented at the Production Sharing Agreement seminar, discusses economic rent, negotiations, trends in fiscal system development, and concessionary systems. Production sharing contracts, risk service contracts, joint ventures and the global market are examined. (UK)

  13. Impacts of market liberalisation on the EU gas industry. The Shared Analysis project Energy Policy in Europe and Prospects to 2020. Volume No. 9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Oostvoorn, F.; Boots, M.G.

    1999-10-01

    This final report presents the results of the analyses at relevant trends and features in the EU gas market enabling or limiting more competition. The study focuses in particular on the possible impacts of the implementation of the EU Gas Directive and subsequently of the expected effects of increasing competition and further integration of gas markets in Europe. The study is conducted in the framework of the Shared Analysis project entitled 'Economic Foundations for Energy Policy', coordinated by FhG-ISI and prepared for the European Commission Directorate General for Energy. The report contains an analysis of the recent changes in the structure of gas demand and the supply and its consequences for enhancement of competition in the EU gas market. lt discusses the role of growing gas demand, changing structure of the supply industry and access to the network. Next, the implementation of the EU Gas Directive is discussed. In order to deal with the uncertainty in the results of the implementation process, two extreme institutional scenarios for future development of the liberalisation process in the EU gas markets are formulated. Finally, the consequences of these two gas market liberalisation scenarios are analysed. Note that part of the conclusions of the expected effects of the Directive, i.e. the expected changes in gas prices and market structures, are based on a model analysis. However, it should be clear that at this stage our conclusions presented in this report are still of a tentative nature. Note also that the final report is based on an extensive collection of EU gas market data both on country and company level, which was described in the first interim report entitled 'The natural gas market in the European Union'. A second interim report was drafted with an energy policy interpretation of the analyses of data and developments over the past ten years. Furthermore, at this moment, facts, opinions and available data are rapidly changing in the beginning of

  14. Clinical significance and epidemiologic analyses of Mycobacterium avium and Mycobacterium intracellulare lung disease from post-marketing surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Katsuhiro; Kurashima, Atsuyuki; Tatsuno, Kinji; Kadota, Jun-Ichi

    2018-01-01

    In Japan, nontuberculous mycobacterial lung disease is mostly attributable to Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC), i.e., M. avium or M. intracellulare. However, clinical features of the disease caused by these two pathogens have not been studied sufficiently yet. A post-marketing survey of clarithromycin was performed at 130 facilities across Japan. The data on patients with M. avium infection and patients with M. intracellulare infection were selected from this survey for comparison of background variables and clinical features of the two pathogens. Among the patients analyzed (n = 368), 67.4% had M. avium infection and 32.6% had M. intracellulare infection. Stratified analysis revealed no significant differences between the ratio of the two pathogens based on gender, disease type, complication, past medical history, or smoking history. However, the percentage of patients with M. intracellulare infection was significantly higher among those with underlying lung disease than among those without lung disease (p = 0.0217). The percentage of patients with M. intracellulare infection rose significantly with age (p = 0.0296). This age-related change was more significant in women (p = 0.0018). When district-wise analysis was performed for Japan, the percentage of M. intracellulare infection was higher in the Chugoku/Shikoku and Kyushu districts whereas the percentage of M. avium infection was higher in the other districts. This survey revealed some differences in the clinical and epidemiologic features of M. avium and M. intracellulare infection. The significant predominance of M. avium infection among relatively young women is suggestive of an increase in the M. avium/M. intracellulare infection ratio among women in the future. Copyright © 2017 The Japanese Respiratory Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Social marketing campaign significantly associated with increases in syphilis testing among gay and bisexual men in San Francisco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, Jorge A; Kent, Charlotte K; Rotblatt, Harlan; McCright, Jacque; Kerndt, Peter R; Klausner, Jeffrey D

    2005-07-01

    Between 1999 and 2002, San Francisco experienced a sharp increase in early syphilis among gay and bisexual men. In response, the San Francisco Department of Public Health launched a social marketing campaign to increase testing for syphilis, and awareness and knowledge about syphilis among gay and bisexual men. A convenience sample of 244 gay and bisexual men (18-60 years of age) were surveyed to evaluate the effectiveness of the campaign. Respondents were interviewed to elicit unaided and aided awareness about the campaign, knowledge about syphilis, recent sexual behaviors, and syphilis testing behavior. After controlling for other potential confounders, unaided campaign awareness was a significant correlate of having a syphilis test in the last 6 months (odds ratio, 3.21; 95% confidence interval, 1.30-7.97) compared with no awareness of the campaign. A comparison of respondents aware of the campaign with those not aware also revealed significant increases in awareness and knowledge about syphilis. The Healthy Penis 2002 campaign achieved its primary objective of increasing syphilis testing, and awareness and knowledge about syphilis among gay and bisexual men in San Francisco.

  16. Supporting the Development and Adoption of Automatic Lameness Detection Systems in Dairy Cattle: Effect of System Cost and Performance on Potential Market Shares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van De Gucht, Tim; Van Weyenberg, Stephanie; Van Nuffel, Annelies; Lauwers, Ludwig; Vangeyte, Jürgen; Saeys, Wouter

    2017-10-08

    Most automatic lameness detection system prototypes have not yet been commercialized, and are hence not yet adopted in practice. Therefore, the objective of this study was to simulate the effect of detection performance (percentage missed lame cows and percentage false alarms) and system cost on the potential market share of three automatic lameness detection systems relative to visual detection: a system attached to the cow, a walkover system, and a camera system. Simulations were done using a utility model derived from survey responses obtained from dairy farmers in Flanders, Belgium. Overall, systems attached to the cow had the largest market potential, but were still not competitive with visual detection. Increasing the detection performance or lowering the system cost led to higher market shares for automatic systems at the expense of visual detection. The willingness to pay for extra performance was €2.57 per % less missed lame cows, €1.65 per % less false alerts, and €12.7 for lame leg indication, respectively. The presented results could be exploited by system designers to determine the effect of adjustments to the technology on a system's potential adoption rate.

  17. Marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, David W

    2010-01-01

    There is not enough marketing of dentistry; but there certainly is too much selling of poor quality service that is being passed off as dentistry. The marketing concept makes the patient and the patients' needs the ultimate criteria of marketing efforts. Myths and good practices for effective marketing that will promote oral health are described under the traditional four "Ps" categories of "product" (best dental care), "place" (availability), "promotion" (advertising and other forms of making patients aware of available services and how to use them), and "price" (the total cost to patients of receiving care).

  18. Knowledge sharing through social media: Investigating trends and technologies in a global marketing and advertising research company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Adamovic

    2012-07-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate trends in knowledge-sharing technologies in Nielsen. Method: The researchers distributed semi-structured questionnaires to a sample of employees in Nielsen’s Television Audience Measurement Department. They also conducted interviews with specific employees in this department to gain a better understanding of employees’ attitudes toward, and perceptions of, the use of social media tools for creating a knowledgesharing culture at Nielsen. The researchers validated the data to see whether it could support the research and used triangulation to create a holistic view of the data they received from the questionnaires. Results: The findings of the study revealed that respondents had a positive attitude to sharing knowledge with one another through using social media tools. However, some respondents thought that technology, in general, was ‘the tree of good and evil’. The survey findings showed that Nielsen did have social media tools. However, not all employees were aware of these tools or were willing to use the tools to share knowledge. This study highlighted the possible advantages of the social media for sharing knowledge and how Nielsen could use the tools more widely. Conclusion: In order for a knowledge sharing culture to thrive at Nielsen, its employees need to engage more with social media tools in their business practices.

  19. A Mathematical Model of Profit-Loss Sharing Scheme of Small Investment for Traditional Market Traders using The Semi-Fuzzy Logic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novriana Sumarti

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical model of micro-finance investment using profit-loss sharing scheme are made and implemented to simulated data. Here profits from the venture will be shared in a portion between the investor and the entity running the business. The scheme can be classified as Musharaka type of investment in Sharia economy. The proposed model is theoretically implemented with data from small-scale traders at a local traditional market who have small turnover. They are common target of usurers who lend money with high interest rate and penalties. If the traders are in unfortunate conditions, they are potentially in poorer condition than before committing themselves to the usurer. In the conventional practices of the profit sharing scheme, the investor will get a fixed portion of the trader’s income, which is applied for all kind of small-scale traders. If the traders are diligent and hard worker and have very high turnover, then the investor will gain much more profit whether the contributed capital is small or large. In this paper, the scheme is implemented using Semi-Fuzzy Logic Approach so that the profit-loss sharing scheme can achieve its intended goal, which is to make a profitable investment not only for the investor but also for traders. The approach is not fully using Fuzzy Logic because some variables are still in crisp numbers and the optimization problem is regular in the form of crisp numbers. Based on the existing data, the results show that the optimal profit share is depended on the income of the traders. The higher the income coming from the venture, the lesser the profit share for the investor which is reasonable with the fixed initial contributed capital.

  20. Knowledge sharing through social media: Investigating trends and technologies in a global marketing and advertising research company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Adamovic

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this study was to investigate social media technology trends in Nielsen – a global information and measurement company – and to establish how these technologies can help the company to create a knowledge-sharing culture.Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate trends in knowledge-sharing technologies in Nielsen.Method: The researchers distributed semi-structured questionnaires to a sample of employees in Nielsen’s Television Audience Measurement Department. They also conducted interviews with specific employees in this department to gain a better understanding of employees’ attitudes toward, and perceptions of, the use of social media tools for creating a knowledgesharing culture at Nielsen. The researchers validated the data to see whether it could support the research and used triangulation to create a holistic view of the data they received from the questionnaires.Results: The findings of the study revealed that respondents had a positive attitude to sharing knowledge with one another through using social media tools. However, some respondents thought that technology, in general, was ‘the tree of good and evil’. The survey findings showed that Nielsen did have social media tools. However, not all employees were aware of these tools or were willing to use the tools to share knowledge. This study highlighted the possible advantages of the social media for sharing knowledge and how Nielsen could use the tools more widely.Conclusion: In order for a knowledge sharing culture to thrive at Nielsen, its employees need to engage more with social media tools in their business practices. 

  1. Testing for Expected Return and Market Price of Risk in Chinese A-B Share Market: A Geometric Brownian Motion and Multivariate GARCH Model Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Jie

    There exist dual-listed stocks which are issued by the same company in some stock markets. Although these stocks bare the same firm-specific risk and enjoy identical dividends and voting policies, they are priced differently. Some previous studies show this seeming deviation from the law of one p...

  2. South Korean carbon black business: The market share of the foreign-affiliated firm occupies 60%; Gaishi shea 1kyo 6wari

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-28

    Entering of the foreign capital by the business bribery happens one after another in the South Korean carbon blacks business world. German Gegsa followed the matter that the business of LG chemistry was purchased last November, and rice Colombia, chemicals purchased a business from the brocade Lake petrochemistry, too. Though a domestic manufacturer 4 companies almost monopolized it, share of the foreign capital enterprise which occupies it in the gross domestic product ability by the a series of bribery was beyond 60% in the South Korean carbon blacks market at once. It has South Korea seen with foreign capital two companies with the thing, which strengthens a business in Asia in the position, and foreign capital two companies will put an offensive on the Japanese market. (translated by NEDO)

  3. Does labour market disadvantage help to explain why childhood circumstances are related to quality of life at older ages? Results from SHARE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahrendorf, Morten; Blane, David

    2015-07-01

    There is robust evidence that childhood circumstances are related to quality of life in older ages, but the role of possible intermediate factors is less explored. In this paper, we examine to what extent associations between deprived childhood circumstances and quality of life at older ages are due to experienced labour market disadvantage during adulthood. Analyses are based on the Survey of Health Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE), with detailed retrospective information on individual life courses collected among 10,272 retired men and women in 13 European countries (2008-2009). Our assumption is that those who have spent their childhood in deprived circumstances may also have had more labour market disadvantage with negative consequences for quality of life beyond working life. Results demonstrate that advantaged circumstances during childhood are associated with lower levels of labour market disadvantage and higher quality of life in older ages. Furthermore, results of multivariate analyses support the idea that part of the association between childhood circumstances and later quality of life is explained by labour market disadvantage during adulthood.

  4. STP Revision Which Leads to Change on Business Model and Marketing Strategy of BRIGANDINE with the Purpose of Expanding the Market Share

    OpenAIRE

    Ashari, Emir; Aldianto, Leo

    2013-01-01

    Football industry Indonesia is currently on the rise and got a lot of public attention. As a result of increasing interest in the sport, many opportunities have opened up. One is the opportunity to market the complementary product to perform activities of playing football / Futsal such as the Jersey. Brigandine Football is a startup company that creates football/Futsal sportswear. Brigandine was founded in late 2011.There are few issues that brigandine face, the biggest problems is the lack o...

  5. Like, comment, share and all that jazz : social media as communication and marketing tool case: Social media marketing approaches used by MaiJazz music festival

    OpenAIRE

    Tanaskovic, Nenad

    2014-01-01

    Master's thesis in International hotel and tourism management Social networks have become an integral part of everyday life for many. With an increasing number of companies using social media to communicate and build relationships with their customers, social media might be considered as the newest element of the marketing mix. The thesis’ objective is to explore the use of social media communication tools used by the jazz music festival, MaiJazz, in Stavanger, to define key...

  6. Análise da competitividade das exportações do complexo soja brasileiro de 1995 a 2006: uma abordagem de market-share Analysis of the exports competitiveness of the complex soy Brazilian from 1995 to 2006: an approach of market-share

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Arruda Coronel

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo objetivou identificar o comportamento das exportações do complexo soja brasileiro de 1995 a 2006, utilizando o modelo de comércio internacional Constant-Market-Share para os períodos 1995 a 1998, 1999 a 2001 e 2002 a 2006. Com base nas inferências feitas pode-se observar que os efeitos competitividade e crescimento do comércio mundial foram os que mais colaboraram para o crescimento das commodities grão, farelo e óleo de soja nos períodos analisados. As inferências deste trabalho foram feitas a partir de dados coletados junto ao Sistema de Análise das Informações de Comércio Exterior (Alice, da Secretaria de Comércio Exterior (Secex, à Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO e à Organização Mundial do Comércio (OMC. Com base nos resultados encontrados pode-se afirmar que Brasil tem uma importância significativa no comércio mundial de soja e apresenta condições edafoclimáticas favoráveis ao aumento da produção.This study has the aim of identifying the behavior of the Brazilian soy complex exports from 1995 to 2006. For this, it was used the model of international commerce Constant-Market-Share from 1995 to 1998, 1999 to 2001 and 2002 to 2006. Based on the interferences done, it was observed that the effects competitiveness and growth of the world-wide commerce collaborated a lot for the commodities growth grain, bran and oil soy in the analyzed periods. The analyses of this paper were done through collected data from the System of Analysis of Information of the Exterior Commerce (Alice, the General Office of Exterior Commerce (Secex, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO and the World-wide Organization of the Commerce (WTO. Based on the considered result, it is possible to infer that Brazil is significantly important in the worldwide commerce of soy and presents favorable soil and climatic conditions to the increase of the production.

  7. Probabilistic modelling of human exposure to intense sweeteners in Italian teenagers: validation and sensitivity analysis of a probabilistic model including indicators of market share and brand loyalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcella, D; Soggiu, M E; Leclercq, C

    2003-10-01

    For the assessment of exposure to food-borne chemicals, the most commonly used methods in the European Union follow a deterministic approach based on conservative assumptions. Over the past few years, to get a more realistic view of exposure to food chemicals, risk managers are getting more interested in the probabilistic approach. Within the EU-funded 'Monte Carlo' project, a stochastic model of exposure to chemical substances from the diet and a computer software program were developed. The aim of this paper was to validate the model with respect to the intake of saccharin from table-top sweeteners and cyclamate from soft drinks by Italian teenagers with the use of the software and to evaluate the impact of the inclusion/exclusion of indicators on market share and brand loyalty through a sensitivity analysis. Data on food consumption and the concentration of sweeteners were collected. A food frequency questionnaire aimed at identifying females who were high consumers of sugar-free soft drinks and/or of table top sweeteners was filled in by 3982 teenagers living in the District of Rome. Moreover, 362 subjects participated in a detailed food survey by recording, at brand level, all foods and beverages ingested over 12 days. Producers were asked to provide the intense sweeteners' concentration of sugar-free products. Results showed that consumer behaviour with respect to brands has an impact on exposure assessments. Only probabilistic models that took into account indicators of market share and brand loyalty met the validation criteria.

  8. 投票市场发展、资本要素积累与产业结构升级——基于中国A股市场的实证研究%Stock Market Development, Capital Elements Accumulation and Industrial Structure Upgrading --An Empirical Study Based on China' s A-Share Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈峥嵘; 朱蕾

    2012-01-01

    首先从要素流动角度就股票市场对产业结构优化升级的推动作用提出相关假设,并从中观和微观上实证检验中国A股市场是否存在推动产业结构优化升级的作用机制。实证结果表明,股票市场规模的扩大有效推动了三次产业和工业产业的结构优化升级,市场流动性的高低对产业结构优化升级存在负向效应,而城市化进程的加快及垂直专业化程度的提高可以降低该种负向效应;战略性新兴产业上市公司经营绩效显著,并在创业板市场上最具成长性,而且行业内资本集中度越低、市场风险越高,越能激励行业内企业上市。据此,在扩大股票市场规模、增强市场流动性、上市资源选择、创业板市场建设等方面提出了相应的政策建议。%In this paper we first make a theoretical assumption that capital markets promote the upgrading of industrial structure via mobility of capital. And we investigate the assumption on the case of China's A-share market over the period 1991 - 2010. The result shows that the expansion of market scale effectively promotes the structure upgrading while market liquidity makes negative effects, w of three main industries and industrial internal sector hich can be reduced by the raise of urbanization and vertical specialization. We also find that the strategy emerging industries show significant performance on Ashare market and show more significant growth on GEM (Growth Enterprise Market) than on other markets. Industries with lower capital concentration and higher market risk encourage more companies to be listed. According to this, we proposed suggestions on expanding market scale, enhancing market liquidity, selection of market resource, and construction of the GEM.

  9. Restructuring of Turkey's electricity market and the share of hydropower energy: The case of the Eastern Black Sea Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uzlu, Ergun; Koemuercue, Murat ihsan; Akpinar, Adem

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the historical development of Turkey's electricity power sector, the efforts for introducing competition in the power industry in Turkey, and the concerns regarding restructuring in Turkey. The contribution of the hydropower energy potential in Turkey to the reconstruction of the electricity structure in Turkey is also investigated. Then, among the 25 hydrological basins in Turkey, the Eastern Black Sea Basin located in the northeast of Turkey, which has great advantages from the view point of small hydropower potential or hydropower potential without storage, is chosen as the case study to carry out some investigations concerning its potential and to analyze the contribution of the private sector (the corporate body) in regard to the development of hydro potential in this basin within the scope of the 4628 Electricity Market Law. With this law, concerning the restructuring of the electricity market, private sector investments in this segment have increased. In total, 1524 hydroelectric power projects with 22 360 MW installed capacity has been implemented until January 22nd, 2009 and this figure is continuously rising. (author)

  10. İlaç Sektöründe Pazar Paylarının Analizi: Yeni Lanchester Stratejisi ve Sistem Dinamikleri(Analysis of Market Shares in Pharmaceutical Industry: New Lanchester Strategy and System Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aşkın ÖZDAĞOĞLU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Today, many companies have developed different competition strategies with the purpose of reaching their institutional targets. Developing of the competition strategies and reaction to the instantaneous changes according to the market conditions are possible with the detailed and dynamic analysis of the competitors. In this study, how to change the market shares of the pharmaceutical product companies that compete in a certain region, depending upon the sales force have been analyzed. Lanchester’s Laws have been used for the calculations made in order to determine the market shares. All calculations have been integrated in the frame of system dynamic model in the long run analysis of the market shares and forecasting the long term results of the different sales forces. Different scenarios and long term effects have been analyzed for changes of sales forces via this model. The study ended up with obtaining the potential market share changes of the pharmaceutical product in the case study for the long run which would support the marketing activities.

  11. Got ACTs? Availability, price, market share and provider knowledge of anti-malarial medicines in public and private sector outlets in six malaria-endemic countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Connell Kathryn A

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT is the first-line malaria treatment throughout most of the malaria-endemic world. Data on ACT availability, price and market share are needed to provide a firm evidence base from which to assess the current situation concerning quality-assured ACT supply. This paper presents supply side data from ACTwatch outlet surveys in Benin, the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC, Madagascar, Nigeria, Uganda and Zambia. Methods Between March 2009 and June 2010, nationally representative surveys of outlets providing anti-malarials to consumers were conducted. A census of all outlets with the potential to provide anti-malarials was conducted in clusters sampled randomly. Results 28,263 outlets were censused, 51,158 anti-malarials were audited, and 9,118 providers interviewed. The proportion of public health facilities with at least one first-line quality-assured ACT in stock ranged between 43% and 85%. Among private sector outlets stocking at least one anti-malarial, non-artemisinin therapies, such as chloroquine and sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine, were widely available (> 95% of outlets as compared to first-line quality-assured ACT ( Conclusions These standardized, nationally representative results demonstrate the typically low availability, low market share and high prices of ACT, in the private sector where most anti-malarials are accessed, with some exceptions. The results confirm that there is substantial room to improve availability and affordability of ACT treatment in the surveyed countries. The data will also be useful for monitoring the impact of interventions such as the Affordable Medicines Facility for malaria.

  12. Development of cross-border transmission lines in Poland and their significance for the Central East Europeam energy market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andruszkiewicz, Jerzy

    2010-09-15

    This publication presents the existing cross-border transmission lines connecting Poland with neighbouring countries and their use in the currently applied mechanisms for making available the transfer capacities. The prospects and the considered options of development in cross-border interconnections were presented, taking into account their role in the integration of the European market and of the trade relations with neighbouring counties other than members of the European Community. The role of the planned interconnections in solving the problems of central European countries connected with the implementation of European strategy that reduce CO2 emissions in the area of electricity generation was discussed.

  13. Cost-optimal power system extension under flow-based market coupling and high shares of photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagspiel, Simeon; Jaegemann, Cosima; Lindenberger, Dietmar [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Energy Economics; Cherevatskiy, Stanislav; Troester, Eckehard; Brown, Tom [Energynautics GmbH, Langen (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    Electricity market models, implemented as dynamic programming problems, have been applied widely to identify possible pathways towards a cost-optimal and low carbon electricity system. However, the joint optimization of generation and transmission remains challenging, mainly due to the fact that different characteristics and rules apply to commercial and physical exchanges of electricity in meshed networks. This paper presents a methodology that allows to optimize power generation and transmission infrastructures jointly through an iterative approach based on power transfer distribution factors (PTDFs). As PTDFs are linear representations of the physical load flow equations, they can be implemented in a linear programming environment suitable for large scale problems such as the European power system. The algorithm iteratively updates PTDFs when grid infrastructures are modified due to cost-optimal extension and thus yields an optimal solution with a consistent representation of physical load flows. The method is demonstrated on a simplified three-node model where it is found to be stable and convergent. It is then scaled to the European level in order to find the optimal power system infrastructure development under the prescription of strongly decreasing CO{sub 2} emissions in Europe until 2050 with a specific focus on photovoltaic (PV) power. (orig.)

  14. The expansion of nuclear energy in industrialized and developing countries: Reasons, market shares, fissile material supply and waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarz, D.

    1992-01-01

    At present there are more ethical-anthropological reasons than economic ones which speak for an expansion of nuclear energy: Ecological, climatic, peace and resource policy problems which most porbably will be unsolvable by real human beings and expensive methods leaving out nuclear energy. The risks resulting from that exceed by several orders of magnitude the risk which would be involved in the operation of various thousands of modern nuclear power plants. Most of the nuclear power plants are and will be operated today and tomorrow in industrialized countries; however, some of them are running already today in several threshold countries. Therefore the safety of nuclear power plants must be such as to permit their construction anywhere. Together with intensified saving, nuclear energy can solve energy policy problems in all sectors of the energy market predominantly in a non-fossil way, namely by taking over almost the entire power generation, by economical application of power instead of fossil fuels, rendering at the same time a large number of energy services, and supplying process and heating heat. Uranium supply will be solved internationally by prospection and increased uranium exploitation, or by the breeder, at economically reasonable cost. Safe waste management is technically feasible. Lack of acceptance neccessitates at present safe intermediate storage at reasonable cost. When discussing this question the ethical aspect of nuclear energy expansion should be stressed. (orig./UA) [de

  15. Well-to-Wheels Greenhouse Gas Emissions Analysis of High-Octane Fuels with Various Market Shares and Ethanol Blending Levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Jeongwoo [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Elgowainy, Amgad [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wang, Michael [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Divita, Vincent [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-07-14

    In this study, we evaluated the impacts of producing HOF with a RON of 100, using a range of ethanol blending levels (E10, E25, and E40), vehicle efficiency gains, and HOF market penetration scenarios (3.4% to 70%), on WTW petroleum use and GHG emissions. In particular, we conducted LP modeling of petroleum refineries to examine the impacts of different HOF production scenarios on petroleum refining energy use and GHG emissions. We compared two cases of HOF vehicle fuel economy gains of 5% and 10% in terms of MPGGE to baseline regular gasoline vehicles. We incorporated three key factors in GREET — (1) refining energy intensities of gasoline components for the various ethanol blending options and market shares, (2) vehicle efficiency gains, and (3) upstream energy use and emissions associated with the production of different crude types and ethanol — to compare the WTW GHG emissions of various HOF/vehicle scenarios with the business-as-usual baseline regular gasoline (87 AKI E10) pathway.

  16. Sustainable Corporate Social Media Marketing Based on Message Structural Features: Firm Size Plays a Significant Role as a Moderator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moon Young Kang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Social media has been receiving attention as a cost-effective tool to build corporate brand image and to enrich customer relationships. This phenomenon calls for more attention to developing a model that measures the impact of structural features, used in corporate social media messages. Based on communication science, this study proposes a model to measure the impact of three essential message structural features (interactivity, formality, and immediacy in corporate social media on customers’ purchase intentions, mediated by brand attitude and corporate trust. Especially, social media platforms are believed to provide a good marketing platform for small and medium enterprises (SMEs by providing access to huge audiences at a very low cost. The findings from this study based on a structural equation model suggest that brand attitude and corporate trust have larger impacts on purchase intention for SMEs than large firms. This implies that SMEs with little to no presence in the market should pay more attention to building corporate trust and brand attitude for their sustainable growth.

  17. COMMUNICATING WITH TARGET MARKET ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanka Djurić

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The generally accepted definition that related to conceptual determination of market communication has not been performed. However, market communication can be defined as a set of activities and natural relationships that companies in various branches of authorities and business activities are established with other business organizations, and in order to establish a successful primary market communication, establishing a larger market share and the effective realization of the final goal, and certainly in market conditions that is profit. Activity which the company conducts are reduced to preparatory activities for the establishment of better relations with market operators, defining long-term strategies for successful business communication. The company has contact with their immediate environment, both internal and external. This, external environment emphasizing significantly because it consists of other economic organizations and entities, legal and regulatory bodies and consumers in order to take better starting position, preservation of the existing market share and also or extension thereof.

  18. Essays on Cooperatives: Emergence, Retained Earnings, and Market Shares : Essays over coöperaties: Ontstaan, ingehouden winst en marktaandeel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Petruchenya (Anna)

    2018-01-01

    markdownabstractCooperatives received significant attention in recent years as an alternative to investor-owned corporations. The objective of a cooperative to advance the interests of its member-owners is appealing from a societal perspective, particularly when comparing it with a profit-maximizing

  19. A Marketing Case History Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weirick, Margaret C.

    1978-01-01

    A current marketing plan from Temple University illustrates many marketing techniques, including those dealing with enrollment objectives, market objectives, demographic characteristics of Temple students, market share analysis, and the marketing plan. Specific guidelines are provided. (LBH)

  20. Why do generic drugs fail to achieve an adequate market share in Greece? Empirical findings and policy suggestions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasopoulos, T; Charonis, A; Athanasakis, K; Kyriopoulos, J; Pavi, E

    2017-03-01

    Since 2010, the memoranda of understanding were implemented in Greece as a measure of fiscal adjustment. Public pharmaceutical expenditure was one of the main focuses of this implementation. Numerous policies, targeted on pharma spending, reduced the pharmaceutical budget by 60.5%. Yet, generics' penetration in Greece remained among the lowest among OECD countries. This study aims to highlight the factors that affect the perceptions of the population on generic drugs and to suggest effective policy measures. The empirical analysis is based on a national cross-sectional survey that was conducted through a sample of 2003 individuals, representative of the general population. Two ordinal logistic regression models were constructed in order to identify the determinants that affect the respondents' beliefs on the safety and the effectiveness of generic drugs. The empirical findings presented a positive and statistically significant correlation with income, bill payment difficulties, safety and effectiveness of drugs, prescription and dispensing preferences and the views toward pharmaceutical companies. Also, age and trust toward medical community have a positive and statistically significant correlation with the perception on the safety of generic drugs. Policy interventions are suggested on the bases of the empirical results on 3 major categories; (a) information campaigns, (b) incentives to doctors and pharmacists and (c) to strengthen the bioequivalence control framework and the dissemination of results. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Auto Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    <正> Editor’s notes: As China’s WTO entry is drawing near, Chinese people are witnessing the marketing activities of foreign automakers in China: establishing new firms and promoting new vehicles, etc. In face of the enormous Chinese market, foreign automakers are busy in establishing their brand images, fostering consumption population in order to take more market shares in the future.

  2. Analisis Market Performance Dengan Pendekatan Capm Dan Appraisal Ratio Serta Pengaruhnya Terhadap Variasi Harga Saham Syariah

    OpenAIRE

    Nur Aisyah, Esy

    2015-01-01

    The success of Jakarta Islamic Index as an index that has the largest market capitalization that is visible from the aggregate value of shares JII significantly compared to the capitalization of all shares diperdagangkan.Namun active in a market, there are always investors who do not agree with the market consensus due to stock market performance is not always walk in the same direction with high market capitalization. For companies that go public stock prices is an indicator of the value Per...

  3. A concorrência entre o Brasil e a China no mercado Sul-africano: uma aplicação do modelo constant-market-share

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariane Danielle Baraúna da Silva

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available O forte crescimento da economia chinesa nos últimos anos foi acompanhado pelo aumento de suas necessidades por recursos naturais para atender a demanda crescente de sua indústria de base. O continente africano tem representado, nesse contexto, uma importante fonte de matérias-primas para a China, dado que este continente se apresenta como uma das últimas regiões com abundância de recursos naturais ainda pouco explorados. A presença chinesa no continente africano tem trazido consigo mudanças quanto à vinculação econômica da região com o Brasil. Diante desse cenário, o presente trabalho realiza uma análise das relações econômicas entre o Brasil e a África do Sul, maior economia da África, que representa dentro do continente africano um importante mercado para as exportações brasileiras. Neste trabalho, será feito uso do modelo constant-market-share, com o objetivo de analisar os ganhos ou perdas da competitividade do Brasil e mensurar o quanto o avanço das exportações chinesas contribuíram para as possíveis perdas do Brasil. Os resultados obtidos permitem concluir que boa parte das perdas de exportações brasileiras na África do Sul é devida aos ganhos de participação da China.

  4. Advertising quality and market share

    OpenAIRE

    Πέκκα - Οικονόμου, Βικτωρία; Σολδάτος, Γεράσιμος Θ.

    1999-01-01

    This paper utilizes a signaling-game approach to advertising and concludes that advertising is a means of increasing profits and not an instrument of consumer preferences manipulation. It also concludes that advertised brands should offer to the consumer something original and if not, then offer what more or less the rival do.

  5. Goodness-of-Fit versus Significance: A CAPM Selection with Dynamic Betas Applied to the Brazilian Stock Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Ricardo de Pinho Ronzani

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM with time-varying betas is considered. These betas evolve over time, conditional on financial and non-financial variables. Indeed, the model proposed by Adrian and Franzoni (2009 is adapted to assess the behavior of some selected Brazilian equities. For each equity, several models are fitted, and the best model is chosen based on goodness-of-fit tests and parameters significance. Finally, using the selected dynamic models, VaR (Value-at-Risk measures are calculated. We can conclude that CAPM with time-varying betas provide less conservative VaR measures than those based on CAPM with static betas or historical VaR.

  6. Market power analysis for the Iranian electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asgari, Mohammad Hossein; Monsef, Hassan

    2010-01-01

    The market power problem in Iranian electricity market is addressed in this study. This paper by using various structural indices of market power and reviewing market results analyzes the intensity of competition in Iran's electricity market and examines whether this market is functioning at an appropriate level of efficiency. In this article the most well-known indices of market power are calculated in two approaches for two different scenarios (current situation and future outlook of generation sector's ownership in Iran's power industry). Comparing the results of these scenarios promises more competitive market for the second scenario. Calculating Residual Supply Index for Iran's power market shows despite admissible values of concentration ratios, due to supply scarcity during periods when the demand is close to the total available capacity, some suppliers can exercise market power even with a relatively small market share. The most important price and load indices like weighted average prices and load/price duration curves of Iranian electricity market during March 2007-March 2008 are also analyzed in this paper. These results imply the existence of economic withholding. The main limiting factors of competition and significant implemented countermeasures for market power mitigation in Iran's electricity market are also mentioned.

  7. Shared pledge shared vision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boussaha, Ali; Diatta, Christian Sina

    2005-01-01

    The New Partnership for Africa's Development (NEPAD) is a pledge by African leaders to eradicate poverty and to promote sustainable growth and development. NEPAD is a 'new framework of interaction with the rest of the world, including the industrialised countries and multilateral organizations.' The agenda is based on regional priorities and development plans and its implementation relies on African ownership and management. As a UN system organisation, the IAEA strongly supports the priorities identified in the Millennium Declaration and the New Partnership for Africa's Development. As a technical agency, the IAEA shares its recognized core competencies and technical expertise in support of NEPAD goals. Efforts aim at strengthening institutional capacity building in nuclear sciences and technology and promoting the sustainable application of nuclear techniques for social and economic development. The IAEA has a membership of 34 African countries. The Agency supports them under its technical cooperation programme through provision of expertise, training opportunities and equipment in priority areas identified by the countries themselves. For many African Member States, meeting basic human needs through the implementation of poverty alleviation strategies remains the top priority on the agenda for national development plans and international cooperation programmes. In the context of sustainable development, special attention is being paid to enlarging the contribution of isotopes and nuclear techniques in major areas of economic and social significance and to promoting regional cooperation in nuclear science and technology related fields. As a partner in development, the Agency has promoted and undertaken programmes to support African countries' efforts to address priority development issues particularly in the areas of health care, food and agriculture and water resources development. The IAEA technical cooperation mechanism includes support to the African Regional

  8. Introduction to market power issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents an initial introduction to market power issues in wholesale electric power markets. Market power was described as the ability of sellers to act together to profitably maintain prices above competitive levels for a significant period of time. The two general forms of market power, vertical and horizontal market power, were described with reference to how they may be exercised. The factors that should be considered when evaluating the competitiveness of a market include: (1) market share of suppliers, (2) overall market concentration, (3) elasticity of demand, (4) shape of the industry supply curve, (5) the amount and distribution of excess supply, (6) typical contractual arrangements and the process for establishing prices, and (7) the relative ease to enter the market. It was noted that a narrow market scope allows only wholesale market sector (such as municipal utilities) to access competitive electricity supplies, however, a more expansive definition of market scope would consider the sale of electricity to industrial customers. This would allow more players to enter the Nova Scotia market. The barriers to entry for wholesale electric power markets are: (1) access to the transmission grids and services, (2) sites for new capacity development, (3) major inputs to power generation, (4) transportation of major inputs to generation, and (5) lack of liquidity

  9. Cornering the Market: Lessons from Industry about Shaping Public Opinion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-24

    100 By 1984, Coke had barely a three percent market share advantage over Pepsi , even while outspending them in advertising by $100 million and having...increase market share over Pepsi . There was much more that went wrong, however. Most significant was that the company didn’t grasp the factors involved...position of the Department of the Army, Department of Defense, or the U.S. Government. CORNERING THE MARKET : LESSONS FROM INDUSTRY ABOUT SHAPING PUBLIC

  10. Revenue-sharing analysis in the mobile value-added services

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Bing; TANG Shou-lian

    2006-01-01

    This article provides a framework e within which the revenue-sharing in mobile value-added services can be analyzed.It shows that the revenue-sharing ratio between a network operator and a content provider (CP) has no significant effect on prices, market shares or social welfare in the case of nonstandardization. This implies that the revenue-sharing ratio cannot be used as a policy variable.

  11. The Sharing Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avital, Michel; Carroll, John M.; Hjalmarsson, Anders

    2015-01-01

    The sharing economy is spreading rapidly worldwide in a number of industries and markets. The disruptive nature of this phenomenon has drawn mixed responses ranging from active conflict to adoption and assimilation. Yet, in spite of the growing attention to the sharing economy, we still do not know...... much about it. With the abundant enthusiasm about the benefits that the sharing economy can unleash and the weekly reminders about its dark side, further examination is required to determine the potential of the sharing economy while mitigating its undesirable side effects. The panel will join...... the ongoing debate about the sharing economy and contribute to the discourse with insights about how digital technologies are critical in shaping this turbulent ecosystem. Furthermore, we will define an agenda for future research on the sharing economy as it becomes part of the mainstream society as well...

  12. Marginal Cost Pricing in a World without Perfect Competition: Implications for Electricity Markets with High Shares of Low Marginal Cost Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frew, Bethany A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Clark, Kara [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bloom, Aaron P. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Milligan, Michael [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-12-02

    A common approach to regulating electricity is through auction-based competitive wholesale markets. The goal of this approach is to provide a reliable supply of power at the lowest reasonable cost to the consumer. This necessitates market structures and operating rules that ensure revenue sufficiency for all generators needed for resource adequacy purposes. Wholesale electricity markets employ marginal-cost pricing to provide cost-effective dispatch such that resources are compensated for their operational costs. However, marginal-cost pricing alone cannot guarantee cost recovery outside of perfect competition, and electricity markets have at least six attributes that preclude them from functioning as perfectly competitive markets. These attributes include market power, externalities, public good attributes, lack of storage, wholesale price caps, and ineffective demand curve. Until (and unless) these failures are ameliorated, some form of corrective action(s) will be necessary to improve market efficiency so that prices can correctly reflect the needed level of system reliability. Many of these options necessarily involve some form of administrative or out-of-market actions, such as scarcity pricing, capacity payments, bilateral or other out-of-market contracts, or some hybrid combination. A key focus with these options is to create a connection between the electricity market and long-term reliability/loss-of-load expectation targets, which are inherently disconnected in the native markets because of the aforementioned market failures. The addition of variable generation resources can exacerbate revenue sufficiency and resource adequacy concerns caused by these underlying market failures. Because variable generation resources have near-zero marginal costs, they effectively suppress energy prices and reduce the capacity factors of conventional generators through the merit-order effect in the simplest case of a convex market; non-convexities can also suppress prices.

  13. Marketing marketing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    dr. Karel Jan van Alsem

    2013-01-01

    In deze installatierede betoogt Karel Jan Alsem dat marketing een grotere strategische rol in organisaties zou moeten krijgen. Want marketing is bij uitstek de verbinding tussen klantwensen en het DNA van een organisatie. Doordat merken gemiddeld voor mensen niet heel belangrijk zijn, is goede

  14. Pricing Shared Appreciation Mortgages

    OpenAIRE

    Zhong, Yina

    2006-01-01

    This paper develops a model for the valuation of shared appreciation mortgage (SAM) and examines the effect of reduction in interest rate on the mortgage duration and share of property appreciation lender charges. The recent rise in SAM availability, as a result of some secondary market financial support and prerequisite standardization, motivates a more careful consideration of the underlying SAM value. The primary difference between the SAM model and the model for general traditional mor...

  15. SharePoint governance

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Mudassar

    2013-01-01

    Masteroppgave i informasjons- og kommunikasjonsteknologi IKT590 2013 – Universitetet i Agder, Grimstad SharePoint is a web-based business collaboration platform from Microsoft which is very robust and dynamic in nature. The platform has been in the market for more than a decade and has been adapted by large number of organisations in the world. The platform has become larger in scale, richer in features and is improving consistently with every new version. However, SharePoint ...

  16. Viral Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Sorina Raula Gîrboveanu; Silvia Puiu

    2008-01-01

    With consumers showing increasing resistance to traditional forms of advertising such as TV or newspaper ads, marketers have turned to alternate strategies, including viral marketing. Viral marketing exploits existing social networks by encouraging customers to share product information with their friends.In our study we are able to directly observe the effectiveness of person to person word of mouth advertising for hundreds of thousands of products for the first time

  17. Effect of the Affordable Medicines Facility--malaria (AMFm) on the availability, price, and market share of quality-assured artemisinin-based combination therapies in seven countries: a before-and-after analysis of outlet survey data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tougher, Sarah; Ye, Yazoume; Amuasi, John H; Kourgueni, Idrissa A; Thomson, Rebecca; Goodman, Catherine; Mann, Andrea G; Ren, Ruilin; Willey, Barbara A; Adegoke, Catherine A; Amin, Abdinasir; Ansong, Daniel; Bruxvoort, Katia; Diallo, Diadier A; Diap, Graciela; Festo, Charles; Johanes, Boniface; Juma, Elizabeth; Kalolella, Admirabilis; Malam, Oumarou; Mberu, Blessing; Ndiaye, Salif; Nguah, Samuel B; Seydou, Moctar; Taylor, Mark; Rueda, Sergio Torres; Wamukoya, Marilyn; Arnold, Fred; Hanson, Kara

    2012-12-01

    Malaria is one of the greatest causes of mortality worldwide. Use of the most effective treatments for malaria remains inadequate for those in need, and there is concern over the emergence of resistance to these treatments. In 2010, the Global Fund launched the Affordable Medicines Facility--malaria (AMFm), a series of national-scale pilot programmes designed to increase the access and use of quality-assured artemisinin based combination therapies (QAACTs) and reduce that of artemisinin monotherapies for treatment of malaria. AMFm involves manufacturer price negotiations, subsidies on the manufacturer price of each treatment purchased, and supporting interventions such as communications campaigns. We present findings on the effect of AMFm on QAACT price, availability, and market share, 6-15 months after the delivery of subsidised ACTs in Ghana, Kenya, Madagascar, Niger, Nigeria, Uganda, and Tanzania (including Zanzibar). We did nationally representative baseline and endpoint surveys of public and private sector outlets that stock antimalarial treatments. QAACTs were identified on the basis of the Global Fund's quality assurance policy. Changes in availability, price, and market share were assessed against specified success benchmarks for 1 year of AMFm implementation. Key informant interviews and document reviews recorded contextual factors and the implementation process. In all pilots except Niger and Madagascar, there were large increases in QAACT availability (25·8-51·9 percentage points), and market share (15·9-40·3 percentage points), driven mainly by changes in the private for-profit sector. Large falls in median price for QAACTs per adult equivalent dose were seen in the private for-profit sector in six pilots, ranging from US$1·28 to $4·82. The market share of oral artemisinin monotherapies decreased in Nigeria and Zanzibar, the two pilots where it was more than 5% at baseline. Subsidies combined with supporting interventions can be effective in

  18. MARKETING MIX AND BRANDING: COMPETITIVE HYPERMARKET STRATEGIES

    OpenAIRE

    Hui-Chu Chen; Robert D. Green

    2009-01-01

    Super-centers and hypermarkets are increasing in the retail markets. To determine customer-based brand equity (CBBE), a proportionate market share and a gender-balance hypermarket shopper sample was collected. Using t-Tests for gender to the marketing mix and CBBE, female shoppers consistently have higher mean scores. However, only distribution intensity, brand association and total brand equity were significantly higher than males. But men feel that their hypermarkets were higher priced than...

  19. Exploring the Sharing Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Netter, Sarah

    Despite the growing interest on the part of proponents and opponents - ranging from business, civil society, media, to policy-makers alike - there is still limited knowledge about the working mechanisms of the sharing economy. The thesis is dedicated to explore this understudied phenomenon...... and to provide a more nuanced understanding of the micro- and macro-level tensions that characterize the sharing economy. This thesis consists of four research papers, each using different literature, methodology, and data sets. The first paper investigates how the sharing economy is diffused and is ‘talked......-level tensions experience by sharing platforms by looking at the case of mobile fashion reselling and swapping markets. The final paper combines the perspectives of different sharing economy stakeholders and outlines some of the micro and macro tensions arising in and influencing the organization of these multi...

  20. Stochastic modelling of human exposure to food chemicals and nutrients within the "Montecarlo" project: an exploration of the influence of brand loyalty and market share on intake estimates of intense sweeteners from sugar-free soft drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclercq, Catherine; Arcella, Davide; Le Donne, Cinzia; Piccinelli, Raffaela; Sette, Stefania; Soggiu, Maria Eleonora

    2003-04-11

    To get a more realistic view of exposure to food chemicals, risk managers are getting more interested in stochastic modelling as an alternative to deterministic approaches based on conservative assumptions. It allows to take into account all the available information in the concentration of the chemical present in foods and in food consumption patterns. Within the EC-funded "Montecarlo" project, a comprehensive set of mathematical algorithms was developed to take into account all the necessary components for stochastic modelling of a variety of food chemicals, nutrients and ingredients. An appropriate computer software is being developed. Since the concentration of food chemicals may vary among different brands of the same product, consumer behaviour with respect to brands may have an impact on exposure assessments. Numeric experiments were carried out on different ways of incorporating indicators of market share and brand loyalty in the mathematical algorithms developed within the stochastic model of exposure to intense sweeteners from sugar-free beverages. The 95th percentiles of intake were shown to vary according to the inclusion/exclusion of these indicators. The market share should be included in the model especially if the market is not equitably distributed between brands. If brand loyalty data are not available, the model may be run under theoretical scenarios.

  1. To share and be shared

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Ida Wentzel

    2018-01-01

    to another. To a certain degree, they share their everyday lives, things, places, memories, and past/future, but as the ones who move back and forth, they belong a little less in each place. This article is about children who are shared between their parent, households and siblings. They are shared...

  2. 50 CFR 85.40 - Cost sharing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Use/Acceptance of Funds § 85.40 Cost sharing. (a) The Federal share shall not exceed 75% of total... grant objectives and represent the current market value of noncash contributions furnished as part of...

  3. Testing times: trends in availability, price, and market share of malaria diagnostics in the public and private healthcare sector across eight sub-Saharan African countries from 2009 to 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Kara; Goodman, Catherine

    2017-05-19

    The World Health Organization guidelines have recommended that all cases of suspected malaria should receive a confirmatory test with microscopy or a malaria rapid diagnostic test (RDT), however evidence from sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) illustrates that only one-third of children under five with a recent fever received a test. The aim of this study was to evaluate availability, price and market share of microscopy and RDT from 2009/11 to 2014/15 in 8 SSA countries, to better understand barriers to improving access to malaria confirmatory testing in the public and private health sectors. Repeated national cross-sectional quantitative surveys were conducted among a sample of outlets stocking anti-malarial medicines and/or diagnostics. In total, 169,655 outlets were screened. Availability of malaria blood testing among all screened public health facilities increased significantly between the first survey wave in 2009/11 and the most recent in 2014/15 in Benin (36.2, 85.4%, p sector in Zambia (90.9%), Benin (90.3%), Madagascar (84.5%), Katanga (74.3%), mainland Tanzania (73.5%), Uganda (71.8%), Nigeria (68.4%), Kenya (53.2%) and Kinshasa (51.9%). In the anti-malarial stocking private sector, significant increases in availability of diagnostic tests among private for-profit facilities were observed between the first and final survey rounds in Kinshasa (82.1, 94.0%, p sector price of RDT for a child was equal to the price of pre-packaged quality-assured artemisinin-based combination therapy (QAACT) treatment for a two-year old child in some countries, and 1.5-2.5 times higher in others. Median private sector QAACT price for an adult varied from having parity with an RDT for an adult to being up to 2 times more expensive. The exception was in both Kinshasa and Katanga, where the median price of QAACT was less expensive than RDTs. Significant strides have been made in the availability of testing, mainly through the widespread distribution of RDT, and especially in public

  4. Food Marketing Technology and Contingency Market Valuation

    OpenAIRE

    Garth J. Holloway; Anthony C. Zwart

    1993-01-01

    Marketing activities are introduced into a rational expectations model of the food marketing system. The model is used to evaluate effects of alternative marketing technologies on the distribution of the benefits of contingency markets in agriculture. Benefits depend on two parameters: the cost share of farm inputs and the elasticity of substitution between farm and nonfarm inputs in food marketing. Over a broad spectrum of technologies, consumers are likely to be the net beneficiaries and fa...

  5. 13 CFR 314.5 - Federal Share.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... marketing costs. (b) The Federal Share excludes that portion of the current fair market value of the..., which are not included in the total Project costs. For example, if the total Project costs are $100...

  6. Shared service centre in customer management. An inevitable conglomerate or an evil of the liberalisation of the European energy market?; Shared Service Center Kundenmanagement. Notwendiges Konglomerat oder Fluch der Liberalisierung des Energiemarktes in Europa?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macula, Daniel

    2008-07-01

    The degree to which the German legislature intervenes in the organisational structure of power supply companies is unique worldwide. The purpose of the present study was to examine and describe in detail how these regulatory measures are framed. This scientific inquiry focussed on the planning, implementation and control of shared service centres in power supply companies' customer management. It can already be said that the use of the ''SSC concept'' has led to a more efficient and cost-effective use of customer management among power supply companies and that this contributes to a greater satisfaction on the part of the internal customer. It can be assumed that this concept will gain in popularity, particularly among small-scale power supply companies. These will join forces with partner companies for this purpose in order to streamline processes.

  7. Market Segmentation, Information Asymmetry and Investor Responses in the Chinese A- and B- Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Yao

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines changes in returns and trading volumes around earnings announcements for firms which have both A-shares (traditionally for local investors only and B-shares (traditionally for foreign investors only in China. It considers the impact of regulatory changes which reduced the segmentation of local and foreign investors across the two classes of shares. We find that both the A- and B-markets experience significant price changes around earning announcements. When the two markets are fully segmented, the magnitude of price changes in the A-share market are significantly smaller than the B-market which lends empirical support to the previous claim that the B-market is less informed. The changes in trading volume indicate that the B-market investors have less divergent expectations and interpretations of the pre-disclosure information compared to the A-market investors.However, when regulatory changes reduced the level of segmentation, the price and volume reactions in the two markets became more consistent. The results suggest that the A- and Bmarkets are more integrated as a result of the regulatory changes.

  8. Sharing City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This magazine offers an insight into the growing commercial innovation, civic movements, and political narratives surrounding sharing economy services, solutions and organisational types. It presents a cross-section of the manifold sharing economy services and solutions that can be found in Denmark....... Moreover, 15 thought leading experts - professionals and academic - have been invited to give their perspective on sharing economy for cities. This magazine touches upon aspects of the sharing economy as mobility, communities, sustainability, business development, mobility, and urban-rural relation....

  9. Analysis of the feasibility of inclusion of decentralised renewable electricity systems into a mandated market share mechanism for China. Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Linden, N.H.; Junfeng, L.; Keyun, D.; Martens, J.W.; Ramani, K.V.; Sicheng, W.; Shutian, W.; Tak, C. van der

    2003-09-01

    The World Bank and the Global Environment Facility provide assistance to the Government of China with the implementation of the renewable energy programme during the 10th and 11th Five Year Plans. To this end, the China Renewable Energy Scale-up Programme (CRESP) was set up. CRESP is managed by the Project Management Office (PMO), which is institutionally placed in the National Development and Planning Commission (NDRC). One of the first activities initiated by CRESP is the development of the institutional framework within which the Mandated Market System (MMS) policy for renewable energy can be introduced. An MMS policy is based on the requirement that a set amount (or proportion) of the electricity supply is produced from renewable energy sources. The obligation is placed at some point in the supply chain, which could range from production, through transmission to supply or consumption. Monitoring procedures are put in place to ensure that the obligation will be met. Environmental considerations are the main reason behind the intention to introduce an MMS in China but the government has also recognised the importance of (renewable) energy to achieving poverty objectives. Decentralised renewable electricity systems (DRES) have special relevance for rural poor communities that are unserved or underserved by centralised fossil fuel networks or utility electricity grids. DRES may offer a promising solution to meet demand for energy services of these communities in remote location, which cannot be reach by the electricity grid. The analysis in this study focused on mini-hydro (less than 10 kW), solar home systems and stand-alone wind turbines. The principal objective of the study is to analyse the feasibility of inclusion of DRES into the proposed MMS for China. Because DRES are often used in remote areas, which are difficult to reach, the costs of verifying these systems are prohibitive if the procedures are not sufficiently simple and efficient. Therefore

  10. Analysis of the feasibility of inclusion of decentralised renewable electricity systems into a mandated market share mechanism for China. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Linden, N.H.; Junfeng, L.; Keyun, D.; Martens, J.W.; Ramani, K.V.; Sicheng, W.; Shutian, W.; Tak, C. van der

    2003-10-01

    The World Bank and the Global Environment Facility provide assistance to the Government of China with the implementation of the renewable energy programme during the 10th and 11th Five Year Plans. To this end, the China Renewable Energy Scale-up Programme (CRESP) was set up. CRESP is managed by the Project Management Office (PMO), which is institutionally placed in the National Development and Planning Commission (NDRC). One of the first activities initiated by CRESP is the development of the institutional framework within which the Mandated Market System (MMS) policy for renewable energy can be introduced. An MMS policy is based on the requirement that a set amount (or proportion) of the electricity supply is produced from renewable energy sources. The obligation is placed at some point in the supply chain, which could range from production, through transmission to supply or consumption. Monitoring procedures are put in place to ensure that the obligation will be met. Environmental considerations are the main reason behind the intention to introduce an MMS in China but the government has also recognised the importance of (renewable) energy to achieving poverty objectives. Decentralised renewable electricity systems (DRES) have special relevance for rural poor communities that are unserved or underserved by centralised fossil fuel networks or utility electricity grids. DRES may offer a promising solution to meet demand for energy services of these communities in remote location, which cannot be reach by the electricity grid. The analysis in this study focused on mini-hydro (less than 10 kW), solar home systems and stand-alone wind turbines. The principal objective of the study is to analyse the feasibility of inclusion of DRES into the proposed MMS for China. Because DRES are often used in remote areas, which are difficult to reach, the costs of verifying these systems are prohibitive if the procedures are not sufficiently simple and efficient. Therefore

  11. Managing the market risk in pipeline capacity positions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simard, T.S.

    1998-01-01

    Managing the risk involved in adding new pipeline capacity was explored in this presentation. Topics discussed included: (1) pipeline capacity positions as basis swaps, (2) physical capacity versus basis transactions, (3) managing the market price risk in a capacity position, and (4) sharing of pipeline market risk. Pipeline owners were advised to recognize that pipeline capacity carries significant market price risk, that basis markets can sometimes be more volatile than outright markets, and to treat physical capacity market risk the same way as one would treat a financial basis position. 2 figs

  12. Ontario's new electricity market and the future of OPG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howes, H.

    2002-01-01

    The recent measures taken by Ontario Power Generation since 1998 to deregulate the electricity market in the province of Ontario are reviewed. The opening of Ontario's power market in May 2002 will oblige Ontario Power Generation to reduce its market share. The author reviewed the current status of the energy market in Ontario and noted a modest growth in demand. A significant portion of the energy supply is being provided by nuclear, fossil fuels and hydro energy. The challenge facing Ontario Power Generation is to stay competitive in the new deregulated market and to participate in the energy market in the United States. 6 figs

  13. Green Certificates and Market Power on the Nordic Power Market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergman, Lars; Amundsen, Eirik S

    2007-06-01

    In Sweden a market for Tradable Green Certificates (TGCs) was introduced in 2003. The purpose was to stimulate investments in electricity generation based on renewable energy sources without using direct governmental subsidies to renewable energy. More precisely the aim is to create a market where different types of renewable electricity can compete on equal terms, thus relieving governments and public agencies from being directly involved in power industry investment decisions. The purpose of this study is to elucidate under which circumstances, how, and to what extent market power in the TGC market can be used to affect the entire electricity market. There are basically two reasons for being concerned with market power in TGC markets. The first is the fact that the industry average cost curve for 'green' electricity tends to be upward sloping. This is because the cost of wind power, the main source of green electricity, depends on the location of the power plants, and that the availability of first rate sites that do not involve sizable investments in new transmission and network infrastructure, is limited. The situation is similar for environmentally friendly hydro power, and, to some extent, for other types of 'green' electricity. Thus, given the state of technology and an upper cost limit, there is a maximum amount of 'green' electricity that can be produced within a country. This means that some generators, by getting access to the suitable sites, will become dominating producers of 'green' electricity and thus may be able to exercise market power in the TGC market. The second reason for being concerned with market power in a TGC market is that, as a result of the percentage requirement, the withdrawal of a given number of TGCs from the market forces a much larger reduction of electricity consumption. Thus relatively modest exercise of market power in the TGC market may have a significant impact on the price of electricity and the allocation of resources in

  14. File sharing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eijk, N.

    2011-01-01

    ‘File sharing’ has become generally accepted on the Internet. Users share files for downloading music, films, games, software etc. In this note, we have a closer look at the definition of file sharing, the legal and policy-based context as well as enforcement issues. The economic and cultural

  15. Shared leadership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulhøi, John Parm; Müller, Sabine

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is twofold. First, this paper comprehensively will review the conceptual and empirical literature to identify such critical underlying mechanisms which enable shared or collective leadership. Second, this article identifies the antecedents and outcomes of shared leadership...... according to the literature review to develop a re-conceptualised and synthesized framework for managing the organizational issues associated with shared leadership on various organizational levels. The paper rectifies this by identifying the critical factors and mechanisms which enable shared leadership...... and its antecedents and outcomes, and to develop a re-conceptualized and synthesized framework of shared leadership. The paper closes with a brief discussion of avenues for future research and implications for managers....

  16. TESTING THE HYPOTHESIS OF MARKET EFFICIENCY THROUGH ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS: A CASE STUDY WITH THE TEN MAJOR IBOVESPA SHARES IN THE FIRST QUARTER OF 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Henrique Herling

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fuel market is facing political, economic, social and environmental problems that are fuzzing the future of fossil energy sources and in face of these facts, countries are looking for hybrid and electric vehicles as part of solution in transportation sector due to the fact of electric vehicles use few or no fossil fuel. The objective in this article was to identify options until 2020 to introduce electric vehicle in the urban traffic of São Paulo city and to develop this study the method of literature review in secondary sources was used to present electric vehicle technologies and to identify parameters that were assessed through morphological analysis technique. In morphological analysis, sets of values were defined by the author for these parameters, possible combinations were structured, clearly impractical deployment options before 2020 were discarded and some viable solutions were analyzed in details. These analyses concluded that there are viable options for actual days in São Paulo city, but important requirements regarding technology, politic, market, infrastructure and innovation in products and services still need to be addressed and it is the main reason of electric vehicle remain unnoticed by consumers as an viable option. The challenges are great and the actors who are willing to solve them will find a promising market to explore.

  17. Gaining competitive advantage in the gas boilers market of Vojvodina through integrated marketing communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovičić Dragoljub

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the appearance of marketing and implementation of marketing concept in practice, the importance of the marketing mix, through which organizations adapt their offer to targeted customer segments, was emphasized . Regardless of the fact that the product is commonly referred to as the basic (key instrument of the marketing mix, in the last ten years, due to the rapid and strong development of science, technology, especially information technology, business and society in general, integrated marketing communications (IMK are becoming increasingly important, without which organizations can not even begin, or end, any significant marketing activity. In this context, the aim of the authors of this study was to investigate the importance of integrated marketing communications on the placement of gas boilers, i.e. on the market share of individual producers in the market of Vojvodina, which also represents the basic hypothesis of the research. Research results confirmed the basic hypothesis as well as an extraordinary influence of IMK to the market share of producers in the placement of gas boilers. Supplementary hypothesis was not confirmed, advertising is not a key promotional instrument. Thanks to the specific characteristics, primarily the high technical complexity of gas boilers, a key promotional instrument are education and training of sales and installation staff in the marketing channels, which operate on the market of Vojvodina.

  18. Share your sweets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byrnit, Jill; Høgh-Olesen, Henrik; Makransky, Guido

    2015-01-01

    study to examine the sharing behavior of groups of captive chimpanzees and bonobos when introducing the same type of food (branches) manipulated to be of two different degrees of desirability (with or without syrup). Results showed that, the large majority of food transfers in both species came about...... as sharing in which group members were allowed to co-feed or remove food from the stock of the food possessor, and the introduction of high-value food resulted in more sharing, not less. Food sharing behavior differed between species in that chimpanzees displayed significantly more begging behavior than...

  19. The implications of potential `lock-in` markets for renewable energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowan, R.; Kline, D.

    1996-11-01

    Nonlinear economic effects can cause unpredictable and sometimes undesirable outcomes in the marketplace. Increasing returns can lead to self-reinforcing situation in which increasing market share lead to a more attractive product, which leads in turn to further increases in market share. This results in ``lock-in`` of a technology, which cannot be overcome except by a significant shift in technology, consumer tastes, or other market factors.

  20. Will cross-ownership reestablish market power in the Nordic power market?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amundsen, Eirik S.; Bergman, Lars

    2000-01-01

    The integration of the power markets in Norway and Sweden in 1996 significantly constrained the major power companies' ability to exercise market power within their national borders. In recent years, however, mergers and reciprocal acquisition of shares have reduced the number of independent players on the Norwegian-Swedish power market. The aim of this paper is to explore to what extent increasing cross-ownership among major power companies in Norway and Sweden might re-establish the market power that was lost when the two national power markets were integrated. The analysis is based on a numerical model, assuming Cournot quantity setting behaviour, of the Norwegian-Swedish power market. The simulation results suggest that partial ownership relations between major generators and other power-producing firms tend to increase horizontal market power and thus the market price of electricity. (author)

  1. Knowledge Sharing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holdt Christensen, Peter

    The concept of knowledge management has, indeed, become a buzzword that every single organization is expected to practice and live by. Knowledge management is about managing the organization's knowledge for the common good of the organization -but practicing knowledge management is not as simple...... as that. This article focuses on knowledge sharing as the process seeking to reduce the resources spent on reinventing the wheel.The article introduces the concept of time sensitiveness; i.e. that knowledge is either urgently needed, or not that urgently needed. Furthermore, knowledge sharing...... is considered as either a push or pull system. Four strategies for sharing knowledge - help, post-it, manuals and meeting, and advice are introduced. Each strategy requires different channels for sharing knowledge. An empirical analysis in a production facility highlights how the strategies can be practiced....

  2. The market performance and determinants of net returns to artisanal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The wholesalers marketing margin and share of the market were considered to be the highest when compared to those of the fishermen (producers) and retailers. The result of the multiple regression analysis showed that age, household size, farming experience and access to credit were significant determinants of ...

  3. Nordic Market report 2010. Development in the Nordic Electricity Market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-07-15

    The Nordic region is characterized by a unique mix of generation sources, with a very high share of hydropower. Hydropower accounts for virtually all of the Norwegian and nearly half of the Swedish generation capacity, making the level of precipitation vital when calculating and analysing potential generation levels. Climatic conditions such as, significantly colder winters than any other European country also influence consumption in the Nordic region, as many households are electrically heated. Overall electricity consumption in the Nordic region in 2009 was marked by decreasing consumption in every market - from a decrease of 1,5% in Denmark to a decrease of 5,5% in Finland. The Nordic transmission grid connects almost the entire region into one synchronous power system enabling increased security of supply as well as a more efficient use of the generation capacity, but congestion occurs. Congestions between the Nord Pool bidding areas are handled through market splitting, while internal congestions in general are handled through counter trade or by reducing interconnector capacity at the bidding area borders. The key future challenge for transmission network operations both in the Nordic area, and as well on the European level will be to facilitate the functioning of the pan-European wholesale electricity markets. The Nordic wholesale power market is well functioning. The volume traded at Nord Pool in 2009 was about the same share of total consumption as that of 2008. Although trading at Nord Pool is voluntary, significantly more power is traded on the power exchange than bilaterally. During 2009 average spot prices at Nord Pool were lower than prices in 2008 due to both lower demand and generation costs for thermal power plants for most of 2009. The Nordic retail markets are essentially four separate markets, influenced by national differences, but work on integration has started. Throughout 2009 retail prices in the Nordic region were lower than in 2008

  4. Market Segmentation Using Bayesian Model Based Clustering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Hattum, P.

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation deals with two basic problems in marketing, that are market segmentation, which is the grouping of persons who share common aspects, and market targeting, which is focusing your marketing efforts on one or more attractive market segments. For the grouping of persons who share

  5. On the substitution of energy sources: Prospective of the natural gas market share in the Brazilian urban transportation and dwelling sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamimura, A.; Guerra, S.M.G.; Sauer, I.L.

    2006-01-01

    The substitution process resultant of the competition between two opponents fighting for the same resource or market is pointed out through a dynamic model derived from biomathematics. A brief description of the origin of the method based on coupled non-linear differential equations (NLDE) is presented. Numerical adherence of the proposed model to explain several substitution phenomena which have occurred in the past is examined. The proposed method is particularly suitable for prospective analysis and scenarios assessment. In this sense, two applications of the model to prospect the dynamic substitution process in the Brazilian case are done: firstly, the development of the urban gas pipeline system in substituting for the bottled LPG in the dwelling sector and, secondly, the substitution of the urban Diesel transportation fleet by compressed natural gas (CNG) buses

  6. Interdependence of an enterprise's marketing and financial strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivkov Danijela M.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the mutual relation and inter-dependence of the marketing and financial strategies of an enterprise. The special focus is on the significance of the marketing strategy for the business success of an enterprise. The paper begins with description of marketing application in the business practice of an enterprise. The point is also on certain segments of the marketing strategy. The central part of the paper is dedicated to the review of possible effects on the customer satisfaction with the financial strategy of the enterprise. Marketing provides the resources for achievement of the financial objectives. Marketing efficiency is measured, among other ways, by the market share and sales volume, but also by the degree of loyalty and customer satisfaction. Marketing efficiency indicators reflect the efficiency of financial operations. It is quite certain that marketing and financial strategy are strongly interdependent.

  7. Taking the sweetness out of the 'Share a Coke' marketing campaign: the influence of personalized labelling on elementary school children's bottled drink choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDarby, F; O'Hora, D; O'Shea, D; Byrne, M

    2018-01-01

    Drink personalization (featuring names on bottle labels) has been used by soft drink companies to make their drinks attractive to children, potentially increasing consumption. To date, no publically available research has evaluated the influence of personalization on children's drink choices. To determine (i) whether personalizing bottled drinks influences children's drink choices; (ii) whether it is comparably effective in promoting healthy and unhealthy drinks and (iii) whether drink choices are affected by self-esteem, body mass index and parental factors. Children aged 8-13 years (N = 404) were randomly assigned to one of three drink labeling conditions: Prime Healthy, Prime Unhealthy and Control. All participants selected one beverage from 12 options, comprising six healthy and unhealthy drinks. Personalizing healthy drinks increased choice of healthy drinks (OR, 2.21; 95% CI, 1.24-4.00), and personalizing unhealthy drinks reduced choice of healthy drinks (OR, 0.35; 95% CI, 0.15-.0.75). Higher self-esteem predicted choosing own-named drinks (OR = 1.08, 95% CI, 1.00-1.18; p = .049). Children's drink choices are influenced by personalizing drink bottles. Tighter regulation of this marketing strategy for soft drinks may reduce children choice of these drinks. Personalization may also be used to encourage children to choose healthy drinks. © 2016 World Obesity Federation.

  8. The European green electricity markets in 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meibom, Peter; Skytte, Klaus

    2003-01-01

    The market shares of different electricity producing renewable energy technologies in the green electricity markets in EU, and the size and prices obtained on these markets depends strongly on the market designs and support policies governing the development of these markets. These issues have been analysed with the use of the ADMIRE REBUS model. Costs data for all significant electricity producing renewable energy technologies and data on the sizes of the renewable energy resources in the EU are combined with different national development of the support policies for green electricity in the different EU countries towards a common EU market in 2010. The model simulates the operation of each green electricity market in EU and the interaction between the markets. Model results show that in a harmonized EU wide tradable green certificate system starting from 2010, i.e. in a system without technology-specific support, wind power will be the most competitive technology, but power plants using different types of biomass will also gain a large share of the market. To reach the indicative EU targets for RES-E production in 2010 a TGC price of 5.6 eurocents is necessary in addition to a physical power price of 2.2 eurocents. (au)

  9. Global resource sharing

    CERN Document Server

    Frederiksen, Linda; Nance, Heidi

    2011-01-01

    Written from a global perspective, this book reviews sharing of library resources on a global scale. With expanded discovery tools and massive digitization projects, the rich and extensive holdings of the world's libraries are more visible now than at any time in the past. Advanced communication and transmission technologies, along with improved international standards, present a means for the sharing of library resources around the globe. Despite these significant improvements, a number of challenges remain. Global Resource Sharing provides librarians and library managers with a comprehensive

  10. MARKET ALLOCATION RULES FOR NONPRICE PROMOTION WITH FARM PROGRAMS: U.S. COTTON

    OpenAIRE

    Ding, Lily; Kinnucan, Henry W.

    1996-01-01

    Rules are derived to indicate the optimal allocation of a fixed promotion budget between domestic and export markets when the commodity in question represents a significant portion of world trade and is protected in the domestic market by a deficiency-payment program. Optimal allocation decisions are governed by advertising elasticities in the domestic and export markets and the export market share. PromotionÂ’'s ability to lower deficiency payments is inversely related to the absolute value ...

  11. Economic impact and policy implications from urban shared transportation: The case of Pittsburgh's shared bike system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelechrinis, Konstantinos; Zacharias, Christos; Kokkodis, Marios; Lappas, Theodoros

    2017-01-01

    During the last years the number of cities that have installed and started operating shared bike systems has significantly increased. These systems provide an alternative and sustainable mean of transportation to the city dwellers. Apart from the energy sustainability benefits, shared bike systems can have a positive effect on residents' health, air quality and the overall condition of the currently crumbling road network infrastructure. Anecdotal stories and survey studies have also identified that bike lanes have a positive impact on local businesses. In this study, driven by the rapid adoption of shared bike systems by city governments and their potential positive effects on a number of urban life facets we opt to study and quantify the value of these systems. We focus on a specific aspect of this value and use evidence from the real estate market in the city of Pittsburgh to analyze the effect on dwellers' properties of the shared bike system installed in the city in June 2015. We use quasi-experimental techniques and find that the shared bike system led to an increase in the housing prices (both sales and rental prices) in the zip codes where shared bike stations were installed. We further bring into the light potential negative consequences of this impact (i.e., gentrification) and discuss/propose two public policies that can exploit the impact of the system for the benefit of both the local government as well as the city dwellers.

  12. Economic impact and policy implications from urban shared transportation: The case of Pittsburgh's shared bike system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Pelechrinis

    Full Text Available During the last years the number of cities that have installed and started operating shared bike systems has significantly increased. These systems provide an alternative and sustainable mean of transportation to the city dwellers. Apart from the energy sustainability benefits, shared bike systems can have a positive effect on residents' health, air quality and the overall condition of the currently crumbling road network infrastructure. Anecdotal stories and survey studies have also identified that bike lanes have a positive impact on local businesses. In this study, driven by the rapid adoption of shared bike systems by city governments and their potential positive effects on a number of urban life facets we opt to study and quantify the value of these systems. We focus on a specific aspect of this value and use evidence from the real estate market in the city of Pittsburgh to analyze the effect on dwellers' properties of the shared bike system installed in the city in June 2015. We use quasi-experimental techniques and find that the shared bike system led to an increase in the housing prices (both sales and rental prices in the zip codes where shared bike stations were installed. We further bring into the light potential negative consequences of this impact (i.e., gentrification and discuss/propose two public policies that can exploit the impact of the system for the benefit of both the local government as well as the city dwellers.

  13. The effect of pharmaceutical marketing on the prescription of rofecoxib in Dutch general practice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Somai, D.; Dijk, L. van; Verheij, R.; Bakker, D. de

    2004-01-01

    Background: In 2000 the new painkiller rofecoxib was introduced in the Netherlands as an alternative for NSAIDs. It was extensively marketed by the pharmaceutical industry stressing its gastro protective qualities and significant pain reduction. Rofecoxib vastly obtained a significant market share.

  14. Relationship Service Marketing and Investment in Financial Market of Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Mehrdad Alipour; Reza Ahmadi; Hamed Abasi Nami

    2012-01-01

    In competitive world, having expertise, knowledge and marketing experience for financial market activities, especially brokerage firms has proven inevitable. This should be accompanied by performing marketing operations along with intermediary roles and carrying on the daily transactions of shares in the Tehran stock exchange market. The current study aims investigating the level of marketing knowledge used in stock exchange market, identifying the reasons behind deficient use of the marketin...

  15. Affiliate marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Ureš, Michal

    2012-01-01

    This bachelor's thesis focuses on the topic of online affiliate marketing from the perspective of an internet entrepreneur. In the first, theoretical part, it characterizes the affiliate marketing, describes different, significant affiliate solutions in the Czech market and opportunities for their implementations. In the second, practical part, it concentrates mainly on an affiliate program of a company called GameLeader, s.r.o. It analyses expectations of the business from the implementation...

  16. Power marketing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sioshansi, F.P.; Altman, A.M.

    1998-01-01

    One of the most significant developments in the US electric power industry in recent years has been the phenomenal growth of power marketing. What was barely a blimp on the radar screen in 1992 has turned out to be a jumbo jet. This article explains what is power marketing who are power marketers, what role play these players and what will be their longer-term impact on the traditional industry [it

  17. Information partnerships--shared data, shared scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konsynski, B R; McFarlan, F W

    1990-01-01

    How can one company gain access to another's resources or customers without merging ownership, management, or plotting a takeover? The answer is found in new information partnerships, enabling diverse companies to develop strategic coalitions through the sharing of data. The key to cooperation is a quantum improvement in the hardware and software supporting relational databases: new computer speeds, cheaper mass-storage devices, the proliferation of fiber-optic networks, and networking architectures. Information partnerships mean that companies can distribute the technological and financial exposure that comes with huge investments. For the customer's part, partnerships inevitably lead to greater simplification on the desktop and more common standards around which vendors have to compete. The most common types of partnership are: joint marketing partnerships, such as American Airline's award of frequent flyer miles to customers who use Citibank's credit card; intraindustry partnerships, such as the insurance value-added network service (which links insurance and casualty companies to independent agents); customer-supplier partnerships, such as Baxter Healthcare's electronic channel to hospitals for medical and other equipment; and IT vendor-driven partnerships, exemplified by ESAB (a European welding supplies and equipment company), whose expansion strategy was premised on a technology platform offered by an IT vendor. Partnerships that succeed have shared vision at the top, reciprocal skills in information technology, concrete plans for an early success, persistence in the development of usable information for all partners, coordination on business policy, and a new and imaginative business architecture.

  18. Multifractal Detrended Cross-Correlation Analysis of agricultural futures markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Lingyun; Chen Shupeng

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We investigated cross-correlations between China's and US agricultural futures markets. → Power-law cross-correlations are found between the geographically far but correlated markets. → Multifractal features are significant in all the markets. → Cross-correlation exponent is less than averaged GHE when q 0. - Abstract: We investigated geographically far but temporally correlated China's and US agricultural futures markets. We found that there exists a power-law cross-correlation between them, and that multifractal features are significant in all the markets. It is very interesting that the geographically far markets show strong cross-correlations and share much of their multifractal structure. Furthermore, we found that for all the agricultural futures markets in our studies, the cross-correlation exponent is less than the averaged generalized Hurst exponents (GHE) when q 0.

  19. MARKETING MODELS APPLICATION EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Yu. Rymanov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Marketing models are used for the assessment of such marketing elements as sales volume, market share, market attractiveness, advertizing costs, product pushing and selling, profit, profitableness. Classification of buying process decision taking models is presented. SWOT- and GAPbased models are best for selling assessments. Lately, there is a tendency to transfer from the assessment on the ba-sis of financial indices to that on the basis of those non-financial. From the marketing viewpoint, most important are long-term company activities and consumer drawingmodels as well as market attractiveness operative models.

  20. Estimating the contribution of the private power plant on electricity market in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonn, Yang-Hoon; Park, Jong-Bae

    2010-09-15

    This paper aims to measure the contribution of merchant power provider in electricity market in Korea. In spite of the restructuring process of last one decade, wholesale power market is still dominated by KEPCO and its subsidiaries. The share of the public-owned power plants is 89% in capacity, and 96% in generation. The participation of the private power shows very significant contribution in promoting the competition in the market in spite of the small share. The conclusion of the paper is that we need to enhance the competition among suppliers in order to build stable electricity market for the consumer.

  1. Sharing knowledge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-07-01

    The workshop on Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation Strategies for Arctic Indigenous Communities is one stage in developing positions and providing input from the perspectives of Arctic Peoples in preparation for the Indigenous Peoples' Global Summit on Climate Change that will take place in April, 2009, in Anchorage, Alaska. The Summit, organized by the Inuit Circumpolar Council with oversight of an International Steering Committee, will bring together hundreds of indigenous Peoples around the world. This Workshop intended to bring together Arctic Indigenous Peoples to deliver and to share information, academic research, case studies based on traditional knowledge and researchers knowledgeable in traditional knowledge and/or policy issues drawn from traditional knowledge. The following themes were discussed: 1) Traditional knowledge research and education; 2) Laws and lawmaking; 3) Food and health; 4) Organisation; 5) Communications and advocacy. (ln)

  2. FAVAR Analysis of Foreign Investment with Capital Market Predictors: Evidence on Nigerian and Selected African Stock Exchanges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Umoru

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Econometrically, we analyzed role of selected African stock exchanges in welcoming FDI inflows by estimating time-varying factor augmented vector auto-regression (FAVAR model for 2006:Q1 to 2017:Q4. Our results support FDI being massively influenced by movements in two stock market predictors namely, stock market's size, that is, total market value of stock market's listed shares calculated by multiplying a stock market’s shares listed by current market price of one share and stock market liquidity which is total value of traded shares relative to the size of the economy. By empirical inference, African stock exchanges exhibit inordinate turnover ratio and so these markets are exceedingly liquid. Particularly, transactions at stock exchange are significant indicators for foreign investors and total market value of listed shares in stock markets is linked positively with FDI inflow into Africa. The empirical finding is that viable African stock exchanges are attractive indicator of market concentration and high investment profile in Africa. The study so remarked the requisite to advance the stock exchange in order to boost funds accumulation for investment drive. Also, African governments should project and implement stock market-friendly procedures acceptable to maximize welfares of spillover effects of FDI.

  3. Análise da competitividade das exportações brasileiras de mel natural, segundo o modelo constant market share e o índice de vantagem comparativa revelada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maristela Franchetti de Paula

    Full Text Available RESUMO O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar os indicadores de competitividade no comércio exterior do produto mel natural, entre 2000 e 2011. Em 2000, o Brasil iniciou a inserção desse produto no mercado internacional, ganhando rápida projeção como país exportador. No entanto, ainda ocupa posição intermediária entre os principais exportadores mundiais. O problema analisado neste estudo está relacionado com a competitividade desse produto, no mercado, a partir de indicadores econômicos. Os procedimentos metodológicos utilizados para verificar a competitividade foram o modelo constant market share e o índice de vantagem comparativa revelada (IVCR. Constatou-se que o quantum e o valor exportado apresentam tendência de crescimento e de flutuações no mercado internacional. No período estudado, a China e a Argentina destacavam-se como os principais exportadores mundiais de mel natural e o Brasil era o sétimo maior exportador. Conclui-se que o País apresenta competitividade no mercado externo de mel natural e padrões de eficiência e de utilização de recursos semelhantes aos vigentes no mundo, além de potencial para ampliar sua participação, com um produto competitivo e diferenciado.

  4. Marketing the Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragon, Andrea C.

    1979-01-01

    Describes the positive action using marketing strategies that libraries must take to capture their share of the post-Proposition 13 tax dollar. Strategies discussed relate to price, product, promotion, and place. (JD)

  5. Australian coal exports - threat to market share

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, P

    1989-10-01

    Australian coal exports fell 3% for the fiscal year ending June 1989, but at just under 100mt, they make Australia the world's leading coal exporter. Figures for production, consumption and exports are given. Industrial and structural changes within the industry are discussed. It is concluded that the industry and unions must improve structures and communication if potential production and exports are to be achieved. 2 figs.

  6. Increasing state market share through regional positioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzaffer Uysal; Joseph S. Chen; Daniel R. Williams

    2000-01-01

    State tourism officials need to know more about the nature of in-state and out-of-state visitor characteristics and how actual and potential visitors perceive local destinations. The main objective of this study was to understand Virginia's image as a travel destination versus competitive states in the Mid-Atlantic region of the USA. The regional competitiveness...

  7. Resource sharing in wireless networks: The SAPHYRE approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jorswieck, E.A.; Badia, L.; Fahldieck, T.; Gesbert, D.; Gustafsson, S.; Haardt, M.; Ho, K.-M.; Karipidis, E.; Kortke, A.; Larsson, E.G.; Mark, H.; Nawrocki, M.; Piesiewicz, R.; Römer, F.; Schubert, M.; Sykora, J.; Trommelen, P.H.; Ende, B.D. van; Zorzi, M.

    2010-01-01

    Physical resource sharing between wireless operators and service providers is necessary in order to support efficient, competitive, and innovative wireless communication markets. By sharing resources, such as spectrum or infrastructure, which are usually exclusively allocated interference is created

  8. Project-matrix models of marketing organization

    OpenAIRE

    Gutić Dragutin; Rudelj Siniša

    2009-01-01

    Unlike theory and practice of corporation organization, in marketing organization numerous forms and contents at its disposal are not reached until this day. It can be well estimated that marketing organization today in most of our companies and in almost all its parts, noticeably gets behind corporation organization. Marketing managers have always been occupied by basic, narrow marketing activities as: sales growth, market analysis, market growth and market share, marketing research, introdu...

  9. NOKIA MOBILE PHONE MARKETING IN CHINA

    OpenAIRE

    He, Yayi

    2012-01-01

    The goal of my thesis is to analyze the Nokia mobile’s sales in the Chinese market, including product type, product competitiveness, market awareness, price difference, market segmentation, market position, and market share. This thesis provides the market research indicating the sales, competitors, Nokia’s market strategy, the environment analysis and a SWOT analysis of Chinese market. The final part of my thesis is the description of the current situation of Nokia in addition to suggestions...

  10. Risk sharing, public policy and the contribution of Islamic finance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Askari

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A major reason for the recurrent episodes of financial instability is the predominance of interest-based debt and leveraging. Financial stability is achievable through risk sharing finance instead of risk shifting that characterizes contemporary finance. A risk sharing system serves the true function of finance as facilitator of real sector activities and avoids the emergence of a “paper economy” where there is gradual decoupling of finance from the real sector. Islamic finance was initially proposed as a profit-loss sharing system, but its core principle is risk sharing. In prohibiting interest-based debt instruments, Islam grounds finance on a strong risk sharing footing. Although still a young industry that has come a long way, it has not managed to develop truly risk-sharing instruments that would allow individuals, households, and firms as well as whole economies to mitigate systematic and un-systematic risks. It is suggested that governments should intervene and issue macro-market instruments to provide their treasuries with a significant source of non-interest rate based financing while promoting risk sharing. Moreover, given that evidence across the world suggests that monetary policy’s transmission mechanism may be impaired, it is suggested that these government issued securities could also impart added potency to monetary policy.

  11. The impact of the cigarette market opening in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, C P; Cheng, T Y; Eriksen, M P; Tsai, S P; Hsu, C C

    2005-06-01

    To assess the effect of the opening of the Taiwanese cigarette market on cigarette consumption, changes in market share, and the effects on tobacco control efforts. With the use of key word "Taiwan", the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library of the University of California, San Francisco, was searched for internal documents related to smuggling activities, promotion of light cigarettes, and market share analyses in Taiwan. Age adjusted smoking rates and cigarette and betel quid consumption before and after market opening were compared. By 2000, the market share of imported cigarettes increased from less than 2% in 1986 to nearly 50%, and per capita cigarette consumption increased 15% following market opening. Because of the sharp increase in smuggling, with contraband cigarettes being as popular as legal imports, and the rapid proliferation of retail outlets, such as betel quid stalls, the market penetration by foreign tobacco companies was greater in Taiwan than among the other Super 301 Asian countries. Aggressive cigarette marketing strategies were associated with a 6% increase in adult male smoking prevalence, and with a 13% increase in the youth rate, within three years after market opening. The market opening also had an incidental effect on increasing the popularity of betel quid. Betel quid chewing has since become a major public health problem in Taiwan. The opening of the cigarette market in 1987 had a long lasting impact on Taiwan. It increased smoking prevalence and the market has become dominated by foreign companies. The seriousness of smuggling and its associated loss of revenue by the government, the extent of increased youth smoking and its associated future health care costs, and the increased use of betel quid and the associated doubling of oral cancer mortality rates each pose significant problems to Taiwan. However, the market opening galvanised anti-smoking sentiment and forced the government to initiate and intensify a series of tobacco control

  12. Penetration strategies of Turkish corporations in Kosovo’s market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luan VARDARI

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Rapid developments and increasing competition in recent years have prevented companies from producing and selling only in domestic markets, but also causing their foreign resources and investments to be directed to foreign markets. In this case, once businesses decide to join a particular market, they have to decide which is the best way to penetrate there. Turkish multinational corporations, which have been spreading all over the world with their investments, have conquered world markets with their exports, initiatives and acquisitions, they have entered in foreign markets in various forms and have a significant share in world trade volume with their successful investments. From this point of view, this study examines the strategies by which Turkish multinationals enter foreign markets especially in Kosovo and the impact that those companies have had in the development of the Kosovo economy and the strategies by which Turkish multinationals enter foreign markets.

  13. AUDIT MARKET CONCENTRATION – EVIDENCE FROM CROATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Sever Mališ

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Statutory audit is designated to protect the public interest and has a significant impact on the overall economy. There are concerns that the Big Four audit firms have become too dominant and that the collapse of one of these firms would disrupt the whole financial system. In terms of revenues received, the total market share of the Big Four audit firms for listed companies exceeds 90% in a vast majority of European Union Member States. Prior studies have shown that high audit market concentration limits the choice of auditor for large companies and sets a high barrier of entry for mid-tier audit firms, while the effect on audit quality and audit fees is still unclear. Therefore, the regulators are considering reforms to dilute the Big Four’s dominance and improve competition in the audit market. The paper reviews the proposed and implemented measures that are the most common, together with their advantages and drawbacks. In addition, the characteristics of the audit market in Croatia are investigated, with a focus on market concentration measured by standard measures such as the Concentration rate, the Herfindahl Hirschman Index and the Gini coefficient. According to market shares based on total clients’ assets and revenues, the audit market for listed companies is moderately to highly concentrated, with a decrease in the five-year period (2013 compared to 2008.

  14. Market efficiency in foreign exchange markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Gabjin; Kim, Seunghwan; Eom, Cheoljun

    2007-08-01

    We investigate the relative market efficiency in financial market data, using the approximate entropy(ApEn) method for a quantification of randomness in time series. We used the global foreign exchange market indices for 17 countries during two periods from 1984 to 1998 and from 1999 to 2004 in order to study the efficiency of various foreign exchange markets around the market crisis. We found that on average, the ApEn values for European and North American foreign exchange markets are larger than those for African and Asian ones except Japan. We also found that the ApEn for Asian markets increased significantly after the Asian currency crisis. Our results suggest that the markets with a larger liquidity such as European and North American foreign exchange markets have a higher market efficiency than those with a smaller liquidity such as the African and Asian markets except Japan.

  15. Relationship marketing in the b2b market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gligorijević Mirjana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available As markets turned more and more competitive, companies had to change their marketing approach. From transactional marketing they are shifting to relationship marketing, trying to increase market share by focusing on their most important customers, implementing the concept of key account management. In this paper we tend to introduce the concept of key account management. In final section of this paper we will analyze effects of implementation of key account management, in terms of potential benefits and cautions. .

  16. The Analysis of the Dynamics of the Marketing Services Market in Terms of Strategic Management of Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanova Natalya

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to determine the basic modern marketing services according to the dynamics data of the media market of Ukraine. Thus, marketing services are considered as tools that provide crisis man-agement in strategic business development perspective. Scientific and practical significance of the study lies in the results of trend analysis of the dynamics of the media market of Ukraine and its components, the results of which led to the conclusion about the importance of Internet advertising as a modern marketing tool in terms of anti-crisis policy. The study predicted the values of the obtained volumes and market share of Internet advertising in the media market structure in Ukraine for the next period.

  17. The Dutch Grey Market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renneboog, L.D.R.; Spaenjers, C.

    2008-01-01

    When-issued trading concerns transactions in securities that have not yet been issued. This type of trade often takes place in a so-called 'grey market', in which all contracts are conditional on the issuance of the security. In this paper, we investigate the Dutch grey market for when-issued shares

  18. Shared decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000877.htm Shared decision making To use the sharing features on this page, ... treatment you both support. When to use Shared Decision Making Shared decision making is often used when you ...

  19. Value-Based Marketing: A Dsicussion of Issues and Trends in the Slaughter Cattle Market

    OpenAIRE

    Fausti, Scott W.; Diersen, Matthew A.; Qasmi, Bashir A.; Li, Jing

    2009-01-01

    Pricing and technological innovation are discussed within the context of the beef industry’s value-based marketing initiative. Cash and contract marketing practices for fed cattle are addressed with respect to slaughter volume and pricing methods (live, dressed, and grid). A methodology for estimating grid market share of weekly slaughter volume, based on USDA market reports (2004–2009), is introduced. Weekly grid market shares for the cash and contract markets are derived. Summary statis...

  20. Derivatives in emerging markets

    OpenAIRE

    Dubravko Mihaljek; Frank Packer

    2010-01-01

    Turnover of derivatives has grown more rapidly in emerging markets than in developed countries. Foreign exchange derivatives are the most commonly traded of all risk categories, with increasingly frequent turnover in emerging market currencies and a growing share of cross-border transactions. As the global reach of the financial centres in emerging Asia has expanded, the offshore trading of many emerging market currency derivatives has risen as well. Growth in derivatives turnover is positive...

  1. SPORT MARKETING MIX STRATEGIES

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandru Lucian MIHAI

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a brief overview of a significant element of the sport marketing management model called the marketing mix. The marketing mix is crucial because it defines the sport business, and much of the sport marketer’s time is spent on various functions within the marketing mix. The marketing mix is the strategic combination of the product, price, place and promotion elements. These elements are typically called the four Ps of marketing. Decisions and strategies for each are importa...

  2. Measuring marketing effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluckman, J; Michaelis, T

    1987-09-01

    The most frequent question about the marketing function in hospitals today is, What are we getting for our money? To answer this, marketing directors must convince the board first of the need for marketing, then of marketing's effectiveness. To measure marketing effectiveness, some basic needs are a staff, equipment, cooperation between departments, utilization data, and a research budget. Some steps to be followed include developing a marketing data base--consisting of demographic projections, demand projections, and market share--testing a marketing strategy through experimentation, documenting the expected results and measurement techniques, and calculating the expected return on investments. In dealing with those "impossible-to-measure" cases, such as a physician who is not advertising but finds that a competitor is, a decision tree can help determine whether to advertise and how much to spend by indicating what the return on investment might be.

  3. Digital Marketing practices amongst start-up accelerators

    OpenAIRE

    Azinheiro, Marisa Filipa Ramos

    2017-01-01

    Digital Marketing (DM) is a vital marketing tool used by all types of companies nowadays. Accelerators are companies that appeared in the last few years to help start-ups grow and, just like any other company, they are using DM as well. This research explored which were the DM strategies used by accelerators. To do so, an online survey was shared amongst more than 300 accelerators across the world, whose results were analyzed by using SPSS Software. Correlation analyses and significance te...

  4. Romanian Market Researches in Global Market Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Danciu

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Market research is a powerful industry, whose value reached 21,5 billion USD in 2004. Market studies expenses are mostly concentrated in Europe (45% and in USA (37%. The market shares of the Top 10 companies were above fifty per cent of the research market’s turnover. As a young, modest market, which is 0,84% of the global expenses value, Romania was the global leader in terms of growth, in 2004. With an asymmetric demand and a relatively concentrated offer, the Romanian research market may have a spectacular development in the future, if the obstacles for the customers and research companies are surpassed. If so, the pressures following the UE’s entry of Romania and the evolution of customers needs and expectations will speed up the growth of the market research.

  5. Romanian Market Researches in Global Market Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Danciu

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Market research is a powerful industry, whose value reached 21,5 billion USD in 2004. Market studies expenses are mostly concentrated in Europe (45% and in USA (37%. The market shares of the Top 10 companies were above fifty per cent of the research market’s turnover. As a young, modest market, which is 0,84% of the global expenses value, Romania was the global leader in terms of growth, in 2004. With an asymmetric demand and a relatively concentrated offer, the Romanian research market may have a spectacular development in the future, if the obstacles for the customers and research companies are surpassed. If so, the pressures following the UE’s entry of Romania and the evolution of customers needs and expectations will speed up the growth of the market research.

  6. Nordic market report 2009 : Development in the Nordic electricity market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-07-01

    The Nordic region is characterized by a unique mix of generation sources where the high share of hydropower, representing virtually all of the Norwegian and nearly half of the Swedish generation capacity, has a great influence on the market. The level of precipitation is thus vital when calculating and analysing potential generation levels. In addition, the Nordic region has significantly colder winters than any other European country, influencing the consumption as many households are electrically heated. In 2008 the overall electricity consumption in the Nordic region was slightly higher - 1.6 per cent - than in 2007. During periods of peak consumption the Nordic power system proved sufficient to ensure security of supply without restrictions on consumption. The Nordic region operates almost entirely as one synchronous power system through transmission grid. The continuous reinforcement of the Nordic transmission grid has enabled an increased security of supply as well as a more efficient use of the generation capacity. Increasing cross border power flows strain the transmission lines and increases the demand for transmission capacity. Possible congestions occurring between the Nord Pool bidding areas are handled through market splitting, while internal congestions in general are handled through counter trade or by reducing interconnector capacity at the bidding area borders. The Nordic wholesale power market is a well functioning electricity market. Trade at Nord Pool has increased steadily since it was established in 1993. Although trading at Nord Pool Spot is voluntary, significantly more physical power is now traded on the power exchange than bilaterally - from 42 per cent of total Nordic consumption in 2004 to 76 per cent in 2008. During 2008 average spot prices at Nord Pool were considerably higher (approximately 60 per cent) than prices in 2007. The Nordic retail markets are essentially four separate markets, influenced by national differences, but work on

  7. Nordic market report 2009. Development in the Nordic electricity market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-07-15

    The Nordic region is characterized by a unique mix of generation sources where the high share of hydropower, representing virtually all of the Norwegian and nearly half of the Swedish generation capacity, has a great influence on the market. The level of precipitation is thus vital when calculating and analysing potential generation levels. In addition, the Nordic region has significantly colder winters than any other European country, influencing the consumption as many households are electrically heated. In 2008 the overall electricity consumption in the Nordic region was slightly higher - 1.6 per cent - than in 2007. During periods of peak consumption the Nordic power system proved sufficient to ensure security of supply without restrictions on consumption. The Nordic region operates almost entirely as one synchronous power system through transmission grid. The continuous reinforcement of the Nordic transmission grid has enabled an increased security of supply as well as a more efficient use of the generation capacity. Increasing cross border power flows strain the transmission lines and increases the demand for transmission capacity. Possible congestions occurring between the Nord Pool bidding areas are handled through market splitting, while internal congestions in general are handled through counter trade or by reducing interconnector capacity at the bidding area borders. The Nordic wholesale power market is a well functioning electricity market. Trade at Nord Pool has increased steadily since it was established in 1993. Although trading at Nord Pool Spot is voluntary, significantly more physical power is now traded on the power exchange than bilaterally - from 42 per cent of total Nordic consumption in 2004 to 76 per cent in 2008. During 2008 average spot prices at Nord Pool were considerably higher (approximately 60 per cent) than prices in 2007. The Nordic retail markets are essentially four separate markets, influenced by national differences, but work on

  8. Mining Marketing Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    MarketMiner(R) Products, a line of automated marketing analysis tools manufactured by MarketMiner, Inc., can benefit organizations that perform significant amounts of direct marketing. MarketMiner received a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract from NASA's Johnson Space Center to develop the software as a data modeling tool for space mission applications. The technology was then built into the company current products to provide decision support for business and marketing applications. With the tool, users gain valuable information about customers and prospects from existing data in order to increase sales and profitability. MarketMiner(R) is a registered trademark of MarketMiner, Inc.

  9. Bank Share Prices and Profitability

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Daugaard; Tom Valentine

    1993-01-01

    This paper considers the influence of economic conditions and financial markets on Australian bank share prices and profitability. It uses time series analysis to obtain an indication of the effectiveness of banks in managing their exposure to interest rates and exchange rates. The results give rise to some comments on the extent to which banks actively manage their exposure to financial and economic variables. The discussion of risk management activities necessarily raises the question of ho...

  10. Selling power : marketing energy under deregulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drummond, J.; Hanna, F.

    2001-07-01

    This book discussed the marketing of energy in a deregulated environment. Experience from long distance telephone service providers has shown that historical dominance is not a guarantee for future success. As new brands are introduced and as consumer choice increases, so does the ability to change from one provider to another. Price is only one of the factors prompting that change. Old rules and practices do not bind new competitors who must face the challenge of open competition and must be aware of the ever-changing face of business. It was recommended that the strategic solution would be to build a brand and to develop significant market shares and create effective customer retention programs. This book focused on the elements that energy marketing professionals must use to maintain and increase share without product differentiation. It also explained how energy providers can effectively attract and retain customers over the long term while keeping marketing and service delivery costs down. It was suggested that small players can compete with the growing strength of regional providers by creating new alliances between larger energy conglomerates. The chapters of the book were entitled: (1) Introduction, (2) The Goals of Deregulation, (3) Strategic Marketing Choices, (4) Relationship Marketing, (5) The Role of Customer Service, (6) The Question of Outsourcing, and (7) Final Thoughts and Observations. 24 refs., 3 figs.

  11. Selling power : marketing energy under deregulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drummond, J.; Hanna, F.

    2001-01-01

    This book discussed the marketing of energy in a deregulated environment. Experience from long distance telephone service providers has shown that historical dominance is not a guarantee for future success. As new brands are introduced and as consumer choice increases, so does the ability to change from one provider to another. Price is only one of the factors prompting that change. Old rules and practices do not bind new competitors who must face the challenge of open competition and must be aware of the ever-changing face of business. It was recommended that the strategic solution would be to build a brand and to develop significant market shares and create effective customer retention programs. This book focused on the elements that energy marketing professionals must use to maintain and increase share without product differentiation. It also explained how energy providers can effectively attract and retain customers over the long term while keeping marketing and service delivery costs down. It was suggested that small players can compete with the growing strength of regional providers by creating new alliances between larger energy conglomerates. The chapters of the book were entitled: (1) Introduction, (2) The Goals of Deregulation, (3) Strategic Marketing Choices, (4) Relationship Marketing, (5) The Role of Customer Service, (6) The Question of Outsourcing, and (7) Final Thoughts and Observations. 24 refs., 3 figs

  12. Economic impact and policy implications from urban shared transportation: The case of Pittsburgh’s shared bike system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacharias, Christos; Kokkodis, Marios; Lappas, Theodoros

    2017-01-01

    During the last years the number of cities that have installed and started operating shared bike systems has significantly increased. These systems provide an alternative and sustainable mean of transportation to the city dwellers. Apart from the energy sustainability benefits, shared bike systems can have a positive effect on residents’ health, air quality and the overall condition of the currently crumbling road network infrastructure. Anecdotal stories and survey studies have also identified that bike lanes have a positive impact on local businesses. In this study, driven by the rapid adoption of shared bike systems by city governments and their potential positive effects on a number of urban life facets we opt to study and quantify the value of these systems. We focus on a specific aspect of this value and use evidence from the real estate market in the city of Pittsburgh to analyze the effect on dwellers’ properties of the shared bike system installed in the city in June 2015. We use quasi-experimental techniques and find that the shared bike system led to an increase in the housing prices (both sales and rental prices) in the zip codes where shared bike stations were installed. We further bring into the light potential negative consequences of this impact (i.e., gentrification) and discuss/propose two public policies that can exploit the impact of the system for the benefit of both the local government as well as the city dwellers. PMID:28859121

  13. Wind Generators and Market Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Misir, Nihat

    price thresholds are significantly higher when the monopolist at the peakload level owns both types of generators. Furthermore, when producing electricity with the peakload generator, the monopolist can avoid facing prices below marginal cost by owning a certain share of the wind generators.......Electricity production from wind generators holds significant importance in European Union’s 20% renewable energy target by 2020. In this paper, I show that ownership of wind generators affects market outcomes by using both a Cournot oligopoly model and a real options model. In the Cournot...... oligopoly model, ownership of the wind generators by owners of fossil-fueled (peakload) generators decreases total peakload production and increases the market price. These effects increase with total wind generation and aggregate wind generator ownership. In the real options model, start up and shut down...

  14. Perceptions of Sustainable Marketing Management by Export Companies in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran I Čajka

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The present research paper deals with perceptions of sustainable marketing management in the strategies of export companies in Serbia. The objectives in this paper are manifold. They are to emphasize the importance of green marketing management in export activities of domestic companies which pursue their green management plan; to evaluate the company’s share in specific marketing segments, and to highlight the significance of successful green marketing management in modern business. Domestic green-oriented companies, which export their products to many different countries, look into the possibility of increasing their sales volumes. The findings in the paper support the hypotheses that domestic companies are perceptive of sustainable marketing issues in their business activities, and sustainable marketing management is becoming an important factor in business activities of modern companies.

  15. COMPETITION ON THE WHOLESALE MEDICATION DISTRIBUTION MARKET IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina HAGIU

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Wholesale distribution of medicines in Romania was in the constant attention of the competition authority. In order to analyze the operation of the distribution system practiced in Romania, but also changes that may occur in this system on short and medium term, the Competition Council conducted a sector inquiry after which they found some malfunctioning mainly chained to distributors access to certain medications. Conducted on a sample of 23 pharmaceutical groups operating on the Romanian market and holding approximately 80% of the pharmaceutical market in Romania in 2009, the sector inquiry aimed at two objectives, namely: Legislation analysis with impact on the wholesale distribution of drugs; Market analysis of drug distribution.Following the findings of the high concentration of markets analyzed, due to significant market shares held by innovative drugs under investigation were analyzed also the penetration of generics in the market and the factors that led to this situation.

  16. Comparative Analysis of Levels of Banking Sector Markets Concentration in CEE Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaličanin Tijana

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Banking sector is an important development factor of the total financial and economic system. Number of banks and dispersion of their individual shares defines competitive structure of banking sector, manifested by its concentration. Market concentration may be presented as a function of a number of enterprises competing in a market and their individual comparative market shares. Concentration analysis is significant with regard to the fact that the level of concentration demonstrates relations among competitors in a market, as well as influence each competitor has on consumers, branch and economy as a whole. Starting from 2008 crisis, domino effect of which hit banking sector and has had a huge impact on it, authors of this paper aimed at establishing a level of market concentration of the banking sector in Serbia and countries in the region in 2015 by application of a large number of market concentration indicators.

  17. Analysing lawyers’ attitude towards knowledge sharing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wole M. Olatokun

    2012-09-01

    Method: A field survey of 273 lawyers was carried out, using questionnaire for data collection. Collected data on all variables were structured into grouped frequency distributions. Principal Component Factor Analysis was applied to reduce the constructs and Simple Regression was applied to test the hypotheses. These were tested at 0.05% level of significance. Results: Results showed that expected associations and contributions were the major determinants of lawyers’ attitudes towards knowledge sharing. Expected reward was not significantly related to lawyers’ attitudes towards knowledge sharing. A positive attitude towards knowledge sharing was found to lead to a positive intention to share knowledge, although a positive intention to share knowledge did not significantly predict a positive knowledge sharing behaviour. The level of Information Technology (IT usage was also found to significantly affect the knowledge sharing behaviour of lawyers’. Conclusion: It was recommended that law firms in the study area should deploy more IT infrastructure and services that encourage effective knowledge sharing amongst lawyers.

  18. Sharing data increases citations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drachen, Thea Marie; Ellegaard, Ole; Larsen, Asger Væring

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents some indications to the existence of a citation advantage related to sharing data using astrophysics as a case. Through bibliometric analyses we find a citation advantage for astrophysical papers in core journals. The advantage arises as indexed papers are associated with data...... by bibliographical links, and consists of papers receiving on average significantly more citations per paper per year, than do papers not associated with links to data.......This paper presents some indications to the existence of a citation advantage related to sharing data using astrophysics as a case. Through bibliometric analyses we find a citation advantage for astrophysical papers in core journals. The advantage arises as indexed papers are associated with data...

  19. The Equity Share in New Issues and Aggregate Stock Returns

    OpenAIRE

    Malcolm Baker; Jeffrey Wurgler

    1999-01-01

    The share of equity issues in total new equity and debt issues is a strong predictor of U.S. stock market returns between 1928 and 1997. In particular, firms issue relatively more equity than debt just before periods of low market returns. The equity share in new issues has stable predictive power in both halves of the sample period, and after controlling for other known predictors. We do not find support for efficient market ex

  20. The relevance of the housing market for the banks’ risk profile in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erjona REBI

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The housing market is an important sector for Albanian banks. Housing market financing dominates retail loans, and at the same time, houses represent a high share of the pledged collateral. This study aims to evaluate the role that the housing market plays in the Albanian banks’ risk-taking profile. The empirical work confirms the statistically significant difference in the risk profile between real estate and non-real estate banks. The dynamics of the housing market influences both types of banks, but the real estate banks are more sensitive to the housing market conditions. The negative relationship between the housing market developments with specialization of banks in real estate market reflects the high informality of the housing market and handicaps such as governmental interference, institutional shortcomings and flawed enforcement of property rights.

  1. COMMUNICATING WITH TARGET MARKET ENVIRONMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Stanka Djurić; Svetlana Trajković

    2016-01-01

    The generally accepted definition that related to conceptual determination of market communication has not been performed. However, market communication can be defined as a set of activities and natural relationships that companies in various branches of authorities and business activities are established with other business organizations, and in order to establish a successful primary market communication, establishing a larger market share and the effective realization of the final go...

  2. The world enrichment market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunter, L.; McCants, C.; Rutkowski, E.

    1991-01-01

    The enrichment market can be divided into two periods: the near-term market (1991 to 1995) and the long-term market (1995 and beyond). The near-term market is characterized by limited unfilled requirements of 4% per year, to be supplied by national stockpiles and excess inventories. This low-cost material will be drawn down by about 1993, causing a subsequent price rise. As the price rises, primary supplier activity is expected to increase. In the near-term, two contracting activities are apparent: spot; and intermediate-term. The current spot market is expected to last until available low cost inventories are drawn down. Recently, in attempts to gain market share, suppliers have offered attractively priced intermediate-term (3 year) contracts for 1996 to 1998. While a small spot market will continue after 1995, it is anticipated that utilities will prefer a mix of medium- and long-term (5 to 10 year) contracts from primary suppliers for most of their enrichment requirements. As national stockpiles and utility inventories are consumed, low-cost supply available to the spot market is expected to diminish. Consequently, with little low-cost supply available, the only apparent source of material will be from primary suppliers, and the resulting competition over market share is expected to be intense. (author)

  3. Market Timing, lifecycle stage and Seasoned Equity offerings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilma Sousa Ismael da Costa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The tradeoff theory suggests that companies must issue shares to investments, when its leverage index is greater than your target rate, while the pecking order theory predicts that when capital offerings occur, the capital will be used to finance investments as the last source of funding, after their debt capacity have been exhausted. In contrast, the market timing theory predicts arguments that companies will adopt opportunistic behavior by issuing shares to take advantage of the high prices of the shares. Although the market timing theory has a significant influence on the decision to make a SEO, Brazilian literature contains little evidence about their economic importance and their effects. Thus, the present research aims to fill this gap in the Brazilian scenario. Specifically, we sought to assess the explanatory power of the relationship of market timing and the lifecycle theory in the issuance of SEO, which predicts that young companies with high market-to-book (MB and low operating cash flow sell shares to finance the investment, while mature companies, with low MB, pay dividends and fund investment internally. The sample was composed by non-financial companies with shares traded on BM&FBovespa. As main results, we can conclude that there is relationship between SEO and MB and size. On the other hand, were not observed evidence confirming the relationship between lifecycle stage and stock return, both in the previous year, and the year following the completion of the offer.

  4. Analysing lawyers’ attitude towards knowledge sharing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wole M. Olatokun

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The study examined and identified the factors that affect lawyers’ attitudes to knowledge sharing, and their knowledge sharing behaviour. Specifically, it investigated the relationship between the salient beliefs affecting the knowledge sharing attitude of lawyers’, and applied a modified version of the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA in the knowledge sharing context, to predict how these factors affect their knowledge sharing behaviour.Method: A field survey of 273 lawyers was carried out, using questionnaire for data collection. Collected data on all variables were structured into grouped frequency distributions. Principal Component Factor Analysis was applied to reduce the constructs and Simple Regression was applied to test the hypotheses. These were tested at 0.05% level of significance.Results: Results showed that expected associations and contributions were the major determinants of lawyers’ attitudes towards knowledge sharing. Expected reward was not significantly related to lawyers’ attitudes towards knowledge sharing. A positive attitude towards knowledge sharing was found to lead to a positive intention to share knowledge, although a positive intention to share knowledge did not significantly predict a positive knowledge sharing behaviour. The level of Information Technology (IT usage was also found to significantly affect the knowledge sharing behaviour of lawyers’.Conclusion: It was recommended that law firms in the study area should deploy more IT infrastructure and services that encourage effective knowledge sharing amongst lawyers. 

  5. Marketing African Leafy Vegetables: Challenges and Opportunities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Marketing African Leafy Vegetables: Challenges and Opportunities in the Kenyan Context. ... The market share of ALVs vis-à-vis other vegetable species, particularly kales, cabbages and ... EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  6. Resource Distribution Approaches in Spectrum Sharing Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friedrich K. Jondral

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available It is increasingly difficult to satisfy growing demands for spectrum with the conventional policy of fixed spectrum allocation. To overcome this problem, flexible/dynamic spectrum sharing methods that can significantly improve spectrum utilization of the spectrum have gained increasing interest recently. This paper presents two dynamic spectrum sharing approaches, a centralized and a decentralized one. The centralized approach is based on hierarchical trading. Each level of hierarchy is composed of “markets” that are associated with a certain spatial area and trading occurrence frequency, whereas area size and trading occurrence frequency depend on the hierarchy level. The decentralized approach is based on game-theory. There, it is assumed that the operators are averse to unequal payoffs and act unselfishly, enabling a stable and sustainable community. Numerical results show that, in the observed scenario, both proposals outperform the reference case of fixed resource allocation significantly in terms of utilized bandwidth. Whereas, negotiation costs for spectrum brokerage appear in the centralized approach, nonnegligible amounts of spectrum are lost in the decentralized approach due to collisions. Thus, a hybrid of centralized and decentralized approach that exploits the benefits of both is also considered.

  7. Finance and marketing: birth of a profitable relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frommelt, J J; Scheuerman, J L; Fillmore, J H

    1987-12-01

    As competition increases, the finance and marketing departments must work together to increase market share and improve the bottom line. If financial managers understand the functions of the marketing department, they can create a mutually beneficial and profitable relationship.

  8. Marketing and Globalization of the Brewing Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Erik Strøjer; Wu, Yanqing

    2016-01-01

    The globalization of the brewing industry after the turn of the century through a large wave of mergers and acquisitions has changed the structure of the world beer markets. The chapter tracks the development in industry concentrations from 2002 to 2012 and points to high transportation costs...... for beers and economies of scale at the firm level in advertising and sales efforts as the main factors behind the wave of cross-country mergers and acquisitions. Using firm-level data from the largest breweries, the estimations verify significant economies of scale at the firm level in marketing...... significant economies of scale benefits at the firm level to be shared between the merging partners as marketing and distribution costs are very high in this industry....

  9. Competing in changing energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannell, M.D.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents two perspectives: first, that of a successful exporter of energy products into world markets and second, that of a producer and seller of energy to consumers in South Australia and New South Wales - a large proportion of whom are privately and publicly owned trading organisations. It looks at Santos' experience in winning export markets for its liquid products; provides an overview of the changes - occurring and prospective to the Australian energy sector; and finally, discusses the outlook for Santos' South Australian gas business. The Australian energy-supply sectors have entered a period of unprecedented change. With energy being a contributor, and in many cases accounting for a large share of a traded good's cost, the impact of the emerging developments in the energy sector are of considerable significance

  10. Effort sharing in ambitious, global climate change mitigation scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekholm, Tommi; Soimakallio, Sampo; Moltmann, Sara; Hoehne, Niklas; Syri, Sanna; Savolainen, Ilkka

    2010-01-01

    The post-2012 climate policy framework needs a global commitment to deep greenhouse gas emission cuts. This paper analyzes reaching ambitious emission targets up to 2050, either -10% or -50% from 1990 levels, and how the economic burden from mitigation efforts could be equitably shared between countries. The scenarios indicate a large low-cost mitigation potential in electricity and industry, while reaching low emission levels in international transportation and agricultural emissions might prove difficult. The two effort sharing approaches, Triptych and Multistage, were compared in terms of equitability and coherence. Both approaches produced an equitable cost distribution between countries, with least developed countries having negative or low costs and more developed countries having higher costs. There is, however, no definitive solution on how the costs should be balanced equitably between countries. Triptych seems to be yet more coherent than other approaches, as it can better accommodate national circumstances. Last, challenges and possible hindrances to effective mitigation and equitable effort sharing are presented. The findings underline the significance of assumptions behind effort sharing on mitigation potentials and current emissions, the challenge of sharing the effort with uncertain future allowance prices and how inefficient markets might undermine the efficiency of a cap-and-trade system.

  11. Effort sharing in ambitious, global climate change mitigation scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekholm, Tommi [TKK Helsinki University of Technology, Espoo (Finland); Soimakallio, Sampo; Syri, Sanna; Savolainen, Ilkka [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, P.O. Box 1000, FIN-02044 VTT (Finland); Moltmann, Sara; Hoehne, Niklas [Ecofys Germany GmbH, Cologne (Germany)

    2010-04-15

    The post-2012 climate policy framework needs a global commitment to deep greenhouse gas emission cuts. This paper analyzes reaching ambitious emission targets up to 2050, either or from 1990 levels, and how the economic burden from mitigation efforts could be equitably shared between countries. The scenarios indicate a large low-cost mitigation potential in electricity and industry, while reaching low emission levels in international transportation and agricultural emissions might prove difficult. The two effort sharing approaches, Triptych and Multistage, were compared in terms of equitability and coherence. Both approaches produced an equitable cost distribution between countries, with least developed countries having negative or low costs and more developed countries having higher costs. There is, however, no definitive solution on how the costs should be balanced equitably between countries. Triptych seems to be yet more coherent than other approaches, as it can better accommodate national circumstances. Last, challenges and possible hindrances to effective mitigation and equitable effort sharing are presented. The findings underline the significance of assumptions behind effort sharing on mitigation potentials and current emissions, the challenge of sharing the effort with uncertain future allowance prices and how inefficient markets might undermine the efficiency of a cap-and-trade system. (author)

  12. A Panel Data Analysis of the Impact of Macroeconomic Indicators on Firms’ Shares Performance in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael S. Ogunmuyiwa

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper contributes to the ongoing debate on whether the impact of macroeconomic indicators on the stock market is positive or negative or of no effect by analyzing the relationship between macroeconomic fundamentals and performance of quoted firms on the Nigeria Stock Exchange market. A sample of fifty (50 quoted firms across eight (8 major sectors of the market was selected for the study. The static panel regression technique was employed on monthly data sourced from the Nigeria Stock Exchange (NSE and the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN between 2007:1 and 2013:12. Results from empirical findings reveal that varying impacts exist between the macroeconomic indicators and firm share returns in Nigeria. It goes further to affirm that inflation rate, interest rate and exchange rate are the major significant macroeconomic indicators driving firm share returns in Nigeria.

  13. Spot market for uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colhoun, C.

    1982-01-01

    The spot market is always quoted for the price of uranium because little information is available about long-term contracts. A review of the development of spot market prices shows the same price curve swings that occur with all raw materials. Future long-term contracts will probably be lower to reflect spot market prices, which are currently in the real-value range of $30-$35. An upswing in the price of uranium could come in the next few months as utilities begin making purchases and trading from stockpiles. The US, unlike Europe and Japan, has already reached a supply and demand point where the spot market share is increasing. Forecasters cannot project the market price, they can only predict the presence of an oscillating spot or a secondary market. 5 figures

  14. SharePoint 2010 For Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Vanessa L

    2012-01-01

    Here's the bestselling guide on SharePoint 2010, updated to cover Office 365 SharePoint Portal Server is an essential part of the enterprise infrastructure for many businesses. The Office 365 version includes significantly enhanced cloud capabilities. This second edition of the bestselling guide to SharePoint covers getting a SharePoint site up and running, branded, populated with content, and more. It explains ongoing site management and offers plenty of advice for administrators who want to leverage SharePoint and Office 365 in various ways.Many businesses today rely on SharePoint Portal Ser

  15. Market segmentation: Venezuelan ADRs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urbi Garay

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The control on foreign exchange imposed by Venezuela in 2003 constitute a natural experiment that allows researchers to observe the effects of exchange controls on stock market segmentation. This paper provides empirical evidence that although the Venezuelan capital market as a whole was highly segmented before the controls were imposed, the shares in the firm CANTV were, through their American Depositary Receipts (ADRs, partially integrated with the global market. Following the imposition of the exchange controls this integration was lost. Research also documents the spectacular and apparently contradictory rise experienced by the Caracas Stock Exchange during the serious economic crisis of 2003. It is argued that, as it happened in Argentina in 2002, the rise in share prices occurred because the depreciation of the Bolívar in the parallel currency market increased the local price of the stocks that had associated ADRs, which were negotiated in dollars.

  16. Exploring the marketing challenges faced by assembled computer dealers

    OpenAIRE

    Kallimani, Rashmi

    2010-01-01

    There has been a great competition in computer market these days for obtaining higher market share. Computer market consisting of many branded and non branded players have been using various methods for matching the supply and demand in best possible way for attaining market dominance. Branded companies are seen to be investing large amount in aggressive marketing techniques for reaching the customers and obtaining higher market share. Due to this many small companies and non branded computer...

  17. Digital Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Jerry Wind; Vijay Mahajan

    2002-01-01

    The digital revolution has shaken marketing to its core with consumers being offered greater price transparency and often even the chance to dictate the price. What does pricing mean in a world in which customers propose their own prices (as at priceline.com) or buyers and sellers haggle independently in auctions (as at e-Bay)? The most significant changes in the digital marketing show the emergence of 'cyber consumers', the cyber business-to-business world and the changing reality of an incr...

  18. Global market and consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakić Beba

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available All consumers in the world share certain needs and desires. They show however, remarkable diversity in the way they satisfy these needs and desires. Understanding the consumer behavior is difficult enough in the confines of a single country. Can manager understand the consumer behavior in many different world markets? International marketer must learn how to satisfy customers with widely different buying behaviors.

  19. Electricity marketing and retailing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanlon, C.

    2001-01-01

    ECNG Inc. is a full service provider of independent and objective energy advice and management services to industrial, commercial and institutional end-users of all forms of energy. ECNG manages 10 per cent of the Ontario gas market and expects a 10 per cent share of electricity (14 TWh). ECNG has a balanced portfolio with expertise in both petroleum and electricity sectors. The company has also dealt extensively with retailers, marketers, wholesalers and suppliers on issues regarding deregulation

  20. a European Global Navigation Satellite System — the German Market and Value Adding Chain Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollerthun, A.; Wieser, M.

    2002-03-01

    Since Europe is considering to establish a "market-driven" European Global Navigation Satellite System, the German Center of Aerospace initiated a market research to justify a German investment in such a European project. The market research performed included the following market segments: aviation, railway, road traffic, shipping, surveying, farming, military, space applications, leisure, and sport. In these market segments, the forementioned inputs were determined for satellite navigation hardware (receivers) as well as satellite navigation services. The forecast period was from year 2007 to 2017. For the considered period, the market amounts to a total of DM 83.0 billion (approx. US $50 billion), whereas the satellite navigation equipment market makes up DM 39.8 billion, and charges for value-added-services amount to DM 43.2 billion. On closer examination road traffic can be identified as the dominant market share, both in the receiver-market and service-market. With a share of 96% for receivers and 73% for services the significance of the road traffic segment becomes obvious. The second part of this paper investigates the effects the market potential has on the Value-Adding-Chain. Therefore, all participants in the Value-Adding-Chain are identified, using industrial cost structure models the employment effect is analyzed, and possible tax revenues for the state are examined.

  1. How Can Marketing Academics Serve Marketing Practice? The New Marketing DNA as a Model for Marketing Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrigan, Paul; Hulbert, Bev

    2011-01-01

    This article seeks to address how marketing academics can best serve marketing practice through marketing education. It is contended that, where technology is driving marketing in practice, it is afforded significantly less attention in both theory and education. Thus, the marketing graduates being produced from universities are often lacking in…

  2. Fixed Access Network Sharing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornaglia, Bruno; Young, Gavin; Marchetta, Antonio

    2015-12-01

    Fixed broadband network deployments are moving inexorably to the use of Next Generation Access (NGA) technologies and architectures. These NGA deployments involve building fiber infrastructure increasingly closer to the customer in order to increase the proportion of fiber on the customer's access connection (Fibre-To-The-Home/Building/Door/Cabinet… i.e. FTTx). This increases the speed of services that can be sold and will be increasingly required to meet the demands of new generations of video services as we evolve from HDTV to "Ultra-HD TV" with 4k and 8k lines of video resolution. However, building fiber access networks is a costly endeavor. It requires significant capital in order to cover any significant geographic coverage. Hence many companies are forming partnerships and joint-ventures in order to share the NGA network construction costs. One form of such a partnership involves two companies agreeing to each build to cover a certain geographic area and then "cross-selling" NGA products to each other in order to access customers within their partner's footprint (NGA coverage area). This is tantamount to a bi-lateral wholesale partnership. The concept of Fixed Access Network Sharing (FANS) is to address the possibility of sharing infrastructure with a high degree of flexibility for all network operators involved. By providing greater configuration control over the NGA network infrastructure, the service provider has a greater ability to define the network and hence to define their product capabilities at the active layer. This gives the service provider partners greater product development autonomy plus the ability to differentiate from each other at the active network layer.

  3. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Price hikes in cooking oil fuel worries over inflation and the dominance of foreign gurus over the country’s grain markets. With an explosion of box office successes, leading Chinese movie studios gear up for share floats to support expansion. Exports in November showed signs of bottoming out as the sector prepares for a more prosperous year in 2010. Despite its reputation as a nation of savers, China’s online consumption is burning hot as consumers enjoy the comfort of shopping from home. The aviation industry basks in the glow of the strong economic recovery as airlines transport a soaring number of passengers. Chinese companies press ahead with outbound mergers and acquisitions while overseas strategic investors remained relatively inactive in China.

  4. Effective managed care marketing strategies for evolving markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conlon, M K

    1997-11-01

    In a world of increased competition and changing consumer expectations, one of the keys to a fiscally sound health plan is having a dynamic marketing strategy that takes into account the shifting attitudes of consumers as managed care markets mature. The primary goal of any health plan marketing strategy should be the acquisition and retention of members. Providing cost-efficient and convenient service for enrollees, offering low or no deductibles, having convenient office locations, and minimizing paper-work are important elements of such a marketing strategy. Factors such as brand awareness and the perceived image of a health plan also are important considerations in acquiring and retaining market share. The relative importance of these consumer satisfaction criteria change as a managed care market evolves and matures. Financial and marketing managers, thus, should ascertain their market's stage of development and respond with appropriate marketing strategies.

  5. Water and Benefit Sharing in Transboundary River Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjoon, D.; Tilmant, A.; Herrmann, M.

    2015-12-01

    Growing water scarcity underlies the importance of cooperation for the effective management of river basins, particularly in the context of international rivers in which unidirectional externalities can lead to asymmetric relationships between riparian countries. Studies have shown that significant economic benefits can be expected through basin-wide cooperation, however, the equitable partitioning of these benefits over the basin is less well studied and tends to overlook the importance of stakeholder input in the definition of equitability. In this study, an institutional arrangement to maximize welfare and then share the scarcity cost in a river basin is proposed. A river basin authority plays the role of a bulk water market operator, efficiently allocating bulk water to the users and collecting bulk water charges which are then equitably redistributed among water users. This highly regulated market restrains the behaviour of water users to control externalities and to ensure basin-wide coordination, enhanced efficiency, and the equitable redistribution of the scarcity cost. The institutional arrangement is implemented using the Eastern Nile River basin as a case study. The importance of this arrangement is that it can be adopted for application in negotiations to cooperate in trans-boundary river basins. The benefit sharing solution proposed is more likely to be perceived as equitable because water users help define the sharing rule. As a result, the definition of the sharing rule is not in question, as it would be if existing rules, such as bankruptcy rules or cooperative game theory solutions, are applied, with their inherent definitions of fairness. Results of the case study show that the sharing rule is predictable. Water users can expect to receive between 93.5% and 95% of their uncontested benefits (benefits that they expect to receive if water was not rationed), depending on the hydrologic scenario.

  6. The Market Dynamics of Generic Medicines in the Private Sector of 19 Low and Middle Income Countries between 2001 and 2011: A Descriptive Time Series Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Warren A.; Wirtz, Veronika J.; Stephens, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This observational study investigates the private sector, retail pharmaceutical market of 19 low and middle income countries (LMICs) in Latin America, Asia and the Middle East/South Africa analyzing the relationships between volume market share of generic and originator medicines over a time series from 2001 to 2011. Over 5000 individual pharmaceutical substances were divided into generic (unbranded generic, branded generic medicines) and originator categories for each country, including the United States as a comparator. In 9 selected LMICs, the market share of those originator substances with the largest decrease over time was compared to the market share of their counterpart generic versions. Generic medicines (branded generic plus unbranded generic) represent between 70 and 80% of market share in the private sector of these LMICs which exceeds that of most European countries. Branded generic medicine market share is higher than that of unbranded generics in all three regions and this is in contrast to the U.S. Although switching from an originator to its generic counterpart can save money, this narrative in reality is complex at the level of individual medicines. In some countries, the market behavior of some originator medicines that showed the most temporal decrease, showed switching to their generic counterpart. In other countries such as in the Middle East/South Africa and Asia, the loss of these originators was not accompanied by any change at all in market share of the equivalent generic version. For those countries with a significant increase in generic medicines market share and/or with evidence of comprehensive “switching” to generic versions, notably in Latin America, it would be worthwhile to establish cause-effect relationships between pharmaceutical policies and uptake of generic medicines. The absence of change in the generic medicines market share in other countries suggests that, at a minimum, generic medicines have not been strongly

  7. The market dynamics of generic medicines in the private sector of 19 low and middle income countries between 2001 and 2011: a descriptive time series analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warren A Kaplan

    Full Text Available This observational study investigates the private sector, retail pharmaceutical market of 19 low and middle income countries (LMICs in Latin America, Asia and the Middle East/South Africa analyzing the relationships between volume market share of generic and originator medicines over a time series from 2001 to 2011. Over 5000 individual pharmaceutical substances were divided into generic (unbranded generic, branded generic medicines and originator categories for each country, including the United States as a comparator. In 9 selected LMICs, the market share of those originator substances with the largest decrease over time was compared to the market share of their counterpart generic versions. Generic medicines (branded generic plus unbranded generic represent between 70 and 80% of market share in the private sector of these LMICs which exceeds that of most European countries. Branded generic medicine market share is higher than that of unbranded generics in all three regions and this is in contrast to the U.S. Although switching from an originator to its generic counterpart can save money, this narrative in reality is complex at the level of individual medicines. In some countries, the market behavior of some originator medicines that showed the most temporal decrease, showed switching to their generic counterpart. In other countries such as in the Middle East/South Africa and Asia, the loss of these originators was not accompanied by any change at all in market share of the equivalent generic version. For those countries with a significant increase in generic medicines market share and/or with evidence of comprehensive "switching" to generic versions, notably in Latin America, it would be worthwhile to establish cause-effect relationships between pharmaceutical policies and uptake of generic medicines. The absence of change in the generic medicines market share in other countries suggests that, at a minimum, generic medicines have not been

  8. The market dynamics of generic medicines in the private sector of 19 low and middle income countries between 2001 and 2011: a descriptive time series analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Warren A; Wirtz, Veronika J; Stephens, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This observational study investigates the private sector, retail pharmaceutical market of 19 low and middle income countries (LMICs) in Latin America, Asia and the Middle East/South Africa analyzing the relationships between volume market share of generic and originator medicines over a time series from 2001 to 2011. Over 5000 individual pharmaceutical substances were divided into generic (unbranded generic, branded generic medicines) and originator categories for each country, including the United States as a comparator. In 9 selected LMICs, the market share of those originator substances with the largest decrease over time was compared to the market share of their counterpart generic versions. Generic medicines (branded generic plus unbranded generic) represent between 70 and 80% of market share in the private sector of these LMICs which exceeds that of most European countries. Branded generic medicine market share is higher than that of unbranded generics in all three regions and this is in contrast to the U.S. Although switching from an originator to its generic counterpart can save money, this narrative in reality is complex at the level of individual medicines. In some countries, the market behavior of some originator medicines that showed the most temporal decrease, showed switching to their generic counterpart. In other countries such as in the Middle East/South Africa and Asia, the loss of these originators was not accompanied by any change at all in market share of the equivalent generic version. For those countries with a significant increase in generic medicines market share and/or with evidence of comprehensive "switching" to generic versions, notably in Latin America, it would be worthwhile to establish cause-effect relationships between pharmaceutical policies and uptake of generic medicines. The absence of change in the generic medicines market share in other countries suggests that, at a minimum, generic medicines have not been strongly promoted.

  9. Marketing; Il marketing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muscigna, M [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, S. Maria di Galeria, RM (Italy). Dipt. Innovazione

    1999-07-01

    The report discusses marketing strategies oriented to the organizations and analyzes its critical factors, which determine the success of the organization activity. [Italian] Il rapporto analizza i caratteri delle strategie del marketing orientato all'impresa. Vengono infine analizzati i fattori critici che determinano il successo o l'insuccesso delle scelte aziendali.

  10. Marketing; Il marketing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muscigna, M. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, S. Maria di Galeria, RM (Italy). Dipt. Innovazione

    1999-07-01

    The report discusses marketing strategies oriented to the organizations and analyzes its critical factors, which determine the success of the organization activity. [Italian] Il rapporto analizza i caratteri delle strategie del marketing orientato all'impresa. Vengono infine analizzati i fattori critici che determinano il successo o l'insuccesso delle scelte aziendali.

  11. Product-Marketing Innovation, Skills and Firm Productivity Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junge, Martin; Severgnini, Battista; Sørensen, Anders

    The role of product and marketing innovation for productivity growth is addressed using survey and register data for the Danish economy. It is argued that marketing and product innovation are complementary inputs and that innovation activities are skill-intensive. It is found that product...... and marketing innovation in skill-intensive firms results in significantly faster productivity growth than in unskilled-intensive firms that introduce this combination of innovation activities. More precisely, an increase in the share of educated workers of one percentage point, increases productivity growth...... by around 0.1 percentage point in firms with product and marketing innovation. In addition, it is found that firms that engage in product innovation but not in marketing innovation or the other way around do not demonstrate a growth effect from their innovation activities. It is also found that product...

  12. Assessing the cost saving potential of shared product architectures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Niels Henrik; Hansen, Christian Lindschou; Løkkegaard, Martin

    2016-01-01

    company. Experiences from the case company show it is possible to reduce the number of architectures with 60% which leads to significant reduction in direct material and labor costs. This can be achieved without compromising the market offerings of products. Experiences from the case study indicate cost......This article presents a method for calculating cost savings of shared architectures in industrial companies called Architecture Mapping and Evaluation. The main contribution is an operational method to evaluate the cost potential and evaluate the number of product architectures in an industrial...

  13. Flexibility as a market requirement - The adaptation of the structure and operations of electricity markets to the production of renewable energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finon, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    Renewable energies are earmarked to take up a very significant share in the output of some of Europe's electricity Systems. The variability of their contribution makes the maintenance of the system's physical equilibrium a veritable challenge, once the share reaches a certain level. Apart from the necessary technical improvements, the transformation of the System first and foremost requires upgrading the way the different energy markets function. (author)

  14. Flexibility as a market requirement - The adaptation of the structure and operations of electricity markets to the production of renewable energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finon, Dominique

    2014-12-01

    Renewable energies are earmarked to take up a very significant share in the output of some of Europe's electricity Systems. The variability of their contribution makes the maintenance of the system's physical equilibrium a veritable challenge, once the share reaches a certain level. Apart from the necessary technical improvements, the transformation of the System first and foremost requires upgrading the way the different energy markets function

  15. Market analysis. Renewable fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The Agency for Renewable Resources (FNR) had on behalf of the Federal Ministry of Food and Agriculture created a study on the market development of renewable resources in Germany and published this in the year of 2006. The aim of that study was to identify of actual status and market performance of the individual market segments of the material and energetic use as a basis for policy recommendations for accelerated and long term successful market launch and market share expansion of renewable raw materials. On behalf of the FNR, a market analysis of mid-2011 was carried out until the beginning of 2013, the results of which are hereby resubmitted. This market analysis covers all markets of material and energetic use in the global context, taking account of possible competing uses. A market segmentation, which was based on the product classification of the Federal Statistical Office, formed the basis of the analysis. A total of ten markets have been defined, seven material and three energetic use. [de

  16. Sharing best practice in partnerships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosgaard, Mette; Remmen, Arne; Pedersen, Claus Stig

    In this paper, the promotion of sustainable products through the sharing of best practices in product chains is examined. The general understanding is that the interactions in the supply chain are changing from a traditional focus on the supply of goods “just in time” towards a focus on value...... creation for the different stakeholders and closer collaboration and communication between manufacturers, suppliers, consumers, and retailers. Supply Chain Management can be divided into two main categories with rather different focus areas: ”risk minimization” related to environmental and social impacts...... of and demand for sustainable products – in other words the creation of new markets....

  17. The performances of coffee processors and coffee market in the Republic of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuševa Daniela

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this paper is to investigate the performances of coffee processors and coffee market in Serbia based on the market concentration analysis, profitability analysis, and profitability determinants analysis. The research was based on the sample of 40 observations of coffee processing companies divided into two groups: large and small coffee processors. The results indicate that two large coffee processors have dominant market share. Even though the Serbian coffee market is an oligopolistic, profitability analysis indicates that small coffee processors have a significant better profitability ratio than large coffee processors. Furthermore, results show that profitability ratio is positively related to the inventory turnover and negatively related to the market share.

  18. Information Sharing, Cooperative Behaviour and Hotel Performance: A Survey of the Kenyan Hospitality Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sammy Odari Namusonge

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Information sharing is the life blood of supply chain collaboration. Its role in achieving operational performance of supply chains has been widely acclaimed. However whether information sharing would result in improved performance in the context of the hospitality industry has not been empirically determined. This study sought to find out the role of information sharing on hotel performance when the relationship was mediated by cooperative behaviour. A survey design was employed where proportionate stratified sampling was used to select 50 out of 57 town hotels. Data was collected through the use of questionnaires as well interview guides to the procurement\\supply chain departments of these hotels. Logarithmic transformations were used in conjunction with multiple regression analysis to determine the relationship between information sharing, cooperative behaviour and hotel performance. The study concludes that information sharing in the Kenyan hospitality industry does not directly relate to hotel performance. Its relationship is mediated by cooperative behaviour (trust and attitude with supply chain partners. This suggests that information sharing is essential but insufficient by itself to bring significant performance improvements in hotels in the Kenyan hospitality industry. A possible reason for this is that this collaborative practice is highly dependent on information sharing capability, structure of the information as well as culture. Through quadrant analysis the study identifies and recommends the sharing of information about long term strategic plans and events such as entering new markets and acquiring a new customer base as an area of primary priority for improvement.

  19. Rent Sharing and Gender Discrimination in Collegiate Athletics

    OpenAIRE

    Lackner, Mario; Zulehner, Christine

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze the effect of market power on the share of females in top management positions using data from a market in which some firms have market power due to an institutionalized cartel. We investigate collegiate athletics and interpret coaches as top-level managers or chief executive officers (CEOs). The causal link between market power and female employment is established by exploiting the existence of the Bowl Championship Series (BCS) as an exogenous shock. Our results sh...

  20. Rare earths 1998 market update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tourre, J.M.

    1998-01-01

    The rare earth industry has always been a world of rapid change with the emergence of new markets, new ores and new players, as well as the disappearance of old applications. Rare earth based products are used in a great diversity of applications such as hard disk drives, CD drives, batteries, capacitors, pigments, ceramics, polishing powders, fuel cells, flints, catalyst converter, fluid cracking catalysts, etc. South East Asia holds the largest share of the known reserve of rare earth ores and is one of the major markets for rare earth compounds; in the last ten years, China has become the largest producer of rare earth intermediates as well as an important exporter of separated rare earth elements. Today, China has approximately 150 factories producing rare earth compounds, most of which are experiencing financial difficulties due to the lack of knowledge of true market needs, lack of control of their distribution channels and production over-capacity. Recently the Chinese rare earth producers have recognized the situation and efforts are underway to rationalize rare earth production. Japan has dominated many of the major application markets, and is by far the largest market for metal and alloy products. This will remain the case for the next five years; however, new countries are emerging as significant users of rare earth products such as Korea, Taiwan and Malaysia. During the last ten years rare earth producers adjusted to several radical changes that affected the raw materials, the application mix and the price structure. New producers have emerged, especially from China; some have subsequently stopped their activities while others have focused their efforts in a specific market segment

  1. SPORT MARKETING MIX STRATEGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Lucian MIHAI

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a brief overview of a significant element of the sport marketing management model called the marketing mix. The marketing mix is crucial because it defines the sport business, and much of the sport marketer’s time is spent on various functions within the marketing mix. The marketing mix is the strategic combination of the product, price, place and promotion elements. These elements are typically called the four Ps of marketing. Decisions and strategies for each are important for the marketer. Information for making educated decisions involving the four Ps comes from the marketing research involving primarily the four Cs - consumer, competitor, company and climate. A critical decision and one of the greatest challenges for the sport business is how to strategically combine the four Ps to best satisfy the consumer, meet company objectives, enhance market position, and enhance competitive advantages.

  2. Livestock Marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Futrell, Gene; And Others

    This marketing unit focuses on the seasonal and cyclical patterns of livestock markets. Cash marketing, forward contracting, hedging in the futures markets, and the options markets are examined. Examples illustrate how each marketing tool may be useful in gaining a profit on livestock and cutting risk exposure. The unit is organized in the…

  3. ROMANIAN BEEF AND VEAL MEAT MARKET ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ilvius T. STANCIU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Current nutritional trends, oriented towards a healthy nutrition, lead to the re-evaluation of the share held by beef in the diet of the population. The demand for beef and veal at European and global market level can represent a significant opportunity to increase domestic producers’ business. Though cattle breeding is a traditional activity for the indigenous population from rural areas, livestock for slaughter have decreased steadily in the last years, thus the domestic market being dependent on imports. Romanian natural potential allows the achievement of sufficient production to meet domestic and export demand for beef, which brings high income for producers. The article proposes a review of the domestic production of beef and veal, their consumption and the origin of products on the domestic market in the European and international context.

  4. Ownership structure and market power in the nordic power market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amundsen, E.S.; Bergman, L.

    1999-01-01

    The opening of Nord Pool in 1996 seriously constrained the power companies' ability to exercise market power within their national borders. Currently there is an integration process going on among the power companies in the Nord Pool area. It manifest itself in terms of take-over and reciprocal acquisition of shares in the power companies - nationally and abroad. This process may undo what the introduction of the common power market achieved in curtailing market power. The aim of this paper is to investigate the effects on market power of increased cross- ownership in the Nordic power market. (au)

  5. Etika Marketing Syariah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luqman Nurhisam

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Marketing activities (marketing which is the activity of distributing goods and services ranging from producers to the hands of consumers. In this case there are some fundamental questions that encompass marketing activities (marketing; ranging from what is marketed, who is marketing, to how goods and services are marketed through the activities of marketing functions such as purchase, sales, transportation, and so forth. The problem that arises then is, most of the producers/the company with the marketers (marketers who do not consider the moral and ethical aspects of marketing the products they offer, the most important for them is how to make the products they offer acceptable and successful and control the market share. Especially if the marketer is pressed by the target company that must be achieved and the bonus will be obtained, then to achieve the target, not infrequently a marketer doing various ways, to the point of crashing the signs and ethics that have been established in religion. This study aims to analyze how the ethical aspect in the concept and practice in marketing (marketing sharia by the company / producer of goods and services. The research method used in this research is descriptive qualitative analysis, using linguistic or language approach that is describe the concept and structure of marketing language as it is. From this study it can be concluded that the majority of scholars allow the concepts and practices in sharia marketing, seen from the process of creation, the process of bidding, as well as the process of change of value (value in sharia marketing there should be no things that conflict with the principles that exist in sharia. As long as it can be guaranteed, and deviation of principles in sharia does not occur in any transaction inside marketing, it can be allowed in syarak. As well as in the ethical aspect has also fulfilled the spiritual elements that are spiritual based, the divinity is sourced from the

  6. On Converting Secret Sharing Scheme to Visual Secret Sharing Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Daoshun

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Traditional Secret Sharing (SS schemes reconstruct secret exactly the same as the original one but involve complex computation. Visual Secret Sharing (VSS schemes decode the secret without computation, but each share is m times as big as the original and the quality of the reconstructed secret image is reduced. Probabilistic visual secret sharing (Prob.VSS schemes for a binary image use only one subpixel to share the secret image; however the probability of white pixels in a white area is higher than that in a black area in the reconstructed secret image. SS schemes, VSS schemes, and Prob. VSS schemes have various construction methods and advantages. This paper first presents an approach to convert (transform a -SS scheme to a -VSS scheme for greyscale images. The generation of the shadow images (shares is based on Boolean XOR operation. The secret image can be reconstructed directly by performing Boolean OR operation, as in most conventional VSS schemes. Its pixel expansion is significantly smaller than that of VSS schemes. The quality of the reconstructed images, measured by average contrast, is the same as VSS schemes. Then a novel matrix-concatenation approach is used to extend the greyscale -SS scheme to a more general case of greyscale -VSS scheme.

  7. Rethinking the Sharing Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kornberger, Martin; Leixnering, Stephan; Meyer, Renate

    2017-01-01

    Our paper focuses on a non-standard sharing example that harbors the potential to disrupt received wisdom on the sharing economy. While originally entering the field to analyze, broadly from a governance perspective, how the 2015 refugee crisis was handled in Vienna, Austria, we found that the no...... of sharing: economic and moral. Our paper contributes to this Special Issue of the Academy of Management Discoveries by highlighting and explaining the two-fold economic and moral nature of sharing and the organization of sharing between movement and platform....... sharing of resources (i.e., the economic dimension): the sharing of a distinct concern (i.e., the moral dimension of sharing). Our discovery exemplifies such a moral dimension that is rather different from the status quo materialistic treatments focusing on economic transactions and property rights...

  8. Job Sharing in Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Wilma; Kline, Susan

    1979-01-01

    The author presents the advantages of job sharing for all school personnel, saying that education is particularly adaptable to this new form of employment. Current job sharing programs in Massachusetts, California, and New Jersey schools are briefly discussed. (SJL)

  9. Concentration and Competition in the Global Meat Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bocharova Yuliia G.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at analyzing the condition, development specifics, concentration and competition in the global meat market. Both significance and role of meat in providing the food security has been substantiated. An analysis of the dynamics and structure (both geographical and commodity of production volumes, consumption, exports and imports of meat has been conducted. The major producers, consumers, exporters and importers of meat in the context of globalization have been identified. The country-based features, patterns of consumption and imports of meat have been characterized. On the basis of calculated five indicators of concentration (coefficient of concentration, the Herfindahl-Hirschman index, coefficient of relative concentration, dispersion of logarithms of market shares, index of the maximum share the features of competition in the global market of producers and consumers of meat have been determined.

  10. The battery market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deshpande, S.L.

    1991-01-01

    The worldwide battery market is estimated to be $21 billion annually at present. The geographical distribution of this market is shown in this paper. The American (North and South), Western Europe and Africa, and Asian and Australia represent equal markets of $6 billion each. The communist block countries (including Russia and China) are estimated to represent a $3 billion market. Automotive and consumer batteries constitute more than 80% of the world battery market. Industrial batteries make up the rest. Secondary (rechargeable) batteries (automotive, for example) have only 60% share of the world battery consumption. Primary batteries (most toy batteries that are the throw away type) exceed rechargeables by far in units. However, the larger size of rechargeable batteries makes their total value larger despite the small number of units

  11. The Dutch Grey Market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renneboog, L.D.R.; Spaenjers, C.

    2008-01-01

    When-issued trading concerns transactions in securities that have not yet been issued. This type of trade often takes place in a so-called ‘grey market’, in which all contracts are conditional on the issuance of the security. In this paper, we investigate the Dutch grey market for when-issued shares

  12. Job Sharing in Geography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Jeanne

    1982-01-01

    Job sharing is an employment alternative in which two qualified individuals manage the responsibilities of a single position. Discusses the barriers to and the potential, advantages, disadvantages, pitfalls, and challenges of job sharing. Focuses on job sharing in the geography profession. (Author/JN)

  13. The Sharing Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Reinhold, Stephan; Dolnicar, Sara

    2017-01-01

    Peer-to-peer accommodation networks in general, and Airbnb in specific, are frequently referred to as part of the sharing economy. This chapter provides an overview of key characteristics of the sharing economy, discusses how these characteristics relate to peer-to-peer accommodation, and positions peer-to-peer accommodation networks within the sharing economy.

  14. Satisfaction and 'comparison sharing'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amilon, Anna

    2009-01-01

    the probability of satisfaction. Results show that comparison sharing impacts satisfaction for women, and that those women who share more equally than their peers are more likely to be satisfied, whereas comparison sharing has no influence on satisfaction for men. Also, parents are less likely to be satisfied...

  15. Reconceptualising Shared Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter McKinlay

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Endeavours to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of local government have been a persistent theme both of politicians in higher tiers of government and of interest groups, especially business. The two contenders for improvement which receive most coverage both in the research literature and in popular discussion are amalgamation and shared services. Arguments from the literature have generally favoured shared services over amalgamation. Bish (2001 in a comprehensive review of North American research dismisses the argument for amalgamation as a product of flawed nineteenth-century thinking and a bureaucratic urge for centralized control. He does so making the very reasonable point that the presumed economies of scale which will result from amalgamation are a function not of the size and scale of individual local authorities, but of the services for which those local authorities are responsible, and the point at which economies of scale will be optimised will be very different for different services. The case against amalgamation is also reinforced by the absence of any significant post-facto evidence that amalgamation achieves either the promised savings or the anticipated efficiency gains (McKinlay 2006.

  16. Marketing Plan, 1980-81.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppe, Sherry; Biggers, Paul

    A marketing program for Chattanooga State Technical Community College (CSTCC) is presented as a guide to be used by the college in increasing its share of the traditional college-age market and in expanding the college's target audience to include more non-traditional students. The report first presents a review of the literature concerning…

  17. Content marketing - the fundamental tool of digital marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Loredana PATRUTIU BALTES

    2015-01-01

    In the era of digitalization, the importance of digital marketing has increased from one year to another as part of the marketing strategy practiced by organizations of any type and any size. Given that digital marketing requires the existence of a content marketing, the success or the failure of the company’s online communication depends to a significant extent on the quality of its content marketing. In this context, besides promoting a high quality of the content marketing, ...

  18. The impact of the Market Power Mitigation Agreement on power prices in Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chute, R. G.

    2000-01-01

    Market power was defined by the Market Design Committee (MDC) as 'the ability to sustain a significant price increase profitably', although it is generally understood to refer to the 'overwhelming dominance of generating capacity and supply capability of Ontario Power Generation' (OPG), the former generating arm of Ontario Hydro. The MDC sought to address market power within the context of the Ontario Government's White Paper on electricity sector reform, entitled 'Directions for Change'. The solution was the Market Power Mitigation Agreement (MPMA), a negotiated agreement between the MDC and OPG that established market share goals and provided incentives and penalties to meet these goals. Briefly, the major instrument used by the MPMA is the price of electric power sold in the Ontario market to reward, or penalize the actions of OPG in moving towards its market share goals as defined in the MPMA. This paper explains the principal elements of the MPMA and how they are expected to influence the market prices for power in Ontario. The principal elements of the Agreement are price cap and rebate, decontrol targets, and intertie capacity and limits, while the instruments comprise licence conditions, settlement agreements, market rules and ministerial directives. The issue of the impact of the MPMA on the cost of power, and the future prospects of market power after the expiration of the MPMA are also addressed

  19. Privatization and Financial Market Development: Theoretical Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriella Chiesa; Giovanna Nicodano

    2003-01-01

    Stock market capitalization in developed countries grew while massive privatization plans were in progress. It is however possible that stock market development would have occurred anyway. Below we identify features that are specific to share-issue privatizations (SIPs) and should a priori impact on market liquidity and market size. A positive correlation between such features and market development in a cross section of countries would support the claim that certain types of SIPs contribute ...

  20. Analysis of Economic Factors Affecting Stock Market

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Linyin

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation concentrates on analysis of economic factors affecting Chinese stock market through examining relationship between stock market index and economic factors. Six economic variables are examined: industrial production, money supply 1, money supply 2, exchange rate, long-term government bond yield and real estate total value. Stock market comprises fixed interest stocks and equities shares. In this dissertation, stock market is restricted to equity market. The stock price in thi...

  1. Natural gas markets in the Pacific Rim

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hertzmark, D.I.

    1991-01-01

    In the 1980s, Asian energy markets expanded at a rapid rate to meet the surge in demand from Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan. This demand boom coincided with an increase in non-OPEC oil production in the region. As oil production stabilizes, demand appears to be surging again, but this time in the Southeast Asian countries. Natural gas will play a key role in this expansion of energy use and could start to lead rather than follow the oil market. This will be especially true as compressed natural gas and oxygenates start to take significant shares of the transportation fuel markets, while the role of residual fuel oil is increasingly usurped by gas for environmental reasons. Many new gas sources such as Papua New Guinea, Siberia, China, and Canada will fight for market share while domestic demand in Indonesia and Malaysia takes up increasing proportions of those countries' gas production. Extensive regional transportation schemes are likely to direct more of the gas output of Southeast Asia to intra-ASEAN uses. 2 tabs

  2. Marketing plan for Snack Books

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Bernardo Vilaça Ribeiro dos

    2009-01-01

    A Work Project, presented as part of the requirements for the Award of a Masters Degree in Management from the NOVA – School of Business and Economics In 2008 LeYa had the desire to grow in two different ways: gaining market share to competitor firms in the book publishing market; and develop a strategy for market size growth, benefiting from first mover advantage. At that time we were already catalyzing and collecting the benefits of dimension, either by using our enhanced...

  3. The significance of the environmental 'cross-section' clause of article 130r section 2 subsection 2 of the EEC treaty for the realization of the Single European Market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breier, A.S.

    1992-01-01

    The completion of the single European Market on 31.12.1992 has not only led to economic advantages within the European Community. The author exemplifies the detrimental environmental effects brought about by the framing of tax, energy, goods traffic and aviation policies for the purposes of the Single Market in accordance with EEC Treaty. On viewing the factual material the author comes to the conclusion that at least the one-sided concepts of the two areas of traffic policy are incompatible with the environmental ''cross-section'' clause of Article 130r Section 2 Subsection 2 of the EEC Treaty. (orig.) [de

  4. Sharing family and household:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Ida Wentzel

    Keynote: Family relationships are normatively assumed to be characterized by ‘sharing’, such as living together in the same home, occupying the same place, sharing stuff, blood and biology, spending special and ordinary time together, and consequently creating shared biographical experiences....... In that way, families are thrown into togetherness. At the same time, we see families in varying forms where 'sharing' is lived and contested differently. In Denmark, many children live in nuclear families, and many live in different variations of more than one household. For those who share household...... and family, 'sharing' will be a basic condition. No matter what, they should share life circumstances, more stories, more places and spaces, more households families with both kin and non-kin. This keynote addresses the particular of children’s experiences of living apart and/or living together in sharing...

  5. An empirical examination of the relationship between naked shorting and share prices around the announcement of a firm’s need for external capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Austin Murphy

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This research finds some empirical evidence that the sale of stock without delivering shares can contribute to pressuring down the equity prices of companies seeking to raise capital. By allowing for the delayed effects on prices of limit orders by naked shorts, a significant negative impact on equity value per share is discovered but only for naked short selling by market makers and only on stocks of firms in urgent need of external financing.

  6. Not a bad result. German solar producers were able to retain their world market share in 2010; Nicht schlecht geschlagen. Deutsche Solarfirmen konnten im Jahr 2010 ihren Weltmarktanteil in etwa halten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krause, Matthias B.; Podewils, Christoph

    2011-01-15

    The German solar industry was quite successful in 2010. More silicon, solar wafers, solar cells, solar modules, and current inverters were produced and sold than in the year before. Expectations for 2011 are good, and many producers intend to enhance their production capacities as this is the only way to keep up. Fast growth, cost reduction, and the development of interesting markets abroad are key elements of success.

  7. Getting better integrated into foreign markets supported by the incubator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyhr Ulrich, Anna Marie; Gretzinger, Susanne; Hollensen, Svend

    The challenges associated with entering foreign growth markets, like BRIC markets, remain significant, especially for inexperienced SMEs. These challenges can include inadequate knowledge about a host country’s culture, norms, values and business environment, and a lack of embeddedness in the ind...... into the following two propositions: - The higher the level of the company’s accumulated experiential knowledge, the faster integration into the foreign market. - The use of incubator facilitates a faster integration into a specific high growth foreign market.......The challenges associated with entering foreign growth markets, like BRIC markets, remain significant, especially for inexperienced SMEs. These challenges can include inadequate knowledge about a host country’s culture, norms, values and business environment, and a lack of embeddedness...... in the industry networks abroad. Such barriers can often hinder successful foreign market entry. One concept to use for SMEs, which lack experiential knowledge when bridging new distant international growth markets, is the ‘incubator’. It is best described as a shared office-space facility, including a local...

  8. Restructuring of LDCs and retail marketing by producers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heath, D.

    1998-01-01

    The restructuring of local distribution companies (LDCs) and retail marketing producers and the challenges facing market participants were discussed. In Canada, LDC operations are regulated by provincial utilities commissions. This presentation focused on Ontario because it has the largest and most active retail gas market in Canada where some significant LDC restructuring initiatives are taking place. The current state of retail gas pricing in Ontario was also reviewed. Consumers Gas or Union Gas are the two utilities that serve most of the 2.2 million natural gas customers in Ontario. Both utilities have fully integrated supply and marketing businesses which include the sale and delivery of natural gas, related products and services. Suncor's recent entry into the retail natural gas market has been successful. Suncor currently has the third largest number of retail customers in Ontario and a significant share of that market. LDCs will become delivery companies who focus on providing reliable and safe distribution of natural gas to all customers and will provide open access to all gas marketers on a non-discriminatory basis. This will result in more sophisticated marketing to retail customers, retail customer contracts will change to fixed term, fixed price agreements, and there will be strong brand identification. Additional opportunities will be created as a result of deregulation of the electricity industry

  9. An operatorial approach to stock markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagarello, F

    2006-01-01

    We propose and discuss some toy models of stock markets using the same operatorial approach adopted in quantum mechanics. Our models are suggested by the discrete nature of the number of shares and of the cash which are exchanged in a real market, and by the existence of conserved quantities, like the total number of shares or some linear combination of cash and shares. The same framework as the one used in the description of a gas of interacting bosons is adopted

  10. 75 FR 54591 - Notice of Agricultural Management Assistance Organic Certification Cost-Share Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-08

    ...] Notice of Agricultural Management Assistance Organic Certification Cost-Share Program AGENCY... Agricultural Management Assistance Organic Certification Cost-Share Program. SUMMARY: This Notice invites the... Agreement with the Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS) for the Allocation of Organic Certification Cost...

  11. International Energy Market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doringoni, S.; Pontoni, F.

    2008-01-01

    The paper analyzes recent market trends in the oil and natural gas sector. For the latter, a focus on the European gas market is then presented, whose consumption has grown considerably in these last ten years. As for the oil sector this paper investigates the key elements that have shaped its market in these years. As for oil consumption, we show that in these last 15 years China, India and the Middle East are the main responsible for the increase in World consumption. On the other hand, European OECD Countries have consistently reduced (almost 9%) their oil demand. This is due both to the dematerialization of their economy and their significant improvements in energy efficiency. As for energy intensity, in fact, Europe by far is the most efficient region in the World. On the other hand, OPEC has drastically raised its share of total production: at present the cartel accounts for more than 40% of overall production. OPEC members were the only producers to meet World's needs as oil demand expanded. The difficulties of other producers to keep up with the demand originated in the nineties, when no investment in new production capacity was brought about due to low oil prices. In the end of 2008, anyway, recession has eased the situation: for the first time in fifteen years, demand has not grown, compared to 2007 consumption. Recession has also shrunk prices, which, as soon as the demand started decreasing, have collapsed by almost 70%. As for the gas sector, the paper focuses on the European market where, after ten years from the beginning of the liberalization process, competition is still missing. In particular, the paper discusses whether LNG can bring about the competition so desperately needed. Unlike investments in pipelines, those in the LNG chain present a much lower degree of specificity, since the importer is not physically tied with the producer; moreover, it is getting increasingly common that part of the plant capacity is made available for spot

  12. Market structure and the incentives to innovate in the Norwegian music industry

    OpenAIRE

    Engstrand, Andreas Prestegaard

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis, I study market structure and incentives to innovate in the Norwegian music industry. The industry has gone through significant changes since the year 2000. Every part of the value chain has been disrupted by technology, and the barriers to entry have decreased. However, major labels seem to have kept their market share. I define product and process innovation as respectively the release of a new artist and the release of a subsequent album. A product innovation ...

  13. 75 FR 54590 - Notice of 2010 National Organic Certification Cost-Share Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-08

    ...] Notice of 2010 National Organic Certification Cost-Share Program AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service... Certification Cost-Share Funds. The AMS has allocated $22.0 million for this organic certification cost-share... National Organic Certification Cost- Share Program is authorized under 7 U.S.C. 6523, as amended by section...

  14. On the evaluation of market power and market dominance-The Nordic electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hellmer, Stefan; Warell, Linda

    2009-01-01

    This paper studies different concentration and dominance measures using structural indexes used to initially screen the competitive situation in a market. The Nordic and Swedish electricity markets are used as the empirical cases. Market concentration issues in the Nordic electricity market in general and in Sweden in particular have been, at least in initial screenings, approached by the Herfindahl-Hirschman Index (HHI). This article uses an alternative measure to HHI, which is based on market shares of the two largest firms in the market. The results shows that only the Swedish wholesale market has a firm that can be regarded as dominant, but only during very short periods. The results from a hypothetical merger between the second and third largest company in the Swedish wholesale market shows that when the dominant position of the largest firm is reduced, by increasing the size of the second largest firm, the threshold value indicates that competition actually will increase (contradicting to the HHI).

  15. Sharing killed the AVMSD star: the impossibility of European audiovisual media regulation in the era of the sharing economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indrek Ibrus

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the challenges that the ‘sharing economy’ presents to the updating of the European Union’s (EU Audiovisual Media Service Directive (AVMSD, part of the broader Digital Single Market (DSM strategy of the EU. It suggests that the convergence of media markets and the emergence of video-sharing platforms may make the existing regulative tradition obsolete. It demonstrates an emergent need for regulatory convergence – AVMSD to create equal terms for all technical forms of content distribution. It then shows how the operational logic of video-sharing platforms undermines the AVMSD logic aimed at creating demand for professionally produced European content – leading potentially to the liberalisation of the EU audiovisual services market. Lastly, it argues that the DSM strategy combined with sharing-related network effects may facilitate the evolution of the oligopolistic structure in the EU audiovisual market, potentially harmful for cultural diversity.

  16. Dynamic quantum secret sharing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia, Heng-Yue; Wen, Qiao-Yan; Gao, Fei; Qin, Su-Juan; Guo, Fen-Zhuo

    2012-01-01

    In this Letter we consider quantum secret sharing (QSS) between a sender and a dynamic agent group, called dynamic quantum secret sharing (DQSS). In the DQSS, the change of the agent group is allowable during the procedure of sharing classical and quantum information. Two DQSS schemes are proposed based on a special kind of entangled state, starlike cluster states. Without redistributing all the shares, the changed agent group can reconstruct the sender's secret by their cooperation. Compared with the previous quantum secret sharing scheme, our schemes are more flexible and suitable for practical applications. -- Highlights: ► We consider quantum secret sharing between a sender and a dynamic agent group, called dynamic quantum secret sharing (DQSS). ► In the DQSS, the change of the agent group is allowable during the procedure of sharing classical and quantum information. ► Two DQSS schemes are proposed based on a special kind of entangled state, starlike cluster states. ► Without redistributing all the shares, the changed agent group can reconstruct the sender's secret by their cooperation. ► Compared with the previous quantum secret sharing scheme, our schemes are more flexible and suitable for practical applications.

  17. The pricing effect of the common pattern in firm-level idiosyncratic volatility: Evidence from A-Share stocks of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Zhi; Shu, Tengjia; Yin, Libo

    2018-05-01

    Inspired by Herskovic et al. (2016), we investigate the pricing effect of the firm-level common idiosyncratic volatility (CIV) in China's A-Share market. Return tests indicate that lower CIV risk loadings bring higher returns significantly, while the pricing function of market volatility (MV) is inconsistent. Strategy that goes long the highest CIV-beta quintile and short the lowest CIV-beta quintile brings an annualized average return of 5%-7%. Our findings supplement Herskovic et al. (2016) by confirming a significantly negative relationship between CIV and stock returns in a developing market.

  18. Market, Regulation, Market, Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frankel, Christian; Galland, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    barriers to trade in Europe, realized the free movement of products by organizing progressively several orders of markets and regulation. Based on historical and institutional documents, on technical publications, and on interviews, this article relates how the European Commission and the Member States had......This paper focuses on the European Regulatory system which was settled both for opening the Single Market for products and ensuring the consumers' safety. It claims that the New Approach and Standardization, and the Global Approach to conformity assessment, which suppressed the last technical...... alternatively recourse to markets and to regulations, at the three main levels of the New Approach Directives implementation. The article focuses also more specifically on the Medical Devices sector, not only because this New Approach sector has long been controversial in Europe, and has recently been concerned...

  19. Predicting the Potential Market for Electric Vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anders Fjendbo; Cherchi, Elisabetta; Mabit, Stefan Lindhard

    2017-01-01

    diffusion models in marketing research use fairly simple demand models. In this paper we discuss the problem of predicting market shares for new products and suggest a method that combines advanced choice models with a diffusion model to take into account that new products often need time to gain......Forecasting the potential demand for electric vehicles is a challenging task. Because most studies for new technologies rely on stated preference (SP) data, market share predictions will reflect shares in the SP data and not in the real market. Moreover, typical disaggregate demand models...... are suitable to forecast demand in relatively stable markets, but show limitations in the case of innovations. When predicting the market for new products it is crucial to account for the role played by innovation and how it penetrates the new market over time through a diffusion process. However, typical...

  20. Market power and output-based refunding of environmental policy revenues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, Carolyn

    2011-01-01

    Output-based refunding of environmental policy revenues combines a tax on emissions with a production subsidy, typically in a revenue-neutral fashion. With imperfect competition, subsidies can alleviate output underprovision. However, when market shares are significant, endogenous refunding reduces abatement incentives and the marginal net tax or subsidy. If market shares differ, marginal abatement costs will not be equalized, and production is shifted among participants. In an asymmetric Cournot duopoly, endogenous refunding leads to higher output, emissions, and overall costs compared with a fixed rebate program targeting the same emissions intensity. These results hold whether emissions rates are determined simultaneously with output or strategically in a two-stage model. (author)

  1. Job sharing. Part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, K; Forbes, R

    1989-01-01

    This article is the first of a three part series discussing the impact of nurses job sharing at University Hospital, London, Ontario. This first article explores the advantages and disadvantages of job sharing for staff nurses and their supervising nurse manager, as discussed in the literature. The results of a survey conducted on a unit with a large number of job sharing positions, concur with literature findings. The second article will present the evaluation of a pilot project in which two nurses job share a first line managerial position in the Operating Room. The third article will relate the effects of job sharing on women's perceived general well being. Job sharing in all areas, is regarded as a positive experience by both nurse and administrators.

  2. Marketing the Masters of Executive Management Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    market themselves to attract new students ( Kotler , 2003). The format of this chapter continues with an outline of the different strategic phases...Implementation H. Evaluation and Control Source: Developed from (Kerin & Peterson, 2004), ( Kotler , 2003) Figure 1. MEM Marketing Plan...strategically evaluate which market they are actually operating in. According to ( Kotler , 2003), “organizations develop mission statements to share

  3. 49 CFR 1180.7 - Market analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... company's marketing plan and existing and potential competitive alternatives (inter- as well as intramodal... for inspection by other parties or otherwise supply these data on request, for example, electronically... or marketing goals; interchange data; market share analysis; and/or shipper surveys. It is important...

  4. Display Sharing: An Alternative Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    The current Johnson Space Center (JSC) Mission Control Center (MCC) Video Transport System (VTS) provides flight controllers and management the ability to meld raw video from various sources with telemetry to improve situational awareness. However, maintaining a separate infrastructure for video delivery and integration of video content with data adds significant complexity and cost to the system. When considering alternative architectures for a VTS, the current system's ability to share specific computer displays in their entirety to other locations, such as large projector systems, flight control rooms, and back supporting rooms throughout the facilities and centers must be incorporated into any new architecture. Internet Protocol (IP)-based systems also support video delivery and integration. IP-based systems generally have an advantage in terms of cost and maintainability. Although IP-based systems are versatile, the task of sharing a computer display from one workstation to another can be time consuming for an end-user and inconvenient to administer at a system level. The objective of this paper is to present a prototype display sharing enterprise solution. Display sharing is a system which delivers image sharing across the LAN while simultaneously managing bandwidth, supporting encryption, enabling recovery and resynchronization following a loss of signal, and, minimizing latency. Additional critical elements will include image scaling support, multi -sharing, ease of initial integration and configuration, integration with desktop window managers, collaboration tools, host and recipient controls. This goal of this paper is to summarize the various elements of an IP-based display sharing system that can be used in today's control center environment.

  5. Probabilistic Infinite Secret Sharing

    OpenAIRE

    Csirmaz, László

    2013-01-01

    The study of probabilistic secret sharing schemes using arbitrary probability spaces and possibly infinite number of participants lets us investigate abstract properties of such schemes. It highlights important properties, explains why certain definitions work better than others, connects this topic to other branches of mathematics, and might yield new design paradigms. A probabilistic secret sharing scheme is a joint probability distribution of the shares and the secret together with a colle...

  6. BBSRC Data Sharing Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Amanda Collis; David McAllister; Michael Ball

    2011-01-01

    BBSRC recognizes the importance of contributing to the growing international efforts in data sharing. BBSRC is committed to getting the best value for the funds we invest and believes that making research data more readily available will reinforce open scientific inquiry and stimulate new investigations and analyses. BBSRC supports the view that data sharing should be led by the scientific community and driven by scientific need. It should also be cost effective and the data shared should be ...

  7. Factors Impacting Knowledge Sharing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulzmann, David; Slepniov, Dmitrij

    The purpose of this paper is to examine various factors affecting knowledge sharing at the R&D center of a Western MNE in China. The paper employs qualitative methodology and is based on the action research and case study research techniques. The findings of the paper advance our understanding...... about factors that affect knowledge sharing. The main emphasis is given to the discussion on how to improve knowledge sharing in global R&D organizations....

  8. Regulating the sharing economy

    OpenAIRE

    Erickson, Kristofer; Sorensen, Inge

    2016-01-01

    In this introductory essay, we explore definitions of the ‘sharing economy’, a concept indicating both social (relational, communitarian) and economic (allocative, profit-seeking) aspects which appear to be in tension. We suggest combining the social and economic logics of the sharing economy to focus on the central features of network enabled, aggregated membership in a pool of offers and demands (for goods, services, creative expressions). This definition of the sharing economy distinguishe...

  9. Nanotechnology in medicine: from inception to market domination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morigi, Valentina; Tocchio, Alessandro; Bellavite Pellegrini, Carlo; Sakamoto, Jason H; Arnone, Marco; Tasciotti, Ennio

    2012-01-01

    Born from the marriage of nanotechnology and medicine, nanomedicine is set to bring advantages in the fight against unmet diseases. The field is recognized as a global challenge, and countless worldwide research and business initiatives are in place to obtain a significant market position. However, nanomedicine belongs to those emerging sectors in which business development methods have not been established yet. Open issues include which type of business model best fits these companies and which strategies would lead them to sustained growth. This paper describes the financial and strategic decisions by nanomedicine start-ups to reach the market successfully, obtain a satisfactory market share, and build and maintain a competitive defendable advantage. Walking nanomedicine-product from the hands of the inventor to those of the doctor, we explored the technological transfer process, which connects laboratories or research institutions to the marketplace. The process involves detailed analysis to evaluate the potentials of end-products, and researches to identify market segment, size, structure, and competitors, to ponder a possible market entry and the market share that managers can realistically achieve at different time horizons. Attracting funds is crucial but challenging. However, investors are starting to visualize the potentials of this field, magnetized by the business of "nano."

  10. Nanotechnology in Medicine: From Inception to Market Domination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morigi, Valentina; Tocchio, Alessandro; Bellavite Pellegrini, Carlo; Sakamoto, Jason H.; Arnone, Marco; Tasciotti, Ennio

    2012-01-01

    Born from the marriage of nanotechnology and medicine, nanomedicine is set to bring advantages in the fight against unmet diseases. The field is recognized as a global challenge, and countless worldwide research and business initiatives are in place to obtain a significant market position. However, nanomedicine belongs to those emerging sectors in which business development methods have not been established yet. Open issues include which type of business model best fits these companies and which strategies would lead them to sustained growth. This paper describes the financial and strategic decisions by nanomedicine start-ups to reach the market successfully, obtain a satisfactory market share, and build and maintain a competitive defendable advantage. Walking nanomedicine-product from the hands of the inventor to those of the doctor, we explored the technological transfer process, which connects laboratories or research institutions to the marketplace. The process involves detailed analysis to evaluate the potentials of end-products, and researches to identify market segment, size, structure, and competitors, to ponder a possible market entry and the market share that managers can realistically achieve at different time horizons. Attracting funds is crucial but challenging. However, investors are starting to visualize the potentials of this field, magnetized by the business of “nano.” PMID:22506121

  11. Nanotechnology in Medicine: From Inception to Market Domination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Morigi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Born from the marriage of nanotechnology and medicine, nanomedicine is set to bring advantages in the fight against unmet diseases. The field is recognized as a global challenge, and countless worldwide research and business initiatives are in place to obtain a significant market position. However, nanomedicine belongs to those emerging sectors in which business development methods have not been established yet. Open issues include which type of business model best fits these companies and which strategies would lead them to sustained growth. This paper describes the financial and strategic decisions by nanomedicine start-ups to reach the market successfully, obtain a satisfactory market share, and build and maintain a competitive defendable advantage. Walking nanomedicine-product from the hands of the inventor to those of the doctor, we explored the technological transfer process, which connects laboratories or research institutions to the marketplace. The process involves detailed analysis to evaluate the potentials of end-products, and researches to identify market segment, size, structure, and competitors, to ponder a possible market entry and the market share that managers can realistically achieve at different time horizons. Attracting funds is crucial but challenging. However, investors are starting to visualize the potentials of this field, magnetized by the business of “nano.”

  12. Shared reality in interpersonal relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Susan M; Przybylinski, Elizabeth

    2017-11-24

    Close relationships afford us opportunities to create and maintain meaning systems as shared perceptions of ourselves and the world. Establishing a sense of mutual understanding allows for creating and maintaining lasting social bonds, and as such, is important in human relations. In a related vein, it has long been known that knowledge of significant others in one's life is stored in memory and evoked with new persons-in the social-cognitive process of 'transference'-imbuing new encounters with significance and leading to predictable cognitive, evaluative, motivational, and behavioral consequences, as well as shifts in the self and self-regulation, depending on the particular significant other evoked. In these pages, we briefly review the literature on meaning as interpersonally defined and then selectively review research on transference in interpersonal perception. Based on this, we then highlight a recent series of studies focused on shared meaning systems in transference. The highlighted studies show that values and beliefs that develop in close relationships (as shared reality) are linked in memory to significant-other knowledge, and thus, are indirectly activated (made accessible) when cues in a new person implicitly activate that significant-other knowledge (in transference), with these shared beliefs then actively pursued with the new person and even protected against threat. This also confers a sense of mutual understanding, and all told, serves both relational and epistemic functions. In concluding, we consider as well the relevance of co-construction of shared reality n such processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Phenomenology of experiential sharing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    León, Felipe; Zahavi, Dan

    2016-01-01

    The chapter explores the topic of experiential sharing by drawing on the early contributions of the phenomenologists Alfred Schutz and Gerda Walther. It is argued that both Schutz and Walther support, from complementary perspectives, an approach to experiential sharing that has tended to be overl......The chapter explores the topic of experiential sharing by drawing on the early contributions of the phenomenologists Alfred Schutz and Gerda Walther. It is argued that both Schutz and Walther support, from complementary perspectives, an approach to experiential sharing that has tended...

  14. A Data Sharing Story

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercè Crosas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available From the early days of modern science through this century of Big Data, data sharing has enabled some of the greatest advances in science. In the digital age, technology can facilitate more effective and efficient data sharing and preservation practices, and provide incentives for making data easily accessible among researchers. At the Institute for Quantitative Social Science at Harvard University, we have developed an open-source software to share, cite, preserve, discover and analyze data, named the Dataverse Network. We share here the project’s motivation, its growth and successes, and likely evolution.

  15. Inbound marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Popek, Tomáš

    2011-01-01

    In my work I focus on Inbound Marketing, which represents a new perspective on marketing, that has not been given the attention it deserves. It is a combination of existing and proven marketing methods that are used to obtain new customers with minimal marketing costs to the organization. The first section of my work is devoted to defining the concept of Inbound Marketing definitions and explanations. Furthermore, I present a list of instruments used in Inbound Marketing, and showcase the def...

  16. Relationship of the Australian Stock Market with its Major Trading Partners: a Simple Exposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazharul H. Kazi

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available markets of its major trading partners namely, UK, USA, Canada, Germany, France, andJapan using 1945 to 2002 annual data series. The analysis of this paper considers boththe foreign exchange risk element and the notion of share-return parity into its modifiedstructural model which is estimated by applying both OLS and GMM methods. TheUK, Canadian and French markets are found significant from OLS estimation; whileGMM estimation suggests four markets including the German are significant at 5%level. Accordingly, this paper concludes that Australian stock market is related to thatof its trading partners; and it is being influenced by 3 to 4 markets of which the UK isthe most significant. The outcomes of this paper seem beneficial to Australian investorsfor effective diversifications of their international portfolio risks.

  17. 7 CFR 762.147 - Servicing shared appreciation agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... percent of any positive appreciation in the market value of the property securing the loan or line of... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Servicing shared appreciation agreements. 762.147..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS GUARANTEED FARM LOANS § 762.147 Servicing shared appreciation...

  18. Environmental factors influencing fluctuation of share prices on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Environmental factors influencing fluctuation of share prices on Nigeria stock exchange market. ... What are these environmental variables that affect the fluctuation of share prices in Nigeria? ... The results show inflation, money supply, total deficits index of industrial production, interest rate and GDP influence stock prices.

  19. Tender frequency and market concentration in balancing power markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knaut, Andreas; Obermueller, Frank; Weiser, Florian

    2017-01-15

    Balancing power markets ensure the short-term balance of supply and demand in electricity markets and their importance may increase with a higher share of fluctuating renewable electricity production. While it is clear that shorter tender frequencies, e.g. daily or hourly, are able to increase the efficiency compared to a weekly procurement, it remains unclear in which respect market concentration will be affected. Against this background, we develop a numerical electricity market model to quantify the possible effects of shorter tender frequencies on costs and market concentration. We find that shorter time spans of procurement are able to lower the costs by up to 15%. While market concentration decreases in many markets, we - surprisingly - identify cases in which shorter time spans lead to higher concentration.

  20. Green Power Marketing - from Niches to Mass Markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wuestenhagen, Rolf

    2000-01-01

    In the process of liberalization of the electricity market the customers are now in a position to participate in the decision on how their electricity is produced. In particular, many consumers have a preference for renewable energies. For the producers, marketing of 'eco-power' is an opportunity to achieve sustainable competitive advantage. However, the market share of these products is still quite small today, and 'eco-power' is usually marketed as an expensive niche product. From the perspective of sustainable development these niches are a necessary but not sufficient step. In this book, ways are discussed which could lead to a mass-market penetration of eco-power products. A theoretical analysis is combined with empirical evidence derived from the eco-power market in Germany, Switzerland, Great Britain and the U.S. as well as with a comparison with other market segments [de

  1. Marketing research of the chocolate market in Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanov-Marjanova Tamara

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The consumer market in Macedonia and the chocolate market in particular, are overtaken from many foreign brands. The domestic companies, disregarding their size, are losing market share to the competitors with stronger strategies. This paper shows the existing weaknesses in the current strategies of the domestic companies through case study of the 2 largest confectionery producers in Macedonia on one side, and discovers the consumer behavior and preferences toward FMCG and chocolate through market research and analysis of a purposive statistical sample of 300 consumers on the other. The applied research techniques for the need of the consumer research were questionnaires and in depth interviews with the firms' managers. The analysis clearly indicates that with the adequate market research, i.e. implementation of the market research models and techniques a basis for competitive and successful marketing strategy can be created, not only by large corporations, but by individuals/owners of small and medium sized companies as well.

  2. Tender frequency and market concentration in balancing power markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knaut, Andreas; Obermueller, Frank; Weiser, Florian

    2017-01-01

    Balancing power markets ensure the short-term balance of supply and demand in electricity markets and their importance may increase with a higher share of fluctuating renewable electricity production. While it is clear that shorter tender frequencies, e.g. daily or hourly, are able to increase the efficiency compared to a weekly procurement, it remains unclear in which respect market concentration will be affected. Against this background, we develop a numerical electricity market model to quantify the possible effects of shorter tender frequencies on costs and market concentration. We find that shorter time spans of procurement are able to lower the costs by up to 15%. While market concentration decreases in many markets, we - surprisingly - identify cases in which shorter time spans lead to higher concentration.

  3. The impact of the distance-dependent promotional effect on the promotion cost sharing decision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheen, Gwo-Ji; Wang, Shih-Yen; Yeh, Yingchieh

    2016-02-01

    This paper considers the promotion cost sharing decision between a supplier and a retailer. The customer demand is affected by both national and local promotional effects while the local promotional effect on a customer is dependent on the distance between the retailer and this customer. We propose a continuous approximation approach to modelling the sum of the customer demand in the whole market area served by the retailer. A model is provided to help managers decide on the retail price, the local advertising expenditure, the national advertising expenditure, and the supplier participation rate, with consideration of the influence of distance on the promotional effect. We also find that the supplier's promotion cost sharing rate increases as the market size increases or the influence of distance on the promotional effect decreases. A numerical example is given to show that the nature of distance-dependent promotional effect has a significant impact on the decisions and profits.

  4. A New Measure of Competition in Indian Loan Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jugnu Ansari

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This study endeavours at measuring bank competition in Indian loan market using a new competitiveness index, the Augmented Relative Profit Difference (ARPD, which quantifies the impact of marginal costs on performance, measured in terms of market shares. This study yields two major insights. First, the theoretical foundation of the ARPD is very robust as compared to other conventional measures. Second, applying this unbiased competition indicator to Indian bank loan markets shows that financial reform indeed has contributed to significant improvements in competition. As regards, the competition among specific types of banks, we found public sector banks and private sector banks are comparatively more competitive than foreign banks. The empirical finding indicates that the Indian loan market is monopolistic in nature.

  5. MARKETING MIX IN SPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srećko Novaković

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Marketing mix'' along the term of life cycle has robbed the trademark for the conception of marketing and the market direction of company, corporations and institutions. Essence marketing-mixa is in the simultaneous determining of the target market group of consumer (the buyer or stays the public and specially prepared and the coordinated impact of elements mixa, and this is the product, price, distributions and graduation ceremonies. Given that is mix combinations of verified variables, companies he use in order to would achieve are wished the scope sales on the target market. In the wider context significant influence of environment on the chosen structure marketing-mixa have not only technological, economic and competitive services already and socially-owned, legislative, legal and political services. From those reasons chant the marketing -mixa occasionally replaces expression are coordinated term acts on the market. Elements marketing-mix-and at sport marketings same are as well as at marketings every other activity. They contain the sportively product and the service, appreciate the sport product and services, distribution of sport product and services and the promotion of sport product and services.

  6. Three-Level Supply Chain Coordination under Disruptions Based on Revenue-Sharing Contract with Price Dependent Demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinghua Pang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering the market demand is stochastic and dependent on price, this paper shows that the revenue-sharing contract could coordinate a three-level supply chain consisting of one manufacturer, one distributor, and one retailer under normal environment. However, the original revenue-sharing contract cannot coordinate the supply chain under disruptions in circumstances of certain incidents leading to significant changes in market demand and causing additional deviation costs. To solve the problem, this essay introduces two improved forms of revenue-sharing contract: a mixed contract form based on a quantity discount policy and a pure form, which are characterized by antidisruption ability. The model of improved revenue-sharing contract is optimized when the market demand is in the additive form or in the multiplicative form with price dependent demand. Formulas are given to calculate the optimal contract parameters. Finally, this essay demonstrates the accuracy of the model of improved revenue-sharing contract with the help of numerical examples.

  7. SUPPLY AND DEMAND ON THE RUSSIAN STOCK MARKET: A SOCIOECONOMIC ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Podgornyy Boris Borisovich

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The stock market in advanced economies allows people to participate in the economic development by investing their savings in equities of leading and emerging industries. It solves a number of economic and social problems. There is less than 1% of the population takes part in investing in shares and other securities In Russia. The structure of Russian commercial organizations, the supply and demand of the Russian stock market are analyzes in the paper. Also the results of original sociological research explains the meaning of the factors wich are limiting the population to investing in the stock market instruments. And there are some measures proposed for the further development of the Russian stock market. The results of the research have both theoretical and practical significance. That can be used in the development of national and regional activities aimed at the development of the Stock Market and attracting the Russian population to invest the Stock Market instruments.

  8. Millennials and the Sharing Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ranzini, Giulia; Newlands, Gemma; Anselmi, Guido

    Report from the EU H2020 Research Project Ps2Share: Participation, Privacy, and Power in the Sharing Economy......Report from the EU H2020 Research Project Ps2Share: Participation, Privacy, and Power in the Sharing Economy...

  9. A multi-regional MARKAL-MACRO model to study an international market of CO{sub 2} emission permits. A detailed analysis of a burden sharing strategy among the Netherlands, Sweden and Switzerland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahn, O.; Barreto, L.; Bueeler, B.; Kypreos, S. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-11-01

    The development of a multi-regional MARKAL-MACRO (mMM) model and associated solution techniques have been actively continued during the first year (July 1996 - June 1997) of the IEA/ETSAP/Annex VI. This has been a joint research effort between: - the Systems Analysis Section of the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), - the Inst. for Operations Research (IFOR) of the Swiss Federal Inst. of Technology at Zurich, - the Logistics Lab. (Logilab) of the Univ. of Geneva, and - the different ETSAP partners that provide the regional MARKAL-MACRO (MM) models. This report intends to give an update on the development of mMM and associated solution techniques, highlighting the progress made since July 1996. It details also first JI study performed with mMM. The mMM model enables one to study an international co-operation to curb jointly carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions through a market of emission permits, and to evaluate the economic implications of co-ordinating abatement policies on the participating regions. Along with emission permits, the regions may exchange other goods. So far, only an aggregate good in monetary unit has been considered. The mMM model integrates regional MM models into a meta-modelling framework. This integration can be done following two equivalent alternatives: mMM can be formulated either with market equilibrium conditions, or with an aggregated utility function and a global excess constraint. In both alternatives, regional MM models have to be extended by coherent budget and/or trade relationships. A first coding of a mMM model with three countries had been done in GAMS. Work has been done to generalise this coding to consider more traded goods and more countries. To solve mMM, two alternative mathematical methods can be used. The first one considers mMM formulated with market equilibrium conditions, and solves it as a variational inequality problem using a cutting plane algorithm. The second one considers mMM formulated with an aggregated utility

  10. A multi-regional MARKAL-MACRO model to study an international market of CO2 emission permits. A detailed analysis of a burden sharing strategy among the Netherlands, Sweden and Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahn, O.; Barreto, L.; Bueeler, B.; Kypreos, S.

    1997-11-01

    The development of a multi-regional MARKAL-MACRO (mMM) model and associated solution techniques have been actively continued during the first year (July 1996 - June 1997) of the IEA/ETSAP/Annex VI. This has been a joint research effort between: - the Systems Analysis Section of the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), - the Inst. for Operations Research (IFOR) of the Swiss Federal Inst. of Technology at Zurich, - the Logistics Lab. (Logilab) of the Univ. of Geneva, and - the different ETSAP partners that provide the regional MARKAL-MACRO (MM) models. This report intends to give an update on the development of mMM and associated solution techniques, highlighting the progress made since July 1996. It details also first JI study performed with mMM. The mMM model enables one to study an international co-operation to curb jointly carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions through a market of emission permits, and to evaluate the economic implications of co-ordinating abatement policies on the participating regions. Along with emission permits, the regions may exchange other goods. So far, only an aggregate good in monetary unit has been considered. The mMM model integrates regional MM models into a meta-modelling framework. This integration can be done following two equivalent alternatives: mMM can be formulated either with market equilibrium conditions, or with an aggregated utility function and a global excess constraint. In both alternatives, regional MM models have to be extended by coherent budget and/or trade relationships. A first coding of a mMM model with three countries had been done in GAMS. Work has been done to generalise this coding to consider more traded goods and more countries. To solve mMM, two alternative mathematical methods can be used. The first one considers mMM formulated with market equilibrium conditions, and solves it as a variational inequality problem using a cutting plane algorithm. The second one considers mMM formulated with an aggregated utility

  11. The impact of modern technology on changing marketing actions in organisations. Marketing 4.0

    OpenAIRE

    Świeczak Witold

    2017-01-01

    The article presents the theory that modern technologies are changing the way in which marketing is organised and that they will transform the prevailing composition of the market, while enterprises should come to terms with the act that having a market share will no longer suffice to maintain the market leader position. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the key challenges generated by technological innovations and to identify the opportunities for marketing in light of the n...

  12. Retail markets. Electricity and natural gas retail markets Observatory 2. Quarter 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-06-01

    The retail markets Observatory aims to provide general monitoring indicators of electricity and natural gas retail markets in France. This Observatory is updated on a Quarterly basis and published on CRE's web site (www.cre.fr). The first part of the report summarises the highlights of the electricity market (situation, market shares, suppliers, sales, dynamic analysis, regulated prices). The natural gas market is detailed in the second part

  13. Retail markets. Electricity and natural gas retail markets Observatory 4. Quarter 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-12-01

    The retail markets Observatory aims to provide general monitoring indicators of electricity and natural gas retail markets in France. This Observatory is updated on a Quarterly basis and published on CRE's web site (www.cre.fr). The first part of the report summarises the highlights of the electricity market (situation, market shares, suppliers, sales, dynamic analysis, regulated prices). The natural gas market is detailed in the second part

  14. Retail markets. Electricity and natural gas retail markets Observatory 1. Quarter 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-03-01

    The retail markets Observatory aims to provide general monitoring indicators of electricity and natural gas retail markets in France. This Observatory is updated on a Quarterly basis and published on CRE's web site (www.cre.fr). The first part of the report summarises the highlights of the electricity market (situation, market shares, suppliers, sales, dynamic analysis, regulated prices). The natural gas market is detailed in the second part

  15. Retail markets. Electricity and natural gas retail markets Observatory 1. Quarter 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-03-01

    The retail markets Observatory aims to provide general monitoring indicators of electricity and natural gas retail markets in France. This Observatory is updated on a Quarterly basis and published on CRE's web site (www.cre.fr). The first part of the report summarises the highlights of the electricity market (situation, market shares, suppliers, sales, dynamic analysis, regulated prices). The natural gas market is detailed in the second part

  16. Retail markets. Electricity and natural gas retail markets Observatory 3. Quarter 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-09-01

    The retail markets Observatory aims to provide general monitoring indicators of electricity and natural gas retail markets in France. This Observatory is updated on a Quarterly basis and published on CRE's web site (www.cre.fr). The first part of the report summarises the highlights of the electricity market (situation, market shares, suppliers, sales, dynamic analysis, regulated prices). The natural gas market is detailed in the second part

  17. Retail markets. Electricity and natural gas retail markets Observatory 4. Quarter 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-12-01

    The retail markets Observatory aims to provide general monitoring indicators of electricity and natural gas retail markets in France. This Observatory is updated on a Quarterly basis and published on CRE's web site (www.cre.fr). The first part of the report summarises the highlights of the electricity market (situation, market shares, suppliers, sales, dynamic analysis, regulated prices). The natural gas market is detailed in the second part

  18. Retail markets. Electricity and natural gas retail markets Observatory 1. Quarter 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-03-01

    The retail markets Observatory aims to provide general monitoring indicators of electricity and natural gas retail markets in France. This Observatory is updated on a Quarterly basis and published on CRE's web site (www.cre.fr). The first part of the report summarises the highlights of the electricity market (situation, market shares, suppliers, sales, dynamic analysis, regulated prices). The natural gas market is detailed in the second part

  19. Retail markets. Electricity and natural gas retail markets Observatory 2. Quarter 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-06-01

    The retail markets Observatory aims to provide general monitoring indicators of electricity and natural gas retail markets in France. This Observatory is updated on a Quarterly basis and published on CRE's web site (www.cre.fr). The first part of the report summarises the highlights of the electricity market (situation, market shares, suppliers, sales, dynamic analysis, regulated prices). The natural gas market is detailed in the second part

  20. Retail markets. Electricity and natural gas retail markets Observatory 3. Quarter 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-09-01

    The retail markets Observatory aims to provide general monitoring indicators of electricity and natural gas retail markets in France. This Observatory is updated on a Quarterly basis and published on CRE's web site (www.cre.fr). The first part of the report summarises the highlights of the electricity market (situation, market shares, suppliers, sales, dynamic analysis, regulated prices). The natural gas market is detailed in the second part

  1. Retail markets. Electricity and natural gas retail markets Observatory 3. Quarter 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-09-01

    The retail markets Observatory aims to provide general monitoring indicators of electricity and natural gas retail markets in France. This Observatory is updated on a Quarterly basis and published on CRE's web site (www.cre.fr). The first part of the report summarises the highlights of the electricity market (situation, market shares, suppliers, sales, dynamic analysis, regulated prices). The natural gas market is detailed in the second part

  2. Retail markets. Electricity and natural gas retail markets Observatory 4. Quarter 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-12-01

    The retail markets Observatory aims to provide general monitoring indicators of electricity and natural gas retail markets in France. This Observatory is updated on a Quarterly basis and published on CRE's web site (www.cre.fr). The first part of the report summarises the highlights of the electricity market (situation, market shares, suppliers, sales, dynamic analysis, regulated prices). The natural gas market is detailed in the second part

  3. European Short-term Electricity Market Designs under High Penetration of Wind Power

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chaves Avila, J.P.

    2014-01-01

    The EU has ambitious policies for decarbonization of the electricity sector. Due to recent technological developments, wind power already represents a significant share of the generation mix in some European countries. As a result, short-term electricity markets and balancing arrangements must be

  4. Mobile energy sharing futures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Worgan, Paul; Knibbe, Jarrod; Plasencia, Diego Martinez

    2016-01-01

    We foresee a future where energy in our mobile devices can be shared and redistributed to suit our current task needs. Many of us are beginning to carry multiple mobile devices and we seek to re-evaluate the traditional view of a mobile device as only accepting energy. In our vision, we can...... sharing futures....

  5. 5G Spectrum Sharing

    OpenAIRE

    Nekovee, Maziar; Rudd, Richard

    2017-01-01

    In this paper an overview is given of the current status of 5G industry standards, spectrum allocation and use cases, followed by initial investigations of new opportunities for spectrum sharing in 5G using cognitive radio techniques, considering both licensed and unlicensed scenarios. A particular attention is given to sharing millimeter-wave frequencies, which are of prominent importance for 5G.

  6. NCSU Reactor Sharing Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, P.B.

    1993-01-01

    The Nuclear Reactor Program at North Carolina State University provides the PULSTAR Research Reactor and associated facilities to eligible institutions with support, in part, from the Department of Energy Reactor Sharing Program. Participation in the NCSU Reactor Sharing Program continues to increase steadily with visitors ranging from advance high school physics and chemistry students to Ph.D. level research from neighboring universities

  7. 'An Arena for Sharing'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    la Cour, Karen; Ledderer, Loni; Hansen, Helle Ploug

    2015-01-01

    relatives). In-depth interviews were conducted in the participants' homes 1 month after the rehabilitation course. Data were analyzed by a constant comparative method. Results: Residential rehabilitation course was identified to serve as an "arena for sharing," underpinned by 3 dimensions of sharing...

  8. Optimal Life Cycle Portfolio Choice with Housing Market Cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Marcel; Stamos, Michael Z.

    2013-01-01

    income, and pre-existing housing wealth but also the state of the housing market significantly affect household decisions. Consistently with the data, the model predicts that in good states of housing market cycles (1) homeownership rates increase, (2) households buying homes invest a larger share......In recent decades U.S. households have experienced residential house prices moving persistently, that is, returns being positively serially correlated. We set up a realistically calibrated life cycle model with slow-moving time variation in expected housing returns, showing that not only age, labor...

  9. An Investigation of Marketing Educators' Approach to Teaching International Marketing in the Introductory Marketing Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, Robert J.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    A survey of 122 college teachers of marketing courses investigated the extent and methods of their inclusion of international marketing into the course curriculum. Findings suggest that, among those teaching international marketing, how they acquired their international knowledge had a significant effect on how they taught international marketing.…

  10. The beef market in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Niels Asger

    small with the largest slaughtering company slaughtering only 3% of the total. 9. Relations between industry (slaughterhouses) and farmers tend to be much looser in the beef market than it is in other agricultural markets, eg the milk market. Cattle markets are still quite important although the share......'s share of total meat consumption 3. As a consequence of the consumers' demand for convenient shopping, butcher's share of total beef sales is rapidly decreasing in Europe. 4. Changes in meat consumption have traditionally been explained by relative price and per capita income, but these economic demand...... analyses can explain a rapidly decreasing share of the variation in beef consumption. 5. Studies show that beef consumption tends to increase with age; the heavy users are found among middle-aged men. Beef consumption also increases with income and social class. 6. The most important user-oriented quality...

  11. Impact of pulling down regulatory state barriers on uranium in Australia: Is there a need in order to maintain and increase Australia’s global market share of uranium?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikhlaas Gurrib

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper sets a prospective framework to study the impact of opening more mines to meet future growing demand on Australia’s economy. The structure is aimed at decomposing investments and exports variables into Uranium exports and Uranium Exploration expenditure and analyse their impacts on each State GSP (Goods State Product and for Australia as a nation. The demand and supply factors affecting the uranium market are defragmented before providing the research methodology and data specifics. Later analysis is expected to have policy implications by serving as a guide to pull down State Regulatory barriers like those imposed currently in Queensland, which is rich with uranium deposits and allow only uranium exploration but no uranium mining. Empirical findings would suggest whether exporting the carbon free energy would add value to Australia’s different competing states and as a whole globalized economy.

  12. Sharing Rare Attitudes Attracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Hans

    2018-04-01

    People like others who share their attitudes. Online dating platforms as well as other social media platforms regularly rely on the social bonding power of their users' shared attitudes. However, little is known about moderating variables. In the present work, I argue that sharing rare compared with sharing common attitudes should evoke stronger interpersonal attraction among people. In five studies, I tested this prediction for the case of shared interests from different domains. I found converging evidence that people's rare compared with their common interests are especially potent to elicit interpersonal attraction. I discuss the current framework's theoretical implications for impression formation and impression management as well as its practical implications for improving online dating services.

  13. Alberta Petroleum Marketing Commission annual report, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-05-01

    The Alberta Petroleum Marketing Commission has the responsibility of selling the Crown's royalty share of Alberta's crude and synthetic oil production; similar services are provided for natural gas. The Commission also markets crude oil on behalf of producers to North American and offshore consumers. The Commission's position as the largest crude oil marketeer in Canada enables it to provide analyses of industry pricing and marketing trends to the Alberta government. 1992 marked the end of chronically depressed natural gas prices and a significant reduction in natural gas surpluses. A brief overview is presented of crude oil markets in Canada and the USA. The Commission's receipts of light and medium royalty oil totalled 45.3 million bbl, unchanged from 1991, and receipts of heavy crude were 6.3 million bbl, up 4% from 1991. Revenue from crude oil sales was $1.1 billion, down from $1.64 billion in 1991. The Commission's natural gas activities in 1992 included price determination and information collection. 9 figs., 1 tab

  14. The market for hospital medicine in Denmark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisela Hostenkamp

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Pharmaceutical expenditure growth has outpaced GDP and healthcare expenditure growth rates in Denmark as in most OECD countries for the last decade. A major part of this increase was due to high growth rates in specialist areas that are typically located in hospital settings. Yet the market for hospital medicines and their procurement are still poorly understood. The present paper characterises the market for hospital medicines in Denmark in terms of its organisation and developments between 2005 and 2009. In Denmark hospital medicines are publicly financed and procurement is centrally organised. 98% of all medicines administered at Danish public hospitals are purchased through a public procurement agency by means of public tenders. Using data on actual contract prices we decompose pharmaceutical expenditure growth into the contributions from newly introduced medicines, price and volume increases and use summary statistics to compare market performance in both sectors. The market for hospital medicine is more concentrated than the pharmaceutical retail sector and the share of generics and parallel imported products is significantly lower. Between 2005 and 2009 expenditures for hospital medicines more than doubled -accounting for almost 40% of the total Danish pharmaceutical market in 2009. Price increases however - although positive and higher than in the pharmaceutical retail sector - were only moderate. The majority of the expenditure growth was due to an increase in utilisation and the introduction of new medicines in the hospital sector. Centralised tendering may therefore have important implications for competition and industry structure in the long run.

  15. When do they care to share? : How manufacturers make contracted service partners share knowledge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, J.; Schepers, J.; van Weele, A.; van der Valk, W.

    2014-01-01

    Manufacturing firms that outsource customer-facing services, risk losing touch with their customers and thereby forfeit valuable market and customer-related knowledge. To maintain informed and competitive, the manufacturer's customer-facing service partners should engage in knowledge sharing and

  16. When do they care to share? : how manufacturers make contracted service partners share knowledge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de J.J.A.P.; Schepers, J.J.L.; Weele, van A.J.; Valk, van der W.

    2014-01-01

    Manufacturing firms that outsource customer-facing services, risk losing touch with their customers and thereby forfeit valuable market and customer-related knowledge. To maintain informed and competitive, the manufacturer's customer-facing service partners should engage in knowledge sharing and

  17. Project-matrix models of marketing organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gutić Dragutin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Unlike theory and practice of corporation organization, in marketing organization numerous forms and contents at its disposal are not reached until this day. It can be well estimated that marketing organization today in most of our companies and in almost all its parts, noticeably gets behind corporation organization. Marketing managers have always been occupied by basic, narrow marketing activities as: sales growth, market analysis, market growth and market share, marketing research, introduction of new products, modification of products, promotion, distribution etc. They rarely found it necessary to focus a bit more to different aspects of marketing management, for example: marketing planning and marketing control, marketing organization and leading. This paper deals with aspects of project - matrix marketing organization management. Two-dimensional and more-dimensional models are presented. Among two-dimensional, these models are analyzed: Market management/products management model; Products management/management of product lifecycle phases on market model; Customers management/marketing functions management model; Demand management/marketing functions management model; Market positions management/marketing functions management model. .

  18. Outperforming markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Christian; Rimmel, Gunnar; Yosano, Tadanori

    2015-01-01

    This article studies the effects of disclosure practices of Japanese IPO prospectuses on long-term stock performance and bid-ask spread, as a proxy for cost of capital, after a company is admitted to the stock exchange. A disclosure index methodology is applied to 120 IPO prospectuses from 2003....... Intellectual capital information leads to significantly better long-term performance against a reference portfolio, and is thus important to the capital market. Further, superior disclosure of IC reduces bid-ask spread in the long-term, indicating that such disclosures are important in an IPO setting. Analysts...

  19. Marketing cardiac CT programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Jason

    2010-01-01

    There are two components of cardiac CT discussed in this article: coronary artery calcium scoring (CACS) and coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA).The distinctive advantages of each CT examination are outlined. In order to ensure a successful cardiac CT program, it is imperative that imaging facilities market their cardiac CT practices effectively in order to gain a competitive advantage in this valuable market share. If patients receive quality care by competent individuals, they are more likely to recommend the facility's cardiac CT program. Satisfied patients will also be more willing to come back for any further testing.

  20. Sustainable Marketing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van Y.K.

    2017-01-01

    In this article, three different conceptions of sustainable marketing are discussed and compared. These different conceptions are referred to as social, green, and critical sustainable marketing. Social sustainable marketing follows the logic of demand-driven marketing management and places the

  1. Market efficiency in the emerging securitized real estate markets

    OpenAIRE

    Schindler, Felix

    2010-01-01

    This paper tests the random walk hypothesis and market efficiency for twelve emerging as well as for four developed securitized real estate markets from 1992 to 2009. Random walk properties of equity prices influence return dynamics, and market efficiency is often considered an essential criterion in the assessment of the functionality of markets and the asset pricing process, which is of significant relevance for emerging markets in particular. The analysis is based on autocorrelation tests ...

  2. The Impulsive Stock Market of Bangladesh and the Great Recession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saif Hossain

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates whether the stock market of Bangladesh can be related with the last world recession. The Pearson’s correlation analysis model was used to find the correlation between the Dhaka Stock Exchange General index and real GDP growth rate of the world. The findings show that no statistically significant correlation exists between the two variables inferring that the stock market of Bangladesh was not significantly affected by ‘the great recession’ (2007-2009. The findings of this study are inconsistent with the results of previous studies which claimed that the Bangladesh stock market shares a common stochastic trend with the capital market of USA. The results of this study may be explained mainly by domestic factors such as low market capitalization, market inefficiency, strict monitoring and control by the Security and Exchange Commission and low international participation in the stock market of Bangladesh. All these factors, along with the inconsistency with past results, instigate further investigation.

  3. Organisational Diversity and Knowledge Sharing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauring, Jakob; Jonasson, Charlotte

    productivity and diversity management - that is not engaging in a discussion of how and why there could be potential benefits or difficulties. In this paper we will describe and analyse some of the complications multicultural organisations can experience in regard to knowledge sharing......The last years' focus on diversity management has gone from social responsibility to arguments for the competitive advantages, called the business case. It has been argued that diversity management can increase organisational efficiency, improve on moral, and give better access to new market...... segments. But a substantial critique has recently been launched at the arguments for the business case for diversity, especially in the employment of knowledge synergies. Most studies that support or reject the business case argument have limited their research to establish a link between organisational...

  4. Market power in cap-and-trade auctions: A Monte Carlo approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dormady, Noah C.

    2013-01-01

    Recent greenhouse gas auctions have resulted in base level prices while remaining significantly concentrated. How do dominant firms receive such a large share of emissions allowances without bidding up the market price? This paper provides a Monte Carlo simulation analysis based on a contemporary regional greenhouse gas market in the United States. It introduces a C# simulation software environment, Oligopsony 1.0 that simulates uniform-price emissions auctions in repeated iterations. The results of these simulations indicate that there can be significant non-linearities between profit and market power as exercised through strategic demand reduction. This analysis finds the optimum point of strategic demand reduction that enables firms to exploit these non-linearities. The use of auctions to distribute tradeable pollution rights to firms in heavily concentrated markets can have significant unintended consequences, as it can exacerbate the problems of market power that exist within those markets. -- Highlights: •The theory of market power behavior in emissions auctions is furthered. •Monte Carlo simulation environment Oligopsony 1.0 is introduced. •Simulations provide analysis of optimum bids to exercise market power. •Significant non-linearities exist between profit and the exercise of market power

  5. MARKETING STRATEGIES OF SMARTPHONES PRODUCERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markova V.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Smartphones global market is one of the most dynamically developing markets that can be characterized by high level of competition. The growth of smartphones homogeneity, which is a reduction in difference between technical and functional parameters of smartphones produced by various manufacturers, can be considered the market’s specific feature. The unique situation of high-tech product homogeneity in a fast-growing market is scantily described in specialized literature. The article shows changeability of smartphones global market leaders and explains that the key success factor in such a mature market is marketing. Based on secondary information, marketing strategies of long standing market leader in sales Samsung and overtaking Apple companies are determined as well as strategies of contenders for leadership - Chinese companies Huawei and Lenovo. It is shown on Lenovo case that inexplicit positioning leads to a loss of the growing market share due to offensive marketing strategies of other Chinese companies. The research results broaden the knowledge of methodical potential of marketing strategies in companies’ activities in competitive markets of homogeneous high-tech products.

  6. Successful Architectural Knowledge Sharing: Beware of Emotions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poort, Eltjo R.; Pramono, Agung; Perdeck, Michiel; Clerc, Viktor; van Vliet, Hans

    This chapter presents the analysis and key findings of a survey on architectural knowledge sharing. The responses of 97 architects working in the Dutch IT Industry were analyzed by correlating practices and challenges with project size and success. Impact mechanisms between project size, project success, and architectural knowledge sharing practices and challenges were deduced based on reasoning, experience and literature. We find that architects run into numerous and diverse challenges sharing architectural knowledge, but that the only challenges that have a significant impact are the emotional challenges related to interpersonal relationships. Thus, architects should be careful when dealing with emotions in knowledge sharing.

  7. Facilitating Data Sharing in the Behavioural Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R de la Sablonnière

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In most scientific fields, significant improvements have been made in terms of data sharing among scientists and researchers. Although there are clear benefits to data sharing, there is at least one field where this norm has yet to be developed: the behavioural sciences. In this paper, we propose an innovative methodology as a means to change existing norms within the behavioural sciences and move towards increased data sharing. Based on recent advances in social psychology, we theorize that a Survey Research Instrument that takes into account basic psychological processes can be effective in promoting data sharing norms.

  8. Chimpanzees share forbidden fruit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberley J Hockings

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The sharing of wild plant foods is infrequent in chimpanzees, but in chimpanzee communities that engage in hunting, meat is frequently used as a 'social tool' for nurturing alliances and social bonds. Here we report the only recorded example of regular sharing of plant foods by unrelated, non-provisioned wild chimpanzees, and the contexts in which these sharing behaviours occur. From direct observations, adult chimpanzees at Bossou (Republic of Guinea, West Africa very rarely transferred wild plant foods. In contrast, they shared cultivated plant foods much more frequently (58 out of 59 food sharing events. Sharing primarily consists of adult males allowing reproductively cycling females to take food that they possess. We propose that hypotheses focussing on 'food-for-sex and -grooming' and 'showing-off' strategies plausibly account for observed sharing behaviours. A changing human-dominated landscape presents chimpanzees with fresh challenges, and our observations suggest that crop-raiding provides adult male chimpanzees at Bossou with highly desirable food commodities that may be traded for other currencies.

  9. TRICARE Marketing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-10-21

    definitive. It stated that: Marketing is much more than advertising or promotion materials. Marketing is a foundation for building a business strategy ; it...objectives, and strategies for marketing TRICARE. However, the Director provided the plan for information; none of the recipients of the plan were...overarching goal and extensively in the marketing strategies section. Specifically, the Marketing Plan states that strategies employed to accomplish

  10. Hospital marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Tony

    2003-01-01

    This article looks at a prescribed academic framework for various criteria that serve as a checklist for marketing performance that can be applied to hospital marketing organizations. These guidelines are drawn from some of Dr. Noel Capon of Columbia University's book Marketing Management in the 21st Century and applied to actual practices of hospital marketing organizations. In many ways this checklist can act as a "marketing" balanced scorecard to verify performance effectiveness and develop opportunities for innovation.

  11. Internet marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Zelený, Martin

    2009-01-01

    In the bachelor thesis are introduced theoretical concepts of the Internet and marketing, accented the need of marketing mix along with its specifics of the internet environment. Next is interpreted which tools can be used for marketing of firms and which marketing instruments are to be deployed. Final chapter illustrates socio-demographics of Czech internet users along with media market allocation from the perspective of all media as well as in the segment of the Internet.

  12. Money Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Marvin Goodfriend

    2011-01-01

    Money markets offer monetary services and short-term finance in the capital market with the credit support of institutional sponsors. Investors finance money market instruments at low interest because their salability on short notice confers an implicit monetary services yield. Low interest attracts borrowers to money markets. The fragile equilibrium depends on collective confidence in the credit quality of instruments supplied to the market. Federal Reserve monetary and credit policies have ...

  13. Strategic market segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maričić Branko R.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Strategic planning of marketing activities is the basis of business success in modern business environment. Customers are not homogenous in their preferences and expectations. Formulating an adequate marketing strategy, focused on realization of company's strategic objectives, requires segmented approach to the market that appreciates differences in expectations and preferences of customers. One of significant activities in strategic planning of marketing activities is market segmentation. Strategic planning imposes a need to plan marketing activities according to strategically important segments on the long term basis. At the same time, there is a need to revise and adapt marketing activities on the short term basis. There are number of criteria based on which market segmentation is performed. The paper will consider effectiveness and efficiency of different market segmentation criteria based on empirical research of customer expectations and preferences. The analysis will include traditional criteria and criteria based on behavioral model. The research implications will be analyzed from the perspective of selection of the most adequate market segmentation criteria in strategic planning of marketing activities.

  14. Evidence of long range dependence in Asian equity markets: the role of liquidity and market restrictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cajueiro, Daniel O.; Tabak, Benjamin M.

    2004-11-01

    In this paper, the efficient market hypothesis is tested for China, Hong Kong and Singapore by means of the long memory dependence approach. We find evidence suggesting that Hong Kong is the most efficient market followed by Chinese A type shares and Singapore and finally by Chinese B type shares, which suggests that liquidity and capital restrictions may play a role in explaining results of market efficiency tests.

  15. Sharing the dance -

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Jing; Ravn, Susanne

    2018-01-01

    In his recent works on daily face-to-face encounters, Zahavi claims that the phenomenon of sharing involves reciprocity. Following Zahavi’s line of thought, we wonder what exactly reciprocity amounts to and how the shared experience emerges from the dynamic process of interaction. By turning...... to the highly specialized field of elite sports dance, we aim at exploring the way in which reciprocity unfolds in intensive deliberate practices of movement. In our analysis, we specifically argue that the ongoing dynamics of two separate flows of movement constitute a shared experience of dancing together...

  16. Report endorses data sharing

    Science.gov (United States)

    The potential benefits of sharing data so outweigh its costs that investigators should be required to include plans for sharing data as part of their grant proposals, according to recommendations issued recently by the Committee on National Statistics (CNSTAT) of the National Research Council (NRC).In their report Sharing Research Data, CNSTAT also recommended that “Journals should give more emphasis to reports of secondary analyses and to replications,” provided that the original collections of data receive full credit. In addition, “Journal editors should require authors to provide access to data during the peer review process.”

  17. Marketing Strategies Influences On SMEs Cluster Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satria Tirtayasa

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The contribution of larges businesses to make the economy growth is very important likewise the role of Small Business Enterprise SMEs where this industry has been believed so strong from the effect of crisis economic in Indonesia. In generaly SMEs owner are business manwoman that have minimum assets Rp. 500 million where their gathers together to make the cooperative assosiation in one area SMEs Cluster . So in this cooperative assosiation can be expected the SMEs businessman help each others with making colaboration internal or external networking to enhance their business performance. The internal networking simmilar with marketing strategies for instance strategi Promotion Distribution Production and Raw material supplay where the objectives are to enchance the SMEs performance. This study intends to examine the relationship between marketing strategies Promotion Distribution Production Raw material supplay on SMSEs performance. The marketing strategies consist of our dimentions as follows promotion distribution production and raw material supply. Meanwile SMEs business performance indicators are market share and profit margin. The sample of research is 70 SMEs businessman where spread of Medan Tembung District East Medan District and Medan Perjuangan District. This research had used questionnaires method to collect the data from SMEs businessman. The analysis method had used multiple regression and the result of the research reveals that promotion had positive and significant relationship with SMEs performance.Distribution had positive and significant relationship with SMEs performance Production has positive and significant relationship with SMEs performance.Raw material supplay had positiveve and significant relationship with SMEs performance. Furthermore Marketing Strategies Promotion Distribution Production Raw material supplay simultaneous have significant relationship on SMEs Performances.

  18. Markets and Morals: An Experimental Survey Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Julio J.; Lacetera, Nicola; Macis, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Most societies prohibit some market transactions based on moral concerns, even when the exchanges would benefit the parties involved and would not create negative externalities. A prominent example is given by payments for human organs for transplantation, banned virtually everywhere despite long waiting lists and many deaths of patients who cannot find a donor. Recent research, however, has shown that individuals significantly increase their stated support for a regulated market for human organs when provided with information about the organ shortage and the potential beneficial effects a price mechanism. In this study we focused on payments for human organs and on another “repugnant” transaction, indoor prostitution, to address two questions: (A) Does providing general information on the welfare properties of prices and markets modify attitudes toward repugnant trades? (B) Does additional knowledge on the benefits of a price mechanism in a specific context affect attitudes toward price-based transactions in another context? By answering these questions, we can assess whether eliciting a market-oriented approach may lead to a relaxation of moral opposition to markets, and whether there is a cross-effect of information, in particular for morally controversial activities that, although different, share a reference to the “commercialization” of the human body. Relying on an online survey experiment with 5,324 U.S. residents, we found no effect of general information about market efficiency, consistent with morally controversial markets being accepted only when they are seen as a solution to a specific problem. We also found some cross-effects of information about a transaction on the acceptance of the other; however, the responses were mediated by the gender and (to a lesser extent) religiosity of the respondent—in particular, women exposed to information about legalizing prostitution reduced their stated support for regulated organ payments. We relate

  19. Markets and morals: an experimental survey study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio J Elias

    Full Text Available Most societies prohibit some market transactions based on moral concerns, even when the exchanges would benefit the parties involved and would not create negative externalities. A prominent example is given by payments for human organs for transplantation, banned virtually everywhere despite long waiting lists and many deaths of patients who cannot find a donor. Recent research, however, has shown that individuals significantly increase their stated support for a regulated market for human organs when provided with information about the organ shortage and the potential beneficial effects a price mechanism. In this study we focused on payments for human organs and on another "repugnant" transaction, indoor prostitution, to address two questions: (A Does providing general information on the welfare properties of prices and markets modify attitudes toward repugnant trades? (B Does additional knowledge on the benefits of a price mechanism in a specific context affect attitudes toward price-based transactions in another context? By answering these questions, we can assess whether eliciting a market-oriented approach may lead to a relaxation of moral opposition to markets, and whether there is a cross-effect of information, in particular for morally controversial activities that, although different, share a reference to the "commercialization" of the human body. Relying on an online survey experiment with 5,324 U.S. residents, we found no effect of general information about market efficiency, consistent with morally controversial markets being accepted only when they are seen as a solution to a specific problem. We also found some cross-effects of information about a transaction on the acceptance of the other; however, the responses were mediated by the gender and (to a lesser extent religiosity of the respondent--in particular, women exposed to information about legalizing prostitution reduced their stated support for regulated organ payments. We

  20. Markets and morals: an experimental survey study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Julio J; Lacetera, Nicola; Macis, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Most societies prohibit some market transactions based on moral concerns, even when the exchanges would benefit the parties involved and would not create negative externalities. A prominent example is given by payments for human organs for transplantation, banned virtually everywhere despite long waiting lists and many deaths of patients who cannot find a donor. Recent research, however, has shown that individuals significantly increase their stated support for a regulated market for human organs when provided with information about the organ shortage and the potential beneficial effects a price mechanism. In this study we focused on payments for human organs and on another "repugnant" transaction, indoor prostitution, to address two questions: (A) Does providing general information on the welfare properties of prices and markets modify attitudes toward repugnant trades? (B) Does additional knowledge on the benefits of a price mechanism in a specific context affect attitudes toward price-based transactions in another context? By answering these questions, we can assess whether eliciting a market-oriented approach may lead to a relaxation of moral opposition to markets, and whether there is a cross-effect of information, in particular for morally controversial activities that, although different, share a reference to the "commercialization" of the human body. Relying on an online survey experiment with 5,324 U.S. residents, we found no effect of general information about market efficiency, consistent with morally controversial markets being accepted only when they are seen as a solution to a specific problem. We also found some cross-effects of information about a transaction on the acceptance of the other; however, the responses were mediated by the gender and (to a lesser extent) religiosity of the respondent--in particular, women exposed to information about legalizing prostitution reduced their stated support for regulated organ payments. We relate these

  1. Facilitating Knowledge Sharing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holdt Christensen, Peter

    knowledge sharing is to ensure that the exchange is seen as equitable for the parties involved, and by viewing the problems of knowledge sharing as motivational problems situated in different organizational settings, the paper explores how knowledge exchange can be conceptualized as going on in four...... distinct situations of exchange denominated organizational exchange yielding extrinsic rewards, organizational exchange yielding intrinsic rewards, financial exchange, and social exchange. The paper argues that each situation of exchange has distinct assumptions about individual behaviour...... and the intermediaries regulating the exchange, and facilitating knowledge sharing should therefore be viewed as a continuum of practices under the influence of opportunistic behaviour, obedience or organizational citizenship behaviour. Keywords: Knowledge sharing, motivation, organizational settings, situations...

  2. A Sharing Proposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturgeon, Julie

    2002-01-01

    Describes how the University of Vermont and St. Michael's College in Burlington, Vermont cooperated to share a single card access system. Discusses the planning, financial, and marketplace advantages of the cooperation. (EV)

  3. Sufficient Flexibility and Capacity in Electricity Markets with Renewables: A Review of Innovative Market Mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sekamane, Jonas Khubute; Katz, Jonas; Skytte, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    This review of the literature collects innovative market mechanisms that tend to get overlooked in the discussion of whether unassisted energy-only markets can ensure sufficient capacity or if capacity remuneration mechanisms are required. The paper complements existing literature reviews...... and pinpoints advantageous research areas relating to the market design of electricity systems with high shares of variable renewable energy...

  4. Content marketing - the fundamental tool of digital marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loredana PATRUTIU BALTES

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the era of digitalization, the importance of digital marketing has increased from one year to another as part of the marketing strategy practiced by organizations of any type and any size. Given that digital marketing requires the existence of a content marketing, the success or the failure of the company’s online communication depends to a significant extent on the quality of its content marketing. In this context, besides promoting a high quality of the content marketing, the digital marketers must undertake an analysis of the target in order to adapt their content and to choose the right way of promoting it. This article defines the concept of content marketing and the importance that it has within the marketing policies, as well as the proper means of developing a correct content marketing strategy.

  5. Customer Retention & Customer Relationship Marketing: Strategi Pemasaran Yang Potensial

    OpenAIRE

    Aprilia, Ariesya

    2004-01-01

    The traditional marketing approach advocates the marketing mix principles and the quest for market share dominance through mass marketing techniques and a focus on new customer acquisition. This approach has guided managers for decades in planning in implementing their marketing strategies. But nowadays, traditional approach has been changed by customer retention. Customer retention, in the traditional marketing approach, is however seen as the 'end' rather than the means to delivering long-t...

  6. Stock Market Prices and the Market for Corporate Control

    OpenAIRE

    Armour, John; Cheffins, Brian Robert

    2016-01-01

    The manner in which hostile takeovers have historically been executed has just begun to receive serious academic attention. Similarly, while the literature on the accuracy and determinants of share prices is voluminous, there has been little systematic historical analysis of when and how modern standards of share price efficiency took shape. This article addresses both subjects in depth to ascertain the extent to which developments in the market for corporate control may have been associated ...

  7. Sharing resources@CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2002-01-01

    The library is launching a 'sharing resources@CERN' campaign, aiming to increase the library's utility by including the thousands of books bought by individual groups at CERN. This will improve sharing of information among CERN staff and users. Photo 01: L. to r. Eduardo Aldaz, from the PS division, Corrado Pettenati, Head Librarian, and Isabel Bejar, from the ST division, read their divisional copies of the same book.

  8. Selling Principles: Influencing Principles of Marketing Students' Perceptions of and Attitudes toward Marketing as a Discipline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camey, John P.; Williams, Janice K.

    2004-01-01

    Many marketing departments have experienced decreasing enrollments in marketing courses and difficulty recruiting students into the marketing major. This article examines and validates the Principles of Marketing class as significantly influencing students' overall perceptions of and attitudes toward marketing and the pursuit of marketing as their…

  9. [Community marketing of contraceptives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urrutia, J M

    1987-09-01

    The 5-year-old community contraceptive distribution program developed by PROFAMILIA, Colombia's private family planning organization, has given excellent results, but several cost-effectiveness comparisons with social marketing programs have suggested that commercial distribution programs are superior. The community contraceptive distribution program has a high content of information and education activities, which produced significant increases in knowledge and use of contraception in the communities covered. It has been a fundamental support for the social marketing program, creating much of the demand for contraceptive products that the social marketing program has filled. The social marketing program has given good results in terms of volume of sales and in cost-effectiveness since 1976, prompting calls for replacement of the community contraceptive distribution program by the social marketing program in those sectors where knowledge and use of contraception have achieved acceptable levels. An experiment in the Department of Santander in 1984 and 1985 gave very favorable results, suggesting that community contraceptive distribution programs should be replaced by social marketing programs in all more developed markets. But economic problems in 1985 and the decision of manufacturers to decrease the profit margin for PROFAMILIA jeopardized the social marketing program. The community distribution program covered about 20% of the market. Reduced profits in the social marketing program threatened its continued expansion, at the same time that potential demand was growing because of increases in the fertile aged population and increased use of contraception. To meet the need, PROFAMILIA combined the community contraceptive distribution and social marketing programs into a new entity to be called community marketing. The strategy of the community marketing program will be to maintain PROFAMILIA's participation in the market and aid the growth of demand for

  10. Regulating the sharing economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristofer Erickson

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this introductory essay, we explore definitions of the ‘sharing economy’, a concept indicating both social (relational, communitarian and economic (allocative, profit-seeking aspects which appear to be in tension. We suggest combining the social and economic logics of the sharing economy to focus on the central features of network enabled, aggregated membership in a pool of offers and demands (for goods, services, creative expressions. This definition of the sharing economy distinguishes it from other related peer-to-peer and collaborative forms of production. Understanding the social and economic motivations for and implications of participating in the sharing economy is important to its regulation. Each of the papers in this special issue contributes to knowledge by linking the social and economic aspects of sharing economy practices to regulatory norms and mechanisms. We conclude this essay by suggesting future research to further clarify and render intelligible the sharing economy, not as a contradiction in terms but as an empirically observable realm of socio-economic activity.

  11. Word of mouth marketing applications on the internet

    OpenAIRE

    Gülmez, Mustafa

    2011-01-01

    Word of mouth marketing, also called WOMM in English, is a marketing strategyform via oral or written in which consumers share&spread other people aboutproduct or firm. Word of mouth marketing is an extremely important factor in theconsumer’s final purchase decision in the conscious societies on the internet. Thispaper aims to evaluate word of mouth marketing applications on the internet.

  12. Status of electricity markets and competition in ERRA member countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szoerenyi, G.

    2002-01-01

    The following topics were dealt with: Conditions of effective competition; Regulated third party access in power; Number of plyers (market share) - generation; Number of players at present and/or in future competition - supply; Number of eligible customers; Market structure facilitates efficient competition; Supply market - Surplus installed capacity over demand; Supply market - Import. All available data are tabulated. (R.P.)

  13. Developing a strategic marketing plan for hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dychtwald, K; Zitter, M

    1988-09-01

    The initial stages of developing a strategic marketing plan for hospitals are explored in this excerpt from the book, The Role of the Hospital in an Aging Society: A Blueprint for Action. The elderly have unique perceptual, cognitive, social, and psychological needs and preferences, and a marketing strategy for eldercare services must reflect these factors, as well as the financial role of third-party payers and the decision-making influence of families and physicians. Among the elements the hospital must address when developing a marketing strategy are market selection and segmentation, targeting markets with specific services, pricing, and positioning the hospital for a maximum share of the eldercare market.

  14. Marketing fundamentals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmond, W H

    2001-01-01

    This chapter outlines current marketing practice from a managerial perspective. The role of marketing within an organization is discussed in relation to efficiency and adaptation to changing environments. Fundamental terms and concepts are presented in an applied context. The implementation of marketing plans is organized around the four P's of marketing: product (or service), promotion (including advertising), place of delivery, and pricing. These are the tools with which marketers seek to better serve their clients and form the basis for competing with other organizations. Basic concepts of strategic relationship management are outlined. Lastly, alternate viewpoints on the role of advertising in healthcare markets are examined.

  15. Politisk marketing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Disciplinen politisk marketing er udbredt i mange vestlige lande. Imidlertid er kendskabet til politisk marketing i Danmark bemærkelsesværdigt lavt. I det lys er denne bog Politisk Marketing: Personer, Partier & Praksis den første bog i Danmark, som -ud fra marketing- indkredser de sidste mange års...... brudflader i dansk politik. Gennem ti bidrag fra forskere og praktikere udskraber forfatterne et DNA for feltet politisk marketing. Kort sagt kan du i denne bog finde svarene på: Hvad er politisk marketing? Hvordan har det udviklet sig? Og hvilke konsekvenser har dette fænomen for vælgere, partier og...

  16. Letting Your Personal Health Information Be Used and Shared for Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... research study as my okay to share my information for marketing? No. The Privacy Rule does not allow a ... use your authorization to use or share your information for research as an authorization for marketing. What can I do if I think someone ...

  17. To market, to market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lieberman, J.I.

    1992-01-01

    Senator Lieberman and three fellow members of Congress introduced the CO 2 Offset Policy Efficiency Act (COPE), which incorporates the use of marketable permits to reduce CO 2 emissions. For COPE to be fully effective, however, several key criteria must be met: (1) establishing initial baselines will be critical to ensure that emission reductions are credited properly; (2) accurate plant-by-plant monitoring must be in place to ensure that claimed reductions have actually occurred; (3) the program must include a strong enforcement provision to prevent evasion and to punish violators with substantial automatic fines. COPE imposes a sanction equal to roughly four times the estimated cost of offsets; the sanctions would be paid before enforcement proceedings commence. The urgency and complexity of global warming requires us to break with the past and develop new ways of delaying with pollution, Senator Lieberman feels by giving the market a chance to work on behalf of the environment, the sale of emission allowance will reduce CO 2 emissions in the most-efficient cost-effective way possible

  18. ACCOUNTING FOR MARKETING: MARKETING PERFORMANCE THROUGH FINANCIAL RESULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levent KOSAN

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Accounting, especially strategic management accounting, provides significant contributions to companies for decisions in environments of intense competition. Accounting, which has positive effects of company strategy development and management, has become a required facet of marketing, another area that has gained significance. The aim of this study is to assess the contributions of accounting to marketing performance management and other areas related to marketing development and to evaluate the relationship and synergies between marketing and accounting with comparative examples.

  19. Market based generation: A promising market management option

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddiqi, R.

    1992-01-01

    It is proposed to ease the tension between demand management and supply side management at electric utilities through the introduction of a concept called market management. Market management provides a framework for developing and evaluating the attractiveness of new products and services such as dispersed generation hardware, implementation services, and complementary pricing structures. A market management strategy is the definition of market segments, creating products for those segments, evaluation of the profitability of the product-segment combinations, commitment of resources to those segments, and development of product and marketing plans for those segments. A brief analysis of backup generation is presented as an example of market management. In this example, the customer that is backed up shares some portion of the capital and maintenance costs of the backup unit through priority service rates; the utility and customers that are not backed up can obtain the use of the generating resource but pay only a portion of its costs. Backup generation programs have been found to provide utilities with the ability to meet peak load requirements more cheaply than by investing in peaking capacity. Other benefits for utilities include protection of market share, more efficient rates, and a new source of revenues. With the advances in the technology of small-scale generation, utilities can examine bundling various pricing options with market based generation to offer alternative value-added service options to customer segments with demand characteristics that make these technologies attractive. 3 figs

  20. Targeted marketing and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grier, Sonya A; Kumanyika, Shiriki

    2010-01-01

    Targeted marketing techniques, which identify consumers who share common needs or characteristics and position products or services to appeal to and reach these consumers, are now the core of all marketing and facilitate its effectiveness. However, targeted marketing, particularly of products with proven or potential adverse effects (e.g., tobacco, alcohol, entertainment violence, or unhealthful foods) to consumer segments defined as vulnerable raises complex concerns for public health. It is critical that practitioners, academics, and policy makers in marketing, public health, and other fields recognize and understand targeted marketing as a specific contextual influence on the health of children and adolescents and, for different reasons, ethnic minority populations and other populations who may benefit from public health protections. For beneficial products, such understanding can foster more socially productive targeting. For potentially harmful products, understanding the nature and scope of targeted marketing influences will support identification and implementation of corrective policies.