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Sample records for sign positive negative

  1. Study on Positive and Negative Signs in Chronic Schizophrenic Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahel Hemmati

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Schizophrenia has different clinical manifestations, although, it is one disorder patients divided to two groups type 1 and type 2. type 1 who have positive and type 2 who have negative signs. Materials & Methods: They have chronic schizophrenia and treated at least with one antipsychotic drug. With checklist the signs were controlled. Results: In these chronic patients, hallucinations (positive sign are seen with almost all of negative signs. In the other hand, (1 Flat affect (2 A logia & volition (3 Social inattentiveness (4 Inability to feel intimacy are seen more than another signs. Conclusion: For these above  patients new antipsychotic must be examined.

  2. Mechanical strain can switch the sign of quantum capacitance from positive to negative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanlumyuang, Yuranan; Li, Xiaobao; Sharma, Pradeep

    2014-11-14

    Quantum capacitance is a fundamental quantity that can directly reveal many-body interactions among electrons and is expected to play a critical role in nanoelectronics. One of the many tantalizing recent physical revelations about quantum capacitance is that it can possess a negative value, hence allowing for the possibility of enhancing the overall capacitance in some particular material systems beyond the scaling predicted by classical electrostatics. Using detailed quantum mechanical simulations, we found an intriguing result that mechanical strains can tune both signs and values of quantum capacitance. We used a small coaxially gated carbon nanotube as a paradigmatical capacitor system and showed that, for the range of mechanical strain considered, quantum capacitance can be adjusted from very large positive to very large negative values (in the order of plus/minus hundreds of attofarads), compared to the corresponding classical geometric value (0.31035 aF). This finding opens novel avenues in designing quantum capacitance for applications in nanosensors, energy storage, and nanoelectronics.

  3. Body indices and basic vital signs in Helicobacter pylori positive and negative persons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopacova, Marcela; Bures, Jan; Koupil, Ilona; Rejchrt, Stanislav; Vorisek, Viktor; Seifert, Bohumil; Pozler, Oldrich; Zivny, Pavel; Douda, Tomas; Palicka, Vladimir; Holcik, Jan

    2007-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infection may contribute to reduced stature, risk of hypertension or obesity. The aim was to evaluate body indices in Hp positive and negative persons. A total of 2436 subjects (4-100 years old) were tested for Hp status by 13 C-urea breath test. Data on height and weight were collected for 84%, and blood pressure for 80% of the study subjects. The prevalence of Hp infection was 41.6%. The odds ratio for a 10-year increase in age was 1.21 (95% CI 1.17-1.25, p-value <0.001). Statistically significant negative association of Hp positivity with body height was most pronounced in the younger age groups, while a positive association of Hp positivity with body mass index was only seen in those aged 15+ years. There was a negative effect of Hp positivity on systolic and diastolic blood pressure in subjects below 25 and a relatively strong positive effect on blood pressure in subjects over 65 years. Residual confounding by social characteristics as a possible explanation for the associations of Hp positivity with height and blood pressure cannot be excluded. Unmeasured factors related to social and family environment may cause the apparent association between Hp positivity and children's growth and blood pressure

  4. Negation switching invariant signed graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepa Sinha

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A signed graph (or, $sigraph$ in short is a graph G in which each edge x carries a value $\\sigma(x \\in \\{-, +\\}$ called its sign. Given a sigraph S, the negation $\\eta(S$ of the sigraph S is a sigraph obtained from S by reversing the sign of every edge of S. Two sigraphs $S_{1}$ and $S_{2}$ on the same underlying graph are switching equivalent if it is possible to assign signs `+' (`plus' or `-' (`minus' to vertices of $S_{1}$ such that by reversing the sign of each of its edges that has received opposite signs at its ends, one obtains $S_{2}$. In this paper, we characterize sigraphs which are negation switching invariant and also see for what sigraphs, S and $\\eta (S$ are signed isomorphic.

  5. Diagnosing Dementia—Positive Signs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Diagnosing Dementia—Positive Signs Past Issues / Fall 2007 Table of ... easy, affordable blood test that could accurately diagnose Alzheimer's disease (AD)—even before symptoms began to show? Researchers ...

  6. A preliminary look at negative constructions in South African Sign ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    How negation is expressed by means of manual and/or non-manual markers has been described in a wide range of sign languages. This work has suggested a split between sign languages requiring a manual negative element in negative clauses (manual dominant sign languages) and those where a non-manual marker ...

  7. The Relationship Between Depression And Positive Signs In Chronic Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahaoddini S S

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The results of studies about relationship between depression and positive signs in schizophrenia are controversial and clarifying the nature of this association may be difficult. The aim of present study is to investigate relationship between depressive symptoms and positive signs, in acute phase of patients with chronic schizophrenia, who have been admitted in Roozbeh Hospital. Materials and Methods: Assessments were performed using the Beck depression Inventory for depression (subjectively and positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS for psychotic symptoms. Results: The results demonstrated a significant correlation between depressive symptoms and positive signs in these patients. Also, a significant correlation existed between depression and these items: delusions, hallucinatory behavior, excitement, hostility. Conclusion: depressive symptoms and positive signs in schizophrenia may have a common underlying pathophysiological origin.

  8. Constraints on Negative Prefixation in Polish Sign Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaszewski, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to describe a negative prefix, NEG-, in Polish Sign Language (PJM) which appears to be indigenous to the language. This is of interest given the relative rarity of prefixes in sign languages. Prefixed PJM signs were analyzed on the basis of both a corpus of texts signed by 15 deaf PJM users who are either native or near-native signers, and material including a specified range of prefixed signs as demonstrated by native signers in dictionary form (i.e. signs produced in isolation, not as part of phrases or sentences). In order to define the morphological rules behind prefixation on both the phonological and morphological levels, native PJM users were consulted for their expertise. The research results can enrich models for describing processes of grammaticalization in the context of the visual-gestural modality that forms the basis for sign language structure.

  9. Skew-signings of positive weighted digraphs

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    Kawtar Attas

    2018-07-01

    Full Text Available An arc-weighted digraph is a pair (D , ω where D is a digraph and ω is an arc-weight function that assigns to each arc u v of D a nonzero real number ω (u v . Given an arc-weighted digraph (D , ω with vertices v 1 , … , v n , the weighted adjacency matrix of (D , ω is defined as the n × n matrix A (D , ω = [ a i j ] where a i j = ω ( v i v j if v i v j is an arc of D , and 0 otherwise. Let (D , ω be a positive arc-weighted digraph and assume that D is loopless and symmetric. A skew-signing of (D , ω is an arc-weight function ω ′ such that ω ′ (u v = ± ω (u v and ω ′ (u v ω ′ (v u < 0 for every arc u v of D . In this paper, we give necessary and sufficient conditions under which the characteristic polynomial of A (D , ω ′ is the same for all skew-signings ω ′ of (D , ω . Our main theorem generalizes a result of Cavers et al. (2012 about skew-adjacency matrices of graphs. Keywords: Arc-weighted digraphs, Skew-signing of a digraph, Weighted adjacency matrix, Mathematics Subject Classification: 05C22, 05C31, 05C50

  10. A preliminary look at negative constructions in South African Sign ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Huddlestone, Kate, Dr

    requiring a manual negative element in negative clauses (manual dominant sign languages) and ... initial transcription of the data and assisting in the analysis of the SASL ... In this section, I first provide a description of the data ..... course, and as such the observations which inform this paper are a by-product of the original.

  11. Positive Effects of Negative Publicity: When Negative Reviews Increase Sales

    OpenAIRE

    Jonah Berger; Alan T. Sorensen; Scott J. Rasmussen

    2010-01-01

    Can negative information about a product increase sales, and if so, when? Although popular wisdom suggests that "any publicity is good publicity," prior research has demonstrated only downsides to negative press. Negative reviews or word of mouth, for example, have been found to hurt product evaluation and sales. Using a combination of econometric analysis and experimental methods, we unify these perspectives to delineate contexts under which negative publicity about a product will have posit...

  12. Separating positive and negative magnetoresistance in organic semiconductor devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloom, F.L.; Wagemans, W.; Kemerink, M.; Koopmans, B.

    2007-01-01

    We study the transition between positive and negative organic magnetoresistance (OMAR) in tris-(8 hydroxyquinoline) aluminium (Alq3), in order to identify the elementary mechanisms governing this phenomenon. We show how the sign of OMAR changes as function of the applied voltage and temperature. The

  13. What makes dreams positive or negative: relations to fundamental dimensions of positive and negative mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallmeyer, R J; Chang, E C

    1998-02-01

    The present study examined the general emotional content of dreams reported by individuals who typically experience "positive" versus "negative" dreams. Self-reports of the 153 participants indicated that positive versus negative dreamers (ns = 42 and 24, respectively) generally experienced more positive emotions, e.g., joviality, self-assurance, and fewer negative emotions, e.g., fear, sadness. No differences were found in the self-reports of the participants in the experience of surprise, guilt, fatigue, and shyness between the groups, hence, positive and negative dreams do not appear to reflect simply more positive and fewer negative emotions, respectively.

  14. Excessive lateral patellar translation on axial computed tomography indicates positive patellar J sign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Zhe; Song, Guan-Yang; Liu, Xin; Zhang, Hui; Wu, Guan; Qian, Yi; Feng, Hua

    2018-03-20

    The purpose of the study was to quantify the patellar J sign using traditional computed tomography (CT) scans. Fifty-three patients (fifty-three knees) who suffered from recurrent patellar instability were included and analyzed. The patellar J sign was evaluated pre-operatively during active knee flexion and extension. It was defined as positive when there was obvious lateral patellar translation, and negative when there was not. The CT scans were performed in all patients with full knee extension; and the parameters including bisect offset index (BOI), patellar-trochlear-groove (PTG) distance, and patellar lateral tilt angle (PLTA) were measured on the axial slices. All the three parameters were compared between the J sign-positive group (study group) and the J sign-negative group (control group). In addition, the optimal thresholds of the three CT scan parameters for predicting the positive patellar J sign were determined with receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves, and the diagnostic values were assessed by the area under the curve (AUC). Among the fifty-three patients (fifty-three knees), thirty-seven (70%) showed obvious lateral patellar translation, which were defined as positive J sign (study group), and the remaining sixteen (30%) who showed no lateral translation were defined as negative J sign (control group). The mean values of the three CT parameters in the study group were all significantly larger compared to the control group, including BOI (121 ± 28% vs 88 ± 12%, P = 0.038), PTG distance (5.2 ± 6.6 mm vs - 4.4 ± 5.2 mm, P J sign was 97.5% (Sensitivity = 83.3%, Specificity = 87.5%). In this study, the prevalence of positive patellar J sign was 70%. The BOI measured from the axial CT scans of the knee joint can be used as an appropriate predictor to differentiate the positive J sign from the negative J sign, highlighting that the excessive lateral patellar translation on axial CT scan indicates positive

  15. Positive rights, negative rights and health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Andrew

    2010-12-01

    In the current debate about healthcare reform in the USA, advocates for government-ensured universal coverage assume that health care is a right. Although this position is politically popular, it is sometimes challenged by a restricted view of rights popular with libertarians and individualists. The restricted view of rights only accepts 'negative' rights as legitimate rights. Negative rights, the argument goes, place no obligations on you to provide goods to other people and thus respect your right to keep the fruits of your labour. A classic enumeration of negative rights includes life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. Positive rights, by contrast, obligate you either to provide goods to others, or pay taxes that are used for redistributive purposes. Health care falls into the category of positive rights since its provision by the government requires taxation and therefore redistribution. Therefore, the libertarian or individualist might argue that health care cannot be a true right. This paper rejects the distinction between positive and negative rights. In fact, the protection of both positive and negative rights can place obligations on others. Furthermore, because of its role in helping protect equality of opportunity, health care can be tied to the rights to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. There is, therefore, good reason to believe that health care is a human right and that universal access should be guaranteed. The practical application, by governments and non-governmental organisations, of several of the arguments presented in this paper is also discussed.

  16. Overlapping community detection in networks with positive and negative links

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Y; Wang, X L; Yuan, B; Tang, B Z

    2014-01-01

    Complex networks considering both positive and negative links have gained considerable attention during the past several years. Community detection is one of the main challenges for complex network analysis. Most of the existing algorithms for community detection in a signed network aim at providing a hard-partition of the network where any node should belong to a community or not. However, they cannot detect overlapping communities where a node is allowed to belong to multiple communities. The overlapping communities widely exist in many real-world networks. In this paper, we propose a signed probabilistic mixture (SPM) model for overlapping community detection in signed networks. Compared with the existing models, the advantages of our methodology are (i) providing soft-partition solutions for signed networks; (ii) providing soft memberships of nodes. Experiments on a number of signed networks show that our SPM model: (i) can identify assortative structures or disassortative structures as the same as other state-of-the-art models; (ii) can detect overlapping communities; (iii) outperforms other state-of-the-art models at shedding light on the community detection in synthetic signed networks. (paper)

  17. The Positive Side of Negative Labelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van Y.K.; Jonge, de J.

    2015-01-01

    Ethical labels signal positive ethical quality of a product but fail to create massive demand for such products. Based on regulatory focus theory and prospect theory, it is argued that negative signalling of low ethical quality would have a stronger effect on the adoption of ethical products than

  18. GABAA receptor: Positive and negative allosteric modulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Richard W

    2018-01-31

    gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA)-mediated inhibitory neurotransmission and the gene products involved were discovered during the mid-twentieth century. Historically, myriad existing nervous system drugs act as positive and negative allosteric modulators of these proteins, making GABA a major component of modern neuropharmacology, and suggesting that many potential drugs will be found that share these targets. Although some of these drugs act on proteins involved in synthesis, degradation, and membrane transport of GABA, the GABA receptors Type A (GABA A R) and Type B (GABA B R) are the targets of the great majority of GABAergic drugs. This discovery is due in no small part to Professor Norman Bowery. Whereas the topic of GABA B R is appropriately emphasized in this special issue, Norman Bowery also made many insights into GABA A R pharmacology, the topic of this article. GABA A R are members of the ligand-gated ion channel receptor superfamily, a chloride channel family of a dozen or more heteropentameric subtypes containing 19 possible different subunits. These subtypes show different brain regional and subcellular localization, age-dependent expression, and potential for plastic changes with experience including drug exposure. Not only are GABA A R the targets of agonist depressants and antagonist convulsants, but most GABA A R drugs act at other (allosteric) binding sites on the GABA A R proteins. Some anxiolytic and sedative drugs, like benzodiazepine and related drugs, act on GABA A R subtype-dependent extracellular domain sites. General anesthetics including alcohols and neurosteroids act at GABA A R subunit-interface trans-membrane sites. Ethanol at high anesthetic doses acts on GABA A R subtype-dependent trans-membrane domain sites. Ethanol at low intoxicating doses acts at GABA A R subtype-dependent extracellular domain sites. Thus GABA A R subtypes possess pharmacologically specific receptor binding sites for a large group of different chemical classes of

  19. Positive/negative magnetostrictive GMR trilayer systems as strain gauges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dokupil, S.; Bootsmann, M.-T.; Stein, S.; Loehndorf, M.; Quandt, E.

    2005-01-01

    Recently, highly sensitive strain gauges were developed, which are based on tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) or giant magnetoresistance (GMR) effects combined with the inverse magnetostriction. GMR and TMR structures generally possess a symmetrical characteristic, which reflects the switching fields of the soft and hard layers, respectively. This characteristic can be changed by a stress field if the soft layer is replaced by a suitable magnetostrictive layer leading to a stress-induced rotation of the magnetostrictive layer with respect to the reference layer. Alternatively, both magnetic layers can be soft magnetic, one being positive and the other negative magnetostrictive. In this case, a stress applied on the stack leads to a reverse rotation of both layers due to the different sign in magnetostriction. This new approach is especially attractive since no reference layer is required which allows multilayering for GMR effect enhancement. This paper presents the stress biased characteristics of (FeCo/Cu/Ni) GMR trilayers in which the positive magnetostrictive FeCo and the negative magnetostrictive Ni replace the sensing and reference layer of a conventional GMR stack. The results can be interpreted by a simple model taking into account the magnetization direction of the individual layers and their response to mechanical strain in the range of 0.1-1%o

  20. Positive and Negative Affect More Concurrent among Blacks than Whites

    OpenAIRE

    Lankarani, Maryam Moghani; Assari, Shervin

    2017-01-01

    Background: While positive and negative affect are inversely linked, people may experience and report both positive and negative emotions simultaneously. However, it is unknown if race alters the magnitude of the association between positive and negative affect. The current study compared Black and White Americans for the association between positive and negative affect. Methods: We used data from MIDUS (Midlife in the United States), a national study of Americans with an age range of 25 to 7...

  1. Suicidal Fantasies and Positive/Negative Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouts, Gregory; Norrie, Janice

    This study attempted to provide some initial normative data to help professionals and researchers to distinguish between playful and stimulating suicidal fantasies as opposed to serious and compulsive thoughts and behaviours characterized by negative affects. It is argued that the former is a natural consequence of cognitive development, the entry…

  2. Simultaneous and spontaneous reversal of positional nystagmus; an unusual peripheral sign of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sertac Yetiser, MD

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Direction-changing positional nystagmus is generally thought to be of central origin. Reversal of initial positional nystagmus during maintaining the head position in patients with benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV is quite unusual and could be a sign of peripheral pathology. Vestibular reflex adaptation, simultaneous co-existence of canalolithiasis and cupulolithiasis in the same or both ears and changing in direction of debris movement have been proposed for the mechanism of this phenomenon. This can be a sign of simultaneous ampullopedal and ampulofugal flows during single head movement. This double-phase pattern of flow causing reversal of positional nystagmus could be related with the amount, location and dispersal of otolithic debris inside the membranous labyrinth. Four patients (3 lateral canal canalolithiasis and 1 posterior canal with reversing spontaneous nystagmus among 530 patients with BPPV have been identified in our clinic. They have been cured with standard re-positioning maneuvers. Endolymphatic reflux theory has been proposed as the underlying mechanism for unusual behavior of otolithic debris.

  3. Inflation and Growth: Positive or Negative Relationship?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berument, Hakan; Inamlik, Ali; Olgun, Hasan

    This study has been motivated by two developments. Firstly, by the vast literature on the relationship between inflation and growth which is abundantly endowed with diverse theoretical explanations and contradictory evidence and by the unique experience of the Turkish economy with inflation and growth. A preliminary examination of the Turkish data pointed to a negative relation between inflation and growth. Moreover, there is a unanimous agreement among the students of the Turkish economy that many factors have contributed to inflation in this country. In view of these facts this paper employs a VAR model which will enable us to identify the sources of the shocks and control for external factors. In addition VAR models have a high predictive power and enable the researcher to observe the impulse response functions. The study employs Generalised Impulse Response analysis. In the empirical experiments oil prices, money supply, government spending and taxes have been taken as the most likely determinants of inflation. The study shows that there is a negative relationship between inflation and output growth in Turkey and that the underlying explanatory factor is the real exchange rate. This result is robust.

  4. How patient positioning affects radiographic signs of canine lung disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steyn, P.F.; Green, R.W.

    1990-01-01

    A single radiographic projection risks missing signs of lung disease. Four case reports of dogs are given to emphasize inadequate visualization with just one or two radiographs. It is advisable to take both right and left lateral views along with a dorsoventral view in a patient, that might have lung disease

  5. Retrieval of past and future positive and negative autobiographical experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Bajos, Elvira; Migueles, Malen

    2017-09-01

    We studied retrieval-induced forgetting for past or future autobiographical experiences. In the study phase, participants were given cues to remember past autobiographical experiences or to think about experiences that may occur in the future. In both conditions, half of the experiences were positive and half negative. In the retrieval-practice phase, for past and future experiences, participants retrieved either half of the positive or negative experiences using cued recall, or capitals of the world (control groups). Retrieval practice produced recall facilitation and enhanced memory for the practised positive and negative past and future experiences. While retrieval practice on positive experiences did not impair the recall of other positive experiences, we found inhibition for negative past and future experiences when participants practised negative experiences. Furthermore, retrieval practice on positive future experiences inhibited negative future experiences. These positivity biases for autobiographical memory may have practical implications for treatment of emotional disorders.

  6. Family Caregivers' Patterns of Positive and Negative Affect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Suzanne M.; Zarit, Steven H.; Duncan, Larissa G.; Rovine, Michael J.; Femia, Elia E.

    2007-01-01

    Stressful and positive family caregiving experiences were examined as predictors of caregivers' patterns of positive and negative affect in a sample of families providing care for a relative with dementia (N = 234). Four affect pattern groups were identified: (a) Well Adjusted (i.e., high positive affect, low negative affect); (b) Ambiguous (i.e.,…

  7. Overlapping Neural Correlates of Reading Emotionally Positive and Negative Adjectives

    OpenAIRE

    Demirakca, Traute; Herbert, Cornelia; Kissler, Johanna; Ruf, Matthias; Wokrina, Tim; Ende, Gabriele

    2009-01-01

    Comparison of positive and negative naturally read adjectives to neutral adjectives yielded an overlapping higher BOLD response in the occipital and the orbitofrontal cortex (gyrus rectus). Superior medial frontal gyrus and posterior cingulate gyrus showed higher BOLD response to negative adjectives and inferior frontal gyrus to positive adjectives. The overlap of activated regions and lack of pronounced distinct regions supports the assumption that the processing of negative and positive wor...

  8. Community Work Programme has positive and negative effects on ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-08-03

    Aug 3, 2016 ... ... has positive and negative effects on social bonds in South African communities ... to contribute to positive social cohesion and to prevent violence. ... including shared values and identity, feelings of belonging, civic pa.

  9. Positive and Negative Peer Influence in Residential Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huefner, Jonathan C; Smith, Gail L; Stevens, Amy L

    2017-10-13

    The potential for negative peer influence has been well established in research, and there is a growing interest in how positive peer influence also impacts youth. No research, however, has concurrently examined positive and negative peer influence in the context of residential care. Clinical records for 886 residential care youth were used in a Hierarchical Linear Model analysis to examine the impact of negative and positive peer influence on naturally occurring patterns of serious problem behavior over time. Negative peer influence, where the majority of youth in a home manifested above the average number of serious behavior problems, occurred 13.7% of the time. Positive peer influence, where the majority of youth manifested no serious problem behaviors for the month, occurred 47.7% of the time. Overall, youth problem behavior improved over time. There were significantly lower rates of serious problem behavior in target youth during positive peer influence months. Conversely, there were significantly higher rates of serious problem behaviors in target youth during negative peer influence months. Negative peer influence had a relatively greater impact on target peers' serious behavior problems than did positive peer influence. Caregiver experience significantly reduced the impact of negative peer influence, but did not significantly augment positive peer influence. Months where negative peer influence was combined with inexperienced caregivers produced the highest rates of serious problem behavior. Our results support the view that residential programs for troubled youth need to create circumstances that promote positive and control for negative peer influence.

  10. Positive and Negative Affect More Concurrent among Blacks than Whites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lankarani, Maryam Moghani; Assari, Shervin

    2017-08-01

    While positive and negative affect are inversely linked, people may experience and report both positive and negative emotions simultaneously. However, it is unknown if race alters the magnitude of the association between positive and negative affect. The current study compared Black and White Americans for the association between positive and negative affect. We used data from MIDUS (Midlife in the United States), a national study of Americans with an age range of 25 to 75. A total number of 7108 individuals were followed for 10 years from 1995 to 2004. Positive and negative affect was measured at baseline (1995) and follow-up (2004). Demographic (age and gender), socioeconomic (education and income) as well as health (self-rated health, chronic medical conditions, and body mass index) factors measured at baseline were covariates. A series of linear regressions were used to test the moderating effect of race on the reciprocal association between positive and negative affect at baseline and over time, net of covariates. In the pooled sample, positive and negative affect showed inverse correlation at baseline and over time, net of covariates. Blacks and Whites differed in the magnitude of the association between positive and negative affect, with weaker inverse associations among Blacks compared to Whites, beyond all covariates. Weaker reciprocal association between positive and negative affect in Blacks compared to Whites has implications for cross-racial measurement of affect and mood, including depression. Depression screening programs should be aware that race alters the concordance between positive and negative affect domains and that Blacks endorse higher levels of positive affect compared to Whites in the presence of high negative affect.

  11. Formation of thin film of negative and positive ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horino, Yuji; Tsubouchi, Nobuteru [Osaka National Research Inst., AIST, Ikeda (Japan)

    1997-02-01

    Positive and negative ions deposition apparatus (PANDA) was developed by us as new synthesis method of materials. This apparatus is able to form simultaneously or independently the positive and negative ion beams to separate the mass and to control the energy from 10 eV to 3 KeV. It consists of positive beam line, negative beam line and a film formation room. Microwave discharge ion source and plasma sputtering source are used as the positive ion and the negative ion source, respectably. The beam generation test was carried out. The negative ion beams were generated from silicon wafer (target) and measured by MS. The mass spectrum of extracted negative silicon beams showed mass number 28, 29, and 30 of Si{sup -} and Si{sub 2}{sup -}. It proved that ions were separated in the isotope level. Therefore, film, it`s purity is isotope level, may be formed by such ion beams. (S.Y.)

  12. Comparison between Human Immunodeficiency Virus Positive and Negative Patients with Tuberculosis in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucélia Henn

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to determine the different characteristics of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV positive and negative patients treated for tuberculosis (TBC in a tertiary hospital in Southern Brazil. We conducted a retrospective cohort study over a 5-year period, from January 1992 through December 1996. We reviewed medical charts of patients from our institution who received TBC treatment. We reviewed 167 medical charts of patients with confirmed TBC. HIV positivity was detected in 74 patients. There were statistically significant difference between HIV positive and negative patients in sex and age. HIV-infected patients showed significantly more signs of bacteremia than HIV-negative patients. Extra-pulmonary TBC was present respectively in 13 (17.6% and 21 (22.6% HIV positive and negative patients. There was a significant difference between chest radiograph presentation in HIV positive and negative patients. There were significantly lower hematocrit, hemoglobin, leukocyte and lymphocyte levels in HIV-positive compared to HIV-negative patients. Outcome was significantly different in the two groups with a death rate of 36.5% and 10.8% in HIV-positive and in HIV-negative patients. The difference between HIV positive and negative patients may have importance in the diagnosis, management and prognosis of patients with TBC.

  13. Autobiographical memories for negative and positive events in war contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio L. Manzanero

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to examine the phenomenological qualities of self-reported negative and positive memories. The study was conducted in the Gaza Strip, Palestine, and a total of 134 autobiographical memories about negative and positive events were analyzed using a version of the Phenomenological Questionnaire for Autobiographical Memory (Manzanero & López, 2007. Participants were university students, 80 percent were women and 20 percent were men. Results showed that negative memories are more confused, more complex, and decay more over time than positive ones. In contrast, no differences were found between positive and negative memories on sensory information, spatial location, vividness, definition, accessibility, fragmentation, recall perspective, doubts about the accuracy of the memory, and how much participants recovered and talked about the event. High Dimensional Visualization (HDV graph revealed that there were individual differences between negative and positive memories but no consistent differences across participants.

  14. [How children show positive and negative relationships on their drawings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramel, Sabine

    2005-01-01

    This study analyses, whether pictures of children showing a positive relationship are significantly different from those showing a negative one with respect to several criteria. The study involved a random selection of 45 children aged 4;6 to 11;6 years. The children painted a picture with themselves and a person they liked and a picture of themselves with someone they disliked. For the most part, the children drew pictures of themselves with peers both with respect to positive as well as negative images. In an interview afterwards, the children specified the criteria in their drawings by which the quality of the particular relationship can be identified. Positive and negative relationship paintings differ in the character of activity described. The sun as an element in children's paintings is painted not more frequent on positive compared to negative pictures. The colour black is used more often in the drawings signifying negative relationships. While girls used more colour in negative relationship drawings, boys used more colour in the positive ones. There was no significant difference in the use of favourite colours and decorative elements between the two groups. Only in negative relationship drawings people were looking away from each other. Smiling individuals were more common in the positive relationship pictures and in pictures painted by the 6 to 8 year olds. A greater distance between the individuals emerged on negative relationship drawings of the girls.

  15. Evaluation of Effects of Warning Sign Position on Driving Behavior in Horizontal Sharp Curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-hua Zhao

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In present time, the guidelines on warning sign position in the China National Standard lack detailed and standard regulations of placing warning signs on sharp curves, which may cause road safety problems. Therefore, this paper briefly discussed how to optimize the position of a warning sign on a sharp curve through a driving simulator experiment. This study concluded that a warning sign placed at different positions prior to a sharp curve will have different influence ranges for drivers approaching and negotiating the curve. Meanwhile, different positions of a warning sign imposed different effect obviously on the adjustment of vehicle's lane position on sharp curves with the same radius, especially at the midpoint of a sharp curve. The evaluation results of five positions (0 m, 50 m, 100 m, 200 m, and 400 m in advance showed that only when the warning signs were placed 100 m or 200 m prior to sharp curves, can they achieve positive influence on driving behavior. On this basis, the authors look forward to providing rationalization proposals in selecting the best position of a warning sign on a sharp curve for the engineering implementation and national standard.

  16. Sleep deprivation affects reactivity to positive but not negative stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilcher, June J; Callan, Christina; Posey, J Laura

    2015-12-01

    The current study examined the effects of partial and total sleep deprivation on emotional reactivity. Twenty-eight partially sleep-deprived participants and 31 totally sleep-deprived participants rated their valence and arousal responses to positive and negative pictures across four testing sessions during the day following partial sleep deprivation or during the night under total sleep deprivation. The results suggest that valence and arousal ratings decreased under both sleep deprivation conditions. In addition, partial and total sleep deprivation had a greater negative effect on positive events than negative events. These results suggest that sleep-deprived persons are more likely to respond less to positive events than negative events. One explanation for the current findings is that negative events could elicit more attentive behavior and thus stable responding under sleep deprivation conditions. As such, sleep deprivation could impact reactivity to emotional stimuli through automated attentional and self-regulatory processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Micro-oscillations in positive and negative affect during competitive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods. The positive and negative affect schedule (PANAS), Worcester affect scale ... Successful trials were characterised by higher PA (p=0.000) and lower NA ... Further clarification of the catalyst to the performance demise requires a ...

  18. Effects of Negative and Positive Evidence on Adult Word Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strapp, Chehalis M.; Helmick, Augusta L.; Tonkovich, Hayley M.; Bleakney, Dana M.

    2011-01-01

    This study compared negative and positive evidence in adult word learning, predicting that adults would learn more forms following negative evidence. Ninety-two native English speakers (32 men and 60 women [M[subscript age] = 20.38 years, SD = 2.80]), learned nonsense nouns and verbs provided within English frames. Later, participants produced…

  19. Obesity and the relationship with positive and negative affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasco, Julie A; Williams, Lana J; Jacka, Felice N; Brennan, Sharon L; Berk, Michael

    2013-05-01

    To examine the cross-sectional association between overweight and obesity and positive and negative affect. Participants included 273 women, aged 29-84 years, who were enrolled in the Geelong Osteoporosis Study (GOS). Weight and height were measured and overweight and obesity determined from body mass index (BMI; kg/m(2)) according to WHO criteria. Medical history and lifestyle exposures were assessed by questionnaire. Positive and negative affect scores were derived using the validated 20-item Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) and categorised into tertiles. A pattern of greater negative affect scores was observed for increasing levels of BMI. Setting normal weight as the referent category, the odds for having a negative affect score in the highest tertile were sequentially increased for women who were overweight (OR = 1.31, 95% CI: 0.72-2.40) and obese (OR = 1.95, 95% CI: 1.02-3.73). The association between obesity and increased negative affect was diminished by adjusting for physical illness (adjusted OR = 1.76, 95% CI: 0.91-3.42). These associations were not substantially influenced by positive affect score or other exposures. No association was detected between BMI categories and positive affect scores. We report data suggesting that obesity is associated with greater negative affect scores, reflecting emotions such as distress, anger, disgust, fear and shame, and that this association is attenuated by physical illness. Further investigations are now warranted to explore possible mechanistic interplay between pathological, neurobiological and psychosocial factors.

  20. Negative cognitive errors and positive illusions for negative divorce events: predictors of children's psychological adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, E; Wolchik, S A; Sandler, I N

    1992-12-01

    This study examined the relations among negative cognitive errors regarding hypothetical negative divorce events, positive illusions about those same events, actual divorce events, and psychological adjustment in 38 8- to 12-year-old children whose parents had divorced within the previous 2 years. Children's scores on a scale of negative cognitive errors (catastrophizing, overgeneralizing, and personalizing) correlated significantly with self-reported symptoms of anxiety and self-esteem, and with maternal reports of behavior problems. Children's scores on a scale measuring positive illusions (high self-regard, illusion of personal control, and optimism for the future) correlated significantly with less self-reported aggression. Both appraisal types accounted for variance in some measures of symptomatology beyond that explained by actual events. There was no significant association between children's negative cognitive errors and positive illusions. The implications of these results for theories of negative cognitive errors and of positive illusions, as well as for future research, are discussed.

  1. Stereotyping by Omission: Eliminate the Negative, Accentuate the Positive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergsieker, Hilary B.; Leslie, Lisa M.; Constantine, Vanessa S.; Fiske, Susan T.

    2014-01-01

    Communicators, motivated by strategic self-presentation, selectively underreport negative content in describing their impressions of individuals and stereotypes of groups, particularly for targets whom they view ambivalently with respect to warmth and competence. Communicators avoid overtly inaccurate descriptions, preferring to omit negative information and emphasize positive information about mixed individual targets (Study 1). With more public audiences, communicators increasingly prefer negativity omission to complete accuracy (Study 2), a process driven by self-presentation concerns (Study 3), and moderated by bidimensional ambivalence. Similarly, in an extension of the Princeton Trilogy studies, reported stereotypes of ethnic and national outgroups systematically omitted negative dimensions over 75 years—as anti-prejudice norms intensified—while neutral and positive stereotype dimensions remained constant (Study 4). Multiple assessment methods confirm this stereotyping-by-omission phenomenon (Study 5). Implications of negativity omission for innuendo and stereotype stagnation are discussed. PMID:22448889

  2. Prejudice Masquerading as Praise: The Negative Echo of Positive Stereotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siy, John Oliver; Cheryan, Sapna

    2016-07-01

    Five studies demonstrate the powerful connection between being the target of a positive stereotype and expecting that one is also being ascribed negative stereotypes. In Study 1, women who heard a man state a positive stereotype were more likely to believe that he held negative stereotypes of them than women who heard no stereotype. Beliefs about being negatively stereotyped mediated the relationship between hearing a positive stereotype and believing that the stereotyper was prejudiced. Studies 2 to 4 extended these results to Asian Americans and accounted for alternative explanations (e.g., categorization threat). In Study 5, the same positive stereotype (e.g., good at math) was directed to Asian American men's racial or gender identity. Their perceptions about whether negative racial or gender stereotypes were being applied to them depended on the identity referenced by the positive stereotype. Positive stereotypes signal a latent negativity about one's group, thereby explaining why they can feel like prejudice. © 2016 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  3. Functional connectivity in task-negative network of the Deaf: effects of sign language experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evie Malaia

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Prior studies investigating cortical processing in Deaf signers suggest that life-long experience with sign language and/or auditory deprivation may alter the brain’s anatomical structure and the function of brain regions typically recruited for auditory processing (Emmorey et al., 2010; Pénicaud et al., 2013 inter alia. We report the first investigation of the task-negative network in Deaf signers and its functional connectivity—the temporal correlations among spatially remote neurophysiological events. We show that Deaf signers manifest increased functional connectivity between posterior cingulate/precuneus and left medial temporal gyrus (MTG, but also inferior parietal lobe and medial temporal gyrus in the right hemisphere- areas that have been found to show functional recruitment specifically during sign language processing. These findings suggest that the organization of the brain at the level of inter-network connectivity is likely affected by experience with processing visual language, although sensory deprivation could be another source of the difference. We hypothesize that connectivity alterations in the task negative network reflect predictive/automatized processing of the visual signal.

  4. Motivation enhances control of positive and negative emotional distractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Amy T; Carmel, David; Harper, David; Grimshaw, Gina M

    2018-01-03

    Using cognitive control to ignore distractions is essential for successfully achieving our goals. In emotionally-neutral contexts, motivation can reduce interference from irrelevant stimuli by enhancing cognitive control. However, attention is commonly biased towards emotional stimuli, making them potent distractors. Can motivation aid control of emotional distractions, and does it do so similarly for positive and negative stimuli? Here, we examined how task motivation influences control of distraction from positive, negative, and neutral scenes. Participants completed a simple perceptual task while attempting to ignore task-irrelevant images. One group received monetary reward for fast and accurate task performance; another (control) group did not. Overall, both negative (mutilation) and positive (erotic) images caused greater slowing of responses than neutral images of people, but emotional distraction was reduced with reward. Crucially, despite the different motivational directions associated with negative and positive stimuli, reward reduced negative and positive distraction equally. Our findings suggest that motivation may encourage the use of a sustained proactive control strategy that can effectively reduce the impact of emotional distraction.

  5. Negative index effects from a homogeneous positive index prism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Sherman W.; Epstein, Ariel

    2017-12-01

    Cellular structured negative index metamaterials in the form of a right triangular prism have often been tested by observing the refraction of a beam across the prism hypotenuse which is serrated in order to conform to the cell walls. We show that not only can this negative index effect be obtained from a homogeneous dielectric prism having a positive index of refraction, but in addition, for sampling at the walls of the cellular structure, the phase in the material has the illusory appearance of moving in a negative direction. Although many previous reports relied on refraction direction and phase velocity of prism structures to verify negative index design, our investigation indicates that to unambiguously demonstrate material negativity additional empirical evidence is required.

  6. Positive and negative dimensions of weight control motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stotland, S; Larocque, M; Sadikaj, G

    2012-01-01

    This study examined weight control motivation among patients (N=5460 females and 547 males) who sought weight loss treatment with family physicians. An eight-item measure assessed the frequency of thoughts and feelings related to weight control "outcome" (e.g. expected physical and psychological benefits) and "process" (e.g. resentment and doubt). Factor analysis supported the existence of two factors, labeled Positive and Negative motivation. Positive motivation was high (average frequency of thoughts about benefits was 'every day') and stable throughout treatment, while Negative motivation declined rapidly and then stabilized. The determinants of changes in the Positive and Negative dimensions during treatment were examined within 3 time frames: first month, months 2-6, and 6-12. Maintenance of high scores on Positive motivation was associated with higher BMI and more disturbed eating habits. Early reductions in Negative motivation were greater for those starting treatment with higher weight and more disturbed eating habits, but less depression and stress, while later reductions in Negative motivation were predicted by improvements in eating habits, weight, stress and perfectionism. Clinicians treating obesity should be sensitive to fluctuations in both motivational dimensions, as they are likely to play a central role in determining long-term behavior and weight change. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A multiple relevance feedback strategy with positive and negative models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunlong Ma

    Full Text Available A commonly used strategy to improve search accuracy is through feedback techniques. Most existing work on feedback relies on positive information, and has been extensively studied in information retrieval. However, when a query topic is difficult and the results from the first-pass retrieval are very poor, it is impossible to extract enough useful terms from a few positive documents. Therefore, the positive feedback strategy is incapable to improve retrieval in this situation. Contrarily, there is a relatively large number of negative documents in the top of the result list, and it has been confirmed that negative feedback strategy is an important and useful way for adapting this scenario by several recent studies. In this paper, we consider a scenario when the search results are so poor that there are at most three relevant documents in the top twenty documents. Then, we conduct a novel study of multiple strategies for relevance feedback using both positive and negative examples from the first-pass retrieval to improve retrieval accuracy for such difficult queries. Experimental results on these TREC collections show that the proposed language model based multiple model feedback method which is generally more effective than both the baseline method and the methods using only positive or negative model.

  8. The power of extraverts: testing positive and negative mood regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Hervas

    Full Text Available Extraversion is a personality trait which has been systematically related to positive affect and well-being. One of the mechanisms that may account for these positive outcomes is the ability to regulate the responses to positive, as well as negative, moods. Prior research has found that extraverts' higher positive mood maintenance could explain their higher levels of positive affect. However, research exploring differences between extraverts and introverts in negative mood regulation has yielded mixed results. The aim of the current study was explore the role of different facets of mood regulation displayed by extraverts, ambiverts, and introverts. After been exposed to a sad vs. happy mood induction, participants underwent a mood regulation task. Extraverts and ambiverts exhibited higher positive mood regulation than introverts, but similar mood repair. Thus, this research highlights the importance of positive mood regulation in the psychological functioning of extraverts, and opens new conceptualizations for developing interventions for introverts to improve their positive mood regulation and, hence, overall positive affect and well-being.

  9. Recollecting positive and negative autobiographical memories disrupts working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Richard J; Schaefer, Alexandre; Falcon, Thomas

    2014-09-01

    The present article reports two experiments examining the impact of recollecting emotionally valenced autobiographical memories on subsequent working memory (WM) task performance. Experiment 1 found that negatively valenced recollection significantly disrupted performance on a supra-span spatial WM task. Experiment 2 replicated and extended these findings to a verbal WM task (digit recall), and found that both negative and positive autobiographical recollections had a detrimental effect on verbal WM. In addition, we observed that these disruptive effects were more apparent on early trials, immediately following autobiographical recollection. Overall, these findings show that both positive and negative affect can disrupt WM when the mood-eliciting context is based on autobiographical memories. Furthermore, these results indicate that the emotional disruption of WM can take place across different modalities of WM (verbal and visuo-spatial). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Adult Perceptions of Positive and Negative Infant Emotional Expressions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolzani Dinehart, Laura H.; Messinger, Daniel S.; Acosta, Susan I.; Cassel, Tricia; Ambadar, Zara; Cohn, Jeffrey

    2005-01-01

    Adults' perceptions provide information about the emotional meaning of infant facial expressions. This study asks whether similar facial movements influence adult perceptions of emotional intensity in both infant positive (smile) and negative (cry face) facial expressions. Ninety-five college students rated a series of naturally occurring and…

  11. Closed-type wing for drones: positive and negative characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid I. Gretchihin

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the aerodynamics of a wing of a closed oval ellipsoidal shape, designed with the use of the molecular-kinetic theory. The positive and negative characteristics of aircraft - drones with an oval wing are described. The theoretical calculations have been experimentally checked.

  12. Rhesus Negative Woman Transfused With Rhesus Positive Blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Clinicians sometimes are confronted with the challenge of transfusing haemorrhaging Rhesus (Rh) D negative patients with Rh D positive blood to save their lives. There are concerns about alloimmunization and future haemolytic disease of the newborn in women of the reproductive age. Another fear is transfusion reaction ...

  13. Release from Proactive Interference with Positive and Negative Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, F. Richaro; King, Brent

    2004-01-01

    Using the release from proactive interference (RPI) task, college students (n = 40) received 4 trials comprised of 3-word triads of either positive (P) or negative (N) words. Word-triad recall served as the dependent measure, and results revealed typical buildup of PI (i.e., no significant group X trial interaction across Trials 1-3). Significant…

  14. The influence of positive vs. negative affect on multitasking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Brent; D'Mello, Sidney K

    2016-10-01

    Considerable research has investigated how affect influences performance on a single task; however, little is known about the role of affect in complex multitasking environments. In this paper, 178 participants multitasked in a synthetic work environment (SYNWORK) consisting of memory, visual monitoring, auditory monitoring, and math tasks. Participants multitasked for a 3-min baseline phase (MT1), following which they were randomly assigned to watch one of three affect-induction videos: positive, neutral, or negative. Participants then resumed multitasking for two additional critical phases (MT2, MT3; 3min each). In MT2, performance of the positive and neutral conditions was statistically equivalent and higher than the negative condition. In MT3, the positive condition performed better than the negative condition, with the neutral condition not significantly different from the other two. The differences in overall multitasking scores were largely driven by errors in the Math task (the most cognitively demanding task) in MT2 and the Memory task in MT3. These findings have implications for how positive and negative affective states influence processing in a cognitively demanding multitasking environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Relation of Positive and Negative Parenting to Children's Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallaire, Danielle H.; Pineda, Ashley Q.; Cole, David A.; Ciesla, Jeffrey A.; Jacquez, Farrah; LaGrange, Beth; Bruce, Alanna E.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the combined and cumulative effects of supportive-positive and harsh-negative parenting behaviors on children's depressive symptoms. A diverse sample of 515 male and female elementary and middle school students (ages 7 to 11) and their parents provided reports of the children's depressive symptoms. Parents provided self-reports…

  16. Positive and negative caregiver experiences in first-episode psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, Jens Einar; Lysaker, Paul H.; Harder, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    influenced their reports of both positive and negative caregiving experiences. Design A prospective consecutive cross-sectional study. Methods Forty caregivers of patients with first-episode psychosis were interviewed using semi-structured interview and questionnaires. Results Greater levels of distress...

  17. Depressed adolescents' positive and negative use of social media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radovic, Ana; Gmelin, Theresa; Stein, Bradley D; Miller, Elizabeth

    2017-02-01

    This qualitative study examined descriptions of social media use among 23 adolescents (18 female, 5 male) who were diagnosed with depression to explore how social media use may influence and be influenced by psychological distress. Adolescents described both positive and negative use of social media. Positive use included searching for positive content (i.e. for entertainment, humor, content creation) or for social connection. Negative use included sharing risky behaviors, cyberbullying, and for making self-denigrating comparisons with others. Adolescents described three types of use in further detail including "oversharing" (sharing updates at a high frequency or too much personal information), "stressed posting" (sharing negative updates with a social network), and encountering "triggering posts." In the context of treatment, these adolescents shifted their social media use patterns from what they perceived as negative to more positive use. Implications for clinicians counseling depressed adolescents on social media use are discussed. Copyright © 2016 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Positive versus negative priming of older adults' generative value: do negative messages impair memory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagood, Elizabeth W; Gruenewald, Tara L

    2018-02-01

    A considerable volume of experimental evidence demonstrates that exposure to aging stereotypes can strongly influence cognitive performance among older individuals. However, whether such effects extend to stereotypes regarding older adults' generative (i.e. contributory) worth is not yet known. The present investigation sought to evaluate the effect of exposure to positive versus negative generative value primes on an important aspect of later life functioning, memory. Participants of age 55 and older (n = 51) were randomly assigned to read a mock news article portraying older individuals as either an asset (positive prime) or a burden (negative prime) to society. Upon reading their assigned article, participants completed a post-priming memory assessment in which they were asked to recall a list of 30 words. Those exposed to the negative prime showed significantly poorer memory performance relative to those exposed to the positive prime (d = 0.75), even when controlling for baseline memory performance and sociodemographic covariates. These findings suggest that negative messages regarding older adults' generative social value impair memory relative to positive ones. Though demonstrated in the short term, these results also point to the potential consequences of long-term exposure to such negative ideologies and may indicate a need to promote more positive societal conceptualizations of older adults' generative worth.

  19. Empathy for positive and negative emotions in social anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Amanda S; Mateen, Maria A; Brozovich, Faith A; Zaki, Jamil; Goldin, Philippe R; Heimberg, Richard G; Gross, James J

    2016-12-01

    Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is associated with elevated negative and diminished positive affective experience. However, little is known about the way in which individuals with SAD perceive and respond emotionally to the naturally-unfolding negative and positive emotions of others, that is, cognitive empathy and affective empathy, respectively. In the present study, participants with generalized SAD (n = 32) and demographically-matched healthy controls (HCs; n = 32) completed a behavioral empathy task. Cognitive empathy was indexed by the correlation between targets' and participants' continuous ratings of targets' emotions, whereas affective empathy was indexed by the correlation between targets' and participants' continuous self-ratings of emotion. Individuals with SAD differed from HCs only in positive affective empathy: they were less able to vicariously share others' positive emotions. Mediation analyses revealed that poor emotional clarity and negative interpersonal perceptions among those with SAD might account for this finding. Future research using experimental methodology is needed to examine whether this finding represents an inability or unwillingness to share positive affect. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Information Content Moderates Positivity and Negativity Biases in Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Thomas M.; Popham, Lauren E.; Dennis, Paul A.; Emery, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Two experiments examined the impact of encoding conditions and information content in memory for positive, neutral, and negative pictures. We examined the hypotheses that the positivity effect in memory (i.e., a bias in favor of positive or against negative information in later life) would be reduced when (a) pictures were viewed under structured as opposed to unstructured conditions, and (b) contained social as opposed to nonsocial content. Both experiments found that the positivity effect observed with nonsocial stimuli was absent with social stimuli. In addition, little evidence was obtained that encoding conditions affected the strength of the positivity effect. We argue that some types of social stimuli may engage different types of processing than nonsocial stimuli, perhaps encouraging self-referential processing that engages attention and supports memory. This processing may then conflict with the goal-driven, top-down processing that is hypothesized to drive the positivity effect. Thus, our results identify further boundary conditions associated with the positivity effect in memory, arguing that stimulus factors as well as situational goals may affect its occurrence. Further research awaits to determine if this effect is specific to all social stimuli or specific subsets. PMID:23421322

  1. Information content moderates positivity and negativity biases in memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Thomas M; Popham, Lauren E; Dennis, Paul A; Emery, Lisa

    2013-09-01

    Two experiments examined the impact of encoding conditions and information content in memory for positive, neutral, and negative pictures. We examined the hypotheses that the positivity effect in memory (i.e., a bias in favor of positive or against negative information in later life) would be reduced when (a) pictures were viewed under structured as opposed to unstructured conditions, and (b) contained social as opposed to nonsocial content. Both experiments found that the positivity effect observed with nonsocial stimuli was absent with social stimuli. In addition, little evidence was obtained that encoding conditions affected the strength of the positivity effect. We argue that some types of social stimuli may engage different types of processing than nonsocial stimuli, perhaps encouraging self-referential processing that engages attention and supports memory. This processing may then conflict with the goal-driven, top-down processing that is hypothesized to drive the positivity effect. Thus, our results identify further boundary conditions associated with the positivity effect in memory, arguing that stimulus factors as well as situational goals may affect its occurrence. Further research awaits to determine if this effect is specific to all social stimuli or specific subsets.

  2. The positives of negative emotions: willingness to express negative emotions promotes relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Steven M; Huang, Julie Y; Clark, Margaret S; Helgeson, Vicki S

    2008-03-01

    Four studies support the hypothesis that expressing negative emotion is associated with positive relationship outcomes, including elicitation of support, building of new close relationships, and heightening of intimacy in the closest of those relationships. In Study 1, participants read vignettes in which another person was experiencing a negative emotion. Participants reported they would provide more help when the person chose to express the negative emotion. In Study 2, participants watched a confederate preparing for a speech. Participants provided more help to her when she expressed nervousness. In Study 3, self-reports of willingness to express negative emotions predicted having more friends, controlling for demographic variables and extraversion. In Study 4, self-reports of willingness to express negative emotion measured prior to arrival at college predicted formation of more relationships, greater intimacy in the closest of those relationships, and greater received support from roommates across participants' first semester of college.

  3. A positive (negative) surface ionization source concept for RIB generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alton, G.D.; Mills, G.D.

    1995-01-01

    A novel, versatile, new concept, spherical-geometry, positive (negative) surface-ionization source has been designed and fabricated which will have the capability of generating both positive- and negative-ion beams without mechanical changes to the source. The source utilizes a highly permeable, high-work-function Ir ionizer (φ∼ = 5.29 eV) for ionizing highly electropositive atoms/molecules; while for negative-surface ionization, the work function is lowered to φ ∼ = 1.43 eV by continually feeding cesium vapor through the ionizer matrix. The use of Cs to effect low work function surfaces for negative ion beam generation has the potential of overcoming the chronic poisoning effects experienced with LaB 6 while enhancing the probability for negative ion formation of atomic and molecular species with low to intermediate electron affinities. The flexibility of operation in either mode makes it especially attractive for RIB applications and, therefore, the source will be used as a complementary replacement for the high-temperature electron impact ionization sources presently in use at the HRIBF The design features and operational principles of the source will be described in this report

  4. Neural effects of positive and negative incentives during marijuana withdrawal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca M Filbey

    Full Text Available In spite of evidence suggesting two possible mechanisms related to drug-seeking behavior, namely reward-seeking and harm avoidance, much of the addiction literature has focused largely on positive incentivization mechanisms associated with addiction. In this study, we examined the contributing neural mechanisms of avoidance of an aversive state to drug-seeking behavior during marijuana withdrawal. To that end, marijuana users were scanned while performing the monetary incentive delay task in order to assess positive and negative incentive processes. The results showed a group x incentive interaction, such that marijuana users had greater response in areas that underlie reward processes during positive incentives while controls showed greater response in the same areas, but to negative incentives. Furthermore, a negative correlation between withdrawal symptoms and response in the amygdala during negative incentives was found in the marijuana users. These findings suggest that although marijuana users have greater reward sensitivity and less harm avoidance than controls, that attenuated amygdala response, an area that underlies fear and avoidance, was present in marijuana users with greater marijuana withdrawal symptoms. This is concordant with models of drug addiction that involve multiple sources of reinforcement in substance use disorders, and suggests the importance of strategies that focus on respective mechanisms.

  5. Negative and Positive Peer Influence: Relations to Positive and Negative Behaviors for African American, European American, and Hispanic Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla-Walker, Laura M.; Bean, Roy A.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine adolescents' perceptions of negative and positive peer influence (i.e., indirect peer association and direct peer pressure) as they related to adolescent behavior. Regression analyses were conducted using a sample of African American, European American, and Hispanic adolescents (N=1659, M age=16.06,…

  6. Positive and negative emotions underlie motivation for L2 learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter D. MacIntyre

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The role of basic emotions in SLA has been underestimated in both research and pedagogy. The present article examines 10 positive emotions (joy, gratitude, serenity, interest, hope, pride, amusement, inspiration, awe, and love and 9 negative emotions (anger, contempt, disgust, embarrassment, guilt, hate, sadness, feeling scared, and being stressed. The emotions are correlated with core variables chosen from three well-known models of L2 motivation: Gardner’s integrative motive, Clément’s social-contextual model, and Dörnyei’s L2 self system. Respondents came from Italian secondary schools, and most participants were from monolingual Italian speaking homes. They described their motivation and emotion with respect to learning German in a region of Italy (South Tyrol that features high levels of contact between Italians and Germans. Results show that positive emotions are consistently and strongly correlated with motivation-related variables. Correlations involving negative emotions are weaker and less consistently implicated in motivation. The positivity ratio, that is, the relative prevalence of positive over negative emotion, showed strong correlations with all of the motivation constructs. Regression analysis supports the conclusion that a variety of emotions, not just one or two key ones, are implicated in L2 motivation processes in this high-contact context.

  7. Positive and negative affect in individuals with spinal cord injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salter, J E; Smith, S D; Ethans, K D

    2013-03-01

    Participants with spinal cord injuries (SCIs) and healthy controls completed standardized questionnaires assessing depression level, positive and negative affect, and personality traits. To identify the specific characteristics of emotional experiences affected by spinal cord injury. A Canadian rehabilitation center. Individuals with SCIs were recruited from a list of patients who had volunteered to participate in studies being conducted by the SCI clinic. Healthy controls were recruited from the community, but tested in the SCI clinic. Thirty-six individuals with complete (ASIA A) SCIs and 36 age-, gender- and education-matched controls participated in this study. SCI participants were classified as cervical (C1-C7), upper thoracic (T1-T5) or lower thoracic/upper lumbar (T6-L2). All participants completed the Beck Depression Inventory, the Positive and Negative Affect Schedules, the NEO Neuroticism Questionnaire, and the harm avoidance scale of the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire. Data were analyzed using independent-samples t-tests (when contrasting SCI and controls) and analysis of variance (when comparing across SCI groups). Participants with SCIs experienced significantly less positive affect than controls. The two groups did not differ in their experience of negative affect. Participants with SCIs also reported greater levels of depression. Depression scores improved with an increasing number of years post injury. Individuals with SCIs are characterized by specific emotional dysfunction related to the experience of positive emotions, rather than a tendency to ruminate on negative emotions. The results suggest that these individuals would benefit from rehabilitation programs that include training in positive psychology.

  8. The positive and negative consequences of multiple-choice testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roediger, Henry L; Marsh, Elizabeth J

    2005-09-01

    Multiple-choice tests are commonly used in educational settings but with unknown effects on students' knowledge. The authors examined the consequences of taking a multiple-choice test on a later general knowledge test in which students were warned not to guess. A large positive testing effect was obtained: Prior testing of facts aided final cued-recall performance. However, prior testing also had negative consequences. Prior reading of a greater number of multiple-choice lures decreased the positive testing effect and increased production of multiple-choice lures as incorrect answers on the final test. Multiple-choice testing may inadvertently lead to the creation of false knowledge.

  9. Negative ratings play a positive role in information filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Wei; Zhu, Yu-Xiao; Lü, Linyuan; Zhou, Tao

    2011-11-01

    The explosive growth of information asks for advanced information filtering techniques to solve the so-called information overload problem. A promising way is the recommender system which analyzes the historical records of users’ activities and accordingly provides personalized recommendations. Most recommender systems can be represented by user-object bipartite networks where users can evaluate and vote for objects, and ratings such as “dislike” and “I hate it” are treated straightforwardly as negative factors or are completely ignored in traditional approaches. Applying a local diffusion algorithm on three benchmark data sets, MovieLens, Netflix and Amazon, our study arrives at a very surprising result, namely the negative ratings may play a positive role especially for very sparse data sets. In-depth analysis at the microscopic level indicates that the negative ratings from less active users to less popular objects could probably have positive impacts on the recommendations, while the ones connecting active users and popular objects mostly should be treated negatively. We finally outline the significant relevance of our results to the two long-term challenges in information filtering: the sparsity problem and the cold-start problem.

  10. Imbalance of positive and negative links induces regularity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamal, Neeraj Kumar; Sinha, Sudeshna

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → We consider the behaviour of a random weighted network with chaotic neuronal dynamics at the nodes. → We investigate the effect of the balance of positive and negative links on dynamical regularity. → We find that when the connections are predominantly excitatory or inhibitory, one obtains a spatiotemporal fixed point. → However, when the links are balanced, the chaotic nature of the nodal dynamics of the uncoupled case is preserved. → Further we observe that larger network size leads to greater spatiotemporal regularity. - Abstract: We investigate the effect of the interplay of positive and negative links, on the dynamical regularity of a random weighted network, with neuronal dynamics at the nodes. We investigate how the mean J-bar and the variance of the weights of links, influence the spatiotemporal regularity of this dynamical network. We find that when the connections are predominantly positive (i.e. the links are mostly excitatory, with J-bar>0) the spatiotemporal fixed point is stable. A similar trend is observed when the connections are predominantly negative (i.e. the links are mostly inhibitory, with J-bar<0). However, when the positive and negative feedback is quite balanced (namely, when the mean of the connection weights is close to zero) one observes spatiotemporal chaos. That is, the balance of excitatory and inhibitory connections preserves the chaotic nature of the uncoupled case. To be brought to an inactive state one needs one type of connection (either excitatory or inhibitory) to dominate. Further we observe that larger network size leads to greater spatiotemporal regularity. We rationalize our observations through mean field analysis of the network dynamics.

  11. Positive and negative emotions in motivation for second language learning

    OpenAIRE

    MacIntyre, Peter D.; Vincze, Laszlo

    2017-01-01

    The role of basic emotions in SLA has been underestimated in both research and pedagogy. The present article examines 10 positive emotions (joy, gratitude, serenity, interest, hope, pride, amusement, inspiration, awe, and love) and 9 negative emotions (anger, contempt, disgust, embarrassment, guilt, hate, sadness, feeling scared, and being stressed). The emotions are correlated with core variables chosen from three well-known models of L2 motivation: Gardner’s integrative motive, Clément’s so...

  12. Invisible Support: Effects on the Provider's Positive and Negative Affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, Claudia; Stadler, Gertraud; Knoll, Nina; Ochsner, Sibylle; Hornung, Rainer; Scholz, Urte

    2016-07-01

    Social support that goes unnoticed by receivers (i.e. invisible support) seems to be most beneficial for the receivers' well-being. The providers' well-being, however, has been neglected so far. This study examines how invisible support is related to the providers' well-being and whether this association is dependent on the providers' relationship satisfaction. Overall, 97 non-smoking partners of smokers who were about to quit smoking were examined. Invisible support was assessed dyadically: partners' reports on smoking-specific provided social support together with smokers' reports on received support were assessed at baseline. Partners' relationship satisfaction was also assessed at baseline. Partners' positive and negative affect were measured at baseline and six-week follow-up. No main effects of invisible instrumental or emotional support occurred. However, partners' relationship satisfaction moderated the association between invisible instrumental support and change in partners' negative and positive affect: For partners with lower relationship satisfaction more invisible instrumental support was related to increased negative affect and decreased positive affect, whereas for partners with higher relationship satisfaction the inverse effects occurred. The study's results emphasise that invisible instrumental support might have emotional costs for the providers. Relationship satisfaction seems to serve as a protective factor. © 2016 The International Association of Applied Psychology.

  13. Differential effects of arousal in positive and negative autobiographical memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Jaclyn Hennessey; Addis, Donna Rose; Giovanello, Kelly S

    2012-01-01

    Autobiographical memories are characterised by a range of emotions and emotional reactions. Recent research has demonstrated that differences in emotional valence (positive vs. negative emotion) and arousal (the degree of emotional intensity) differentially influence the retrieved memory narrative. Although the mnemonic effects of valence and arousal have both been heavily studied, it is currently unclear whether the effects of emotional arousal are equivalent for positive and negative autobiographical events. In the current study, multilevel models were used to examine differential effects of emotional valence and arousal on the richness of autobiographical memory retrieval both between and within subjects. Thirty-four young adults were asked to retrieve personal autobiographical memories associated with popular musical cues and to rate the valence, arousal and richness of these events. The multilevel analyses identified independent influences of valence and intensity upon retrieval characteristics at the within- and between-subject levels. In addition, the within-subject interactions between valence and arousal highlighted differential effects of arousal for positive and negative memories. These findings have important implications for future studies of emotion and memory, highlighting the importance of considering both valence and arousal when examining the role emotion plays in the richness of memory representation.

  14. False Positive and False Negative Effects on Network Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Yilun

    2018-01-01

    Robustness against attacks serves as evidence for complex network structures and failure mechanisms that lie behind them. Most often, due to detection capability limitation or good disguises, attacks on networks are subject to false positives and false negatives, meaning that functional nodes may be falsely regarded as compromised by the attacker and vice versa. In this work, we initiate a study of false positive/negative effects on network robustness against three fundamental types of attack strategies, namely, random attacks (RA), localized attacks (LA), and targeted attack (TA). By developing a general mathematical framework based upon the percolation model, we investigate analytically and by numerical simulations of attack robustness with false positive/negative rate (FPR/FNR) on three benchmark models including Erdős-Rényi (ER) networks, random regular (RR) networks, and scale-free (SF) networks. We show that ER networks are equivalently robust against RA and LA only when FPR equals zero or the initial network is intact. We find several interesting crossovers in RR and SF networks when FPR is taken into consideration. By defining the cost of attack, we observe diminishing marginal attack efficiency for RA, LA, and TA. Our finding highlights the potential risk of underestimating or ignoring FPR in understanding attack robustness. The results may provide insights into ways of enhancing robustness of network architecture and improve the level of protection of critical infrastructures.

  15. Regulation of positive and negative emotion: Effects of sociocultural context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara A. Snyder

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has demonstrated that the use of emotion regulation strategies can vary by sociocultural context. In a previous study, we reported changes in the use of two different emotion regulation strategies at an annual alternative cultural event, Burning Man (McRae, Heller, John, & Gross, 2011. In this sociocultural context, as compared to home, participants reported less use of expressive suppression (a strategy generally associated with maladaptive outcomes, and greater use of cognitive reappraisal (a strategy associated with adaptive outcomes. What remained unclear was whether these changes in self-reported emotion regulation strategy use were characterized by changes in the regulation of positive emotion, negative emotion, or both. We addressed this issue in the current study by asking Burning Man participants separate questions about positive and negative emotion. Using multiple datasets, we not only replicated our previous findings, but also found that the decreased use of suppression is primarily driven by reports of decreased suppression of positive emotion at Burning Man. By contrast, the reported increased use of reappraisal is not characterized by differential reappraisal of positive and negative emotion at Burning Man. Moreover, we observed novel individual differences in the magnitude of these effects. The contextual changes in self-reported suppression that we report are strongest for men and younger participants. For those who had previously attended Burning Man, we observed lower levels of self-reported suppression in both sociocultural contexts: Burning Man and home. These findings have implications for understanding the ways in which certain sociocultural contexts may decrease suppression, and possibly minimize its associated maladaptive effects.

  16. Negativity bias and task motivation: testing the effectiveness of positively versus negatively framed incentives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, Kelly; Dhar, Ravi

    2013-12-01

    People are frequently challenged by goals that demand effort and persistence. As a consequence, philosophers, psychologists, economists, and others have studied the factors that enhance task motivation. Using a sample of undergraduate students and a sample of working adults, we demonstrate that the manner in which an incentive is framed has implications for individuals' task motivation. In both samples we find that individuals are less motivated when an incentive is framed as a means to accrue a gain (positive framing) as compared with when the same incentive is framed as a means to avoid a loss (negative framing). Further, we provide evidence for the role of the negativity bias in this effect, and highlight specific populations for whom positive framing may be least motivating. Interestingly, we find that people's intuitions about when they will be more motivated show the opposite pattern, with people predicting that positively framed incentives will be more motivating than negatively framed incentives. We identify a lay belief in the positive correlation between enjoyment and task motivation as one possible factor contributing to the disparity between predicted and actual motivation as a result of the framing of the incentive. We conclude with a discussion of the managerial implications for these findings. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  17. Method effects: the problem with negatively versus positively keyed items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindwall, Magnus; Barkoukis, Vassilis; Grano, Caterina; Lucidi, Fabio; Raudsepp, Lennart; Liukkonen, Jarmo; Thøgersen-Ntoumani, Cecilie

    2012-01-01

    Using confirmatory factor analyses, we examined method effects on Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale (RSES; Rosenberg, 1965) in a sample of older European adults. Nine hundred forty nine community-dwelling adults 60 years of age or older from 5 European countries completed the RSES as well as measures of depression and life satisfaction. The 2 models that had an acceptable fit with the data included method effects. The method effects were associated with both positively and negatively worded items. Method effects models were invariant across gender and age, but not across countries. Both depression and life satisfaction predicted method effects. Individuals with higher depression scores and lower life satisfaction scores were more likely to endorse negatively phrased items.

  18. Cohort study of HIV-positive and -negative methamphetamine users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spolsky, Vladimir W; Clague, Jason; Shetty, Vivek

    2018-04-20

    The effects of methamphetamine (MA) on caries have been well documented. Little, however, is known about its effects on the periodontium. The authors conducted this study to determine the prevalence and severity of periodontal disease in an urban population of HIV-positive MA users. This cross-sectional survey was conducted in one of the most populous urban areas of Los Angeles County, California, beset with high rates of MA use. Participants were recruited by a combination of street outreach methods, referral from drug treatment centers, and word of mouth. Participants were eligible if they were older than 18 years, spoke English or Spanish, used MA in the past 30 days, were willing to undergo a dental examination and psychosocial assessments, and were willing to provide a urine sample. Periodontal assessments were completed for 541 participants by 3 trained and calibrated dentists. The prevalence and severity of periodontal disease were high in this population of HIV-positive and -negative MA users. Cigarette smoking and age were identified as risk factors. The HIV-positive and -negative cohorts were remarkably similar, suggesting that their lifestyles contributed more to their destructive periodontal disease than their MA use. MA users are at high risk of developing destructive periodontal disease and badly broken-down teeth. Clinicians should plan accordingly for timely management of the patients' care, knowing that MA users have extensive periodontal and restorative treatment needs. Copyright © 2018 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparative analysis of positive and negative attitudes toward statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghulami, Hassan Rahnaward; Ab Hamid, Mohd Rashid; Zakaria, Roslinazairimah

    2015-02-01

    Many statistics lecturers and statistics education researchers are interested to know the perception of their students' attitudes toward statistics during the statistics course. In statistics course, positive attitude toward statistics is a vital because it will be encourage students to get interested in the statistics course and in order to master the core content of the subject matters under study. Although, students who have negative attitudes toward statistics they will feel depressed especially in the given group assignment, at risk for failure, are often highly emotional, and could not move forward. Therefore, this study investigates the students' attitude towards learning statistics. Six latent constructs have been the measurement of students' attitudes toward learning statistic such as affect, cognitive competence, value, difficulty, interest, and effort. The questionnaire was adopted and adapted from the reliable and validate instrument of Survey of Attitudes towards Statistics (SATS). This study is conducted among engineering undergraduate engineering students in the university Malaysia Pahang (UMP). The respondents consist of students who were taking the applied statistics course from different faculties. From the analysis, it is found that the questionnaire is acceptable and the relationships among the constructs has been proposed and investigated. In this case, students show full effort to master the statistics course, feel statistics course enjoyable, have confidence that they have intellectual capacity, and they have more positive attitudes then negative attitudes towards statistics learning. In conclusion in terms of affect, cognitive competence, value, interest and effort construct the positive attitude towards statistics was mostly exhibited. While negative attitudes mostly exhibited by difficulty construct.

  20. Negative parenting behavior and childhood oppositional defiant disorder: differential moderation by positive and negative peer regard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Irene; Lee, Steve S

    2014-01-01

    Although negative parenting behavior and peer status are independently associated with childhood conduct problems (e.g., oppositional defiant disorder (ODD)), relatively little is known about their interplay, particularly in relation to differentiated measures of positive and negative peer regard. To improve the specificity of the association of negative parenting behavior and peer factors with ODD, we explored the potential interaction of parenting and peer status in a sample of 169 five-to ten-year-old ethnically diverse children with and without attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) assessed using multiple measures (i.e., rating scales, interview) and informants (i.e., parents, teachers). Controlling for children's age, sex, number of ADHD symptoms, and parents' race-ethnicity, peer acceptance inversely predicted and inconsistent discipline, harsh punishment, and peer rejection were each positively associated with ODD symptom severity. Interactive influences were also evident such that inconsistent discipline and harsh punishment each predicted elevated ODD but only among children experiencing low peer acceptance or high peer rejection. These findings suggest that supportive environments, including peer acceptance, may protect children from negative outcomes associated with inconsistent discipline and harsh punishment. Findings are integrated with theories of social support, and we additionally consider implications for intervention and prevention. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. ANALYSIS OF MARKOV NETWORK WITH INCOMES, POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE MESSAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Naumenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Markov queuing network with income in transient regime is considered. It has positive and negative messages, which can be used in forecasting income of information and telecommunication systems and networks affected by viruses. Investigations are carried out in the cases when incomes from transitions between network states are deterministic functions dependent on states, or they are random variables with given mean values. In the last case it is assumed that all network systems operate in a high load mode. An example is given.

  2. Positives and negatives of online dating according to women 50.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandeweerd, Carla; Myers, Jaime; Coulter, Martha; Yalcin, Ali; Corvin, Jaime

    2016-01-01

    To understand the positives and negatives of online dating according to the lived experience of older women, telephone interviews were conducted with 45 women ages 50+ who date online. Interviews were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim, and thematically team coded. The opportunity to expand one's social network for both friendships and romantic partners, the ability to control dating risks and pace of relationship formation, and knowing more about one's partner were significant reported benefits of online dating. Dating online also includes unique risks, such as pervasive lying, attempted financial exploitation in the form of scammers, and unwanted electronic sexual aggression.

  3. Positive, Neutral, and Negative Mass-Charges in General Relativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borissova L.

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available As shown, any four-dimensional proper vector has two observable projections onto time line, attributed to our world and the mirror world (for a mass-bearing particle, the projections posses are attributed to positive and negative mass-charges. As predicted, there should be a class of neutrally mass-charged particles that inhabit neither our world nor the mirror world. Inside the space-time area (membrane the space rotates at the light speed, and all particles move at as well the light speed. So, the predicted particles of the neutrally mass-charged class should seem as light-like vortices.

  4. Breast cancer patients' narratives about positive and negative communication experiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Dorthe K; Pedersen, Anette F; Johansen, Mikael B

    2007-01-01

    . Thus, qualitative studies of communication are also needed. Fifteen breast cancer patients were interviewed 3 months after finishing adjuvant treatment. They were asked to tell a 10 minute narrative and recall five experiences from treatment. Themes were extracted using categories derived from previous...... research while at the same time being sensitive to new elaborations and categories. The participants reported both positive and negative communication-related experiences from a wide range of treatment situations. Two major themes emerged: Information giving as professional care-giving and meeting......Health staff-patient communication is increasingly considered an important issue in cancer research. However, questionnaires addressing satisfaction with communication limit the issues patients can raise, do not address the context of communication and often show a strong positive skew in responses...

  5. Positive-negative-selection-mediated gene targeting in rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zenpei eShimatani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Gene targeting (GT refers to the designed modification of genomic sequence(s through homologous recombination (HR. GT is a powerful tool both for the study of gene function and for molecular breeding. However, in transformation of higher plants, non-homologous end joining (NHEJ occurs overwhelmingly in somatic cells, masking HR-mediated GT. Positive-negative selection (PNS is an approach for finding HR-mediated GT events because it can eliminate NHEJ effectively by expression of a negative-selection marker gene. In rice—a major crop worldwide—reproducible PNS-mediated GT of endogenous genes has now been successfully achieved. The procedure is based on strong PNS using diphtheria toxin A-fragment as a negative marker, and has succeeded in the directed modification of several endogenous rice genes in various ways. In addition to gene knock-outs and knock-ins, a nucleotide substitution in a target gene was also achieved recently. This review presents a summary of the development of the rice PNS system, highlighting its advantages. Different types of gene modification and gene editing aimed at developing new plant breeding technology (NPBT based on PNS are discussed.

  6. POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE EFFECTS ANALYSIS IN ABUSE OF DOMINANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai MĂRGINEAN

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abuse of a dominant position is a threat to the functioning of the free market. This is the reason why we have proposed to highlight the impact of this particular anti-competitive practice in the European Union area. The aim of this paper is to present, from a theoretical and practical approach, the implications and the effects of this type of behavior and also to highlight the main actors in this process. In order to achieve these goals, we will use the content analysis to compress the effects of the abuse of dominant position in two categories: positive and negative effects. The historical method to emphasize the historical origins of the concepts and institutions involved. The comparative method will be used to nominate specific features, concepts or institutions that we will analyze and also it will help us to analyze the evolution that have occurred over time in terms of their development and to highlight certain advantages or disadvantages in terms of choice of competition policy on the abuse of a dominant position. In this paper we will notice that both the companies and the market itself are facing with companies that use anti-competitive since 1900. These kind of practices are harmful both for competition and for consumers, so that should not be allowed to expand. In this context, the European Commission imposed a set of rules that all operators must comply in order to protect, maintain and stimulate competition in the Single Market and to promote fair competition.

  7. Predicting Positive and Negative Relationships in Large Social Networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guan-Nan Wang

    Full Text Available In a social network, users hold and express positive and negative attitudes (e.g. support/opposition towards other users. Those attitudes exhibit some kind of binary relationships among the users, which play an important role in social network analysis. However, some of those binary relationships are likely to be latent as the scale of social network increases. The essence of predicting latent binary relationships have recently began to draw researchers' attention. In this paper, we propose a machine learning algorithm for predicting positive and negative relationships in social networks inspired by structural balance theory and social status theory. More specifically, we show that when two users in the network have fewer common neighbors, the prediction accuracy of the relationship between them deteriorates. Accordingly, in the training phase, we propose a segment-based training framework to divide the training data into two subsets according to the number of common neighbors between users, and build a prediction model for each subset based on support vector machine (SVM. Moreover, to deal with large-scale social network data, we employ a sampling strategy that selects small amount of training data while maintaining high accuracy of prediction. We compare our algorithm with traditional algorithms and adaptive boosting of them. Experimental results of typical data sets show that our algorithm can deal with large social networks and consistently outperforms other methods.

  8. Genetic Basis of Positive and Negative Symptom Domains in Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xavier, Rose Mary; Vorderstrasse, Allison

    2017-10-01

    Schizophrenia is a highly heritable disorder, the genetic etiology of which has been well established. Yet despite significant advances in genetics research, the pathophysiological mechanisms of this disorder largely remain unknown. This gap has been attributed to the complexity of the polygenic disorder, which has a heterogeneous clinical profile. Examining the genetic basis of schizophrenia subphenotypes, such as those based on particular symptoms, is thus a useful strategy for decoding the underlying mechanisms. This review of literature examines the recent advances (from 2011) in genetic exploration of positive and negative symptoms in schizophrenia. We searched electronic databases PubMed, Web of Science, and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature using key words schizophrenia, symptoms, positive symptoms, negative symptoms, cognition, genetics, genes, genetic predisposition, and genotype in various combinations. We identified 115 articles, which are included in the review. Evidence from these studies, most of which are genetic association studies, identifies shared and unique gene associations for the symptom domains. Genes associated with neurotransmitter systems and neuronal development/maintenance primarily constitute the shared associations. Needed are studies that examine the genetic basis of specific symptoms within the broader domains in addition to functional mechanisms. Such investigations are critical to developing precision treatment and care for individuals afflicted with schizophrenia.

  9. Predicting Positive and Negative Relationships in Large Social Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guan-Nan; Gao, Hui; Chen, Lian; Mensah, Dennis N A; Fu, Yan

    2015-01-01

    In a social network, users hold and express positive and negative attitudes (e.g. support/opposition) towards other users. Those attitudes exhibit some kind of binary relationships among the users, which play an important role in social network analysis. However, some of those binary relationships are likely to be latent as the scale of social network increases. The essence of predicting latent binary relationships have recently began to draw researchers' attention. In this paper, we propose a machine learning algorithm for predicting positive and negative relationships in social networks inspired by structural balance theory and social status theory. More specifically, we show that when two users in the network have fewer common neighbors, the prediction accuracy of the relationship between them deteriorates. Accordingly, in the training phase, we propose a segment-based training framework to divide the training data into two subsets according to the number of common neighbors between users, and build a prediction model for each subset based on support vector machine (SVM). Moreover, to deal with large-scale social network data, we employ a sampling strategy that selects small amount of training data while maintaining high accuracy of prediction. We compare our algorithm with traditional algorithms and adaptive boosting of them. Experimental results of typical data sets show that our algorithm can deal with large social networks and consistently outperforms other methods.

  10. Effects of positive and negative delusional ideation on memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimori, Eriko; Tanno, Yoshihiko

    2010-04-01

    We investigated the relationship between levels of delusional ideation (whether positive or negative delusions) and the activation and distortion of memory by using pairs of positive and negative adjectives describing personality traits where those adjectives had similar meanings. We presented one of each pair of adjectives in the learning phase. Immediately after the learning phase in Experiment 1, we asked whether each adjective had been presented. Participants with high (positive or negative) delusional ideation were more likely to indicate that they had learned adjectives that they had not actually learned. This finding suggested that non-learned positive (or negative) adjectives that were associated with learned negative (or positive) adjectives were more likely to be activated in participants prone to positive (or negative) delusional ideation. However, in Experiment 2, two forced-choice tests were conducted immediately after the learning phase. In this context, participants, regardless of their proneness to delusional ideation, could almost always correctly distinguish what had and had not been presented, suggesting that the activation of learned items was still stronger than that for non-learned items in the immediate test. As time passed, the proportion of false alarms for positive or negative adjectives was higher in the two forced-choice tests among those with high proneness to (positive or negative) delusional ideation, suggesting that participants with delusional ideation were increasingly likely to depend on internal conditions for retrieval over time. Nous avons examiné la relation entre les niveaux d'idéation illusoire (qu'elle soit positive ou négative) et l'activation et la distorsion de la mémoire, en utilisant des paires d'adjectifs positifs et négatifs à significations similaires décrivant des traits de personnalité. Nous avons présenté un membre de chaque paire d'adjectifs lors d'une phase d'apprentissage. Dans une première exp

  11. Seismic characteristics and identification of negative flower structures, positive flower structures, and positive structural inversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harding, T.P.

    1985-04-01

    Negative and positive flower structures and positive inverted structures imply specific modes of formation, and their distinctive characteristics make them important criteria for the identification of certain structural styles. A negative flower structure from the Andaman Sea consists of a shallow synform bounded by upward-spreading strands of a wrench fault that have mostly normal separations. Paralleling monoclines and oblique, en echelon normal faults flank the divergent wrench fault. A positive flower structure from the Ardmore basin, Oklahoma, consists of a shallow antiform displaced by the upward diverging strands of a wrench fault that have mostly reverse separations. En echelon folds are present on either side of this convergent wrench fault. Positive structural inversion at the Rambutan oil field, South Sumatra basin, has formed a shallow anticlinorium and has partly uplifted the underlying graben. Deeper fault segments bounding the graben have retained their normal fault profiles, but at shallow levels some of these faults have reverse separations.

  12. Synchronization unveils the organization of ecological networks with positive and negative interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girón, Andrea; Saiz, Hugo; Bacelar, Flora S.; Andrade, Roberto F. S.; Gómez-Gardeñes, Jesús

    2016-06-01

    Network science has helped to understand the organization principles of the interactions among the constituents of large complex systems. However, recently, the high resolution of the data sets collected has allowed to capture the different types of interactions coexisting within the same system. A particularly important example is that of systems with positive and negative interactions, a usual feature appearing in social, neural, and ecological systems. The interplay of links of opposite sign presents natural difficulties for generalizing typical concepts and tools applied to unsigned networks and, moreover, poses some questions intrinsic to the signed nature of the network, such as how are negative interactions balanced by positive ones so to allow the coexistence and survival of competitors/foes within the same system? Here, we show that synchronization phenomenon is an ideal benchmark for uncovering such balance and, as a byproduct, to assess which nodes play a critical role in the overall organization of the system. We illustrate our findings with the analysis of synthetic and real ecological networks in which facilitation and competitive interactions coexist.

  13. Synchronization unveils the organization of ecological networks with positive and negative interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girón, Andrea; Saiz, Hugo; Bacelar, Flora S; Andrade, Roberto F S; Gómez-Gardeñes, Jesús

    2016-06-01

    Network science has helped to understand the organization principles of the interactions among the constituents of large complex systems. However, recently, the high resolution of the data sets collected has allowed to capture the different types of interactions coexisting within the same system. A particularly important example is that of systems with positive and negative interactions, a usual feature appearing in social, neural, and ecological systems. The interplay of links of opposite sign presents natural difficulties for generalizing typical concepts and tools applied to unsigned networks and, moreover, poses some questions intrinsic to the signed nature of the network, such as how are negative interactions balanced by positive ones so to allow the coexistence and survival of competitors/foes within the same system? Here, we show that synchronization phenomenon is an ideal benchmark for uncovering such balance and, as a byproduct, to assess which nodes play a critical role in the overall organization of the system. We illustrate our findings with the analysis of synthetic and real ecological networks in which facilitation and competitive interactions coexist.

  14. Existence of Positive Solutions to Singular -Laplacian General Dirichlet Boundary Value Problems with Sign Changing Nonlinearity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiying Wei

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available By using the well-known Schauder fixed point theorem and upper and lower solution method, we present some existence criteria for positive solution of an -point singular -Laplacian dynamic equation on time scales with the sign changing nonlinearity. These results are new even for the corresponding differential (=ℝ and difference equations (=ℤ, as well as in general time scales setting. As an application, an example is given to illustrate the results.

  15. POSITIVE VERSUS NEGATIVE COMMUNICATION STRATEGIES IN TASK-BASED LEARNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Rohani

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at describing how the implementation of Task Based Learning (TBL would shape or change students’ use of oral communication strategies. Students’ problems and strategies to solve the problems during the implementation of TBL were also explored. The study was a mixed method, employing both quantitative and qualitative analysis throughmulti-methods of questionnaire, interviews, focus group discussion, learning journals, and classroom observation. Participants were 26 second year students of the State Polytechnic of Malang. Data collection was conducted for one semester. Findingsshow linguistic and non-linguistic problems encountered by students during one-semester implementation of TBL. Students also performedincreased use of positive strategies but reduced use of negative strategies after the implementation of TBL.

  16. Image annotation based on positive-negative instances learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kai; Hu, Jiwei; Liu, Quan; Lou, Ping

    2017-07-01

    Automatic image annotation is now a tough task in computer vision, the main sense of this tech is to deal with managing the massive image on the Internet and assisting intelligent retrieval. This paper designs a new image annotation model based on visual bag of words, using the low level features like color and texture information as well as mid-level feature as SIFT, and mixture the pic2pic, label2pic and label2label correlation to measure the correlation degree of labels and images. We aim to prune the specific features for each single label and formalize the annotation task as a learning process base on Positive-Negative Instances Learning. Experiments are performed using the Corel5K Dataset, and provide a quite promising result when comparing with other existing methods.

  17. Positive or negative Poynting effect? The role of adscititious inequalities in hyperelastic materials

    KAUST Repository

    Mihai, L. A.

    2011-08-10

    Motivated by recent experiments on biopolymer gels whereby the reverse of the usual (positive) Poynting effect was observed, we investigate the effect of the so-called \\'adscititious inequalities\\' on the behaviour of hyperelastic materials subject to shear. We first demonstrate that for homogeneous isotropic materials subject to pure shear, the resulting deformation consists of a triaxial stretch combined with a simple shear in the direction of the shear force if and only if the Baker-Ericksen inequalities hold. Then for a cube deformed under pure shear, the positive Poynting effect occurs if the \\'sheared faces spread apart\\', whereas the negative Poynting effect is obtained if the \\'sheared faces draw together\\'. Similarly, under simple shear deformation, the positive Poynting effect is obtained if the \\'sheared faces tend to spread apart\\', whereas the negative Poynting effect occurs if the \\'sheared faces tend to draw together\\'. When the Poynting effect occurs under simple shear, it is reasonable to assume that the same sign Poynting effect is btained also under pure shear. Since the observation of the negative Poynting effect in semiflexible biopolymers implies that the (stronger) empirical inequalities may not hold, we conclude that these inequalities must not be imposed when such materials are described. © 2011 The Royal Society.

  18. Antonyms and Synonyms: Cognitive Aspects of Negation in Positive Sentences

    OpenAIRE

    Arimitsu, Nami

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates the cognitive orientation of the negative meaning in antonyms and synonyms. While the negative meaning in antonyms is a reflection of the cognitive mapping of our mental contiguity, the negative images in synonymous words are more closely associated with aspects of subjective semantics and factors related to politeness

  19. DNA and protein co-administration induces tolerogenic dendritic cells through DC-SIGN mediated negative signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinyao; Geng, Shuang; Liu, Xiuping; Liu, Hu; Jin, Huali; Liu, Chang-Gong; Wang, Bin

    2013-10-01

    We previously demonstrated that DNA and protein co-administration induced differentiation of immature dendritic cells (iDCs) into CD11c(+)CD40(low)IL-10(+) regulatory DCs (DCregs) via the caveolin-1 (Cav-1) -mediated signal pathway. Here, we demonstrate that production of IL-10 and the low expression of CD40 play a critical role in the subsequent induction of regulatory T cells (Tregs) by the DCregs. We observed that DNA and protein were co-localized with DC-SIGN in caveolae and early lysosomes in the treated DCs, as indicated by co-localization with Cav-1 and EEA-1 compartment markers. DNA and protein also co-localized with LAMP-2. Gene-array analysis of gene expression showed that more than a thousand genes were significantly changed by the DC co-treatment with DNA + protein compared with controls. Notably, the level of DC-SIGN expression was dramatically upregulated in pOVA + OVA co-treated DCs. The expression levels of Rho and Rho GNEF, the down-stream molecules of DC-SIGN mediated signal pathway, were also greatly upregulated. Further, the level of TLR9, the traditional DNA receptor, was significantly downregulated. These results suggest that DC-SIGN as the potential receptor for DNA and protein might trigger the negative pathway to contribute the induction of DCreg combining with Cav-1 mediated negative signal pathway.

  20. Positive and negative peptide signals control stomatal density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Tomoo; Sugano, Shigeo S; Hara-Nishimura, Ikuko

    2011-06-01

    The stoma is a micro valve found on aerial plant organs that promotes gas exchange between the atmosphere and the plant body. Each stoma is formed by a strict cell lineage during the early stages of leaf development. Molecular genetics research using the model plant Arabidopsis has revealed the genes involved in stomatal differentiation. Cysteine-rich secretory peptides of the EPIDERMAL PATTERNING FACTOR-LIKE (EPFL) family play crucial roles as extracellular signaling factors. Stomatal development is orchestrated by the positive factor STOMAGEN/EPFL9 and the negative factors EPF1, EPF2, and CHALLAH/EPFL6 in combination with multiple receptors. EPF1 and EPF2 are produced in the stomatal lineage cells of the epidermis, whereas STOMAGEN and CHALLAH are derived from the inner tissues. These findings highlight the complex cell-to-cell and intertissue communications that regulate stomatal development. To optimize gas exchange, particularly the balance between the uptake of carbon dioxide (CO(2)) and loss of water, plants control stomatal activity in response to environmental conditions. The CO(2) level and light intensity influence stomatal density. Plants sense environmental cues in mature leaves and adjust the stomatal density of newly forming leaves, indicating the involvement of long-distance systemic signaling. This review summarizes recent research progress in the peptide signaling of stomatal development and discusses the evolutionary model of the signaling machinery.

  1. Study of correlations of positive and negative charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Y.; Chan, C.H.; Dong, B.L.; Duthie, J.G.; Gregory, J.C.; Hayashi, T.; Yokomi, H.; Christl, M.J.; Derrickson, J.H.; Eby, P.B.; Fountain, W.F.; Parnell, T.A.; Roberts, F.E.; Nagamiya, S.; Dake, S.; Tominaga, T.; Fuki, M.; Iyono, A.; Ogata, T.; Miyamura, O.

    1991-01-01

    Particle correlations of the central collision events of 32 S + Pb at 200 GeV/AMU have been studied by utilizing a Magnetic-Interferomagnetic-Emulsion-Chamber (MAGIC) detector. Particle angles, momentum, and charge-signs are measured for all produced charged tracks for each event. Two-particle correlation functions, C 2 = dN (vertical strokep 1 - p 2 vertical stroke = q)/dp 1 dp 2 , for (++), (--) and (+-) particles are examined. A source radius around 4 - 6 fm is observed for overall identical particle correlations, while unexpected short-range correlations of unlike-sign pairs are observed in the high rapidity region. An analysis of unlike-sign pairs in terms of resonance decays indicated that a large amount (40% relative to pions) of η or ω mesons (decaying into 3 π), or of scalar iso-scalar σ mesons (decaying into 2 π) would be required to explain some of the data. Multi-particle charge-sign clusters are recognized; however, their 'run-test' and 'conjugate-test' show small deviations from statistical fluctuations. (orig.)

  2. Positive solutions with changing sign energy to a nonhomogeneous elliptic problem of fourth order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Talbi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study the existence for two positive solutions toa nonhomogeneous elliptic equation of fourth order with a parameter lambda such tha 0 < lambda < lambda^. The first solution has a negative energy while the energy of the second one is positive for 0 < lambda < lambda_0 and negative for lambda_0 < lambda < lambda^. The values lambda_0 and lambda^ are given under variational form and we show that every corresponding critical point is solution of the nonlinear elliptic problem (with a suitable multiplicative term.

  3. Negative and positive magnetocaloric effect in Ni-Fe-Mn-Ga alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan Jingfang; Huang Peng; Zhang Hu; Long Yi; Wu Guangheng; Rongchang Ye; Chang Yongqin; Farong Wan

    2007-01-01

    The phase transition process and magnetic entropy change ΔS of Ni 54.5 FeMn 20 Ga 24.5 alloy were studied. Substitution of Fe for Ni increases the Curie temperature and decreases the temperature of martensitic phase transition. The transition from ferromagnetic martensitic to ferrormagnetic austenitic state leads to an abrupt increase of magnetization below 0.5T and an abrupt decrease of magnetization above 0.5T. The sign of ΔS changes from positive to negative with increasing the applied field from 0.5 to 2T. The maximal value of the positive magnetic entropy change ΔS is about 3.1J/kgK for the applied field from 0 to 0.5T. The increase of applied field from 1.5T results in a negative ΔS. The peak of negative ΔS is -2.1J/kgK for a field change of 2T

  4. Going positive: The effects of negative and positive advertising on candidate success and voter turnout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liam C Malloy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Given the depth of research on negative advertising in campaigns, scholars have wondered why candidates continue to attack their opponents. We build on this research by considering real-world campaign contexts in which candidates are working in competition with each other and have to react to the decisions of the opposing campaign. Our results suggest that it is never efficacious for candidates to run attack ads, but running positive ads can increase a candidate’s margin of victory. These results are conditioned by two factors: candidates must both stay positive and out-advertise their opponent. Second, the effects of positive advertising are strongest in areas where the candidate is losing or winning by a large margin—areas where they might be tempted to not advertise at all.

  5. Large Positive and Negative Lateral Shifts from an Anisotropic Metamaterial Slab Backed by a Metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, Cheng; Rong, Chen

    2009-01-01

    The lateral shift of a light beam at the surface of an anisotropic metamaterial (AMM) slab backed by a metal is investigated. Analytical expressions of the lateral shifts are derived using the stationary-phase method, in the case that total refection does and does not occur at the first interface. The sign of the lateral shift in two situations is discussed, and the necessary conditions for the lateral shift to be positive or negative are given. It is shown that the thickness and physical parameters of the AMM slab and the incident angle of the light beam strongly affect the properties of the lateral shift. Numerical results validate these conclusions. The lossy effect of the metamaterial on the lateral shift is also investigated

  6. The impact of positive, negative and topical relevance feedback

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaptein, Rianne; Kamps, Jaap; Hiemstra, Djoerd

    2008-01-01

    This document contains a description of experiments for the 2008 Relevance Feedback track. We experiment with different amounts of feedback, including negative relevance feedback. Feedback is implemented using massive weighted query expansion. Parsimonious query expansion using only relevant

  7. Experiments with positive, negative and topical relevance feedback

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaptein, R.; Kamps, J.; Li, R.; Hiemstra, D.

    2008-01-01

    This document contains a description of experiments for the 2008 Relevance Feedback track. We experiment with different amounts of feedback, including negative relevance feedback. Feedback is implemented using massive weighted query expansion. Parsimonious query expansion using Dirichlet smoothing

  8. A longitudinal mediation analysis of the effect of negative-self-schemas on positive symptoms via negative affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaya, E S; Ascone, L; Lincoln, T M

    2018-06-01

    Cognitive models postulate that negative-self-schemas (NSS) cause and maintain positive symptoms and that negative affect mediates this link. However, only few studies have tested the temporal mediation claim systematically using an appropriate design. A longitudinal cohort design in an online community sample (N = 962) from Germany, Indonesia, and the USA was used. NSS, negative affect and positive symptoms were measured at four time-points (T0-T3) over a 1-year period. Cross-lagged panel and longitudinal mediation analyses with structural equation modeling were used to test the temporal mediation. Independent cross-lagged panel models showed a significant unidirectional longitudinal path from NSS to positive symptoms (T2-T3, β = 0.18, p negative affect (T0-T1, γ = 0.14, p negative affect at T1 and T2 to positive symptoms at T3 (unstandardized indirect effect coefficient = 0.020, p affective pathway from NSS to positive symptoms via negative affect. Specifically, our data indicate that NSS and negative affect influence each other and build up over the course of several months before leading on to positive symptoms. We conclude that interrupting this process by targeting NSS and negative affect early in the process could be a promising strategy to prevent the exacerbation of positive symptoms.

  9. Presenting symptoms and clinical findings in HPV-positive and HPV-negative oropharyngeal cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpén, Timo; Sjöblom, Anni; Lundberg, Marie; Haglund, Caj; Markkola, Antti; Syrjänen, Stina; Tarkkanen, Jussi; Mäkitie, Antti; Hagström, Jaana; Mattila, Petri

    2018-05-01

    Oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) is divided in two different disease entities depending on HPV involvement. We investigated differences in presenting symptoms and clinical findings in patients with HPV-positive and -negative OPSCC tumors. Altogether 118 consecutive patients diagnosed with primary OPSCC between 2012 and 2014 at the Helsinki University Hospital were included. HPV-status of the tumors was assessed by PCR detection of HPV DNA and immunostaining with p16-INK4a antibody. Fifty-one (47.7%) of the patients had HPV-positive and 56 (52.3%) HPV-negative tumors. Forty-nine (49/51, 96.1%) of the HPV+ tumors were also p16+ showing high concordance. The most common presenting symptom among HPV+/p16+ patients was a neck mass (53.1%), whereas any sort of pain in the head and neck area was more frequently related to the HPV-/p16- (60.0%) group. HPV+/p16+ tumors had a tendency to locate in the tonsillar complex and more likely had already spread into regional lymph nodes compared with HPV-/p16- tumors. Smoking and heavy alcohol consumption were significantly more common among HPV-/p16- patients but also rather common among HPV+/p16+ patients. This analysis of symptoms and signs confirm that OPSCC can be dichotomized in two distinct disease entities as defined by HPV status.

  10. Negative to positive magnetoresistance transition in functionalization of carbon nanotube and polyaniline composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad Maity, Krishna; Tanty, Narendra; Patra, Ananya; Prasad, V.

    2018-03-01

    Electrical resistivity and magnetoresistance(MR) in polyaniline(PANI) with carbon nanotube(CNT) and functionalized carbon nanotube(fCNT) composites have been studied for different weight percentages down to the temperature 4.2 K and up to magnetic field 5 T. Resistivity increases significantly in composite at low temperature due to functionalization of CNT compared to only CNT. Interestingly a transition from negative to positive magnetoresistance has been observed when the filler is changed from pure CNT to functionalized CNT after a certain percentage (10wt%) as the effect of more disorder in fCNT/PANI composite. This result depicts that the MR has strong dependency on disorder in the composite system. The transition of MR has been explained on the basis of polaron-bipolaron model. The long range Coulomb interaction between two polarons screened by disorder in the composite of fCNT/PANI, increases the effective on-site Coulomb repulsion energy to form bipolaron which leads to change the sign of MR from negative to positive.

  11. The value of 'positive' clinical signs for weakness, sensory and gait disorders in conversion disorder: a systematic and narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daum, Corinna; Hubschmid, Monica; Aybek, Selma

    2014-02-01

    Experts in the field of conversion disorder have suggested for the upcoming DSM-V edition to put less weight on the associated psychological factors and to emphasise the role of clinical findings. Indeed, a critical step in reaching a diagnosis of conversion disorder is careful bedside neurological examination, aimed at excluding organic signs and identifying 'positive' signs suggestive of a functional disorder. These positive signs are well known to all trained neurologists but their validity is still not established. The aim of this study is to provide current evidence regarding their sensitivity and specificity. We conducted a systematic search on motor, sensory and gait functional signs in Embase, Medline, PsycINfo from 1965 to June 2012. Studies in English, German or French reporting objective data on more than 10 participants in a controlled design were included in a systematic review. Other relevant signs are discussed in a narrative review. Eleven controlled studies (out of 147 eligible articles) describing 14 signs (7 motor, 5 sensory, 2 gait) reported low sensitivity of 8-100% but high specificity of 92-100%. Studies were evidence class III, only two had a blinded design and none reported on inter-rater reliability of the signs. Clinical signs for functional neurological symptoms are numerous but only 14 have been validated; overall they have low sensitivity but high specificity and their use should thus be recommended, especially with the introduction of the new DSM-V criteria.

  12. Turning negative into positive: public health mass media campaigns and negative advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apollonio, D E; Malone, R E

    2009-06-01

    Literature suggests that 'negative advertising' is an effective way to encourage behavioral changes, but it has enjoyed limited use in public health media campaigns. However, as public health increasingly focuses on non-communicable disease prevention, negative advertising could be more widely applied. This analysis considers an illustrative case from tobacco control. Relying on internal tobacco industry documents, surveys and experimental data and drawing from political advocacy literature, we describe tobacco industry and public health research on the American Legacy Foundation's "truth" campaign, an example of effective negative advertising in the service of public health. The tobacco industry determined that the most effective advertisements run by Legacy's "truth" campaign were negative advertisements. Although the tobacco industry's own research suggested that these negative ads identified and effectively reframed the cigarette as a harmful consumer product rather than focusing solely on tobacco companies, Philip Morris accused Legacy of 'vilifying' it. Public health researchers have demonstrated the effectiveness of the "truth" campaign in reducing smoking initiation. Research on political advocacy demonstrating the value of negative advertising has rarely been used in the development of public health media campaigns, but negative advertising can effectively communicate certain public health messages and serve to counter corporate disease promotion.

  13. Positive and Negative Emotions Underlie Motivation for L2 Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacIntyre, Peter D.; Vincze, Laszlo

    2017-01-01

    The role of basic emotions in SLA has been underestimated in both research and pedagogy. The present article examines 10 positive emotions ("joy," "gratitude," "serenity," "interest," "hope," "pride," "amusement," "inspiration," "awe," and "love")…

  14. Problematic smartphone use and relations with negative affect, fear of missing out, and fear of negative and positive evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolniewicz, Claire A; Tiamiyu, Mojisola F; Weeks, Justin W; Elhai, Jon D

    2018-04-01

    For many individuals, excessive smartphone use interferes with everyday life. In the present study, we recruited a non-clinical sample of 296 participants for a cross-sectional survey of problematic smartphone use, social and non-social smartphone use, and psychopathology-related constructs including negative affect, fear of negative and positive evaluation, and fear of missing out (FoMO). Results demonstrated that FoMO was most strongly related to both problematic smartphone use and social smartphone use relative to negative affect and fears of negative and positive evaluation, and these relations held when controlling for age and gender. Furthermore, FoMO (cross-sectionally) mediated relations between both fear of negative and positive evaluation with both problematic and social smartphone use. Theoretical implications are considered with regard to developing problematic smartphone use. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Negative Symptom Dimensions of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale Across Geographical Regions: Implications for Social, Linguistic, and Cultural Consistency

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Anzalee; Liharska, Lora; Harvey, Philip D.; Atkins, Alexandra; Ulshen, Daniel; Keefe, Richard S.E.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Recognizing the discrete dimensions that underlie negative symptoms in schizophrenia and how these dimensions are understood across localities might result in better understanding and treatment of these symptoms. To this end, the objectives of this study were to 1) identify the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale negative symptom dimensions of expressive deficits and experiential deficits and 2) analyze performance on these dimensions over 15 geographical regions to determine whet...

  16. Positivity and negativity of solutions to nXn weighted systems involving the Laplace operator on R^N

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedicte Alziary

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We consider the sign of the solutions of a $n imes n$ system defined on the whole space $mathbb{R}^N$, $Ngeq 3$ and a weight function $ho$ with a positive part decreasing fast enough, $$ -Delta U = lambda ho(x MU +F, $$ where $F$ is a vector of functions, $M$ is a $n imes n$ matrix with constant coefficients, not necessarily cooperative, and the weight function $ho$ is allowed to change sign. We prove that the solutions of the $nimes n$ system exist and then we prove the local fundamental positivity and local fundamental negativity of the solutions when $|lambdasigma_1-lambda_ho|$ is small enough, where $sigma_1$ is the largest eigenvalue of the constant matrix $M$ and $lambda_ho$ is the "principal" eigenvalue of $$ -Delta u = lambda ho(x u , quad lim_{|x|o infty} u(x = 0 ; quad u(x>0, quad xin mathbb{R}^N. $$

  17. Negative Symptom Dimensions of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale Across Geographical Regions: Implications for Social, Linguistic, and Cultural Consistency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Anzalee; Liharska, Lora; Harvey, Philip D; Atkins, Alexandra; Ulshen, Daniel; Keefe, Richard S E

    2017-12-01

    Objective: Recognizing the discrete dimensions that underlie negative symptoms in schizophrenia and how these dimensions are understood across localities might result in better understanding and treatment of these symptoms. To this end, the objectives of this study were to 1) identify the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale negative symptom dimensions of expressive deficits and experiential deficits and 2) analyze performance on these dimensions over 15 geographical regions to determine whether the items defining them manifest similar reliability across these regions. Design: Data were obtained for the baseline Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale visits of 6,889 subjects across 15 geographical regions. Using confirmatory factor analysis, we examined whether a two-factor negative symptom structure that is found in schizophrenia (experiential deficits and expressive deficits) would be replicated in our sample, and using differential item functioning, we tested the degree to which specific items from each negative symptom subfactor performed across geographical regions in comparison with the United States. Results: The two-factor negative symptom solution was replicated in this sample. Most geographical regions showed moderate-to-large differential item functioning for Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale expressive deficit items, especially N3 Poor Rapport, as compared with Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale experiential deficit items, showing that these items might be interpreted or scored differently in different regions. Across countries, except for India, the differential item functioning values did not favor raters in the United States. Conclusion: These results suggest that the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale negative symptom factor can be better represented by a two-factor model than by a single-factor model. Additionally, the results show significant differences in responses to items representing the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale expressive

  18. Experimental study on pure titanium during the positive-torsion and positive-negative-torsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Han; Li, Fuguo, E-mail: fuguolx@nwpu.edu.cn; Li, Jinghui; Zhao, Zhen; Zhou, Shunshun; Wan, Qiong

    2016-09-30

    The results of the mechanical properties, microstructure and fracture analysis of the pure titanium deformed by positive-torsion (PT) and positive-negative-torsion (PNT) are investigated by uniaxial tensile (UT) test, micro-indentation (MI) test, optical microscope (OM), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The UT test indicates that the strength increases obviously with the increase of torsion radian during PT. However, the strength firstly increases quickly, and then tends to steady with the increase of deformation during PNT. The similar phenomena are also shown through MI hardness analysis. The results from geometrically necessary dislocations (GNDs) and statistically stored dislocations (SSDs) indicate that the dislocation density varies differently with the increase of deformation during PT and PNT. OM observation shows the grains are elongated and large numbers of deformation twins are observed during PT while the equiaxial grains are always presented during PNT. The variations of dislocation density during PT and PNT are verified by TEM. Besides, quantities of subgrains (SGs) are observed owing to the accumulated larger plastic strain during PNT while large numbers of deformation twins intersect with each other during PT. The fracture analysis indicates that large numbers of micro-voids distribute non-uniformly on fracture surface of sample twisted by PNT. However, the characteristics of ductile and brittle fracture are observed on fracture surface of sample twisted by PT.

  19. Positive and negative impacts of agricultural production of liquid biofuels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijnders, L.; Hester, R.E.; Harrison, R.M.

    2012-01-01

    Agricultural production of liquid biofuels can have positive effects. It can decrease dependence on fossil fuels and increase farmers’ incomes. Agricultural production of mixed perennial biofuel crops may increase pollinator and avian richness. Most types of agricultural crop-based liquid biofuel

  20. Neural correlates of attitude change following positive and negative advertisements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junko Kato

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Understanding changes in attitudes towards others is critical to understanding human behaviour. Neuropolitical studies have found that the activation of emotion-related areas in the brain is linked to resilient political preferences, and neuroeconomic research has analysed the neural correlates of social preferences that favour or oppose consideration of intrinsic rewards. This study aims to identify the neural correlates in the prefrontal cortices of changes in political attitudes toward others that are linked to social cognition. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI experiments have presented videos from previous electoral campaigns and television commercials for major cola brands and then used the subjects’ self-rated affinity toward political candidates as behavioural indicators. After viewing negative campaign videos, subjects showing stronger fMRI activation in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex lowered their ratings of the candidate they originally supported more than did those with smaller fMRI signal changes in the same region. Subjects showing stronger activation in the medial prefrontal cortex tended to increase their ratings more than did those with less activation. The same regions were not activated by viewing negative advertisements for cola. Correlations between the self-rated values and the neural signal changes underscore the metric representation of observed decisions (i.e., whether to support or not in the brain. This indicates that neurometric analysis may contribute to the exploration of the neural correlates of daily social behaviour.

  1. Neural Correlates of Attitude Change Following Positive and Negative Advertisements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Junko; Ide, Hiroko; Kabashima, Ikuo; Kadota, Hiroshi; Takano, Kouji; Kansaku, Kenji

    2009-01-01

    Understanding changes in attitudes towards others is critical to understanding human behaviour. Neuropolitical studies have found that the activation of emotion-related areas in the brain is linked to resilient political preferences, and neuroeconomic research has analysed the neural correlates of social preferences that favour or oppose consideration of intrinsic rewards. This study aims to identify the neural correlates in the prefrontal cortices of changes in political attitudes toward others that are linked to social cognition. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiments have presented videos from previous electoral campaigns and television commercials for major cola brands and then used the subjects' self-rated affinity toward political candidates as behavioural indicators. After viewing negative campaign videos, subjects showing stronger fMRI activation in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex lowered their ratings of the candidate they originally supported more than did those with smaller fMRI signal changes in the same region. Subjects showing stronger activation in the medial prefrontal cortex tended to increase their ratings more than did those with less activation. The same regions were not activated by viewing negative advertisements for cola. Correlations between the self-rated values and the neural signal changes underscore the metric representation of observed decisions (i.e., whether to support or not) in the brain. This indicates that neurometric analysis may contribute to the exploration of the neural correlates of daily social behaviour. PMID:19503749

  2. Person-centred positive emotions, object-centred negative emotions: 2-year-olds generalize negative but not positive emotions across individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaish, Amrisha; Grossmann, Tobias; Woodward, Amanda

    2015-09-01

    Prior work suggests that young children do not generalize others' preferences to new individuals. We hypothesized (following Vaish et al., 2008, Psychol. Bull., 134, 383-403) that this may only hold for positive emotions, which inform the child about the person's attitude towards the object but not about the positivity of the object itself. It may not hold for negative emotions, which additionally inform the child about the negativity of the object itself. Two-year-old children saw one individual (the emoter) emoting positively or negatively towards one and neutrally towards a second novel object. When a second individual then requested an object, children generalized the emoter's negative but not her positive emotion to the second individual. Children thus draw different inferences from others' positive versus negative emotions: Whereas they view others' positive emotions as person centred, they may view others' negative emotions as object centred and thus generalizable across people. The results are discussed with relation to the functions and implications of the negativity bias. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  3. The positive and negative consequences of stressors during early life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaghan, Pat; Haussmann, Mark F

    2015-11-01

    We discuss the long-term effects of stress exposure in pre- and early postnal life. We present an evolutionary framework within which such effects can be viewed, and describe how the outcomes might vary with species life histories. We focus on stressors that induce increases in glucocorticoid hormones and discuss the advantages of an experimental approach. We describe a number of studies demonstrating how exposure to these hormones in early life can influence stress responsiveness and have substantial long-term, negative consequences for adult longevity. We also describe how early life exposure to mild levels of stressors can have beneficial effects on resilience to stress in later life, and discuss how the balance of costs and benefits is likely dependent on the nature of the adult environment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. CD3 Positive Gastric Plasmablastic Lymphoma in A HIV Negative Patient: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betül Bolat Küçükzeybek,

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Plasmablastic lymphoma is a rare and aggressive lymphoma characterized by the diffuse proliferation of large neoplastic cells resembling immunoblasts with an immunophenotype of plasma cells. A 47-year-old male was referred to our hospital with gastrointestinal bleeding, and a mass 10 cm in diameter, was detected. An endoscopic biopsy was performed subsequently. Histopathological examination of the biopsy material revealed ulcer, alterations associated with ulcer, and further presented a diffuse infiltration of atypical cells with abundant cytoplasm and pleomorphic nuclei, some with crush artifacts in lamina propria. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells were negative for cytokeratin, CD2, CD20, and PAX5; but they were positive for CD3, MUM1, CD38 and CD138. Ki67 proliferation index was as high as 95%. The case was signed out as CD3-positive plasmablastic lymphoma with clinical, histopathological and immunohisto-chemical findings. The plasmablastic lymphoma case with an aberrant CD3 expression has been presented here, which is rarely observed in stomach.

  5. Paradoxical Relationship between the Amount of Negative eWOM Messages and Positive Consumer Attitude

    OpenAIRE

    Mai Kikumori; Akinori Ono

    2013-01-01

    Most research has shown that positive electric word-of-mouth (e-WOM) has positive effects, while negative e-WOM has negative effects on consumer attitude towards a product. However, negative e-WOM may have positive impacts rather than negative impacts. Using ANOVA in three experiments, this study found that negative e-WOM can have a positive impact on consumer attitude under some conditions, including when the e-WOM is in regard to hedonic products, when expert consumers read attribute-centri...

  6. Trait Affect, Emotion Regulation, and the Generation of Negative and Positive Interpersonal Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Jessica L; Burke, Taylor A; Stange, Jonathan P; Kleiman, Evan M; Rubenstein, Liza M; Scopelliti, Kate A; Abramson, Lyn Y; Alloy, Lauren B

    2017-07-01

    Positive and negative trait affect and emotion regulatory strategies have received considerable attention in the literature as predictors of psychopathology. However, it remains unclear whether individuals' trait affect is associated with responses to state positive affect (positive rumination and dampening) or negative affect (ruminative brooding), or whether these affective experiences contribute to negative or positive interpersonal event generation. Among 304 late adolescents, path analyses indicated that individuals with higher trait negative affect utilized dampening and brooding rumination responses, whereas those with higher trait positive affect engaged in rumination on positive affect. Further, there were indirect relationships between trait negative affect and fewer positive and negative interpersonal events via dampening, and between trait positive affect and greater positive and negative interpersonal events via positive rumination. These findings suggest that individuals' trait negative and positive affect may be associated with increased utilization of emotion regulation strategies for managing these affects, which may contribute to the occurrence of positive and negative events in interpersonal relationships. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Legal positions of the Constitutional Court of Ukraine: main signs and definition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romana Reva

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The practice of a single body of constitutional jurisdiction indicates on the necessity of a certain number of amendments to the current Law of Ukraine “On the Constitutional Court of Ukraine”. It is impossible to achieve the quality regulation of these issues without a thorough scientific analysis of basic features of the legal positions of the Constitutional Court of Ukraine. The purpose of the article is to analyze the legal positions of the Constitutional Court of Ukraine and scientific views on their signs, to identify and describe the main features of the legal positions of the Constitutional Court of Ukraine. There are the conclusions made that an important step in any legal position research is the establishment of the legal nature. The article discusses different scientific views on the basic features of the legal positions of the Constitutional Court of Ukraine. On the basis of the analysis of acts of the Constitutional Court of Ukraine and scientific works, there are defined, in particular, the following main features of the legal positions of the Constitutional Court of Ukraine: they are the result of interpretation and represent the most generalized, concentrated expression of the Constitutional Court of Ukraine understanding of the provisions of the Constitution of Ukraine, laws and/ or other regulations, which are carried out within the jurisdiction of the Constitutional Court of Ukraine; they are the basis for the final decision, which is set in the act of the Constitutional Court of Ukraine; they appear in the reasoning and/ or the operative parts of the decisions and conclusions and some rulings; they have a special legal force; they are obligatory, that are binding throughout the territory of Ukraine for all public authorities, local governments, enterprises, institutions and organizations, officials, citizens and their associations; suitable for further repeated use in solving similar cases; as opposed to the decisions of

  8. Tunable Positive to Negative Magnetoresistance in Atomically Thin WTe2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Enze; Chen, Rui; Huang, Ce; Yu, Jihai; Zhang, Kaitai; Wang, Weiyi; Liu, Shanshan; Ling, Jiwei; Wan, Xiangang; Lu, Hai-Zhou; Xiu, Faxian

    2017-02-08

    Transitional metal ditelluride WTe 2 has been extensively studied owing to its intriguing physical properties like nonsaturating positive magnetoresistance and being possibly a type-II Weyl semimetal. While surging research activities were devoted to the understanding of its bulk properties, it remains a substantial challenge to explore the pristine physics in atomically thin WTe 2 . Here, we report a successful synthesis of mono- to few-layer WTe 2 via chemical vapor deposition. Using atomically thin WTe 2 nanosheets, we discover a previously inaccessible ambipolar behavior that enables the tunability of magnetoconductance of few-layer WTe 2 from weak antilocalization to weak localization, revealing a strong electrical field modulation of the spin-orbit interaction under perpendicular magnetic field. These appealing physical properties unveiled in this study clearly identify WTe 2 as a promising platform for exotic electronic and spintronic device applications.

  9. New Positive and Negative Hierarchies of Integrable Differential-Difference Equations and Conservation Laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xinyue; Zhao Qiulan

    2009-01-01

    Two hierarchies of nonlinear integrable positive and negative lattice equations are derived from a discrete spectral problem. The two lattice hierarchies are proved to have discrete zero curvature representations associated with a discrete spectral problem, which also shows that the positive and negative hierarchies correspond to positive and negative power expansions of Lax operators with respect to the spectral parameter, respectively. Moreover, the integrable lattice models in the positive hierarchy are of polynomial type, and the integrable lattice models in the negative hierarchy are of rational type. Further, we construct infinite conservation laws about the positive hierarchy.

  10. Nonlinear acoustic waves in nonthermal plasmas with negative and positive dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verheest, Frank

    2009-01-01

    Using a Sagdeev pseudopotential formalism where nonlinear structures are stationary in a co-moving frame, large dust-acoustic solitary waves and double layers have been studied in plasmas with negative and positive cold dust, in the presence of nonthermal electrons and ions. This has been done in a systematic way, to delimit the compositional parameter space in which such modes can be found. The existence domain of negative/positive solitary waves is limited by infinite compression of the negative/positive dust or by the occurrence of negative/positive double layers. These double layers require a sufficient nonthermality of the electrons/ions and the presence of enough positive/negative dust. There are parameter ranges where both negative and positive solitary structures coexist, sometimes both of the solitary wave type, sometimes one a solitary wave and the other a double layer. Typical Sagdeev pseudopotentials and solitary wave profiles have been presented.

  11. Relation of Positive and Negative Parenting to Children’s Depressive Symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Dallaire, Danielle H.; Pineda, Ashley Q.; Cole, David A.; Ciesla, Jeffrey A.; Jacquez, Farrah; LaGrange, Beth; Bruce, Alanna E.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the combined and cumulative effects of supportive–positive and harsh–negative parenting behaviors on children’s depressive symptoms. A diverse sample of 515 male and female elementary and middle school students (ages 7 to 11) and their parents provided reports of the children’s depressive symptoms. Parents provided self-reports of supportive–positive and harsh–negative parenting behaviors. Structural equation modeling indicated that supportive–positive and harsh–negative p...

  12. The Relationship Between Trust-in-God, Positive and Negative Affect, and Hope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadardi, Javad S; Azadi, Zeinab

    2017-06-01

    We aimed to test the relationships between Trust-in-God, positive and negative affect, and feelings of hope. A sample of university students (N = 282, 50 % female) completed the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule, the Adult Dispositional Hope Scale, and a Persian measure of Trust-in-God for Muslims. The results of a series of hierarchical regression analyses indicated that Trust-in-God was positively associated with participants' scores for hope and positive affect but was negatively associated with their scores for negative affect. The results support the relationship between Trust-in-God and indices of mental health.

  13. ROTATION RATE DIFFERENCES OF POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE SOLAR MAGNETIC FIELDS BETWEEN ±60° LATITUDES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, X. J.; Xie, J. L., E-mail: shixiangjun@ynao.ac.cn [Yunnan Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650011 (China)

    2015-04-15

    Based on a cross-correlation analysis of the Carrington synoptic maps of solar photospheric magnetic fields from Carrington Rotations Nos. 1625 to 2135 (from 1975 February to 2013 March), the sidereal rotation rates of the positive and negative magnetic fields in the latitude range of ±60° are obtained, and the rotation rate differences between them are investigated. The time–latitude distribution of the rate differences is shown, which looks like a butterfly diagram at the low and middle latitudes. For comparison, the time–latitude distribution of the longitudinally averaged photospheric magnetic fields is shown. We conclude that the magnetic fields having the same polarity as the leading sunspots at a given hemisphere rotate faster than those exhibiting the opposite polarity at low and middle latitudes. However, at higher latitudes, the magnetic fields having the same polarity as the leading sunspots at a given hemisphere do not always rotate faster than those with the opposite polarity. Furthermore, the relationship between the rotation rate differences and solar magnetic fields is studied through a correlation analysis. Our result shows that the correlation coefficients between them reach maximum values at 13° (14°) latitude in the northern (southern) hemisphere, and change sign at 28° latitude in both hemispheres, then reach their minimum values at 58° (53°) latitude in the northern (southern) hemisphere.

  14. Effects of hammock positioning in behavioral status, vital signs, and pain in preterms: a case series study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesus, Valdecira Rodrigues de; Oliveira, Pricila Mara Novais de; Azevedo, Vivian Mara Gonçalves de Oliveira

    2018-03-15

    The hammock positioning within the incubators simulates the intrauterine environment, however, there is little evidence of its benefits and possible risks. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of hammock positioning on behavioral status, vital signs, and pain in very low birth weight preterm newborns. This is a quasi-experimental/case series study in which premature infants (<1500g) were positioned in supine for one hour in a hammock. The preterm newborns were assessed 10min before, during (2, 20, 40, and 60min), and 10min after hammock positioning with the Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale, vital signs and pain by the Neonatal Facial Coding System. 28 preterm infants between 28 and 36 weeks of gestational age were evaluated. Regarding the behavioral state, the preterm newborns progressively evolved to light or deep sleep during hammock positioning. There was a statistically significant reduction of the heart and respiratory rate from 2 to 60th minute in a hammock, which was maintained after the positioning. The oxygen saturation remained within normal values. No changes in pain scores were observed. The hammock positioning can be considered a safe method of positioning that can be used to reduce the stress levels in very low birth weight preterm newborns. We did not observe worsening in either pain or vital signs. Copyright © 2018 Associação Brasileira de Pesquisa e Pós-Graduação em Fisioterapia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  15. Positive and negative emotional eating have different associations with overeating and binge eating: Construction and validation of the Positive-Negative Emotional Eating Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultson, Hedvig; Kukk, Katrin; Akkermann, Kirsti

    2017-09-01

    Research on emotional eating mostly focuses on negative emotions. Much less is known about how positive emotions relate to overeating and binge eating (BE). The aim of the current study was to construct a scale for positive and negative emotional eating and to assess its predictive validity. In study 1, the Positive-Negative Emotional Eating Scale (PNEES) was constructed and tested on 531 women, who also completed Eating Disorders Assessment Scale (EDAS). Results showed that a two-factor model constituting Positive emotional eating (PNEES-P) and Negative emotional eating (PNEES-N) fit the data well. PNEES-N also showed good convergent validity in assessing binge eating, correlating highly with EDAS subscale Binge eating. Further, a path analysis showed that after controlling for the mediating effect of PNEES-N, PNEES-P continued to significantly predict binge eating. In study 2 (N = 60), experience sampling method was used to assess overeating and BE in the natural environment. Palmtop computers were given to participants for a three-day study period that prompted them with questions regarding emotional experience, overeating, and BE. Results indicated that PNEES-P significantly predicted overeating, whereas PNEES-N predicted overeating and BE episodes only in a subsample of women who had experienced at least one overeating or BE episode. Thus, positive and negative emotional eating might have different relations with overeating and BE, with the latter being more characteristic of the severity/frequency of overeating and BE. New assessment tools that in addition to negative emotional eating also address positive emotional eating could be of potential help in planning intervention. Further, the tendency to overeat in response to positive emotions could be integrated into current models of eating disorders, especially when addressing relapse prevention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Memory for media: investigation of false memories for negatively and positively charged public events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Stephen; Taylor, Kristian; Ten Brinke, Leanne

    2008-01-01

    Despite a large body of false memory research, little has addressed the potential influence of an event's emotional content on susceptibility to false recollections. The Paradoxical Negative Emotion (PNE) hypothesis predicts that negative emotion generally facilitates memory but also heightens susceptibility to false memories. Participants were asked whether they could recall 20 "widely publicised" public events (half fictitious) ranging in emotional valence, with or without visual cues. Participants recalled a greater number of true negative events (M=3.31/5) than true positive (M=2.61/5) events. Nearly everyone (95%) came to recall at least one false event (M=2.15 false events recalled). Further, more than twice as many participants recalled any false negative (90%) compared to false positive (41.7%) events. Negative events, in general, were associated with more detailed memories and false negative event memories were more detailed than false positive event memories. Higher dissociation scores were associated with false recollections of negative events, specifically.

  17. Understanding and overcoming the “positive profits with negative surplus-value” paradox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GUSTAVO DAOU LUCAS

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This paper explains the “positive profits with negative surplus-value” example of Steedman (1975 and shows that while in joint production systems individual labour values can be negative, the claim that the total labour embodied in the surplus product of the economy (surplus-value can also be negative is based on assumptions that have no economic meaning (such as negative activity levels.The paper also provides a way to measure the surplus-value of joint production systems which overcomes the problems of the traditional concept and restates the proposition that a positive amount of surplus labour is a necessary condition for positive profits.

  18. Impact of emotional intelligence on risk behaviour with mediating effect of positive and negative affect

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, I. (Iqra)

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Emotional intelligence and risk taking behaviour are considered as significant factors through which people engage in organizations and in daily life. This dissertation formulates the linkage between emotional intelligence, positive affect, negative affect and risk taking behavior. The underlying principle of this study was to develop a sense of relationship between emotional intelligence, positive affect, negative...

  19. Does Accessibility of Positive and Negative Schema Vary by Child Physical Abuse Risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouch, Julie L.; Risser, Heather J.; Skowronski, John J.; Milner, Joel S.; Farc, Magdalena M.; Irwin, Lauren M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To examine differences in accessibility of positive and negative schema in parents with high and low risk for child physical abuse (CPA). Methods: This study combined picture priming and lexical decision making methods to assess the accessibility of positive and negative words following presentation of child and adult faces. The child…

  20. Reliability Generalization: An Examination of the Positive Affect and Negative Affect Schedule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leue, Anja; Lange, Sebastian

    2011-01-01

    The assessment of positive affect (PA) and negative affect (NA) by means of the Positive Affect and Negative Affect Schedule has received a remarkable popularity in the social sciences. Using a meta-analytic tool--namely, reliability generalization (RG)--population reliability scores of both scales have been investigated on the basis of a random…

  1. Perfectionism, Performance, and State Positive Affect and Negative Affect after a Classroom Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flett, Gordon L.; Blankstein, Kirk R.; Hewitt, Paul L.

    2009-01-01

    The current study examined the associations among trait dimensions of perfectionism, test performance, and levels of positive and negative affect after taking a test. A sample of 92 female university students completed the Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale one week prior to an actual class test. Measures of positive affect and negative affect…

  2. Personality Traits and Positive/Negative Affects: An Analysis of Meaning in Life among Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isik, Serife; Üzbe, Nazife

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the impact of positive and negative affects and personality traits on meaning in life in an adult population. The sample consisted of 335 subjects: 190 females and 145 males, and a Meaning in Life Questionnaire (MLQ), positive and negative schedule (PANAS), and adjective-based personality scale (ABPT) were used in the research.…

  3. Positive and Negative Social Exchanges Experienced by Fathers and Mothers of Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey, Emily J.; Dubois, Lindsay; Hartley, Sigan L.

    2018-01-01

    When faced with child-related challenges associated with autism spectrum disorder, positive and negative social exchanges may be critical to parents' psychological well-being. This study examined the types and sources of positive and negative social exchanges reported by mothers and fathers of children with autism spectrum disorder and their…

  4. How psychological and behavioral team states change during positive and negative momentum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Den Hartigh, Ruud J.R.; Gernigon, Christophe; Van Yperen, Nico W.; Marin, Ludovic; Van Geert, Paul

    In business and sports, teams often experience periods of positive and negative momentum while pursuing their goals. However, researchers have not yet been able to provide insights into how psychological and behavioral states actually change during positive and negative team momentum. In the current

  5. Normative evaluations and frequency expectations regarding positive versus negative outcome allocations between groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blanz, M; Mummendey, A; Otten, S

    1997-01-01

    Data from several recent studies consistently show a positive-negative asymmetry in social discrimination: within a minimal social situation tendencies cowards ingroup favouritism which usually appear in allocations of positively valenced resources are absent in the domain of negatively valenced

  6. Positive, but Not Negative, Facial Expressions Facilitate 3-Month-Olds' Recognition of an Individual Face

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenna, Viola; Proietti, Valentina; Montirosso, Rosario; Turati, Chiara

    2013-01-01

    The current study examined whether and how the presence of a positive or a negative emotional expression may affect the face recognition process at 3 months of age. Using a familiarization procedure, Experiment 1 demonstrated that positive (i.e., happiness), but not negative (i.e., fear and anger) facial expressions facilitate infants' ability to…

  7. The existence of positive solutions for nonlinear boundary system with $p$-Laplacian operator based on sign-changing nonlinearities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuyi Xu

    2010-12-01

    (\\phi_{p_1}(u''+a_1(tf(u,v=0, 01, i=1,2$. We obtain some sufficient conditions for the existence of two positive solutions or infinitely many positive solutions by using a fixed-point theorem in cones. Especially, the nonlinear terms $f,g $ are allowed to change sign. The conclusions essentially extend and improve the known results.

  8. Case-positive versus case-negative designs for low-rate lithium thionyl chloride cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahy, T. X.

    1982-03-01

    Case polarity design choices are discussed. Two examples of case-negative designs are presented. One battery is thionyl chloride limited and the other is lithium limited. The case-positive design is thionyl chloride limited. It is found that the case-positive/case-negative design consideration does not seem to have much bearing on storage. However, during low rate discharge, the case-negative cells show a steadily decreasing capacity as you go to lower and lower rates.

  9. Processing negative valence of word pairs that include a positive word.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itkes, Oksana; Mashal, Nira

    2016-09-01

    Previous research has suggested that cognitive performance is interrupted by negative relative to neutral or positive stimuli. We examined whether negative valence affects performance at the word or phrase level. Participants performed a semantic decision task on word pairs that included either a negative or a positive target word. In Experiment 1, the valence of the target word was congruent with the overall valence conveyed by the word pair (e.g., fat kid). As expected, response times were slower in the negative condition relative to the positive condition. Experiment 2 included target words that were incongruent with the overall valence of the word pair (e.g., fat salary). Response times were longer for word pairs whose overall valence was negative relative to positive, even though these word pairs included a positive word. Our findings support the Cognitive Primacy Hypothesis, according to which emotional valence is extracted after conceptual processing is complete.

  10. Translation and interpretation of sign language in the postgraduate context: problematizing positions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Daniel Rodrigues Dinarte

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims, based in sign language translation researches, and at the same time entering discussions with inspiration in contemporary theories on the concept of "deconstruction" (DERRIDA, 2004 DERRIDA e ROUDINESCO, 2004 ARROJO, 1993, to reflect on some aspects concerning to the definition of the role and duties of translators and interpreters. We conceive that deconstruction does not consist in a method to be applied on the linguistic and social phenomena, but a set of political strategies that comes from a speech community which translate texts, and thus put themselves in a translational task performing an act of reading that inserts sign language in the academic linguistic multiplicity.

  11. Creativity as an Attribute of Positive Psychology: The Impact of Positive and Negative Affect on the Creative Personality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charyton, Christine; Hutchison, Shannon; Snow, Lindsay; Rahman, Mohammed A.; Elliott, John O.

    2009-01-01

    Positive psychology explores how optimism can lead to health, happiness, and creativity. However, questions remain as to how affective states influence creativity. Data on creative personality, optimism, pessimism, positive and negative affect, and current and usual happiness ratings were collected on 161 college students enrolled in an…

  12. Negative (but not Positive) Parenting Interacts with Infant Negative Affect to Predict Infant Approach: Evidence of Diathesis-Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzman, Jacob B; Burt, Nicole M; Edwards, Erin S; Rosinski, Leanna D; Bridgett, David J

    2018-01-01

    Temperament by parenting interactions may reflect that individuals with greater risk are more likely to experience negative outcomes in adverse contexts (diathesis-stress) or that these individuals are more susceptible to contextual influences in a 'for better or for worse' pattern (differential susceptibility). Although such interactions have been identified for a variety of child outcomes, prior research has not examined approach characteristics - excitement and approach toward pleasurable activities - in the first year of life. Therefore, the current study investigated whether 6-month maternal reported infant negative affect - a phenotypic marker of risk/susceptibility - interacted with 8-month observed parenting behaviors (positive parenting, negative parenting) to predict 12-month infant behavioral approach. Based a sample of mothers and their infants ( N =150), results indicated that negative parenting was inversely associated with subsequent approach for infants with high, but not low, levels of early negative affect. Similar results did not occur regarding positive parenting. These findings better fit a diathesis-stress model rather than a differential susceptibility model. Implications and limitations of these findings are discussed.

  13. Getting the message across: age differences in the positive and negative framing of health care messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamaskin, Andrea M; Mikels, Joseph A; Reed, Andrew E

    2010-09-01

    Although valenced health care messages influence impressions, memory, and behavior (Levin, Schneider, & Gaeth, 1998) and the processing of valenced information changes with age (Carstensen & Mikels, 2005), these 2 lines of research have thus far been disconnected. This study examined impressions of, and memory for, positively and negatively framed health care messages that were presented in pamphlets to 25 older adults and 24 younger adults. Older adults relative to younger adults rated positive pamphlets more informative than negative pamphlets and remembered a higher proportion of positive to negative messages. However, older adults misremembered negative messages to be positive. These findings demonstrate the age-related positivity effect in health care messages with promise as to the persuasive nature and lingering effects of positive messages. (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  14. A semi-automatic traffic sign detection, classification and positioning system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Creusen, I.M.; Hazelhoff, L.; With, de P.H.N.; Said, A.; Guleryuz, O.G.; Stevenson, R.L.

    2012-01-01

    The availability of large-scale databases containing street-level panoramic images offers the possibility to perform semi-automatic surveying of real-world objects such as traffic signs. These inventories can be performed significantly more efficiently than using conventional methods. Governmental

  15. Promoting success or preventing failure: cultural differences in motivation by positive and negative role models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, Penelope; Marshall, Tara C; Sadler, Pamela

    2005-03-01

    In two studies, cross-cultural differences in reactions to positive and negative role models were examined. The authors predicted that individuals from collectivistic cultures, who have a stronger prevention orientation, would be most motivated by negative role models, who highlight a strategy of avoiding failure; individuals from individualistic cultures, who have a stronger promotion focus, would be most motivated by positive role models, who highlight a strategy of pursuing success. In Study 1, the authors examined participants' reported preferences for positive and negative role models. Asian Canadian participants reported finding negative models more motivating than did European Canadians; self-construals and regulatory focus mediated cultural differences in reactions to role models. In Study 2, the authors examined the impact of role models on the academic motivation of Asian Canadian and European Canadian participants. Asian Canadians were motivated only by a negative model, and European Canadians were motivated only by a positive model.

  16. Characterizing Positive and Negative Emotional Experiences in Young Adults With Borderline Personality Disorder Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Carol; Victor, Sarah E; Klonsky, E David

    2016-09-01

    Some researchers suggest that borderline personality disorder (BPD) is characterized by elevated negative emotion; others argue that BPD involves both reduced positive and increased negative emotion. This study characterizes the emotional experiences of individuals with BPD symptoms in a combined university and community sample. Participants (N = 150) completed a clinical interview assessing BPD symptoms and self-report measures of positive and negative emotion. A subset (n = 106) completed a measure of emotion daily for 2 weeks. Pearson's correlations and multilevel modeling were used to examine the cross-sectional and longitudinal relationships between BPD symptoms and emotions. BPD symptoms were robustly related to increased negative emotion; this relationship remained after accounting for positive emotion. BPD symptoms were weakly related to decreased positive emotion; this relationship was no longer significant after accounting for negative emotion. BPD symptoms predicted higher levels of negative and not positive emotion over 14 days. These patterns held for subscales assessing intensity, frequency, and duration of negative and positive emotions. Findings suggest that individuals with BPD features are chiefly distinguished by elevated negative emotional experience. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Negative and positive urgency may both be risk factors for compulsive buying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Paul; Segrist, Daniel J

    2014-06-01

    Descriptions of compulsive buying often emphasize the roles of negative moods and trait impulsivity in the development of problematic buying habits. Trait impulsivity is sometimes treated as a unidimensional trait in compulsive buying research, but recent factor analyses suggest that impulsivity consists of multiple components that are probably best treated as independent predictors of problem behavior. In order to draw greater attention to the role of positive moods in compulsive buying, in this study we tested whether negative urgency (the tendency to act rashly while in negative moods) and positive urgency (the tendency to act rashly while in positive moods) account for similar amounts of variance in compulsive buying. North American adults (N = 514) completed an online survey containing the Richmond Compulsive Buying Scale (Ridgway, Kukar-Kinney & Monroe, 2008), established measures of positive and negative urgency (Cyders et al., 2007), ad hoc measures of buying-specific positive and negative urgency, measures of extraversion and neuroticism obtained from the International Personality Item Pool (http://ipip.ori.org/), and demographic questions. In several multiple regression analyses, when demographic variables, neuroticism, and extraversion were controlled, positive urgency and negative urgency both emerged as significant predictors of compulsive buying. Whether the two urgency variables were domain-general or buying-specific, they accounted for similar amounts of variance in compulsive buying. Preventing and reducing compulsive buying may require attention not only to the purchasing decisions people make while in negative states, but also to the purchasing decisions they make while in positive states.

  18. The outcome of infected total knee arthroplasty: culture-positive versus culture-negative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Hoo; Park, Jang-Won; Kim, Jun-Shik; Kim, Dong-Jin

    2015-10-01

    We studied the outcome in culture-positive and culture-negative infected total knee arthroplasty (TKA). We retrospectively reviewed 140 patients with culture-positive and 102 patients with culture-negative infected TKAs. We determined the infection control rate and clinical outcome after repeated debridement, and repeated 2-stage TKA in the culture-positive and culture-negative groups. The mean follow-up was 9.3 years (range 5-14 years) in the culture-positive group and 10.6 years (5-22) in the culture-negative group. The overall infection control rate was 56 % in both groups after the first treatment. The overall infection control rate was 90 % in the culture-positive group and 95 % in the culture-negative group. A functional knee was obtained in 90 % in the culture-positive group and 95 % in the culture-negative group. The data suggest that treatment according to the types of infection in both culture-positive and culture-negative groups after TKA controlled infection and maintained functional TKA with a firm level of fixation for most patients. Repeated debridement and repeated two-stage exchange TKA further improved infection control rates after the initial treatment and increased the likelihood of maintaining a functional TKA.

  19. How psychological and behavioral team states change during positive and negative momentum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Den Hartigh, Ruud J R; Gernigon, Christophe; Van Yperen, Nico W; Marin, Ludovic; Van Geert, Paul L C

    2014-01-01

    In business and sports, teams often experience periods of positive and negative momentum while pursuing their goals. However, researchers have not yet been able to provide insights into how psychological and behavioral states actually change during positive and negative team momentum. In the current study we aimed to provide these insights by introducing an experimental dynamical research design. Rowing pairs had to compete against a virtual opponent on rowing ergometers, while a screen in front of the team broadcasted the ongoing race. The race was manipulated so that the team's rowing avatar gradually progressed (positive momentum) or regressed (negative momentum) in relation to the victory. The participants responded verbally to collective efficacy and task cohesion items appearing on the screen each minute. In addition, effort exertion and interpersonal coordination were continuously measured. Our results showed negative psychological changes (perceptions of collective efficacy and task cohesion) during negative team momentum, which were stronger than the positive changes during positive team momentum. Moreover, teams' exerted efforts rapidly decreased during negative momentum, whereas positive momentum accompanied a more variable and adaptive sequence of effort exertion. Finally, the interpersonal coordination was worse during negative momentum than during positive momentum. These results provide the first empirical insights into actual team momentum dynamics, and demonstrate how a dynamical research approach significantly contributes to current knowledge on psychological and behavioral processes.

  20. Brain activity elicited by positive and negative feedback in preschool-aged children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqin Mai

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the processing of positive vs. negative feedback in children aged 4-5 years, we devised a prize-guessing game that is analogous to gambling tasks used to measure feedback-related brain responses in adult studies. Unlike adult studies, the feedback-related negativity (FRN elicited by positive feedback was as large as that elicited by negative feedback, suggesting that the neural system underlying the FRN may not process feedback valence in early childhood. In addition, positive feedback, compared with negative feedback, evoked a larger P1 over the occipital scalp area and a larger positive slow wave (PSW over the right central-parietal scalp area. We believe that the PSW is related to emotional arousal and the intensive focus on positive feedback that is present in the preschool and early school years has adaptive significance for both cognitive and emotional development during this period.

  1. Coping, goal adjustment, and positive and negative affect in definitive infertility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraaij, V.; Garnefski, N.; Schroevers, M.J.

    2009-01-01

    The relationships between coping strategies, goal adjustment and positive and negative affect were studied in 83 definitive involuntary childless people. Self-report questionnaires were filled out. The findings suggested that positive ways to handle the childlessness were related to positive affect,

  2. Optimism and positive and negative feelings in parents of young children with developmental delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz-Nelson, E; McIntyre, L L

    2017-07-01

    Parents' positive and negative feelings about their young children influence both parenting behaviour and child problem behaviour. Research has not previously examined factors that contribute to positive and negative feelings in parents of young children with developmental delay (DD). The present study sought to examine whether optimism, a known protective factor for parents of children with DD, was predictive of positive and negative feelings for these parents. Data were collected from 119 parents of preschool-aged children with developmental delay. Two separate hierarchical linear regression analyses were conducted to determine if optimism significantly predicted positive feelings and negative feelings and whether optimism moderated relations between parenting stress and parent feelings. Increased optimism was found to predict increased positive feelings and decreased negative feelings after controlling for child problem behaviour and parenting stress. In addition, optimism was found to moderate the relation between parenting stress and positive feelings. Results suggest that optimism may impact how parents perceive their children with DD. Future research should examine how positive and negative feelings impact positive parenting behaviour and the trajectory of problem behaviour specifically for children with DD. © 2017 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. A Two-Factor Model Better Explains Heterogeneity in Negative Symptoms: Evidence from the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Seon-Kyeong; Choi, Hye-Im; Park, Soohyun; Jaekal, Eunju; Lee, Ga-Young; Cho, Young Il; Choi, Kee-Hong

    2016-01-01

    Acknowledging separable factors underlying negative symptoms may lead to better understanding and treatment of negative symptoms in individuals with schizophrenia. The current study aimed to test whether the negative symptoms factor (NSF) of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) would be better represented by expressive and experiential deficit factors, rather than by a single factor model, using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Two hundred and twenty individuals with schizophrenia spectrum disorders completed the PANSS; subsamples additionally completed the Brief Negative Symptom Scale (BNSS) and the Motivation and Pleasure Scale-Self-Report (MAP-SR). CFA results indicated that the two-factor model fit the data better than the one-factor model; however, latent variables were closely correlated. The two-factor model's fit was significantly improved by accounting for correlated residuals between N2 (emotional withdrawal) and N6 (lack of spontaneity and flow of conversation), and between N4 (passive social withdrawal) and G16 (active social avoidance), possibly reflecting common method variance. The two NSF factors exhibited differential patterns of correlation with subdomains of the BNSS and MAP-SR. These results suggest that the PANSS NSF would be better represented by a two-factor model than by a single-factor one, and support the two-factor model's adequate criterion-related validity. Common method variance among several items may be a potential source of measurement error under a two-factor model of the PANSS NSF.

  4. The Contributions of Positive and Negative Affect to Emotional Well-Being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randy Larsen

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the definitions of subjective well-being have been reviewed with a focus on its emotional core, which we consider to be the ratio of positive to negative affect over time. The reviewed evidence showed that negative emotions tend to be of longer duration than positive and that the NA system produces stronger emotional responses than the PA system. Also, a variety of experimental results show that negative stimuli make unique demands on cognitive resources (particularly perception and attention compared to positive stimuli. The evidence that the negative affect system produces stronger affective output, per unit input, than the positive affect system, is a phenomenon known as negativity bias. I also went so far as to argue that negativity exceeds positivity by a factor of pi (3.14 and that efforts to speed adaptation to negative events may be more important to overall SWB then efforts to prolong responses to positive events (Larsen and Prizmic, 2008. The fact that negativity is stronger than positivity, combined with the notion of differential adaptation (people adapt faster to good events than to bad events, creates the conditions that drive the hedonic treadmill. However, most people are, to some degree, able to overcome the psychological forces of the hedonic treadmill and maintain at least a modicum of emotional well-being (Biswas-Diener, Vitterso, & Diener, 2005. It is likely that the ability called "emotional intelligence" refers in large part to the capacity to manage negative affect following unpleasant or stressful events (Larsen & Learner, 2006. Moreover, such an ability is likely to be made up of particular behaviors and strategies that each contributes specifically to the management of negative emotions (Larsen & Prizmic, 2004.

  5. Metacognition in first-episode psychosis and its association with positive and negative symptom profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trauelsen, Anne Marie; Gumley, Andrew; Jansen, Jens Einar; Pedersen, Marlene Buch; Nielsen, Hanne-Grethe Lyse; Trier, Christopher Høier; Haahr, Ulrik H; Simonsen, Erik

    2016-04-30

    There is growing evidence that metacognitive abilities which include the ability to synthesize knowledge regarding mental states in self and others and use this ability to solve problems are impaired in non-affective psychosis and associated with positive and negative symptom severity. We sought to (a) investigate the severity of metacognitive impairments in first-episode psychosis (FEP) compared to non-clinical controls and (b) explore associations with positive and negative symptom profiles. Ninety-seven people with FEP were compared to 101 control persons. Metacognition was assessed with interviews and the Metacognitive assessment scale-abbreviated. Four groups based on positive and negative symptoms were identified by cluster analysis and compared on metacognition, childhood adversities, duration of untreated psychosis and premorbid social and academic adjustment. Those with high levels of negative symptoms had poorer metacognitive abilities. Those with high positive and low negative symptoms did not have poorer metacognitive abilities than those with low positive and negative symptoms. None of the other predictors differed between the groups. The FEP group had poorer metacognitive abilities than the control group. Inclusion of metacognition in psychosis models may improve our understanding of negative symptoms, while previous findings of a relation with positive symptoms may have been confounded. Implications for current interventions are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Chorioamnionitis in pregnancy: a comparative study of HIV-positive and HIV-negative parturients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocheke, Amaka N; Agaba, Patricia A; Imade, Godwin E; Silas, Olugbenga A; Ajetunmobi, Olanrewaju I; Echejoh, Godwins; Ekere, Clement; Sendht, Ayuba; Bitrus, James; Agaba, Emmanuel I; Sagay, Atiene S

    2016-03-01

    Chorioamnionitis is an important risk factor for vertical transmission of HIV/AIDS. We compared the prevalence and correlates of histologic chorioamnionitis (HCA) in HIV-positive and HIV-negative pregnant women. HIV-positive and -negative parturients were interviewed, examined and had their placentas examined histologically for chorioamnionitis. Data regarding HIV were also retrieved from their hospital records. A total of 298 parturients (150 HIV positive and 148 HIV negative) were enrolled. The two groups were similar in socio-demographic and obstetric parameters except for age. The prevalence of HCA was 57.1% in HIV-positive women and 61.6% in HIV-negative women (p = 0.43). HCA staging was associated with the number of intrapartum vaginal examinations in HIV-positive subjects and nulliparity in HIV-negative subjects. The number of intrapartum vaginal examinations and coitus in the week prior to delivery significantly affected the grade of HCA in HIV-negative subjects. The prevalence of HCA in both HIV-positive and HIV-negative is high. Most variables did not affect the occurrence of HCA in both groups studied except number of intrapartum examinations, coitus in the preceding one week and nulliparity, which were related to severity of the disease. © The Author(s) 2016.

  7. Human amygdala response to dynamic facial expressions of positive and negative surprise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrticka, Pascal; Lordier, Lara; Bediou, Benoît; Sander, David

    2014-02-01

    Although brain imaging evidence accumulates to suggest that the amygdala plays a key role in the processing of novel stimuli, only little is known about its role in processing expressed novelty conveyed by surprised faces, and even less about possible interactive encoding of novelty and valence. Those investigations that have already probed human amygdala involvement in the processing of surprised facial expressions either used static pictures displaying negative surprise (as contained in fear) or "neutral" surprise, and manipulated valence by contextually priming or subjectively associating static surprise with either negative or positive information. Therefore, it still remains unresolved how the human amygdala differentially processes dynamic surprised facial expressions displaying either positive or negative surprise. Here, we created new artificial dynamic 3-dimensional facial expressions conveying surprise with an intrinsic positive (wonderment) or negative (fear) connotation, but also intrinsic positive (joy) or negative (anxiety) emotions not containing any surprise, in addition to neutral facial displays either containing ("typical surprise" expression) or not containing ("neutral") surprise. Results showed heightened amygdala activity to faces containing positive (vs. negative) surprise, which may either correspond to a specific wonderment effect as such, or to the computation of a negative expected value prediction error. Findings are discussed in the light of data obtained from a closely matched nonsocial lottery task, which revealed overlapping activity within the left amygdala to unexpected positive outcomes. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  8. Measuring Positive and Negative Occupational States (PNOSI: Structural Confirmation of a New Belgian Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Barbier

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article reports on the validation of the Positive and Negative Occupational States Inventory (PNOSI, a new tool for measuring positive and negative occupational states. Three goals were defined: testing the structural validity of the PNOSI, testing its stability, and testing its convergent and discriminant validity with engagement, burnout, commitment, and workaholism. Data were collected in seven different companies (more than 16,000 participants. The factorial validity of the PNOSI was demonstrated using covariance structure analyses. A two-factor model with a negative occupational state factor and a positive occupational state factor fitted the data better than an alternative one-factor model. The two corresponding scales demonstrated good internal consistency. The results confirmed that positive and negative occupational states are distinct constructs and should be measured with different items. Convergent and discriminant validity with related constructs, namely engagement, burnout, commitment, and workaholism, were also demonstrated. The conclusion is that the PNOSI has good psychometric properties.

  9. Associations between positive and negative affect and 12-month physical disorders in a national sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiser, Eric B

    2012-06-01

    Associations between positive and negative affect and a range of 12-month physical disorders were investigated in the Midlife Development in the United States Survey, a nationally representative sample of 3,032 adults ages 25-74. These associations were examined, controlling for relevant sociodemographic and psychiatric covariates. High positive affect was associated with decreased risk of physical disorders, whereas high negative affect was associated with increased risk. However, associations between positive affect and physical disorders were partially attenuated following adjustment for concurrent negative affect. Additionally, high affect balance was associated with decreased risk of physical disorders before and after adjustments. These findings underscore the relevance of affective disposition in health status, suggesting that both positive and negative affect may serve as viable health risk parameters.

  10. Differential Effects of Positive versus Negative Self-Involving Counselor Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remer, Pam; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Investigated the effects of positive and negative counselor disclosure using typescripts of hypothetical counseling interviews. Results indicated impact of condition was mixed, with each having some desirable effects. (PAS)

  11. OSCILLATION FOR NEUTRAL DELAY DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION WITH POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE COEFFICIENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, a new oscillating result is established for the first order neutral delay differential equation with positive and negative coefficients, which improves and generalizes several results in the literatures.

  12. The role of negative and positive memories in fear of dental treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staugaard, Søren Risløv; Jøssing, Marit; Krohn, Christina

    2017-01-01

    is influenced by memories of positive and negative childhood experiences with dental care. More specifically, we predicted that the emotional impact, sense of reliving, rehearsal, and belief in the accuracy of a negative treatment memory would be associated with increased dental fear, while positive treatment...... memories would show the opposite relation. Methods One hundred thirty-six young adults leaving childhood dental care responded to a online measures of dental fear, the most negative and most positive memory of dental treatment, and symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder. Results Negative memories...... of events that involved pain and dentist behaviors such as impatience or scolding were frequently described and significantly associated with dental fear and symptoms of posttraumatic stress. Positive memories were more frequent, but did not show a consistent relationship with dental fear. Conclusions...

  13. Avoiding negative vs. achieving positive outcomes in hard and prosperous economic times

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Millet, K.; Lamey, L.; Van den Bergh, B.

    2012-01-01

    Three studies suggest that business cycle fluctuations trigger distinct motivational orientations that selectively affect economic judgment and decision making. Economic contractions induce avoidance motivation and affect negative economic sentiment, but leave approach motivation and positive

  14. On the relationship between positive and negative affect: Their correlation and their co-occurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Jeff T; Hershfield, Hal E; Stastny, Bradley J; Hester, Neil

    2017-03-01

    Understanding the nature of emotional experience requires understanding the relationship between positive and negative affect. Two particularly important aspects of that relationship are the extent to which positive and negative affect are correlated with one another and the extent to which they co-occur. Some researchers have assumed that weak negative correlations imply greater co-occurrence (i.e., more mixed emotions) than do strong negative correlations, but others have noted that correlations may imply very little about co-occurrence. We investigated the relationship between the correlation between positive and negative affect and co-occurrence. Participants in each of 2 samples provided moment-to-moment happiness and sadness ratings as they watched an evocative film and listened to music. Results indicated (a) that 4 measures of the correlation between positive and negative affect were quite highly related to 1 another; (b) that the strength of the correlation between measures of mixed emotions varied considerably; (c) that correlational measures were generally (but not always) weakly correlated with mixed emotion measures; and (d) that bittersweet stimuli consistently led to elevations in mixed emotion measures but did not consistently weaken the correlation between positive and negative affect. Results highlight that the correlation between positive and negative affect and their co-occurrence are distinct aspects of the relationship between positive and negative affect. Such insight helps clarify the implications of existing work on age-related and cultural differences in emotional experience and sets the stage for greater understanding of the experience of mixed emotions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Quadrature detection for the separation of the signals of positive and negative ions in fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schweikhard, Lutz; Drader, Jared J.; Shi, Stone D.-H.; Hendrickson, Christopher L.; Marshall, Alan G.

    2002-01-01

    Positive and negative ions may be confined simultaneously in a nested open cylindrical Malmberg-Penning trap. However, ion charge sign cannot be distinguished by conventional dipolar (linearly-polarized) detection with a single pair of opposed electrodes. Here, the signals from each of two orthogonal pairs of opposed detection electrodes are acquired simultaneously and stored as real and imaginary parts of mathematically complex data. Complex Fourier transformation yields separate spectra for positive and negative ions. For a fullerene sample, experimental quadrature detection yields C 60 + and C 60 - signals separated by ∼1440 u rather than by the mass of two electrons, ∼0.001 u in conventional dipolar detection

  16. Negativity and positivity effects in person perception and inference: Ability versus morality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martijn, A.C.; Spears, R.; van der Pligt, J.; Jakobs, E.

    1992-01-01

    Examined, in 2 experiments involving 190 undergraduates, negativity and positivity effects in trait inferences and impression formation. In Exp 1, Ss made trait inferences of actors in different behavioral instances. Results support the prediction that negative behavior is more informative for

  17. NEGATIVITY AND POSITIVITY EFFECTS IN PERSON PERCEPTION AND INFERENCE : ABILITY VERSUS MORALITY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MARTIJN, C; SPEARS, R; VAN DER PLIGT, J; JAKOBS, E

    1992-01-01

    The present paper deals with negativity and positivity effects in trait inferences and impression formation. In the first experiment we tested the suggestion of Skowronski and Carlston (1987) that in the domain of morality negative information is more diagnostic, will therefore receive more weight

  18. Relational aggression, positive urgency and negative urgency: predicting alcohol use and consequences among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimaldi, Elizabeth M; Napper, Lucy E; LaBrie, Joseph W

    2014-09-01

    Research on relational aggression (indirect and social means of inflicting harm) has previously focused on adolescent populations. The current study extends this research by exploring both the frequency of perpetrating and being the target of relational aggression as it relates to alcohol use outcomes in a college population. Further, this study examines whether positive urgency (e.g., acting impulsively in response to positive emotions) and negative urgency (e.g., acting impulsively in response to negative emotions) moderate the relationship between relational aggression and alcohol outcomes. In this study, 245 college students (65.7% female) completed an online survey. Results indicated greater frequency of perpetrating relational aggression, higher levels of positive urgency, or higher levels of negative urgency was associated with more negative consequences. Further, negative urgency moderated the relationship between frequency of perpetrating aggression and consequences such that aggression was more strongly associated with consequences for those high in urgency. Counter to the adolescent literature, the frequency of being the target of aggression was not associated with more alcohol use. These findings suggest that perpetrators of relational aggression may be at particular risk for negative alcohol-related consequences when they act impulsively in response to negative, but not positive, emotions. These students may benefit from interventions exploring alternative ways to cope with negative emotions.

  19. Momentary positive and negative affect preceding marijuana use events in youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrier, Lydia A; Ross, Craig S; Blood, Emily A

    2014-09-01

    ABSTRACT. among young people. This study examined how positive and negative affect differ before marijuana use compared with other times. Forty medical outpatients ages 15-24 years who used marijuana recreationally at least twice a week (M = 18.7 years; 58% female) reported momentary positive affect, negative affect, companionship, perceived ease of obtaining marijuana, and marijuana use several times a day for 2 weeks on a handheld computer. Mean momentary positive affect and negative affect scores in the 24 hours leading up to a marijuana use event (n = 294) were compared with affect scores in times further from subsequent use. Generalized estimating equation models considered as potential moderators perceived ease of obtaining marijuana and being with friends. Positive affect did not differ in the 24 hours before marijuana use compared with times further before use. Negative affect was significantly higher before marijuana use compared with other times. Being with friends and perceived easy marijuana availability did not moderate the associations. The association between negative affect and subsequent marijuana use was attenuated when negative affect was examined only for the moment just before use, suggesting that use may follow a period of increased negative affect. The findings support an affect regulation model for marijuana use among frequently using youth. Specifically, these youth may use marijuana to manage increased negative affect.

  20. The Systematic Use of Positive and Negative Consequences in Managing Classroom Encopresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Thomas W.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    This study reports a successful classroom intervention program which was designed to curb encopresis. It used positive consequences in combination with negative consequences, rather than negative consequences alone. Also it utilized a reversal strategy to evalulate the efficacy of the treatment variables. (Author)

  1. Does accessibility of positive and negative schema vary by child physical abuse risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouch, Julie L; Risser, Heather J; Skowronski, John J; Milner, Joel S; Farc, Magdalena M; Irwin, Lauren M

    2010-11-01

    To examine differences in accessibility of positive and negative schema in parents with high and low risk for child physical abuse (CPA). This study combined picture priming and lexical decision making methods to assess the accessibility of positive and negative words following presentation of child and adult faces. The child and adult faces depicted positive, ambiguous, and negative affective valences. The sample included 67 (51 low and 16 high CPA risk) general population parents. CPA risk status was associated with accessibility of positive/negative words only following priming with faces of the opposite affective valence. More specifically, high CPA risk parents were slower to respond to positive (negative) words following priming with negative (positive) faces. Exploratory analyses indicated that this pattern of findings was more clearly apparent when picture primes involved adult faces. The present findings suggest that high and low CPA risk parents differ in how they process affectively incongruent information. Research is needed to further examine schema accessibility, as well as to examine whether processes involved in attention and affect integration play a role in CPA risk. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Measuring positive and negative affect in the voiced sounds of African elephants (Loxodonta africana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltis, Joseph; Blowers, Tracy E; Savage, Anne

    2011-02-01

    As in other mammals, there is evidence that the African elephant voice reflects affect intensity, but it is less clear if positive and negative affective states are differentially reflected in the voice. An acoustic comparison was made between African elephant "rumble" vocalizations produced in negative social contexts (dominance interactions), neutral social contexts (minimal social activity), and positive social contexts (affiliative interactions) by four adult females housed at Disney's Animal Kingdom®. Rumbles produced in the negative social context exhibited higher and more variable fundamental frequencies (F(0)) and amplitudes, longer durations, increased voice roughness, and higher first formant locations (F1), compared to the neutral social context. Rumbles produced in the positive social context exhibited similar shifts in most variables (F(0 )variation, amplitude, amplitude variation, duration, and F1), but the magnitude of response was generally less than that observed in the negative context. Voice roughness and F(0) observed in the positive social context remained similar to that observed in the neutral context. These results are most consistent with the vocal expression of affect intensity, in which the negative social context elicited higher intensity levels than the positive context, but differential vocal expression of positive and negative affect cannot be ruled out.

  3. Difficulties in emotion regulation mediate negative and positive affects and craving in alcoholic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosravani, Vahid; Sharifi Bastan, Farangis; Ghorbani, Fatemeh; Kamali, Zoleikha

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the mediating effects of difficulties in emotion regulation (DER) on the relations of negative and positive affects to craving in alcoholic patients. 205 treatment-seeking alcoholic outpatients were included. DER, positive and negative affects as well as craving were evaluated by the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS), the Positive/Negative Affect Scales, and the Obsessive Compulsive Drinking Scale (OCDS) respectively. Clinical factors including depression and severity of alcohol dependence were investigated by the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) respectively. Results revealed that both increased negative affect and decreased positive affect indirectly influenced craving through limited access to emotion regulation strategies. It was concluded that limited access to emotion regulation strategies may be important in predicting craving for alcoholics who experience both increased negative affect and decreased positive affect. This suggests that treatment and prevention efforts focused on increasing positive affect, decreasing negative affect and teaching effective regulation strategies may be critical in reducing craving in alcoholic patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Trait emotional intelligence and mental distress: the mediating role of positive and negative affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Feng; Zhao, Jingjing; You, Xuqun

    2012-01-01

    Over the past decade, emotional intelligence (EI) has received much attention in the literature. Previous studies indicated that higher trait or ability EI was associated with greater mental distress. The present study focused on mediating effects of positive and negative affect on the association between trait EI and mental distress in a sample of Chinese adults. The participants were 726 Chinese adults (384 females) with an age range of 18-60 years. Data were collected by using the Wong Law Emotional Intelligence Scale, the Positive Affect and Negative Affect Scale, and the General Health Questionnaire. Hierarchical regression analysis showed that EI was a significant predictor of positive affect, negative affect and mental distress. Further mediation analysis showed that positive and negative affect acted as partial mediators of the relationship between EI and mental distress. Furthermore, effect contrasts showed that there was no significant difference between the specific indirect effects through positive affect and through negative affect. This result indicated that positive affect and negative affect played an equally important function in the association between EI and distress. The significance and limitations of the results are discussed.

  5. Positive perfectionism, negative perfectionism, and emotional eating: The mediating role of stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hanwei; Li, Jie

    2017-08-01

    The current study examines the different impacts of positive perfectionism and negative perfectionism on individuals' emotional eating, as well as stress as the proposed underlying mediator that explains the abovementioned relationships. Overall, 386 adults in China reported their levels of positive perfectionism, negative perfectionism, perceived stress, and emotional eating behaviors. Results demonstrate that positive perfectionism is negatively associated with emotional eating, while negative perfectionism is positively associated with emotional eating. In addition, stress mediates the relationship between perfectionism and emotional eating. Specifically, positive perfectionism is indirectly related to emotional eating through the mediation of stress, whereas negative perfectionism is related to emotional eating directly and indirectly through the mediation of stress. Findings of the current study indicate that practitioners working with individuals who suffer from emotional eating problems should focus on ways to reduce negative perfectionism while finding approaches that enhance positive perfectionism. With this approach, individuals would experience less stress and, therefore, would be less likely to be involved in emotional eating. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Resilience in Adolescents with Cancer: Association of Coping with Positive and Negative Affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Lexa K; Bettis, Alexandra H; Gruhn, Meredith A; Gerhardt, Cynthia A; Vannatta, Kathryn; Compas, Bruce E

    2017-10-01

    To examine the prospective association between adolescents' coping with cancer-related stress and observed positive and negative affect during a mother-adolescent interaction task involving discussion of cancer-related stressors. Adolescents (age 10-15 years) self-reported about their coping and affect approximately 2 months after cancer diagnosis. Approximately 3 months later, adolescents and mothers were video recorded having a discussion about cancer, and adolescents were coded for expression of positive affect (positive mood) and negative affect (sadness and anxiety). Adolescents' use of secondary control coping (i.e., acceptance, cognitive reappraisal, and distraction) in response to cancer-related stress predicted higher levels of observed positive affect, but not negative affect, over time. Findings provide support for the importance of coping in the regulation of positive emotions. The potential role of coping in preventive interventions to enhance resilience in adolescents facing cancer-related stress is highlighted.

  7. Humour Use Between Spouses and Positive and Negative Interpersonal Behaviours During Conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorne Campbell

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The present research investigated the relation between the use of positive, negative and instrumental humour in the context of romantic relationships and relational well-being as assessed by positive and negative patterns of conflict resolution behaviour. A sample of 116 heterosexual married couples completed scales of relational humour use as well as conflict resolution behaviour. Behaviour of couples while attempting to resolve a relationship based conflict was also coded by independent raters. Actor-Partner Interdependence Model (APIM analyses showed patterns of actor and partner effects for each type of humour use. Specifically, positive humour use of both partners predicted more positive conflict resolution, whereas negative humour use of both partners predicted less positive conflict resolution. Additionally, instrumental humour use of both partners seemed to predict greater apathy during conflict resolution. Implications for considering couple humor use, assessed for both partners of the dyad, for understanding relational well-being are discussed.

  8. The "common good" phenomenon: Why similarities are positive and differences are negative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Hans; Koch, Alex; Unkelbach, Christian

    2017-04-01

    Positive attributes are more prevalent than negative attributes in the social environment. From this basic assumption, 2 implications that have been overlooked thus far: Positive compared with negative attributes are more likely to be shared by individuals, and people's shared attributes (similarities) are more positive than their unshared attributes (differences). Consequently, similarity-based comparisons should lead to more positive evaluations than difference-based comparisons. We formalized our probabilistic reasoning in a model and tested its predictions in a simulation and 8 experiments (N = 1,181). When participants generated traits about 2 target persons, positive compared with negative traits were more likely to be shared by the targets (Experiment 1a) and by other participants' targets (Experiment 1b). Conversely, searching for targets' shared traits resulted in more positive traits than searching for unshared traits (Experiments 2, 4a, and 4b). In addition, positive traits were more accessible than negative traits among shared traits but not among unshared traits (Experiment 3). Finally, shared traits were only more positive when positive traits were indeed prevalent (Experiments 5 and 6). The current framework has a number of implications for comparison processes and provides a new interpretation of well-known evaluative asymmetries such as intergroup bias and self-superiority effects. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Michael Jackson, Bin Laden and I: functions of positive and negative, public and private flashbulb memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demiray, Burcu; Freund, Alexandra M

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the perceived psychosocial functions of flashbulb memories: It compared positive and negative public flashbulb memories (positive: Bin Laden's death, negative: Michael Jackson's death) with private ones (positive: pregnancy, negative: death of a loved one). A sample of n = 389 young and n = 176 middle-aged adults answered canonical category questions used to identify flashbulb memories and rated the personal significance, the psychological temporal distance, and the functions of each memory (i.e., self-continuity, social-boding, directive functions). Hierarchical regressions showed that, in general, private memories were rated more functional than public memories. Positive and negative private memories were comparable in self-continuity and directionality, but the positive private memory more strongly served social functions. In line with the positivity bias in autobiographical memory, positive flashbulb memories felt psychologically closer than negative ones. Finally, middle-aged adults rated their memories as less functional regarding self-continuity and social-bonding than young adults. Results are discussed regarding the tripartite model of autobiographical memory functions.

  10. Bad is freer than good: Positive-negative asymmetry in attributions of free will.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Gilad; Wong, Kin Fai Ellick; Baumeister, Roy F

    2016-05-01

    Recent findings support the idea that the belief in free will serves as the basis for moral responsibility, thus promoting the punishment of immoral agents. We theorized that free will extends beyond morality to serve as the basis for accountability and the capacity for change more broadly, not only for others but also for the self. Five experiments showed that people attributed higher freedom of will to negative than to positive valence, regardless of morality or intent, for both self and others. In recalling everyday life situations and in classical decision making paradigms, negative actions, negatives outcomes, and negative framing were attributed higher free will than positive ones. Free will attributions were mainly driven by action or outcome valence, but not intent. These findings show consistent support for the idea that free will underlies laypersons' sense-making for accountability and change under negative circumstances. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The asymmetrical force of persuasive knowledge across the positive-negative divide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordmo, Mads; Selart, Marcus

    2015-01-01

    In two experimental studies we explore to what extent the general effects of positive and negative framing also apply to positive and negative persuasion. Our results reveal that negative persuasion induces substantially higher levels of skepticism and awareness of being subjected to a persuasion attempt. Furthermore, we demonstrate that in positive persuasion, more claims lead to stronger persuasion, while in negative persuasion, the numerosity of claims carries no significant effect. We interpret this finding along the lines of a satiety-model of persuasion. Finally, using diluted, or low strength claims in a persuasion attempt, we reveal a significant interaction between dispositional reactance and dilution of claims on persuasion knowledge. The interaction states that diluted claims increase the awareness of being subjected to a persuasion attempt, but only for those with a high dispositional level of reactance.

  12. The asymmetrical force of persuasive knowledge across the positive-negative divide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mads eNordmo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In two experimental studies we explore to what extent the general effects of positive and negative framing also apply to positive and negative persuasion. Our results reveal that negative persuasion induces substantially higher levels of skepticism and awareness of being subjected to a persuasion attempt. Furthermore, we demonstrate that in positive persuasion, more claims lead to stronger persuasion, while in negative persuasion, the numerosity of claims carries no significant effect. We interpret this finding along the lines of a satiety-model of persuasion. Finally, using diluted, or low strength claims in a persuasion attempt, we reveal a significant interaction between dispositional reactance and dilution of claims on persuasion knowledge. The interaction states that diluted claims increase the awareness of being subjected to a persuasion attempt, but only for those with a high dispositional level of reactance.

  13. Giant negative linear compression positively coupled to massive thermal expansion in a metal-organic framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Weizhao; Katrusiak, Andrzej

    2014-07-04

    Materials with negative linear compressibility are sought for various technological applications. Such effects were reported mainly in framework materials. When heated, they typically contract in the same direction of negative linear compression. Here we show that this common inverse relationship rule does not apply to a three-dimensional metal-organic framework crystal, [Ag(ethylenediamine)]NO3. In this material, the direction of the largest intrinsic negative linear compression yet observed in metal-organic frameworks coincides with the strongest positive thermal expansion. In the perpendicular direction, the large linear negative thermal expansion and the strongest crystal compressibility are collinear. This seemingly irrational positive relationship of temperature and pressure effects is explained and the mechanism of coupling of compressibility with expansivity is presented. The positive coupling between compression and thermal expansion in this material enhances its piezo-mechanical response in adiabatic process, which may be used for designing new artificial composites and ultrasensitive measuring devices.

  14. Centrality of event across cultures. Emotionally positive and negative events in Mexico, China, Greenland, and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zaragoza Scherman, Alejandra; Salgado, Sinué; Shao, Zhifang

    During their lifetime, people experience both emotionally positive and negative events. The Centrality of Event Scale (CES; Berntsen and Rubin, 2006; Berntsen, Rubin and Siegler, 2011) measures the extent to which an event is central to someone’s identity and life story. An event becomes central...... disorder (PTSD) and depression symptoms: Participants with higher PTSD and depression scores reported that a traumatic or negative event was highly central to their identity and life story; and 3) A significant number of positive event occurred during participants’ adolescence and early adulthood, while...... an emotional event into our life story and our identity. Key findings: 1) Positive events are rated as more central to identity than negative events; 2) The extent to which highly traumatic and negative events become central to a person’s life story and identity varies as a function of post-traumatic stress...

  15. Anti-musk positive myasthenia gravis and three semiological cardinal signs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André P.C. Matta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Myasthenia gravis (MG is a relatively uncommon disorder with an annual incidence of approximately 7 to 9 new cases per million. The prevalence is about 70 to 165 per million. The prevalence of the disease has been increasing over the past five decades. This is thought to be due to better recognition of the condition, aging of the population, and the longer life span of affected patients. MG causes weakness, predominantly in bulbar, facial, and extra-ocular muscles, often fluctuating over minutes to weeks, in the absence of wasting, sensory loss, or reflex changes. The picture of fluctuating, asymmetric external ophthalmoplegia with ptosis and weak eye closure is virtually diagnostic of myasthenia. We report an atypical MG case with three semiological cardinal signs.

  16. Emotional bias of sleep-dependent processing shifts from negative to positive with aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Bethany J; Schultz, Kurt S; Adams, Sydney; Baran, Bengi; Spencer, Rebecca M C

    2016-09-01

    Age-related memory decline has been proposed to result partially from impairments in memory consolidation over sleep. However, such decline may reflect a shift toward selective processing of positive information with age rather than impaired sleep-related mechanisms. In the present study, young and older adults viewed negative and neutral pictures or positive and neutral pictures and underwent a recognition test after sleep or wake. Subjective emotional reactivity and affect were also measured. Compared with waking, sleep preserved valence ratings and memory for positive but not negative pictures in older adults and negative but not positive pictures in young adults. In older adults, memory for positive pictures was associated with slow wave sleep. Furthermore, slow wave sleep predicted positive affect in older adults but was inversely related to positive affect in young adults. These relationships were strongest for older adults with high memory for positive pictures and young adults with high memory for negative pictures. Collectively, these results indicate preserved but selective sleep-dependent memory processing with healthy aging that may be biased to enhance emotional well-being. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Mind Your Words: Positive and Negative Items Create Method Effects on the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dam, Nicholas T.; Hobkirk, Andrea L.; Danoff-Burg, Sharon; Earleywine, Mitch

    2012-01-01

    Mindfulness, a construct that entails moment-to-moment effort to be aware of present experiences and positive attitudinal features, has become integrated into the sciences. The Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ), one popular measure of mindfulness, exhibits different responses to positively and negatively worded items in nonmeditating…

  18. Doing Gender for Different Reasons: Why Gender Conformity Positively and Negatively Predicts Self-Esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, Jessica J.; Sanchez, Diana T.

    2010-01-01

    Past research has shown that valuing gender conformity is associated with both positive and negative consequences for self-esteem and positive affect. The current research (women, n= 226; men, n= 175) explored these conflicting findings by separating out investing in societal gender ideals from personally valuing one's gender identity ("private…

  19. The Effects of Positive and Negative Mood on Cognition and Motivation in Multimedia Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, Tze Wei; Tan, Su-Mae

    2016-01-01

    The Cognitive-Affective Theory of Learning with Media framework posits that the multimedia learning process is mediated by the learner's mood. Recent studies have shown that positive mood has a facilitating effect on multimedia learning. Though literature has shown that negative mood encourages an individual to engage in a more systematic,…

  20. Subliminal presentation of emotionally negative vs positive primes increases the perceived beauty of target stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Era, Vanessa; Candidi, Matteo; Aglioti, Salvatore Maria

    2015-11-01

    Emotions have a profound influence on aesthetic experiences. Studies using affective priming procedures demonstrate, for example, that inducing a conscious negative emotional state biases the perception of abstract stimuli towards the sublime (Eskine et al. Emotion 12:1071-1074, 2012. doi: 10.1037/a0027200). Moreover, subliminal happy facial expressions have a positive impact on the aesthetic evaluation of abstract art (Flexas et al. PLoS ONE 8:e80154, 2013). Little is known about how emotion influences aesthetic perception of non-abstract, representational stimuli, especially those that are particularly relevant for social behaviour, like human bodies. Here, we explore whether the subliminal presentation of emotionally charged visual primes modulates the explicit subjective aesthetic judgment of body images. Using a forward/backward masking procedure, we presented subliminally positive and negative, arousal-matched, emotional or neutral primes and measured their effect on the explicit evaluation of perceived beauty (high vs low) and emotion (positive vs negative) evoked by abstract and body images. We found that negative primes increased subjective aesthetic evaluations of target bodies or abstract images in comparison with positive primes. No influence of primes on the emotional dimension of the targets was found, thus ruling out an unspecific arousal effect and strengthening the link between emotional valence and aesthetic appreciation. More specifically, that subliminal negative primes increase beauty ratings compared to subliminal positive primes indicates a clear link between negative emotions and positive aesthetic evaluations and vice versa, suggesting a possible link between negative emotion and the experience of sublime in art. The study expands previous research by showing the effect of subliminal negative emotions on the subjective aesthetic evaluation not only of abstract but also of body images.

  1. Twice the negativity bias and half the positivity offset: Evaluative responses to emotional information in depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollan, Jackie K; Hoxha, Denada; Hunnicutt-Ferguson, Kallio; Norris, Catherine J; Rosebrock, Laina; Sankin, Lindsey; Cacioppo, John

    2016-09-01

    Humans have the dual capacity to assign a slightly pleasant valence to neutral stimuli (the positivity offset) to encourage approach behaviors, as well as to assign a higher negative valence to unpleasant images relative to the positive valence to equally arousing and extreme pleasant images (the negativity bias) to facilitate defensive strategies. We conducted an experimental psychopathology study to examine the extent to which the negativity bias and the positivity offset differ in participants with and without major depression.. Forty-one depressed and thirty-six healthy participants were evaluated using a structured clinical interview for DSM-IV Axis I disorders, questionnaires, and a computerized task designed to measure implicit affective responses to unpleasant, neutral, and pleasant stimuli. The negativity bias was significantly higher and the positivity offset was significantly lower in depressed relative to healthy participants.. Entry criteria enrolling medication-free participants with minimal DSM-IV comorbidity may limit generalizability of the findings. This study advances our understanding of the positive and negative valence systems in depression, highlighting the irregularities in the positive valence system.. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Perceived health in lung cancer patients: the role of positive and negative affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Jameson K; Floyd, Andrea R; Duberstein, Paul R

    2012-03-01

    To examine the association of affective experience and health-related quality of life in lung cancer patients, we hypothesized that negative affect would be positively, and positive affect would be negatively, associated with perceived health. A sample of 133 English-speaking lung cancer patients (33% female; mean age = 63.68 years old, SD = 9.37) completed a battery of self-report surveys. Results of our secondary analysis indicate that trait negative affect was significantly associated with poor physical and social functioning, greater role limitations due to emotional problems, greater bodily pain, and poor general health. Positive affect was significantly associated with adaptive social functioning, fewer emotion-based role limitations, and less severe bodily pain. In a full model, positive affect was significantly associated with greater levels of social functioning and general health, over and above the effects of negative affect. Reduction of negative affect is an important therapeutic goal, but the ability to maintain positive affect may result in greater perceived health. Indeed, engagement in behaviors that result in greater state positive affect may, over time, result in dispositional changes and enhancement of quality of life.

  3. Heritability of Intraindividual Mean and Variability of Positive and Negative Affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yao; Plomin, Robert; von Stumm, Sophie

    2016-12-01

    Positive affect (e.g., attentiveness) and negative affect (e.g., upset) fluctuate over time. We examined genetic influences on interindividual differences in the day-to-day variability of affect (i.e., ups and downs) and in average affect over the duration of a month. Once a day, 17-year-old twins in the United Kingdom ( N = 447) rated their positive and negative affect online. The mean and standard deviation of each individual's daily ratings across the month were used as the measures of that individual's average affect and variability of affect. Analyses revealed that the average of negative affect was significantly heritable (.53), but the average of positive affect was not; instead, the latter showed significant shared environmental influences (.42). Fluctuations across the month were significantly heritable for both negative affect (.54) and positive affect (.34). The findings support the two-factor theory of affect, which posits that positive affect is more situational and negative affect is more dispositional.

  4. Cross-cultural decoding of positive and negative non-linguistic emotion vocalizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laukka, Petri; Elfenbein, Hillary Anger; Söder, Nela; Nordström, Henrik; Althoff, Jean; Chui, Wanda; Iraki, Frederick K; Rockstuhl, Thomas; Thingujam, Nutankumar S

    2013-01-01

    Which emotions are associated with universally recognized non-verbal signals?We address this issue by examining how reliably non-linguistic vocalizations (affect bursts) can convey emotions across cultures. Actors from India, Kenya, Singapore, and USA were instructed to produce vocalizations that would convey nine positive and nine negative emotions to listeners. The vocalizations were judged by Swedish listeners using a within-valence forced-choice procedure, where positive and negative emotions were judged in separate experiments. Results showed that listeners could recognize a wide range of positive and negative emotions with accuracy above chance. For positive emotions, we observed the highest recognition rates for relief, followed by lust, interest, serenity and positive surprise, with affection and pride receiving the lowest recognition rates. Anger, disgust, fear, sadness, and negative surprise received the highest recognition rates for negative emotions, with the lowest rates observed for guilt and shame. By way of summary, results showed that the voice can reveal both basic emotions and several positive emotions other than happiness across cultures, but self-conscious emotions such as guilt, pride, and shame seem not to be well recognized from non-linguistic vocalizations.

  5. Cross-cultural decoding of positive and negative nonlinguistic emotion vocalizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petri eLaukka

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Which emotions are associated with universally recognized nonverbal signals? We address this issue by examining how reliably nonlinguistic vocalizations (affect bursts can convey emotions across cultures. Actors from India, Kenya, Singapore and USA were instructed to produce vocalizations that would convey 9 positive and 9 negative emotions to listeners. The vocalizations were judged by Swedish listeners using a within-valence forced-choice procedure, where positive and negative emotions were judged in separate experiments. Results showed that listeners could recognize a wide range of positive and negative emotions with accuracy above chance. For positive emotions, we observed the highest recognition rates for relief, followed by lust, interest, serenity and positive surprise, with affection and pride receiving the lowest recognition rates. Anger, disgust, fear, sadness and negative surprise received the highest recognition rates for negative emotions, with the lowest rates observed for guilt and shame. By way of summary, results showed that the voice can reveal both basic emotions and several positive emotions other than happiness across cultures, but self-conscious emotions such as guilt, pride, and shame seem not to be well recognized from nonlinguistic vocalizations.

  6. On the dynamics of traveling phase-oscillators with positive and negative couplings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jungzae; Choi, Mooyoung; Yoon, Byunggook

    2014-01-01

    We investigate numerically the dynamics of traveling clusters in systems of phase oscillators, some of which possess positive couplings and others negative couplings. The phase distribution, speed of traveling, and average separation between clusters, as well as the order parameters for positive and negative oscillators, are computed as the ratio of the two coupling constants and the fraction of positive oscillators are varied. The dependence of the traveling speed on these parameters is obtained and is observed to fit well with the numerical data of the systems. With the help of this, we describe the conditions for the traveling state to appear in the systems with and without a periodic driving field.

  7. The effect of positive and negative memory bias on anxiety and depression symptoms among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Samuel M Y; Cheng, Joseph; Dai, Darren Wai Tong; Tam, Titian; Hui, Otilia

    2018-02-28

    To examine the interaction effect of anxiety and depression on the intentional forgetting of positive and negative valence words. One hundred fifty-five grade 7 to grade 10 students participated in the study. The item-method directed forgetting paradigm was used to examine the intentional forgetting of positive-valence, negative-valence, and neutral-valence words. Negative-valence words were recognized better than either positive-valence or neutral-valence words. The results revealed an anxiety main effect (p = .01, LLCI = -.09, and ULCI = -.01) and a depression main effect (p = .04, LLCI = .00, and ULCI = .24). The anxiety score was negative, whereas the depression score was positively related to the directed forgetting of negative-valence words. Regression-based moderation analysis revealed a significant anxiety × depression interaction effect on the directed forgetting of positive-valence words (p = .02, LLCI = .00, and ULCI = .01). Greater anxiety was associated with more directed forgetting of positive-valance words only among participants with high depression scores. With negative-valence words, the anxiety × depression interaction effect was not significant (p = .15, LLCI = - .00, and ULCI = .01). Therapeutic strategies to increase positive memory bias may reduce anxiety symptoms only among those with high depression scores. Interventions to reduce negative memory bias may reduce anxiety symptoms irrespective of levels of depression. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Perceived positive and negative consequences after surviving cancer and their relation to quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellano-Tejedor, Carmina; Eiroa-Orosa, Francisco-José; Pérez-Campdepadrós, Marta; Capdevila, Lluís; Sánchez de Toledo, José; Blasco-Blasco, Tomás

    2015-06-01

    Surviving childhood cancer has multiple implications on both physical and psychological domains of the individual. However, its study and possible effects on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) outcomes of adolescent survivors has been understudied. The objective of this study was twofold; to assess positive and negative cancer-related consequences (psychosocial and physical) in a sample of adolescent cancer survivors and to explore their relationship with HRQoL outcomes. Forty-one participants answered two questions about positive and negative consequences in the aftermath of cancer and filled in the KIDSCREEN-52 self-reported version. Data were analysed using mixed methods approach. Overall, 87.8% of the studied sample identified positive consequences and 63.4% negative consequences in survivorship. Four positive categories and five negative categories with regard to cancer-related consequences were found. Changed perspectives in life narratives seem to be the positive consequence more related to HRQoL (physical well-being, mood & emotions, autonomy, social support & peers), followed by useful life experience (physical well-being, autonomy, social support & peers). Psychological impact was the most referred negative consequence with a significant detrimental effect on social support and peers HRQoL dimension. Even if the majority of survivors reported benefit finding in the aftermath of cancer, concomitant positive and negative consequences have been found. However, findings only reveal a significant relationship between positive narratives and HRQoL, and negative consequences do not seem to have a significant influence on overall HRQoL in survivorship. © 2015 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Long-term trajectories of positive and negative symptoms in first episode psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Austin, Stephen; Mors, Ole; Budtz-Jørgensen, Esben

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Knowledge about course of illness can help clinicians to develop effective interventions and improve treatment outcomes. The goal of this study was to construct positive and negative symptom trajectories based on structured clinical assessments collected over 10years within a cohort....... Positive symptoms showed a general pattern of reduction and stabilization over time while negative symptoms typically showed less variation over the ten years. Results have implications for the focus, timing and length of interventions in first episode psychosis....... was assessed using the Scales for Assessment of Positive and Negative Symptoms. Symptom trajectories were constructed using Latent Class Analysis. RESULTS: Five distinct trajectories were identified for positive symptoms (response - 47%, delayed response - 12%, relapse - 15%, non-response - 13% and episodic...

  10. Procalcitonin levels in gram-positive, gram-negative, and fungal bloodstream infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leli, Christian; Ferranti, Marta; Moretti, Amedeo; Al Dhahab, Zainab Salim; Cenci, Elio; Mencacci, Antonella

    2015-01-01

    Procalcitonin (PCT) can discriminate bacterial from viral systemic infections and true bacteremia from contaminated blood cultures. The aim of this study was to evaluate PCT diagnostic accuracy in discriminating Gram-positive, Gram-negative, and fungal bloodstream infections. A total of 1,949 samples from patients with suspected bloodstream infections were included in the study. Median PCT value in Gram-negative (13.8 ng/mL, interquartile range (IQR) 3.4-44.1) bacteremias was significantly higher than in Gram-positive (2.1 ng/mL, IQR 0.6-7.6) or fungal (0.5 ng/mL, IQR 0.4-1) infections (P Gram-negatives from Gram-positives at the best cut-off value of 10.8 ng/mL and an AUC of 0.944 (95% CI 0.919-0.969, P Gram-negatives from fungi at the best cut-off of 1.6 ng/mL. Additional results showed a significant difference in median PCT values between Enterobacteriaceae and nonfermentative Gram-negative bacteria (17.1 ng/mL, IQR 5.9-48.5 versus 3.5 ng/mL, IQR 0.8-21.5; P Gram-negative from Gram-positive and fungal bloodstream infections. Nevertheless, its utility to predict different microorganisms needs to be assessed in further studies.

  11. Dissociation between active and observational learning from positive and negative feedback in Parkinsonism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobza, Stefan; Ferrea, Stefano; Schnitzler, Alfons; Pollok, Bettina; Südmeyer, Martin; Bellebaum, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Feedback to both actively performed and observed behaviour allows adaptation of future actions. Positive feedback leads to increased activity of dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra, whereas dopamine neuron activity is decreased following negative feedback. Dopamine level reduction in unmedicated Parkinson's Disease patients has been shown to lead to a negative learning bias, i.e. enhanced learning from negative feedback. Recent findings suggest that the neural mechanisms of active and observational learning from feedback might differ, with the striatum playing a less prominent role in observational learning. Therefore, it was hypothesized that unmedicated Parkinson's Disease patients would show a negative learning bias only in active but not in observational learning. In a between-group design, 19 Parkinson's Disease patients and 40 healthy controls engaged in either an active or an observational probabilistic feedback-learning task. For both tasks, transfer phases aimed to assess the bias to learn better from positive or negative feedback. As expected, actively learning patients showed a negative learning bias, whereas controls learned better from positive feedback. In contrast, no difference between patients and controls emerged for observational learning, with both groups showing better learning from positive feedback. These findings add to neural models of reinforcement-learning by suggesting that dopamine-modulated input to the striatum plays a minor role in observational learning from feedback. Future research will have to elucidate the specific neural underpinnings of observational learning.

  12. Kuramoto model of coupled oscillators with positive and negative coupling parameters: an example of conformist and contrarian oscillators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Hyunsuk; Strogatz, Steven H

    2011-02-04

    We consider a generalization of the Kuramoto model in which the oscillators are coupled to the mean field with random signs. Oscillators with positive coupling are "conformists"; they are attracted to the mean field and tend to synchronize with it. Oscillators with negative coupling are "contrarians"; they are repelled by the mean field and prefer a phase diametrically opposed to it. The model is simple and exactly solvable, yet some of its behavior is surprising. Along with the stationary states one might have expected (a desynchronized state, and a partially-synchronized state, with conformists and contrarians locked in antiphase), it also displays a traveling wave, in which the mean field oscillates at a frequency different from the population's mean natural frequency.

  13. Liking is not the opposite of disliking: the functional separability of positive and negative attitudes toward minority groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittinsky, Todd L; Rosenthal, Seth A; Montoya, R Matthew

    2011-04-01

    Two studies tested the hypotheses that positive and negative attitudes toward minority groups are not interchangeable in predicting positive versus negative behaviors toward those groups. In Study 1, positive attitudes about Latinos were a better predictor of a positive behavior toward Latinos than were negative attitudes or stereotyped positive attitudes. In Study 2, positive attitudes about African Americans were a better predictor of positive behavioral intentions toward that group than were negative attitudes, whereas negative attitudes were better predictors of negative behavioral intentions than were positive attitudes. Taken together, the studies support the perspective that positive and negative attitudes toward minority groups are theoretically and functionally distinct constructs. We conclude that it is important to measure both positive and negative attitudes to understand and predict behaviors toward minority groups.

  14. Event centrality of positive and negative autobiographical memories to identity and life story across cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaragoza Scherman, Alejandra; Salgado, Sinué; Shao, Zhifang; Berntsen, Dorthe

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether cultural differences exist in event centrality, emotional distress and well-being in a total of 565 adults above age 40 from Mexico, Greenland, China and Denmark. Participants completed questionnaires to determine their level of post-traumatic stress disorder and depression symptoms, and of life satisfaction. They also completed event centrality scales for their most positive and most negative life events. Across cultures, participants rated positive events as more central to their identity and life stories, compared with negative events. Furthermore, participants with higher levels of emotional distress rated negative events as more central to their identity and life story, compared with participants with lower scores. However, a converse pattern was not found for positive events. Finally, participants with higher scores of life satisfaction tended to rate positive events as more central and negative events as less central to their identity and life story, compared with participants with lower scores. It is concluded that across cultures, positive events are considered more central to identity and life story than negative events and that event centrality ratings tend to be affected in similar ways by higher versus lower levels of emotional distress or well-being.

  15. Two Sides of Emotion: Exploring Positivity and Negativity in Six Basic Emotions across Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Sieun; Ji, Li-Jun; Marks, Michael; Zhang, Zhiyong

    2017-01-01

    We employ a novel paradigm to test whether six basic emotions (sadness, fear, disgust, anger, surprise, and happiness; Ekman, 1992) contain both negativity and positivity, as opposed to consisting of a single continuum between negative and positive. We examined the perceived negativity and positivity of these emotions in terms of their affective and cognitive components among Korean, Chinese, Canadian, and American students. Assessing each emotion at the cognitive and affective levels cross-culturally provides a fairly comprehensive picture of the positivity and negativity of emotions. Affective components were rated as more divergent than cognitive components. Cross-culturally, Americans and Canadians gave higher valence ratings to the salient valence of each emotion, and lower ratings to the non-salient valence of an emotion, compared to Chinese and Koreans. The results suggest that emotions encompass both positivity and negativity, and there were cross-cultural differences in reported emotions. This paradigm complements existing emotion theories, building on past research and allowing for more parsimonious explanations of cross-cultural research on emotion.

  16. Two Sides of Emotion: Exploring Positivity and Negativity in Six Basic Emotions across Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sieun An

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available We employ a novel paradigm to test whether six basic emotions (sadness, fear, disgust, anger, surprise, and happiness; Ekman, 1992 contain both negativity and positivity, as opposed to consisting of a single continuum between negative and positive. We examined the perceived negativity and positivity of these emotions in terms of their affective and cognitive components among Korean, Chinese, Canadian, and American students. Assessing each emotion at the cognitive and affective levels cross-culturally provides a fairly comprehensive picture of the positivity and negativity of emotions. Affective components were rated as more divergent than cognitive components. Cross-culturally, Americans and Canadians gave higher valence ratings to the salient valence of each emotion, and lower ratings to the non-salient valence of an emotion, compared to Chinese and Koreans. The results suggest that emotions encompass both positivity and negativity, and there were cross-cultural differences in reported emotions. This paradigm complements existing emotion theories, building on past research and allowing for more parsimonious explanations of cross-cultural research on emotion.

  17. [An attempt to construct a Japanese version of the Implicit Positive and Negative Affect Test (IPANAT)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimoda, Shunsuke; Okubo, Nobutoshi; Kobayashi, Mai; Sato, Shigetaka; Kitamura, Hideya

    2014-08-01

    The Implicit Positive and Negative Affect Test (IPANAT) is an instrument for the indirect assessment of positive and negative affect. A Japanese version of the IPANAT was developed and its reliability and validity were examined. In Study 1, factor analysis identified two independent factors that could be interpreted as implicit positive and negative affect, which corresponded to the original version. The Japanese IPANAT also had sufficient internal consistency and acceptable test-retest reliability. In Study 2, we demonstrated that the Japanese IPANAT was associated with explicit state affect (e.g., PANAS), extraversion, and neuroticism, which indicated its adequate construct validity. In Study 3, we examined the extent to which the Japanese IPANAT was sensitive to changes in affect by assessing a set of IPANAT items after the presentation of positive, negative, or neutral photographs. The results indicated that the Japanese IPANAT was sufficiently sensitive to changes in affect resulting from affective stimuli. Taken together, these studies suggest that the Japanese version of the IPANAT is a useful instrument for the indirect assessment of positive and negative affect.

  18. Two Sides of Emotion: Exploring Positivity and Negativity in Six Basic Emotions across Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Sieun; Ji, Li-Jun; Marks, Michael; Zhang, Zhiyong

    2017-01-01

    We employ a novel paradigm to test whether six basic emotions (sadness, fear, disgust, anger, surprise, and happiness; Ekman, 1992) contain both negativity and positivity, as opposed to consisting of a single continuum between negative and positive. We examined the perceived negativity and positivity of these emotions in terms of their affective and cognitive components among Korean, Chinese, Canadian, and American students. Assessing each emotion at the cognitive and affective levels cross-culturally provides a fairly comprehensive picture of the positivity and negativity of emotions. Affective components were rated as more divergent than cognitive components. Cross-culturally, Americans and Canadians gave higher valence ratings to the salient valence of each emotion, and lower ratings to the non-salient valence of an emotion, compared to Chinese and Koreans. The results suggest that emotions encompass both positivity and negativity, and there were cross-cultural differences in reported emotions. This paradigm complements existing emotion theories, building on past research and allowing for more parsimonious explanations of cross-cultural research on emotion. PMID:28473791

  19. The role of negative and positive memories in fear of dental treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risløv Staugaard, Søren; Jøssing, Marit; Krohn, Christina

    2017-12-01

    Most young adults transition from childhood dental care to adult dental care without problems. However, a substantial minority leaves childhood dental care with considerable fear of dental treatment. In the present study, we hypothesized that fear of dental treatment in the young adult is influenced by memories of positive and negative childhood experiences with dental care. More specifically, we predicted that the emotional impact, sense of reliving, rehearsal, and belief in the accuracy of a negative treatment memory would be associated with increased dental fear, while positive treatment memories would show the opposite relation. One hundred thirty-six young adults leaving childhood dental care responded to a online measures of dental fear, the most negative and most positive memory of dental treatment, and symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder. Negative memories of events that involved pain and dentist behaviors such as impatience or scolding were frequently described and significantly associated with dental fear and symptoms of posttraumatic stress. Positive memories were more frequent, but did not show a consistent relationship with dental fear. The importance of negative memories suggests an avenue for intervention against dental fear that focuses on restructuring those memories to emphasize positive aspects. © 2016 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  20. Comparing the effects of positive and negative feedback in information-integration category learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedberg, Michael; Glass, Brian; Filoteo, J Vincent; Hazeltine, Eliot; Maddox, W Todd

    2017-01-01

    Categorical learning is dependent on feedback. Here, we compare how positive and negative feedback affect information-integration (II) category learning. Ashby and O'Brien (2007) demonstrated that both positive and negative feedback are required to solve II category problems when feedback was not guaranteed on each trial, and reported no differences between positive-only and negative-only feedback in terms of their effectiveness. We followed up on these findings and conducted 3 experiments in which participants completed 2,400 II categorization trials across three days under 1 of 3 conditions: positive feedback only (PFB), negative feedback only (NFB), or both types of feedback (CP; control partial). An adaptive algorithm controlled the amount of feedback given to each group so that feedback was nearly equated. Using different feedback control procedures, Experiments 1 and 2 demonstrated that participants in the NFB and CP group were able to engage II learning strategies, whereas the PFB group was not. Additionally, the NFB group was able to achieve significantly higher accuracy than the PFB group by Day 3. Experiment 3 revealed that these differences remained even when we equated the information received on feedback trials. Thus, negative feedback appears significantly more effective for learning II category structures. This suggests that the human implicit learning system may be capable of learning in the absence of positive feedback.

  1. Positive words or negative words: whose valence strength are we more sensitive to?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jiemin; Zeng, Jing; Meng, Xianxin; Zhu, Liping; Yuan, Jiajin; Li, Hong; Yusoff, Nasir

    2013-10-02

    The present study investigates the human brains' sensitivity to the valence strength of emotionally positive and negative chinese words. Event-Related Potentials were recorded, in two different experimental sessions, for Highly Positive (HP), Mildly Positive (MP) and neutral (NP) words and for Highly Negative (HN), Mildly Negative (MN) and neutral (NN) words, while subjects were required to count the number of words, irrespective of word meanings. The results showed a significant emotion effect in brain potentials for both HP and MP words, and the emotion effect occurred faster for HP words than MP words: HP words elicited more negative deflections than NP words in N2 (250-350 ms) and P3 (350-500 ms) amplitudes, while MP words elicited a significant emotion effect in P3, but not in N2, amplitudes. By contrast, HN words elicited larger amplitudes than NN words in N2 but not in P3 amplitudes, whereas MN words produced no significant emotion effect across N2 and P3 components. Moreover, the size of emotion-neutral differences in P3 amplitudes was significantly larger for MP compared to MN words. Thus, the human brain is reactive to both highly and mildly positive words, and this reactivity increased with the positive valence strength of the words. Conversely, the brain is less reactive to the valence of negative relative to positive words. These results suggest that human brains are equipped with increased sensitivity to the valence strength of positive compared to negative words, a type of emotional stimuli that are well known for reduced arousal. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Pain and Depressive Symptoms in Primary Care: Moderating Role of Positive and Negative Affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Jameson K; Sirois, Fuschia M; Molnar, Danielle; Chang, Edward C

    2016-07-01

    Pain and its disruptive impact on daily life are common reasons that patients seek primary medical care. Pain contributes strongly to psychopathology, and pain and depressive symptoms are often comorbid in primary care patients. Not all those who experience pain develop depression, suggesting that the presence of individual-level characteristics, such as positive and negative affect, that may ameliorate or exacerbate this association. We assessed the potential moderating role of positive and negative affect on the pain-depression linkage. In a sample of 101 rural, primary care patients, we administered the Brief Pain Inventory, NEO Personality Inventory-Revised positive and negative affect subclusters, and the Center for Epidemiology Scale for Depression. In moderation models, covarying age, sex, and ethnicity, we found that positive affect, but not negative affect, was a significant moderator of the relation between pain intensity and severity and depressive symptoms. The association between pain and depressive symptoms is attenuated when greater levels of positive affects are present. Therapeutic bolstering of positive affect in primary care patients experiencing pain may reduce the risk for depressive symptoms.

  3. A Case Report of Herpetic Whitlow with Positive Kanavel’s Cardinal Signs: A Diagnostic and Treatment Difficulty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milos Brkljac

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Herpetic whitlow is an acute viral infection of the hand caused by either herpes simplex virus (HSV 1 or 2. Its characteristic findings are significant pain and erythema with overlying nonpurulent vesicles. The differential diagnosis includes flexor tenosynovitis. We present a case of recurrent infection of the middle finger in an immunocompetent 19-year-old girl. Multiple painful pustules with tracking cellulitis were partially treated by oral antibiotics. A recurrence with positive Kanavel’s signs suggested flexor tenosynovitis at seven months. Her symptoms improved transiently following emergent surgical open flexor sheath exploration and washout however, she required two further washouts; at eleven and thirteen months to improve symptoms. Viral cultures were obtained from the third washout as HSV infection was disclosed from further history taking. These were positive for HSV2. Treatment with acyclovir at thirteen months after presentation led to a complete resolution of her symptoms with no further recurrences to date. This rare case highlights the similarity in presentation between flexor sheath infection and herpetic whitlow which can lead to diagnostic confusion and mismanagement. We emphasise the importance of careful past medical history taking as well as considering herpetic whitlow as a differential diagnosis despite the presence of strongly positive Kanavel’s signs.

  4. Positive and Negative Effects of Parental Conflicts on Children’s Condition and Behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Joëlle Barthassat

    2014-01-01

    Previous research focused on the negative consequences of parental conflict behaviours. In contrast, this review is about the positive and negative effects that constructive and destructive parental conflict behaviours have on a child’s condition and behaviour. It employs the cognitive-contextual framework of Grych and Fincham (1990) and the emotional security hypothesis of Davies and Cummings (1994). Parental conflicts are represented as a continuum from very destructive to very constructive...

  5. The joyful, yet balanced, amygdala: moderated responses to positive but not negative stimuli in trait happiness

    OpenAIRE

    Cunningham, William A.; Kirkland, Tabitha

    2013-01-01

    Although much is known about the neural dynamics of maladaptive affective styles, the mechanisms of happiness and well-being are less clear. One possibility is that the neural processes of trait happiness are the opposite of those involved in depression/anxiety: ‘rose-colored glasses’ cause happy people to focus on positive cues while remaining oblivious to threats. Specifically, because negative affective styles have been associated with increased amygdala activation to negative stimuli, it ...

  6. Gram-negative and -positive bacteria differentiation in blood culture samples by headspace volatile compound analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolch, Michael E; Janitza, Silke; Boulesteix, Anne-Laure; Graßmann-Lichtenauer, Carola; Praun, Siegfried; Denzer, Wolfgang; Schelling, Gustav; Schubert, Sören

    2016-12-01

    Identification of microorganisms in positive blood cultures still relies on standard techniques such as Gram staining followed by culturing with definite microorganism identification. Alternatively, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry or the analysis of headspace volatile compound (VC) composition produced by cultures can help to differentiate between microorganisms under experimental conditions. This study assessed the efficacy of volatile compound based microorganism differentiation into Gram-negatives and -positives in unselected positive blood culture samples from patients. Headspace gas samples of positive blood culture samples were transferred to sterilized, sealed, and evacuated 20 ml glass vials and stored at -30 °C until batch analysis. Headspace gas VC content analysis was carried out via an auto sampler connected to an ion-molecule reaction mass spectrometer (IMR-MS). Measurements covered a mass range from 16 to 135 u including CO2, H2, N2, and O2. Prediction rules for microorganism identification based on VC composition were derived using a training data set and evaluated using a validation data set within a random split validation procedure. One-hundred-fifty-two aerobic samples growing 27 Gram-negatives, 106 Gram-positives, and 19 fungi and 130 anaerobic samples growing 37 Gram-negatives, 91 Gram-positives, and two fungi were analysed. In anaerobic samples, ten discriminators were identified by the random forest method allowing for bacteria differentiation into Gram-negative and -positive (error rate: 16.7 % in validation data set). For aerobic samples the error rate was not better than random. In anaerobic blood culture samples of patients IMR-MS based headspace VC composition analysis facilitates bacteria differentiation into Gram-negative and -positive.

  7. Positive and negative social support and HPA-axis hyperactivity: Evidence from glucocorticoids in human hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iob, Eleonora; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Steptoe, Andrew

    2018-06-12

    While positive social support is associated with lower prevalence of disease and better treatment outcomes, negative social relationships can instead have unfavourable consequences for several physical and mental health conditions. However, the specific mechanisms by which this nexus might operate remain poorly understood. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis hyperactivity owing to psychosocial stress has been proposed as a potential pathway underlying the link between social support and health. Hair glucocorticoids such as cortisol and cortisone are emerging as promising biomarkers of long-term retrospective HPA activation. Therefore, the aim of this investigation was to examine the effects of positive and negative experiences of social support within key relationships (i.e. spouse/partner, children, other family members, and friends) on cortisol and cortisone. These associations were tested in a sample of 2520 older adults (mean age 68.1) from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. Hair samples were collected in wave 6 (2012/13). To understand the impact of cumulative exposure to poor social support, the analysis used self-reported data from waves 4 (2008/09) and 6. Covariates included demographic, socioeconomic, lifestyle, and hair characteristics. In cross sectional analyses, lower positive support from all sources and specifically from children were associated with higher cortisol. Additionally, lower positive support from children was positively associated with cortisone. Similarly, higher overall negative support was related to higher cortisol, and greater negative support from children was also positively associated with cortisone. In longitudinal analyses, there was evidence for positive associations between hair glucocorticoids and cumulative exposure to poorer social support. Experiences of low positive and high negative social support, particularly from children, were both related to higher hair glucocorticoids. Hence, social relationships of

  8. Parsing cognitive and emotional empathy deficits for negative and positive stimuli in frontotemporal dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Lindsay D; Mitchell, Derek G V; Dziobek, Isabel; MacKinley, Julia; Coleman, Kristy; Rankin, Katherine P; Finger, Elizabeth C

    2015-01-01

    Behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) is a debilitating neurodegenerative disorder characterized by frontal and temporal lobe atrophy primarily affecting social cognition and emotion, including loss of empathy. Many consider empathy to be a multidimensional construct, including cognitive empathy (the ability to adopt and understand another's perspective) and emotional empathy (the capacity to share another's emotional experience). Cognitive and emotional empathy deficits have been associated with bvFTD; however, little is known regarding the performance of patients with bvFTD on behavioural measures of emotional empathy, and whether empathic responses differ for negative versus positive stimuli. 24 patients with bvFTD and 24 healthy controls completed the Multifaceted Empathy Test (MET; Dziobek et al., 2008), a performance-based task that taps both cognitive and emotional facets of empathy, and allows for the discrimination of responses to negative versus positive realistic images. MET scores were also compared with caregiver ratings of patient behaviour on the Interpersonal Reactivity Index, which assesses patients' everyday demonstrations of perspective taking and empathic concern. Patients with bvFTD were less accurate than controls at inferring mental states for negative and positive stimuli. They also demonstrated lower levels of shared emotional experience, more positive emotional reactions, and diminished arousal to negative social stimuli relative to controls. Patients showed reduced emotional reactions to negative non-social stimuli as well. Lastly, the MET and IRI measures of emotional empathy were found to be significantly correlated within the bvFTD group. The results suggest that patients with bvFTD show a global deficit in cognitive empathy, and deficient emotional empathy for negative, but not positive, experiences. Further, a generalized emotional processing impairment for negative stimuli was observed, which could contribute to the

  9. Trait anxiety reduces affective fading for both positive and negative autobiographical memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, W Richard; Yancu, Cecile N; Skowronski, John J

    2014-01-01

    The affect associated with negative events fades faster than the affect associated with positive events (the Fading Affect Bias; the FAB). The research that we report examined the relation between trait anxiety and the FAB. Study 1 assessed anxiety using the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale; Studies 2 and 3 used the Beck Anxiety Inventory. Studies 1 and 2 used retrospective procedures to probe positive event memories and negative event memories while Study 3 used a diary procedure. The results of all 3 studies showed that increased anxiety was associated with both a lowered FAB and lower overall affect fading for both positive events and negative events. These results suggest that for people free of trait anxiety, the FAB reflects the operation of a healthy coping mechanism in autobiographical memory that is disrupted by trait anxiety.

  10. Negative and Positive Outflow-Feedback in Nearby (U)LIRGs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cazzoli, Sara, E-mail: sara@iaa.es [Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia (CSIC), Granada (Spain)

    2017-12-15

    The starburst-AGN coexistence in local (U)LIRGs makes these galaxies excellent laboratories for the study of stellar and AGN outflows and feedback. Outflows regulate star formation and AGN activity, redistributing gas, dust and metals over large scales in the interstellar and intergalactic media (negative feedback) being also considered to be able to undergo vigorous star formation (positive feedback). In this contribution, I will summarize the results from a search for outflows in a sample of nearby 38 local (U)LIRG systems observed with VIMOS/VLT integral field unit. For two galaxies of the sample I will detail the outflow properties and discuss the observational evidence for negative and positive outflow-feedback. The assessment of both negative and positive feedback effects represent a novel approach toward a comprehensive understanding of the impact of outflow feedback in the galaxy evolution.

  11. Positive affect, negative affect, stress, and social support as mediators of the forgiveness-health relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Michelle; Decourville, Nancy; Sadava, Stanley

    2012-01-01

    Structural equation modeling was used to test a model in which positive affect, negative affect, perceived stress, and social support were hypothesized to mediate the relationship between forgiveness and mental and physical health. Six hundred and twenty-three undergraduates completed a battery of self-report measures. Results of the analyses indicated that the forgiveness-health relation was mediated by positive affect, negative affect, stress, and the interrelationship between negative affect and stress. There was limited support for social support and the interrelationship between positive affect and social support as mediators. The results suggested that the relationship between forgiveness and health is mediated rather than direct. Implications and directions for future research are discussed.

  12. Positive and negative sudden impulses caused by fast forward and reverse interplanetary shocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrioli, Vania Fatima; Savian, Jairo Francisco, E-mail: vaniafatima@gmail.com, E-mail: savian@lacesm.ufsm.br [Space Science Laboratory of Santa Maria - LACESM/CT - UFSM, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria - UFSM, Centro Tecnologico, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Echer, Ezequiel, E-mail: eecher@dge.inpe.br [National Institute for Space Research - INPE - MCT, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Schuch, Nelson Jorge, E-mail: njschuch@lacesm.ufsm.br [Southern Regional Space Research Center - CRSPE/INPE - MCT, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria - UFSM, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil)

    2007-07-01

    Fast forward interplanetary shocks (FFS) are characterized by positive jump in all interplanetary plasma parameters (solar wind speed, temperature and density) and interplanetary magnetic field. However the fast reverse interplanetary shocks (FRS) are characterized by negative jump in all mentioned parameters except solar wind speed. Observations show that FFS cause positive sudden impulses (SI) while FRS cause negative SI in the H-component of the geomagnetic field. In this work we investigate the SI caused by interplanetary shocks. We use the observed plasma parameters, upstream and downstream, to calculate the variation of dynamic pressure. We observe that the SI amplitude is larger for positive SI than for negative ones, as a consequence of the fact that FFS have larger dynamic pressure variations as compared to FRS. (author)

  13. Suppressor Effects of Positive and Negative Religious Coping on Academic Burnout Among Korean Middle School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Hyunkyung; Chang, Eunbi; Jang, Yoojin; Lee, Ji Hae; Lee, Sang Min

    2016-02-01

    Statistical suppressor effects in prediction models can provide evidence of the interdependent relationship of independent variables. In this study, the suppressor effects of positive and negative religious coping on academic burnout were examined using longitudinal data. First, 388 middle school students reported their type of religion and use of positive and negative religious coping strategies. Four months later, they also reported their level of academic burnout. From structural equation modeling, significant suppressor effects were found among religious students. That is, the coefficients became larger when both positive and negative religious coping predicted academic burnout simultaneously, compared to when each religious coping predicted academic burnout alone. However, suppressor effects were not found among non-religious students.

  14. The devil is in the details: Comparisons of episodic simulations of positive and negative future events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig, Vannia A; Szpunar, Karl K

    2017-08-01

    Over the past decade, psychologists have devoted considerable attention to episodic simulation-the ability to imagine specific hypothetical events. Perhaps one of the most consistent patterns of data to emerge from this literature is that positive simulations of the future are rated as more detailed than negative simulations of the future, a pattern of results that is commonly interpreted as evidence for a positivity bias in future thinking. In the present article, we demonstrate across two experiments that negative future events are consistently simulated in more detail than positive future events when frequency of prior thinking is taken into account as a possible confounding variable and when level of detail associated with simulated events is assessed using an objective scoring criterion. Our findings are interpreted in the context of the mobilization-minimization hypothesis of event cognition that suggests people are especially likely to devote cognitive resources to processing negative scenarios. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Decision making under uncertainty and information processing in positive and negative mood states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Sachi Nandan; Suar, Damodar

    2014-08-01

    This study examines whether mood states (a) influence decision making under uncertainty and (b) affect information processing. 200 students at the Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur participated in this study. Positive mood was induced by showing comedy movie clips to 100 participants and negative mood was induced by showing tragedy movie clips to another 100 participants. The participants were administered a questionnaire containing hypothetical situations of financial gains and losses, and a health risk problem. The participants selected a choice for each situation, and stated the reasons for their choice. Results suggested that the participants preferred cautious choices in the domain of gain and in health risk problems and risky choices in the domain of loss. Analysis of the reasons for the participants' choices suggested more fluency, originality, and flexibility of information in a negative mood compared to a positive mood. A negative (positive) mood state facilitated systematic (heuristic) information processing.

  16. A new concept positive (negative) surface ionization source for RIB applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alton, G.D.; Welton, R.F.; Cui, B.

    1996-01-01

    A versatile, new concept, spherical-geometry, positive (negative) surface-ionization source has been designed. fabricated, and tests completed which can operate in either positive- or negative-ion beam generation modes without mechanical changes to the source. The highly permeable, composite Ir/C has an intrinsic work function of 0 = 5.29 eV and can be used directly for the generation of positive-ion beams of highly electropositive elements. For negative-surface ionization, the work function is lowered by dynamic flow of a highly electropositive adsorbate such as Cs through the ionizer matrix. The results of initial testing indicate that the source is reliable, stable and easy to operate, with efficiencies for Cs + estimated to exceed 60% and as high as ∼50% for F - generation. The design features, operational principles, and initial performance of the source for generating Cs + and F - , when operated with Cs, are discussed in this article

  17. Signed Networks in Social Media

    OpenAIRE

    Leskovec, Jure; Huttenlocher, Daniel; Kleinberg, Jon

    2010-01-01

    Relations between users on social media sites often reflect a mixture of positive (friendly) and negative (antagonistic) interactions. In contrast to the bulk of research on social networks that has focused almost exclusively on positive interpretations of links between people, we study how the interplay between positive and negative relationships affects the structure of on-line social networks. We connect our analyses to theories of signed networks from social psychology. We find that the c...

  18. Can positive social exchanges buffer the detrimental effects of negative social exchanges? Age and gender differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiori, Katherine L; Windsor, Tim D; Pearson, Elissa L; Crisp, Dimity A

    2013-01-01

    Findings from existing research exploring whether positive social exchanges can help to offset (or 'buffer' against) the harmful effects of negative social exchanges on mental health have been inconsistent. This could be because the existing research is characterized by different approaches to studying various contexts of 'cross-domain' and 'within-domain' buffering, and/or because the nature of buffering effects varies according to sociodemographic characteristics that underlie different aspects of social network structure and function. The purpose of this study was to examine whether the buffering effects of global perceptions of positive exchanges on the link between global negative exchanges and mental health varied as a function of age and gender. We used a series of regressions in a sample of 556 Australian older adults (ages 55-94) to test for three-way interactions among gender, positive social exchanges, and negative social exchanges, as well as age and positive and negative social exchanges, in predicting mental health, controlling for years of education, partner status, and physical functioning. We found that positive exchanges buffered against negative exchanges for younger old adults, but not for older old adults, and for women, but not for men. Our findings are interpreted in light of research on individual differences in coping responses and interpersonal goals among late middle-aged and older adults. Our findings are in line with gerontological theories (e.g., socioemotional selectivity theory), and imply that an intervention aimed at using positive social exchanges as a means of coping with negative social exchanges might be more successful among particular populations (i.e., women, 'younger' old adults). Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Auditory attention enhances processing of positive and negative words in inferior and superior prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegrzyn, Martin; Herbert, Cornelia; Ethofer, Thomas; Flaisch, Tobias; Kissler, Johanna

    2017-11-01

    Visually presented emotional words are processed preferentially and effects of emotional content are similar to those of explicit attention deployment in that both amplify visual processing. However, auditory processing of emotional words is less well characterized and interactions between emotional content and task-induced attention have not been fully understood. Here, we investigate auditory processing of emotional words, focussing on how auditory attention to positive and negative words impacts their cerebral processing. A Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study manipulating word valence and attention allocation was performed. Participants heard negative, positive and neutral words to which they either listened passively or attended by counting negative or positive words, respectively. Regardless of valence, active processing compared to passive listening increased activity in primary auditory cortex, left intraparietal sulcus, and right superior frontal gyrus (SFG). The attended valence elicited stronger activity in left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and left SFG, in line with these regions' role in semantic retrieval and evaluative processing. No evidence for valence-specific attentional modulation in auditory regions or distinct valence-specific regional activations (i.e., negative > positive or positive > negative) was obtained. Thus, allocation of auditory attention to positive and negative words can substantially increase their processing in higher-order language and evaluative brain areas without modulating early stages of auditory processing. Inferior and superior frontal brain structures mediate interactions between emotional content, attention, and working memory when prosodically neutral speech is processed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Energy distribution extraction of negative charges responsible for positive bias temperature instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren Shang-Qing; Yang Hong; Wang Wen-Wu; Tang Bo; Tang Zhao-Yun; Wang Xiao-Lei; Xu Hao; Luo Wei-Chun; Zhao Chao; Yan Jiang; Chen Da-Peng; Ye Tian-Chun

    2015-01-01

    A new method is proposed to extract the energy distribution of negative charges, which results from electron trapping by traps in the gate stack of nMOSFET during positive bias temperature instability (PBTI) stress based on the recovery measurement. In our case, the extracted energy distribution of negative charges shows an obvious dependence on energy, and the energy level of the largest energy density of negative charges is 0.01 eV above the conduction band of silicon. The charge energy distribution below that energy level shows strong dependence on the stress voltage. (paper)

  1. Heart rate reactivity associated to positive and negative food and non-food visual stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuoppa, Pekka; Tarvainen, Mika P; Karhunen, Leila; Narvainen, Johanna

    2016-08-01

    Using food as a stimuli is known to cause multiple psychophysiological reactions. Heart rate variability (HRV) is common tool for assessing physiological reactions in autonomic nervous system. However, the findings in HRV related to food stimuli have not been consistent. In this paper the quick changes in HRV related to positive and negative food and non-food visual stimuli are investigated. Electrocardiogram (ECG) was measured from 18 healthy females while being stimulated with the pictures. Subjects also filled Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire to determine their eating behavior. The inter-beat-interval time series and the HRV parameters were extracted from the ECG. The quick change in HRV parameters were studied by calculating the change from baseline value (10 s window before stimulus) to value after the onset of the stimulus (10 s window during stimulus). The paired t-test showed significant difference between positive and negative food pictures but not between positive and negative non-food pictures. All the HRV parameters decreased for positive food pictures while they stayed the same or increased a little for negative food pictures. The eating behavior characteristic cognitive restraint was negatively correlated with HRV parameters that describe decreasing of heart rate.

  2. Developmental Differences across Middle Childhood in Memory and Suggestibility for Negative and Positive Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz-Alonso, Pedro M; Goodman, Gail S

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated age differences in children's eyewitness memory and suggestibility for negative and positive events that children often experience during middle childhood. We first examined 216 ratings by children aged 8-12 years of the frequency and intensity of personal negative and positive experiences (Study 1). Based on those ratings, videotapes depicting the most frequent and intense negative (an accident) and positive (a family excursion) events were developed. A new sample of 227 children aged 8-12 years was tested for recognition memory of the videotapes using the three-stage post-event misinformation procedure (Study 2). Compared with 8- to 9-year-olds, 10- to 12-year-olds exhibited less memory malleability and less compliance with false information. Age improvements in recognition accuracy were also evident for children who watched the negative event, but not for those who watched the positive event. Compliance predicted misinformation effects, particularly in regard to peripheral details. Thus, using ecologically representative emotional events, age differences in suggestibility and memory accuracy emerged, especially for negative events.Theoretical and forensic implications concerning children's eyewitness memory and suggestibility are discussed. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Anxiety management training for anxiety states: positive compared with negative self-statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramm, E; Marks, I M; Yuksel, S; Stern, R S

    1982-04-01

    Twelve patients complaining of chronic free-floating anxiety, usually also with panic attacks, were assigned at random to treatment by six hour-long sessions of anxiety-management training, either with positive or with negative self-statements, given over six weeks. Patients in both treatment conditions improved, with a small trend favouring positive over negative self-instruction, especially at follow-up. It is unclear how much self-instruction, rather than therapeutic attention or mere passage of time, accounted for the bulk of the modest improvement obtained.

  4. Social Networks in Later Life: Weighing Positive and Negative Effects on Health and Well-Being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rook, Karen S

    2015-02-01

    Social networks provide a mix of positive and negative experiences. Network members can provide help in times of need and day-to-day companionship, but they can also behave in ways that are inconsiderate, hurtful, or intrusive. Researchers must grapple with these dualities in order to develop a comprehensive understanding of how social network ties affect health and well-being. This article provides an overview of research that has examined the health-related effects of positive and negative aspects of social network involvement. If focuses on later life, a time when risks for declining health and for the loss or disruption of social relationships increase.

  5. Centrality of positive and negative deployment memories predicts posttraumatic growth in danish veterans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staugaard, Søren Risløv; Johannessen, Kim Berg; Thomsen, Yvonne Duval

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the present study was to examine theoretically motivated predictors for the development of positive changes following potentially traumatic experiences (i.e., posttraumatic growth). Specifically, we wanted to examine the prediction that memories of highly negative......-sectional analyses of the data. RESULTS: The main findings were that the centrality of highly emotional memories from deployment predicted growth alongside openness to experience, combat exposure, and social support. Importantly, the centrality of both positive and negative memories predicted growth equally well...

  6. Experimental observation of both negative and positive phase velocities in a two-dimensional sonic crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Ming-Hui; Feng, Liang; Liu, Xiao-Ping; Liu, Xiao-Kang; Chen, Yan-Feng; Zhu, Yong-Yuan; Mao, Yi-Wei; Zi, Jian

    2007-01-01

    Both negative and positive phase velocities for acoustic waves have been experimentally established in a two-dimensional triangular sonic crystal (SC) consisting of steel cylinders embedded in air at first. With the increase of the SCs thickness layer by layer in the experiments, phase shifts decrease in the second band but increase in the first band, showing the negative and the positive phase velocities, respectively. Moreover, the dispersion relation of the SC is constructed by the phase information, which is consistent well with the theoretical results. These abundant characteristics of acoustic wave propagation in the SC might be useful for the device applications

  7. Antibody reaction of human anti-Toxoplasma gondii positive and negative sera with Neospora caninum antigens

    OpenAIRE

    Nam, Ho-Woo; Kang, Seung-Won; Choi, Won-Young

    1998-01-01

    Anti-Neospora caninum antibody was detected in anti-Toxoplasma gondii positive and negative human sera by ELISA, western blot and immunofluorescence assay (IFA). Twelve cases out of 172 (6.7%) Toxoplasma-positive sera cross-reacted with both T. gondii and N. caninum antigens, and one out of 110 Toxoplasma-negative sera reacted with N. caninum antigen by ELISA. By western blot, all 12 sera reacted with T. gondii antigens with various banding patterns but specifically at 30 kDa (SAG1) and 22 kD...

  8. Radiological differences between HIV-positive and HIV-negative children with cholesteatoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, J K; Fagan, J J; Wojno, M; Manning, K; Harris, T

    2018-07-01

    HIV-positive children are possibly more prone to developing cholesteatoma. Chronic inflammation of the middle ear cleft may be more common in patients with HIV and this may predispose HIV-positive children to developing cholesteatoma. There are no studies that describe the radiological morphology of the middle ear cleft in HIV-positive compared to HIV-negative children with cholesteatoma. Compare the radiological differences of the middle ear cleft in HIV-positive and HIV-negative children with cholesteatoma. A retrospective, cross-sectional, observational analytical review of patients with cholesteatoma at our institute over a 6 year period. Forty patients were included in the study, 11 of whom had bilateral cholesteatoma and therefore 51 ears were eligible for our evaluation. HIV-positive patients had smaller (p=0.02) mastoid air cell systems (MACS). Forty percent of HIV-positive patients had sclerotic mastoids, whereas the rate was 3% in HIV-negative ears (p<0.02). Eighty-two percent of the HIV-positive patients had bilateral cholesteatoma compared to 7% of the control group (p<0.02). There was no difference between the 2 groups with regards to opacification of the middle ear cleft, bony erosion of middle ear structures, Eustachian tube obstruction or soft tissue occlusion of the post-nasal space. HIV-positive paediatric patients with cholesteatoma are more likely to have smaller, sclerotic mastoids compared to HIV-negative patients. They are significantly more likely to have bilateral cholesteatoma. This may have implications in terms of surveillance of HIV-positive children, as well as, an approach to management, recurrence and follow-up. HIV infection should be flagged as a risk factor for developing cholesteatoma. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Symptoms and signs in individuals with serology positive for celiac disease but normal mucosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandt Lena

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antibody serology is an important tool in the investigation of celiac disease (CD, but does not always correlate with mucosal appearance in the small intestine. Patients with positive CD serology but normal mucosa (Marsh 0 are at increased risk of future CD. In this study we describe a model for identifying and characterizing individuals with normal mucosa but positive CD serology. Such individuals are sometimes referred to as having latent CD. Methods The records of ten Swedish pathology departments were used to identify individuals with biopsies indicating normal duodenal/jejunal mucosa. Using the national personal identification number, these data were linked with CD serology data (antigliadin, antiendomysial and tissue transglutaminase antibodies; and we thereby identified 3,736 individuals with normal mucosa but positive CD serology. Two independent reviewers then manually reviewed their biopsy reports to estimate comorbidity. We also randomly selected 112 individuals for validation through patient chart review. Results The majority of the 3,736 individuals were females (62%. Children (0–15 years made up 21.4%. The median number of biopsy specimen was 3. Our review of biopsy reports found that other gastrointestinal comorbidity was rare (inflammatory bowel disease: 0.4%; helicobacter pylori infection: 0.2%. Some 22% individuals selected for patient chart review had a relative with CD. The most common symptoms among these individuals were diarrhea (46% and abdominal pain (45%, while 26% had anemia. Although 27% of the individuals selected for validation had been informed about gluten-free diet, only 13% were adhering to a gluten-free diet at the end of follow-up. Conclusion Individuals with positive CD serology but normal mucosa often have CD-like symptoms and a family history of CD.

  10. The problem of false positives and false negatives in violent video game experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Christopher J

    The problem of false positives and negatives has received considerable attention in behavioral research in recent years. The current paper uses video game violence research as an example of how such issues may develop in a field. Despite decades of research, evidence on whether violent video games (VVGs) contribute to aggression in players has remained mixed. Concerns have been raised in recent years that experiments regarding VVGs may suffer from both "false positives" and "false negatives." The current paper examines this issue in three sets of video game experiments, two sets of video game experiments on aggression and prosocial behaviors identified in meta-analysis, and a third group of recent null studies. Results indicated that studies of VVGs and aggression appear to be particularly prone to false positive results. Studies of VVGs and prosocial behavior, by contrast are heterogeneous and did not demonstrate any indication of false positive results. However, their heterogeneous nature made it difficult to base solid conclusions on them. By contrast, evidence for false negatives in null studies was limited, and little evidence emerged that null studies lacked power in comparison those highlighted in past meta-analyses as evidence for effects. These results are considered in light of issues related to false positives and negatives in behavioral science more broadly. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Analysis of false positive and false negative cytological diagnosis of breast lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamal, Awtif A.; Mansoor, I.

    2001-01-01

    To study the reasons for interpretive errors in false negative and false positive diagnosis of breast carcinoma on fine needle aspiration cytology material. We reviewed only those cases in which cytohistological discrepancies were found, where the cytologic material was abnormal and to some extent misinterpreted or both. There was only one false negative case (false negative fraction 0.32%) proved histologically as ductal carcinoma and four false positive cases (false positive fraction 1.2%); 2 fibroadenoma; 1 fibrocystic disease; and 1 stromal fibrosis. Smears of the two false positive fibroadenoma cases showed very high cellularity, overcrowded clusters and frequent stripped nuclei. The fibrocystic case showed tight clusters of apocrine cells and sheets of loosely aggregated macrophages that were over interpreted. Smears of the false negative ductal carcinoma was hypocellular overall, and the cells showed minimal nuclear pleomorphism. Overcrowded clusters and hypercellular smears should be carefully assessed for uniformity of cells and detailed nuclear and cytomorphological features. If the full-blown malignant cytomorphological changes are not visible, a diagnosis of suspicious or inconclusive should be made and frozen section recommended before surgery. Hypocellularity and relatively nuclear monomorphism are the reasons for failure to diagnose malignant breast lesions. Careful attention should be paid to extreme nuclear monomorphism and absence of naked bipolar cells. A cytologically atypical or suspicious diagnosis together with positive radiological and clinical findings should suggest a diagnosis of malignancy. (author)

  12. Positive schizotypy and negative schizotypy are associated with differential patterns of episodic memory impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Sahakyan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive impairment is a hallmark of schizophrenia; however, studies have not comprehensively examined such impairments in non-clinically ascertained schizotypic young adults. The present study employed a series of measures to assess episodic memory in high positive schizotypy, high negative schizotypy, and comparison groups (each group n = 25. Consistent with diminished cognitive functioning seen in negative symptom schizophrenia, the negative schizotypy group exhibited deficits on free recall, recognition, and source memory tasks. The positive schizotypy group did not demonstrate deficits on the above mentioned tasks. However, in contrast to the other groups, the positive schizotypy group showed an unexpected set-size effect on the cued-recall task. Set-size effect, which refers to the finding that words that have smaller networks of associates tend to have a memory advantage, is usually found in associative-cuing, but not cued-recall, tasks. The finding for the positive schizotypy group is consistent with heightened spreading activation and reduced executive control suggested to underlie psychotic symptoms. The findings support a multidimensional model of schizotypy and schizophrenia, and suggest that positive and negative schizotypy involve differential patterns of cognitive impairment.

  13. The Relationship Between Brain-Behavioral Systems and Negative and Positive Affect in Patients With Migraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovharifard

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Migraine is a chronic headache disorder that affects approximately 12% of the general population. Migraine is known as recurrent headache, pulsating, moderate with severe power, which lasts for 4 to 72 hours, aggravated by daily physical activity along with nausea, vomiting, photophobia or photophobia. Objectives The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between brain-behavioral systems and negative and positive affects in patients with migraine. Patients and Methods The research population included patients, who had referred to neurology clinics. One hundred and twenty cases were selected by accessible sampling based on the neurologist’s diagnosis of migraine headaches. They completed the Gray-Wilson (1989 Personality Questionnaire as well as Watson, Clark and Telligent (1988 positive and negative affect scale. The data were analyzed using the SPSS 19 software, correlation and stepwise regression. Results The results showed that positive affect had a significant positive correlation with active avoidance parameters and negative significant correlation with passive avoidance and extinction parameters. The findings also indicated that negative affect had a positive and significant relationship with passive avoidance and extinction. Conclusions It can be concluded that brain-behavioral systems may be the foundation of behavioral and emotional tendencies in patients with migraine headaches.

  14. Overlapping positive and negative regulatory domains of the human β-interferon gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodbourn, S.; Maniatis, T.

    1988-01-01

    Virus of poly(I) x poly(C) induction of human β-interferon gene expression requires a 40-base-pair DNA sequence designated the interferon gene regulatory element (IRE). Previous studies have shown that the IRE contains both positive and negative regulatory DNA sequences. To localize these sequences and study their interactions, the authors have examined the effects of a large number of single-base mutations within the IRE on β-interferon gene regulation. They find that the IRE consists of two genetically separable positive regulatory domains and an overlapping negative control sequence. They propose that the β-interferon gene is switched off in uninduced cells by a repressor that blocks the interaction between one of the two positive regulatory sequences and a specific transcription factor. Induction would then lead to inactivation or displacement of the repressor and binding of transcription factors to both positive regulatory domains

  15. Early repeated infections with Trichomonas vaginalis among HIV-positive and HIV-negative women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissinger, Patricia; Secor, W Evan; Leichliter, Jami S; Clark, Rebecca A; Schmidt, Norine; Curtin, Erink; Martin, David H

    2008-04-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine whether early repeated infections due to Trichomonas vaginalis among human immunuodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive and HIV-negative women are reinfections, new infections, or cases of treatment failure. Women attending an HIV outpatient clinic and a family planning clinic in New Orleans, Louisiana, who had culture results positive for T. vaginalis were treated with 2 g of metronidazole under directly observed therapy. At 1 month, detailed sexual exposure and sexual partner treatment information was collected. Isolates from women who had clinical resistance (i.e., who tested positive for a third time after treatment at a higher dose) were tested for metronidazole susceptibility in vitro. Of 60 HIV-positive women with trichomoniasis, 11 (18.3%) were T. vaginalis positive 1 month after treatment. The 11 recurrences were classified as 3 probable reinfections (27%), 2 probable infections from a new sexual partner (18%), and 6 probable treatment failures (55%); 2 of the 6 patients who experienced probable treatment failure had isolates with mild resistance to metronidazole. Of 301 HIV-negative women, 24 (8.0%) were T. vaginalis positive 1 month after treatment. The 24 recurrences were classified as 2 probable reinfections (8%) and 22 probable treatment failures (92%); of the 22 patients who experienced probable treatment failure, 2 had strains with moderate resistance to metronidazole, and 1 had a strain with mild resistance to metronidazole. HIV-positive women were more likely to have sexual re-exposure than were HIV-negative women, although the rate of treatment failure was similar in both groups. High rates of treatment failure among both HIV-positive and HIV-negative women indicate that a 2-g dose of metronidazole may not be adequate for treatment of some women and that rescreening should be considered.

  16. Salt Stress Represses Soybean Seed Germination by Negatively Regulating GA Biosynthesis While Positively Mediating ABA Biosynthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Kai Shu; Ying Qi; Feng Chen; Yongjie Meng; Xiaofeng Luo; Haiwei Shuai; Wenguan Zhou; Jun Ding; Junbo Du; Jiang Liu; Feng Yang; Qiang Wang; Weiguo Liu; Taiwen Yong; Xiaochun Wang

    2017-01-01

    Soybean is an important and staple oilseed crop worldwide. Salinity stress has adverse effects on soybean development periods, especially on seed germination and post-germinative growth. Improving seed germination and emergence will have positive effects under salt stress conditions on agricultural production. Here we report that NaCl delays soybean seed germination by negatively regulating gibberellin (GA) while positively mediating abscisic acid (ABA) biogenesis, which leads to a decrease i...

  17. Positive and Negative Interactions Observed Between Siblings: Moderating Effects for Children Exposed to Parents’ Conflict

    OpenAIRE

    Iturralde, Esti; Margolin, Gayla; Spies Shapiro, Lauren A.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated links between interparental conflict appraisals (specifically threat and self-blame), sibling relationship quality (positive and negative dimensions), and anxiety in sibling pairs comprised of an adolescent and a younger sibling close in age. Sibling relationship quality was measured through behavioral observation. Links between self-blame and anxiety were moderated by sibling relationship quality. In older siblings, positive behavior with a sibling was associated with...

  18. Modulation of dynamic modes by interplay between positive and negative feedback loops in gene regulatory networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liu-Suo; Li, Ning-Xi; Chen, Jing-Jia; Zhang, Xiao-Peng; Liu, Feng; Wang, Wei

    2018-04-01

    A positive and a negative feedback loop can induce bistability and oscillation, respectively, in biological networks. Nevertheless, they are frequently interlinked to perform more elaborate functions in many gene regulatory networks. Coupled positive and negative feedback loops may exhibit either oscillation or bistability depending on the intensity of the stimulus in some particular networks. It is less understood how the transition between the two dynamic modes is modulated by the positive and negative feedback loops. We developed an abstract model of such systems, largely based on the core p53 pathway, to explore the mechanism for the transformation of dynamic behaviors. Our results show that enhancing the positive feedback may promote or suppress oscillations depending on the strength of both feedback loops. We found that the system oscillates with low amplitudes in response to a moderate stimulus and switches to the on state upon a strong stimulus. When the positive feedback is activated much later than the negative one in response to a strong stimulus, the system exhibits long-term oscillations before switching to the on state. We explain this intriguing phenomenon using quasistatic approximation. Moreover, early switching to the on state may occur when the system starts from a steady state in the absence of stimuli. The interplay between the positive and negative feedback plays a key role in the transitions between oscillation and bistability. Of note, our conclusions should be applicable only to some specific gene regulatory networks, especially the p53 network, in which both oscillation and bistability exist in response to a certain type of stimulus. Our work also underscores the significance of transient dynamics in determining cellular outcome.

  19. Infant pupil diameter changes in response to others' positive and negative emotions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Geangu

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that infants resonate emotionally to others' positive and negative affect displays, and that these responses become stronger towards emotions with negative valence around the age of 12-months. In this study we measured 6- and 12-month-old infants' changes in pupil diameter when presented with the image and sound of peers experiencing happiness, distress and an emotionally neutral state. For all participants the perception of another's distress triggered larger pupil diameters. Perceiving other's happiness also induced larger pupil diameters but for shorter time intervals. Importantly, we also found evidence for an asymmetry in autonomous arousal towards positive versus negative emotional displays. Larger pupil sizes for another's distress compared to another's happiness were recorded shortly after stimulus onset for the older infants, and in a later time window for the 6-month-olds. These findings suggest that arousal responses for negative as well as for positive emotions are present in the second half of the first postnatal year. Importantly, an asymmetry with stronger responses for negative emotions seems to be already present at this age.

  20. Negative evaluation bias for positive self-referential information in borderline personality disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorina Winter

    Full Text Available Previous research has suggested that patients meeting criteria for borderline personality disorder (BPD display altered self-related information processing. However, experimental studies on dysfunctional self-referential information processing in BPD are rare. In this study, BPD patients (N = 30 and healthy control participants (N = 30 judged positive, neutral, and negative words in terms of emotional valence. Referential processing was manipulated by a preceding self-referential pronoun, an other-referential pronoun, or no referential context. Subsequently, patients and participants completed a free recall and recognition task. BPD patients judged positive and neutral words as more negative than healthy control participants when the words had self-reference or no reference. In BPD patients, these biases were significantly correlated with self-reported attributional style, particularly for negative events, but unrelated to measures of depressive mood. However, BPD patients did not differ from healthy control participants in a subsequent free recall task and a recognition task. Our findings point to a negative evaluation bias for positive, self-referential information in BPD. This bias did not affect the storage of information in memory, but may be related to self-attributions of negative events in everyday life in BPD.

  1. Attitudes of Heterosexual Men and Women Toward HIV Negative and Positive Gay Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norcini Pala, Andrea; Villano, Paola; Clinton, Lauren

    2017-01-01

    Attitudes of Italian heterosexual men and women toward gay men, both HIV positive and negative, are poorly investigated. Italian culture is still extremely conservative and provides limited support to the gay community (e.g., lack of same-sex marriage recognition). Consequently, gay men experience social exclusion and disparities. The present study explores the association between homophobia and closeness with sexual orientation and HIV status. 261 heterosexual Italian men and women were assessed for feelings of closeness and homophobia after reading a vignette where the character was C1: heterosexual and HIV negative; C2: gay and HIV negative; or C3: gay and HIV positive. Experiences of homophobia and closeness varied depending on gender of participant and condition assigned, and higher levels of homophobia were correlated with lower levels of closeness regardless of HIV status. Implications and future directions are discussed.

  2. Elastic properties of a material composed of alternating layers of negative and positive Poisson's ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocer, C.; McKenzie, D.R.; Bilek, M.M.

    2009-01-01

    The theory of elasticity predicts a variety of phenomena associated with solids that possess a negative Poisson's ratio. The fabrication of metamaterials with a 'designed' microstructure that exhibit a Poisson's ratio approaching the thermodynamic limits of 1/2 and -1 increases the likelihood of realising these phenomena for applications. In this work, we investigate the properties of a layered composite, with alternating layers of materials with negative and positive Poisson's ratio approaching the thermodynamic limits. Using the finite element method to simulate uniaxial loading and indentation of a free standing composite, we observed an increase in the resistance to mechanical deformation above the average value of the two materials. Even though the greatest increase in stiffness is gained as the thermodynamic limits are approached, a significant amount of added stiffness can be attained, provided that the Young's modulus of the negative Poisson's ratio material is not less than that of the positive Poisson's ratio material

  3. Positive and Negative Effects of Parental Conflicts on Children’s Condition and Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joëlle Barthassat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous research focused on the negative consequences of parental conflict behaviours. In contrast, this review is about the positive and negative effects that constructive and destructive parental conflict behaviours have on a child’s condition and behaviour. It employs the cognitive-contextual framework of Grych and Fincham (1990 and the emotional security hypothesis of Davies and Cummings (1994. Parental conflicts are represented as a continuum from very destructive to very constructive behaviours. Depending on the style of parental conflict behaviour, children’s emotional reactions and behaviour vary from positive to negative, and are moderated or mediated by different variables. A replication of previous findings and additional research are needed for a comprehensive understanding of this relationship and of the underlying mechanisms.

  4. Positive and Negative Interactions Observed Between Siblings: Moderating Effects for Children Exposed to Parents’ Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iturralde, Esti; Margolin, Gayla; Spies Shapiro, Lauren A.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated links between interparental conflict appraisals (specifically threat and self-blame), sibling relationship quality (positive and negative dimensions), and anxiety in sibling pairs comprised of an adolescent and a younger sibling close in age. Sibling relationship quality was measured through behavioral observation. Links between self-blame and anxiety were moderated by sibling relationship quality. In older siblings, positive behavior with a sibling was associated with an attenuated relation between self-blame and anxiety. A paradoxical moderating effect was found for negative interactions; for both younger and older siblings, a relation between self-blame and anxiety was weakened in the presence of sibling negativity. Results offered support for theorized benefits of sibling relationship quality in helping early adolescents adjust to conflict between parents. PMID:24244080

  5. MERIDIONAL COMA OF NEGATIVE ANASTIGMATIC LENSES AT THE FINAL POSITION OF AN OBJECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Bezrukov

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the findings of negative anastigmatic lenses at the final position of an object. The negative lenses are considered with refraction index n=1.7849 (type of glass is TF12 and thickness d=5 mm, working with paraxial magnifications β=1,1x;1,3x;1,5x with account of the distances from the first lens surface to the object S1=9; 25 mm and the size of the object y=15 mm. Dependences of negative lens forms from the position of anastigmatic pupils and from radii of meridional caustics which are convenient for understanding aberrational properties of anastigmatic lenses. The findings give the possibility to synthesize wide-angle lenses with the corrected aberrations of image curvature and meridional coma without geometrical vignetting of wide sloping bunches.

  6. Diet, Lifestyle and risk of K-ras mutation-positive and -negative colorectal adenomas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wark, P.A.; Kuil, van der W.; Ploemacher, J.; Muijen, van G.N.P.; Mulder, Ch.J.J.; Weijenberg, M.P.; Kok, F.J.; Kampman, E.

    2006-01-01

    K-ras mutation-positive (K-ras+) and -negative (K-ras-) colorectal adenomas may differ clinically and pathologically. As environmental compounds may cause mutations in the growth-related K-ras oncogene or affect clonal selection depending on mutational status, we evaluated whether the aetiology of

  7. Negative and Positive Pretrial Publicity Affect Juror Memory and Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruva, Christine L.; McEvoy, Cathy

    2008-01-01

    The experiment examined the effects of exposure to pretrial publicity (PTP) and delay on juror memory and decision-making. Mock jurors read news articles containing negative PTP, positive PTP, or unrelated articles. Five days later, they viewed a videotaped murder trial, after which they made decisions about guilt. Finally, all participants…

  8. A Lexical Framework for Semantic Annotation of Positive and Negative Regulation Relations in Biomedical Pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zambach, Sine; Lassen, Tine

    presented here, we analyze 6 frequently used verbs denoting the regulation relations regulates, positively regulates and negatively regulates through corpus analysis, and propose a formal representation of the acquired knowledge as domain speci¯c semantic frames. The acquired knowledge patterns can thus...

  9. Generalization of positive and negative attitudes towards individuals to outgroup attitudes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stark, Tobias; Flache, Andreas; Veenstra, René

    The generalization of attitudes toward individual outgroup members into attitudes toward the outgroup as a whole can affect intergroup relations. However, little is known about the relative strengths of the generalization of negative and positive interpersonal attitudes into attitudes about the

  10. The Effects of Different Drawing Materials on Children's Drawings of Positive and Negative Human Figures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkitt, Esther; Barrett, Martyn

    2011-01-01

    Children tend to use certain drawing strategies differentially when asked to draw topics with positive and negative emotional characterisations. These effects have however only been established when children are asked to use standard drawing materials. The present study was designed to investigate whether the above pattern of children's response…

  11. Relating specific emotions to intrinsic motivation: on the moderating role of positive and negative emotion differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandercammen, Leen; Hofmans, Joeri; Theuns, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Despite the fact that studies on self-determination theory have traditionally disregarded the explicit role of emotions in the motivation eliciting process, research attention for the affective antecedents of motivation is growing. We add to this emerging research field by testing the moderating role of emotion differentiation -individual differences in the extent to which people can differentiate between specific emotions- on the relationship between twelve specific emotions and intrinsic motivation. To this end, we conducted a daily diary study (N = 72) and an experience sampling study (N = 34). Results showed that the relationship between enthusiasm, cheerfulness, optimism, contentedness, gloominess, miserableness, uneasiness (in both studies 1 and 2), calmness, relaxation, tenseness, depression, worry (only in Study 1) on one hand and intrinsic motivation on the other hand was moderated by positive emotion differentiation for the positive emotions and by negative emotion differentiation for the negative emotions. Altogether, these findings suggest that for people who are unable to distinguish between different specific positive emotions the relationship between those specific positive emotions and intrinsic motivation is stronger, whereas the relationship between specific negative emotions and intrinsic motivation is weaker for people who are able to distinguish between the different specific negative emotions. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  12. Negative relationship behavior is more important than positive: Correlates of outcomes during stressful life events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivers, Alannah Shelby; Sanford, Keith

    2018-04-01

    When people who are married or cohabiting face stressful life situations, their ability to cope may be associated with two separate dimensions of interpersonal behavior: positive and negative. These behaviors can be assessed with the Couple Resilience Inventory (CRI). It was expected that scales on this instrument would correlate with outcome variables regarding life well-being, stress, and relationship satisfaction. It was also expected that effects for negative behavior would be larger than effects for positive and that the effects might be curvilinear. Study 1 included 325 married or cohabiting people currently experiencing nonmedical major life stressors and Study 2 included 154 married or cohabiting people with current, serious medical conditions. All participants completed an online questionnaire including the CRI along with an alternate measure of couple behavior (to confirm scale validity), a measure of general coping style (to serve as a covariate), and measures of outcome variables regarding well-being, quality of life, perceived stress, and relationship satisfaction. The effects for negative behavior were larger than effects for positive in predicting most outcomes, and many effects were curvilinear. Notably, results remained significant after controlling for general coping style, and scales measuring positive and negative behavior demonstrated comparable levels of validity. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Neural correlates of preparatory and regulatory control over positive and negative emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Dongju; Olman, Cheryl A; Haut, Kristen M; Sinha, Rajita; MacDonald, Angus W; Patrick, Christopher J

    2014-04-01

    This study used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate brain activation during preparatory and regulatory control while participants (N = 24) were instructed either to simply view or decrease their emotional response to, pleasant, neutral or unpleasant pictures. A main effect of emotional valence on brain activity was found in the right precentral gyrus, with greater activation during positive than negative emotion regulation. A main effect of regulation phase was evident in the bilateral anterior prefrontal cortex (PFC), precuneus, posterior cingulate cortex, right putamen and temporal and occipital lobes, with greater activity in these regions during preparatory than regulatory control. A valence X regulation interaction was evident in regions of ventromedial PFC and anterior cingulate cortex, reflecting greater activation while regulating negative than positive emotion, but only during active emotion regulation (not preparation). Conjunction analyses revealed common brain regions involved in differing types of emotion regulation including selected areas of left lateral PFC, inferior parietal lobe, temporal lobe, right cerebellum and bilateral dorsomedial PFC. The right lateral PFC was additionally activated during the modulation of both positive and negative valence. Findings demonstrate significant modulation of brain activity during both preparation for, and active regulation of positive and negative emotional states.

  14. Metacognition in first-episode psychosis and its association with positive and negative symptom profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trauelsen, Anne Marie; Gumley, Andrew; Jansen, Jens Einar

    2016-01-01

    There is growing evidence that metacognitive abilities which include the ability to synthesize knowledge regarding mental states in self and others and use this ability to solve problems are impaired in non-affective psychosis and associated with positive and negative symptom severity. We sought ...

  15. Differential Language Functioning of Monolinguals and Bilinguals on Positive-Negative Emotional Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheirzadeh, Shiela; Hajiabed, Mohammadreza

    2016-01-01

    The present interdisciplinary research investigates the differential emotional expression between Persian monolinguals and Persian-English bilinguals. In other words, the article was an attempt to answer the questions whether bilinguals and monolinguals differ in the expression of positive and negative emotions elicited through sad and happy…

  16. Positive Affect, Negative Affect, and Physiological Hyperarousal among Referred and Nonreferred Youths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Jeff; Joiner, Thomas E., Jr.; Catanzaro, Salvatore J.

    2011-01-01

    The Positive and Negative Affect Scale for Children (PANAS-C) and the Physiological Hyperarousal Scale for Children (PH-C) seem ideal measures for school mental health screenings, because they are theory based, psychometrically sound, and brief. This study provides descriptive information and preliminary cutoff scores in an effort to increase the…

  17. Investigating the Relationship among Internet Addiction, Positive and Negative Affects, and Life Satisfaction in Turkish Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telef, Bülent Baki

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the relationships between Internet addiction and the areas of life satisfaction and positive or negative affects in Turkish adolescents. The research sample comprised 358 students studying in the sixth, seventh and eighth grades at four different middle schools in Canakkale city centre during the 2012-2013 academic year, of…

  18. Positive and negative affect produce opposing task-irrelevant stimulus preexposure effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazar, Josef; Kaplan, Oren; Sternberg, Terri; Lubow, R E

    2012-06-01

    In three experiments, groups were exposed to either positive or negative affect video clips, after which they were presented with a series of task-irrelevant stimuli. In the subsequent test task, subjects were required to learn an association between the previously irrelevant stimulus and a consequence, and between a new stimulus and a consequence. Induced positive affect produced a latent inhibition effect (poorer evidence of learning with the previously irrelevant stimulus than with the novel stimulus). In opposition to this, induced negative affect resulted in better evidence of learning with a previously irrelevant stimulus than with a novel stimulus. In general, the opposing effects also were present in participants scoring high on self-report questionnaires of depression (Experiments 2 and 3). These unique findings were predicted and accounted for on the basis of two principles: (a) positive affect broadens the attentional field and negative affect contracts it; and (b) task-irrelevant stimuli are processed in two successive stages, the first encodes stimulus properties, and the second encodes stimulus relationships. The opposing influences of negative and positive mood on the processing of irrelevant stimuli have implications for the role of emotion in general theories of cognition, and possibly for resolving some of the inconsistent findings in research with schizophrenia patients.

  19. Distinct trajectories of positive and negative affect after colorectal cancer diagnosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ciere, Yvette; Janse, Moniek; Almansa, Josué; Visser, Annemieke; Sanderman, Robbert; Sprangers, Mirjam A.G.; Ranchor, Adelita V.; Fleer, Joke

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Insight into trajectories of positive affect (PA) and negative affect (NA) across the cancer continuum may improve understanding of the nature of adjustment problems. The primary aim of this study was to identify subgroups of patients with distinct trajectories of PA and NA following

  20. Distinct Trajectories of Positive and Negative Affect After Colorectal Cancer Diagnosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ciere, Yvette; Janse, Moniek; Almansa, Josué; Visser, Annemieke; Sanderman, Robbert; Sprangers, Mirjam A G; Ranchor, Adelita V; Fleer, Joke

    OBJECTIVE: Insight into trajectories of positive affect (PA) and negative affect (NA) across the cancer continuum may improve understanding of the nature of adjustment problems. The primary aim of this study was to identify subgroups of patients with distinct trajectories of PA and NA following

  1. The Internal Structure of Positive and Negative Affect: A Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the PANAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuccitto, Daniel E.; Giacobbi, Peter R., Jr.; Leite, Walter L.

    2010-01-01

    This study tested five confirmatory factor analytic (CFA) models of the Positive Affect Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) to provide validity evidence based on its internal structure. A sample of 223 club sport athletes indicated their emotions during the past week. Results revealed that an orthogonal two-factor CFA model, specifying error…

  2. The positive and negative health effects of alcohol- and the public health implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbæk, Morten

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the negative and the positive effects of alcohol on health are reviewed. It is first of all established facts that a high alcohol intake implies an increased risk of a large number of health outcomes, such as dementia, breast cancer, colorectal cancer, cirrhosis, upper digestive tr...... good reasons therefore....

  3. Behaviour of domestic fowl in anticipation of positive and negative stimuli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmerman, P.H.; Buijs, S.A.F.; Bolhuis, J.E.; Keeling, L.J.

    2011-01-01

    Underlying the study of animal welfare is the assumption that animals experience emotional states. Although there has been a bias towards studying negative emotions, research into positive emotions is necessary for an overall welfare assessment. The aim of the current study was to find behavioural

  4. Positive and Negative Emotions and Coping as Mediators of Mother-Child Attachment and Peer Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Michelle M.; Kerns, Kathryn A.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined whether emotions and coping explain (mediate) the association between mother-child attachment and peer relationships. Attachment, positive and negative emotion experience, coping, and peer relationships were examined in 106 fourth-grade through sixth-grade girls attending a 6-day residential camp. Attachment, experience of…

  5. The Ambivalence of Challenge Stressors: Time Pressure Associated with Both Negative and Positive Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widmer, Pascale S.; Semmer, Norbert K.; Kalin, Wolfgang; Jacobshagen, Nicola; Meier, Laurenz L.

    2012-01-01

    According to the challenge-hindrance model, challenge stressors contain both stressful and challenging aspects, hindrance stressors only stressful aspects. Typically, negative outcomes of challenge stressors refer to well-being (strain), positive outcomes to so-called work outcomes (e.g., productivity, intention to quit). As both effects occur…

  6. Positive and Negative Consequences in Contingency Contracts: Their Relative Effectiveness on Arithmetic Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, Teresa A.; Saudargas, Richard A.

    1988-01-01

    The study with two elementary students who had low levels of completion and accuracy on daily arithmetic assignments found that a negative consequence was not necessary and that use of a positive component alone was sufficient to maintain high levels of completion and accuracy. (Author/DB)

  7. [Personal resources and negative and positive effects of traumatic events in a group of medical rescuers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogińska-Bulik, Nina

    The purpose of the research was to investigate the role of personal resources, such as optimism and sense of selfefficacy in both negative (posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms) and positive (posttraumatic growth - PTG) effects of experienced trauma in a group of emergency service representatives. Data of 100 medical rescue workers, mostly men (59%) who have experienced traumatic events in their worksite were analyzed. The age of the participants ranged from 24 to 60 years (mean = 37.43; standard deviation = 8.73). Polish versions of the Impact of Event Scale - Revised and the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory were used to assess the negative and positive effects of experienced events. Optimism was assessed by the Life Orientation Test and sense of self-efficacy by the Generalized Self-Efficacy Scale. The obtained results revealed that optimism is negatively associated with symptoms of PTSD in men, and sense of self-efficacy - positively with the severity of growth after trauma in women. The analyzed personal resources play a diverse role in the emergence of negative and positive effects of experienced traumatic events, depending on the gender of the respondents. Med Pr 2016;67(5):635-644. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  8. Relating Specific Emotions to Intrinsic Motivation: On the Moderating Role of Positive and Negative Emotion Differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandercammen, Leen; Hofmans, Joeri; Theuns, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Despite the fact that studies on self-determination theory have traditionally disregarded the explicit role of emotions in the motivation eliciting process, research attention for the affective antecedents of motivation is growing. We add to this emerging research field by testing the moderating role of emotion differentiation –individual differences in the extent to which people can differentiate between specific emotions– on the relationship between twelve specific emotions and intrinsic motivation. To this end, we conducted a daily diary study (N = 72) and an experience sampling study (N = 34). Results showed that the relationship between enthusiasm, cheerfulness, optimism, contentedness, gloominess, miserableness, uneasiness (in both studies 1 and 2), calmness, relaxation, tenseness, depression, worry (only in Study 1) on one hand and intrinsic motivation on the other hand was moderated by positive emotion differentiation for the positive emotions and by negative emotion differentiation for the negative emotions. Altogether, these findings suggest that for people who are unable to distinguish between different specific positive emotions the relationship between those specific positive emotions and intrinsic motivation is stronger, whereas the relationship between specific negative emotions and intrinsic motivation is weaker for people who are able to distinguish between the different specific negative emotions. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. PMID:25517984

  9. Probabilistic soft sets and dual probabilistic soft sets in decision making with positive and negative parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatimah, F.; Rosadi, D.; Hakim, R. B. F.

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, we motivate and introduce probabilistic soft sets and dual probabilistic soft sets for handling decision making problem in the presence of positive and negative parameters. We propose several types of algorithms related to this problem. Our procedures are flexible and adaptable. An example on real data is also given.

  10. Personal resources and negative and positive effects of traumatic events in a group of medical rescuers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Ogińska-Bulik

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of the research was to investigate the role of personal resources, such as optimism and sense of selfefficacy in both negative (posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD symptoms and positive (posttraumatic growth – PTG effects of experienced trauma in a group of emergency service representatives. Material and Methods: Data of 100 medical rescue workers, mostly men (59% who have experienced traumatic events in their worksite were analyzed. The age of the participants ranged from 24 to 60 years (mean = 37.43; standard deviation = 8.73. Polish versions of the Impact of Event Scale – Revised and the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory were used to assess the negative and positive effects of experienced events. Optimism was assessed by the Life Orientation Test and sense of self-efficacy by the Generalized Self-Efficacy Scale. Results: The obtained results revealed that optimism is negatively associated with symptoms of PTSD in men, and sense of self-efficacy – positively with the severity of growth after trauma in women. Conclusions: The analyzed personal resources play a diverse role in the emergence of negative and positive effects of experienced traumatic events, depending on the gender of the respondents. Med Pr 2016;67(5:635–644

  11. A comparison of quality of life between HIV positive and negative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jeff Gow

    2014-01-03

    Jan 3, 2014 ... positive and negative diamond miners in South Africa, SAHARA-J: Journal of Social Aspects of HIV/AIDS: An Open ..... It was found that for HIV-workers, the mean quality of life value .... Mining-Sector Workplace in South Africa. .... Assessment of Quality of Life (AQoL) II Instrument Overview and Creation.

  12. Protamine-induced permeabilization of cell envelopes of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Charlotte; Verheul, A.; Gram, Lone

    1997-01-01

    carboxyfluorescein and ATP after 2 to 5 min. Maximum antibacterial activity was reached at alkaline pH and in the absence of divalent cations. The efficient permeabilization of cell envelopes of both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria suggests that protamine causes a general disruption of the cell envelope...

  13. HIV-positive and HIV-negative consumers accept an instant soy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HIV-positive and HIV-negative consumers accept an instant soy maize porridge. ... Health SA Gesondheid ... The objective of this study was to assess consumer acceptability, preference and consumption intent of an instant soy ... as a food supplement for HIV subjects in a subsequent nutrition intervention trial, to improve

  14. The Impact of Positive and Negative Affect and Issue Framing on Issue Interpretation and Risk Taking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal; Ross

    1998-12-01

    Two studies examined the influence of transient affective states and issue framing on issue interpretation and risk taking within the context of strategic decision making. In Study 1, participants in whom transient positive or negative affective states were induced by reading a short story showed systematic differences in issue interpretation and risk taking in a strategic decision making context. Compared to negative mood participants, those in a positive mood were more likely to interpret the strategic issue as an opportunity and displayed lower levels of risk taking. Study 2 replicated and extended these results by crossing affective states with threat and opportunity frames. Results showed that framing an issue (as a threat or an opportunity) had a stronger impact on issue interpretation among negative affect participants than among positive affect participants. Affective states also moderated the impact of issue framing on risk taking: the effect of framing on risk-taking was stronger under negative rather than positive affect. These results are interpreted via information-processing and motivational effects of affect on a decision maker. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.

  15. Verbal makes it positive, spatial makes it negative: working memory biases judgments, attention, and moods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storbeck, Justin; Watson, Philip

    2014-12-01

    Prior research has suggested that emotion and working memory domains are integrated, such that positive affect enhances verbal working memory, whereas negative affect enhances spatial working memory (Gray, 2004; Storbeck, 2012). Simon (1967) postulated that one feature of emotion and cognition integration would be reciprocal connectedness (i.e., emotion influences cognition and cognition influences emotion). We explored whether affective judgments and attention to affective qualities are biased by the activation of verbal and spatial working memory mind-sets. For all experiments, participants completed a 2-back verbal or spatial working memory task followed by an endorsement task (Experiments 1 & 2), word-pair selection task (Exp. 3), or attentional dot-probe task (Exp. 4). Participants who had an activated verbal, compared with spatial, working memory mind-set were more likely to endorse pictures (Exp. 1) and words (Exp. 2) as being more positive and to select the more positive word pair out of a set of word pairs that went 'together best' (Exp. 3). Additionally, people who completed the verbal working memory task took longer to disengage from positive stimuli, whereas those who completed the spatial working memory task took longer to disengage from negative stimuli (Exp. 4). Interestingly, across the 4 experiments, we observed higher levels of self-reported negative affect for people who completed the spatial working memory task, which was consistent with their endorsement and attentional bias toward negative stimuli. Therefore, emotion and working memory may have a reciprocal connectedness allowing for bidirectional influence.

  16. Divergent estrogen receptor-positive and -negative breast cancer trends and etiologic heterogeneity in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anderson, William F; Rosenberg, Philip S; Petito, Lucia

    2013-01-01

    -period-cohort models to estimate age-specific EAPCs, cohort rate ratios and projections for future time periods (2011-2018). In Denmark, the overall rate of ER-positive cancers rose between 1993 and 2010 by 3.0% per year (95% CI: 2.8-3.3% per year), whereas the overall rate of ER-negative cancers fell by 2.1% per year...... (95% CI: -2.5 to -1.6% per year). The ER-positive rate increased fastest among postmenopausal women and the ER-negative rate decreased fastest among premenopausal women, reflecting that cohorts born after 1944 were at relatively higher risk of ER-positive tumors and lower risk of ER-negative tumors......Long-term breast cancer trends in incidence in the United States (US) show rising estrogen receptor (ER)-positive rates and falling ER-negative rates. We hypothesized that these divergent trends reflect etiologic heterogeneity and that comparable trends should be observed in other countries...

  17. The combination of positive and negative feedback loops confers exquisite flexibility to biochemical switches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfeuty, Benjamin; Kaneko, Kunihiko

    2009-01-01

    A wide range of cellular processes require molecular regulatory pathways to convert a graded signal into a discrete response. One prevalent switching mechanism relies on the coexistence of two stable states (bistability) caused by positive feedback regulations. Intriguingly, positive feedback is often supplemented with negative feedback, raising the question of whether and how these two types of feedback can cooperate to control discrete cellular responses. To address this issue, we formulate a canonical model of a protein–protein interaction network and analyze the dynamics of a prototypical two-component circuit. The appropriate combination of negative and positive feedback loops can bring a bistable circuit close to the oscillatory regime. Notably, sharply activated negative feedback can give rise to a bistable regime wherein two stable fixed points coexist and may collide pairwise with two saddle points. This specific type of bistability is found to allow for separate and flexible control of switch-on and switch-off events, for example (i) to combine fast and reversible transitions, (ii) to enable transient switching responses and (iii) to display tunable noise-induced transition rates. Finally, we discuss the relevance of such bistable switching behavior, and the circuit topologies considered, to specific biological processes such as adaptive metabolic responses, stochastic fate decisions and cell-cycle transitions. Taken together, our results suggest an efficient mechanism by which positive and negative feedback loops cooperate to drive the flexible and multifaceted switching behaviors arising in biological systems

  18. Symptom changes in five dimensions of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale in refractory psychosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woodward, T.S.; Jung, K.; Smith, G.N.; Hwang, H.; Barr, A.M.; Procyshyn, R.M.; Flynn, S.W.; van der Gaag, M.; Honer, W.G.

    2014-01-01

    Refractory psychosis units currently have little information regarding which symptoms profiles should be expected to respond to treatment. In the current study, we provide this information using structural equation modeling of Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) ratings at admission and

  19. Animal Welfare Practices along the Food Chain: How Does Negative and Positive Information Affect Consumers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dentoni, D.; Calantone, R.; Tonsor, G.; Peterson, H.C.

    2011-01-01

    This study analyzes the mitigating effect of positive brand information on animal welfare on consumers' perceptions, attitudes, and buying intentions for meat products when provided before a negative information shock related to the same issue. By tackling this question, this study integrates with

  20. Relating specific emotions to intrinsic motivation: on the moderating role of positive and negative emotion differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leen Vandercammen

    Full Text Available Despite the fact that studies on self-determination theory have traditionally disregarded the explicit role of emotions in the motivation eliciting process, research attention for the affective antecedents of motivation is growing. We add to this emerging research field by testing the moderating role of emotion differentiation -individual differences in the extent to which people can differentiate between specific emotions- on the relationship between twelve specific emotions and intrinsic motivation. To this end, we conducted a daily diary study (N = 72 and an experience sampling study (N = 34. Results showed that the relationship between enthusiasm, cheerfulness, optimism, contentedness, gloominess, miserableness, uneasiness (in both studies 1 and 2, calmness, relaxation, tenseness, depression, worry (only in Study 1 on one hand and intrinsic motivation on the other hand was moderated by positive emotion differentiation for the positive emotions and by negative emotion differentiation for the negative emotions. Altogether, these findings suggest that for people who are unable to distinguish between different specific positive emotions the relationship between those specific positive emotions and intrinsic motivation is stronger, whereas the relationship between specific negative emotions and intrinsic motivation is weaker for people who are able to distinguish between the different specific negative emotions. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  1. 'False-positive' and 'false-negative' test results in clinical urine drug testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisfield, Gary M; Goldberger, Bruce A; Bertholf, Roger L

    2009-08-01

    The terms 'false-positive' and 'false-negative' are widely used in discussions of urine drug test (UDT) results. These terms are inadequate because they are used in different ways by physicians and laboratory professionals and they are too narrow to encompass the larger universe of potentially misleading, inappropriate and unexpected drug test results. This larger universe, while not solely comprised of technically 'true' or 'false' positive or negative test results, presents comparable interpretive challenges with corresponding clinical implications. In this review, we propose the terms 'potentially inappropriate' positive or negative test results in reference to UDT results that are ambiguous or unexpected and subject to misinterpretation. Causes of potentially inappropriate positive UDT results include in vivo metabolic conversions of a drug, exposure to nonillicit sources of a drug and laboratory error. Causes of potentially inappropriate negative UDT results include limited assay specificity, absence of drug in the urine, presence of drug in the urine, but below established assay cutoff, specimen manipulation and laboratory error. Clinical UDT interpretation is a complicated task requiring knowledge of recent prescription, over-the-counter and herbal drug administration, drug metabolism and analytical sensitivities and specificities.

  2. Most negative and most positive expectation values of the spin operator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamick, Larry

    2011-01-01

    Formulas for the most positive and most negative values of the expectation of the spin operator are given and compared with single-particle values. The Nilsson model is used to evaluate these expectations and a scenario is discussed where the value is greater than one.

  3. Positive Social Support, Negative Social Exchanges, and Suicidal Behavior in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Jameson K.; Barton, Alison L.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Risk for suicide is often higher among college students, compared to same-age noncollegiate peers, and may be exacerbated by quality of social support and interactions. The authors examined the independent contributions of positive social support and negative social exchanges to suicide ideation and attempts in college students.…

  4. Beyond 1984: The Positive and Negative Potential of Computer Supported School Focused Information Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Susan S.

    Although educators' use of computers to track student and school information with the attendant positive and negative outcomes is still in an early stage of development, accessible data from such systems could improve the objective rationality of educational and instructional decision-making as long as no one places unwarranted credibility in the…

  5. Positive and negative streamers in ambient air: measuring diameter, velocity and dissipated energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briels, T M P; Kos, J; Van Veldhuizen, E M; Ebert, U [Department of Applied Physics, Technische Universiteit Eindhoven, PO Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Winands, G J J [Department of Electrical Engineering, Technische Universiteit Eindhoven, PO Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands)], E-mail: e.m.v.veldhuizen@tue.nl, E-mail: ebert@cwi.nl

    2008-12-07

    Positive and negative streamers are studied in ambient air at 1 bar; they emerge from a needle electrode placed 40 mm above a planar electrode. The amplitudes of the applied voltage pulses range from 5 to 96 kV; most pulses have rise times of 30 ns or shorter. Diameters, velocities and energies of the streamers are measured. Two regimes are identified; a low voltage regime where only positive streamers appear and a high voltage regime where both positive and negative streamers exist. Below 5 kV, no streamers emerge. In the range from 5 to 40 kV, positive streamers form, while the negative discharges only form a glowing cloud at the electrode tip, but no streamers. For 5-20 kV, diameters and velocities of the positive streamers have the minimal values of d = 0.2 mm and v {approx} 10{sup 5} m s{sup -1}. For 20-40 kV, their diameters increase by a factor of 6 while the voltage increases only by a factor of 2. Above the transition value of 40 kV, streamers of both polarities form; they strongly resemble each other, though the positive ones propagate further; their diameters continue to increase with applied voltage. For 96 kV, positive streamers attain diameters of 3 mm and velocities of 4 x 10{sup 6} m s{sup -1}; negative streamers are about 20% slower and thinner. An empirical fit formula for the relation between velocity v and diameter d is v = 0.5d{sup 2} mm{sup -1} ns{sup -1} for both polarities. Streamers of both polarities dissipate energies of the order of several millijoules per streamer while crossing the gap.

  6. Positive and negative streamers in ambient air: measuring diameter, velocity and dissipated energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briels, T M P; Kos, J; Van Veldhuizen, E M; Ebert, U; Winands, G J J

    2008-01-01

    Positive and negative streamers are studied in ambient air at 1 bar; they emerge from a needle electrode placed 40 mm above a planar electrode. The amplitudes of the applied voltage pulses range from 5 to 96 kV; most pulses have rise times of 30 ns or shorter. Diameters, velocities and energies of the streamers are measured. Two regimes are identified; a low voltage regime where only positive streamers appear and a high voltage regime where both positive and negative streamers exist. Below 5 kV, no streamers emerge. In the range from 5 to 40 kV, positive streamers form, while the negative discharges only form a glowing cloud at the electrode tip, but no streamers. For 5-20 kV, diameters and velocities of the positive streamers have the minimal values of d = 0.2 mm and v ∼ 10 5 m s -1 . For 20-40 kV, their diameters increase by a factor of 6 while the voltage increases only by a factor of 2. Above the transition value of 40 kV, streamers of both polarities form; they strongly resemble each other, though the positive ones propagate further; their diameters continue to increase with applied voltage. For 96 kV, positive streamers attain diameters of 3 mm and velocities of 4 x 10 6 m s -1 ; negative streamers are about 20% slower and thinner. An empirical fit formula for the relation between velocity v and diameter d is v = 0.5d 2 mm -1 ns -1 for both polarities. Streamers of both polarities dissipate energies of the order of several millijoules per streamer while crossing the gap.

  7. Characterization and management trends of negative and positive impacts of tourism in show caves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heros Augusto Santos Lobo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Caves are one of the most fragile environments on Earth ’s surface, in function of physical, atmospheric and biological specificities. The natural characteristics associated with cultural aspects of local people are the reasons to tourist potential of caves. However, the tourist use of caves can generate negative impacts on the environment. This consequence happens when inappropriate procedures of planning and management of tourism are used. Negative impacts are described in this review, as also indications of management techniques to avoid, decrease or eliminate the negative consequences of tourism in caves. Positive impacts are also presented, in order to achieve a sustainable tourism in show caves. The conclusion argues that the negative impacts should not be considered as impediments to tourism in caves. It is important to know these impacts and use it as a key to get previous answers which allow to raise the sustainability of show caves.

  8. Evaluating the negative or valuing the positive? Neural mechanisms supporting feedback-based learning across development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Duijvenvoorde, Anna C K; Zanolie, Kiki; Rombouts, Serge A R B; Raijmakers, Maartje E J; Crone, Eveline A

    2008-09-17

    How children learn from positive and negative performance feedback lies at the foundation of successful learning and is therefore of great importance for educational practice. In this study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine the neural developmental changes related to feedback-based learning when performing a rule search and application task. Behavioral results from three age groups (8-9, 11-13, and 18-25 years of age) demonstrated that, compared with adults, 8- to 9-year-old children performed disproportionally more inaccurately after receiving negative feedback relative to positive feedback. Additionally, imaging data pointed toward a qualitative difference in how children and adults use performance feedback. That is, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and superior parietal cortex were more active after negative feedback for adults, but after positive feedback for children (8-9 years of age). For 11- to 13-year-olds, these regions did not show differential feedback sensitivity, suggesting that the transition occurs around this age. Pre-supplementary motor area/anterior cingulate cortex, in contrast, was more active after negative feedback in both 11- to 13-year-olds and adults, but not 8- to 9-year-olds. Together, the current data show that cognitive control areas are differentially engaged during feedback-based learning across development. Adults engage these regions after signals of response adjustment (i.e., negative feedback). Young children engage these regions after signals of response continuation (i.e., positive feedback). The neural activation patterns found in 11- to 13-year-olds indicate a transition around this age toward an increased influence of negative feedback on performance adjustment. This is the first developmental fMRI study to compare qualitative changes in brain activation during feedback learning across distinct stages of development.

  9. Procalcitonin Levels in Gram-Positive, Gram-Negative, and Fungal Bloodstream Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Leli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Procalcitonin (PCT can discriminate bacterial from viral systemic infections and true bacteremia from contaminated blood cultures. The aim of this study was to evaluate PCT diagnostic accuracy in discriminating Gram-positive, Gram-negative, and fungal bloodstream infections. A total of 1,949 samples from patients with suspected bloodstream infections were included in the study. Median PCT value in Gram-negative (13.8 ng/mL, interquartile range (IQR 3.4–44.1 bacteremias was significantly higher than in Gram-positive (2.1 ng/mL, IQR 0.6–7.6 or fungal (0.5 ng/mL, IQR 0.4–1 infections (P<0.0001. Receiver operating characteristic analysis showed an area under the curve (AUC for PCT of 0.765 (95% CI 0.725–0.805, P<0.0001 in discriminating Gram-negatives from Gram-positives at the best cut-off value of 10.8 ng/mL and an AUC of 0.944 (95% CI 0.919–0.969, P<0.0001 in discriminating Gram-negatives from fungi at the best cut-off of 1.6 ng/mL. Additional results showed a significant difference in median PCT values between Enterobacteriaceae and nonfermentative Gram-negative bacteria (17.1 ng/mL, IQR 5.9–48.5 versus 3.5 ng/mL, IQR 0.8–21.5; P<0.0001. This study suggests that PCT may be of value to distinguish Gram-negative from Gram-positive and fungal bloodstream infections. Nevertheless, its utility to predict different microorganisms needs to be assessed in further studies.

  10. Positive and Negative Perfectionism in Migrainus Patients Compaired with Control Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Afshar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Introduction & Objective: The positive and negative effects of perfectionism on human cognition, affection and behavior have been emphasized. Perfectionism has been conceptualized as a multidimensional construct, with both adaptive and maladaptive aspects, which is one of the common personality traits that cause lifelong stress in human and results in anxiety, depression and physical and mental distress.The aim of this study was to assess the positive and negative perfectionism in migrainus patients in comparison with control group. Materials & Methods: This is an analytical (Case-control study which was performed on 91 migraine patients and 88 healthy individuals. The pqtients and controls completed a standard 40 item questionnaire for perfectionism – PANPS (20 for positive and 20 for negative perfectionism . The patients in both groups were matched for gender and age. Mean of positive and negative perfectionism scores for two groups was statistically analysed using SPSS software. Results: Mean positive perfectionism score was 83.47±8.5 for migraine group and 65.47±7.54 for control group (p=0.0001. The difference between two groups was significant. Mean of negative perfectionism score was 74.12±10.6 for migraine group and 51.79±7.8 for control group(p=0.0001. Conclusion: The results show that migraine patients have higher mean of perfectionism scores than healthy individuals. Based on this study and other clinical experiences more attention to psychotherapy is necessary for better management of migraine and recognition of personality profile in migraine patient helps to reduce patient’s complaints.

  11. Affect and craving: positive and negative affect are differentially associated with approach and avoidance inclinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlauch, Robert C; Gwynn-Shapiro, Daniel; Stasiewicz, Paul R; Molnar, Danielle S; Lang, Alan R

    2013-04-01

    Research on reactivity to alcohol and drug cues has either ignored affective state altogether or has focused rather narrowly on the role of negative affect in craving. Moreover, until recently, the relevant analyses of affect and craving have rarely addressed the ambivalence often associated with craving itself. The current study investigated how both negative and positive affect moderate approach and avoidance inclinations associated with cue-elicited craving in a clinical sample diagnosed with substance use disorders. One hundred forty-four patients (age range of 18-65, mean 42.0; n=92 males) were recruited from an inpatient detoxification unit for substance abuse. Participants completed a baseline assessment of both positive and negative affect prior to completing a cue-reactivity paradigm for which they provided self-report ratings of inclinations to approach (use) and avoid (not use) alcohol, cigarettes, and non-psychoactive control substances (food and beverages). Participants with elevated negative affect reported significantly higher approach ratings for cigarette and alcohol cues, whereas those high in positive affect showed significantly higher levels of avoidance inclinations for both alcohol and cigarette cues and also significantly lower approach ratings for alcohol cues, all relative to control cues. Results for negative affect are consistent with previous cue reactivity research, whereas results for positive affect are unique and call attention to its clinical potential for attenuating approach inclinations to substance use cues. Further, positive affect was related to both approach and avoidance inclinations, underscoring the utility of a multidimensional conceptualization of craving in the analysis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Sensitivity of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) in Detecting Treatment Effects via Network Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esfahlani, Farnaz Zamani; Sayama, Hiroki; Visser, Katherine Frost; Strauss, Gregory P

    2017-12-01

    Objective: The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale is a primary outcome measure in clinical trials examining the efficacy of antipsychotic medications. Although the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale has demonstrated sensitivity as a measure of treatment change in studies using traditional univariate statistical approaches, its sensitivity to detecting network-level changes in dynamic relationships among symptoms has yet to be demonstrated using more sophisticated multivariate analyses. In the current study, we examined the sensitivity of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale to detecting antipsychotic treatment effects as revealed through network analysis. Design: Participants included 1,049 individuals diagnosed with psychotic disorders from the Phase I portion of the Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness (CATIE) study. Of these participants, 733 were clinically determined to be treatment-responsive and 316 were found to be treatment-resistant. Item level data from the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale were submitted to network analysis, and macroscopic, mesoscopic, and microscopic network properties were evaluated for the treatment-responsive and treatment-resistant groups at baseline and post-phase I antipsychotic treatment. Results: Network analysis indicated that treatment-responsive patients had more densely connected symptom networks after antipsychotic treatment than did treatment-responsive patients at baseline, and that symptom centralities increased following treatment. In contrast, symptom networks of treatment-resistant patients behaved more randomly before and after treatment. Conclusions: These results suggest that the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale is sensitive to detecting treatment effects as revealed through network analysis. Its findings also provide compelling new evidence that strongly interconnected symptom networks confer an overall greater probability of treatment responsiveness in patients with

  13. Spontaneous nystagmus in benign paroxysmal positional vertigo: is it a new sign?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajiabolhassan, Fahimeh; Tavanai, Elham

    2013-01-01

    Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo (BPPV) is a condition that indicates a benign inner ear disorder. It is generally believed that BPPV is due to the dislodged otoconial particles from otolith organs and unusual collection of them within any of semicircular canals or even in all three semicircular canals. Although the typical features of nystagmus in BPPV have been well-studied, very few studies (just four articles) have highlighted the presence of spontaneous nystagmus in BPPV recently. During the past 10 years, 2850 patients have been examined at the audiology unit of our department, and 254 patients have received diagnoses of BPPV but recently 2 patients presented with BPPV and spontaneous nystagmus, a new symptom that has been never observed in our clinical records. We herein describe this rare symptom in 2 case of BPPV. A 50-year-old woman with BPPV who showed an 18 degree spontaneous nystagmus treated with Epley maneuver and a 53-year-old man with 3 degree spontaneous nystagmus.

  14. Decreasing Signs of Negative Affect and Correlated Self-Injury in an Individual with Mental Retardation and Mood Disturbances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindauer, Steven E.; DeLeon, Iser G.; Fisher, Wayne W.

    1999-01-01

    This study evaluated effects of an enriched environment, based on a paired-choice preference assessment, on rates of self-injurious behavior (SIB) and frequency of negative affect displayed by a woman with mental retardation and a mood disorder. Results suggested that SIB and negative affect were highly correlated and that the enriched environment…

  15. Turning lemonade into lemons: Dampening appraisals reduce positive affect and increase negative affect during positive activity scheduling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burr, Leigh-Anne; Javiad, Mahmood; Jell, Grace; Werner-Seidler, Aliza; Dunn, Barnaby D

    2017-04-01

    The way individuals appraise positive emotions may modulate affective experience during positive activity scheduling. Individuals may either engage in dampening appraisals (e.g., think "this is too good to last") or amplifying appraisals (e.g., think "I deserve this"). A cross-over randomized design was used to examine the consequences of these appraisal styles. Participants (N = 43) rated positive affect (PA) and negative affect (NA) during four daily walks in pleasant locations, whilst following dampening, emotion-focus amplifying (focusing on how good one feels), self-focus amplifying (focusing on positive self qualities), or control instructions. There was no difference between the two amplifying and control conditions, which all increased PA and reduced NA during the walks. However, the dampening condition significantly differed from all other conditions, reducing PA and increasing NA during the walk. Individual differences in anhedonia symptoms did not significantly moderate the pattern of findings. This evidence supports the view that dampening appraisals may be one mechanism driving anhedonia and may account for why positive activity scheduling can sometimes backfire when utilized in the clinic. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The relationship of positive and negative expressiveness to the processing of emotion information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knyazev, Gennady G; Barchard, Kimberly A; Razumnikova, Olga M; Mitrofanova, Larisa G

    2012-06-01

    The tendency to express emotions non-verbally is positively related to perception of emotions in oneself. This study examined its relationship to perception of emotions in others. In 40 healthy adults, EEG theta synchronization was used to indicate emotion processing following presentation of happy, angry, and neutral faces. Both positive and negative expressiveness were associated with higher emotional sensitivity, as shown by cortical responses to facial expressions during the early, unconscious processing stage. At the late, conscious processing stage, positive expressiveness was associated with higher sensitivity to happy faces but lower sensitivity to angry faces. Thus, positive expressiveness predisposes people to allocate fewer attentional resources for conscious perception of angry faces. In contrast, negative expressiveness was consistently associated with higher sensitivity. The effects of positive expressiveness occurred in cortical areas that deal with emotions, but the effects of negative expressiveness occurred in areas engaged in self-referential processes in the context of social relationships. © 2012 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology © 2012 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.

  17. Positive, negative, and bipolar questions: The effect of question polarity on ratings of text readability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi Kamoen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available For decades, survey researchers have known that respondents give different answers to attitude questions worded positively (X is good. Agree-Disagree, negatively (X is bad. Agree-Disagree or on a bipolar scale (X is bad-good. This makes survey answers hard to interpret, especially since findings on exactly how the answers are affected are conflicting. In the current paper, we present twelve studies in which the effect of question polarity was measured for a set of thirteen contrastive adjectives. In each study, the same adjectives were used so the generalizability of wording effects across studies could be examined for each word pair. Results show that for five of the word pairs an effect of question wording can be generalized. The direction of these effects are largely consistent: respondents generally give the same answers to positive and bipolar questions, but they are more likely to disagree with negative questions than to agree with positive questions or to choose the positive side of the bipolar scale. In other words, respondents express their opinions more positively when the question is worded negatively. Even though answers to the three wording alternatives sometimes differ, results also show that reliable answers can be obtained with all three wording alternatives. So, for survey practice, these results suggest that all three wording alternatives may be used for attitude measurement.

  18. The effect of positive and negative movie alcohol portrayals on transportation and attitude toward the movie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koordeman, Renske; Anschutz, Doeschka J; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2014-07-01

    This study examined the effects of alcohol portrayals on transportation and attitude toward a movie. In addition, we examined whether positive and negative movie alcohol portrayals affect transportation into and attitude toward the movie. A within-subject design was used in which participants were exposed to 8 different movie clips containing alcohol (positive or negative context) or no alcohol portrayals in a controlled laboratory setting. A total of 159 college students (84 males and 75 females) ages 18 to 30 participated in the experiment. Transportation and attitude toward the movie were measured after each movie clip. Participants were more transported into and had a more positive attitude toward movie clips with alcohol portrayals compared to the same movie clips with no alcohol portrayal. In addition, participants were more transported into movie clips with negative alcohol (NA) portrayals compared to clips with positive alcohol (PA) portrayals. For attitude toward the movie, opposite results were found. Participants had a more positive attitudes toward clips with PA portrayals compared to clips with NA portrayals. The way alcohol is portrayed in movies may contribute to how people evaluate and get transported in movies. Copyright © 2014 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  19. Does being attractive always help? Positive and negative effects of attractiveness on social decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agthe, Maria; Spörrle, Matthias; Maner, Jon K

    2011-08-01

    Previous studies of organizational decision making demonstrate an abundance of positive biases directed toward highly attractive individuals. The current research, in contrast, suggests that when the person being evaluated is of the same sex as the evaluator, attractiveness hurts, rather than helps. Three experiments assessing evaluations of potential job candidates (Studies 1 and 3) and university applicants (Study 2) demonstrated positive biases toward highly attractive other-sex targets but negative biases toward highly attractive same-sex targets. This pattern was mediated by variability in participants' desire to interact with versus avoid the target individual (Studies 1 and 2) and was moderated by participants' level of self-esteem (Study 3); the derogation of attractive same-sex targets was not observed among people with high self-esteem. Findings demonstrate an important exception to the positive effects of attractiveness in organizational settings and suggest that negative responses to attractive same-sex targets stem from perceptions of self-threat.

  20. [Analysis for Discordance of Positive and Negative Blood Typing by Gel Card].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cui-Ying; Xu, Hong; Lei, Hui-Fen; Liu, Juan; Li, Xiao-Wei

    2017-08-01

    To explore the method of Gel card identifying ABO blood group, determine the inconsistent cause and the distribution of disease affecting factors, and put forward a method of its solutions. To collect 240 positive and negative typing-discordant blood speciments from patients examined by Gel card and send these speciments to blood type reference laboratory for examining with the classic tube method and serological test, such as salivary blood-group substance, in order to performe genotyping method when serologic test can not be determined. Among 240 positive and negative typing-discordant blood speciments from patients examined by Gel card, 107 blood speciments were positive and negative consistent examined by false agglutination test (44.58%), 133 blood specinents were discordent examined by false agglutination (55.42%), out of them, 35 cases (14.58%) with inconsistent cold agglutination test, 22 cases (9.17%) with weakened AB antigenicity, 16 cases (6.67%) with ABO subtyping, 12 cases (5.00%) with positive direct antiglobulin test, 11 cases (4.58%) with reduced or without antibodies, 11 cases (4.58%) with false aggregation caused by drugs or protein, 11 cases (4.58%) with salivary blood-type substances, 8 cases (3.33%) with non-ABO alloantibody, and 7 cases (2.92%) with allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. The distribution of disease were following: blood disease (16.83%), tumor (11.88%), and cardiopulmonary diseases (11.39%); chi-square test results indicated that the distribution significantly different. The analysis of ABO blood grouping shows a variety factors influencing positive and negative blood typing, and the Gel Card identification can produc more false positive blood types. Therefore, more attention should be paid on the high incidence diseases, such as blood disease, tumor, and cardiopulmonary disease.

  1. The relationship between positive or negative phrasing and patients' coping with lateral epicondylitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong Oh; Gong, Hyun Sik; Kim, Jeong Hwan; Rhee, Seung Hwan; Lee, Young Ho; Baek, Goo Hyun

    2014-04-01

    Research suggests that phrases with negative content can affect patients' response to medical procedures and how they cope with medical illnesses. We hypothesized that patients with lateral epicondylitis who describe their condition in positive phrases cope better than those who do not. We prospectively followed up 91 patients with lateral epicondylitis for 12 months. The patients indicated their baseline coping status based on the Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS) and were discharged with a wait-and-see policy. During follow-up interviews, the patients described the nature of their condition in their own words and were then categorized into either positive or negative phrasing groups. We compared these two groups regarding current coping status and whether they had sought additional treatment. We also analyzed for the factors associated with these outcomes. There were no significant differences in baseline PCS scores between the two groups. At follow-up, patients in the positive phrasing group (n = 62) had significantly lower PCS scores and were less likely to seek additional treatment than those in the negative phrasing group (n = 29). Multivariable analyses showed that positive phrasing and low pain levels were independently associated with improvement in PCS scores and that negative phrasing and depression were independently associated with patients' seeking additional treatment. Patients' positive phrasing about their condition are associated with improvement in their coping status and with less use of medical resources in the case of lateral epicondylitis. This study suggests that patients with more positive attitudes toward their illness cope and comply better when a wait-and-see treatment is recommended by their physicians. Copyright © 2014 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Evaluation of clinical pathology parameters in fecal PCR-positive or PCR-negative goats for Johne's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonelli, Francesca; Fratini, F; Turchi, B; Cantile, C; Ebani, V V; Colombani, G; Galiero, A; Sgorbini, M

    2017-10-01

    Johne's disease (JD) is an economically important infectious disease of ruminants caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP). This study evaluated the differences in various hematological and biochemical parameters between healthy goats and goats with JD. Forty goats were chosen randomly from a herd endemic for JD. A complete physical examination was performed. Blood and fresh fecal samples were collected from each goat. A complete blood cell (CBC) count and a protein electrophoresis were performed. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on fecal samples was performed in order to divide goats into two groups: group A "positive PCR on feces"; and group B "control (negative)." A Student's t test was performed for each parameter to verify differences between groups A vs B. Twenty goats were included in each group. Clinical signs likely related to JD were found in the history of 4/40 (10%) goats, while 36/40 (90%) goats were reported to be asymptomatic. CBC and electrophoresis values were within reference intervals in both groups. No differences were found for CBC parameters between the two groups. Values for alpha 1, beta, gamma globulins, and total protein (TP) were statistically higher in group A vs those in group B, while those for albumin and albumin/globulin (A/G) ratio were lower. An increase in TP, hypoalbuminemia, and hypergammaglobulinemia has been reported in group A, while no abnormalities were found concerning CBC. JD-positive goats seem to show earlier clinical pathological alternations than clinical signs. Protein electrophoresis may help the diagnosis of JD in asymptomatic goat herds, acting as an economical screening method.

  3. A high-efficiency positive (negative) surface ionization source for radioactive ion beam (abstract)a

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alton, G.D.; Mills, G.D.

    1996-01-01

    A versatile, new concept, spherical-geometry, positive (negative) surface-ionization source has been designed and fabricated which will have the capability of generating both positive- and negative-ion beams without mechanical changes to the source. The source utilizes a highly permeable, high-work-function Ir ionizer (φ≡5.29 eV) for ionizing highly electropositive atoms/molecules; while for negative-surface ionization, the work function is lowered to φ≡1.43 eV by continually feeding cesium vapor through the ionizer matrix. The use of this technique for negative ion beam generation has the potential of overcoming the chronic poisoning effects experienced with LaB 6 while enhancing considerably the efficiency for negative surface ionization of atoms and molecules with intermediate electron affinities. The flexibility of operation in either mode makes it especially attractive for radioactive ion beam applications and, therefore, the source will be used as a complementary replacement for the high-temperature electron impact ionization sources presently in use at the Holifield radioactive beam facility. The design features and operational principles of the source will be described in this report. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  4. A positive (negative) surface ionization source concept for radioactive ion beam generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alton, G.D.; Mills, G.D.

    1996-01-01

    A novel, versatile, new concept, spherical-geometry, positive (negative) surface-ionization source has been designed and fabricated which will have the capability of generating both positive- and negative-ion beams without mechanical changes to the source. The source utilizes a highly permeable, high-work-function Ir ionizer (φ ≅ 5.29 eV) for ionizing highly electropositive atoms/molecules; while for negative-surface ionization, the work function is lowered by continually feeding a highly electropositive vapor through the ionizer matrix. The use of this technique to effect low work function surfaces for negative ion beam generation has the potential of overcoming the chronic poisoning effects experienced with LaB 6 while enhancing the probability for negative ion formation of atomic and molecular species with low to intermediate electron affinities. The flexibility of operation in either mode makes it especially attractive for radioactive ion beam (RIB) applications and, therefore, the source will be used as a complementary replacement for the high-temperature electron impact ionization sources presently in the use at the Holifield radioactive ion beam facility (HRIBF). The design features and operational principles of the source are described in this report. (orig.)

  5. Polarization spectroscopy of positive and negative trions in an InAs quantum dot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ware, Morgan E.; Bracker, Allan S.; Stinaff, Eric; Gammon, Daniel; Gershoni, David; Korenev, Vladimir L.

    2005-02-01

    Using polarization-sensitive photoluminescence and photoluminescence excitation spectroscopy, we study single InAs/GaAs self-assembled quantum dots. The dots were embedded in an n-type, Schottky diode structure allowing for control of the charge state. We present here the exciton, singly charged exciton (positive and negative trions), and the twice negatively charged exciton. For non-resonant excitation below the wetting layer, we observed a large degree of polarization memory from the radiative recombination of both the positive and negative trions. In excitation spectra, through the p-shell, we have found several sharp resonances in the emission from the s-shell recombination of the dot in all charged states. Some of these excitation resonances exhibit strong coulomb shifts upon addition of charges into the quantum dot. One particular resonance of the negatively charged trion was found to exhibit a fine structure doublet under circular polarization. This observation is explained in terms of resonant absorption into the triplet states of the negative trion.

  6. Temporal evolution of atmosphere pressure plasma jets driven by microsecond pulses with positive and negative polarities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Tao; Yang, Wenjin; Zhang, Cheng; Fang, Zhi; Zhou, Yixiao; Schamiloglu, Edl

    2014-09-01

    Current-voltage characteristics, discharge images, and optical spectra of atmospheric pressure plasma jets (APPJs) are studied using a microsecond pulse length generator producing repetitive output pulses with different polarities. The experimental results show that the APPJs excited by the pulses with positive polarity have longer plume, faster propagation speed, higher power, and more excited species, such as \\text{N}2 , O, He, \\text{N}2+ , than that with the negatively excited APPJs. The images taken using an intensified charge-coupled device show that the APPJs excited by pulses with positive polarity are characterized by a bullet-like structure, while the APPJs excited by pulses with negative polarity are continuous. The propagation speed of the APPJs driven by a microsecond pulse length generator is about tens of km/s, which is similar to the APPJs driven by a kHz frequency sinusoidal voltage source. The analysis shows that the space charge accumulation effect plays an important role during the discharge. The transient enhanced electric field induced by the accumulated ions between the needle-like electrode and the nozzle in the APPJs excited by pulses with negative polarity enhances electron field emission from the cathode, which is illustrated by the bright line on the time-integrated images. This makes the shape of the APPJ excited using pulses with negative polarity different from the bullet-like shape of the APPJs excited by pulses with positive polarity.

  7. False positive and false negative FDG-PET scans in various thoracic diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Jung Min; Lee, Hyun Ju; Goo, Jin Mo; Lee, Ho Young; Lee, Jong Jin; Chung, June Key; Im, Jung Gi

    2006-01-01

    Fluorodeoxygucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography (PET) is being used more and more to differentiate benign form malignant focal lesions and it has been shown to be more efficacious than conventional chest computed tomography (CT). However, FDG is not a cancer-specific agent, and false positive findings in benign diseases have been reported. Infectious diseases (mycobacterial, fungal, bacterial infection), sarcoidosis, radiation pneumonitis and post-operative surgical conditions have shown intense uptake on PET scan. On the other hand, tumors with low glycolytic activity such as adenomas, bronchioloalveolar carcinomas, carcinoid tumors, low grade lymphomas and small sized tumors have revealed false negative findings on PET scan, Furthermore, in diseases located near the physiologic uptake sites (heart, bladder, kidney, and liver), FDG-PET should be complemented with other imaging modalities to confirm results and to minimize false negative findings. Familiarity with these false positive and negative findings will help radiologists interpret PET scans more accurately and also will help to determine the significance of the findings. In this review, we illustrate false positive and negative findings of PET scan in a variety of diseases

  8. Risk score predicts high-grade prostate cancer in DNA-methylation positive, histopathologically negative biopsies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Neste, Leander; Partin, Alan W; Stewart, Grant D; Epstein, Jonathan I; Harrison, David J; Van Criekinge, Wim

    2016-09-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) diagnosis is challenging because efforts for effective, timely treatment of men with significant cancer typically result in over-diagnosis and repeat biopsies. The presence or absence of epigenetic aberrations, more specifically DNA-methylation of GSTP1, RASSF1, and APC in histopathologically negative prostate core biopsies has resulted in an increased negative predictive value (NPV) of ∼90% and thus could lead to a reduction of unnecessary repeat biopsies. Here, it is investigated whether, in methylation-positive men, DNA-methylation intensities could help to identify those men harboring high-grade (Gleason score ≥7) PCa, resulting in an improved positive predictive value. Two cohorts, consisting of men with histopathologically negative index biopsies, followed by a positive or negative repeat biopsy, were combined. EpiScore, a methylation intensity algorithm was developed in methylation-positive men, using area under the curve of the receiver operating characteristic as metric for performance. Next, a risk score was developed combining EpiScore with traditional clinical risk factors to further improve the identification of high-grade (Gleason Score ≥7) cancer. Compared to other risk factors, detection of DNA-methylation in histopathologically negative biopsies was the most significant and important predictor of high-grade cancer, resulting in a NPV of 96%. In methylation-positive men, EpiScore was significantly higher for those with high-grade cancer detected upon repeat biopsy, compared to those with either no or low-grade cancer. The risk score resulted in further improvement of patient risk stratification and was a significantly better predictor compared to currently used metrics as PSA and the prostate cancer prevention trial (PCPT) risk calculator (RC). A decision curve analysis indicated strong clinical utility for the risk score as decision-making tool for repeat biopsy. Low DNA-methylation levels in PCa-negative biopsies led

  9. Response and binding elements for ligand-dependent positive transcription factors integrate positive and negative regulation of gene expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenfeld, M.G.; Glass, C.K.; Adler, S.; Crenshaw, E.B. III; He, X.; Lira, S.A.; Elsholtz, H.P.; Mangalam, H.J.; Holloway, J.M.; Nelson, C.; Albert, V.R.; Ingraham, H.A.

    1988-01-01

    Accurate, regulated initiation of mRNA transcription by RNA polymerase II is dependent on the actions of a variety of positive and negative trans-acting factors that bind cis-acting promoter and enhancer elements. These transcription factors may exert their actions in a tissue-specific manner or function under control of plasma membrane or intracellular ligand-dependent receptors. A major goal in the authors' laboratory has been to identify the molecular mechanisms responsible for the serial activation of hormone-encoding genes in the pituitary during development and the positive and negative regulation of their transcription. The anterior pituitary gland contains phenotypically distinct cell types, each of which expresses unique trophic hormones: adrenocorticotropic hormone, thyroid-stimulating hormone, prolactin, growth hormone, and follicle-stimulating hormone/luteinizing hormone. The structurally related prolactin and growth hormone genes are expressed in lactotrophs and somatotrophs, respectively, with their expression virtually limited to the pituitary gland. The reported transient coexpression of these two structurally related neuroendocrine genes raises the possibility that the prolactin and growth hormone genes are developmentally controlled by a common factor(s)

  10. Self-focused attention affects subsequent processing of positive (but not negative) performance appraisals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzman, Jacob B; Valentiner, David P

    2016-03-01

    Cognitive-behavioral models highlight the conjoint roles of self-focused attention (SFA), post-event processing (PEP), and performance appraisals in the maintenance of social anxiety. SFA, PEP, and biased performance appraisals are related to social anxiety; however, limited research has examined how SFA affects information-processing following social events. The current study examined whether SFA affects the relationships between performance appraisals and PEP following a social event.. 137 participants with high (n = 72) or low (n = 65) social anxiety were randomly assigned to conditions of high SFA or low SFA while engaging in a standardized social performance. Subsequent performance appraisals and PEP were measured. Immediate performance appraisals were not affected by SFA. High levels of SFA led to a stronger, inverse relationship between immediate positive performance appraisals and subsequent negative PEP. High levels of SFA also led to a stronger, inverse relationship between negative PEP and changes in positive performance appraisals.. Future research should examine whether the current findings, which involved a standardized social performance event, extend to interaction events as well as in a clinical sample. These findings suggest that SFA affects the processing of positive information following a social performance event. SFA is particularly important for understanding how negative PEP undermines positive performance appraisals.. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Revisiting of The negative and positive theologies in the Gradation of existence theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Naji

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The negative and positive theologies are two intellectually compaction positions that have attracted most Islamic thinkers since the early Islamic period. Tashbih and tanzih means likening and cleansing or purifying respectively. These two technical words in theology describe human encounter with God.  Accordingly Asharites tends towards Positive theology and Mutazale and Shiite tend towards Negative Theology.  There are some Shiete thinkers, however, to compromise this situation. Based on different assumptions and presuppositions we can discern the following compromised versions: 1.       Mild Anthrophomorphism: based on the communality of God and human attributes and reflections on Human contingency and God's necessity 2.       Prevalence of existence and its unity: based on Ibn Arabi's mystical philosophy 3.       Gradation of existence: based on Sadra's transcendental philosophy By looking at the most over-looked fundamental principles of Transcendental Philosophy, I will take a look the possible reconciliations of Negative and Positive theology in this paper. At the end, I will argue for its most plausible version

  12. Daily Stress, Coping, and Negative and Positive Affect in Depression: Complex Trigger and Maintenance Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunkley, David M; Lewkowski, Maxim; Lee, Ihno A; Preacher, Kristopher J; Zuroff, David C; Berg, Jody-Lynn; Foley, J Elizabeth; Myhr, Gail; Westreich, Ruta

    2017-05-01

    Major depressive disorder is characterized by emotional dysfunction, but mood states in daily life are not well understood. This study examined complex explanatory models of daily stress and coping mechanisms that trigger and maintain daily negative affect and (lower) positive affect in depression. Sixty-three depressed patients completed perfectionism measures, and then completed daily questionnaires of stress appraisals, coping, and affect for 7 consecutive days. Multilevel structural equation modeling (MSEM) demonstrated that, across many stressors, when the typical individual with depression perceives more criticism than usual, he/she uses more avoidant coping and experiences higher event stress than usual, and this is connected to daily increases in negative affect as well as decreases in positive affect. In parallel, results showed that perceived control, less avoidant coping, and problem-focused coping commonly operate together when daily positive affect increases. MSEM also showed that avoidant coping tendencies and ongoing stress, in combination, explain why people with depression and higher self-critical perfectionism maintain daily negative affect and lower positive affect. These findings advance a richer and more detailed understanding of specific stress and coping patterns to target in order to more effectively accomplish the two predominant therapy goals of decreasing patients' distress and strengthening resilience. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Employees' negative and positive work-home interaction and their association with depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitzsche, Anika; Jung, Julia; Pfaff, Holger; Driller, Elke

    2013-05-01

    Depression is the leading cause of disability and high costs worldwide. One possibility for preventing depression in the workplace, which has received little consideration so far, is the promotion of a successful balance between work and personal life. The aim of this study was to investigate employees' negative and positive work-home interaction and their association with depressive symptoms. A cross-sectional study was conducted in the micro- and nanotechnology sector in Germany. A stepwise multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed using data from N = 213 employees. The results suggest that while negative work-home interaction is associated with an increased risk for depressive symptoms, positive work-home interaction is correlated with a lower risk. Neither positive nor negative interaction in the home-to-work direction demonstrated a significant association with depressive symptoms. When attempting to prevent mental illnesses, such as depression, it is important to develop strategies aimed at reducing conflict between work and personal life and promoting a positive exchange between these two domains. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Intake of Mediterranean foods associated with positive affect and low negative affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Patricia A; Jaceldo-Siegl, Karen; Lee, Jerry W; Youngberg, Wes; Tonstad, Serena

    2013-02-01

    To examine associations between consumption of foods typical of Mediterranean versus Western diets with positive and negative affect. Nutrients influence mental states yet few studies have examined whether foods protective or deleterious for cardiovascular disease affect mood. Participants were 9255 Adventist church attendees in North America who completed a validated food frequency questionnaire in 2002-6. Scores for affect were obtained from the positive and negative affect schedule questionnaire in 2006-7. Multiple linear regression models controlled for age, gender, ethnicity, BMI, education, sleep, sleep squared (to account for high or low amounts), exercise, total caloric intake, alcohol and time between the questionnaires. Intake of vegetables (β=0.124 [95% CI 0.101, 0.147]), fruit (β=0.066 [95% CI 0.046, 0.085]), olive oil (β=0.070 [95% CI 0.029, 0.111]), nuts (β=0.054 [95% CI 0.026, 0.082]), and legumes (β=0.055 [95% CI 0.032, 0.077]) were associated with positive affect while sweets/desserts (β=-0.066 [95% CI -0.086, -0.046]), soda (β=-0.025 [95% CI -0.037, -0.013]) and fast food frequency (β=-0.046 [95% CI -0.062, -0.030]) were inversely associated with positive affect. Intake of sweets/desserts (β=0.058 [95% CI 0.037, 0.078]) and fast food frequency (β=0.052 [95% CI 0.036, 0.068]) were associated with negative affect while intake of vegetables (β=-0.076 [95% CI -0.099, -0.052]), fruit (β=-0.033 [95% CI -0.053, -0.014]) and nuts (β=-0.088 [95% CI -0.116, -0.060]) were inversely associated with negative affect. Gender interacted with red meat intake (Pnegative affect in females only. Foods typical of Mediterranean diets were associated with positive affect as well as lower negative affect while Western foods were associated with low positive affect in general and negative affect in women. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Magnetic resonance imaging findings in spinal tuberculosis: Comparison of HIV positive and negative patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cameron Michael Anley

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is an increasing incidence of Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and tuberculosis (TB co-infection. This has led to an increasing number of atypical features on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. We postulated that the type 4 hypersensitivity response causing granulomatous inflammation may be disrupted by the HIV resulting in less vertebral body destruction. This study compares the MRI features of spinal tuberculosis in HIV positive and negative patients. Materials and Methods: Fifty patients with confirmed spinal tuberculosis, HIV status and available MRI scans at a single institution from 2003-2009 were identified. HIV status was positive in 20 and negative in 30. Females were predominant (34:16. The HIV positive group was younger at 32.4 versus 46 years (P=0.008. Blood parameters (WCC, ESR, Hb, Lymphocyte count were not significantly different between the HIV groups. MRI scans were reviewed by a radiologist who was blinded to the HIV status. Site, extent of disease, body collapse, abscess location and volume, kyphotic deformity and cord signal were reported. Results: There was no difference between the number of vertebral bodies affection with TB involvement, presence of cord signal or incidence of non-contiguous lesions. The HIV negative group had significantly more total vertebral collapse (P=0.036 and greater kyphosis (P=0.002. The HIV positive group had a trend to larger anterior epidural pus collection (P=0.2. Conclusion: HIV negative patients demonstrate greater tuberculous destruction in terms of total percentage body collapse and resultant kyphosis. There is no difference in the incidence of cord signal or presence of non-contiguous lesions. HIV positive patients show a trend to a greater epidural abscess volume. This difference may be explained by the reduced autoimmune response of the type 4 hypersensitivity reaction caused by the HIV infection.

  16. Modeling online social signed networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Le; Gu, Ke; Zeng, An; Fan, Ying; Di, Zengru

    2018-04-01

    People's online rating behavior can be modeled by user-object bipartite networks directly. However, few works have been devoted to reveal the hidden relations between users, especially from the perspective of signed networks. We analyze the signed monopartite networks projected by the signed user-object bipartite networks, finding that the networks are highly clustered with obvious community structure. Interestingly, the positive clustering coefficient is remarkably higher than the negative clustering coefficient. Then, a Signed Growing Network model (SGN) based on local preferential attachment is proposed to generate a user's signed network that has community structure and high positive clustering coefficient. Other structural properties of the modeled networks are also found to be similar to the empirical networks.

  17. Using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) to Define Different Domains of Negative Symptoms: Prediction of Everyday Functioning by Impairments in Emotional Expression and Emotional Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Philip D; Khan, Anzalee; Keefe, Richard S E

    2017-12-01

    Background: Reduced emotional experience and expression are two domains of negative symptoms. The authors assessed these two domains of negative symptoms using previously developed Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) factors. Using an existing dataset, the authors predicted three different elements of everyday functioning (social, vocational, and everyday activities) with these two factors, as well as with performance on measures of functional capacity. Methods: A large (n=630) sample of people with schizophrenia was used as the data source of this study. Using regression analyses, the authors predicted the three different aspects of everyday functioning, first with just the two Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale factors and then with a global negative symptom factor. Finally, we added neurocognitive performance and functional capacity as predictors. Results: The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale reduced emotional experience factor accounted for 21 percent of the variance in everyday social functioning, while reduced emotional expression accounted for no variance. The total Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale negative symptom factor accounted for less variance (19%) than the reduced experience factor alone. The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale expression factor accounted for, at most, one percent of the variance in any of the functional outcomes, with or without the addition of other predictors. Implications: Reduced emotional experience measured with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, often referred to as "avolition and anhedonia," specifically predicted impairments in social outcomes. Further, reduced experience predicted social impairments better than emotional expression or the total Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale negative symptom factor. In this cross-sectional study, reduced emotional experience was specifically related with social outcomes, accounting for essentially no variance in work or everyday activities, and being the

  18. Negative, neutral, and positive interactions among nonnative plants: patterns, processes, and management implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuebbing, Sara E; Nuñez, Martin A

    2015-02-01

    The movement of species is one of the most pervasive forms of global change, and few ecosystems remain uninvaded by nonnative species. Studying species interactions is crucial for understanding their distribution and abundance, particularly for nonnative species because interactions may influence the probability of invasion and consequent ecological impact. Interactions among nonnatives are relatively understudied, though the likelihood of nonnative species co-occurrence is high. We quantify and describe the types of interactions among nonnative plants and determine what factors affect interaction outcomes for ecosystems globally. We reviewed 65 studies comprising 201 observations and recorded the interaction type, traits of the interacting species, and study characteristics. We conducted a census of interaction types and a meta-analysis of experiments that tested nonnative competition intensity. Both methods showed that negative and neutral interactions prevailed, and a number of studies reported that the removal of a dominant nonnative led to competitive release of other nonnatives. Positive interactions were less frequently reported and positive mean effect sizes were rare, but the plant characteristics nitrogen fixation, life cycle (annual or perennial), and functional group significantly influenced positive interactions. Positive interactions were three times more frequent when a neighboring nonnative was a nitrogen fixer and 3.5 times lower when a neighboring nonnative was an annual. Woody plants were two or four times more likely to have positive interactions relative to grasses or herbs, respectively. The prevalence of negative interactions suggests that managers should prepare for reinvasion of sites when treating dominant nonnatives. Though positive interactions were infrequent, managers may be able to anticipate positive interactions among nonnatives based upon traits of the co-occurring invaders. Predicting positive nonnative interactions is an

  19. [Dimensional approach of emotion in psychiatry: validation of the Positive and Negative Emotionality scale (EPN-31)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pélissolo, A; Rolland, J-P; Perez-Diaz, F; Jouvent, R; Allilaire, J-F

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports the first validation study of the EPN-31 scale (Positive and Negative Emotionality scale, 31 items) in a French psychiatric sample. This questionnaire has been adapted by Rolland from an emotion inventory developed by Diener, and is also in accordance with Watson and Clark's tripartite model of affects. Respondents were asked to rate the frequency with which they had experienced each affect (31 basic emotional states) during the last month. The answer format was a 7-point scale, ranging from 1 "Not experienced at all" to 7 "Experienced this affect several times each day". Three main scores were calculated (positive affects, negative affects, and surprise affects), as well as six sub-scores (joy, tenderness, anger, fear, sadness, shame). Four hundred psychiatric patients were included in this study, and completed the EPN-31 scale and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression (HAD) scale. The Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) scale was rated, as well as DSM IV diagnostic criteria. We performed a principal component analysis, with Varimax orthogonal transformation, and explored the factorial structure of the questionnaire, the internal consistency of each dimension, and the correlations between EPN-31 scores and HAD scores. The factorial structure of the EPN-31 was well-defined as expected, with a three-factor (positive, negative and surprise affects) solution accounting for 58.2% of the variance of the questionnaire. No correlation was obtained between positive and negative affects EPN-31 scores (r=0.006). All alpha Cronbach coefficients were between 0.80 and 0.95 for main scores, and between 0.72 and 0.90 for sub-scores. GAF scores were significantly correlated with EPN-31 positive affects scores (r=0.21; p=0.001) and with EPN-31 negative affects scores (r=- 0.45; p=0.001). We obtained significant correlations between positive affects score and HAD depression score (r=- 0.45; pemotionality. Significantly higher EPN-31 positive affect mean scores

  20. Modern Prejudice and Same-Sex Parenting: Shifting Judgments in Positive and Negative Parenting Situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    MASSEY, SEAN G.; MERRIWETHER, ANN M.; GARCIA, JUSTIN R.

    2013-01-01

    The current study compares the effects of traditional and modern anti-homosexual prejudice on evaluations of parenting practices of same-sex and opposite-sex couples. Undergraduate university student participants (N = 436) completed measures of traditional and modern anti-homosexual prejudice and responded to a vignette describing a restaurant scene in which parents react to their child’s undesirable behavior. The parents’ sexual orientation and the quality of their parenting (positive or negative quality) were varied randomly. It was predicted that participants who score higher in modern prejudice would rate the negative parenting behaviors of same-sex parents more negatively than similar behaviors in opposite-sex parents. It was also predicted that this modern prejudice effect would be most pronounced for male participants. Both hypotheses were supported. PMID:23667347

  1. Continuous particle separation in a serpentine microchannel via negative and positive dielectrophoretic focusing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Church, Christopher; Zhu, Junjie; Nieto, Juan; Keten, Gyunay; Ibarra, Erl; Xuan, Xiangchun

    2010-01-01

    Dielectrophoresis (DEP) has been widely used to focus and separate cells and particles in microfluidic devices. This work first demonstrates negative and positive dielectrophoretic focusing of particles in a serpentine microchannel by changing only the electric conductivity of the suspending fluid. Due to the channel turn-induced dielectrophoretic force, particles are focused to either the centerline or the sidewalls of the channel when their electric conductivity is lower (i.e. negative DEP) or higher (i.e. positive DEP) than that of the fluid. These distinctive dielectrophoretic focusing phenomena in a serpentine microchannel are then combined to implement a continuous separation between particles of different sizes and electric conductivities. Such separation eliminates the fabrication of in-channel microelectrodes or micro-insulators that are typically required in DEP-based separation techniques. A numerical model is also developed to predict the particle motion, and the simulation results agree reasonably with the observed particle focusing and separation behaviors.

  2. Depressive realism and the effect of intertrial interval on judgements of zero, positive, and negative contingencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Msetfi, Rachel M; Murphy, Robin A; Simpson, Jane

    2007-03-01

    In three experiments we tested how the spacing of trials during acquisition of zero, positive, and negative response-outcome contingencies differentially affected depressed and nondepressed students' judgements. Experiment 1 found that nondepressed participants' judgements of zero contingencies increased with longer intertrial intervals (ITIs) but not simply longer procedure durations. Depressed groups' judgements were not sensitive to either manipulation, producing an effect known as depressive realism only with long ITIs. Experiments 2 and 3 tested predictions of Cheng's (1997) Power PC theory and the Rescorla-Wagner (1972) model, that the increase in context exposure experienced during the ITI might influence judgements most with negative contingencies and least with positive contingencies. Results suggested that depressed people were less sensitive to differences in contingency and contextual exposure. We propose that a context-processing difference between depressed and nondepressed people removes any objective notion of "realism" that was originally employed to explain the depressive realism effect (Alloy & Abramson, 1979).

  3. Combined effects of positive and negative affectivity and job satisfaction on job performance and turnover intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouckenooghe, Dave; Raja, Usman; Butt, Arif Nazir

    2013-01-01

    Capturing data from employee-supervisor dyads (N = 321) from eight organizations in Pakistan, including human service organizations, an electronics assembly plant, a packaging material manufacturing company, and a small food processing plant, we used moderated regression analysis to examine whether the relationships between trait affect (positive affectivity [PA] and negative affectivity [NA]) and two key work outcome variables (job performance and turnover) are contingent upon the level of job satisfaction. We applied the Trait Activation Theory to explain the moderating effect of job satisfaction on the relationship between affect and performance and between affect and turnover. Overall, the data supported our hypotheses. Positive and negative affectivity influenced performance and the intention to quit, and job satisfaction moderated these relationships. We discuss in detail the results of these findings and their implications for research and practice.

  4. No-go theorem for bimetric gravity with positive and negative mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hohmann, Manuel; Wohlfarth, Mattias N. R.

    2009-01-01

    We argue that the most conservative geometric extension of Einstein gravity describing both positive and negative mass sources and observers is bimetric gravity and contains two copies of standard model matter which interact only gravitationally. Matter fields related to one of the metrics then appear dark from the point of view of an observer defined by the other metric, and so may provide a potential explanation for the dark universe. In this framework we consider the most general form of linearized field equations compatible with physically and mathematically well-motivated assumptions. Using gauge-invariant linear perturbation theory, we prove a no-go theorem ruling out all bimetric gravity theories that, in the Newtonian limit, lead to precisely opposite forces on positive and negative test masses.

  5. Positive and negative affect dimensions in chronic knee osteoarthritis: effects on clinical and laboratory pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finan, Patrick H; Quartana, Phillip J; Smith, Michael T

    2013-06-01

    This study investigated whether daily and laboratory assessed pain differs as a function of the temporal stability and valence of affect in individuals with chronic knee osteoarthritis (KOA). One hundred fifty-one men and women with KOA completed 14 days of electronic diaries assessing positive affect (PA), negative affect (NA), and clinical pain. A subset of participants (n =79) engaged in quantitative sensory testing (QST). State PA and NA were assessed prior to administration of stimuli that induced suprathreshold pain and temporal summation. Multilevel modeling and multiple regression evaluated associations of affect and pain as a function of valence (i.e., positive versus negative) and stability (i.e., stable versus state). In the diary, stable NA (B = -.63, standard error [SE] = .13, p affect-pain processes in the field may reflect individual differences in central pain facilitation.

  6. Positive and Negative Affect in Clinic-Referred Youth With ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okado, Izumi; Mueller, Charles W; Nakamura, Brad J

    2016-01-01

    To examine self-reported positive affect (PA) and negative affect (NA) among youth with ADHD (only and comorbid) and other non-ADHD-referred youth in an ethnically diverse clinical sample. Semi-structured interviews identified 80 pure ADHD, 284 ADHD plus one or more comorbidities, and 730 non-ADHD youth (e.g., other diagnoses or no diagnosis). The Positive and Negative Affect Scale-Children (PANAS-C) was used to assess affective states. Even after controlling for the influence of potential confounds, youth with only ADHD reported higher PA and lower NA than other clinic-referred youth. The ADHD-comorbid group reported higher PA than the "non-ADHD" group, but these groups did not differ on level of NA. ADHD subtype did not influence results. Among clinic-referred youth, ADHD is associated with higher levels of PA and when there are no comorbid disorders, lower levels of NA. © The Author(s) 2013.

  7. The Spreading of Social Energy: How Exposure to Positive and Negative Social News Affects Behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziqing Yao

    Full Text Available Social news, unlike video games or TV programs, conveys real-life interactions. Theoretically, social news in which people help or harm each other and violate rules should influence both prosocial and violation behaviors. In two experiments, we demonstrated the spreading effects of social news in a social interaction context emphasizing social conventions and a nonsocial interaction context emphasizing moral norms. Across the two studies, the results showed that positive social news increased cooperation (decreased defection but had no effect on cheating, whereas negative social news increased cheating but with no change in cooperation (or defection. We conclude that there is a spreading impact of positive social news in the conventional norm domain and of negative social news in the moral norm domain.

  8. The Spreading of Social Energy: How Exposure to Positive and Negative Social News Affects Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Ziqing; Yu, Rongjun

    2016-01-01

    Social news, unlike video games or TV programs, conveys real-life interactions. Theoretically, social news in which people help or harm each other and violate rules should influence both prosocial and violation behaviors. In two experiments, we demonstrated the spreading effects of social news in a social interaction context emphasizing social conventions and a nonsocial interaction context emphasizing moral norms. Across the two studies, the results showed that positive social news increased cooperation (decreased defection) but had no effect on cheating, whereas negative social news increased cheating but with no change in cooperation (or defection). We conclude that there is a spreading impact of positive social news in the conventional norm domain and of negative social news in the moral norm domain.

  9. HER-2 positive and p53 negative breast cancers are associated with poor prognosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2011-06-01

    p53 and HER-2 coexpression in breast cancer has been controversial. These markers were tested using immunohistochemistry and HercepTest. HER-2 expression is related to reduced breast cancer survival (p = .02) . p53 expression relates to HER-2 expression (p = .029). Coexpression between p53 and HER-2 has no relation to prognosis. On univariate and multivariate analysis, combination of HER-2 positive and p53 negative expression was associated with a poor prognosis (p = .018 and p = .027, respectively), while the combination of HER-2 negative and p53 positive expression was associated with a favorable prognosis (p = .022 and p = .010, respectively). Therefore the expression of these markers should be considered collectively.

  10. Positive and Negative Thinking in Tinnitus: Factor Structure of the Tinnitus Cognitions Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handscomb, Lucy E; Hall, Deborah A; Shorter, Gillian W; Hoare, Derek J

    Researchers and clinicians consider thinking to be important in the development and maintenance of tinnitus distress, and altering thoughts or thinking style is an object of many forms of psychological therapy for tinnitus. Those working with people with tinnitus require a reliable, psychometrically robust means of measuring both positive and negative thinking related to it. The Tinnitus Cognitions Questionnaire (TCQ) was designed as such a measure and its authors showed it to be reliable, with good psychometric properties. However, no research teams have yet carried out independent validation. This study aimed to use the TCQ to investigate thinking amongst members of the general population with both bothersome and nonbothersome tinnitus and also to verify its factor structure. Three hundred forty-two members of the public with tinnitus completed the TCQ online or on paper. They also rated their tinnitus on a scale as "not a problem," "a small problem," "a moderate problem," "a big problem," or a "very big problem." The authors tested the original factor structure of the TCQ using confirmatory factor analysis and then calculated the mean scores for each item, comparing mean total scores across "problem categories" for the full questionnaire and for the positive and negative subscales. The original two-factor structure of the TCQ was a good fit to the data when the correlation between positive and negative factors was fixed at zero (root mean square error of approximation = 0.064, 90% confidence interval = 0.058 to 0.070). Items pertaining to wishing the tinnitus would go away and despairing that it would ever get better had the highest mean scores. The mean total score for the "no problem" group (M = 31.17, SD = 16.03) was not significantly different from the mean total score for the "small problem" group (M = 34.00, SD = 12.44, p = 0.99). Differences between mean scores for all other groups were statistically significant. For the negative subscale, differences

  11. Two-dimensional simulation of positive and negative streamers in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babaeva, N.Yu.; Naidis, G.V.

    1998-01-01

    The paper deals with 2D numerical simulation of positive and negative streamers in air at atmospheric pressure. The dynamics of an axially symmetric streamer based on a charged sphere is described by a coupled system of equations for the electric field and the density of charged particles. The results of simulation show that the production rate of radicals in short sphere-plane gaps depends only weakly on the discharge conditions, that the streamer velocity in uniform field depends linearly on the streamer length, and the field corresponding to the negative streamer propagation with a constant velocity is 2-3 times greater than that obtained with a positive streamer. (J.U.)

  12. Positive and Negative Perceptions of Bumiputra And Non-Bumiputra Students on Professional Qualification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abd. Rashid Noor Asidah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Bumiputra and non-Bumiputra students may come from various economic backgrounds and culture. This may influence their perception on their career choice of pursuing a professional accounting qualification. Thus, this study investigates the difference in positive and negative perceptions of Bumiputra and non-Bumiputra students on pursuing a professional qualification upon graduation. A questionnaire survey method was used to collect the data from final year accounting students from five public and three private universities in Malaysia. Means and independent sample t-tests results were analysed. Results indicated that there are only a few significant differences between Bumiputra and non-Bumiputra students on positive and negative perceptions on becoming professional accountants. As perception frames action, these findings would be useful to the Malaysian Institute of Accountants as well as professional bodies to attract both Bumiputra and non-Bumiputra graduates to become professional accountants.

  13. Coincidence of scintigraphic false positive and false negative findings in parathyroid and thyroid adenomas (case report)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mana, O.; Zatta, G.; Boccolari, S.; Barbesti, S.; Tarolo, G.L.

    1987-04-01

    The subtractive double tracer scintigraphy with /sup 201/Tl and /sup 99m/Tc is a useful technique in studying parathyroid nodules; nevertheless, this method can give misleading informations especially in presence of thyroid nodules with false positive and false negative findings. In this case report the technique was applied in studying a patient with three nodules (two thyroid adenomas and one parathyroid adenoma), where both scintigraphic and echographic methods provided misleading informations. The selective uptake of /sup 201/Tl in the upper region of the right thyroid lobe gave a false positive finding, while the increased uptake of /sup 99m/Tc in a hyperfunctioning thyroid adenoma of left lobe masked the parathyroid adenoma laying below, giving a false negative finding.

  14. Numerical simulation of simultaneous acceleration of positive and negative ions in an RFQ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oguri, Y.

    1994-01-01

    By means of a numerical method, beam dynamics was analyzed for an RFQ, where mixtures of positive and negative ions were injected into the quadrupole channel. In order to simulate simultaneous bunching of ions with opposite charges, motion of particles injected into the cavity during two RF periods were traced under consideration of 3D Coulomb forces between particles. Effects of neighbor bunches were also taken into account. In the radial matching section of the structure, beam divergence due to space charge force was completely suppressed by the charge neutralization. However, it has been found that the attractive forces between positive and negative ions prevent bunch formation in the bunching section, leading to longitudinal beam loss. Dependence of the beam transmission efficiency on the input beam intensity is reported. These results are compared with those obtained when injecting single ion species

  15. HER-2 positive and p53 negative breast cancers are associated with poor prognosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2012-02-01

    p53 and HER-2 coexpression in breast cancer has been controversial. These markers were tested using immunohistochemistry and HercepTest. HER-2 expression is related to reduced breast cancer survival (p = .02) . p53 expression relates to HER-2 expression (p = .029). Coexpression between p53 and HER-2 has no relation to prognosis. On univariate and multivariate analysis, combination of HER-2 positive and p53 negative expression was associated with a poor prognosis (p = .018 and p = .027, respectively), while the combination of HER-2 negative and p53 positive expression was associated with a favorable prognosis (p = .022 and p = .010, respectively). Therefore the expression of these markers should be considered collectively.

  16. Clinical characteristics differentiating bacteriologically positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients from negative ones in Mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyota, M; Yasuda, N; Koda, S; Ohara, H; Enkhbat, S; Tsogt, G

    1998-06-01

    The objective of this study is to clarify clinical characteristics which differentiate bacteriologically positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients from negative ones in Mongolia. The subjects include 338 patients aged 16 years and older who had undergone bacteriological examinations. Of them, 107 patients (31.7%) were confirmed bacteriologically. The proportion of bacteriological positive results increased significantly among patients who had cavities in the roentgenographic examination, cough at diagnosis and the family history of tuberculosis. Addressing these clinical characteristics will contribute to raising not only the sensitivity of the sputum examination, but also the specificity of the roentgenographic examination in the diagnostic process of tuberculosis.

  17. A case study of human immunodeficiency virus with positive seroconversion to negative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paranthaman Vengadasalam

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This case study demonstrates a 36-year-old ex-intravenous drug user (IVDU who had been initially tested positive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV twice using Enzyme Immunoassay (EIA method (Particle agglutination, PA done, but a year later he was tested HIV-negative. The patient was asymptomatic for HIV and T helper cells (CD4 count remained stable throughout this period. In light of this case, there may be a need to retest by molecular methods for high risk category patients who were initially diagnosed HIV-positive, but later showing an unexpected clinical course, such as a rising or stable CD4 titre over the years.

  18. [Regulation of Positive and Negative Emotions as Mediator between Maternal Emotion Socialization and Child Problem Behavior].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fäsche, Anika; Gunzenhauser, Catherine; Friedlmeier, Wolfgang; von Suchodoletz, Antje

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated five to six year old children's ability to regulate negative and positive emotions in relation to psychosocial problem behavior (N=53). It was explored, whether mothers' supportive and nonsupportive strategies of emotion socialization influence children's problem behavior by shaping their emotion regulation ability. Mothers reported on children's emotion regulation and internalizing and externalizing problem behavior via questionnaire, and were interviewed about their preferences for socialization strategies in response to children's expression of negative affect. Results showed that children with more adaptive expression of adequate positive emotions had less internalizing behavior problems. When children showed more control of inadequate negative emotions, children were less internalizing as well as externalizing in their behavior. Furthermore, results indicated indirect relations of mothers' socialization strategies with children's problem behavior. Control of inadequate negative emotions mediated the link between non-supportive strategies on externalizing problem behavior. Results suggest that emotion regulatory processes should be part of interventions to reduce the development of problematic behavior in young children. Parents should be trained in dealing with children's emotions in a constructive way.

  19. Integrating affect and impulsivity: The role of positive and negative urgency in substance use risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Gregory T; Cyders, Melissa A

    2016-06-01

    The personality traits of positive and negative urgency refer to the tendencies to act rashly when experiencing unusually positive or negative emotions, respectively. The authors review recent empirical work testing urgency theory (Cyders and Smith, 2008a) and consider advances in theory related to these traits. Empirical findings indicate that (a) the urgency traits are particularly important predictors of the onset of, and increases in, substance use in both children and young adults; (b) they appear to operate in part by biasing psychosocial learning; (c) pubertal onset is associated with increases in negative urgency, which in turn predict increases in adolescent drinking behavior; (d) variation in negative urgency trait levels are associated with variations in the functioning of an identified brain system; and (e) variations in the serotonin transporter gene, known to influence the relevant brain system, relate to variations in the urgency traits. A recent model (Carver et al., 2008) proposes the urgency traits to be markers of a tendency to respond reflexively to emotion, whether through impulsive action or ill-advised inaction (the latter leading to depressive symptoms); this model has received empirical support. The authors discuss new directions for research on the urgency traits. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Positive zeta potential of a negatively charged semi-permeable plasma membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Shayandev; Jing, Haoyuan; Das, Siddhartha

    2017-08-01

    The negative charge of the plasma membrane (PM) severely affects the nature of moieties that may enter or leave the cells and controls a large number of ion-interaction-mediated intracellular and extracellular events. In this letter, we report our discovery of a most fascinating scenario, where one interface (e.g., membrane-cytosol interface) of the negatively charged PM shows a positive surface (or ζ) potential, while the other interface (e.g., membrane-electrolyte interface) still shows a negative ζ potential. Therefore, we encounter a completely unexpected situation where an interface (e.g., membrane-cytosol interface) that has a negative surface charge density demonstrates a positive ζ potential. We establish that the attainment of such a property by the membrane can be ascribed to an interplay of the nature of the membrane semi-permeability and the electrostatics of the electric double layer established on either side of the charged membrane. We anticipate that such a membrane property can lead to such capabilities of the cell (in terms of accepting or releasing certain kinds of moieties as well regulating cellular signaling) that was hitherto inconceivable.

  1. Attachment style impacts behavior and early oculomotor response to positive, but not negative, pictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Catarina; Chaminade, Thierry; David, Da Fonseca; Santos, Andreia; Esteves, Francisco; Soares, Isabel; Deruelle, Christine

    2015-06-01

    The present study investigated whether oculomotor behavior is influenced by attachment styles. The Relationship Scales Questionnaire was used to assess attachment styles of forty-eight voluntary university students and to classify them into attachment groups (secure, preoccupied, fearful, and dismissing). Eye-tracking was recorded while participants engaged in a 3-seconds free visual exploration of stimuli presenting either a positive or a negative picture together with a neutral picture, all depicting social interactions. The task consisted in identifying whether the two pictures depicted the same emotion. Results showed that the processing of negative pictures was impermeable to attachment style, while the processing of positive pictures was significantly influenced by individual differences in insecure attachment. The groups highly avoidant regarding to attachment (dismissing and fearful) showed reduced accuracy, suggesting a higher threshold for recognizing positive emotions compared to the secure group. The groups with higher attachment anxiety (preoccupied and fearful) showed differences in automatic capture of attention, in particular an increased delay preceding the first fixation to a picture of positive emotional valence. Despite lenient statistical thresholds induced by the limited sample size of some groups (p < 0.05 uncorrected for multiple comparisons), the current findings suggest that the processing of positive emotions is affected by attachment styles. These results are discussed within a broader evolutionary framework. © 2015 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Depressive realism and the effect of intertrial interval on judgements of zero, positive, and negative contingencies

    OpenAIRE

    Msetfi, Rachel M.; Murphy, Robin, A.; Simpson, Jane

    2007-01-01

    peer-reviewed In three experiments we tested how the spacing of trials during acquisition of zero, positive, and negative event–outcome contingencies differentially affected depressed and nondepressed students’ judgements. Experiment 1 found that nondepressed participants’ judgements of zero contingencies increased with longer intertrial intervals (ITIs) but not simply longer procedure durations. Depressed groups’ judgements were not sensitive to either manipulation, producing an effect kn...

  3. Introduction Strategy for New Products with Positive and Negative Word-of-Mouth

    OpenAIRE

    Vijay Mahajan; Eitan Muller; Roger A. Kerin

    1984-01-01

    Existing innovation diffusion models assume that individual experience with the product is always communicated positively through word-of-mouth. For certain innovations, however, this assumption is tenuous since communicators of the product experience may transfer favorable, unfavorable, or indifferent messages through word-of-mouth. This paper examines a diffusion model for products in which negative information plays a dominant role, discusses its implications for optimal advertising timing...

  4. Distinct neural systems underlying reduced emotional enhancement for positive and negative stimuli in early Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistridis, Panagiota; Taylor, Kirsten I; Kissler, Johanna M; Monsch, Andreas U; Kressig, Reto W; Kivisaari, Sasa L

    2013-01-01

    Emotional information is typically better remembered than neutral content, and previous studies suggest that this effect is subserved particularly by the amygdala together with its interactions with the hippocampus. However, it is not known whether amygdala damage affects emotional memory performance at immediate and delayed recall, and whether its involvement is modulated by stimulus valence. Moreover, it is unclear to what extent more distributed neocortical regions involved in e.g., autobiographical memory, also contribute to emotional processing. We investigated these questions in a group of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), which affects the amygdala, hippocampus and neocortical regions. Healthy controls (n = 14), patients with AD (n = 15) and its putative prodrome amnestic mild cognitive impairment (n = 11) completed a memory task consisting of immediate and delayed free recall of a list of positive, negative and neutral words. Memory performance was related to brain integrity in region of interest and whole-brain voxel-based morphometry analyses. In the brain-behavioral analyses, the left amygdala volume predicted the immediate recall of both positive and negative material, whereas at delay, left and right amygdala volumes were associated with performance with positive and negative words, respectively. Whole-brain analyses revealed additional associations between left angular gyrus integrity and the immediate recall of positive words as well as between the orbitofrontal cortex and the delayed recall of negative words. These results indicate that emotional memory impairments in AD may be underpinned by damage to regions implicated in emotional processing as well as frontoparietal regions, which may exert their influence via autobiographical memories and organizational strategies.

  5. Emotion regulation strategies mediate the associations of positive and negative affect to upper extremity physical function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talaei-Khoei, Mojtaba; Nemati-Rezvani, Hora; Fischerauer, Stefan F; Ring, David; Chen, Neal; Vranceanu, Ana-Maria

    2017-05-01

    The Gross process model of emotion regulation holds that emotion-eliciting situations (e.g. musculoskeletal illness) can be strategically regulated to determine the final emotional and behavioral response. Also, there is some evidence that innate emotional traits may predispose an individual to a particular regulating coping style. We enrolled 107 patients with upper extremity musculoskeletal illness in this cross-sectional study. They completed self-report measures of positive and negative affect, emotion regulation strategies (cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression), upper extremity physical function, pain intensity, and demographics. We used Preacher and Hayes' bootstrapping approach to process analysis to infer the direct effect of positive and negative affect on physical function as well as their indirect effects through activation of emotion regulation strategies. Negative affect was associated with decreased physical function. The association was partly mediated by expressive suppression (b (SE)=-.10 (.05), 95% BCa CI [-.21, -.02]). Positive affect was associated with increased physical function. Cognitive reappraisal partially mediated this association (b (SE)=.11 (.05), 95% BCa CI [.03, .24]). After controlling for pain intensity, the ratio of the mediated effect to total effect grew even larger in controlled model comparing to uncontrolled model (33% vs. 26% for expressive suppression and 32% vs. 30% for cognitive reappraisal). The relationships between affect, emotion regulation strategies and physical function appear to be more dependent on the emotional response to an orthopedic condition rather than the intensity of the nociceptive stimulation of the pain. Findings support integration of emotion regulation training in skill-based psychotherapy in this population to mitigate the effect of negative affect and enhance the influence of positive affect on physical function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Positive and Negative Aspects of Relationship Quality and Unprotected Sex among Young Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Sonya S.; Gruber, Sandra K.; Wolfson, Julian A.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine both positive and negative aspects of relationship quality in relation to condom use. Sexually active young women aged 14-18 years (n = 111; 34% non-white) were recruited from community clinics and schools in the Midwest USA and provided data via an online survey. The number of unprotected sex acts in the past…

  7. Legal knowledge, needs, and assistance seeking among HIV positive and negative women in Umlazi, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Lauren M; Maman, Suzanne; Holness, David; Moodley, Dhayendre

    2016-01-22

    The rights of women and people living with HIV (PLHIV) are protected under South African law, yet there is a gap in the application of these laws. While there are numerous systemic and social barriers to women's and PLHIV's exercise of their legal rights and rights to access social services, there has been little effort to document these barriers as well as legal needs and knowledge in this context. 1480 HIV-positive and HIV-negative women recruited from an antenatal clinic in Umlazi Township completed a questionnaire on legal knowledge, experience of legal issues, assistance seeking for legal issues, and barriers to seeking assistance. We compared the legal knowledge and experience of legal issues of HIV-positive and HIV-negative women, and described assistance seeking and barriers to assistance seeking among all women. Both HIV-positive and HIV-negative women had high levels of knowledge of their legal rights. There were few important differences in legal knowledge and experience of legal issues by HIV status. The most common legal issues women experienced were difficulty obtaining employment (11 %) and identification documents (7 %). A minority of women who had ever experienced a legal issue had sought assistance for this issue (38 %), and half (50 %) of assistance sought was from informal sources such as family and friends. Women cited lack of time and government bureaucracy as the major barriers to seeking assistance. These results indicate few differences in legal knowledge and needs between HIV-positive and HIV-negative women in this context, but rather legal needs common among women of reproductive age. Legal knowledge may be a less important barrier to seeking assistance for legal issues than time, convenience, and cost. Expanding the power of customary courts to address routine legal issues, encouragement of pro bono legal assistance, and introduction of legal navigators could help to address these barriers.

  8. Positive and negative ionospheric storms occurring during the 15 May 2005 geomagnetic superstorm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Ildiko; Lovell, Brian C.

    2015-09-01

    This study focuses on the 15 May 2005 geomagnetic superstorm and aims to investigate the global variation of positive and negative storm phases and their development. Observations are provided by a series of global total electron content maps and multi-instrument line plots. Coupled Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Plasmasphere electrodynamics (CTIPe) simulations are also employed. Results reveal some sunward streaming plumes of storm-enhanced density (SED) over Asia and a well-developed midlatitude trough over North America forming isolated positive and negative storms, respectively. The simultaneous development of positive and negative storms over North America is also shown. Then, some enhanced auroral ionizations maintained by strong equatorward neutral winds appeared in the depleted nighttime ionosphere. Meanwhile, the northern nighttime polar region became significantly depleted as the SED plume plasma could not progress further than the dayside cusp. Oppositely, a polar tongue of ionization (TOI) developed in the daytime southern polar region. According to CTIP simulations, solar heating locally maximized (minimized) over the southern (northern) magnetic pole. Furthermore, strong upward surges of molecular-rich air created O/N2 decreases both in the auroral zone and in the trough region, while some SED-related downward surges produced O/N2 increases. From these results we conclude for the time period studied that (1) composition changes contributed to the formation of positive and negative storms, (2) strengthening polar convection and increasing solar heating of the polar cap supported polar TOI development, and (3) a weaker polar convection and minimized solar heating of the polar cap aided the depletion of polar plasma.

  9. Reviewing the Dissociative Symptoms in Patients With Schizophreniaand their Association With Positive and Negative Symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Ghoreishi, Abolfazl; Shajari, Zahra

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The present study aimed to clarify dissociative symptoms in patients with schizophrenia and its association with negative and positive symptom of schizophrenia. Methods: Based on the 4th edition of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) criteria, 80 schizophrenic subjects were randomly selected from patients who referred to the clinics of psychiatry hospital in Kerman, Iran. Eighty non-schizophrenic patients were chosen as the control group. Both groups were...

  10. Converting positive and negative symptom scores between PANSS and SAPS/SANS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Erp, Theo G M; Preda, Adrian; Nguyen, Dana; Faziola, Lawrence; Turner, Jessica; Bustillo, Juan; Belger, Aysenil; Lim, Kelvin O; McEwen, Sarah; Voyvodic, James; Mathalon, Daniel H; Ford, Judith; Potkin, Steven G; Fbirn

    2014-01-01

    The Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms (SAPS), the Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS), and the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale for Schizophrenia (PANSS) are the most widely used schizophrenia symptom rating scales, but despite their co-existence for 25 years no easily usable between-scale conversion mechanism exists. The aim of this study was to provide equations for between-scale symptom rating conversions. Two-hundred-and-five schizophrenia patients [mean age±SD=39.5±11.6, 156 males] were assessed with the SANS, SAPS, and PANSS. Pearson's correlations between symptom scores from each of the scales were computed. Linear regression analyses, on data from 176 randomly selected patients, were performed to derive equations for converting ratings between the scales. Intraclass correlations, on data from the remaining 29 patients, not part of the regression analyses, were performed to determine rating conversion accuracy. Between-scale positive and negative symptom ratings were highly correlated. Intraclass correlations between the original positive and negative symptom ratings and those obtained via conversion of alternative ratings using the conversion equations were moderate to high (ICCs=0.65 to 0.91). Regression-based equations may be useful for conversion between schizophrenia symptom severity as measured by the SANS/SAPS and PANSS, though additional validation is warranted. This study's conversion equations, implemented at http:/converteasy.org, may aid in the comparison of medication efficacy studies, in meta- and mega-analyses examining symptoms as moderator variables, and in retrospective combination of symptom data in multi-center data sharing projects that need to pool symptom rating data when such data are obtained using different scales. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The Effect of Positive and Negative Feedback on Risk-Taking across Different Contexts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annabel B Losecaat Vermeer

    Full Text Available Preferences for risky choices have often been shown to be unstable and context-dependent. Though people generally avoid gambles with mixed outcomes, a phenomenon often attributed to loss aversion, contextual factors can impact this dramatically. For example, people typically prefer risky options after a financial loss, while generally choosing safer options after a monetary gain. However, it is unclear what exactly contributes to these preference shifts as a function of prior outcomes, as these gain/loss outcomes are usually confounded with participant performance, and therefore it is unclear whether these effects are driven purely by the monetary gains or losses, or rather by success or failure at the actual task. Here, we experimentally separated the effects of monetary gains/losses from performance success/failure prior to a standard risky choice. Participants performed a task in which they experienced contextual effects: 1 monetary gain or loss based directly on performance, 2 monetary gain or loss that was randomly awarded and was, crucially, independent from performance, and 3 success or failure feedback based on performance, but without any monetary incentive. Immediately following these positive/negative contexts, participants were presented with a gain-loss gamble that they had to decide to either play or pass. We found that risk preferences for identical sets of gambles were biased by positive and negative contexts containing monetary gains and losses, but not by contexts containing performance feedback. This data suggests that the observed framing effects are driven by aversion for monetary losses and not simply by the positive or negative valence of the context, or by potential moods resulting from positive or negative contexts. These results highlight the specific context dependence of risk preferences.

  12. The Effect of Positive and Negative Feedback on Risk-Taking across Different Contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losecaat Vermeer, Annabel B; Sanfey, Alan G

    2015-01-01

    Preferences for risky choices have often been shown to be unstable and context-dependent. Though people generally avoid gambles with mixed outcomes, a phenomenon often attributed to loss aversion, contextual factors can impact this dramatically. For example, people typically prefer risky options after a financial loss, while generally choosing safer options after a monetary gain. However, it is unclear what exactly contributes to these preference shifts as a function of prior outcomes, as these gain/loss outcomes are usually confounded with participant performance, and therefore it is unclear whether these effects are driven purely by the monetary gains or losses, or rather by success or failure at the actual task. Here, we experimentally separated the effects of monetary gains/losses from performance success/failure prior to a standard risky choice. Participants performed a task in which they experienced contextual effects: 1) monetary gain or loss based directly on performance, 2) monetary gain or loss that was randomly awarded and was, crucially, independent from performance, and 3) success or failure feedback based on performance, but without any monetary incentive. Immediately following these positive/negative contexts, participants were presented with a gain-loss gamble that they had to decide to either play or pass. We found that risk preferences for identical sets of gambles were biased by positive and negative contexts containing monetary gains and losses, but not by contexts containing performance feedback. This data suggests that the observed framing effects are driven by aversion for monetary losses and not simply by the positive or negative valence of the context, or by potential moods resulting from positive or negative contexts. These results highlight the specific context dependence of risk preferences.

  13. Multiplex Mass Spectrometric Imaging with Polarity Switching for Concurrent Acquisition of Positive and Negative Ion Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korte, Andrew R.; Lee, Young Jin

    2013-06-01

    We have recently developed a multiplex mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) method which incorporates high mass resolution imaging and MS/MS and MS3 imaging of several compounds in a single data acquisition utilizing a hybrid linear ion trap-Orbitrap mass spectrometer (Perdian and Lee, Anal. Chem. 82, 9393-9400, 2010). Here we extend this capability to obtain positive and negative ion MS and MS/MS spectra in a single MS imaging experiment through polarity switching within spiral steps of each raster step. This methodology was demonstrated for the analysis of various lipid class compounds in a section of mouse brain. This allows for simultaneous imaging of compounds that are readily ionized in positive mode (e.g., phosphatidylcholines and sphingomyelins) and those that are readily ionized in negative mode (e.g., sulfatides, phosphatidylinositols and phosphatidylserines). MS/MS imaging was also performed for a few compounds in both positive and negative ion mode within the same experimental set-up. Insufficient stabilization time for the Orbitrap high voltage leads to slight deviations in observed masses, but these deviations are systematic and were easily corrected with a two-point calibration to background ions.

  14. Degraded Impairment of Emotion Recognition in Parkinson's Disease Extends from Negative to Positive Emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chia-Yao; Tien, Yi-Min; Huang, Jong-Tsun; Tsai, Chon-Haw; Hsu, Li-Chuan

    2016-01-01

    Because of dopaminergic neurodegeneration, patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) show impairment in the recognition of negative facial expressions. In the present study, we aimed to determine whether PD patients with more advanced motor problems would show a much greater deficit in recognition of emotional facial expressions than a control group and whether impairment of emotion recognition would extend to positive emotions. Twenty-nine PD patients and 29 age-matched healthy controls were recruited. Participants were asked to discriminate emotions in Experiment  1 and identify gender in Experiment  2. In Experiment  1, PD patients demonstrated a recognition deficit for negative (sadness and anger) and positive faces. Further analysis showed that only PD patients with high motor dysfunction performed poorly in recognition of happy faces. In Experiment  2, PD patients showed an intact ability for gender identification, and the results eliminated possible abilities in the functions measured in Experiment  2 as alternative explanations for the results of Experiment  1. We concluded that patients' ability to recognize emotions deteriorated as the disease progressed. Recognition of negative emotions was impaired first, and then the impairment extended to positive emotions.

  15. Brain activation during direct and indirect processing of positive and negative words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straube, Thomas; Sauer, Andreas; Miltner, Wolfgang H R

    2011-09-12

    The effects of task conditions on brain activation to emotional stimuli are poorly understood. In this event-related fMRI study, brain activation to negative and positive words (matched for arousal) and neutral words was investigated under two task conditions. Subjects either had to attend to the emotional meaning (direct task) or to non-emotional features of the words (indirect task). Regardless of task, positive vs. negative words led to increased activation in the ventral medial prefrontal cortex, while negative vs. positive words induced increased activation of the insula. Compared to neutral words, all emotional words were associated with increased activation of the amygdala. Finally, the direct condition, as compared to the indirect condition, led to enhanced activation to emotional vs. neutral words in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex and the anterior cingulate cortex. These results suggest valence and arousal dependent brain activation patterns that are partially modulated by participants' processing mode of the emotional stimuli. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The word concreteness effect occurs for positive, but not negative, emotion words in immediate serial recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Chi-Shing; Altarriba, Jeanette

    2009-02-01

    The present study examined the roles of word concreteness and word valence in the immediate serial recall task. Emotion words (e.g. happy) were used to investigate these effects. Participants completed study-test trials with seven-item study lists consisting of positive or negative words with either high or low concreteness (Experiments 1 and 2) and neutral (i.e. non-emotion) words with either high or low concreteness (Experiment 2). For neutral words, the typical word concreteness effect (concrete words are better recalled than abstract words) was replicated. For emotion words, the effect occurred for positive words, but not for negative words. While the word concreteness effect was stronger for neutral words than for negative words, it was not different for the neutral words and the positive words. We conclude that both word valence and word concreteness simultaneously contribute to the item and order retention of emotion words and discuss how Hulme et al.'s (1997) item redintegration account can be modified to explain these findings.

  17. Magnetosphere and ionosphere response to a positive-negative pulse pair of solar wind dynamic pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, A.; Degeling, A. W.

    2017-12-01

    Simulations and observations had shown that single positive/negative solar wind dynamic pressure pulse would excite geomagnetic impulsive events along with ionosphere and/or magnetosphere vortices which are connected by field aligned currents(FACs). In this work, a large scale ( 9min) magnetic hole event in solar wind provided us with the opportunity to study the effects of positive-negative pulse pair (△p/p 1) on the magnetosphere and ionosphere. During the magnetic hole event, two traveling convection vortices (TCVs, anti-sunward) first in anticlockwise then in clockwise rotation were detected by geomagnetic stations located along the 10:30MLT meridian. At the same time, another pair of ionospheric vortices azimuthally seen up to 3 MLT first in clockwise then in counter-clockwise rotation were also appeared in the afternoon sector( 14MLT) and centered at 75 MLAT without obvious tailward propagation feature. The duskside vortices were also confirmed in SuperDARN radar data. We simulated the process of magnetosphere struck by a positive-negative pulse pair and it shows that a pair of reversed flow vortices in the magnetosphere equatorial plane appeared which may provide FACs for the vortices observed in ionosphere. Dawn dusk asymmetry of the vortices as well as the global geomagnetism perturbation characteristics were also discussed.

  18. A Paradigm to Assess Implicit Attitudes towards God: The Positive/Negative God Associations Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirutinsky, Steven; Carp, Sean; Rosmarin, David H

    2017-02-01

    Psychological research on the relationship between spirituality/religion and mental health has grown considerably over the past several decades and now constitutes a sizable body of scholarship. Among dimensions of S/R, positive beliefs about God have been significantly related to better mental health outcomes, and conversely negative beliefs about God are generally associated with more distress. However, prior research on this topic has relied heavily upon self-report Likert-type scales, which are vulnerable to self-report biases and measure only explicit cognitive processes. In this study, we developed and validated an implicit social cognition task, the Positive/Negative God Go/No-go Association Task (PNG-GNAT), for use in psychological research on spirituality and religion (S/R). Preliminary evidence in a large sample (N = 381) suggests that the PNG-GNAT demonstrates internal consistency, test-retest and split-half reliability, and concurrent evidence of validity. Further, our results suggest that PNG-GNAT scores represent different underlying dimensions of S/R than explicit self-report measures, and incrementally predict mental health above and beyond self-report assessment. The PNG-GNAT appears to be an effective tool for measuring implicit positive/negative beliefs about God.

  19. A Developmental Shift from Positive to Negative Connectivity in Human Amygdala-Prefrontal Circuitry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, Dylan G.; Humphreys, Kathryn L.; Flannery, Jessica; Goff, Bonnie; Telzer, Eva H.; Shapiro, Mor; Hare, Todd A.; Bookheimer, Susan Y.; Tottenham, Nim

    2013-01-01

    Recent human imaging and animal studies highlight the importance of frontoamygdala circuitry in the regulation of emotional behavior and its disruption in anxiety-related disorders. While tracing studies have suggested changes in amygdala-cortical connectivity through the adolescent period in rodents, less is known about the reciprocal connections within this circuitry across human development, when these circuits are being fine-tuned and substantial changes in emotional control are observed. The present study examined developmental changes in amygdala-prefrontal circuitry across the ages of 4 to 22 years using task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Results suggest positive amygdala-prefrontal connectivity in early childhood that switches to negative functional connectivity during the transition to adolescence. Amygdala-mPFC functional connectivity was significantly positive (greater than zero) among participants younger than ten, whereas functional connectivity was significantly negative (less than zero) among participants ten years and older, over and above the effect of amygdala reactivity. The developmental switch in functional connectivity was paralleled by a steady decline in amygdala reactivity. Moreover, the valence switch might explain age-related improvement in task performance and a developmentally normative decline in anxiety. Initial positive connectivity followed by a valence shift to negative connectivity provides a neurobiological basis for regulatory development and may present novel insight into a more general process of developing regulatory connections. PMID:23467374

  20. A comparison of alcohol positive and alcohol negative trauma patients requiring an emergency laparotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Cedric; Weinberg, Janice; Narsule, Chaitan K; Brahmbhatt, Tejal S

    2018-07-01

    The effect of alcohol exposure on patients undergoing a laparotomy for trauma is unknown. The purpose of this study was to compare outcomes of morbidity and mortality between alcohol positive and alcohol negative trauma patients who required emergent laparotomies using the National Trauma Data Bank (NTDB). A retrospective database analysis was performed using 28,354 NTDB incident trauma cases, from 2007 through 2012, who had been tested for alcohol and who required abdominal operations (using ICD-9-CM procedure codes) within 24h of presentation. Variables used: age, gender, admission year, alcohol presence, ISS, GCS, injury type & mechanism, discharge status, hospital LOS, ICU stay, ventilator use, and hospital complications. In adjusted analyses, there were no statistically significant differences between the alcohol positive and alcohol negative cohorts when evaluating in-hospital mortality (OR, 0.93; 95% CI: 0.84-1.03), likelihood of earlier hospital discharge (HR, 1.02; 95% CI: 0.99-1.05), and the all-inclusive category of in-hospital complications (OR, 1.04; 95% CI: 0.97-1.12). After adjusting for age, gender, admission year, ISS, GCS, and injury mechanism, there were no major differences between the alcohol positive and alcohol negative cohorts when it came to in-hospital mortality, likelihood of earlier hospital discharge, and most of the in-hospital complications measured among adult trauma patients requiring emergency laparotomies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria differ in their sensitivity to cold plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai-Prochnow, Anne; Clauson, Maryse; Hong, Jungmi; Murphy, Anthony B.

    2016-12-01

    Cold atmospheric-pressure plasma (CAP) is a relatively new method being investigated for antimicrobial activity. However, the exact mode of action is still being explored. Here we report that CAP efficacy is directly correlated to bacterial cell wall thickness in several species. Biofilms of Gram positive Bacillus subtilis, possessing a 55.4 nm cell wall, showed the highest resistance to CAP, with less than one log10 reduction after 10 min treatment. In contrast, biofilms of Gram negative Pseudomonas aeruginosa, possessing only a 2.4 nm cell wall, were almost completely eradicated using the same treatment conditions. Planktonic cultures of Gram negative Pseudomonas libanensis also had a higher log10 reduction than Gram positive Staphylococcus epidermidis. Mixed species biofilms of P. aeruginosa and S. epidermidis showed a similar trend of Gram positive bacteria being more resistant to CAP treatment. However, when grown in co-culture, Gram negative P. aeruginosa was more resistant to CAP overall than as a mono-species biofilm. Emission spectra indicated OH and O, capable of structural cell wall bond breakage, were present in the plasma. This study indicates that cell wall thickness correlates with CAP inactivation times of bacteria, but cell membranes and biofilm matrix are also likely to play a role.

  2. Computational Studies of Positive and Negative Streamers in Bubbles Suspended in Distilled Water

    KAUST Repository

    Sharma, Ashish

    2017-01-05

    We perform computational studies of nanosecond streamers generated in helium bubbles immersed in distilled water under high pressure conditions. The model takes into account the presence of water vapor in the gas bubble for an accurate description of the chemical kinetics of the discharge. We apply positive and negative trigger voltages much higher than the breakdown voltage and study the dynamic characteristics of the resulting discharge. We observe that, for high positive trigger voltages, the streamer moves along the surface of the gas bubble during the initial stages of the discharge. We also find a considerable difference in the evolution of the streamer discharge for positive and negative trigger voltages with more uniform volumetric distribution of species in the streamer channel for negative trigger voltages due to formation of multiple streamers. We also observe that the presence of water vapor does not influence the breakdown voltage of the discharge but greatly affects the composition of dominant species in the trail of the streamer channel.

  3. A 3-Year Study of Predictive Factors for Positive and Negative Appendicectomies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Dwayne T S; Maluda, Melissa; Lee, Lisa; Premaratne, Chandrasiri; Khamhing, Srisongham

    2018-03-06

    Early and accurate identification or exclusion of acute appendicitis is the key to avoid the morbidity of delayed treatment for true appendicitis or unnecessary appendicectomy, respectively. We aim (i) to identify potential predictive factors for positive and negative appendicectomies; and (ii) to analyse the use of ultrasound scans (US) and computed tomography (CT) scans for acute appendicitis. All appendicectomies that took place at our hospital from the 1st of January 2013 to the 31st of December 2015 were retrospectively recorded. Test results of potential predictive factors of acute appendicitis were recorded. Statistical analysis was performed using Fisher exact test, logistic regression analysis, sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values calculation. 208 patients were included in this study. 184 patients had histologically proven acute appendicitis. The other 24 patients had either nonappendicitis pathology or normal appendix. Logistic regression analysis showed statistically significant associations between appendicitis and white cell count, neutrophil count, C-reactive protein, and bilirubin. Neutrophil count was the test with the highest sensitivity and negative predictive values, whereas bilirubin was the test with the highest specificity and positive predictive values (PPV). US and CT scans had high sensitivity and PPV for diagnosing appendicitis. No single test was sufficient to diagnose or exclude acute appendicitis by itself. Combining tests with high sensitivity (abnormal neutrophil count, and US and CT scans) and high specificity (raised bilirubin) may predict acute appendicitis more accurately.

  4. Sex differences in brain activation patterns during processing of positively and negatively valenced emotional words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofer, Alex; Siedentopf, Christian M; Ischebeck, Anja; Rettenbacher, Maria A; Verius, Michael; Felber, Stephan; Wolfgang Fleischhacker, W

    2007-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that men and women process emotional stimuli differently. In this study, we used event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate gender differences in regional cerebral activity during the perception of positive or negative emotions. The experiment comprised two emotional conditions (positively/negatively valenced words) during which fMRI data were acquired. Thirty-eight healthy volunteers (19 males, 19 females) were investigated. A direct comparison of brain activation between men and women revealed differential activation in the right putamen, the right superior temporal gyrus, and the left supramarginal gyrus during processing of positively valenced words versus non-words for women versus men. By contrast, during processing of negatively valenced words versus non-words, relatively greater activation was seen in the left perirhinal cortex and hippocampus for women versus men, and in the right supramarginal gyrus for men versus women. Our findings suggest gender-related neural responses to emotional stimuli and could contribute to the understanding of mechanisms underlying the gender disparity of neuropsychiatric diseases such as mood disorders.

  5. Degraded Impairment of Emotion Recognition in Parkinson’s Disease Extends from Negative to Positive Emotions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Yao Lin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Because of dopaminergic neurodegeneration, patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD show impairment in the recognition of negative facial expressions. In the present study, we aimed to determine whether PD patients with more advanced motor problems would show a much greater deficit in recognition of emotional facial expressions than a control group and whether impairment of emotion recognition would extend to positive emotions. Twenty-nine PD patients and 29 age-matched healthy controls were recruited. Participants were asked to discriminate emotions in Experiment  1 and identify gender in Experiment  2. In Experiment  1, PD patients demonstrated a recognition deficit for negative (sadness and anger and positive faces. Further analysis showed that only PD patients with high motor dysfunction performed poorly in recognition of happy faces. In Experiment  2, PD patients showed an intact ability for gender identification, and the results eliminated possible abilities in the functions measured in Experiment  2 as alternative explanations for the results of Experiment  1. We concluded that patients’ ability to recognize emotions deteriorated as the disease progressed. Recognition of negative emotions was impaired first, and then the impairment extended to positive emotions.

  6. Evidence Based Medicine; Positive and Negative Likelihood Ratios of Diagnostic Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Baratloo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In the previous two parts of educational manuscript series in Emergency, we explained some screening characteristics of diagnostic tests including accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values. In the 3rd  part we aimed to explain positive and negative likelihood ratio (LR as one of the most reliable performance measures of a diagnostic test. To better understand this characteristic of a test, it is first necessary to fully understand the concept of sensitivity and specificity. So we strongly advise you to review the 1st part of this series again. In short, the likelihood ratios are about the percentage of people with and without a disease but having the same test result. The prevalence of a disease can directly influence screening characteristics of a diagnostic test, especially its sensitivity and specificity. Trying to eliminate this effect, LR was developed. Pre-test probability of a disease multiplied by positive or negative LR can estimate post-test probability. Therefore, LR is the most important characteristic of a test to rule out or rule in a diagnosis. A positive likelihood ratio > 1 means higher probability of the disease to be present in a patient with a positive test. The further from 1, either higher or lower, the stronger the evidence to rule in or rule out the disease, respectively. It is obvious that tests with LR close to one are less practical. On the other hand, LR further from one will have more value for application in medicine. Usually tests with 0.1 < LR > 10 are considered suitable for implication in routine practice.

  7. The Implicit Positive and Negative Affect Test: Validity and Relationship with Cardiovascular Stress-Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Ploeg, Melanie M; Brosschot, Jos F; Thayer, Julian F; Verkuil, Bart

    2016-01-01

    Self-report, i.e., explicit, measures of affect cannot fully explain the cardiovascular (CV) responses to stressors. Measuring affect beyond self-report, i.e., using implicit measures, could add to our understanding of stress-related CV activity. The Implicit Positive and Negative Affect Test (IPANAT) was administered in two studies to test its ecological validity and relation with CV responses and self-report measures of affect. In Study 1 students (N = 34) viewed four film clips inducing anger, happiness, fear, or no emotion, and completed the IPANAT and the Positive And Negative Affect Scale at baseline and after each clip. Implicit negative affect (INA) was higher and implicit positive affect (IPA) was lower after the anger inducing clip and vice versa after the happiness inducing clip. In Study 2 students performed a stressful math task with (n = 14) or without anger harassment (n = 15) and completed the IPANAT and a Visual Analog Scale as an explicit measure afterwards. Systolic (SBP), diastolic (DBP) blood pressure, heart rate (HR), heart rate variability (HRV), and total peripheral resistance (TPR) were recorded throughout. SBP and DBP were higher and TPR was lower in the harassment condition during the task with a prolonged effect on SBP and DBP during recovery. As expected, explicit negative affect (ENA) was higher and explicit positive affect (EPA) lower after harassment, but ENA and EPA were not related to CV activity. Although neither INA nor IPA differed between the tasks, during both tasks higher INA was related to higher SBP, lower HRV and lower TPR and to slower recovery of DBP after both tasks. Low IPA was related to slower recovery of SBP and DBP after the tasks. Implicit affect was not related to recovery of HR, HRV, and TPR. In conclusion, the IPANAT seems to respond to film clip-induced negative and positive affect and was related to CV activity during and after stressful tasks. These findings support the theory that implicitly measured affect

  8. Psychiatric framing affects positive but not negative schizotypy scores in psychology and medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, Christine; Schofield, Kerry; Leonards, Ute; Wilson, Marc S; Grimshaw, Gina M

    2018-08-01

    When testing risk for psychosis, we regularly rely on self-report questionnaires. Yet, the more that people know about this condition, the more they might respond defensively, in particular with regard to the more salient positive symptom dimension. In two studies, we investigated whether framing provided by questionnaire instructions might modulate responses on self-reported positive and negative schizotypy. The O-LIFE (UK study) or SPQ (New Zealand study) questionnaire was framed in either a "psychiatric", "creativity", or "personality" (NZ only) context. We tested psychology students (without taught knowledge about psychosis) and medical students (with taught knowledge about psychosis; UK only). We observed framing effects in psychology students in both studies: positive schizotypy scores were lower after the psychiatric compared to the creativity instruction. However, schizotypy scores did not differ between the creativity and personality framing conditions, suggesting that the low scores with psychiatric framing reflect defensive responding. The same framing effect was also observed in medical students, despite their lower positive schizotypy scores overall. Negative schizotypy scores were not affected by framing in either study. These results highlight the need to reduce response biases when studying schizotypy, because these might blur schizotypy-behaviour relationships. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Anti-tuberculosis therapy-induced hepatotoxicity among Ethiopian HIV-positive and negative patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Getnet Yimer

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available To assess and compare the prevalence, severity and prognosis of anti-TB drug induced hepatotoxicity (DIH in HIV positive and HIV negative tuberculosis (TB patients in Ethiopia.In this study, 103 HIV positive and 94 HIV negative TB patients were enrolled. All patients were evaluated for different risk factors and monitored biochemically and clinically for development of DIH. Sub-clinical hepatotoxicity was observed in 17.3% of the patients and 8 out of the 197 (4.1% developed clinical hepatotoxicity. Seven of the 8 were HIV positive and 2 were positive for HBsAg.Sub-clinical hepatotoxicity was significantly associated with HIV co-infection (p = 0.002, concomitant drug intake (p = 0.008, and decrease in CD4 count (p = 0.001. Stepwise restarting of anti TB treatment was also successful in almost all the patients who developed clinical DIH. We therefore conclude that anti-TB DIH is a major problem in HIV-associated TB with a decline in immune status and that there is a need for a regular biochemical and clinical follow up for those patients who are at risk.

  10. Protection algorithm for a wind turbine generator based on positive- and negative-sequence fault components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Tai-Ying; Cha, Seung-Tae; Crossley, Peter A.

    2011-01-01

    A protection relay for a wind turbine generator (WTG) based on positive- and negative-sequence fault components is proposed in the paper. The relay uses the magnitude of the positive-sequence component in the fault current to detect a fault on a parallel WTG, connected to the same power collection...... feeder, or a fault on an adjacent feeder; but for these faults, the relay remains stable and inoperative. A fault on the power collection feeder or a fault on the collection bus, both of which require an instantaneous tripping response, are distinguished from an inter-tie fault or a grid fault, which...... in the fault current is used to decide on either instantaneous or delayed operation. The operating performance of the relay is then verified using various fault scenarios modelled using EMTP-RV. The scenarios involve changes in the position and type of fault, and the faulted phases. Results confirm...

  11. Mid-infrared spectroscopic assessment of nanotoxicity in gram-negative vs. gram-positive bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heys, Kelly A; Riding, Matthew J; Strong, Rebecca J; Shore, Richard F; Pereira, M Glória; Jones, Kevin C; Semple, Kirk T; Martin, Francis L

    2014-03-07

    Nanoparticles appear to induce toxic effects through a variety of mechanisms including generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), physical contact with the cell membrane and indirect catalysis due to remnants from manufacture. The development and subsequent increasing usage of nanomaterials has highlighted a growing need to characterize and assess the toxicity of nanoparticles, particularly those that may have detrimental health effects such as carbon-based nanomaterials (CBNs). Due to interactions of nanoparticles with some reagents, many traditional toxicity tests are unsuitable for use with CBNs. Infrared (IR) spectroscopy is a non-destructive, high throughput technique, which is unhindered by such problems. We explored the application of IR spectroscopy to investigate the effects of CBNs on Gram-negative (Pseudomonas fluorescens) and Gram-positive (Mycobacterium vanbaalenii PYR-1) bacteria. Two types of IR spectroscopy were compared: attenuated total reflection Fourier-transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) and synchrotron radiation-based FTIR (SR-FTIR) spectroscopy. This showed that Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria exhibit differing alterations when exposed to CBNs. Gram-positive bacteria appear more resistant to these agents and this may be due to the protection afforded by their more sturdy cell wall. Markers of exposure also vary according to Gram status; Amide II was consistently altered in Gram-negative bacteria and carbohydrate altered in Gram-positive bacteria. ATR-FTIR and SR-FTIR spectroscopy could both be applied to extract biochemical alterations induced by each CBN that were consistent across the two bacterial species; these may represent potential biomarkers of nanoparticle-induced alterations. Vibrational spectroscopy approaches may provide a novel means of fingerprinting the effects of CBNs in target cells.

  12. Advancing complex explanatory conceptualizations of daily negative and positive affect: trigger and maintenance coping action patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunkley, David M; Ma, Denise; Lee, Ihno A; Preacher, Kristopher J; Zuroff, David C

    2014-01-01

    The present study addressed a fundamental gap between research and clinical work by advancing complex explanatory conceptualizations of coping action patterns that trigger and maintain daily negative affect and (low) positive affect. One hundred ninety-six community adults completed measures of perfectionism, and then 6 months later completed questionnaires at the end of the day for 14 consecutive days to provide simultaneous assessments of appraisals, coping, and affect across different stressful situations in everyday life. Multilevel structural equation modeling (MSEM) supported complex explanatory conceptualizations that demonstrated (a) disengagement trigger patterns consisting of several distinct appraisals (e.g., event stress) and coping strategies (e.g., avoidant coping) that commonly operate together across many different stressors when the typical individual experiences daily increases in negative affect and drops in positive affect; and (b) disengagement maintenance patterns composed of different appraisal and coping maintenance factors that, in combination, can explain why individuals with higher levels of self-critical perfectionism have persistent daily negative affect and low positive mood 6 months later. In parallel, engagement patterns (triggers and maintenance) composed of distinct appraisals (e.g., perceived social support) and coping strategies (e.g., problem-focused coping) were linked to compensatory experiences of daily positive affect. These findings demonstrate the promise of using daily diary methodologies and MSEM to promote a shared understanding between therapists and clients of trigger and maintenance coping action patterns that explain what precipitates and perpetuates clients' difficulties, which, in turn, can help achieve the 2 overarching therapy goals of reducing clients' distress and bolstering resilience. (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  13. Gram-negative, but not Gram-positive, bacteria elicit strong PGE2 production in human monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hessle, Christina C; Andersson, Bengt; Wold, Agnes E

    2003-12-01

    Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria induce different cytokine patterns in human mononuclear cells. We have seen that Gram-positives preferentially induce IL-12 and TNF-alpha, whereas Gram-negatives induce more IL-10, IL-6, and IL-8. In this study, we compared the capacity of these two groups of bacteria to induce PGE2. Monocytes stimulated with Gram-negative bacterial species induced much more PGE2 than did Gram-positive bacteria (5600 +/- 330 vs. 1700 +/- 670 pg/mL, p Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. We suggest that Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria may stimulate different innate effector functions; Gram-positive bacteria promoting cell-mediated effector functions whereas Gram-negative bacteria inducing mediators inhibiting the same.

  14. Comparative study on mammography between triple negative and triple positive breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Chunxiao; Lin Qing; Yang Qing; Zhang Chuanyu; Wang Shaohua; Yu Hualong; Duan Feng; Liu Shihe

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the mammographic findings of triple-negative breast cancer [TNBC, which is estrogen receptor (ER) negative, progesterone receptor (PR) negative, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) negative] and triple-positive breast cancer (TPBC, which is ER positive, PR positive, and HER2 positive), and to evaluate the relationship of immunohistochemologic receptor status and mammographic findings. Methods: The immunohistochemistry results of 631 cases with breast cancers were reviewed, including 117 cases of TNBC and 44 cases of TPBC. All of the patients took mammography at initial diagnosis. We retrospectively evaluated the visibility, morphology, distribution and size of the lesion (masses and calcifications) and breast density on mammography of TNBC, and compared them with those of TPBC. The age onset and tumor sizes of TNBC and TPBC were compared by using Chi-square test and t test. Results: The visibility rate of TNBC and TPBC on mammography were 88.0%(103/117) and 90.9% (40/44), and the difference between them was insignificant (χ 2 =0.055, P >0.05). TNBC was more frequently associated with merely a mass (56/103) than TPBC (12/40) (χ 2 =6.860, P<0.01), and the mean diameter of the mass of TNBC [(2.6 ± 1.4) cm] was larger than that of TPBC [(2.0 ± 0.6) cm] (t=2.087, P<0.05). TNBC were less frequently associated with microcalcifications (37/103) than TPBC (24/40) (χ 2 =7.423, P<0.01). Mammographic density and lesion visibility were similar between the two different immunophenotypes of breast cancers. The mean age of TNBC (52±9) was more than that of TPBC (48 ±8) (t=2.759, P<0.01). Infiltrating ductal carcinoma was the main pathologic type of both groups. Basal-like breast cancer accounted for 49% (57/117) of TNBC while none happened in TPBC. Conclusions: TNBC shows merely a mass with indistinct margins,lager size and is less associated with microcalcifications. These mammographic features might be useful in diagnosing triple

  15. Prognostic factors and monomicrobial necrotizing fasciitis: gram-positive versus gram-negative pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsu Wei-Hsiu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Monomicrobial necrotizing fasciitis is rapidly progressive and life-threatening. This study was undertaken to ascertain whether the clinical presentation and outcome for patients with this disease differ for those infected with a gram-positive as compared to gram-negative pathogen. Methods Forty-six patients with monomicrobial necrotizing fasciitis were examined retrospectively from November 2002 to January 2008. All patients received adequate broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy, aggressive resuscitation, prompt radical debridement and adjuvant hyperbaric oxygen therapy. Eleven patients were infected with a gram-positive pathogen (Group 1 and 35 patients with a gram-negative pathogen (Group 2. Results Group 2 was characterized by a higher incidence of hemorrhagic bullae and septic shock, higher APACHE II scores at 24 h post-admission, a higher rate of thrombocytopenia, and a higher prevalence of chronic liver dysfunction. Gouty arthritis was more prevalent in Group 1. For non-survivors, the incidences of chronic liver dysfunction, chronic renal failure and thrombocytopenia were higher in comparison with those for survivors. Lower level of serum albumin was also demonstrated in the non-survivors as compared to those in survivors. Conclusions Pre-existing chronic liver dysfunction, chronic renal failure, thrombocytopenia and hypoalbuminemia, and post-operative dependence on mechanical ventilation represent poor prognostic factors in monomicrobial necrotizing fasciitis. Patients with gram-negative monobacterial necrotizing fasciitis present with more fulminant sepsis.

  16. Mode Selection Rules for a Two-Delay System with Positive and Negative Feedback Loops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Kin'ya; Kobayashi, Taizo

    2018-04-01

    The mode selection rules for a two-delay system, which has negative feedback with a short delay time t1 and positive feedback with a long delay time t2, are studied numerically and theoretically. We find two types of mode selection rules depending on the strength of the negative feedback. When the strength of the negative feedback |α1| (α1 0), 2m + 1-th harmonic oscillation is well sustained in a neighborhood of t1/t2 = even/odd, i.e., relevant condition. In a neighborhood of the irrelevant condition given by t1/t2 = odd/even or t1/t2 = odd/odd, higher harmonic oscillations are observed. However, if |α1| is slightly less than α2, a different mode selection rule works, where the condition t1/t2 = odd/even is relevant and the conditions t1/t2 = odd/odd and t1/t2 = even/odd are irrelevant. These mode selection rules are different from the mode selection rule of the normal two-delay system with two positive feedback loops, where t1/t2 = odd/odd is relevant and the others are irrelevant. The two types of mode selection rules are induced by individually different mechanisms controlling the Hopf bifurcation, i.e., the Hopf bifurcation controlled by the "boosted bifurcation process" and by the "anomalous bifurcation process", which occur for |α1| below and above the threshold value αth, respectively.

  17. Convergent processing of both positive and negative motivational signals by the VTA dopamine neuronal populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong V Wang

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA have been traditionally studied for their roles in reward-related motivation or drug addiction. Here we study how the VTA dopamine neuron population may process fearful and negative experiences as well as reward information in freely behaving mice. Using multi-tetrode recording, we find that up to 89% of the putative dopamine neurons in the VTA exhibit significant activation in response to the conditioned tone that predict food reward, while the same dopamine neuron population also respond to the fearful experiences such as free fall and shake events. The majority of these VTA putative dopamine neurons exhibit suppression and offset-rebound excitation, whereas ∼25% of the recorded putative dopamine neurons show excitation by the fearful events. Importantly, VTA putative dopamine neurons exhibit parametric encoding properties: their firing change durations are proportional to the fearful event durations. In addition, we demonstrate that the contextual information is crucial for these neurons to respectively elicit positive or negative motivational responses by the same conditioned tone. Taken together, our findings suggest that VTA dopamine neurons may employ the convergent encoding strategy for processing both positive and negative experiences, intimately integrating with cues and environmental context.

  18. Aggressiveness, social support and school experiences as dimensions differentiating negative and positive adaptation among adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzanna Agnieszka Farnicka

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background The study results presented below lie within a field of study which seeks to identify appropriate risk indicators for risky behaviours in the group of adolescents. The study drew on the tenets of developmental psychopathology. Adaptation assessment was performed on the basis of an objective indicator which comprised adolescents’ problems with social functioning. Participants and procedure The main determinants of the observed changes in behaviour and the development of adaptation pathways during the period of adolescence were considered to include bio-psycho-social temperamental factors (Buss & Plomin, 1984, attachment patterns (Armsden & Greenberg, 1987, trait of aggressiveness (Buss & Perry, 1992, conditions created by the environment (support of family members, peers and teachers [Malecki & Demaray, 2002] as well as previous experiences such as being a victim of violence (Osterman & Bjorqvist, 2008 or the level of school success. The final study group comprised a total of 140 positively and 140 negatively adapted teenagers (N = 280 between the ages of 12 and 19. The study was carried out in Poland. Results The study confirmed the gender effect, demonstrating a higher frequency of involvement in risky behaviours among boys. The results from searching for differences between positively and negatively adapted teens showed that in the negatively adapted group there were lower grades at school and more frequent aggressive behaviour. Conclusions The main conclusion that can be drawn from the study is that the potential prophylactic and therapeutic interventions require consideration of factors such as age, educational success, aggressiveness and social support.

  19. Using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) to Define Different Domains of Negative Symptoms: Prediction of Everyday Functioning by Impairments in Emotional Expression and Emotional Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Harvey, Philip D.; Khan, Anzalee; Keefe, Richard S. E.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Reduced emotional experience and expression are two domains of negative symptoms. The authors assessed these two domains of negative symptoms using previously developed Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) factors. Using an existing dataset, the authors predicted three different elements of everyday functioning (social, vocational, and everyday activities) with these two factors, as well as with performance on measures of functional capacity. Methods: A large (n=630) sampl...

  20. Prenatal tobacco smoke exposure, risk of schizophrenia, and severity of positive/negative symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stathopoulou, Anastasia; Beratis, Ion N; Beratis, Stavroula

    2013-08-01

    Prenatal exposure to cigarette smoke causes chronic fetal hypoxia, dysregulation of endocrine equilibrium, and disruption of fetal neurodevelopment associated with brain malfunction, all of which potentially could induce vulnerability to schizophrenia. A total of 212 schizophrenia patients aged 14-30years, and 212 matched controls were studied. Prenatal tobacco smoke exposure of the schizophrenia patients was compared to that of the normal controls by applying logistic regression analysis and controlling for several confounding factors. The outcomes of interest were comparison of the frequency of maternal and paternal smoking between patients and controls, as well as the severity of positive and negative symptoms between the offspring of smoking and nonsmoking parents. Among the mothers of schizophrenia patients and controls, 92 (43.4%) and 46 (21.7%) smoked, respectively. Maternal smoking during pregnancy had a significant unique contribution on increasing the risk for development of schizophrenia (p=0.001), and a greater severity of negative symptoms (p=0.023). Paternal smoking did not have a significant effect on the risk of schizophrenia, or severity of negative symptoms. The findings suggest that maternal smoking during pregnancy puts offspring at an increased risk for later schizophrenia, with increased severity of negative symptoms. Given the wide practice of smoking during pregnancy, fetal exposure to tobacco smoke could be a major preventable neurodevelopmental factor that increases vulnerability to schizophrenia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Positive and negative eating expectancies in disordered eating among women and men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayaki, Jumi; Free, Sarah

    2016-08-01

    Deficits in emotion regulation are known to characterize disordered eating patterns including binge eating, purging, and dietary restraint, though much of this work has been conducted exclusively on women. Eating expectancies, or expectations regarding reinforcement from food and eating, constitute one cognitive mechanism that is thought to serve as a proximal influence on eating behavior. Previous research shows that eating to manage negative affect (a negative eating expectancy) is associated with eating pathology in women, but less is known about eating as a reward or for pleasure (a positive eating expectancy). In addition, no prior work has examined eating expectancies among men. This study examines the role of emotion regulation and eating expectancies on disordered eating in women and men. Participants were 121 female and 80 male undergraduates who completed self-report measures of emotion regulation, eating expectancies, and disordered eating. In women, body mass index (BMI), emotion regulation, and eating to manage negative affect directly predicted disordered eating in the final multivariate model, whereas eating for pleasure or reward was inversely associated with disordered eating. However, in men, emotion regulation predicted disordered eating, but not when eating expectancies were added to the model. In the final model, only BMI and eating to manage negative affect contributed significantly to the variance in disordered eating. These findings suggest that some correlates of eating pathology, particularly eating expectancies, may vary by gender. Future research should continue to examine gender differences in the explanatory mechanisms underlying disordered eating. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Adults' implicit associations to infant positive and negative acoustic cues: Moderation by empathy and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senese, Vincenzo Paolo; Venuti, Paola; Giordano, Francesca; Napolitano, Maria; Esposito, Gianluca; Bornstein, Marc H

    2017-09-01

    In this study a novel auditory version of the Single Category Implicit Association Test (SC-IAT-A) was developed to investigate (a) the valence of adults' associations to infant cries and laughs, (b) moderation of implicit associations by gender and empathy, and (c) the robustness of implicit associations controlling for auditory sensitivity. Eighty adults (50% females) were administered two SC-IAT-As, the Empathy Quotient, and the Weinstein Noise Sensitivity Scale. Adults showed positive implicit associations to infant laugh and negative ones to infant cry; only the implicit associations with the infant laugh were negatively related to empathy scores, and no gender differences were observed. Finally, implicit associations to infant cry were affected by noise sensitivity. The SC-IAT-A is useful to evaluate the valence of implicit reactions to infant auditory cues and could provide fresh insights into understanding processes that regulate the quality of adult-infant relationships.

  3. Positive and negative gain exceeding unity magnitude in silicon quantum well metal-oxide-semiconductor transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Gangyi; Wijesinghe, Udumbara; Naquin, Clint; Maggio, Ken; Edwards, H. L.; Lee, Mark

    2017-10-01

    Intrinsic gain (AV) measurements on Si quantum well (QW) n-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor (NMOS) transistors show that these devices can have |AV| > 1 in quantum transport negative transconductance (NTC) operation at room temperature. QW NMOS devices were fabricated using an industrial 45 nm technology node process incorporating ion implanted potential barriers to define a lateral QW in the conduction channel under the gate. While NTC at room temperature arising from transport through gate-controlled QW bound states has been previously established, it was unknown whether the quantum NTC mechanism could support gain magnitude exceeding unity. Bias conditions were found giving both positive and negative AV with |AV| > 1 at room temperature. This result means that QW NMOS devices could be useful in amplifier and oscillator applications.

  4. Mixing positive and negative valence: Affective-semantic integration of bivalent words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlmann, Michael; Hofmann, Markus J; Briesemeister, Benny B; Jacobs, Arthur M

    2016-08-05

    Single words have affective and aesthetic properties that influence their processing. Here we investigated the processing of a special case of word stimuli that are extremely difficult to evaluate, bivalent noun-noun-compounds (NNCs), i.e. novel words that mix a positive and negative noun, e.g. 'Bombensex' (bomb-sex). In a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment we compared their processing with easier-to-evaluate non-bivalent NNCs in a valence decision task (VDT). Bivalent NNCs produced longer reaction times and elicited greater activation in the left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) than non-bivalent words, especially in contrast to words of negative valence. We attribute this effect to a LIFG-grounded process of semantic integration that requires greater effort for processing converse information, supporting the notion of a valence representation based on associations in semantic networks.

  5. Hemispheric asymmetry in the processing of negative and positive words: a divided field study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtgraves, Thomas; Felton, Adam

    2011-06-01

    Research on the lateralisation of brain functions for emotion has yielded different results as a function of whether it is the experience, expression, or perceptual processing of emotion that is examined. Further, for the perception of emotion there appear to be differences between the processing of verbal and nonverbal stimuli. The present research examined the hemispheric asymmetry in the processing of verbal stimuli varying in emotional valence. Participants performed a lexical decision task for words varying in affective valence (but equated in terms of arousal) that were presented briefly to the right or left visual field. Participants were significantly faster at recognising positive words presented to the right visual field/left hemisphere. This pattern did not occur for negative words (and was reversed for high arousal negative words). These results suggest that the processing of verbal stimuli varying in emotional valence tends to parallel hemispheric asymmetry in the experience of emotion.

  6. Positive and negative variations in capacitive images for given defects under varying experimental conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chen; Yin, Xiaokang; Li, Zhen; Li, Wei; Chen, Guoming

    2018-04-01

    Capacitive imaging (CI) technique is a novel electromagnetic NDE technique. The Quasi-static electromagnetic field from the carefully designed electrode pair will vary when the electrical properties of the sample change, leading to the possibility of imaging. It is observed that for a given specimen, the targeted features appear as different variations in capacitive images under different experimental conditions. In some cases, even opposite variations occur, which brings confusion to indication interpretation. It is thus thought interesting to embark on investigations into the cause and effects of the negative variation phenomenon. In this work, the positive and negative variations were first explained from the measurement sensitivity distribution perspective. This was then followed by a detailed analysis using finite element models in COMSOL. A parametric experimental study on a glass fiber composite plate with artificial defects was then carried out to investigate how the experimental conditions affect the variation.

  7. The impact of positive and negative intraoperative surgeons' leadership behaviors on surgical team performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barling, Julian; Akers, Amy; Beiko, Darren

    2018-01-01

    The effects of surgeons' leadership on team performance are not well understood. The purpose of this study was to examine the simultaneous effects of transformational, passive, abusive supervision and over-controlling leadership behaviors by surgeons on surgical team performance. Trained observers attended 150 randomly selected operations at a tertiary care teaching hospital. Observers recorded instances of the four leadership behaviors enacted by the surgeon. Postoperatively, team members completed validated questionnaires rating team cohesion and collective efficacy. Multiple regression analyses were computed. Data were analyzed using the complex modeling function in MPlus. Surgeons' abusive supervision was negatively associated with psychological safety (unstandardized B = -0.352, p leadership (unstandardized B = -0.230, p leadership behaviors on intraoperative team performance. Significant effects only surfaced for negative leadership behaviors; transformational leadership did not positively influence team performance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Recommendations to improve the positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS) based on item response theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Stephen Z; Rabinowitz, Jonathan; Rizopoulos, Dimitris

    2011-08-15

    The adequacy of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) items in measuring symptom severity in schizophrenia was examined using Item Response Theory (IRT). Baseline PANSS assessments were analyzed from two multi-center clinical trials of antipsychotic medication in chronic schizophrenia (n=1872). Generally, the results showed that the PANSS (a) item ratings discriminated symptom severity best for the negative symptoms; (b) has an excess of "Severe" and "Extremely severe" rating options; and (c) assessments are more reliable at medium than very low or high levels of symptom severity. Analysis also showed that the detection of statistically and non-statistically significant differences in treatment were highly similar for the original and IRT-modified PANSS. In clinical trials of chronic schizophrenia, the PANSS appears to require the following modifications: fewer rating options, adjustment of 'Lack of judgment and insight', and improved severe symptom assessment. 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Positive and negative associations between bacterial species in dental root canals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, B P; Drucker, D B; Lilley, J D

    1994-01-01

    Significant associations have been previously reported between certain pairs of bacterial species isolated from human dental root canals. The aim of this study was to examine microbiologically a more extensive series of cases, with particular reference to obligate anaerobes which accounted for 64% of total isolations. A total of 65 different species was isolated and individual root canals yielded a maximum of eleven bacterial species. Highly significant positive associations (p spp. and Prevotella spp., between Peptostreptococcus spp. and P. melaninogenica, between P. micros and Prevotella spp., P. micros and P. melaninogenica and between Prevotella spp. and Eubacterium spp., all with an ODDS ratio of > 9.0. In contrast, negative and highly significant associations (p spp., B. gracilis/F. nucleatum and between B. gracilis/Fusobacterium spp.; all with an ODDS ratio of < 0.5. Some previously published associations were confirmed and some new associations were found, while some negative associations became apparent.

  10. Bioengineered nisin A derivatives with enhanced activity against both Gram positive and Gram negative pathogens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Des Field

    Full Text Available Nisin is a bacteriocin widely utilized in more than 50 countries as a safe and natural antibacterial food preservative. It is the most extensively studied bacteriocin, having undergone decades of bioengineering with a view to improving function and physicochemical properties. The discovery of novel nisin variants with enhanced activity against clinical and foodborne pathogens has recently been described. We screened a randomized bank of nisin A producers and identified a variant with a serine to glycine change at position 29 (S29G, with enhanced efficacy against S. aureus SA113. Using a site-saturation mutagenesis approach we generated three more derivatives (S29A, S29D and S29E with enhanced activity against a range of Gram positive drug resistant clinical, veterinary and food pathogens. In addition, a number of the nisin S29 derivatives displayed superior antimicrobial activity to nisin A when assessed against a range of Gram negative food-associated pathogens, including E. coli, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and Cronobacter sakazakii. This is the first report of derivatives of nisin, or indeed any lantibiotic, with enhanced antimicrobial activity against both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria.

  11. Bioengineered Nisin A Derivatives with Enhanced Activity against Both Gram Positive and Gram Negative Pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Des; Begley, Maire; O’Connor, Paula M.; Daly, Karen M.; Hugenholtz, Floor; Cotter, Paul D.; Hill, Colin; Ross, R. Paul

    2012-01-01

    Nisin is a bacteriocin widely utilized in more than 50 countries as a safe and natural antibacterial food preservative. It is the most extensively studied bacteriocin, having undergone decades of bioengineering with a view to improving function and physicochemical properties. The discovery of novel nisin variants with enhanced activity against clinical and foodborne pathogens has recently been described. We screened a randomized bank of nisin A producers and identified a variant with a serine to glycine change at position 29 (S29G), with enhanced efficacy against S. aureus SA113. Using a site-saturation mutagenesis approach we generated three more derivatives (S29A, S29D and S29E) with enhanced activity against a range of Gram positive drug resistant clinical, veterinary and food pathogens. In addition, a number of the nisin S29 derivatives displayed superior antimicrobial activity to nisin A when assessed against a range of Gram negative food-associated pathogens, including E. coli, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and Cronobacter sakazakii. This is the first report of derivatives of nisin, or indeed any lantibiotic, with enhanced antimicrobial activity against both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. PMID:23056510

  12. Capacity Decay Mitigation by Asymmetric Positive/Negative Electrolyte Volumes in Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong Ho; Park, Jung Jin; Park, O Ok; Yang, Jung Hoon

    2016-11-23

    Capacity decay in vanadium redox flow batteries during charge-discharge cycling has become an important issue because it lowers the practical energy density of the battery. The battery capacity tends to drop rapidly within the first tens of cycles and then drops more gradually over subsequent cycles during long-term operation. This paper analyzes and discusses the reasons for this early capacity decay. The imbalanced crossover rate of vanadium species was found to remain high until the total difference in vanadium concentration between the positive and negative electrolytes reached almost 1 mol dm -3 . To minimize the initial crossover imbalance, we introduced an asymmetric volume ratio between the positive and negative electrolytes during cell operation. Changing this ratio significantly reduced the capacity fading rate of the battery during the early cycles and improved its capacity retention at steady state. As an example, the practical energy density of the battery increased from 15.5 to 25.2 Wh L -1 simply after reduction of the positive volume by 25 %. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Maternal depression and anxiety, social synchrony, and infant regulation of negative and positive emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granat, Adi; Gadassi, Reuma; Gilboa-Schechtman, Eva; Feldman, Ruth

    2017-02-01

    Maternal postpartum depression (PPD) exerts long-term negative effects on infants; yet the mechanisms by which PPD disrupts emotional development are not fully clear. Utilizing an extreme-case design, 971 women reported symptoms of depression and anxiety following childbirth and 215 high and low on depressive symptomatology reported again at 6 months. Of these, mothers diagnosed with major depressive disorder (n = 22), anxiety disorders (n = 19), and controls (n = 59) were visited at 9 months. Mother-infant interaction was microcoded for maternal and infant's social behavior and synchrony. Infant negative and positive emotional expression and self-regulation were tested in 4 emotion-eliciting paradigms: anger with mother, anger with stranger, joy with mother, and joy with stranger. Infants of depressed mothers displayed less social gaze and more gaze aversion. Gaze and touch synchrony were lowest for depressed mothers, highest for anxious mothers, and midlevel among controls. Infants of control and anxious mothers expressed less negative affect with mother compared with stranger; however, maternal presence failed to buffer negative affect in the depressed group. Maternal depression chronicity predicted increased self-regulatory behavior during joy episodes, and touch synchrony moderated the effects of PPD on infant self-regulation. Findings describe subtle microlevel processes by which maternal depression across the postpartum year disrupts the development of infant emotion regulation and suggest that diminished social synchrony, low differentiation of attachment and nonattachment contexts, and increased self-regulation during positive moments may chart pathways for the cross-generational transfer of emotional maladjustment from depressed mothers to their infants. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Concreteness of Positive, Negative, and Neutral Repetitive Thinking About the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behar, Evelyn; McGowan, Sarah Kate; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Borkovec, T.D.; Goldwin, Michelle; Bjorkquist, Olivia

    2014-01-01

    Consistent with assertions that the adaptiveness of repetitive thinking is influenced by both its valence and style, Stöber (e.g., Stöber & Borkovec, 2002) has argued that worry is characterized by a reduced concreteness of thought content and that the resulting abstractness contributes to its inhibition of some aspects of anxious responding. However, extant research does not provide a direct test of Stöber’s reduced concreteness theory of worry. We sought to test Stöber’s theory and to examine the adaptiveness of repetitive worrisome thinking by randomly assigning 108 participants to engage in five consecutive periods of repetitive thinking about positively, negatively, or neutrally valenced potential future events. Results based on coding of thought data indicated that (a) repetitive thinking became increasingly less concrete as periods progressed; (b) contrary to Stöber’s theory, both negative and positive repetitive future thinking were more concrete than neutral repetitive future thinking (and did not differ from each other); and (c) abstractness of thought during negative repetitive future thinking was associated with reduced reports of imagery-based activity. Results based on self-reported affect indicated that negatively valenced repetitive future thinking was uniquely associated with initial decreases in anxious affect, followed by increased anxious affect that coincided with increased imagery-based activity. This suggests that worry is associated with a sequential mitigation of anxious meaning followed by a strengthening of anxious meaning over time. Theoretical and clinical implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:22440067

  15. Impact of positive and negative lesion site remodeling on clinical outcomes: insights from PROSPECT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaba, Shinji; Mintz, Gary S; Farhat, Naim Z; Fajadet, Jean; Dudek, Dariusz; Marzocchi, Antonio; Templin, Barry; Weisz, Giora; Xu, Ke; de Bruyne, Bernard; Serruys, Patrick W; Stone, Gregg W; Maehara, Akiko

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated coronary artery remodeling patterns associated with clinical outcomes. In the prospective, multicenter PROSPECT (Providing Regional Observations to Study Predictors of Events in the Coronary Tree: An Imaging Study in Patients With Unstable Atherosclerotic Lesions) study, reported predictors of nonculprit lesion (NCL) major adverse cardiac events (MACE) were an intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) minimal lumen area (MLA) ≤4 mm(2), a plaque burden ≥70%, and a IVUS-virtual histology (VH) thin-cap fibroatheroma (TCFA), but not lesion site remodeling. Overall, 697 consecutive patients with an acute coronary syndrome were enrolled and underwent 3-vessel gray-scale and IVUS-VH; 3,223 NCLs were identified by IVUS. The remodeling index (RI) was calculated as the external elastic membrane area at the MLA site divided by the average of the proximal and distal reference external elastic membrane areas. First, one third of the patients were randomly selected to determine RI cutoffs related to NCL MACE (development cohort). Receiver-operating characteristic analysis showed that there were 2 separate cut points that predicted NCL MACE: RI = 0.8789 and RI = 1.0046 (area under the curve = 0.663). These cut points were used to define negative remodeling as an RI 1.00. Second, we used the remaining two-thirds of patients to validate these cut points with respect to lesion morphology and clinical outcomes (validation cohort). Kaplan-Meier curve analysis in the validation cohort showed that NCL MACE occurred more frequent (and equally) in negative and positive remodeling lesions compared with intermediate remodeling lesions. In this cohort, negative remodeling lesions had the smallest MLA, positive remodeling lesions had the largest plaque burden, and VH TCFA, especially VH TCFA with multiple necrotic cores, was most common in negatively remodeling lesions. The present study showed the novel concept that positive and negative lesion site remodeling was

  16. Affective health bias in older adults: Considering positive and negative affect in a general health context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Brenda R; Bergeman, C S

    2016-09-01

    Because subjective health reports are a primary source of health information in a number of medical and research-based contexts, much research has been devoted to establishing the extent to which these self-reports of health correspond to health information from more objective sources. One of the key factors considered in this area is trait affect, with most studies emphasizing the impact of negative affect (negative emotions) over positive affect (positive emotions), and focusing on high-arousal affect (e.g., anger, excitement) over moderate- or low-arousal affect (e.g., relaxed, depressed). The present study examines the impact of both Positive and Negative Affect (PA/NA)-measured by items of both high and low arousal-on the correspondence between objective health information and subjective health reports. Another limitation of existing literature in the area is the focus on samples suffering from a particular diagnosis or on specific symptom reports; here, these effects are investigated in a sample of community-dwelling older adults representing a broader spectrum of health. 153 older adults (Mage = 71.2) took surveys assessing Perceived Health and Affect and underwent an objective physical health assessment. Structural equation modeling was used to investigate the extent to which the relationship between Objective Health and Perceived Health was moderated by PA or NA, which would indicate the presence of affective health bias. Results reveal a significant moderation effect for NA, but not for PA; PA appeared to serve a more mediational function, indicating that NA and PA operate on health perceptions in distinct ways. These findings provide evidence that in our high-functioning, community-dwelling sample of older adults, a) affective health bias is present within a general health context, and not only within specific symptom or diagnostic categories; and b) that both PA and NA play important roles in the process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  17. Distinct trajectories of positive and negative affect after colorectal cancer diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciere, Yvette; Janse, Moniek; Almansa, Josué; Visser, Annemieke; Sanderman, Robbert; Sprangers, Mirjam A G; Ranchor, Adelita V; Fleer, Joke

    2017-06-01

    Insight into trajectories of positive affect (PA) and negative affect (NA) across the cancer continuum may improve understanding of the nature of adjustment problems. The primary aim of this study was to identify subgroups of patients with distinct trajectories of PA and NA following diagnosis of colorectal cancer (CRC). Secondary to this aim, the co-occurrence between trajectories and their association with goal-related processes was explored. CRC patients (n = 186) completed questionnaires within 1 month, 7 months, and 18 months after diagnosis. Multilevel models were used to study the trajectory of PA and NA, as measured with the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS). Four classes with distinct PA trajectories were identified: low (18.8%), increasing (6.7%), moderate (68.2%), and high (6.3%); 2 trajectories of NA emerged: low (36.3%) and moderate (63.7%). There was no significant association between PA and NA trajectory class probabilities. The average trajectory of PA covaried with levels of goal disturbance and goal reengagement over time, while the average NA trajectory covaried with goal disturbance and goal disengagement. Compared with the general population, our sample of cancer patients suffered from a lack of positive emotions, but not a high presence of negative emotions. About one fifth of patients reported low PA up to 18 months after diagnosis and may benefit from supportive care. Furthermore, the trajectory of PA was independent of that of NA and related with a distinct goal adjustment process (i.e., goal disengagement vs. goal reengagement). This finding indicates the need to tailor psychological care to the nature of the adjustment problem. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Comparison of QOL between patients with different degenerative dementias, focusing especially on positive and negative affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurisu, Kairi; Terada, Seishi; Oshima, Etsuko; Horiuchi, Makiko; Imai, Nao; Yabe, Mayumi; Yokota, Osamu; Ishihara, Takeshi; Yamada, Norihito

    2016-08-01

    Quality of life (QOL) has become an important outcome measure in the care of dementia patients. However, there have been few studies focusing on the difference in QOL between different dementias. Two-hundred seventy-nine consecutive outpatients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) or frontotemporal dementia (FTD) were recruited. The QOL was evaluated objectively using the QOL Questionnaire for Dementia (QOL-D).The QOL-D comprises six domains: positive affect, negative affect and actions, communication, restlessness, attachment to others, and spontaneity. General cognition, daily activities, and behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia were also evaluated. The scores of positive affect of QOL-D of AD patients were significantly higher than those of patients with DLB or FTD (AD 3.1 ± 0.8, DLB 2.6 ± 0.9, FTD 2.6 ± 0.7). The scores of negative affect and action of QOL-D of FTD patients were significantly higher than those of patients with AD or DLB (FTD 2.0 ± 0.8, AD 1.4 ± 0.5, DLB 1.5 ± 0.6). The apathy scores of FTD and DLB patients were significantly higher than those of patients with AD. The disinhibition scores of FTD patients were significantly higher than those of patients with AD or DLB. The apathy of FTD and DLB patients and depression of DLB patients might affect the lower positive affect of FTD and DLB patients compared to AD patients. The disinhibition of FTD patients might affect the abundance of negative affect & actions in FTD patients compared to AD and DLB patients.

  19. Positive and negative behaviours in workplace relationships: a scoping review protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almost, Joan; Wolff, Angela; Mildon, Barbara; Price, Sheri; Godfrey, Christina; Robinson, Sandra; Ross-White, Amanda; Mercado-Mallari, Sheile

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Engaging in teamwork requires a clear understanding of positive and negative behaviours that act as facilitators and barriers to collegial workplace relationships. Identifying and correcting underlying barriers, while promoting facilitators, is fundamental to improving care delivery and, ultimately, clinical outcomes. Despite a considerable amount of literature in this area, there is a lack of clarity of the different behaviours as several parallel literatures address similar questions about antecedents, processes and outcomes. The purpose of this study is to synthesise the current state of literature reporting on behaviours in workplace relationships. Using a scoping review methodology, the following research question will be addressed: “What is known about positive and negative behaviours in workplace relationships?” Methods and analysis We will employ the methodological frameworks used by Arksey and O'Malley and Levac et al. The search strategy will include numerous electronic databases, grey literature sources and hand-searching of reference lists from 1990 to present with a limit to English language. Search strategies will be developed using controlled vocabulary and keyword terms related to various components of workplace relationships. Two reviewers will independently screen titles and abstracts for inclusion, followed by screening of the full text of potential articles to determine final inclusion. A descriptive numerical analysis will describe characteristics of included studies. A thematic analysis will provide an overview of the literature, including definitions, conceptual frameworks, antecedents, outcomes and interventions. Dissemination In reviewing a wide range of positive and negative behaviours, then integrating into a manageable, meaningful whole, this study is a critical step in helping policymakers, leaders and healthcare professionals effectively use what is known thus far. Knowledge translation activities will occur throughout

  20. An NF-Y-dependent switch of positive and negative histone methyl marks on CCAAT promoters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Donati

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Histone tails have a plethora of different post-translational modifications, which are located differently in "open" and "closed" parts of genomes. H3K4me3/H3K79me2 and H4K20me3 are among the histone marks associated with the early establishment of active and inactive chromatin, respectively. One of the most widespread promoter elements is the CCAAT box, bound by the NF-Y trimer. Two of NF-Y subunits have an H2A-H2B-like structure. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We established the causal relationship between NF-Y binding and positioning of methyl marks, by ChIP analysis of mouse and human cells infected with a dominant negative NF-YA: a parallel decrease in NF-Y binding, H3K4me3, H3K79me2 and transcription was observed in promoters that are dependent upon NF-Y. On the contrary, changes in the levels of H3K9-14ac were more subtle. Components of the H3K4 methylating MLL complex are not recruited in the absence of NF-Y. As for repressed promoters, NF-Y removal leads to a decrease in the H4K20me3 mark and deposition of H3K4me3. CONCLUSIONS: Two relevant findings are reported: (i NF-Y gains access to its genomic locations independently from the presence of methyl histone marks, either positive or negative; (ii NF-Y binding has profound positive or negative consequences on the deposition of histone methyl marks. Therefore NF-Y is a fundamental switch at the heart of decision between gene activation and repression in CCAAT regulated genes.

  1. Good and bad in the hands of politicians: spontaneous gestures during positive and negative speech.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Casasanto

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available According to the body-specificity hypothesis, people with different bodily characteristics should form correspondingly different mental representations, even in highly abstract conceptual domains. In a previous test of this proposal, right- and left-handers were found to associate positive ideas like intelligence, attractiveness, and honesty with their dominant side and negative ideas with their non-dominant side. The goal of the present study was to determine whether 'body-specific' associations of space and valence can be observed beyond the laboratory in spontaneous behavior, and whether these implicit associations have visible consequences.We analyzed speech and gesture (3012 spoken clauses, 1747 gestures from the final debates of the 2004 and 2008 US presidential elections, which involved two right-handers (Kerry, Bush and two left-handers (Obama, McCain. Blind, independent coding of speech and gesture allowed objective hypothesis testing. Right- and left-handed candidates showed contrasting associations between gesture and speech. In both of the left-handed candidates, left-hand gestures were associated more strongly with positive-valence clauses and right-hand gestures with negative-valence clauses; the opposite pattern was found in both right-handed candidates.Speakers associate positive messages more strongly with dominant hand gestures and negative messages with non-dominant hand gestures, revealing a hidden link between action and emotion. This pattern cannot be explained by conventions in language or culture, which associate 'good' with 'right' but not with 'left'; rather, results support and extend the body-specificity hypothesis. Furthermore, results suggest that the hand speakers use to gesture may have unexpected (and probably unintended communicative value, providing the listener with a subtle index of how the speaker feels about the content of the co-occurring speech.

  2. HapX positively and negatively regulates the transcriptional response to iron deprivation in Cryptococcus neoformans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won Hee Jung

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans is a major cause of illness in immunocompromised individuals such as AIDS patients. The ability of the fungus to acquire nutrients during proliferation in host tissue and the ability to elaborate a polysaccharide capsule are critical determinants of disease outcome. We previously showed that the GATA factor, Cir1, is a major regulator both of the iron uptake functions needed for growth in host tissue and the key virulence factors such as capsule, melanin and growth at 37°C. We are interested in further defining the mechanisms of iron acquisition from inorganic and host-derived iron sources with the goal of understanding the nutritional adaptation of C. neoformans to the host environment. In this study, we investigated the roles of the HAP3 and HAPX genes in iron utilization and virulence. As in other fungi, the C. neoformans Hap proteins negatively influence the expression of genes encoding respiratory and TCA cycle functions under low-iron conditions. However, we also found that HapX plays both positive and negative roles in the regulation of gene expression, including a positive regulatory role in siderophore transporter expression. In addition, HapX also positively regulated the expression of the CIR1 transcript. This situation is in contrast to the negative regulation by HapX of genes encoding GATA iron regulatory factors in Aspergillus nidulans and Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Although both hapX and hap3 mutants were defective in heme utilization in culture, only HapX made a contribution to virulence, and loss of HapX in a strain lacking the high-affinity iron uptake system did not cause further attenuation of disease. Therefore, HapX appears to have a minimal role during infection of mammalian hosts and instead may be an important regulator of environmental iron uptake functions. Overall, these results indicated that C. neoformans employs multiple strategies for iron acquisition during infection.

  3. Isolation and characterization of a novel catalase-negative, urease-positive Campylobacter from cattle faeces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Atabay, H.I.; Corry, J.E.L.; On, S.L.W.

    1997-01-01

    characteristics typical for Campylobacter species. However, they were unusual in that they produced urease and copious H2S in triple sugar iron (TSI) medium, but did not produce catalase. They did not grow aerobically. None of the strains grew on modified cefoperazone charcoal deoxycholate agar (m......CCDA). Macrorestriction profiles of chromosomal DNA were prepared for 15 strains using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Twelve of 15 profiles were identical and all appeared to be closely related. These catalase-negative, urease-positive campylobacters (CNUPC) represent a group not previously reported...

  4. Characterization of the positive and negative inotropic effects of acetylcholine in the human myocardium

    OpenAIRE

    Du, Xiaoyi; Schoemaker, Regien; Bos, Egbert; Saxena, Pramod Ranjan

    1995-01-01

    textabstractIn the human isolated myocardium, acetylcholine (10−9 to 10−3 M) elicited a biphasic inotropic effect (a decrease in the lower and an increase in the higher concentration range) in atrial and a positive inotropic effect in ventricular trabeculae. However, under conditions of raised contractility achieved by exposure to noradrenaline (10−5 M), only negative inotropic effects were observed in both atria and ventricles. Atropine (10−6 M), but not propranolol (10−6 M), antagonized bot...

  5. Josephson Metamaterial with a Widely Tunable Positive or Negative Kerr Constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenyuan; Huang, W.; Gershenson, M. E.; Bell, M. T.

    2017-11-01

    We report on the microwave characterization of a novel one-dimensional Josephson metamaterial composed of a chain of asymmetric superconducting quantum interference devices with nearest-neighbor coupling through common Josephson junctions. This metamaterial demonstrates a strong Kerr nonlinearity, with a Kerr constant tunable over a wide range, from positive to negative values, by a magnetic flux threading the superconducting quantum interference devices. The experimental results are in good agreement with the theory of nonlinear effects in Josephson chains. The metamaterial is very promising as an active medium for Josephson traveling-wave parametric amplifiers; its use facilitates phase matching in a four-wave-mixing process for efficient parametric gain.

  6. A new Integrated Negative Symptom structure of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) in schizophrenia using item response analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Anzalee; Lindenmayer, Jean-Pierre; Opler, Mark; Yavorsky, Christian; Rothman, Brian; Lucic, Luka

    2013-10-01

    Debate persists with regard to how best to categorize the syndromal dimension of negative symptoms in schizophrenia. The aim was to first review published Principle Components Analysis (PCA) of the PANSS, and extract items most frequently included in the negative domain, and secondly, to examine the quality of items using Item Response Theory (IRT) to select items that best represent a measurable dimension (or dimensions) of negative symptoms. First, 22 factor analyses and PCA met were included. Second, using a large dataset (n=7187) of participants in clinical trials with chronic schizophrenia, we extracted items loading on one or more PCA. Third, items not loading with a value of ≥ 0.5, or loading on more than one component with values of ≥ 0.5 were discarded. Fourth, resulting items were included in a non-parametric IRT and retained based on Option Characteristic Curves (OCCs) and Item Characteristic Curves (ICCs). 15 items loaded on a negative domain in at least one study, with Emotional Withdrawal loading on all studies. Non-parametric IRT retained nine items as an Integrated Negative Factor: Emotional Withdrawal, Blunted Affect, Passive/Apathetic Social Withdrawal, Poor Rapport, Lack of Spontaneity/Conversation Flow, Active Social Avoidance, Disturbance of Volition, Stereotyped Thinking and Difficulty in Abstract Thinking. This is the first study to use a psychometric IRT process to arrive at a set of negative symptom items. Future steps will include further examination of these nine items in terms of their stability, sensitivity to change, and correlations with functional and cognitive outcomes. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Longitudinal investigation on learned helplessness tested under negative and positive reinforcement involving stimulus control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Emileane C; Hunziker, Maria Helena

    2014-07-01

    In this study, we investigated whether (a) animals demonstrating the learned helplessness effect during an escape contingency also show learning deficits under positive reinforcement contingencies involving stimulus control and (b) the exposure to positive reinforcement contingencies eliminates the learned helplessness effect under an escape contingency. Rats were initially exposed to controllable (C), uncontrollable (U) or no (N) shocks. After 24h, they were exposed to 60 escapable shocks delivered in a shuttlebox. In the following phase, we selected from each group the four subjects that presented the most typical group pattern: no escape learning (learned helplessness effect) in Group U and escape learning in Groups C and N. All subjects were then exposed to two phases, the (1) positive reinforcement for lever pressing under a multiple FR/Extinction schedule and (2) a re-test under negative reinforcement (escape). A fourth group (n=4) was exposed only to the positive reinforcement sessions. All subjects showed discrimination learning under multiple schedule. In the escape re-test, the learned helplessness effect was maintained for three of the animals in Group U. These results suggest that the learned helplessness effect did not extend to discriminative behavior that is positively reinforced and that the learned helplessness effect did not revert for most subjects after exposure to positive reinforcement. We discuss some theoretical implications as related to learned helplessness as an effect restricted to aversive contingencies and to the absence of reversion after positive reinforcement. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: insert SI title. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Overly positive self-evaluations and personality: negative implications for mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colvin, C R; Block, J; Funder, D C

    1995-06-01

    The relation between overly positive self-evaluations and psychological adjustment was examined. Three studies, two based on longitudinal data and another on laboratory data, contrasted self-descriptions of personality with observer ratings (trained examiners or friends) to index self-enhancement. In the longitudinal studies, self-enhancement was associated with poor social skills and psychological maladjustment 5 years before and 5 years after the assessment of self-enhancement. In the laboratory study, individuals who exhibited a tendency to self-enhance displayed behaviors, independently judged, that seemed detrimental to positive social interaction. These results indicate there are negative short-term and long-term consequences for individuals who self-enhance and, contrary to some prior formulations, imply that accurate appraisals of self and of the social environment may be essential elements of mental health.

  9. Direction for the Future - Successive Acceleration of Positive and Negative Ions Applied to Space Propulsion

    CERN Document Server

    Aanesland, A.; Popelier, L.; Chabert, P.

    2013-12-16

    Electrical space thrusters show important advantages for applications in outer space compared to chemical thrusters, as they allow a longer mission lifetime with lower weight and propellant consumption. Mature technologies on the market today accelerate positive ions to generate thrust. The ion beam is neutralized by electrons downstream, and this need for an additional neutralization system has some drawbacks related to stability, lifetime and total weight and power consumption. Many new concepts, to get rid of the neutralizer, have been proposed, and the PEGASES ion-ion thruster is one of them. This new thruster concept aims at accelerating both positive and negative ions to generate thrust, such that additional neutralization is redundant. This chapter gives an overview of the concept of electric propulsion and the state of the development of this new ion-ion thruster.

  10. Emotion and memory: a recognition advantage for positive and negative words independent of arousal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelman, James S; Estes, Zachary

    2013-12-01

    Much evidence indicates that emotion enhances memory, but the precise effects of the two primary factors of arousal and valence remain at issue. Moreover, the current knowledge of emotional memory enhancement is based mostly on small samples of extremely emotive stimuli presented in unnaturally high proportions without adequate affective, lexical, and semantic controls. To investigate how emotion affects memory under conditions of natural variation, we tested whether arousal and valence predicted recognition memory for over 2500 words that were not sampled for their emotionality, and we controlled a large variety of lexical and semantic factors. Both negative and positive stimuli were remembered better than neutral stimuli, whether arousing or calming. Arousal failed to predict recognition memory, either independently or interactively with valence. Results support models that posit a facilitative role of valence in memory. This study also highlights the importance of stimulus controls and experimental designs in research on emotional memory. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Reality television predicts both positive and negative outcomes for adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Christopher J; Salmond, Kimberlee; Modi, Kamla

    2013-06-01

    To assess the influence of media, specifically reality television, on adolescent behavior. A total of 1141 preteen and adolescent girls (age range 11-17) answered questions related to their reality television viewing, personality, self-esteem, relational aggression, appearance focus, and desire for fame. Our results indicated that the influence of reality television on adolescent behavior is complex and potentially related to the adolescents' intended uses and gratifications for using reality television. Reality television viewing was positively related to increased self-esteem and expectations of respect in dating relationships. However, watching reality television also was related to an increased focus on appearance and willingness to compromise other values for fame. Reality television viewing did not predict relational aggression. The potential influences of reality television use on adolescent girls are both positive and negative, defying easy categorization. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Prevalence and predictors of severe menopause symptoms among HIV-positive and -negative Nigerian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agaba, Patricia A; Meloni, Seema T; Sule, Halima M; Ocheke, Amaka N; Agaba, Emmanuel I; Idoko, John A; Kanki, Phyllis J

    2017-11-01

    We compared the prevalence of menopause symptoms between women living with HIV to their HIV-negative peers and determined predictors of severe menopause symptoms in Jos, Nigeria. This descriptive cross-sectional study included 714 women aged 40-80 years. We compared prevalence and severity of menopause symptoms using the menopause rating scale (MRS). Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the predictors of severe symptoms. Six-hundred and seven (85.0%) were HIV-positive, with a mean duration of infection of 5.6 ± 2.7 years. The mean age of the cohort was 46 ± 5 years. The most prevalent menopause symptoms were hot flushes (67.2%), joint and muscle discomfort (66.2%), physical/mental exhaustion (65.3%), heart discomfort (60.4%), and anxiety (56.4%). The median MRS score was higher for HIV-positive compared to HIV-negative women (p = 0.01). Factors associated with severe menopause symptoms included HIV-positive status (aOR: 3.01, 95% CI: 1.20-7.54) and history of cigarette smoking (aOR: 4.18, 95% CI: 1.31-13.26). Being married (aOR: 0.49, 95% CI: 0.32-0.77), premenopausal (aOR: 0.60, 95% CI: 0.39-0.94), and self-reporting good quality of life (aOR: 0.62. 95% CI: 0.39-0.98) were protective against severe menopause symptoms. We found HIV infection, cigarette smoking, quality of life, and stage of the menopause transition to be associated with severe menopause symptoms. As HIV-positive populations are aging, additional attention should be given to the reproductive health of these women.

  13. Prime time news: the influence of primed positive and negative emotion on susceptibility to false memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Stephen; ten Brinke, Leanne; Riley, Sean N; Baker, Alysha

    2014-01-01

    We examined the relation between emotion and susceptibility to misinformation using a novel paradigm, the ambiguous stimuli affective priming (ASAP) paradigm. Participants (N = 88) viewed ambiguous neutral images primed either at encoding or retrieval to be interpreted as either highly positive or negative (or neutral/not primed). After viewing the images, they either were asked misleading or non-leading questions. Following a delay, memory accuracy for the original images was assessed. Results indicated that any emotional priming at encoding led to a higher susceptibility to misinformation relative to priming at recall. In particular, inducing a negative interpretation of the image at encoding led to an increased susceptibility of false memories for major misinformation (an entire object not actually present in the scene). In contrast, this pattern was reversed when priming was used at recall; a negative reinterpretation of the image decreased memory distortion relative to unprimed images. These findings suggest that, with precise experimental control, the experience of emotion at event encoding, in particular, is implicated in false memory susceptibility.

  14. Ozone generation in positive and negative corona discharge fed by humid oxygen and carbon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skalny, J D; Orszagh, J; MatejcIk, S; Mason, N J

    2008-01-01

    The effect of humidity on ozone generation of positive and negative corona discharges fed by O 2 and CO 2 has been studied in the humidity range of 100-20 000 ppm. The experiments were carried out at an ambient temperature and pressure of 100 kPa. The increase in humidity of CO 2 conspicuously suppressed the ozone generation in negative corona discharge at all values of the input energy densities into the discharge. The effect was less pronounced in oxygen. In contrast to decrease of ozone concentration observed in negative corona discharge, the presence of water both in O 2 and CO 2 acts catalytically. The ozone concentration has been found to increase remarkably (approximately 10 times) in oxygen, if the humidity was increased from 100 to 20 000 ppm. The dependence of ozone concentration on the gas humidity exhibited an extreme. The increase observed at humidity up to approximately 5000 ppm was followed by the marginal reduction in ozone concentration. Anyway, the values of this were considerably higher than those found in dry CO 2 . The effect of humidity on ozone concentration will be discussed in relation to plasma chemical processes in studied discharges and their macroscopic parameters.

  15. The positive and negative framing of affirmative action: a group dominance perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haley, Hillary; Sidanius, Jim

    2006-05-01

    Using a sample of 328 White, Latino, and Black Los Angeles County adults, the authors examined the tendency to employ various affirmative action "frames" (e.g., affirmative action as a "tie-breaking" device or as a quota-based policy). All three groups agreed about which frames cast affirmative action in a positive light and which cast it in a negative light. Although minorities had a tendency to frame affirmative action in terms that most people find morally acceptable, Whites had a tendency to frame affirmative action in terms most people find unacceptable. In addition, compared to minorities, Whites were less supportive of affirmative action regardless of how it was framed. LISREL modeling also was employed to test two competing models regarding predictors of the tendency to use frames that one personally finds to be relatively negative versus positive. Consistent with the expectations of social dominance theory and a motivated cognition perspective, the authors found that social dominance orientation (SDO) had significant net direct and indirect effects on one's framing of affirmative action.

  16. What determines positive, neutral, and negative impacts of Solidago canadensis invasion on native plant species richness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Li-Jia; Yu, Hong-Wei; He, Wei-Ming

    2015-11-17

    Whether plant invasions pose a great threat to native plant diversity is still hotly debated due to conflicting findings. More importantly, we know little about the mechanisms of invasion impacts on native plant richness. We examined how Solidago canadensis invasion influenced native plants using data from 291 pairs of invaded and uninvaded plots covering an entire invaded range, and quantified the relative contributions of climate, recipient communities, and S. canadensis to invasion impacts. There were three types of invasion consequences for native plant species richness (i.e., positive, neutral, and negative impacts). Overall, the relative contributions of recipient communities, S. canadensis and climate to invasion impacts were 71.39%, 21.46% and 7.15%, respectively; furthermore, the roles of recipient communities, S. canadensis and climate were largely ascribed to plant diversity, density and cover, and precipitation. In terms of direct effects, invasion impacts were negatively linked to temperature and native plant communities, and positively to precipitation and soil microbes. Soil microbes were crucial in the network of indirect effects on invasion impacts. These findings suggest that the characteristics of recipient communities are the most important determinants of invasion impacts and that invasion impacts may be a continuum across an entire invaded range.

  17. Negative and positive pretrial publicity affect juror memory and decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruva, Christine L; McEvoy, Cathy

    2008-09-01

    The experiment examined the effects of exposure to pretrial publicity (PTP) and delay on juror memory and decision-making. Mock jurors read news articles containing negative PTP, positive PTP, or unrelated articles. Five days later, they viewed a videotaped murder trial, after which they made decisions about guilt. Finally, all participants independently attributed specific information as having been presented during the trial or in the news articles. Half of the jurors rendered their verdicts and completed the source-memory test immediately after the trial, while the other half did so after a 2-day delay. Exposure to PTP significantly affected guilty verdicts, perceptions of defendant credibility, juror ratings of the prosecuting and defense attorneys, and misattributions of PTP as having been presented as trial evidence. Similar effects were obtained for negative and positive PTP. Delay significantly increased source-memory errors but did not influence guilt ratings. Defendant's credibility and juror ratings of prosecuting and defense attorneys significantly mediated the effect of PTP on guilt ratings. (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved.

  18. Incremental validity of positive and negative valence in predicting personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simms, Leonard J; Yufik, Tom; Gros, Daniel F

    2010-04-01

    The Big Seven model of personality includes five dimensions similar to the Big Five model as well as two evaluative dimensions—Positive Valence (PV) and Negative Valence (NV)—which reflect extremely positive and negative person descriptors, respectively. Recent theory and research have suggested that PV and NV predict significant variance in personality disorder (PD) above that predicted by the Big Five, but firm conclusions have not been possible because previous studies have been limited to only single measures of PV, NV, and the Big Five traits. In the present study, we replicated and extended previous findings using three markers of all key constructs—including PV, NV, and the Big Five—in a diverse sample of 338 undergraduates. Results of hierarchical multiple regression analyses revealed that PV incrementally predicted Narcissistic and Histrionic PDs above the Big Five and that NV nonspecifically incremented the prediction of most PDs. Implications for dimensional models of personality pathology are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  19. Comparison of positive and negative enteral contrast agents for MR imaging of the abdomen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaminsky, S.; Langer, M.

    1994-01-01

    Following oral administration of a buffered gadopentetate-dimeglumine solution (Magnevist enteral R , 1 mmol/l, 6-17 ml/kg) T 1 -, proton-density- and T 2 -weighted spin-echo images of abdominal and retroperitoneal lesions were acquired (0.5 T). Gadopentetate is a signal-enhancing, positive MR contrast agent, intraluminar air served as a model of a signal-free, negative agent. In 21 patients contrast/noise ratios of gadopentetate and air versus lesions and fat were compared quantitatively (t-test). In T 1 - and T 2 -weighted images contrast/noise ratios of gadopentetate versus lesions were significantly higher than those of air. In proton-density images there was no significant difference. In T 1 - and proton-density images contrast/noise ratios of air versus abdominal fat were significantly higher than those of gadopentetate, in T 2 -weighted images gadopentetate had a significantly higher contrast/noise ratio than air. Signal-enhancing positive contrast agents seem advantageous over signal-free negative enteral MR contrast agents. (orig.) [de

  20. Palbociclib: A Review in HR-Positive, HER2-Negative, Advanced or Metastatic Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Esther S; Scott, Lesley J

    2017-06-01

    Oral palbociclib (Ibrance®) is a first-in-class, highly selective inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinases 4 and 6 (i.e. a CDK4/6 inhibitor). It is indicated for the treatment of women with HR-positive, HER2-negative advanced or metastatic breast cancer, in combination with an aromatase inhibitor as initial endocrine-based therapy, and in combination with fulvestrant (with or without a luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonist) in those previously treated with endocrine therapy. In clinical trials, palbociclib in combination with letrozole as initial endocrine-based therapy in postmenopausal women (PALOMA-1 and PALOMA-2), or in combination with fulvestrant in pre-, peri-, or postmenopausal women with disease progression after endocrine therapy (PALOMA-3), significantly prolonged progression-free survival (PFS) and improved clinical benefit response (CBR) rates. Neutropenia was the most commonly reported any-grade and grade ≥ 3 adverse event. It was infrequently associated with febrile neutropenia (<2%) and generally manageable with a palbociclib dose delay, interruption or reduction, without the routine use of growth factors, and without affecting efficacy. In conclusion, oral palbociclib combination therapy is a valuable emerging option for use in patients with HR-positive, HER2-negative advanced or metastatic breast cancer.

  1. Differential mesolimbic and prefrontal alterations during reward anticipation and consummation in positive and negative schizotypy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Chao; Wang, Yi; Su, Li; Xu, Ting; Yin, Da-Zhi; Fan, Ming-Xia; Deng, Ci-Ping; Wang, Zhao-Xin; Lui, Simon S Y; Cheung, Eric F C; Chan, Raymond C K

    2016-08-30

    Schizotypy is associated with anhedonia. However, previous findings on the neural substrates of anhedonia in schizotypy are mixed. In the present study, we measured the neural substrates associated with reward anticipation and consummation in positive and negative schizotypy using functional MRI. The Monetary Incentive Delay task was administered to 33 individuals with schizotypy (18 positive schizotypy (PS),15 negative schizotypy (NS)) and 22 healthy controls. Comparison between schizotypy individuals and controls were performed using two-sample T tests for contrast images involving gain versus non-gain anticipation condition and gain versus non-gain consummation condition. Multiple comparisons were corrected using Monte Carlo Simulation correction of panticipation or consummation. However, during the consummatory phase, NS individuals rather than PS individuals showed diminished left amygdala and left putamen activity compared with controls. We observed significantly weaker activation at the left ventral striatum during gain anticipation in NS individuals compared with controls. PS individuals, however, exhibited enhanced right ventral lateral prefrontal activity. These findings suggest that different dimensions of schizotypy may be underlied by different neural dysfunctions in reward anticipation and consummation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The effects of positive or negative words when assessing postoperative pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chooi, C S L; Nerlekar, R; Raju, A; Cyna, A M

    2011-01-01

    Negative or harsh words such as 'pain' and 'sting' used to describe sensations prior to potentially painful procedures have been shown to increase pain. We aimed to determine whether the reporting of pain and its severity is affected by the way it is assessed during anaesthesia follow-up after caesarean section. Following caesarean section, 232 women were randomised prior to post-anaesthesia review. Group N participants were asked questions containing the negative word 'pain, "Do you have any pain?" and then asked to rate it on a 0 to 10 point Verbal Numerical Rating Scale. Group P participants were asked questions using more positive words, "How are you feeling?" and "Are you comfortable?". Data are presented as median, interquartile range. In Group N, 63 participants (54.3%) reported pain compared with only 28 participants (24.1%) in Group P (P positive words, decreases its incidence but does not affect its severity when measured by pain scores. Words that focus the patient on pain during its assessment may lead some to interpret sensations as pain which they might not do otherwise. These findings may have important implications when assessing and researching postoperative pain.

  3. Experimental peptide receptor radionuclide therapy in radioiodine negative somatostatin receptor positive thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilica, B.; Kroiss, A.; Putzer, D.; Uprimmy, C.; Warwitz, B.; Kendler, D.; Waitz, D.; Virgolini, I.

    2015-01-01

    Full text of publication follows. Purpose: This retrospective analysis evaluated the time to progression (TTP), progression free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in patients with radioiodine negative thyroid cancer who had undergone peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) with 177 Lu-DOTA-TATE, 177 Lu-DOTA-LAN, 90 Y-DOTA-TOC or 90 Y-DOTA-LAN after tumor progression. Methods: Data derived from twenty patients with either differentiated (n=15), anaplastic (n=1) or medullary (n=4) somatostatin receptor positive thyroid cancer who had received treatment with PRRT after tumor progression. TTP, PFS and OS were defined according to the clinical trial endpoints suggested by the FDA (Food and Drug Administration). Progressive disease was defined by sonography, FDG-PET, Ga-DOTA-TOC-PET, or CT (RECIST Criteria). Results: In 17 patients the median overall survival time after the first PRRT was 17.3 (range: 0.1 - 109.7) months. Three patients still alive are actually showing stable disease. The median of PFS in 20 Patients (6 with more than one PRRT-cycle or PRRT-substance) has been 10.9 (range: 0.1 - 44.0) months. The median TTP was 15.6 (range 4.4 to 29.2) months. Conclusion: PRRT appears to be useful in patients with somatostatin receptor positive but radioiodine negative thyroid cancer as a complementary palliative cytotoxic therapy. (authors)

  4. Pneumocystis jirovecii colonisation in HIV-positive and HIV-negative subjects in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riebold, D; Enoh, D O; Kinge, T N; Akam, W; Bumah, M K; Russow, K; Klammt, S; Loebermann, M; Fritzsche, C; Eyong, J E; Eppel, G; Kundt, G; Hemmer, C J; Reisinger, E C

    2014-06-01

    To determine the prevalence of Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP), a major opportunistic infection in AIDS patients in Europe and the USA, in Cameroon. Induced sputum samples from 237 patients without pulmonary symptoms (126 HIV-positive and 111 HIV-negative outpatients) treated at a regional hospital in Cameroon were examined for the prevalence of Pneumocystis jirovecii by specific nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) and staining methods. CD 4 counts and the history of antiretroviral therapy of the subjects were obtained through the ESOPE database system. Seventy-five of 237 study participants (31.6%) were colonised with Pneumocystis, but none showed active PCP. The Pneumocystis colonisation rate in HIV-positive subjects was more than double that of HIV-negative subjects (42.9% vs. 18.9%, P 500 cells/μl were colonised at a rate of 20.0%, subjects with CD 4 counts between 200 and 500 cells/μl of 42.5%, and subjects with CD 4 counts <200 cells/μl of 57.1%. Colonisation with Pneumocystis in Cameroon seems to be comparable to rates found in Western Europe. Prophylactic and therapeutic measures against Pneumocystis should be taken into account in HIV care in western Africa. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Serum BDNF Is Positively Associated With Negative Symptoms in Older Adults With Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binford, Sasha S; Hubbard, Erin M; Flowers, Elena; Miller, Bruce L; Leutwyler, Heather

    2018-01-01

    Older adults with chronic schizophrenia are at greater risk for functional disability and poorer health outcomes than those without serious mental illness. These individuals comprise 1-2% of the elderly population in the United States and are projected to number approximately 15 million by 2030. The symptoms of schizophrenia can be disabling for individuals, significantly reducing quality of life. Often, the negative symptoms (NS) are the most resistant to treatment and are considered a marker of illness severity, though they are challenging to measure objectively. Biomarkers can serve as objective indicators of health status. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a potential biomarker for schizophrenia and may serve as an important indicator of illness severity. A cross-sectional study with 30 older adults with chronic schizophrenia. Participants were assessed on serum levels of BDNF and psychiatric symptoms (Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale). Pearson's bivariate correlations (two-tailed) and linear regression models were used. A significant positive association ( p schizophrenia. It is possible that higher serum levels of BDNF reflect compensatory neuronal mechanisms resulting from neurodevelopmental dysfunction.

  6. Mechanistic antimicrobial approach of extracellularly synthesized silver nanoparticles against gram positive and gram negative bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamboli, Dhawal P.; Lee, Dae Sung, E-mail: daesung@knu.ac.kr

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: • Bacterial extracelluar enzymes stabilized the silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). • AgNPs formation was characterized by analytical techniques such as UV–vis, TEM, and FTIR. • AgNPs showed obvious antimicrobial activity against both gram positive and gram negative microorganisms. • A mechanism of AgNPs’ antimicrobial activity was proposed. -- Abstract: The development of eco-friendly and reliable processes for the synthesis of nanoparticles has attracted considerable interest in nanotechnology. In this study, an extracellular enzyme system of a newly isolated microorganism, Exiguobacterium sp. KNU1, was used for the reduction of AgNO{sub 3} solutions to silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). The extracellularly biosynthesized AgNPs were characterized by UV–vis spectroscopy, Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The AgNPs were approximately 30 nm (range 5–50 nm) in size, well-dispersed and spherical. The AgNPs were evaluated for their antimicrobial effects on different gram negative and gram positive bacteria using the minimum inhibitory concentration method. Reasonable antimicrobial activity against Salmonella typhimurium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus was observed. The morphological changes occurred in all the microorganisms tested. In particular, E. coli exhibited DNA fragmentation after being treated with the AgNPs. Finally, the mechanism for their bactericidal activity was proposed according to the results of scanning electron microscopy and single cell gel electrophoresis.

  7. Mechanistic antimicrobial approach of extracellularly synthesized silver nanoparticles against gram positive and gram negative bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamboli, Dhawal P.; Lee, Dae Sung

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Bacterial extracelluar enzymes stabilized the silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). • AgNPs formation was characterized by analytical techniques such as UV–vis, TEM, and FTIR. • AgNPs showed obvious antimicrobial activity against both gram positive and gram negative microorganisms. • A mechanism of AgNPs’ antimicrobial activity was proposed. -- Abstract: The development of eco-friendly and reliable processes for the synthesis of nanoparticles has attracted considerable interest in nanotechnology. In this study, an extracellular enzyme system of a newly isolated microorganism, Exiguobacterium sp. KNU1, was used for the reduction of AgNO 3 solutions to silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). The extracellularly biosynthesized AgNPs were characterized by UV–vis spectroscopy, Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The AgNPs were approximately 30 nm (range 5–50 nm) in size, well-dispersed and spherical. The AgNPs were evaluated for their antimicrobial effects on different gram negative and gram positive bacteria using the minimum inhibitory concentration method. Reasonable antimicrobial activity against Salmonella typhimurium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus was observed. The morphological changes occurred in all the microorganisms tested. In particular, E. coli exhibited DNA fragmentation after being treated with the AgNPs. Finally, the mechanism for their bactericidal activity was proposed according to the results of scanning electron microscopy and single cell gel electrophoresis

  8. Comparing Positively and Negatively Charged Distonic Radical Ions in Phenylperoxyl Forming Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Peggy E; Marshall, David L; Poad, Berwyck L J; Narreddula, Venkateswara R; Kirk, Benjamin B; Trevitt, Adam J; Blanksby, Stephen J

    2018-06-04

    In the gas phase, arylperoxyl forming reactions play a significant role in low-temperature combustion and atmospheric processing of volatile organic compounds. We have previously demonstrated the application of charge-tagged phenyl radicals to explore the outcomes of these reactions using ion trap mass spectrometry. Here, we present a side-by-side comparison of rates and product distributions from the reaction of positively and negatively charge tagged phenyl radicals with dioxygen. The negatively charged distonic radical ions are found to react with significantly greater efficiency than their positively charged analogues. The product distributions of the anion reactions favor products of phenylperoxyl radical decomposition (e.g., phenoxyl radicals and cyclopentadienone), while the comparable fixed-charge cations yield the stabilized phenylperoxyl radical. Electronic structure calculations rationalize these differences as arising from the influence of the charged moiety on the energetics of rate-determining transition states and reaction intermediates within the phenylperoxyl reaction manifold and predict that this influence could extend to intra-molecular charge-radical separations of up to 14.5 Å. Experimental observations of reactions of the novel 4-(1-carboxylatoadamantyl)phenyl radical anion confirm that the influence of the charge on both rate and product distribution can be modulated by increasing the rigidly imposed separation between charge and radical sites. These findings provide a generalizable framework for predicting the influence of charged groups on polarizable radicals in gas phase distonic radical ions. Graphical Abstract.

  9. Symptom changes in five dimensions of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale in refractory psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, Todd S; Jung, Kwanghee; Smith, Geoffrey N; Hwang, Heungsun; Barr, Alasdair M; Procyshyn, Ric M; Flynn, Sean W; van der Gaag, Mark; Honer, William G

    2014-12-01

    Refractory psychosis units currently have little information regarding which symptoms profiles should be expected to respond to treatment. In the current study, we provide this information using structural equation modeling of Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) ratings at admission and discharge on a sample of 610 patients admitted to a treatment refractory psychosis program at a Canadian tertiary care unit between 1990 and 2011. The hypothesized five-dimensional structure of the PANSS fit the data well at both admission and discharge, and the latent variable scores are reported as a function of symptom dimension and diagnostic category. The results suggest that, overall, positive symptoms (POS) responded to treatment better than all other symptoms dimensions, but for the schizoaffective and bipolar groups, greater response on POS was observed relative to the schizophrenia and major depression groups. The major depression group showed the most improvement on negative symptoms and emotional distress, and the bipolar group showed the most improvement on disorganization. Schizophrenia was distinct from schizoaffective disorder in showing reduced treatment response on all symptom dimensions. These results can assist refractory psychosis units by providing information on how PANSS symptom dimensions respond to treatment and how this depends on diagnostic category.

  10. Positive and Negative Impacts of Non-Native Bee Species around the World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Laura

    2016-11-28

    Though they are relatively understudied, non-native bees are ubiquitous and have enormous potential economic and environmental impacts. These impacts may be positive or negative, and are often unquantified. In this manuscript, I review literature on the known distribution and environmental and economic impacts of 80 species of introduced bees. The potential negative impacts of non-native bees include competition with native bees for nesting sites or floral resources, pollination of invasive weeds, co-invasion with pathogens and parasites, genetic introgression, damage to buildings, affecting the pollination of native plant species, and changing the structure of native pollination networks. The potential positive impacts of non-native bees include agricultural pollination, availability for scientific research, rescue of native species, and resilience to human-mediated disturbance and climate change. Most non-native bee species are accidentally introduced and nest in stems, twigs, and cavities in wood. In terms of number of species, the best represented families are Megachilidae and Apidae, and the best represented genus is Megachile . The best studied genera are Apis and Bombus , and most of the species in these genera were deliberately introduced for agricultural pollination. Thus, we know little about the majority of non-native bees, accidentally introduced or spreading beyond their native ranges.

  11. Positive and Negative Impacts of Non-Native Bee Species around the World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Russo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Though they are relatively understudied, non-native bees are ubiquitous and have enormous potential economic and environmental impacts. These impacts may be positive or negative, and are often unquantified. In this manuscript, I review literature on the known distribution and environmental and economic impacts of 80 species of introduced bees. The potential negative impacts of non-native bees include competition with native bees for nesting sites or floral resources, pollination of invasive weeds, co-invasion with pathogens and parasites, genetic introgression, damage to buildings, affecting the pollination of native plant species, and changing the structure of native pollination networks. The potential positive impacts of non-native bees include agricultural pollination, availability for scientific research, rescue of native species, and resilience to human-mediated disturbance and climate change. Most non-native bee species are accidentally introduced and nest in stems, twigs, and cavities in wood. In terms of number of species, the best represented families are Megachilidae and Apidae, and the best represented genus is Megachile. The best studied genera are Apis and Bombus, and most of the species in these genera were deliberately introduced for agricultural pollination. Thus, we know little about the majority of non-native bees, accidentally introduced or spreading beyond their native ranges.

  12. Conflict adaptation in positive and negative mood: Applying a success-failure manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuch, Stefanie; Zweerings, Jana; Hirsch, Patricia; Koch, Iring

    2017-05-01

    Conflict adaptation is a cognitive mechanism denoting increased cognitive control upon detection of conflict. This mechanism can be measured by the congruency sequence effect, indicating the reduction of congruency effects after incongruent trials (where response conflict occurs) relative to congruent trials (without response conflict). Several studies have reported increased conflict adaptation under negative, as compared to positive, mood. In these studies, sustained mood states were induced by film clips or music combined with imagination techniques; these kinds of mood manipulations are highly obvious, possibly distorting the actual mood states experienced by the participants. Here, we report two experiments where mood states were induced in a less obvious way, and with higher ecological validity. Participants received success or failure feedback on their performance in a bogus intelligence test, and this mood manipulation proved highly effective. We largely replicated previous findings of larger conflict adaptation under negative mood than under positive mood, both with a Flanker interference paradigm (Experiment 1) and a Stroop-like interference paradigm (Experiment 2). Results are discussed with respect to current theories on affective influences on cognitive control. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Investigating the procedural variables that determine whether rats will display negative anticipatory contrast or positive induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weatherly, Jeffrey N; Nurnberger, Jeri T; Hanson, Brent C

    2005-08-31

    Previous studies have demonstrated that consumption of a low-valued food substance may decrease if access to a high-valued substance will soon be available (negative anticipatory contrast). Research has also demonstrated that responding for a low-valued reinforcer may increase if responding for a high-valued reinforcer will soon be possible (positive induction). The present experiment employed rats to respond in a procedure similar to that typically used to produce negative anticipatory contrast. The goal was to determine what factors contribute to when a contrast or an induction effect will occur. Based on previous research, the influence of auditory cues, temporal delays, food deprivation, and location of substance delivery were investigated. Auditory cues and temporal delays did little to influence whether subjects increased or decreased their consumption of 1% sucrose when access to 32% sucrose was upcoming. The appearance of contrast or induction was related to level of deprivation, with deprivation promoting induction. Which effect occurred also depended on whether subjects consumed the two substances from one spout in one location (induction) or from two different spouts in two different locations (contrast). The present results help identify the procedural link(s) between these two effects. They also provide insight to why positive induction may occur (i.e., higher-order place conditioning).

  14. Asymmetric Fuzzy Control of a Positive and Negative Pneumatic Pressure Servo System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Gang; Du, Jing-Min; Fu, Xiao-Yun; Li, Bao-Ren

    2017-11-01

    The pneumatic pressure control systems have been used in some fields. However, the researches on pneumatic pressure control mainly focus on constant pressure regulation. Poor dynamic characteristics and strong nonlinearity of such systems limit its application in the field of pressure tracking control. In order to meet the demand of generating dynamic pressure signal in the application of the hardware-in-the-loop simulation of aerospace engineering, a positive and negative pneumatic pressure servo system is provided to implement dynamic adjustment of sealed chamber pressure. A mathematical model is established with simulation and experiment being implemented afterwards to discuss the characteristics of the system, which shows serious asymmetry in the process of charging and discharging. Based on the analysis of the system dynamics, a fuzzy proportional integral derivative (PID) controller with asymmetric fuzzy compensator is proposed. Different from conventional adjusting mechanisms employing the error and change in error of the controlled variable as input parameters, the current chamber pressure and charging or discharging state are chosen as inputs of the compensator, which improves adaptability. To verify the effectiveness and performance of the proposed controller, the comparison experiments tracking sinusoidal and square wave commands are conducted. Experimental results show that the proposed controller can obtain better dynamic performance and relatively consistent control performance across the scope of work (2-140 kPa). The research proposes a fuzzy control method to overcome asymmetry and enhance adaptability for the positive and negative pneumatic pressure servo system.

  15. Cardiovascular reactivity of younger and older adults to positive-, negative-, and mixed-emotion cognitive challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Michael J; James, Jack E; McCabe, Tadhg R; Kilmartin, Liam; Howard, Siobhán; Noone, Chris

    2012-03-01

    Although aging is associated with progressive increases in blood pressure level, previous research has been inconsistent as to whether older adults show greater or lesser cardiovascular reactivity (CVR) to emotion than do younger adults. There is reason to believe that these inconsistencies could be clarified by examining age-related differences in hemodynamic profile revealed by measuring the pattern of cardiac output and total peripheral resistance associated with changes in blood pressure reactivity. Accordingly, the present study examined the performance, CVR, and hemodynamic profile of younger and older adults during encoding and recognition of word pairs involving four valence types: positive, negative, mixed (positive/negative), and neutral word pairs. Results revealed higher baseline blood pressure, increased CVR characterized by a vascular hemodynamic profile, and more rapid recovery (especially during encoding) for older than for younger participants. Results are discussed in light of research and theory on the relationship between aging and cardiovascular health. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Methamphetamine functions as a positive and negative drug feature in a Pavlovian appetitive discrimination task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichel, Carmela M; Wilkinson, Jamie L; Bevins, Rick A

    2007-12-01

    This research determined the ability of methamphetamine to serve as a positive or negative feature, and assessed the ability of bupropion, cocaine, and naloxone to substitute for the methamphetamine features. Rats received methamphetamine (0.5 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) or saline 15 min before a conditioning session. For the feature positive (FP) group, offset of 15-s cue lights was followed by access to sucrose on methamphetamine sessions; sucrose was withheld during saline sessions. For the feature negative (FN) group, the light offset was followed by sucrose on saline sessions; sucrose was withheld during methamphetamine sessions. During acquisition, the FP group had higher responding on methamphetamine sessions than on saline sessions. For the FN group, responding was higher on saline sessions than on methamphetamine sessions. Conditioned responding was sensitive to methamphetamine dose. For the FP group, bupropion and cocaine fully and partially substituted for methamphetamine, respectively. In contrast, both drugs fully substituted for methamphetamine in the FN group. Naloxone did not substitute in either set of rats. FP-trained rats were more sensitive to the locomotor stimulating effects of the test drugs than FN-trained rats. This research demonstrates that the pharmacological effects of methamphetamine function as a FP or FN in this Pavlovian discrimination task and that training history can affect conditioned responding and locomotor effects evoked by a drug.

  17. Correlation of circRNAs’ differential expression to negative- positive symptoms of patients with schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling-ming KONG

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective To explore the correlation of circRNAs' expression level to the negative- and positive symptoms of patients with schizophrenia (SZ. Methods Gene chip screening was performed with the peripheral blood samples from each five of SZ patients and normal controls. Nine circRNAs showing differentiate expression were confirmed, and further verification was done by real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR in 102 SZ patients and 103 normal controls. All the SZ patients were assessed with Positive and Negative Symptom Scale (PANSS. Results It was revealed that the expression levels of circRNA_102101, circRNA_102315, circRNA_104597, circRNA_101835 and circRNA_101836 were significantly down-regulated (P<0.01 or P<0.05, and circRNA_103102 and circRNA_103704 were up-regulated in SZ group (P<0.01. The ΔCT value of circRNA_102101 and circRNA_103102 was positively correlated to the positive symptoms (P<0.01 or P<0.05, and the ΔCT value of circRNA_103704 also showed positive correlation with positive symptoms and general psychopathological symptoms (P<0.01 or P<0.05. The ΔCT values of circRNA_102101, circRNA_103102, circRNA_102315, circRNA_103704 and circRNA_102802 were correlated with thinking disorder (P<0.01 or P<0.05, and the ΔCT values of circRNA_102101, circRNA_103102, circRNA_104597, circRNA_103704 and circRNA_102802 were correlated with the activation (P<0.01 or P<0.05. The ΔCT values of circRNA_102101, circRNA_103102, circRNA_103704 and circRNA_102802 were positively correlated with paranoid (P<0.01 or P<0.05, and of circRNA_102101, circRNA_103102, circRNA_103704 and circRNA_102802 were markedly correlated with assault (P<0.01 or P<0.05. Therefore, circRNA_103704 was chosen into regressive equation of positive symptoms (P<0.01, and circRNA_103704 and circRNA_102315 were chosen into regressive equation of general pathological findings (P<0.01 or P<0.05. Conclusion The expression levels of circRNA_103704 and circRNA_103102 are obviously up

  18. Is There a Paradox of Aging: When the Negative Aging Stereotype Meets the Positivity Effect in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Liqing; Lu, Jia; Chen, Guopeng; Dong, Li; Yao, Yujia

    2017-01-01

    Background/Study Context: Socioemotional selectivity theory (SST) states that the positivity effect is a result of older adults' emotion regulation and that older adults derive more emotional satisfaction from prioritizing positive information processing. The authors explored whether the positivity effect appeared when the negative aging stereotype was activated in older adults and also whether the effect differed between mixed and unmixed valence conditions. Sixty younger (18-23 years of age) and 60 older (60-87 years of age) adults were randomly assigned to a control group and a priming group, in which the negative aging stereotype was activated. All the participants were asked to select 15 words that best described the elderly from a mixed-word list (positive and negative words were mixed together) and from an unmixed-word list (positive and negative words were separated). Older adults in the control group selected more positive words, whereas among younger adults, selection did not differ by valence in either the mixed- or unmixed-word list conditions. There were no differences between the positive and negative word choices of the younger and older adults in the priming group. We calculated the differences between the numbers of positive and negative words, and the differences in the older adults' word choices were larger than those among the younger adults; the differences were also larger in the control group than in the priming group. The positivity effect worked by choosing positive stimuli rather than avoiding negative stimuli. The role of emotion regulation in older adults was limited, and when the positivity effect faced the effect of the negative aging stereotype, the negative stereotype effect was dominant. Future research should explore the changes in the positivity effect in the face of a positive aging stereotype and what roles other factors (e.g., activation level of the stereotype, arousal level of affective words) might play.

  19. An optimized staining technique for the detection of Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria within tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerra, Sandra C; Roy, Daniel C; Sanchez, Carlos J; Christy, Robert J; Burmeister, David M

    2016-04-12

    Bacterial infections are a common clinical problem in both acute and chronic wounds. With growing concerns over antibiotic resistance, treatment of bacterial infections should only occur after positive diagnosis. Currently, diagnosis is delayed due to lengthy culturing methods which may also fail to identify the presence of bacteria. While newer costly bacterial identification methods are being explored, a simple and inexpensive diagnostic tool would aid in immediate and accurate treatments for bacterial infections. Histologically, hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and Gram stains have been employed, but are far from optimal when analyzing tissue samples due to non-specific staining. The goal of the current study was to develop a modification of the Gram stain that enhances the contrast between bacteria and host tissue. A modified Gram stain was developed and tested as an alternative to Gram stain that improves the contrast between Gram positive bacteria, Gram negative bacteria and host tissue. Initially, clinically relevant strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus were visualized in vitro and in biopsies of infected, porcine burns using routine Gram stain, and immunohistochemistry techniques involving bacterial strain-specific fluorescent antibodies as validation tools. H&E and Gram stain of serial biopsy sections were then compared to a modification of the Gram stain incorporating a counterstain that highlights collagen found in tissue. The modified Gram stain clearly identified both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria, and when compared to H&E or Gram stain alone provided excellent contrast between bacteria and non-viable burn eschar. Moreover, when applied to surgical biopsies from patients that underwent burn debridement this technique was able to clearly detect bacterial morphology within host tissue. We describe a modification of the Gram stain that provides improved contrast of Gram positive and Gram negative microorganisms within host

  20. Risk factors for false positive and for false negative test results in screening with fecal occult blood testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stegeman, Inge; de Wijkerslooth, Thomas R.; Stoop, Esther M.; van Leerdam, Monique; van Ballegooijen, M.; Kraaijenhagen, Roderik A.; Fockens, Paul; Kuipers, Ernst J.; Dekker, Evelien; Bossuyt, Patrick M.

    2013-01-01

    Differences in the risk of a false negative or a false positive fecal immunochemical test (FIT) across subgroups may affect optimal screening strategies. We evaluate whether subgroups are at increased risk of a false positive or a false negative FIT result, whether such variability in risk is

  1. Negative and positive affect are independently associated with patient-reported health status following percutaneous coronary intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Versteeg, Henneke; Pedersen, Susanne S.; Erdman, Ruud A M

    2009-01-01

    We examined the association between negative and positive affect and 12-month health status in patients treated with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with drug-eluting stents.......We examined the association between negative and positive affect and 12-month health status in patients treated with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with drug-eluting stents....

  2. Validation and psychometric properties of the Alcohol Positive and Negative Affect Schedule: Are drinking emotions distinct from general emotions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lac, Andrew; Donaldson, Candice D

    2018-02-01

    People vary in experiences of positive and negative emotions from consuming alcohol, but no validated measurement instrument exclusively devoted to assessing drinking emotions exists in the literature. The current research validated and evaluated the psychometric properties of an alcohol affect scale based on adjectives from the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) and tested the extent that emotions incurred from drinking were distinct from general trait-based emotions. Three studies tested independent samples of adult alcohol users. In Study 1 (N = 494), exploratory factor analyses of the Alcohol PANAS revealed that both the 20-item model and the 9-parcel model (represented by similar mood content) supported the 2-factor dimensionality of alcohol positive and negative affect. In Study 2 (N = 302), confirmatory factor analyses corroborated the measurement structure of alcohol positive and negative affect, and both constructs evidenced statistical independence from general positive and negative affect. In Study 3 (N = 452), alcohol positive and negative affect exhibited discriminant, convergent, and criterion validity with established alcohol scales. Incremental validity tests demonstrated that alcohol positive and negative affect uniquely contributed (beyond general positive and negative affect) to alcohol expectancies, use, and problems. Findings support that alcohol emotions are conceptually distinct from trait emotions, and underscore the necessity of an assessment instrument tailored to the former to examine associations with alcohol beliefs and behaviors. The Alcohol PANAS confers theoretical and practical applications to understand the emotional consequences of drinking. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. A model of positive and negative learning : Learning demands and resources, learning engagement, critical thinking, and fake news detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dormann, Christian; Demerouti, Eva; Bakker, Arnold; Zlatkin-Troitschanskaia, O.; Wittum, G.; Dengel, A.

    2018-01-01

    This chapter proposes a model of positive and negative learning (PNL model). We use the term negative learning when stress among students occurs, and when knowledge and abilities are not properly developed. We use the term positive learning if motivation is high and active learning occurs. The PNL

  4. Use of positive and negative words in scientific PubMed abstracts between 1974 and 2014 : retrospective analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vinkers, Christiaan H|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304824755; Tijdink, Joeri K; Otte, Willem M

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether language used in science abstracts can skew towards the use of strikingly positive and negative words over time. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of all scientific abstracts in PubMed between 1974 and 2014. METHODS: The yearly frequencies of positive, negative, and

  5. The Assessment of Positivity and Negativity in Social Networks: The Reliability and Validity of the Social Relationships Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo, Rebecca A.; Uchino, Bert N.; Holt-Lunstad, Julianne; Vaughn, Allison; Reblin, Maija; Smith, Timothy W.

    2009-01-01

    The Social Relationships Index (SRI) was designed to examine positivity and negativity in social relationships. Unique features of this scale include its brevity and the ability to examine relationship positivity and negativity at the level of the specific individual and social network. The SRI's psychometric properties were examined in three…

  6. What constitutes a good life? Cultural differences in the role of positive and negative affect in subjective well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirtz, Derrick; Chiu, Chi-yue; Diener, Ed; Oishi, Shigehiro

    2009-08-01

    East Asians and Asian Americans report lower levels of subjective well-being than Europeans and European Americans. Three studies found support for the hypothesis that such differences may be due to the psychological meanings Eastern and Western cultures attach to positive and negative affect. Study 1 demonstrated that the desire to repeat a recent vacation was significantly predicted by recalled positive affect-but not recalled negative affect-for European Americans, whereas Asian Americans considered both positive and negative affect. Study 2 replicated this effect in judging satisfaction with a personal friendship. Study 3 linked changes in European Americans' life satisfaction to everyday positive events caused by the self (vs. others) and changes in Japanese life satisfaction to everyday negative events caused by others (vs. the self). Positive affect appears particularly meaningful for European Americans and negative affect for Asian Americans and Japanese when judging a satisfying vacation, friendship, or life.

  7. What Constitutes a Good Life? Cultural Differences in the Role of Positive and Negative Affect in Subjective Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirtz, Derrick; Chiu, Chi-yue; Diener, Ed; Oishi, Shigehiro

    2009-01-01

    East Asians and Asian Americans report lower levels of subjective well-being than Europeans and European Americans. Three studies found support for the hypothesis that such differences may be due to the psychological meanings Eastern and Western cultures attach to positive and negative affect. Study 1 demonstrated that the desire to repeat a recent vacation was significantly predicted by recalled positive affect—but not recalled negative affect—for European Americans, whereas Asian Americans considered both positive and negative affect. Study 2 replicated this effect in judging satisfaction with a personal friendship. Study 3 linked changes in European Americans’ life satisfaction to everyday positive events caused by the self (vs. others) and changes in Japanese life satisfaction to everyday negative events caused by others (vs. the self). Positive affect appears particularly meaningful for European Americans and negative affect for Asian Americans and Japanese when judging a satisfying vacation, friendship, or life. PMID:19558439

  8. The role of sense of coherence and physical activity in positive and negative affect of Turkish adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oztekin, Ceyda; Tezer, Esin

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the role of sense of coherence and total physical activity in positive and negative affect. Participants were 376 (169 female, 206 male, and 1 missing value) student volunteers from different faculties of Middle East Technical University. Three questionnaires: Sense of Coherence Scale (SOC), Physical Activity Assessment Questionnaire (PAAQ), and Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) were administered to the students together with the demographic information sheet. Two separate stepwise multiple linear regression analyses were conducted to examine the predictive power of sense of coherence and total physical activity on positive and negative affect scores. Results revealed that both sense of coherence and total physical activity predicted the positive affect whereas only the sense of coherence predicted the negative affect on university students. Findings are discussed in light of sense of coherence, physical activity, and positive and negative affect literature.

  9. Comparison of Tuberculin Skin Test result and interferon gamma response to human PPD in BCG scar positive and negative children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayyahfar, Shirin; Karimi, Abdollah; Fahimzad, Alireza; Shamshiri, Ahmad Reza

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study is to compare Tuberculin Skin Test (TST) result and interferon gamma response to human PPD (purified protein derivative), in scar positive and scar negative BCG-vaccinated children. Between August 2007 and May 2008 a total of 236 children aged 1-168 months (mean 21 months) admitted to Mofid Children's Hospital, Tehran, Iran, were enrolled in a cross-sectional study. Each patient was examined for BCG vaccine scar and tested with TST and human PPD-based Interferon Gamma Release Assay (IGRA). Two hundred and twenty one cases out of 236 (44% female, 1-168 months, mean age 21 months) were scar positive of whom 95% TST result was negative. Human PPD-based IGRA was positive in 110 (49.8%), negative in 85 (38.4 %) and indeterminate in 26 (11.8%) of scar positive patients. Fifteen children (40% female, 1-156 months; mean age 42 months) were scar negative. All the scar negative cases were TST negative. Human PPD-based IGRA was positive in 10 (66.7%), negative in 4 (26.7%) and indeterminate in 1 (6.7%) of scar negative patients. Immune responsiveness to human PPD antigens in scar positive and negative children may not correspond with results of the Tuberculin Skin Test. Copyright © 2013 Ministry of Health, Saudi Arabia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Dependence of positive and negative sprite morphology on lightning characteristics and upper atmospheric ambient conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Jianqi; Celestin, Sebastien; Pasko, Victor P.

    2013-05-01

    Carrot sprites, exhibiting both upward and downward propagating streamers, and columniform sprites, characterized by predominantly vertical downward streamers, represent two distinct morphological classes of lightning-driven transient luminous events in the upper atmosphere. It is found that positive cloud-to-ground lightning discharges (+CGs) associated with large charge moment changes (QhQ) tend to produce carrot sprites with the presence of a mesospheric region where the electric field exceeds the value 0.8Ek and persists for >˜2 ms, whereas those associated with small QhQ are only able to produce columniform sprites. Columniform sprites may also appear in the periphery of a sprite halo produced by +CGs associated with large QhQ. For a sufficiently large QhQ, the time dynamics of the QhQ determines the specific shape of the carrot sprites. In the case when the sufficiently large QhQ is produced mainly by an impulsive return stroke, strong electric field is produced at high altitudes and manifests as a bright halo, and the corresponding conductivity enhancement lowers/enhances the probability of streamer initiation inside/below the sprite halo. A more impulsive return stroke leads to a more significant conductivity enhancement (i.e., a brighter halo). This conductivity enhancement also leads to fast decay and termination of the upper diffuse region of carrot sprites because it effectively screens out the electric field at high altitudes. On the contrary, if the sufficiently large QhQ is produced by a weak return stroke (i.e., a dim halo) accompanied by intense continuing current, the lightning-induced electric field at high altitudes persists at a level that is comparable to Ek, and therefore an extensive upper diffuse region can develop. Furthermore, we demonstrate that `negative sprites' (produced by -CGs) should be necessarily carrot sprites and most likely accompanied by a detectable halo, since the initiation of upward positive streamers is always easier

  11. Generalized position-momentum uncertainty products: Inclusion of moments with negative order and application to atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angulo, J. C.

    2011-01-01

    Rigorous and universal relationships among radial expectation values of any D-dimensional quantum-mechanical system are obtained, using Renyi-like position-momentum inequalities in an information-theoretical framework. Although the results are expressed in terms of four moments (two in position space and two in the momentum one), especially interesting are the cases that provide expressions of uncertainty in terms of products a > 1/a b > 1/b , widely considered in the literature, including the famous Heisenberg relationship 2 > 2 >≥D 2 /4. Improved bounds for these products have recently been provided, but are always restricted to positive orders a,b>0. The interesting part of this work are the inequalities for negative orders. A study of these relationships is carried out for atomic systems in their ground state. Some results are given in terms of relevant physical quantities, including the kinetic and electron-nucleus attraction energies, the diamagnetic susceptibility, and the height of the peak of the Compton profile, among others.

  12. Influenza vaccination of HIV-1-positive and HIV-1-negative former intravenous drug users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amendola, A; Boschini, A; Colzani, D; Anselmi, G; Oltolina, A; Zucconi, R; Begnini, M; Besana, S; Tanzi, E; Zanetti, A R

    2001-12-01

    The immunogenicity of an anti-influenza vaccine was assessed in 409 former intravenous drug user volunteers and its effect on the levels of HIV-1 RNA, proviral DNA and on CD4+ lymphocyte counts in a subset HIV-1-positive subjects was measured. HIV-1-positive individuals (n = 72) were divided into three groups on the basis of their CD4+ lymphocyte counts, while the 337 HIV-1-negative participants were allocated into group four. Haemagglutination inhibiting (HI) responses varied from 45.8 to 70% in the HIV-1-positive subjects and were significantly higher in group four (80.7% responses to the H1N1 strain, 81.6% to the H3N2 strain, and 83% to the B strain). The percentage of subjects with HI protective antibody titres (> or = 1:40) increased significantly after vaccination, especially in HIV-1 uninfected subjects. Immunization caused no significant changes in CD4+ counts and in neither plasma HIV-1 RNA nor proviral DNA levels. Therefore, vaccination against influenza may benefit persons infected by HIV-1. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Positive and Negative Factors of Economic Development in Economic History of South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Jong Min

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: the aim of the article is to analyze the Korean economic strategy from the beginning of its development until modern stage. Examination of how this strategy has changed depending on changes within domestic and international economic environment, assumptions, set goals, their effectiveness and significance of all the taken measures. It will demonstrate waypoints for the future economic development and will become a trigger towards recognition of the successful development of the Korean economy by other countries. Methods: the methodological bases of this article are the economic and statistical methods of analysis of the Korean economys, graphical methods displaying economic indicators. Results: economic history of South Korea over the past century shows the positive and negative factors of the development from an economically weak country into a developing country. The history of the Japanese occupation of Korea, lasting from 1910 to 1945, showed that for a country which has lost its national sovereignty, expropriated the state's economy has no effect after the restoration of independence, and that the economy cannot develop in conditions of chaos within the political, economic and social spheres. Even after the establishment of a military dictatorship, it is possible to note that despite limitations of citizens’ rights, the economy can still grow if the people want it. In addition to the development of internal political system, unstable factors in the process of promotion of social reforms and hastily adopted policy of "open doors" in order to enhance the international status are unreasonable political, economic and social changes. In turn, the inability to control currency exchange in Asian countries, which is a policy of economic development, has shown the existence of a risk of national bankruptcy. Moreover, the adoption of policies of excessive decrease of interest rates in order to revive the recession may be counterproductive

  14. The Positive and Negative Experiences of Caregiving for Siblings of Young People with First Episode Psychosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Siann; Alvarez-Jimenez, Mario; Wade, Darryl; Howie, Linsey; McGorry, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    Background: The impact of first episode psychosis (FEP) upon parents’ experience of caregiving has been well-documented. However, the determinants and nature of this remain poorly understood in siblings. It is hypothesized that siblings of young people with FEP are also impacted by caregiving and burden. This study aimed to characterize the experience of caregiving for siblings of young people with FEP. Method: Survey methodology was used to explore the experience of 157 siblings in the first 18 months of their brother or sister’s treatment for FEP. Participants reported on their appraisal of the negative and positive aspects of caregiving as measured by the Experience of Caregiving Inventory (ECI). Descriptive statistics were used to establish the results for the total sample as well as for gender and birth order differences. A series of multivariate regression analyses were conducted to determine the relationships between illness characteristics and siblings’ experience of caregiving. Results: Older brothers reported the lowest scores for negative experiences in caregiving and younger sisters reported the highest. Negative experiences in caregiving resulted in less warmth within the sibling relationship and impacted negatively upon quality of life. When the young person with FEP had attempted suicide and/or been physically violent, siblings experienced more caregiver burden. Multivariate analysis showed that female gender was a significant factor in explaining the impact of illness related variables on the experience of caregiving. Conclusion: Suicide attempts and a history of violence resulted in higher caregiving burden for siblings regardless of whether they lived with the young person experiencing FEP or not. Female siblings are at higher risk of negative experiences from caregiving resulting in a reduced quality of life and a changed sibling relationship. Suicide attempts and violence are indicators for intensive case management to improve outcomes for

  15. The Positive and Negative Experiences of Caregiving for Siblings of Young People with First Episode Psychosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siann Bowman

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The impact of first episode psychosis (FEP upon parents’ experience of caregiving has been well-documented. However, the determinants and nature of this remain poorly understood in siblings. It is hypothesized that siblings of young people with FEP are also impacted by caregiving and burden. This study aimed to characterize the experience of caregiving for siblings of young people with FEP.Method: Survey methodology was used to explore the experience of 157 siblings in the first 18 months of their brother or sister’s treatment for FEP. Participants reported on their appraisal of the negative and positive aspects of caregiving as measured by the Experience of Caregiving Inventory (ECI. Descriptive statistics were used to establish the results for the total sample as well as for gender and birth order differences. A series of multivariate regression analyses were conducted to determine the relationships between illness characteristics and siblings’ experience of caregiving.Results: Older brothers reported the lowest scores for negative experiences in caregiving and younger sisters reported the highest. Negative experiences in caregiving resulted in less warmth within the sibling relationship and impacted negatively upon quality of life. When the young person with FEP had attempted suicide and/or been physically violent, siblings experienced more caregiver burden. Multivariate analysis showed that female gender was a significant factor in explaining the impact of illness related variables on the experience of caregiving.Conclusion: Suicide attempts and a history of violence resulted in higher caregiving burden for siblings regardless of whether they lived with the young person experiencing FEP or not. Female siblings are at higher risk of negative experiences from caregiving resulting in a reduced quality of life and a changed sibling relationship. Suicide attempts and violence are indicators for intensive case management to

  16. Intergroup Contact and Social Change: Implications of Negative and Positive Contact for Collective Action in Advantaged and Disadvantaged Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimer, Nils Karl; Becker, Julia C; Benz, Angelika; Christ, Oliver; Dhont, Kristof; Klocke, Ulrich; Neji, Sybille; Rychlowska, Magdalena; Schmid, Katharina; Hewstone, Miles

    2017-01-01

    Previous research has shown that (a) positive intergroup contact with an advantaged group can discourage collective action among disadvantaged-group members and (b) positive intergroup contact can encourage advantaged-group members to take action on behalf of disadvantaged outgroups. Two studies investigated the effects of negative as well as positive intergroup contact. Study 1 ( n = 482) found that negative but not positive contact with heterosexual people was associated with sexual-minority students' engagement in collective action (via group identification and perceived discrimination). Among heterosexual students, positive and negative contacts were associated with, respectively, more and less LGB (lesbian, gay, bisexual) activism. Study 2 ( N = 1,469) found that only negative contact (via perceived discrimination) predicted LGBT (lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender) students' collective action intentions longitudinally while only positive contact predicted heterosexual/cisgender students' LGBT activism. Implications for the relationship between intergroup contact, collective action, and social change are discussed.

  17. Finding the positive in all of the negative: Facilitation for color-related emotion words in a negative priming paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Tina M; Altarriba, Jeanette

    2016-10-01

    A study conducted by Sutton and Altarriba (2008) suggested that color-related emotion words (e.g., sad, envy) produce standard Stroop interference effects. Associations between emotion words and colors are culture specific, and may be the result of common phrases in a language (e.g., "feeling blue" in English), or a result of the manner in which color is used to signify information or meaning in a language (e.g., red often represents threat). In the present paper, the same stimuli were investigated in a negative priming paradigm in which participants were asked to name the ink color of a presented word. In this task, response times are typically slower in ignored repetition trials (i.e., the probe target is related to the prime distractor) than control trials. The results of Experiment 1 indicated that color words and color-related neutral words yielded negative priming; however, color-related emotion words yielded significant facilitation. In Experiment 2, the three word types were intermixed within the same block and the same results were obtained. The current study provides converging evidence that salient distractors cannot be ignored. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. DMPD: When signaling pathways collide: positive and negative regulation of toll-likereceptor signal transduction. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 18631453 When signaling pathways collide: positive and negative regulation of toll-...uction. PubmedID 18631453 Title When signaling pathways collide: positive and neg...l) Show When signaling pathways collide: positive and negative regulation of toll-likereceptor signal transd...likereceptor signal transduction. O'Neill LA. Immunity. 2008 Jul 18;29(1):12-20. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csm

  19. The impact of positive and negative emotions on loyalty intentions and their interactions with customer equity drivers

    OpenAIRE

    Ou, Yi-Chun; Verhoef, Peter C.

    2017-01-01

    Customer equity drivers (CEDs) include value, brand, and relationship equity, which have a strong link with loyalty intentions. This study aims to examine the incremental effects of positive and negative emotions on loyalty intentions and to determine whether these emotions moderate the positive link between CEDs and loyalty intentions. We use customer data with 102 leading firms across eighteen services industries in the Netherlands. The results show that (1) positive and negative emotions h...

  20. Reproductive factors and risk of hormone receptor positive and negative breast cancer: a cohort study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritte, Rebecca; Grote, Verena; Boeing, Heiner; Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Palli, Domenico; Berrino, Franco; Mattiello, Amalia; Tumino, Rosario; Tikk, Kaja; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Quirós, José Ramón; Buckland, Genevieve; Molina-Montes, Esther; Chirlaque, María-Dolores; Ardanaz, Eva; Amiano, Pilar; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Gils, Carla H van; Peeters, Petra HM; Lukanova, Annekatrin; Wareham, Nick; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Key, Timothy J; Travis, Ruth C; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Dumeaux, Vanessa; Lund, Eliv; Sund, Malin; Andersson, Anne; Romieu, Isabelle; Tjønneland, Anne; Rinaldi, Sabina; Vineis, Paulo; Merritt, Melissa A; Riboli, Elio; Kaaks, Rudolf; Olsen, Anja; Overvad, Kim; Dossus, Laure; Fournier, Agnès; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise

    2013-01-01

    The association of reproductive factors with hormone receptor (HR)-negative breast tumors remains uncertain. Within the EPIC cohort, Cox proportional hazards models were used to describe the relationships of reproductive factors (menarcheal age, time between menarche and first pregnancy, parity, number of children, age at first and last pregnancies, time since last full-term childbirth, breastfeeding, age at menopause, ever having an abortion and use of oral contraceptives [OC]) with risk of ER-PR- (n = 998) and ER+PR+ (n = 3,567) breast tumors. A later first full-term childbirth was associated with increased risk of ER+PR+ tumors but not with risk of ER-PR- tumors (≥35 vs. ≤19 years HR: 1.47 [95% CI 1.15-1.88] p trend < 0.001 for ER+PR+ tumors; ≥35 vs. ≤19 years HR: 0.93 [95% CI 0.53-1.65] p trend = 0.96 for ER-PR- tumors; P het = 0.03). The risk associations of menarcheal age, and time period between menarche and first full-term childbirth with ER-PR-tumors were in the similar direction with risk of ER+PR+ tumors (p het = 0.50), although weaker in magnitude and statistically only borderline significant. Other parity related factors such as ever a full-term birth, number of births, age- and time since last birth were associated only with ER+PR+ malignancies, however no statistical heterogeneity between breast cancer subtypes was observed. Breastfeeding and OC use were generally not associated with breast cancer subtype risk. Our study provides possible evidence that age at menarche, and time between menarche and first full-term childbirth may be associated with the etiology of both HR-negative and HR-positive malignancies, although the associations with HR-negative breast cancer were only borderline significant

  1. Radiation propagation in random media: From positive to negative correlations in high-frequency fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, Anthony B.; Mineev-Weinstein, Mark B.

    2011-01-01

    We survey research on radiation propagation or ballistic particle motion through media with randomly variable material density, and we investigate the topic with an emphasis on very high spatial frequencies. Our new results are based on a specific variability model consisting of a zero-mean Gaussian scaling noise riding on a constant value that is large enough with respect to the amplitude of the noise to yield overwhelmingly non-negative density. We first generalize known results about sub-exponential transmission from regular functions, which are almost everywhere continuous, to merely 'measurable' ones, which are almost everywhere discontinuous (akin to statistically stationary noises), with positively correlated fluctuations. We then use the generalized measure-theoretic formulation to address negatively correlated stochastic media without leaving the framework of conventional (continuum-limit) transport theory. We thus resolve a controversy about recent claims that only discrete-point process approaches can accommodate negative correlations, i.e., anti-clustering of the material particles. We obtain in this case the predicted super-exponential behavior, but it is rather weak. Physically, and much like the alternative discrete-point process approach, the new model applies most naturally to scales commensurate with the inter-particle distance in the material, i.e., when the notion of particle density breaks down due to Poissonian-or maybe not-so-Poissonian-number-count fluctuations occur in the sample volume. At the same time, the noisy structure must prevail up to scales commensurate with the mean-free-path to be of practical significance. Possible applications are discussed.

  2. Partial least squares based gene expression analysis in estrogen receptor positive and negative breast tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, W; Zhang, T-F; Lu, P; Lu, S H

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is categorized into two broad groups: estrogen receptor positive (ER+) and ER negative (ER-) groups. Previous study proposed that under trastuzumab-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy, tumor initiating cell (TIC) featured ER- tumors response better than ER+ tumors. Exploration of the molecular difference of these two groups may help developing new therapeutic strategies, especially for ER- patients. With gene expression profile from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database, we performed partial least squares (PLS) based analysis, which is more sensitive than common variance/regression analysis. We acquired 512 differentially expressed genes. Four pathways were found to be enriched with differentially expressed genes, involving immune system, metabolism and genetic information processing process. Network analysis identified five hub genes with degrees higher than 10, including APP, ESR1, SMAD3, HDAC2, and PRKAA1. Our findings provide new understanding for the molecular difference between TIC featured ER- and ER+ breast tumors with the hope offer supports for therapeutic studies.

  3. Positive and Negative Affect and Adolescent Adjustment: Moderation Effects of Prefrontal Functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brieant, Alexis; Holmes, Christopher J; Maciejewski, Dominique; Lee, Jacob; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; King-Casas, Brooks; Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen

    2018-03-01

    We examined whether cognitive control moderates the effects of emotion on adolescent internalizing and externalizing symptomatology in a longitudinal study of 138 adolescents. Self-reported positive affect (PA) and negative affect and behavioral and neural indicators of cognitive control, indexed by performance and prefrontal hemodynamic response during a cognitive interference task, were collected at Time 1. Self-reported internalizing and externalizing symptomatology were collected at Time 1 and Time 2 (1 year later). Results indicated that higher PA predicted decreases in externalizing symptomatology, but only for adolescents with poor neural cognitive control. No moderation effects were found for behavioral cognitive control. Findings imply the beneficial effects of PA on the development of externalizing problems among adolescents with poor prefrontal functioning. © 2018 Society for Research on Adolescence.

  4. Spin crossover-induced colossal positive and negative thermal expansion in a nanoporous coordination framework material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullaney, Benjamin R; Goux-Capes, Laurence; Price, David J; Chastanet, Guillaume; Létard, Jean-François; Kepert, Cameron J

    2017-10-20

    External control over the mechanical function of materials is paramount in the development of nanoscale machines. Yet, exploiting changes in atomic behaviour to produce controlled scalable motion is a formidable challenge. Here, we present an ultra-flexible coordination framework material in which a cooperative electronic transition induces an extreme abrupt change in the crystal lattice conformation. This arises due to a change in the preferred coordination character of Fe(II) sites at different spin states, generating scissor-type flexing of the crystal lattice. Diluting the framework with transition-inactive Ni(II) sites disrupts long-range communication of spin state through the lattice, producing a more gradual transition and continuous lattice movement, thus generating colossal positive and negative linear thermal expansion behaviour, with coefficients of thermal expansion an order of magnitude greater than previously reported. This study has wider implications in the development of advanced responsive structures, demonstrating electronic control over mechanical motion.

  5. You are such a bad child! Appraisals as mechanisms of parental negative and positive affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavita, Oana Alexandra; David, Daniel; DiGiuseppe, Raymond

    2014-01-01

    Although parent cognitions are considered important predictors that determine specific emotional reactions and parental practices, models on the cognitive strategies for regulating parental distress or positive emotions are not well developed. Our aim was to investigate the nature of cognitions involved in parental distress and satisfaction, in terms of their specificity (parental or general) and their processing levels (inferential or evaluative cognitions). We hypothesized that parent's specific evaluative cognitions will mediate the impact of more general and inferential cognitive structures on their affective reactions. We used bootstrapping procedures in order to test the mediation models proposed. Results obtained show indeed that rather specific evaluative parental cognitions are mediating the relationship between general cognitions and parental distress. In terms of the cognitive processing levels, it seems that when parents hold both low self-efficacy and parental negative global evaluations for the self/child, this adds significantly to their distress.

  6. Relationships Between Positive and Negative Affect and the Five Factors of Personality in a Brazilian Sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Zanon

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Strong associations of Neuroticism and Extraversion with positive affects (PA and negative affects (NA have been reported in the international literature. This study aimed to evaluate the occurrence of such relationships in a Brazilian sample, and also to investigate the role of Conscientiousness, Agreeableness and Openness in the prediction of PA and NA through the use of a hybrid structural model. Participants were 319 university students, between 17 and 37 years of age (mean = 21.5, SD = 4.9. Approximately 64% of the students were female and 36% male. Results showed that Neuroticism was the most important predictor of PA and NA, followed by Conscientiousness, but not Extraversion. Surprisingly, Agreeableness was shown to be a weak prediction for NA, but had no relationship with PA. As expected, Openness showed no relationship with PA or NA. These results are partially in agreement with the international literature but some important differences were detected.

  7. Self-focusing of nonlinear waves in a relativistic plasma with positive and negative ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, Joydeep; Chowdhury, A.R.

    1994-01-01

    The phenomenon of self-focusing of nonlinear waves was analysed in a relativistic plasma consisting of both positive and negative ions, which are assumed to be hot. The effect of the inertia of the relativistic electron is also considered by treating it dynamically. A modified form of reductive perturbation is used to deduce a nonlinear Schroedinger equation describing the purely spatial variation of the nonlinear wave. Self-focusing of the wave can be ascertained by analysing the transversal stability of the solitary wave. It is shown that the zones of stability of the wave may become wider due to the mutual influence of various factors present in the plasma, thus favouring the process of self-focusing. 10 refs., 2 figs

  8. Giant magnetoelectric effect in negative magnetostrictive/piezoelectric/positive magnetostrictive semiring structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Lingyu; Zhou, Minhong; Bi, Ke; Lei, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Magnetoelectric (ME) Ni/PZT/TbFe2 and TbFe2/PZT composites with two semiring structures are prepared. The dependence between ME coupling and magnetostrictive property of the composite is discussed. Because Ni possesses negative magnetostrictive property and TbFe2 shows positive magnetostrictive property, the ME voltage coefficient of Ni/PZT/TbFe2 semiring structure is much larger than that of TbFe2/PZT. In these composites, the ME voltage coefficient increases and the resonance frequency gradually decreases with the increase of the semiring radius, showing that structural parameters are key factors to the composite properties. Due to the strong ME coupling effect, a giant ME voltage coefficient αE = 44.8 V cm-1 Oe-1 is obtained. This approach opens a way for the design of ME composites with giant ME voltage coefficient.

  9. Subcellular localization for Gram positive and Gram negative bacterial proteins using linear interpolation smoothing model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Harsh; Raicar, Gaurav; Dehzangi, Abdollah; Lal, Sunil; Sharma, Alok

    2015-12-07

    Protein subcellular localization is an important topic in proteomics since it is related to a protein׳s overall function, helps in the understanding of metabolic pathways, and in drug design and discovery. In this paper, a basic approximation technique from natural language processing called the linear interpolation smoothing model is applied for predicting protein subcellular localizations. The proposed approach extracts features from syntactical information in protein sequences to build probabilistic profiles using dependency models, which are used in linear interpolation to determine how likely is a sequence to belong to a particular subcellular location. This technique builds a statistical model based on maximum likelihood. It is able to deal effectively with high dimensionality that hinders other traditional classifiers such as Support Vector Machines or k-Nearest Neighbours without sacrificing performance. This approach has been evaluated by predicting subcellular localizations of Gram positive and Gram negative bacterial proteins. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Crossover from negative to positive magnetoresistance in the double quantum well system with different starting disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kannan, E S; Karamad, M; Kim, Gil-Ho; Farrer, I; Ritchie, D A

    2010-01-01

    Magnetotransport measurements were performed in two widely separated double quantum well systems with different starting disorders. In the weak magnetic field regime, a crossover from negative to positive magnetoresistance in the longitudinal resistivity was observed in the system with weak disorder when the electron densities in the neighboring wells were significantly unbalanced. The crossover was found to be the result of the exchange-energy-assisted interactions between the electrons occupying the lowest subbands in the neighboring wells. In the case of the system with strong disorder short range scattering dominated the scattering process and no such transition in longitudinal resistivity in the low magnetic field regime was observed. However, at high magnetic fields, sharp peaks were observed in the Hall resistance due to the interaction between the edge states in the quantum Hall regime.

  11. Online Spectroscopic Study on the Positive and the Negative Electrolytes in Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional spectroscopic analysis based on the Beer-Lambert law cannot analyze the analyte with high concentration and interference between different compositions, such as the electrolyte in vanadium redox flow batteries (VRBs. Here we propose a new method for online detection of such analytes. We demonstrate experimentally that, by comparing the transmittance spectrum of the analyte with the spectra in a preprepared database using our intensity-corrected correlation coefficient (ICCC algorithm, parameters such as the state of charge (SOC of both the positive and the negative electrolytes in the VRB can be online monitored. This method could monitor the level of the electrolytes imbalance in the VRB, which is useful for further rebalancing the electrolyte and restoring the capacity loss of the VRB. The method also has the potential to be used in the online detection of other chemical reactions, in which the chemical reagents have high concentration and interferences between different compositions.

  12. Rationale for immune-based therapies in Merkel polyomavirus-positive and -negative Merkel cell carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandeven, Natalie; Nghiem, Paul

    2016-07-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare but often deadly skin cancer that is typically caused by the Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV). Polyomavirus T-antigen oncoproteins are persistently expressed in virus-positive MCCs (˜80% of cases), while remarkably high numbers of tumor-associated neoantigens are detected in virus-negative MCCs, suggesting that both MCC subsets may be immunogenic. Here we review mechanisms by which these immunogenic tumors evade multiple levels of host immunity. Additionally, we summarize the exciting potential of diverse immune-based approaches to treat MCC. In particular, agents blocking the PD-1 axis have yielded strikingly high response rates in MCC as compared with other solid tumors, highlighting the potential for immune-mediated treatment of this disease.

  13. The Development of Theory of Mind and Positive and Negative Reciprocity in Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schug, Joanna; Takagishi, Haruto; Benech, Catalina; Okada, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the relation between the acquisition of false-beliefs theory of mind (ToM) and reciprocity in preschoolers. Preschool-aged children completed a task assessing the understanding of false beliefs, and played an Ultimatum Game (UG) with another child in a face-to-face setting. Negative reciprocity was assessed by examining the rejection of unfair offers made by another child in the UG, while positive reciprocity was assessed by examining allocations made by participants in a Dictator Game (DG) following the UG. The results indicated that children who had passed a task assessing first-order false beliefs were more likely to make generous offers in a DG following a fair offer made by their partner in a proceeding UG, but that false beliefs ToM was unrelated to the rejection of unfair offers in the UG.

  14. Exploring the impact of positive and negative emotions on cooperative behaviour in a Prisoner's Dilemma Game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjell, Oscar N E; Thompson, Sam

    2013-12-19

    Objective. To explore the influences of discrete positive and negative emotions on cooperation in the context of a social dilemma game. Design. Two controlled studies were undertaken. In Study 1, 69 participants were randomly assigned to an essay emotion manipulation task designed to induce either guilt, joy or no strong emotion. In Study 2, 95 participants were randomly assigned to one of the same three tasks, and the impact of emotional condition on cooperation was explored using a repeated Prisoner's Dilemma Game. Results. Study 1 established that the manipulation task was successful in inducing the specified emotions. The analysis from Study 2 revealed no significant main effects for emotions, in contrast to previous research. However, there was a significant effect for participants' pre-existing tendency to cooperate (social value orientation; SVO). Conclusion. Methodological explanations for the result are explored, including the possible impact of trial-and-error strategies, different cooperation games and endogenous vs exogenous emotions.

  15. Executive functioning during full and partial remission (positive and negative symptomatic remission) of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braw, Yoram; Benozio, Avi; Levkovitz, Yechiel

    2012-12-01

    Despite the upsurge of research regarding cognitive impairment in schizophrenia we still lack adequate understanding of the executive functioning of patients in symptomatic remission. Moreover, the cognitive functioning of patients in partial remission has not been studied previously although they comprise a significant proportion of schizophrenia patients. The current study therefore examined the executive functioning of patients in full symptomatic remission and for the first time assessed two sub-groups of patients in partial remission. Executive functioning of five groups was compared; symptomatic patients, patients in positive symptomatic remission, negative symptomatic remission, full symptomatic remission (SP, PSR, NSR, and FSR; N=101) and healthy controls (N=37). A graded cognitive profile was evident between the groups. SP patients exhibited widespread executive dysfunction while the performance of FSR patients was comparable to that of the healthy controls. Both PSR and NSR patients had working memory deficits, with PSR patients showing additional deficits in cognitive planning. The findings are encouraging, tentatively suggesting intact executive functioning among patients in full symptomatic remission. The graded cognitive profile of the patient groups strengthens earlier findings indicating the significant role of negative symptoms in determining executive dysfunction in schizophrenia. The findings point toward potential targets for therapeutic efforts and emphasize the need for further research of sub-groups of schizophrenia patients in partial remission. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Positive and negative aspects of colostomy irrigation: a patient and WOC nurse perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, Eva; Gylin, Meta; Nilsson, Laila; Svensson, Katarina; Alverslid, Ingrid; Persson, Eva

    2010-01-01

    Colostomy irrigation (CI) is an effective method to achieve fecal continence in selected persons with a colostomy. The primary aims of the study were to find out to what extent the WOC nurses used CI in their practice and what kind of information the WOC nurses gave patients if they provided explanations and potential solutions when irrigation was not successful in preserving continence. A further aim was to find out, from a patients' perspective, the positive and negative aspects of practicing CI and how they perform CI. The study employed a mixed quantitative and qualitative approach. Data from WOC nurses were obtained by means of a structured questionnaire and by means of structured telephone interviews with patients who performed CI. Questionnaires were sent out to 89 WOC nurses in Sweden, and 61 (69%) questionnaires were returned. Thirty-nine patients, median age 67 years, from 5 hospitals participated in the interview study. Sixty-four percent of the WOC nurse respondent always informed patients about CI. Forty-four percent of patients did not remember all the information they had been given by the WOC nurse regarding CI before starting with the procedure. Eighty-seven percent reported changing routines from how they initially performed CI over the years. Almost all (97%) of the respondents described positive aspects of CI. The 2 primary positive aspects described by participants were (1) feeling secure and (2) having an empty pouch. Persons living with a colostomy who regularly performed CI reported positive benefits associated with the procedure including a feeling of security and having an empty pouch. Despite these potential benefits, not all patients with a colostomy who are appropriate candidates for CI are offered information about the method from the WOC nurses.

  17. Analyzing prospective teachers' images of scientists using positive, negative and stereotypical images of scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Karthigeyan; Esprívalo Harrell, Pamela; Wojnowski, David

    2013-04-01

    Background and purpose : This study details the use of a conceptual framework to analyze prospective teachers' images of scientists to reveal their context-specific conceptions of scientists. The conceptual framework consists of context-specific conceptions related to positive, stereotypical and negative images of scientists as detailed in the literature on the images, role and work of scientists. Sample, design and method : One hundred and ninety-six drawings of scientists, generated by prospective teachers, were analyzed using the Draw-A-Scientist-Test Checklist (DAST-C), a binary linear regression and the conceptual framework. Results : The results of the binary linear regression analysis revealed a statistically significant difference for two DAST-C elements: ethnicity differences with regard to drawing a scientist who was Caucasian and gender differences for indications of danger. Analysis using the conceptual framework helped to categorize the same drawings into positive, stereotypical, negative and composite images of a scientist. Conclusions : The conceptual framework revealed that drawings were focused on the physical appearance of the scientist, and to a lesser extent on the equipment, location and science-related practices that provided the context of a scientist's role and work. Implications for teacher educators include the need to understand that there is a need to provide tools, like the conceptual framework used in this study, to help prospective teachers to confront and engage with their multidimensional perspectives of scientists in light of the current trends on perceiving and valuing scientists. In addition, teacher educators need to use the conceptual framework, which yields qualitative perspectives about drawings, together with the DAST-C, which yields quantitative measure for drawings, to help prospective teachers to gain a holistic outlook on their drawings of scientists.

  18. Public perceptions of cancer: a qualitative study of the balance of positive and negative beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robb, Kathryn A; Simon, Alice E; Miles, Anne; Wardle, Jane

    2014-07-10

    Cancer's insidious onset and potentially devastating outcomes have made it one of the most feared diseases of the 20th century. However, advances in early diagnosis and treatment mean that death rates are declining, and there are more than 30 million cancer survivors worldwide. This might be expected to result in more sanguine attitudes to the disease. The present study used a qualitative methodology to provide an in-depth exploration of attitudes to cancer and describes the balance of negative and positive perspectives. A qualitative study using semistructured interviews with thematic analysis. A university in London, UK. 30 participants (23-73 years), never themselves diagnosed with cancer. Accounts of cancer consistently incorporated negative and positive views. In almost all respondents, the first response identified fear, trauma or death. However, this was followed-sometimes within the same sentence-by acknowledgement that improvements in treatment mean that many patients can survive cancer and may even resume a normal life. Some respondents spontaneously reflected on the contradictions, describing their first response as a 'gut feeling' and the second as a more rational appraisal-albeit one they struggled to believe. Others switched perspective without apparent awareness. People appear to be 'in two minds' about cancer. A rapid, intuitive sense of dread and imminent death coexists with a deliberative, rational recognition that cancer can be a manageable, or even curable, disease. Recognising cancer's public image could help in the design of effective cancer control messages. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  19. Positive and Negative Affect Is Related to Experiencing Chest Pain During Exercise-Induced Myocardial Ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stébenne, Philippe; Bacon, Simon L; Austin, Anthony; Paine, Nicola J; Arsenault, André; Laurin, Catherine; Meloche, Bernard; Gordon, Jennifer; Dupuis, Jocelyn; Lavoie, Kim L

    2017-05-01

    Silent myocardial ischemia is thought to be associated with worse cardiovascular outcomes due to a lack of perception of pain cues that initiate treatment seeking. Negative affect (NA) has been associated with increased pain reporting and positive affect (PA) with decreased pain reporting, but these psychological factors have not been examined within the context of myocardial ischemia. This study evaluated the associations between PA, NA, and chest pain reporting in patients with and without ischemia during exercise testing. A total of 246 patients referred for myocardial perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography exercise stress testing completed the positive and negative affect schedule-expanded version, a measure of PA and NA. Presence of chest pain and myocardial ischemia were evaluated using standardized protocols. Logistic regression analyses revealed that for every 1-point increase in NA, there was a 13% higher chance for ischemic patients (odds ratio [OR] = 1.13; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.02 to 1.26) and an 11% higher chance in nonischemic patients (OR = 1.11; 95% CI = 1.03 to 1.19) to report chest pain. A significant interaction of PA and NA on chest pain reporting (β = 0.02; 95% CI = 0.002 to 0.031) was also observed; nonischemic patients with high NA and PA reported more chest pain (57%) versus patients with low NA and low PA (13%), with high NA and low PA (17%), and with high PA and low NA (7%). Patients who experience higher NA are more likely to report experiencing chest pain. In patients without ischemia, high NA and PA was also associated with a higher likelihood of reporting chest pain. Results suggest that high levels of PA as well as NA may increase the experience and/or reporting of chest pain.

  20. Raman Spectroscopy of Xylitol Uptake and Metabolism in Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative Bacteria▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palchaudhuri, Sunil; Rehse, Steven J.; Hamasha, Khozima; Syed, Talha; Kurtovic, Eldar; Kurtovic, Emir; Stenger, James

    2011-01-01

    Visible-wavelength Raman spectroscopy was used to investigate the uptake and metabolism of the five-carbon sugar alcohol xylitol by Gram-positive viridans group streptococcus and the two extensively used strains of Gram-negative Escherichia coli, E. coli C and E. coli K-12. E. coli C, but not E. coli K-12, contains a complete xylitol operon, and the viridans group streptococcus contains an incomplete xylitol operon used to metabolize the xylitol. Raman spectra from xylitol-exposed viridans group streptococcus exhibited significant changes that persisted even in progeny grown from the xylitol-exposed mother cells in a xylitol-free medium for 24 h. This behavior was not observed in the E. coli K-12. In both viridans group streptococcus and the E. coli C derivative HF4714, the metabolic intermediates are stably formed to create an anomaly in bacterial normal survival. The uptake of xylitol by Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens occurs even in the presence of other high-calorie sugars, and its stable integration within the bacterial cell wall may discontinue bacterial multiplication. This could be a contributing factor for the known efficacy of xylitol when taken as a prophylactic measure to prevent or reduce occurrences of persistent infection. Specifically, these bacteria are causative agents for several important diseases of children such as pneumonia, otitis media, meningitis, and dental caries. If properly explored, such an inexpensive and harmless sugar-alcohol, alone or used in conjunction with fluoride, would pave the way to an alternative preventive therapy for these childhood diseases when the causative pathogens have become resistant to modern medicines such as antibiotics and vaccine immunotherapy. PMID:21037297