WorldWideScience

Sample records for significant human health

  1. Human Health Screening and Public Health Significance of ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The source water and treated drinking water from twenty five drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) across the United States were sampled in 2010 – 2012. Samples were analyzed for 247 contaminants using 15 chemical and microbiological methods. Most of these contaminants are not regulated currently either in drinking water or in discharges to ambient water by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) or other U.S. regulatory agencies. This analysis shows that there is little public health concern for most of the contaminants detected in treated water from the 25 DWTPs participating in this study. For vanadium, the calculated MOE was less than the screening MOE in two DWTPs. Additional study, for example a national survey may be needed to determine the number of people ingesting vanadium above a level of concern. In addition, the concentrations of lithium found in treated water from several DWTPs are within the range previous research has suggested to have a human health effect. Additional investigation of this issue may also be appropriate. Finally, new toxicological data suggests that exposure to manganese at levels in public water supplies may present a public health concern which may warrant a more robust assessment of this information. This paper provides a screening-level human health risk assessment using the margin of exposure of exposure approach, of contaminants of emerging concern detected in drinking water. As far as we are a

  2. Immunological Effects of Probiotics and their Significance to Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Harsharn S.; Grover, Sunita; Batish, Virender K.; Gill, Preet

    Probiotics are defined as live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit upon the host (FAO/WHO, 2001). Lactic acid bacteria, particularly Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium species are commonly used as probiotics. Other less commonly used probiotics include the yeast Sacchromyces cerevisiae and some non-pathogenic Escherichia coli and Bacillus species. Studies over the past 20 years have demonstrated that probiotic intake is able to confer a range of health benefits including modulation of the immune system, protection against gastrointestinal and respiratory tract infections, lowering of blood cholesterol levels, attenuation of overt immuno-inflammatory disorders (such as inflammatory bowel disease, allergies) and anti-cancer effects. However, the strongest clinical evidence for probiotics relates to their effectiveness in improving gut health and modulating (via stimulation or regulation) the host immune system. This chapter provides an overview of the current status of our knowledge regarding the immunostimulatory and immunoregulatory effects of probiotics on the immune system and their significance to human health.

  3. Wildfire smoke exposure and human health: Significant gaps in research for a growing public health issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Carolyn; Tesfaigzi, Yohannes; Bassein, Jed A; Miller, Lisa A

    2017-10-01

    Understanding the effect of wildfire smoke exposure on human health represents a unique interdisciplinary challenge to the scientific community. Population health studies indicate that wildfire smoke is a risk to human health and increases the healthcare burden of smoke-impacted areas. However, wildfire smoke composition is complex and dynamic, making characterization and modeling difficult. Furthermore, current efforts to study the effect of wildfire smoke are limited by availability of air quality measures and inconsistent air quality reporting among researchers. To help address these issues, we conducted a substantive review of wildfire smoke effects on population health, wildfire smoke exposure in occupational health, and experimental wood smoke exposure. Our goal was to evaluate the current literature on wildfire smoke and highlight important gaps in research. In particular we emphasize long-term health effects of wildfire smoke, recovery following wildfire smoke exposure, and health consequences of exposure in children. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The complete mitochondrial genomes for three Toxocara species of human and animal health significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Xiang-Yun

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studying mitochondrial (mt genomics has important implications for various fundamental areas, including mt biochemistry, physiology and molecular biology. In addition, mt genome sequences have provided useful markers for investigating population genetic structures, systematics and phylogenetics of organisms. Toxocara canis, Toxocara cati and Toxocara malaysiensis cause significant health problems in animals and humans. Although they are of importance in human and animal health, no information on the mt genomes for any of Toxocara species is available. Results The sizes of the entire mt genome are 14,322 bp for T. canis, 14029 bp for T. cati and 14266 bp for T. malaysiensis, respectively. These circular genomes are amongst the largest reported to date for all secernentean nematodes. Their relatively large sizes relate mainly to an increased length in the AT-rich region. The mt genomes of the three Toxocara species all encode 12 proteins, two ribosomal RNAs and 22 transfer RNA genes, but lack the ATP synthetase subunit 8 gene, which is consistent with all other species of Nematode studied to date, with the exception of Trichinella spiralis. All genes are transcribed in the same direction and have a nucleotide composition high in A and T, but low in G and C. The contents of A+T of the complete genomes are 68.57% for T. canis, 69.95% for T. cati and 68.86% for T. malaysiensis, among which the A+T for T. canis is the lowest among all nematodes studied to date. The AT bias had a significant effect on both the codon usage pattern and amino acid composition of proteins. The mt genome structures for three Toxocara species, including genes and non-coding regions, are in the same order as for Ascaris suum and Anisakis simplex, but differ from Ancylostoma duodenale, Necator americanus and Caenorhabditis elegans only in the location of the AT-rich region, whereas there are substantial differences when compared with Onchocerca volvulus

  5. Modern environmental health hazards: a public health issue of increasing significance in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nweke, Onyemaechi C; Sanders, William H

    2009-06-01

    Traditional hazards such as poor sanitation currently account for most of Africa's environmentally related disease burden. However, with rapid development absent appropriate safeguards for environment and health, modern environmental health hazards (MEHHs) may emerge as critical contributors to the continent's disease burden. We review recent evidence of human exposure to and health effects from MEHHs, and their occurrence in environmental media and consumer products. Our purpose is to highlight the growing significance of these hazards as African countries experience urbanization, industrial growth, and development. We reviewed published epidemiologic, exposure, and environmental studies of chemical agents such as heavy metals and pesticides. The body of evidence demonstrates ongoing environmental releases of MEHHs and human exposures sometimes at toxicologically relevant levels. Several sources of MEHHs in environmental media have been identified, including natural resource mining and processing and automobile exhaust. Biomonitoring studies provided direct evidence of human exposure to metals such as mercury and lead and pesticides such as p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and organophosphates. Land and water resource pollution and industrial air toxics are areas of significant data gaps, notwithstanding the presence of several emitting sources. Unmitigated MEHH releases and human exposure have implications for Africa's disease burden. For Africans encumbered by conditions such as malnutrition that impair resilience to toxicologic challenges, the burden may be higher. A shift in public health policy toward accommodating the emerging diversity in Africa's environmental health issues is necessary to successfully alleviate the burden of avoidable ill health and premature death for all its communities now and in the future.

  6. Identification and characterization of microRNAs in Clonorchis sinensis of human health significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Zi-Guo

    2010-09-01

    related species such as Opisthorchis viverrini and Opisthorchis felineus of human and animal health significance.

  7. Human Health Screening and Public Health Significance of Contaminants of Emerging Concern Detected in Public Water Supplies

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Background information for human health margin of exposure paper. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Benson , B., O. Conerly , W. Sander, A....

  8. Biodiversity, air quality and human health

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Nowak; Sarah Jovan; Christina Branquinho; Sofia Augusto; Manuel C. Ribeiro; Conor E. Kretsch

    2015-01-01

    Air pollution is a significant problem in cities across the world. It affects human health and well-being, ecosystem health, crops, climate, visibility and human-made materials. Health effects related to air pollution include its impact on the pulmonary, cardiac, vascular and neurological systems (Section 2). Trees affect air quality through a number of means (Section...

  9. The significant human-animal bond: Pets with cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weller, R.E.

    1994-03-01

    Veterinarians have responsibilities to both the animal and its owner. In the past several years there has been an increased awareness and concern about human-animal bonds. As a result, we have begun to appreciate the nature, strength, and significance of bonds that develop between humans and companion animals. It is typical for a pet to be perceived as and treated as a member of the family and as a result, animals provide special and beneficial relationships for many years. It is partly because of this role of the pet in promoting human health and happiness that we as veterinarians have an obligation to assist both owner and animal. The mark of the good practitioner concerns not only the ability to diagnose and treat accurately, but also the ability to show understanding and compassionate judgement.

  10. NASA Human Health and Performance Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jeffrey R.

    2012-01-01

    In May 2007, what was then the Space Life Sciences Directorate, issued the 2007 Space Life Sciences Strategy for Human Space Exploration. In January 2012, leadership and key directorate personnel were once again brought together to assess the current and expected future environment against its 2007 Strategy and the Agency and Johnson Space Center goals and strategies. The result was a refined vision and mission, and revised goals, objectives, and strategies. One of the first changes implemented was to rename the directorate from Space Life Sciences to Human Health and Performance to better reflect our vision and mission. The most significant change in the directorate from 2007 to the present is the integration of the Human Research Program and Crew Health and Safety activities. Subsequently, the Human Health and Performance Directorate underwent a reorganization to achieve enhanced integration of research and development with operations to better support human spaceflight and International Space Station utilization. These changes also enable a more effective and efficient approach to human system risk mitigation. Since 2007, we have also made significant advances in external collaboration and implementation of new business models within the directorate and the Agency, and through two newly established virtual centers, the NASA Human Health and Performance Center and the Center of Excellence for Collaborative Innovation. Our 2012 Strategy builds upon these successes to address the Agency's increased emphasis on societal relevance and being a leader in research and development and innovative business and communications practices. The 2012 Human Health and Performance Vision is to lead the world in human health and performance innovations for life in space and on Earth. Our mission is to enable optimization of human health and performance throughout all phases of spaceflight. All HH&P functions are ultimately aimed at achieving this mission. Our activities enable

  11. How significant is the ‘significant other’? Associations between significant others’ health behaviors and attitudes and young adults’ health outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berge Jerica M

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Having a significant other has been shown to be protective against physical and psychological health conditions for adults. Less is known about the period of emerging young adulthood and associations between significant others’ weight and weight-related health behaviors (e.g. healthy dietary intake, the frequency of physical activity, weight status. This study examined the association between significant others’ health attitudes and behaviors regarding eating and physical activity and young adults’ weight status, dietary intake, and physical activity. Methods This study uses data from Project EAT-III, a population-based cohort study with emerging young adults from diverse ethnic and socioeconomic backgrounds (n = 1212. Logistic regression models examining cross-sectional associations, adjusted for sociodemographics and health behaviors five years earlier, were used to estimate predicted probabilities and calculate prevalence differences. Results Young adult women whose significant others had health promoting attitudes/behaviors were significantly less likely to be overweight/obese and were more likely to eat ≥ 5 fruits/vegetables per day and engage in ≥ 3.5 hours/week of physical activity, compared to women whose significant others did not have health promoting behaviors/attitudes. Young adult men whose significant other had health promoting behaviors/attitudes were more likely to engage in ≥ 3.5 hours/week of physical activity compared to men whose significant others did not have health promoting behaviors/attitudes. Conclusions Findings suggest the protective nature of the significant other with regard to weight-related health behaviors of young adults, particularly for young adult women. Obesity prevention efforts should consider the importance of including the significant other in intervention efforts with young adult women and potentially men.

  12. Health implications of human trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Tiffany A

    2014-01-01

    Freedom is arguably the most cherished right in the United States. But each year, approximately 14,500 to 17,500 women, men and children are trafficked into the United States for the purposes of forced labor or sexual exploitation. Human trafficking has significant effects on both physical and mental health. This article describes the features of human trafficking, its physical and mental health effects and the vital role nurses can play in providing care to this vulnerable population. © 2014 AWHONN.

  13. 42 CFR 137.142 - What is a “significant danger” or “risk” to the public health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What is a âsignificant dangerâ or âriskâ to the public health? 137.142 Section 137.142 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE...

  14. Health, vital goals, and central human capabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatapuram, Sridhar

    2013-06-01

    I argue for a conception of health as a person's ability to achieve or exercise a cluster of basic human activities. These basic activities are in turn specified through free-standing ethical reasoning about what constitutes a minimal conception of a human life with equal human dignity in the modern world. I arrive at this conception of health by closely following and modifying Lennart Nordenfelt's theory of health which presents health as the ability to achieve vital goals. Despite its strengths I transform Nordenfelt's argument in order to overcome three significant drawbacks. Nordenfelt makes vital goals relative to each community or context and significantly reflective of personal preferences. By doing so, Nordenfelt's conception of health faces problems with both socially relative concepts of health and subjectively defined wellbeing. Moreover, Nordenfelt does not ever explicitly specify a set of vital goals. The theory of health advanced here replaces Nordenfelt's (seemingly) empty set of preferences and society-relative vital goals with a human species-wide conception of basic vital goals, or 'central human capabilities and functionings'. These central human capabilities come out of the capabilities approach (CA) now familiar in political philosophy and economics, and particularly reflect the work of Martha Nussbaum. As a result, the health of an individual should be understood as the ability to achieve a basic cluster of beings and doings-or having the overarching capability, a meta-capability, to achieve a set of central or vital inter-related capabilities and functionings. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Oceans and Human Health: Linking Ocean, Organism, and Human Health for Sustainable Management of Coastal Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandifer, P. A.; Trtanj, J.; Collier, T. K.

    2012-12-01

    Human Health Act of 2004. Major outcomes of the OHH Act of 2004 include: --A national focus on ocean health and its relation to human health and well-being; --Enhanced interagency coordination and cooperation in research, development, and education; --Emphasis on development of a new, interdisciplinary community of practice; --Increased understanding of linkages between marine animal health and human health and the dangers of transmission of zoonotic diseases from the marine environment; --A richer understanding of factors affecting the occurrence and impacts of ocean health threats; --An enhanced ability of the ocean science and public health communities to respond to health-related emergencies; --A strong focus on development of ecological forecasts that are providing early warning of ocean health threats and impacts, thus improving the effectiveness of protection and mitigation actions. Taken together, these outcomes contribute significantly to more sustainable management of coastal resources and communities.

  16. On human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Spijk, Piet

    2015-05-01

    If it is true that health is a priority objective of medicine, then medical practice can only be successful if the meaning of the term "health" is known. Various attempts have been made over the years to define health. This paper proposes a new definition. In addition to current health concepts, it also takes into account the distinction between specifically human (great) health and health as the absence of disease and illness-i.e. small health. The feeling of leading a life that makes sense plays a key role in determining specifically human great health.

  17. Exposure to UV radiation and human health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimlin, Michael G.

    2005-08-01

    This paper will overview the significant issues facing researchers in relating the impact of exposure to sunlight and human health. Exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation is the major causative factor in most sun-related skin and eye disorders, however, very little is known quantitatively about human UV exposures. Interestingly, human exposure to sunlight also has a nutritional impact, namely the development of pre-Vitamin D, which is an important nutrient in bone health. New research suggest that low vitamin D status may be a causative factor in the development of selective types of cancer and autoimminue diseases, as well as a contributing factor in bone health. The 'health duality' aspect of sunlight exposure is an interesting and controversial topic that is a research focus of Kimlin's research group.

  18. Gut microbiomes and their metabolites shape human and animal health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Woojun

    2018-03-01

    The host genetic background, complex surrounding environments, and gut microbiome are very closely linked to human and animal health and disease. Although significant correlations between gut microbiota and human and animal health have been revealed, the specific roles of each gut bacterium in shaping human and animal health and disease remain unclear. However, recent omics-based studies using experimental animals and surveys of gut microbiota from unhealthy humans have provided insights into the relationships among microbial community, their metabolites, and human and animal health. This editorial introduces six review papers that provide new discoveries of disease-associated microbiomes and suggest possible microbiome-based therapeutic approaches to human disease.

  19. Impacts of “metals” on human health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pizzol, Massimo; Christensen, Per; Schmidt, Jannick Højrup

    2011-01-01

    This paper looks into the differences and uncertainties in determining the impact of “metals” emissions on human health, in Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA). Metals are diverse substances, with different properties and characteristics, considered important in LCIA because of their toxicity...... to humans and ecosystems. First, we defined a list of the most significant metals in terms of impacts on human health. This was done according to precise criteria accounting for both physical and toxic properties of the metals. Second, we performed a LCIA on different key processes using various existing...... to the total impact on human health changes greatly according to the LCIA method used. These differences are due mainly to the number of metals included in each method and to the technique used to calculate the characterization factors. Results obtained with USEtox show no apparent correlation with results...

  20. Human health screening and public health significance of contaminants of emerging concern detected in public water supplies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Robert; Conerly, Octavia D.; Sander, William; Batt, Angela L.; Boone, J. Scott; Furlong, Edward T.; Glassmeyer, Susan T.; Kolpin, Dana W.; Mash, Heath

    2017-01-01

    The source water and treated drinking water from twenty five drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) across the United States were sampled in 2010–2012. Samples were analyzed for 247 contaminants using 15 chemical and microbiological methods. Most of these contaminants are not regulated currently either in drinking water or in discharges to ambient water by the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) or other U.S. regulatory agencies. This analysis shows that there is little public health concern for most of the contaminants detected in treated water from the 25 DWTPs participating in this study. For vanadium, the calculated Margin of Exposure (MOE) was less than the screening MOE in two DWTPs. For silicon, the calculated MOE was less than the screening MOE in one DWTP. Additional study, for example a national survey may be needed to determine the number of people ingesting vanadium and silicon above a level of concern. In addition, the concentrations of lithium found in treated water from several DWTPs are within the range previous research has suggested to have a human health effect. Additional investigation of this issue is necessary. Finally, new toxicological data suggest that exposure to manganese at levels in public water supplies may present a public health concern which will require a robust assessment of this information.

  1. Key challenges of human resources for health in India

    OpenAIRE

    Priya Sinha

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective Since independence the efforts have been to strengthen the health infrastructure, its accessibility and coverage. The human resources for health have been an important determinant for system but it has received significance recently. Even government expenditure on health has remained at not more than 1% of Gross Domestic Product which is very less as compared to world standard. Now the biggest challenge is the shortage of skilled human resource for health at all le...

  2. Exposure to formaldehyde: a challenge of occupational health significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaonga, K.

    2009-01-01

    The use of formaldehyde as the fixative for general microscopic demonstration of tissues in medical laboratory establishments is as significant as the diagnosis of the underlying ailment. Instantaneous human exposure to formaldehyde elicits symptoms that may include watery eyes, headache, inflamed throat and dyspnea. The gaseous chemical is toxic, allergenic and carcinogenic. A study to determine the incidence of human exposure to formaldehyde was carried out at the University Teaching Hospital in Lusaka, Zambia from January to December, 2007. Anonymous questionnaires on various aspects of human exposure to formaldehyde were given to laboratory technical personnel. Exposure to formaldehyde was determined using general consideration model comprising points awarded to participants according to their responses. Five points represented the maximum level of exposure, while one point denoted the minimum encounter. There were 8 incidents of formaldehyde pollution, with five being emissions from 210-litre formalin receptacles whose stoppers were inadvertently left loose overnight, while three involved accidental breakage of Winchester bottles of formalin. A total of 115 people were exposed during the year. Fifteen (13.0 percent) participants scored one point each, while 20 (17.4 percent) participants obtained 2 points each. Thirty-five (30.4 percent) participants got 3 points each, while 30 (26.0 percent) participants received 4 points each. Twenty-five (21.7 percent) participants attained 5 points each. Human exposure to formaldehyde is an issue of occupational health concern. Participants with a score of 3 points or more need regular medical check ups in order to safeguard their health. Programs on effective management of hazardous chemicals are worth setting up.(author)

  3. Dust, Climate, and Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, Nancy G.

    2003-01-01

    Air pollution from both natural and anthropogenic causes is considered to be one of the most serious world-wide environment-related health problems, and is expected to become worse with changes in the global climate. Dust storms from the atmospheric transport of desert soil dust that has been lifted and carried by the winds - often over significant distances - have become an increasingly important emerging air quality issue for many populations. Recent studies have shown that the dust storms can cause significant health impacts from the dust itself as well as the accompanying pollutants, pesticides, metals, salt, plant debris, and other inorganic and organic materials, including viable microorganisms (bacteria, viruses and fungi). For example, thousands of tons of Asian desert sediments, some containing pesticides and herbicides from farming regions, are commonly transported into the Arctic during dust storm events. These chemicals have been identified in animal and human tissues among Arctic indigenous populations. Millions of tons of airborne desert dust are being tracked by satellite imagery, which clearly shows the magnitude as well as the temporal and spatial variability of dust storms across the "dust belt" regions of North Africa, the Middle East, and China. This paper summarizes the most recent findings on the effects of airborne desert dust on human health as well as potential climate influences on dust and health.

  4. An economic perspective on oceans and human health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Legat, Audrey; French, Veronica; McDonough, Niall

    2016-01-01

    Human health and wellbeing are intrinsically connected to our seas and oceans through a complex relationship comprising both positive and negative influences. Although significant public health impacts result from this relationship, the economic implications are rarely analysed. We reviewed the

  5. Human exposure, health hazards, and environmental regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinemann, Anne

    2004-01-01

    United States environmental regulations, intended to protect human health, generally fail to address major sources of pollutants that endanger human health. These sources are surprisingly close to us and within our control, such as consumer products and building materials that we use within our homes, workplaces, schools, and other indoor environments. Even though these indoor sources account for nearly 90% of our pollutant exposure, they are virtually unregulated by existing laws. Even pollutant levels found in typical homes, if found outdoors, would often violate federal environmental standards. This article examines the importance of human exposure as a way to understand and reduce effects of pollutants on human health. Results from exposure studies challenge traditional thinking about pollutant hazards, and reveal deficiencies in our patchwork of laws. And results from epidemiological studies, showing increases in exposure-related diseases, underscore the need for new protections. Because we cannot rely solely on regulations to protect us, and because health effects from exposures can develop insidiously, greater efforts are needed to reduce and prevent significant exposures before they occur. Recommendations include the development and use of safer alternatives to common products, public education on ways to reduce exposure, systematic monitoring of human exposure to pollutants, and a precautionary approach in decision-making

  6. Proteomic approach in human health and disease: Preventive and cure studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled MM Koriem

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Proteomic is a branch of science that deals with various numbers of proteins where proteins are essential human constituents. Proteomic has a lot of functions inside the human and animal living organisms. This review helps to make a thought on the importance of proteomic application in human health and disease with special reference to preventive and cure studies. The human health can be divided into physical and mental health. The physical health relates to keeping human body state in a good health and to nutritional type and environmental factors. The mental health correlates to human psychological state. The main factors that affect the status of human health are human diet, exercise and sleep. The healthy diet is very important and needs to maintain the human health. The training program exercise improves human fitness and overall health and wellness. The sleep is a vital factor to sustain the human health. The human disease indicates abnormal human condition which influences the specific human part or the whole human body. There are external and internal factors which induce human disease. The external factors include pathogens while internal factors include allergies and autoimmunity. There are 4 principle types of human diseases: (1 infectious disease, (2 deficiency disease, (3 genetic disease and (4 physiological disease. There are many and various external microbes' factors that induce human infectious disease and these agents include viruses, bacteria, fungi and protozoa. The lack of necessary and vital dietary rudiments such as vitamins and minerals is the main cause of human deficiency disease. The genetic disease is initiated by hereditary disturbances that occur in the human genetic map. The physiological disease occurs when the normal human function body is affected due to human organs become malfunction. In conclusion, proteomic plays a vital and significant role in human health and disease.

  7. Significance of mental health legislation for successful primary care for mental health and community mental health services: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayano, Getinet

    2018-03-29

     Mental health legislation (MHL) is required to ensure a regulatory framework for mental health services and other providers of treatment and care, and to ensure that the public and people with a mental illness are afforded protection from the often-devastating consequences of mental illness.  To provide an overview of evidence on the significance of MHL for successful primary care for mental health and community mental health servicesMethod: A qualitative review of the literature on the significance of MHL for successful primary care for mental health and community mental health services was conducted.  In many countries, especially in those who have no MHL, people do not have access to basic mental health care and treatment they require. One of the major aims of MHL is that all people with mental disorders should be provided with treatment based on the integration of mental health care services into the primary healthcare (PHC). In addition, MHL plays a crucial role in community integration of persons with mental disorders, the provision of care of high quality, the improvement of access to care at community level. Community-based mental health care further improves access to mental healthcare within the city, to have better health and mental health outcomes, and better quality of life, increase acceptability, reduce associated social stigma and human rights abuse, prevent chronicity and physical health comorbidity will likely to be detected early and managed.  Mental health legislation plays a crucial role in community integration of persons with mental disorders, integration of mental health at primary health care, the provision of care of high quality and the improvement of access to care at community level. It is vital and essential to have MHL for every country.

  8. Significance of Cooking Oil to Bioaccessibility of Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) and Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) in Raw and Cooked Fish: Implications for Human Health Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Xiu-Bo; Su, Yang; Bao, Lian-Jun; Tao, Shu; Zeng, Eddy Y

    2017-04-26

    The present study examined the bioacessibility of DDTs and PBDEs in cooked fish (yellow grouper; Epinephelus awoara) with and without heating using the colon extended physiologically based extraction test. The bioaccessibility of DDTs and PBDEs increased from 60 and 26% in raw fish to 83 and 63%, respectively, after the addition of oil to raw fish. However, they decreased from 83 to 66% and from 63 to 40%, respectively, when oil-added fish were cooked. Human health risk assessment based on bioaccessible concentrations of DDTs and PBDEs in fish showed that the maximum allowable daily fish consumption rates decreased from 25, 59, and 86 g day -1 to 22, 53, and 77 g day -1 for children, youths, and adults, respectively, after fish were cooked with oil. These findings indicated that the significance of cooking oil to the bioaccessibility of DDTs and PBDEs in food should be considered in assessments of human health risk.

  9. Space Radiation and Risks to Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, Janice L.; Patel, Zarana S.; Simonsen, Lisa C.

    2014-01-01

    The radiation environment in space poses significant challenges to human health and is a major concern for long duration manned space missions. Outside the Earth's protective magnetosphere, astronauts are exposed to higher levels of galactic cosmic rays, whose physical characteristics are distinct from terrestrial sources of radiation such as x-rays and gamma-rays. Galactic cosmic rays consist of high energy and high mass nuclei as well as high energy protons; they impart unique biological damage as they traverse through tissue with impacts on human health that are largely unknown. The major health issues of concern are the risks of radiation carcinogenesis, acute and late decrements to the central nervous system, degenerative tissue effects such as cardiovascular disease, as well as possible acute radiation syndromes due to an unshielded exposure to a large solar particle event. The NASA Human Research Program's Space Radiation Program Element is focused on characterization and mitigation of these space radiation health risks along with understanding these risks in context of the other biological stressors found in the space environment. In this overview, we will provide a description of these health risks and the Element's research strategies to understand and mitigate these risks.

  10. Caprine brucellosis: A historically neglected disease with significant impact on public health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenas-Gamboa, Angela M.; Maurizio, Estefanía

    2017-01-01

    Caprine brucellosis is a chronic infectious disease caused by the gram-negative cocci-bacillus Brucella melitensis. Middle- to late-term abortion, stillbirths, and the delivery of weak offspring are the characteristic clinical signs of the disease that is associated with an extensive negative impact in a flock’s productivity. B. melitensis is also the most virulent Brucella species for humans, responsible for a severely debilitating and disabling illness that results in high morbidity with intermittent fever, chills, sweats, weakness, myalgia, abortion, osteoarticular complications, endocarditis, depression, anorexia, and low mortality. Historical observations indicate that goats have been the hosts of B. melitensis for centuries; but around 1905, the Greek physician Themistokles Zammit was able to build the epidemiological link between “Malta fever” and the consumption of goat milk. While the disease has been successfully managed in most industrialized countries, it remains a significant burden on goat and human health in the Mediterranean region, the Middle East, Central and Southeast Asia (including India and China), sub-Saharan Africa, and certain areas in Latin America, where approximately 3.5 billion people live at risk. In this review, we describe a historical evolution of the disease, highlight the current worldwide distribution, and estimate (by simple formula) the approximate costs of brucellosis outbreaks to meat- and milk-producing farms and the economic losses associated with the disease in humans. Successful control leading to eradication of caprine brucellosis in the developing world will require a coordinated Global One Health approach involving active involvement of human and animal health efforts to enhance public health and improve livestock productivity. PMID:28817647

  11. Human Exposure and Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ROE is divided into 5 themes: Air, Water, Land, Human Exposure and Health and Ecological Condition. From these themes, the report indicators address fundamental questions that the ROE attempts to answer. For human health there are 3 questions.

  12. Is fatty acid composition of human bone marrow significant to bone health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pino, Ana María; Rodríguez, J Pablo

    2017-12-16

    The bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT) is a conserved component of the marrow microenvironment, providing storage and release of energy and stabilizing the marrow extent. Also, it is recognized both the amount and quality of BMAT are relevant to preserve the functional relationships between BMAT, bone, and blood cell production. In this article we ponder the information supporting the tenet that the quality of BMAT is relevant to bone health. In the human adult the distribution of BMAT is heterogeneous over the entire skeleton, and both BMAT accumulation and bone loss come about with aging in healthy populations. But some pathological conditions which increase BMAT formation lead to bone impairment and fragility. Analysis in vivo of the relative content of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids (FA) in BMAT indicates site-related bone marrow fat composition and an association between increased unsaturation index (UI) and bone health. With aging some impairment ensues in the regulation of bone marrow cells and systemic signals leading to local chronic inflammation. Most of the bone loss diseases which evolve altered BMAT composition have as common factors aging and/or chronic inflammation. Both saturated and unsaturated FAs originate lipid species which are active mediators in the inflammation process. Increased free saturated FAs may lead to lipotoxicity of bone marrow cells. The pro-inflammatory, anti-inflammatory or resolving actions of compounds derived from long chain poly unsaturated FAs (PUFA) on bone cells is varied, and depending on the metabolism of the parent n:3 or n:6 PUFAs series. Taking together the evidence substantiate that marrow adipocyte function is fundamental for an efficient link between systemic and marrow fatty acids to accomplish specific energy or regulatory needs of skeletal and marrow cells. Further, they reveal marrow requirements of PUFAs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Significance of Increasing n-3 PUFA Content in Pork on Human Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xianyong; Jiang, Zongyong; Lai, Chaoqiang

    2016-01-01

    Evidence for the health-promoting effects of food rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) is reviewed. Pork is an important meat source for humans. According to a report by the US Department of Agriculture ( http://www.ers.usda.gov/topics ), the pork consumption worldwide in 2011 was about 79.3 million tons, much higher than that of beef (48.2 million tons). Pork also contains high levels of unsaturated fatty acids relative to ruminant meats (Enser, M., Hallett, K., Hewett, B., Fursey, G. A. J. and Wood, J. D. (1996) . Fatty acid content and composition of English beef, lamb, and pork at retail. Meat Sci. 44:443-458). The available literature indicates that the levels of eicosatetraenoic and docosahexaenoic in pork may be increased by fish-derived or linseed products, the extent of which being dependent on the nature of the supplementation. Transgenic pigs and plants show promise with high content of n-3 PUFA and low ratio of n-6/n-3 fatty acids in their tissues. The approaches mentioned for decreasing n-6/n-3 ratios have both advantages and disadvantages. Selected articles are critically reviewed and summarized.

  14. How Health Humanities Will Save the Life of the Humanities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klugman, Craig M

    2017-12-01

    In the last decade, the humanities have been shrinking in number of students, percent of faculty, and in number of degrees awarded. Humanities students also earn lower salaries than their STEM-prepared peers. At the same time, the health humanities have been in ascendance over the last fifteen years. The number of majors, minors and certificates has increased 266% in that time frame, attracting large numbers of students and preparing future patients, lay caregivers, and health care providers to interact with a complicated and dehumanized medical system. In 1982, British philosopher and educator Stephen Toulmin declared that medicine saved philosophy from irrelevance and possibly extinction. I propose that the health humanities can serve a similar function to stave off the decline of the broader humanities. The health humanities can (1) model an applied approach for the broader humanities to attract student interest; (2) develop students' capacity for critical reading, writing and reflection about health and medicine in society, practice, and their own lives and (3) inoculate all students against the influence of medicine, whether through preparing pre-health students to navigate the hidden medical curriculum or preparing future patients to navigate the health care system.

  15. (Public) Health and Human Rights in Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annas, George J; Mariner, Wendy K

    2016-02-01

    Public health's reliance on law to define and carry out public activities makes it impossible to define a set of ethical principles unique to public health. Public health ethics must be encompassed within--and consistent with--a broader set of principles that define the power and limits of governmental institutions. These include human rights, health law, and even medical ethics. The human right to health requires governments not only to respect individual human rights and personal freedoms, but also, importantly, to protect people from harm from external sources and third parties, and to fulfill the health needs of the population. Even if human rights are the natural language for public health, not all public health professionals are comfortable with the language of human rights. Some argue that individual human rights--such as autonomy and privacy--unfairly limit the permissible means to achieve the goal of health protection. We argue that public health should welcome and promote the human rights framework. In almost every instance, this will make public health more effective in the long run, because the goals of public health and human rights are the same: to promote human flourishing. Copyright © 2016 by Duke University Press.

  16. Health and human rights: a statistical measurement framework using household survey data in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesonga, Ronald; Owino, Abraham; Ssekiboobo, Agnes; Atuhaire, Leonard; Jehopio, Peter

    2015-05-03

    Health is intertwined with human rights as is clearly reflected in the right to life. Promotion of health practices in the context of human rights can be accomplished if there is a better understanding of the level of human rights observance. In this paper, we evaluate and present an appraisal for a possibility of applying household survey to study the determinants of health and human rights and also derive the probability that human rights are observed; an important ingredient into the national planning framework. Data from the Uganda National Governance Baseline Survey were used. A conceptual framework for predictors of a hybrid dependent variable was developed and both bivariate and multivariate statistical techniques employed. Multivariate post estimation computations were derived after evaluations of the significance of coefficients of health and human rights predictors. Findings, show that household characteristics of respondents considered in this study were statistically significant (p human rights observance. For example, a unit increase of respondents' schooling levels results in an increase of about 34% level of positively assessing human rights observance. Additionally, the study establishes, through the three models presented, that household assessment of health and human rights observance was 20% which also represents how much of the entire continuum of human rights is demanded. Findings propose important evidence for monitoring and evaluation of health in the context human rights using household survey data. They provide a benchmark for health and human rights assessments with a focus on international and national development plans to achieve socio-economic transformation and health in society.

  17. Nutrition, health and human rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brundtland, G H

    1999-07-01

    This paper presents the speech delivered by Gro Harlem Brundtland, Director-General of WHO, on issues related to nutrition from a health and a human rights perspective. According to Brundtland, nutrition is a universal factor that both affects and defines the health of all people. It affects not only growth and physical development of a child, but also his cognitive and social development. However, inequity, poverty, underdevelopment, as well as inadequate access to food, health and care still exist which have resulted to the deaths of millions of children and left many more suffering from diseases. Poverty has also been identified as the main obstacle to the attainment of health. The existence of structural poverty and ill health eventually leads to poor development, which includes poor nutrition, poor health, and poor human rights. The impact of poverty on health is further worsened by discrimination on the basis of race, color, sex, language, or religion. To address this issue, the WHO will renew their focus on the political and legal links between health and human rights. A human rights perspective provides the international community with an opportunity to support the development of public health policies and practices that promote healthy nutrition as a center of all social and economic development.

  18. Working Together for Mental Health: Evaluation of a one-day mental health course for human service providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grootemaat, Pam; Gillan, Cathie; Holt, Gillian; Forward, Wayne; Heywood, Narelle; Willis, Sue

    2006-01-01

    Background The Working Together For Mental Health course is an 8-hour course designed to demystify mental illness and mental health services. The main target group for the course is people working in human service organisations who provide services for people with mental illness. Methods A questionnaire was administered to all participants attending the course during 2003 (n = 165). Participants completed the questionnaire before and immediately after the course, and at three month follow-up. Results A response rate of 69% was achieved with 114 people completing the questionnaire on all three occasions. The responses showed a significant improvement in the self-assessed knowledge and confidence of participants to provide human services to people with a mental health problem or disorder, three months after the course. There was no significant improvement in participants' attitudes or beliefs about people with a mental health problem or disorder at three month follow-up; however, participants' attitudes were largely positive before entering the course. Conclusion The Working Together For Mental Health course was successful in improving participants' confidence and knowledge around providing human services to people with a mental health illness. PMID:17074097

  19. Human rights approach to health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haigh, Fiona

    2002-04-01

    Adopting human rights approach to health carries many benefits, because it emphasizes the equality of all persons and their inherent right to health as the foundation of the health care system. It also argues that promotion and protection of health are fundamentally important social goals, focuses particularly on the needs of the most disadvantaged and vulnerable communities, balances individual needs with the common good, and so forth. However, it also raises some practical issues, such as organization of interdisciplinary education and work, and different use of the language, which often goes unacknowledged. The relationship between human rights and health is a reciprocal one, and can be beneficial or harmful. For the relationship to be beneficial and successful, the differences between human rights and public health approach to health, centered around the perspective taking, attitudes, and abilities of health professionals, need to be acknowledged and reconciled, and the need for interdisciplinarity adequately fulfilled.

  20. One health: The interface between veterinary and human health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kshitiz Shrestha

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available One Health is an emerging global key concept integrating human and animal health through international research and policy. The complex relationships between the human and animal have resulted in a human-animal-environment interface since prehistorical times. The people, animals, plants, and the environment are so intrinsically linked that prevention of risks and the mitigation of effects of crises that originate at the interface between humans, animals, and their environments can only improve health and wellbeing. The “One Health” approach has been successfully implemented in numerous projects around the world. The containment of pandemic threats such as avian influenza and severe acute respiratory syndrome within months of outbreak are few examples of successful applications of the One Health paradigm. The paper begins with a brief overview of the human-animal interface and continues with the socio-economic and public health impact caused by various zoonotic diseases such as Middle East respiratory syndrome, Influenza, and Ebola virus. This is followed by the role of “One Health” to deal the global problem by the global solution. It emphasizes the interdisciplinary collaboration, training for health professionals and institutional support to minimize global health threats due to infectious diseases. The broad definition of the concept is supposed to lead multiple interpretations that impede the effective implementation of One Health approach within veterinary profession, within the medical profession, by wildlife specialists and by environmentalists, while on the other side, it gives a value of interdisciplinary collaboration for reducing threats in human-animal-environment interface.

  1. Influence resistance on human health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul Harits, M.; Bahtiar, Yusuf; Achdan, M. Syahdani; Sunarno, .

    2010-05-01

    Health is an important part of human life. Every person in this world want healthy body, in other words free of any disease. When seeing the pattern of human life today is high activity, always eat instant foods and lack of exercise makes a very bad human health from year to year. Therefore, there is need for the health revolution that can keep human health in order to remain in the condition is always healthy. Eat healthy foods four plus five perfect diligent exercise is the real solution to maintain health. In addition also advisable to always check each month to the doctor so that our health can be controlled. Most people underestimate it, especially the routine checks once a month to the doctor, therefore I created a simple research that aims to get people to mengonytrol health at any time without having to check into the doctor. By utilizing the resistance in the human body's health so we can be controlled. By using a simple tool to measure human resistance by using the concept of the bridge. Bridge circuit used to convert impedance variations into voltage variations. One advantage of this circuit is the voltage produced can vary around 0. This means strengthening can be used to raise the voltage level so as sensitivity to variations in impedance also increases. Another application is the impedance measurement accuracy. The bridge is the simplest and most widely used is the Wheatstone bridge circuit. This circuit is used for signal conditioning applications where a sensor can change the resistance value when the process variable is changed.

  2. Human Health at the Beach

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Research Centers Beaches Contact Us Share LEARN: Human Health at the Beach Swimming at beaches with pollution ... water pollution, there are other potential threats to human health at the beach to be aware of. The ...

  3. Linking human health and livestock health: a "one-health" platform for integrated analysis of human health, livestock health, and economic welfare in livestock dependent communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S M Thumbi

    Full Text Available For most rural households in sub-Saharan Africa, healthy livestock play a key role in averting the burden associated with zoonotic diseases, and in meeting household nutritional and socio-economic needs. However, there is limited understanding of the complex nutritional, socio-economic, and zoonotic pathways that link livestock health to human health and welfare. Here we describe a platform for integrated human health, animal health and economic welfare analysis designed to address this challenge. We provide baseline epidemiological data on disease syndromes in humans and the animals they keep, and provide examples of relationships between human health, animal health and household socio-economic status.We designed a study to obtain syndromic disease data in animals along with economic and behavioral information for 1500 rural households in Western Kenya already participating in a human syndromic disease surveillance study. Data collection started in February 2013, and each household is visited bi-weekly and data on four human syndromes (fever, jaundice, diarrhea and respiratory illness and nine animal syndromes (death, respiratory, reproductive, musculoskeletal, nervous, urogenital, digestive, udder disorders, and skin disorders in cattle, sheep, goats and chickens are collected. Additionally, data from a comprehensive socio-economic survey is collected every 3 months in each of the study households.Data from the first year of study showed 93% of the households owned at least one form of livestock (55%, 19%, 41% and 88% own cattle, sheep, goats and chickens respectively. Digestive disorders, mainly diarrhea episodes, were the most common syndromes observed in cattle, goats and sheep, accounting for 56% of all livestock syndromes, followed by respiratory illnesses (18%. In humans, respiratory illnesses accounted for 54% of all illnesses reported, followed by acute febrile illnesses (40% and diarrhea illnesses (5%. While controlling for household

  4. Linking human health and livestock health: a "one-health" platform for integrated analysis of human health, livestock health, and economic welfare in livestock dependent communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thumbi, S M; Njenga, M Kariuki; Marsh, Thomas L; Noh, Susan; Otiang, Elkanah; Munyua, Peninah; Ochieng, Linus; Ogola, Eric; Yoder, Jonathan; Audi, Allan; Montgomery, Joel M; Bigogo, Godfrey; Breiman, Robert F; Palmer, Guy H; McElwain, Terry F

    2015-01-01

    For most rural households in sub-Saharan Africa, healthy livestock play a key role in averting the burden associated with zoonotic diseases, and in meeting household nutritional and socio-economic needs. However, there is limited understanding of the complex nutritional, socio-economic, and zoonotic pathways that link livestock health to human health and welfare. Here we describe a platform for integrated human health, animal health and economic welfare analysis designed to address this challenge. We provide baseline epidemiological data on disease syndromes in humans and the animals they keep, and provide examples of relationships between human health, animal health and household socio-economic status. We designed a study to obtain syndromic disease data in animals along with economic and behavioral information for 1500 rural households in Western Kenya already participating in a human syndromic disease surveillance study. Data collection started in February 2013, and each household is visited bi-weekly and data on four human syndromes (fever, jaundice, diarrhea and respiratory illness) and nine animal syndromes (death, respiratory, reproductive, musculoskeletal, nervous, urogenital, digestive, udder disorders, and skin disorders in cattle, sheep, goats and chickens) are collected. Additionally, data from a comprehensive socio-economic survey is collected every 3 months in each of the study households. Data from the first year of study showed 93% of the households owned at least one form of livestock (55%, 19%, 41% and 88% own cattle, sheep, goats and chickens respectively). Digestive disorders, mainly diarrhea episodes, were the most common syndromes observed in cattle, goats and sheep, accounting for 56% of all livestock syndromes, followed by respiratory illnesses (18%). In humans, respiratory illnesses accounted for 54% of all illnesses reported, followed by acute febrile illnesses (40%) and diarrhea illnesses (5%). While controlling for household size, the

  5. Ecological determinants of health: food and environment on human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Alice M L

    2017-04-01

    Human health and diseases are determined by many complex factors. Health threats from the human-animal-ecosystems interface (HAEI) and zoonotic diseases (zoonoses) impose an increasing risk continuously to public health, from those emerging pathogens transmitted through contact with animals, food, water and contaminated environments. Immense challenges forced on the ecological perspectives on food and the eco-environments, including aquaculture, agriculture and the entire food systems. Impacts of food and eco-environments on human health will be examined amongst the importance of human interventions for intended purposes in lowering the adverse effects on the biodiversity. The complexity of relevant conditions defined as factors contributing to the ecological determinants of health will be illuminated from different perspectives based on concepts, citations, examples and models, in conjunction with harmful consequential effects of human-induced disturbances to our environments and food systems, together with the burdens from ecosystem disruption, environmental hazards and loss of ecosystem functions. The eco-health literacy should be further promoting under the "One Health" vision, with "One World" concept under Ecological Public Health Model for sustaining our environments and the planet earth for all beings, which is coincidentally echoing Confucian's theory for the environmental ethics of ecological harmony.

  6. Climate change and human health: a One Health approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patz, Jonathan A; Hahn, Micah B

    2013-01-01

    Climate change adds complexity and uncertainty to human health issues such as emerging infectious diseases, food security, and national sustainability planning that intensify the importance of interdisciplinary and collaborative research. Collaboration between veterinary, medical, and public health professionals to understand the ecological interactions and reactions to flux in a system can facilitate clearer understanding of climate change impacts on environmental, animal, and human health. Here we present a brief introduction to climate science and projections for the next century and a review of current knowledge on the impacts of climate-driven environmental change on human health. We then turn to the links between ecological and evolutionary responses to climate change and health. The literature on climate impacts on biological systems is rich in both content and historical data, but the connections between these changes and human health is less understood. We discuss five mechanisms by which climate changes impacts on biological systems will be felt by the human population: Modifications in Vector, Reservoir, and Pathogen Lifecycles; Diseases of Domestic and Wild Animals and Plants; Disruption of Synchrony Between Interacting Species; Trophic Cascades; and Alteration or Destruction of Habitat. Each species responds to environmental changes differently, and in order to predict the movement of disease through ecosystems, we have to rely on expertise from the fields of veterinary, medical, and public health, and these health professionals must take into account the dynamic nature of ecosystems in a changing climate.

  7. HUMAN HEALTH OUTCOMES AND ACCOUNTABILITY - RISK POLICY REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is identifying human health "outcomes" as part of a significant shift in how the Agency frames questions and assesses its impact on environmental quality. These outcomes, while complementing traditional process indicators such as decreases in emissions, discharges and pollut...

  8. Human resources for health policies: a critical component in health policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dussault Gilles

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the last few years, increasing attention has been paid to the development of health policies. But side by side with the presumed benefits of policy, many analysts share the opinion that a major drawback of health policies is their failure to make room for issues of human resources. Current approaches in human resources suggest a number of weaknesses: a reactive, ad hoc attitude towards problems of human resources; dispersal of accountability within human resources management (HRM; a limited notion of personnel administration that fails to encompass all aspects of HRM; and finally the short-term perspective of HRM. There are three broad arguments for modernizing the ways in which human resources for health are managed: • the central role of the workforce in the health sector; • the various challenges thrown up by health system reforms; • the need to anticipate the effect on the health workforce (and consequently on service provision arising from various macroscopic social trends impinging on health systems. The absence of appropriate human resources policies is responsible, in many countries, for a chronic imbalance with multifaceted effects on the health workforce: quantitative mismatch, qualitative disparity, unequal distribution and a lack of coordination between HRM actions and health policy needs. Four proposals have been put forward to modernize how the policy process is conducted in the development of human resources for health (HRH: • to move beyond the traditional approach of personnel administration to a more global concept of HRM; • to give more weight to the integrated, interdependent and systemic nature of the different components of HRM when preparing and implementing policy; • to foster a more proactive attitude among human resources (HR policy-makers and managers; • to promote the full commitment of all professionals and sectors in all phases of the process. The development of explicit human resources

  9. A Culture Of Health And Human Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariner, Wendy K; Annas, George J

    2016-11-01

    A culture of health can be seen as a social norm that values health as the nation's priority or as an appeal to improve the social determinants of health. Better population health will require changing social and economic policies. Effective changes are unlikely unless health advocates can leverage a framework broader than health to mobilize political action in collaboration with non-health sector advocates. We suggest that human rights-the dominant international source of norms for government responsibilities-provides this broader framework. Human rights, as expressed in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and enforceable treaties, require governments to assure their populations nondiscriminatory access to food, water, education, work, social security, and a standard of living adequate for health and well-being. The policies needed to realize human rights also improve population health, well-being, and equity. Aspirations for human rights are strong enough to endure beyond inevitable setbacks to specific causes. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  10. Seaweed and human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Emma S; Allsopp, Philip J; Magee, Pamela J; Gill, Chris I R; Nitecki, Sonja; Strain, Conall R; McSorley, Emeir M

    2014-03-01

    Seaweeds may have an important role in modulating chronic disease. Rich in unique bioactive compounds not present in terrestrial food sources, including different proteins (lectins, phycobiliproteins, peptides, and amino acids), polyphenols, and polysaccharides, seaweeds are a novel source of compounds with potential to be exploited in human health applications. Purported benefits include antiviral, anticancer, and anticoagulant properties as well as the ability to modulate gut health and risk factors for obesity and diabetes. Though the majority of studies have been performed in cell and animal models, there is evidence of the beneficial effect of seaweed and seaweed components on markers of human health and disease status. This review is the first to critically evaluate these human studies, aiming to draw attention to gaps in current knowledge, which will aid the planning and implementation of future studies.

  11. Access to human, animal, and environmental journals is still limited for the One Health community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vreeland, Carol E; Alpi, Kristine M; Pike, Caitlin A; Whitman, Elisabeth E; Kennedy-Stoskopf, Suzanne

    2016-04-01

    "One Health" is an interdisciplinary approach to evaluating and managing the health and well-being of humans, animals, and the environments they share that relies on knowledge from the domains of human health, animal health, and the environmental sciences. The authors' objective was to evaluate the extent of open access (OA) to journal articles in a sample of literature from these domains. We hypothesized that OA to articles in human health or environmental journals was greater than access to animal health literature. A One Health seminar series provided fifteen topics. One librarian translated each topic into a search strategy and searched four databases for articles from 2011 to 2012. Two independent investigators assigned each article to human health, the environment, animal health, all, other, or combined categories. Article and journal-level OA were determined. Each journal was also assigned a subject category and its indexing evaluated. Searches retrieved 2,651 unique articles from 1,138 journals; 1,919 (72%) articles came from 406 journals that contributed more than 1 article. Seventy-seven (7%) journals dealt with all 3 One Health domains; the remaining journals represented human health 487 (43%), environment 172 (15%), animal health 141 (12%), and other/combined categories 261 (23%). The proportion of OA journals in animal health (40%) differed significantly from journals categorized as human (28%), environment (28%), and more than 1 category (29%). The proportion of OA for articles by subject categories ranged from 25%-34%; only the difference between human (34%) and environment (25%) was significant. OA to human health literature is more comparable to animal health than hypothesized. Environmental journals had less OA than anticipated.

  12. Training trainers in health and human rights: implementing curriculum change in South African health sciences institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewert, Elena G; Baldwin-Ragaven, Laurel; London, Leslie

    2011-07-25

    sciences institutions. Increased implementation of human rights instruction, both formally and extracurricularly, has demonstrated the training's significance not only within academic institutions but more broadly across the health sector. Coworkers are vital allies in teaching human rights to health sciences students, helping to alleviate institutional barriers. Training fellow staff members and those in key leadership roles is noted as vital to the sustainability of human rights education.

  13. Training Trainers in health and human rights: Implementing curriculum change in South African health sciences institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baldwin-Ragaven Laurel

    2011-07-01

    to incorporate human rights educational initiatives at health sciences institutions. Increased implementation of human rights instruction, both formally and extracurricularly, has demonstrated the training's significance not only within academic institutions but more broadly across the health sector. Coworkers are vital allies in teaching human rights to health sciences students, helping to alleviate institutional barriers. Training fellow staff members and those in key leadership roles is noted as vital to the sustainability of human rights education.

  14. Access to human, animal, and environmental journals is still limited for the One Health community*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vreeland, Carol E.; Alpi, Kristine M.; Pike, Caitlin A.; Whitman, Elisabeth E.; Kennedy-Stoskopf, Suzanne

    2016-01-01

    Objective “One Health” is an interdisciplinary approach to evaluating and managing the health and well-being of humans, animals, and the environments they share that relies on knowledge from the domains of human health, animal health, and the environmental sciences. The authors' objective was to evaluate the extent of open access (OA) to journal articles in a sample of literature from these domains. We hypothesized that OA to articles in human health or environmental journals was greater than access to animal health literature. Methods A One Health seminar series provided fifteen topics. One librarian translated each topic into a search strategy and searched four databases for articles from 2011 to 2012. Two independent investigators assigned each article to human health, the environment, animal health, all, other, or combined categories. Article and journal-level OA were determined. Each journal was also assigned a subject category and its indexing evaluated. Results Searches retrieved 2,651 unique articles from 1,138 journals; 1,919 (72%) articles came from 406 journals that contributed more than 1 article. Seventy-seven (7%) journals dealt with all 3 One Health domains; the remaining journals represented human health 487 (43%), environment 172 (15%), animal health 141 (12%), and other/combined categories 261 (23%). The proportion of OA journals in animal health (40%) differed significantly from journals categorized as human (28%), environment (28%), and more than 1 category (29%). The proportion of OA for articles by subject categories ranged from 25%–34%; only the difference between human (34%) and environment (25%) was significant. Conclusions OA to human health literature is more comparable to animal health than hypothesized. Environmental journals had less OA than anticipated. PMID:27076796

  15. Key challenges of human resources for health in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya Sinha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective Since independence the efforts have been to strengthen the health infrastructure, its accessibility and coverage. The human resources for health have been an important determinant for system but it has received significance recently. Even government expenditure on health has remained at not more than 1% of Gross Domestic Product which is very less as compared to world standard. Now the biggest challenge is the shortage of skilled human resource for health at all levels in the healthcare delivery system. The article aimed at understanding the current status of human resources for health and initiatives adopted to deal with existing shortage and to highlight factors leading to further shortage and to bring to notice the use of talent management strategy as a retention tool. Review Methodology The review used descriptive research design using secondary sources from journals-articles using key words. The study also used exclusion and inclusion criteria to select the articles. The study was done using extensive review of literature on health sector, health workforce, its availability and scarcity due to attrition/emigration in India. The critical review helped in setting objective for the study. Findings The review of articles provided insight into the current status of health workforce in India. The earlier studies emphasized that gap between demand and supply of human resource for health is mainly due to increasing population and burden of diseases. Studies have now identified other factors leading to further shortage as attrition/emigration of skilled health workforce. Most of the initiatives are mainly directed towards increasing supply of human resources for health to deal with the scarcity and less emphasis to control attrition. Few studies highlighted the use of talent management strategy to deal with the challenges of attrition and emigration that helps in retention and controlling further shortage. Recommendations

  16. Planetary health: protecting human health on a rapidly changing planet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Samuel S

    2018-12-23

    The impact of human activities on our planet's natural systems has been intensifying rapidly in the past several decades, leading to disruption and transformation of most natural systems. These disruptions in the atmosphere, oceans, and across the terrestrial land surface are not only driving species to extinction, they pose serious threats to human health and wellbeing. Characterising and addressing these threats requires a paradigm shift. In a lecture delivered to the Academy of Medical Sciences on Nov 13, 2017, I describe the scale of human impacts on natural systems and the extensive associated health effects across nearly every dimension of human health. I highlight several overarching themes that emerge from planetary health and suggest advances in the way we train, reward, promote, and fund the generation of health scientists who will be tasked with breaking out of their disciplinary silos to address this urgent constellation of health threats. I propose that protecting the health of future generations requires taking better care of Earth's natural systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Human Rights and the Political Economy of Universal Health Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Health system financing is a critical factor in securing universal health care and achieving equity in access and payment. The human rights framework offers valuable guidance for designing a financing strategy that meets these goals. This article presents a rights-based approach to health care financing developed by the human right to health care movement in the United States. Grounded in a human rights analysis of private, market-based health insurance, advocates make the case for public financing through progressive taxation. Financing mechanisms are measured against the twin goals of guaranteeing access to care and advancing economic equity. The added focus on the redistributive potential of health care financing recasts health reform as an economic policy intervention that can help fulfill broader economic and social rights obligations. Based on a review of recent universal health care reform efforts in the state of Vermont, this article reports on a rights-based public financing plan and model, which includes a new business tax directed against wage disparities. The modeling results suggest that a health system financed through equitable taxation could produce significant redistributive effects, thus increasing economic equity while generating sufficient funds to provide comprehensive health care as a universal public good. PMID:28559677

  18. Overview of Emerging Contaminants and Associated Human Health Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Meng; Zhang, Lun; Lei, Jianjun; Zong, Liang; Li, Jiahui; Wu, Zheng; Wang, Zheng

    2015-01-01

    In recent decades, because of significant progress in the analysis and detection of trace pollutants, emerging contaminants have been discovered and quantified in living beings and diverse environmental substances; however, the adverse effects of environmental exposure on the general population are largely unknown. This review summarizes the conclusions of the comprehensive epidemic literature and representative case reports relevant to emerging contaminants and the human body to address concerns about potential harmful health effects in the general population. The most prevalent emerging contaminants include perfluorinated compounds, water disinfection byproducts, gasoline additives, manufactured nanomaterials, human and veterinary pharmaceuticals, and UV-filters. Rare but statistically meaningful connections have been reported for a number of contaminants and cancer and reproductive risks. Because of contradictions in the outcomes of some investigations and the limited number of articles, no significant conclusions regarding the relationship between adverse effects on humans and extents of exposure can be drawn at this time. Here, we report that the current evidence is not conclusive and comprehensive and suggest prospective cohort studies in the future to evaluate the associations between human health outcomes and emerging environmental contaminants. PMID:26713315

  19. Overview of Emerging Contaminants and Associated Human Health Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Lei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, because of significant progress in the analysis and detection of trace pollutants, emerging contaminants have been discovered and quantified in living beings and diverse environmental substances; however, the adverse effects of environmental exposure on the general population are largely unknown. This review summarizes the conclusions of the comprehensive epidemic literature and representative case reports relevant to emerging contaminants and the human body to address concerns about potential harmful health effects in the general population. The most prevalent emerging contaminants include perfluorinated compounds, water disinfection byproducts, gasoline additives, manufactured nanomaterials, human and veterinary pharmaceuticals, and UV-filters. Rare but statistically meaningful connections have been reported for a number of contaminants and cancer and reproductive risks. Because of contradictions in the outcomes of some investigations and the limited number of articles, no significant conclusions regarding the relationship between adverse effects on humans and extents of exposure can be drawn at this time. Here, we report that the current evidence is not conclusive and comprehensive and suggest prospective cohort studies in the future to evaluate the associations between human health outcomes and emerging environmental contaminants.

  20. Health Impacts from Human Interaction with the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, S. E.

    2008-12-01

    Humans have produced far greater impact on the environment than any other living form. The impact has been so significant-particularly during the past 50 years-that a new word, Anthrposphere has started appearing in recent literature. It is now being used along with the four major components of the system earth to underscore humans' influence on the environment. Human activities have produced a myriad of impacts on the environment that span the scale from local to global. The slow process that brought humanity to the present environmental crisis began with the Industrial Revolution and has greatly accelerated since the World War II. The past 50 years mark a unique period in human history that is characterized by rapid technological advances and unprecedented population growth. While the use of technology has been very effective in meeting the needs of the growing population, it has also produced serious impact on the environment. Large scale exploitation of mineral, fuel, water, forest, and marine resources has led to severe environmental degradation; and the resulting pollution of air, water, and land has caused serious consequences to human and ecological health. The presentation deals with the adverse impact on human health associated with mining, dam and reservoir construction, improper waste management, use of fossil fuels, and climate change. Case studies are included to illustrate health impacts from metal and coal mining; dam and reservoir construction and preponderance of disease vectors; pollution caused by improper waste disposal and the resulting incidence of cancer and other diseases; and emergence of vector-borne diseases at hitherto unknown locations, cardiovascular and respiratory track ailments, and increased morbidity and mortality triggered by elevated temperatures associated with climate change. A brief discussion of possible measures to mitigate the health consequences is also included in the presentation.

  1. An Overview of Soils and Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brevik, Eric C.

    2013-04-01

    Few people recognize the connection between soils and human health, even though soils are actually very important to health. Soils influence health through the nutrients taken up by plants and the animals that eat those plants, nutrients that are needed for adequate nutrition for growth and development. Soils can also act to harm human health in three major ways: i) toxic levels of substances or disease-causing organisms may enter the human food chain from the soil ii) humans can encounter pathogenic organisms through direct contact with the soil or inhaling dust from the soil, and iii) degraded soils produce nutrient-deficient foods leading to malnutrition. Soils have also been a major source of medicines. Therefore, soils form an integral link in the holistic view of human health. In this presentation, soils and their influence on human health are discussed from a broad perspective, including both direct influences of soils on health and indirect influences through things such as climate change, occupational exposure to soil amendments, and the role of soils in providing food security.

  2. Public health nursing, ethics and human rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Luba L; Oden, Tami L

    2013-05-01

    Public health nursing has a code of ethics that guides practice. This includes the American Nurses Association Code of Ethics for Nurses, Principles of the Ethical Practice of Public Health, and the Scope and Standards of Public Health Nursing. Human rights and Rights-based care in public health nursing practice are relatively new. They reflect human rights principles as outlined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and applied to public health practice. As our health care system is restructured and there are new advances in technology and genetics, a focus on providing care that is ethical and respects human rights is needed. Public health nurses can be in the forefront of providing care that reflects an ethical base and a rights-based approach to practice with populations. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. NASA Human Health and Performance Center: Open Innovation Successes and Collaborative Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jeffrey R.; Richard, Elizabeth E.

    2014-01-01

    In May 2007, what was then the Space Life Sciences Directorate published the 2007 Space Life Sciences Strategy for Human Space Exploration, which resulted in the development and implementation of new business models and significant advances in external collaboration over the next five years. The strategy was updated on the basis of these accomplishments and reissued as the NASA Human Health and Performance Strategy in 2012, and continues to drive new approaches to innovation for the directorate. This short paper describes the open innovation successes and collaborative projects developed over this timeframe, including the efforts of the NASA Human Health and Performance Center (NHHPC), which was established to advance human health and performance innovations for spaceflight and societal benefit via collaboration in new markets.

  4. Human-directed social behaviour in dogs shows significant heritability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, M E; Roth, L S V; Johnsson, M; Wright, D; Jensen, P

    2015-04-01

    Through domestication and co-evolution with humans, dogs have developed abilities to attract human attention, e.g. in a manner of seeking assistance when faced with a problem solving task. The aims of this study were to investigate within breed variation in human-directed contact seeking in dogs and to estimate its genetic basis. To do this, 498 research beagles, bred and kept under standardized conditions, were tested in an unsolvable problem task. Contact seeking behaviours recorded included both eye contact and physical interactions. Behavioural data was summarized through a principal component analysis, resulting in four components: test interactions, social interactions, eye contact and physical contact. Females scored significantly higher on social interactions and physical contact and age had an effect on eye contact scores. Narrow sense heritabilities (h(2) ) of the two largest components were estimated at 0.32 and 0.23 but were not significant for the last two components. These results show that within the studied dog population, behavioural variation in human-directed social behaviours was sex dependent and that the utilization of eye contact seeking increased with age and experience. Hence, heritability estimates indicate a significant genetic contribution to the variation found in human-directed social interactions, suggesting that social skills in dogs have a genetic basis, but can also be shaped and enhanced through individual experiences. This research gives the opportunity to further investigate the genetics behind dogs' social skills, which could also play a significant part into research on human social disorders such as autism. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  5. Human Health Countermeasures (HHC) Element Management Plan: Human Research Program. Revision B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norsk, Peter; Baumann, David

    2012-01-01

    NASA s Human Research Program (HRP) is an applied research and technology program within the Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate (HEOMD) that addresses human health and performance risk mitigation strategies in support of exploration missions. The HRP research and technology development is focused on the highest priority risks to crew health and safety with the goal of ensuring mission success and maintaining long-term crew health. Crew health and performance standards, defined by the NASA Chief Health and Medical Officer (CHMO), set the acceptable risk level for exploration missions. The HRP conducts research to inform these standards as well as provide deliverables, such as countermeasures, that ensure standards can be met to maximize human performance and mission success. The Human Health Countermeasures (HHC) Element was formed as part of the HRP to develop a scientifically-based, integrated approach to understanding and mitigating the health risks associated with human spaceflight. These health risks have been organized into four research portfolios that group similar or related risks. A fifth portfolio exists for managing technology developments and infrastructure projects. The HHC Element portfolios consist of: a) Vision and Cardiovascular; b) Exercise and Performance; c) Multisystem; d) Bone; and e) Technology and Infrastructure. The HHC identifies gaps associated with the health risks and plans human physiology research that will result in knowledge required to more fully understand risks and will result in validated countermeasures to mitigate risks.

  6. Critical Review on the Significance of Olive Phytochemicals in Plant Physiology and Human Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Gouvinhas

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Olive oil displays remarkable organoleptic and nutritional features, which turn it into a foodstuff appreciated by consumers, and a basic component of the Mediterranean diet. Indeed, the noticed benefits of including olive oil in the diet have been assigned to the presence of diverse bioactive compounds with different molecular structures. These compounds confer a wide range of biological properties to this food matrix, including the prevention of distinct human diseases as well as the modulation of their severity. The most relevant bioactive compounds present in olive oil correspond to benzoic and cinnamic acids, phenolic alcohols and secoiridoids, and also flavonoids. Over the last decades, several studies, devoted to gaining a further insight into the relative contribution of the separate groups and individual compounds for their biological activities, have been conducted, providing relevant information on structure–activity relationships. Therefore, this paper critically reviews the health benefits evidenced by distinct phenolic compounds found in olive oils, thus contributing to clarify the relationship between their chemical structures and biological functions, further supporting their interest as essential ingredients of wholesome foods.

  7. Critical Review on the Significance of Olive Phytochemicals in Plant Physiology and Human Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouvinhas, Irene; Machado, Nelson; Sobreira, Carla; Domínguez-Perles, Raúl; Gomes, Sónia; Rosa, Eduardo; Barros, Ana I R N A

    2017-11-16

    Olive oil displays remarkable organoleptic and nutritional features, which turn it into a foodstuff appreciated by consumers, and a basic component of the Mediterranean diet. Indeed, the noticed benefits of including olive oil in the diet have been assigned to the presence of diverse bioactive compounds with different molecular structures. These compounds confer a wide range of biological properties to this food matrix, including the prevention of distinct human diseases as well as the modulation of their severity. The most relevant bioactive compounds present in olive oil correspond to benzoic and cinnamic acids, phenolic alcohols and secoiridoids, and also flavonoids. Over the last decades, several studies, devoted to gaining a further insight into the relative contribution of the separate groups and individual compounds for their biological activities, have been conducted, providing relevant information on structure-activity relationships. Therefore, this paper critically reviews the health benefits evidenced by distinct phenolic compounds found in olive oils, thus contributing to clarify the relationship between their chemical structures and biological functions, further supporting their interest as essential ingredients of wholesome foods.

  8. Measurement and Clinical Significance of Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria Marrocco

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is the result of the imbalance between reactive oxygen species (ROS formation and enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants. Biomarkers of oxidative stress are relevant in the evaluation of the disease status and of the health-enhancing effects of antioxidants. We aim to discuss the major methodological bias of methods used for the evaluation of oxidative stress in humans. There is a lack of consensus concerning the validation, standardization, and reproducibility of methods for the measurement of the following: (1 ROS in leukocytes and platelets by flow cytometry, (2 markers based on ROS-induced modifications of lipids, DNA, and proteins, (3 enzymatic players of redox status, and (4 total antioxidant capacity of human body fluids. It has been suggested that the bias of each method could be overcome by using indexes of oxidative stress that include more than one marker. However, the choice of the markers considered in the global index should be dictated by the aim of the study and its design, as well as by the clinical relevance in the selected subjects. In conclusion, the clinical significance of biomarkers of oxidative stress in humans must come from a critical analysis of the markers that should give an overall index of redox status in particular conditions.

  9. Using indicators to determine the contribution of human rights to public health efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Laura

    2009-01-01

    Abstract There is general agreement on the need to integrate human rights into health policies and programmes, although there is still reluctance to go beyond rhetorical acknowledgement of their assumed significance. To determine the actual value of human rights for the effectiveness of public health efforts requires clarity about what their incorporation looks like in practice and how to assess their contribution. Despite the pervasive use of indicators in the public health field, indicators that specifically capture human rights concerns are not well developed and those that exist are inconsistently used. Even though “health and human rights indicators” are increasingly being constructed, it is often the case that health indicators are used to draw conclusions about some interaction between human rights and health; or that law and policy or other indicators, traditionally the domain of the human rights community, are used to make conclusions about health outcomes. To capture the added value that human rights bring to health, the differences in the contributions offered by these indicators need to be understood. To determine the value of different measures for advancing programme effectiveness, improving health outcomes and promoting human rights, requires questioning the intended purpose behind the construction of an indicator, who uses it, the kind of indicator it is, the extent to which it provides information about vulnerable populations, as well as how the data are collected and used. PMID:19784452

  10. Public health ethics and more-than-human solidarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rock, Melanie J; Degeling, Chris

    2015-03-01

    This article contributes to the literature on One Health and public health ethics by expanding the principle of solidarity. We conceptualise solidarity to encompass not only practices intended to assist other people, but also practices intended to assist non-human others, including animals, plants, or places. To illustrate how manifestations of humanist and more-than-human solidarity may selectively complement one another, or collide, recent responses to Hendra virus in Australia and Rabies virus in Canada serve as case examples. Given that caring relationships are foundational to health promotion, people's efforts to care for non-human others are highly relevant to public health, even when these efforts conflict with edicts issued in the name of public health. In its most optimistic explication, One Health aims to attain optimal health for humans, non-human animals and their shared environments. As a field, public health ethics needs to move beyond an exclusive preoccupation with humans, so as to account for moral complexity arising from people's diverse connections with places, plants, and non-human animals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Potential of human health in the modern conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Dobryden

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article proves that man’s relationship to their health  in each case have varying traits under the influence of sociocultural, psychological and physiological factors  which the world outlook is created from childhood, which implies the appropriate type of behavior that is fixed through the media and social authorities. It is established that scientific knowledge should not be against a man, and should enhance the power of man over nature, but can be transformed into a powerful weapon against humanity. It is noted that science is neutral in terms of values. Will it carry a positive or negative charge to human health depends on the social and cultural markers specific historical era and behavior of the individual. It was found that in addition to the economic crisis, which requires long-term joint economic and political transformations, the most important factor and more accessible to maintaining high adaptive potential health functions at all levels is valeological literacy social subjects and, therefore, imperative the systematic distribution of hygiene recommendations is a significant component of preventive medicine. With the growth of social and technological factors with their aggressive effect on psychophysiological state of man is seen timely more  talk even not about health in general, but should talk about  potential health, which underlines  the  difficulties adaptive and protective processes and susceptibility factors and resistance to pathological changes in the human body. All the more so when we following the formal standards of medicine is unlikely, unfortunately, we be found absolutely healthy people. Under the proposed potential health understood as a set of quantitative and qualitative structural and functional characteristics of the organism, which determine the level of adaptation and protection of human capabilities in adverse conditions, internal and external environment. It is proposed to examine potential

  12. Home heating & human health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongeneel, Sophie

    2008-01-01

    Human health is influenced by pollutants in the air. Since people spend over 80% of their time indoors, indoor air quality may be more related to health problems than outdoor air qual-ity. Indoor air quality is deteriorating because of energy conservation

  13. Raisins in human health: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Restani Patrizia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last years, the scientific research in the field of non-alcoholic grape products has increased significantly. Raisins are often evaluated negatively from the nutritional point of view, mainly for their high sugar content. On the other hand, some in vitroand in vivostudies have suggested that raisins could have healthy effects due to their positive phytochemical profile. The aim of this work was the collection of scientific studies performed in humans to assess critically the health-promoting effects of raisins, as a part of the normal/Mediterranean diet. In most cases, the beneficial effects of raisins have been assessed in intervention studies focused on cardiovascular area, diabetes and oral health, where a decrease in postprandial glycemia and insulinemia both in diabetic and healthy subjects has been observed. The positive effects were generally evident after a short-term consumption of about 70 g/die of raisins in comparison to a similar quantity of snacks or glucose solution. Surprisingly, some positive findings were shown in oral health. On these bases several findings support the suitability of raisins as a source of healthy compounds for human diet, but limits in the data published till now clearly support the need of new specifically designed trials.

  14. Soil, Food Security and Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Margaret

    2017-04-01

    "Upon this handful of soil our survival depends. Husband it and it will grow food, our fuel, and our shelter and surround us with beauty. Abuse it and the soil will collapse and die, taking humanity with it" Vedas Sanskrit Scripture, 1500 BC. As the world's population increases issues of food security become more pressing as does the need to sustain soil fertility and to minimize soil degradation. Soil and land are finite resources, and agricultural land is under severe competition from many other uses. Lack of adequate food and food of poor nutritional quality lead to under-nutrition of different degrees, all of which can cause ill- or suboptimal-health. The soil can affect human health directly and indirectly. Direct effects of soil or its constituents result from its ingestion, inhalation or absorption. For example, hook worms enter the body through the skin and cause anaemia, and fungi and dust can be inhaled resulting in respiratory problems. The soil is the source of actinomycetes on which our earliest antibiotics are based (actinomycin, neomycin and streptomycin). Furthermore, it is a potential reservoir of new antibiotics with methods such as functional metagenomics to identify antibiotic resistant genes. Indirect effects of soil arise from the quantity and quality of food that humans consume. Trace elements can have both beneficial and toxic effects on humans, especially where the range for optimal intake is narrow as for selenium. Deficiencies of four trace elements, iodine, iron, selenium and zinc, will be considered because of their substantial effects on human health. Relations between soil and human health are often difficult to extricate because of the many confounding factors present such as the source of food, social factors and so on. Nevertheless, recent scientific understanding of soil processes and factors that affect human health are enabling greater insight into the effects of soil on our health. Multidisciplinary research that includes soil

  15. The evolution of human rights in World Health Organization policy and the future of human rights through global health governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, B M; Onzivu, W

    2014-02-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) was intended to serve at the forefront of efforts to realize human rights to advance global health, and yet this promise of a rights-based approach to health has long been threatened by political constraints in international relations, organizational resistance to legal discourses, and medical ambivalence toward human rights. Through legal research on international treaty obligations, historical research in the WHO organizational archives, and interview research with global health stakeholders, this research examines WHO's contributions to (and, in many cases, negligence of) the rights-based approach to health. Based upon such research, this article analyzes the evolving role of WHO in the development and implementation of human rights for global health, reviews the current state of human rights leadership in the WHO Secretariat, and looks to future institutions to reclaim the mantle of human rights as a normative framework for global health governance. Copyright © 2013 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. [Agrochemicals and human health: contributions of healthcare professionals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Siqueira, Soraia Lemos; Kruse, Maria Henriqueta Luce

    2008-09-01

    This paper focuses on the scientific production of health professionals, especially nurses, about agrochemicals and human health. The essay combines and presents information by means of literature review, with a view to acknowledge the contribution of each author and their use for the human health field. Thirty-two research articles, published in Brazilian journals, were located. The analysis of these articles highlights that healthcare professionals' contributions focus on human health, especially, workers' health and food quality. With a view to minimize the effects from agrochemicals on human and environmental health, the authors exposes action suggestions both for health professionals and for the institutions associated.

  17. NASA Space Flight Human-System Standard Human Factors, Habitability, and Environmental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holubec, Keith; Connolly, Janis

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the history, and development of NASA-STD-3001, NASA Space Flight Human-System Standard Human Factors, Habitability, and Environmental Health, and the related Human Integration Design Handbook. Currently being developed from NASA-STD-3000, this project standard currently in review will be available in two volumes, (i.e., Volume 1 -- VCrew Health and Volume 2 -- Human Factors, Habitability, and Environmental Health) and the handbook will be both available as a pdf file and as a interactive website.

  18. Human rights, health and the state in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahman Redwanur M

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper broadly discusses the role of the State of Bangladesh in the context of the health system and human rights. The interrelation between human rights, health and development are well documented. The recognition of health as a fundamental right by WHO and subsequent approval of health as an instrument of welfare by the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR and the International Covenant on Social, Economic and Cultural Rights (ICSECR further enhances the idea. Moreover, human rights are also recognized as an expedient of human development. The state is entrusted to realize the rights enunciated in the ICSECR. Discussion In exploring the relationship of the human rights and health situation in Bangladesh, it is argued, in this paper, that the constitution and major policy documents of the Bangladesh government have recognized the health rights and development. Bangladesh has ratified most of the international treaties and covenants including ICCPR, ICESCR; and a signatory of international declarations including Alma-Ata, ICPD, Beijing declarations, and Millennium Development Goals. However the implementation of government policies and plans in the development of health institutions, human resources, accessibility and availability, resource distribution, rural-urban disparity, the male-female gap has put the health system in a dismal state. Neither the right to health nor the right to development has been established in the development of health system or in providing health care. Summary The development and service pattern of the health system have negative correlation with human rights and contributed to the underdevelopment of Bangladesh. The government should take comprehensive approach in prioritizing the health rights of the citizens and progressive realization of these rights.

  19. Human and animal sentinels for shared health risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Rabinowitz, MD, MPH

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The tracking of sentinel health events in humans in order to detect and manage disease risks facing a larger population is a well accepted technique applied to influenza, occupational conditions and emerging infectious diseases. Similarly, animal health professionals routinely track disease events in sentinel animal colonies and sentinel herds. The use of animals as sentinels for human health threats, or of humans as sentinels for animal disease risk, dates back at least to the era when coal miners brought caged canaries into mines to provide early warning of toxic gases. Yet the full potential of linking animal and human health information to provide warning of such ‘shared risks’ from environmental hazards has not been realised. Reasons appear to include the professional segregation of human and animal health communities, the separation of human and animal surveillance data and evidence gaps in the linkages between human and animal responses to environmental health hazards. The ‘One Health initiative’ and growing international collaboration in response to pandemic threats, coupled with development in the fields of informatics and genomics, hold promise for improved sentinel event coordination in order to detect and reduce environmental health threats shared between species.

  20. DOE/FDA/EPA: Workshop on methylmercury and human health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moskowitz, P.D.; Saroff, L.; Bolger, M.; Cicmanec, J.; Durkee, S. [eds.

    1994-12-31

    In the US the general population is exposed to methylmercury (MeHg) principally through the consumption of fish. There is continuing discussion about the sources of this form of mercury (Hg), the magnitudes and trends in exposures to consumers, and the significance of the sources and their contributions to human health. In response to these discussions, the US Department of Energy, the US Food and Drug Administration, and the US Environmental Protection Agency cosponsored a two-day workshop to discuss data and methods available for characterizing the risk to human health presented by MeHg. This workshop was attended by 45 individuals representing various Federal and state organizations and interested stakeholders. The agenda covered: Agency interests; probabilistic approach to risk assessment; emission sources; atmospheric transport; biogeochemical cycling; exposure assessment; health effects of MeHg; and research needs.

  1. Proposing a Health Humanities Minor: Some Lessons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engholm, Virginia Bucurel; Boria, Damon

    2017-12-01

    For those interested in developing baccalaureate programs in health humanities, this essay draws on our experience of developing a minor in health humanities to share insights on what to expect, strategies that work well, and how to deal with obstacles. These insights range from how to explain the concept of health humanities to stakeholders (faculty, administrators, and community partners) to how to decide where to house a health humanities program. We share our insights in a way that promises to translate well to different institutional contexts. That said, this paper is more relevant for institutional contexts where budgets are stressed and, consequently, proposals to invest in humanities programs are a difficult sell. This paper is divided into sections addressing how to (a) earn institutional support, (b) gain campus buy-in, (c) identify benefits of the proposed program, (d) decide where to house the program, (e) calculate program cost, and (f) secure external funding. We conclude with some final reflections on the current status of our program and why we are committed to health humanities education.

  2. Human Rights and Health Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skitsou, Alexandra; Bekos, Christos; Charalambous, George

    2016-01-01

    Background: It has been observed that health services provided to certain patients in Cyprus do not fully meet their human rights. Objective: This study was conducted to identify the main shortcomings of the Health System in Cyprus. Methodology: The relevant administrative decisions of the Ombuds......Background: It has been observed that health services provided to certain patients in Cyprus do not fully meet their human rights. Objective: This study was conducted to identify the main shortcomings of the Health System in Cyprus. Methodology: The relevant administrative decisions...... and their families to be essential. Conclusions: The paper concludes that implementing guidelines in accordance with international best practices, the establishment of at-home treatment and nursing facilities, counseling the mentally ill in a way that promotes their social integration and occupational rehabilitation......, ongoing education of health professionals along with relevant education of the community and the broad application of triage in the emergency departments will all contribute to delivering health services more effectively. Keywords: Cyprus, health services, patient rights...

  3. Linking Human Health and Livestock Health: A “One-Health” Platform for Integrated Analysis of Human Health, Livestock Health, and Economic Welfare in Livestock Dependent Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thumbi, S. M.; Njenga, M. Kariuki; Marsh, Thomas L.; Noh, Susan; Otiang, Elkanah; Munyua, Peninah; Ochieng, Linus; Ogola, Eric; Yoder, Jonathan; Audi, Allan; Montgomery, Joel M.; Bigogo, Godfrey; Breiman, Robert F.; Palmer, Guy H.; McElwain, Terry F.

    2015-01-01

    Background For most rural households in sub-Saharan Africa, healthy livestock play a key role in averting the burden associated with zoonotic diseases, and in meeting household nutritional and socio-economic needs. However, there is limited understanding of the complex nutritional, socio-economic, and zoonotic pathways that link livestock health to human health and welfare. Here we describe a platform for integrated human health, animal health and economic welfare analysis designed to address this challenge. We provide baseline epidemiological data on disease syndromes in humans and the animals they keep, and provide examples of relationships between human health, animal health and household socio-economic status. Method We designed a study to obtain syndromic disease data in animals along with economic and behavioral information for 1500 rural households in Western Kenya already participating in a human syndromic disease surveillance study. Data collection started in February 2013, and each household is visited bi-weekly and data on four human syndromes (fever, jaundice, diarrhea and respiratory illness) and nine animal syndromes (death, respiratory, reproductive, musculoskeletal, nervous, urogenital, digestive, udder disorders, and skin disorders in cattle, sheep, goats and chickens) are collected. Additionally, data from a comprehensive socio-economic survey is collected every 3 months in each of the study households. Findings Data from the first year of study showed 93% of the households owned at least one form of livestock (55%, 19%, 41% and 88% own cattle, sheep, goats and chickens respectively). Digestive disorders, mainly diarrhea episodes, were the most common syndromes observed in cattle, goats and sheep, accounting for 56% of all livestock syndromes, followed by respiratory illnesses (18%). In humans, respiratory illnesses accounted for 54% of all illnesses reported, followed by acute febrile illnesses (40%) and diarrhea illnesses (5%). While controlling

  4. Cocoa and Human Health: From Head to Foot--A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Araujo, Quintino Reis; Gattward, James Nascimento; Almoosawi, Suzana; Silva, Maria das Graças Conceição Parada Costa; Dantas, Paulo Alfredo De Santana; De Araujo Júnior, Quintino Reis

    2016-01-01

    The cocoa, as part of the wonderful nature, provides the mankind a wide variety of valuable food products and health benefits. The most known and universally relished product derived from this fruit is chocolate, an amazing and unique food for the human nutrition with records of consumption of similar products dating to 1000 years BC. In fact, the cocoa is a complex food that includes over 300 different components. This review is designed to inform scientists, technicians, academicians, farmers, and interested communities of numerous studies that have been conducted worldwide to investigate the properties of various cocoa constituents, their relations to human health, and their potential role in the prevention and treatment of many medical conditions. The general population, for example in Brazil, despite being one of the major producers of cocoa, is poorly informed of the significant and beneficial properties of cocoa. The present review covers important topics linking cocoa to human health and show the state of the art of effect of cocoa in different systems that comprise the human body. The paper is organized based on the main human organ system and includes: cardiovascular/circulatory, neurological/nervous, oral health, endocrine, lymphatic and immunological, respiratory, reproductive, and dermatological systems. Scientific findings tend to confirm the historic designation of cocoa as "food of the Gods."

  5. Transformative combinations: women's health and human rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamin, A E

    1997-01-01

    From the human rights perspective proposed in this article, a woman's good or ill health reflects more than biology or individual behaviors; it reflects her enjoyment (or lack thereof) of fundamental human rights that enable her to exercise basic power over the course and quality of her life. The "structural" view of health that such a human rights perspective suggests is concerned first with identifying the effects of social, economic, and political relations on women's health and then with promoting "interventions" aimed at transforming the laws, institutions, and structures that deny women's rights and well-being. Yet, traditional human rights law and practice have been limited to narrowly defined abuses by public officials against individuals that fail to capture the most pervasive denials of women's rights, which, though rooted in systematic discrimination, are frequently played out in so-called "private" institutions, primarily within the family. The experiences of women's health advocates in addressing complex women's health issues makes it clear that women's lack of access to economic and political power in the public sphere creates the conditions under which they are discriminated against and physically and sexually abused in the private sphere. Combining the pragmatic understanding of women's health professionals with an expansive conception of human rights norms has the potential to transform the fields of women's health and human rights.

  6. Health and Human Rights: New challenges for social responsiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie London

    2009-11-01

    . Finally, it is shown how the portfolio of social responsiveness activities in the health and human rights envelope has offered significant and novel mutual benefits to the University and the community.

  7. Human Factors, Habitability and Environmental Health and the Human Integration Design Handbook. Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houbec, Keith; Tillman, Barry; Connolly, Janis

    2010-01-01

    For decades, Space Life Sciences and NASA as an Agency have considered NASA-STD-3000, Man-Systems Integration Standards, a significant contribution to human spaceflight programs and to human-systems integration in general. The document has been referenced in numerous design standards both within NASA and by organizations throughout the world. With research program and project results being realized, advances in technology and new information in a variety of topic areas now available, the time arrived to update this extensive suite of requirements and design information. During the past several years, a multi-NASA center effort has been underway to write the update to NASA-STD-3000 with standards and design guidance that would be applicable to all future human spaceflight programs. NASA-STD-3001 - Volumes 1 and 2 - and the Human Integration Design Handbook (HIDH) were created. Volume 1, Crew Health, establishes NASA s spaceflight crew health standards for the pre-flight, in-flight, and post-flight phases of human spaceflight. Volume 2, Human Factors, Habitability and Environmental Health, focuses on the requirements of human-system integration and how the human crew interacts with other systems, and how the human and the system function together to accomplish the tasks for mission success. The HIDH is a compendium of human spaceflight history and knowledge, and provides useful background information and research findings. And as the HIDH is a stand-alone companion to the Standards, the maintenance of the document has been streamlined. This unique and flexible approach ensures that the content is current and addresses the fundamental advances of human performance and human capabilities and constraints research. Current work focuses on the development of new sections of Volume 2 and collecting updates to the HIDH. The new sections in development expand the scope of the standard and address mission operations and support operations. This effort is again collaboration

  8. Interpreting the International Right to Health in a Human Rights-Based Approach to Health

    OpenAIRE

    Hunt, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This article tracks the shifting place of the international right to health, and human rights-based approaches to health, in the scholarly literature and United Nations (UN). From 1993 to 1994, the focus began to move from the right to health toward human rights-based approaches to health, including human rights guidance adopted by UN agencies in relation to specific health issues. There is a compelling case for a human rights-based approach to health, but it runs the risk of playing...

  9. The human microbiota associated with overall health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaofei; Wang, Zhujun; Zhang, Xuewu

    2015-03-01

    Human body harbors diverse microbes, the main components include bacteria, eukaryotes and viruses. Emerging evidences show that the human microbiota is intrinsically linked with overall health. The development of next-generation sequencing provides an unprecedented opportunity to investigate the complex microbial communities that are associated with the human body. Many factors like host genetics and environmental factors have a major impact on the composition and dynamic changes of human microbiota. The purpose of this paper is to present an overview of the relationship between human health and human microbiota (skin, nasal, throat, oral, vaginal and gut microbiota), then to focus on the factors modulating the composition of the microbiota and the future challenges to manipulate the microbiota for personalized health.

  10. Environmental contaminants, ecosystems and human health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majumdar, S.K.; Miller, E.W.; Brenner, F.J. [eds.] [Lafayette College, Easton, PA (United States). Dept. of Biology

    1995-12-31

    The authors cover a variety of concerns regarding the adverse impacts of contaminants on ecosystems and human health. The twelve chapters in the first section of the text address the impact of contaminants on ecosystem function, and ten of the remaining twenty-two chapters are devoted to the effects of contaminants on human health. Part three presents eight case studies in humans, while the final four chapters provide the reader with an assessment of environmental problems and analyses. Two chapters, on the health effects of power plant generated air pollution and on black lung disease, have been abstracted separately for the IEA Coal Research CD-ROM.

  11. Integrating human health into environmental impact assessment: an unrealized opportunity for environmental health and justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Rajiv; Wernham, Aaron

    2008-08-01

    The National Environmental Policy Act and related state laws require many public agencies to analyze and disclose potentially significant environmental effects of agency actions, including effects on human health. In this paper we review the purpose and procedures of environmental impact assessment (EIA), existing regulatory requirements for health effects analysis, and potential barriers to and opportunities for improving integration of human health concerns within the EIA process. We use statutes, regulations, guidelines, court opinions, and empirical research on EIA along with recent case examples of integrated health impact assessment (HIA)/EIA at both the state and federal level. We extract lessons and recommendations for integrated HIA/EIA practice from both existing practices as well as case studies. The case studies demonstrate the adequacy, scope, and power of existing statutory requirements for health analysis within EIA. The following support the success of integrated HIA/EIA: a proponent recognizing EIA as an available regulatory strategy for public health; the openness of the agency conducting the EIA; involvement of public health institutions; and complementary objectives among community stakeholders and health practitioners. We recommend greater collaboration among institutions responsible for EIA, public health institutions, and affected stakeholders along with guidance, resources, and training for integrated HIA/EIA practice.

  12. The significance of human factors in nuclear activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weil, L.; Berg, H.P.

    1999-01-01

    Human factors is an aspect increasingly investigated in the last few years in efforts and programmes for enhancing the operational safety of nuclear systems. Methodology has been elaborated for analysis and evaluation of human reliability, or development of instruments supporting the decisions to be taken by the operators at the man-control room interface of nuclear installations, as well as initial approaches to introduce organisational factors which may influence the man-machine function allocation, and thus are an element of the safety culture concept. The significance of human factors in nuclear activities, as well as activities at the national and international level for optimisation of the man-machine interface and the man-organisation interface are discussed. (orig./CB) [de

  13. Characterization and potential functional significance of human-chimpanzee large INDEL variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polavarapu Nalini

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although humans and chimpanzees have accumulated significant differences in a number of phenotypic traits since diverging from a common ancestor about six million years ago, their genomes are more than 98.5% identical at protein-coding loci. This modest degree of nucleotide divergence is not sufficient to explain the extensive phenotypic differences between the two species. It has been hypothesized that the genetic basis of the phenotypic differences lies at the level of gene regulation and is associated with the extensive insertion and deletion (INDEL variation between the two species. To test the hypothesis that large INDELs (80 to 12,000 bp may have contributed significantly to differences in gene regulation between the two species, we categorized human-chimpanzee INDEL variation mapping in or around genes and determined whether this variation is significantly correlated with previously determined differences in gene expression. Results Extensive, large INDEL variation exists between the human and chimpanzee genomes. This variation is primarily attributable to retrotransposon insertions within the human lineage. There is a significant correlation between differences in gene expression and large human-chimpanzee INDEL variation mapping in genes or in proximity to them. Conclusions The results presented herein are consistent with the hypothesis that large INDELs, particularly those associated with retrotransposons, have played a significant role in human-chimpanzee regulatory evolution.

  14. Strategic Workforce Planning for Health Human Resources: A Nursing Case Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Andrea; Crea-Arsenio, Mary; Akhtar-Danesh, Noori; Fleming-Carroll, Bonnie; Hunsberger, Mabel; Keatings, Margaret; Elfassy, Michael David; Kratina, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Background Health-care organizations provide services in a challenging environment, making the introduction of health human resources initiatives especially critical for safe patient care. Purpose To demonstrate how one specialty hospital in Ontario, Canada, leveraged an employment policy to stabilize its nursing workforce over a six-year period (2007 to 2012). Methods An observational cross-sectional study was conducted in which administrative data were analyzed to compare full-time status and retention of new nurses prepolicy and during the policy. The Professionalism and Environmental Factors in the Workplace Questionnaire® was used to compare new nurses hired into the study hospital with new nurses hired in other health-care settings. Results There was a significant increase in full-time employment and a decrease in part-time employment in the study hospital nursing workforce. On average, 26% of prepolicy new hires left the study hospital within one year of employment compared to 5% of new hires during policy implementation. The hospital nurses scored significantly higher than nurses employed in other health-care settings on 5 out of 13 subscales of professionalism. Conclusions Decision makers can use these findings to develop comprehensive health human resources guidelines and mechanisms that support strategic workforce planning to sustain and strengthen the health-care system.

  15. Selenium and Human Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Abedi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Selenium is an essential element for human health and it is toxic at high concentrations. Selenium is a constituent component of selenoproteins that have enzymatic and structural roles in human biochemistry. Selenium is a best antioxidant and catalyst for production of thyroid hormone. This element has the key role in the immune function; prevention of AIDS progression and the deactivity of toxins. Furthermore, selenium is essential for sperm motility and can reduce abortions. Selenium deficiency was also associated with adverse mood states. The findings regarding cardiovascular disease risk related to selenium deficiency is unclear, though other conditions such as vascular inflammation, oxidative stress and selenium deficiency can cause this disease too. Moreover, consuming of 60 mg of selenium per day may be associated with reduction of cancer risk. In this study, a review of studies has been performed on the biochemical function of selenium toxicity, and its effects on human health. Furthermore, certain identified cancers associated with selenium have been discussed to absorb more attention to the status of this element and also as a guide for further studies. Selenium plays the dual character (useful and harmful in human health, and then it is necessary to determine the concentration of this element in body fluids and tissues. An appropriate method for routine measurement of selenium in clinical laboratories is electro thermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS with very low detection limit and good precision.

  16. Regular-fat dairy and human health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Arne; Bradley, Beth H Rice; Brenna, J Thomas

    2016-01-01

    In recent history, some dietary recommendations have treated dairy fat as an unnecessary source of calories and saturated fat in the human diet. These assumptions, however, have recently been brought into question by current research on regular fat dairy products and human health. In an effort to......, cheese and yogurt, can be important components of an overall healthy dietary pattern. Systematic examination of the effects of dietary patterns that include regular-fat milk, cheese and yogurt on human health is warranted....

  17. Where Public Health Meets Human Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiragu, Karusa; Sawicki, Olga; Smith, Sally; Brion, Sophie; Sharma, Aditi; Mworeko, Lilian; Iovita, Alexandrina

    2017-01-01

    Abstract In 2014, the World Health Organization (WHO) initiated a process for validation of the elimination of mother-to-child transmission (EMTCT) of HIV and syphilis by countries. For the first time in such a process for the validation of disease elimination, WHO introduced norms and approaches that are grounded in human rights, gender equality, and community engagement. This human rights-based validation process can serve as a key opportunity to enhance accountability for human rights protection by evaluating EMTCT programs against human rights norms and standards, including in relation to gender equality and by ensuring the provision of discrimination-free quality services. The rights-based validation process also involves the assessment of participation of affected communities in EMTCT program development, implementation, and monitoring and evaluation. It brings awareness to the types of human rights abuses and inequalities faced by women living with, at risk of, or affected by HIV and syphilis, and commits governments to eliminate those barriers. This process demonstrates the importance and feasibility of integrating human rights, gender, and community into key public health interventions in a manner that improves health outcomes, legitimizes the participation of affected communities, and advances the human rights of women living with HIV. PMID:29302179

  18. NASA Human Health and Performance Center: Open innovation successes and collaborative projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Elizabeth E.; Davis, Jeffrey R.

    2014-11-01

    In May 2007, what was then the Space Life Sciences Directorate published the 2007 Space Life Sciences Strategy for Human Space Exploration, setting the course for development and implementation of new business models and significant advances in external collaboration over the next five years. The strategy was updated on the basis of these accomplishments and reissued as the NASA Human Health and Performance Strategy in 2012, and continues to drive new approaches to innovation for the directorate. This short paper describes the successful execution of the strategy, driving organizational change through open innovation efforts and collaborative projects, including efforts of the NASA Human Health and Performance Center (NHHPC).

  19. Human resources for health in Europe

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McKee, Martin; Dubois, Carl-Ardy; Nolte, Ellen

    2006-01-01

    ... systems in the field of personnel. The authors also identify which strategies are most likely to lead to the optimal management of health professionals in the future. Human Resources for Health in Europe is key reading for health policymakers and postgraduates taking courses in health services management, health policy and health economics. It is also ...

  20. Acid sulfate soils and human health--a Millennium Ecosystem Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljung, Karin; Maley, Fiona; Cook, Angus; Weinstein, Philip

    2009-11-01

    Acid sulfate soils have been described as the "nastiest soils on earth" because of their strong acidity, increased mobility of potentially toxic elements and limited bioavailability of nutrients. They only cover a small area of the world's total problem soils, but often have significant adverse effects on agriculture, aquaculture and the environment on a local scale. Their location often coincides with high population density areas along the coasts of many developing countries. As a result, their negative impacts on ecosystems can have serious implications to those least equipped for coping with the low crop yields and reduced water quality that can result from acid sulfate soil disturbance. The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment called on by the United Nations in 2000 emphasised the importance of ecosystems for human health and well-being. These include the service they provide as sources of food and water, through the control of pollution and disease, as well as for the cultural services ecosystems provide. While the problems related to agriculture, aquaculture and the environment have been the focus of many acid sulfate soil management efforts, the connection to human health has largely been ignored. This paper presents the potential health issues of acid sulfate soils, in relation to the ecosystem services identified in the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. It is recognised that significant implications on food security and livelihood can result, as well as on community cohesiveness and the spread of vector-borne disease. However, the connection between these outcomes and acid sulfate soils is often not obvious and it is therefore argued that the impact of such soils on human well-being needs to be recognised in order to raise awareness among the public and decision makers, to in turn facilitate proper management and avoid potential human ill-health.

  1. Neglecting legumes has compromised human health and sustainable food production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foyer, Christine H; Lam, Hon-Ming; Nguyen, Henry T; Siddique, Kadambot H M; Varshney, Rajeev K; Colmer, Timothy D; Cowling, Wallace; Bramley, Helen; Mori, Trevor A; Hodgson, Jonathan M; Cooper, James W; Miller, Anthony J; Kunert, Karl; Vorster, Juan; Cullis, Christopher; Ozga, Jocelyn A; Wahlqvist, Mark L; Liang, Yan; Shou, Huixia; Shi, Kai; Yu, Jingquan; Fodor, Nandor; Kaiser, Brent N; Wong, Fuk-Ling; Valliyodan, Babu; Considine, Michael J

    2016-08-02

    The United Nations declared 2016 as the International Year of Pulses (grain legumes) under the banner 'nutritious seeds for a sustainable future'. A second green revolution is required to ensure food and nutritional security in the face of global climate change. Grain legumes provide an unparalleled solution to this problem because of their inherent capacity for symbiotic atmospheric nitrogen fixation, which provides economically sustainable advantages for farming. In addition, a legume-rich diet has health benefits for humans and livestock alike. However, grain legumes form only a minor part of most current human diets, and legume crops are greatly under-used. Food security and soil fertility could be significantly improved by greater grain legume usage and increased improvement of a range of grain legumes. The current lack of coordinated focus on grain legumes has compromised human health, nutritional security and sustainable food production.

  2. Wilderness, biodiversity, and human health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel L. Dustin; Keri A. Schwab; Kelly S. Bricker

    2015-01-01

    This paper illustrates how wilderness, biodiversity, and human health are intertwined. Proceeding from the assumption that humankind is part of, rather than apart from, nature, health is re-imagined as a dynamic relationship that can best be conceived in broad ecological terms. Health, from an ecological perspective, is a measure of the wellness of the individual and...

  3. Women's awareness of the human papilloma virus and related health problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyuz, Aygul; Yılmaz, Cevriye; Yenen, Müfit Cemal; Yavan, Tülay; Kılıç, Ayşe

    2011-12-01

    This paper is a report of a study of women's awareness of the human papilloma virus and related health problems. Cervical cancer is an important cause of mortality, making up approximately 12% of all cancers in women. Awareness on the part of carriers of human papilloma virus is crucial in preventing transmission of the infection and protecting against cervical cancer. The study was performed as a cross-sectional descriptive study. The study consists of 79 human papilloma virus-positive women who had not been diagnosed with cervical cancer and 150 women who had not been diagnosed with human papilloma virus. Data were collected via questionnaires between November 2007 and April 2008. Percentages and chi-square test were used. A significantly higher percentage of women with positive human papilloma virus knew the definition of human papilloma virus, the fact that it is transmitted via sexual contact and that it can lead to cervical cancer than did women with negative human papilloma virus. It was established that approximately half the women with positive human papilloma virus presented at the hospital with a genital wart. None of the women knew that a Pap smear test was a necessary tool in the prevention of cervical cancer. Women with positive human papilloma virus have insufficient knowledge of human papilloma virus, sexually transmitted diseases, the health risks associated with human papilloma virus and the means of preventing these risks. It is therefore necessary to evaluate the education of health workers, and especially of nurses, on human papilloma virus and its prevention. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. 'Only connect': the case for public health humanities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffran, Lise

    2014-12-01

    Humanities in health has until now been primarily understood to mean humanities in medicine and has generally failed to include public health. I will argue in this paper that the common justifications for the former--including increased empathy among practitioners--are at least as applicable, if not more, to the latter. Growing emphasis on the social determinants of health and cultural competency in public health require public health students and professionals to develop a nuanced understanding of the influence of social context on health behaviour and to empathise with people in difficult circumstances. Literary fiction has been demonstrated to have an impact on skills related to empathy and social intelligence. Further, translating epidemiological evidence into public policy is a core task of public health and there is a growing body of research to indicate that statistical evidence is more persuasive when combined with narrative evidence. In this article I explore similarities and differences between proposed humanities in public health and programmes in humanities in medicine and highlight research gaps and possible implications of a more expansive view of humanities in health. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  5. Optimization of human, animal, and environmental health by using the One Health approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleeman, Jonathan M; DeLiberto, Thomas; Nguyen, Natalie

    2017-08-31

    Emerging diseases are increasing burdens on public health, negatively affecting the world economy, causing extinction of species, and disrupting ecological integrity. One Health recognizes that human, domestic animal, and wildlife health are interconnected within ecosystem health and provides a framework for the development of multidisciplinary solutions to global health challenges. To date, most health-promoting interventions have focused largely on single-sector outcomes. For example, risk for transmission of zoonotic pathogens from bush-meat hunting is primarily focused on human hygiene and personal protection. However, bush-meat hunting is a complex issue promoting the need for holistic strategies to reduce transmission of zoonotic disease while addressing food security and wildlife conservation issues. Temporal and spatial separation of humans and wildlife, risk communication, and other preventative strategies should allow wildlife and humans to co-exist. Upstream surveillance, vaccination, and other tools to prevent pathogen spillover are also needed. Clear multi-sector outcomes should be defined, and a systems-based approach is needed to develop interventions that reduce risks and balance the needs of humans, wildlife, and the environment. The ultimate goal is long-term action to reduce forces driving emerging diseases and provide interdisciplinary scientific approaches to management of risks, thereby achieving optimal outcomes for human, animal, and environmental health.

  6. Optimization of human, animal, and environmental health by using the One Health approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleeman, Jonathan M.; DeLiberto, Thomas; Nguyen, Natalie T.

    2017-01-01

    Emerging diseases are increasing burdens on public health, negatively affecting the world economy, causing extinction of species, and disrupting ecological integrity. One Health recognizes that human, domestic animal, and wildlife health are interconnected within ecosystem health and provides a framework for the development of multidisciplinary solutions to global health challenges. To date, most health-promoting interventions have focused largely on single-sector outcomes. For example, risk for transmission of zoonotic pathogens from bush-meat hunting is primarily focused on human hygiene and personal protection. However, bush-meat hunting is a complex issue promoting the need for holistic strategies to reduce transmission of zoonotic disease while addressing food security and wildlife conservation issues. Temporal and spatial separation of humans and wildlife, risk communication, and other preventative strategies should allow wildlife and humans to co-exist. Upstream surveillance, vaccination, and other tools to prevent pathogen spillover are also needed. Clear multi-sector outcomes should be defined, and a systems-based approach is needed to develop interventions that reduce risks and balance the needs of humans, wildlife, and the environment. The ultimate goal is long-term action to reduce forces driving emerging diseases and provide interdisciplinary scientific approaches to management of risks, thereby achieving optimal outcomes for human, animal, and environmental health.

  7. The New HIT: Human Health Information Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Tiffany I; Goldstein, Mary K; Musen, Mark A; Cronkite, Ruth; Chen, Jonathan H; Gottlieb, Assaf; Leitersdorf, Eran

    2017-01-01

    Humanism in medicine is defined as health care providers' attitudes and actions that demonstrate respect for patients' values and concerns in relation to their social, psychological and spiritual life domains. Specifically, humanistic clinical medicine involves showing respect for the patient, building a personal connection, and eliciting and addressing a patient's emotional response to illness. Health information technology (IT) often interferes with humanistic clinical practice, potentially disabling these core aspects of the therapeutic patient-physician relationship. Health IT has evolved rapidly in recent years - and the imperative to maintain humanism in practice has never been greater. In this vision paper, we aim to discuss why preserving humanism is imperative in the design and implementation of health IT systems.

  8. EVA Health and Human Performance Benchmarking Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abercromby, A. F.; Norcross, J.; Jarvis, S. L.

    2016-01-01

    Multiple HRP Risks and Gaps require detailed characterization of human health and performance during exploration extravehicular activity (EVA) tasks; however, a rigorous and comprehensive methodology for characterizing and comparing the health and human performance implications of current and future EVA spacesuit designs does not exist. This study will identify and implement functional tasks and metrics, both objective and subjective, that are relevant to health and human performance, such as metabolic expenditure, suit fit, discomfort, suited postural stability, cognitive performance, and potentially biochemical responses for humans working inside different EVA suits doing functional tasks under the appropriate simulated reduced gravity environments. This study will provide health and human performance benchmark data for humans working in current EVA suits (EMU, Mark III, and Z2) as well as shirtsleeves using a standard set of tasks and metrics with quantified reliability. Results and methodologies developed during this test will provide benchmark data against which future EVA suits, and different suit configurations (eg, varied pressure, mass, CG) may be reliably compared in subsequent tests. Results will also inform fitness for duty standards as well as design requirements and operations concepts for future EVA suits and other exploration systems.

  9. A Brief History of Soils and Human Health Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brevik, Eric C.; Sauer, Thomas J.

    2013-04-01

    The idea that there are links between soils and human health is an ancient one. The Bible depicts Moses as understanding that fertile soil was essential to the well-being of his people in approximately 1400 B.C. as they entered Canaan, and in 400 B.C. Hippocrates provided a list of things that should be considered in a proper medical evaluation, including the ground. Moving into the 18th and 19th Centuries, some North American farmers have been documented as recognizing a link between soils and human vitality. However, the recognition of links between soils and human health by these early people was based on casual observations leading to logical conclusions rather than scientific investigation. In the 1900s the idea that soils influence human health gained considerable traction. At least three chapters in the 1938 USDA Yearbook of Agriculture included recognition of the importance of soil as the origin of many of the mineral elements necessary for human health and in the 1957 USDA Yearbook of Agriculture scientists realized that soils were not only important in the supply of essential nutrients, but that they could also supply toxic levels of elements to the human diet. The U.S. Department of Agriculture established the Plant, Soil and Nutrition Research Unit (PSNRU) on the Cornell University campus in 1940 with a mission to conduct research at the interface of human nutrition and agriculture to improve the nutritional quality and health-promoting properties of food crops. A major human health breakthrough in 1940 was the isolation of antibiotic compounds from soil organisms by the research group at Rutgers University lead by Selman Waksman. Soil microorganisms create antibiotic compounds in an effort to gain a competitive advantage in the soil ecosystem. Humans have been able to isolate those compounds and use them advantageously in the fight against bacterial infections. Waksman was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1952, the only soil

  10. Human rights approach to maternal & child health: has India fared well?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram, F; Singh, Abhishek; Ram, Usha

    2013-04-01

    The objectives of the study were to examine: right to access maternal health; right to access child health; and right to access improved water and sanitation in India. We used large-scale data sets like District Level Household Survey conducted in 2007-08 and National Family Health Surveys conducted during 1992-93, 1998-99, and 2005-06 to fulfil the objectives. The selection of the indicator variables was guided by the Human Rights' Framework for Health and Convention of the Rights of the Child- Articles 7, 24 and 27. We used univariate and bivariate analysis along with ratio of access among non-poor to access among poor to fulfil the objectives. Evidence clearly suggested gross violation of human rights starting from the birth of an individual. Even after 60 years of independence, significant proportions of women and children do not have access to basic services like improved drinking water and sanitation. There were enormous socio-economic and residence related inequalities in maternal and child health indicators included in the study. These inequalities were mostly to the disadvantage of the poor. The fulfilment of the basic human rights of women and children is likely to pay dividends in many other domains related to overall population and health in India.

  11. Terroir as a Concept to Improve Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brevik, Eric C.; Steffan, Joshua J.; Burgess, Lynn C.; Cerdà, Artemi; Pereg, Lily

    2017-04-01

    Soil is important to human health because of the ability of healthy soils to supply nutrients through food products, medications derived from soil, its ability to clean water, and for many other positive reasons. On the other hand, degraded soils can have negative impacts on human health through processes such as dust generation and by acting as a point of human contact with heavy metals, organic chemicals, and pathogens. Despite the definite links between soil and human health, it is likely that most people don't think about soil when considering human health issues. In fact, there appears to be a disconnect between most people in our modern society and soil, and when people do notice soil it often seems to be in a negative context, leading to terms such as "soiled", "dirty", "dirt poor", etc. People pay attention to and care for things that matter to them, and creating a more positive public image of soil has the possibility of improving human health by leading to careful and caring treatment of the soil resource. The concept of terroir is a good example of a setting within which soils have a more positive image. While terroir originally established a connection between those who love wine and the soils that produce those wines, the concept has been expanded to many additional products such as cacao, cheese, coffee, fruits, olive oil, and vegetables. If the terroir concept could be expanded to include additional products that are important to people and expanded into parts of the world where it is not currently well known, that may provide an increased positive perception of soil, and thereby indirectly improve human health. It may even be possible to provide a terroir link to direct health benefits, such as medications derived from a given soil environment, and therefore provide a very focused emphasis on soil and human health issues. Therefore, we advocate a concerted effort to expand the terroir concept as a means to improve overall human health.

  12. Role of Plastics on Human Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pramod

    2018-05-01

    Plastics, currently the universal workhorse materials of modern economy, because of their low cost and varied functional properties are posing serious threat to environment and consumer's health in many direct and indirect ways. Rising concern about the impact of plastics on environment and human health, has forced the industry to look for alternatives. This review studies current understanding of benefits and concerns surrounding use of plastics, reviews literature about health effects in humans and discusses the current state of evidence, as well as future research trends. There is increasing concern regarding additives in plastics to which most people are exposed, such as phthalates, bisphenol A or polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE), and their detection in humans, leading to harmful impact on health. The studies are divided, among many other issues on the fact of considering these additives as carcinogens or toxicants, but there is a consensus that these chemicals have the ability to alter the endocrine system. Human data are limited compared to large body of experimental evidence documenting reproductive or developmental toxicity in relation to these compounds in animals. The concentrations of these additives in young children, a segment particularly sensitive to exogenous insults, are typically higher, indicating the need to decrease exposure to these compounds. The rapid increase in usage of plastics and increased awareness about its health hazard has lent urgency to the whole issue.

  13. Human development, poverty, health & nutrition situation in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antony, G M; Laxmaiah, A

    2008-08-01

    Human development index (HDI) is extensively used to measure the standard of living of a country. India made a study progress in the HDI value. Extreme poverty is concentrated in rural areas of northern States while income growth has been dynamic in southern States and urban areas. This study was undertaken to assess the trends in HDI, human poverty index (HPI) and incidence of poverty among Indian states, the socio-economic, health, and diet and nutritional indicators which determine the HDI, changes in protein and calorie adequacy status of rural population, and also trends in malnutrition among children in India. The variations in socio-economic, demographic and dietary indicators by grades of HDI were studied. The trends in poverty and nutrition were also studied. Univariate, bivariate and multivariate analysis were done to analyse data. While India's HDI value has improved over a time; our rank did not improve much compared to other developing countries. Human poverty has not reduced considerably as per the HPI values. The undernutrition among preschool children is still a major public health problem in India. The incidence of poverty at different levels of calorie requirement has not reduced in both rural and urban areas. The time trends in nutritional status of pre-school children showed that, even though, there is an improvement in stunting over the years, the trend in wasting and underweight has not improved much. Proper nutrition and health awareness are important to tackle the health hazards of developmental transition. Despite several national nutrition programmes in operation, we could not make a significant dent in the area of health and nutrition. The changing dietary practices of the urban population, especially the middle class, are of concern. Further studies are needed to measure the human development and poverty situation of different sections of the population in India using an index, which includes both income indicators and non income

  14. Aging, human immunodeficiency virus, and bone health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim C Mansky

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Kim C ManskyDivision of Orthodontics, Department of Developmental and Surgical Sciences, School of Dentistry, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USAAbstract: Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART has had a profound impact on improving the long-term prognosis for individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. HAART has been available for close to two decades, and now a significant number of patients with access to HAART are over the age of 50 years. Many clinical studies have indicated that HIV infection, as well as components of HAART, can increase the risk in these individuals to a variety of noninfectious complications, including a risk to bone health. There is a significant need for detailed mechanistic analysis of the aging, HIV-infected population regarding the risk of HIV infection and therapy in order to maintain bone health. Insights from basic mechanistic studies will help to shed light on the role of HIV infection and the components of HAART that impact bone health, and will help in identifying preventative countermeasures, particularly for individuals 50 years of age and older.Keywords: osteopenia, osteomalacia, osteoporosis, bisphosphonates, tenofovir, osteoimmunology

  15. Plastic and Human Health: A Micro Issue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Stephanie L; Kelly, Frank J

    2017-06-20

    Microplastics are a pollutant of environmental concern. Their presence in food destined for human consumption and in air samples has been reported. Thus, microplastic exposure via diet or inhalation could occur, the human health effects of which are unknown. The current review article draws upon cross-disciplinary scientific literature to discuss and evaluate the potential human health impacts of microplastics and outlines urgent areas for future research. Key literature up to September 2016 relating to accumulation, particle toxicity, and chemical and microbial contaminants was critically examined. Although microplastics and human health is an emerging field, complementary existing fields indicate potential particle, chemical and microbial hazards. If inhaled or ingested, microplastics may accumulate and exert localized particle toxicity by inducing or enhancing an immune response. Chemical toxicity could occur due to the localized leaching of component monomers, endogenous additives, and adsorbed environmental pollutants. Chronic exposure is anticipated to be of greater concern due to the accumulative effect that could occur. This is expected to be dose-dependent, and a robust evidence-base of exposure levels is currently lacking. Although there is potential for microplastics to impact human health, assessing current exposure levels and burdens is key. This information will guide future research into the potential mechanisms of toxicity and hence therein possible health effects.

  16. The Pan American Health Organization and the mainstreaming of human rights in regional health governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Benjamin Mason; Ayala, Ana S

    2014-01-01

    In the absence of centralized human rights leadership in an increasingly fragmented global health policy landscape, regional health offices have stepped forward to advance the rights-based approach to health. Reviewing the efforts of the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), this article explores the evolution of human rights in PAHO policy, assesses efforts to mainstream human rights in the Pan American Sanitary Bureau (PASB), and analyzes the future of the rights-based approach through regional health governance, providing lessons for other regional health offices and global health institutions. This article explores PAHO's 15-year effort to mainstream human rights through PASB technical units, national capacity-building, the Inter-American human rights system, and the PAHO Directing Council. Through documentary analysis of PAHO policies and semi-structured interviews with key PASB stakeholders, the authors analyze the understandings and actions of policymakers and technical officers in implementing human rights through PAHO governance. Analyzing the themes arising from this narrative, the authors examine the structural role of secretariat leadership, state support, legal expertise, and technical unit commitment in facilitating a rights-based approach to the health in the Americas. Human rights are increasingly framing PAHO efforts, and this analysis of the structures underlying PAHO's approach provides an understanding of the institutional determinants of the rights-based approach to health, highlighting generalizable themes for the mainstreaming of human rights through regional health governance. With this regional-level understanding of health governance, future national-level research can begin to understand the causal forces linking regional human rights work with national policy reforms and public health outcomes. © 2014 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  17. Responsible ownership of dogs and human health in neighborhoods of San Carlos de Bariloche, Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Gilda Garibotti; Daniela Zacharías; Verónica Flores; Sebastián Catriman; Antonella Falconaro; Surpik Kabaradjian; María L. Luque; Beatriz Macedo; Juliana Molina; Carlos Rauque; Matías Soto; Gabriela Vázquez; Rocío Vega; Gustavo Viozzi

    2017-01-01

    Human relationship with dogs associates with numerous and varied benefits on human health; however, it also presents significant risks. The goal of this study was to describe demographic parameters and characteristics of dog ownership with possible implications on human health and to evaluate the prevalence of dog bites and traffic accidents due to dogs. Interviews were conducted in the neighborhoods of Nuestras Malvinas and Nahuel Hue in San Carlos de Bariloche. The percentage of homes with ...

  18. Interdependence, Human Rights and Global Health Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viens, A M

    2015-12-01

    The connection between health and human rights continues to play a prominent role within global health law. In particular, a number of theorists rely on the claim that there is a relation of interdependence between health and human rights. The nature and extent of this relation, however, is rarely defined, developed or defended in a conceptually robust way. This paper seeks to explore the source, scope and strength of this putative relation and what role it might play in developing a global health law framework.

  19. [Efficiency of human resources for health: an approach to its analysis in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigenda, Gustavo; Alcalde-Rabanal, Jaqueline; González-Robledo, Luz María; Serván-Mori, Edson; García-Saiso, Sebastián; Lozano, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    To analyze efficiency indicators of human resources working at Mexico's Ministry of Health. Three dimensions of efficiency were explored: a) labor wastage, b) distribution of human resources (HR) across levels of care, and c) productivity. Health workers present significant levels of unemployment and underemployment; distribution does not meet international recommendations, and heterogeneous levels of productivity were found among states. Health and educational authorities should develop and implement a HR plan that takes into consideration the needs and demands of the covered population, and includes a clearly defined set of measures to regulate the future production of HR as well as their distribution among and within state health systems, and that allocates incentives to improve performance.

  20. Mycotoxins: significance to global economics and health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mycotoxins are fungal metabolites produced my micro-fungi (molds and mildews) that have significant impacts on global economics and health. Some of these metabolites are beneficial, but most are harmful and have been associated with well-known epidemics dating back to medieval times. The terms ‘myco...

  1. Human health effects of air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kampa, Marilena; Castanas, Elias

    2008-01-01

    Hazardous chemicals escape to the environment by a number of natural and/or anthropogenic activities and may cause adverse effects on human health and the environment. Increased combustion of fossil fuels in the last century is responsible for the progressive change in the atmospheric composition. Air pollutants, such as carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ), nitrogen oxides (NOx), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), ozone (O 3 ), heavy metals, and respirable particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10), differ in their chemical composition, reaction properties, emission, time of disintegration and ability to diffuse in long or short distances. Air pollution has both acute and chronic effects on human health, affecting a number of different systems and organs. It ranges from minor upper respiratory irritation to chronic respiratory and heart disease, lung cancer, acute respiratory infections in children and chronic bronchitis in adults, aggravating pre-existing heart and lung disease, or asthmatic attacks. In addition, short- and long-term exposures have also been linked with premature mortality and reduced life expectancy. These effects of air pollutants on human health and their mechanism of action are briefly discussed. - The effect of air pollutants on human health and underlying mechanisms of cellular action are discussed

  2. Public health significance of zoonotic Cryptosporidium species in wildlife: Critical insights into better drinking water management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahedi, Alireza; Paparini, Andrea; Jian, Fuchun; Robertson, Ian; Ryan, Una

    2016-04-01

    Cryptosporidium is an enteric parasite that is transmitted via the faecal-oral route, water and food. Humans, wildlife and domestic livestock all potentially contribute Cryptosporidium to surface waters. Human encroachment into natural ecosystems has led to an increase in interactions between humans, domestic animals and wildlife populations. Increasing numbers of zoonotic diseases and spill over/back of zoonotic pathogens is a consequence of this anthropogenic disturbance. Drinking water catchments and water reservoir areas have been at the front line of this conflict as they can be easily contaminated by zoonotic waterborne pathogens. Therefore, the epidemiology of zoonotic species of Cryptosporidium in free-ranging and captive wildlife is of increasing importance. This review focuses on zoonotic Cryptosporidium species reported in global wildlife populations to date, and highlights their significance for public health and the water industry.

  3. Health significance and statistical uncertainty. The value of P-value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consonni, Dario; Bertazzi, Pier Alberto

    2017-10-27

    The P-value is widely used as a summary statistics of scientific results. Unfortunately, there is a widespread tendency to dichotomize its value in "P0.05" ("statistically not significant"), with the former implying a "positive" result and the latter a "negative" one. To show the unsuitability of such an approach when evaluating the effects of environmental and occupational risk factors. We provide examples of distorted use of P-value and of the negative consequences for science and public health of such a black-and-white vision. The rigid interpretation of P-value as a dichotomy favors the confusion between health relevance and statistical significance, discourages thoughtful thinking, and distorts attention from what really matters, the health significance. A much better way to express and communicate scientific results involves reporting effect estimates (e.g., risks, risks ratios or risk differences) and their confidence intervals (CI), which summarize and convey both health significance and statistical uncertainty. Unfortunately, many researchers do not usually consider the whole interval of CI but only examine if it includes the null-value, therefore degrading this procedure to the same P-value dichotomy (statistical significance or not). In reporting statistical results of scientific research present effects estimates with their confidence intervals and do not qualify the P-value as "significant" or "not significant".

  4. Analysis of human error and organizational deficiency in events considering risk significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yong Suk; Kim, Yoonik; Kim, Say Hyung; Kim, Chansoo; Chung, Chang Hyun; Jung, Won Dea

    2004-01-01

    In this study, we analyzed human and organizational deficiencies in the trip events of Korean nuclear power plants. K-HPES items were used in human error analysis, and the organizational factors by Jacobs and Haber were used for organizational deficiency analysis. We proposed the use of CCDP as a risk measure to consider risk information in prioritizing K-HPES items and organizational factors. Until now, the risk significance of events has not been considered in human error and organizational deficiency analysis. Considering the risk significance of events in the process of analysis is necessary for effective enhancement of nuclear power plant safety by focusing on causes of human error and organizational deficiencies that are associated with significant risk

  5. Oceans and human health: Emerging public health risks n the marine environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, L.E.; Broad, K.; Clement, A.; Dewailly, E.; Elmir, S.; Knap, A.; Pomponi, S.A.; Smith, S.; Gabriele, H. Solo; Walsh, P.

    2008-01-01

    There has been an increasing recognition of the inter-relationship between human health and the oceans. Traditionally, the focus of research and concern has been on the impact of human activities on the oceans, particularly through anthropogenic pollution and the exploitation of marine resources. More recently, there has been recognition of the potential direct impact of the oceans on human health, both detrimental and beneficial. Areas identified include: global change, harmful algal blooms (HABs), microbial and chemical contamination of marine waters and seafood, and marine models and natural products from the seas. It is hoped that through the recognition of the inter-dependence of the health of both humans and the oceans, efforts will be made to restore and preserve the oceans. PMID:16996542

  6. The Human Right to Equal Access to Health Care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. San Giorgi (Maite)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThe right to equal access to health care is a fundamental principle that is part of the human right to health care. For victims of a violation of the human right to equal access to health care it is important that a judicial or quasi-judicial human rights body can adjudicate their

  7. Human Rights and the Political Economy of Universal Health Care: Designing Equitable Financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudiger, Anja

    2016-12-01

    Health system financing is a critical factor in securing universal health care and achieving equity in access and payment. The human rights framework offers valuable guidance for designing a financing strategy that meets these goals. This article presents a rights-based approach to health care financing developed by the human right to health care movement in the United States. Grounded in a human rights analysis of private, market-based health insurance, advocates make the case for public financing through progressive taxation. Financing mechanisms are measured against the twin goals of guaranteeing access to care and advancing economic equity. The added focus on the redistributive potential of health care financing recasts health reform as an economic policy intervention that can help fulfill broader economic and social rights obligations. Based on a review of recent universal health care reform efforts in the state of Vermont, this article reports on a rights-based public financing plan and model, which includes a new business tax directed against wage disparities. The modeling results suggest that a health system financed through equitable taxation could produce significant redistributive effects, thus increasing economic equity while generating sufficient funds to provide comprehensive health care as a universal public good.

  8. Ecosystem change and human health: implementation economics and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattanayak, S K; Kramer, R A; Vincent, J R

    2017-06-05

    Several recent initiatives such as Planetary Health , EcoHealth and One Health claim that human health depends on flourishing natural ecosystems. However, little has been said about the operational and implementation challenges of health-oriented conservation actions on the ground. We contend that ecological-epidemiological research must be complemented by a form of implementation science that examines: (i) the links between specific conservation actions and the resulting ecological changes, and (ii) how this ecological change impacts human health and well-being, when human behaviours are considered. Drawing on the policy evaluation tradition in public economics, first, we present three examples of recent social science research on conservation interventions that affect human health. These examples are from low- and middle-income countries in the tropics and subtropics. Second, drawing on these examples, we present three propositions related to impact evaluation and non-market valuation that can help guide future multidisciplinary research on conservation and human health. Research guided by these propositions will allow stakeholders to determine how ecosystem-mediated strategies for health promotion compare with more conventional biomedical prevention and treatment strategies for safeguarding health.This article is part of the themed issue 'Conservation, biodiversity and infectious disease: scientific evidence and policy implications'. © 2017 The Authors.

  9. Human rights, public health and medicinal cannabis use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bone, Melissa; Seddon, Toby

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the interplay between the human rights and drug control frameworks and critiques case law on medicinal cannabis use to demonstrate that a bona fide human rights perspective allows for a broader conception of 'health'. This broad conception, encompassing both medicalised and social constructionist definitions, can inform public health policies relating to medicinal cannabis use. The paper also demonstrates how a human rights lens can alleviate a core tension between the State and the individual within the drug policy field. The leading medicinal cannabis case in the UK highlights the judiciary's failure to engage with an individual's human right to health as they adopt an arbitrary, externalist view, focussing on the legality of cannabis to the exclusion of other concerns. Drawing on some international comparisons, the paper considers how a human rights perspective can lead to an approach to medicinal cannabis use which facilitates a holistic understanding of public health.

  10. Oceans and human health: Emerging public health risks n the marine environment

    OpenAIRE

    Fleming, L.E.; Broad, K.; Clement, A.; Dewailly, E.; Elmir, S.; Knap, A.; Pomponi, S.A.; Smith, S.; Gabriele, H. Solo; Walsh, P.

    2006-01-01

    There has been an increasing recognition of the inter-relationship between human health and the oceans. Traditionally, the focus of research and concern has been on the impact of human activities on the oceans, particularly through anthropogenic pollution and the exploitation of marine resources. More recently, there has been recognition of the potential direct impact of the oceans on human health, both detrimental and beneficial. Areas identified include: global change, harmful algal blooms ...

  11. NASA Human Health and Performance Information Architecture Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson-Throop, Kathy; Kadwa, Binafer; VanBaalen, Mary

    2014-01-01

    The Human Health and Performance (HH&P) Directorate at NASA's Johnson Space Center has a mission to enable optimization of human health and performance throughout all phases of spaceflight. All HH&P functions are ultimately aimed at achieving this mission. Our activities enable mission success, optimizing human health and productivity in space before, during, and after the actual spaceflight experience of our crews, and include support for ground-based functions. Many of our spaceflight innovations also provide solutions for terrestrial challenges, thereby enhancing life on Earth.

  12. Cocoa and human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellam, Samantha; Williamson, Gary

    2013-01-01

    Cocoa is a dry, powdered, nonfat component product prepared from the seeds of the Theobroma cacao L. tree and is a common ingredient of many food products, particularly chocolate. Nutritionally, cocoa contains biologically active substances that may affect human health: flavonoids (epicatechin and oligomeric procyanidins), theobromine, and magnesium. Theobromine and epicatechin are absorbed efficiently in the small intestine, and the nature of their conjugates and metabolites are now known. Oligomeric procyanidins are poorly absorbed in the small intestine, but catabolites are very efficiently absorbed after microbial biotransformation in the colon. A significant number of studies, using in vitro and in vivo approaches, on the effects of cocoa and its constituent flavonoids have been conducted. Most human intervention studies have been performed on cocoa as an ingredient, whereas many in vitro studies have been performed on individual components. Approximately 70 human intervention studies have been carried out on cocoa and cocoa-containing products over the past 12 years, with a variety of endpoints. These studies indicate that the most robust biomarkers affected are endothelial function, blood pressure, and cholesterol level. Mechanistically, supporting evidence shows that epicatechin affects nitric oxide synthesis and breakdown (via inhibition of nicotinamide adenine di-nucleotide phosphate oxidase) and the substrate arginine (via inhibition of arginase), among other targets. Evidence further supports cocoa as a biologically active ingredient with potential benefits on biomarkers related to cardiovascular disease. However, the calorie and sugar content of chocolate and its contribution to the total diet should be taken into account in intervention studies.

  13. Human resources for health: lessons from the cholera outbreak in Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosewell, Alexander; Bieb, Sibauk; Clark, Geoff; Miller, Geoff; MacIntyre, Raina; Zwi, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Papua New Guinea is striving to achieve the minimum core requirements under the International Health Regulations in surveillance and outbreak response, and has experienced challenges in the availability and distribution of health professionals. Since mid-2009, a large cholera outbreak spread across lowland regions of the country and has been associated with more than 15 500 notifications at a case fatality ratio of 3.2%. The outbreak placed significant pressure on clinical and public health services. We describe some of the challenges to cholera preparedness and response in this human resource-limited setting, the strategies used to ensure effective cholera management and lessons learnt. Cholera task forces were useful to establish a clear system of leadership and accountability for cholera outbreak response and ensure efficiencies in each technical area. Cholera outbreak preparedness and response was strongest when human resource and health systems functioned well before the outbreak. Communication relied on coordination of existing networks and methods for empowering local leaders and villagers to modify behaviours of the population. In line with the national health emergencies plan, the successes of human resource strategies during the cholera outbreak should be built upon through emergency exercises, especially in non-affected provinces. Population needs for all public health professionals involved in health emergency preparedness and response should be mapped, and planning should be implemented to increase the numbers in relevant areas. Human resource planning should be integrated with health emergency planning. It is essential to maintain and strengthen the human resource capacities and experiences gained during the cholera outbreak to ensure a more effective response to the next health emergency.

  14. Understanding and valuing the broader health system benefits of Uganda's national Human Resources for Health Information System investment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driessen, Julia; Settle, Dykki; Potenziani, David; Tulenko, Kate; Kabocho, Twaha; Wadembere, Ismail

    2015-08-31

    To address the need for timely and comprehensive human resources for health (HRH) information, governments and organizations have been actively investing in electronic health information interventions, including in low-resource settings. The economics of human resources information systems (HRISs) in low-resource settings are not well understood, however, and warrant investigation and validation. This case study describes Uganda's Human Resources for Health Information System (HRHIS), implemented with support from the US Agency for International Development, and documents perceptions of its impact on the health labour market against the backdrop of the costs of implementation. Through interviews with end users and implementers in six different settings, we document pre-implementation data challenges and consider how the HRHIS has been perceived to affect human resources decision-making and the healthcare employment environment. This multisite case study documented a range of perceived benefits of Uganda's HRHIS through interviews with end users that sought to capture the baseline (or pre-implementation) state of affairs, the perceived impact of the HRHIS and the monetary value associated with each benefit. In general, the system appears to be strengthening both demand for health workers (through improved awareness of staffing patterns) and supply (by improving licensing, recruitment and competency of the health workforce). This heightened ability to identify high-value employees makes the health sector more competitive for high-quality workers, and this elevation of the health workforce also has broader implications for health system performance and population health. Overall, it is clear that HRHIS end users in Uganda perceived the system to have significantly improved day-to-day operations as well as longer term institutional mandates. A more efficient and responsive approach to HRH allows the health sector to recruit the best candidates, train employees in

  15. Globalization, human rights, and the social determinants of health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Audrey R

    2009-02-01

    Globalization, a process characterized by the growing interdependence of the world's people, impacts health systems and the social determinants of health in ways that are detrimental to health equity. In a world in which there are few countervailing normative and policy approaches to the dominant neoliberal regime underpinning globalization, the human rights paradigm constitutes a widely shared foundation for challenging globalization's effects. The substantive rights enumerated in human rights instruments include the right to the highest attainable level of physical and mental health and others that are relevant to the determinants of health. The rights stipulated in these documents impose extensive legal obligations on states that have ratified these documents and confer health entitlements on their residents. Human rights norms have also inspired civil society efforts to improve access to essential medicines and medical services, particularly for HIV/AIDS. Nevertheless, many factors reduce the potential counterweight human rights might exert, including and specifically the nature of the human rights approach, weak political commitments to promoting and protecting health rights on the part of some states and their lack of institutional and economic resources to do so. Global economic markets and the relative power of global economic institutions are also shrinking national policy space. This article reviews the potential contributions and limitations of human rights to achieving greater equity in shaping the social determinants of health.

  16. Public health significance of zoonotic Cryptosporidium species in wildlife: Critical insights into better drinking water management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Zahedi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Cryptosporidium is an enteric parasite that is transmitted via the faecal–oral route, water and food. Humans, wildlife and domestic livestock all potentially contribute Cryptosporidium to surface waters. Human encroachment into natural ecosystems has led to an increase in interactions between humans, domestic animals and wildlife populations. Increasing numbers of zoonotic diseases and spill over/back of zoonotic pathogens is a consequence of this anthropogenic disturbance. Drinking water catchments and water reservoir areas have been at the front line of this conflict as they can be easily contaminated by zoonotic waterborne pathogens. Therefore, the epidemiology of zoonotic species of Cryptosporidium in free-ranging and captive wildlife is of increasing importance. This review focuses on zoonotic Cryptosporidium species reported in global wildlife populations to date, and highlights their significance for public health and the water industry.

  17. Human health and stoic moral norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Lawrence C

    2003-04-01

    For the philosophy of medicine, there are two things of interest about the stoic account of moral norms, quite apart from whether the rest of stoic ethical theory is compelling. One is the stoic version of naturalism: its account of practical reasoning, its solution to the is/ought problem, and its contention that norms for creating, sustaining, or restoring human health are tantamount to moral norms. The other is the stoic account of human agency: its description of the intimate connections between human health, rational agency, and moral norms. There is practical guidance to be gained from exploring those connections, whether or not one is ready to follow stoic moral theory all the way to its austere end.

  18. Mapping the institutional consolidation of EU human health expertise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Ruijter, A.

    The EU’s role in the field of human health is solidifying in terms of law and policy, but also with respect to the institutional organisation of human health expertise. In light of the emerging health-care union and questions regarding the nature and scope of a European health law, the institutional

  19. Mapping the institutional consolidation of EU human health expertise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Ruijter, Anniek

    2016-01-01

    The EU’s role in the field of human health is solidifying in terms of law and policy, but also with respect to the institutional organisation of human health expertise. In light of the emerging health-care union and questions regarding the nature and scope of a European health law, the institutional

  20. Unified Health Gamification can significantly improve well-being in corporate environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahrestani, Arash; Van Gorp, Pieter; Le Blanc, Pascale; Greidanus, Fabrizio; de Groot, Kristel; Leermakers, Jelle

    2017-07-01

    There is a multitude of mHealth applications that aim to solve societal health problems by stimulating specific types of physical activities via gamification. However, physical health activities cover just one of the three World Health Organization (WHO) dimensions of health. This paper introduces the novel notion of Unified Health Gamification (UHG), which covers besides physical health also social and cognitive health and well-being. Instead of rewarding activities in the three WHO dimensions using different mHealth competitions, UHG combines the scores for such activities on unified leaderboards and lets people interact in social circles beyond personal interests. This approach is promising in corporate environments since UHG can connect the employees with intrinsic motivation for physical health with those who have quite different interests. In order to evaluate this approach, we realized an app prototype and we evaluated it in two corporate pilot studies. In total, eighteen pilot users participated voluntarily for six weeks. Half of the participants were recruited from an occupational health setting and the other half from a treatment setting. Our results suggest that the UHG principles are worth more investigation: various positive health effects were found based on a validated survey. The mean mental health improved significantly at one pilot location and at the level of individual pilot participants, multiple other effects were found to be significant: among others, significant mental health improvements were found for 28% of the participants. Most participants intended to use the app beyond the pilot, especially if it would be further developed.

  1. PERFORMANCE PREMISES FOR HUMAN RESOURCES FROM PUBLIC HEALTH ORGANIZATIONS IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amalia-Luisa PUPĂZĂ

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Improving the performance of health sector human resources is a goal pursued by all developed or developing countries. However, the lack of human resources planning and lack of clear and transparent human resources policies may lead to a crisis in this area. Human resource planning should be a priority in terms of health policies. In Romania, the lack of a planning concept and the lack of a policy on human resources has led to the actual context, with a human resources crisis of public health organizations. The role that human resources play in the health care system is indisputable. Essential to achieve quality performance in health care is human resources management. To overcome the human resources crisis that public health organizations in Romania is facing , specialists in the field have made several key recommendations: development of a coherent policy formation, development and allocation of human resources in health, increasing the number of medical staff and opportunities of professional career development in the medical field. Health system reform involves changing some aspects of employment, working conditions, degree of decentralization of management, skills, salary system and staff motivation.

  2. Age, Health and Attractiveness Perception of Virtual (Rendered) Human Hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Bernhard; Hufschmidt, Carla; Hirn, Thomas; Will, Susanne; McKelvey, Graham; Lankhof, John

    2016-01-01

    The social significance of physical appearance and beauty has been documented in many studies. It is known that even subtle manipulations of facial morphology and skin condition can alter people's perception of a person's age, health and attractiveness. While the variation in facial morphology and skin condition cues has been studied quite extensively, comparably little is known on the effect of hair on social perception. This has been partly caused by the technical difficulty of creating appropriate stimuli for investigations of people's response to systematic variation of certain hair characteristics, such as color and style, while keeping other features constant. Here, we present a modeling approach to the investigation of human hair perception using computer-generated, virtual (rendered) human hair. In three experiments, we manipulated hair diameter (Experiment 1), hair density (Experiment 2), and hair style (Experiment 3) of human (female) head hair and studied perceptions of age, health and attractiveness. Our results show that even subtle changes in these features have an impact on hair perception. We discuss our findings with reference to previous studies on condition-dependent quality cues in women that influence human social perception, thereby suggesting that hair is a salient feature of human physical appearance, which contributes to the perception of beauty.

  3. [Medical Humanities--the Historical Significance and Mission in Medical Education].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujino, Akihiro

    2015-12-01

    In this paper we consider the significance and mission of medical humanities in medical education from the following six viewpoints: (1) misunderstanding of the medical humanities; (2) its historical development; (3) the criteria for the ideal physician; (4) the contents of current Medical Humanities education; (5) the basic philosophy; and (6) its relation to medical professionalism. Medical humanities consists of the three academic components of bioethics, clinical ethics and medical anthropology, and it is a philosophy and an art which penetrate to the fundamental essence of medicine. The purpose of medical humanities is to develop one's own humanity and spirituality through medical practice and contemplation by empathizing with patients' illness narratives through spiritual self-awakening and by understanding the mutual healing powers of human relations by way of the realization of primordial life. The basic philosophy is "the coincidence of contraries". The ultimate mission of medical humanities is to cultivate physicians to educate themselves and have a life-long philosophy of devotion to understanding, through experience, the coincidence of contraries.

  4. Extrapolation in human health hazard characterization: a probabilistic approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokkers, B.G.H.

    2009-01-01

    A classical deterministic risk assessment often uses conservative, worst-case assumptions to estimate the possible health risk in humans. When such an assessment shows an unacceptable human health risk, a more realistic risk assessment may be needed to estimate the actual health impact in the

  5. Air quality and human health improvements from reduced deforestation in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddington, C.; Butt, E. W.; Ridley, D. A.; Artaxo, P.; Morgan, W.; Coe, H.; Spracklen, D. V.

    2015-12-01

    Significant areas of the Brazilian Amazon have been deforested over the past few decades, with fire being the dominant method through which forests and vegetation are cleared. Fires emit large quantities of particulate matter into the atmosphere, degrading air quality and negatively impacting human health. Since 2004, Brazil has achieved substantial reductions in deforestation rates and associated deforestation fires. Here we assess the impact of this reduction on air quality and human health. We show that dry season (August - October) aerosol optical depth (AOD) retrieved by satellite over southwest Brazil and Bolivia is positively related to Brazil's annual deforestation rate (r=0.96, Pannually across South America. Future increases in Brazil's deforestation rates and associated fires may threaten the improved air quality reported here.

  6. Measuring the Impact of the Human Rights on Health in Global Health Financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Sara L M

    2015-12-10

    In response to new scientific developments, UNAIDS, WHO, and global health financing institutions have joined together to promote a "fast-track" global scale-up of testing and treatment programs. They have set ambitious targets toward the goal of ending the three diseases by 2030. These numerical indicators, based on infectious disease modeling, can assist in measuring countries' progressive realization of the right to health. However, they only nominally reference the catastrophic impact that human rights abuses have on access to health services; they also do not measure the positive impact provided by law reform, legal aid, and other health-related human rights programs. Drawing on experience at the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, which has incorporated expanded stakeholder consultation and human rights programming into its grants, the article argues that addressing human rights barriers to access is often an ad hoc activity occurring on the sidelines of a health grantmaking process that has focused on the scale-up of biomedical programs to meet global health indicators. To ensure that these biomedical programs have impact, UN agencies and health financing mechanisms must begin to more systematically and proactively integrate human rights policy and practice into their modeling and measurement tools. Copyright © 2015 Davis. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/), which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

  7. Health and Human Rights in Karen State, Eastern Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, William W; Mullany, Luke C; Shwe Oo, Eh Kalu; Richards, Adam K; Iacopino, Vincent; Beyrer, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Decades of conflict in eastern Myanmar have resulted in high prevalence of human rights violations and poor health outcomes. While recent ceasefire agreements have reduced conflict in this area, it is unknown whether this has resulted in concomitant reductions in human rights violations. We conducted a two-stage cluster survey of 686 households in eastern Myanmar to assess health status, access to healthcare, food security, exposure to human rights violations and identification of alleged perpetrators over the 12 months prior to January 2012, a period of near-absence of conflict in this region. Household hunger (FANTA-2 scale) was moderate/high in 91 (13.2%) households, while the proportion of households reporting food shortages in each month of 2011 ranged from 19.9% in December to 47.0% in September, with food insecurity peaking just prior to the harvest. Diarrhea prevalence in children was 14.2% and in everyone it was 5.8%. Forced labor was the most common human rights violation (185 households, 24.9%), and 210 households (30.6%) reported experiencing one or more human rights violations in 2011. Multiple logistic regression analysis identified associations between human rights violations and poor health outcomes. Human rights violations and their health consequences persist despite reduced intensity of conflict in eastern Myanmar. Ceasefire agreements should include language that protects human rights, and reconciliation efforts should address the health consequences of decades of human rights violations.

  8. [Human resources for health in Ecuador's new model of care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, Verónica; de la Torre, Daniel; Acuña, Cecilia; Cadena, Cristina

    2017-06-08

    Describe strategies implemented by Ecuador's Ministry of Public Health (MPH) to strengthen human resources for health leadership and respond to the new model of care, as a part of the reform process in the period 2012-2015. A documentary review was carried out of primary and secondary sources on development of human resources for health before and after the reform. In the study period, Ecuador developed a new institutional and regulatory framework for developing human resources for health to respond to the requirements of a model of care based on primary health care. The MPH consolidated its steering role by forging strategic partnerships, implementing human resources planning methods, and making an unprecedented investment in health worker training, hiring, and wage increases. These elements constitute the initial core for development of human resources for health policy and a health-services study program consistent with the reform's objectives. Within the framework of the reform carried out from 2012 to 2015, intersectoral work by the MPH has led to considerable achievements in development of human resources for health. Notable achievements include strengthening of the steering role, development and implementation of standards and regulatory instruments, creation of new professional profiles, and hiring of professionals to implement the comprehensive health care model, which helped to solve problems carried over from the years prior to the reform.

  9. Humanized care in the family health strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alana Tamar Oliveira de Sousa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Health Community Agent (HCA has contributed in a meaningful way to enhance the bond professional-user/family, providing, thus, the humanized care for the users who receive attention from the Family Health Strategy (FHS. This research had the aim to investigate the strategies adopted by the health community agents in order to supply the humanized care for the FHS user. It is an exploratory research of qualitative nature which was accomplished in the Basic Health Units – BHU, placed in the Distrito Sanitário III, in João Pessoa – PB. Thirtyhealth community agents, from the Family Health Strategy, took part in the research. The data were collected by means of a questionnaire related to the objective proposed by the investigation and, afterwards, they were analyzed qualitatively through the Collective Subject Discourse (CSD technique. In this way, it was possible to foresee three main ideas: promoting care based on respect for the user’s singularity as well as the valuing of empathic relationship; home visit, guidance, surveillance, pointing out solutions for the user’sneeds; enhancement of the bond between community and the team responsible for action planning. The Collective Subject Discourse of the participants involved in the research, as regards the humanized care practice, had as core the respect for the patient’s dignity, prioritizing his or her real needs and emphasizing the multidisciplinary task. This investigation enables the reflection about the valuable contribution of the health community agents concerning the promotion of the humanized care having as reference the mentioned strategies.

  10. Working together for health and human rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidel, V W

    2000-01-01

    The right to a standard of living adequate for health and well-being is being denied to vast numbers of people all over the world through increasing disparities in income and in wealth. In the name of economic development, a number of international and national policies have increased the grossly uneven distribution of income, with ever-growing numbers of people living in poverty as well as in increasing depths of poverty. Globalization, crippling levels of external debt, and the 'structural adjustment' policies of international agencies have expanded the numbers and the suffering of people living in poverty and have resulted in the neglect of government-funded social programs, of regulations protecting the environment, and of human development. Access to medical care, an essential element in the protection of health, is difficult for many, including the 44 million people in the United States who lack insurance coverage for the cost of medical care services. Working together for health and human rights also requires promotion of the right to peace. The right to life and health is threatened not only by the existence and active deployment of weapons of mass destruction, including nuclear, chemical and biological weapons and anti-personnel landmines, but also other weapons. The twentieth century has been the bloodiest in human history, with an estimated 250 wars, more than 110 million people killed, countless people wounded and at the least 50 million refugees. Health workers must work together with people in our communities for the promotion of health and human rights, which, in Sandwell and elsewhere, are inextricably intertwined.

  11. Human radiation experimentation: a health physics perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kathren, R.L.

    1996-01-01

    This paper observes ethical human experimentation can be considered in terms of two basic principles or tests: informed, willing and knowledgeable subjects; and expectation of benefits. A number of human experiments are evaluated in terms of these principles, including a sixteenth century toxicology experiment, the deliberate exposure by an x-ray pioneer, and the plutonium injection cases of the 1940's. The following rational ethic is proposed for the practice of health physics with respect to human radiation experimentation: At all levels, the health physicist has a professional as well as personal obligation to ensure that proper human requirements, including proper informed consent and willing subjects, arc carried out with respect to human radiation experimentation, and must be convinced that the real or potential benefits to be derived from the experiment clearly exceed the potential detriment and risk. (author)

  12. The Almost Right Word: The Move From Medical to Health Humanities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Therese; Blackie, Michael; Garden, Rebecca; Wear, Delese

    2017-07-01

    Since the emergence of the field in the 1970s, several trends have begun to challenge the original assumptions, claims, and practices of what became known as the medical humanities. In this article, the authors make the case for the health humanities as a more encompassing label because it captures recent theoretical and pedagogical developments in higher education such as the shift from rigid disciplinary boundaries to multi- and interdisciplinary inquiry, which has transformed humanities curricula in health professions. Calling the area of study health humanities also underscores the crucial distinction between medicine and health. Following a brief history of the field and the rationales that brought humanities disciplines to medical education in the first place-the "why" of the medical humanities-the authors turn to the "why" of the health humanities, using disability studies to illuminate those methodologies and materials that represent the distinction between the two. In addition, the authors make note of how humanities inquiry has now expanded across the landscape of other health professions curricula; how there is both awareness and evidence that medicine is only a minor determinant of health in human populations alongside social and cultural factors; and finally, how the current movement in health professions education is towards interdisciplinary and interprofessional learning experiences for students.

  13. Wind turbines and human health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loren eKnopper

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The association between wind turbines and health effects is highly debated. Some argue that reported health effects are related to wind turbine operation (electromagnetic fields (EMF, shadow flicker, audible noise, low frequency noise, infrasound. Others suggest that when turbines are sited correctly, effects are more likely attributable to a number of subjective variables that result in an annoyed/stressed state. In this review we provide a bibliographic-like summary and analysis of the science around this issue specifically in terms of noise (including audible, low frequency noise and infrasound, EMF and shadow flicker. Now there are roughly 60 scientific peer-reviewed articles on this issue. The available scientific evidence suggests that EMF, shadow flicker, low frequency noise and infrasound from wind turbines are not likely to affect human health; some studies have found that audible noise from wind turbines can be annoying to some. Annoyance may be associated with some self-reported health effects (e.g., sleep disturbance especially at sound pressure levels >40 dB(A. Because environmental noise above certain levels is a recognized factor in a number of health issues, siting restrictions have been implemented in many jurisdictions to limit noise exposure. These setbacks should help alleviate annoyance from noise. Subjective variables (attitudes and expectations are also linked to annoyance and have the potential to facilitate other health complaints via the nocebo effect. Therefore, it is possible that a segment of the population may remain annoyed (or report other health impacts even when noise limits are enforced. Based on the findings and scientific merit of the available studies, the weight of evidence suggests that when sited properly, wind turbines are not related to adverse health. Stemming from this review, we provide a number of recommended best practices for wind turbine development in the context of human health.

  14. Wind turbines and human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knopper, Loren D; Ollson, Christopher A; McCallum, Lindsay C; Whitfield Aslund, Melissa L; Berger, Robert G; Souweine, Kathleen; McDaniel, Mary

    2014-01-01

    The association between wind turbines and health effects is highly debated. Some argue that reported health effects are related to wind turbine operation [electromagnetic fields (EMF), shadow flicker, audible noise, low-frequency noise, infrasound]. Others suggest that when turbines are sited correctly, effects are more likely attributable to a number of subjective variables that result in an annoyed/stressed state. In this review, we provide a bibliographic-like summary and analysis of the science around this issue specifically in terms of noise (including audible, low-frequency noise, and infrasound), EMF, and shadow flicker. Now there are roughly 60 scientific peer-reviewed articles on this issue. The available scientific evidence suggests that EMF, shadow flicker, low-frequency noise, and infrasound from wind turbines are not likely to affect human health; some studies have found that audible noise from wind turbines can be annoying to some. Annoyance may be associated with some self-reported health effects (e.g., sleep disturbance) especially at sound pressure levels >40 dB(A). Because environmental noise above certain levels is a recognized factor in a number of health issues, siting restrictions have been implemented in many jurisdictions to limit noise exposure. These setbacks should help alleviate annoyance from noise. Subjective variables (attitudes and expectations) are also linked to annoyance and have the potential to facilitate other health complaints via the nocebo effect. Therefore, it is possible that a segment of the population may remain annoyed (or report other health impacts) even when noise limits are enforced. Based on the findings and scientific merit of the available studies, the weight of evidence suggests that when sited properly, wind turbines are not related to adverse health. Stemming from this review, we provide a number of recommended best practices for wind turbine development in the context of human health.

  15. Wind Turbines and Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knopper, Loren D.; Ollson, Christopher A.; McCallum, Lindsay C.; Whitfield Aslund, Melissa L.; Berger, Robert G.; Souweine, Kathleen; McDaniel, Mary

    2014-01-01

    The association between wind turbines and health effects is highly debated. Some argue that reported health effects are related to wind turbine operation [electromagnetic fields (EMF), shadow flicker, audible noise, low-frequency noise, infrasound]. Others suggest that when turbines are sited correctly, effects are more likely attributable to a number of subjective variables that result in an annoyed/stressed state. In this review, we provide a bibliographic-like summary and analysis of the science around this issue specifically in terms of noise (including audible, low-frequency noise, and infrasound), EMF, and shadow flicker. Now there are roughly 60 scientific peer-reviewed articles on this issue. The available scientific evidence suggests that EMF, shadow flicker, low-frequency noise, and infrasound from wind turbines are not likely to affect human health; some studies have found that audible noise from wind turbines can be annoying to some. Annoyance may be associated with some self-reported health effects (e.g., sleep disturbance) especially at sound pressure levels >40 dB(A). Because environmental noise above certain levels is a recognized factor in a number of health issues, siting restrictions have been implemented in many jurisdictions to limit noise exposure. These setbacks should help alleviate annoyance from noise. Subjective variables (attitudes and expectations) are also linked to annoyance and have the potential to facilitate other health complaints via the nocebo effect. Therefore, it is possible that a segment of the population may remain annoyed (or report other health impacts) even when noise limits are enforced. Based on the findings and scientific merit of the available studies, the weight of evidence suggests that when sited properly, wind turbines are not related to adverse health. Stemming from this review, we provide a number of recommended best practices for wind turbine development in the context of human health. PMID:24995266

  16. Developing Hydrogeological Site Characterization Strategies based on Human Health Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Barros, F.; Rubin, Y.; Maxwell, R. M.

    2013-12-01

    In order to provide better sustainable groundwater quality management and minimize the impact of contamination in humans, improved understanding and quantification of the interaction between hydrogeological models, geological site information and human health are needed. Considering the joint influence of these components in the overall human health risk assessment and the corresponding sources of uncertainty aid decision makers to better allocate resources in data acquisition campaigns. This is important to (1) achieve remediation goals in a cost-effective manner, (2) protect human health and (3) keep water supplies clean in order to keep with quality standards. Such task is challenging since a full characterization of the subsurface is unfeasible due to financial and technological constraints. In addition, human exposure and physiological response to contamination are subject to uncertainty and variability. Normally, sampling strategies are developed with the goal of reducing uncertainty, but less often they are developed in the context of their impacts on the overall system uncertainty. Therefore, quantifying the impact from each of these components (hydrogeological, behavioral and physiological) in final human health risk prediction can provide guidance for decision makers to best allocate resources towards minimal prediction uncertainty. In this presentation, a multi-component human health risk-based framework is presented which allows decision makers to set priorities through an information entropy-based visualization tool. Results highlight the role of characteristic length-scales characterizing flow and transport in determining data needs within an integrated hydrogeological-health framework. Conditions where uncertainty reduction in human health risk predictions may benefit from better understanding of the health component, as opposed to a more detailed hydrogeological characterization, are also discussed. Finally, results illustrate how different dose

  17. Climate Change, Drought and Human Health in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusa, Anna; Berry, Peter; J Cheng, June; Ogden, Nicholas; Bonsal, Barrie; Stewart, Ronald; Waldick, Ruth

    2015-07-17

    Droughts have been recorded all across Canada and have had significant impacts on individuals and communities. With climate change, projections suggest an increasing risk of drought in Canada, particularly in the south and interior. However, there has been little research on the impacts of drought on human health and the implications of a changing climate. A review of the Canadian, U.S. and international literature relevant to the Canadian context was conducted to better define these impacts and adaptations available to protect health. Drought can impact respiratory health, mental health, illnesses related to exposure to toxins, food/water security, rates of injury and infectious diseases (including food-, water- and vector-borne diseases). A range of direct and indirect adaptation (e.g., agricultural adaptation) options exist to cope with drought. Many have already been employed by public health officials, such as communicable disease monitoring and surveillance and public education and outreach. However, gaps exist in our understanding of the impacts of short-term vs. prolonged drought on the health of Canadians, projections of drought and its characteristics at the regional level and the effectiveness of current adaptations. Further research will be critical to inform adaptation planning to reduce future drought-related risks to health.

  18. Climate Change, Drought and Human Health in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusa, Anna; Berry, Peter; Cheng, June J.; Ogden, Nicholas; Bonsal, Barrie; Stewart, Ronald; Waldick, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Droughts have been recorded all across Canada and have had significant impacts on individuals and communities. With climate change, projections suggest an increasing risk of drought in Canada, particularly in the south and interior. However, there has been little research on the impacts of drought on human health and the implications of a changing climate. A review of the Canadian, U.S. and international literature relevant to the Canadian context was conducted to better define these impacts and adaptations available to protect health. Drought can impact respiratory health, mental health, illnesses related to exposure to toxins, food/water security, rates of injury and infectious diseases (including food-, water- and vector-borne diseases). A range of direct and indirect adaptation (e.g., agricultural adaptation) options exist to cope with drought. Many have already been employed by public health officials, such as communicable disease monitoring and surveillance and public education and outreach. However, gaps exist in our understanding of the impacts of short-term vs. prolonged drought on the health of Canadians, projections of drought and its characteristics at the regional level and the effectiveness of current adaptations. Further research will be critical to inform adaptation planning to reduce future drought-related risks to health. PMID:26193300

  19. Health risk and significance of mercury in the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, W C; Tse, H F

    2015-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) has long been recognised as a global pollutant, because it can remain in the atmosphere for more than 1 year. The mercury that enters the environment is generally acknowledged to have two sources: natural and anthropogenic. Hg takes three major forms in the environment, namely methyl-Hg (MeHg), Hg(0) and Hg(2+). All three forms of Hg adversely affect the natural environment and pose a risk to human health. In particular, they may damage the human central nervous system, leading to cardiovascular, respiratory and other diseases. MeHg is bioavailable and can be bioaccumulated within food webs. Therefore, several methods of eliminating Hg from the soil and the aquatic system have been proposed. The focus of this article is on phytoremediation, as this technique provides a low-cost and environmentally friendly alternative to traditional methods.

  20. Leading toward value: the role of strategic human resource management in health system adaptability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garman, Andrew N; Polavarapu, Nandakishor; Grady, Jane C; Canar, W Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    Personnel costs typically account for 60% or more of total operating expenses in health systems, and as such become a necessary focus in most if not all substantive health reform adaptations. This study sought to assess whether strategic alignment of the human resource (HR) and learning functions was associated with greater adaptive capacity in U.S. health systems. Data were gathered using a survey that was distributed electronically to chief human resource officers from two U.S.-based associations. The survey included questions about organizational structure, strategic human resource management, strategic learning, and organizational response to health reform. Significant correlations were found between strategic alignment of HR and HR's involvement in responses related to cost control (r = 0.46, p strategic alignment of organizational learning and HR involvement with these responses. Results suggest that HR structure may affect an organization's capacity for adaptive response. Top-management teams in health systems should consider positioning HR as part of the core leadership team, with a reporting relationship that allows HR to maximally participate in formulating and implementing organizational adaptation.

  1. A framework for the integration of ecosystem and human health in public policy: two case studies with infectious agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koren, H.S.; Crawford-Brown, Douglas

    2004-01-01

    Despite that a significant body of published literature exists in the complex area of interconnection among the environment, ecosystems, and human activity, relatively little attention has been paid to the integration and analysis of ecological and human health data in the form of a conceptual model. Human and ecological health protection generally have been treated as separate domains of policy, with significant differences in both the analytic methods used to characterize risks and the policies developed for risk reduction. Understanding the relationships among population growth, development, natural resource use, the environment, human health, and ecosystems is an important area of both scientific inquiry and environmental policy. The present paper focuses on the development of a conceptual model for understanding disease causation, particularly infectious disease, and the implications of such a model for public policy. The conceptual model incorporates ecological and human health risk assessment information applied to case studies of two infectious diseases. This article takes an initial step toward formalizing the conceptual model so that research and assessment procedures can be developed

  2. One health and cyanobacteria in freshwater systems: animal illnesses and deaths are sentinel events for human health risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilborn, Elizabeth D; Beasley, Val R

    2015-04-20

    Harmful cyanobacterial blooms have adversely impacted human and animal health for thousands of years. Recently, the health impacts of harmful cyanobacteria blooms are becoming more frequently detected and reported. However, reports of human and animal illnesses or deaths associated with harmful cyanobacteria blooms tend to be investigated and reported separately. Consequently, professionals working in human or in animal health do not always communicate findings related to these events with one another. Using the One Health concept of integration and collaboration among health disciplines, we systematically review the existing literature to discover where harmful cyanobacteria-associated animal illnesses and deaths have served as sentinel events to warn of potential human health risks. We find that illnesses or deaths among livestock, dogs and fish are all potentially useful as sentinel events for the presence of harmful cyanobacteria that may impact human health. We also describe ways to enhance the value of reports of cyanobacteria-associated illnesses and deaths in animals to protect human health. Efficient monitoring of environmental and animal health in a One Health collaborative framework can provide vital warnings of cyanobacteria-associated human health risks.

  3. [Human milk, immune responses and health effects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Løland, Beate Fossum; Baerug, Anne B; Nylander, Gro

    2007-09-20

    Besides providing optimal nutrition to infants, human milk contains a multitude of immunological components. These components are important for protection against infections and also support the development and maturation of the infant's own immune system. This review focuses on the function of some classical immunocomponents of human milk. Relevant studies are presented that describe health benefits of human milk for the child and of lactation for the mother. Relevant articles were found mainly by searching PubMed. Humoral and cellular components of human milk confer protection against infections in the respiratory--, gastrointestinal--and urinary tract. Human milk also protects premature children from neonatal sepsis and necrotizing enterocolitis. There is evidence that human milk may confer long-term benefits such as lower risk of certain autoimmune diseases, inflammatory bowel disease and probably some malignancies. Human milk possibly affects components of the metabolic syndrome. Recent studies demonstrate long-term health benefits of lactation also for the mother. A reduced incidence of breast cancer is best documented. An increasing number of studies indicate protection against ovarian cancer, rheumatoid arthritis and type II diabetes.

  4. Stimulating collaboration between human and veterinary health care professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eussen, Björn G M; Schaveling, Jaap; Dragt, Maria J; Blomme, Robert Jan

    2017-06-13

    Despite the need to control outbreaks of (emerging) zoonotic diseases and the need for added value in comparative/translational medicine, jointly addressed in the One Health approach [One health Initiative (n.d.a). About the One Health Initiative. http://www.onehealthinitiative.com/about.php . Accessed 13 September 2016], collaboration between human and veterinary health care professionals is limited. This study focuses on the social dilemma experienced by health care professionals and ways in which an interdisciplinary approach could be developed. Based on Gaertner and Dovidio's Common Ingroup Identity Model, a number of questionnaires were designed and tested; with PROGRESS, the relation between collaboration and common goal was assessed, mediated by decategorization, recategorization, mutual differentiation and knowledge sharing. This study confirms the Common Ingroup Identity Model stating that common goals stimulate collaboration. Decategorization and mutual differentiation proved to be significant in this relationship; recategorization and knowledge sharing mediate this relation. It can be concluded that the Common Ingroup Identity Model theory helps us to understand how health care professionals perceive the One Health initiative and how they can intervene in this process. In the One Health approach, professional associations could adopt a facilitating role.

  5. Health Care and Human Trafficking: We are Seeing the Unseen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisolm-Straker, Makini; Baldwin, Susie; Gaïgbé-Togbé, Bertille; Ndukwe, Nneka; Johnson, Pauline N; Richardson, Lynne D

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to build the evidence base around human trafficking (HT) and health in the U.S. by employing a quantitative approach to exploring the notion that health care providers encounter this population. Furthermore, this study sought to describe the health care settings most frequented by victims of human trafficking. This was an anonymous, retrospective study of survivors of U.S.-based human trafficking. One hundred and seventy-three participants who endured U.S.-based human trafficking were surveyed. The majority (68%, n=117) of participants were seen by a health care provider while being trafficked. Respondents most frequently reported visiting emergency/urgent care practitioners (56%), followed by primary care providers, dentists, and obstetricians/gynecologists (OB/GYNs). While health care providers are serving this patient population, they do not consistently identify them as victims of human trafficking.

  6. Human Health/Human Factors Considerations in Trans-Lunar Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, E. Cherice; Howard, Robert; Mendeck, Gavin

    2014-01-01

    The human factors insights of how they are incorporated into the vehicle are crucial towards designing and planning the internal designs necessary for future spacecraft and missions. The adjusted mission concept of supporting the Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission will drive some human factors changes on how the Orion will be used and will be reassessed so as to best contribute to missions success. Recognizing what the human factors and health functional needs are early in the design process and how to integrate them will improve this and future generations of space vehicles to achieve mission success and continue to minimize risks.

  7. Solar radiation and human health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juzeniene, Asta; Moan, Kristin; Moan, Johan [Department of Radiation Biology, Institute for Cancer Research, The Norwegian Radium Hospital, Oslo University Hospital, Montebello, N-0310 Oslo (Norway); Brekke, Paal [Norwegian Space Centre, PO Box 113, Skoeyen, N-0212 Oslo (Norway); Dahlback, Arne [Department of Physics, University of Oslo, Blindern, 0316 Oslo (Norway); Andersson-Engels, Stefan [Department of Physics, Lund University, PO Box 118, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Reichrath, Joerg [Klinik fuer Dermatologie, Venerologie und Allergologie, Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, D-66421 Homburg/Saar (Germany); Holick, Michael F [Department of Medicine, Section of Endocrinology, Nutrition and Diabetes, Vitamin D, Skin and Bone Research Laboratory, Boston University Medical Center, 85 E. Newton St., M-1013, Boston, MA 02118 (United States); Grant, William B, E-mail: asta.juzeniene@rr-research.no, E-mail: kmoan@hotmail.com, E-mail: paal.brekke@spacecentre.no, E-mail: arne.dahlback@fys.uio.no, E-mail: j.e.moan@fys.uio.no, E-mail: stefan.andersson-engels@fysik.lth.se, E-mail: joerg.reichrath@uks.eu, E-mail: mfholick@bu.edu, E-mail: wbgrant@infionline.net [Sunlight, Nutrition and Health Research Center (SUNARC), PO Box 641603, San Francisco, CA 94164-1603 (United States)

    2011-06-15

    The Sun has played a major role in the development of life on Earth. In Western culture, people are warned against Sun exposure because of its adverse effects: erythema, photoimmunosuppression, photoageing, photocarcinogenesis, cataracts and photokeratitis. However, Sun exposure is also beneficial, since moderate doses give beneficial physiological effects: vitamin D synthesis, reduction of blood pressure and mental health. Shortage of Sun exposure may be even more dangerous to human health than excessive exposure. Avoiding Sun exposure leads to vitamin D deficiency which is associated not only with rickets and osteomalacia, but also with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes, influenza, many types of cancer and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Solar radiation induces nitric oxide release in tissue and immediate pigment darkening which certainly play important roles, although these are still unknown. Action spectra relevant for health are described. We will also review what is known about spectral and intensity variations of terrestrial solar radiation as well as its penetration through the atmosphere and into human skin and tissue.

  8. Solar radiation and human health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juzeniene, Asta; Brekke, Pål; Dahlback, Arne; Andersson-Engels, Stefan; Reichrath, Jörg; Moan, Kristin; Holick, Michael F.; Grant, William B.; Moan, Johan

    2011-06-01

    The Sun has played a major role in the development of life on Earth. In Western culture, people are warned against Sun exposure because of its adverse effects: erythema, photoimmunosuppression, photoageing, photocarcinogenesis, cataracts and photokeratitis. However, Sun exposure is also beneficial, since moderate doses give beneficial physiological effects: vitamin D synthesis, reduction of blood pressure and mental health. Shortage of Sun exposure may be even more dangerous to human health than excessive exposure. Avoiding Sun exposure leads to vitamin D deficiency which is associated not only with rickets and osteomalacia, but also with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes, influenza, many types of cancer and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Solar radiation induces nitric oxide release in tissue and immediate pigment darkening which certainly play important roles, although these are still unknown. Action spectra relevant for health are described. We will also review what is known about spectral and intensity variations of terrestrial solar radiation as well as its penetration through the atmosphere and into human skin and tissue.

  9. Solar radiation and human health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juzeniene, Asta; Moan, Kristin; Moan, Johan; Brekke, Paal; Dahlback, Arne; Andersson-Engels, Stefan; Reichrath, Joerg; Holick, Michael F; Grant, William B

    2011-01-01

    The Sun has played a major role in the development of life on Earth. In Western culture, people are warned against Sun exposure because of its adverse effects: erythema, photoimmunosuppression, photoageing, photocarcinogenesis, cataracts and photokeratitis. However, Sun exposure is also beneficial, since moderate doses give beneficial physiological effects: vitamin D synthesis, reduction of blood pressure and mental health. Shortage of Sun exposure may be even more dangerous to human health than excessive exposure. Avoiding Sun exposure leads to vitamin D deficiency which is associated not only with rickets and osteomalacia, but also with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes, influenza, many types of cancer and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Solar radiation induces nitric oxide release in tissue and immediate pigment darkening which certainly play important roles, although these are still unknown. Action spectra relevant for health are described. We will also review what is known about spectral and intensity variations of terrestrial solar radiation as well as its penetration through the atmosphere and into human skin and tissue.

  10. It's like a family: the significance attributed by health professionals to diabetes health education groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Lucas Pereira de

    2016-08-01

    This article analyzes the significance that health professionals attribute to health education groups for people with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM). This ethnographic study was developed with five professionals from an Expanded Family Health team that operated in five diabetes health education groups. Information was gathered using participant observations and semi-structured interviews. Data were analyzed by means of a thematic coding technique. Three different categories emerged: (1) It is a way of educating them: groups as an educational and clinical monitoring forum; (2) they know I will be there for them: the groups as a resource to access the health system; and (3) this serves as a self-help group: after all, what purpose does this group serve? The conclusion reached is that the groups studied were a therapy and support hybrid that, by means of their structure, made it possible for the informants (perhaps, also for the patients) to construct other significance for the standardization of health policies and the dilemma of chronicity. Such hybridization made it possible to create outcomes for the specificities of health work in a "total life" context.

  11. Reflections on the ethics of recruiting foreign-trained human resources for health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Labonté Ronald

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Developed countries' gains in health human resources (HHR from developing countries with significantly lower ratios of health workers have raised questions about the ethics or fairness of recruitment from such countries. By attracting and/or facilitating migration for foreign-trained HHR, notably those from poorer, less well-resourced nations, recruitment practices and policies may be compromising the ability of developing countries to meet the health care needs of their own populations. Little is known, however, about actual recruitment practices. In this study we focus on Canada (a country with a long reliance on internationally trained HHR and recruiters working for Canadian health authorities. Methods We conducted interviews with health human resources recruiters employed by Canadian health authorities to describe their recruitment practices and perspectives and to determine whether and how they reflect ethical considerations. Results and discussion We describe the methods that recruiters used to recruit foreign-trained health professionals and the systemic challenges and policies that form the working context for recruiters and recruits. HHR recruiters' reflections on the global flow of health workers from poorer to richer countries mirror much of the content of global-level discourse with regard to HHR recruitment. A predominant market discourse related to shortages of HHR outweighed discussions of human rights and ethical approaches to recruitment policy and action that consider global health impacts. Conclusions We suggest that the concept of corporate social responsibility may provide a useful approach at the local organizational level for developing policies on ethical recruitment. Such local policies and subsequent practices may inform public debate on the health equity implications of the HHR flows from poorer to richer countries inherent in the global health worker labour market, which in turn could influence

  12. Reflections on the ethics of recruiting foreign-trained human resources for health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runnels, Vivien; Labonté, Ronald; Packer, Corinne

    2011-01-20

    Developed countries' gains in health human resources (HHR) from developing countries with significantly lower ratios of health workers have raised questions about the ethics or fairness of recruitment from such countries. By attracting and/or facilitating migration for foreign-trained HHR, notably those from poorer, less well-resourced nations, recruitment practices and policies may be compromising the ability of developing countries to meet the health care needs of their own populations. Little is known, however, about actual recruitment practices. In this study we focus on Canada (a country with a long reliance on internationally trained HHR) and recruiters working for Canadian health authorities. We conducted interviews with health human resources recruiters employed by Canadian health authorities to describe their recruitment practices and perspectives and to determine whether and how they reflect ethical considerations. We describe the methods that recruiters used to recruit foreign-trained health professionals and the systemic challenges and policies that form the working context for recruiters and recruits. HHR recruiters' reflections on the global flow of health workers from poorer to richer countries mirror much of the content of global-level discourse with regard to HHR recruitment. A predominant market discourse related to shortages of HHR outweighed discussions of human rights and ethical approaches to recruitment policy and action that consider global health impacts. We suggest that the concept of corporate social responsibility may provide a useful approach at the local organizational level for developing policies on ethical recruitment. Such local policies and subsequent practices may inform public debate on the health equity implications of the HHR flows from poorer to richer countries inherent in the global health worker labour market, which in turn could influence political choices at all government and health system levels.

  13. Health significance of metal exposures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grandjean, Philippe

    2007-01-01

    and written by well-respected authorities in the range of topics covered, Maxcy-Rosenau-Last Public Health and Preventive Medicine is also an outstanding guide to additional resources of information in preparing for the board exam in preventative medicine and public health. The new edition of Maxcy......An extensive, in-depth look at public health and preventive medicine topics from experts in the field This trusted one-stop resource is a completely up-to-date, all-in-one public health and preventive medicine guide. Sponsored by the Association of Teachers of Preventive Medicine and edited......-Rosenau-Last Public Health and Preventive Medicine has been completely updated to encompass many new diseases, conditions, and policy issues that continue to dramatically shape-and expand the influence of-public health and preventive medicine. New to this Edition: Important coverage of new diseases, conditions...

  14. Climate change, human health, and epidemiological transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Bruce; Charles, Joel W; Temte, Jonathan L

    2015-01-01

    The health of populations depends on the availability of clean air, water, food, and sanitation, exposure to pathogens, toxins and environmental hazards, and numerous genetic, behavioral and social factors. For many thousands of years, human life expectancy was low, and population growth was slow. The development of technology-based civilizations facilitated what Abdel Omran called "epidemiological transition," with increasing life expectancy and rapid population growth. To a large extent, the spectacular growth of human populations during the past two centuries was made possible by the energy extracted from fossil fuels. We have now learned, however, that greenhouse gases from fossil fuel combustion are warming the planet's surface, causing changes in oceanic and atmospheric systems, and disrupting weather and hydrological patterns. Climate change poses unprecedented threats to human health by impacts on food and water security, heat waves and droughts, violent storms, infectious disease, and rising sea levels. Whether or not humanity can reduce greenhouse gas emissions quickly enough to slow climate change to a rate that will allow societies to successfully adapt is not yet known. This essay reviews the current state of relevant knowledge, and points in a few directions that those interested in human health may wish to consider. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. How the marine biotoxins affect human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morabito, Silvia; Silvestro, Serena; Faggio, Caterina

    2018-03-01

    Several marine microalgae produce dangerous toxins very damaging to human health, aquatic ecosystems and coastal resources. These Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) in recent decades seem greatly increased regarding frequency, severity and biogeographical level, causing serious health risks as a consequence of the consumption of contaminated seafood. Toxins can cause various clinically described syndromes, characterised by a wide range of symptoms: amnesic (ASP), diarrhoetic (DSP), azaspirazid (AZP), neurotoxic (NSP) and paralytic (PSP) shellfish poisonings and ciguatera fish poisoning. The spread of HABs is probably a result of anthropogenic activities and climate change, that influence marine planktonic systems, including global warming, habitat modification, eutrophication and growth of exogenous species in response to human pressures. HABs are a worldwide matter that requests local solutions and international cooperation. This review supplies an overview of HAB phenomena, and, in particular, we describe the major consequences of HABs on human health.

  16. Clinical Trials: A Crucial Key to Human Health Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Past Issues Clinical Trials: A Crucial Key to Human Health Research Past Issues / Summer 2006 Table of Contents ... Javascript on. Photo: PhotoDisc At the forefront of human health research today are clinical trials—studies that use ...

  17. Promotion of health and human functionality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristhina de Oliveira Brasil

    2013-08-01

    Organization, signatory of Resolution WHA54.21-OMS54.21, which recommends the use of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF, translated into Portuguese in 2003. The main paradigm that ICF brings is the shift from an approach based on the disease to an approach focused on the human functionality (3. Only in May 2012 the National Health Council (Conselho nacioinal de Saúde – CNS approved the resolution 452 for the Ministry of Health to adopt the ICF, among other uses, as a generator of indicators of human functionality (4. Human functionality, according to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF of the World Health Organization, is a comprehensive term that designates the elements of the body, its functions and structures, the human activities and participation in the social processes, indicating the positive aspects of the interaction of individuals with certain health conditions and thee context in which he lives with regard to personal and environmental factors (structural and attitudinal (3. However, health information appears incomplete, since data regarding the human functionality is not yet meaningful enough to support the developed policies so that they could accomplish the expected results in the face of the disabilities posed by the deficiencies, limitations in activities and restrictions of participation(5. Given the above, a change in direction is required in the paths of public health policies in Brazil, disposing of the exclusively biological approach to the disease, and starting to see it as a problem produced by the society. Therefore, it is necessary to develop information that record not only the disease but the additional aspects of the individuals´ health status. The human functionality is directly influenced both by the presence of diseases, mainly the chronic ones (featuring the change induced by the epidemiologic transition, as by the occurance of negative context, like the

  18. Promotion of Health and Human Functionality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristhina de Oliveira Brasil

    2013-03-01

    Organization, signatory of Resolution WHA54.21-OMS54.21, which recommends the use of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF, translated into Portuguese in 2003. The main paradigm that ICF brings is the shift from an approach based on the disease to an approach focused on the human functionality (3. Only in May 2012 the National Health Council (Conselho nacioinal de Saúde – CNS approved the resolution 452 for the Ministry of Health to adopt the ICF, among other uses, as a generator of indicators of human functionality (4. Human functionality, according to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF of the World Health Organization, is a comprehensive term that designates the elements of the body, its functions and structures, the human activities and participation in the social processes, indicating the positive aspects of the interaction of individuals with certain health conditions and thee context in which he lives with regard to personal and environmental factors (structural and attitudinal (3. However, health information appears incomplete, since data regarding the human functionality is not yet meaningful enough to support the developed policies so that they could accomplish the expected results in the face of the disabilities posed by the deficiencies, limitations in activities and restrictions of participation(5.Given the above, a change in direction is required in the paths of public health policies in Brazil, disposing of the exclusively biological approach to the disease, and starting to see it as a problem produced by the society. Therefore, it is necessary to develop information that record not only the disease but the additional aspects of the individuals´ health status.The human functionality is directly influenced both by the presence of diseases, mainly the chronic ones (featuring the change induced by the epidemiologic transition, as by the occurance of negative context, like the diverse

  19. The quest for One Health: Human Resource training aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angwara Kiwara

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Appropriately trained Human Resources for Health (HRH are key inputs into One Health. ‘… more than 50% of all infectious diseases of humans originate from animals and that, of the emerging diseases about 75% could be traced back to animal origin’ (Rweyemamu et al. 2006. A comprehensive understanding of the social determinants of health, through an appropriate training model for HRH, is a key input. This study aimed to explore if human and veterinary medical schools were using such a model or providing time for this model in their curricula. Specific objectives were to: determine the time that human and veterinary medical schools’ curricula provide for subjects or courses related to the social determinants of health; analyse the curricula contents to establish how they relate to the social determinants of health; and explore how a bio-medical model may influence the graduates’ understanding and practice of One Health. A review of human and veterinary graduate-level medical schools’ curricula in East Africa was performed in April 2013 and May 2013. The findings were: in the curricula, SDH contents for knowledge enhancement about One Health are minimal and that teaching is Germ Theory model-driven and partisan. Out of the total training time for physicians and veterinarians, less than 10% was provided for the social determinants of health-related courses. In conclusion, the curricula and training times provided are inadequate for graduates to fully understand the social determinants of health and their role in One Health. Furthermore, the Germ Theory model that has been adopted addresses secondary causes and is inappropriate. There is a need for more in-depth model. This article suggests that a vicious cycle of ill-health model must be taught.

  20. Site, Sector, Scope: Mapping the Epistemological Landscape of Health Humanities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charise, Andrea

    2017-12-01

    This essay presents a critical appraisal of the current state of baccalaureate Health Humanities, with a special focus on the contextual differences currently influencing the implementation of this field in Canada and, to a lesser extent, the United States and United Kingdom. I argue that the epistemological bedrock of Health Humanities goes beyond that generated by its written texts to include three external factors that are especially pertinent to undergraduate education: site (the setting of Health Humanities education), sector (the disciplinary eligibility for funding) and scope (the critical engagement with a program's local context alongside an emergent "core" of Health Humanities knowledge, learning, and practice). Drawing largely from the Canadian context, I discuss how these differences can inform or obstruct this field's development, and offer preliminary recommendations for encouraging the growth of baccalaureate Health Humanities-in Canada and elsewhere-in light of these factors.

  1. Tea and Health: Studies in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Naghma; Mukhtar, Hasan

    2014-01-01

    Tea, next to water is the cheapest beverage humans consume. Drinking the beverage tea has been considered a health-promoting habit since ancient times. The modern medicinal research is providing a scientific basis for this belief. The evidence supporting the health benefits of tea drinking grows stronger with each new study that is published in the scientific literature. Tea plant Camellia sinensis has been cultivated for thousands of years and its leaves have been used for medicinal purposes. Tea is used as a popular beverage worldwide and its ingredients are now finding medicinal benefits. Encouraging data showing cancer-preventive effects of green tea from cell-culture, animal and human studies have emerged. Evidence is accumulating that black tea may have similar beneficial effects. Tea consumption has also been shown to be useful for prevention of many debilitating human diseases that include maintenance of cardiovascular and metabolic health. Various studies suggest that polyphenolic compounds present in green and black tea are associated with beneficial effects in prevention of cardiovascular diseases, particularly of atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease. In addition, anti-aging, antidiabetic and many other health beneficial effects associated with tea consumption are described. Evidence is accumulating that catechins and theaflavins, which are the main polyphenolic compounds of green and black tea, respectively, are responsible for most of the physiological effects of tea. This article describes the evidences from clinical and epidemiological studies in the prevention of chronic diseases like cancer and cardiovascular diseases and general health promotion associated with tea consumption. PMID:23448443

  2. Advancing sexual health through human rights: the role of the law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kismödi, Eszter; Cottingham, Jane; Gruskin, Sofia; Miller, Alice M

    2015-01-01

    Since the International Conference on Population and Development, definitions of sexuality and sexual health have been greatly elaborated alongside widely accepted recognition that sexual health requires respect, protection and fulfilment of human rights. Considerable progress has also been made in enacting or changing laws that affect sexuality and sexual health, in line with human rights standards. These measures include legal guarantees against non-discrimination and violence, decriminalisation of consensual sexual conduct and guaranteeing availability, accessibility, acceptability and quality of sexual health information and services to all. Such legal actions have had positive effects on health and specifically on sexual health, particularly for marginalised populations. Yet in all regions of the world, laws still exist which jeopardise health, including sexual health, and violate human rights. In order to ensure accountability for the rights and health of their populations, states have an obligation to bring their laws into line with international, regional and national human rights standards. These rights-based legal guarantees, while insufficient alone, are essential for effective systems of accountability, achieving positive sexual health outcomes and the respect and protection of human rights.

  3. Health and welfare in animals and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordenfelt, Lennart

    2011-06-01

    This paper contains a brief comparative analysis of some philosophical and scientific discourses on human and animal health and welfare, focusing mainly on the welfare of sentient animals. The paper sets forth two kinds of proposals for the analysis of animal welfare which do not appear in the contemporary philosophical discussion of human welfare, viz. the coping theory of welfare and the theory of welfare in terms of natural behaviour. These proposals are scrutinized in the light of some similar theories dealing with human health and quality of life. My conclusion is that the coping theory and the natural behaviour theory are not in themselves adequate for the characterization of welfare, either for humans or for sentient animals. I contend, finally, that, in the light of the previous discussion, there are good arguments for a particular set of analyses of both animal and human welfare, viz. the ones that are based on the notions of preference satisfaction and positive subjective experiences.

  4. Final Disposal of Solid Waste in Sanitary Landfills and Human Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Silveira Graudenz

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a critical review of scientific literature on waste sanitary landfills and its effects on human health, with an approach to the adverse effects that are most commonly associated to living near waste landfills. The health variables included were low birth weight, congenital abnormalities, some types of neoplasms, allergies, asthma and other respiratory diseases using the MEDLINE, LILACS and CAPES’ thesis post graduation database for systematic review. In spite of the fact that some studies indicate positive asssociation between health risks and living close to landfills, the majority of the studies, mainly the most recent ones, do not demonstrate a significant health risk in this condition. Some common limitations and bias of the work in the field are discussed. The lack of direct quantification of exposure, lack of prospective approach and no comparaison of the different types and quality of management of the residues are common limitations to most studies. So far, there is weak evidence to support significant epidemiological health risks associated to landfills. More interdisciplinary research should improve the knoledge of the health risks related to living in the proximity to sanitary landfills.

  5. [Time series studies of air pollution by fires and the effects on human health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Carmo, Cleber Nascimento; Hacon, Sandra de Souza

    2013-11-01

    Burnoffs (intentional fires for agricultural purposes) and forest fires of large proportions have been observed in various regions of the planet. Exposure to high levels of air pollutants emitted by fires can be responsible for various harmful effects on human health. In this article, the literature on estimating acute effects of air pollution on human health by fires in the regions with the highest number of fires on the planet, using a time series approach is summarized. An attempt was made to identify gaps in knowledge. The study consisted of a narrative review, in which the characteristics of the selected studies were grouped by regions of the planet with a higher incidence of burnoffs: Amazon, America, Australia and Asia. The results revealed a large number of studies in Australia, few studies in the Amazon and great heterogeneity in the results on the significant effects on human health.

  6. A review of the consequences of global climate change on human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki-Hyun; Kabir, Ehsanul; Ara Jahan, Shamin

    2014-01-01

    The impact of climate change has been significant enough to endanger human health both directly and indirectly via heat stress, degraded air quality, rising sea levels, food and water security, extreme weather events (e.g., floods, droughts, earthquakes, volcano eruptions, tsunamis, hurricanes, etc.), vulnerable shelter, and population migration. The deterioration of environmental conditions may facilitate the transmission of diarrhea, vector-borne and infectious diseases, cardiovascular and respiratory illnesses, malnutrition, etc. Indirect effects of climate change such as mental health problems due to stress, loss of homes, economic instability, and forced migration are also unignorably important. Children, the elderly, and communities living in poverty are among the most vulnerable of the harmful effects due to climate change. In this article, we have reviewed the scientific evidence for the human health impact of climate change and analyzed the various diseases in association with changes in the atmospheric environment and climate conditions.

  7. Indicators of human health in ecosystems: what do we measure?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cole, D.C.; Eyles, J.; Gibson, B.L.

    1998-01-01

    Increasingly, scientists are being called upon to assist in the development of indicators for monitoring ecosystem health. For human health indicators, they may draw on environmental exposure, human morbidity/mortality or well-being and sustainability approaches. To improve the rigour of indicators, we propose six scientific criteria for indicator selection: (1) data availability, suitability and representativeness (of populations), (2) indicator validity (face, construct, predictive and convergent) and reliability; (3) indicator responsiveness to change; (4) indicator desegregation capability (across personal and community characteristics); (5) indicator comparability (across populations and jurisdictions); and (6) indicator representativeness (across important dimensions of concern). We comment on our current capacity to adhere to such criteria with examples of measures of environmental exposure, human health and sustainability. We recognize the considerable work still required on documenting environment-human health relationships and on monitoring potential indicators in similar ways over time. Yet we argue that such work is essential in order for science to inform policy decisions which affect the health of ecosystems and human health. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  8. Spontaneous Food Fermentations and Potential Risks for Human Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittorio Capozzi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Fermented foods and beverages are a heterogeneous class of products with a relevant worldwide significance for human economy, nutrition and health for millennia. A huge diversity of microorganisms is associated with the enormous variety in terms of raw materials, fermentative behavior and obtained products. In this wide microbiodiversity it is possible that the presence of microbial pathogens and toxic by-products of microbial origin, including mycotoxins, ethyl carbamate and biogenic amines, are aspects liable to reduce the safety of the consumed product. Together with other approaches (e.g., use of preservatives, respect of specific physico-chemical parameters, starter cultures technology has been conceived to successfully dominate indigenous microflora and to drive fermentation to foresee the desired attributes of the matrix, assuring quality and safety. Recent trends indicate a general return to spontaneous food fermentation. In this review, we point out the potential risks for human health associated with uncontrolled (uninoculated food fermentation and we discuss biotechnological approaches susceptible to conciliate fermented food safety, with instances of an enhanced contribution of microbes associated to spontaneous fermentation.

  9. Domestic dogs and human health: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Deborah L

    2007-02-01

    The domestic dog is one of the most commonly owned, and widely utilized, animals in today's society. This paper provides an overview of research that has explored the relationship between the domestic dog and human well-being. The article initially concentrates on the value of dogs for physical health in humans, exploring the evidence that this species can prevent us from becoming ill, facilitate our recovery from ill-health, and even serve as an early warning system for certain types of underlying ailment including cancer, oncoming seizures and hypoglycaemia. The paper then examines the relationship between dogs and psychological health in humans, exploring the ability of this species to aid the disabled and serve as a therapist to those in institutional settings such as hospitals, residential homes and prisons. Weaknesses in the existing research in this area are highlighted throughout the article. Taken together, the studies reviewed suggest that dogs can have prophylactic and therapeutic value for people.

  10. Human health effects of exposure to cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallenbeck, W.H.

    1986-01-01

    The health effects of human exposure to cadmium are discussed with emphases on intake, absorption, body burden, and excretion; osteomalacia in Japan; hypertension; and proteinuria, emphysema, osteomalacia, and cancer in workers. Elevated blood pressure has not been observed as a result of excessive exposures to cadmium in Japan or the workplace. Renal tubular dysfunction and consequent proteinuria is generally accepted as the main effect following long-term, low-level exposure to cadmium. Studies of workers show that proteinuria may develop after the first year of exposure or many years after the last exposure. Proteinuria and deterioration of renal function may continue even after cessation of exposure. The immediate health significance of low-level proteinuria is still under debate. However, there is evidence that long-term renal tubular dysfunction may lead to abnormalities of calcium metabolism and osteomalacia. The few autopsy and cross-sectional studies of workers do not permit conclusions to be drawn regarding the relationship between cadmium exposure and emphysema. Retrospective and historical-prospective studies are needed to settle this important question. No conclusive evidence has been published regarding cadmium-induced cancer in humans. However, there is sufficient evidence to regard cadmium as a suspect renal and prostate carcinogen. Because of equivocal results and the absence of dose-response relationships, the studies reviewed should be used with caution in making regulatory decisions and low-dose risk assessments. 62 references.

  11. Human health effects of exposure to cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallenbeck, W.H.

    1984-02-15

    The health effects of human exposure to cadmium are discussed with emphasis on intake, absorption, body burden, and excretion; osteomalacia in Japan; hypertension; and proteinuria, emphysema, osteomalacia, and cancer in workers. Elevated blood pressure has not been observed as a result of excessive exposures to cadmium in Japan or the workplace. Renal tubular dysfunction and consequent proteinuria is generally accepted as the main effect following long-term, low-level exposure to cadmium. Studies of workers show that proteinuria may develop after the first year of exposure or many years after the last exposure. Proteinuria and deterioration of renal function may continue even after cessation of exposure. The immediate health significance of low-level proteinuria is still under debate. However, there is evidence that long-term renal tubular dysfunction may lead to abnormalities of calcium metabolism and osteomalacia. The few autopsy and cross-sectional studies of workers do not permit conclusions to be drawn regarding the relationship between cadmium exposure and emphysema. Retrospective and historical-prospective studies are needed to settle this important question. No conclusive evidence has been published regarding cadmium-induced cancer in humans. However, there is sufficient evidence to regard cadmium as a suspect renal and prostate carcinogen. Because of equivocal results and the absence of dose-response relationships, the studies reviewed should be used with caution in making regulatory decisions and low-dose risk assessments.

  12. Oceans and Human Health: Microplastics and Harmful Algal Bloom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sombrito, Elvira Z.

    2015-01-01

    Traditionally the focus of research and concern of environmental studies in the marine system is the impact of human activities in the ocean: the sources, distribution and fate of pollutants resulting from human activities. More recently, there has been recognition of the potential direct impact health can come from eating contaminated seafood, swimming in polluted water, and exposure to toxins from harmful algal blooms. This paper will present two areas of concern that illustrates the fact that the health of the oceans and the health of humans go hand in hand: chemical pollution from plastics in the ocean and harmful alga bloom. The nuclear methodologies than can be useful in these areas will also be introduced. It is hoped that through the recognition of the inter-dependence of the health of both humans and the oceans, efforts will be made to restore and preserve the oceans. (author)

  13. 'The medical' and 'health' in a critical medical humanities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Sarah; Evans, Bethan; Woods, Angela; Kearns, Robin

    2015-03-01

    As befits an emerging field of enquiry, there is on-going discussion about the scope, role and future of the medical humanities. One relatively recent contribution to this debate proposes a differentiation of the field into two distinct terrains, 'medical humanities' and 'health humanities,' and calls for a supersession of the former by the latter. In this paper, we revisit the conceptual underpinnings for a distinction between 'the medical' and 'health' by looking at the history of an analogous debate between 'medical geography' and 'the geographies of health' that has, over the last few years, witnessed a re-blurring of the distinction. Highlighting the value of this debate within the social sciences for the future development of the medical humanities, we call for scholars to take seriously the challenges of critical and cultural theory, community-based arts and health, and the counter-cultural creative practices and strategies of activist movements in order to meet the new research challenges and fulfill the radical potential of a critical medical humanities.

  14. Tick-, Flea-, and Louse-Borne Diseases of Public Health and Veterinary Significance in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluwaseun Oguntomole

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Mosquito-borne diseases are common high-impact diseases in tropical and subtropical areas. However, other non-mosquito vector-borne pathogens (VBPs may share their geographic distribution, seasonality, and clinical manifestations, thereby contributing their share to the morbidity and mortality caused by febrile illnesses in these regions. The purpose of this work was to collect and review existing information and identify knowledge gaps about tick, flea-, and louse-borne diseases of veterinary and public health significance in Nigeria. Full-length articles about VBPs were reviewed and relevant information about the vectors, their hosts, geographic distribution, seasonality, and association(s with human or veterinary diseases was extracted. Specific laboratory tools used for detection and identification of VBPs in Nigeria were also identified. A total of 62 original publications were examined. Substantial information about the prevalence and impacts of ticks and fleas on pet and service dogs (18 articles, and livestock animals (23 articles were available; however, information about their association with and potential for causing human illnesses was largely absent despite the zoonotic nature of many of these peri-domestic veterinary diseases. Recent publications that employed molecular methods of detection demonstrated the occurrence of several classic (Ehrlichia canis, Rickettsia africae, Bartonella sp. and emerging human pathogens (R. aeschlimannii, Neoehrlichia mikurensis in ticks and fleas. However, information about other pathogens often found in association with ticks (R. conorii and fleas (R. typhi, R. felis across the African continent was lacking. Records of louse-borne epidemic typhus in Nigeria date to 1947; however, its current status is not known. This review provides an essential baseline summary of the current knowledge in Nigeria of non-mosquito VBPs, and should stimulate improvements in the surveillance of the veterinary and

  15. Dynamic Interactions Between Health, Human Capital and Wealth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Bin Zhang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a dynamic economic model with health, human capital and wealth accumulation with elastic labor supply. The economic system consists of one industrial, one health, and one education sector. Our model is a synthesis of four main models in economic theory: Solow’s one-sector neoclassical growth mode, the Uzawa-Lucas two sector model, Arrow’s learning by doing model, and Grossman’s growth model with health. The model also includes Zhang’s idea about creative leisure or learning by consuming. Demand and supply of health service and education are determined by market mechanism. The model describes dynamic interdependence among wealth, health, human capital, economic structure, and time distribution among work, health caring, and education under perfect competition. We simulate the model and examine effects of changes in the propensity to consume health caring, the efficiency of producing health caring, the propensity to receive education, and the propensity to save.

  16. The Significance of UNESCO’s Universal Declaration on the Human Genome & Human Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawn H.E. Harmon

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Modern medical research, particularly genetic research, is changing the nature of medicine. Concerns surrounding these changes and their potential negative impact on human rights led UNESCO to spearhead collaboration by experts in the creation of an international instrument intended to provide guidance for the promotion of bioethics and the protection of human rights in the genetic context. The result was the Universal Declaration of the Human Genome and Human Rights. This article briefly highlights the scientific and social setting into which the Declaration was injected. This is followed by a consideration of the drafting body (the IBC so as to assess whether UNESCO was the appropriate body to lead this project. The process by which the Declaration was created is also considered so as to assess whether it represents an example of ethical and democratic drafting. Finally, the substantive content of the Declaration is considered and measured against the pre-existing regime so as to assess whether it represents an intelligible and coherent response to the concerns raised capable of offering guidance now and into the future. By assessing these procedural and substantive matters, one can draw some tentative conclusions about the utility and significance of the Declaration.

  17. Animal-Assisted Therapy for Improving Human Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibel Cevizci

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Animal Assisted Therapy (AAT or Pet Therapy is an adjunctive therapy by taking advantage of human and animal interaction, activate the physiological and psychological mechanisms, initiate positive changes improving health in metabolism. In recent years, this interaction are in use to treat psychological and psychiatric disorders such as stress, depression, loneliness, pervasive developmental disorders affect negatively to human health. Furthermore, AAT has been increasingly used to improve quality of life, hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, chronic illnesses such as cancer and AIDS. The aim of this paper is to identify AAT by reviewing human and animal interaction, evaluate how AAT has a scientific background from past to now. Also, we aim to give some information about the risks, institutional applications, some factors referring AAT’s mechanism of action and chronic diseases, psychological and physical improvements provided with animal assisted therapies. The therapy results will be evaluated more advisable providing AAT is being applied with public health specialist, veterinarian, physician, psychologist, psychiatrist and veterinary public health experts who are monitor applications. Especially, the psychosomatic effects result from physical, emotional and play mechanism of action of HDT can be used for improving quality of life in individuals with chronic diseases. In Turkey, there is no any investigation which have been performed in this scientific field. It is quitely important to evaluate the benefits of this therapy accurately and to select various methods proper to diseases. Consequently, it is obvious that AAT will be considered by the healthcare services as a supportive therapy process for improving human health in Turkey and needs further studies. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2009; 8(3.000: 263-272

  18. Concept of waste and its impact on human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashkov, Vitalii M; Batyhina, Olena M; Trotska, Maryna V

    Impact of the environment on human health is increasingly being paid attention both at the international level and at the level of individual countries. Among the factors that anyhow can affect it negatively, various objects are distinguished and waste is not of the last consequence. It has different nature of origin, ways of further utilization and a degree of impact on human health and the environment. Its generation, utilization and neutralization are determined by the relevant processes; their research allows continuous improvement and reduction of their negative impact on human health and the environment. To analyze provisions of the international legislation concerning the concept of waste and its classification, as well as its potential impacts on human health and the environment. The study analyzes and uses international legal documents, data of international organizations and scientists' deductions. Furthermore, the study integrates information from scientific journals with scientific methods from the medical and legal point of view. Within the framework of the system approach, as well as analysis and synthesis, the concept of waste, its classification and impact on human health and the environment have been researched. In consequence of the conducted study, it has been found that at the European level, considerable attention is paid to waste in the context of its possible negative impact on human health and the environment. Solution of this problem is carried out with the integrated approach, which is expressed both in enacting statutory acts and amending existing ones, as well as elucidating various aspects at the scientific, methodological, statistical and other levels. Waste in itself has different nature of origin, negative impact, ways of its further utilization. Some kinds of it can be used further in order to achieve other goals and needs that are not related to their generation, others can no longer be used for human benefits taking into account

  19. Endocrine distrupting chemicals and human health: The plausibility ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The plausibility of research results on DDT and reproductive health ... cals in the environment and that human health is inextri- cably linked to the health of .... periods of folliculo-genesis or embryo-genesis that increases risk for adverse effects.

  20. Gut-Bioreactor and Human Health in Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purohit, Hemant J

    2018-03-01

    Gut-microbiome provides the complementary metabolic potential to the human system. To understand the active participation and the performance of the microbial community in human health, the concept of gut as a plug-flow reactor with the fed-batch mode of operation can provide better insight. The concept suggests the virtual compartmentalized gut with sequential stratification of the microbial community in response to a typical host genotype. It also provides the analysis plan for gut microbiome; and its relevance in developing health management options under the identified clinical conditions.

  1. Impacts of Climate Change on Human Health in the United ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climate change threatens human health and well-being in the United States. To address this growing threat, the Interagency Group on Climate Change and Human Health (CCHHG), a working group of the U.S. Global Change Research Program’s (USGCRP), has developed this assessment as part of the ongoing efforts of the USGCRP’s National Climate Assessment (NCA) and as called for under the President’s Climate Action Plan. The authors of this assessment have compiled and assessed current research on human health impacts of climate change and summarized the current “state of the science” for a number of key impact areas. This assessment provides a comprehensive update to the most recent detailed technical assessment for the health impacts of climate change, 2008 Synthesis and Assessment Product 4.6 (SAP 4.6) Analyses of the Effects of Global Change on Human Health and Welfare and Human Systems (CCSP 2008). It also updates and builds upon the health chapter of the third NCA (Melillo et al. 2014). The lead and coordinating Federal agencies for the USGCRP Climate and Health Assessment are the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), National Institute of Health (NIH), and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). Available at https://health2016.globalchange.gov/ The interagency U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP) has developed this assessment as part of the ongoing efforts of their National C

  2. Introduction to radiation and human health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    This introductory chapter presents an overview of topics that are examined throughout the book. There are brief discussions on basic scientific notation, epidemiology, risk assessment, and the use of assumptions and approximations in scientific research. The book presents evidence that ionizing radiation causes a variety of human health hazards. The health hazards evaluated in detail are cancer and chromosomal damage

  3. The past, present, and future of soils and human health studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brevik, E. C.; Sauer, T. J.

    2015-01-01

    The idea that human health is tied to the soil is not a new one. As far back as circa 1400 BC the Bible depicts Moses as understanding that fertile soil was essential to the well-being of his people. In 400 BC the Greek philosopher Hippocrates provided a list of things that should be considered in a proper medical evaluation, including the properties of the local ground. By the late 1700s and early 1800s, American farmers had recognized that soil properties had some connection to human health. In the modern world, we recognize that soils have a distinct influence on human health. We recognize that soils influence (1) food availability and quality (food security), (2) human contact with various chemicals, and (3) human contact with various pathogens. Soils and human health studies include investigations into nutrient supply through the food chain and routes of exposure to chemicals and pathogens. However, making strong, scientific connections between soils and human health can be difficult. There are multiple variables to consider in the soil environment, meaning traditional scientific studies that seek to isolate and manipulate a single variable often do not provide meaningful data. The complete study of soils and human health also involves many different specialties such as soil scientists, toxicologists, medical professionals, anthropologists, etc. These groups do not traditionally work together on research projects, and do not always effectively communicate with one another. Climate change and how it will affect the soil environment/ecosystem going into the future is another variable affecting the relationship between soils and health. Future successes in soils and human health research will require effectively addressing difficult issues such as these.

  4. Significant unmet oral health needs of homebound elderly adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornstein, Katherine A; DeCherrie, Linda; Gluzman, Rima; Scott, Elizabeth S; Kansal, Jyoti; Shah, Tushin; Katz, Ralph; Soriano, Theresa A

    2015-01-01

    To assess the oral health status, use of dental care, and dental needs of homebound elderly adults and to determine whether medical diagnoses or demographic factors influenced perceived oral health. Cross-sectional analysis. Participants' homes in New York City. Homebound elderly adults (N = 125). A trained dental research team conducted a comprehensive clinical examination in participants' homes and completed a dental use and needs survey and the Geriatric Oral Health Assessment Index. Participants who reported a high level of unmet oral health needs were more likely to be nonwhite, although this effect was not significant in multivariate analysis. Individual medical diagnoses and the presence of multiple comorbidities were not associated with unmet oral health needs. The oral health status of homebound elderly adults was poor regardless of their medical diagnoses. High unmet oral health needs combined with strong desire to receive dental care suggests there is a need to improve access to dental care for this growing population. In addition to improving awareness of geriatricians and primary care providers who care for homebound individuals, the medical community must partner with the dental community to develop home-based programs for older adults. © 2014, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2014, The American Geriatrics Society.

  5. When is genetic modification socially acceptable? When used to advance human health through avenues other than food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olynk Widmar, Nicole J; Dominick, S R; Tyner, Wallace E; Ruple, Audrey

    2017-01-01

    Given the potential for genetic modification (GM) to impact human health, via food and health mechanisms, a greater understanding of the social acceptance of GM is necessary to facilitate improved health outcomes. This analysis sought to quantify U.S. residents' acceptance of GM across five potential uses (grain production, fruit or vegetable production, livestock production, human medicine, and human health, i.e. disease vector control) and provides an in-depth analysis of a timely case study-the Zika virus (ZIKV). The two categories with the highest levels of acceptance for GM use were human medicine (62% acceptance) and human health (68% acceptance); the proportions agreeing with the use of GM for these two categories were statistically different from all other categories. Acceptance of GM in food uses revealed 44% of the sample accepted the use of GM in livestock production while grain production and fruit and vegetable production showed similar levels of agreement with 49% and 48% of responses, respectively. Two variables were significant in all five models predicting GM acceptance; namely, being male and GM awareness. Being male was significant and positive for all models; respondents who reported being male were more likely (than those who reported female) to agree with all five of the uses of GM studied. Those who were reportedly aware of GM mosquito technology were also more likely to agree with all uses of GM technology investigated. The potential relationship between awareness of GM technology uses and acceptance of other uses could help inform rates of acceptance of new technologies by various population segments.

  6. Health and Human Rights : In Search of the Legal Dimension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toebes, Brigit

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: – This paper explores the legal contours of the field of ‘health and human rights’ as a new and emerging field of human rights law. After an analysis of its conceptual foundations, it explains illustrates how health and human rights evolved from a phase of standard-setting to a field that

  7. What Constitutes Evidence in Human Rights-Based Approaches to Health? Learning from Lived Experiences of Maternal and Sexual Reproductive Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unnithan, Maya

    2015-12-10

    The impact of human rights interventions on health outcomes is complex, multiple, and difficult to ascertain in the conventional sense of cause and effect. Existing approaches based on probable (experimental and statistical) conclusions from evidence are limited in their ability to capture the impact of rights-based transformations in health. This paper argues that a focus on plausible conclusions from evidence enables policy makers and researchers to take into account the effects of a co-occurrence of multiple factors connected with human rights, including the significant role of "context" and power. Drawing on a subject-near and interpretive (in other words, with regard to meaning) perspective that focuses on the lived experiences of human rights-based interventions, the paper suggests that policy makers and researchers are best served by evidence arrived at through plausible, observational modes of ascertaining impact. Through an examination of what human rights-based interventions mean, based on the experience of their operationalization on the ground in culturally specific maternal and reproductive health care contexts, this paper contributes to an emerging scholarship that seeks to pluralize the concept of evidence and to address the methodological challenges posed by heterogeneous forms of evidence in the context of human rights as applied to health. Copyright © 2015 Unnithan. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/), which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

  8. Human Dignity, Misthanasia, Public Health and Bioethics in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Silvia Penteado Setti da Rocha

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to reflect on human dignity and misthanasia in the public health system in Brazil. For this, concepts, document reviews and public data about the condition of the Brazilian population’s access to public health were all used. The indicators show the health inequalities in the country, with the north and northeast at a disadvantage both in terms of access to health and the number of available professionals. Thus, the most underserved population tends to continue to be excluded from society and impaired with respect to their human dignity.

  9. The significance of Candida in the human respiratory tract: our evolving understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendleton, Kathryn M; Huffnagle, Gary B; Dickson, Robert P

    2017-04-01

    Candida is an opportunistic pathogen and the most commonly isolated fungal genus in humans. Though Candida is often detected in respiratory specimens from humans with and without lung disease, its significance remains undetermined. While historically considered a commensal organism with low virulence potential, the status of Candida as an innocent bystander has recently been called into question by both clinical observations and animal experimentation. We here review what is currently known and yet to be determined about the clinical, microbiological and pathophysiological significance of the detection of Candida spp. in the human respiratory tract. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of FEMS 2017. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  10. Human Rights-Based Approaches to Mental Health: A Review of Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porsdam Mann, Sebastian; Bradley, Valerie J; Sahakian, Barbara J

    2016-06-01

    The incidence of human rights violations in mental health care across nations has been described as a "global emergency" and an "unresolved global crisis." The relationship between mental health and human rights is complex and bidirectional. Human rights violations can negatively impact mental health. Conversely, respecting human rights can improve mental health. This article reviews cases where an explicitly human rights-based approach was used in mental health care settings. Although the included studies did not exhibit a high level of methodological rigor, the qualitative information obtained was considered useful and informative for future studies. All studies reviewed suggest that human-rights based approaches can lead to clinical improvements at relatively low costs. Human rights-based approaches should be utilized for legal and moral reasons, since human rights are fundamental pillars of justice and civilization. The fact that such approaches can contribute to positive therapeutic outcomes and, potentially, cost savings, is additional reason for their implementation. However, the small sample size and lack of controlled, quantitative measures limit the strength of conclusions drawn from included studies. More objective, high quality research is needed to ascertain the true extent of benefits to service users and providers.

  11. Educational actions in human communication health: telehealth contributions in primary care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Guedes de Sá Leitão

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: to characterize educational actions related to human communication health produced at the Tele-Health Center for health professionals in primary care. Methods: a cross-sectional study was conducted at the Tele-Health Center at the Federal University of Pernambuco Clinical Hospital. Educational actions produced by tele-consultants between 2008 and 2014 linked to the health of human communication were considered. Data collection was conducted in two phases. In the first phase, the data were explored and educational actions were selected based on the title and the relationship with human communication. In the second phase, each action was observed and evaluated for content. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Results: a few educational actions related to human communication health were concentrated in 2014. Throughout the period analyzed, the actions were restricted to the field of language and concentrated on the education issue as well as the strategic area of child and adolescent health. The most frequent occupational category among the tele-consultants was nursing. Conclusion: a small number of educational actions addressing the health of human communication was produced and the participation of speech therapists remains incipient.

  12. Effect of Human Placental Extract on Health Status in Elderly Koreans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihee Kong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Human placental extract (HPE has begun to be used in Korea in various ways to improve health, even though evidence-based data is insufficient. This study investigated the effects of HPE on health status in elderly Koreans. Design. Randomized, single-blind, and case-control study design. Setting and Participants. Thirty-nine community-dwelling healthy Koreans ≥65 years of age. Intervention. The participants were randomly categorized into a placebo group (=17 and HPE group (=22. The HPE group received abdominal subcutaneous injections of HPE for 8 weeks. The placebo group was injected with normal saline. Measurements. The degree of health status was surveyed by the Korean health status measure for the elderly (KoHSME V1.0 at baseline and the end of the study. Results. In the HPE group, the scores of physical function, sexual life, and general heath perception at the end of the study period were significantly improved from baseline (=.007, .020, and .005, resp., while the health status of the placebo group remained unchanged during the study period. There was a significant difference over the study period between the two groups in the mean change of the physical function score (=.036. Conclusion. A HPE injection regimen can improve the health status in elderly Koreans.

  13. Impact of environmental radiation on human health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shekhawat, Jyotsna

    2012-01-01

    A clean environment is essential for human health because the interaction between the environment and human health shows the complexity. Air pollution, less water quality, noise etc directly affects the health. Climate change, depletion of ozone layer, loss of biodiversity and degradation of land can also affect human health. Most of the modern technologies produce radiations in the environment having both beneficial and harmful effects through radioactive material. Natural radioactive sources include Cosmic radiation comes from the sun and outer space is absorbed by the atmosphere, a small amount reaches the earth's surface to which we are exposed. The exposure to this type of radiation is higher for people living above sea level. Radon is produced through the decay of uranium and thorium that are found naturally in the earth's crust. Primordial and terrestrial radiation are present in rocks and soils and occur when naturally radioactive isotopes of uranium, thorium and potassium decay within the earth's crust. Artificial (or man-made) radioactive sources include Fallout radiation, which results from past atmospheric nuclear bomb tests (1950s and 1960s many test explosions). Each environmental change, whether occurring as a natural phenomenon or through human intervention, changes the ecological balance and context within which disease hosts or vectors and parasites breed, develop, transmit disease. Today, radiation is a common used in medicine to diagnose illnesses, research to treat diseases and industry to generate electricity in nuclear power reactors. Radiation is energy that moves through space or matter at a very high speed. This energy can be in the form of particles, such as alpha or beta particles, which are emitted from radioisotopes. Radioactive Material is material that contains an unstable atomic nucleus releases radiation in the process of changing to a stable form. There are two types of health effects from radiation - threshold and non threshold

  14. Holistic approach to human health and disease: life circumstances and inner processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomljenović, Andrea

    2014-06-01

    Human body is dinamic, energetic system under the influences of food intake, environment, interpersonal relationships, inheritance, culture and human activities. The environmental and psychosocioeconomic factors affect the individual's health altering the performance of biological systems effecting disease risk and disease progression. The concerns in modern society are more and more devoted to stress and its influences on health. Life span is extended but the quality of life, well-being and productivity usually do not follow that extention. Body is a flow of energy and dynamic communications with inside and outside environment. The way to improve health is to address its social determinants. Only in sinergy the questions about disease and health could be better understood. It is not enough to diagnose illness, important is to diagnose circumstances and environmental influences that consequently lead to disease. Emotional disruptions make base for physical disruptions. Social gradient and stress involving personal life and work is a significant factor in physical and mental illness. The best indicator of the successful social policy result is the sense of well-being of the inhabitants. Holistic approach to a patient and discussions about the influences in patient's life can lead to a better health outcome. Anthropology studies people's habits, means and conditions of life and can be the bridge between the medicine and the life circumstances that put people's health at risk providing important insights into health and disease and assist in public health policies, preventive measures and health improvement of the populations.

  15. Human and veterinary medicine: the priority for public health synergies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Mantovani

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The concepts of ‘one medicine’ and 'one ‘health’ are supported and visualised as a tree (medicine, placed on the fertile soil (basic sciences, which divides into the two major branches of human and veterinary medicine, connected by the large branch of public health; minor branches (specialisations depart from the three larger ones. The synergy between human and veterinary medicine is not only a must for public health, but also implies ethical considerations. The basic reasons requiring synergy are found in the common sharing of the environment, in the use of animal products by humans, in the common culture and in the many problems to be faced together. The long list of adversities requiring synergy is topped by zoonoses (intended both in the classic and in the extended sense and food safety that extends to many other items connected with nutrition, environment, human/animal coexistence and the management of public health; the entire quality of human life is affected. Human and veterinary medicine have a strong cultural background (many subject matters in common, but unfortunately the undergraduate and postgraduate education programme (with few important exceptions do not offer training in cooperation. The synergy between human and veterinary medicines is an indicator of 'good public health practice' and any obstacles to this collaboration should be identified and eliminated. The logo for a public health founded on synergy is drawn as an umbrella formed by the medical and veterinary activities, protecting the population (consumers and producers, the animals and their products and the environment from the possible adversities linked to health.

  16. Future human health research directions for the Canadian Northern Contaminants Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, Shawn G.; Curren, Meredith S.; Adlard, Bryan; Provost, Jonathan; Leech, Tara; Tikhonov, Constantine; Feeley, Mark; Tomlinson, Scott; Shearer, Russel

    2013-01-01

    Studies conducted in the mid-1980s and early 1990s demonstrated that persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and metals were reaching the Arctic ecosystem at unexpectedly high levels, many of which had no Arctic or Canadian sources. Epidemiological and toxicological studies in Canada and in other countries have found that these contaminants may pose a risk to human health. The objective of this paper is to provide the foundation for the discussion on future northern human health research under the Northern Contaminants Program (NCP) in Canada. This short discussion of human health priorities will help guide a path forward for future northern human health research in Canada to address on-going and new health concerns related to contaminants exposure in the Canadian Arctic. PMID:24282784

  17. COMMENTARY: GLOBALIZATION, HEALTH SECTOR REFORM, AND THE HUMAN RIGHT TO HEALTH: IMPLICATIONS FOR FUTURE HEALTH POLICY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuftan, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    The author here distills his long-time personal experience with the deleterious effects of globalization on health and on the health sector reforms embarked on in many of the more than 50 countries where he has worked in the last 25 years. He highlights the role that the "human right to health" framework can and should play in countering globalization's negative effects on health and in shaping future health policy. This is a testimonial article.

  18. Study of health human resource migration in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panneer Sigamani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Human Resource for Health (HRH migration is an emerging concern in the development paradigm due to the critical importance to sustainability of health system in India. Being the largest human resource supplier to the world, it is important to analyze the consequences of the migration of HRH in the delivery of healthcare services to the country’s population. The study evidences limited to examine the size, distribution of the existing human resources or trends or patterns in migration. The consequences of migration have its implications to the healthcare delivery mechanism which needed to be critically analyzed. Review Methodology The methodology adopted in the paper is descriptive design. The critical review used to evaluate the existing evidence and to develop conceptual framework. The process involved the setting of the inclusion and exclusion criteria to select the articles. It included wide range of articles from the world development reports to specific studies oriented on the HRH scenario of the country. The search strategy comprised both form of studies qualitative and quantitative. The study utilizes the official data set published as report form. Main Findings The data on the migration in context of India, not systematically updated in the existing evidences. The availability of data on migration limits to few reports i.e.(World Health Organization WHO’s Joint Learning Initiatives and studies which combines census data of Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD and results in the number of foreign born health professionals. 1. A major proportion of the research studies reviewed describes the disparity in distribution of HRH between rural-urban and public-private. Few researches focused towards the policy environment of the source and destination country for the migration. 2. There is pool of literature explaining the factors of migration but it margins when to analyze the significant implications to

  19. The use of animals as a surveillance tool for monitoring environmental health hazards, human health hazards and bioterrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neo, Jacqueline Pei Shan; Tan, Boon Huan

    2017-05-01

    This review discusses the utilization of wild or domestic animals as surveillance tools for monitoring naturally occurring environmental and human health hazards. Besides providing early warning to natural hazards, animals can also provide early warning to societal hazards like bioterrorism. Animals are ideal surveillance tools to humans because they share the same environment as humans and spend more time outdoors than humans, increasing their exposure risk. Furthermore, the biologically compressed lifespans of some animals may allow them to develop clinical signs more rapidly after exposure to specific pathogens. Animals are an excellent channel for monitoring novel and known pathogens with outbreak potential given that more than 60 % of emerging infectious diseases in humans originate as zoonoses. This review attempts to highlight animal illnesses, deaths, biomarkers or sentinel events, to remind human and veterinary public health programs that animal health can be used to discover, monitor or predict environmental health hazards, human health hazards, or bioterrorism. Lastly, we hope that this review will encourage the implementation of animals as a surveillance tool by clinicians, veterinarians, ecosystem health professionals, researchers and governments. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Climate Change, Soils, and Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brevik, Eric C.

    2013-04-01

    According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, global temperatures are expected to increase 1.1 to 6.4 degrees C during the 21st century and precipitation patterns will be altered by climate change (IPCC, 2007). Soils are intricately linked to the atmospheric/climate system through the carbon, nitrogen, and hydrologic cycles. Altered climate will, therefore, have an effect on soil processes and properties. Studies into the effects of climate change on soil processes and properties are still incomplete, but have revealed that climate change will impact soil organic matter dynamics including soil organisms and the multiple soil properties that are tied to organic matter, soil water, and soil erosion. The exact direction and magnitude of those impacts will be dependent on the amount of change in atmospheric gases, temperature, and precipitation amounts and patterns. Recent studies give reason to believe at least some soils may become net sources of atmospheric carbon as temperatures rise; this is particularly true of high latitude regions with permanently frozen soils. Soil erosion by both wind and water is also likely to increase. These soil changes will lead to both direct and indirect impacts on human health. Possible indirect impacts include temperature extremes, food safety and air quality issues, increased and/or expanded disease incidences, and occupational health issues. Potential direct impacts include decreased food security and increased atmospheric dust levels. However, there are still many things we need to know more about. How climate change will affect the nitrogen cycle and, in turn, how the nitrogen cycle will affect carbon sequestration in soils is a major research need, as is a better understanding of soil water-CO2 level-temperature relationships. Knowledge of the response of plants to elevated atmospheric CO2 given limitations in nutrients like nitrogen and phosphorus and how that affects soil organic matter dynamics is a critical

  1. Risks and concerns regarding transgenic food and human health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Acosta

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available The transgenic technology in agriculture has recently been in the center of an intense debate between two radically opposite points of view. Some non-government organizations (NGO consider this technology as dangerous for human health, environment and economics of developing countries. On the contrary, the scientific community has been publicly supportive of this technology, suggesting that education is the key to gaining the public acceptance. Although genetically modified (GM plants for food use might have the potential to provide benefits in food quality, nutrition, health and environment, GM plants need additional considerations related with biosafety. Despite there is not evidence that GM foods are more dangerous to human health than conventional food it is necessary to test GM food following the best scientific methodology available. This review focuses on the potential effects that GM food might have on human health.

  2. Nitrite in feed: From Animal health to human health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cockburn, Andrew [Institute for Research on Environment and Sustainability, Devonshire Building, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE17RU (United Kingdom); Brambilla, Gianfranco [Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Toxicological chemistry unit, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome (Italy); Fernández, Maria-Luisa [Departamento de Medio Ambiente, Instituto Nacional de Investigación y Tecnología Agraria y Alimentaria (INIA), Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación, Carretera de la Coruña, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Arcella, Davide [Unit on Data Collection and Exposure, European Food Safety Authority, Largo N. Palli 5/A43100 Parma (Italy); Bordajandi, Luisa R. [Unit on Contaminants in the Food chain, European Food Safety Authority, Largo N. Palli 5/A, 43100 Parma (Italy); Cottrill, Bruce [Policy Delivery Group, Animal Health and Welfare, ADAS, Wolverhampton (United Kingdom); Peteghem, Carlos van [University of Gent, Harelbekestraat 72, 9000 Gent (Belgium); Dorne, Jean-Lou, E-mail: jean-lou.dorne@efsa.europa.eu [Unit on Contaminants in the Food chain, European Food Safety Authority, Largo N. Palli 5/A, 43100 Parma (Italy)

    2013-08-01

    Nitrite is widely consumed from the diet by animals and humans. However the largest contribution to exposure results from the in vivo conversion of exogenously derived nitrate to nitrite. Because of its potential to cause to methaemoglobin (MetHb) formation at excessive levels of intake, nitrite is regulated in feed and water as an undesirable substance. Forages and contaminated water have been shown to contain high levels of nitrate and represent the largest contributor to nitrite exposure for food-producing animals. Interspecies differences in sensitivity to nitrite intoxication principally result from physiological and anatomical differences in nitrite handling. In the case of livestock both pigs and cattle are relatively susceptible. With pigs this is due to a combination of low levels of bacterial nitrite reductase and hence potential to reduce nitrite to ammonia as well as reduced capacity to detoxify MetHb back to haemoglobin (Hb) due to intrinsically low levels of MetHb reductase. In cattle the sensitivity is due to the potential for high dietary intake and high levels of rumen conversion of nitrate to nitrite, and an adaptable gut flora which at normal loadings shunts nitrite to ammonia for biosynthesis. However when this escape mechanism gets overloaded, nitrite builds up and can enter the blood stream resulting in methemoglobinemia. Looking at livestock case histories reported in the literature no-observed-effect levels of 3.3 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) per day for nitrite in pigs and cattle were estimated and related to the total daily nitrite intake that would result from complete feed at the EU maximum permissible level. This resulted in margins of safety of 9-fold and 5-fold for pigs and cattle, respectively. Recognising that the bulkiness of animal feed limits their consumption, these margins in conjunction with good agricultural practise were considered satisfactory for the protection of livestock health. A human health risk assessment was also

  3. Nitrite in feed: From Animal health to human health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cockburn, Andrew; Brambilla, Gianfranco; Fernández, Maria-Luisa; Arcella, Davide; Bordajandi, Luisa R.; Cottrill, Bruce; Peteghem, Carlos van; Dorne, Jean-Lou

    2013-01-01

    Nitrite is widely consumed from the diet by animals and humans. However the largest contribution to exposure results from the in vivo conversion of exogenously derived nitrate to nitrite. Because of its potential to cause to methaemoglobin (MetHb) formation at excessive levels of intake, nitrite is regulated in feed and water as an undesirable substance. Forages and contaminated water have been shown to contain high levels of nitrate and represent the largest contributor to nitrite exposure for food-producing animals. Interspecies differences in sensitivity to nitrite intoxication principally result from physiological and anatomical differences in nitrite handling. In the case of livestock both pigs and cattle are relatively susceptible. With pigs this is due to a combination of low levels of bacterial nitrite reductase and hence potential to reduce nitrite to ammonia as well as reduced capacity to detoxify MetHb back to haemoglobin (Hb) due to intrinsically low levels of MetHb reductase. In cattle the sensitivity is due to the potential for high dietary intake and high levels of rumen conversion of nitrate to nitrite, and an adaptable gut flora which at normal loadings shunts nitrite to ammonia for biosynthesis. However when this escape mechanism gets overloaded, nitrite builds up and can enter the blood stream resulting in methemoglobinemia. Looking at livestock case histories reported in the literature no-observed-effect levels of 3.3 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) per day for nitrite in pigs and cattle were estimated and related to the total daily nitrite intake that would result from complete feed at the EU maximum permissible level. This resulted in margins of safety of 9-fold and 5-fold for pigs and cattle, respectively. Recognising that the bulkiness of animal feed limits their consumption, these margins in conjunction with good agricultural practise were considered satisfactory for the protection of livestock health. A human health risk assessment was also

  4. Use of quantitative uncertainty analysis for human health risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, F.L.W.; Gordon, J.W.; Kelly, M.

    1994-01-01

    Current human health risk assessment method for environmental risks typically use point estimates of risk accompanied by qualitative discussions of uncertainty. Alternatively, Monte Carlo simulations may be used with distributions for input parameters to estimate the resulting risk distribution and descriptive risk percentiles. These two techniques are applied for the ingestion of 1,1=dichloroethene in ground water. The results indicate that Monte Carlo simulations provide significantly more information for risk assessment and risk management than do point estimates

  5. Human rights of drug users according to public health professionals in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Carla A A; Mendes, Isabel A C; Trevizan, Maria A; Rodrigues, Driéli P

    2013-03-01

    Health is a basic human right, and drug use represents a severe influence on people's health. This qualitative study aimed to understand how health professionals in a public health-care team working with drug users in a city of the state of São Paulo, Brazil, perceive the human rights of these users and how these rights are being respected in health care. Data were collected through semistructured interviews with 10 health professionals at the service under analysis. A thematic analysis of the interviews reveals the professionals' difficulty to define the concept of human right and contextualize these rights in their work environment. A deeper understanding of the right to health, however, represents an important premise for a more humanized care practice in health services to drug users.

  6. Human rights in patient care and public health-a common ground.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peled-Raz, Maya

    2017-01-01

    Medical law and public health law have both served extensively as instruments of health protection and promotion-yet both are limited in their effect and scope and do not sufficiently cover nor supply a remedy to systematic, rather than anecdotal, mistreatments in the health care system. A possible solution to this deficiency may be found in the human rights in patient care legal approach. The concept of human rights in patient care is a reframing of international human rights law, as well as constitutional thought and tools, into a coherent approach aimed at the protection and furthering of both personal and communal health. It applies human rights discourse and human rights law onto the patient care setting while moving away from the narrow consumeristic view of health care delivery. By applying human rights in patient care approach, both national and international courts may and should serve as policy influencing instruments, protecting the rights of the most vulnerable and prejudiced against groups, which are want of a remedy through traditional patients' rights legal schemes.

  7. Industry and traffic related particles and their role in human health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oravisjaervi, K.

    2013-11-01

    Combustion generated ultrafine particles have been found to be responsible for adverse effects on human health. New emission reduction technologies and fuels will change the composition of particle emissions. It is important to confirm that the new reduction technologies are designed to minimise the adverse health effects. In this doctoral thesis the potential health effects caused by traffic and industrially generated particles were studied using epidemiological, experimental and in silico studies. The effects of short-term changes in PM2.5 on the respiratory health of symptomatic children living near a steel works were studied to investigate whether specific sources of PM2.5 have the possible health effects. The PM2.5 emission sources were identified: long-range transport, a steel works, soil and street dust and a mechanical engineering works. Significant associations were not found between respiratory symptoms and PM2.5 or the sources markers. The deposition of traffic-related particles into the human respiratory system was computed using the lung deposition model. Particle size distribution was measured from diesel- and compressed natural gas (CNG)-fuelled busses and an off-road diesel engine under different combustion situations. The majority of the measured traffic-related particle numbers reach the alveolar region of the lungs. There were differences in the deposition of particles when different catalysts, engines or fuels were used. CNG or a diesel particulate filter (DPF) significantly reduced lung exposure to particles. Also physical activity, age and gender affected the deposition of particles. The diesel particles comprised compounds (carcinogenic PAHs, transition metals), which may have the ability to generate reactive oxygen. This study provides new knowledge how of the emission abatement technologies and fuels affects particle number and their composition, as well health hazards. Cleaner technology (CNG, DPF), emits significantly fewer particles in

  8. Effects of organic food consumption on human health; the jury is still out!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barański, Marcin; Rempelos, Leonidas; Iversen, Per Ole; Leifert, Carlo

    2017-01-01

    The most recent systematic literature reviews and meta-analyses have indicated significant and nutritionally-relevant composition differences between organic and conventional foods. This included higher antioxidant, but lower cadmium and pesticide levels in organic crops, and higher omega-3 fatty acids concentrations in organic meat and dairy products. Also, results from a small number of human cohort studies indicate that there are positive associations between organic food consumption and reduced risk/incidence of certain acute diseases (e.g. pre-eclampsia, hypospadias) and obesity. Concerns about potential negative health impacts of organic food consumption (e.g. risks linked to lower iodine levels in organic milk) have also been raised, but are not currently supported by evidence from human cohort studies. However, there is virtually no published data from (1) long-term cohort studies focusing on chronic diseases (e.g. cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer, and neurodegenerative conditions) and (2) controlled human dietary intervention studies comparing effects of organic and conventional diets. It is therefore currently not possible to quantify to what extent organic food consumption may affect human health.

  9. Mobile phone use for 5 minutes can cause significant memory impairment in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalafatakis, F; Bekiaridis-Moschou, D; Gkioka, Eirini; Tsolaki, Magda

    2017-01-01

    control group the second measurement was better than the first and the third even better than both previous ones. All differences were statistically significant. The reduction of the performance in the task after using the MP was even higher for the age group of 60-80 years old in comparison with younger age groups, as well as for the individuals with MCI in comparison to healthy participants. Age was significantly negative correlated with performance in the task, while gender showed no significant correlation. MP use has a significant negative impact on working memory performance of human participants. The effect is apparent even for a 5 minute use of the MP. Working memory deficits are greater not only for the 60 years old and above participants but also for individuals with Mild Cognitive Impairment. These results are in agreement with previous studies on animals as well as humans on the effects of MP use on the brain. It is argued that low sensitivity of some of the cognitive tasks used until now and the lack of a validated tool in the form of a cognitive task may account for some of the variability in the literature so far. It is suggested that the experimental paradigm that was used in this study for an increased sensitivity measurement of cognitive function and working memory processes in particular may be used for the display of the effects of MP use on cognitive function and for the development of other tasks sensitive to it. Overall, it is concluded that the development of certain restrictions on MP use is necessary for the protection of the brain health of the users.

  10. Health and human rights a South African perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidoo, Sudeshni

    2014-01-01

    General statements of basic entitlements are established as a guide for potential laws and regulations protecting human rights. Human rights are those claimed to belong to every individual regardless of nationality or position within society. The historical evolution of human rights relative to health in the Republic of South Africa is discussed.

  11. Human trafficking: review of educational resources for health professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Roy; Alpert, Elaine J; Purcell, Genevieve; Konstantopoulos, Wendy Macias; McGahan, Anita; Cafferty, Elizabeth; Eckardt, Melody; Conn, Kathryn L; Cappetta, Kate; Burke, Thomas F

    2013-03-01

    Human trafficking is an increasingly well-recognized human rights violation that is estimated to involve more than 2 million victims worldwide each year. The health consequences of this issue bring victims into contact with health systems and healthcare providers, thus providing the potential for identification and intervention. A robust healthcare response, however, requires a healthcare workforce that is aware of the health impact of this issue; educated about how to identify and treat affected individuals in a compassionate, culturally aware, and trauma-informed manner; and trained about how to collaborate efficiently with law enforcement, case management, and advocacy partners. This article describes existing educational offerings about human trafficking designed for a healthcare audience and makes recommendations for further curriculum development. A keyword search and structured analysis of peer-reviewed and gray literature, conducted in 2011 and 2012, yielded 27 items that provide basic guidance to health professionals on human trafficking. The 27 resources differed substantially in format, length, scope, and intended audience. Topic areas covered by these resources included trafficking definitions and scope, health consequences, victim identification, appropriate treatment, referral to services, legal issues, and security. None of the educational resources has been rigorously evaluated. There is a clear need to develop, implement, and evaluate high-quality education and training programs that focus on human trafficking for healthcare providers. Copyright © 2013 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Bisphenol A and human health: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochester, Johanna R

    2013-12-01

    There is growing evidence that bisphenol A (BPA) may adversely affect humans. BPA is an endocrine disruptor that has been shown to be harmful in laboratory animal studies. Until recently, there were relatively few epidemiological studies examining the relationship between BPA and health effects in humans. However, in the last year, the number of these studies has more than doubled. A comprehensive literature search found 91 studies linking BPA to human health; 53 published within the last year. This review outlines this body of literature, showing associations between BPA exposure and adverse perinatal, childhood, and adult health outcomes, including reproductive and developmental effects, metabolic disease, and other health effects. These studies encompass both prenatal and postnatal exposures, and include several study designs and population types. While it is difficult to make causal links with epidemiological studies, the growing human literature correlating environmental BPA exposure to adverse effects in humans, along with laboratory studies in many species including primates, provides increasing support that environmental BPA exposure can be harmful to humans, especially in regards to behavioral and other effects in children. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Opening plenary speaker: Human genomics, precision medicine, and advancing human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Eric D

    2016-08-01

    Starting with the launch of the Human Genome Project in 1990, the past quarter-century has brought spectacular achievements in genomics that dramatically empower the study of human biology and disease. The human genomics enterprise is now in the midst of an important transition, as the growing foundation of genomic knowledge is being used by researchers and clinicians to tackle increasingly complex problems in biomedicine. Of particular prominence is the use of revolutionary new DNA sequencing technologies for generating prodigious amounts of DNA sequence data to elucidate the complexities of genome structure, function, and evolution, as well as to unravel the genomic bases of rare and common diseases. Together, these developments are ushering in the era of genomic medicine. Augmenting the advances in human genomics have been innovations in technologies for measuring environmental and lifestyle information, electronic health records, and data science; together, these provide opportunities of unprecedented scale and scope for investigating the underpinnings of health and disease. To capitalize on these opportunities, U.S. President Barack Obama recently announced a major new research endeavor - the U.S. Precision Medicine Initiative. This bold effort will be framed around several key aims, which include accelerating the use of genomically informed approaches to cancer care, making important policy and regulatory changes, and establishing a large research cohort of >1 million volunteers to facilitate precision medicine research. The latter will include making the partnership with all participants a centerpiece feature in the cohort's design and development. The Precision Medicine Initiative represents a broad-based research program that will allow new approaches for individualized medical care to be rigorously tested, so as to establish a new evidence base for advancing clinical practice and, eventually, human health.

  14. [Human resources for health in Chile: the reform's pending challenge].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez, Claudio A

    2009-09-01

    Omission of human resources from health policy development has been identified as a barrier in the health sector reform's adoption phase. Since 2002, Chile's health care system has been undergoing a transformation based on the principles of health as a human right, equity, solidarity, efficiency, and social participation. While the reform has set forth the redefinition of the medical professions, continuing education, scheduled accreditation, and the introduction of career development incentives, it has not considered management options tailored to the new setting, a human resources strategy that has the consensus of key players and sector policy, or a process for understanding the needs of health care staff and professionals. However, there is still time to undo the shortcomings, in large part because the reform's implementation phase only recently has begun. Overcoming this challenge is in the hands of the experts charged with designing public health strategies and policies.

  15. Religiosity, health and happiness: significant relations in adolescents from Qatar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Khalek, Ahmed M

    2014-11-01

    Several studies have revealed positive associations between religiosity, health and happiness. However, the vast majority of these studies were carried out on native English-speaking participants. The objective of this study was to estimate the relations between religiosity, health and happiness among a sample (N = 372) of Qatari adolescents (M age = 15.2). The students responded to five self-rating scales to assess religiosity, mental health, physical health, happiness and satisfaction with life. Boys obtained a higher mean score on mental health than did their female counterparts. All the correlations between the rating scales were significant and positive. Principal component analysis disclosed one component and labelled 'Religiosity, health and happiness' in both sexes. The multiple stepwise regression indicated that the predictors of religiosity were the self-ratings of satisfaction with life and happiness in boys, whereas the predictors among girls were satisfaction with life and physical health. On the basis of the responses of the present sample, it was concluded that those who consider themselves as religious were more happy, satisfied with their life and healthy. © The Author(s) 2013.

  16. [National Policy of Humanization and education of health care professionals: integrative review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Guilherme Correa; Meneguim, Silmara; Lima, Silvana Andréa Molina; Moreno, Vania

    2013-01-01

    The National Policy of Humanization aims at innovations in health production, management and care with emphasis on permanent education for workers in the Unified Public Health System and training of university students in the health care field. This study aimed to know, through an integrative review of the literature, the scientific production about the National Policy of Humanization and education of health care professionals, from 2002 to 2010. Ten articles were analyzed in thematic strand through three axes: humanization and users caring, humanization and the work process, humanization and training. The articles point to the need to overcome the biological conception, valuing cultural aspects of users. The work process is marked by the devaluation of workers and by users deprived of their rights. The training of health professionals is grounded in health services where the prevailing standards are practices that hinder innovative attitudes.

  17. Human Resources for Health Challenges in Nigeria and Nurse Migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salami, Bukola; Dada, Foluke O; Adelakun, Folake E

    2016-05-01

    The emigration of sub-Saharan African health professionals to developed Western nations is an aspect of increasing global mobility. This article focuses on the human resources for health challenges in Nigeria and the emigration of nurses from Nigeria as the country faces mounting human resources for health challenges. Human resources for health issues in Nigeria contribute to poor population health in the country, alongside threats from terrorism, infectious disease outbreaks, and political corruption. Health inequities within Nigeria mirror the geographical disparities in human resources for health distribution and are worsened by the emigration of Nigerian nurses to developed countries such as the United States and the United Kingdom. Nigerian nurses are motivated to emigrate to work in healthier work environments, improve their economic prospects, and advance their careers. Like other migrant African nurses, they experience barriers to integration, including racism and discrimination, in receiving countries. We explore the factors and processes that shape this migration. Given the forces of globalization, source countries and destination countries must implement policies to more responsibly manage migration of nurses. This can be done by implementing measures to retain nurses, promote the return migration of expatriate nurses, and ensure the integration of migrant nurses upon arrival in destination countries. © The Author(s) 2016.

  18. Electronic cigarettes: human health effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan-Lyon, Priscilla

    2014-05-01

    With the rapid increase in use of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), such as electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), users and non-users are exposed to the aerosol and product constituents. This is a review of published data on the human health effects of exposure to e-cigarettes and their components. Literature searches were conducted through September 2013 using multiple electronic databases. Forty-four articles are included in this analysis. E-cigarette aerosols may contain propylene glycol, glycerol, flavourings, other chemicals and, usually, nicotine. Aerosolised propylene glycol and glycerol produce mouth and throat irritation and dry cough. No data on the effects of flavouring inhalation were identified. Data on short-term health effects are limited and there are no adequate data on long-term effects. Aerosol exposure may be associated with respiratory function impairment, and serum cotinine levels are similar to those in traditional cigarette smokers. The high nicotine concentrations of some products increase exposure risks for non-users, particularly children. The dangers of secondhand and thirdhand aerosol exposure have not been thoroughly evaluated. Scientific evidence regarding the human health effects of e-cigarettes is limited. While e-cigarette aerosol may contain fewer toxicants than cigarette smoke, studies evaluating whether e-cigarettes are less harmful than cigarettes are inconclusive. Some evidence suggests that e-cigarette use may facilitate smoking cessation, but definitive data are lacking. No e-cigarette has been approved by FDA as a cessation aid. Environmental concerns and issues regarding non-user exposure exist. The health impact of e-cigarettes, for users and the public, cannot be determined with currently available data.

  19. [The virtual library in equity, health, and human development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdés, América

    2002-01-01

    This article attempts to describe the rationale that has led to the development of information sources dealing with equity, health, and human development in countries of Latin America and the Caribbean within the context of the Virtual Health Library (Biblioteca Virtual en Salud, BVS). Such information sources include the scientific literature, databases in printed and electronic format, institutional directories and lists of specialists, lists of events and courses, distance education programs, specialty journals and bulletins, as well as other means of disseminating health information. The pages that follow deal with the development of a Virtual Library in Equity, Health, and Human Development, an effort rooted in the conviction that decision-making and policy geared toward achieving greater equity in health must, of necessity, be based on coherent, well-organized, and readily accessible first-rate scientific information. Information is useless unless it is converted into knowledge that benefits society. The Virtual Library in Equity, Health, and Human Development is a coordinated effort to develop a decentralized regional network of scientific information sources, with strict quality control, from which public officials can draw data and practical examples that can help them set health and development policies geared toward achieving greater equity for all.

  20. Human capital flight challenges within an equitable health system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udonwa, N E

    2007-01-01

    The issue of human capital flight has been discussed at different forums with a consensus opinion that it has its merits and demerits to equitable health system. Most often one nation becomes a substantial net exporter of talent, leaving the provider nation at risk of depleting its natural supply of talent. This paper looks into the historical perspective of human capital flight or "brain drain", and its burden. It attempts to elucidate the various causes and suggested solutions. The paper's objective is to educate colleagues on the conceptual and contextual imperatives of the issue. Using a convenient sample of key informants who were medical colleagues in Nigeria relevant information was sourced from these colleagues, documents from the postgraduate medical college of Nigeria and the internet on maters relating to human capital flight and brain drain. Every year, thousands of qualified doctors, and other professionals leave Nigeria tempted by significantly higher wages, brighter prospects for employment and education, stability, food security. It appears that the potential exposure to different working conditions, resources and professional environments can be of advantage to the country, should Nigeria be able to recall these professionals. It also appears that necessary economic reforms that make staying at home rewarding, that is--good leadership, and policy planning that seriously looks into rural development, among other issues, are keys ingredients to reversing the trend in order to ensure a more equitable health system.

  1. Depleted Uranium and Human Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faa, Armando; Gerosa, Clara; Fanni, Daniela; Floris, Giuseppe; Eyken, Peter V; Lachowicz, Joanna I; Nurchi, Valeria M

    2018-01-01

    Depleted uranium (DU) is generally considered an emerging pollutant, first extensively introduced into environment in the early nineties in Iraq, during the military operation called "Desert Storm". DU has been hypothesized to represent a hazardous element both for soldiers exposed as well as for the inhabitants of the polluted areas in the war zones. In this review, the possible consequences on human health of DU released in the environment are critically analyzed. In the first part, the chemical properties of DU and the principal civil and military uses are summarized. A concise analysis of the mechanisms underlying absorption, blood transport, tissue distribution and excretion of DU in the human body is the subject of the second part of this article. The following sections deal with pathological condition putatively associated with overexposure to DU. Developmental and birth defects, the Persian Gulf syndrome, and kidney diseases that have been associated to DU are the arguments treated in the third section. Finally, data regarding DU exposure and cancer insurgence will be critically analyzed, including leukemia/lymphoma, lung cancer, uterine cervix cancer, breast cancer, bladder cancer and testicular cancer. The aim of the authors is to give a contribution to the debate on DU and its effects on human health and disease. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  2. The Human-Nature Relationship and Its Impact on Health: A Critical Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, Valentine

    2016-01-01

    Within the past four decades, research has been increasingly drawn toward understanding whether there is a link between the changing human-nature relationship and its impact on people's health. However, to examine whether there is a link requires research of its breadth and underlying mechanisms from an interdisciplinary approach. This article begins by reviewing the debates concerning the human-nature relationship, which are then critiqued and redefined from an interdisciplinary perspective. The concept and chronological history of "health" is then explored, based on the World Health Organization's definition. Combining these concepts, the human-nature relationship and its impact on human's health are then explored through a developing conceptual model. It is argued that using an interdisciplinary perspective can facilitate a deeper understanding of the complexities involved for attaining optimal health at the human-environmental interface.

  3. Climate change and human health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanderson, G.

    1991-01-01

    Changes in the earth's climate, stemming from the greenhouse effect, are highly likely to damage human health. As well as the disruptions to food and fresh water supplies, there is the prospect of major diseases flourishing in warmer conditions, in addition the decrease in the ozone layer is causing an increased incidence of skin cancer

  4. Managing information technology human resources in health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahesh, Sathiadev; Crow, Stephen M

    2012-01-01

    The health care sector has seen a major increase in the use of information technology (IT). The increasing permeation of IT into the enterprise has resulted in many non-IT employees acquiring IT-related skills and becoming an essential part of the IT-enabled enterprise. Health care IT employees work in a continually changing environment dealing with new specializations that are often unfamiliar to other personnel. The widespread use of outsourcing and offshoring in IT has introduced a third layer of complexity in the traditional hierarchy and its approach to managing human resources. This article studies 3 major issues in managing these human resources in an IT-enabled health care enterprise and recommends solutions to the problem.

  5. Experience and lessons from health impact assessment for human rights impact assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salcito, Kendyl; Utzinger, Jürg; Krieger, Gary R; Wielga, Mark; Singer, Burton H; Winkler, Mirko S; Weiss, Mitchell G

    2015-09-16

    As globalisation has opened remote parts of the world to foreign investment, global leaders at the United Nations and beyond have called on multinational companies to foresee and mitigate negative impacts on the communities surrounding their overseas operations. This movement towards corporate impact assessment began with a push for environmental and social inquiries. It has been followed by demands for more detailed assessments, including health and human rights. In the policy world the two have been joined as a right-to-health impact assessment. In the corporate world, the right-to-health approach fulfils neither managers' need to comprehensively understand impacts of a project, nor rightsholders' need to know that the full suite of their human rights will be safe from violation. Despite the limitations of a right-to-health tool for companies, integration of health into human rights provides numerous potential benefits to companies and the communities they affect. Here, a detailed health analysis through the human rights lens is carried out, drawing on a case study from the United Republic of Tanzania. This paper examines the positive and negative health and human rights impacts of a corporate operation in a low-income setting, as viewed through the human rights lens, considering observations on the added value of the approach. It explores the relationship between health impact assessment (HIA) and human rights impact assessment (HRIA). First, it considers the ways in which HIA, as a study directly concerned with human welfare, is a more appropriate guide than environmental or social impact assessment for evaluating human rights impacts. Second, it considers the contributions HRIA can make to HIA, by viewing determinants of health not as direct versus indirect, but as interrelated.

  6. Human resource leadership: the key to improved results in health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Neil Mary L

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This article is the lead article in the Human Resources for Health journal's first quarterly feature. The series of seven articles has been contributed by Management Sciences for Health (MSH under the theme of leadership and management in public health and will be published article by article over the next few weeks. The journal has invited Dr Manuel M. Dayrit, Director of the WHO Department of Human Resources for Health and former Minister of Health for the Philippines to launch the feature with an opening editorial to be found in the journal's blog. This opening article describes the human resource challenges that managers around the world report and analyses why solutions often fail to be implemented. Despite rising attention to the acute shortage of health care workers, solutions to the human resource (HR crisis are difficult to achieve, especially in the poorest countries. Although we are aware of the issues and have developed HR strategies, the problem is that some old systems of leading and managing human resources for health do not work in today's context. The Leadership Development Program (LDP is grounded on the belief that good leadership and management can be learned and practiced at all levels. The case studies in this issue were chosen to illustrate results from using the LDP at different levels of the health sector. The LDP makes a profound difference in health managers' attitudes towards their work. Rather than feeling defeated by a workplace climate that lacks motivation, hope, and commitment to change, people report that they are mobilized to take action to change the status quo. The lesson is that without this capacity at all levels, global policy and national HR strategies will fail to make a difference.

  7. Climate change, human health, and biomedical research: analysis of the National Institutes of Health research portfolio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessup, Christine M; Balbus, John M; Christian, Carole; Haque, Ehsanul; Howe, Sally E; Newton, Sheila A; Reid, Britt C; Roberts, Luci; Wilhelm, Erin; Rosenthal, Joshua P

    2013-04-01

    According to a wide variety of analyses and projections, the potential effects of global climate change on human health are large and diverse. The U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH), through its basic, clinical, and population research portfolio of grants, has been increasing efforts to understand how the complex interrelationships among humans, ecosystems, climate, climate variability, and climate change affect domestic and global health. In this commentary we present a systematic review and categorization of the fiscal year (FY) 2008 NIH climate and health research portfolio. A list of candidate climate and health projects funded from FY 2008 budget appropriations were identified and characterized based on their relevance to climate change and health and based on climate pathway, health impact, study type, and objective. This analysis identified seven FY 2008 projects focused on climate change, 85 climate-related projects, and 706 projects that focused on disease areas associated with climate change but did not study those associations. Of the nearly 53,000 awards that NIH made in 2008, approximately 0.17% focused on or were related to climate. Given the nature and scale of the potential effects of climate change on human health and the degree of uncertainty that we have about these effects, we think that it is helpful for the NIH to engage in open discussions with science and policy communities about government-wide needs and opportunities in climate and health, and about how NIH's strengths in human health research can contribute to understanding the health implications of global climate change. This internal review has been used to inform more recent initiatives by the NIH in climate and health.

  8. Human Trafficking in Areas of Conflict: Health Care Professionals' Duty to Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloem, Christina; Morris, Rikki E; Chisolm-Straker, Makini

    2017-01-01

    Given the significant global burden of human trafficking, the ability of clinicians to identify and provide treatment for trafficked persons is critical. Particularly in conflict settings, health care facilities often serve as the first and sometimes only point of contact for trafficked persons. As such, medical practitioners have a unique opportunity and an ethical imperative to intervene, even in nonclinical roles. With proper training, medical practitioners can assist trafficked persons by documenting human trafficking cases, thereby placing pressure on key stakeholders to enforce legal protections, and by providing adequate services to those trafficked. © 2017 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.

  9. Ecosystem Approaches to Human Health Graduate Training Awards ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC's Ecosystem Approaches to Human Health (Ecohealth) program initiative ... Each grant will consist of CA $15 000 for field research and up to CA $4 000 for ... Nutrition, health policy, and ethics in the age of public-private partnerships.

  10. The Significance of the Nursery School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesell, Arnold

    2017-01-01

    From the standpoint of mental health and perhaps even from the standpoint of human culture, the complete realization of the educational possibilities of the preschool child is of foundational significance. Normative and comparative studies performed at a psychological clinic at Yale examining norms of development in children from one month to five…

  11. Land Use Transition and Human Health in the context of Climate ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Land Use Transition and Human Health in the context of Climate Change in the Eastern Himalayas. Land use change is ... it at the communal level. The overall goal is to reduce the vulnerability of mountain people to health issues caused by land use change using ecosystem approaches to human health (Ecohealth).

  12. Human rights principles in developing and updating policies and laws on mental health

    OpenAIRE

    Schulze, M.

    2016-01-01

    The World Health Organization's Mental Health Action Plan 2013?2020 stipulates human rights as a cross-cutting principle (WHO, 2013) and foresees global targets to update policies as well as mental health laws in line with international and regional human rights instruments. The international human rights agreements repeatedly refer to health, including mental health. The most pertinent provisions related to mental health are enshrined in the 2006 Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disa...

  13. Quantifying altitude of human habitation in studies of human health using geographical name server data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Thielke

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Almost all studies examining the effects of altitude on human health have estimated the geographical altitude of defined regions, yet the primary interest lies in where people live, not the land around them. Populations are not homogenously distributed across altitudes. We propose a straightforward and computationally simple method for estimating the average altitude of habitation within the regional units for which health statistics are typically reported (such as counties. The United States Board on Geographical Names database contains records for over 2.7 million places, which can be processed to select places that are associated with human habitation. These points can easily be averaged by region yielding a representative altitude of human habitation within city, county, state regions, or by longitude and latitude zones. We provide an example of using this approach in a study of human health, and compare it with three other previously used methods of estimating altitude for counties.

  14. The significance and possibility of functional food production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrijević-Branković Suzana I.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Abundant knowledge of the significance of food quality for all human living functions as well as growing human population and the occurrence of world "hidden hunger", directed food producers toward new production processes of and new product development that must satisfy the specific needs of different categories of consumers. The differences are reflected in sex age, religious affiliation, activity, health, social status etc. "Organic", "natural, minimal processing, functional (and often called "therapeutical" food nowadays represents the key interest of nutritionists, physicians and food producers. Such food should have a beneficial influence on human health, besides satisfying the nutritive and energetic necessities, by protective, prophylactic and healing performance. This paper discusses facts about the influence of food on human health, problems of malnutrition in developing and developed countries, presents states of food production in the world and in Yugoslavia, legislation and regulations on nourishment and food production, the disadvantages of former concepts of development of this production and possible directions of future trends with a particular review on functional food production.

  15. Human trafficking and exploitation: A global health concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Cathy; Kiss, Ligia

    2017-11-01

    In this collection review, Cathy Zimmerman and colleague introduce the PLOS Medicine Collection on Human Trafficking, Exploitation and Health, laying out the magnitude of the global trafficking problem and offering a public health policy framework to guide responses to trafficking.

  16. The right to health of prisoners in international human rights law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lines, Rick

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores the health rights of prisoners as defined in international law, and the mechanisms that have been used to ensure the rights of persons in detention to realise the highest attainable standard of health. It examines this right as articulated within United Nations and regional human rights treaties, non-binding or so-called soft law instruments from international organisations and the jurisprudence of international human rights bodies. It explores the use of economic, social and cultural rights mechanisms, and those within civil and political rights, as they engage the right to health of prisoners, and identifies the minimum legal obligations of governments in order to remain compliant with human rights norms as defined within the international case law. In addressing these issues, this article adopts a holistic approach to the definition of the highest attainable standard of health. This includes a consideration of adequate standards of general medical care, including preventative health and mental health services. It also examines the question of environmental health, and those poor conditions of detention that may exacerbate health decline, disease transmission, mental illness or death. The paper examines the approach to prison health of the United Nations human rights system and its various monitoring bodies, as well as the regional human rights systems in Europe, Africa and the Americas. Based upon this analysis, the paper draws conclusions on the current fulfilment of the right to health of prisoners on an international scale, and proposes expanded mechanisms under the UN Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment to monitor and promote the health rights of prisoners at the international and domestic levels.

  17. Eco-Health Linkages: evidence base and socio-economic considerations for linking ecosystem goods and services to human health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecosystem goods and services (EGS) are thought to play a role in protecting human health, but the empirical evidence directly linking EGS to human health outcomes is limited, and our ability to detect Eco-Health linkages is confounded by socio-economic factors. These limitations ...

  18. Soy and Gut Microbiota: Interaction and Implication for Human Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Haiqiu; Krishnan, Hari B; Pham, Quynhchi; Yu, Liangli Lucy; Wang, Thomas T Y

    2016-11-23

    Soy (Glycine max) is a major commodity in the United States, and soy foods are gaining popularity due to their reported health-promoting effects. In the past two decades, soy and soy bioactive components have been studied for their health-promoting/disease-preventing activities and potential mechanisms of action. Recent studies have identified gut microbiota as an important component in the human body ecosystem and possibly a critical modulator of human health. Soy foods' interaction with the gut microbiota may critically influence many aspects of human development, physiology, immunity, and nutrition at different stages of life. This review summarizes current knowledge on the effects of soy foods and soy components on gut microbiota population and composition. It was found, although results vary in different studies, in general, both animal and human studies have shown that consumption of soy foods can increase the levels of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli and alter the ratio between Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes. These changes in microbiota are consistent with reported reductions in pathogenic bacteria populations in the gut, thereby lowering the risk of diseases and leading to beneficial effects on human health.

  19. Electronic cigarettes: human health effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan-Lyon, Priscilla

    2014-01-01

    Objective With the rapid increase in use of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), such as electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), users and non-users are exposed to the aerosol and product constituents. This is a review of published data on the human health effects of exposure to e-cigarettes and their components. Methods Literature searches were conducted through September 2013 using multiple electronic databases. Results Forty-four articles are included in this analysis. E-cigarette aerosols may contain propylene glycol, glycerol, flavourings, other chemicals and, usually, nicotine. Aerosolised propylene glycol and glycerol produce mouth and throat irritation and dry cough. No data on the effects of flavouring inhalation were identified. Data on short-term health effects are limited and there are no adequate data on long-term effects. Aerosol exposure may be associated with respiratory function impairment, and serum cotinine levels are similar to those in traditional cigarette smokers. The high nicotine concentrations of some products increase exposure risks for non-users, particularly children. The dangers of secondhand and thirdhand aerosol exposure have not been thoroughly evaluated. Conclusions Scientific evidence regarding the human health effects of e-cigarettes is limited. While e-cigarette aerosol may contain fewer toxicants than cigarette smoke, studies evaluating whether e-cigarettes are less harmful than cigarettes are inconclusive. Some evidence suggests that e-cigarette use may facilitate smoking cessation, but definitive data are lacking. No e-cigarette has been approved by FDA as a cessation aid. Environmental concerns and issues regarding non-user exposure exist. The health impact of e-cigarettes, for users and the public, cannot be determined with currently available data. PMID:24732161

  20. Genetically modified plants and human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Key, Suzie; Ma, Julian K-C; Drake, Pascal Mw

    2008-06-01

    Genetically modified (or GM) plants have attracted a large amount of media attention in recent years and continue to do so. Despite this, the general public remains largely unaware of what a GM plant actually is or what advantages and disadvantages the technology has to offer, particularly with regard to the range of applications for which they can be used. From the first generation of GM crops, two main areas of concern have emerged, namely risk to the environment and risk to human health. As GM plants are gradually being introduced into the European Union there is likely to be increasing public concern regarding potential health issues. Although it is now commonplace for the press to adopt 'health campaigns', the information they publish is often unreliable and unrepresentative of the available scientific evidence. We consider it important that the medical profession should be aware of the state of the art, and, as they are often the first port of call for a concerned patient, be in a position to provide an informed opinion. This review will examine how GM plants may impact on human health both directly - through applications targeted at nutrition and enhancement of recombinant medicine production - but also indirectly, through potential effects on the environment. Finally, it will examine the most important opposition currently facing the worldwide adoption of this technology: public opinion.

  1. Human trafficking and exploitation: A global health concern.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathy Zimmerman

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this collection review, Cathy Zimmerman and colleague introduce the PLOS Medicine Collection on Human Trafficking, Exploitation and Health, laying out the magnitude of the global trafficking problem and offering a public health policy framework to guide responses to trafficking.

  2. Human Health Consequences of Use of Antimicrobial Agents in Aquaculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heuer, Ole Eske; Kruse, H.; Grave, K.

    2009-01-01

    industry in many regions of the world and the widespread, intensive, and often unregulated use of antimicrobial agents in this area of animal production, efforts are needed to prevent development and spread of antimicrobial resistance in aquaculture to reduce the risk to human health....... in aquaculture, several are classified by the World Health Organisation as critically important for use in humans. Occurrence of resistance to these antimicrobial agents in human pathogens severely limits the therapeutic options in human infections. Considering the rapid growth and importance of aquaculture...... gene transfer and reach human pathogens, or drug-resistant pathogens from the aquatic environment may reach humans directly. Horizontal gene transfer may occur in the aquaculture environment, in the food chain, or in the human intestinal tract. Among the antimicrobial agents commonly used...

  3. Climate Change, Human Health, and Biomedical Research: Analysis of the National Institutes of Health Research Portfolio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balbus, John M.; Christian, Carole; Haque, Ehsanul; Howe, Sally E.; Newton, Sheila A.; Reid, Britt C.; Roberts, Luci; Wilhelm, Erin; Rosenthal, Joshua P.

    2013-01-01

    Background: According to a wide variety of analyses and projections, the potential effects of global climate change on human health are large and diverse. The U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH), through its basic, clinical, and population research portfolio of grants, has been increasing efforts to understand how the complex interrelationships among humans, ecosystems, climate, climate variability, and climate change affect domestic and global health. Objectives: In this commentary we present a systematic review and categorization of the fiscal year (FY) 2008 NIH climate and health research portfolio. Methods: A list of candidate climate and health projects funded from FY 2008 budget appropriations were identified and characterized based on their relevance to climate change and health and based on climate pathway, health impact, study type, and objective. Results: This analysis identified seven FY 2008 projects focused on climate change, 85 climate-related projects, and 706 projects that focused on disease areas associated with climate change but did not study those associations. Of the nearly 53,000 awards that NIH made in 2008, approximately 0.17% focused on or were related to climate. Conclusions: Given the nature and scale of the potential effects of climate change on human health and the degree of uncertainty that we have about these effects, we think that it is helpful for the NIH to engage in open discussions with science and policy communities about government-wide needs and opportunities in climate and health, and about how NIH’s strengths in human health research can contribute to understanding the health implications of global climate change. This internal review has been used to inform more recent initiatives by the NIH in climate and health. PMID:23552460

  4. Prioritizing Zoonotic Diseases: Differences in Perspectives Between Human and Animal Health Professionals in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, V; Sargeant, J M

    2016-05-01

    Zoonoses pose a significant burden of illness in North America. Zoonoses represent an additional threat to public health because the natural reservoirs are often animals, particularly wildlife, thus eluding control efforts such as quarantine, vaccination and social distancing. As there are limited resources available, it is necessary to prioritize diseases in order to allocate resources to those posing the greatest public health threat. Many studies have attempted to prioritize zoonoses, but challenges exist. This study uses a quantitative approach, conjoint analysis (CA), to overcome some limitations of traditional disease prioritization exercises. We used CA to conduct a zoonoses prioritization study involving a range of human and animal health professionals across North America; these included epidemiologists, public health practitioners, research scientists, physicians, veterinarians, laboratory technicians and nurses. A total of 699 human health professionals (HHP) and 585 animal health professionals (AHP) participated in this study. We used CA to prioritize 62 zoonotic diseases using 21 criteria. Our findings suggest CA can be used to produce reasonable criteria scores for disease prioritization. The fitted models were satisfactory for both groups with a slightly better fit for AHP compared to HHP (84.4% certainty fit versus 83.6%). Human-related criteria were more influential for HHP in their decision to prioritize zoonoses, while animal-related criteria were more influential for AHP resulting in different disease priority lists. While the differences were not statistically significant, a difference of one or two ranks could be considered important for some individuals. A potential solution to address the varying opinions is discussed. The scientific framework for disease prioritization presented can be revised on a regular basis by updating disease criteria to reflect diseases as they evolve over time; such a framework is of value allowing diseases of

  5. Smart sensor systems for human health breath monitoring applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, G W; Xu, J C; Biaggi-Labiosa, A M; Laskowski, D; Dutta, P K; Mondal, S P; Ward, B J; Makel, D B; Liu, C C; Chang, C W; Dweik, R A

    2011-09-01

    Breath analysis techniques offer a potential revolution in health care diagnostics, especially if these techniques can be brought into standard use in the clinic and at home. The advent of microsensors combined with smart sensor system technology enables a new generation of sensor systems with significantly enhanced capabilities and minimal size, weight and power consumption. This paper discusses the microsensor/smart sensor system approach and provides a summary of efforts to migrate this technology into human health breath monitoring applications. First, the basic capability of this approach to measure exhaled breath associated with exercise physiology is demonstrated. Building from this foundation, the development of a system for a portable asthma home health care system is described. A solid-state nitric oxide (NO) sensor for asthma monitoring has been identified, and efforts are underway to miniaturize this NO sensor technology and integrate it into a smart sensor system. It is concluded that base platform microsensor technology combined with smart sensor systems can address the needs of a range of breath monitoring applications and enable new capabilities for healthcare.

  6. Human health and the water environment: using the DPSEEA framework to identify the driving forces of disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentry-Shields, Jennifer; Bartram, Jamie

    2014-01-15

    There is a growing awareness of global forces that threaten human health via the water environment. A better understanding of the dynamic between human health and the water environment would enable prediction of the significant driving forces and effective strategies for coping with or preventing them. This report details the use of the Driving Force-Pressure-State-Exposure-Effect-Action (DPSEEA) framework to explore the linkage between water-related diseases and their significant driving forces. The DPSEEA frameworks indicate that a select group of driving forces, including population growth, agriculture, infrastructure (dams and irrigation), and climate change, is at the root cause of key global disease burdens. Construction of the DPSEEA frameworks also allows for the evaluation of public health interventions. Sanitation was found to be a widely applicable and effective intervention, targeting the driver/pressure linkage of most of the water-related diseases examined. Ultimately, the DPSEEA frameworks offer a platform for constituents in both the health and environmental fields to collaborate and commit to a common goal targeting the same driving forces. © 2013.

  7. Updated Human Health Risk Analyses for Chlorpyrifos

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA has revised the human health hazard assessment and drinking water exposure assessment for chlorpyrifos that supported our October 2015 proposal to revoke all food residue tolerances for chlorpyrifos.

  8. Community Health Seeking Behavior for Suspected Human and Animal Rabies Cases, Gomma District, Southwest Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsegaye Tewelde G/hiwot

    Full Text Available Timely presentation to appropriate health service provider of sick animals/humans from zoonotic diseases like rabies is important for early case/outbreak detection and management. However, data on community's health seeking practice for rabies in Ethiopia is limited. Therefore the objective of this study was to determine community's health seeking behavior on rabies, Southwest Ethiopia.A cross-sectional survey was conducted from January 16-February 14, 2015 to collect data from 808 respondents where the respondents were selected using multistage sampling technique. Data were collected using interviewer administered structured questionnaire by trained epidemiology graduate level students. Data were entered to Epidata version 3.1 and analyzed using SPSS version 20 for windows.Eight hundred three (99.4% respondents participated in the study. Out of 28 respondents who reported their family members' exposure to rabies, 8 of them replied that the exposed family members sought treatment from traditional healers. More than nine in ten respondents perceived that humans and domestic animals with rabies exposure should seek help of which 85% of them suggested modern health care facilities as the preferred management option for the sick humans and domestic animals. However, among those who reported sick domestic animals, near to 72% of them had either slaughtered for human consumption, sold immediately, visited traditional healer, given home care or did nothing for the sick domestic animals.Majority of the respondents had favorable perception of seeking treatment from modern health care facilities for rabies. However, significant number of them had managed inappropriately for the sick domestic animals from rabies. Hence, raising awareness of the community about management of sick domestic animals from rabies and the need for reporting to both human and animal health service providers is needed.

  9. Bridging international law and rights-based litigation: mapping health-related rights through the development of the Global Health and Human Rights Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Benjamin Mason; Cabrera, Oscar A; Ayala, Ana; Gostin, Lawrence O

    2012-06-15

    The O'Neill Institute for National and Global Health Law at Georgetown University, the World Health Organization, and the Lawyers Collective have come together to develop a searchable Global Health and Human Rights Database that maps the intersection of health and human rights in judgments, international and regional instruments, and national constitutions. Where states long remained unaccountable for violations of health-related human rights, litigation has arisen as a central mechanism in an expanding movement to create rights-based accountability. Facilitated by the incorporation of international human rights standards in national law, this judicial enforcement has supported the implementation of rights-based claims, giving meaning to states' longstanding obligations to realize the highest attainable standard of health. Yet despite these advancements, there has been insufficient awareness of the international and domestic legal instruments enshrining health-related rights and little understanding of the scope and content of litigation upholding these rights. As this accountability movement evolves, the Global Health and Human Rights Database seeks to chart this burgeoning landscape of international instruments, national constitutions, and judgments for health-related rights. Employing international legal research to document and catalogue these three interconnected aspects of human rights for the public's health, the Database's categorization by human rights, health topics, and regional scope provides a comprehensive means of understanding health and human rights law. Through these categorizations, the Global Health and Human Rights Database serves as a basis for analogous legal reasoning across states to serve as precedents for future cases, for comparative legal analysis of similar health claims in different country contexts, and for empirical research to clarify the impact of human rights judgments on public health outcomes. Copyright © 2012 Meier, Nygren

  10. Cigarette smoke toxins deposited on surfaces: implications for human health.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Martins-Green

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoking remains a significant health threat for smokers and nonsmokers alike. Secondhand smoke (SHS is intrinsically more toxic than directly inhaled smoke. Recently, a new threat has been discovered - Thirdhand smoke (THS - the accumulation of SHS on surfaces that ages with time, becoming progressively more toxic. THS is a potential health threat to children, spouses of smokers and workers in environments where smoking is or has been allowed. The goal of this study is to investigate the effects of THS on liver, lung, skin healing, and behavior, using an animal model exposed to THS under conditions that mimic exposure of humans. THS-exposed mice show alterations in multiple organ systems and excrete levels of NNAL (a tobacco-specific carcinogen biomarker similar to those found in children exposed to SHS (and consequently to THS. In liver, THS leads to increased lipid levels and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, a precursor to cirrhosis and cancer and a potential contributor to cardiovascular disease. In lung, THS stimulates excess collagen production and high levels of inflammatory cytokines, suggesting propensity for fibrosis with implications for inflammation-induced diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma. In wounded skin, healing in THS-exposed mice has many characteristics of the poor healing of surgical incisions observed in human smokers. Lastly, behavioral tests show that THS-exposed mice become hyperactive. The latter data, combined with emerging associated behavioral problems in children exposed to SHS/THS, suggest that, with prolonged exposure, they may be at significant risk for developing more severe neurological disorders. These results provide a basis for studies on the toxic effects of THS in humans and inform potential regulatory policies to prevent involuntary exposure to THS.

  11. [Effects of volcanic eruptions on human health in Iceland. Review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudmundsson, Gunnar; Larsen, Guðrun

    2016-01-01

    Volcanic eruptions are common in Iceland and have caused health problems ever since the settlement of Iceland. Here we describe volcanic activity and the effects of volcanic gases and ash on human health in Iceland. Volcanic gases expelled during eruptions can be highly toxic for humans if their concentrations are high, irritating the mucus membranes of the eyes and upper respiratory tract at lower concentrations. They can also be very irritating to the skin. Volcanic ash is also irritating for the mucus membranes of the eyes and upper respiratory tract. The smalles particles of volcanic ash can reach the alveoli of the lungs. Described are four examples of volcanic eruptions that have affected the health of Icelanders. The eruption of Laki volcanic fissure in 1783-1784 is the volcanic eruption that has caused the highest mortality and had the greatest effects on the well-being of Icelanders. Despite multiple volcanic eruptions during the last decades in Iceland mortality has been low and effects on human health have been limited, although studies on longterm effects are lacking. Studies on the effects of the Eyjafjallajökul eruption in 2010 on human health showed increased physical and mental symptoms, especially in those having respiratory disorders. The Directorate of Health in Iceland and other services have responded promptly to recurrent volcanic eruptions over the last few years and given detailed instructions on how to minimize the effects on the public health. Key words: volcanic eruptions, Iceland, volcanic ash, volcanic gases, health effects, mortality. Correspondence: Gunnar Guðmundsson, ggudmund@landspitali.is.

  12. Health care and human rights: against the split duty gambit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreenivasan, Gopal

    2016-08-01

    There are various grounds on which one may wish to distinguish a right to health care from a right to health. In this article, I review some old grounds before introducing some new grounds. But my central task is to argue that separating a right to health care from a right to health has objectionable consequences. I offer two main objections. The domestic objection is that separating the two rights prevents the state from fulfilling its duty to maximise the health it provides each citizen from its fixed health budget. The international objection is that separating a human right to health care fails the moral requirement that, for any given moral human right, the substance to which any two right-holders are entitled be of an equal standard.

  13. New approaches in human health risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abass, Khaled; Carlsen, Anders; Rautio, Arja

    2016-01-01

    Studies on the precise impact of environmental pollutants on human health are difficult to undertake and interpret, because many genetic and environmental factors influence health at the same time and to varying degrees. Our chapter in the AMAP report was based on new approaches to describe risks and future needs. In this paper, we will introduce the issues associated with risk assessment of single chemicals, and present suggestions for future studies as well as a summary of lessons learned during the health-related parts of the European Union-funded FP7 project ArcRisk (Arctic Health Risks: Impacts on health in the Arctic and Europe owing to climate-induced changes in contaminant cycling, 2009-2014; www.arcrisk.eu).

  14. 75 FR 8085 - National Institutes of Health Guidelines for Human Stem Cell Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-23

    ... Health Guidelines for Human Stem Cell Research SUMMARY: The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is requesting public comment on a revision to the definition of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) in the ``National Institutes of Health Guidelines for Human Stem Cell Research'' (Guidelines). On July 7, 2009, NIH...

  15. 75 FR 13137 - National Institutes of Health Guidelines for Human Stem Cell Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-18

    ... Health Guidelines for Human Stem Cell Research SUMMARY: The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is extending the public comment period on a revision to the definition of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) in the ``National Institutes of Health Guidelines for Human Stem Cell Research'' (Guidelines). Due to a...

  16. Respiratory health in Latin America: number of specialists and human resources training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-García, Juan-Carlos; Salas-Hernández, Jorge; Pérez Padilla, Rogelio; Montes de Oca, María

    2014-01-01

    Latin America is made up of a number of developing countries. Demographic changes are occurring in the close to 600 million inhabitants, in whom a significant growth in population is combined with the progressive ageing of the population. This part of the world poses great challenges for general and respiratory health. Most of the countries have significant, or even greater, rates of chronic respiratory diseases or exposure to risk. Human resources in healthcare are not readily available, particularly in the area of respiratory disease specialists. Academic training centers are few and even non-existent in the majority of the countries. The detailed analysis of these conditions provides a basis for reflection on the main challenges and proposals for the management and training of better human resources in this specialist area. Copyright © 2013 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  17. Elucidative analysis and sequencing of two respiratory health monitoring methods to study the impact of varying atmospheric composition on human health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awasthi, Amit; Hothi, Navjot; Kaur, Prabhjot; Singh, Nirankar; Chakraborty, Monojit; Bansal, Sangeeta

    2017-12-01

    Atmospheric composition of ambient air consists of different gases in definite proportion that affect the earth's climate and its ecological system. Due to varied anthropogenic reasons, this composition is changed, which ultimately have an impact on the health of living beings. For survival, the human respiratory system is one of the sensitive systems, which is easily and closely affected by the change in atmospheric composition of an external environment. Many studies have been conducted to quantify the effects of atmospheric pollution on human health by using different approaches. This article presents different scenario of studies conducted to evaluate the effects on different human groups. Differences between the studies conducted using spirometry and survey methods are presented in this article to extract a better sequence between these two methodologies. Many studies have been conducted to measure the respiratory status by evaluating the respiratory symptoms and hospital admissions. Limited numbers of studies are found with repeated spirometry on the same subjects for long duration to nullify the error arising due to decrease in efforts by the same subjects during manoeuvre of pulmonary function tests. Present study reveals the importance of methodological sequencing in order to obtain more authentic and reliable results. This study suggests that impacts of deteriorating atmospheric composition on human health can be more significantly studied if spirometry is done after survey analysis. The article also proposes that efficiency and authenticity of surveys involving health impacts will increase, if medical data information of patients is saved in hospitals in a proper format.

  18. Implications of global warming on human health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, R.K.; Syam, P.V.S.

    1997-01-01

    Due to the build up of green house gases in atmosphere, less heat escapes through the atmosphere promoting global warming. This may result in world wide droughts, sea-level rise inundating islands and coastal countries, cataclysmic hurricanes etc. Human health as a result of these changes, will be affected both physiologically and psychologically. Physiological effects may be more pronounced in cases occurring due to changes in rainfall and temperature patterns, food production amounts, water availability, etc. Psychological impact may be more in cases of catastrophes like floods, hurricanes or famine. In this paper, an attempt has been made to highlight the implications of global warming on human health due to temperature change. Food production changes and ultra-violet radiation effects and cataclysmic disaster effects. (author)

  19. Generic Assessment Criteria for human health risk assessment of potentially contaminated land in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yuanyuan; Nathanail, Paul C

    2009-12-20

    Generic Assessment Criteria (GAC) are derived using widely applicable assumptions about the characteristics and behaviour of contaminant sources, pathways and receptors. GAC provide nationally consistent guidance, thereby saving money and time. Currently, there are no human health based Generic Assessment Criteria (GAC) for contaminated sites in China. Protection of human health is therefore difficult to ensure and demonstrate; and the lack of GAC makes it difficult to tell if there is potential significant risk to human health unless site-specific criteria are derived. This paper derived Chinese GAC (GAC) for five inorganic and eight organic substances for three regions in China for three land uses: urban residential without plant uptake, Chinese cultivated land, and commercial/industrial using the SNIFFER model. The SNIFFER model has been further implemented with a dermal absorption algorithm and the model default input values have been changed to reflect the Chinese exposure scenarios. It is envisaged that the modified SNIFFER model could be used to derive GAC for more contaminants, more Regions, and more land uses. Further research to enhance the reliability and acceptability of the GAC is needed in regional/national surveys in diet and working patterns.

  20. Overview of human health in the Arctic: conclusions and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, Shawn; Adlard, Bryan; Odland, Jon Øyvind

    2016-01-01

    This article is intended to provide an overview of the key conclusions, knowledge gaps and key recommendations based on the recent 2015 Arctic human health assessment under the Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Program. This assessment was based primarily on data from human health monitoring and research studies and peer-reviewed literature published since the last assessment in 2009.

  1. Human rights from the grassroots up: Vermont's campaign for universal health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, Mariah

    2012-06-15

    In 2008, the Vermont Workers' Center launched the "Healthcare Is a Human Right Campaign," a grassroots campaign to secure the creation of a universal health care system in Vermont. Campaign organizers used a human rights framework to mobilize thousands of voters in support of universal health care. In response to this extraordinary grassroots effort, the state legislature passed health care legislation that incorporates human rights principles into Vermont law and provides a framework for universal health care. The United States has often lagged behind other nations in recognizing economic, social, and cultural (ESC) rights, including the right to health. Nonetheless, activists have begun to incorporate ESC rights into domestic advocacy campaigns, and state and local governments are beginning to respond where the federal government has not. Vermont serves as a powerful example of how a human rights framework can inform health care policy and inspire grassroots campaigns in the United States. This three-part article documents the Vermont Workers' Center campaign and discusses the impact that human rights activity at the grassroots level may have on attitudes towards ESC rights in the United States. The first part describes the Vermont health care crisis and explains why the center adopted international human rights principles for their campaign. The article then goes on to discuss the three-year campaign and analyze the health care reform bill that the Vermont legislature passed. Finally, the article discusses the campaign's local and national impact. Copyright © 2012 McGill.

  2. What impact do Global Health Initiatives have on human resources for antiretroviral treatment roll-out? A qualitative policy analysis of implementation processes in Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanefeld Johanna

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since the beginning of the 21st century, development assistance for HIV/AIDS has increasingly been provided through Global Health Initiatives, specifically the United States Presidential Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief, the Global Fund to Fight HIV, TB and Malaria and the World Bank Multi-country AIDS Programme. Zambia, like many of the countries heavily affected by HIV/AIDS in southern Africa, also faces a shortage of human resources for health. The country receives significant amounts of funding from GHIs for the large-scale provision of antiretroviral treatment through the public and private sector. This paper examines the impact of GHIs on human resources for ART roll-out in Zambia, at national level, in one province and two districts. Methods It is a qualitative policy analysis relying on in-depth interviews with more than 90 policy-makers and implementers at all levels. Results Findings show that while GHIs do not provide significant funding for additional human resources, their interventions have significant impact on human resources for health at all levels. While GHIs successfully retrain a large number of health workers, evidence suggests that GHIs actively deplete the pool of skilled human resources for health by recruiting public sector staff to work for GHI-funded nongovernmental implementing agencies. The secondment of GHI staff into public sector facilities may help alleviate immediate staff shortages, but this practice risks undermining sustainability of programmes. GHI-supported programmes and initiatives add significantly to the workload of existing public sector staff at all levels, while incentives including salary top-ups and overtime payments mean that ART programmes are more popular among staff than services for non-focal diseases. Conclusion Research findings suggest that GHIs need to actively mediate against the potentially negative consequences of their funding on human resources for health. Evidence

  3. Managing Air Quality - Human Health, Environmental and Economic Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human health and environmental assessments characterize health and environmental risks associated with exposure to pollution. Economic assessments evaluate the cost and economic impact of a policy or regulation & can estimate economic benefits.

  4. Impact of climate change on human health and health systems in Tanzania: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mboera, Leonard E G; Mayala, Benjamin K; Kweka, Eliningaya J; Mazigo, Humphrey D

    2011-12-01

    Climate change (CC) has a number of immediate and long-term impacts on the fundamental determinants of human health. A number of potential human health effects have been associated either directly or indirectly with global climate change. Vulnerability to the risks associated with CC may exacerbate ongoing socio-economic challenges. The objective of this review was to analyse the potential risk and vulnerability in the context of climate-sensitive human diseases and health system in Tanzania. Climate sensitive vector- and waterborne diseases and other health related problems and the policies on climate adaptation in Tanzania during the past 50 years are reviewed. The review has shown that a number of climate-associated infectious disease epidemics have been reported in various areas of the country; mostly being associated with increase in precipitation and temperature. Although, there is no single policy document that specifically addresses issues of CC in the country, the National Environmental Management Act of 1997 recognizes the importance of CC and calls for the government to put up measures to address the phenomenon. A number of strategies and action plans related to CC are also in place. These include the National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan, the National Action Programme, and the National Bio-safety Framework. The government has put in place a National Climate Change Steering Committee and the National Climate Change Technical Committee to oversee and guide the implementation of CC activities in the country. Recognizing the adverse impacts of natural disasters and calamities, the government established a Disaster Management Division under the Prime Minister's Office. Epidemic Preparedness and Response Unit of the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare is responsible for emergency preparedness, mostly disease outbreaks. However, specific climate changes associated with human health issues are poorly addressed in the MoHSW strategies and the national

  5. Governance and human resources for health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dieleman, Marjolein; Hilhorst, Thea

    2011-01-01

    Despite an increase in efforts to address shortage and performance of Human Resources for Health (HRH), HRH problems continue to hamper quality service delivery. We believe that the influence of governance is undervalued in addressing the HRH crisis, both globally and at country level. This thematic

  6. Impacts of Gut Bacteria on Human Health and Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu-Jie; Li, Sha; Gan, Ren-You; Zhou, Tong; Xu, Dong-Ping; Li, Hua-Bin

    2015-01-01

    Gut bacteria are an important component of the microbiota ecosystem in the human gut, which is colonized by 1014 microbes, ten times more than the human cells. Gut bacteria play an important role in human health, such as supplying essential nutrients, synthesizing vitamin K, aiding in the digestion of cellulose, and promoting angiogenesis and enteric nerve function. However, they can also be potentially harmful due to the change of their composition when the gut ecosystem undergoes abnormal changes in the light of the use of antibiotics, illness, stress, aging, bad dietary habits, and lifestyle. Dysbiosis of the gut bacteria communities can cause many chronic diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disease, obesity, cancer, and autism. This review summarizes and discusses the roles and potential mechanisms of gut bacteria in human health and diseases. PMID:25849657

  7. Human Trafficking: A Review for Mental Health Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakushko, Oksana

    2009-01-01

    This article provides a review of current research on human trafficking for mental health practitioners and scholars. In addition to an overview of definitions, causes and processes of trafficking, the article highlights mental health consequences of trafficking along with suggestions for treatment of survivors. Directions for counseling services,…

  8. Meeting the oral health needs of 12-year-olds in China: human resources for oral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiangyu; Bernabé, Eduardo; Liu, Xuenan; Zheng, Shuguo; Gallagher, Jennifer E

    2017-06-20

    their time in providing clinical care. The findings highlight the gap between dental workforce needs and workforce capacity in China. Significant implications for health policy and human resources for oral health in this country with a developing health system are discussed including the need for public health action.

  9. Human rights and correctional health policy: a view from Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogan, Mary

    2017-03-13

    Purpose Correctional healthcare should promote the protection of human rights. The purpose of this paper is to bring a discussion of human rights into debates on how such policy should be best organized. Design/methodology/approach The paper achieves its aim by providing an analysis of European prison law and policy in the area of prison health, through assessing decisions of the European Court of Human Rights, as well as policies created by the European Committee for the Prevention of Torture. Findings The paper describes the position of the European Court of Human Rights on the topics of access to healthcare, ill health and release from prison, mental illness in prison, and the duty to provide rehabilitative programming for those seeking to reduce their level of "risk." It also argues that human rights law can be a source of practical reform, and that legal frameworks have much to offer healthcare leaders seeking to uphold the dignity of those in their care. Originality/value This paper will provide a rare example of the engagement of human rights law with correctional health policy. It provides practical recommendations arising out of an analysis of European human rights law in the area of prisons.

  10. Research Award: Ecosystems and Human Health (Ecohealth ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Jean-Claude Dumais

    2012-09-12

    Sep 12, 2012 ... Research Award: Ecosystems and Human Health (Ecohealth) ... Your proposal should demonstrate an understanding of the ... demonstrated ability to work independently, and strong written and oral communications skills are ...

  11. Rebuilding human resources for health: a case study from Liberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baba Duza

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Following twenty years of economic and social growth, Liberia's fourteen-year civil war destroyed its health system, with most of the health workforce leaving the country. Following the inauguration of the Sirleaf administration in 2006, the Ministry of Health & Social Welfare (MOHSW has focused on rebuilding, with an emphasis on increasing the size and capacity of its human resources for health (HRH. Given resource constraints and the high maternal and neonatal mortality rates, MOHSW concentrated on its largest cadre of health workers: nurses. Case description Based on results from a post-war rapid assessment of health workers, facilities and community access, MOHSW developed the Emergency Human Resources (HR Plan for 2007-2011. MOHSW established a central HR Unit and county-level HR officers and prioritized nursing cadres in order to quickly increase workforce numbers, improve equitable distribution of workers and enhance performance. Strategies included increasing and standardizing salaries to attract workers and prevent outflow to the private sector; mobilizing donor funds to improve management capacity and fund incentive packages in order to retain staff in hard to reach areas; reopening training institutions and providing scholarships to increase the pool of available workers. Discussion and evaluation MOHSW has increased the total number of clinical health workers from 1396 in 1998 to 4653 in 2010, 3394 of which are nurses and midwives. From 2006 to 2010, the number of nurses has more than doubled. Certified midwives and nurse aides also increased by 28% and 31% respectively. In 2010, the percentage of the clinical workforce made up by nurses and nurse aides increased to 73%. While the nursing cadre numbers are strong and demonstrate significant improvement since the creation of the Emergency HR Plan, equitable distribution, retention and performance management continue to be challenges. Conclusion This paper

  12. Human Centred Design Considerations for Connected Health Devices for the Older Adult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard P. Harte

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Connected health devices are generally designed for unsupervised use, by non-healthcare professionals, facilitating independent control of the individuals own healthcare. Older adults are major users of such devices and are a population significantly increasing in size. This group presents challenges due to the wide spectrum of capabilities and attitudes towards technology. The fit between capabilities of the user and demands of the device can be optimised in a process called Human Centred Design. Here we review examples of some connected health devices chosen by random selection, assess older adult known capabilities and attitudes and finally make analytical recommendations for design approaches and design specifications.

  13. The human face of health disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Alexander R

    2003-01-01

    In the last 20 years, the issue of disparities in health between racial/ethnic groups has moved from the realm of common sense and anecdote to the realm of science. Hard, cold data now force us to consider what many had long taken for granted. Not only does health differ by race/ethnicity, but our health care system itself is deeply biased. From lack of diversity in the leadership and workforce, to ethnocentric systems of care, to biased clinical decision-making, the American health care system is geared to treat the majority, while the minority suffers. The photos shown here are of patients and scenes that recall some of the important landmarks in research on racial/ethnic disparities in health. The purpose is to put faces and humanity onto the numbers. While we now have great bodies of evidence upon which to lobby for change, in the end, each statistic still represents a personal tragedy or an individual triumph.

  14. Human rights, public health and medicinal cannabis use

    OpenAIRE

    Bone, Melissa; Seddon, Toby

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the interplay between the human rights and drug control frameworks, and critiques case law on medicinal cannabis use to demonstrate that a bona fide human rights perspective allows for a broader conception of ‘health’. This broad conception, encompassing both medicalised and social constructionist definitions, can inform public health policies relating to medicinal cannabis use. The paper also demonstrates how a human rights lens can alleviate a core tension between the St...

  15. Occurrence and human health risk of wastewater-derived pharmaceuticals in a drinking water source for Shanghai, East China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Zhi-Hao; Chen, Ling; Meng, Xiang-Zhou; Duan, Yan-Ping; Zhang, Zeng-Sheng; Zeng, Eddy Y

    2014-08-15

    Pharmaceuticals are heavily used to improve human and animal health, resulting in the frequent contamination of aquatic environments with pharmaceutical residues, which has raised considerable concern in recent years. When inadequately removed from drinking water in water treatment plants, pharmaceuticals can have potential toxic effects on human health. This study investigated the spatial distributions and seasonal variations of five pharmaceuticals, including ibuprofen (IBP), ketoprofen (KEP), naproxen (NPX), diclofenac (DFC), and clofibric acid (CA), in the Huangpu River system (a drinking water source for Shanghai) over a period of almost two years as well as the associated risk to human health for different age groups. All of the targets were ubiquitous in the river water, with levels decreasing in the following order: KEP (mean: 28.6 ng/L)≈IBP (23.3 ng/L)>DFC (13.6 ng/L)≈NPX (12.3 ng/L)>CA (1.6ng/L). The concentrations of all of the investigated compounds were at the low or medium end of the global range. The upstream tributaries contained lower IBP but higher NPX than did the mainstream and downstream tributaries. However, no significant variations were found in the levels of KEP, DFC, or CA at the different sampling sites. Except for CA in the mainstream, significantly higher pharmaceutical levels were observed in the dry season than in the wet season. Overall, a very low risk of the selected pharmaceuticals for human health via drinking water was observed, but future studies are needed to examine the fate and chronic effects of all pharmaceuticals in aquatic environments. To our knowledge, this is the first report to investigate the human health risk of pharmaceuticals in raw drinking water in China. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The place of human rights and the common good in global health policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasioulas, John; Vayena, Effy

    2016-08-01

    This article offers an integrated account of two strands of global health justice: health-related human rights and health-related common goods. After sketching a general understanding of the nature of human rights, it proceeds to explain both how individual human rights are to be individuated and the content of their associated obligations specified. With respect to both issues, the human right to health is taken as the primary illustration. It is argued that (1) the individuation of the right to health is fixed by reference to the subject matter of its corresponding obligations, and not by the interests it serves, and (2) the specification of the content of that right must be properly responsive to thresholds of possibility and burden. The article concludes by insisting that human rights cannot constitute the whole of global health justice and that, in addition, other considerations-including the promotion of health-related global public goods-should also shape such policy. Moreover, the relationship between human rights and common goods should not be conceived as mutually exclusive. On the contrary, there sometimes exists an individual right to some aspect of a common good, including a right to benefit from health-related common goods such as programmes for securing herd immunity from diphtheria.

  17. New approaches in human health risk assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled Abass

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the precise impact of environmental pollutants on human health are difficult to undertake and interpret, because many genetic and environmental factors influence health at the same time and to varying degrees. Our chapter in the AMAP report was based on new approaches to describe risks and future needs. In this paper, we will introduce the issues associated with risk assessment of single chemicals, and present suggestions for future studies as well as a summary of lessons learned during the health-related parts of the European Union-funded FP7 project ArcRisk (Arctic Health Risks: Impacts on health in the Arctic and Europe owing to climate-induced changes in contaminant cycling, 2009–2014; www.arcrisk.eu.

  18. Profiles of four women. Health and human rights activists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiner, L; Sollom, R

    1997-01-01

    This article briefly profiles four women physicians working for health and human rights around the world. Dr. Ruchama Marton, an Israeli psychiatrist and activist for peace in the Middle East, is a founder of Physicians for Human Rights/Israel. Dr. Jane Green Schaller is a US pediatrician whose 1985 trip to South Africa initiated her human rights involvement, which includes the founding of Physicians for Human Rights. Dr. Judith van Heerden, a primary care physician in South Africa, has worked for reform of prison health care, to establish hospice care, and, most recently, for acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) education for medical students. Dr. Ma Thida, the only physician not interviewed for this article, is currently held in a Burmese prison because of her work on behalf of the National League for Democracy. The profiles suggest the breadth of human rights work worldwide and are a testament to what physicians can do.

  19. Revised Human Health Risk Assessment on Chlorpyrifos

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have revised our human health risk assessment and drinking water exposure assessment for chlorpyrifos that supported our October 2015 proposal to revoke all food residue tolerances for chlorpyrifos. Learn about the revised analysis.

  20. Clean Slate transportation and human health risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-02-01

    Public concern regarding activities involving radioactive material generally focuses on the human health risk associated with exposure to ionizing radiation. This report describes the results of a risk analysis conducted to evaluate risk for excavation, handling, and transport of soil contaminated with transuranics at the Clean Slate sites. Transportation risks were estimated for public transport routes from the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) to the Envirocore disposal facility or to the Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) for both radiological risk and risk due to traffic accidents. Human health risks were evaluated for occupational and radiation-related health effects to workers. This report was generated to respond to this public concern, to provide an evaluation of the risk, and to assess feasibility of transport of the contaminated soil for disposal

  1. [Priorities for health policy and systems research focused on human resources in health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reveiz, Ludovic; Chapman, Evelina; Flórez, Carlos E Pinzón; Torres, Rubén

    2013-11-01

    Identify priorities for health policy and systems research related to human resources in Latin America and Caribbean countries. An online survey was designed based on a search in PubMed, Cochrane Library, and LILACS that contributed previously prioritized research questions. Respondents, mainly researchers and decision-makers, were identified through various sources. The first round, directed at researchers, aimed at refining and adding research questions and prioritizing questions that researchers regarded as relevant or very relevant. The second round was directed at researchers and decision-makers. A question was considered a priority when 50% (or more) of respondents described it as "relevant" or "very relevant." The first round included 20 questions on human resources and 33/66 researchers responded. Questions suggested by the researchers were added, resulting in 26 questions for the second round, which were sent to 121 researchers and decision-makers. Respondent representation by country was uniform in both rounds. In the second round, 14/26 (54%) questions were described as very relevant. Priority issues related to regulation of the market, integration of education and health care needs, and distribution of human resources. The response rate was 50% in the first round (33/66), and 34% in the second round (41/121). The results of this exercise provide a starting point for mobilization of resources for health policy and systems research. Identification of health systems research priorities is an effective and efficient strategy for reorienting political, financial, management, and social organization efforts for attaining universal health coverage.

  2. Environmental impacts of polluted effluents on human health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, M.S.

    2005-01-01

    One of the major environmental problems confronting Pakistan is water pollution. Human health is being affected by water pollution. The major sources of pollution for surface and groundwater resources are municipal sewage and industrial wastewater. The indiscriminate discharges of untreated sewage and industrial effluents into the water bodies have affected not only the water quality but also human health. Groundwater is also being contaminated by the discharge of untreated sewage into land. Water pollution is responsible for water borne diseases such as hepatitis, dysentery, typhoid, cholera, paratyphoid fever etc. This paper presents a general overview of the wastewater pollution in Pakistan, an evaluation and a specific reference to Lahore city and the effects on human health. Finally, sustainable treatment methods have been proposed to mitigate the water pollution problem. The analysis of water bodies at wastewater discharge points shows depletion of Dissolved Oxygen (DO) and high levels of E. Coli. There is an evidence of groundwater pollution in many areas due to the discharge of wastewater on open land. To protect the water sources from contamination, appropriate treatment methods/treatment technologies have also been discussed in this paper. In the end conclusion and recommendations are given. (author)

  3. Environmental impacts of polluted effluents on human health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, M S [NESPAK, Lahore (Pakistan). Geo-Environmental Engineering Div.

    2005-07-15

    One of the major environmental problems confronting Pakistan is water pollution. Human health is being affected by water pollution. The major sources of pollution for surface and groundwater resources are municipal sewage and industrial wastewater. The indiscriminate discharges of untreated sewage and industrial effluents into the water bodies have affected not only the water quality but also human health. Groundwater is also being contaminated by the discharge of untreated sewage into land. Water pollution is responsible for water borne diseases such as hepatitis, dysentery, typhoid, cholera, paratyphoid fever etc. This paper presents a general overview of the wastewater pollution in Pakistan, an evaluation and a specific reference to Lahore city and the effects on human health. Finally, sustainable treatment methods have been proposed to mitigate the water pollution problem. The analysis of water bodies at wastewater discharge points shows depletion of Dissolved Oxygen (DO) and high levels of E. Coli. There is an evidence of groundwater pollution in many areas due to the discharge of wastewater on open land. To protect the water sources from contamination, appropriate treatment methods/treatment technologies have also been discussed in this paper. In the end conclusion and recommendations are given. (author)

  4. Trust in health research relationships: accounts of human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Michael; Townsend, Anne; Cox, Susan M; Paterson, Natasha Damiano; Lafrenière, Darquise

    2008-12-01

    TRUST IS FUNDAMENTAL in health research, yet there is little empirical evidence that explores the meaning of trust from the perspective of human subjects. The analysis presented here focuses on how human subjects talked about trust in the in-depth interviews. It emerged from the accounts that trust could not be assumed in the research setting, rather it was portrayed as a dynamic concept, built and easily broken, characterized by reciprocity and negotiation. Human subjects were ambivalent about who, when, what, and how much to trust in the research endeavor. This paper adds a fresh perspective to the literature on trust, and so offers a currently neglected, and little understood dimension to the discourse around health research ethics.

  5. Management of human resources in health care: the Canadian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, O

    1992-07-01

    Each of Canada's ten provinces has a publicly administered system of health insurance, funded by provincial and federal taxes, that is accessible to all citizens and covers all medically necessary services provided by physicians and hospitals. Canadians spend an estimated 9.2 percent of their gross national product on health care (about 2.8 percentage points below US spending), of which three quarters is public-sector spending. According to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, Canada's health status is equal to or better than that of the United States, despite lower per capita health spending. About seven percent of the Canadian labour force works in health care, and attempts to introduce coordinated planning of human resources in health care have not as yet proceeded far. The predominant policy issue here is the supply and the role of physicians. It has been argued that entrenching within the system the fee-for-service method of paying physicians has created a disincentive to the delegation of responsibility to health personnel other than doctors. It is also argued that introduction of government-run health insurance provided the opportunity for human resource planning, but that the decision by governments to act only as the payer resulted in ad-hoc planning approaches. However, governments' concern over health care costs has led to a more direct role by them in the planning of the human resources in health. They are re-examining the autonomy and jurisdictional rights of the professions that deliver health care to Canadians.

  6. EFFECTS OF ARSENIC EXPOSURE IN HUMAN HEALTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Sueli de Lima Rodrigues

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, ingestion of inorganic arsenic from drinking water has emerged as an important public health concern. It enters drinking water supplies from natural deposits in the earth or from agricultural and industrial practices, mainly the mining. The health consequences of chronic arsenic exposure include increased risk for various forms of cancer and numerous pathologic effects, such as cutaneous effects (hyperpigmentation and hyperkeratoses, gastrointestinal effects, vascular effects, diabetes mellitus, and peripheral neuropathy. This way, this study presents through a critical revision of the literature, the more relevant current aspects on the immunological consequences, carcinogenic and resulting genetics of the human intoxication for arsenic. They were identified and analyzed 50 works published on the subject among the years of 1979 and 2008, being used as main sources LILACS-BIREME MEDLINE/Index Medicus, SciELO and PubMed. The specific Arsênio e saúde humana effects of the intoxication for arsenic about the human health are not still completely elucidated. Thus, is possible that this element affects functions still unknown, becoming important the scientificexploration on the subject.

  7. One Health and Cyanobacteria in Freshwater Systems: Animal Illnesses and Deaths are Sentinel Events for Human Health Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmful cyanobacterial blooms have adversely impacted human and animal health for thousands of years. Recently, the health impacts of harmful cyanobacteria blooms are becoming more frequently detected and reported. However, reports of human and animal illnesses or deaths associat...

  8. Review Human Oesophagostomiasis: A Serious Public Health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Review Human Oesophagostomiasis: A Serious Public Health Problem in Tropical ... Historical events were described from its first record in Ethiopia in 1905. ... information on patterns of distribution and relation of transmission to seasons and ...

  9. Humidity : a review and primer on atmospheric moisture and human health.

    OpenAIRE

    David, R.E.; McGregor, G.R.; Enfield, K.B.

    2016-01-01

    Research examining associations between weather and human health frequently includes the effects of atmospheric humidity. A large number of humidity variables have been developed for numerous purposes, but little guidance is available to health researchers regarding appropriate variable selection. We examine a suite of commonly used humidity variables and summarize both the medical and biometeorological literature on associations between humidity and human health. As an example of the importa...

  10. Anaerobic Probiotics: The Key Microbes for Human Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Enshasy, Hesham; Malik, Khairuddin; Malek, Roslinda Abd; Othman, Nor Zalina; Elsayed, Elsayed Ahmed; Wadaan, Mohammad

    Human gastrointestinal microbiota (HGIM) incorporate a large number of microbes from different species. Anaerobic bacteria are the dominant organisms in this microbial consortium and play a crucial role in human health. In addition to their functional role as the main source of many essential metabolites for human health, they are considered as biotherapeutic agents in the regulation of different human metabolites. They are also important in the prevention and in the treatment of different physical and mental diseases. Bifidobacteria are the dominant anaerobic bacteria in HGIM and are widely used in the development of probiotic products for infants, children and adults. To develop bifidobacteria-based bioproducts, therefore, it is necessary to develop a large-scale biomass production platform based on a good understanding of the ideal medium and bioprocessing parameters for their growth and viability. In addition, high cell viability should be maintained during downstream processing and storage of probiotic cell powder or the final formulated product. In this work we review the latest information about the biology, therapeutic activities, cultivation and industrial production of bifidobacteria.

  11. Human Body 3D Posture Estimation Using Significant Points and Two Cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juang, Chia-Feng; Chen, Teng-Chang; Du, Wei-Chin

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a three-dimensional (3D) human posture estimation system that locates 3D significant body points based on 2D body contours extracted from two cameras without using any depth sensors. The 3D significant body points that are located by this system include the head, the center of the body, the tips of the feet, the tips of the hands, the elbows, and the knees. First, a linear support vector machine- (SVM-) based segmentation method is proposed to distinguish the human body from the background in red, green, and blue (RGB) color space. The SVM-based segmentation method uses not only normalized color differences but also included angle between pixels in the current frame and the background in order to reduce shadow influence. After segmentation, 2D significant points in each of the two extracted images are located. A significant point volume matching (SPVM) method is then proposed to reconstruct the 3D significant body point locations by using 2D posture estimation results. Experimental results show that the proposed SVM-based segmentation method shows better performance than other gray level- and RGB-based segmentation approaches. This paper also shows the effectiveness of the 3D posture estimation results in different postures. PMID:24883422

  12. The prebiotic concept and human health : a changing landscape with riboflavin as a novel prebiotic candidate?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steinert, R. E.; Sadaghian, Mehdi; Harmsen, H. J. M.; Weber, P.

    2016-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that the gut microbiota has a critical role in both the maintenance of human health and the pathogenesis of many diseases. Modifying the colonic microbiota using functional foods has attracted significant research effort and product development. The pioneering concept of

  13. Clinical significance of melatonin receptors in the human myometrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olcese, James; Beesley, Stephen

    2014-08-01

    To review and update the research on melatonin receptor expression in the human myometrium, in particular as it pertains to uterine contractility at labor. Summary of previous studies with the addition of new data on the transcriptional regulation of melatonin receptor expression in human myometrial cells. Not applicable. Late-term pregnant volunteers. Biopsy collection for in vitro analyses provided the original data. More recently, uterine contractions in late-term pregnant volunteers were assessed before, during, and after acute white-light exposure. Melatonin receptor signaling in myometrial cells and uterine contractions in late-term pregnant volunteers. Melatonin acts through the MTNR1B melatonin receptor that is expressed in the myometrium at late term to synergistically enhance oxytocin-dependent signaling and contractions. Acute inhibition of endogenous melatonin levels with light reversibly suppresses uterine contractions. These results point to a significant role for circulating melatonin in the timing and degree of uterine contractions in late-term pregnancy. Understanding the regulation of melatonin receptors remains a future objective. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Ecological and human health risks associated with abandoned gold mine tailings contaminated soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ngole-Jeme, Veronica Mpode; Fantke, Peter

    2017-01-01

    of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), and zinc (Zn) in soil samples from the area varied with the highest contamination factors (expressed as ratio of metal or metalloid concentration in the tailings contaminated soil......Gold mining is a major source of metal and metalloid emissions into the environment. Studies were carried out in Krugersdorp, South Africa, to evaluate the ecological and human health risks associated with exposure to metals and metalloids in mine tailings contaminated soils. Concentrations......×10−2 for As and Ni respectively among children, and 5×10−3 and 4×10−3 for As and Ni respectively among adults. There is significant potential ecological and human health risk associated with metal and metalloid exposure from contaminated soils around gold mine tailings dumps. This could be a potential contributing...

  15. Earthing: Health Implications of Reconnecting the Human Body to the Earth's Surface Electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chevalier, G.; Chevalier, G.; Sinatra, S.T.; Oschman, J.L.; Sokal, K.; Sokal, P.

    2012-01-01

    Environmental medicine generally addresses environmental factors with a negative impact on human health. However, emerging scientific research has revealed a surprisingly positive and overlooked environmental factor on health: direct physical contact with the vast supply of electrons on the surface of the Earth. Modern lifestyle separates humans from such contact. The research suggests that this disconnect may be a major contributor to physiological dysfunction and un wellness. Reconnection with the Earth's electrons has been found to promote intriguing physiological changes and subjective reports of well-being. Earthing (or grounding) refers to the discovery of benefits including better sleep and reduced pain from walking barefoot outside or sitting, working, or sleeping indoors connected to conductive systems that transfer the Earth's electrons from the ground into the body. This paper reviews the earthing research and the potential of earthing as a simple and easily accessed global modality of significant clinical importance

  16. Institutional violence and humanization in health: notes to debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azeredo, Yuri Nishijima; Schraiber, Lilia Blima

    2017-09-01

    This paper starts from humanization policies and the academic debate around them to reflect about institutional violence inside health services. Based on research on scientific publications in Collective Health, it was observed that violence in relationships between health professionals and users - which is at the core of the humanization's debate - is conceptualized as an excessive power in exercise of professional authority. Using Hannah Arendt thinking as theoretical contributions regarding the concepts of 'authority', 'power' and 'violence', our objective is to define and rethink these phenomena. Melting these reflections with the history of institutionalization of health in Brazil, and especially the changes in medical work during the twentieth century, we conclude that the problem of institutional violence on health services is not based on excess of authority and power of professionals, but rather in its opposite. When there is a vacuum of professional authority, and relationships between people do not happen through power relations, there is space for the phenomenon of violence.

  17. Green Infrastructure, Ecosystem Services, and Human Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutts, Christopher; Hahn, Micah

    2015-08-18

    Contemporary ecological models of health prominently feature the natural environment as fundamental to the ecosystem services that support human life, health, and well-being. The natural environment encompasses and permeates all other spheres of influence on health. Reviews of the natural environment and health literature have tended, at times intentionally, to focus on a limited subset of ecosystem services as well as health benefits stemming from the presence, and access and exposure to, green infrastructure. The sweeping influence of green infrastructure on the myriad ecosystem services essential to health has therefore often been underrepresented. This survey of the literature aims to provide a more comprehensive picture-in the form of a primer-of the many simultaneously acting health co-benefits of green infrastructure. It is hoped that a more accurately exhaustive list of benefits will not only instigate further research into the health co-benefits of green infrastructure but also promote consilience in the many fields, including public health, that must be involved in the landscape conservation necessary to protect and improve health and well-being.

  18. Green Infrastructure, Ecosystem Services, and Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutts, Christopher; Hahn, Micah

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary ecological models of health prominently feature the natural environment as fundamental to the ecosystem services that support human life, health, and well-being. The natural environment encompasses and permeates all other spheres of influence on health. Reviews of the natural environment and health literature have tended, at times intentionally, to focus on a limited subset of ecosystem services as well as health benefits stemming from the presence, and access and exposure to, green infrastructure. The sweeping influence of green infrastructure on the myriad ecosystem services essential to health has therefore often been underrepresented. This survey of the literature aims to provide a more comprehensive picture—in the form of a primer—of the many simultaneously acting health co-benefits of green infrastructure. It is hoped that a more accurately exhaustive list of benefits will not only instigate further research into the health co-benefits of green infrastructure but also promote consilience in the many fields, including public health, that must be involved in the landscape conservation necessary to protect and improve health and well-being. PMID:26295249

  19. NASA Human Health and Performance Center (NHHPC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jeffery R.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the purpose, potential members and participants of the NASA Human Health and Performance Center (NHHPC). Included in the overview is a brief description of the administration and current activities of the NHHPC.

  20. Wearable health monitoring using capacitive voltage-mode Human Body Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maity, Shovan; Das, Debayan; Sen, Shreyas

    2017-07-01

    Rapid miniaturization and cost reduction of computing, along with the availability of wearable and implantable physiological sensors have led to the growth of human Body Area Network (BAN) formed by a network of such sensors and computing devices. One promising application of such a network is wearable health monitoring where the collected data from the sensors would be transmitted and analyzed to assess the health of a person. Typically, the devices in a BAN are connected through wireless (WBAN), which suffers from energy inefficiency due to the high-energy consumption of wireless transmission. Human Body Communication (HBC) uses the relatively low loss human body as the communication medium to connect these devices, promising order(s) of magnitude better energy-efficiency and built-in security compared to WBAN. In this paper, we demonstrate a health monitoring device and system built using Commercial-Off-The-Shelf (COTS) sensors and components, that can collect data from physiological sensors and transmit it through a) intra-body HBC to another device (hub) worn on the body or b) upload health data through HBC-based human-machine interaction to an HBC capable machine. The system design constraints and signal transfer characteristics for the implemented HBC-based wearable health monitoring system are measured and analyzed, showing reliable connectivity with >8× power savings compared to Bluetooth low-energy (BTLE).

  1. Analysis of policy implications and challenges of the Cuban health assistance program related to human resources for health in the Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asante Augustine D

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cuba has extended its medical cooperation to Pacific Island Countries (PICs by supplying doctors to boost service delivery and offering scholarships for Pacific Islanders to study medicine in Cuba. Given the small populations of PICs, the Cuban engagement could prove particularly significant for health systems development in the region. This paper reviews the magnitude and form of Cuban medical cooperation in the Pacific and analyses its implications for health policy, human resource capacity and overall development assistance for health in the region. Methods We reviewed both published and grey literature on health workforce in the Pacific including health workforce plans and human resource policy documents. Further information was gathered through discussions with key stakeholders involved in health workforce development in the region. Results Cuba formalised its relationship with PICs in September 2008 following the first Cuba-Pacific Islands ministerial meeting. Some 33 Cuban health personnel work in Pacific Island Countries and 177 Pacific island students are studying medicine in Cuba in 2010 with the most extensive engagement in Kiribati, the Solomon Islands, Tuvalu and Vanuatu. The cost of the Cuban medical cooperation to PICs comes in the form of countries providing benefits and paying allowances to in-country Cuban health workers and return airfares for their students in Cuba. This has been seen by some PICs as a cheaper alternative to training doctors in other countries. Conclusions The Cuban engagement with PICs, while smaller than engagement with other countries, presents several opportunities and challenges for health system strengthening in the region. In particular, it allows PICs to increase their health workforce numbers at relatively low cost and extends delivery of health services to remote areas. A key challenge is that with the potential increase in the number of medical doctors, once the local students

  2. Anaplasma marginale and Anaplasma phagocytophilum: Rickettsiales pathogens of veterinary and public health significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atif, Farhan Ahmad

    2015-11-01

    Anaplasma marginale and Anaplasma phagocytophilum are the most important tick-borne bacteria of veterinary and public health significance in the family Anaplasmataceae. The objective of current review is to provide knowledge on ecology and epidemiology of A. phagocytophilum and compare major similarities and differences of A. marginale and A. phagocytophilum. Bovine anaplasmosis is globally distributed tick-borne disease of livestock with great economic importance in cattle industry. A. phagocytophilum, a cosmopolitan zoonotic tick transmitted pathogen of wide mammalian hosts. The infection in domestic animals is generally referred as tick-borne fever. Concurrent infections exist in ticks, domestic and wild animals in same geographic area. All age groups are susceptible, but the prevalence increases with age. Movement of susceptible domestic animals from tick free non-endemic regions to disease endemic regions is the major risk factor of bovine anaplasmosis and tick-borne fever. Recreational activities or any other high-risk tick exposure habits as well as blood transfusion are important risk factors of human granulocytic anaplasmosis. After infection, individuals remain life-long carriers. Clinical anaplasmosis is usually diagnosed upon examination of stained blood smears. Generally, detection of serum antibodies followed by molecular diagnosis is usually recommended. There are problems of sensitivity and cross-reactivity with both the Anaplasma species during serological tests. Tetracyclines are the drugs of choice for treatment and elimination of anaplasmosis in animals and humans. Universal vaccine is not available for either A. marginale or A. phagocytophilum, effective against geographically diverse strains. Major control measures for bovine anaplasmosis and tick-borne fever include rearing of tick-resistant breeds, endemic stability, breeding Anaplasma-free herds, identification of regional vectors, domestic/wild reservoirs and control, habitat modification

  3. Local health practices and the knowledge of medicinal plants in a Brazilian semi-arid region: environmental benefits to human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zank, Sofia; Peroni, Nivaldo; de Araújo, Elcida Lima; Hanazaki, Natalia

    2015-02-23

    The concept of eco-cultural health considers the dynamic interaction between humans and ecosystems, emphasizing the implications of the health of the ecosystem for the health and well-being of human populations. Ethnobotanical studies focusing on folk medicine and medicinal plants can contribute to the field of eco-cultural health if they incorporate the perspective and local knowledge of communities. We investigated the local health practices in three rural communities living within the vicinity of a protected area of sustainable use in a semi-arid region of Brazil. We analyzed the opinions of local health experts on the elements that influence human health and on how the environment contributes to this influence. We also analyzed and compared the local knowledge of medicinal plants, as knowledge of this type is an important factor when considering the interaction between environmental and human health. We performed structured interviews and free-listings with 66 local health experts. We used content analysis to systematize the elements of the influences on human health. We compared the richness of the plants cited among communities and analyzed the differences among the three communities regarding the ways in which the plants were obtained and the environments in which plants were collected. The local experts identified several influences of the environment on human health. These influences can be associated with ecosystem services, such as climatic conditions, water and air quality, recreation and medicinal and food resources. We identified 192 medicinal plant species, most of which were gathered from wild ecosystems. The most important environments for the three communities were the plateau mountain and backyards. The informants had a broad and integrated view of health, perceiving the importance of conserving the environment within the National Forest of Araripe for the health and well-being of the local populations.

  4. One Health Perspectives on Emerging Public Health Threats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukhyun Ryu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial resistance and emerging infectious diseases, including avian influenza, Ebola virus disease, and Zika virus disease have significantly affected humankind in recent years. In the premodern era, no distinction was made between animal and human medicine. However, as medical science developed, the gap between human and animal science grew deeper. Cooperation among human, animal, and environmental sciences to combat emerging public health threats has become an important issue under the One Health Initiative. Herein, we presented the history of One Health, reviewed current public health threats, and suggested opportunities for the field of public health through better understanding of the One Health paradigm.

  5. The missing link between human ecology and public health: the case of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modonesi, Carlo; Oddone, Enrico; Panizza, Celestino; Imbriani, Marcello

    2017-11-01

    The primary role played by the 'ecological context' in clarifying the causes and dynamics of human health and disease is the topic of this article. It emphasizes that the challenging incidence of cancer and other diseases can be charged primarily to the effects of the worldwide dominant economic model. Human culture may act as a powerful force affecting the environment, biology and health of humans and other species. Human culture can be viewed as a special and extreme case of 'niche construction', where human-specific traits, technologies and beliefs act together. The feedback between human activities and the environment can promote different trends in public health. This should provide the opportunity to rethink the consequences that our economic model produces both on the environment and on physical, mental and social health of our species. Copyright© by Aracne Editrice, Roma, Italy.

  6. A Human Rights-Based Approach to Farmworker Health: An Overarching Framework to Address the Social Determinants of Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Athena K

    2018-01-01

    Migrant and seasonal workers have a right to the highest attainable standard of health. Unfortunately, these farmworkers face a multitude of challenges. They are employed in one of the most dangerous industries and face serious occupational health risks, while positioned at the bottom of the social hierarchy. They often lack formal education and training, English language proficiency, legal status, access to information, and equitable opportunities to health and healthcare. This article will explore the international human rights conventions that support farmworkers' right to health and healthcare in the United States. International human rights may provide a valuable legal framework that could be used to advocate on behalf of farmworkers and address the social determinants of health. Therefore, a Human Rights-Based Approach to Farmworker health will be presented along with recommendations for how to advance health and access to healthcare among this population. Fostering the health and well-being of migrant and seasonal farmworkers is critical to advancing equity, social justice, and maintaining the workforce required to meet production needs and safeguard the economic competitiveness of the industry.

  7. An Exploratory Analysis of Stream Teratogenicity and Human Health Using Zebrafish Whole-Sediment Toxicity Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Dellinger

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study demonstrates a novel application of effect-based toxicity testing for streams that may provide indications of co-perturbation to ecological and human health. For this study, a sediment contact assay using zebrafish (Danio rerio embryos was adapted to serve as an indicator of teratogenic stress within river sediments. Sediment samples were collected from Lake Michigan tributary watersheds. Sediment contact assay responses were then compared to prevalence of congenital heart disease (CHD and vital statistic birth indicators aggregated from civil divisions associated with the watersheds. Significant risk relationships were detected between variation in early life-stage (ELS endpoints of zebrafish embryos 72 h post-fertilization and the birth prevalence of human congenital heart disease, low birthweight and infant mortality. Examination of principal components of ELS endpoints suggests that variance related to embryo heart and circulatory malformations is most closely associated with human CHD prevalence. Though toxicity assays are sometimes used prospectively, this form of investigation can only be conducted retrospectively. These results support the hypothesis that bioassays normally used for ecological screening can be useful as indicators of environmental stress to humans and expand our understanding of environmental–human health linkages.

  8. Nanotechnology and human health: Scientific evidence and risk governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nanotechnology, the science and application of objects smaller that 100 nanometres, is evolving rapidly in many fields. Besides the countless beneficial applications, including in health and medicine, concerns exist on adverse health consequences of unintended human exposure to nanomaterials....... In the 2010 Parma Declaration on Environment and Health, ministers of health and of environment of the 53 Member States of the WHO Regional Office for Europe listed the health implications of nanotechnology and nanoparticles among the key environment and health challenges. The WHO Regional Office for Europe...

  9. Concept Analysis: Health-Promoting Behaviors Related to Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCutcheon, Tonna; Schaar, Gina; Parker, Karen L

    2015-01-01

    The concept of health-promoting behaviors incorporates ideas presented in the Ottawa Charter of Public Health and the nursing-based Health Promotion Model. Despite the fact that the concept of health-promoting behaviors has a nursing influence, literature suggests nursing has inadequately developed and used this concept within nursing practice. A further review of literature regarding health promotion behaviors and the human papilloma virus suggest a distinct gap in nursing literature. This article presents a concept analysis of health-promoting behaviors related to the human papilloma virus in order to encourage the application of the concept into nursing practice, promote continued nursing research regarding this concept, and further expand the application of health-promoting behaviors to other situations and populations within the nursing discipline. Attributes of health-promoting behaviors are presented and include empowerment, participation, community, and a positive concept of health. Antecedents, consequences, and empirical referents are also presented, as are model, borderline, and contrary cases to help clarify the concept. Recommendations for human papilloma virus health-promoting behaviors within the nursing practice are also provided. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. [The development of molecular human genetics and its significance for perspectives of modern medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutelle, C; Speer, A; Grade, K; Rosenthal, A; Hunger, H D

    1989-01-01

    The introduction of molecular human genetics has become a paradigma for the application of genetic engineering in medicine. The main principles of this technology are the isolation of molecular probes, their application in hybridization reactions, specific gene-amplification by the polymerase chain reaction, and DNA sequencing reactions. These methods are used for the analysis of monogenic diseases by linkage studies and the elucidation of the molecular defect causing these conditions, respectively. They are also the basis for genomic diagnosis of monogenic diseases, introduced into the health care system of the GDR by a national project on Duchenne/Becker muscular dystrophy, Cystic Fibrosis and Phenylketonuria. The rapid development of basic research on the molecular analysis of the human genome and genomic diagnosis indicates, that human molecular genetics is becoming a decisive basic discipline of modern medicine.

  11. The food, GI tract functionality and human health cluster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mattila-Sandholm, T.; Blaut, M.; Daly, C.; Vuyst, de L.; Dore, J.; Gibson, G.; Goossens, H.; Knorr, D.; Lucas, J.; Lahteenmaki, L.; Mercenier, A.M.E.; Saarela, M.; Shanahan, F.; Vos, de W.M.

    2002-01-01

    The Food, GI-tract Functionality and Human Health (PROEUHEALTH) Cluster brings together eight complementary, multicentre interdisciplinary research projects. All have the common aim of improving the health and quality of life of European comsumers. The collaboration involves 64 different research

  12. Incorporating Human Interindividual Biotransformation Variance in Health Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    The protection of sensitive individuals within a population dictates that measures other than central tendencies be employed to estimate risk. The refinement of human health risk assessments for chemicals metabolized by the liver to reflect data on human variability can be accom...

  13. An approach to classifying human resources constraints to attaining health-related Millennium Development Goals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wyss Kaspar

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For any wide-ranging effort to scale up health-related priority interventions, human resources for health (HRH are likely to be a key to success. This study explores constraints related to human resources in the health sector for achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs in low-income countries. Methods and framework The analysis drew on information from a variety of publicly-available sources and principally on data presented in published papers in peer-reviewed journals. For classifying HRH constraints an analytical framework was used that considers constraints at five levels: individual characteristics, the health service delivery level, the health sector level, training capacities and the sociopolitical and economic context of a country. Results and discussion At individual level, the decision to enter, remain and serve in the health sector workforce is influenced by a series of social, economic, cultural and gender-related determinants. For example, to cover the health needs of the poorest it is necessary to employ personnel with specific social, ethnic and cultural characteristics. At health-service level, the commitment of health staff is determined by a number of organizational and management factors. The workplace environment has a great impact not only on health worker performance, but also on the comprehensiveness and efficiency of health service delivery. At health-sector level, the use of monetary and nonmonetary incentives is of crucial importance for having the accurate skill mix at the appropriate place. Scaling up of priority interventions is likely to require significant investments in initial and continuous training. Given the lead time required to produce new health workers, such investments must occur in the early phases of scaling up. At the same time coherent national HRH policies are required for giving direction on HRH development and linking HRH into health-sector reform issues, the scaling

  14. Realizing Universal Health Coverage in East Africa: the relevance of human rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamin, Alicia Ely; Maleche, Allan

    2017-08-03

    Applying a robust human rights framework would change thinking and decision-making in efforts to achieve Universal Health Coverage (UHC), and advance efforts to promote women's, children's, and adolescents' health in East Africa, which is a priority under the Sustainable Development Agenda. Nevertheless, there is a gap between global rhetoric of human rights and ongoing health reform efforts. This debate article seeks to fill part of that gap by setting out principles of human rights-based approaches (HRBAs), and then applying those principles to questions that countries undertaking efforts toward UHC and promoting women's, children's and adolescents' health, will need to face, focusing in particular on ensuring enabling legal and policy frameworks, establishing fair financing; priority-setting processes, and meaningful oversight and accountability mechanisms. In a region where democratic institutions are notoriously weak, we argue that the explicit application of a meaningful human rights framework could enhance equity, participation and accountability, and in turn the democratic legitimacy of health reform initiatives being undertaken in the region.

  15. Marine harmful algal blooms, human health and wellbeing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berdalet, Elisa; Fleming, Lora E.; Gowen, Richard

    2016-01-01

    cause harm to humans and other organisms. These harmful algal blooms (HABs) have direct impacts on human health and negative influences on human wellbeing, mainly through their consequences to coastal ecosystem services (fisheries, tourism and recreation) and other marine organisms and environments...... maintaining intensive, multidisciplinary and collaborative scientific research, and strengthening the coordination with stakeholders, policymakers and the general public. Here we provide an overview of different aspects of the HABs phenomena, an important element of the intrinsic links between oceans...

  16. Assessing the Potential and Limitations of Leveraging Food Sovereignty to Improve Human Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Andrew D; Fink Shapiro, Lilly; Wilson, Mark L

    2015-01-01

    Food sovereignty has been defined as "the right of peoples to healthy and culturally appropriate food produced through ecologically sound and sustainable methods, and their right to define their own food and agriculture systems." Human health is an implied component of this definition through the principle of healthy food. In fact, improved human health is commonly cited as a benefit of transforming food production away from the dominant practices of industrial agriculture. Yet, does the use of "ecologically sound and sustainable methods" of food production necessarily translate into better human health outcomes? Does greater choice in defining an agricultural or food system create gains in health and well-being? We elucidate the conceptual linkages between food sovereignty and human health, critically examine the empirical evidence supporting or refuting these linkages, and identify research gaps and key priorities for the food sovereignty-human health research agenda. Five domains of food sovereignty are discussed including: (1) use of agroecological management practices for food production, (2) the localization of food production and consumption, (3) promotion of social justice and equity, (4) valuation of traditional knowledge, and (5) the transformation of economic and political institutions and structures to support self-determination. We find that although there are many plausible linkages between food sovereignty and human health, the empirical evidence in support of the hypothesis that increasing food sovereignty yields improvements to human health is weak. We propose that a concerted effort to generate new empirical evidence on the health implications of these domains of food sovereignty is urgently needed, and suggest areas of research that may be crucial for addressing the gaps in the evidence base.

  17. Electronic cigarettes: human health effects

    OpenAIRE

    Callahan-Lyon, Priscilla

    2014-01-01

    Objective With the rapid increase in use of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), such as electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), users and non-users are exposed to the aerosol and product constituents. This is a review of published data on the human health effects of exposure to e-cigarettes and their components. Methods Literature searches were conducted through September 2013 using multiple electronic databases. Results Forty-four articles are included in this analysis. E-cigarette ae...

  18. Air quality and human health impacts of grasslands and shrublands in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalakrishnan, Varsha; Hirabayashi, Satoshi; Ziv, Guy; Bakshi, Bhavik R.

    2018-06-01

    Vegetation including canopy, grasslands, and shrublands can directly sequester pollutants onto the plant surface, resulting in an improvement in air quality. Until now, several studies have estimated the pollution removal capacity of canopy cover at the level of a county, but no such work exists for grasslands and shrublands. This work quantifies the air pollution removal capacity of grasslands and shrublands at the county-level in the United States and estimates the human health benefits associated with pollution removal using the i-Tree Eco model. Sequestration of pollutants is estimated based on the Leaf Area Index (LAI) obtained from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) derived dataset estimates of LAI and the percentage land cover obtained from the National Land Cover Database (NLCD) for the year 2010. Calculation of pollution removal capacity using local environmental data indicates that grasslands and shrublands remove a total of 6.42 million tonnes of air pollutants in the United States and the associated monetary benefits total 268 million. Human health impacts and associated monetary value due to pollution removal was observed to be significantly high in urban areas indicating that grasslands and shrublands are equally critical as canopy in improving air quality and human health in urban regions.

  19. The prebiotic concept and human health: a changing landscape with riboflavin as a novel prebiotic candidate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinert, R E; Sadaghian Sadabad, M; Harmsen, H J M; Weber, P

    2016-12-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that the gut microbiota has a critical role in both the maintenance of human health and the pathogenesis of many diseases. Modifying the colonic microbiota using functional foods has attracted significant research effort and product development. The pioneering concept of prebiotics, as introduced by Gibson and Roberfroid in the 1990s, emphasized the importance of diet in the modulation of the gut microbiota and its relationships to human health. Increasing knowledge of the intestinal microbiota now suggests a more comprehensive definition. This paper briefly reviews the basics of the prebiotic concept with a discussion of recent attempts to refine the concept to open the door for novel prebiotic food ingredients, such as polyphenols, minerals and vitamins.

  20. Oceans and Human Health: a rising tide of challenges and opportunities for Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, L E; McDonough, N; Austen, M; Mee, L; Moore, M; Hess, P; Depledge, M H; White, M; Philippart, K; Bradbrook, P; Smalley, A

    2014-08-01

    The European Marine Board recently published a position paper on linking oceans and human health as a strategic research priority for Europe. With this position paper as a reference, the March 2014 Cornwall Oceans and Human Health Workshop brought together key scientists, policy makers, funders, business, and non governmental organisations from Europe and the US to review the recent interdisciplinary and cutting edge research in oceans and human health specifically the growing evidence of the impacts of oceans and seas on human health and wellbeing (and the effects of humans on the oceans). These impacts are a complex mixture of negative influences (e.g. from climate change and extreme weather to harmful algal blooms and chemical pollution) and beneficial factors (e.g. from natural products including seafood to marine renewable energy and wellbeing from interactions with coastal environments). Integrated approaches across disciplines, institutions, and nations in science and policy are needed to protect both the oceans and human health and wellbeing now and in the future. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. The Paradox of Happiness: Health and Human Rights in the Kingdom of Bhutan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason Meier, Benjamin; Chakrabarti, Averi

    2016-06-01

    The Kingdom of Bhutan is seeking to progressively realize the human right to health without addressing the cross-cutting human rights principles essential to a rights-based approach to health. Through a landscape analysis of the Bhutanese health system, documentary review of Bhutanese reporting to the United Nations human rights system, and semi-structured interviews with health policymakers in Bhutan, this study examines the normative foundations of Bhutan's focus on "a more meaningful purpose for development than just mere material satisfaction." Under this development paradigm of Gross National Happiness, the Bhutanese health system meets select normative foundations of the right to health, seeking to guarantee the availability, accessibility, acceptability, and quality of health care and underlying determinants of health. However, where Bhutan continues to restrict the rights of minority populations-failing to address the ways in which human rights are indivisible, interdependent, and interrelated-additional reforms will be necessary to realize the right to health. Given the continuing prevalence of minority rights violations in the region, this study raises research questions for comparative studies in other rights-denying national contexts and advocacy approaches to advance principles of non-discrimination, participation, and accountability through health policy.

  2. Changing views of the interconnections between the oceans and human health in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depledge, M H; Harvey, A J; Brownlee, C; Frost, M; Moore, M N; Fleming, L E

    2013-05-01

    Early steps in the emergence of the discipline of "Oceans and Human Health" are charted in the USA and discussed in relation to past and present marine environment and human health research activities in Europe. Differences in terminology are considered, as well as differences in circumstances related to the various seas of Europe and the intensity of human coastal activity and impact. Opportunities to progress interdisciplinary research are described, and the value of horizon scanning for the early identification of emerging issues is highlighted. The challenges facing researchers and policymakers addressing oceans and human health issues are outlined and some suggestions offered regarding how further progress in research and training into both the risks and benefits of Oceans and Human Health might be made on both sides of the Atlantic.

  3. Ultraviolet radiation, human health, and the urban forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon M. Heisler; Richard H. Grant

    2000-01-01

    Excess exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun, particularly the ultraviolet B (UVB) portion, has been linked with adverse effects on human health ranging from skin cancers to eye diseases such as cataracts. Trees may prevent even greater disease rates in humans by reducing UV exposure. Tree shade greatly reduces UV irradiance when both the sun and sky are...

  4. Would Aluminum and Nickel Content of Apricot Pose Health Risk to Human?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamhossein DAVARYNEJAD

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Higher demands of food production for human consumption increased uses of fertilizers and other chemicals that arise in a major public problem and heavy-metal pollution. Levels of Aluminum and Nickel which affect mankind health in exact doses, were determined in fresh and dried samples of �Jumbo Cot�, �Tom Cot�, �Gold Strike�, �Gold Bar�, Bergeron�, �Bergarouge�, �Sweet Cot�, �Yellow cot� and �Zebra� apricot cultivars to assess possible health risk of apricot (Prunus armeniaca L. consumption. Highest content of Al and Ni among all cultivars, where 9.71 and 2.14 mg/kg of dehydrated apricot samples. Fresh fruit samples maximally contain 2.9 and 0.425 mg/kg of Aluminum and Nickel respectively. Data analysis showed significant differences between cultivars for Al and Ni. Furthermore, to reveal the health-risk possibility of dried and fresh fruit consumption daily intake of elements and health-risk index were calculated and compared.

  5. Would Aluminum and Nickel Content of Apricot Pose Health Risk to Human?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamhossein DAVARYNEJAD

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Higher demands of food production for human consumption increased uses of fertilizers and other chemicals that arise in a major public problem and heavy-metal pollution. Levels of Aluminum and Nickel which affect mankind health in exact doses, were determined in fresh and dried samples of Jumbo Cot, Tom Cot, Gold Strike, Gold Bar, Bergeron, Bergarouge, Sweet Cot, Yellow cot and Zebra apricot cultivars to assess possible health risk of apricot (Prunus armeniaca L. consumption. Highest content of Al and Ni among all cultivars, where 9.71 and 2.14 mg/kg of dehydrated apricot samples. Fresh fruit samples maximally contain 2.9 and 0.425 mg/kg of Aluminum and Nickel respectively. Data analysis showed significant differences between cultivars for Al and Ni. Furthermore, to reveal the health-risk possibility of dried and fresh fruit consumption daily intake of elements and health-risk index were calculated and compared.

  6. Household characteristics affecting drinking water quality and human health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kausar, S.; Maann, A.A.; Zafar, I.; Ali, T.

    2009-01-01

    Pakistan's water crisis, especially serious water shortages have had a great impact on the health of the general population. Today majority of Pakistanis have no access to improved water sources which force people to consume polluted drinking water that results in the shape of waterborne diseases. In addition to this, household characteristics, includes mother's education and family income, also have an impact on drinking water quality and ultimately on human health. This study was conducted in three districts of Province Punjab both in urban and rural areas. The sample size of this study was 600 females of age group 20-60 years. From the data, it was concluded that mother's education and family income were affecting drinking water quality and human health. As the mother's years of education increased, the health issues decreased. Similarly, as the level of income increased, people suffered from water related diseases decreased. (author)

  7. Can we effectively degrade microcystins? - Implications on human health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de la Cruz, Armah A; Antoniou, Maria; Hiskia, Anastasia

    2011-01-01

    leading to the disruption of cascade of events important in the regulation and control of cellular processes. Covalent binding of microcystins with phosphatases is thought to be responsible for the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of microcystins. In addition, microcystins can trigger oxidative stress......Microcystins are cyclic heptapeptide toxins produced by a number of genera of cyanobacteria. They are ubiquitous in bodies of water worldwide and pose significant hazard to human, plant, and animal health. Microcystins are primarily hepatotoxins known to inhibit serine-threonine phosphatases...... harmful bloom events. Combination of conventional and advanced oxidation technologies can potentially remove 100% of microcystins in water even in turbid conditions. This review covers selected treatment technologies to degrade microcystins in water....

  8. Heat, Human Performance, and Occupational Health: A Key Issue for the Assessment of Global Climate Change Impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjellstrom, Tord; Briggs, David; Freyberg, Chris; Lemke, Bruno; Otto, Matthias; Hyatt, Olivia

    2016-01-01

    Ambient heat exposure is a well-known health hazard, which reduces human performance and work capacity at heat levels already common in tropical and subtropical areas. Various health problems have been reported. Increasing heat exposure during the hottest seasons of each year is a key feature of global climate change. Heat exhaustion and reduced human performance are often overlooked in climate change health impact analysis. Later this century, many among the four billion people who live in hot areas worldwide will experience significantly reduced work capacity owing to climate change. In some areas, 30-40% of annual daylight hours will become too hot for work to be carried out. The social and economic impacts will be considerable, with global gross domestic product (GDP) losses greater than 20% by 2100. The analysis to date is piecemeal. More analysis of climate change-related occupational health impact assessments is greatly needed.

  9. Melatonin: a chemical photoperiodic signal with clinical significance in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, S F; Pang, C S; Poon, A M; Lee, P P; Liu, Z M; Shiu, S Y

    1998-03-01

    Secretion of pineal melatonin exhibits a diumal rhythm and a seasonal rhythm in humans. Night-time melatonin is high at 3-5 year-old and decreases with age. Many drugs and pathological conditions also change melatonin levels in the circulation. Melatonin has a mild sedative effect and has been used effectively in synchronizing the sleep-wake cycle of patients with sleep disorders. Immunoenhancing, anti-cancer, anti-aging and anti-oxidant effects of melatonin have been proposed. Recent studies suggest that melatonin receptors are present in central and peripheral tissues. The importance of melatonin receptors on the nervous, reproductive, immune and renal functions is implicated. Studies on the molecular biology, physiology and pathology of melatonin receptors in different tissues are progressing rapidly. The physiological and pathological changes in melatonin secretion, multifarious melatonin actions, and diverse melatonin receptors reported suggest that melatonin is a photoperiodic signal with clinical significance in humans.

  10. Ethics review of health research on human participants in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wyk, Christa

    2010-06-01

    In terms of South African legislation, all health research on human participants must be submitted to an accredited research ethics committee for independent ethics review. Health research covers a broad spectrum of research, including clinical trials. This article sets out the ethical-legal framework for the functioning and composition of such committees. It also deals with the newly created National Health Research Ethics Council, which registers and audits health research ethics committees. Special attention is given to the conduct of clinical trials. In conclusion, it is submitted that the National Health Act, the Draft Regulations Relating to Research on Human Subjects, and two sets of ethical guidelines adopted by the Department of Health provide a much needed and coherent ethical-legal framework for research in South Africa.

  11. Meeting the oral health needs of 12-year-olds in China: human resources for oral health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangyu Sun

    2017-06-01

    minimum intervention based on a HROH spending 90% of their time in providing clinical care. Conclusions The findings highlight the gap between dental workforce needs and workforce capacity in China. Significant implications for health policy and human resources for oral health in this country with a developing health system are discussed including the need for public health action.

  12. The influence of facility design and human resource management on health care professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadatsafavi, Hessam; Walewski, John; Shepley, Mardelle M

    2015-01-01

    Cost control of health care services is a strategic concern for organizations. To lower costs, some organizations reduce staffing levels. However, this may not be worth the trade-off, as the quality of services will likely be reduced, morale among health care providers tends to suffer, and patient satisfaction is likely to decline. The potential synergy between human resource management and facility design and operation was investigated to achieve the goal of providing cost containment strategies without sacrificing the quality of services and the commitment of employees. About 700 health care professionals from 10 acute-care hospitals participated in this cross-sectional study. The authors used structural equation modeling to test whether employees' evaluations of their physical work environment and human resource practices were significantly associated with lower job-related anxiety, higher job satisfaction, and higher organizational commitment. The analysis found that employees' evaluations of their physical work environment and human resource practices influenced their job-related feelings and attitudes. Perceived organizational support mediated this relationship. The study also found a small but positive interaction effect between the physical work environment and human resource practices. The influence of physical work environment was small, mainly because of the high predictive value of human resource practices and strong confounding variables included in the analysis. This study specifically showed the role of facility design in reducing job-related anxiety among caregivers. Preliminary evidence is provided that facility design can be used as a managerial tool for improving job-related attitudes and feelings of employees and earning their commitment. Providing a healthy and safe work environment can be perceived by employees as an indication that the organization respects them and cares about their well-being, which might be reciprocated with higher levels

  13. Human health implications of organic food and organic agriculture: a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mie, Axel; Andersen, Helle Raun; Gunnarsson, Stefan; Kahl, Johannes; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Rembiałkowska, Ewa; Quaglio, Gianluca; Grandjean, Philippe

    2017-10-27

    This review summarises existing evidence on the impact of organic food on human health. It compares organic vs. conventional food production with respect to parameters important to human health and discusses the potential impact of organic management practices with an emphasis on EU conditions. Organic food consumption may reduce the risk of allergic disease and of overweight and obesity, but the evidence is not conclusive due to likely residual confounding, as consumers of organic food tend to have healthier lifestyles overall. However, animal experiments suggest that identically composed feed from organic or conventional production impacts in different ways on growth and development. In organic agriculture, the use of pesticides is restricted, while residues in conventional fruits and vegetables constitute the main source of human pesticide exposures. Epidemiological studies have reported adverse effects of certain pesticides on children's cognitive development at current levels of exposure, but these data have so far not been applied in formal risk assessments of individual pesticides. Differences in the composition between organic and conventional crops are limited, such as a modestly higher content of phenolic compounds in organic fruit and vegetables, and likely also a lower content of cadmium in organic cereal crops. Organic dairy products, and perhaps also meats, have a higher content of omega-3 fatty acids compared to conventional products. However, these differences are likely of marginal nutritional significance. Of greater concern is the prevalent use of antibiotics in conventional animal production as a key driver of antibiotic resistance in society; antibiotic use is less intensive in organic production. Overall, this review emphasises several documented and likely human health benefits associated with organic food production, and application of such production methods is likely to be beneficial within conventional agriculture, e.g., in integrated

  14. Impact of climate change on human health and health systems in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is therefore important that Tanzania prepares itself to appropriately address CC impact on human health. It is equally important that policy makers and other stakeholders are engaged in a process to update and adapt priorities, mobilize resources and build interdisciplinary research and implementation capacity on climate ...

  15. Oceans and Human Health: A Rising Tide of Challenges and Opportunities for Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Fleming, L. E.; Mcdonough, N.; Austen, M.; Mee, L.; Moore, Michelle; Hess, Philipp; Depledge, M. H.; White, M.; Philippart, Katja; Bradbrook, P.; Smalley, A.

    2014-01-01

    The European Marine Board recently published a position paper on linking oceans and human health as a strategic research priority for Europe. With this position paper as a reference, the March 2014 Cornwall Oceans and Human Health Workshop brought together key scientists, policy makers, funders, business, and non governmental organisations from Europe and the US to review the recent interdisciplinary and cutting edge research in oceans and human health specifically the growing evidence of the...

  16. The interface of mental health and human rights in Indigenous peoples: triple jeopardy and triple opportunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarantola, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Insufficient understanding of the reciprocal interactions between health and human rights, mental health and human rights and the realization of all human rights by Indigenous peoples constitute a triple jeopardy in how these topics are currently being addressed and/or openly antagonized. This paper will attempt to show how a combined health and human rights approach to mental health in Indigenous peoples can transform a triple jeopardy into a triple opportunity. The vast and growing body of literature on mental health, health as a whole, and human rights as these relate to health and to Indigenous peoples will be used to frame the discussion. Attention to the complex interactions of health and human rights can guide policy formulation and action by offering a method of analysis, a process of participatory decision and a framework for accountability. In addition, mental health can find its rightful place in the health and human rights discourse through efforts to help policymakers and practitioners broaden their vision of mental illness to holistically encompass aspects of physical, social, emotional and cultural wellbeing. Finally, connecting the role that rights realization plays in determining health and wellbeing will add power to the rightful claims by Indigenous peoples to the promotion and protection of all their human rights--civil, political, economic, social and cultural. Broadening the research agenda by applying systematically a health and human rights analytical framework to the understanding of social determinants of health would minimize the risk of assigning health outcome merely to behaviours, practices and lifestyles, uncovering structural determinants of holistic health entrenched in policies and governmental conduct. Building the evidence of the negative impact of human rights violation on health and the negative impact of ill-health on the fulfilment of other human rights can help in designing comprehensive interventions, building on the

  17. Gender, health, and human rights in sites of political exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurie, M; Petchesky, R P

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the intersections of gender, health and human rights in sites of political exclusion. We apply the political theory of Giorgio Agamben on 'states of exception', seeking to better understand how the recent 'war on terror', that seemingly knows no limits of time or space, is driving health outcomes in refugee and Internally Displaced Persons (IDP) camps. Reproductive health, militarization, and gender-based violence in camps are explored in depth. The evidence presented reveals a number of contradictions of refugee and IDP camps, further highlighting the need for a more rights based humanitarianism. We conclude that foregrounding states of exception, as a way of understanding current gender dynamics in the social determinants of health, is both epidemiologically necessary and conceptually useful. We find that, in these sites of exclusion, the indispensability of a human rights approach to gender and health equity issues is revealed most directly. Furthermore, we are able to make new connections between the 'crisis of humanitarianism', gender, and health.

  18. Perilous Effects of Heavy Metals Contamination on Human Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naseem Zahra

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals form a versatile group of high density elements that vary considerably in their biological roles and chemical properties. Although many heavy metals are essential trace elements yet they have long been recognized as environmental pollutants due their toxic effects. Increased industrialization, urbanization anthropogenic activities like mining, smelting and other agricultural activities have resulted in accumulation of heavy metals in the environment. Heavy metals such as nickel, cadmium, zinc, copper, mercury, arsenic and chromium are not easily degradable and tend to build up in soil. These heavy metals through various routes such as fish and plants make their way into the human body and are known to have serious detrimental effects on human health at elevated levels. The harmful effects of some important heavy metals on human health have been discussed.

  19. Biochemical and physiological effects of phenols on human health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danuta Wojcieszyńska

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction of phenol compounds into environment results from human activities.. Moreover plants produce polyphenols as by products of metabolism Their influence on human health is very important. It is observed, that polyphenols found in groceries are the most abundant dietary antioxidants, anti-inflammatory, anti allergic, antiarteriosclerotic and antitumour factors. Alkylphenols, chlorophenols, nitrophenols or biphenyls can be toxic for body systems and because of their similarity to ligands of steroid receptors they can influence the activity of endocrine system. Their appearance in organisms enhances the risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidemia, cancer, problems with fertility. Moreover strong genotoxic activities of these compounds is observed. Because they influence human health in many different ways continuous monitoring of phenols content in environment seems to be very important.

  20. Human Health Toxicity Values in Superfund Risk Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    This memorandum revises the hierarchy of human health toxicity values generally recommended for use inr isk assessments, originally presented in Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund Volume I, Part A.

  1. The human resource for health situation in Zambia: deficit and maldistribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferrinho Paulo

    2011-12-01

    Province; for level 2 facilities (provincial level hospitals, from 30% for Western to 70% for Copperbelt Province; for level 1 facilities (district level hospitals, from 54% for the Southern to 80% for the Western provinces; for rural health centres, vacancies varied from 15% to 63% (for Lusaka and Luapula provinces respectively; for urban health centres the observed vacancy rates varied from 13% for the Lusaka to 96% for the Western provinces. We observed significant shortages in most staff categories, except for support staff, which had a significant surplus. Discussion and Conclusions This case study documents how a peaceful, politically stable African country with a longstanding tradition of strategic management of the health sector and with a track record of innovative approaches dealt with its HRH problems, but still remains with a major absolute and relative shortage of health workers. The case of Zambia reinforces the idea that training more staff is necessary to address the human resources crisis, but it is not sufficient and has to be completed with measures to mitigate attrition and to increase productivity.

  2. The human resource for health situation in Zambia: deficit and maldistribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrinho, Paulo; Siziya, Seter; Goma, Fastone; Dussault, Gilles

    2011-12-19

    30% for Western to 70% for Copperbelt Province; for level 1 facilities (district level hospitals), from 54% for the Southern to 80% for the Western provinces; for rural health centres, vacancies varied from 15% to 63% (for Lusaka and Luapula provinces respectively); for urban health centres the observed vacancy rates varied from 13% for the Lusaka to 96% for the Western provinces. We observed significant shortages in most staff categories, except for support staff, which had a significant surplus. This case study documents how a peaceful, politically stable African country with a longstanding tradition of strategic management of the health sector and with a track record of innovative approaches dealt with its HRH problems, but still remains with a major absolute and relative shortage of health workers. The case of Zambia reinforces the idea that training more staff is necessary to address the human resources crisis, but it is not sufficient and has to be completed with measures to mitigate attrition and to increase productivity.

  3. Endocrine disrupting compounds in drinking water supply system and human health risk implication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wee, Sze Yee; Aris, Ahmad Zaharin

    2017-09-01

    To date, experimental and epidemiological evidence of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) adversely affecting human and animal populations has been widely debated. Notably, human health risk assessment is required for risk mitigation. The lack of human health risk assessment and management may thus unreliably regulate the quality of water resources and efficiency of treatment processes. Therefore, drinking water supply systems (DWSSs) may be still unwarranted in assuring safe access to potable drinking water. Drinking water supply, such as tap water, is an additional and crucial route of human exposure to the health risks associated with EDCs. A holistic system, incorporating continuous research in DWSS monitoring and management using multi-barrier approach, is proposed as a preventive measure to reduce human exposure to the risks associated with EDCs through drinking water consumption. The occurrence of EDCs in DWSSs and corresponding human health risk implications are analyzed using the Needs, Approaches, Benefits, and Challenges (NABC) method. Therefore, this review may act as a supportive tool in protecting human health and environmental quality from EDCs, which is essential for decision-making regarding environmental monitoring and management purposes. Subsequently, the public could have sustainable access to safer and more reliable drinking water. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Reporting Mental Health Symptoms: Breaking Down Barriers to Care with Virtual Human Interviewers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gale M. Lucas

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A common barrier to healthcare for psychiatric conditions is the stigma associated with these disorders. Perceived stigma prevents many from reporting their symptoms. Stigma is a particularly pervasive problem among military service members, preventing them from reporting symptoms of combat-related conditions like posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD. However, research shows (increased reporting by service members when anonymous assessments are used. For example, service members report more symptoms of PTSD when they anonymously answer the Post-Deployment Health Assessment (PDHA symptom checklist compared to the official PDHA, which is identifiable and linked to their military records. To investigate the factors that influence reporting of psychological symptoms by service members, we used a transformative technology: automated virtual humans that interview people about their symptoms. Such virtual human interviewers allow simultaneous use of two techniques for eliciting disclosure that would otherwise be incompatible; they afford anonymity while also building rapport. We examined whether virtual human interviewers could increase disclosure of mental health symptoms among active-duty service members that just returned from a year-long deployment in Afghanistan. Service members reported more symptoms during a conversation with a virtual human interviewer than on the official PDHA. They also reported more to a virtual human interviewer than on an anonymized PDHA. A second, larger sample of active-duty and former service members found a similar effect that approached statistical significance. Because respondents in both studies shared more with virtual human interviewers than an anonymized PDHA—even though both conditions control for stigma and ramifications for service members’ military records—virtual human interviewers that build rapport may provide a superior option to encourage reporting.

  5. 76 FR 58517 - Public Health Service Guideline for Reducing Transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-21

    ...-2011-0011] Public Health Service Guideline for Reducing Transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus... public comment on the draft Public Health Service Guideline for Reducing Transmission of Human..., Attn: Public Health Service Guideline for Reducing Transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV...

  6. Human rights abuses and concerns about women's health and human rights in southern Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amowitz, Lynn L; Kim, Glen; Reis, Chen; Asher, Jana L; Iacopino, Vincent

    2004-03-24

    Although human rights abuses have been reported in Iraq, the full scope of these abuses has not been well documented. To assess the prevalence of human rights abuses since 1991 in southern Iraq, along with attitudes about women's health and human rights and women's rights and roles in society, to inform reconstruction and humanitarian assistance efforts in Iraq. Cross-sectional, randomized survey of Iraqi men and women conducted in July 2003 using structured questionnaires. Three major cities in 3 of the 9 governorates in southern Iraq. A total of 1991 respondents representing 16 520 household members. Respondent demographics, information on human rights abuses that occurred among household members since 1991, women's health and human rights, opinions regarding women's rights and roles in society, and conditions for community health and development. Respondents were a mean age of 38 years and were mostly of Arab ethnicity (99.7% [1976/1982]) and Muslim Shi'a (96.7% [1906/1971]). Overall, 47% of those interviewed reported 1 or more of the following abuses among themselves and household members since 1991: torture, killings, disappearance, forced conscription, beating, gunshot wounds, kidnappings, being held hostage, and ear amputation, among others. Seventy percent of abuses (408/586) were reputed to have occurred in homes. Baath party regime-affiliated groups were identified most often (95% [449/475]) as the perpetrators of the abuses; 53% of the abuses occurred between 1991 and 1993, following the Shi'a uprising, and another 30% between 2000 and the first 6 months of 2003. While the majority of men and women expressed support for women's equal opportunities for education, freedom of expression, access to health care, equality in deciding marriage and the number and spacing of children, and participation in community development decisions, there was less support among both men and women for women's freedom of movement, association with people of their choosing, and

  7. Research Article (Human Resources for Health) Postoperative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2007-06-14

    Jun 14, 2007 ... ... of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden. 4. ... six year Emergency Human Resource Programme aimed ... therefore to elucidate the extent of major surgical work ... back for review seven days after discharge. ... and 24 hour maternal condition, post-operative fever, wound.

  8. Trace Elements in Human Nutrition and Health

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Trace Elements in Human Nutrition and Health, a report of a. World Heatth Organisation Expert Committee, contains material contributed by numerous experts consulted in different specialised fields, together with the conClusions reached and recommendations made by the Expert. Consultation. The nineteen nutritionally ...

  9. Northern Rivers Basins ecological and human health studies : summary, relevance and recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-04-01

    Residents in northern Alberta expressed concerns that the original Northern River Basins Study (NRBS) only examined the impacts of contaminants on ecological health and did not include impacts on human health. In response to these concerns, Alberta Health established the Northern River Basins Human Health Monitoring Program in 1994 to investigate the possible relationships between various environmental risk factors and the health of northern residents in the province. This document links the ecological information collected by the original NRBS program with the information provided by the health program. Issues regarding health impacts from pulp mills and oil sand mining were also discussed. The findings of the health program were summarized and recommendations were made for future studies. The contaminants of potential concern (COPC) arising from the original NRBS were described in terms of their sources and any known connections between exposure and human health. The COPCs included arsenic, dioxins, chlorinated furans, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) mercury, chlorinated phenolics, toxaphene, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, ozone, sulphur dioxide, acid sulphates and particulate matter. Examples of Canadian regulatory criteria for these contaminants were also presented. 41 refs., 1 tab

  10. Coupling habitat suitability and ecosystem health with AEHRA to estimate E-flows under intensive human activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, C. S.; Yang, S. T.; Zhang, H. T.; Liu, C. M.; Sun, Y.; Yang, Z. Y.; Zhang, Y.; Dong, B. E.; Lim, R. P.

    2017-08-01

    Sustaining adequate environmental flows (e-flows) is a key principle for maintaining river biodiversity and ecosystem health, and for supporting sustainable water resource management in basins under intensive human activities. But few methods could correctly relate river health to e-flows assessment at the catchment scale when they are applied to rivers highly impacted by human activities. An effective method is presented in this study to closely link river health to e-flows assessment for rivers at the catchment scale. Key fish species, as indicators of ecosystem health, were selected by using the foodweb model. A multi-species-based habitat suitability model (MHSI) was improved, and coupled with dominance of the key fish species as well as the Index of Biological Integrity (IBI) to enhance its accuracy in determining the fish-preferred key hydrologic habitat variables related to ecosystem health. Taking 5964 fish samples and concurrent hydrological habitat variables as the basis, the combination of key variables of flow-velocity and water-depth were determined and used to drive the Adapted Ecological Hydraulic Radius Approach (AEHRA) to study e-flows in a Chinese urban river impacted by intensive human activities. Results showed that upstream urbanization resulted in abnormal river-course geomorphology and consequently abnormal e-flows under intensive human activities. Selection of key species based on the foodweb and trophic levels of aquatic ecosystems can reflect a comprehensive requirement on e-flows of the whole aquatic ecosystem, which greatly increases its potential to be used as a guidance tool for rehabilitation of degraded ecosystems at large spatial scales. These findings have significant ramifications for catchment e-flows assessment under intensive human activities and for river ecohealth restoration in such rivers globally.

  11. Learning from our apartheid past: human rights challenges for health professionals in contemporary South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin-Ragaven, L; London, L; De Gruchy, J

    2000-01-01

    Central to South Africa's democratic transformation have been attempts to understand how and why human rights abuses were common under apartheid. In testimony to the Truth and Reconciliation Commission evidence has emerged of a wide range of past complicity in human rights abuses by health professionals and their organisations. This has presented a major challenge to the health sector to develop ways to operationalize a commitment to human rights in the future. This paper argues that only after a process of self-reflection, both personal and institutional, which enables a thorough and accurate analysis of why things went so wrong, can the health sector effectively move forward. The authors' perspective draws on the submission to the TRC Health Sector Hearings by the Health and Human Rights Project in 1997, which provides a systemic and case-based analysis of the health sector's role in human rights abuses under apartheid. However, human rights responses have to take account of a changing national and global terrain in which human rights issues are no longer as morally absolute as previously encountered, and in which seemingly insuperable resource constraints, inimical economic policies, and the demobilization of civil society, are serious obstacles. Moreover, the politics of transformation has generated expediencies that threaten to rewrite history in ways that fundamentally cheapen human rights. To address this contradiction, the authors propose a set of objectives that places accountability of health professionals in a human rights framework. These objectives are intended to give substance to the main tasks facing the health sector--to develop and infuse the capacity to recognise and integrate both the 'new' and traditional human rights dilemmas, and to effect personal and institutional transformation. A matrix is presented, linking these objectives to key role players in the health sector and identifying activities specific for each role player. As the health

  12. Health and human rights advocacy: perspectives from a Rwandan refugee camp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlish, Carol; Ho, Anita; Rounkle, Ann-Marie

    2012-07-01

    Working at the bedside and within communities as patient advocates, nurses frequently intervene to advance individuals' health and well-being. However, the International Council of Nurses' Code of Ethics asserts that nurses should expand beyond the individual model and also promote a rights-enabling environment where respect for human dignity is paramount. This article applies the results of an ethnographic human rights study with displaced populations in Rwanda to argue for a rights-based social advocacy role for nurses. Human rights advocacy strategies include sensitization, participation, protection, good governance, and accountability. By adopting a rights-based approach to advocacy, nurses contribute to health agendas that include more just social relationships, equitable access to opportunities, and health-positive living situations for all persons.

  13. Do health care workforce, population, and service provision significantly contribute to the total health expenditure? An econometric analysis of Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santric-Milicevic, M; Vasic, V; Terzic-Supic, Z

    2016-08-15

    In times of austerity, the availability of econometric health knowledge assists policy-makers in understanding and balancing health expenditure with health care plans within fiscal constraints. The objective of this study is to explore whether the health workforce supply of the public health care sector, population number, and utilization of inpatient care significantly contribute to total health expenditure. The dependent variable is the total health expenditure (THE) in Serbia from the years 2003 to 2011. The independent variables are the number of health workers employed in the public health care sector, population number, and inpatient care discharges per 100 population. The statistical analyses include the quadratic interpolation method, natural logarithm and differentiation, and multiple linear regression analyses. The level of significance is set at P Total health expenditure increased by 1.21 standard deviations, with an increase in health workforce growth rate by 1 standard deviation. Furthermore, this rate decreased by 1.12 standard deviations, with an increase in (negative) population growth rate by 1 standard deviation. Finally, the growth rate increased by 0.38 standard deviation, with an increase of the growth rate of inpatient care discharges per 100 population by 1 standard deviation (P < 0.001). Study results demonstrate that the government has been making an effort to control strongly health budget growth. Exploring causality relationships between health expenditure and health workforce is important for countries that are trying to consolidate their public health finances and achieve universal health coverage at the same time.

  14. Human resource solutions--the Gateway Paper proposed health reforms in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishtar, Sania

    2006-12-01

    The existence of appropriate institutional and human resource capacity underpins the viability and sustainability of a health reform process within a country. Building human resource capacity within the health sector involves building the capacity of health service providers, health managers and administers as well as the stewards of health. Although capacity building is linked to a generic process closely linked to the broader economic, social and developmental context, it has specific health system connotations which should be the focus of a concerted effort. These include quantitative issues, in-effective deployment and brain-drain, qualitative considerations which stem from gaps in the quality of undergraduate as well as discrepancies in the content and format of training and absence of this in service of training health professionals and gaps in regulation. As one of the fundamental corner stones of health reform the Gateway Paper calls attention to the need to avert these issues with the development of a well-defined policy in human resource development as an entry point. This should be based on an analysis of the human resource need and should clearly define career structures for all categories of healthcare providers, and articulate the mechanisms of their effective deployment. Creating a conducive an rewarding environment, institutionalizing personnel management reform which go beyond personnel actions and set standards of performance, and develop appropriate incentives around this, would be critical. It would also be important to pay due attention to the content and format of training at an undergraduate level, at a postgraduate level and with reference to ongoing education and the allied roles of continuing medical education programs and accreditation of health systems educational institutions. The Gateway Paper also lays stress on effective regulation to curb the practice of quackery.

  15. Dogs as a diagnostic tool for ill health in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Deborah L

    2012-01-01

    Researchers have long reported that dogs and cats improve the physical and psychological health of their human caregivers, and while it is still inconclusive, a substantial amount of research now lends support for the commonly held view that pets are good for us. Recently, studies have directed attention toward exploring the use of animals, most notably dogs, in the detection of disease and other types of health problems in people. This article reviews the evidence for dogs' ability to detect ill health in humans, focusing specifically on the detection of cancer, epileptic seizures, and hypoglycemia. The author describes the research carried out in this area and evaluates it in an effort to determine whether dogs have a role to play in modern health care as an alert tool or screening system for ill health. Where necessary, the author has highlighted weaknesses in the work and proposed directions for future studies.

  16. Environmental Health in Relation to Urban Planning and Human Physical Activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliver, L.H.L.; Siti Nur Afiqah Mohamed Musthafa; Dasimah Omar

    2015-01-01

    The world is changing everyday in a fast pace that makes majority of the urbanized areas becoming more congested and polluted by the development. The planning of the urban world has brought about a great impact towards the environment and health. With the large number of human population, urban areas will have various kinds of activities that contributed to the higher rate of pollutants compared to areas with less development. In a car oriented urban development pattern, majority of the population will choose automobiles as their transportation modes rather than walking or cycling. Due to that, the air emission in urban areas will increase rapidly, and reduce the physical activity. Air pollutants contribute to various health problems, especially respiratory infection. Besides, lacking of physical activities also increase the health risk. However, there is limited study on the relationship between urban land use setting and health in developing country. Thus, a study had been carried out to establish the relationship between urban setting and human health. It involved air quality data collection, observation on land use setting, and questionnaire survey on human health and the lifestyle. Findings from the relationship analysis had been discussed with suitable recommendation and conclusion. (author)

  17. Energy production and human health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benson, J.R.; Brown, C.D.; Dixon-Davis, D.K.; Grahn, D.; Ludy, R.T.

    1977-01-01

    Progress is reported on the following research projects: development and evaluation of socioeconomic and demographic factors; and quantitative aspects of the impacts of energy-related effluents on human health. Environmental effects of electric power generation by gas, oil, coal, nuclear energy, and water were studied at 15 sites. A system of general demographic models was developed for projecting number of deaths and population size by sex, age, and cause of death through time for any defined initial population and set of vital rates

  18. Leveraging Health Care Simulation Technology for Human Factors Research: Closing the Gap Between Lab and Bedside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Ellen S; Dong, Yue; Halamek, Louis P; Rosen, Michael A; Taekman, Jeffrey M; Rice, John

    2016-11-01

    We describe health care simulation, designed primarily for training, and provide examples of how human factors experts can collaborate with health care professionals and simulationists-experts in the design and implementation of simulation-to use contemporary simulation to improve health care delivery. The need-and the opportunity-to apply human factors expertise in efforts to achieve improved health outcomes has never been greater. Health care is a complex adaptive system, and simulation is an effective and flexible tool that can be used by human factors experts to better understand and improve individual, team, and system performance within health care. Expert opinion is presented, based on a panel delivered during the 2014 Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Health Care Symposium. Diverse simulators, physically or virtually representing humans or human organs, and simulation applications in education, research, and systems analysis that may be of use to human factors experts are presented. Examples of simulation designed to improve individual, team, and system performance are provided, as are applications in computational modeling, research, and lifelong learning. The adoption or adaptation of current and future training and assessment simulation technologies and facilities provides opportunities for human factors research and engineering, with benefits for health care safety, quality, resilience, and efficiency. Human factors experts, health care providers, and simulationists can use contemporary simulation equipment and techniques to study and improve health care delivery. © 2016, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  19. Health-seeking behaviour of human brucellosis cases in rural Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MacMillan Alastair

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brucellosis is known to cause debilitating conditions if not promptly treated. In some rural areas of Tanzania however, practitioners give evidence of seeing brucellosis cases with symptoms of long duration. The purpose of this study was to establish health-seeking behaviour of human brucellosis cases in rural Tanzania and explore the most feasible ways to improve it. Methods This was designed as a longitudinal study. Socio-demographic, clinical and laboratory data were collected from patients who reported to selected hospitals in rural northern Tanzania between June 2002 and April 2003. All patients with conditions suspicious of brucellosis on the basis of preliminary clinical examination and history were enrolled into the study as brucellosis suspects. Blood samples were taken and tested for brucellosis using the Rose-Bengal Plate Test (RBPT and other agglutination tests available at the health facilities and the competitive ELISA (c-ELISA test at the Veterinary Laboratory Agencies (VLA in the UK. All suspects who tested positive with the c-ELISA test were regarded as brucellosis cases. A follow-up of 49 cases was made to collect data on health-seeking behaviour of human brucellosis cases. Results The majority of cases 87.7% gave a history of going to hospital as the first point of care, 10.2% purchased drugs from a nearby drug shop before going to hospital and 2% went to a local traditional healer first. Brucellosis cases delayed going to hospital with a median delay time of 90 days, and with 20% of the cases presenting to hospitals more than a year after the onset of symptoms. Distance to the hospital, keeping animals and knowledge of brucellosis were significantly associated with patient delay to present to hospital. Conclusion More efforts need to be put on improving the accessibility of health facilities to the rural poor people who succumb to most of the diseases including zoonoses. Health education on brucellosis in

  20. Berry Phenolic Antioxidants – Implications for Human Health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olas, Beata

    2018-01-01

    Antioxidants present in the diet may have a significant effect on the prophylaxis and progression of various diseases associated with oxidative stress. Berries contain a range of chemical compounds with antioxidant properties, including phenolic compounds. The aim of this review article is to provide an overview of the current knowledge of such phenolic antioxidants, and to discuss whether these compounds may always be natural gifts for human health, based on both in vitro and in vivo studies. It describes the antioxidant properties of fresh berries (including aronia berries, grapes, blueberries, sea buckthorn berries, strawberries and other berries) and their various products, especially juices and wines. Some papers report that these phenolic compounds may sometimes behave like prooxidants, and sometimes demonstrate both antioxidant and prooxidant activity, while others note they do not behave the same way in vitro and in vivo. However, no unwanted or toxic effects (i.e., chemical, hematological or urinary effect) have been associated with the consumption of berries or berry juices or other extracts, especially aronia berries and aronia products in vivo, and in vitro, which may suggest that the phenolic antioxidants found in berries are natural gifts for human health. However, the phenolic compound content of berries and berry products is not always well described, and further studies are required to determine the therapeutic doses of different berry products for use in future clinical studies. Moreover, further experiments are needed to understand the beneficial effects reported so far from the mechanistic point of view. Therefore, greater attention should be paid to the development of well-controlled and high-quality clinical studies in this area. PMID:29662448

  1. Does genetic diversity predict health in humans?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanne C Lie

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Genetic diversity, especially at genes important for immune functioning within the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC, has been associated with fitness-related traits, including disease resistance, in many species. Recently, genetic diversity has been associated with mate preferences in humans. Here we asked whether these preferences are adaptive in terms of obtaining healthier mates. We investigated whether genetic diversity (heterozygosity and standardized mean d(2 at MHC and nonMHC microsatellite loci, predicted health in 153 individuals. Individuals with greater allelic diversity (d(2 at nonMHC loci and at one MHC locus, linked to HLA-DRB1, reported fewer symptoms over a four-month period than individuals with lower d(2. In contrast, there were no associations between MHC or nonMHC heterozygosity and health. NonMHC-d(2 has previously been found to predict male preferences for female faces. Thus, the current findings suggest that nonMHC diversity may play a role in both natural and sexual selection acting on human populations.

  2. The discursive production of professionals about humanizing health: singularity, rights and ethics1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Rose Mary Costa Rosa Andrade; de Oliveira, Denize Cristina; Pereira, Eliane Ramos

    2015-01-01

    Objective: to describe the discursive production of professionals about the humanization of health. Method: qualitative study of descriptive approach, inspired by the social representation theory, with 24 professionals in the healthcare field, working in a university hospital with the established humanization policy. The selection of participants was conducted according to criteria of adequacy and diversity for an intentional sample. Data collection was conducted by semi-structured interviews. Results: through content analysis, three categories emerged, around which the analyses were conducted: "humanizing health as an act of accepting the other as unique", "humanizing health as a matter of right" and "humanizing health as an ethical issue". The discursive production of professionals is based on a perspective which is based on the humanist prospect with socio-historical bias. Conclusion: healthcare professionals must know the National Humanization Policy in order to provide quality care, promoting the meeting, welcoming and recognition of oneself, others and their profession in the political and socio-historical scenario of their country as a citizen, not only of rights, but also of obligations. PMID:26487145

  3. Human Resources for Health Research in Africa | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Human Resources for Health Research in Africa ... the management of research systems for optimal use of results;; packaging research for policymakers; ... Call for new OWSD Fellowships for Early Career Women Scientists now open.

  4. 75 FR 7485 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Amended Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Amended Notice of Meeting Notice is hereby given of a change in the meeting of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special...

  5. The Effect of Toxic Cyanobacteria on Human and Animal Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    The study of environmental health typically focuses on human populations. However, companion animals, livestock and wildlife also experience adverse health effects from environmental pollutants. Animals may experience direct exposure to pollutants unlike people in most ambient ex...

  6. Biotechnological Patents Applications of the Deuterium Oxide in Human Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da S Mariano, Reysla M; Bila, Wendell C; Trindade, Maria Jaciara F; Lamounier, Joel A; Galdino, Alexsandro S

    2017-01-01

    Deuterium oxide is a molecule that has been used for decades in several studies related to human health. Currently, studies on D2O have mobilized a "Race for Patenting" worldwide. Several patents have been registered from biomedical and technological studies of D2O showing the potential of this stable isotope in industry and health care ecosystems. Most of the patents related to the applications of the deuterium oxide in human health have been summarized in this review. The following patents databases were consulted: European Patent Office (Espacenet), the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), the United States Latin America Patents (LATIPAT), Patent scope -Search International and National Patent Collections (WIPO), Google Patents and Free Patents Online. With this review, the information was collected on recent publications including 22 patents related to deuterium oxide and its applications in different areas. This review showed that deuterium oxide is a promising component in different areas, including biotechnology, chemistry and medicine. In addition, the knowledge of this compound was covered, reinforcing its importance in the field of biotechnology and human health. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  7. Indoor air and human health: major indoor air pollutants and their health implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    This publication is a collection of abstracts of papers presented at the Indoor Air and Human Health symposium. Session titles include: Radon, Microorganisms, Passive Cigarette Smoke, Combustion Products, Organics, and Panel and Audience Discussion

  8. Indoor air and human health: major indoor air pollutants and their health implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-01-01

    This publication is a collection of abstracts of papers presented at the Indoor Air and Human Health symposium. Session titles include: Radon, Microorganisms, Passive Cigarette Smoke, Combustion Products, Organics, and Panel and Audience Discussion.

  9. Effects of modifying water environments on water supply and human health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takizawa, S.; Nguyen, H. T.; Takeda, T.; Tran, N. T.

    2008-12-01

    Due to increasing population and per-capita water demand, demands for water are increasing in many parts of the world. Consequently, overuse of limited water resources leaves only small amounts of water in rivers and is bringing about rapid drawdown of groundwater tables. Water resources are affected by human activities such as excessive inputs of nutrients and other contaminants, agriculture and aquaculture expansions, and many development activities. The combined effects of modifying the water environments, both in terms of quantity and quality, on water supply and human health are presented in the paper with some examples from the Asian countries. In rural and sub-urban areas in Bangladesh and Vietnam, for example, the traditional way of obtaining surface water from ponds had been replaced by taking groundwaters to avert the microbial health risks that had arisen from contamination by human wastes. Such a change of water sources, however, has brought about human health impact caused by arsenic on a massive scale. In Thailand, the industrial development has driven the residents to get groundwater leaden with very high fluoride. Monitoring the urine fluoride levels reveal the risk of drinking fluoride-laden groundwaters. Rivers are also affected by extensive exploitation such as sand mining. As a result, turbidity changes abruptly after a heavy rainfall. In cities, due to shrinking water resources they have to take poor quality waters from contaminated sources. Algal blooms are seen in many reservoirs and lakes due to increasing levels of nutrients. Hence, it is likely that algal toxins may enter the water supply systems. Because most of the water treatment plants are not designed to remove those known and unknown contaminants, it is estimated that quite a large number of people are now under the threat of the public health "gtime bomb,"h which may one day bring about mass-scale health problems. In order to mitigate the negative impacts of modifying the water

  10. The Arctic Human Health Initiative: a legacy of the International Polar Year 2007-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, Alan J

    2013-01-01

    The International Polar Year (IPY) 2007-2008 represented a unique opportunity to further stimulate cooperation and coordination on Arctic health research and increase the awareness and visibility of Arctic regions. The Arctic Human Health Initiative (AHHI) was a US-led Arctic Council IPY coordinating project that aimed to build and expand on existing International Union for Circumpolar Health (IUCH) and Arctic Council human health interests. The project aimed to link researchers with potential international collaborators and to serve as a focal point for human health research, education, outreach and communication activities during the IPY. The progress of projects conducted as part of this initiative up until the end of the Arctic Council Swedish chairmanship in May 2013 is summarized in this report. The overall goals of the AHHI was to increase awareness and visibility of human health concerns of Arctic peoples, foster human health research, and promote health strategies that will improve health and well-being of all Arctic residents. Proposed activities to be recognized through the initiative included: expanding research networks that will enhance surveillance and monitoring of health issues of concern to Arctic peoples, and increase collaboration and coordination of human health research; fostering research that will examine the health impact of anthropogenic pollution, rapid modernization and economic development, climate variability, infectious and chronic diseases, intentional and unintentional injuries, promoting education, outreach and communication that will focus public and political attention on Arctic health issues, using a variety of publications, printed and electronic reports from scientific conferences, symposia and workshops targeting researchers, students, communities and policy makers; promoting the translation of research into health policy and community action including implementation of prevention strategies and health promotion; and

  11. Human Health and Toxic Cyanobacteria – What do we know?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human Health and Toxic Cyanobacteria – What do we know?Elizabeth D. HilbornWarm, eutrophic surface water systems support the development of toxic cyanobacteria blooms in North Carolina and worldwide. These conditions are increasing with expanding human populations and clima...

  12. Public health human resources: a comparative analysis of policy documents in two Canadian provinces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Amidst concerns regarding the capacity of the public health system to respond rapidly and appropriately to threats such as pandemics and terrorism, along with changing population health needs, governments have focused on strengthening public health systems. A key factor in a robust public health system is its workforce. As part of a nationally funded study of public health renewal in Canada, a policy analysis was conducted to compare public health human resources-relevant documents in two Canadian provinces, British Columbia (BC) and Ontario (ON), as they each implement public health renewal activities. Methods A content analysis of policy and planning documents from government and public health-related organizations was conducted by a research team comprised of academics and government decision-makers. Documents published between 2003 and 2011 were accessed (BC = 27; ON = 20); documents were either publicly available or internal to government and excerpted with permission. Documentary texts were deductively coded using a coding template developed by the researchers based on key health human resources concepts derived from two national policy documents. Results Documents in both provinces highlighted the importance of public health human resources planning and policies; this was particularly evident in early post-SARS documents. Key thematic areas of public health human resources identified were: education, training, and competencies; capacity; supply; intersectoral collaboration; leadership; public health planning context; and priority populations. Policy documents in both provinces discussed the importance of an educated, competent public health workforce with the appropriate skills and competencies for the effective and efficient delivery of public health services. Conclusion This policy analysis identified progressive work on public health human resources policy and planning with early documents providing an inventory of issues to be

  13. Public health human resources: a comparative analysis of policy documents in two Canadian provinces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, Sandra; MacDonald, Marjorie; Allan, Diane E; Martin, Cheryl; Peroff-Johnston, Nancy

    2014-02-24

    Amidst concerns regarding the capacity of the public health system to respond rapidly and appropriately to threats such as pandemics and terrorism, along with changing population health needs, governments have focused on strengthening public health systems. A key factor in a robust public health system is its workforce. As part of a nationally funded study of public health renewal in Canada, a policy analysis was conducted to compare public health human resources-relevant documents in two Canadian provinces, British Columbia (BC) and Ontario (ON), as they each implement public health renewal activities. A content analysis of policy and planning documents from government and public health-related organizations was conducted by a research team comprised of academics and government decision-makers. Documents published between 2003 and 2011 were accessed (BC = 27; ON = 20); documents were either publicly available or internal to government and excerpted with permission. Documentary texts were deductively coded using a coding template developed by the researchers based on key health human resources concepts derived from two national policy documents. Documents in both provinces highlighted the importance of public health human resources planning and policies; this was particularly evident in early post-SARS documents. Key thematic areas of public health human resources identified were: education, training, and competencies; capacity; supply; intersectoral collaboration; leadership; public health planning context; and priority populations. Policy documents in both provinces discussed the importance of an educated, competent public health workforce with the appropriate skills and competencies for the effective and efficient delivery of public health services. This policy analysis identified progressive work on public health human resources policy and planning with early documents providing an inventory of issues to be addressed and later documents providing

  14. Cryptosporidium Infection in Dairy Cattle Calves and its Public Health Significance in Central Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manyazewal Anberber Zeleke

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Cryptosporidium spp. are common intestinal protozoan parasites that causes diarrhoea in neonates and young calves. This longitudinal study was conducted at two large dairy cattle farms in central Ethiopia during February/2014 to June/2015 to determine the age-related distribution of Cryptosporidium species, to identify risk factors of the disease and to assess the public health significance of the parasite. Thirty calves born to these dairy farms were followed-up from birth to three months of age, and 270 faecal samples were collected and examined by the Modified Ziehl-Neelsen, PCR-RFLP and Sequencing. Cryptosporidium was detected from week 1 to 3 months of age with an overall prevalence of 14.8%, Peak of the infection was at two weeks of age when 12 of the 30 calves (40% shedded oocysts. Cryptosporidium parvum and C. andersoni were identified in pre-weaned and post-weaned calves, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis showed clustering of the C. parvum isolates from this study with GenBank sequences for C. parvum bovine genotype IIa and IId subtypes. This study showed the predominance of the zoonotic C. parvum species in pre-weaned calves and demonstrated that this age group of calves pose the greatest risk for human infection. Due attention on the management of pre-weaned calves is recommended to prevent transmission of the infection to humans and lessen contamination of the environment by oocysts.

  15. School Health Education about Human Sexuality. Position Statement. Revised

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Beverly J.; Mancuso, Patty; Cagginello, Joan B.; Board, Connie; Clark, Sandra; Harvel, Robin; Kelts, Susan

    2012-01-01

    It is the position of the National Association of School Nurses (NASN) that age-appropriate health education about human sexuality should be included as part of a comprehensive school health education program and be accessible to all students in schools. NASN recognizes the role of parents and families as the primary source of education about…

  16. Access to health care for undocumented migrants from a human rights perspective:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biswas, Dan; Toebes, Brigit; Hjern, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Undocumented migrants' access to health care varies across Europe, and entitlements on national levels are often at odds with the rights stated in international human rights law. The aim of this study is to address undocumented migrants' access to health care in Denmark, Sweden, and the Netherlands...... from a human rights perspective....

  17. Seeking asylum in Australia: immigration detention, human rights and mental health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Louise; Proctor, Nicholas; Dudley, Michael

    2013-08-01

    The article aims to discuss the impact of mandatory detention and human rights violations on the mental health of asylum seekers and the implications for psychiatrists and health professionals. Advocacy for human rights and engagement in social debate are core ethical and professional responsibilities. Clinicians need to maintain a focus on ethical obligations.

  18. Applying human rights to improve access to reproductive health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Dorothy; Cook, Rebecca J

    2012-10-01

    Universal access to reproductive health is a target of Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 5B, and along with MDG 5A to reduce maternal mortality by three-quarters, progress is currently too slow for most countries to achieve these targets by 2015. Critical to success are increased and sustainable numbers of skilled healthcare workers and financing of essential medicines by governments, who have made political commitments in United Nations forums to renew their efforts to reduce maternal mortality. National essential medicine lists are not reflective of medicines available free or at cost in facilities or in the community. The WHO Essential Medicines List indicates medicines required for maternal and newborn health including the full range of contraceptives and emergency contraception, but there is no consistent monitoring of implementation of national lists through procurement and supply even for basic essential drugs. Health advocates are using human rights mechanisms to ensure governments honor their legal commitments to ensure access to services essential for reproductive health. Maternal mortality is recognized as a human rights violation by the United Nations and constitutional and human rights are being used, and could be used more effectively, to improve maternity services and to ensure access to drugs essential for reproductive health. Copyright © 2012 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. 77 FR 38374 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “The Human Beast: German...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 7935] Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``The Human Beast: German Expressionism at The San Diego Museum of Art'' SUMMARY: Notice is... objects to be included in the exhibition ``The Human Beast: German Expressionism at The San Diego Museum...

  20. Psychosocial factors and pre-abortion psychological health: The significance of stigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Julia R; Tschann, Jeanne M; Furgerson, Dorothy; Harper, Cynthia C

    2016-02-01

    Most research in mental health and abortion has examined factors associated with post-abortion psychological health. However, research that follows women from before to after their abortion consistently finds that depressive, anxiety, and stress symptoms are highest just before an abortion compared to any time afterwards. This finding suggests that studies investigating psychosocial factors related to pre-abortion mental health are warranted. The current study uses data from 353 women seeking abortions at three community reproductive health clinics to examine predictors of pre-abortion psychological health. Drawing from three perspectives in the abortion and mental health literature, common risks, stress and coping, and sociocultural context, we conducted multivariable analyses to examine the contribution of important factors on depressive, anxiety, and stress symptoms just before an abortion, including sociodemographics, abortion characteristics, childhood adversities, recent adversities with an intimate partner, relationship context, future pregnancy desires, and perceived abortion stigma. Childhood and partner adversities, including reproductive coercion, were associated with negative mental health symptoms, as was perceived abortion stigma. Before perceived abortion stigma was entered into the model, 18.6%, 20.7%, and 16.8% of the variance in depressive, anxiety, and stress symptoms respectively, was explained. Perceived abortion stigma explained an additional 13.2%, 9.7%, and 10.7% of the variance in depressive, anxiety, and stress symptoms pre-abortion. This study, one of the first to focus on pre-abortion mental health as an outcome, suggests that addressing stigma among women seeking abortions may significantly lower their psychological distress. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Australian Medical Students' Association Global Health Essay Competition - Global climate change, geo-engineering and human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyages, Costa S

    2013-10-07

    Rio+20's proposed Sustainable Development Goals have the potential to redefine the course of international action on climate change. They recognise that environmental health is inextricably linked with human health, and that environmental sustainability is of paramount importance in safeguarding global health. Competition entrants were asked to discuss ways of making global health a central component of international sustainable development initiatives and environmental policy, using one or two concrete examples

  2. Urban pollution by electromagnetic radiation. What risk for human health?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bressa, G.

    1999-01-01

    Power lines, domestic appliances, radios, TV sets, cell-phones, radar, etc., they are all instruments which, entering our everyday life, cause electromagnetic pollution. The risks for human health as a consequence of being exposed to this kind of radiation haven't been clearly ascertained yet, even if there is proof of the connection between the onset of some tumoral forms and exposure to electromagnetic fields. Many countries, among which Italy, are tackling the problem of safety distances, necessary to reduce exposure to non-ionising radiation, by issuing bills suitable for human health protection [it

  3. Potential Role of Carotenoids as Antioxidants in Human Health and Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Fiedor

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Carotenoids constitute a ubiquitous group of isoprenoid pigments. They are very efficient physical quenchers of singlet oxygen and scavengers of other reactive oxygen species. Carotenoids can also act as chemical quenchers undergoing irreversible oxygenation. The molecular mechanisms underlying these reactions are still not fully understood, especially in the context of the anti- and pro-oxidant activity of carotenoids, which, although not synthesized by humans and animals, are also present in their blood and tissues, contributing to a number of biochemical processes. The antioxidant potential of carotenoids is of particular significance to human health, due to the fact that losing antioxidant-reactive oxygen species balance results in “oxidative stress”, a critical factor of the pathogenic processes of various chronic disorders. Data coming from epidemiological studies and clinical trials strongly support the observation that adequate carotenoid supplementation may significantly reduce the risk of several disorders mediated by reactive oxygen species. Here, we would like to highlight the beneficial (protective effects of dietary carotenoid intake in exemplary widespread modern civilization diseases, i.e., cancer, cardiovascular or photosensitivity disorders, in the context of carotenoids’ unique antioxidative properties.

  4. Potential Role of Carotenoids as Antioxidants in Human Health and Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiedor, Joanna; Burda, Květoslava

    2014-01-01

    Carotenoids constitute a ubiquitous group of isoprenoid pigments. They are very efficient physical quenchers of singlet oxygen and scavengers of other reactive oxygen species. Carotenoids can also act as chemical quenchers undergoing irreversible oxygenation. The molecular mechanisms underlying these reactions are still not fully understood, especially in the context of the anti- and pro-oxidant activity of carotenoids, which, although not synthesized by humans and animals, are also present in their blood and tissues, contributing to a number of biochemical processes. The antioxidant potential of carotenoids is of particular significance to human health, due to the fact that losing antioxidant-reactive oxygen species balance results in “oxidative stress”, a critical factor of the pathogenic processes of various chronic disorders. Data coming from epidemiological studies and clinical trials strongly support the observation that adequate carotenoid supplementation may significantly reduce the risk of several disorders mediated by reactive oxygen species. Here, we would like to highlight the beneficial (protective) effects of dietary carotenoid intake in exemplary widespread modern civilization diseases, i.e., cancer, cardiovascular or photosensitivity disorders, in the context of carotenoids’ unique antioxidative properties. PMID:24473231

  5. Ecohealth Chair on Human and Animal Health in Protected ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project will help establish an Ecohealth Chair in Human and Animal Health in Protected Ecosystems to improve the sustainability of conservation areas and the health of local ... Le nouveau site Web facilitera l'enregistrement des événements démographiques afin d'améliorer l'accès aux services pour tous. Le nouveau ...

  6. Effects of the Usage of l-Cysteine (l-Cys on Human Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noelia Clemente Plaza

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This review summarizes recent knowledge about the use of the amino acid l-Cysteine (l-Cys through diet, nutritional supplements or drugs with the aim to improve human health or treat certain diseases. Three databases (PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science and different keywords have been used to create a database of documents published between 1950 and 2017 in scientific journals in English or Spanish. A total of 60,885 primary publications were ultimately selected to compile accurate information about the use of l-Cys in medicine and nutritional therapies and to identify the reported benefits of l-Cys on human health. The number of publications about the use of l-Cys for these purposes has increased significantly during the last two decades. This increase seems to be closely related to the rise of nutraceutical industries and personalized medicine. The main evidence reporting benefits of l-Cys usage is summarized. However, the lack of accurate information and studies based on clinical trials hampers consensus among authors. Thus, the debate about the role and effectiveness of supplements/drugs containing l-Cys is still open.

  7. Effects of the Usage of l-Cysteine (l-Cys) on Human Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemente Plaza, Noelia; Reig García-Galbis, Manuel; Martínez-Espinosa, Rosa María

    2018-03-03

    This review summarizes recent knowledge about the use of the amino acid l-Cysteine (l-Cys) through diet, nutritional supplements or drugs with the aim to improve human health or treat certain diseases. Three databases (PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science) and different keywords have been used to create a database of documents published between 1950 and 2017 in scientific journals in English or Spanish. A total of 60,885 primary publications were ultimately selected to compile accurate information about the use of l-Cys in medicine and nutritional therapies and to identify the reported benefits of l-Cys on human health. The number of publications about the use of l-Cys for these purposes has increased significantly during the last two decades. This increase seems to be closely related to the rise of nutraceutical industries and personalized medicine. The main evidence reporting benefits of l-Cys usage is summarized. However, the lack of accurate information and studies based on clinical trials hampers consensus among authors. Thus, the debate about the role and effectiveness of supplements/drugs containing l-Cys is still open.

  8. A systems engineering perspective on the human-centered design of health information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaras, George M; Horst, Richard L

    2005-02-01

    The discipline of systems engineering, over the past five decades, has used a structured systematic approach to managing the "cradle to grave" development of products and processes. While elements of this approach are typically used to guide the development of information systems that instantiate a significant user interface, it appears to be rare for the entire process to be implemented. In fact, a number of authors have put forth development lifecycle models that are subsets of the classical systems engineering method, but fail to include steps such as incremental hazard analysis and post-deployment corrective and preventative actions. In that most health information systems have safety implications, we argue that the design and development of such systems would benefit by implementing this systems engineering approach in full. Particularly with regard to bringing a human-centered perspective to the formulation of system requirements and the configuration of effective user interfaces, this classical systems engineering method provides an excellent framework for incorporating human factors (ergonomics) knowledge and integrating ergonomists in the interdisciplinary development of health information systems.

  9. [Global public health: international health is tested to its limits by the human influenza A epidemic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco-Giraldo, Alvaro; Alvarez-Dardet, Carlos

    2009-06-01

    This article comes from the intense international pressure that follows a near-catastrophy, such as the human influenza A H1N1 epidemic, and the limited resources for confronting such events. The analysis covers prevailing 20th century trends in the international public health arena and the change-induced challenges brought on by globalization, the transition set in motion by what has been deemed the "new" international public health and an ever-increasing focus on global health, in the context of an international scenario of shifting risks and opportunities and a growing number of multinational players. Global public health is defined as a public right, based on a new appreciation of the public, a new paradigm centered on human rights, and altruistic philosophy, politics, and ethics that undergird the changes in international public health on at least three fronts: redefining its theoretical foundation, improving world health, and renewing the international public health system, all of which is the byproduct of a new form of governance. A new world health system, directed by new global public institutions, would aim to make public health a global public right and face a variety of staggering challenges, such as working on public policy management on a global scale, renewing and democratizing the current global governing structure, and conquering the limits and weaknesses witnessed by international health.

  10. Child labor. A matter of health and human rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Rahel; Reis, Chen; Iacopino, Vincent

    2003-01-01

    Despite the existence of laws in India that prohibit the labor of children under age 14, 70 to 115 million children between the ages of 5 and 14 are estimated to be part of India's labor force. Child labor in the agriculture sector accounts for 80% of child laborers in India and 70% of working children globally. From May 2001 to July 2001, Physicians for Human Rights (PHR) investigated the health experiences of 100 children in hybrid cottonseed production in rural Andhra Pradesh. Eighty-eight percent of the survey participants were girls, ages 7 to 14. PHR found that children worked on average 12 hours a day, were frequently exposed to pesticides, and were not provided with safety equipment, not even shoes or water to wash their hands and clothes. Children reported having frequent headaches and dizziness and skin and eye irritations after pesticide spraying. All 100 children reported that they were unable to go to school during the hybrid cottonseed season due to work demands. Ninety-four children reported to PHR that they would rather be in school. In addition, a majority of child workers interviewed by PHR reported physical and/or verbal abuse by their employers. Moreover, PHR interviews with representatives of multinational and national companies revealed knowledge of child labor practices for up to 10 years. Child labor is a significant health and human rights problem for children in India. The progressive elimination of child labor practices will require the support of a wide cross-section of civil society.

  11. Maternal and child health from a human rights perspective: the Indian scenario and nuns as community health enablers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomi Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available All women need access to antenatal care in pregnancy, skilled care during childbirth, and care and support in the weeks after childbirth. This discussion tries to look into the life context of maternal and child health, and the health scenario of women/girl children in general in India from the perspective of Human Rights. Currently, most of the public and private health experts and organizations do not talk and act on the human rights perspective of health service delivery. Reversely, only a very few rights-based organizations advocate directly the right to health for the marginalized. Within the framework of a rights-based approach, the right to (Maternal Health on practical terms means “Availability, Accessibility, Acceptability and Quality.” Concluding, in the background of the Catholic Health Association of India (CHAI, the discussion also focuses on how the nun nurses play their role as “Community Health Enablers” to improve the situation.

  12. Human health implications of organic food and organic agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mie, Axel; Andersen, Helle Raun; Gunnarsson, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    . Organic food consumption may reduce the risk of allergic disease and of overweight and obesity, but the evidence is not conclusive due to likely residual confounding, as consumers of organic food tend to have healthier lifestyles overall. However, animal experiments suggest that identically composed feed...... benefits associated with organic food production, and application of such production methods is likely to be beneficial within conventional agriculture, e.g., in integrated pest management.......This review summarises existing evidence on the impact of organic food on human health. It compares organic vs. conventional food production with respect to parameters important to human health and discusses the potential impact of organic management practices with an emphasis on EU conditions...

  13. High volume hydraulic fracturing operations: potential impacts on surface water and human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrdjen, Igor; Lee, Jiyoung

    2016-08-01

    High volume, hydraulic fracturing (HVHF) processes, used to extract natural gas and oil from underground shale deposits, pose many potential hazards to the environment and human health. HVHF can negatively affect the environment by contaminating soil, water, and air matrices with potential pollutants. Due to the relatively novel nature of the process, hazards to surface waters and human health are not well known. The purpose of this article is to link the impacts of HVHF operations on surface water integrity, with human health consequences. Surface water contamination risks include: increased structural failure rates of unconventional wells, issues with wastewater treatment, and accidental discharge of contaminated fluids. Human health risks associated with exposure to surface water contaminated with HVHF chemicals include increased cancer risk and turbidity of water, leading to increased pathogen survival time. Future research should focus on modeling contamination spread throughout the environment, and minimizing occupational exposure to harmful chemicals.

  14. Nature Contact and Human Health: A Research Agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frumkin, Howard; Bratman, Gregory N; Breslow, Sara Jo; Cochran, Bobby; Kahn, Peter H; Lawler, Joshua J; Levin, Phillip S; Tandon, Pooja S; Varanasi, Usha; Wolf, Kathleen L; Wood, Spencer A

    2017-07-31

    At a time of increasing disconnectedness from nature, scientific interest in the potential health benefits of nature contact has grown. Research in recent decades has yielded substantial evidence, but large gaps remain in our understanding. We propose a research agenda on nature contact and health, identifying principal domains of research and key questions that, if answered, would provide the basis for evidence-based public health interventions. We identify research questions in seven domains: a ) mechanistic biomedical studies; b ) exposure science; c ) epidemiology of health benefits; d ) diversity and equity considerations; e ) technological nature; f ) economic and policy studies; and g ) implementation science. Nature contact may offer a range of human health benefits. Although much evidence is already available, much remains unknown. A robust research effort, guided by a focus on key unanswered questions, has the potential to yield high-impact, consequential public health insights. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP1663.

  15. Marine mammals as sentinel species for oceans and human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossart, G D

    2011-05-01

    The long-term consequences of climate change and potential environmental degradation are likely to include aspects of disease emergence in marine plants and animals. In turn, these emerging diseases may have epizootic potential, zoonotic implications, and a complex pathogenesis involving other cofactors such as anthropogenic contaminant burden, genetics, and immunologic dysfunction. The concept of marine sentinel organisms provides one approach to evaluating aquatic ecosystem health. Such sentinels are barometers for current or potential negative impacts on individual- and population-level animal health. In turn, using marine sentinels permits better characterization and management of impacts that ultimately affect animal and human health associated with the oceans. Marine mammals are prime sentinel species because many species have long life spans, are long-term coastal residents, feed at a high trophic level, and have unique fat stores that can serve as depots for anthropogenic toxins. Marine mammals may be exposed to environmental stressors such as chemical pollutants, harmful algal biotoxins, and emerging or resurging pathogens. Since many marine mammal species share the coastal environment with humans and consume the same food, they also may serve as effective sentinels for public health problems. Finally, marine mammals are charismatic megafauna that typically stimulate an exaggerated human behavioral response and are thus more likely to be observed.

  16. 78 FR 18996 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

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    2013-03-28

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel, Alexander Disease; Mechanisms... Officer, Division of Scientific Review, National Institute of Child Health And Human Development, 6100...

  17. 76 FR 5594 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Initial Review Group, Developmental Biology Subcommittee... Review, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100...

  18. 76 FR 5593 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel; Prenatal Events-Postnatal... Review, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100...

  19. 77 FR 66076 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel; Environmental and Biological..., Division of Scientific Review, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human...

  20. Sexual rights as human rights: a guide to authoritative sources and principles for applying human rights to sexuality and sexual health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Alice M; Kismödi, Eszter; Cottingham, Jane; Gruskin, Sofia

    2015-11-01

    This Guide seeks to provide insight and resources to actors interested in the development of rights claims around sexuality and sexual health. After engaging with the vexed question of the scope of sexual rights, it explores the rules and principles governing the way in which human rights claims are developed and applied to sexuality and sexual health, and how that development is linked to law and made a matter of state obligation. This understanding is critical to policy and programming in sexual health and rights, as it supports calling on the relevant range of human rights, such as privacy, non-discrimination, health or other universally accepted human rights, as well as demanding the action of states under their international and national law obligations to support sexual health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Urban Green Space and Its Impact on Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Michelle C.; Fluehr, Jaime M.; McKeon, Thomas; Branas, Charles C.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Over half of the world’s population now lives in urban areas, and this proportion is expected to increase. While there have been numerous reviews of empirical studies on the link between nature and human health, very few have focused on the urban context, and most have examined almost exclusively cross-sectional research. This review is a first step toward assessing the possibility of causal relationships between nature and health in urban settings. Methods: Through systematic review of published literature, we explored the association between urban green space and human health. Results: We found consistent negative association between urban green space exposure and mortality, heart rate, and violence, and positive association with attention, mood, and physical activity. Results were mixed, or no association was found, in studies of urban green space exposure and general health, weight status, depression, and stress (via cortisol concentration). The number of studies was too low to generalize about birth outcomes, blood pressure, heart rate variability, cancer, diabetes, or respiratory symptoms. Conclusions: More studies using rigorous study design are needed to make generalizations, and meta-analyses, of these and other health outcomes possible. These findings may assist urban managers, organizations, and communities in their efforts to increase new or preserve existing green space. PMID:29510520

  2. Public sector reform and demand for human resources for health (HRH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lethbridge Jane

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This article considers some of the effects of health sector reform on human resources for health (HRH in developing countries and countries in transition by examining the effect of fiscal reform and the introduction of decentralisation and market mechanisms to the health sector. Fiscal reform results in pressure to measure the staff outputs of the health sector. Financial decentralisation often leads to hospitals becoming "corporatised" institutions, operating with business principles but remaining in the public sector. The introduction of market mechanisms often involves the formation of an internal market within the health sector and market testing of different functions with the private sector. This has immediate implications for the employment of health workers in the public sector, because the public sector may reduce its workforce if services are purchased from other sectors or may introduce more short-term and temporary employment contracts. Decentralisation of budgets and administrative functions can affect the health sector, often in negative ways, by reducing resources available and confusing lines of accountability for health workers. Governance and regulation of health care, when delivered by both public and private providers, require new systems of regulation. The increase in private sector provision has led health workers to move to the private sector. For those remaining in the public sector, there are often worsening working conditions, a lack of employment security and dismantling of collective bargaining agreements. Human resource development is gradually being recognised as crucial to future reforms and the formulation of health policy. New information systems at local and regional level will be needed to collect data on human resources. New employment arrangements, strengthening organisational culture, training and continuing education will also be needed.

  3. Accountability for the human right to health through treaty monitoring: Human rights treaty bodies and the influence of concluding observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Benjamin Mason; De Milliano, Marlous; Chakrabarti, Averi; Kim, Yuna

    2017-11-04

    Employing novel coding methods to evaluate human rights monitoring, this article examines the influence of United Nations (UN) treaty bodies on national implementation of the human right to health. The advancement of the right to health in the UN human rights system has shifted over the past 20 years from the development of norms under international law to the implementation of those norms through national policy. Facilitating accountability for this rights-based policy implementation under the right to health, the UN Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (CESCR) monitors state implementation by reviewing periodic reports from state parties, engaging in formal sessions of 'constructive dialogue' with state representatives, and issuing concluding observations for state response. These concluding observations recognise the positive steps taken by states and highlight the principal areas of CESCR concern, providing recommendations for implementing human rights and detailing issues to be addressed in the next state report. Through analytic coding of the normative indicators of the right to health in both state reports and concluding observations, this article provides an empirical basis to understand the policy effects of the CESCR monitoring process on state implementation of the right to health.

  4. Oceans and human health: a rising tide of challenges and opportunities for Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fleming, L.E.; McDonough, N.; Austen, M.; Mee, L.; Moore, M.; Hess, P.; Depledge, M.H.; White, M.; Philippart, K.; Bradbrook, P.; Smalley, A.

    2014-01-01

    The European Marine Board recently published a position paper on linking oceans and human health as a strategic research priority for Europe. With this position paper as a reference, the March 2014 Cornwall Oceans and Human Health Workshop brought together key scientists, policy makers, funders,

  5. Valuable human capital: the aging health care worker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Sandra K; Collins, Kevin S

    2006-01-01

    With the workforce growing older and the supply of younger workers diminishing, it is critical for health care managers to understand the factors necessary to capitalize on their vintage employees. Retaining this segment of the workforce has a multitude of benefits including the preservation of valuable intellectual capital, which is necessary to ensure that health care organizations maintain their competitive advantage in the consumer-driven market. Retaining the aging employee is possible if health care managers learn the motivators and training differences associated with this category of the workforce. These employees should be considered a valuable resource of human capital because without their extensive expertise, intense loyalty and work ethic, and superior customer service skills, health care organizations could suffer severe economic repercussions in the near future.

  6. Effects of bovine pregnancy on the fatty acid composition of milk: the significance for humans needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreiro, R; Regal, P; Díaz-Bao, M; Vázquez, B I; Cepeda, A

    2017-04-01

    Milk from 40 Holstein dairy cows was collected from two different farms in Galicia (Spain). The differences in the fatty acid composition of two groups of cows, 20 pregnant and 20 non-pregnant, was studied to determine whether pregnancy status is a determinant factor that can alter the fatty acid profile of milk. Gas-chromatography (GC) coupled to flame ionisation detection (FID) was used for the determination of the fatty acids. Differences in the milk fatty acids between pregnant and non-pregnant cows were pronounced showing statistically significant differences for some fatty acids and the total saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids. Milk from non-pregnant cows was lower in saturated fatty acids and higher in monounsaturated fatty acids (unlike milk from pregnant cows). The effects of the consumption of bovine milk, particularly milk fat, on human health have been studied in depth and sometimes are associated with negative effects, but milk has also several beneficial characteristics linked to some fatty acids.

  7. Human health impacts in the life cycle of future European electricity generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treyer, Karin; Bauer, Christian; Simons, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) based quantification of the potential human health impacts (HHI) of base-load power generation technologies for the year 2030. Cumulative Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions per kWh electricity produced are shown in order to provide the basis for comparison with existing literature. Minimising negative impacts on human health is one of the key elements of policy making towards sustainable development: besides their direct impacts on quality of life, HHI also trigger other impacts, e.g. external costs in the health care system. These HHI are measured using the Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) methods “ReCiPe” with its three different perspectives and “IMPACT2002+”. Total HHI as well as the shares of the contributing damage categories vary largely between these perspectives and methods. Impacts due to climate change, human toxicity, and particulate matter formation are the main contributors to total HHI. Independently of the perspective chosen, the overall impacts on human health from nuclear power and renewables are substantially lower than those caused by coal power, while natural gas can have lower HHI than nuclear and some renewables. Fossil fuel combustion as well as coal, uranium and metal mining are the life cycle stages generating the highest HHI. - Highlights: • Life cycle human health impacts (HHI) due to electricity production are analysed. • Results are shown for the three ReCiPe perspectives and IMPACT2002+LCIA method. • Total HHI of nuclear and renewables are much below those of fossil technologies. • Climate change and human toxicity contribute most to total HHI. • Fossil fuel combustion and coal mining are the most polluting life cycle stages

  8. 77 FR 34394 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-11

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Initial Review Group, Obstetrics and Maternal-Fetal Biology... of Scientific Review, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development...

  9. 77 FR 27468 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-10

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel; Topics in Development, Signaling... Review, OD, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100...

  10. 75 FR 36100 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-24

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel National Childrens Study. Date: July..., Scientific Review Administrator, Division of Scientific Review, National Institute of Child Health and Human...

  11. 75 FR 26761 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

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    2010-05-12

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel; Asymmetric Robotic Gait Training and... Review Administrator, Division of Scientific Review, National Institute of Child Health and Human...

  12. 77 FR 34393 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-11

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d...: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Initial Review Group; Biobehavioral and Behavioral... Review, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute o Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100...

  13. 77 FR 26020 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-02

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel; Nature and Acquisition of Speech... Review, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100...

  14. 76 FR 67469 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel, Molecular and Cellular Controls of... Review, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100...

  15. 76 FR 76169 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-06

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel; Mentored Training in Executive... Review, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, 6100 Executive Boulevard, Rockville, MD...

  16. 76 FR 5595 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d...: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Initial Review Group, Biobehavioral and Behavioral... Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health And Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room...

  17. 77 FR 19677 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-02

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... of Committee: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel, ZHD1... of Scientific Review, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development...

  18. 76 FR 61721 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-05

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Special Emphasis Panel, Neuroplasticity and the Maternal... Scientific Review, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100...

  19. 77 FR 61421 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-09

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Initial Review Group; Pediatrics Subcommittee. Date: October... Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room...

  20. 78 FR 18997 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-28

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel, Social-Cognitive Skill Intervention..., Division of Scientific Review, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human...

  1. 77 FR 33474 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-06

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel, Academic-Community Partnership... Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room...

  2. 77 FR 73036 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-07

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel. NICHD T32 Teleconference Review... of Scientific Review, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development...

  3. 76 FR 8372 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-14

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel; Risk Genes and Environment... Scientific Review, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100...

  4. 75 FR 63498 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-15

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel; Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia..., Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd...

  5. 78 FR 12765 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-25

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Initial Review Group; Pediatrics Subcommittee. Date: March... Kennedy Shriver National Institute of, Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room...

  6. 77 FR 64818 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-23

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel; Pregnancy Adaptation and Maternal... Scientific Review, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100...

  7. 76 FR 37133 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-24

    ... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Group; Rehabilitation Medicine Scientist... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room...

  8. 76 FR 6146 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-03

    ... Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Special Emphasis Panel, Maternal Fetal Medicine Units... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Review, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100...

  9. 78 FR 47328 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-05

    ... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel; Asthma Cohort Support Contract. Date... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d..., National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, 6100 Executive Boulevard, Rockville, MD 20892...

  10. Lead-poisoned wildfowl in Spain: a significant threat for human consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guitart, Raimon; Serratosa, Jordi; Thomas, Vernon G

    2002-12-01

    Each year, 1.2 million Spanish hunters and shooters discharge 6,000 t of lead shot, of which 30-50 t are deposited in wetlands of this European country. Waterfowl may accidentally ingest lead pellets in these aquatic habitats and become fatally lead poisoned. It has been estimated that 50,000 birds die from this cause in Spain each year, but many more are chronically affected. Most of them are species that can be hunted legally, and the lead toxicosis enhances their susceptibility to being killed by hunting. Consequently, about 30,000 waterfowl hunters and their families, especially children, are at risk from secondary lead ingestion from these poisoned birds. The consumption of a single liver (often eaten in Spain) from any waterfowl shot in this country may result in the direct uptake of 0.01-2.3 mg of lead in 40.4% of cases. This is based on the percentage of 411 analyzed waterfowl having liver lead contents over 0.5 mg kg(-1) wet weight, the maximum lead level in poultry offal that current EU regulations permit. Therefore, health management authorities should draw urgent attention to this environmental problem that presents such an established risk to human health.

  11. Effects of Probiotics, Prebiotics, and Synbiotics on Human Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markowiak, Paulina; Śliżewska, Katarzyna

    2017-09-15

    The human gastrointestinal tract is colonised by a complex ecosystem of microorganisms. Intestinal bacteria are not only commensal, but they also undergo a synbiotic co-evolution along with their host. Beneficial intestinal bacteria have numerous and important functions, e.g., they produce various nutrients for their host, prevent infections caused by intestinal pathogens, and modulate a normal immunological response. Therefore, modification of the intestinal microbiota in order to achieve, restore, and maintain favourable balance in the ecosystem, and the activity of microorganisms present in the gastrointestinal tract is necessary for the improved health condition of the host. The introduction of probiotics, prebiotics, or synbiotics into human diet is favourable for the intestinal microbiota. They may be consumed in the form of raw vegetables and fruit, fermented pickles, or dairy products. Another source may be pharmaceutical formulas and functional food. This paper provides a review of available information and summarises the current knowledge on the effects of probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics on human health. The mechanism of beneficial action of those substances is discussed, and verified study results proving their efficacy in human nutrition are presented.

  12. Effects of Probiotics, Prebiotics, and Synbiotics on Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markowiak, Paulina; Śliżewska, Katarzyna

    2017-01-01

    The human gastrointestinal tract is colonised by a complex ecosystem of microorganisms. Intestinal bacteria are not only commensal, but they also undergo a synbiotic co-evolution along with their host. Beneficial intestinal bacteria have numerous and important functions, e.g., they produce various nutrients for their host, prevent infections caused by intestinal pathogens, and modulate a normal immunological response. Therefore, modification of the intestinal microbiota in order to achieve, restore, and maintain favourable balance in the ecosystem, and the activity of microorganisms present in the gastrointestinal tract is necessary for the improved health condition of the host. The introduction of probiotics, prebiotics, or synbiotics into human diet is favourable for the intestinal microbiota. They may be consumed in the form of raw vegetables and fruit, fermented pickles, or dairy products. Another source may be pharmaceutical formulas and functional food. This paper provides a review of available information and summarises the current knowledge on the effects of probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics on human health. The mechanism of beneficial action of those substances is discussed, and verified study results proving their efficacy in human nutrition are presented. PMID:28914794

  13. The role of menaquinones (vitamin K₂) in human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beulens, Joline W J; Booth, Sarah L; van den Heuvel, Ellen G H M; Stoecklin, Elisabeth; Baka, Athanasia; Vermeer, Cees

    2013-10-01

    Recent reports have attributed the potential health benefits of vitamin K beyond its function to activate hepatic coagulation factors. Moreover, several studies have suggested that menaquinones, also known as vitamin K2, may be more effective in activating extra-hepatic vitamin K-dependent proteins than phylloquinone, also known as vitamin K1. Nevertheless, present dietary reference values (DRV) for vitamin K are exclusively based on phylloquinone, and its function in coagulation. The present review describes the current knowledge on menaquinones based on the following criteria for setting DRV: optimal dietary intake; nutrient amount required to prevent deficiency, maintain optimal body stores and/or prevent chronic disease; factors influencing requirements such as absorption, metabolism, age and sex. Dietary intake of menaquinones accounts for up to 25% of total vitamin K intake and contributes to the biological functions of vitamin K. However, menaquinones are different from phylloquinone with respect to their chemical structure and pharmacokinetics, which affects bioavailability, metabolism and perhaps impact on health outcomes. There are significant gaps in the current knowledge on menaquinones based on the criteria for setting DRV. Therefore, we conclude that further investigations are needed to establish how differences among the vitamin K forms may influence tissue specificities and their role in human health. However, there is merit for considering both menaquinones and phylloquinone when developing future recommendations for vitamin K intake.

  14. Community Context and Child Health: A Human Capital Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Greenaway, Emily

    2017-09-01

    Human capital theory suggests that education benefits individuals' and their children's health through the educational skills people acquire in school. This perspective may also be relevant at the community level: the greater presence of adults with educational skills in a community may be a reason why living in a more highly educated setting benefits health. I use Demographic and Health Survey data for 30 sub-Saharan African countries to investigate whether the percentage of literate adults-specifically women-in a community is associated with children's likelihood of survival. I characterize 13,785 African communities according to the prevalence of women who are literate. Multilevel discrete-time hazard models ( N = 536,781 children) confirm that living in a community where more women are literate is positively associated with child survival. The study supports the conceptualization of literacy, and potentially other educational skills, as forms of human capital that can spill over to benefit others.

  15. Advancing Environmental Health: A Ballroom Dance Between Human Health and Earth Sciences Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, A.

    2016-12-01

    The mission of the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) is to discover how the environment affects people in order to promote healthier lives. Translation of this mission into a meaningful reality entails extensive interdisciplinary interactions, expertise, and collaborations between the traditional health and earth sciences communities. Efforts to advance our understanding of adverse effects and illness associated with environmental factors requires not only a refined understanding of the biological mechanisms and pathways (e.g., inflammation, epigenetic changes, oxidative stress, mutagenesis, etc.) related to function and disease, but also the incredibly broad and complex environmental exposures and systems that influence these processes. Further complicating efforts to understand such interactions is the need to take into account individual susceptibility to disease across the human life span. While it is clear that environmental exposures can be readily linked to disease in individuals and to disproportionate health disparities in populations, the underlying risk factors for such findings are often elusive. Health and earth scientists have a long tradition of crossing their scientific divides to work together on a wide range of problems and issues, including disasters. Emergency situations, such as the environmental asbestos contamination in Libby, Montana, the Gulf Oil Spill, numerous chemical releases into air and water, wildfires, the World Trade Center Attack, and responses to Ebola, and now Zika, demand the collective expertise of the "environmental health sciences enterprise" to protect the public's health, facilitate recovery, and improve future preparedness. Furthermore, such high visibility efforts stand as a clear example of what human and earth sciences research can accomplish when transformative interdisciplinary approaches and a diverse well-trained cadre of scientists dance together on the ballroom floor.

  16. Using human rights to improve maternal and neonatal health: history, connections and a proposed practical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruskin, Sofia; Cottingham, Jane; Hilber, Adriane Martin; Kismodi, Eszter; Lincetto, Ornella; Roseman, Mindy Jane

    2008-08-01

    We describe the historical development of how maternal and neonatal mortality in the developing world came to be seen as a public-health concern, a human rights concern, and ultimately as both, leading to the development of approaches using human rights concepts and methods to advance maternal and neonatal health. We describe the different contributions of the international community, women's health advocates and human rights activists. We briefly present a recent effort, developed by WHO with the Harvard Program on International Health and Human Rights, that applies a human rights framework to reinforce current efforts to reduce maternal and neonatal mortality.

  17. 75 FR 7485 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-19

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Initial Review Group; Health, Behavior, and Context... Health, Eunice Kennedy Shriver, National Institute For Child Health & Development, 6100 Executive...

  18. Climate change effects on human health in a gender perspective: some trends in Arctic research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natalia, Kukarenko

    2011-01-01

    Climate change and environmental pollution have become pressing concerns for the peoples in the Arctic region. Some researchers link climate change, transformations of living conditions and human health. A number of studies have also provided data on differentiating effects of climate change on women's and men's well-being and health. To show how the issues of climate and environment change, human health and gender are addressed in current research in the Arctic. The main purpose of this article is not to give a full review but to draw attention to the gaps in knowledge and challenges in the Arctic research trends on climate change, human health and gender. A broad literature search was undertaken using a variety of sources from natural, medical, social science and humanities. The focus was on the keywords. Despite the evidence provided by many researchers on differentiating effects of climate change on well-being and health of women and men, gender perspective remains of marginal interest in climate change, environmental and health studies. At the same time, social sciences and humanities, and gender studies in particular, show little interest towards climate change impacts on human health in the Arctic. As a result, we still observe the division of labour between disciplines, the disciplinary-bound pictures of human development in the Arctic and terminology confusion. Efforts to bring in a gender perspective in the Arctic research will be successful only when different disciplines would work together. Multidisciplinary research is a way to challenge academic/disciplinary homogeneity and their boundaries, to take advantage of the diversity of approaches and methods in production of new integrated knowledge. Cooperation and dialogue across disciplines will help to develop adequate indicators for monitoring human health and elaborating efficient policies and strategies to the benefit of both women and men in the Arctic. Global Health Action 2011. © 2011 Kukarenko

  19. Costs of Adapting to Climate Change for Human Health in Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Pandey, Kiran

    2010-01-01

    This paper is one component of a global study on the Economics of Adaptation to Climate Change (EACC) in developing countries; the focus in this paper is human health. The main human health impacts of climate change are increased incidence of vector-borne disease (malaria), water-borne disease (diarrhea), cardio respiratory diseases, heat- and cold-related deaths, injuries and deaths from ...

  20. Assessing potential human health hazards and benefits from subtherapeutic antibiotics in the United States: tetracyclines as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Louis Anthony Tony; Popken, Douglas A

    2010-03-01

    Many scientists, activists, regulators, and politicians have expressed urgent concern that using antibiotics in food animals selects for resistant strains of bacteria that harm human health and bring nearer a "postantibiotic era" of multidrug resistant "super-bugs." Proposed political solutions, such as the Preservation of Antibiotics for Medical Treatment Act (PAMTA), would ban entire classes of subtherapeutic antibiotics (STAs) now used for disease prevention and growth promotion in food animals. The proposed bans are not driven by formal quantitative risk assessment (QRA), but by a perceived need for immediate action to prevent potential catastrophe. Similar fears led to STA phase-outs in Europe a decade ago. However, QRA and empirical data indicate that continued use of STAs in the United States has not harmed human health, and bans in Europe have not helped human health. The fears motivating PAMTA contrast with QRA estimates of vanishingly small risks. As a case study, examining specific tetracycline uses and resistance patterns suggests that there is no significant human health hazard from continued use of tetracycline in food animals. Simple hypothetical calculations suggest an unobservably small risk (between 0 and 1.75E-11 excess lifetime risk of a tetracycline-resistant infection), based on the long history of tetracycline use in the United States without resistance-related treatment failures. QRAs for other STA uses in food animals also find that human health risks are vanishingly small. Whether such QRA calculations will guide risk management policy for animal antibiotics in the United States remains to be seen.

  1. Unpasteurized Shared Human Milk Use in Pediatric Inpatients: Health and Ethical Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbas, Kimberly H; Sussman-Karten, Karen; Kamin, Daniel; Huh, Susanna Y

    2017-06-01

    Growing evidence supporting the health benefits of human milk, particularly in the preterm population, has led to rising demand for donor human milk in NICUs and pediatric hospitals. There are no previous reports describing the use of unpasteurized shared human milk (USHM) in the hospital setting, but the use of USHM solicited from community donors through social networks appears to be common. Many pediatric hospitals permit inpatients to receive breast milk that has been screened and pasteurized by a human milk banking organization and will provide pasteurized donor human milk (PDHM) only to infants who are preterm or have specific medical conditions. These policies are designed to minimize potential adverse effects from improperly handled or screened donor milk and to target patients who would experience the greatest benefit in health outcomes with donor milk use. We explore the ethical and health implications of 2 cases of medically complex infants who did not meet criteria in our tertiary care hospital for the use of PDHM from a regulated human milk bank and were incidentally found to be using USHM. These cases raise questions about how best to balance the ethical principles of beneficence, nonmaleficence, justice, and patient autonomy in the provision of PDHM, a limited resource. Health care staff should ask about USHM use to provide adequate counseling about the risks and benefits of various feeding options in the context of an infant's medical condition. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  2. 78 FR 19498 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Initial Review Group; Biobehavioral and Behavioral Sciences... Shriver National Institute of Child Health And Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room 5B01...

  3. 77 FR 61420 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-09

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Initial Review Group; Population Sciences Subcommittee. Date... National Institute of Child Health And Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Boulevard, Room 5B01...

  4. 77 FR 27471 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-10

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Initial Review Group; Pediatrics Subcommittee Date: June 14..., Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd...

  5. 77 FR 27468 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-10

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel Congenital Defects Topics. Date: May..., Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd...

  6. 76 FR 43334 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-20

    ... Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Special Emphasis Panel, FES Controller for Upper Limb... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d..., Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd...

  7. Exploring connections between trees and human health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geoffrey Donovan; Marie. Oliver

    2014-01-01

    Humans have intuitively understood the value of trees to their physical and mental health since the beginning of recorded time. A scientist with the Pacific Northwest Research Station wondered if such a link could be scientifically validated. His research team took advantage of an infestation of emerald ash borer, an invasive pest that kills ash trees, to conduct a...

  8. Advancing Pre-Health Humanities as Intensive Research Practice: Principles and Recommendations from a Cross-Divisional Baccalaureate Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Sarah Ann; Weed, Kym; Edwell, Jennifer; Jack, Jordynn; Thrailkill, Jane F

    2017-12-01

    This essay argues that pre-health humanities programs should focus on intensive research practice for baccalaureate students and provides three guiding principles for implementing it. Although the interdisciplinary nature of health humanities permits baccalaureate students to use research methods from the natural sciences, social sciences, and humanities, pre-health humanities coursework tends to force students to adopt only one of many disciplinary identities. Alternatively, an intensive research approach invites students to critically select and combine methods from multiple (and seemingly opposing) disciplines to ask and answer questions about health problems more innovatively. Using the authors' experiences with implementing health humanities baccalaureate research initiatives at The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, the authors contend that pre-health humanities programs should teach and study multiple disciplinary research methods and their values; examine how health humanities research might transfer across disciplines; and focus on mentoring opportunities for funding, presenting, and publishing research. These recommendations have the potential to create unprecedented research experiences for baccalaureate students as they prepare to enter careers within and beyond the allied health professions.

  9. Climate Change in the US: Potential Consequences for Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, Nancy G.

    2001-01-01

    The U.S. National Assessment identified five major areas of consequences of climate change in the United States: temperature-related illnesses and deaths, health effects related to extreme weather events, air pollution-related health effects, water- and food-borne diseases, and insect-, tick-, and rodent-borne diseases. The U.S. National Assessment final conclusions about these potential health effects will be described. In addition, a summary of some of the new tools for studying human health aspects of climate change as well as environment-health linkages through remotely sensed data and observations will be provided.

  10. Qualitative ergonomics/human factors research in health care: Current state and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, Rupa Sheth; McGuire, Kerry Margaret; Rivera, A Joy

    2017-07-01

    The objective of this systematic review was to understand the current state of Ergonomics/Human Factors (E/HF) qualitative research in health care and to draw implications for future efforts. This systematic review identified 98 qualitative research papers published between January 2005 and August 2015 in the seven journals endorsed by the International Ergonomics Association with an impact factor over 1.0. The majority of the studies were conducted in hospitals and outpatient clinics, were focused on the work of formal health care professionals, and were classified as cognitive or organizational ergonomics. Interviews, focus groups, and observations were the most prevalent forms of data collection. Triangulation and data archiving were the dominant approaches to ensuring rigor. Few studies employed a formal approach to qualitative inquiry. Significant opportunities remain to enhance the use of qualitative research to advance systems thinking within health care. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Canadian governance of health research involving human subjects: is anybody minding the store?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, M

    2001-01-01

    From an ethical perspective, good governance involves the translation of collective moral intentions into effective and accountable institutional actions. With respect to the use of human subjects in Canadian health research, I contend that there have been many good intentions but very little in the way of appropriate governance arrangements. Hence, the question, "who minds the store?" is especially acute with respect to the protection of vulnerable individuals and groups that are typically recruited as subjects for health research in Canada. Beyond diagnosing failures in governance and their causes, I offer suggestions for significant reforms, including evidence-based ethics assessment, independent oversight, and greater participation of research subjects in governance. I will close with some more general reflections on ethics, law, and governance.

  12. 77 FR 5031 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Committee: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Initial Review Group; Developmental... Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room 5B01-G, Bethesda, MD 20892...

  13. 75 FR 49500 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-13

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Initial Review Group; Pediatrics Subcommittee. Date: October... Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room 5B01, Bethesda, MD 20892...

  14. 76 FR 61719 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-05

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Initial Review Group, Developmental Biology Subcommittee... Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room 5B01-G, Bethesda, MD 20892, 301-435...

  15. 76 FR 43334 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-20

    ... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel, Children in Rural Poverty. Date... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room 5B01, Bethesda, MD 20892...

  16. Significant changes in sexual behavior after a diagnosis of human papillomavirus-positive and human papillomavirus-negative oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taberna, Miren; Inglehart, Ronald C; Pickard, Robert K L; Fakhry, Carole; Agrawal, Amit; Katz, Mira L; Gillison, Maura L

    2017-04-01

    Sexual behavior and oral human papillomavirus (HPV) infection are risk factors for oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The effects of OSCC diagnosis and treatment on subsequent relationship stress and sexual behavior are unknown. Incident cases of HPV-positive or HPV-negative OSCC in patients who had a partnered relationship and partners of patients with oropharyngeal cancer were eligible for a study in which surveys were administered at diagnosis and at the 6-month follow-up time point to assess relationship distress, HPV transmission and concerns about health consequences, and sexual behavior. The frequency distributions of responses, stratified by tumor HPV status, were compared at baseline and follow-up. In total, 262 patients with OSCC and 81 partners were enrolled. Among the patients, 142 (54.2%) had HPV-positive OSCC, and 120 (45.8%) had HPV-negative OSCC. Relationship distress was infrequently reported, and 69% of patients felt that their relationship had strengthened since the cancer diagnosis. Both HPV-positive patients (25%) and their partners (14%) reported feelings of guilt or responsibility for the diagnosis of an HPV-caused cancer. Concern over sexual, but not nonsexual, HPV transmission to partners was reported by 50%. Significant declines in the frequency of vaginal and oral sexual behaviors were reported at follow-up, regardless of tumor HPV status. From baseline to 6 months, significant increases in abstinence from vaginal sex (from 10% to 34%; P oral sex (from 25% to 80%; P oral sex, regardless of tumor HPV status. Sexual behavior is an important quality-of-life outcome to assess within clinical trials. [See related editorial on pages 000-000, this issue.] Cancer 2017. © 2017 American Cancer Society. Cancer 2017;123:1156-1165. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  17. The human microbiota: the role of microbial communities in health and disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Elena Botero Palacio

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available During the last decade, there has been increasing awareness of the massive number of microorganisms, collectively known as the human microbiota, that are associated with humans. This microbiota outnumbers the host cells by approximately a factor of ten and contains a large repertoire of microbial genome-encoded metabolic processes. The diverse human microbiota and its associated metabolic potential can provide the host with novel functions that can influence host health and disease status in ways that still need to be analyzed. The microbiota varies with age, with features that depend on the body site, host lifestyle and health status. The challenge is therefore to identify and characterize these microbial communities and use this information to learn how they function and how they can influence the host in terms of health and well-being. Here we provide an overview of some of the recent studies involving the human microbiota and about how these communities might affect host health and disease. A special emphasis is given to studies related to tuberculosis, a disease that claims over one million lives each year worldwide and still represents a challenge for control in many countries, including Colombia.

  18. Potential human health risk assessment of heavy metals intake via ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Potential human health risk assessment of heavy metals intake via consumption of some leafy vegetables obtained from four market in Lagos Metropolis, Nigeria. ... This result reflected the risk associated with exposure for the period of life expectancy considered, and the inhabitants are highly exposed to health risks ...

  19. Human rights principles in developing and updating policies and laws on mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, M

    2016-01-01

    The World Health Organization's Mental Health Action Plan 2013-2020 stipulates human rights as a cross-cutting principle (WHO, 2013) and foresees global targets to update policies as well as mental health laws in line with international and regional human rights instruments. The international human rights agreements repeatedly refer to health, including mental health. The most pertinent provisions related to mental health are enshrined in the 2006 Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD), which sets out human rights in an accessible and inclusive fashion to ensure the equal participation of persons with disabilities. The inconclusive description of disability in the treaty overtly refers to 'mental impairment' as part of an explicitly evolving understanding of disability. This text sketches some of the underlying concepts as they apply to the realm of mental health: non-discrimination of persons with disabilities and measures that should be taken to ensure accessibility in a holistic understanding; removal of social and attitudinal barriers as much as communication and intellectual barriers but also institutional hurdles. The CRPD's paradigm shift away from framing disability mainly through deficits towards a social understanding of disability as the result of interaction and focusing on capacity is the core on which the provision of mental health services at community level to enable participation in society shall be ensured. Questions of capacity, also to make decisions and the possible need for support in so doing, are sketched out.

  20. Human Health Risks Assessment Associated with Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) in Soil from Different Contaminated Areas of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Maldonado, Iván N; Ochoa Martínez, Ángeles C; Ruíz-Vera, Tania; Orta-García, Sandra T; Varela-Silva, José A

    2017-09-01

    Recent studies have documented environmental contamination by PCBs in soil from different areas in Mexico (industrial, mining, and urban sites). However, the real significance of that soil contamination has not been established. Therefore, the aim of this study was to perform a human health risk assessment (Monte Carlos simulation) to evaluate the probable toxic effects of soils contaminated with PCBs on children in four sites in Mexico. A high non-carcinogenic risk (total nHQ = 1.1E+01; if nHQ ≥1, hazardous health effects cannot be ruled out) was found in Alpuyeca, Morelos, Mexico. Moreover, the total CR (cancer risk) found in Alpuyeca, Morelos is of concern (total CR = 5.1E-03), being that a cut-point of 1.0E-06 has been suggested as a safe level for cancer risk. Taking into consideration the data shown in this research, we conclude that a strategy to protect human health is necessary for the assessed sites.

  1. Economic planning and equilibrium growth of human resources and capital in health-care sector: Case study of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahboobi-Ardakan, Payman; Kazemian, Mahmood; Mehraban, Sattar

    2017-01-01

    During different planning periods, human resources factor has been considerably increased in the health-care sector. The main goal is to determine economic planning conditions and equilibrium growth for services level and specialized workforce resources in health-care sector and also to determine the gap between levels of health-care services and specialized workforce resources in the equilibrium growth conditions and their available levels during the periods of the first to fourth development plansin Iran. In the study after data collection, econometric methods and EViews version 8.0 were used for data processing. The used model was based on neoclassical economic growth model. The results indicated that during the former planning periods, although specialized workforce has been increased significantly in health-care sector, lack of attention to equilibrium growth conditions caused imbalance conditions for product level and specialized workforce in health-care sector. In the past development plans for health services, equilibrium conditions based on the full employment in the capital stock, and specialized labor are not considered. The government could act by choosing policies determined by the growth model to achieve equilibrium level in the field of human resources and services during the next planning periods.

  2. 78 FR 18998 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-28

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel; ZHD1 DSR-H MR 1. Date: April 23... Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room...

  3. 77 FR 37421 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-21

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel; PMTCT. Date: July 17-18, 2012. Time... Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room 5b01, Bethesda, MD 20892...

  4. 77 FR 64817 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-23

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel; ZHD1 DSR-Y 41 1. Date: November 15... Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health And Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room...

  5. 77 FR 64815 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-23

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel; ZHD1 DSR-Z. Date: November 13, 2012... Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room 5B01...

  6. EXPRESSION AND SIGNIFICANCE OF ERK PROTEIN IN HUMAN BREAST CARCINOMA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张秀梅; 李柏林; 宋敏; 宋继谒

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the expression of ERK and p-ERK protein in human breast cancer and their corresponding tissue, to assess the significance of ERK signal pathway in tumorigenesis and progression of breast carcinoma. Methods: 40 breast cancer cases were used in S-P immunohistochemistry technique and Western Blot study. Results: The expression of ERK1, ERK2, and p- ERK protein levels increased remarkably in breast cancer tissues in comparison to normal tissues (P<0.01). The expression was upregulated by 1.32-, 1.53-and 4.27-fold, respectively. The overexpressions of ERK1, ERK2, and p- ERK proteins were obviously correlated with clinical stage of breast cancer. Protein levels of ERK and p-ERK were higher in stage III patients than in stage I and stage II patients (P<0.05). These proteins were strongly related with axillary lymph node metastasis of breast cancer, but not correlated with histopathological type and status of ER and PR of breast cancer. Expression of ERK1, and ERK2, protein showed a positive linear correlation. Conclusion: ERK signal transduction pathway is a key factor during human breast tumorigenesis and breast cancer progression.

  7. Health and human services in an age of maturity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldridge, M G

    1986-12-01

    Catholic health care organizations are experiencing a tension between evangelical mission and expanding competition in medical markets. For the voluntary, not-for-profit health and human services system to survive and grow, hospital communities must find new revenue sources that do not create dependence on state and federal monies. The United States entered the Age of Maturity in 1985 as the "baby boomers" born between 1945 and 1957 became 40 years old, requiring health care providers to begin to plan for their care in old age. This large aging population, combined with a longer life span for Americans, will put increased burdens on health care organizations, particularly for chronic care, up to the year 2020 or beyond. Changes in family structure and social networks will be necessary as more people care for older relatives. The ratio of nonworkers to workers will increase, further burdening national and state tax bases, Social Security, and other worker-contributor programs. Investment banks are one option to finance the older population's increased needs for health and human services. Investment banks are funded by donations from the private sector (local and national businesses), the public sector (state, national, and local agencies), and new for-profit ventures for older persons. The contributions themselves remain in a central fund, with only the interest generated being used to fund local organizations committed to financial self-sufficiency and to helping the elderly. Older persons will carry increased economic and political clout in the Age of Maturity and will constitute a large percentage of hospitals' business. Therefore hospitals will have to develop a strong market position among the elderly. They must consider integrating a new service mix of both health and human services. Candidates for new hospital services for the elderly include housing programs, long-term care and continuum of care programs, employment programs, retirement planning, estate

  8. Implications of leading crop production practices on environmental quality and human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udeigwe, Theophilus K; Teboh, Jasper M; Eze, Peter N; Stietiya, M Hashem; Kumar, Vipan; Hendrix, James; Mascagni, Henry J; Ying, Teng; Kandakji, Tarek

    2015-03-15

    Globally, much weight is currently being placed on agriculture to provide food for the growing population as well as feedstock for the bioenergy industry. Unfortunately, the intensification of agricultural operations to satisfy these growing needs has been associated with a number of environmental and human health risks. A review of publications on the subject was conducted and emphasis was placed on articles focusing on agriculture, environment, and public health as well as their interactions. Supporting information was also gathered from publications of various agricultural and environmental agencies. Agricultural practices with potential negative implications on the environment and human health were identified broadly as: (a) utilization of biosolids and animal manures, (b) use of agricultural chemicals, (c) management of post-harvest residue, (d) irrigation, and (e) tillage operations. Soil, water, and air contamination by nutrients, heavy metals, pathogens, and pesticides, as well as air contamination by particulate matters, noxious gases, and pathogens were among the leading environmental impacts. Some of the human-health impacts identified included neurological and reproductive defects, cardiovascular risks, cancers and other diseases (of kidney, liver, lung, and skin), skin allergies, gastroenteritis, and methemoglobinemia. Continual awareness on the impacts of the reviewed agricultural practices on environmental quality and human health and the implementation of experimentally-backed best management practices in agricultural systems remain indispensable. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Chemical and Microbial Quality of Groundwater in Siloam Village, Implications to Human Health and Sources of Contamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Ogony Odiyo

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Due to inaccessibility of potable water, rural communities drill boreholes within their homesteads despite vulnerability to groundwater contamination and associated health risks. This study assessed the quality of groundwater, identified potential sources of contamination and potential human health risks in Siloam Village, South Africa. Statistical difference between similar water quality parameters at different sites was determined at a significance level (α of 0.05. Water quality parameters with serious potential health effects on human beings were correlated with selected water quality parameters to understand the nature of correlation and possible sources of contamination. Fluorides and nitrates had excessively high concentrations associated with tooth damage and pronounced skeletal fluorosis, and methaemoglobinaemia in infants and mucous membrane irritation in adults, respectively. There were statistically significant differences between means of most water quality parameters. Contrasting correlation of fluoride with calcium and pH indicated the need to further identify local sources and fluoride control mechanisms. Correlation of nitrate with chloride mostly indicated that faecal contamination is the potential source of high nitrates in groundwater. This requires further verification. Presence of total coliforms and E. coli in most boreholes indicated potential presence of faecal contamination. The need to educate borehole owners’ on possible strategies to minimise groundwater pollution was identified.

  10. The impact of weather on human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulman, F G

    1984-01-01

    The impact of weather on human health is a well-known fact, yet, alas, neglected in the past. Bioclimatology, a vast field of medical knowledge, has only been developed in the past few years. It shows that the air we breathe has a profound influence on our well-being. Electrical charges of the air, such as ions, spherics and electrofields can affect our endocrine, vegetative and autonomous nerve system. It may even be responsible for post-operative thromboembolism. The present article describes weather reactions, electric radiations, climate rhythm, medical aspects of weather changes, and their effect on health and disease. Special devotion is also given to the manifestations of evil winds.

  11. Indigenous Health and Human Rights: A Reflection on Law and Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazel, Odette

    2018-01-01

    In Australia, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples bear a greater burden of disease and have lower life expectancy than their non-Indigenous counterparts. These combined indicators are evidence of an entrenched health crisis in the Indigenous population that is linked to systemic disadvantage over many decades. In an effort to improve life expectancy and lessen the burden of disease, a number of strategies and national frameworks now embed a human rights-based approach to achieving health equality. This paper explores the application of human rights to Indigenous health and examines the inherent tensions that exist in engaging a system of law based on universal assumptions of the Enlightenment to advance Indigenous rights. What becomes apparent through this exploration is that the strategic approach of Indigenous peoples’ use of human rights, despite its genesis in a system of law that justified colonisation, has opened up opportunities to reframe fixed ideas of law and culture. PMID:29670026

  12. Indigenous Health and Human Rights: A Reflection on Law and Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazel, Odette

    2018-04-18

    In Australia, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples bear a greater burden of disease and have lower life expectancy than their non-Indigenous counterparts. These combined indicators are evidence of an entrenched health crisis in the Indigenous population that is linked to systemic disadvantage over many decades. In an effort to improve life expectancy and lessen the burden of disease, a number of strategies and national frameworks now embed a human rights-based approach to achieving health equality. This paper explores the application of human rights to Indigenous health and examines the inherent tensions that exist in engaging a system of law based on universal assumptions of the Enlightenment to advance Indigenous rights. What becomes apparent through this exploration is that the strategic approach of Indigenous peoples’ use of human rights, despite its genesis in a system of law that justified colonisation, has opened up opportunities to reframe fixed ideas of law and culture.

  13. 77 FR 33473 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-06

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel; ZHD1 DSR-W 90. Date: June 26, 2012... Shriver National Institute of Child Health And Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Boulevard, Room 5B01...

  14. 77 FR 61419 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-09

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel. Date: October 30, 2012. Time: 3:00 p... Institute Of Child Health And Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Blvd., Room 5B01, Bethesda, MD 20892...

  15. 77 FR 37422 - Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-21

    ... National Institute of Child Health & Human Development; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d... Institute of Child Health and Human Development Special Emphasis Panel; ZHD1 DSR-Z 41 2. Date: July 19, 2012... Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, 6100 Executive Boulevard, Room 5B01...

  16. Perceptions of climate change and its impact on human health: an integrated quantitative and qualitative approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toan, Do Thi Thanh; Kien, Vu Duy; Bao Giang, Kim; Van Minh, Hoang; Wright, Pamela

    2014-01-01

    The World Health Organization emphasized that climate change is a significant and emerging threat to public health, especially in lower income populations and tropical/subtropical countries. However, people in Asia and Africa were the least likely to perceive global warming as a threat. In Vietnam, little research has been conducted concerning the perceptions of effects of climate change on human health. The aim of this study was to explore the perceptions on climate change and its impact on human health among people in Hanoi. We applied a combined quantitative and qualitative approach to study perceptions on climate change among people in Hanoi. A total of 1,444 people were recruited, including 754 people living in non-slum areas and 690 people living in slum areas of Hanoi. A structured questionnaire was used to collect quantitative data on their perceptions. In a parallel qualitative study, two focus group discussions and 12 in-depth interviews (IDs) were carried out involving 24 people from both slum and non-slum areas. The majority of the respondents in the study had heard about climate change and its impact on human health (79.3 and 70.1% in non-slum and slum areas, respectively). About one third of the respondents reported that members of their family had experienced illness in the recent summer and winter compared to the same seasons 5 years ago. The most common symptoms reported during hot weather were headaches, fatigue, and dizziness; hypertension and other cardiovascular diseases were also reported. During cold weather, people reported experiencing cough, fever, and influenza, as well as pneumonia and emerging infectious diseases such as dengue and Japanese encephalitis. The observed high level of awareness on the links between climate change and human health may help to increase the success of the National Prevention Program on Climate Change. Moreover, understanding the concerns of the people may help policy makers to develop and implement effective

  17. Perceptions of climate change and its impact on human health: an integrated quantitative and qualitative approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Do Thi Thanh Toan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The World Health Organization emphasized that climate change is a significant and emerging threat to public health, especially in lower income populations and tropical/subtropical countries. However, people in Asia and Africa were the least likely to perceive global warming as a threat. In Vietnam, little research has been conducted concerning the perceptions of effects of climate change on human health. Objective: The aim of this study was to explore the perceptions on climate change and its impact on human health among people in Hanoi. Design: We applied a combined quantitative and qualitative approach to study perceptions on climate change among people in Hanoi. A total of 1,444 people were recruited, including 754 people living in non-slum areas and 690 people living in slum areas of Hanoi. A structured questionnaire was used to collect quantitative data on their perceptions. In a parallel qualitative study, two focus group discussions and 12 in-depth interviews (IDs were carried out involving 24 people from both slum and non-slum areas. Results: The majority of the respondents in the study had heard about climate change and its impact on human health (79.3 and 70.1% in non-slum and slum areas, respectively. About one third of the respondents reported that members of their family had experienced illness in the recent summer and winter compared to the same seasons 5 years ago. The most common symptoms reported during hot weather were headaches, fatigue, and dizziness; hypertension and other cardiovascular diseases were also reported. During cold weather, people reported experiencing cough, fever, and influenza, as well as pneumonia and emerging infectious diseases such as dengue and Japanese encephalitis. Conclusions: The observed high level of awareness on the links between climate change and human health may help to increase the success of the National Prevention Program on Climate Change. Moreover, understanding the concerns of

  18. Measuring the health impact of human rights violations related to Australian asylum policies and practices: a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Vanessa; Allotey, Pascale; Mulholland, Kim; Markovic, Milica

    2009-02-03

    Human rights violations have adverse consequences for health. However, to date, there remains little empirical evidence documenting this association, beyond the obvious physical and psychological effects of torture. The primary aim of this study was to investigate whether Australian asylum policies and practices, which arg