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Sample records for siempre indica fracaso

  1. Consideraciones sobre el fracaso escolar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dora Laino

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available En lo que respecta al fracaso escolar, el texto formula algunas consideraciones desde una aproximación conceptual que procura dar cuenta de los rasgos distintivos del aprendizaje de cada sujeto humano, en especial desde una psicosociología de los procesos cognoscentes que sustente las prácticas profesionales de una clínica del aprender. El reconocimiento que hagan de una criatura sus familiares más cercanos, sus educadores, sus compañeros, condiciona la construcción de su éxito o fracaso escolar. A partir de la comunicación intersubjetiva entablada entre adultos significativos e infantes, púberes o adolescentes (ya sea entre padres e hijos como entre docentes y alumnos se producen inscripciones inconscientes estructurantes de la subjetividad como de los esquemas de acción intelectual y de los habitus sociales de los aprendientes. No es el niño quien define las relaciones educativas en las que se ve involucrado. Tampoco, y por razones análogas, es el único responsable de los esquemas y habitus que construye en su historia vital, ni mucho menos de la graduación de los contenidos que le proponen para realizar sus aprendizajes. El entendimiento que logre en cada situación dependerá de la inteligibilidad, de la subjetividad, de la sociabilidad y de la corporalidad disponibles, como rasgos distintivos de sus posibilidades para aprender, en ese momento de su trayectoria vital.

  2. Azadirachta Indica

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fine Print

    ABSTRACT. Medicinal plants are part of human society to combat diseases. Azadirachta indica evidently has great medicinal potentials. This work was undertaken to investigate the morphological and some enzymatic effect of A. indica extract on the tissues of the liver. Twenty four (24) adult Wistar rats of both sexes, ...

  3. Diario de un escritor: La tentación del fracaso, de Julio Ramón Ribeyro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Zanetti

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available El artículo analiza La tentación del fracaso de Julio Ramón Ribeyro (1929- 1994, verdadero diario íntimo de escritor, prácticamente único en la literatura latinoamericana. El taller del artista, las valoraciones de las lecturas cotidianas y las funciones de la literatura, unidas a las preguntas acerca de su condición de escritor voluntariamente marginado y solitario, constituyen temas fundamentales que esta lectura crítica revisa articulándolos con los sentimientos de esterilidad y con la constante reflexión acerca de los sentidos de los diarios de escritor, enmarcados siempre por la escena de la escritura de sus cuentos y novelas tanto como del diario. Los rasgos propios del género, entre ellos la impronta del día a día, las discontinuidades y las tensiones entre escritura, relectura y publicación reciben un tratamiento detenido siempre estrechamente surgido de la consideración del texto.

  4. Fracasos en prótesis parcial removible

    OpenAIRE

    Samsó Manzanedo, Jorge; Salsench Cabré, Juan

    1986-01-01

    Escribir sobre fracasos en prótesis parcial removible entraña ciertas dificultades, entre ellas el especificar qué es un fracaso, qué es un error y lo más difícil, qué es el éxito. Los que esto escriben han visto prótesis parciales removibles ver­daderamente mal realizadas, que han causado un gran daño en el sis­tema estomatognático del portador sin que él se diera cuenta y lo que aún es peor, creyendo que su prótesis satisfacía plenamente los requeri­mientos para poderla considerar un éxito....

  5. Implicación del profesor en el fracaso escolar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago MOLINA GARCÍA

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Los datos sobre los que vamos a apoyar nuestra crítica y posterior alternativa a nivel de modelos para la modificación de ciertas conductas docentes en el interior del aula y a lo largo de sus estrategias didácticas forman parte de una modesta investigación sobre el fracaso escolar en la E.G.B., en la que estamos trabajando desde hace varios años.

  6. HÁBITOS DE ESTUDIO VS. FRACASO ACADÉMICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Rocío Torres Narváez

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del artículo es exponer algunas estrategias de apoyo pedagógico que, articuladas con la estructura curricular del Programa de Fisioterapia de la Universidad del Rosario, apoyan el proceso de aprendizaje de los estudiantes a partir de las categorías analizadas con la aplicación del instrumento "Inventario de hábitos de estudio" a los estudiantes que cursaron una de las asignaturas de mayor fracaso académico. Los hábitos de estudio tienen una implicación en el rendimiento académico y esto influye en cómo se enfrenta el reto de asumir las responsabilidades de ser universitario. Como parte de la metodología, se realizó un análisis de los resultados de la aplicación del inventario antes nombrado, en aras de identificar y replantear las estrategias pedagógicas. Para esto se revisaron los planes de asignaturas y se determinaron las actividades extracurriculares que se diseñaron para abordar la problemática de la deserción estudiantil relacionada con el fracaso académico. El estudio realizado determinó la importancia del desarrollo de habilidades o hábitos de estudio apropiados para el buen desempeño del estudiante universitario. Además, comprobó que deben considerarse en el entorno universitario la cultura de aprendizaje en el proceso de formación, las habilidades de trabajo en equipo, la apropiación y el desarrollo de conocimiento, así como las buenas relaciones interpersonales, para disminuir el fracaso académico y mejorar los hábitos de estudio.

  7. opuntia ficus-indica

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    15], the composition of phenolic compounds of cladodes of O. ficus-indica is found to be: total ... hydroxide and ascorbic acid (BDH, England); D-catechin, hydrochloric acid, ... on the reduction of phosphotungstate-phosphomolybdate complex by ...

  8. "Siempre" and "todo el tiempo": Investigating Semantic Convergence in a Bilingual Dialect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, MaryEllen

    2001-01-01

    Investigates to what extent the variability between "siempre" and "todo el tiempo" in the San Antonio dialect demonstrates semantic convergence between them, and whether there will be a selection of the innovating form for the future. Examination of this variability may illuminate questions of how such changes occur…

  9. Un modelo de opciones barreras para estimar las probabilidades de fracasos financieros de empresas. Barrier options model for estimate firm´s probabilities for financial distress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gastón S. Milanesi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Resumen Asimilar el valor del patrimonio como una opción de compra sobre los activos permitió desarrollar un conjunto de modelos dinámicos para predecir fracasos financieros empresariales. No obstante, el concepto presenta una importante debilidad: la relación directa y positiva entre valor del capital (prima y el nivel de volatilidad del activo subyacente. El razonamiento anterior indica que a mayor riesgo de la firma mayor debe ser su valor, lo que conduce a una lógica inconsistente para estimar probabilidades de fracasos financieros. Las opciones denominadas “exóticas barreras” constituyen un modelo alternativo para predecir dificultades financieras y su estructura se ajusta mejor a la relación valor-volatilidad en las empresas. El trabajo propone un modelo de opción barrera “operativo”, ya que simplifica la estimación de las inobservables variables: valor y riesgo del activo. Primero, se desarrolló formalmente los modelos de opción de compra simple y opción barrera para valorar el patrimonio de la firma y la estimación de probabilidades de fracaso financiero. Con un caso hipotético, se propuso un ejercicio de sensibilidad sobre volatilidades y plazos. Similar ejercicio se aplicó a dos firmas de capitales argentinos con diferentes grados de endeudamiento, gracias al cual se confirmó la consistencia entre volatilidad-valor-probabilidad de fracasos financieros del modelo propuesto. Finalmente se exponen las principales conclusiones.     Abstract Assimilation of the capital value as a call option over firm’s assets allows to develop a group of dynamic models to predict corporate financial distress. However, the concept shows an important weakness: the direct and positive relationship between the capital value (call with the level of underlying’s volatility. This reasoning indicates that the higher the risk is, the higher the value must be for the firm, leading to a weak rationality, in particular to estimate

  10. Utilidad de la histeroscopia en el fracaso de extracción de dispositivos intrauterinos

    OpenAIRE

    Zighelboim, Itic

    2004-01-01

    Objetivo: Establecer la utilidad de la histeroscopia para el diagnóstico y extracción de dispositivos intrauterinos con hilos no visibles y fracasos previos de extracción. Método: Se practicaron 106 histeroscopias ambulatorias para localizar y extraer los dispositivos intrauterinos. En todas las pacientes fracasaron intentos previos de extracción por diversos procedimientos. Ambiente: Servicio de Fertilidad, "Maternidad Concepción Palacios", Caracas. Resultados: La extracción de los intrauter...

  11. Del fracaso en los sistemas escolares o la fábrica del alumno competente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelique Del Rey

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Afirmar el fracaso de los sistemas escolares en su intento por lograr una verdadera democratización de la escuela no es una mera opinión. Bajo el pretexto de promover una mayor igualdad, las políticas neoliberales simplemente buscan el rendimiento económico del sistema, con una concepción -apenas disfrazada- del alumno como un recurso humano para explotar. ¿Qué se entiende hoy por educar?

  12. Depresión, cognición y fracaso académico

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    Amparo Herrera

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue el estudio de las relaciones entre un fracaso académico previo y el desarrollo posterior de depresión, así como las relaciones entre la depresión y el estilo cognitivo de los individuos. Los resultados del primer estudio mostraron que la visión de sí mismo, del mundo y del futuro de los individuos está relacionada con su nivel de depresión, siendo además un factor estable en el tiempo. Sin embargo, la relación entre depresión y estilo atribucional es compleja, ya que la internalidad no es tan determinante como la estabilidad y globalidad para diferenciar entre individuos con diferentes niveles de depresión; además, este estilo atribucional tiende a cambiar con el mero paso del tiempo. En el segundo estudio, comprobamos que un alto nivel de fracaso genera mayor nivel de depresión que su ausencia o un nivel bajo de fracaso. Sin embargo, el nivel de fracaso no predice o se relaciona con el estilo cognitivo, lo que sugiere la especificidad de dichas cogniciones y la depresión. Estos datos confirman las teorías de diatesis-estrés desarrolladas para explicar la adquisición y el mantenimiento de la depresión, si bien en el modelo de la indefensión aprendida es necesario reformular la influencia de cada una de las dimensiones atribucionales en la depresión.

  13. Propuesta psicopedag??gica para la prevenci??n del fracaso escolar en las artes visuales

    OpenAIRE

    Lima Ferreira, Aldicea Craveiro de

    2016-01-01

    293 p. El prop??sito de esta investigaci??n es la realizaci??n de una propuesta psicopedag??gica para contener el avance del fracaso escolar muchas veces como consecuencia de las dificultades que los alumnos de secundaria tienen en concebir conceptos t??cnicos. El estudio desarrollado pretende comprender las necesidades sentidas por los estudiantes al empezar a estudiar en el Instituto Federal de Educaci??n, Ciencia y Tecnolog??a / IFAM en Brasil

  14. El fracaso escolar y los enfoques de aprendizaje: medidas para la inclusión educativa

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    Ana Belén Mirete Ruiz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El índice de fracaso escolar existente actualmente en España resulta muy preocupante a pesar de las numerosas reformas educativas que se han llevado a cabo en los últimos años. Para analizar los factores motivacionales y de estrategias de aprendizaje que pueden estar incidiendo en la calidad del aprendizaje de los estudiantes se ha realizado una investigación con 281 estudiantes de Educación Secundaria Obligatoria a los que se ha aplicado el Cuestionario sobre Procesos de Aprendizaje (CPA. También se les ha planteado una serie de cuestiones sobre aspectos relacionados con la inclusión, los factores que pueden estar influyendo en el fracaso escolar y las medidas de mejora del rendimiento académico aplicadas por los estudiantes según sus enfoques de aprendizaje. Con ello se ha podido identificar las características de los aprendizajes de este grupo de estudiantes y se han planteado una serie de propuestas de mejora que de ser aplicadas podrían repercutir en la calidad de sus aprendizajes, en la mejora de su rendimiento académico y en minimizar los nefastos efectos del fracaso escolar en este nivel educativo.

  15. FRACASO RENAL AGUDO EN EL PACIENTE ONCOLOGICO. ANALISIS CLINICO Y PRONOSTICO.

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    Purroy A,

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: El fracaso renal agudo es un problema frecuente en el paciente oncológico, que plantea limitaciones en el pronóstico y en el planteamiento terapeútico. El desarrollo de registros de pacientes oncológicos con fracaso renal agudo permite analizar el perfil clínico y plantear aspectos a desarrollar desde el punto de vista terapeútico y sobre todo preventivo. El empleo de determinados índices pronósticos como el ISI (Liaño o el de fallo multiorgánico permite evaluar mejor este perfil clínico. En nuestra experiencia el fracaso renal agudo en el paciente oncológico es una complicación frecuente y relacionada con el proceso de base. Mediante este registro de pacientes hemos identificado un perfil clínico de alto riesgo consistente en un paciente con un fallo renal asociado a un proceso infeccioso, con insuficiencia respiratoria, oligúrico y con una puntuación elevada de esos índices pronósticos.

  16. Complete genome sequence of Beijerinckia indica subsp. indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamas, Ivica; Dedysh, Svetlana N; Liesack, Werner; Stott, Matthew B; Alam, Maqsudul; Murrell, J Colin; Dunfield, Peter F

    2010-09-01

    Beijerinckia indica subsp. indica is an aerobic, acidophilic, exopolysaccharide-producing, N(2)-fixing soil bacterium. It is a generalist chemoorganotroph that is phylogenetically closely related to facultative and obligate methanotrophs of the genera Methylocella and Methylocapsa. Here we report the full genome sequence of this bacterium.

  17. Historia de un fracaso: El “himno nacional” en la España del siglo XIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagore Ferrer, María

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Music as a vehicle susceptible of moving and transmitting ideological contents has always played a prominent role in social struggle. Particularly relevant in this regard is the role of music in the patriotic or political mobilization of societies and cultures, which is a form of mass mobilization. “National anthems” achieved great importance in Europe and America, coinciding with the processes of revolution and independence, and with the increasing national consciousness in many territories during the nineteenth century. In Spain, however, several attempts to establish a national anthem failed. The “royal march” worked de facto as national march, but it did not have enough social support or the symbolic dimension to constitute a “national anthem”. In the 1830-40’s many voices claimed that the Himno de Riego was declared national anthem. In the 60’s, coinciding with the African War, composers as Chueca or Gabalda wrote national hymns as well; even someone suggested that a cantiga of Alfonso X el Sabio became a hymn. In 1896 there was also an attempt to transform the march of the Zarzuela Cádiz, of Chueca, in a national hymn. And still in the early twentieth century many voices insisted on the need for Spain to have a national anthem. During those years on fashion hymns were very important, and many of them, from different countries, were published in arrangement for piano. This article tries to explore this process, analyzing the causes of the successive failures from the social, political and musical points of view.

    La música, como vehículo susceptible de conmover y transmitir una carga ideológica, siempre ha desempeñado un destacado papel en las movilizaciones sociales. Especialmente relevante, en este sentido, es el papel de la música en la movilización patriótica o política de las sociedades y las culturas, que es una forma de movilización de masas. En el siglo XIX toman mucha fuerza en Europa y América los

  18. Mangifera Indica (Mango)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, K. A.; Patel, M. B.; Patel, R. J.; Parmar, P. K.

    2010-01-01

    Mangifera indica, commonly used herb in ayurvedic medicine. Although review articles on this plant are already published, but this review article is presented to compile all the updated information on its phytochemical and pharmacological activities, which were performed widely by different methods. Studies indicate mango possesses antidiabetic, anti-oxidant, anti-viral, cardiotonic, hypotensive, anti-inflammatory properties. Various effects like antibacterial, anti fungal, anthelmintic, anti parasitic, anti tumor, anti HIV, antibone resorption, antispasmodic, antipyretic, antidiarrhoeal, antiallergic, immunomodulation, hypolipidemic, anti microbial, hepatoprotective, gastroprotective have also been studied. These studies are very encouraging and indicate this herb should be studied more extensively to confirm these results and reveal other potential therapeutic effects. Clinical trials using mango for a variety of conditions should also be conducted. PMID:22228940

  19. El desbarrancadero del genio. Fracaso y supervivencia en Memorias prematuras de Rafael Gumucio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Musitano

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available En una escritura que conjuga la vida con la ficción, a Rafael Gumucio la genialidad le permite convivir con la muerte y con la idea de que la vida se figura inevitablemente como un proceso de demolición. Gumucio escribe sus memorias prematuras sin la madurez para perdonar, sólo lo guía la percepción del fracaso y de la falta. En el marco de las escrituras del yo (específicamente la autoficción y siguiendo la tensión entre memoria y recuerdo, el trabajo desarrolla la siguiente hipótesis: el desgarramiento temporal que produce el acto de recordar en la escritura de la propia vida, disloca al narrador en primera persona de Memorias prematuras y lo precipita hacia el fracaso. En ese proceso el narrador se figura como fracasado en tanto víctima del paso del tiempo, como un sobreviviente al desbarrancadero de la propia vida.  

  20. indica rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-07-18

    Jul 18, 2011 ... fresh weight, regeneration, proline level and total protein content in salt sensitive indica rice cv. IR 64. For callus ... INTRODUCTION. Salinity is one of the ... Proline is reported to reduce the enzyme denaturation caused due.

  1. Fracaso en los implantes dentales: Fibrointegración. Reporte de caso clínico

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    Iris Luz Santís Chamorro

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available  ResumenLa rehabilitación con implantes dentales en los pacientes con edentulismo parcial o total posee amplias indicaciones que se ven limitadas por factores anatómicos y biológicos. La oseointegración surge como un hecho descubierto entre la adaptación biológica del hueso a la superficie del titanio del implante (interfase hueso-implante por lo que se afirma que el motivo de fracaso de la mayoría de los sistemas de implantes es que éstos se encapsulen en un tejido de cicatrización fibroso (fibrointegración mal diferenciado lo que crea movilidad, que lleva a reacciones en la mucosa y finalmente a la pérdida. El objetivo del presente artículo es promover la presentación de casos clínicos de pacientes con fracaso de implantes dentales, con el ánimo de esclarecer las posibles causas y los factores coadyuvantes de dicho fracaso, y así mejorar los resultados en implantología. (Duazary 2008; 115-120AbstractThe rehabilitation with dental implants in the patients with partial absence or total of teeth possesses extensive indications that are seen limited by biological and anatomical factors. The oseointegration arises like a discovered fact among the biological adaptation of the bone to the surface of the titanic of the implant (interface bone-implant for which it is affirmed that the motive of failure of the majority of the systems of implants is that these it self envelop in a scar formation of fibrous tissue (Fibrointegration badly differentiated what creates mobility, that carries to reactions in the mucous membrane and finally to the loss. The objective of the present article is to promote the presentation of patients' clinical cases with failure of dental implants, with the intention of clarifying the possible reasons and the helping factors of the above mentioned failure, and this way to improve the results in implantology.Key Words: Fibrointegration; oseointegration; dentals implants; interface; implants failure.

  2. Reseña: Una alternativa al fracaso escolar. Hablemos de buenas prácticas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Enrique Fernández

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Este libro concebido en acuerdo por Kachinovsky y Gabbiani propone tanto una exploración conceptual por el problema del fracaso escolar como una revisión de experiencias alternativas para enfrentar ese problema tal como son las derivadas del Programa de Maestros Comunitarios (PMC creado en 2005 en Uruguay mediante el esfuerzo conjunto del Consejo de Educación Inicial y Primaria (CEIP, la Administración Nacional de Educación Pública (ANEP y el Ministerio de Desarrollo Social; el cual se encuentra orientado al diseño de nuevas formas de hacer escuela en contextos de alta vulnerabilidad social procurando diversificar la propuesta educativa.

  3. Factores asociados al fracaso académico en estudiantes universitarios de Barranquilla (Colombia

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    Katherine Contreras

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El fracaso académico es un problema que afrontan los estudiantes quepresentan un rendimiento académico deficiente, lo cual los lleva en pocotiempo a desertar o son expulsados del sistema educativo. Se considera que es un problema multicausal, pero para afrontarlo es necesario indagar desde los mismos estudiantes qué es lo que más los puede estar afectando.Para indagar sobre los factores asociados a este problema se llevó a cabo un estudio descriptivo con estudiantes de psicología en una universidad privada de Barranquilla (Colombia. Se entrevistó a 38 estudiantes que asistían a un programa exclusivo para aquellos con muy bajo rendimiento académico y que estaban en riesgo de salir del programa o habían sido remitidos por los profesores. Los resultados indican que los estudiantes no recibieron una orientación vocacional adecuada antes de ingresar a los estudios superiores que les permitiera analizar sus capacidades y habilidades con respecto a una carrera profesional. Además manifiestan limitaciones en sus competencias de concentración y atención, en la distribución del tiempo, en la deficiente utilización de técnicas de estudio, y en la poca asistencia a clases por la baja motivación en las actividades académicas. La relación con su familia la consideraron satisfactoria. Se observa que las acciones para reducir el fracaso deben ser emprendidas antes del ingreso a la universidad, con estrategias de estudio y afrontamiento que les brinden a los jóvenes las mejores opciones entre sus intereses y capacidades con las oportunidades que les ofrece la sociedad en la cual vivirán.

  4. Diversity in Zanonia indica (Cucurbitaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilde, de W.J.J.O.; Duyfjes, B.E.E.

    2007-01-01

    A revision of the monotypic genus Zanonia L. is presented. The only and widely distributed species Z. indica comprises two subspecies, the typical one, and the newly described subsp. orientalis W.J. de Wilde & Duyfjes. Subspecies orientalis also contains a distinct variety, var. paludosa W.J. de

  5. FRACASO EMPRESARIAL Y EFECTOS CONTAGIO. Un análisis espacial para España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Horacio García-Marí

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available El gravísimo problema de caída de la actividad económica y desempleo en España encuentra un fiel reflejo en el círculo vicioso que genera el cierre de empresas, aproximado en este trabajo por la figura legal del concurso de acreedores. Este artículo se propone examinar el fenómeno desde un punto de vista geográfico para analizar el posible contagio entre provincias. Los resultados muestran que no hay efecto contagio del fracaso en el sector de la construcción, pero sí en el industrial. Es en este sector donde se contagia a la economía vista en su conjunto, pero sólo para los años anteriores a la crisis. En el periodo de recesión parece que tienen más fuerza los factores macroeconómicos negativos que afectan a la totalidad de las empresas que el contagio, que es un efecto particular que ejercen sobre cada compañía las empresas próximas con las que tiene relación.

  6. ANTIHEPATOTOXIC ACTICITY OF COCCINIA INDICA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalakrishnan, V.; Rao, K.N.V.; Devi, M.; Padmaha, N.; Lakshmi, P. Manju; Srividya, T.; Vadivukarasi, G.

    2001-01-01

    Aqueous, light petroleum, chloroform, alcohol, benzene and acetone extracts of the leaves of Coccinia indica. (Family: Cucurbitaceae) were screened for antihepatotoxic activity. The extracts were given after the liver was damaged with Ccl4 Liver function was assessed based on liver to body weight ratio pentobarbitone sleep time, serum levels of transaminase (SGPT, SGOT), alkaline phosphatase (SALP and bilirubin. Alcohol and light petroleum was found to have good anti-hepatotoxic activity. PMID:22557027

  7. CUBA, LA SIEMPRE FIEL. IMPRONTA CUBANA EN EL INSTITUTO DE CULTURA HISPÁNICA DE MADRID, 1947-1958

    OpenAIRE

    Figueredo Cabrera, Katia

    2017-01-01

    El presente trabajo analiza el desarrollo evolutivo de la diplomacia cultural franquista al término de la Segunda Guerra Mundial. En el marco de este complejo y turbulento escenariointernacional se aborda la labor del Instituto de Cultura Hispánica de Madrid, así como la visita de Joaquín Ruíz-Giménez y Alfredo Sánchez Bella a la «siempre fiel isla de Cuba».También se presta atención al legado cubano en los salones del Instituto de 1948 a 1958, y al grupo de intelectuales que desde la mayor d...

  8. Análisis del fracaso empresarial por sectores: factores diferenciadores = Cross-industry analysis of business failure: differential factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Jesús Mures Quintana

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo se centra en el análisis del fracaso empresarial por sectores, a fin de identificar los factores explicativos y predictivos de este fenómeno que son diferentes en tres de los principales sectores que se distinguen en toda economía: industria, construcción y servicios. Para cada uno de estos sectores, seguimos el mismo procedimiento. En primer lugar, aplicamos un análisis de componentes principales con el que identificamos los factores explicativos del fracaso empresarial en los tres sectores. A continuación, consideramos dichos factores como variables independientes en un análisis discriminante, que aplicamos para predecir el fracaso de una muestra de empresas, utilizando no sólo información financiera en forma de ratios, sino también otras variables no financieras relativas a las empresas, así como información externa a las mismas que refleja las condiciones macroeconómicas bajo las que desarrollan su actividad. This paper focuses on a cross-industry analysis of business failure, in order to identify the explanatory and predictor factors of this event that are different in three of the main industries in every economy: manufacturing, building and service. For each one of these industries, the same procedure is followed. First, a principal components analysis is applied in order to identify the explanatory factors of business failure in the three industries. Next, these factors are considered as independent variables in a discriminant analysis, so as to predict the firms’ failure, using not only financial information expressed by ratios, but also other non-financial variables related to the firms, as well as external information that reflects macroeconomic conditions under which they develop their activity.

  9. La Constitución de Colombia de 1991 y sus enemigos. El fracaso del consenso constitucional

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández, Jorge Andrés

    2013-01-01

    La Constitución Política de 1991 es evaluada en la literatura académica politológica y constitucionalista como el resultado de un gran consenso constitucional. Sin embargo, las dos décadas de vigencia del texto constitucional revelan un proceso muy amplio de fracaso del consenso constitucional porque importantes sectores políticos y sociales se oponen a ella, lo que se concreta en fenómenos como el Pacto de Ralito y el proyecto político que gobernó a Colombia entre 2002 y 2010. Estos procesos...

  10. ENTRE EL FRACASO Y LA ESPERANZA. NECESIDADES FORMATIVAS DEL ALUMNADO DE LOS PROGRAMAS DE CUALIFICACIÓN PROFESIONAL INICIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amando Vega Fuente

    2010-01-01

    los avatares del fracaso escolar en la enseñanza obligatoria. La investigación desarrollada es fundamentalmente exploratoria y descriptiva. Los resultados obtenidos indican que las necesidades formativas más apremiantes del alumnado de los Centros de Iniciación Profesional se centran en el desarrollo de competencias vinculadas con el ámbito laboral (aprender un oficio, habilidades para obtener empleo, conocer las oportunidades del mercado laboral¿, con el afectivo (autoestima, equilibrio emocional y con el relacional (resolver conflictos, tolerancia, saber criticar y encajar críticas, empatía....

  11. Petrografía, caracterización geoquímica y análisis microestructural del granito del cerro Siempre Amigos, sierras de Azul, Tandilia

    OpenAIRE

    Angeletti, Melisa; Frisicale, María Cristina; Dimieri, Luis V

    2016-01-01

    El cerro Siempre Amigos integra las sierras de Azul, Tandilia, distante 28 km al sur de la ciudad de Azul y 3 km al norte de la megacizalla de Azul, zona de cizalla subvertical donde el basamento se encuentra deformado a milonitas y ultramilonitas. La litología predominante en el cerro Siempre Amigos es un granito paleoproterozoico deformado que en el centro y hacia los bordes se encuentra interdigitado con una roca gnéisica y cuerpos de anfibolitas subverticales de rumbo similar a la foliaci...

  12. La palabra para siempre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Ramírez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available La posmodernidad significa un conflicto con la letra impresa. La palabra electrónica nos da la posibilidad de responder, modificar, ordenar, comunicarse en el acto mismo de la escritura y de la lectura. La palabra impresa nunca tuvo ese poder que está siendo transferido a la imagen. ¿Asistimos a un avance o retroceso? ¿Se podrá pensar que se avecina un descalabro educativo en nuestros países? ¿El libro será reemplazado por una pantalla portátil de cuarzo líquido? Ahora la palabra va siendo sustituida por las imágenes, mas el acto mágico de escribir, de transformar la imaginación en palabras, no tiene sustitutos mecánicos, ni electrónicos. Este acto de transferencia de la imaginación de una mente a otra mente o de quien escribe a quien lee, depende de la cifra única de la palabra.

  13. El fracaso de la Revolución Industrial en España, 1814-1913

    OpenAIRE

    Barrio Montesinos, Carlos del

    2015-01-01

    En este trabajo de fin de grado titulado “El fracaso de la Revolución Industrial en España, 1814-1913”, vamos a realizar un estudio sobre el proceso de industrialización en España durante el siglo XIX. El principal objetivo de este trabajo es el de descartar la idea de que en España no hubo Revolución Industrial, pero que por el contrario sí que existió un proceso de industrialización. Este proceso de industrialización se dio con unas circunstancias agrarias, demográficas, políticas y económi...

  14. Eleusine indica resistance to Accase inhibitors

    OpenAIRE

    Vidal, Ribas Antonio; Portes, Emerson da Silva; Lamego, Fabiane Pinto; Trezzi, Michelangelo Muzell

    2006-01-01

    Dentre as causas da ineficácia no controle de plantas daninhas destaca-se a resistência delas aos herbicidas. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram avaliar a suspeita de resistência de Eleusine indica a inibidores de acetil-CoA carboxilase (ACCase) e investigar a ocorrência de resistência cruzada entre os inibidores de ACCase. Biótipo de Eleusine indica originado do Mato Grosso com suspeita de resistência aos herbicidas inibidores de ACCase foi avaliado em casa de vegetação na sua suscetibilidade...

  15. El impacto diferenciado de la autoconfianza, los modelos de referencia y el miedo al fracaso sobre los jóvenes emprendedores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Gómez-Araujo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo principal de este trabajo es determinar el efecto que la autoconfianza en las habilidades emprendedoras y algunas variables socio-culturales (los modelos de referencia y el estigma social al fracaso ejercen sobre la actividad emprendedora de los jóvenes en España. Con tal finalidad se realiza un modelo de regresión logística para eventos extraños, utilizando la base de datos GEM-España de 2009, con una muestra de 24.099 personas. Los resultados más importantes indican que los jóvenes son más emprendedores que las personas mayores. Además, los resultados muestran que la autoconfianza y el estigma social al fracaso empresarial tienen un efecto diferenciado sobre la probabilidad emprendedora de jóvenes españoles

  16. RELACIÓN ENTRE ATRIBUCIONES DE ÉXITO Y FRACASO ACADÉMICO Y ANSIEDAD ESCOLAR EN ESTUDIANTES CHILENOS DE EDUCACIÓN SECUNDARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelly Gromiría Lagos San Martín

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue comprobar la relación entre las atribuciones de éxito y fracaso académico en Lenguaje y Matemáticas, y la ansiedad escolar en estudiantes de educación secundaria chilenos. Participaron 1314 estudiantes de 15 establecimientos de la provincia de Ñuble, en Chile, cuyo rango de edad osciló entre 13 y 17 años (M = 15.55; DE = 1.32. La Ansiedad Escolar se evaluó con el Inventario de Ansiedad Escolar (IAES, y las atribuciones causales con la Sydney Attribution Scale (SAS. Los resultados mostraron que los estudiantes que atribuyeron menos sus éxitos y fracasos a causas externas en Lenguaje obtuvieron medias más altas de ansiedad escolar. Por otro lado, presentaron mayor ansiedad escolar los sujetos que atribuyeron menos sus éxitos a la capacidad en Matemáticas y más sus fracasos a la falta de capacidad tanto en Matemáticas como en Lenguaje. Por último, los estudiantes que atribuyeron más sus éxitos al esfuerzo en Lenguaje mostraron puntuaciones medias más altas en ansiedad escolar. Se concluye que los datos corroboran hallazgos anteriores y alertan acerca de la necesidad de atender estas problemáticas en los procesos pedagógicos.

  17. Programas de continuidad de cuidados: éxitos, fracasos y retos futuros Case management programs: successes, failures and future challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana González Rodríguez

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Los programas de continuidad de cuidados surgen a finales de los años 70 en EEUU, en respuesta a los problemas detectados durante del proceso de desintitucionalización de los hospitales psiquiátricos. Desde entonces, se han extendido por todo el mundo, con variaciones y peculiaridades según las regiones, convirtiéndose en piedra angular de la atención a las personas con enfermedad mental grave y persistente. En este artículo se revisa el origen de estos programas, su desarrollo a lo largo de más de treinta años, la filosofía que los ha guiado en su devenir, así como los éxitos y fracasos en su desarrollo.The case management programs arise in the late 70's in the U.S., in response to problems identified during the process of deinstitutionalization of psychiatric hospitals. Since then, the case management and the assertive community treatment programs have spread throughout the world, with variations and particularities in different regions, becoming the cornerstone of the community care for people with severe and persistent mental illness. This article reviews the origins of these programs in U.S., their development for over thirty years around the world, the philosophy and objectives that have guided its evolution, as well as successes and failures in their development.

  18. Factores que Contribuyen al Éxito o Fracaso de Proyectos Comunitarios. Experiencias en el Barrio Pogolotti, La Habana, Cuba.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Ramírez

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Interpretación selectiva de investigación recién terminada en tres barrios de La Habana por grupo internacional de investigadores urbanos. El propósito de la investigación fue examinar la influencia de un conjunto de factores en el éxito o fracaso de proyectos comunitarios en los barrios. Esta versión examina el factor “origen de los proyectos” en el barrio Pogolotti cuyas condiciones de vida, especialmente de vivienda, son muy precarias. El documento describe brevemente el contexto crítico de los procesos urbanos en Cuba hoy y examina las formas de organización creadas para estimular la participación comunitaria en iniciativas que contribuyan a mejorar las condiciones materiales, a expresar valores culturales y artísticos y a desarrollar relaciones de solidaridad y respeto mutuo entre los vecinos. Pogolotti, el primer barrio obrero cubano, construido a principios del siglo XX, aparece a través de su historia, de sus residentes y de una serie de proyectos, unos exitosos y otros fracasados, que ilustran la creatividad de su sociedad civil y la creciente flexibilidad con que las instituciones públicas han tenido que responder a las demandas de la crisis.

  19. contributory pharmacological effects of azadirachta indica leaf

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three crude extracts from Azadirachta indica leaves were assessed on various signs and symptoms of infection in vivo and in vitro. The methanolic and diethylether extracts have significant antipyretic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory and anti-aggregatory activities, while the chloroform extract did not show appreciable effect.

  20. COMPARATIVE EFFICACY OF NEEM (Azadirachta indica), FALSE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    Abstract. A study to evaluate the insecticidal properties of some plants was undertaken. Powder and aqueous extracts of Neem, Azadirachta indica, False sesame, Ceratotheca sesamoides and the Physic nut, Jatropha curcas were evaluated as grain protectants against the cowpea seed beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus.

  1. POTENTIALS OF TAMARINDUS INDICA (Linn) IN JAM ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    S O Jimoh

    while some of the other metals are actually of high nutritional values. There are ... The fruit pulp is used for seasoning, as a food component and in juices. Its fruit is regarded ... crude and inefficient due to poor handling and lack of storage facilities. This has ..... Extract of the seed coat of Tamarindus indica inhibits nitric oxide.

  2. Insecticidal Efficacy of Azadirachta indica, Nucleopolyhedrovirus and Chlorantraniliprole Singly or Combined against Field Populations fo Helicoverpa armigera Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae Eficacia Insecticida de Azadirachta indica, Nucleopolihedrovirus y Clorantraniliprol solo y sus Aplicaciones Integradas contra Poblaciones de Campo de Helicoverpa armigera Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waqas Wakil

    2012-03-01

    diversas poblaciones. Las combinaciones de VPN con A. indica y clorantraniliprol dio una mayor mortalidad, la fase de pupa y el efecto aditivo producido en comparación con su aplicación solo en todas las poblaciones de la prueba. La población de Rawalpindi fue siempre susceptible, mientras que Gujranwala fue resistente. Los resultados del presente trabajo sugieren que la eficacia de VPN y A. indica pueden ser beneficiados por la presencia de clorantraniliprol contra las larvas de H. armigera.

  3. Del desapego al desenganche y de este al fracaso escolar From pupils' detachment to disengagement and then to failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano Fernández Enguita

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Las dicotomías como éxito/fracaso, permanencia/abandono etc. pueden tener la ventaja de simplificar algunos problemas o permitir comparaciones espaciales y temporales, pero tienen el inconveniente de desdeñar todos los matices cuando la gama de desempeños, actitudes y respuestas de los alumnos en la institución escolar es, en realidad, enormemente más rica y diversa. Por un lado, crea artificialmente una divisoria de aguas a partir de grandes pero también de pequeñas diferencias, tal vez ocasionales y posiblemente mal entendidas y mal evaluadas. Por otro, oculta el creciente desapego del alumnado frente a la cultura y las demandas de la institución escolar. En todo caso, pone de manifiesto la tendencia de la institución y la profesión a las simplificaciones y a la categorización, por encima de la retórica en torno a la diversificación de la enseñanza y la personalización del aprendizaje.Dichotomies such us success/failure, retention/dropping out etc. may have the virtue of the simplification of some questions, as well as allow spatial and temporal comparisons, but they also present the shortcoming of disdaining details and nuances, as the spectrum of performances, attitudes and responses of pupils in school is, to be true, immensely more rich and diverse. On the one side, it artificially creates a divide where before there were major but maybe minor differences, perhaps simply occasional and probably misunderstood and misestimated. On the other side, it hides the growing detachment of pupils with respect to school culture and demands. In any case, it makes manifest the institution's drift towards simplifications and categorizations, overcoming the rhetoric around teaching diversification and learning personalization.

  4. Intervenciones dirigidas a la prevención del fracaso y abandono escolar : un estudio de revisión

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mª Isabel Miñaca

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente estudio se revisan algunos programas de intervención tanto a nivel internacional como nacional relacionados con la prevención del fracaso y/o abandono escolar en la Educación Secundaria Obligatoria (ESO. Para ello, se realizó una búsqueda en las bases de datos ProQuest, ISOC, Redalyc y Dialnet sobre intervenciones realizadas desde el año 2000 al 2010 con dicho objetivo. Aunque entre ellas existen variaciones respecto a los objetivos, duración, actividades y resultados, todas ellas muestran unas características comunes a la hora de elaborar cualquier programa de esta tipología, que son convenientes tener en cuenta para la elaboración de actuaciones futuras que permitan una mejora del rendimiento académico del alumnado y un incremento de la promoción a niveles postobligatorios.In this study are reviewed some intervention programs both internationally and nationally related to the prevention of failure and/or school drop-outs in middle school. For this aim, carried out a search in the databases ProQuest, ISOC, Redalyc and Dialnet on interventions since 2000 to 2010 with the goal. Although between them variations exist as to the objectives, duration, activities and results, all of them show characteristics common to the time to develop any program of this type, which are suitable take into account for the development of future actions that would allow an improvement in the academic performance of the students and an increase in the promotion to high school.

  5. Los Tratados de Libre Comercio impulsados por EUA como una respuesta al fracaso de DOHA. El caso Andino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén Flores

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available La vigencia de la división del trabajo imperante entre el norte y el sur, bajo el actual escenario de globalización económica, esta siendo modificada, por la a nueva tendencia en la que cualquier producto, (sea materia prima, manufacturado o servicio puede ser producido en muchos países y regiones gracias en primer lugar al descenso en los costos de transporte, de telecomunicaciones, laborales, ambientales, que configuran unas ventajas de localización; pero además, a que luego del fracaso de la OMC desde la Ronda del Milenio hasta la de Doha y el fallido intento de la construcción de la Zona de Libre Comercio de las Américas (ALCA, la estrategia comercial de los EUA se ha centrado en impulsar acuerdos bilaterales de nueva generación TLC cuyo objetivo es lograr avanzar en una marco normativo que le garantice trato nacional y no discriminatorio al capital productivo extranjero (inversión extranjera, la estandarización de las normas técnicas, fitosanitarias, la defensa de los derechos de propiedad, entre otras.____________________ABSTRACT:The work division that exists between North and South, in this stage of economic globalization, it’s being modified by the new world tendency in which any product (raw materials, manufactured products or services can be produced in many countries and regions, thanks to: in first place, the lowering of transportation , telecommunications, working and environmental costs, that create localization advantages; in second place, the breakdown of the WTO since the Millennium Round to Doha Round and the failure FTTA has made that the USA commercial strategy focus on Bilateral Agreements of the new generation such as the FTA, which proposes to advance in legal issues that guaranties not to discriminate the foreign investment, the standardization of technique and sanitary and phytosanitary measures and the intellectual property rights defence, among others.

  6. Insect antifeedant ryanodane diterpenes from Persea indica

    OpenAIRE

    González-Coloma, Azucena; Terrero, David; Perales, Áurea; Escoubas, Pierre; Fraga, Braulio M.

    1996-01-01

    The new ryanodane diterpenes cinnzeylanone, ryanodol 14-monoacetate, and epi-cinnzeylanol have been isolated from Persea indica(Lauraceae). The structure of cinnzeylanone has been determined by X-ray analysis. These compounds proveds to be antifeedants against Spodoptera litura. Cinnzeylanol and ryanodol were the most active antifeedants of this plant, with a range of activity close to that of ryanodine. THis is the first report on the antifeedant effects of this class of diterpenes. Their st...

  7. La dimensión cultural de la diplomacia franquista en la mayor de las Antillas (Cuba, la siempre fiel, 1952-1958)

    OpenAIRE

    Figueredo Cabrera, Katia

    2016-01-01

    Resulta imposible entender las relaciones entre España y América sin tener en cuenta a la Hispanidad como elemento aglutinador entre las dos orillas del Atlántico. De ella se desprende el sustento, ya sea teórico o práctico, que justifica la presencia española allende los mares y que siempre ha estado muy en consonancia con los intereses de los gobiernos en el poder. En el caso del largo período que nos compete, es decir el franquismo, esta política adquiere una connotación de suma relevancia...

  8. Tamarindus indica: Extent of explored potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhadoriya, Santosh Singh; Ganeshpurkar, Aditya; Narwaria, Jitendra; Rai, Gopal; Jain, Alok Pal

    2011-01-01

    Tamarindus is a monotypic genus and belongs to the subfamily Caesalpinioideae of the family Leguminosae (Fabaceae), Tamarindus indica L., commonly known as Tamarind tree is one of the most important multipurpose tropical fruit tree species in the Indian subcontinent. Tamarind fruit was at first thought to be produced by an Indian palm, as the name Tamarind comes from a Persian word "Tamar-I-hind," meaning date of India. Its name "Amlika" in Sanskrit indicates its ancient presence in the country. T.indica is used as traditional medicine in India, Africa, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nigeria,and most of the tropical countries. It is used traditionally in abdominal pain, diarrhea and dysentery, helminthes infections, wound healing, malaria and fever, constipation, inflammation, cell cytotoxicity, gonorrhea, and eye diseases. It has numerous chemical values and is rich in phytochemicals, and hence the plant is reported to possess antidiabetic activity, antimicrobial activity, antivenomic activity, antioxidant activity, antimalarial activity, hepatoprotective activity, antiasthmatic activity, laxative activity, and anti-hyperlipidemic activity. Every part of the plant from root to leaf tips is useful for human needs. Thus the aim of the present review is to describe its morphology, and explore the phytochemical constituents, commercial utilization of the parts of the plant, and medicinal and pharmacologic activities so that T. indica's potential as multipurpose tree species can be understood.

  9. Congruencia de rol de género y liderazgo: el papel de las atribuciones causales sobre el éxito y el fracaso

    OpenAIRE

    Rocio García-Retamero; Esther López-Zafra

    2006-01-01

    Analizamos el grado en que el prejuicio hacia una candidata a un puesto de liderazgo se debe a la percepción de incongruencia entre el rol de líder y su rol de género. Asimismo, evaluamos la influencia de dicha percepción en las atribuciones causales que se emiten sobre sus éxitos y fracasos. Concretamente, 523 participantes evaluaron un candidato (hombre o mujer) a un cargo que implicaba ejercer el rol de líder en una empresa congruente o incongruente con su rol de género, o n...

  10. Causas sobre el fracaso escolar en la educación media superior. Evaluación educativa sobre el CECyT No. 11 Wilfrido Massieu

    OpenAIRE

    Morán Martínez, Ricardo.

    2015-01-01

    El objetivo general de la investigación fue evaluar las causas del fracaso escolar de la educación media superior en el Centro de Estudios Científicos y Tecnológicos (CECyT) No. 11 “Wilfrido Massieu”. Dicho trabajo consideró el estudio del fenómeno, desde tres dimensiones, la sociocultural, la institucional y la psicológica. A partir de las dimensiones antes mencionadas, se realizó el análisis de los factores sociales, culturales, económicos, trabajo docente, supraestructura...

  11. "La herida siempre abierta en un cuerpo" o las políticas de la investidura en Duerme de Carmen Boullosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Viches Norat

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available En el ensayo "La herida siempre abierta en un cuerpo" o las políticas de la investidura en Duerme de Carmen Boullosa se exploran los cuestionamientos de las construcciones genéricas en Duenne, novela que presenta una protagonista que juega con las representaciones identitarias. Utilizando planteamientos teóricos de Jacques Derrida y Michele Foucault se cuestiona también la teorización de ludith Butler con respecto al travestismo y las políticas del cuerpo. In her essay "La herida siempre abierta en un cuerpo" o las políticas de investidura en Carmen Boullosa" (the wound ever open in a body, or the politics of investiture " the author explores the questionings of generic constructions in "Duenne", a novel which introduces a protagonist who plays with identity representations. On the basis of theoretical principles from M. Foucault and, Derrida, J. Butler's own theorization on transvestism and the politics of the body are also called in question.

  12. El fracaso de las compañías y fábricas privilegiadas en Aragón

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ignacio GÓMEZ ZORRAQUINO

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Las actividades productivas de la Real Fábrica de la Casa de Misericordia de Zaragoza y de la Real Compañía de Comercio y Fábricas de Zaragoza se deben enmarcar dentro de los planteamientos mercantilistas vigentes en la España del siglo XVIII. Desde ambas instituciones se pretendió revitalizar la industria textil y mejorar su comercialización. Además, se daba trabajo a los internos de la Casa de Misericordia y se permitía la inversión de capitales privados en la Real Compañía de Comercio. Sin embargo, durante la segunda mitad del siglo XVIII las reales compañías de comercio y fábricas dejaron de ser la solución a los problemas económicos y comenzó a generalizarse la crítica a su situación privilegiada. Esta crítica también tenía en cuenta que muchas de las compañías estaban siendo liquidadas ante su fracaso económico o sufrían importantes deficiencias. Debe recordarse que el decreto de extinción de la Real Compañía de Comercio y Fábricas de Zaragoza se hizo efectivo en 1784.ABSTRACT: The productive activities settled both in the Saragosse Real Fabrica de la Casa de Misericordia and in the Real Compañía de Comercio y Fábricas must be fitted into the programmes of mercantilism effective in 18th Century Spain. For both royal institutions, the aim was the raise of the textile industry and the better trading of it. Furthermore, it gave job to the orphanage pupils of the Casa de Misericordia and also allowed the investment of private capitals into the Real Compañía de Comercio. However, in the second helf of the century the royal companies of trade and fabrics were no longer the solution to the economic problems and it began a general criticism on their privileged conditions. This criticism point also took into account the fact that many companies were closing down due to economic failure or were suffering heavy déficiences. It must be remembered that the decree of extinction of the Real Compañía de

  13. A New Stigmasterol Ester from Aeschynomene indica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jia-yuan; TAN Xiao; LU Wen-jie; YA Qi-kang

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study the chemical constituents of Aeschynomene indica.Methods The constituents were isolated and purified by means of silica gel column chromatography and recrytallization,and the structures were elucidated by physicochemical properties and spectral analyses.Results Twelve compounds were obtained and elucidated as stigmasterol tritriacontanate (1),monotetracontane (2),taraxerol (3),stigmasterol (4),stearic acid (5),heptatriacontanoic acid (6),arachidic acid (7),ursolic acid acetate (8),quercetin (9),myricetin (10),myricetin-3-O-rhamnoside (11),and rutoside (12).Conclusion All the compounds are isolated from this plant for the first time and compound 1 is a new one.

  14. from an aqueous solution using Azadirachta indica leaf powder

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Azadirachta indica (neem) leaf powder was used as an adsorbent for the removal of textile dye from aqueous solution. The adsorption of dye on A. indica was found to be dependent on contact time, dye concentration and amount of adsorbent. Spectrophotometric technique was used for the measurement of concentration of ...

  15. The effect of aqueous extract of neem ( Azadirachta indica ) leaves ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Medicinal plants are part of human society to combat diseases. Azadirachta indica evidently has great medicinal potentials. This work was undertaken to investigate the morphological and some enzymatic effect of A. indica extract on the tissues of the liver. Twenty four (24) adult Wistar rats of both sexes, average weight, ...

  16. Complete Genome Sequence of Beijerinckia indica subsp. indica▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamas, Ivica; Dedysh, Svetlana N.; Liesack, Werner; Stott, Matthew B.; Alam, Maqsudul; Murrell, J. Colin; Dunfield, Peter F.

    2010-01-01

    Beijerinckia indica subsp. indica is an aerobic, acidophilic, exopolysaccharide-producing, N2-fixing soil bacterium. It is a generalist chemoorganotroph that is phylogenetically closely related to facultative and obligate methanotrophs of the genera Methylocella and Methylocapsa. Here we report the full genome sequence of this bacterium. PMID:20601475

  17. Una escritura de la desaparición y aparición siempre futuras: Superrealismo / El libro de Levante, prenovela (1929 de Azorín

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Aranjo

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available En 1929, peu après la naissance du surréalisme français (1924, le francophile, nationaliste et membre de la Génération espagnole du 98, Azorín, résidant dans la ville frontalière de San Sébastian (Guipúzcoa, fait appel à une certaine écriture semi-automatique, fulgurant et recherchée, afin de provoquer l’émergence du personnage, divers et virtuel, du roman, toujours futur, dont le projet final converge à la fin vers son village natal de Monóvar (Levant, au bout d’un éblouissant voyage à travers la Péninsule et la Manche de Don Quichotte, un autre grand surréaliste.En 1929, poco después del nacimiento del Surrealismo francés (1924, el francófilo, nacionalista y noventayochista Azorín, desde la casi fronteriza San Sebastián (Guipúzcoa, usa cierta forma de escritura semi-automática, fulgurante y señoreada, para provocar la emergencia del personaje, diverso y virtual, de la novela, siempre futura, cuyo proyecto final acabará coincidiendo con el centro natal (siempre ausente y por venir de Monóvar (Levante al cabo de un deslumbrante viaje imaginario en tren a través de la Península y de la Mancha de Don Quijote, este gran Surrealista.

  18. Antibacterial Activity of Azadirachta indica, Pongamia pinnata, Psidium guajava, and Mangifera indica and their mechanism of action against Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodiba, Dikonketso Cathrine; Prasad, Preety; Srivastava, Ajay; Crampton, Brigdet; Lall, Namrita Sharan

    2018-01-01

    Curative plants have reportedly been used to make chewing sticks/toothbrushes intended for the treatment of oral diseases. The in vitro antibacterial activities of Azadirachta indica , Pongamia pinnata , Psidium guajava , and Mangifera indica were evaluated against Streptococcus mutans , along with the cytotoxicity and antioxidant and synergistic potentials. The effect of M. indica on the expression of crucial virulence genes spaP and gtfB of S. mutans was determined. The antibacterial activity was determined using a modified microdilution method. The antioxidant potential was evaluated using diphenyl picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), Griess reagent, and nitroblue tetrazolium calorimetric assays. The synergistic activity was investigated using a modified checkerboard method, while the cytotoxicity was determined according to a cell proliferation 2,3-Bis-(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide salt assay. Reverse transcription was the chosen method for determining the difference in expression of the spaP and gtfB genes after treatment with the plant sample. M. indica and A. indica had the highest antibacterial activity at concentrations of 0.3 mg/ml and 6.25 mg/ml, respectively. A. indica had the best free radical scavenging of DPPH, exhibiting 50% inhibition at 28.72 μg/ml; while M. indica showed better superoxide scavenging potential than the positive control quercetin. Both M. indica and A. indica had adequate activity against the nitric oxide-free radical (12.87 and 18.89 μg/ml, respectively). M. indica selectively reduced the expression of the gtfB gene, indicating a mechanism involving Glucotranferases, specifically targeting bacterial attachment. Mangifera indica and Azadirachta indica had very good antibacterial activity against Streptococcus mutans and moderate toxicity against Vero cells M. indica had the best antioxidant capacity overall M. indica reduced the expression of gtfB gene at 0.5 mg/ml. Abbreviations used : AA: Ascorbic acid; BHI

  19. Factores relacionados con el éxito o el fracaso de los implantes dentales colocados en la especialidad de Prostodoncia e Implantología en la Universidad de La Salle Bajío

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan E. Balderas Tamez

    2017-04-01

    Conclusiones: Según los datos recabados en esta investigación, se observó que los factores de riesgo para el fracaso en implantes son el tabaquismo, la poca o nula estabilidad primaria y la cirugía sin colgajo.

  20. Different Aluminum Tolerance among Indica, Japonica and Hybrid Rice Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu Chang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Hydroponic cultures were conducted to compare the aluminum (Al tolerance among different rice (Oryza sativa L. varieties, including indica, japonica and their hybrids. The results showed that the root growth of rice plant was inhibited in different degrees among Al treated varieties. The Al tolerance observed through relative root elongation indicated that five japonica varieties including Longjing 9, Dharial, LGC 1, Ribenyou and Koshihikari were relatively more tolerant than indica varieties. Most indica varieties in this study, such as Aus 373 and 9311 (awnless, were sensitive to Al toxicity. The Al tolerance of most progenies from japonica × indica or indica × japonica crosses was constantly consistent with indica parents. The differences of Al tolerance among Longjing 9 (japonica, Yangdao 6 (indica and Wuyunjing 7 (japonica were studied. Biomass and the malondial-dehyde content of Yangdao 6 under Al exposure decreased and increased, respectively, while there was no significant effect on those of Longjing 9 and Wuyunjing 7. Remarkable reduction of root activities was observed in all these three rice varieties. Significantly higher Al content in roots was found in Yangdao 6 compared to Longjing 9 or Wuyunjing 7.

  1. Resistência de Eleusine indica aos inibidores de ACCase Eleusine indica resistance to ACCase inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A. Vidal

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Dentre as causas da ineficácia no controle de plantas daninhas destaca-se a resistência delas aos herbicidas. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram avaliar a suspeita de resistência de Eleusine indica a inibidores de acetil-CoA carboxilase (ACCase e investigar a ocorrência de resistência cruzada entre os inibidores de ACCase. Biótipo de Eleusine indica originado do Mato Grosso com suspeita de resistência aos herbicidas inibidores de ACCase foi avaliado em casa de vegetação na sua suscetibilidade para diversos produtos do grupo dos ariloxifenoxipropionatos e cicloexanodionas. Estudos de resposta à dose confirmaram que o biótipo era 18 vezes mais insensível ao sethoxydim do que biótipo suscetível nunca aspergido com herbicidas. Também se constatou resistência cruzada ao fenoxaprop, cyhalofop, propaquizafop e butroxydim. Não se observou resistência cruzada aos produtos fluazifop, haloxyfop, quizalofop e clethodim.Among the causes for weed control inefficacy, the worst one is resistance to herbicides. The objectives of this work were to evaluate an Eleusine indica biotype suspected of resistance to ACCase inhibitors and to investigate the occurrence of cross- resistance to several ACCase inhibitors. One biotype of Eleusine indica originated from Mato Grosso with suspected resistance to ACCase inhibitors was evaluated in a greenhouse in relation to its susceptibility to several products of the ariloxyphenoxypropionate and cyclohexanedione groups. Studies on dose response confirmed that the suspected biotype was 18 times more insensitive to sethoxydim than the susceptible biotype that had never been treated with herbicides. Cross-resistance was confirmed for fenoxaprop, cyhalofop, propaquizafop and butroxydim. No cross-resistance was observed with fluazifop, haloxyfop, quizalofop, and clethodim.

  2. Modelos de Previsión del Fracaso Empresarial: ¿Funciona Entre Nuestras Empresas el Modelo de Altman de 1968?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fermín Lizarraga Dallo

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available El modelo discriminante de Altman (1968 ha sido muchas veces propuesto como herramienta válida de predicción en los dos años previos al fracaso de la empresa. Esta supuesta utilidad exige ser contrastada previa aplicación a condiciones geográficas y de información contable distintas a las utilizadas para su estimación. El trabajo que aquí se presenta contrasta el comportamiento del modelo utilizando una muestra de 120 empresas industriales españolas de tamaño medio, tomando como definición de fracaso la solicitud de un procedimiento concursal de suspensión de pagos. Las conclusiones obtenidas tras diferentes fases de reestimación sugieren la no conveniencia de una aplicación directa del modelo, cuyo comportamiento mejora sustancialmente al reducir sus cinco variables a únicamente dos, representativas de la rentabilidad de activos una vez incorporado el efecto de la carga financiera sobre la cifra de resultado y del nivel de endeudamiento calculado a valores contables. Altman's 1968 discriminant model has been presented as a useful prediction tool for the two years previous to firm failure. However, this utility must be tested before its aplication to geografical and accounting information conditions different from the original ones. The main purpose of this study is to analyze the behaviour of the model in a sample of 120 medium-sized industrial Spanish firms, using "suspensión de pagos" as a definition of failure. After a reestimation process we conclude about the non-convenience of a direct aplication of the model, finding a substantial improvement after reducing the number of variables from five to two, representative of asset profitability (once incorporated the effect of interest charges on net income and financial leverage.

  3. Vetos y resistencias en el fracaso de la reforma de la planta local en España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Martínez de la Casa Rodríguez

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available La Ley de Racionalización y Sostenibilidad de la Administración Local de 27 de diciembre de 2013 ha sido el último intento legislativo de profunda incidencia sobre la organización de la planta local en España. Una Ley nacida sin consenso y que ha fracasado en sus objetivos. Este artículo quiere hacer, desde el punto de vista de la política un análisis de las causas de ese fracaso. Según indican algunos autores como Alba y Navarro «la literatura más relevante del gobierno local en España proviene de estudiosos del Derecho Administrativo altamente orientada al marco jurídico, la posición jurídica de la unidad local de gobierno y las cuestiones relacionadas con los procedimientos legales». La Ley nace de una necesidad impuesta por la Unión Europea para controlar el déficit de la administración local, nace sin consenso, y fracasa en el intento de reducir la planta local. Este último resultado es del máximo interés porque puede observarse dentro de un marco comparativo entre modelos en Europa. En el marco europeo existen iniciativas de reducción de la planta local que pueden resumirse en dos modelos: arriba-abajo que tiene con característica una norma emanada del legislativo central y aplicada en la esfera local (Dinamarca pero también Grecia y abajo-arriba que fundamenta en la voluntariedad la consecución de la disminución de entes locales (España. Una Ley tan reciente ha encontrado vetos y resistencias por parte de los actores implicados que han hecho imposible su aplicación como consecuencia de enfrentamientos entre el centro y la periferia de la organización institucional española o en el enfrentamiento entre partidos políticos y el poder de veto que tienen actores tan significados como las Comunidades Autónomas y los propios Ayuntamientos objeto de la norma. Vetoes and resistances in the failure of the reform of local tier in Spain Rationalization and Sustainability Law of the local administration from December

  4. Evaluation of different morphotypes of mango (mangifera indica l ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of different morphotypes of mango (mangifera indica l.) ... Bayero Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences ... 2006/2007 wet season at the teaching and research farm of Faculty of Agriculture, Bayero University, Kano (110 58'N and 80 ...

  5. antibacterial properties of mangifera indica on staphylococcus aureus.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    boaz

    Antibacterial activity of Mangifera indica stem bark extracts was determined using disk ... In disk diffusion method, inhibition zone sizes were used to determine the ...... There is need for lead compounds ... pharmaceutical and cosmetics.

  6. Azadirachta indica Mediated Bioactive Lyocell Yarn: Chemical and Colour Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. H. Patel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study deals with preparing aesthetic textiles using methanolic extract of Azadirachta indica leaves. The extract with metallic and natural mordents was utilized to create various shades on lyocell yarn using exhaust technique of dyeing. Aesthetic values of dyed yarns were analyzed in terms of colourimetric parameters, that is, CIE L*  a*  b* and colour fastness. The attachment of Azadirachta indica compounds has been confirmed by using infrared spectroscopy (IR analysis. The dyed samples exhibit moderate to good fastness properties. The study showed that lyocell yarn treated at 15% (owf methanolic extract of Azadirachta indica leaves can be utilized as effective bioactive textiles. Azadirachta indica is an alternative to synthetic antimicrobial agents. This bioactive yarn can be used in fashion as well as in medicinal industry.

  7. Cactus (Opuntia ficus indica f. inermis) fruit juice protects against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HICHEM

    2013-12-18

    Dec 18, 2013 ... A putative beneficial effect of Opuntia ficus indica f. inermis prickly pear ... peroxidation levels were also increased in animals given ethanol compared to the controls. ..... mechanisms are suggested in this study to explain the.

  8. Mangifera indica L. leaf extract alleviates doxorubicin induced cardiac stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laxit Bhatt

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion: The present findings clearly suggest the protective role of alcoholic leaf extract of M. indica against oxidative stress induced by doxorubicin. [J Complement Med Res 2017; 6(3.000: 284-289

  9. Postharvest Ripening and Shelf Life of Mango ( Mangifera indica L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Postharvest Ripening and Shelf Life of Mango ( Mangifera indica L.) Fruit as Influenced by ... evaluate the influence of 1-Methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) and polyethylene packaging (PP) on postharvest storage of mango. ... HOW TO USE AJOL.

  10. Effects of composite mango ( Mangifera indica ) fruit reject meal on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of composite mango ( Mangifera indica ) fruit reject meal on growth performance, digestibility and economics of production of rabbits. ... The experiment was conducted to determine the effect of mango fruit reject ... HOW TO USE AJOL.

  11. Analysis of genetic diversity in mango ( Mangifera indica L.) using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analysis of genetic diversity in mango ( Mangifera indica L.) using isozymetic polymorphism. ... All the isozymes, used in the present study showed polymorphism for mango. A total of 25 different electrophoretic ... HOW TO USE AJOL.

  12. Study on the acaricidal effects of Azadirachta indica and Phytolacca ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ta indica (neem) and Phytolacca dodecandra (locally known endod in Ethiopia) on. Amblyomma ... Even though, the use of acaricdes is still the basic procedure for controlling most ticks and ecto- ..... The insecticidal and acaricidal action of.

  13. Toxic effects of neem products (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-12-17

    Dec 17, 2007 ... Key words: Azadirachta indica (neem), Aedes aegypti (mosquito), LC50, ... constitute a major problem of public health and lead to ... of Coleoptera Epilachnus varivestus and caused sterility .... with a balm of Canada.

  14. (CI 42053) from an aqueous solution using Azadirachta indica leaf

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-11-05

    Nov 5, 2008 ... ... 42053) from an aqueous solution using Azadirachta indica leaf powder as a low- ... and biodegradable effective adsorbents. They were ob- tained from ... pesticide. The trees are also known as an air purifier. The medicinal.

  15. Nutritional Value of Tamarindus Indica Fruit Pulp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiteva, R.; Kitui, J.L

    2007-01-01

    In Kenya Tamarindus Indica (Tamarind) fruits are not fully utilized despite their abundance in Nyanza, Rift Valley and Eastern provinces. This study determined the nutritional composition of the edible fruit pulp to enhance utilization. The edible portion of Tamarindus indica fruit ('Ukwaju' in Kiswahili) was analysed for it's chemical and nutritional composition. The fruit was sampled from Kitui, Mwingi and Makueni districts of Ukambani, with an assumption that they could be climatically different. The analysis carried out included moisture content, sulphated ash, Vitamin C content, crude protein and minerals namely Na, Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cu and Mn. The energy contents were determined and total carbohydrates calculated. The results showed very low protein content of 0.01% for Kvisuni and Makindu divisions, while Katse and Kyanundu in Mwingi and TARDA in Makueni districts gave the highest value of 0.02% . This is a fairly low protein content compared with other indigenous fruits like Andasonia digitata (Baobab) with a value of 2.9%. The fat content was also low, especially for Makueni that had a value of 0.04% for the unripe fruits while Mwingi gave 0.04% for those fruits that were ripe. Vitamin C content was similar for the fruit from the three districts (8mg100g-1 ) sample. The fruits also contained an appreciable high internal energy level with Mbitini recording highest at 2.94 kcal. All samples had levels of Fe above 1mg100g-1 . Sodium was also available in all samples with TARDA sample having the highest (0.8mg/100g-1 ) . Potassium values were over 200 mg100g-1 s ample for all samples with TARDA leading (1050 mg100g-1 ) . Calcium in all samples was over 20 mg100g-1 w hile mg was 30 mg100g-1 w ith Makindu having the highest value of 75.2mg100g-1 . This fruit, therefore has the potential of providing nutrients and can be used as a food supplement

  16. Éxito o fracaso: los servicios de marketing relacional de las cadenas hoteleras. Una aproximación al caso AC

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández Mogollón, José Manuel; Folgado Fernández, José Antonio; Jiménez Caballero, José Luis (Coordinador)

    2009-01-01

    Durante muchos años atrás, la actividad del sector hotelero vivía de espaldas al conocimiento proactivo de sus clientes. En medio de crecientes opciones hoteleras donde no siempre prima la fidelidad hacia una marca, se busca por parte de las enseñas ejercer acciones muy sofisticadas de retención para influir en su decisión final de compra. El objetivo que es entablar contacto directo con el cliente para profundizar en su conocimiento y así poder facilitarle ofertas persona...

  17. Bioactivity of Neem (Azadirachta indica) callus extract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, I.M.

    2008-04-01

    This study was conducted in order to explore the possibility of utilizing plant tissue culture techniques for production of secondary metabolites from callus culture of Azadirachta indica (Neem) and to investigate the bioactivity of the established callus extract in comparison with the extract from the intact leaves. The presence of secondary metabolites in the extracts was detected by Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC). Both the callus and leaf extracts eluted five fraction of compounds and it were observed that callus extract had a good resolution. various extract concentration (5.10. and 20 mg/ml) were determined for the rate and extent of inhibition kinetics against staphylococcus aureus. Escherichia coli, and candida albicans. Results showed that callus extract of A. indica wiped out all viable cells of C. albicans within 18 hours and the subsequent concentration 5 and 10 mg/ m1 retard the growth after 24 h. A higher concentration of 20 mg/ ml had the same effect on S. aureus after 6 h and the E. coli cells were completely inhibited by the extracts after 24 h. Similar kinetics were showed by leaf extract but in slight rate as compared to the callus extract. In general both extract posses antimicrobial activity with notable efficient rates. For assaying of the inhibitory effect on some phyto pathogens the effect of different concentrations of the callus and leaf extracts on the radial growth of Drechslera rostrata. Fusarium oxysporum and Alterneria alternata were in vitro assessed. Obvious inhibitory effect was observed on the mycelia radial growth of the three treated fungi. The level of inhibition increased with the increase of te extract concentration. The maximum inhibitory effect (84%) was recorded with Drechslera rostrata when inoculated in media contain 20 mg/ ml of callus while the inhibition rate of mycelia growth of the same species reaches 61% when inoculated in a medium contain the same concentration of the neem leaf extract. The subsequent

  18. SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF CANNABIS INDICA FIBER REINFORCED COMPOSITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amar Singh Singha

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the synthesis of Cannabis indica fiber-reinforced composites using Urea-Resorcinol-Formaldehyde (URF as a novel matrix through compression molding technique. The polycondensation between urea, resorcinol, and formaldehyde in different molar ratios was applied to the synthesis of the URF polymer matrix. A thermosetting matrix based composite, reinforced with lignocellulose from Cannabis indica with different fiber loadings 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50% by weight, was obtained. The mechanical properties of randomly oriented intimately mixed fiber particle reinforced composites were determined. Effects of fiber loadings on mechanical properties such as tensile, compressive, flexural strength, and wear resistance were evaluated. Results showed that mechanical properties of URF resin matrix increased considerably when reinforced with particles of Cannabis indica fiber. Thermal (TGA/DTA/DTG and morphological studies (SEM of the resin, fiber and polymer composite thus synthesized were carried out.

  19. Mangifera indica L. leaf extract alleviates doxorubicin induced cardiac stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Laxit; Joshi, Viraj

    2017-01-01

    Aim: The study was undertaken to evaluate the cardioprotective effect of the alcoholic leaf extract of Mangifera indica L. against cardiac stress caused by doxorubicin (DOX). Materials and Methods: Rats were treated with 100 mg/kg of M. indica leaf extract (MILE) in alone and interactive groups for 21 days. Apart from the normal and MILE control groups, all the groups were subjected to DOX (15 mg/kg, i.p.) toxicity for 21 days and effects of different treatments were analyzed by changes in serum biomarkers, tissue antioxidant levels, electrocardiographic parameters, lipid profile, and histopathological evaluation. Results: The MILE treated group showed decrease in serum biomarker enzyme levels and increase in tissue antioxidants levels. Compared to DOX control group, MILE treated animals showed improvement in lipid profile, electrocardiographic parameters, histological score, and mortality. Conclusion: These findings clearly suggest the protective role of alcoholic leaf extract of M. indica against oxidative stress induced by DOX. PMID:28894627

  20. Discurso pedagógico e fracasso escolar Discurso pedagógico y fracaso escolar Pedagogic discourse and academic failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Floriana Damiani

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho apresenta os resultados de uma investigação que, em sua primeira parte, identificou os fatores de risco para fracasso escolar (entendido como repetência e/ou evasão em uma coorte formada por todas as crianças nascidas nos hospitais da cidade de Pelotas (RS, em 1982. Isto foi levado a cabo por meio de um modelo multivariado que examinou o risco de fracasso associado a diferentes variáveis pessoais e familiares das crianças. Os resultados confirmam os encontrados em outras pesquisas, indicando a importante influência de fatores como grupo étnico, renda familiar, número de irmãos, escolaridade dos pais, tipo de moradia, entre outros, sobre o desempenho das crianças. A segunda parte do trabalho relata estudos de caso de duas escolas (que atendem populações com os mesmos fatores de risco cujas taxas de reprovação e evasão eram contrastantes (altas em uma escola e baixas na outra. Os resultados indicam que as instituições de ensino diferem entre si e apontam para a importância de fatores intra-escolares, em especial o discurso pedagógico das escolas (conceito definido por Bernstein, para o desempenho das crianças. A ênfase nos aspectos acadêmicos da escolarização (discurso instrucional, verificada na escola com menores taxas de reprovação e evasão, possibilitou a modificação de uma das importantes correlações, encontrada também em outras pesquisas, entre fracasso escolar dos estudantes e baixo nível de escolarização de seus pais. A escola que apresentava maiores taxas de fracasso era caracterizada por um discurso pedagógico regulativo (assistencialista.Este trabajo presenta los resultados de una investigación que, en su primera parte, identificó los factores de riesgo para el fracaso escolar (entendido como reprobación y/o evasión en una cohorte de los niños nacidos en los hospitales de la ciudad de Pelotas (RS, en 1982. Esos factores de riesgo fueron identificados por medio de un modelo multi

  1. Atribuciones causales en el deporte: estudio sobre las diferencias entre la percepción de éxito y fracaso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Malico Sousa

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Teniendo como referencia el modelo atribucional de la motivación y emoción de Weiner (1979,1986, se pretenden evaluar las atribuciones causales en situaciones de éxito y fracaso deportivo. La muestra es de 338 atletas, con edades comprendidas entre 16 y 38 años (M = 23,73; DS = 5,86, participantes en competiciones federadas del deporte portugués, en las modalidades olímpicas de Fútbol (n =192, Atletismo (n =100 y Esgrima (n = 46. En la evaluación de las atribuciones causales se utilizó la Causal Dimensión Scale II (CDSII: McAuley, Duncan y Russell, 1992 en una versión traducida y adaptada para la población portuguesa por Fonseca (1993b. Los datos evidenciaron que los atletas, en general, consideran que sus éxitos se deben a causas internas, menos inestables y pasibles de control personal, mientras se desvinculan de una manera pronunciada de sus malos resultados deportivos al atribuir las causas a factores menos internos, más inestables y pasibles de control por parte de otras personas.

  2. Is a Combine Therapy of Aqueous Extract of Azadirachta indica Leaf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Herbal medication is commonly employed in treatment of diseases. Aqueous extract of Azadirachta indica leaf (A. indica) is commonly used in treatment of malaria by Nigerians. Most often, aqueous extract of A. indica leaf is taken in combination with chloroquine in order to cure malaria infection without ...

  3. Biosorptive behavior of Mango (Mangifera indica) and Neem (Azadirachta indica) barks for Cs-134 from aqueous solutions: A radiotracer study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, Shuddhodan P.; Diwakar Tiwari; Prasad, S.K.; Dubey, R.S.; Manisha Mishra

    2005-01-01

    The role of dead biomasses in the removal of heavy metal toxic ions has received an increased attention due to their large abundance and low cost solids. In line with much interest we tried to employ such solids viz., Mango (Mangifera indica) and Neem (Azadirachta indica) bark samples in the removal of one of the important fission fragment viz., strontium and indeed these are found to be quite promishing for such studies. In addition to their good uptake behavior, these solids are also found to be fairly stable towards ionizing radiations. Here, an attempt has been made to study for the removal behavior of Mangifera indica and Azadirachta indica bark samples for 134 Cs. The barks of Mangifera indica and Azadirachta indica were obtained from the vast region of Banaras Hindu University campus. Bark samples were dried at room temperature and then crushed and washed repeatedly by double distilled water and again dried at room temperature. The sorption of Cs(I) on these bark samples were carried out as a function of sorptive concentration (1.0 x 10 -2 to 1.0 x 10 -8 mol dm -3 ) at constant temperature 298 K and pH∼6.0. Quantitatively, it was observed that the amount of Cs(I) adsorbed on these solids increased from 0.175 x 10 -9 to 0.051 x 10 -3 mol g -1 for Mangifera indica and from 0.310 x 10 -9 to 0.102 x 10 -3 mol g -1 for Azadirachta indica with the increase in sorptive concentration from 1.0 x 10 -8 to 1.0 x 10 -2 mol dm -3 . However, the percent sorption decreased from 17.5 to 5.1% for Magifera indica and from 31.0 to 10.2% for Azadirachta indica for the corresponding increase in sorptive concentration. This decrease in percent sorption is likely due to the lesser number of surface active sites, available for higher number of sorptive species. Further, the concentration dependence data were utilized for analysing the adsorption isotherm and it was found that these are fitted well for Freundlich adsorption isotherm to its linearized logarithmic form (Log a e

  4. Azadirachta indica (Neem) Seed Extracts: A Supplement for Culture ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effectiveness of Neem seed extracts (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) was tested against Aspergillus niger isolated from soil to determine whether the neem seed extracts will inhibit or enhance the growth of Aspergillus niger . Three different concentrations of neem seed extracts were prepared 10%, 20% and 50%.

  5. Indica rice (Oryza sativa, BR29 and IR64).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Karabi; Datta, Swapan Kumar

    2006-01-01

    Rice is the world's most important food crop. Indica-type rice provides the staple food for more than half of the world population. To satisfy the growing demand of the ever-increasing population, more sustained production of indica-type rice is needed. In addition, because of the high per capita consumption of indica rice, improvement of any traits including its nutritive value may have a significant positive health outcome for the rice-consuming population. Rice yield productivity is greatly affected by different biotic stresses, like diseases and insect pests, and abiotic stresses like drought, cold, and salinity. Attempts to improve resistance in rice to these stresses by conventional breeding through introgression of traits have limited success owing to a lack of resistance germplasm in the wild relatives. Gene transfer technology with genes from other sources can be used to make rice plants resistant or tolerant to insect pests, diseases, and different environmental stresses. For improving the nutritional value of the edible endosperm part of the rice, genes for increasing iron, beta-carotene, or better quality protein can be introduced in rice plants by genetic engineering. Different crops have been transformed using various gene transfer methods, such as protoplast transformation, biolistic, and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. This chapter describes the Agrobacterium-mediated transformation protocol for indica-type rice. The selectable marker genes used are hygromycin phosphotransferase (hpt), neomycin phosphotransferase (nptII), or phosphomannose isomerase (pmi), and, accordingly, the selection agents are hygromycin, kanamycin (G418), or mannose, respectively.

  6. Effect of Mangifera Indica Leaves Extract on Growth Response of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of Mangifera indica leaves extracts on growth response of Oreochromis niloticus was evaluated for 42 days. 5 diets at approximately 40% crude protein containing varying levels of the extracts at 0%, 5%, 15% and 25% were formulated. These were fed to fingerlings of O. niloticus (mean weight, 5.25 – 6.05g) that were ...

  7. Physical and strength properties of Azadirachta indica , (a. Juss ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 160 test samples were used from three trees randomly selected from the study area. Preparations of test samples, actual testing and determination of different properties were carried out following standard methods. All strength property values were adjusted to 12% moisture content. Results showed A. indica to ...

  8. Neem ( Azadirachta indica a. Juss) fruit yield determination in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study determined fruit yield of Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) in the guinea savanna of Nigeria at Makurdi. Fifteen mature neem trees which had no overlapping canopies and had not been previously pruned were purposively selected out of 207 stands growing at the study site. All ripped fruits felling from the ...

  9. Synthesis of gold nanostructures using fruit extract of Garcinia Indica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnaprabha, M.; Pattabi, Manjunatha

    2016-05-01

    Gold nanoparticles having different shapes are synthesized using extract of fresh fruit rinds of Garcinia Indica. The onset of growth and formation of gold nanostructures is confirmed from UV-Vis spectroscopy. Morphological studies are done using FESEM. Size dependent catalytic activity is evaluated with the model reduction reaction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol.

  10. Toxic effects of neem products ( Azadirachta indica A. Juss) on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Treatment and comparative analysis of the properties of aqueous extracts of seed kernel of Azadirachta indica A. Juss (neem) was carried out on Aedes aegypti larvae. The aim of this work was to evaluate lethal effects of neem products (1% Suneem, formulated neem oil and neem powder) on A. aegypti larvae. Assays ...

  11. Larvaecidal effects of aqueous extracts of Azadirachta indica (neem ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of crude aqueous extracts of Azadirachta indica (neem) against the larvae of Anopheles mosquito was investigated. Exposure of the larvae to undiluted extracts of seed oil, leaf and bark for 12 hours led to 100, 98, and 48% mortality, respectively. Dilution of these extracts also resulted in mortality of the larvae.

  12. (BST) and some bioassays using Neem ( Azadirachta indica A. Juss )

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The leaves of Neem (Azadirachta indica A.Juss) and Wild custard-apple (Annona senegalensis Pers) were extracted using ethanol and extracts were screened for bioactivity against brine shrimp larvae. The bioactive extracts in the brine shrimp test (BST) were investigated for correlation with aphid nematode and ...

  13. Assessment of the insecticidal potency of neem ( Azadirachta Indica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The potency of aqueous and methanolic extracts of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) seed kernel, in inhibiting and disrupting development of Anopheles mosquito was assessed in the laboratory. Different concentrations of aqueous and methanolic extracts were tested on eggs, larvae and pupae. Both extracts were found ...

  14. Determination of Heavy Metals in Leaves of Mangifera Indica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER PC

    ABSTRACT. Concentrations of cadmium, chromium and zinc in leaves of Mangifera indica (Mango), Psidium ... alarm, in some cases, trace heavy metals may accumulate to an ... leaves when released can lead to serious ... shown that it can interact with different hormonal .... 17, 2012. Cadmium Exposure and Bone Mineral.

  15. Evaluation Of Tamarind ( Tamarindus indica ) Seed Meal As A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A feeding study was conducted to assess the value of Tamarind, Tamarindus indica seed meal as dietary carbohydrate in the diets of Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. Tamarind seeds were used to replace maize at 0, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100 % substitution levels for treatments 1 to 6. Growth trial was conducted in outdoor ...

  16. Performance of broiler chickens fed neem ( Azadirachta indica ) leaf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One hundred and ninety-two day-old marshal broilers were used in an eight weeks feeding trial to evaluate the effects of neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf meal on growth performance and haematological parameters of broiler chickens. The birds were randomly assigned into four (4) groups of forty eight (48) birds each in a ...

  17. Hypoglycemic Effects Of Whole And Fractionated Azadirachta Indica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hypoglycemic Effects Of Whole And Fractionated Azadirachta Indica (Neem) Seed Oils On Alloxan-Induced Diabetes In New Zealand White Rabbits. ... The data suggests that the whole neem seed oil and the acidic portion of the neem seed oil could be of benefit in controlling the blood sugar in subjects presenting with ...

  18. Chemical and nutritional content of Opuntia ficus-indica (L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) fruit pulp was analyzed for its chemical and nutritional content and the results compared with those of the same species from other parts of the world. The analysis included those for: Moisture and ash contents, crude fibre, energy values, non-reducing sugars, crude protein and vitamin C. Total ...

  19. Molecular identification of Mango, Mangifera indica L.var. totupura

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagarlamudi, Sankar; G, Rosaiah; Kurapati, Ravi Kumar; Pinnamaneni, Rajasekhar

    2011-01-01

    Mango (>Mangifera indica) belonging to Anacardiaceae family is a fruit that grows in tropical regions. It is considered as the King of fruits. The present work was taken up to identify a tool in identifying the mango species at the molecular level. The chloroplast trnL-F region was amplified from extracted total genomic DNA using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequenced. Sequence of the dominant DGGE band revealed that Mangifera indica in tested leaves was Mangifera indica (100% similarity to the ITS sequences of Mangifera indica). This sequence was deposited in NCBI with the accession no. GQ927757. Abbreviations AFLP - Amplified fragment length polymorphism , cpDNA - Chloroplast DNA, DDGE - Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, DNA - Deoxyribo nucleic acid, EDTA - Ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid, HCl - Hydrochloric acid, ISSR - Inter simple sequence repeats, ITS - Internal transcribed spacer, MATAB - Methyl Ammonium Bromide, Na2SO3 - Sodium sulphite, NaCl - Sodium chloride, NCBI - National Centre for Biotechnology Information, PCR - Polymerase chain reaction, PEG - Polyethylene glycol, RAPD - Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA, trnL-F - Transfer RNA genes start codon- termination codon. PMID:21423885

  20. Safety evaluation of neem (Azadirachta indica) derived pesticides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeke, S.J.; Boersma, M.G.; Alink, G.M.; Loon, van J.J.A.; Huis, van A.; Dicke, M.; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.

    2004-01-01

    The neem tree, Azadirachta indica, provides many useful compounds that are used as pesticides and could be applied to protect stored seeds against insects. However in addition to possible beneficial health effects, such as blood sugar lowering properties, anti-parasitic, anti-inflammatory,

  1. ( Azadirachta Indica ) Leaf Extracts on the Rot Fungus ( Fusarium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The storage lifespan of kola nuts is challenged by the problem of decay of nuts in storage as a result of the attack by the rot fungus (Fusarium spp). The effect of the neem leaf (Azadirachta indica) extracts on the rot fungus was investigated in order to aid extended kola nuts storage. The aqueous and ethanolic leaf extracts of ...

  2. Postharvest Ripening and Shelf Life of Mango (Mangifera indica L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mango (Mangifera indica L.) is a climacteric and highly perishable fruit that requires specialized postharvest handling to extend its storage life. The study was undertaken at Melkassa Agricultural Research Center (MARC) to evaluate the influence of 1-Methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) and polyethylene packaging (PP) on ...

  3. 10406 EFFICACY OF CACTUS PEAR (Opuntia ficus-indica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    bdu

    Tigray, a region in north Ethiopia, is a semi-arid area with limited agricultural potential ..... ficus-indica recorded in South Africa by Hugh Mciteka [31]. Younger ... camel and equines feed on cactus varieties most, compared to goats and sheep.

  4. Genetic diversity of Tamarindus indica populations: Any clues on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tamarindus indica is a domesticated species of high economic value for the Sahel region. Despite this importance, very few data is available on its diversity as well as its structure leading to controversial discussions on its origin. Thus it is questionable whether the knowledge of its genetic diversity and organisation may ...

  5. Neem ( Azadirachta indica a. juss) seedling growth as influenced by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF), specifically, Glomus moseae and cow dung on the growth of Neem (Azadiracchta indica, A. Juss) seedlings was investigated at the forestry quarters, Lagos Street, Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria. The study included three treatments: the cow dung, mycorrhizal treatments ...

  6. Effects of Dietary Neem ( Azadirachta indica ) Leaf Extract on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of dietary neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf extract (NLE) on egg production, egg quality characteristics and blood indices of laying hens were investigated. Dry matter content of fresh neem leaves was determined and used to determine the quantity of the fresh leaves to be extracted to correspond with the required ...

  7. Chemical composition of Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) fruit | Salim ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chemical composition of pulp, skin and seeds of fruit of Opuntia ficus-indica was investigated. Results showed high amount of water in the pulp (84.14%) and skin (90.33%). Glucose and fructose (29 and 24%, respectively) in the pulp were greater than in the skin (14 and 2.29%, respectively), whereas saccharose was very ...

  8. Antibacterial activity of Mangifera indica L. seeds against some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antibacterial activity of methanol extract of Mangifera indica L. seeds was done against 41 clinically isolated and 20 standard bacterial strains. Clinical bacterial strains were isolated from different specimens like blood, urine, catheter, stool and pus. Antibacterial activity was done by agar disc diffusion method at two different ...

  9. Saraca asoca (Roxb.) de Wilde Syn. Saraca indica L. (English ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Saraca asoca (Roxb.) de Wilde Syn. Saraca indica L. (English: Ashoka; Hindi: Asok) ofCaesalpilliaceae is a medium sized extremely ornamental evergreen tree with numerous spreading and drooping branches, compound leaves and orange-yellow flowers in clusters. Fruits are black, leathery pods with compressed seeds.

  10. Investigation On Antidiarrhoeal Activity Of Aristolochia Indica Linn ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The present study aimed at investigating the effect of ethanolic extract (EtAI), and aqueous extract (AqAI) of Aristolochia indica Linn roots on castor oil-induced diarrhoea and study on small intestinal transit. Phytochemical analysis of extracts was performed as per standard procedure. Materials and Methods: ...

  11. Turbidity removal from surface water using Tamarindus indica crude ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plant-based coagulants are potential alternatives to chemical coagulants used in drinking water treatment. This paper examined the turbidity removal efficiency of Tamarindus indica fruit crude pulp extract (CPE) towards evaluating a low-cost option for drinking-water treatment. Laboratory analysis was carried out on high ...

  12. El fracaso de la autarquía : la política económica y la posguerra mundial (1945-1959

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Gómez Mendoza

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de este artículo es mostrar que los miseros resultados económicos cosechados a fines del decenio de 1940 respondieron a la política gubernamental y no, como se pretendió en la época, a la guerra mundial y al aislamiento diplomático. A partir de 1951, la situación económica mejoró de forma significativa. En ambos períodos, fue fundamental el papel Jugado por Juan A. Suanzes. En el primero, acumuló un enorme poder que le permitió controlar todos los ámbitos de la vida económica, puesto que compatibilizó su cargo de ministro de Industria y Comercio con la presidencia del INI. Bajo presión de los Estados Unidos, Franco aceptó sustituir a Suanzes por ministros que propiciaron una cierta liberalización de la política económica. Sin embargo, se trató de una reforma parcial abocada al fracaso.It is shown in this paper that economic policy was responsible for the modest economic performance of the late 1940's. Indeed, the impact of the second worid war and the diplomatic isolation inflicted upon the Francoist regime by the Allies must be rejected. From 1951 onwards, the performance of the Spanish economy improved significantiy. In both periods of time, the role played by Juan A. Suanzes was crucial. After 1945, every single field of economic policy was under his control since his appointment as Minister of Industry and Commerce was compatible with the chairmanship of a pubiic industrial holding (INI. Under intense diplomatic pressure from the US Government, Franco was finally torced to withdraw Suanzes from the cabinet in 1951. Newly appointed ministers favoured the implementation of a slightly liberal economic policy which led, however, to fallare.

  13. Las personas con discapacidad intelectual en el sistema penal penitenciario. ¿Un fracaso de las políticas de inclusión?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarisa Ramos

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available La situación de las personas con discapacidad intelectual que se encuentran insertas en el régimen penal penitenciario pone en evidencia la problemática social de un colectivo de alta vulnerabilidad que se encuentra en situación de exclusión social. El objetivo de este artículo es analizar las características de la población con discapacidad intelectual que se encuentra dentro del sistema penal penitenciario español, así como los procesos que determinaron su ingreso en él. El análisis se ha abordado desde una perspectiva cualitativa, respondiendo a una pregunta central que intenta saber si el ingreso de las personas en el sistema penal penitenciario supone un fracasode las políticas de inclusión. Los datos se obtienen entre 2001 y 2010 y se centran en el trabajo realizado dentro de instituciones penitenciarias por la red FEAPS, incluido el ámbito de la comunidad autónoma de Cataluña (única con transferencia de competencias en cuestiones penitenciarias. Se realiza también una revisión de la bibliografíasobre la materia. La falta de dispositivos que atiendan a las personas con discapacidad que manifiestan conductas tipificadas como delito pone de manifiesto el fracaso de las políticas de inclusión y prevención que se desarrollan en la sociedad. También queda de manifiesto una carencia de intervenciones integrales en las políticas relativas a inclusión social, que se analizan desde la discusión de resultados.

  14. Variables y Modelos Para La Identificación y Predicción Del Fracaso Empresarial: Revisión de La Investigación Empírica Reciente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María t. Tascón fernández

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo analiza la evolución en el tiempo de los estudios sobre fracaso empresarial. Con carácter general, partimos de la revisión crítica realizada en la literatura previa, y aportamos un análisis de la evidencia empírica adicional, con especial atención a la obtenida durante la última década. Pero además, para subsanar algunas deficiencias detectadas en las revisiones anteriores, nos ocupamos de tres aspectos, que pueden considerarse la principal contribución de este trabajo: primero, analizamos la evolución en las últimas décadas del concepto de fracaso empresarial o fallido, detectando cierta evolución desde la identificación hacia la predicción; segundo, analizamos las variables empleadas en los modelos, aportando un estudio de los rasgos empresariales que se representan con las variables (frente al tradicional análisis de frecuencia de las propias variables individuales, siendo los resultados más acordes con los planteamientos y desarrollos teóricos clásicos sobre el fracaso empresarial; y, finalmente, destacamos los puntos fuertes y débiles de las metodologías que, por su reciente aparición, no habían sido analizadas o muy poco por revisiones anteriores: las técnicas de inteligencia artificial y el análisis envolvente de datos (DEA. Adicionalmente, integramos en la revisión el numeroso grupo de trabajos empíricos publicados en España sobre la cuestión, y que no aparecían en ninguna de las revisiones previas analizadas.

  15. Phytochemistry, cytotoxicity and antiviral activity of Eleusine indica (sambau)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iberahim, Rashidah; Yaacob, Wan Ahmad; Ibrahim, Nazlina

    2015-09-01

    Goose grass also known as Eleusine indica (EI) is a local medicinal plant that displays antioxidant, antimicrobial and anticancer activities. The present study is to determine the phytochemical constituents, cytotoxicity and antiviral activities for both crude extract and fraction obtained from the plant. The crude extract contained more secondary metabolites compared to the hexane fraction as gauged using standard phytochemical tests. Cytotoxicity screening against Vero cells using MTT assay showed that the CC50 values for crude extract and hexane fraction were 2.07 and 5.62 mg/ml respectively. The antiviral activity towards Herpes Simplex Virus type 1 (HSV-1) was determined using plaque reduction assay. The selective indices (SI = CC50 / EC50) for both methanol extract and hexane fraction were 12.2 and 6.2 respectively. These results demonstrate that the extract prepared from E. indica possesses phytochemical compound that was non cytotoxic to the cell with potential antiviral activity.

  16. Characterization of crystalline structures in Opuntia ficus-indica

    OpenAIRE

    Contreras-Padilla, Margarita; Rivera-Muñoz, Eric M.; Gutiérrez-Cortez, Elsa; del López, Alicia Real; Rodríguez-García, Mario Enrique

    2014-01-01

    This research studies the crystalline compounds present in nopal (Opuntia ficus-indica) cladodes. The identification of the crystalline structures was performed using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, mass spectrometry, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The crystalline structures identified were calcium carbonate (calcite) [CaCO3], calcium-magnesium bicarbonate [CaMg(CO3)2], magnesium oxide [MgO], calcium oxalate monohydrate [Ca(C2O4)•(H2O)], potassium peroxydiphosph...

  17. Azadirachta indica A. Juss. Neem, margosa. Meliaceae. Mahogany family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. A. Parrotta; A. N. Chaturvedi

    1994-01-01

    AzadirachJa indica A. Juss., commonly known as neem in English and Hindi and margosa and paraiso de India in Spanish, is a medium-sized to large tree characterized by its short, straight bole, furrowed, dark-brown to gray bark. and dense, rounded crown of pinnate leaves. Native to south Asia, neem is widely planted and naturalized in semiarid areas throughout Asia and...

  18. Perbandingan Aktivitas Antioksidan Campuran Ekstrak-Etanol A.indica dan C.asiatica terhadap Ekstrak-Etanol A.indica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemas R Notariza

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Radikal bebas, dalam kadar rendah atau menengah, mempunyai peran fisiologis bagi kehidupan sel tubuh. Pada konsentrasi tinggi, radikal-bebas dapat memicu stres oksidatif yang menjadi dasar patogenesis berbagai penyakit. Suplai antioksidan eksogen dibutuhkan untuk membantu kinerja antioksidan endogen dalam menangkal stres oksidatif. Ekstrak-etanol Acalypha indica dan Centella asiatica masing-masing diketahui memiliki aktivitas antioksidan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui perbandingan aktivitas antioksidan campuran ekstrak-etanol Acalypha indica dan Centella asiatica terhadap ekstrak-etanol Acalypha indica. Kombinasi ekstrak diharapkan mampu meningkatkan aktivitas antioksidan yang dihasilkan dan menurunkan dosis yang digunakan. Aktivitas antioksidan ekstrak diukur dengan metode spektrofotometri melalui uji DPPH. Kandungan fitokimia ekstrak juga diuji secara kualitatif. Hasil uji kualitatif menunjukkan bahwa ekstrak-etanol Acalypha indica maupun campuran ekstrak-etanol Acalypha indica dan Centella asiatica positif mengandung fitokimia berupa flavonoid dan steroid. Hasil pengukuran aktivitas antioksidan menunjukkan bahwa Vitamin C yang menjadi kontrol positif menunjukkan nilai EC50 sebesar 0,012 mg/mL. Nilai EC50 ekstrak-etanol Acalypha indica adalah 13,68 mg/mL, sedangkan nilai EC50 campuran ekstrak-etanol Acalypha indica dan Centella asiatica adalah 39,65 mg/mL. Nilai EC50 yang lebih kecil mengindikasikan aktivitas antioksidan yang lebih tinggi. Dengan demikian, aktivitas antioksidan campuran ekstrak-etanol Acalypha indica dan Centella asiatica lebih rendah dibandingkan dengan ekstrak-etanol Acalypha indica.   Kata kunci: Acalypha indica; aktivitas antioksidan; Centella asiatica Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE

  19. Resistencia en el aula: entre el fracaso y la indignación Resistance in the classroom: between failure and indignation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsie Rockwell

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo abordo una disyuntiva conceptual en la explicación de la resistencia estudiantil en clase. Resumo algunas de las posturas clásicas acerca de la resistencia (WILLIS, GIROUX, retomando la distinción entre fenómenos que contribuyen al fracaso escolar de los estudiantes, y aquellos que muestran indignación. Discuto resultados de estudios que intentan explicar los momentos de discontinuidad en el flujo de la interacción en el aula como evidencia de resistencia de parte de los alumnos. Luego examino las implicaciones de las teorías de Basil Bernstein y de Jürgen Habermas para explicar estos procesos. Sugiero que no toda expresión de resistencia en el aula debe ser vista como señal de incompetencia, diferencia cultural o respuesta autocondenadora. Con base en la teoría de comunicación de Habermas, es posible comprender muchas respuestas de los estudiantes como legítima (si bien indirecta invocación de las pretensiones de verdad, adecuación y veracidad.In this paper, I approach a conceptual dilemma involved in understanding student resistance in classrooms. I summarize some of the classic positions on resistance (WILLIS, GIROUX, and recall the distinction between behaviors that contribute to "school failure" and those that express "moral indignation". I discuss classroom studies that attempt to explain moments of discontinuity in the flow of verbal interaction as evidence of student resistance. I then turn to the implications of the theories of Basil Bernstein and Jürgen Habermas to explain these processes. I suggest that not all expressions of resistance in the classroom should be seen as signs of incompetence, cultural difference, or self-condemning behavior. Drawing on Habermas' theory of communication, it is possible to understand many student's responses as a legitimate, albeit indirect, invocation of the validity claims of truth, correctness and sincerity.

  20. Las aulas reales de Zaragoza: El fracaso de una educación popular The Royal Clasrooms in Saragossa: the failure of a popular education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Rosa DOMÍNGUEZ CABREJAS

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Las cátedras de gramática que sostienen los Jesuítas en Zaragoza desde 1609 hasta su expulsión en 1767, se transforman en aulas reales o públicas, lo cual supone un cambio significativo. Su organización interna y desarrollo futuro se asientan en una legislación que limita el control tradicional de las instituciones locales, lo que favorece una actitud de auténtica pasividad y deficiente atención por parte del Concejo y de la Universidad. Tal situación, unida a la escasa dotación económica, favorecen los abusos y despilfarros por parte de varios profesores, que entienden su tarea de enseñar como un paso transitorio en su curriculum personal. El proceso de decadencia que padecen las aulas públicas de Zaragoza, en particular las de gramática, y la solución que ofrecen algunas de las instituciones locales más importantes, muestran la dificultad que entraña el cambio de la enseñanza religiosa a la implantada. Como consecuencia de ello, podemos decir que se llega a un fracaso total en los primeros momentos de la enseñanza pública, en el sentido que hoy lo entendemos.The grammar classrooms in Saragossa, run by the Society of Jesus from 1609 to 1767 when the Jesuits were banished, were transformed into royal or public classrooms, which entailed a change. Their internal organization and future development was based on some legislation which discouraged the traditional control of the local institutions, thus favouring an attitude of complete passivity and lack attention from the local council and the university. This situation, together with their scarce economic endowment allowed for misuse and unrestraint on the part of some teachers who considered their teaching as a transitory stage for their personal curriculum. The process of decay suffered by Saragossa's public classrooms, especially by the grammar classrooms, and the solution some important local institutions offered, that the Escuelas Pías, a religious order, should take up

  1. Antidiarrhoeal efficacy of Mangifera indica seed kernel on Swiss albino mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajan, S; Suganya, H; Thirunalasundari, T; Jeeva, S

    2012-08-01

    To examine the antidiarrhoeal activity of alcoholic and aqueous seed kernel extract of Mangifera indica (M. indica) on castor oil-induced diarrhoeal activity in Swiss albino mice. Mango seed kernels were processed and extracted using alcohol and water. Antidiarrhoeal activity of the extracts were assessed using intestinal motility and faecal score methods. Aqueous and alcoholic extracts of M. indica significantly reduced intestinal motility and faecal score in Swiss albino mice. The present study shows the traditional claim on the use of M. indica seed kernel for treating diarrhoea in Southern parts of India. Copyright © 2012 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Study on homologous series of induced early mutants in Indica rice Ⅱ. the relationship between the homologous series of early mutants induced and the ecotype in Indica rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xiulan; Yang Hefeng; He Zhentian; Han Yuepeng; Liu Xueyu

    2001-01-01

    The induced mutation in light sensitivity of the Indica rice leads to induction of the homologous series of early mutants along with the variation of ecological character and the ecoclimate. The induction of mutants was closely related to the ecotype of Indica rice, the homologous series of early mutants in different level were derived from the different ecotype of the Indica rice, otherwise, the similar homologous series of early mutants were derived from the same ecotypic variety. The induction of the early ecotypic variety derived from the homologous series of early mutants provides the basis and possibility for accelerating the development of the new cultivars. (authors)

  3. Anti-inflammatory effects of essential oils from Mangifera indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, R M; Dutra, T S; Simionatto, E; Ré, N; Kassuya, C A L; Cardoso, C A L

    2017-03-16

    Mangifera indica is widely found in Brazil, and its leaves are used as an anti-inflammatory agent in folk medicine. The aim of this study is to perform composition analysis of essential oils from the M. indica varieties, espada (EOMIL1) and coração de boi (EOMIL2), and confirm their anti-inflammatory properties. Twenty-three volatile compounds were identified via gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in two essential oils from the leaves. Paw edema and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity were evaluated using the carrageenan-induced paw model, while leukocyte migration was analyzed using the pleurisy model. At oral doses of 100 and 300 mg/kg, the essential oils significantly reduced edema formation and the increase in MPO activity induced by carrageenan in rat paws. For a dose of 300 mg/kg EOMIL1, 62 ± 8% inhibition of edema was observed, while EOMIL2 led to 51 ± 7% inhibition of edema. At a dose of 100 mg/kg, the inhibition was 54 ± 9% for EOMIL1 and 37 ± 7% for EOMIL2. EOMIL1 and EOMIL2 significantly reduced MPO activity at doses of 100 mg/kg (47 ± 5 and 23 ± 8%, respectively) and 300 mg/kg (50 ± 9 and 31 ± 7%, respectively). In the pleurisy model, inhibitions were also observed for EOMIL1 and EOMIL2 in the leukocyte migration test. The results of the present study show that essential oils from M. indica differ in chemical composition and anti-inflammatory activity in rats.

  4. The endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica enhances Arabidopsis thaliana growth and modulates Na + /K + homeostasis under salt stress conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Abdelaziz, Mohamed Ewis; Kim, Dongjin; Ali, Shawkat; Fedoroff, Nina V.; Al-Babili, Salim

    2017-01-01

    The mutualistic, endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica has been shown to confer biotic and abiotic stress tolerance to host plants. In this study, we investigated the impact of P. indica on the growth of Arabidopsis plants under normal and salt

  5. Photooxygenation of Nimonol, a Tetranortriterpenoid from Azadirachta indica. A. Juss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Kasinath

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Nimonol (1, a tetranortriterpenoid isolated from the leaves of Azadirachta indica A. Juss (Meliaceae, upon photolysis undergoes both Diels-Alder and ene reactions with singlet oxygen at different sites leading to 14,15,20,21-diepoxy-23-nimonolactone (3, along with nimonolide (4, which have been well-characterised. The novelty of the reported reactions lies in hitherto unreported formation of an α-epoxide in the ring D in tetranortriterpenoids. The photoproduct 4 exhibited antifeedancy comparable to that of azadirachtin-A, the most potent antifeedant constituent isolated from neem.

  6. Sensory acceptability evaluation of irradiated rice, oryza sativa indica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loaharanu, S.; Sutantawong, M.; Ungsunanatawiwat, A.

    1971-01-01

    The non-glutinous and glutinous types of polished rice, Oryza sativa indica were subjected to gamma rays at ambient temperature and stored at 27+-1 0 C for one week. The irradiated rice was cooked and tasted by members of trained panel. Using Hedonic scale and Triangle test, the acceptability of irradiated rice was justified. Gamma irradiation up to 100 krads did not significantly cause off-color, off-odor and off flavor in irradiated non-glutino rice. Glutinous rice irradiated at 60 krads could not be significantly differentiated from non-irradiated sample

  7. Neem (Azadirachta indica): prehistory to contemporary medicinal uses to humankind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Venugopalan Santhosh; Navaratnam, Visweswaran

    2013-07-01

    The divine tree neem (Azadirachta indica) is mainly cultivated in the Indian subcontinent. Neem has been used extensively by humankind to treat various ailments before the availability of written records which recorded the beginning of history. The world health organization estimates that 80% of the population living in the developing countries relies exclusively on traditional medicine for their primary health care. More than half of the world's population still relies entirely on plants for medicines, and plants supply the active ingredients of most traditional medical products. The review shows the neem has been used by humankind to treat various ailments from prehistory to contemporary.

  8. La historia, la comida, la salud: Un vínculo siempre más estrecho entre alimentación y medicina The history, the food, the health: A bond always more tight between feeding and medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Giovanna Motta

    2010-01-01

    En las sociedades del Antiguo Régimen la influencia del pensamiento científico racionalista puesta en acto en el Siglo de las Luces es básico para que se afirme una nueva cultura médico-científica en el contexto en que cambia también la relación con la comida. Alimentarse asume entonces un valor social e inspira consideraciones más profundas sobre la salud, atrayendo siempre más la atención de los médicos sobre la dieta, sobre las condiciones ambientales e higiénicas. Pero desde la edad media...

  9. Preformulación de tabletas de Tamarindus indica L. Preformulation of tablets from Tamarindus indica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Rafael Rodríguez Amado

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio de preformulación de tabletas partiendo del extracto blando de las hojas de la especie Tamarindus indica L. Se estudiaron posibles interacciones en mezclas binarias del extracto blando con los excipientes en relación 1:3 que puedan afectar la cantidad de polifenoles en la mezcla a temperaturas 30, 45 y 60 ºC. Se diseñaron 3 formulaciones preliminares de tabletas y se estudió en todos los casos la calidad de los granulados y de las tabletas. En conclusión, no se producen interacciones que afecten el color, el olor ni la concentración de polifenoles en las mezclas binarias extracto blando de tamarindo-excipientes a 30 ºC, y a temperaturas mayores se reduce la cantidad de polifenoles en las mezclas. La formulación preliminar número tres produce tabletas de calidad tecnológica y resulta adecuada para los subsecuentes estudios de formulación y optimización de tabletas de tamarindo.A pre-formulation study for tablet preparation using soft extract from Tamarindus indica L. leaves was conducted. Possible interactions in binary mixtures of Tamarindus indica L. soft extract and selected excipients in a 1:3 ratio, which may affect the amount of polyphenols in the mixture at 30°, 45° and 60 °C temperatures, were analyzed. Three preliminary tablet formulations were designed and then the quality of granules and tables were researched in all the cases. It was concluded that there were no interactions affecting the color, the smell and the polyphenol concentration in the evaluated binary mixtures at 30°. At higher temperatures, the amount of polyphenols decreased. Pre-formulation number 3 yielded the best technological quality in tablet production and thus can be used for future formulation and optimization studies of Tamarind tables.

  10. Anti-inflammatory polysaccharides of Azadirachta indica seed tegument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia de Paulo Pereira

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Azadirachta indica A. Juss., Meliaceae, or Indian neem is a plant used to treat inûammatory disorders. Total polysaccharide (TPL and FI (fractioned by ion exchange chromatography from the seed tegument of A. indica were evaluated in models of acute inflammation (paw edema/peritonitis using Wistar rats. Paw edema (measured by hydroplethysmometry was induced s.c. by Λ-carrageenan (300 µg, histamine (100 µg, serotonin (20 µg, compound 48/80 (10 µg, prostaglandin (PGE2 30 µg or L-arginine (15 µg. Peritonitis (analyzed for leukocyte counts/protein dosage was induced i.p. by carrageenan (500 mg or N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP 50 ng. Animals were treated i.v. with TPL (1 mg/kg or FI (0.01, 0.1, 1 mg/kg 30 min before stimuli. FI toxicity (at 0.1 mg/kg, i.v. for seven days was analyzed by the variation of body/organ mass and hematological/biochemical parameters. TPL extraction yielded 1.3%; FI, presenting high carbohydrate and low protein content, at 0.1 mg/kg inhibited paw edema induced by carrageenan (77%, serotonin (54%, PGE2 (69% and nitric oxide (73%, and the peritonitis elicited by carrageenan (48% or fMLP (67%, being well tolerated by animals. FI exhibited potent anti-inflammatory activity, revealing to be important active component in traditionally prepared remedies to treat inflammatory states.

  11. FLUORIDE SORPTION USING MORRINGA INDICA-BASED ACTIVATED CARBON

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    G. Karthikeyan, S. Siva Ilango

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Batch adsorption experiments using activated carbon prepared from Morringa Indica bark were conducted to remove fluoride from aqueous solution. A minimum contact time of 25 min was required for optimum fluoride removal. The influence of adsorbent, dose, pH, co-ions (cations and anions on fluoride removal by the activated carbon has been experimentally verified. The adsorption of fluoride was studied at 30 C, 40 C and 50 C. The kinetics of adsorption and adsorption isotherms at different temperatures were studied. The fluoride adsorption obeyed both Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms and followed a pseudo first order kinetic model. The thermodynamic studies revealed that the fluoride adsorption by Morringa Indica is an endothermic process indicating an increase in sorption rate at higher temperatures. The negative values of G indicate the spontaneity of adsorption. SEM and XRD studies confirmed the surface morphological characteristics of the adsorbent and the deposition of fluoride on the surface of the material.

  12. An Improved Genome Assembly of Azadirachta indica A. Juss.

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    Neeraja M. Krishnan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss., an evergreen tree of the Meliaceae family, is known for its medicinal, cosmetic, pesticidal and insecticidal properties. We had previously sequenced and published the draft genome of a neem plant, using mainly short read sequencing data. In this report, we present an improved genome assembly generated using additional short reads from Illumina and long reads from Pacific Biosciences SMRT sequencer. We assembled short reads and error-corrected long reads using Platanus, an assembler designed to perform well for heterozygous genomes. The updated genome assembly (v2.0 yielded 3- and 3.5-fold increase in N50 and N75, respectively; 2.6-fold decrease in the total number of scaffolds; 1.25-fold increase in the number of valid transcriptome alignments; 13.4-fold less misassembly and 1.85-fold increase in the percentage repeat, over the earlier assembly (v1.0. The current assembly also maps better to the genes known to be involved in the terpenoid biosynthesis pathway. Together, the data represent an improved assembly of the A. indica genome.

  13. Influencia de la cultura empresarial en el éxito o fracaso de los talleres de hamacas y de calzado de cuero para mujer de la ciudad de Masaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darling E. Rojas Mendoza

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available ESTE TRABAJO EXPLORA LAS OPORTUNIDADES Y OBSTÁCULOS que enfrentan dos sectores productivos de la ciudad de Masaya, la artesanía de hamacas y el calzado de cuero para mujeres, a partir de su cultura empresarial. Los éxitos y los fracasos de uno y otro sector se explican y fundamentan en el estilo empresarial característico de los talleres productores. Para realizar la investigación, se eligieron 15 talleres de cada especialidad y se estudió la cultura empresarial y el estilo de dirección. Este enfoque empresarial raramente se ha aplicado a los estudios de las diferentes empresas nicaragüenses y menos aún, de los talleres artesanales. Con este trabajo se espera abrir un ámbito a la exploración y la investigación.

  14. Negacionismo, políticas demoscópicas y currículum de fracasos. El caso del cambio climático en España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artemio Baigorri

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A pesar del masivo consenso en torno al cambio climático y del carácter parcialmente antrópico del mismo, así como de la necesidad de articular políticas de evitación o al menos de resiliencia, dicho consenso no es total, de ahí que se haya instituido en un típico objeto de debate metacientífico (como lo fue en su día el debate nuclear, o el de las “células madre”, conectándose con posiciones ideológicas. Nuestro artículo evidencia, a partir de un estudio de caso, cómo dicho debate percola aspectos tan diversos de la acción pública como son las políticas demoscópicas, en países en los que, como España, los gobiernos disponen de institutos de opinión de carácter público. Poniendo en evidencia cómo desde la llegada del Partido Popular desaparece el interés por conocer las actitudes de la población hacia el cambio climático. Por otra parte, el artículo conecta las circunstancias en que se produce la investigación que da pie al artículo con una temática emergente, pero apenas tratada todavía en la literatura sociológica, como es el currículum de fracasos (“CV of failures” en sus términos originarios. Evidenciando cómo tales fracasos pueden constituirse no sólo en recursos en sí mismos, sino en objeto de análisis en el marco de la investigación sobre el homo academicus.

  15. Biosorptive behavior of mango (Mangifera indica) and neem (Azadirachta indica) barks for 134Cs from aqueous solutions. A radiotracer study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, S.P.; Tiwari, D.; Prasad, S.K.; Dubey, R.S.; Mishra, M.

    2007-01-01

    The role of dead biomasses viz., mango (Mangifera indica) and neem (Azadirachta indica) bark samples are assessed in the removal behavior of, one of important fission fragments, Cs(I) from aqueous solutions employing a radiotracer technique. The batch type studies were carried out to obtain various physico-chemical data. It is to be noted that the increase in sorptive concentration (from 1.0 x 10 -8 to 1.0 x 10 -2 mol x dm -3 ), temperature (from 298 to 328 K) and pH (2.6 to 10.3) apparently favor the uptake of Cs(I) by these two bark samples. The concentration dependence data obeyed Freundlich adsorption isotherm and the uptake follows first order rate law. Thermodynamic data evaluation and desorption experiments reveal the adsorption to be irreversible and endothermic in nature proceeding through ion-exchange and surface complexation for both dead biomasses. Both bark samples showed a fairly good radiation stability in respect of adsorption uptake of Cs(I) when irradiated with a 300 mCi (Ra- Be) neutron source having an integral neutron flux of ∼ 3.85 x 10 6 n x cm -2 x s -1 and associated with a nominal γ-dose of ∼ 1.72 Gy x h -1 . (author)

  16. Antibacterial effects of Pluchea indica Less leaf extract on E. faecalis and Fusobacterium nucleatum (in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agni Febrina Pargaputri

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Enterococcus. faecalis (E. faecalis and Fusobacterium nucleatum (F. nucleatum are the most common bacteria found in infected tooth root canal. Most of these bacteria often cause failure in endodontic treatments. Pluchea indica Less leaf is a species of plants that has several chemical properties. It consists of flavonoids, tannins, polyphenols, and essensial oils which have been reported as antibacterial agents. Because of its benefits, the extract of Pluchea indica Less leaves may be potentially developed as one of root canal sterilization dressing. Purpose: This study aimed to determine antibacterial activity of Pluchea indica Less leaves extract against E. faecalis and F. nucleatum bacteria. Method: Dilution method was conducted first to show Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC of the extract against E. faecalis and F. nucleatum. The antibacterial activity test on Pluchea indica Less leaves extract was performed on E. faecalis and F. nucleatum bacteria using agar diffusion method. The Pluchea indica Less leaves extract used for antibacterial activity test was at a concentrations of 100%, 50%, 25%, 12.5%, and 6.25%. Thirty-five petridiscs were used and divided into five groups based on the extract concentration. Result: The results showed strong and moderate antibacterial effects of the Pluchea indica Less leaves extract on E. faecalis at the concentrations of 100% and 50%, while on F. nucleatum only at the concentration of 100% with moderate effect. Conclusion: Pluchea indica Less leaves extract has antibacterial activity against E. faecalis and F. nucleatum bacteria with strong-moderate effect.

  17. Strengthening of antioxidant defense by Azadirachta indica in alloxan-diabetic rat tissues

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    Sweta Shailey

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Azadirachta indica has been reported to correct altered glycaemia in diabetes. Objective: The aqueous extract of A. indica leaf and bark has been evaluated for its effect on antioxidant status of alloxan diabetic rats and compared with insulin treatment. Materials and Methods: The oral effective dose of A. indica leaf (500 mg/kg body weight and A. indica bark (100 mg/kg body weight were given once daily for 21 days to separate groups of diabetic rats. At the end of the experimental period blood glucose level and activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, glutathione reductase (GR, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD, and membrane lipid peroxidation were determined in different fractions of liver and kidney tissues. Results: Diabetic rats showed high blood glucose (P<0.01, increased level of malondialdehyde (P<0.05 and a significant decrease in the activity of antioxidant enzymes. Treatment with insulin, A. indica leaf extract (AILE, and A. indica bark extract (AIBE restored the above altered parameters close to the control ones. Conclusions: Both AILE and AIBE were found significantly effective in reducing hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress. The findings suggest further investigations for the possible use of A. indica as alternative medicine to prevent long-term complications of diabetes.

  18. RICD: A rice indica cDNA database resource for rice functional genomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Qifa

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Oryza sativa L. indica subspecies is the most widely cultivated rice. During the last few years, we have collected over 20,000 putative full-length cDNAs and over 40,000 ESTs isolated from various cDNA libraries of two indica varieties Guangluai 4 and Minghui 63. A database of the rice indica cDNAs was therefore built to provide a comprehensive web data source for searching and retrieving the indica cDNA clones. Results Rice Indica cDNA Database (RICD is an online MySQL-PHP driven database with a user-friendly web interface. It allows investigators to query the cDNA clones by keyword, genome position, nucleotide or protein sequence, and putative function. It also provides a series of information, including sequences, protein domain annotations, similarity search results, SNPs and InDels information, and hyperlinks to gene annotation in both The Rice Annotation Project Database (RAP-DB and The TIGR Rice Genome Annotation Resource, expression atlas in RiceGE and variation report in Gramene of each cDNA. Conclusion The online rice indica cDNA database provides cDNA resource with comprehensive information to researchers for functional analysis of indica subspecies and for comparative genomics. The RICD database is available through our website http://www.ncgr.ac.cn/ricd.

  19. A draft of the genome and four transcriptomes of a medicinal and pesticidal angiosperm Azadirachta indica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnan Neeraja M

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Azadirachta indica (neem tree is a source of a wide number of natural products, including the potent biopesticide azadirachtin. In spite of its widespread applications in agriculture and medicine, the molecular aspects of the biosynthesis of neem terpenoids remain largely unexplored. The current report describes the draft genome and four transcriptomes of A. indica and attempts to contextualise the sequence information in terms of its molecular phylogeny, transcript expression and terpenoid biosynthesis pathways. A. indica is the first member of the family Meliaceae to be sequenced using next generation sequencing approach. Results The genome and transcriptomes of A. indica were sequenced using multiple sequencing platforms and libraries. The A. indica genome is AT-rich, bears few repetitive DNA elements and comprises about 20,000 genes. The molecular phylogenetic analyses grouped A. indica together with Citrus sinensis from the Rutaceae family validating its conventional taxonomic classification. Comparative transcript expression analysis showed either exclusive or enhanced expression of known genes involved in neem terpenoid biosynthesis pathways compared to other sequenced angiosperms. Genome and transcriptome analyses in A. indica led to the identification of repeat elements, nucleotide composition and expression profiles of genes in various organs. Conclusions This study on A. indica genome and transcriptomes will provide a model for characterization of metabolic pathways involved in synthesis of bioactive compounds, comparative evolutionary studies among various Meliaceae family members and help annotate their genomes. A better understanding of molecular pathways involved in the azadirachtin synthesis in A. indica will pave ways for bulk production of environment friendly biopesticides.

  20. A draft of the genome and four transcriptomes of a medicinal and pesticidal angiosperm Azadirachta indica

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The Azadirachta indica (neem) tree is a source of a wide number of natural products, including the potent biopesticide azadirachtin. In spite of its widespread applications in agriculture and medicine, the molecular aspects of the biosynthesis of neem terpenoids remain largely unexplored. The current report describes the draft genome and four transcriptomes of A. indica and attempts to contextualise the sequence information in terms of its molecular phylogeny, transcript expression and terpenoid biosynthesis pathways. A. indica is the first member of the family Meliaceae to be sequenced using next generation sequencing approach. Results The genome and transcriptomes of A. indica were sequenced using multiple sequencing platforms and libraries. The A. indica genome is AT-rich, bears few repetitive DNA elements and comprises about 20,000 genes. The molecular phylogenetic analyses grouped A. indica together with Citrus sinensis from the Rutaceae family validating its conventional taxonomic classification. Comparative transcript expression analysis showed either exclusive or enhanced expression of known genes involved in neem terpenoid biosynthesis pathways compared to other sequenced angiosperms. Genome and transcriptome analyses in A. indica led to the identification of repeat elements, nucleotide composition and expression profiles of genes in various organs. Conclusions This study on A. indica genome and transcriptomes will provide a model for characterization of metabolic pathways involved in synthesis of bioactive compounds, comparative evolutionary studies among various Meliaceae family members and help annotate their genomes. A better understanding of molecular pathways involved in the azadirachtin synthesis in A. indica will pave ways for bulk production of environment friendly biopesticides. PMID:22958331

  1. Nopal Cactus (Opuntia Ficus-Indica as a Holographic Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santa Toxqui-López

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The nopal cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica releases a substance through its mucilage, which comes from the degradation of pectic substances and chlorophyll. Combined in a polyvinyl alcohol matrix, this substance can be used as a recording medium. The resulting extract material has excellent photosensitizer properties, is easy to handle, has a low cost, and low toxicity. This material has the property of self-developing, and it can be used in holographic applications. The polyvinyl alcohol and extract from the nopal cactus was deposited by a gravity technique on a glass substrate, which dried to form a photosensitive emulsion. We show experimental results on a holographic grating using this material, written by a He-Cd laser (442 nm. We obtained diffraction gratings by transmission with a diffraction efficiency of approximately 32.3% to first order.

  2. Microwave optimization of mucilage extraction from Opuntia ficus indica Cladodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felkai-Haddache, Lamia; Dahmoune, Farid; Remini, Hocine; Lefsih, Khalef; Mouni, Lotfi; Madani, Khodir

    2016-03-01

    In this study, microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) of polysaccharides from Opuntia ficus indica Cladodes were investigated using response surface methodology (RSM). The effects of three extraction factors on the yield of mucilage were examined. The results indicated that the optimum extraction conditions were determined as follows: microwave power X1, 700 W; extraction time X2, 5.15 minand ratio water/raw material X3, 4.83 mL/g at fixed pH 11. Under these optimal extraction conditions, mucilage yield was found to be Y, 25.6%. A comparison between the model results and experimental data gave a high correlation coefficient (R(2)=0.88), adjusted coefficient (Radj=0.83) and low root mean square error (RMSE=2.45) and showed that the two models were able to predict a mucilage yield by green extraction microwave process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Induced somatic mutation in mango, mangifera indica L. cv. Langra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddiqui, S.H.

    1985-01-01

    Dormant buds of mango (Mangifera indica L. cv. Langra) exposed to acute gamma-irradiation dosages of 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, 5.0 and 6.0 kiloroentgens (kR), were grafted on to one-year-old seedling stock. Dosages of 2.0 and 3.0 kR were found satisfactory for the purpose, as measured by bud lethality and scion growth. A bud graft from 3.0 kR bore fruits of excellent quality. Compared with the control, the fruits were heavier, larger and had more creamish-yellow pulp. None of the other morphological changes expressed by the mutant fruits, observed over three fruiting seasons, were disadvantageous. The tree habit is being further investigated before the mutant can be considered for release as an improved cultivar. (author)

  4. Nopal Cactus (Opuntia Ficus-Indica) as a Holographic Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares-Pérez, Arturo; Toxqui-López, Santa; Padilla-Velasco, Ana L.

    2012-01-01

    The nopal cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica) releases a substance through its mucilage, which comes from the degradation of pectic substances and chlorophyll. Combined in a polyvinyl alcohol matrix, this substance can be used as a recording medium. The resulting extract material has excellent photosensitizer properties, is easy to handle, has a low cost, and low toxicity. This material has the property of self-developing, and it can be used in holographic applications. The polyvinyl alcohol and extract from the nopal cactus was deposited by a gravity technique on a glass substrate, which dried to form a photosensitive emulsion. We show experimental results on a holographic grating using this material, written by a He-Cd laser (442 nm). We obtained diffraction gratings by transmission with a diffraction efficiency of approximately 32.3% to first order.

  5. Light induces petal color change in Quisqualis indica (Combretaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Yan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Petal color change, a common phenomenon in angiosperms, is induced by various environmental and endogenous factors. Interestingly, this phenomenon is important for attracting pollinators and further reproductive success. Quisqualis indica L. (Combretaceae is a tropical Asian climber that undergoes sequential petal color change from white to pink to red. This color changing process is thought to be a good strategy to attract more pollinators. However, the underlying physiological and biochemical mechanisms driving this petal color change phenomenon is still underexplored. In this context, we investigated whether changes in pH, pollination, light, temperature or ethylene mediate petal color change. We found that the detected changes in petal pH were not significant enough to induce color alterations. Additionally, pollination and temperatures of 20–30 °C did not alter the rate of petal color change; however, flowers did not open when exposed to constant temperatures at 15 °C or 35 °C. Moreover, the application of ethylene inhibitor, i.e., silver thiosulphate, did not prevent color change. It is worth mentioning here that in our study we found light as a strong factor influencing the whole process of petal color change, as petals remained white under dark conditions. Altogether, the present study suggests that petal color change in Q. indica is induced by light and not by changes in petal pH, pollination, ethylene, or temperature, while extremely low or high temperatures affect flower anthesis. In summary, our findings represent the probable mechanism underlying the phenomenon of petal color change, which is important for understanding flower color evolution.

  6. En el recuerdo siempre: Juan Velasco Moreno

    OpenAIRE

    Naranjo-Ramírez, J.

    2017-01-01

    Semblanza personal, cultural y artística de Juan Velasco Moreno. Sintéticamente se consideran y glosan: sus valores individuales y personales, su amplios y rotundos valores culturales, el valor de su creación literaria (varios libros de poemas y obras de teatro), sus iniciativas excepcionales en el mundo del teatro, considerando desde la fundación del Círculo Cultural Calíope, a las valiosas aportaciones en forma de representación escénica de comedias, dramas y autos sacramentales, que fueron...

  7. El estado: un ensayo siempre inconcluso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supelano Alberto

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available Quienes profesan el marxismo están convencidos de que poseen la teoría completa y definitiva de la sociedad capitalista y el instrumento científico para liberar a la clase obrera de los "grilletes que la encadenan". Su poder explicativo, en el ámbito de la naturaleza y economía del capitalismo industrial, aunque limitado, es innegable sobre todo cuando se lo compara con doctrinas rivales y algunas de sus percepciones fundamentales han sido incorporadas a diversas corrientes del pensamiento contemporáneo. En cambio, como ideología científica al servicio de la emancipación de la clase obrera industrial, ha fracasado rutundamente. Sin excepción, todas las revoluciones populares del siglo XX incluso las que se han hecho en
    nombre de cualquiera de sus variantes locales han ocurrido en países de mayoría campesina, donde las instituciones características de una economía industrial orientada por móviles pecuniarios sólo han tenido un desarrollo incipiente: amplia participación ciudadana, justicia económica de tipo competitivo y crecimiento industrial basado en el descubrimiento y la experimentación. En ninguno de ellos existía una clase obrera industrial amplia y diversificada ejercitada en la lucha por obtener los beneficios del sistema industrial y en todos ellos el poder del estado descansaba en la tradición, el estatus o la fuerza, no en su adaptación a los valores, actitudes y comportamientos que surgen en sociedades urbanas densas, plurales y cambiantes.

  8. Absorption and translocation of 15N in Japonica (Hinohikari) and Indica (Hadsaduri) rice varieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islam, N.; Inagaki, S.; Chishaki, N.; Horiguchi, T.

    1997-01-01

    The absorption and translocation of 15 N-labeled nitrogen (N) applied as three N levels of ammonium nitrate at the stages of panicle initiation (PI) and heading (HD) were compared between a japonica rice variety (var. Hinohikari) and a tall indica rice variety (var. Hadsaduri) by growing them hydroponically. With the supply of low N level, 15 N absorption by the japonica variety was larger, but at medium and high N levels, the tall indica variety absorbed larger amounts of 15 N at both stages. However, the amount of 15 N partitioned to the panicles at maturity was considerably smaller in the indica variety, since dry matter allocation to the panicles was also smaller in this variety. The tall indica variety showed a considerable loss of 15 N from heading to maturity at the high N-level unlike the japonica variety. (author)

  9. Influence of calcium phosphate nanoparticles, Piriformospora indica and Glomus mosseae on growth of Zea mays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rane, Mansi; Bawskar, Manisha; Rathod, Dnyaneshwar; Nagaonkar, Dipali; Rai, Mahendra

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (G. mosseae) and endosymbiont (P. indica) colonized Zea mays were treated with calcium phosphate nanoparticles (CaPNPs) and evaluated for their plant growth promotion efficiency. It was observed that CaPNPs in combination with both G. mosseae and P. indica are more potent plant growth promoter than independent combinations of CaPNPs + G. mosseae, CaPNPs + P. indica or CaPNPs alone. The fluorimetric studies of treated plants revealed that CaPNPs alone and in combination with P. indica can enhance vitality of Zea mays by improving chlorophyll a content and performance index of treated plants. Hence, we conclude that CaPNPs exhibit synergistic growth promotion, root proliferation and vitality improvement properties along with endosymbiotic and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, which after further field trials can be developed as a cost-effective nanofertilizer with pronounced efficiency. (paper)

  10. A Review on Ethnopharmacological Applications, Pharmacological Activities, and Bioactive Compounds of Mangifera indica (Mango)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Mangifera indica (family Anacardiaceae), commonly known as mango, is a pharmacologically, ethnomedically, and phytochemically diverse plant. Various parts of M. indica tree have been used in traditional medicine for the treatment of different ailments, and a number of bioactive phytochemical constituents of M. indica have been reported, namely, polyphenols, terpenes, sterols, carotenoids, vitamins, and amino acids, and so forth. Several studies have proven the pharmacological potential of different parts of mango trees such as leaves, bark, fruit peel and flesh, roots, and flowers as anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal, anthelmintic, gastroprotective, hepatoprotective, immunomodulatory, antiplasmodial, and antihyperlipemic. In the present review, a comprehensive study on ethnopharmacological applications, pharmacological activities, and bioactive compounds of M. indica has been described. PMID:29456572

  11. A Review on Ethnopharmacological Applications, Pharmacological Activities, and Bioactive Compounds of Mangifera indica (Mango

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meran Keshawa Ediriweera

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mangifera indica (family Anacardiaceae, commonly known as mango, is a pharmacologically, ethnomedically, and phytochemically diverse plant. Various parts of M. indica tree have been used in traditional medicine for the treatment of different ailments, and a number of bioactive phytochemical constituents of M. indica have been reported, namely, polyphenols, terpenes, sterols, carotenoids, vitamins, and amino acids, and so forth. Several studies have proven the pharmacological potential of different parts of mango trees such as leaves, bark, fruit peel and flesh, roots, and flowers as anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal, anthelmintic, gastroprotective, hepatoprotective, immunomodulatory, antiplasmodial, and antihyperlipemic. In the present review, a comprehensive study on ethnopharmacological applications, pharmacological activities, and bioactive compounds of M. indica has been described.

  12. Eleusine indica L. possesses antioxidant activity and precludes carbon tetrachloride (CCl₄)-mediated oxidative hepatic damage in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Mohammad; Gnanaraj, Charles

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ability of aqueous extract of Eleusine indica to protect against carbon tetrachloride (CCl₄)-induced hepatic injury in rats. The antioxidant activity of E. indica was evaluated using the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay. The total phenolic content of E. indica was also determined. Biochemical parameters [e.g. alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH), catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, glutathione S-transferase and quinone reductase] were used to evaluate hepatic damage in animals pretreated with E. indica and intoxicated with CCl₄. CCl₄-mediated hepatic damage was also evaluated by histopathologically. E. indica extract was able to reduce the stable DPPH level in a dose-dependent manner. The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC₅₀) value was 2350 μg/ml. Total phenolic content was found to be 14.9 ± 0.002 mg/g total phenolic expressed as gallic acid equivalent per gram of extract. Groups pretreated with E. indica showed significantly increased activity of antioxidant enzymes compared to the CCl₄-intoxicated group (p indica pretreatment (p indica-pretreated groups as compared to the CCl₄-intoxicated group. The protective effect of E. indica was further evident through decreased histopathological alterations in the liver. The results of our study indicate that the hepatoprotective effects of E. indica might be ascribable to its antioxidant and free radical scavenging property.

  13. Pengaruh Pemberian Ekstrak Daun Beluntas (Pluchea Indica L) terhadap Total Kolesterol Darah Broiler

    OpenAIRE

    Sukaryana, Yana; Priabudiman, Y

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of study was to determine the potential leaf extract Pluchea indica L at broiler in lowering cholesterol, as well as the exact time of administration so that the plant can be used as an alternative to veterinary medicinal plants without any negative effect on productivity. The experimental design used was a complete randomized design (CRD) consisting of 4 treatments with 6 replicates, each occupied by 4 broilers. P1 treatment was leaf extract Pluchea indica L for 3 weeks starting ...

  14. Opuntia ficus indica (L.) Fruit Extract as Natural Indicator in Acid-Base Titration

    OpenAIRE

    Manoj A. Suva

    2014-01-01

    In routine experiments synthetic indicators are the choice of acid base titrations. But there are some limitations like environmental pollution, availability and higher cost which leads to search for natural compounds as an acid base indicator was started. The present work highlights theexploit of the methanolic and aqueous extract of the fruit of Opuntia ficus indica plants as a natural acid base indicator in acid base titrations. Opuntia ficus indica plant was identified and fruits were was...

  15. Chemical Profiling of Acalypha Indica Obtained from Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction and Soxhlet Extraction Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Surangkana Chaichoowong; Jan Bernd Bol; Pornprapa Bol; Thomas Gamse; Malinee Sriariyanun

    2017-01-01

    Acalypha indica is a weed that grows in South-East Asia. It contains several valuable compounds that can be used for curing various diseases such as rheumatism, skin infection and blood dysentery. Here, the extraction of A. indica using Soxhlet extraction with two different solvents and supercritical CO2 extraction (SCE) with two different temperatures (40 and 60°C) was performed. In Soxhlet extraction, ethanol solvent provided the highest extraction yield of 34.36%. For SCE, the increased te...

  16. Acute Toxicity of Opuntia Ficus Indica and Pistacia Lentiscus Seed Oils in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Boukeloua, A; Belkhiri, A; Djerrou, Z; Bahri, L; Boulebda, N; Pacha, Y Hamdi

    2012-01-01

    Opuntia ficus indica and Pistacia lentiscus L. seeds are used in traditional medicine. The objective of this study was to investigate the toxicity of the fixed oil of Opuntia ficus indica and Pistacia lentiscus L. seeds in mice through determination of LD50 values, and also the physicochemical characteristics of the fixed oil of these oils. The acute toxicity of their fixed oil were also investigated in mice using the method of Kabba and Berhens. The fixed oil of Pistacia lentiscus and Opunti...

  17. Two New Records from Lebanon: Chamaesyce nutans (Lag.) Small (Euphorbiaceae) and Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertner (Poaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    HABER, Ricardus M.; SEMAAN, Myrna T.

    2007-01-01

    Chamaesyce nutans (Lag.) Small (Euphorbiaceae) and Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertner (Poaceae) are described as new records for the flora of Lebanon. Specimens of C. nutans collected from roadsides and rocks in a middle mountain forest confirm the occurrence of the species on the western slopes of the Mount Lebanon Range. Additionally, specimens of E. indica were collected from wasteland and roadsides in the coastal town of Kaslik. The species were observed to thrive abundantly in similar habitat...

  18. Distribution of Multipple Herbicide Resistant Eleusine Indica L. Gaertn. an Oil Palm Estate in North Sumatera

    OpenAIRE

    syahputra, ahmad bayu; Purba, Edison Purba; Hasanah, Yaya Hasanah

    2016-01-01

    Goosegrass (Eleusine indica) in a block of oil palm Estate at Serdang Bedagai, North Sumatera had been controlled using glyphosate and paraquat for more than 26 years continuously. Recently, it had been reported that the two herbicides failed to control the population. The estate consists of 4000 Ha or 437 blocks which had slightly different history in weed management. The objective of this study was to determine the distribution Eleusine indica Resistant to glyphosate and paraquat in the oil...

  19. A novel 'green' synthesis of colloidal silver nanoparticles (SNP) using Dillenia indica fruit extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Susmita; Saikia, Jyoti P; Buragohain, Alak K

    2013-02-01

    In the present research we have defined a novel green method of silver nanoparticles synthesis using Dillenia indica fruit extract. D. indica is an edible fruit widely distributed in the foothills of Himalayas and known for its antioxidant and further predicted for cancer preventive potency. The maximum absorbance of the colloidal silver nanoparticle solution was observed at 421 nm when examined with UV-vis spectrophotometer. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The OXI1 kinase pathway mediates Piriformospora indica-induced growth promotion in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris Camehl

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Piriformospora indica is an endophytic fungus that colonizes roots of many plant species and promotes growth and resistance to certain plant pathogens. Despite its potential use in agriculture, little is known on the molecular basis of this beneficial plant-fungal interaction. In a genetic screen for plants, which do not show a P. indica- induced growth response, we isolated an Arabidopsis mutant in the OXI1 (Oxidative Signal Inducible1 gene. OXI1 has been characterized as a protein kinase which plays a role in pathogen response and is regulated by H₂O₂ and PDK1 (3-PHOSPHOINOSITIDE-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE1. A genetic analysis showed that double mutants of the two closely related PDK1.1 and PDK1.2 genes are defective in the growth response to P. indica. While OXI1 and PDK1 gene expression is upregulated in P. indica-colonized roots, defense genes are downregulated, indicating that the fungus suppresses plant defense reactions. PDK1 is activated by phosphatidic acid (PA and P. indica triggers PA synthesis in Arabidopsis plants. Under beneficial co-cultivation conditions, H₂O₂ formation is even reduced by the fungus. Importantly, phospholipase D (PLDα1 or PLDδ mutants, which are impaired in PA synthesis do not show growth promotion in response to fungal infection. These data establish that the P. indica-stimulated growth response is mediated by a pathway consisting of the PLD-PDK1-OXI1 cascade.

  1. Variables y modelos para la identificación y predicción del fracaso empresarial: revisión de la investigación empírica reciente.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. Castaño Gutiérrez

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo analiza la evolución en el tiempo de los estudios sobre fracaso empresarial. Con carácter general, partimos de la revisión crítica realizada en la literatura previa, y aportamos un análisis de la evidencia empírica adicional, con especial atención a la obtenida durante la última década. Pero además, para subsanar algunas deficiencias detectadas en las revisiones anteriores, nos ocupamos de tres aspectos, que pueden considerarse la principal contribución de este trabajo: primero, analizamos la evolución en las últimas décadas del concepto de fracaso empresarial o fallido, detectando cierta evolución desde la identificación hacia la predicción; segundo, analizamos las variables empleadas en los modelos, aportando un estudio de los rasgos empresariales que se representan con las variables (frente al tradicional análisis de frecuencia de las propias variables individuales, siendo los resultados más acordes con los planteamientos y desarrollos teóricos clásicos sobre el fracaso empresarial; y, finalmente, destacamos los puntos fuertes y débiles de las metodologías que, por su reciente aparición, no habían sido analizadas o muy poco por revisiones anteriores: las técnicas de inteligencia artificial y el análisis envolvente de datos (DEA. Adicionalmente, integramos en la revisión el numeroso grupo de trabajos empíricos publicados en España sobre la cuestión, y que no aparecían en ninguna de las revisiones previas analizadas.This work analyzes the evolution of business failure literature. In it, we consider previous critical revisions, contributing with the analysis of additional empirical evidence, paying special attention to the last decade. In order to make up for some deficiencies detected in previous revisions, we deal with three aspects that can be considered the main contribution of this work. First, we analyze the business failure concept during the last decades, detecting, from identification to

  2. Antifungal activity of neem (Azadirachta indica: Meliaceae extracts against dermatophytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Iván Ospina Salazar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to assess the antifungal activity of methanolic extracts from neem tree (Azadirachta indica A. Juss., several bioassays were conducted following M38-A2 broth microdilution method on 14 isolates of the dermatophytes Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton rubrum, Microsporum canis and Epidermophyton floccosum. Neem extracts were obtained through methanol-hexane partitioning of mature green leaves and seed oil. Furthermore, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC analyses were carried out to relate the chemical profile with their content of terpenoids, of widely known antifungal activity. The antimycotic Terbinafine served as a positive control. Results showed that there was total growth inhibition of the dermatophytes isolates at minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC between 50 μg/mL and 200 μg/mL for leaves extract, and between 625 μg/mL and 2500 μg/mL for seed oil extract. The MIC of positive control (Terbinafine ranged between 0.0019 μg/mL and 0.0313 μg/mL. Both neem leaves and seed oil methanol extracts exhibited different chromatographic profiles by HPLC, which could explain the differences observed in their antifungal activity. This analysis revealed the possible presence of terpenoids in both extracts, which are known to have biological activity. The results of this research are a new report on the therapeutic potential of neem to the control of dermatophytosis.  Actividad antifúngica de extractos de neem (Azadirachta indica: Meliaceae sobre hongos dermatofitos Se determinó la actividad antifúngica de extractos metanólicos de la especie Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (Meliaceae, conocida comúnmente como neem, empleando el método de microdilución en caldo M38-A2 de referencia para hongos filamentosos y dermatofitos. Se evaluaron 14 aislamientos de los dermatofitos Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton rubrum, Microsporum canis y Epidermophyton floccosum. Los extractos de neem fueron obtenidos mediante partici

  3. Synthesis of Gold Nanoparticles Using Garcinia Indica Fruit Rind Extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnaprabha, M.; Pattabi, Manjunatha

    2016-10-01

    This report presents the easily reproducible biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) at room temperature with extract prepared using three year old dried Garcinia Indica (GI) fruit rind. Due to the presence of two major bioactive compounds garcinol and hydroxy citric acid, rinds of GI fruit exhibit anti-cancer and anti-obesity properties. The quantity of fruit rind extract directed the morphology of the as synthesized particles. The nucleation and growth of AuNPs and catalytic activity are studied using UV-Vis spectroscopy. The crystalline nature of biosynthesized AuNPs is corroborated by X-ray Diffraction techniques. The morphology is studied using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy analysis revealed that biomolecules were involved in the synthesis and capping of AuNPs. As the Fermi potential of noble metal NPs becomes more negative, they are used in various electron transfer processes. The AuNPs produced using GI extract showed excellent catalytic activity when used as a catalyst in the reduction of well-known toxic pollutant 4-Nitrophenol (4-NP) to 4-Aminophenol (4-AP) in the presence of excess sodium borohydride.

  4. Antimicrobial activity screening of isolated flavonoids from Azadirachta indica leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    QUDSIA KANWAL

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial activities of two flavonoids, namely genistein 7-O-glucoside (1 and (–-epi-catechin (2, isolated from Azadirachta indica A. Juss (neem leaves, were evaluated against five fungal species, viz: Alternaria alternata (Fr. Keissler, Aspergillus fumigatus Fresenius, Aspergillus niger van Tieghem, Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi Goid. and Penicillium citrii, and four bacterial species, viz. Lactobacillus sp., Escherichia coli, Azospirillium lipoferum and Bacillus sp. Six concentrations, viz. 100, 300, 500, 700, 900 and 1000 ppm of each of the two flavonoids were employed using malt extract agar medium. All the concentrations of both the test compounds significantly suppressed fungal as well as bacterial growth. The highest concentration (1000 ppm of both fractions 1 and 2 reduced the growth of the different test fungal species by 83–99 % and 82–95 %, respectively. Compound 1 was highly effective against Lactobacillus sp., against which its various concentrations reduced the bacterial growth by 52–99.8 %. Compound 2 was highly effective against A. lipoferum and Bacillus sp., resulting in 94–100 % and 73–99% reduction in bacterial growth, respectively.

  5. Characterization of crystalline structures in Opuntia ficus-indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras-Padilla, Margarita; Rivera-Muñoz, Eric M; Gutiérrez-Cortez, Elsa; del López, Alicia Real; Rodríguez-García, Mario Enrique

    2015-01-01

    This research studies the crystalline compounds present in nopal (Opuntia ficus-indica) cladodes. The identification of the crystalline structures was performed using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, mass spectrometry, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The crystalline structures identified were calcium carbonate (calcite) [CaCO3], calcium-magnesium bicarbonate [CaMg(CO3)2], magnesium oxide [MgO], calcium oxalate monohydrate [Ca(C2O4)•(H2O)], potassium peroxydiphosphate [K4P2O8] and potassium chloride [KCl]. The SEM images indicate that calcite crystals grow to dipyramidal, octahedral-like, prismatic, and flower-like structures; meanwhile, calcium-magnesium bicarbonate structures show rhombohedral exfoliation and calcium oxalate monohydrate is present in a drusenoid morphology. These calcium carbonate compounds have a great importance for humans because their bioavailability. This is the first report about the identification and structural analysis of calcium carbonate and calcium-magnesium bicarbonate in nopal cladodes, as well as the presence of magnesium oxide, potassium peroxydiphosphate and potassium chloride in these plants. The significance of the study of the inorganic components of these cactus plants is related with the increasing interest in the potential use of Opuntia as a raw material of products for the food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries.

  6. Purification and properties of the dihydrofolate synthetase from Serratia indica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Masamichi; Iwai, Kazuo

    1976-01-01

    The dihydrofolate synthetase (EC6.3.2.12) responsible for catalyzing the synthesis of dihydrofolic acid from dihydropteroic acid and L-glutamic acid was purified about 130-fold from extracts of Serratia indica IFO 3759 by ammonium sulfate fractionation, DEAE-Sephadex column chromatography, Sephadex G-200 gel filtration, and DEAE-cellulose column chromatography. The enzyme preparation obtained was shown to be homogeneous by DEAE-cellulose column chromatography and ultracentrifugal analysis. The sedimentation coefficient of this enzyme was 3.9 S, and the molecular weight was determined to be about 47,000 by Sephadex G-100. The optimum pH for the reaction was 9.0. The enzymatic reaction required dihydropteroate, L-glutamate and ATP as substrates, and Mg 2+ and K + as cofactors. γ-L-Glutamyl-L-glutamic acid cannot replace L-glutamic acid as the substrate. Neither pteroic acid nor tetrahydropteroic acid can be used as the substrate. ATP was partially replaced by ITP or GTP. The enzyme reaction was inhibited by the addition of ADP, but not by AMP. One mole of dihydrofolate, 1 mole of ADP and 1 mole of orthophosphate were produced from each 1 mole of dihydropteroic acid, L-glutamic acid, and ATP. These results suggest that the systematic name for the dihydrofolate synthetase is 7,8-dihydropteroate: L-glutamate ligase (ADP). (auth.)

  7. Mutagenic effects on indica rice carried by satellite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Dezhi; Liu Yongzhu; Guo Tao; Zhang Jianguo; Chen Zhiqiang; Wang Hui

    2010-01-01

    Dried seeds of four indica rice varieties were carried into space by satellite Shijia No.8, the mutagenic effects of space condition on the seeds vigor and agronomic traits in the SP 1 generation, and on the agronomic traits, amylose conent and bacterial resistance in the SP 2 generation were studied. The results showed that the space condition slightly damaged rice seeds, with the physiological damage rate of germination rate, bud length, plant height and seed-setting rate in the SP 1 ranged from 0 to 26.9%. Different varieties responded differently to the space conditions, and the order from strong to weak was Gui 99, Hanghui 7, R998, Jinhang 138. Compared with the control, no trait showed segregation in the SP 1 generation. Some traits appeared larger segregation in the SP 2 generation, and the mutants of plant height, number of tillers, weight of grain, amylose content and bacterial blight resistance were isolated in the SP 2 generation, and these mutation traits could be inherited the SP 3 generation. Space conditions not only produced mutants of rice agronomic traits, but also produced mutants of rice quality and disease resistance. (authors)

  8. Antidiabetic and anticancer activities of Mangifera indica cv. Okrong leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganogpichayagrai, Aunyachulee; Palanuvej, Chanida; Ruangrungsi, Nijsiri

    2017-01-01

    Diabetes and cancer are a major global public health problem. Plant-derived agents with undesirable side-effects were required. This study aimed to evaluate antidiabetic and anticancer activities of the ethanolic leaf extract of Mangifera indica cv. Okrong and its active phytochemical compound, mangiferin. Antidiabetic activities against yeast α-glucosidase and rat intestinal α-glucosidase were determined using 1 mM of p-nitro phenyl-α-D-glucopyranoside as substrate. Inhibitory activity against porcine pancreatic α-amylase was performed using 1 mM of 2-chloro-4 nitrophenol-α-D-maltotroside-3 as substrate. Nitrophenol product was spectrophotometrically measured at 405 nm. Anticancer activity was evaluated against five human cancer cell lines compared to two human normal cell lines using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Mango leaf extract and mangiferin exhibited dose-dependent inhibition against yeast α-glucosidase with the IC50 of 0.0503 and 0.5813 mg/ml, respectively, against rat α-glucosidase with the IC50 of 1.4528 and 0.4333 mg/ml, respectively, compared to acarbose with the IC50 of 11.9285 and 0.4493 mg/ml, respectively. For anticancer activity, mango leaf extract, at ≥200 μg/ml showed cytotoxic potential against all tested cancer cell lines. In conclusion, mango leaf possessed antidiabetic and anticancer potential in vitro. PMID:28217550

  9. Vascular effects of the Mangifera indica L. extract (Vimang).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán, Amada E; Alvarez, Yolanda; Xavier, Fabiano E; Hernanz, Raquel; Rodriguez, Janet; Núñez, Alberto J; Alonso, María J; Salaices, Mercedes

    2004-09-24

    The effects of the Mangiferia indica L. (Vimang) extract, and mangiferin (a C-glucosylxanthone of Vimang) on the inducible isoforms of cyclooxygenase (cyclooxygenase-2) and nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression and on vasoconstrictor responses were investigated in vascular smooth muscle cells and mesenteric resistance arteries, respectively, from Wistar Kyoto (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) rats. Vimang (0.5-0.1 mg/ml) and mangiferin (0.025 mg/ml) inhibited the interleukin-1beta (1 ng/ml)-induced iNOS expression more in SHR than in WKY, and cyclooxygenase-2 expression more in WKY than in SHR. Vimang (0.25-1 mg/ml) reduced noradrenaline (0.1-30 microM)- and U46619 (1 nM-30 microM)- but not KCl (15-70 mM)-induced contractions. Mangiferin (0.05 mg/ml) did not affect noradrenaline-induced contraction. In conclusion, the antiinflammatory action of Vimang would be related with the inhibition of iNOS and cyclooxygenase-2 expression, but not with its effect on vasoconstrictor responses. Alterations in the regulation of both enzymes in hypertension would explain the differences observed in the Vimang effect.

  10. Characterisation of glufosinate resistance mechanisms in Eleusine indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalaludin, Adam; Yu, Qin; Zoellner, Peter; Beffa, Roland; Powles, Stephen B

    2017-06-01

    An Eleusine indica population has evolved resistance to glufosinate, a major post-emergence herbicide of global agriculture. This population was analysed for target-site (glutamine synthetase) and non-target-site (glufosinate uptake, translocation and metabolism) resistance mechanisms. Glutamine synthetase (GS) activity extracted from susceptible (S) and resistant (R*) plants was equally sensitive to glufosinate inhibition, with IC 50 values of 0.85 mm and 0.99 mm, respectively. The extractable GS activity was also similar in S and R* samples. Foliar uptake of [ 14 C]-glufosinate did not differ in S and R* plants, nor did glufosinate net uptake in leaf discs. Translocation of [ 14 C]-glufosinate into untreated shoots and roots was also similar in both populations, with 44% to 47% of the herbicide translocated out from the treated leaf 24 h after treatment. The HPLC and LC-MS analysis of glufosinate metabolism revealed no major metabolites in S or R* leaf tissue. Glufosinate resistance in this resistant population is not due to an insensitive GS, or increased activity, or altered glufosinate uptake and translocation, or enhanced glufosinate metabolism. Thus, target-site resistance is likely excluded and the exact resistance mechanism(s) remain to be determined. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Anticonvulsant potentials of ethanolic extract of Eleusine indica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ette Okon Ettebong

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the anticonvulsant potentials of ethanolic extract of Eleusine indica. Methods: Albino Wistar mice were separated into five groups with six animals in each group and thereafter pretreated with distilled water, various doses of the extract (200–600 mg/kg and standard drug diazepam (0.5 mg/kg. Thirty minutes later, pentylenetetrazole (70 mg/kg, aminophylline (280 mg/kg and isoniazid (250 mg/kg were used to induce convulsions by intraperitoneal administration. These mice were then placed in plexiglas cages and monitored for the occurrence of seizures over a thirty-minute time period. The latency of convulsions, duration of tonic convulsions and mortality protection were recorded. Data obtained were analyzed using GraphPad InStat 3.10. Results: The results showed that the extract exhibited a dose-dependent increase in the latency of clonic convulsions and decrease in duration of tonic convulsions as compared to the control and these effects were statistically significant (P < 0.001. The extract also provided protection against the mortality which was similar to that produced by the standard drug diazepam. Conclusions: The significant increase in the latency of clonic convulsions and decrease in duration of tonic convulsions caused by the extract show anticonvulsant activity and corroborate with the claims of the traditional use of the plant as an anticonvulsant remedy.

  12. Development of mango (Mangifera indica L. energy drinks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Julio Márquez Cardozo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of two hydrocolloids, pectin and carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC, was evaluated in mango beverage stability (Mangifera indica L. formulated and developed with caffeine at a concentration of 30 mg/100 mL. The physico-chemical and sensory characteristics of color, acidity, viscosity, total soluble solids, pH, flavor, aroma and texture were studied every three days over a 12-day period. The beverages were packaged in high-density polyethylene containers with a 250 mL capacity and were stored at 5 °C and 90% RH for the duration of the experimentation period. The drinks with added pectin showed greater stability and lower acidity values than the control, but higher values than those prepared with CMC. The drinks made with CMC had a significantly higher viscosity at a 95% confidence level than those made with pectin or the control beverages. The treatment that showed the lowest browning index was the one added with pectin. Concerning the sensory evaluation, the drinks showed significant differences at a 95% confidence level; the drink made with pectin was the most widely accepted. It was concluded that the most stable drinks were those made with pectin because they presented the lowest height in millimeters of precipitate solids over the storage period. No off-flavors in beverages were perceived by the judges.

  13. Antidepressant-like Effect of Kaempferol and Quercitirin, Isolated from Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soo-Hyun; Sim, Yun-Beom; Han, Pyung-Lim; Lee, Jin-Koo; Suh, Hong-Won

    2010-06-01

    Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten. is widely cultivated in Jeju Island (South Korea) for use in manufacture of health foods. This study described antidepressant effect of two flavonoids (kaempferol and quercitrin) isolated from the Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten. The expression of the hypothalamic POMC mRNA or plasma β-endorphin levels were increased by extract of Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten or its flavoniods administered orally. In addition, antidepressant activity was studied using tail suspension test (TST), forced swimming test (FST) and rota-rod test in chronically restraint immobilization stress group in mice. After restraint stress (2 hrs/day for 14 days), animals were kept in cage for 14 days without any further stress, bet with drugs. Mice were fed with a diet supplemented for 14 days and during the behavioral test period with kaempferol or quercitrin (30 mg/kg/day). POMC mRNA or plasma β-endorphin level was increased by extract of Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten and its flavoniods. In addition, immobility time in TST and FST was significantly reduced by kaempferol or quercitrin. In rota-rod test, the time of permanence was maintained to the semblance of control group in turning at 15 rpm. Our results suggest that two flavonoids (kaempferol and quercitrin) isolated from the Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten. show a potent antidepressant effect.

  14. Antidepressant-like Effect of Kaempferol and Quercitirin, Isolated from Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soo-Hyun; Sim, Yun-Beom; Han, Pyung-Lim; Lee, Jin-Koo

    2010-01-01

    Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten. is widely cultivated in Jeju Island (South Korea) for use in manufacture of health foods. This study described antidepressant effect of two flavonoids (kaempferol and quercitrin) isolated from the Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten. The expression of the hypothalamic POMC mRNA or plasma β-endorphin levels were increased by extract of Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten or its flavoniods administered orally. In addition, antidepressant activity was studied using tail suspension test (TST), forced swimming test (FST) and rota-rod test in chronically restraint immobilization stress group in mice. After restraint stress (2 hrs/day for 14 days), animals were kept in cage for 14 days without any further stress, bet with drugs. Mice were fed with a diet supplemented for 14 days and during the behavioral test period with kaempferol or quercitrin (30 mg/kg/day). POMC mRNA or plasma β-endorphin level was increased by extract of Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten and its flavoniods. In addition, immobility time in TST and FST was significantly reduced by kaempferol or quercitrin. In rota-rod test, the time of permanence was maintained to the semblance of control group in turning at 15 rpm. Our results suggest that two flavonoids (kaempferol and quercitrin) isolated from the Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten. show a potent antidepressant effect. PMID:22110339

  15. In vivo and in vitro anti-inflammatory activity of Mangifera indica L. extract (VIMANG).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido, Gabino; González, Deyarina; Lemus, Yeny; García, Dagmar; Lodeiro, Lizt; Quintero, Gypsy; Delporte, Carla; Núñez-Sellés, Alberto J; Delgado, René

    2004-08-01

    A standard aqueous extract of Mangifera indica L., used in Cuba as an antioxidant under the brand name of VIMANG, was tested in vivo for its anti-inflammatory activity using commonly accepted assays. M. indica extract, administered topically (0.5-2 mg per ear), reduced ear edema induced by arachidonic acid (AA) and phorbol myristate acetate (PMA, ED50 = 1.1 mg per ear) in mice. In the PMA model, M. indica extract also reduced myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. This extract p.o. administered also inhibited tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) serum levels in both models of inflammation (AA, ED50 = 106.1 mg kg(-1) and PMA, ED50 = 58.2 mg kg(-1)). In vitro studies were performed using the macrophage cell line RAW264.7 stimulated with pro-inflammatory stimuli (LPS-IFNgamma or the calcium ionophore A23187) to determine PGE2 or LTB4 release, respectively. The extract inhibited the induction of PGE2 with IC50 = 64.1 microg ml(-1) and LTB4 IC50 = 22.9 microg ml(-1). M. indica extract also inhibited human synovial secretory phospholipase (PL)A2 with IC 50 = 0.7 microg ml(-1). These results represent an important contribution to the elucidation of the mechanism involved in the anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive effects reported by the standard M. indica extract VIMANG. Copyright 2004 Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Herbicide effects on cuticle ultrastructure in Eleusine indica and Portulaca oleracea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malpassi, Rosana N

    2006-04-01

    Eleusine indica and Portulaca oleracea are two common weeds in peanut crops in southern Córdoba. Two chemicals are frequently used to control them, quizalofop for grasses and lactofen for dicots. The objective is to study the effects of quizalofop and lactofen on cuticle ultrastructure in E. indica and P. oleracea, respectively. In the lab, quizalofop was applied on E. indica and lactofen on P. oleracea. Three plant categories were analyzed in each species: 3, 1-2, and no tiller in E. indica, and 8, 6, and 2 nomophylls in P. oleracea. Leaf samples from both species were collected at 7 and 16 days post-application and were treated for scanning electron microscopy. E. indica cuticle treated with lethal dose shows areas where epicuticular waxes disappear, specially in the youngest individuals. These areas are located predominantly on periclinal walls of typical epidermic cells and subsidiary cells. On the other hand, P. oleracea shows cuticle discontinuities that may be caused by lactofen entry. They are smaller and less frequent in plants having 8 or more nomophylls. The remaining waxes act as a herbicide accumulation compartment and, therefore, would partially prevent the active ingredient entry to epidermic cells.

  17. NAL1 allele from a rice landrace greatly increases yield in modern indica cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Daisuke; Trijatmiko, Kurniawan Rudi; Tagle, Analiza Grubanzo; Sapasap, Maria Veronica; Koide, Yohei; Sasaki, Kazuhiro; Tsakirpaloglou, Nikolaos; Gannaban, Ritchel Bueno; Nishimura, Takeshi; Yanagihara, Seiji; Fukuta, Yoshimichi; Koshiba, Tomokazu; Slamet-Loedin, Inez Hortense; Ishimaru, Tsutomu; Kobayashi, Nobuya

    2013-12-17

    Increasing crop production is essential for securing the future food supply in developing countries in Asia and Africa as economies and populations grow. However, although the Green Revolution led to increased grain production in the 1960s, no major advances have been made in increasing yield potential in rice since then. In this study, we identified a gene, SPIKELET NUMBER (SPIKE), from a tropical japonica rice landrace that enhances the grain productivity of indica cultivars through pleiotropic effects on plant architecture. Map-based cloning revealed that SPIKE was identical to NARROW LEAF1 (NAL1), which has been reported to control vein pattern in leaf. Phenotypic analyses of a near-isogenic line of a popular indica cultivar, IR64, and overexpressor lines revealed increases in spikelet number, leaf size, root system, and the number of vascular bundles, indicating the enhancement of source size and translocation capacity as well as sink size. The near-isogenic line achieved 13-36% yield increase without any negative effect on grain appearance. Expression analysis revealed that the gene was expressed in all cell types: panicles, leaves, roots, and culms supporting the pleiotropic effects on plant architecture. Furthermore, SPIKE increased grain yield by 18% in the recently released indica cultivar IRRI146, and increased spikelet number in the genetic background of other popular indica cultivars. The use of SPIKE in rice breeding could contribute to food security in indica-growing regions such as South and Southeast Asia.

  18. Transcriptome and proteomic analysis of mango (Mangifera indica Linn) fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hong-xia; Jia, Hui-min; Ma, Xiao-wei; Wang, Song-biao; Yao, Quan-sheng; Xu, Wen-tian; Zhou, Yi-gang; Gao, Zhong-shan; Zhan, Ru-lin

    2014-06-13

    Here we used Illumina RNA-seq technology for transcriptome sequencing of a mixed fruit sample from 'Zill' mango (Mangifera indica Linn) fruit pericarp and pulp during the development and ripening stages. RNA-seq generated 68,419,722 sequence reads that were assembled into 54,207 transcripts with a mean length of 858bp, including 26,413 clusters and 27,794 singletons. A total of 42,515(78.43%) transcripts were annotated using public protein databases, with a cut-off E-value above 10(-5), of which 35,198 and 14,619 transcripts were assigned to gene ontology terms and clusters of orthologous groups respectively. Functional annotation against the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes database identified 23,741(43.79%) transcripts which were mapped to 128 pathways. These pathways revealed many previously unknown transcripts. We also applied mass spectrometry-based transcriptome data to characterize the proteome of ripe fruit. LC-MS/MS analysis of the mango fruit proteome was using tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) in an LTQ Orbitrap Velos (Thermo) coupled online to the HPLC. This approach enabled the identification of 7536 peptides that matched 2754 proteins. Our study provides a comprehensive sequence for a systemic view of transcriptome during mango fruit development and the most comprehensive fruit proteome to date, which are useful for further genomics research and proteomic studies. Our study provides a comprehensive sequence for a systemic view of both the transcriptome and proteome of mango fruit, and a valuable reference for further research on gene expression and protein identification. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Proteomics of non-model organisms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Biosynthesis and characterization of gold nanoparticles using extracts of tamarindus indica L leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, S. N.; Naranjo, A. M.; Herrera, A. P.

    2016-02-01

    This study reports the biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles using an extract of Tamarindus indica L. leaves. Phenols, ketones and carboxyls were present in the leaves of T. indica. These organic compounds that allowed the synthesis of nanoparticles were identified by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and High Pressure Liquid Chromatographic (HPLC). Synthesis of gold nanoparticles was performed with the extract of T. indica leaves and an Au+3 aqueous solutions (HAuCl4) at room temperature with one hour of reaction time. Characterization of gold nanoparticles was performed by UV visible spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and EDX. The results indicated the formation of gold nanoparticles with a wavelength of 576nm and an average size of 52±5nm. The EDX technique confirmed the presence of gold nanoparticles with 12.88% in solution.

  20. Biosynthesis and characterization of gold nanoparticles using extracts of tamarindus indica L leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correa, S N; Naranjo, A M; Herrera, A P

    2016-01-01

    This study reports the biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles using an extract of Tamarindus indica L. leaves. Phenols, ketones and carboxyls were present in the leaves of T. indica. These organic compounds that allowed the synthesis of nanoparticles were identified by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and High Pressure Liquid Chromatographic (HPLC). Synthesis of gold nanoparticles was performed with the extract of T. indica leaves and an Au +3 aqueous solutions (HAuCl 4 ) at room temperature with one hour of reaction time. Characterization of gold nanoparticles was performed by UV visible spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and EDX. The results indicated the formation of gold nanoparticles with a wavelength of 576nm and an average size of 52±5nm. The EDX technique confirmed the presence of gold nanoparticles with 12.88% in solution. (paper)

  1. Modulatory effect of Mangifera indica against carbon tetrachloride induced kidney damage in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awodele, Olufunsho; Adeneye, Adejuwon Adewale; Aiyeola, Sheriff Aboyade; Benebo, Adokiye Senibo

    2015-12-01

    There is little scientific evidence on the local use of Mangifera indica in kidney diseases. This study investigated the reno-modulatory roles of the aqueous stem bark extract of Mangifera indica (MIASE) against CCl4-induced renal damage. Rats were treated intragastrically with 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg/day MIASE for 7 days before and after the administration of CCl4 (3 ml/kg of 30% CCl4, i.p.). Serum levels of electrolytes (Na+, K+, Cl(-), HCO3(-)), urea and creatinine were determined. Renal tissue reduced glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA), catalase (CAT), superoxide (SOD) activities were also assessed. The histopathological changes in kidneys were determined using standard methods. In CCl4 treated rats the results showed significant (pMangifera indica may present a great prospect for drug development in the management of kidney disease with lipid peroxidation as its etiology.

  2. Development of Microsatellite Markers for Lagerstroemia indica (Lythraceae and Related Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Liu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: Microsatellite markers were developed and characterized to analyze genetic diversity within Lagerstroemia cultivars and related species. Methods and Results: Using simple sequence repeat (SSR-enriched libraries, 11 species-specific polymorphic genomic SSRs were developed from L. indica ‘Hong Die Fei Wu’. All primers were tested on 48 L. indica individuals from China, the United States, and France. The primers amplified four to 12 alleles per locus, including di-, tri-, and tetranucleotide repeats. Observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.1875 to 0.7609 and 0.2836 to 0.8385, respectively. The primers were also highly cross-transferrable to L. subcostata, L. limii, L. fauriei, L. caudata, and L. speciosa. Conclusions: The new primers will enlarge the bank of SSRs available to genetic research of Lagerstroemia. These SSR markers will facilitate population genetics and molecular marker-assisted selection of L. indica.

  3. Caracterización de la opuntia ficus-indica para su uso como coagulante natural

    OpenAIRE

    Villabona Ortíz, Angel; Paz, Isabel Cristina; Martínez García, Jasser

    2013-01-01

    Título en inglés: Characterization of Opuntia ficus-indica for using as a natural coagulantTítulo corto: Caracterización de Opuntia ficus-indica para coagulante naturalResumenActualmente municipios de la Costa Atlántica Colombiana no cuentan con suministro de agua potable. La aplicación artesanal de la Tuna (Opuntia ficus-indica)  como coagulante es una práctica tradicional en comunidades rurales. En esta investigación se realiza la caracterización del tallo de la Tuna que crece de manera sil...

  4. Antibacterial activity of fumaria indica (hausskn.) pugsley against selected bacterial strains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toor, Y.; Nawaz, K.; Hussain, K.

    2015-01-01

    Antibacterial properties of methanolic extracts of F. indica prepared in different doses against seven Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains i.e. Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus (1), Staphylococcus aureus (2), Shigella sonnei, Escherichia coli (1), Escherichia coli (2) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae using agar well diffusion method (inhibition zone measurements) compared to gentamicin as standard antibiotic. Results showed significant activities against the test organisms with overall satisfactory statistics. Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus strains as well as Neisseria gonorrhoeae showed more inhibition to methanolic extracts of F. indica. Minimum inhibitory as well as minimum bactericidal concentrations against all strains except Shigella sonnei were also recorded. Studies showed promising horizons for the use of F. indica as an active antibacterial component in modern drug formulations. (author)

  5. Preconditioning with Azadirachta indica ameliorates cardiorenal dysfunction through reduction in oxidative stress and extracellular signal regulated protein kinase signalling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Temidayo Olutayo Omóbòwálé

    2016-10-01

    Conclusions: Together, A. indica and vitamin C prevented IRI-induced cardiorenal dysfunction via reduction in oxidative stress, improvement in antioxidant defence system and increase in the ERK1/2 expressions. Therefore, A. indica can be a useful chemopreventive agent in the prevention and treatment of conditions associated with intestinal ischaemia-reperfusion injury.

  6. Mantis indica Mukherjee, 1995: a synonym of Statilia nemoralis (Saussure, 1870 (Insecta: Mantodea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Chatterjee

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Mantis indica (Mukherjee, 1995 was erected on the basis of some distinctive characters. Based on morphological characters, it was supposed to belong to the genus Statilia (Roy (1999: 163. However, in the absence of the knowledge of the structure of genitalia, its species status remained confusing. A further study on the structure of genitalia revealed that Mantis indica (Mukherjee, 1995 is undoubtedly a synonym of Statilia nemoralis (Saussure, 1870. A table is provided to compare significant features of related species. Colour photographs of holotype and genitalia of comparable species are also provided.

  7. Wound healing effects of Heliotropium indicum, Plumbago zeylanicum and Acalypha indica in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, J Suresh; Rao, P Rajeswara; Reddy, Mada S

    2002-02-01

    The ethanolic extracts of Heliotropium indicum, Plumbago zeylanicum and Acalypha indica were evaluated for their wound healing activity in rats. Wound healing activity was studied using excision and incision wound models in rats following topical application. Animals were divided into four groups with six in each group. Ten percent w/v extract of each plant was prepared in saline for topical application. H. indicum possesses better wound healing activity than P. zeylanicum and A. indica. Tensile strength results indicate better activity of H. indicum on remodeling phase of wound healing.

  8. Nutritional value of Opuntia ficus-indica cladodes from Portuguese ecotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, A.M.; Pitacas, F.I.; Reis, C.M.G.; Blasco, M.

    2016-01-01

    The use of Opuntia ficus-indica cladodes as a forage for ruminants has been very important in the semi-arid and arid regions of the world. O. ficus-indica cladodes can be fed to small ruminants especially in periods of the year when there is low quality and quantity of pasture. In Mediterranean regions like South of Portugal during the rainy season the availability of pasture is quantitatively and qualitatively satisfactory, but in critical times of the year the shortage and low nutr...

  9. Historia de un fracaso y ¿de una refundación?: De la vieja a la nueva extrema derecha en España (1975-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis RODRÍGUEZ JIMÉNEZ

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Entre el final del franquismo y nuestros días, la extrema derecha española ha sufrido una merma de recursos y de capacidad de influencia sobre la sociedad, y se ha visto obligada a renovar su programa y forma de hacer política. El extremismo de derecha fue el gran derrotado de la transición de la dictadura a la democracia. Como consecuencia de los cambios económicos y culturales y la debilidad del nacionalismo español, los programas neofranquistas y neofascistas cosecharon un rotundo rechazo en las urnas. El fracaso del intento de golpe de Estado del 23-F sumió al neofranquismo en una crisis de la que nunca se recuperaría. El crecimiento de la extrema derecha xenófoba en Europa, algo que no sucedía desde el final de la Segunda Guerra Mundial, ha resultado determinante para que, con mucho retraso, también en España se renueven los programas, ahora basados en la captación del voto xenófobo. Ningún partido de extrema derecha ha conseguido entre 1982 y 2012 representación en las cámaras legislativas del Estado, situación que contrasta con lo que acontece en otros Estados europeos y que tratamos de explicar. No obstante, el aumento de la receptividad al discurso xenófobo ha permitido a un partido que ha copiado el programa de le Pen, y especializado en el rechazo al islam, obtener representación en varios ayuntamientos de Cataluña. Esa vía (elecciones municipales, para intentar el salto en las autonómicases la que ofrece en la actualidad mayores posibilidades de crecimiento a la extrema derecha en España.

  10. Los factores explicativos del éxito y fracaso académico en las Universidades españolas, en los años del cambio hacia la convergencia europea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Belvis

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available En un momento crucial para la Educación Superior Europea, desarrollamos un estudio que pretende determinar cuáles son los factores que afectan al rendimiento académico de los estudiantes universitarios en España. Mediante una encuesta a una muestra de estudiantes de siete Facultades de Educación españolas, se detecta que los factores que más inciden en el éxito o fracaso del estudiante son: la situación laboral; la dedicación y motivación por los estudios; la becas de estudio; las condiciones de acceso a la titulación y la preparación académica previa, así como el rendimiento académico que se consigue en los primeros semestres de estudio en la universidad. En este artículo se analizan e interpretan los resultados obtenidos y se realizan propuestas para mejorar las intervenciones y los servicios de apoyo para estudiantes.In a crucial situation for the European Higher Education, we developed a research that aimed to determine which the factors that affect academic performance of under graduate students in Spain are. By means of asurvey to a sample of students of seven Spanish Colleges of Education, it is detected that the factorsthat influence the most on the students’success or failure are: the employment situation, the dedication and motivation toward studies; the scholarships; the conditions of entrance to studies and the previous academic readiness; as well as the academic performance that is achieved during the first years in the University. In this paper we analyze and interpret the results obtained and make proposals in for improving support actions and services for students.

  11. ¿Qué modelos de enseñanza-aprendizaje adoptan los profesores de Secundaria de Matemáticas? O, cómo los profesores han seguido haciendo lo de siempre pese a la Reforma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurora PLATA CASÁIS

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Nuestro interés se orienta a conocer cómo los profesores entienden la enseñanza, cuáles son sus concepciones sobre las matemáticas y sobre el modo como aprenden los alumnos, cómo entienden la evaluación y cuál es la opinión que tienen sobre su propia práctica.Para la recogida de información planteamos una entrevista a 21 profesores de centros públicos de la ciudad de Santiago de Compostela.Nuestra interpretación de los datos arroja este resultado mayoritario:Concepción de las matemáticas y sus consecuencias en el programa: destaca la escasa atención que los profesores dedican a la reflexión acerca del significado de las matemáticas y su aportación específica a la formación de los estudiantes.Sobre la resolución de problemas: destaca su manifiesta contradicción, desconsideración e incluso oposición respecto a esta opción didáctica.Concepción de la enseñanza y el aprendizaje, y su práctica: destaca que «enseñar es transmitir información y que aprender es saber hacer los ejercicios».Sobre la evaluación del aprendizaje: destaca que la evaluación es sinónimo de examen y de calificación para seleccionar al estudiante (único responsable de su fracaso. Pero más allá de esto, el trabajo informa también sobre cuáles son los modelos de enseñanza-aprendizaje subyacentes.Como conclusión radical: prácticamente nada de lo que propone el DCB del MEC para la enseñanza-aprendizaje de las matemáticas en Secundaria, ha calado en las conciencias y en los usos de la mayor parte de los profesores que hemos entrevistado.ABSTRACT: Our interest is directed to know how teachers understand education, how their understanding of Maths and the way students learn are, how evaluation is understood and what the opinion about their own practice is.An interview to 21 teachers from public centres in the town of Santiago de Compostela was put forward to collect information.The results of our interpretation of the dates were as

  12. La historia, la comida, la salud: Un vínculo siempre más estrecho entre alimentación y medicina The history, the food, the health: A bond always more tight between feeding and medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Motta

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available En las sociedades del Antiguo Régimen la influencia del pensamiento científico racionalista puesta en acto en el Siglo de las Luces es básico para que se afirme una nueva cultura médico-científica en el contexto en que cambia también la relación con la comida. Alimentarse asume entonces un valor social e inspira consideraciones más profundas sobre la salud, atrayendo siempre más la atención de los médicos sobre la dieta, sobre las condiciones ambientales e higiénicas. Pero desde la edad media obras específicas (como, por ejemplo, los Tratados indican las propiedades de los alimentos y los beneficios que llevan consigo; desaconsejan otros hasta llegar a la prescripción médica del ayuno como verdadera terapia, afirmando así la estrecha relación entre alimentación y salud. Los "recetarios" de los hospitales indican un uso apropiado de determinadas comidas, hierbas, plantas, frutas, ensaladas, que al mismo tiempo se encuentran en las páginas de los naturalistas y hasta en las de los cocineros. Lo que más vale es el hecho de que no se justifica ya los banquetes excesivamente ricos de la aristocracia con un número de platos extraordinario, pues el triunfo de la sociedad burguesa -que también emplea la comida como indicador social para evidenciar las diferencias- lleva a reducir los gastos. La mesa a lo largo del tiempo se aligera y a medida que el conocimiento aumenta, se afirma la concepción básica que para gozar de una buena salud es necesario evitar los excesos del alimentación.In the Ancien Regime societies, during the age of Enlightment, the influence of scientific and rational thinking paved the way top a new medical culture. In this new medical approach, food habits dramatically changed. Alimentation assumed a social role and a deeper attention was devoted to health. Doctors started to focus on diet, hygienic conditions, environmental quality. Since Middle Age specific works (tractati were devoted to food properties by

  13. In vitro clonal propagation of the neem tree ( Azadirachta indica A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In vitro clonal propagation of the neem tree (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) M Shahin-uz-zaman, M Ashrafuzzaman, MS Haque, LN Luna. Abstract. A study was conducted with root and shoot tip explants of neem to develop an efficient protocol of regeneration. Shoot tips and root tips from 10 - 20 days old seedlings of neem ...

  14. Micropropagation and genetic transformation of Tylophora indica (Burm. f.) Merr.: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A; Jha, Sumita

    2016-11-01

    This review provides an in-depth and comprehensive overview of the in vitro culture of Tylophora species, which have medicinal properties. Tylophora indica (Burm. f.) Merr. is a climbing perennial vine with medicinal properties. The tissue culture and genetic transformation of T. indica, which has been extensively studied, is reviewed. Micropropagation using nodal explants has been reported in 25 % of all publications. Leaf explants from field-grown plants has been the explant of choice of independent research groups, which reported direct and callus-mediated organogenesis as well as callus-mediated somatic embryogenesis. Protoplast-mediated regeneration and callus-mediated shoot organogenesis has also been reported from stem explants, and to a lesser degree from root explants of micropropagated plants in vitro. Recent studies that used HPLC confirmed the potential of micropropagated plants to synthesize the major T. indica alkaloid tylophorine prior to and after transfer to field conditions. The genetic integrity of callus-regenerated plants was confirmed by RAPD in a few reports. Tissue culture is an essential base for genetic transformation studies. Hairy roots and transgenic T. indica plants have been shown to accumulate tylophorine suggesting that in vitro biology and transgenic methods are viable ways of clonally producing valuable germplasm and mass producing compounds of commercial value. Further studies that investigate the factors affecting the biosynthesis of Tylophora alkaloids and other secondary metabolites need to be conducted using non-transformed as well as transformed cell and organ cultures.

  15. Pollinator responses to floral colour change, nectar, and scent promote reproductive fitness in Quisqualis indica (Combretaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Juan; Wang, Gang; Sui, Yi; Wang, Menglin; Zhang, Ling

    2016-04-13

    Floral colour change is visual signals for pollinators to avoid old flowers and increase pollination efficiency. Quisqualis indica flowers change colour from white to pink to red may be associated with a shift from moth to butterfly pollination. To test this hypothesis, we investigated Q. indica populations in Southwest China. Flowers secreted nectar continuously from the evening of anthesis until the following morning, then decreased gradually with floral colour change. The scent compounds in the three floral colour stages were similar; however, the scent composition was different, and the scent emission rate decreased from the white to red stage. Dichogamy in Q. indica prevents self-pollination and interference of male and female functions. Controlled pollinations demonstrated that this species is self-incompatible and needs pollinators for seed production. Different pollinators were attracted in each floral colour stage; mainly moths at night and bees and butterflies during the day. Observations of open-pollinated inflorescences showed that white flowers had a higher fruit set than pink or red flowers, indicating the high contribution of moths to reproductive success. We concluded that the nectar and scent secretion are related to floral colour change in Q. indica, in order to attract different pollinators and promote reproductive fitness.

  16. Bioaccessibility, Intestinal Permeability and Plasma Stability of Isorhamnetin Glycosides from Opuntia ficus-indica (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes-Ricardo, Marilena; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, César; Gutiérrez-Uribe, Janet A; Cepeda-Cañedo, Eduardo; Serna-Saldívar, Sergio O

    2017-08-22

    Isorhamnetin glycosides are representative compounds of Opuntia ficus-indica that possess different biological activities. There is slight information about the changes in bioaccessibility induced by the glycosylation pattern of flavonoids, particularly for isorhamnetin. In this study, the bioaccessibility and permeability of isorhamnetin glycosides extracted from O. ficus-indica were contrasted with an isorhamnetin standard. Also, the plasma stability of these isorhamnetin glycosides after intravenous administration in rats was evaluated. Recoveries of isorhamnetin after oral and gastric digestion were lower than that observed for its glycosides. After intestinal digestion, isorhamnetin glycosides recoveries were reduced to less than 81.0%. The apparent permeability coefficient from apical (AP) to basolateral (BL) direction (Papp (AP-BL) ) of isorhamnetin was 2.6 to 4.6-fold higher than those obtained for its glycosides. Isorhamnetin diglycosides showed higher Papp (AP-BL) values than triglycosides. Sugar substituents affected the Papp (AP-BL) of the triglycosides. Isorhamnetin glycosides were better retained in the circulatory system than the aglycone. After intravenous dose of the isorhamnetin standard, the elimination half-life was 0.64 h but increased to 1.08 h when the O. ficus-indica extract was administered. These results suggest that isorhamnetin glycosides naturally found in O. ficus-indica could be a controlled delivery system to maintain a constant plasmatic concentration of this important flavonoid to exert its biological effects in vivo.

  17. Acute toxicity of Opuntia ficus indica and Pistacia lentiscus seed oils in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukeloua, A; Belkhiri, A; Djerrou, Z; Bahri, L; Boulebda, N; Hamdi Pacha, Y

    2012-01-01

    Opuntia ficus indica and Pistacia lentiscus L. seeds are used in traditional medicine. The objective of this study was to investigate the toxicity of the fixed oil of Opuntia ficus indica and Pistacia lentiscus L. seeds in mice through determination of LD₅₀ values, and also the physicochemical characteristics of the fixed oil of these oils. The acute toxicity of their fixed oil were also investigated in mice using the method of Kabba and Berhens. The fixed oil of Pistacia lentiscus and Opuntia ficus indica seeds were extracted and analyzed for its chemical and physical properties such as acid value, free fatty acid percentage (% FFA), iodine index, and saponification value as well as refractive index and density. LD₅₀ values obtained by single doses, orally and intraperitoneally administered in mice, were respectively 43 ± 0,8 ;[40.7- 45.4 ] ml/kg body wt. p.o. and 2.72 ± 0,1 ;[2.52-2.92] ml/kg body wt. i.p. for Opuntia ficus indica ; and 37 ± 1 ;[34.4 - 39.8 ] ml/kg body wt. p.o. and 2.52 ± 0,2 ;[2.22 - 2.81 ] ml/kg body wt. i.p. for Pistacia lentiscus respectively. The yields of seed oil were respectively calculated as 20.25% and 10.41%. The acid and free fatty acid values indicated that the oil has a low acidity.

  18. Immunoprotective activity and antioxidant properties of cactus (Opuntia ficus indica) extract against chlorpyrifos toxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smida, Amani; Ncibi, Saida; Taleb, Jihen; Ben Saad, Anouar; Ncib, Sana; Zourgui, Lazhar

    2017-04-01

    Opuntia ficus indica (family Cactaceae) is a typical Mediterranean plant, mainly used in food and traditional folk medicine. The present study was designed to evaluate the protective effect of Opuntia ficus indica extract against chlorpyrifos (CPF)-induced immunotoxicity in rats. The experimental animals consisted of four groups of Wistar rats (5-6 weeks old) of eight each: a control group, a group treated with CPF (10mg/kg), a group treated with Opuntia ficus indica extract (100mg/kg), and a group treated with cactus extract then treated with CPF. These components were daily administered by gavage for 30days. After treatment, immunotoxicity was estimated by a count of thymocytes, splenocytes, stem cells in the bone marrow, relative weights of thymus and spleen, DNA aspects, and oxidative stress status in these organs. Results showed that CPF could induce thymus atrophy, splenomegaly, and a decrease in the cell number in the bone marrow. It also increased the oxidative stress markers resulting in elevated levels of the lipid peroxidation with a concomitant decrease in the levels of enzymatic antioxidants (SOD, CAT, GPx) in both spleen and thymus, and also degradation of thymocyte and splenocyte DNA. Consistent histological changes were found in the spleen and thymus under CPF treatment. However, administration of Opuntia ficus indica extract was found to alleviate this CPF-induced damage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of leaf extract of Azadirachta indica and plant ash on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seedlings of Vigna unguiculata L. Walp attacked by the pulse beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus were treated with water extracts of fresh leaves of Azadirachta indica A. Juss and plant ash separately. The extract was found to exhibit an insecticidal effect. It has an antifeedant and growth regulating effects on the pulse beetle.

  20. Effects of an aqueous extract of Azadirachta indica on the groCulex ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The neem tree Azadirachta indica Juss (Meliaceae) is one of the most studied plant species for pest control, including mosquitoes. However, the effect of aqueous neem seed extracts (ANSE) on each of the 4 instars of mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae) is unknown. In order to determine the effect of ...

  1. Studies on mode of infection of Neovossia indica incitant of karnal bunt of wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munjal, R.L.; Chatrath, M.S.

    1976-01-01

    Mode of infection of Karnal bunt fungus-Neovossia indica has been established by using histopathological and radiotracer techniques. It has been observed that germ tubes arising from sporidia of the fungus directly enter the epidermal cells of glumes and then to the ovary through the ovary wall. (author)

  2. Lipid abnormalities in streptozotocin-diabetes: Amelioration by Morus indica L. cv Suguna leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Andallu, B.; Vinay Kumar, A. V.; Varadacharyulu, N. Ch.

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To observe the influence of mulberry (Morus indica L. cv Suguna) leaves on lipid abnormalities in STZ-diabetic rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Treatment with dried mulberry leaf powder for a period of 8 weeks in hyperglycemic and hyperlipidemic STZ-diabetic rats. RESULTS: Mulberry leaves regulated fasting blood glucose, ameliorated the abnormalities in lipid profile as indicated by significant (P

  3. Mangifera indica L. (the mango plant) of Anacardiaceae is a large ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mangifera indica L. (the mango plant) of Anacardiaceae is a large spreading evergreen tree with simple leaves and small reddish white or yellowish green flowers borne on much-branched inflorescences. More than 500 varieties of mango are cultivated in Indiafor their large, sweet, edible fruits which are of high economic ...

  4. Effect of Different Substrates and Casing Materials on the Growth and Yield of Calocybe indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Ruhul; Khair, Abul; Alam, Nuhu; Lee, Tae Soo

    2010-06-01

    Calocybe indica, a tropical edible mushroom, is popular because it has good nutritive value and it can be cultivated commercially. The current investigation was undertaken to determine a suitable substrate and the appropriate thickness of casing materials for the cultivation of C. indica. Optimum mycelial growth was observed in coconut coir substrate. Primordia initiation with the different substrates and casing materials was observed between the 13th and 19th day. The maximum length of stalk was recorded from sugarcane leaf, while diameter of stalk and pileus, and thickness of pileus were found in rice straw substrate. The highest biological and economic yield, and biological efficiency were also obtained in the rice straw substrate. Cow dung and loamy soil, farm-yard manure, loamy soil and sand, and spent oyster mushroom substrates were used as casing materials to evaluate the yield and yield-contributing characteristics of C. indica. The results indicate that the number of effective fruiting bodies, the biological and economic yield, and the biological efficiency were statistically similar all of the casing materials used. The maximum biological efficiency was found in the cow dung and loamy soil casing material. The cow dung and loamy soil (3 cm thick) was the best casing material and the rice straw was the best substrate for the commercial cultivation of C. indica.

  5. Cholesterol esterase inhibitory activity of bioactives from leaves of Mangifera indica L

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gururaja, G. M.; Mundkinajeddu, Deepak; Dethe, Shekhar M.; Sangli, Gopala K.; Abhilash, K.; Agarwal, Amit

    2015-01-01

    Background: In the earlier studies, methanolic extract of Mangifera indica L leaf was exhibited hypocholesterol activity. However, the bioactive compounds responsible for the same are not reported so far. Objective: To isolate the bioactive compounds with hypocholesterol activity from the leaf extract using cholesterol esterase inhibition assay which can be used for the standardization of extract. Materials and Methods: The leaf methanolic extract of M. indica (Sindoora variety) was partitioned with ethyl acetate and chromatographed on silica gel to yield twelve fractions and the activity was monitored by using cholesterol esterase inhibition assay. Active fractions were re-chromatographed to yield individual compounds. Results and Discussion: A major compound mangiferin present in the extract was screened along with other varieties of mango leaves for cholesterol esterase inhibition assay. However, the result indicates that compounds other than mangiferin may be active in the extract. Invitro pancreatic cholesterol esterase inhibition assay was used for bioactivity guided fractionation (BAGF) to yield bioactive compound for standardization of extract. Bioactivity guided fractionation afford the active fraction containing 3b-taraxerol with an IC50 value of 0.86μg/ml. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that M. indica methanol extract of leaf have significant hypocholesterol activity which is standardized with 3b-taraxerol, a standardized extract for hypocholesterol activity resulted in development of dietary supplement from leaves of Mangifera indica. PMID:26692750

  6. In vitro azadirachtin production by hairy root cultivation of Azadirachta indica in nutrient mist bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Smita; Srivastava, A K

    2012-01-01

    Azadirachtin, a well-known biopesticide is a secondary metabolite conventionally extracted from the seeds of Azadirachta indica. The present study involved in vitro azadirachtin production by developing hairy roots of A. indica via Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated transformation of A. indica explants. Liquid culture of hairy roots was established in shake flask to study the kinetics of growth and azadirachtin production. A biomass production of 13.3 g/L dry weight (specific growth rate of 0.7 day(-1)) was obtained after 25 days of cultivation period with an azadirachtin yield of 3.3 mg/g root biomass. To overcome the mass transfer limitation in conventionally used liquid-phase reactors, batch cultivation of hairy roots was carried out in gas-phase reactors (nutrient spray and nutrient mist bioreactor) to investigate the possible scale-up of A. indica hairy root culture. The nano-size nutrient mist particles generated from the nozzle of the nutrient mist bioreactor could penetrate till the inner core of the inoculated root matrix, facilitating uniform growth during high-density cultivation of hairy roots. A biomass production of 9.8 g/L dry weight with azadirachtin accumulation of 2.8 mg/g biomass (27.4 mg/L) could be achieved in 25 days of batch cultivation period, which was equivalent to a volumetric productivity of 1.09 mg/L per day of azadirachtin.

  7. Renewable energy sources from Michelia champaca and Garcinia indica seed oils: A rich source of oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosamani, K.M.; Hiremath, V.B.; Keri, R.S. [P.G. Department of Studies in Chemistry, Karnatak University, Pawate Nagar, Dharwad 580 003 (India)

    2009-02-15

    Michelia champaca and Garcinia indica seeds yielded 45.0% and 45.5% of oil. The fatty acid profiles of both the seed oils were examined. The saponification value (SV), iodine value (IV) and cetane number (CN) of fatty acid methyl esters of both the seed oils were empirically determined. The saponification value (SV) and iodine value (IV) are in good agreement with the experimentally observed values. The fatty acid compositions, iodine value and cetane number were used to predict the quality of fatty acid methyl esters of oil for use as biodiesel. Thus, the fatty acid methyl esters of seed oils of M. champaca and G. indica were found to be the most suitable biodiesel and they meet the major specification of biodiesel standards. The selected plants M. champaca and G. indica have great potential for biodiesel. M. champaca and G. indica seed oils were found to contain keto fatty acids along with the other normal fatty acids, respectively. These fatty acids have been detected and characterized by UV, FTIR, {sup 1}H NMR, {sup 13}C NMR, MS, GC techniques and chemical transformations. (author)

  8. Mangifera indica L. extract protects T cells from activation-induced cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Patricia; Delgado, Rene; Walczak, Henning

    2006-09-01

    The aqueous stem bark extract of Mangifera indica L. (Vimang) has been reported to have antioxidant properties. AIDS is characterized by up-regulation of CD95 ligand (CD95L) expression and enhancement of activation-induced cell death (AICD). Recent studies demonstrate oxidative signals combined with simultaneous calcium (Ca(2+)) influx into the cytosol are required for induction of CD95L expression. In this study we show that M. indica extract attenuated anti-CD3-induced accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and intracellular free Ca(2+) and consequently, downregulates CD95L mRNA expression and CD95-mediated AICD. In addition, TCR triggering caused an elevation in the antioxidant enzyme manganous superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) and the increase in c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) phosphorylation, both effects being prevented by M. indica extract. We provide a number of evidences regarding how M. indica extract enhance T-cell survival by inhibiting AICD, a finding associated with a decrease in oxidative stress generated through the TCR signaling pathway in activated T cells.

  9. Chemical composition of the essential oil of Artemisia vulgaris L. var. indica Maxim. from Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dung, N.X.; Nam, Vu Viet; Huong, Hoang Thanh; Leclercq, P.A.

    1992-01-01

    The essential oil of the leaves of A. vulgaris var. indica of Vietnamese origin was analyzed by a combination of GC and GC/MS. Forty-six components were identified, of which the major ones were b-caryophyllene (24.1%) and b-cubebene (12.0%)

  10. Insecticidal properties of the neem tree (Azadirachta indica): it’s for the birds!

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldkamp, J.F.

    1986-01-01

    New Scientist (6 June 1985, p. 10) reported that Azadirachta indica (Meliaceae), the Indian neem tree, would be a ’new’ wonder plant. Its medical properties have been known for ages to local people and western botanists (e.g. Garcia de Orta, 1567). In India about 14 million trees, typically planted

  11. Efficacité des extraits de neem ( Azadirachta indica ) et de papayer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Efficacité des extraits de neem ( Azadirachta indica ) et de papayer ( Carica papaya ) dans ... Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... non traité, un témoin traité avec un insecticide homologué à base de cartap, six traitements ...

  12. Ecology of Pleuromamma indica Wolfenden (Copepoda - Calanoida) in the Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Saraswathy, M.; Iyer, H.K.

    , strong oxygen minimum above 500m depth and a wide range of salinity varying from 32 x 10-3 in Bay of Bengal to more than 37 x 10 -3 in the northern Arabian Sea were characteristics of the study area. P. indica showed a positive correlation with salinity...

  13. Renewable energy sources from Michelia champaca and Garcinia indica seed oils: A rich source of oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosamani, K.M.; Hiremath, V.B.; Keri, R.S.

    2009-01-01

    Michelia champaca and Garcinia indica seeds yielded 45.0% and 45.5% of oil. The fatty acid profiles of both the seed oils were examined. The saponification value (SV), iodine value (IV) and cetane number (CN) of fatty acid methyl esters of both the seed oils were empirically determined. The saponification value (SV) and iodine value (IV) are in good agreement with the experimentally observed values. The fatty acid compositions, iodine value and cetane number were used to predict the quality of fatty acid methyl esters of oil for use as biodiesel. Thus, the fatty acid methyl esters of seed oils of M. champaca and G. indica were found to be the most suitable biodiesel and they meet the major specification of biodiesel standards. The selected plants M. champaca and G. indica have great potential for biodiesel. M. champaca and G. indica seed oils were found to contain keto fatty acids along with the other normal fatty acids, respectively. These fatty acids have been detected and characterized by UV, FTIR, 1 H NMR, 13 C NMR, MS, GC techniques and chemical transformations

  14. Ageing increases the sensitivity of neem (Azadirachta indica) seeds to imbibitional stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neya, O.; Golovina, E.A.; Nijsse, J.; Hoekstra, F.A.

    2004-01-01

    Imbibitional stress was imposed on neem (Azadirachta indica) seeds by letting them soak for 1 h in water at unfavourable, low temperatures before further incubation at 30degreesC. Sensitivity to low imbibition temperatures increased with a decrease in seed moisture content (MC). To investigate a

  15. Is oxidative stress involved in the loss of neem (Azadirachta indica) seed viability?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sacandé, M.; Hoekstra, F.A.; Aelst, van A.C.; Vos, de C.H.R.

    2000-01-01

    Neem (Azadirachta indica) is a valuable multipurpose tree of tropical arid and semi-arid regions. The use of its seeds is hindered by their short storage longevity. The possible causes of rapid loss of viability were investigated on different seed lots during exposure to 32% and 75% RH at 20°C.

  16. A genetic map and germplasm diversity estimation of Mangifera indica (mango) with SNPs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mango (Mangifera indica) is often referred to as the “King of Fruits”. As the first steps in developing a mango genomics project, we genotyped 582 individuals comprising six mapping populations with 1054 SNP markers. The resulting consensus map had 20 linkage groups defined by 726 SNP markers with...

  17. Overcoming inter-subspecific hybrid sterility in rice by developing indica-compatible japonica lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jie; Xu, Xiaomei; Li, Wentao; Zhu, Wenyin; Zhu, Haitao; Liu, Ziqiang; Luan, Xin; Dai, Ziju; Liu, Guifu; Zhang, Zemin; Zeng, Ruizhen; Tang, Guang; Fu, Xuelin; Wang, Shaokui; Zhang, Guiquan

    2016-06-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is an important staple crop. The exploitation of the great heterosis that exists in the inter-subspecific crosses between the indica and japonica rice has long been considered as a promising way to increase the yield potential. However, the male and female sterility frequently occurred in the inter-subspecific hybrids hampered the utilization of the heterosis. Here we report that the inter-subspecific hybrid sterility in rice is mainly affected by the genes at Sb, Sc, Sd and Se loci for F1 male sterility and the gene at S5 locus for F1 female sterility. The indica-compatible japonica lines (ICJLs) developed by pyramiding the indica allele (S-i) at Sb, Sc, Sd and Se loci and the neutral allele (S-n) at S5 locus in japonica genetic background through marker-assisted selection are compatible with indica rice in pollen fertility and in spikelet fertility. These results showed a great promise of overcoming the inter-subspecific hybrid sterility and exploiting the heterosis by developing ICJLs.

  18. The extraction of proteins from the neem seed ( Indica azadirachta A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Techniques for maximizing the extraction of protein from the neem seed (Indica azadirachta A. Juss) were investigated. Extractants used were sodium chloride and sodium sulphate solutions of varying concentration and pH. Maximum extractions of 17.86 g of extractable protein was obtained from 1 kg of crude protein, using ...

  19. Projeto de caixa de madeira para manga (Mangifera Indica L. Project of wooden boxes for mangoes (Mangifera Indica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Janet Teruel

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available As perdas de produtos hortícolas no Brasil são significativas e dentre as causas cita-se o uso de caixas inadequadas e ausência da cadeia do frio. Propõe-se um método de projeto de caixas, baseado em simulação computacional, otimização e validação experimental, minimizando o volume de madeira, associado a aspectos estruturais, ergonômicos e distribuição da área de aberturas. Foram projetados e construídos três protótipos de caixas (ripas retas com diferentes configurações e área efetiva de abertura de 54% e 36%. A eficiência do resfriamento de mangas variedade Tommy Atkins (Mangifera Indica L., foi avaliada determinando o tempo de resfriamento, acondicionando as frutas nas caixas de madeira desenvolvidas e de papelão usadas comercialmente, resfriadas com ar forçado à temperatura de 6ºC e umidade relativa média de 85,4±2,1%. Foi aplicado o Método de Elementos Finitos, para dimensionamento e otimização estrutural do modelo com melhor comportamento durante o resfriamento. Todas as caixas de madeira foram submetidas a ensaios de vibração, por duas horas (freqüência de 20 Hz. Não houve diferença significativa no tempo de resfriamento das frutas nas caixas de madeira (38,00±1,70 min, no entanto houve diferença significativa nas caixas de papelão (82,74±29,58 min. O modelo submetido à otimização estrutural (6% área efetiva e duas ripas laterais teve diminuição de volume de 60% e 83% de redução da seção transversal das colunas, com relação às condições iniciais. Não houve incidência de danos de mecânicos nas frutas após a vibração. A simulação computacional e estrutural pode ser ferramenta de apoio para desenvolver projetos de caixas, com grande aproximação, atendendo a critérios geométricos, ergonômicos e térmicos.Losses of horticulture product in Brazil are significant and among the main causes are the use of inappropriate boxes and the absence of a cold chain. A project for boxes

  20. Larvicidal activity of neem oil (Azadirachta indica formulation against mosquitoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dua Virendra K

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mosquitoes transmit serious human diseases, causing millions of deaths every year. Use of synthetic insecticides to control vector mosquitoes has caused physiological resistance and adverse environmental effects in addition to high operational cost. Insecticides of botanical origin have been reported as useful for control of mosquitoes. Azadirachta indica (Meliaceae and its derived products have shown a variety of insecticidal properties. The present paper discusses the larvicidal activity of neem-based biopesticide for the control of mosquitoes. Methods Larvicidal efficacy of an emulsified concentrate of neem oil formulation (neem oil with polyoxyethylene ether, sorbitan dioleate and epichlorohydrin developed by BMR & Company, Pune, India, was evaluated against late 3rd and early 4th instar larvae of different genera of mosquitoes. The larvae were exposed to different concentrations (0.5–5.0 ppm of the formulation along with untreated control. Larvicidal activity of the formulation was also evaluated in field against Anopheles, Culex, and Aedes mosquitoes. The formulation was diluted with equal volumes of water and applied @ 140 mg a.i./m2 to different mosquito breeding sites with the help of pre calibrated knapsack sprayer. Larval density was determined at pre and post application of the formulation using a standard dipper. Results Median lethal concentration (LC50 of the formulation against Anopheles stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti was found to be 1.6, 1.8 and 1.7 ppm respectively. LC50 values of the formulation stored at 26°C, 40°C and 45°C for 48 hours against Ae. aegypti were 1.7, 1.7, 1.8 ppm while LC90 values were 3.7, 3.7 and 3.8 ppm respectively. Further no significant difference in LC50 and LC90 values of the formulation was observed against Ae. aegypti during 18 months storage period at room temperature. An application of the formulation at the rate of 140 mg a.i./m2 in different breeding

  1. El contagio en el fracaso empresarial como consecuencia de la proximidad geográfica: un análisis con los estadísticos join-count aplicado al sector servicios || The Contagion on Business Failure by the Geographical Proximity: An Analysis with the Join-Count Tests in the Service Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez Fuentes, Christian Camilo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es contrastar el efecto de contagio en el fracaso empresarial como consecuencia de la proximidad geográfica entre empresas del mismo sector. Para ello, desarrollamos una aplicación empírica basada en el análisis de los estadísticos espaciales join-count sobre una muestra de empresas del sector servicios en el municipio de Murcia (España. Los resultados muestran un patrón de autocorrelación espacial significativo, de tal forma que la probabilidad de fracaso de una empresa no solo depende de sus características internas sino también de su proximidad a otras empresas fracasadas. Estos resultados pueden ser un interesante punto de partida para el desarrollo de análisis que incluyan los efectos de la proximidad geográfica entre empresas en la literatura de fracaso empresarial. || This paper aims to contrast the spillover effects in business failure derived from the geographic proximity among firms of the same sector. To get this purpose, we develop an empirical application based on the analysis of the join-count statistics on a sample of firms of service sector located in the municipality of Murcia (Spain. Our results show significant spatial autocorrelation pattern, therefore, the probability of failure in a firm not only depends on its internal characteristics, but also on the situation of failure of its vicinity peer companies. These results can be an interesting starting point in the development of papers which consider the interdependence effects among closer peer companies in business failure literature.

  2. Colonization by the endophyte Piriformospora indica leads to early flowering in Arabidopsis thaliana likely by triggering gibberellin biosynthesis

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Dongjin; Abdelaziz, Mohamad E.; Ntui, Valentine Otang; Guo, Xiujie; Al-Babili, Salim

    2017-01-01

    Piriformospora indica is an endophytic fungus colonizing roots of a wide variety of plants. Previous studies showed that P. indica promotes early flowering and plant growth in the medicinal plant Coleus forskohlii. To determine the impact of P. indica on flowering time in Arabidopsis, we co-cultivated the plants with P. indica under long day condition. P. indica inoculated Arabidopsis plants displayed significant early flowering phenotype. qRT-PCR analysis of colonized plants revealed an up-regulation of flowering regulatory (FLOWERING LOCUS T, LEAFY, and APETALA1) and gibberellin biosynthetic (Gibberellin 20-Oxidase2, Gibberellin 3-Oxidase1 and Gibberellin requiring1) genes, while the flowering-repressing gene FLOWERING LOCUS C was down regulated. Quantification of gibberellins content showed that the colonization with P. indica caused an increase in GA4 content. Compared to wild-type plants, inoculation of the Arabidopsis ga5 mutant affected in gibberellin biosynthetic gene led to less pronounced changes in the expression of genes regulating flowering and to a lower increase in GA4 content. Taken together, our data indicate that P. indica promotes early flowering in Arabidopsis likely by increasing gibberellin content.

  3. Colonization by the endophyte Piriformospora indica leads to early flowering in Arabidopsis thaliana likely by triggering gibberellin biosynthesis

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Dongjin

    2017-06-28

    Piriformospora indica is an endophytic fungus colonizing roots of a wide variety of plants. Previous studies showed that P. indica promotes early flowering and plant growth in the medicinal plant Coleus forskohlii. To determine the impact of P. indica on flowering time in Arabidopsis, we co-cultivated the plants with P. indica under long day condition. P. indica inoculated Arabidopsis plants displayed significant early flowering phenotype. qRT-PCR analysis of colonized plants revealed an up-regulation of flowering regulatory (FLOWERING LOCUS T, LEAFY, and APETALA1) and gibberellin biosynthetic (Gibberellin 20-Oxidase2, Gibberellin 3-Oxidase1 and Gibberellin requiring1) genes, while the flowering-repressing gene FLOWERING LOCUS C was down regulated. Quantification of gibberellins content showed that the colonization with P. indica caused an increase in GA4 content. Compared to wild-type plants, inoculation of the Arabidopsis ga5 mutant affected in gibberellin biosynthetic gene led to less pronounced changes in the expression of genes regulating flowering and to a lower increase in GA4 content. Taken together, our data indicate that P. indica promotes early flowering in Arabidopsis likely by increasing gibberellin content.

  4. [Mechanisms of subspecies differentiation in a filial generation of rice indica-japonica hybridization under different ecological conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, He-Tong; Jin, Feng; Jiang, Yi-Jun; Lin, Qing-Shan; Xu, Hai; Chen, Wen-Fu; Xu, Zheng-Jin

    2013-11-01

    Indica-japonica hybridization is one of the most important breeding methods in China, whereas identifying subspecies differentiation mechanisms is the key in indica-japonica hybridization breeding. By using InDels (Insert/Deletion) and ILPs (Intron Length Polymorphism), an analysis was made on the F6 populations derived from the hybridization of indica-japonica (Qishanzhan/Akihikari) planted in Liaoning and Guangdong provinces and generated by bulk harvesting (BM), single-seed descent methods (SSD), and pedigree method (PM). No segregation distortion was observed for the BM and SSD populations. The frequency distribution of japonica kinship percentage (Dj) was concentrated in 40%-60%. The PM populations in the two provinces presented indica-deviated distribution (30%-55%), with significant difference between Guangdong (38%) and Liaoning (42%). In addition, there was a significant positive correlation between the Dj and the kinship of functional gene regions in the BM and SSD populations. However, part of the positive correlation was broken in the PM populations that showed a regular distribution in the genotype patterns of indica and japonica loci. The above results demonstrated that artificial selection could be the main factor affecting the population differentiation in indica-japonica hybridization, and, with the synergistic effect of natural selection, induced the phenomenon of segregation distortion. There existed a close relationship between the differentiation of subspecies and the important agronomic traits, which could be the main reason why indica-japonica hybridiation breeding could not achieve the expected effect of combining the two subspecies advantages.

  5. Evaluation of Cholesterol-lowering Activity of Standardized Extract of Mangifera indica in Albino Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gururaja, G M; Mundkinajeddu, Deepak; Kumar, A Senthil; Dethe, Shekhar Michael; Allan, J Joshua; Agarwal, Amit

    2017-01-01

    Cholesterol lowering activity of Mangifera indica L. has been determined by earlier researchers and kernel, leaf and bark have shown significant activity. However, the specific cholesterol lowering activity of leaf methanol extract has not been determined. The present study involved evaluation of cholesterol lowering potential of methanol extract of M. indica leaves using high cholesterol diet model in albino Wistar rats. The acute oral toxicity at a dose of 5000 mg/ kg body weight was also determined in female albino Wistar rats. Phytoconstituents Iriflophenone 3-C-β-D-glucoside and mangiferin were quantified in methanol extracts of different varieties of mango leaves using high performance liquid chromatography. Significant cholesterol lowering activity was observed with methanol extract of M. indica leaves, at dose of 90 mg/kg body weight in rats and it was also found to be safe at dose of 5000 mg/kg rat body. Iriflophenone 3-C-β-D-glucoside and mangiferin were found to be in the range of 1.2 to 2.8% w/w and 3.9 to 4.6% w/w, respectively which along with 3 β taraxerol and other sterols could be contributing to the cholesterol lowering activity of mango leaves extract. The phytosterols rich extract of Mangifera indica leaves is a good source of nutraceutical ingredient that have the potential to lower serum cholesterol levels. The Mangifera indica leaves methanolic extract showed significant cholesterol lowering activity in high cholesterol diet induced hypercholesterolaemia model in rats when evaluated at a dose of 90 mg/kg rat body weight. The extract was found to contain Iriflophenone 3-C-β-D-glucoside and mangiferin which along with 3 β taraxerol and other sterols could be contributing to the cholesterol lowering activity.

  6. Cytotoxicity of 5% Tamarindus indica extract and 3% hydrogen peroxide as root canal irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erawati Wulandari

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Preparation of root canal is an important stage in endodontic treatment. During conducting preparation, it is always be followed with root canal irrigation that has aim to clean root canal from necrotic tissue remains, grind down dentin powder, micro organism, wet the root canal to make preparation process of root canal easier, and solute root canal content at area that can not be reached by equipment. Flesh of Tamarindus indica (pulpa tamarindorum is used as traditional medicine and it contains vitamin C (antioxidant, protein, fat, glucose, etc. Previous research shows that 5% tamarindus indica extract can clean smear layer but it is more cytotoxicity to cell line BHK–21 than sterilized aquabides. Purpose: This research is to compare cytotoxicity between 5% Tamarindus indica extract with 3% H2O2 as root canal irrigation material. Method: Four teen culture cell line BHK 21 divides into 2 groups. Group 1 is treated with 3% H2O2 and Group 2 is treated with 5% Tamarindus indica extract, for about 2.5 minutes in every group. Then, living and death cell percentage is measured. Data is analyzed with independent t test with significant level of 0.05%. Result: The research showed that death cell in group 1 was 29.3% and in group 2 was 21.1%. There was a significant different (p < 0.05 between group 1 and group 2. Conclusion: Cytotoxicity of 5% Tamarindus indica extract to the cell line BHK–21 is lower than 3% H2O2.

  7. Early onset of organ failure is the best predictor of mortality in acute pancreatitis El fracaso orgánico precoz como mejor factor predictivo de mortalidad en la pancreatitis aguda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Poves Prim

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: APACHE II is a multifactorial scoring system for predicting severity in acute pancreatitis (AP. Organ failure (OF has been correlated with mortality in AP. Objectives: to evaluate the usefulness of APACHE II as an early predictor of severity in AP, its correlation with OF, and the relevance of an early establishment of OF during the course of AP. Patients and methods: from January 1999 to November 2001, 447 consecutive cases of AP were studied. APACHE II scores and Atlanta criteria were used for defining severity and OF. Results: twenty-five percent of patients had severe acute pancreatitis (SAP. APACHE II at 24 h after admission showed a sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive value of 52, 77, 46, and 84%, respectively, for predicting severity. Mortality for SAP was 20.5%. Seventy percent of patients who developed OF did so within the first 24 hours of admission, and their mortality was 52%. Mortality was statistically significant (p Introducción: el APACHE II se ha utilizado como factor predictivo de gravedad en la pancratitis aguda (PA. La instauración de fracaso orgánico (FO en la PA se correlaciona con una mayor mortalidad. Objetivos: evaluar la utilidad del APACHE II como factor predictivo precoz de gravedad en la PA, su correlación con el FO y la relevancia del establecimiento precoz del FO en la PA. Pacientes y métodos: desde enero de 1999 hasta noviembre de 2001 se estudiaron 447 pacientes ingresados consecutivamente por PA. Se utilizó el sistema APACHE II y los criterios de Atlanta para evaluar la gravedad. Resultados: el 25% de los pacientes presentaron una pancreatitis aguda grave (PAG. El APACHE II a las 24 horas del ingreso mostró una sensibilidad, especificidad, valor predictivo positivo y negativo del 52, 77, 46 y 84%, respectivamente, como marcador de gravedad. La mortalidad global de la PAG fue del 20,5%. El 70% de los pacientes que presentaron FO lo hicieron en las primeras 24 horas

  8. Estudio multivariado sobre determinación de factores sociodemográficos relacionados con el éxito o fracaso en la cirugía de prótesis de rodilla

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    Fabiola Arévalo Vilchis

    Full Text Available Introducción: la artrosis de rodilla es una alteración de la superficie de uno o más de los tres componentes de la articulación femorotibial interno, externo y rotuliano. Existen factores de riesgo como la obesidad, tensiones o inestabilidad de la articulación, factores genéticos, alteraciones anatómicas, el ejercicio de contacto, traumatismos, entre otros, que predisponen a la enfermedad. Objetivo: determinar los factores sociodemográficos relacionados con el éxito o fracaso de la cirugía de prótesis de rodilla. Material y Métodos: se realizó un estudio descriptivo, retrospectivo y transversal durante el periodo de enero de 2009 a diciembre de 2010, en el Hospital Regional "Lic. Adolfo López Mateos" del ISSSTE en México. Se estudiaron los expedientes de 240 pacientes intervenidos de cirugía de prótesis de rodilla, de los cuales sólo 155 cumplieron con los criterios de inclusión. Se captó la información en programa Excel y SPSS 20, procediendo a realizar análisis de frecuencias, de variabilidad, de correlación y técnica multivariada de análisis discriminante. Resultados: de los 155 pacientes estudiados 30 (19,3 % presentaron complicaciones. De las nueve variables, sólo dos presentaron significancia estadística: la edad con 48 (31 %, con p< -0,001 y Gamma -0,702, indicando una correlación buena, a mayor edad menos complicaciones. La ocupación con 53 activos (34,2 %, con p< 0,001 y Eta 0,301, indicó correlación baja, a mayor actividad más complicaciones. El índice de masa corporal arrojó un resultado no contundente. Conclusiones: los pacientes jóvenes y activos presentan mayores complicaciones. La obesidad tiene una influencia relativa.

  9. Efek Antioksidan Kombinasi Ekstrak Etanol Acalypha indica dan Centella asiatica pada Fungsi Hati Tikus Pascahipoksia Sistemik

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    Agnes Frethernety

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Hipoksia adalah defisiensi suplai oksigen ke dalam sel atau jaringan karena gagalnya sistem respirasi yang membawa oksigen sehingga mengakibatkan kerusakan jaringan. Hati merupakan organ yang sensitif terhadap hipoksia. Tanaman Acalypha indica dan Centella asiatica memiliki efek antioksidan dan dapat melindungi banyak organ dari hipoksia. Tujuan penelitian ini menganalisis pengaruh pemberian kombinasi ekstrak etanol A.indica dan C.asiatica pascahipoksia sistemik terhadap fungsi hati, stres oksidatif dan aktivitas antioksidan hati. Sebanyak 28 tikus spraquedawley dibagi secara acak menjadi 7 kelompok. Kelompok kontrol adalah perlakuan tanpa hipoksia, perlakuan enam kelompok lainnya pascahipoksia 7 hari diberikan zat uji sebagai berikut: air, kombinasi dosis 1 dan 2, dosis tunggal A.indica, dosis tunggal C. asiatica dan dosis tunggal vitamin C selama 7 hari. Parameter yang diukur adalah aktivitas ALT dan AST, kadar MDA, rasio GSH/GSSG. Tidak ada perbedaan aktivitas ALT dan AST yang bermakna pada semua kelompok. Kadar MDA meningkat pada kelompok pascahipoksia 7 hari dibanding kontrol (p=0,007. Kelompok kombinasi 1 memiliki MDA yang rendah, rasio GSH/GSSG dan aktivitas SOD yang meningkat dibandingkan kelompok pascahipoksia 7 hari. Pemberian zat uji kombinasi 1 memiliki efek perlindungan pada hati tikus terhadap pascahipoksia 7 hari melalui mekanisme stres oksidatif dan antioksidan. Kata kunci: Acalypha indica, Centella asiatica,hipoksia sistemik, antioksidan   The Effect of A. Indica  and C.Asiatica Ethanol Extract Combination on Rats Liver Function Post-Hypoxic Condition Abstract Hypoxia occurs due to the deficiency of oxygen supply to cells or tissue caused by the failure of the respiratory system that carries oxygen which results in cell or tissue damage. Liver is an organ sensitive to hypoxia. Acalypha  indica  and Centella asiatica are proven to have antioxidant effects and can protect many organs from hypoxic conditions. This study was

  10. Enzyme expression in indica and japonica rice cultivars under saline stress=Expressão de enzimas em cultivares de arroz indica e japonica sob estresse salino

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    Cristina Rodrigues Mendes

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The southern State of Rio Grande do Sul (RS is the main rice producer in Brazil with a 60% participation of the national production and 86% participation of the region. Rice culture irrigation system is done by flooding, which leads to soil salinization, a major environmental constraint to production since it alters the plants’ metabolism exposed to this type of stress. The indica cultivar, widely used in RS, has a higher sensitivity to salinity when compared to that of the japonica cultivar in other physiological aspects. Current research analyzes enzymes expression involved in salt-subjected indica and japonica rice cultivars’ respiration. Oryza sativa L. spp. japonica S.Kato (BRS Bojuru, IAS 12-9 Formosa and Goyakuman and Oryza sativa L. spp. indica S. Kato (BRS Taim-7, BRS Atalanta and BRS Querencia were the cultivars employed. Seedlings were transferred to 15 L basins containing 50% Hoagland nutrient solution increased by 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 mM NaCl, and collected at 14, 28 and 42 days after transfer (DAT. Plant tissues were macerated and placed in eppendorf tubes with Scandálios extractor solution. Electrophoresis was performed in 7% of the polyacrylamide gels in vertical vats. Bands were revealed for the following enzymes systems: esterase, alcohol dehydrogenase, phosphoglucoisomerase, malate dehydrogenase, malic enzyme and alpha amylase. The enzymes expression was greater in subspecies japonica, with more intense bands in proportion to salinity increase. Results show that enzyme systems are involved in the salinity defense mechanisms in O. sativa spp. japonica cultivar.O Estado do Rio Grande do Sul (RS destaca-se como principal produtor de arroz, participando com 60% da produção nacional e 86% da regional. O sistema de irrigação da cultura é por inundação, que induz o solo à salinização, um dos maiores limitadores ambientais à produção, alterando o metabolismo da plantas expostas a este tipo de estresse. As cultivares

  11. Phenolic content, antioxidant effect and cytotoxic activity of Leea indica leaves

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    Reddy Nidyaletchmy

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The leaves of Leea indica (Vitaceae, commonly known as ‘Huo Tong Shu’ in Malaysia, have been traditionally used as natural remedy in folk medicine by the locals. The current study reports the outcome of antioxidant and cytotoxic investigation of L. indica leaves. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of L. indica leaf crude ethanol and its fractionated extracts (hexane, ethyl acetate and water for evaluation of total phenolic content, antioxidant effect and cytotoxic activity against colon cancer cell lines. Methods In the present study, L. indica leaf crude ethanol and its fractionated extracts (hexane, ethyl acetate and water were firstly prepared prior to phenolic content, antioxidant effect and cytotoxic activity assessment. Folin-Ciocalteau’s method was used for the measurement of total phenolic content of the extracts. The antioxidant activity was measured by employing three different established testing systems, such as scavenging activity on DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radicals, reducing power assay and SOD (superoxide dismutase activity assay. The cytotoxic activity of the extracts were evaluated against three colon cancer cell lines with varying molecular characteristics (HT-29, HCT-15 and HCT-116 by MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] assay. Results The total phenolic content and antioxidant capabilities differed significantly among the L. indica leaf extracts. A strong correlation between total phenolic content and antioxidant properties was found, indicating that phenolic compounds are the major contributor to the antioxidant properties of these extracts. Among the crude ethanol and its fractionated extracts, fractionated water extract showed significantly the highest total phenolic content and strongest antioxidant effect in all the antioxidant testing systems employed in this study. All the four extracts exert no damage to the selected colon cancer

  12. VARIASI KONSENTRASI BUAH ASAM (Tamarindus indica L. DAN SUSU SKIM TERHADAP KUALITAS YOGHURT KUNIR ASAM

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    Ni Putu Rahayu Artini

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK: Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh variasi konsentrasi buah asam (Tamarindus indica L. dan  susu skim untuk menghasilkan kualitas yoghurt sesuai  dengan SNI 01-2981-2009.Rancangan percobaan yang dilakukan dalam penelitian ini adalah Rancangan Acak Lengkap (RAL yang terdiri atas sembilan perlakuan. Yoghurt kunir asam dibuat dari variasi penambahan variasi konsentrasi Tamarindus indica L. 30%, 40%, dan 50% (b/V dan  susu skim 5%, 10%, dan 15% (b/V. Sifat fisika, kimia, dan mikrobiologi  yoghurt kunir asam diamati. Dihasilkan kualitas terbaik yoghurt kunir asam dengan penambahan 30% Tamarindus indica L. (b/V0dan 15% susu skim (b/V. Dengan hasil analisis penampakan cairan kental; konsistensi homogen; rasa asam; bau khas; viskositas 89,3 cP; pH 4,85; kadar abu 1,52%; kadar lemak total 2,53%; kadar protein total 3,74%; kadar asam laktat 0,223%, kadar kurkumin 0,389%; cemaran logam Pb dan Cu serta Total Coliform dan E. coli negatif. ABSTRACT:.The objective of this research was to determinethe influence of concentrated Tamarindus indica L. and skim milk powder in producing tumuric curcumin yogurt towards its product based on SNI 01-2981-2009. The research was conducted in completely randomized design which consisted of nine treatments. The yogurt mixtures were made from a variation of 30%, 40%, and 50% of Tamarindus indica L. and addition of  5%, 10%, and 15% of skim milk powder.  Physical, chemical, and microbiology properties of the turmeric curcuma yogurts were observed.  The results showed the best quality of turmeric curcumin  yogurt was formulated by the addition of 30% Tamarindus indica L. and 15% skim milk powder,  with the results of the analysis: the appearance of a viscous fluid; homogeneous consistency; sour taste; distinctive smell; viscosity of 89.3 cP; pH of 4.85; ash content of 1.52%; total fat content of 2.53%; total protein content of 3.74%; lactic acid levels of 0.22%, curcumin content of 0

  13. Comparison Uptake of Cadmium (II from Aqueous Solution, onto Algae Brown Fucus Serratus and Cystoseira Indica

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    Naser Jafari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The cadmium metal not only has detrimental effects on the nervous system, the kidneys, and the human fetus but is also lethal because of its carcinogenic effects. Biological absorption of cadmium has a number of advantages over conventional methods that include high removal efficiency for eliminating heavy metals from dilute solutions, availability and abundance of the required materials in nature, and reproducibility and reusability of the materials. In this study, the biosorption of cadmium (II ions onto the dry biomass of two brown algae, Cystoseira indica and Fucus serratus, was investigated. Cystoseira indica was collected from the coastal areas of the Oman Sea and Fucus serratus was collected from the coastal area of the Atlantic Ocean. The algae were first dried, washed three times with tap water, and finally washed with distilled water without ions before they were isolated in pieces 0.5-1.5 mm in diameter. In all the experiments, distilled water was used to which known amounts of cadmium were added before the algae were introduced into the solution. The metal ion concentrations in the solution were measured using the atomic absorption spectrophotometer before and after the metal came into contact with the algae. The optimum pH for the adsorption of cadmium was found to be 3/0 ± 5/6 and 3/0 ± 5/5 for Cystoseira indica and Fucus serratus, respectively. The maximum metal uptakes by both algae were observed in acidic pH conditions. The time required for the biosorption of the metal to reach equilibrium was 360 minutes for Cystoseira indica and 300 minutes Fucus serratus. The adsorption capacities for Cystoseira indica and Fucus serratus using the Langmuir isotherm were determined as 44/58 and 54/95 mg /g, respectively. Moreover, the functional groups involved in cadmium uptake in both algae were identified. Finally, the results of this study showed that Fucus serratus algae had a higher capacity for adsorbing cadmium ions than did

  14. Biometric and morphometric studies of Perna viridis and Perna indica along the southwest coast of India: a statistical approach

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jayalakshmy, K.V.; Nair, M.; DileepKumar, R.; Vijayan, M.

    morphometric gradient groups (spat and adult), indicating the different phenotypic plasticity between them. The factor scores classified P. indica as a unimodal, positively skewed leptokurtic population and P. viridis as a unimodal, negatively skewed...

  15. Variables individuales en el fracaso escolar

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    Jose Luis RODRÍGUEZ DIÉGUEZ

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Una de las preocupaciones mayores del sistema educativo actual, incluso desde la Administración, consiste en la prevención, detección y recuperación de la inadaptación escolar de los individuos que incorpora a sus procesos. En sentido general, el concepto de inadaptación engloba los ajustes individuales de los sujetos en todas las áreas en que se desea que su convivencia sea enriquecedora: familia, escuela, comunidad...

  16. Factores de éxito y fracaso en el comportamiento innovador de las empresas ganaderas cubanas Success and failure factors in the innovating performance of the Cuban livestock production enterprises

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    J Suárez

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de conocer los factores que favorecen el éxito de la innovación y los que provocan su fracaso, en el sector ganadero cubano, se aplicó un cuestionario a los directores de una muestra no probabilística de 34 empresas ganaderas (el 36% del sector, que abarcó las diferentes zonas geográficas del país, todos los tipos de sistemas de producción existentes en la ganadería cubana, organizaciones en los diferentes estadíos del proceso de Perfeccionamiento Empresarial y los diferentes tamaños de empresas. Los factores internos considerados de mayor incidencia en el éxito de la innovación en las empresas fueron: una Alta Dirección abierta a nuevas ideas y proclive a asumir riesgos, la descentralización en la toma de decisiones y una dirección participativa, motivación y compromiso por la innovación en los directivos, formación constante del personal y ejecución de trabajo en equipo; mientras que los factores externos fueron la dinámica y turbulencia del entorno, que exige cambios en la empresa, el establecimiento de vínculos y redes de cooperación en el país, la existencia de políticas estatales de apoyo a la innovación, poseer facilidad de acceso a fuentes internacionales de financiamiento y posibilidades de financiamiento nacional para el desarrollo de la innovación. En cuanto a los obstáculos que entorpecen en una mayor medida la innovación en las empresas aparecen: la escasez de recursos financieros, presiones externas a la empresa que inciden sobre los procesos productivos y de gestión, la posesión de insuficiente información científica y tecnológica, problemas de disponibilidad y utilización de equipamiento informático, carencia de mecanismos eficientes de financiación de la innovación, así como insuficientes mecanismos de incentivos que motiven a innovar y a la vinculación con universidades y centros de investigación. En conclusión, se puede apreciar en esta investigación que los factores

  17. The endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica enhances Arabidopsis thaliana growth and modulates Na+/K+ homeostasis under salt stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelaziz, Mohamed E; Kim, Dongjin; Ali, Shawkat; Fedoroff, Nina V; Al-Babili, Salim

    2017-10-01

    The mutualistic, endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica has been shown to confer biotic and abiotic stress tolerance to host plants. In this study, we investigated the impact of P. indica on the growth of Arabidopsis plants under normal and salt stress conditions. Our results demonstrate that P. indica colonization increases plant biomass, lateral roots density, and chlorophyll content under both conditions. Colonization with P. indica under salt stress was accompanied by a lower Na + /K + ratio and less pronounced accumulation of anthocyanin, compared to control plants. Moreover, P. indica colonized roots under salt stress showed enhanced transcript levels of the genes encoding the high Affinity Potassium Transporter 1 (HKT1) and the inward-rectifying K + channels KAT1 and KAT2, which play key roles in regulating Na + and K + homeostasis. The effect of P. indica colonization on AtHKT1;1 expression was also confirmed in the Arabidopsis line gl1-HKT:AtHKT1;1 that expresses an additional AtHKT1;1 copy driven by the native promoter. Colonization of the gl1-HKT:AtHKT1;1 by P. indica also increased lateral roots density and led to a better Na + /K + ratio, which may be attributed to the observed increase in KAT1 and KAT2 transcript levels. Our findings demonstrate that P. indica colonization promotes Arabidopsis growth under salt stress conditions and that this effect is likely caused by modulation of the expression levels of the major Na + and K + ion channels, which allows establishing a balanced ion homeostasis of Na + /K + under salt stress conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of cephalandra indica against advanced glycation end products, sorbitol accumulation and aldose reductase activity in homoeopathic formulation

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    Lalit Kishore

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Extreme generation of free radicals leads to oxidative stress which has been apprehensive in several disease processes such as diabetic complications and vascular and neurodegenerative diseases. Objective: The present study was designed to evaluate the potential of homoeopathic preparations of Cephalandra indica L. against oxidative stress. Materials and Methods: Potencies of Cephalandra indica (mother tincture, 6C and 30C were procured from Dr. Willmar Schwabe India Pvt. Ltd. The antioxidant activity of Cephalandra indica was evaluated by employing various in vitro antioxidant methods. Results: The total phenol content was found to be 1905, 849 and 495 mg/g gallic acid equivalents in mother tincture, 6C and 30C of Cephalandra indica and total antioxidant capacity was found to be 2710, 759 and 510 μM/g ascorbic acid equivalents, respectively. Mother tincture, 6C and 30C of Cephalandra indica was found to have strong reducing power, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical, hydrogen peroxide, nitric oxide and superoxide radical scavenging activity. Percentage inhibition of AGEs formation by mother tincture, 6C and 30C of Cephalandra indica (10–50 μl was found to be 30.34%–91.77%, 29.98%–65.71% and 33.05%–57.75%, respectively. Mother tincture, 6C and 30C of Cephalandra indica showed inhibitory effect against sorbitol accumulation with IC50value of 26.12 μl, 203.10 μl and 897.3 μl, respectively, whereas, in aldose reductase inhibition assay, the IC50value was 32.54 μl, 175.02 μl and 834.34 μl, respectively. Conclusion: The results revealed that homoeopathic preparations of Cephalandra indica exhibit protective effect against oxidative stress.

  19. Improvement of Soil Properties, Growth of Cucumber and Protection against Fusarium Wilt by Piriformospora indica and Two Industrial Organic Wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moustafa Hemdan Ahmed MOHARAM

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The current work was focused on characterizing bagasse ash (BA and press mud (PM as soil amendments and to study their effect in combination with the endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica on Fusarium wilt (FW of cucumber caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum (Fo. Whereas BA and PM improved almost all physico-chemical properties of the soil evaluated, seed treatment with P. indica had no such effect. In shake culture in potato dextrose broth (PDB medium amended with aqueous extracts of BA and PM, alone or in combination, production mycelial mass of Fo was significantly decreased by PM extract, while production mycelial mass of P. indica was highly improved. The colonization rate of cucumber roots by P. indica as determined by microscopy was highly increased by increasing amounts of BA, PM and BA+PM added to the soil. Seed treatment of cucumber with P. indica before plant cultivation in non-amended soil significantly decreased the disease severity of FW and improved plant growth. When seed treated with P. indica was sown into soil amended with BA, PM or the combination of both, the disease severity was even more reduced than after seed treatment with P. indica alone. In this respect, amendment with PM was more effective than with BA, and the combinations were more effective than the single treatments. Hence, there is a scope to integrate PM and BA as soil amendments in combination with P. indica for eco-friendly FW management, improving soil properties and growth of cucumber plants.

  20. The endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica enhances Arabidopsis thaliana growth and modulates Na + /K + homeostasis under salt stress conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Abdelaziz, Mohamed Ewis

    2017-07-13

    The mutualistic, endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica has been shown to confer biotic and abiotic stress tolerance to host plants. In this study, we investigated the impact of P. indica on the growth of Arabidopsis plants under normal and salt stress conditions. Our results demonstrate that P. indica colonization increases plant biomass, lateral roots density, and chlorophyll content under both conditions. Colonization with P. indica under salt stress was accompanied by a lower Na+/K+ ratio and less pronounced accumulation of anthocyanin, compared to control plants. Moreover, P. indica colonized roots under salt stress showed enhanced transcript levels of the genes encoding the high Affinity Potassium Transporter 1 (HKT1) and the inward-rectifying K+ channels KAT1 and KAT2, which play key roles in regulating Na+ and K+ homeostasis. The effect of P. indica colonization on AtHKT1;1 expression was also confirmed in the Arabidopsis line gl1-HKT:AtHKT1;1 that expresses an additional AtHKT1;1 copy driven by the native promoter. Colonization of the gl1-HKT:AtHKT1;1 by P. indica also increased lateral roots density and led to a better Na+/K+ ratio, which may be attributed to the observed increase in KAT1 and KAT2 transcript levels. Our findings demonstrate that P. indica colonization promotes Arabidopsis growth under salt stress conditions and that this effect is likely caused by modulation of the expression levels of the major Na+ and K+ ion channels, which allows establishing a balanced ion homeostasis of Na+/K+ under salt stress conditions.

  1. Growth promotion-related miRNAs in Oncidium orchid roots colonized by the endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Ye

    Full Text Available Piriformospora indica, an endophytic fungus of Sebacinales, colonizes the roots of a wide range of host plants and establishes various benefits for the plants. In this work, we describe miRNAs which are upregulated in Oncidium orchid roots after colonization by the fungus. Growth promotion and vigorous root development were observed in Oncidium hybrid orchid, while seedlings were colonized by P. indica. We performed a genome-wide expression profiling of small RNAs in Oncidium orchid roots either colonized or not-colonized by P. indica. After sequencing, 24,570,250 and 24744,141 clean reads were obtained from two libraries. 13,736 from 17,036,953 unique sequences showed homology to either 86 miRNA families described in 41 plant species, or to 46 potential novel miRNAs, or to 51 corresponding miRNA precursors. The predicted target genes of these miRNAs are mainly involved in auxin signal perception and transduction, transcription, development and plant defense. The expression analysis of miRNAs and target genes demonstrated the regulatory functions they may participate in. This study revealed that growth stimulation of the Oncidium orchid after colonization by P. indica includes an intricate network of miRNAs and their targets. The symbiotic function of P. indica on Oncidium orchid resembles previous findings on Chinese cabbage. This is the first study on growth regulation and development of Oncidium orchid by miRNAs induced by the symbiotic fungus P. indica.

  2. Physicochemical characterization of cactus pads from Opuntia dillenii and Opuntia ficus indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez, Lorena Pérez; Flores, Fidel Tejera; Martín, Jacinto Darias; Rodríguez Rodríguez, Elena M; Díaz Romero, Carlos

    2015-12-01

    Physicochemical characteristics (weight, length, width, thickness, moisture, Brix degree, total fiber, protein, ash, pH, acidity, ascorbic acid, total phenolic compounds, P, Na, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn and Cr) were determined in cactus pads from Opuntia dillenii and Opuntia ficus indica. The physicochemical characteristics of both species were clearly different. There were important differences between the orange and green fruit pulp of O. ficus indica; the cactus pads of O. dillenii could be differentiated according to the region (North and South). Consumption of cactus pads contributes to the intake of dietary fiber, total phenolic compounds, K, Mg, Mn and Cr. Applying factor and/or discriminant analysis, the cactus pad samples were clearly differentiated according to the species, the fruit pulp color and production region. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Miller as a source of bioactivity compounds for health and nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragona, M; Lauriano, E R; Pergolizzi, S; Faggio, C

    2017-08-14

    Plants with beneficial properties are known in traditional medicine. Nowadays, in spite of widespread availability of synthetic compounds, the search goes towards natural compounds to lower cost and few side effects. The increasing interest in preventive medicine encourages use of nutraceuticals, bioactive compounds of vegetable origin with important nutritional values. Among the medicinal plants, Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Miller (Family Cactaceae, subfamily Opuntiodeae, Genus Opuntia, subgenus Platyopuntia, species Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Miller) is widely known for its beneficial properties. The aim of the present review is to stress the major classes of Opuntia components and their medical interest through emphasis on some of their biological effects, particularly those having the most promising expected health benefits and therapeutic impacts on fish and mammals.

  4. Anatomical, chemical, and biochemical characterization of cladodes from prickly pear [Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginestra, Giovanna; Parker, Mary L; Bennett, Richard N; Robertson, Jim; Mandalari, Giuseppina; Narbad, Arjan; Lo Curto, Rosario B; Bisignano, Giuseppe; Faulds, Craig B; Waldron, Keith W

    2009-11-11

    Opuntia ficus-indica cladodes represent the green stem of the plant and are generally used as animal feed or disposed of in landfills. The present work investigated the anatomical and chemical composition of Opuntia cladodes, which form the basis of their pharmacological effects. Glucose and galacturonic acid were the main sugars of Opuntia cladodes, whereas high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis showed the presence of mainly kaempherol and isorhamnetin glycosides (glucoside and rhamnoside). The presence of high amounts of calcium oxalate crystals was demonstrated by light microscopy on fresh and lyophilized cladodes. No antimicrobial activity was observed even after enzymatic treatment. O. ficus-indica cladodes may retain material tightly associated with cell-wall components, and this property will have the potential to greatly reduce the bioavailability of bioactive compounds.

  5. By-products of Opuntia ficus-indica as a source of antioxidant dietary fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensadón, Sara; Hervert-Hernández, Deisy; Sáyago-Ayerdi, Sonia G; Goñi, Isabel

    2010-09-01

    Dietary fiber and bioactive compounds are widely used as functional ingredients in processed foods. The market in this field is competitive and the development of new types of quality ingredients for the food industry is on the rise. Opuntia ficus-indica (cactus pear) produces edible tender stems (cladodes) and fruits with a high nutritional value in terms of minerals, protein, dietary fiber and phytochemicals; however, around 20% of fresh weight of cladodes and 45% of fresh weight of fruits are by-products. The objective of this study was therefore to determine the nutritional value of by-products obtained from cladodes and fruits from two varieties of Opuntia ficus-indica, examining their dietary fiber and natural antioxidant compound contents in order to obtain quality ingredients for functional foods and increase the added value of these by-products.

  6. Transmission blocking effects of neem (Azadirachta indica) seed kernel limonoids on Plasmodium berghei early sporogonic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapanelli, Sofia; Chianese, Giuseppina; Lucantoni, Leonardo; Yerbanga, Rakiswendé Serge; Habluetzel, Annette; Taglialatela-Scafati, Orazio

    2016-10-01

    Azadirachta indica, known as neem tree and traditionally called "nature's drug store" makes part of several African pharmacopeias and is widely used for the preparation of homemade remedies and commercial preparations against various illnesses, including malaria. Employing a bio-guided fractionation approach, molecules obtained from A. indica ripe and green fruit kernels were tested for activity against early sporogonic stages of Plasmodium berghei, the parasite stages that develop in the mosquito mid gut after an infective blood meal. The limonoid deacetylnimbin (3) was identified as one the most active compounds of the extract, with a considerably higher activity compared to that of the close analogue nimbin (2). Pure deacetylnimbin (3) appeared to interfere with transmissible Plasmodium stages at a similar potency as azadirachtin A. Considering its higher thermal and chemical stability, deacetylnimbin could represent a suitable alternative to azadirachtin A for the preparation of transmission blocking antimalarials. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Effector candidates in the secretome of Piriformospora indica, a ubiquitous plant-associated fungus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam eRafiqi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the emerging systems in plant-microbe interaction is the study of proteins, referred to as effectors, secreted by microbes in order to modulate host cells function and structure and to promote microbial growth on plant tissue. Current knowledge on fungal effectors derives mainly from biotrophic and hemibiotrophic plant fungal pathogens that have a limited host range. Here, we focus on effectors of Piriformospora indica, a soil borne endophyte forming intimate associations with roots of a wide range of plant species. Complete genome sequencing provides an opportunity to investigate the role of effectors during the interaction of this mutualistic fungus with plants. We describe in silico analyses to predict effectors of P. indica and we explore effector features considered here to mine a high priority protein list for functional analysis.

  8. Evaluation of different food grains as baits for management of Hystrix indica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pervez, A.; Ahmed, S. M.; Ahmad, A.; Ali, Q. M.

    2015-01-01

    Indian crested porcupine, Hystrix indica is widely distributed and serious rodent pest of orchards, field crops and vegetables in Pakistan. Laboratory studies were conducted to determine highly effective cereal used as bait base for its management. Six locally available food grains viz. wheat, rice, maize, black gram, sorghum and millet were offered in whole/crack form. Under no choice and choice tests, rice was the most preferred food, followed by wheat, maize and others. The present study suggested that rice in whole or cracked form alone or in combination with wheat can be applied as very palatable (32 percentage and 27 percentage, respectively) and cost effective grain as bait base for effective management of Indian porcupine, Hystrix indica, being an economically important rodent pest of agriculture, forestry and irrigation network in Pakistan. (author)

  9. Metabolism by grasshoppers of volatile chemical constituents from Mangifera indica and Solanum paniculatum leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Clécio S; Ramos, Natália S M; Da Silva, Rodolfo R; Da Câmara, Cláudio A G; Almeida, Argus V

    2012-12-01

    The chemical volatiles from plant leaves and their biological activities have been extensively studied. However, no studies have addressed plant-chemical volatiles after undergoing the digestive process in host insects. Here we describe for the first time chemical profiles of volatile constituents from Solanum paniculatum and Mangifera indica leaves metabolized by grasshoppers. Both profiles were qualitatively and quantitatively different from the profiles of non-metabolized leaves. The amount of nerolidol, the major constituent of S. paniculatum leaves, decreased and other sesquiterpenes, such as spathulenol, were formed during the digestive process of the grasshopper Chromacris speciosa. In M. indica, the presence of phenylpropanoids was observed (dillapiole, Z-asarone, E-asarone and γ-asarone) in the leaves metabolized by the grasshopper Tropidacris collaris, but these compounds were not found in the non-metabolized leaves. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Nymphal Linguatulosis in Indian Crested Porcupines (Histrix Indica in Southwest of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Rajabloo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Linguatula serrata is one of the important zoonotic parasites. Carnivores serve as definitive host. The larvae existed in mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs, liver, lungs, etc of intermediate herbivores. The definitive host becomes infected by ingesting viscera containing the infective nymphal stage. Humans may be infected with Linguatula either by ingestion of nymphs resulting in a condition called nasopharyngeal linguatulosis or Halzoun syndrome or by ingestionof infective eggs which develop in internal organs resulting in visceral linguatulosis. Indian crested porcupine (Hystrix indica is a common rodent in Middle East. Based on some tradition, consumption of Histrix meat andviscera is common in some parts of Iran. The present study reports the occurrence of Linguatula serrata nymph in H. indica as a new intermediate host from southwest of Iran.

  11. Root growth of Cynodon dactylon and Eleusine indica collected from motorways at different concentrations of lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, M H; Lau, W M

    1985-04-01

    An ecological survey was conducted on the roadside vegetation at three different sites: Tai Po, a commercial and residential area (average annual daily traffic (AADT) = 23730; and Shek O and Wu Kai Sha, recreational areas (AADT = 1590 and 20, respectively). Cynodon dactylon and Eleusine indica were the two most dominant species recorded. The Tai Po site had higher Pb contents in both soil and plant, followed by Shek O, and then Wu Kai Sha. Tillers of C. dactylon and E. indica from the three sites were subjected to a series concentrations of Pb(NO3)2. By comparing their indexes of tolerance and values of 14-day EC50 (effective concentration reducing the normal root growth by 50%), roadside populations of the two grasses collected from Tai Po and Shek O, especially the former one, were more tolerant to elevated levels of Pb compared with those collected from Wu Kai Sha.

  12. Cytotoxicity and antiviral activities of Asplenium nidus, Phaleria macrocarpa and Eleusine indica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahir, Mariya Mohd; Ibrahim, Nazlina; Yaacob, Wan Ahmad

    2014-09-01

    Three local medicinal plants namely Asplenium nidus (langsuyar), Eleusine indica (sambau) and Phaleria macrocarpa (mahkota dewa) were screened for the cytotoxicity and antiviral activities. Six plant extracts were prepared including the aqueous and methanol extracts from A. nidus leaf and root, aqueous extract from dried whole plant of E. indica and methanol extract from P. macrocarpa fruits. Cytotoxicity screening in Vero cell line by MTT assay showed that the CC50 values ranged from 15 to 60 mg/mL thus indicating the safety of the extracts even at high concentrations. Antiviral properties of the plant extracts were determined by plaque reduction assay. The EC50 concentrations were between 3.2 to 47 mg/mL. The selectivity indices (SI = CC50/EC50) of each tested extracts ranged from 4.3 to 63.25 indicating the usefulness of the extracts as potential antiviral agents.

  13. Pemisahan Dan Penentuan Kadar Asam Sitrat Dari Buah Asam Jawa (Tamarindus Indica.L)

    OpenAIRE

    Napitupulu, Piktor Mangarahon

    2011-01-01

    Determination of citric acid in the flesh of tamarind (Tamarindus Indica Linn) by spectrophotometric had been carried out. Principle of Reaction was oxidation citric acid become acetone, then bromide compound was ready become penta bromoacetone, which was determinated by spectrophotometric with wave length 520 nm. Separation of citric acid from tamarind was done by extraction with methanol as solvent. Then methanol was vapored and citric acid was determinated by spectrophotometric. According ...

  14. Taurine is absent from amino components in fruits of Opuntia ficus-indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Hatem Salama Mohamed; Al-Khalifa, Abdulrahman Saleh; Brückner, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Juices of edible fruits from Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Miller, commonly named prickly pears or Indian figs, were analysed for amino acids using an automated amino acid analyser run in the high-resolution physiological mode. Emphasis was put on the detection of free taurine (Tau), but Tau could be detected neither in different cultivars of prickly pears from Italy, South Africa and the Near East nor in commercially available prickly pear juices from the market.

  15. THE USE OF AZADIRACHTA INDICA EXTRACT TO DECREASE OF ALTERNARIA PORRI DISEASE ON ONION

    OpenAIRE

    Loso Winarto; Novia Chairuman

    2013-01-01

    Purple spot caused by Alternaria porri a major disease in the onion crop in the world. The disease is also widespread in the onion crop in Indonesia. This research aim was to know the effect of mimba leaf (Azadirachta indica) extract concentration to decrease of Alternaria porri on onion (Allium ascalonicum L).This research conducted at Research Garden of the Center of Agricultural Technology Assessment of North Sumatra Province, from October 2010 until January 2011.The researc...

  16. USE OF ELEUSINE INDICA (L. GAERTN. (KECHILA GHAS AS AN ANTIPYRETIC MEDICINE OF HERBIVORES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shibabrata Pattanayak

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In Murshidabad district of West Bengal state, India, the traditionally animal rearing people feed parts of Kechila ghas as an antipyretic medicine to their herbivorous animals. The plant is identified as Eleusine indica (L. Gaertn. of the family Poaceae. After collection from the soil, the plants are washed and the whole root along with 1-2 centimeter of stems are cut and fed directly at fresh, succulent stage to the ailing animals for that purpose.

  17. Biological Control of Anthracnose Disease of Tomato Using Ethanolic Extracts of Azadirachta Indica and Nicotiana Tabacum

    OpenAIRE

    Opeyemi, Bankole Samuel; Temidayo, Bankole Ruth; Babalola, Yetunde Oyinkansade; Emmanuel, Ilerioluwa Busayo; Ojubolamo, Motunrayo Temitope; Folake, Awotedu Bolakale

    2018-01-01

    Tomato is a commercially important vegetable throughout the whole world and its availability all the year is grossly affected by anthracnose disease, hence, the need for an effective bio-control that is affordable and user friendly. This study therefore investigated the inhibitory effect of ethanol extracts of Azadirachta indica and Tabacum nicotianaon the mycelium growth of fungi associated with anthracnose disease of tomato. Tomatoes that showed black circular lesions with concentric ring a...

  18. Evaluation of the in vitro antioxidant activity of Mangifera indica L. extract (Vimang).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, G; Delgado, R; Pérez, G; Garrido, G; Núñez Sellés, A J; León, O S

    2000-09-01

    An extract of Mangifera indica L. (Vimang) was tested in vitro for its antioxidant activity using commonly accepted assays. It showed a powerful scavenger activity of hydroxyl radicals and hypochlorous acid and acted as an iron chelator. The extract also showed a significant inhibitory effect on the peroxidation of rat-brain phospholipid and inhibited DNA damage by bleomycin or copper-phenanthroline systems. Copyright 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Growth and predicted productivity of Opuntia ficus-indica for current and elevated carbon dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nobel, P.S. (Univ. of California, Los Angeles (United States)); Garcia de Cortazar, V. (Univ. de Chile, Santiago (Chile))

    Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill., a prickly pear cactus cultivated worldwide for its fruits and stem segments, can have an annual dry weight productivity exceeding that of many crops. Using a recent introduced environmental productivity index (EPI), the influences of water status, temperature, and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) on its productivity can be predicted. This investigation calculated the water index, the temperature index, and the PAR index, whose product equals EPI, for 169 sites distributed approximately uniformly across the contiguous USA for present climatic conditions as well as for those associated with an elevated CO{sub 2} concentration of 650 {mu}L L{sup {minus}1}. The effect of elevated CO{sub 2} on growth of O. ficus-indica was directly measured, and low temperature limitations on productivity were considered. The dry weight gain of O. ficus-indica during 6 mo in an environmental growth chamber was 23% greater at 650 compared with 350 {mu}L L{sup {minus}1} CO{sub 2} and increased as the duration of the wet period increased. For closely spaced plants that lead to a high productivity per unit ground area, EPI averaged about 0.10, except in desert regions where the water index lowered EPI, in the far North or South and at high elevations where the temperature index lowered EPI, and in the Northeast and Northwest where the PAR index lowered EPI. The predicted annual dry weight productivity for O. ficus-indica was 12.8 Mg ha{sup {minus}1} yr{sup {minus}1} under current conditions, and 16.3 Mg ha{sup {minus}1} yr{sup {minus}1} under those associated with 650 {mu}L L{sup {minus}1} CO{sub 2}.

  20. First report of Raoiella indica Hirst (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) in South America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasquez, Carlos; Quiros de G, Magally; Aponte, Orlando; Sandoval, D. Maria F.

    2008-01-01

    The presence of the red palm mite, Raoiella indica Hirst is recorded for the first time in South America. High populations and severe damages caused by this new invasive mite were found on coconut and banana leaves in Sucre (10 deg 27' 47 N and 64 deg 10' 38 W ) and Monagas (9 deg 46'60 N and 63 deg 12'0 W ) states in northeastern Venezuela. (author)

  1. Antioxidant Phytochemicals of Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill. Cladodes with Potential Anti-spasmodic Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Lanuzza, Francesco; Occhiuto, Francesco; Monforte, Maria Teresa; Tripodo, Maria Marcella; D’Angelo, Valeria; Galati, Enza Maria

    2017-01-01

    Background: Opuntia ficus-indica (OFI) (L.) Mill. (Cactaceae), a plant widespread in dry regions of the world, shows interesting biological activities (cicatrizant, antiulcer, anti-inflammatory, and hypolipidemic) and is widely used in traditional medicine. Objectives: Phytochemical analysis and antispasmodic effect of wild OFI cladodes were carried out. Material and Methods: Polyphenols and Vitamin E occurrence, in antioxidant pool of OFI cladodes, were quantified by high-performance liquid ...

  2. Topical Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Isorhamnetin Glycosides Isolated from Opuntia ficus-indica

    OpenAIRE

    Antunes-Ricardo, Marilena; Guti?rrez-Uribe, Janet A.; Mart?nez-Vitela, Carlos; Serna-Sald?var, Sergio O.

    2015-01-01

    Opuntia ficus-indica (OFI) has been widely used in Mexico as a food and for the treatment of different health disorders such as inflammation and skin aging. Its biological properties have been attributed to different phytochemicals such as the isorhamnetin glycosides which are the most abundant flavonoids. Moreover, these compounds are considered a chemotaxonomic characteristic of OFI species. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of OFI extract and its isorhamnetin glycosides on d...

  3. Endophytic life strategies decoded by genome and transcriptome analyses of the mutualistic root symbiont Piriformospora indica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alga Zuccaro

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent sequencing projects have provided deep insight into fungal lifestyle-associated genomic adaptations. Here we report on the 25 Mb genome of the mutualistic root symbiont Piriformospora indica (Sebacinales, Basidiomycota and provide a global characterization of fungal transcriptional responses associated with the colonization of living and dead barley roots. Extensive comparative analysis of the P. indica genome with other Basidiomycota and Ascomycota fungi that have diverse lifestyle strategies identified features typically associated with both, biotrophism and saprotrophism. The tightly controlled expression of the lifestyle-associated gene sets during the onset of the symbiosis, revealed by microarray analysis, argues for a biphasic root colonization strategy of P. indica. This is supported by a cytological study that shows an early biotrophic growth followed by a cell death-associated phase. About 10% of the fungal genes induced during the biotrophic colonization encoded putative small secreted proteins (SSP, including several lectin-like proteins and members of a P. indica-specific gene family (DELD with a conserved novel seven-amino acids motif at the C-terminus. Similar to effectors found in other filamentous organisms, the occurrence of the DELDs correlated with the presence of transposable elements in gene-poor repeat-rich regions of the genome. This is the first in depth genomic study describing a mutualistic symbiont with a biphasic lifestyle. Our findings provide a significant advance in understanding development of biotrophic plant symbionts and suggest a series of incremental shifts along the continuum from saprotrophy towards biotrophy in the evolution of mycorrhizal association from decomposer fungi.

  4. Biosorptive behaviour of Mango (Mangifera indica) and Neem (Azadirachta indica) bark for Hg2+, Cr3+ and Cd2+ toxic ions from aqueous solutions: a radiotracer study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiwari, Diwakar; Mishra, Shuddhodan P.; Mishra, Manisha; Dubey, R.S.

    1999-01-01

    Biosorption of Hg 2+ and Cr 3+ on dead biomass Mango (Mangifera indica) and Neem (Azadirachta indica) bark has been assessed at micro to tracer level concentrations from aqueous solutions employing the 'radiotracer technique'. A high level of uptake of metal ions on these solid surfaces occurs within ca. 4 h of contact time reaching apparent saturation. The increase of sorptive concentration (10 -8 to 10 -2 mol dm -3 ), temperature (293-323 K) and pH (ca. 3 to 10) favoured the removal process of these ions; but in the case of Hg 2+ on Neem bark, there was seemingly no temperature effect. The uptake process follows first order rate law and obeys the Freundlich adsorption isotherm. Added anions and cations in the bulk solution inhibit to some extent the removal of these toxic ions. Similarly the inhibition in the uptake was also observed when both biomasses were irradiated by neutron and γ-rays prior to being employed as sorbents. No significant sorption of Cd 2+ was observed on these dead biomass solid surfaces under various physical-chemical conditions

  5. An improved Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of recalcitrant indica rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shri, Manju; Rai, Arti; Verma, Pankaj Kumar; Misra, Prashant; Dubey, Sonali; Kumar, Smita; Verma, Sikha; Gautam, Neelam; Tripathi, Rudra Deo; Trivedi, Prabodh Kumar; Chakrabarty, Debasis

    2013-04-01

    Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of indica rice varieties has been quite difficult as these are recalcitrant to in vitro responses. In the present study, we established a high-efficiency Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation system of rice (Oryza sativa L. ssp. indica) cv. IR-64, Lalat, and IET-4786. Agrobacterium strain EHA-101 harboring binary vector pIG121-Hm, containing a gene encoding for β-glucuronidase (GUS) and hygromycin resistance, was used in the transformation experiments. Manipulation of different concentrations of acetosyringone, days of co-culture period, bacterial suspension of different optical densities (ODs), and the concentrations of L-cysteine in liquid followed by solid co-culture medium was done for establishing the protocol. Among the different co-culture periods, 5 days of co-culture with bacterial cells (OD600 nm = 0.5-0.8) promoted the highest frequency of transformation (83.04 %) in medium containing L-cysteine (400 mg l(-1)). Putative transformed plants were analyzed for the presence of a transgene through genomic PCR and GUS histochemical analyses. Our results also suggest that different cultural conditions and the addition of L-cysteine in the co-culture medium improve the Agrobacterium-mediated transformation frequencies from an average of 12.82 % to 33.33 % in different indica rice cultivars.

  6. Chemical Composition and Vasorelaxant and Antispasmodic Effects of Essential Oil from Rosa indica L. Petals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafiz Majid Rasheed

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rosa indica L. belongs to the family Rosaceae and is locally known as gulaab. It has different traditional uses in cardiovascular and gastrointestinal disorders but there is no scientific data available in this regard. Therefore, the basic aim of this study was to explore the chemical composition and gastrointestinal and cardiovascular effects of the essential oil obtained from R. indica. The chemical composition of the essential oil was investigated using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS technique. The cardiovascular and gastrointestinal effects were investigated using electrophysiological measurements. The GC-MS analysis of the essential oil showed various chemical components including acetic acid, mercaptohexyl ester, butanoic acid, 2-methyl-5-oxo-1-cyclopentene-1-yl ester, artemiseole, methyl santonilate, isosteviol, caryophyllene oxide, pentyl phenyl acetate, dihydromyrcene, 1,5-octadecadien, octadecanoic acid, ethyl ester, palmitic acid (2-phenyl-1,3-dioxolan-4-yl methyl ester, santolina epoxide, and 9-farnesene. The electrophysiological measurements revealed that essential oil was more potent against K+ (80 mM than phenylephrine precontractions using isolated rabbit aorta preparations. In isolated rabbit jejunum preparations, it showed more potency against high K+ induced contractions than spontaneous contractions. Considering these evidences, it can be concluded that R. indica essential oil may work as a complementary and alternative medicine in gastrointestinal and cardiovascular diseases.

  7. Hepatoprotective Flavonoids in Opuntia ficus-indica Fruits by Reducing Oxidative Stress in Primary Rat Hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung Wha; Kim, Tae Bum; Kim, Hyun Woo; Park, Sang Wook; Kim, Hong Pyo; Sung, Sang Hyun

    2017-01-01

    Liver disorder was associated with alcohol consumption caused by hepatic cellular damages. Opuntia ficus-indica fruit extracts (OFIEs), which contain betalain pigments and polyphenols including flavonoids, have been introduced as reducing hangover symptoms and liver protective activity. To evaluate hepatoprotective activity of OFIEs and isolated compounds by high-speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC). The extract of O. ficus-indica fruits was fractionated into methylene chloride and n -butanol. The n -butanol fraction was isolated by HSCCC separation (methylene chloride-methanol- n -butanol-water, 5:4:3:5, v/v/v/v). The hepatoprotective activity of OFIEs and isolated compounds was evaluated on rat primary hepatocytes against ethanol-induced toxicity. Antioxidative parameters such as glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-P x ) enzymes and the GSH content were measured. Two flavonoids, quercetin 3- O -methyl ester (1) and (+)-taxifolin, and two flavonoid glycosides, isorhamnetin 3- O -β- d -glucoside (3) and narcissin (4), were isolated from the n -butanol fraction by HSCCC separation. Among them, compound 2 significantly protected rat primary hepatocytes against ethanol exposure by preserving antioxidative properties of GR and GSH-P x . OFIEs and (+)-taxifolin were suggested to reduce hepatic damage by alcoholic oxidative stress. Hepatoprotective Flavonoids were isolated from Opuntia ficus-indica by high -speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC).

  8. Nutritive value and chemical composition of prickly pear seeds (Opuntia ficus indica L.) growing in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özcan, Mehmet Musa; Al Juhaimi, Fahad Y

    2011-08-01

    The proximate composition and physico-chemical properties (moisture, crude lipid, crude protein, ash, and crude fiber, peroxide value, saponification value, acidity, relative density and refractive index) of prickly pear seed and corresponding oil were determined. The mineral contents (Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Na, P, Mn and Zn) of samples were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. Minerals determined were: calcium 471.2 mg/kg, potassium 532.7 mg/kg, magnesium 117.3 mg/kg, phosphorus 1,627.5 mg/kg and natrium 71.3 mg/kg. The fatty acid profiles of seed oil from the Opuntia ficus indica were analyzed by gas chromatography. Linoleic acid was established as the major fatty acid (61.01%), followed by oleic (25.52%) and palmitic (12.23%) acids. Both myristic, stearic and arachidonic acids were detected in O. ficus indica seed oil in low amounts. As a result, O. ficus indica seeds are an important source of natural fiber and, given its high linoleic acid content, its oil can be used as a nutraceutic agent.

  9. Opuntia ficus-indica cladodes as feedstock for ethanol production by Kluyveromyces marxianus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuloyo, Olukayode O; du Preez, James C; García-Aparicio, Maria del Prado; Kilian, Stephanus G; Steyn, Laurinda; Görgens, Johann

    2014-12-01

    The feasibility of ethanol production using an enzymatic hydrolysate of pretreated cladodes of Opuntia ficus-indica (prickly pear cactus) as carbohydrate feedstock was investigated, including a comprehensive chemical analysis of the cladode biomass and the effects of limited aeration on the fermentation profiles and sugar utilization. The low xylose and negligible mannose content of the cladode biomass used in this study suggested that the hemicellulose structure of the O. ficus-indica cladode was atypical of hardwood or softwood hemicelluloses. Separate hydrolysis and fermentation and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation procedures using Kluyveromyces marxianus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae at 40 and 35 °C, respectively, gave similar ethanol yields under non-aerated conditions. In oxygen-limited cultures K. marxianus exhibited almost double the ethanol productivity compared to non-aerated cultures, although after sugar depletion utilization of the produced ethanol was evident. Ethanol concentrations of up to 19.5 and 20.6 g l(-1) were obtained with K. marxianus and S. cerevisiae, respectively, representing 66 and 70 % of the theoretical yield on total sugars in the hydrolysate. Because of the low xylan content of the cladode biomass, a yeast capable of xylose fermentation might not be a prerequisite for ethanol production. K. marxianus, therefore, has potential as an alternative to S. cerevisiae for bioethanol production. However, the relatively low concentration of fermentable sugars in the O. ficus-indica cladode hydrolysate presents a technical constraint for commercial exploitation.

  10. Constituents of Artemisia indica Willd. from Uttarakhand Himalaya: A source of davanone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider, S Zafar; Mohan, Manindra; Andola, Harish Chandra

    2014-07-01

    The genus Artemisia is important due to its medicinal properties as well as vital aroma compounds of commercial value. The aim of the study was to explore the potential of the essential oil of Artemisia indica wildly growing in Uttarakhand. The aerial parts of Artemisia indica Willd. (Asteraceae), collected from wild growing habitat of Garhwal Himalaya, Uttarakhand (north of India) at full flowering stage were hydro-distilled and gave pale yellow oil with the yield of 0.8% (v/w). The obtained essential oil was analyzed by GC and GC-MS and identified 32 components, amounting 95.42% of the oil. Among detected compounds, the principal component was found to be davanone (30.80%), followed by β-pinene (15.30%) and germacrene-D (5.82%). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on A. indica from Himalayan region of India, which detected davanone as major component. The species, collected from a specific location, can be explored for isolation of davanone for its industrial utilization and as alternate source of Artemisia pallens, which have already established commercial value.

  11. Chemical Composition and Vasorelaxant and Antispasmodic Effects of Essential Oil from Rosa indica L. Petals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasheed, Hafiz Majid; Khan, Taous; Wahid, Fazli; Khan, Rasool; Shah, Abdul Jabbar

    2015-01-01

    Rosa indica L. belongs to the family Rosaceae and is locally known as gulaab. It has different traditional uses in cardiovascular and gastrointestinal disorders but there is no scientific data available in this regard. Therefore, the basic aim of this study was to explore the chemical composition and gastrointestinal and cardiovascular effects of the essential oil obtained from R. indica. The chemical composition of the essential oil was investigated using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) technique. The cardiovascular and gastrointestinal effects were investigated using electrophysiological measurements. The GC-MS analysis of the essential oil showed various chemical components including acetic acid, mercaptohexyl ester, butanoic acid, 2-methyl-5-oxo-1-cyclopentene-1-yl ester, artemiseole, methyl santonilate, isosteviol, caryophyllene oxide, pentyl phenyl acetate, dihydromyrcene, 1,5-octadecadien, octadecanoic acid, ethyl ester, palmitic acid (2-phenyl-1,3-dioxolan-4-yl methyl ester), santolina epoxide, and 9-farnesene. The electrophysiological measurements revealed that essential oil was more potent against K+ (80 mM) than phenylephrine precontractions using isolated rabbit aorta preparations. In isolated rabbit jejunum preparations, it showed more potency against high K+ induced contractions than spontaneous contractions. Considering these evidences, it can be concluded that R. indica essential oil may work as a complementary and alternative medicine in gastrointestinal and cardiovascular diseases. PMID:26357519

  12. Origin and diversity of testate amoebae shell composition: Example of Bullinularia indica living in Sphagnum capillifolium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaine, Maxence; Bernard, Nadine; Gilbert, Daniel; Recourt, Philippe; Armynot du Châtelet, Eric

    2017-06-01

    Testate amoebae are free-living shelled protists that build a wide range of shells with various sizes, shapes, and compositions. Recent studies showed that xenosomic testate amoebae shells could be indicators of atmospheric particulate matter (PM) deposition. However, no study has yet been conducted to assess the intra-specific mineral, organic, and biologic grain diversity of a single xenosomic species in a natural undisturbed environment. This study aims at providing new information about grain selection to develop the potential use of xenosomic testate amoebae shells as bioindicators of the multiple-origin mineral/organic diversity of their proximal environment. To fulfil these objectives, we analysed the shell content of 38 Bullinularia indica individuals, a single xenosomic testate amoeba species living in Sphagnum capillifolium, by scanning electron microscope (SEM) coupled with X-ray spectroscopy. The shells exhibited high diversities of mineral, organic, and biomineral grains, which confirms their capability to recycle xenosomes. Mineral grain diversity and size of B. indica matched those of the atmospheric natural mineral PM deposited in the peatbog. Calculation of grain size sorting revealed a discrete selection of grains agglutinated by B. indica. These results are a first step towards understanding the mechanisms of particle selection by xenosomic testate amoebae in natural conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Morpho-anatomical and physicochemical studies of Fumaria indica (Hausskn.) Pugsley

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Prakash Chandra Gupta; Ch V Rao

    2012-01-01

    To study morpho-anatomical characters and physicochemical analysis ofFumaria indica (F. indica) (Hausskn.) Pugsley, (Fumariaceae), an important medicinal plant used extensively for treating a variety of ailments in various system of indigenous medicine.Methods:Evaluation of the different parts of the plant was carried out to determine the morpho-anatomical, physicochemical, phytochemical and HPTLC fingerprinting profile of F. indica and other WHO recommended methods were performed for standardization. Results: Morpho-anatomical studies showed compound and pinnatifid leaf, 4 to 6 cm in length, linear and oblong in shape and anomocytic arrangement of stomata, thin walled parenchymatous cells, scattered, sclerenchymatous, capped vascular bundles and radiating medullary rays. Physicochemical studies showed foreign matter 0.2%, loss on drying 6.8%, total ash 16.77%, alcohol and water soluble extractives 8.92% and 20.26%, respectively, sugar 17.75%, starch 22.97% and tannins 2.37%. Phytochemical evaluation revealed the presence of carbohydrate, alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, tannins and sterol. Thin layer chromatography was carried out with different solvents and the best solvent system was chloroform and methanol in 80:20 ratio and revealed 12 spots with different Rf value under UV light 366λ. Conclusions: The results of the study can serve as a valuable source of information and provide suitable standards for identification of this plant material for future investigations and applications.

  14. Morpho-anatomical and physicochemical studies of Fumaria indica(Hausskn.)Pugsley

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Prakash; Chandra; Gupta; Ch; V; Rao

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To study morpho-anatomical characters and physicochemical analysis of Fumaria indica(F.indica)(Hausskn.)Pugsley,(Fumariaceae),an important medicinal plant used extensively for treating a variety of ailments in various system of indigenous medicine.Methods:Evaluation of the different parts of the plant was carried out to determine the morphoanatomical,physicochemical,phytochemical and HPTLC fingerprinting profile of F.indica and other WHO recommended methods were performed for standardization.Results:Morphoanatomical studies showed compound and pinnatifid leaf,4 to 6 cm in length,linear and oblong in shape and anomocytic arrangement of stomata,thin walled parenchymatous cells,scattered,sclerenchymatous,capped vascular bundles and radiating medullary rays.Physicochemical studies showed foreign matter 0.2%,loss on drying 6.8%,total ash 16.77%,alcohol and water soluble extractives 8.92%and 20.26%,respectively,sugar 17.75%,starch 22.97%and tannins 2.37%.Phytochemical evaluation revealed the presence of carbohydrate,alkaloids,flavonoids,saponins,tannins and sterol.Thin layer chromatography was carried out with different solvents and the best solvent system was chloroform and methanol in 80:20 ratio and revealed 12 spots with different R_f value under UV light 366λ.Conclusions:The results of the study can serve as a valuable source of information and provide suitable standards for identification of this plant material for future investigations and applications.

  15. Effects of Mangifera indica (Careless) on Microcirculation and Glucose Metabolism in Healthy Volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchwald-Werner, Sybille; Schön, Christiane; Frank, Sonja; Reule, Claudia

    2017-07-01

    A commercial Mangifera indica fruit powder (Careless) showed beneficial acute effects on microcirculation in a randomized, double-blind, crossover pilot study. Here, long-term effects on microcirculation and glucose metabolism were investigated in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, 3-arm parallel-design study in healthy individuals. A daily dose of 100 mg or 300 mg of the fruit powder was compared to placebo after supplementation for 4 weeks. Microcirculation and endothelial function were assessed by the Oxygen-to-see System and pulse amplitude tonometry, respectively. Glucose metabolism was assessed under fasting and postprandial conditions by capillary glucose and HbA1c values.Microcirculatory reactive hyperemia flow increased, especially in the 100 mg group (p = 0.025). The 300 mg of the M. indica fruit preparation reduced postprandial glucose levels by trend if compared to placebo (p = 0.0535) accompanied by significantly lower HbA1c values compared to baseline. Furthermore, 300 mg intake significantly improved postprandial endothelial function in individuals with decreased endothelial function after high-dose glucose intake (p = 0.0408; n = 11).In conclusion, the study suggests moderate beneficial effects of M. indica fruit preparation on microcirculation, endothelial function, and glucose metabolism. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. Potentials of Mangifera indica in the treatment of depressive-anxiety disorders: possible mechanisms of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishola, Ismail O; Awodele, Olufunsho; Eluogu, Chinedum O

    2016-09-01

    Mangifera indica (Anacardiaceae) is an important herb in the traditional African and Ayurvedic medicines. The stem barks are used in the treatment of hypertension, insomnia, tumour, depression, rheumatism and as a tonic. This study was carried out to investigate antidepressant- and anxiolytic-like effect of the hydroethanol stem bark extract of M. indica (HeMI) in mice. HeMI (12.5-100 mg/kg, p.o.) was administered 1 h before subjecting the animal to the forced swim test (FST), tail suspension test (TST) and elevated plus maze tests (EPM). HeMI (12.5-100 mg/kg, p.o.) treatment produced significant reduction in immobility time [F(6.56)=8.35, pindica through interaction with 5-HT2 receptor, α2-adrenoceptor and dopamine D2-receptors. Also, an anxiolytic-like effect through its affinity for 5-HT2 and benzodiazepine receptors. Hence, M. indica could be a potential phytotherapeutic agent in the treatment of mixed anxiety-depressive illness.

  17. Antioxidant activity, fatty acid profile and tocopherols of Tamarindus indica L. seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Maria Moreno Luzia

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to characterize Tamarindus indica L. seeds regarding its composition and to evaluate its antioxidant potential, fatty acid profile and content of tocopherols. In order to obtain the extract, the dried and crushed seeds were extracted with ethanol for 30 minutes in a 1:3 seeds: ethanol ratio under continuous stirring at room temperature. After that, the mixtures were filtered and subjected to roto-evaporation at 40 ºC in order to determine, through direct weighing, the dry matter yields of the extracts. According to the results, Tamarindus indica L. seeds showed high content of total carbohydrates (71.91% and offered relevant content and antioxidant activity of phenolic compounds. Tamarindus indica L. seeds oil presents high oxidative stability (15.83 hours and significant total tocopherol content (57.77 mg.kg-1, besides presenting a higher percentage of unsaturated fatty acids - the main component being linolenic (59.61%, which is considered an essential fatty acid.

  18. Indicações e perfil epidemiológico dos pacientes submetidos à ceratoplastia

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    Augusto Adam Netto

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Avaliar o perfil epidemiológico dos pacientes submetidos à ceratoplastia no estado de Santa Catarina e as principais indicações para este procedimento. Métodos: Foi realizado estudo observacional, descritivo e retrospectivo com dados de 1161 pacientes transplantados entre janeiro de 2008 e dezembro de 2010, de acordo com os prontuários obtidos na Central de Notificação, Captação e Distribuição de Órgãos e Tecidos de Santa Catarina. As variáveis registradas foram: idade, sexo, procedência, data do transplante, indicação e olho operado. Resultados: A média de idade foi de 45,51 anos e o sexo masculino foi mais prevalente (54,05%. O ceratocone foi a doença mais frequente (36,09%, seguido por falência do enxerto (15,89%, leucoma (11,92%, ceratopatia bolhosa (11,06%, distrofias (7,77%, úlcera (5,36%, perfuração corneana (5,27%, descemetocele (4,66%, ceratite herpética (1,12% e ectasia corneana (0,86%. A região do estado com maior número de casos foi a Grande Florianópolis (23,75%, sendo o ceratocone a principal indicação (30,91%. Leucoma e perfuração foram as principais indicações em pacientes com idade inferior a 10 anos, ceratocone nos pacientes entre 11 e 50 anos, falência do enxerto entre 51 e 60 anos e ceratopatia bolhosa nos pacientes acima de 61 anos. Conclusão: O ceratocone é a principal indicação para ceratoplastia no estado de Santa Catarina, com a média de idade de 31 anos. A maioria dos pacientes é do sexo masculino e proveniente da Grande Florianópolis.

  19. Predisposing factors for peripheral intravenous puncture failure in children Factores predisponentes para fracaso de la punción intravenosa periférica en niños Fatores predisponentes para insucesso da punção intravenosa periférica em crianças

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Cavalcante de Negri

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To identify predisposing factors for peripheral intravenous puncture failure in children. METHODS: Cross-sectional cohort study conducted with 335 children in a pediatric ward of a university hospital after approval of the ethics committee. The Wald Chi-squared, Prevalence Ratio (PR and backward procedure (p≤0.05 tests were applied. RESULTS: Success of peripheral intravenous puncture was obtained in 300 (89.5% children and failure in 35 (10.4%. The failure rates were significantly influenced by: presence of clinical history of difficult venous access, malnourishment, previous use of peripherally inserted central venous catheter, previous use of central venous catheter, and history of phlebitis or infiltration. In the multivariate model, being malnourished and having previously been submitted to central venous catheterization were the predisposing factors for the failure. CONCLUSION: The failure rate of 10.4% is similar to that identified in analogous studies and was influenced by characteristics of the children and intravenous therapy. In association with this, malnutrition and previous use of a central venous catheter were the most important variables influencing increase in peripheral intravenous puncture failure.OBJETIVO: Verificar factores predisponentes para el fracaso de la punción intravenosa periférica realizada en niños. MÉTODO: Estudio de cohorte transversal realizado con 335 niños internados en unidad pediátrica de un hospital universitario, después de la aprobación del mérito ético. Se utilizaron testes Jue-cuadrado de Wald, Razón de Superioridad (RP y procedimiento de backward (p≤0,05. RESULTADOS: se evidenció éxito de la punción en 300 (89,5% niños e fracaso en 35 (10,4%. Influenciaron significantemente las proporciones de fracaso: presentar historia clínica para dificultad en la punción, estar desnutrido, uso previo de catéter central de inserción periférica, uso previo de catéter venoso central

  20. Potential Lipid-Lowering Effects of Eleusine indica (L) Gaertn. Extract on High-Fat-Diet-Induced Hyperlipidemic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Siew Ling; Nalamolu, Koteswara Rao; Lai, How Yee

    2017-01-01

    To date, anti-obesity agents based on natural products are tested for their potential using lipase inhibition assay through the interference of hydrolysis of fat by lipase resulting in reduced fat absorption without altering the central mechanisms. Previous screening study had indicated strong anti-obesity potential in Eleusine indica ( E. indica ), but to date, no pharmacologic studies have been reported so far. This study was performed to investigate the lipid-lowering effects of E. indica using both in vitro and in vivo models. The crude methanolic extract of E. indica was fractionated using hexane (H-Ei), dichloromethane (DCM-Ei), ethyl acetate (EA-Ei), butanol (B-Ei), and water (W-Ei). All the extracts were tested for antilipase activity using porcine pancreatic lipase. Because H-Ei showed the highest inhibition, it was further subjected to chemical profiling using high-performance liquid chromatography. Subsequently, oral toxicity analysis of H-Ei was performed [Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development guidelines using fixed dose procedure (No. 420)]; efficacy analysis was performed using high-fat diet (HFD)-induced hyperlipidemic female Sprague-Dawley rats. According to the toxicity and efficacy analyses, H-Ei did not demonstrate any noticeable biochemical toxicity or physiologic abnormalities and did not cause any tissue damage as per histologic analysis. Furthermore, H-Ei significantly reduced body weight and improved serum profile and did not show hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity based on the serum profile. Moreover, H-Ei alleviated HFD-induced hepatosteatosis and ameliorated induced adiposity in both visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue. Our results demonstrate that H-Ei effectively improved hyperlipidemia. Further studies to explore its possibility as an alternative pharmacologic agent to treat obesity are warranted. Hexane extract of Eleusine indica (H-Ei) showed strong potential in the inhibition of porcine pancreatic lipase (27.01

  1. Atividade de extrato aquoso de folhas de nim (Azadirachta indica sobre Spodoptera frugiperda Activity of neem tree (Azadirachta indica leaves aqueous extract on Spodoptera frugiperda

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    Hélio Teixeira Prates

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available A lagarta-do-cartucho do milho (Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith tem sido controlada com inseticidas sintéticos. Uma das caracteristicas do nim (Azadirachta indica A. Juss é sua atividade inseticida contra pragas, como sucedâneo aos sintéticos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a atividade inseticida do extrato aquoso das folhas do nim sobre a lagarta-do-cartucho do milho, em laboratório. Bioensaios com diferentes concentrações de extrato em dieta artificial, tendo o inseticida chlorpyrifos como testemunha, revelaram, 15 dias após infestação com larvas, eficiência equivalente entre as concen- trações 3,60 a 10,00 mg mL-1. A análise de Probit mostrou CL50 = 2,67 mg mL-1; o extrato aquoso das folhas de nim apresenta, portanto, efeito inseticida sobre a lagarta-do-cartucho do milho.The fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith has been controlled with synthetic insecticides bringing risk to the environment. Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss is reported to be a natural alternative to synthetic insecticides against many insect species. The objective of this work was to evaluate the activity of neem leaves aqueous extract on fall armyworm, in laboratory. Bioassays carried out using artificial feed with various extract concentrations, and chlorpyrifos as control, indicated, 15 days after larvae infestation, similar efficiency in concentrations from 3.60 to 10.00 mg mL-1. Probit analysis showed LC50 = 2.67 mg mL-1. Hence, aqueous extract from neem leaves are active against fall armyworm.

  2. Antioxidative Characteristics of Anisomeles indica Extract and Inhibitory Effect of Ovatodiolide on Melanogenesis

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    Li-Ling Chang

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to investigate the antioxidant characteristics of Anisomeles indica methanol extract and the inhibitory effect of ovatodiolide on melanogenesis. In the study, the antioxidant capacities of A. indica methanol extract such as DPPH assay, ABTS radical scavenging assay, reducing capacity and metal ion chelating capacity as well as total phenolic content of the extract were investigated. In addition, the inhibitory effects of ovatodiolide on mushroom tyrosinase, B16F10 intracellular tyrosinase and melanin content were determined spectrophotometrically. Our results revealed that the antioxidant capacities of A. indica methanol extract increased in a dose-dependent pattern. The purified ovatodiolide inhibited mushroom tyrosinase activity (IC50 = 0.253 mM, the compound also effectively suppressed intracellular tyrosinase activity (IC50 = 0.469 mM and decreased the amount of melanin (IC50 = 0.435 mM in a dose-dependent manner in B16F10 cells. Our results concluded that A. indica methanol extract displays antioxidant capacities and ovatodiolide purified from the extract inhibited melanogenesis in B16F10 cells. Hence, A. indica methanol extract and ovatodiolide could be applied as a type of dermatological whitening agent in skin care products.

  3. Influence of photoperiod on growth for three desert CAM species. [Agave deserti, Ferocactus acanthodes, Opuntia ficus-indica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nobel, P.S. (Univ. of California, Los Angeles (USA))

    1989-03-01

    Agave deserti, Ferocactus acanthodes, and Opuntia ficus-indica were maintained in environmental growth chambers under a constant total daily photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) for 1 yr to investigate the effects of photoperiod on growth of these Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) species. As the photoperiod was increased from 6 h to 18 h, growth increased 33% for A. deserti, 81% for F. acanthodes, and 50% for O. ficus-indica. Such increases were explained based on PAR saturation of the C{sub 3} photosynthetic carbon reduction cycle utilized by CAM plants during the daytime. In particular, the highest instantaneous PAR occurred for the shortest photoperiod and led to less growth for the same total daily PAR. Also, the total daily net CO{sub 2} uptake which occurred primarily at night, increased 53% as the photoperiod was increased from 6 to 18 h for O. ficus-indica, even though the accompanying night length decreased. The only other observed morphological effect was the sevenfold increase in the number of new cladodes initiated as the photoperiod was increased from 6 h to 18 h for O. ficus-indica. The influence of photoperiod on the daily pattern of net CO{sub 2} uptake and lack of effect of drought on plant survival under long photoperiods for O. ficus-indica differ from previous reports on this and other CAM species.

  4. Piriformospora indica root colonization triggers local and systemic root responses and inhibits secondary colonization of distal roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrotti, Lorenzo; Mueller, Martin J; Waller, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Piriformosporaindica is a basidiomycete fungus colonizing roots of a wide range of higher plants, including crop plants and the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Previous studies have shown that P. indica improves growth, and enhances systemic pathogen resistance in leaves of host plants. To investigate systemic effects within the root system, we established a hydroponic split-root cultivation system for Arabidopsis. Using quantitative real-time PCR, we show that initial P. indica colonization triggers a local, transient response of several defense-related transcripts, of which some were also induced in shoots and in distal, non-colonized roots of the same plant. Systemic effects on distal roots included the inhibition of secondary P. indica colonization. Faster and stronger induction of defense-related transcripts during secondary inoculation revealed that a P. indica pretreatment triggers root-wide priming of defense responses, which could cause the observed reduction of secondary colonization levels. Secondary P. indica colonization also induced defense responses in distant, already colonized parts of the root. Endophytic fungi therefore trigger a spatially specific response in directly colonized and in systemic root tissues of host plants.

  5. Nutrient uptake from liquid digestate using ornamental aquatic macrophytes (Canna indica, Iris pseudacorus, Typha latifolia) in a constructed wetland system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ediviani, W.; Priadi, C. R.; Moersidik, S. S.

    2018-05-01

    Indonesia has implemented energy recovery from organic (food) waste by anaerobic digestion method, but the digestate was commonly treated only by composting, and still as a separated treatment (not integrated into a resource recovery system). Whilst not getting any pretreatment, the digestate was disposed to the environment and then act as a pollutant. Yet it contains nutrients which could be recovered as a nutrient source for plants. The study was about how ornamental aquatic macrophytes could uptake nitrogen from liquid digestate in a constructed wetland method. Canna indica, Iris pseudacorus, and Typha latifolia were the experimented ornamental aquatic macrophytes used to uptake the nutrient (nitrogen—N) from liquid digestate. The study showed that the highest N uptake was done by C. indica (25.1%) which has the highest biomass increment as well (80.5%). Effluent quality improvement also shown by N removal by C. indica (68.5—76.4% TN), I. pseudacorus (61.8—71.3% TN), and T. latifolia (61.6—74.5%). This research proved that C. indica has the performance for the N uptake, best N removal efficiency, with a great growth rate as well. This system using C. indica could also improve the water quality of the effluent and add the aesthetic of environment.

  6. Antioxidant properties and chemical characterization of Spanish Opuntia ficus-indica Mill. cladodes and fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreu, Lucía; Nuncio-Jáuregui, Nallely; Carbonell-Barrachina, Ángel A; Legua, Pilar; Hernández, Francisca

    2018-03-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that consumption of Opuntia ficus-indica Mill. has an important positive health benefit, mainly due to antioxidant properties, which justifies this research. This study examined antioxidant activity, organic acid and sugar profile, total phenolic, and physicochemical characteristics of six O. ficus-indica cultivars growing in the Spanish Mediterranean. It should be noted that, in this study, both cladodes (young and adult) and fruits (peel and pulp) were analyzed. The antioxidant activity (2,2-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl methods) was higher in fruit peel than in cladodes. The young cladodes presented an important antioxidant activity by the ferric-reducing ability of plasma method as well as a higher total phenolic content (18.90 g gallic acid equivalent per kilogram). High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with diode-array detector analysis revealed the absence of sucrose and the presence of glucose and fructose, which the values were higher in pulp fruits. HPLC with refractive index detector analysis showed that citric, malic, and succinic acids were the main organic acids in all cultivars, with a significant higher content in old cladodes. These investigations valorize O. ficus-indica fruits in comparison with cladodes. In general, this plant can be considered as an ingredient for the production of health-promoting food, highlighting mainly in the antioxidant activity and total polyphenols content found in young cladodes and peel fruits. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. In vitro immunomodulatory potential of Artemisia indica Willd. in chicken lymphocytes

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    Pushpa Ruwali

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Evaluation of the in vitro immunomodulatory potential of Artemisia indica Willd. methanolic extract in chicken lymphocyte culture system through lymphocyte (B and T cells proliferation assay, after standardizing the maximum non-cytotoxic dose (MNCD in chicken lymphocytes. Materials and Methods: Fresh aerial parts of A. indica Willd. (family: Asteraceae specimens were collected (altitude 1560 m, gotten authenticated, processed, dried, and Soxhlet extracted to yield methanolic extract (AME. Chicken splenocytes were isolated from spleens collected from healthy birds; lymphocytes were separated by density gradient centrifugation, percentage cell viability determined and final cell count adjusted to 107 cells/ml in RPMI-1640 medium. MNCD of AME in chicken lymphocytes was determined through 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-y1-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide dye reduction assay. Immunomodulatory potential of AME was evaluated through lymphocytes proliferation or B and T cells blastogenesis assay in the presence of appropriate mitogens, namely, lipopolysaccharide (LPS and concanavalin A (Con A, respectively. Results: Maximum concentration of AME exhibiting 100% cell viability (MNCD was 200 μg/ml and was selected for further in vitro analysis. The in vitro exposure of chicken lymphocytes to 200 μg/ml dose of AME, resulted in significant (p<0.05 upregulation of 11.76% in B cell proliferation in the presence of B cell mitogen (LPS and a significant (p<0.05 increase of 12.018% T cells proliferation in the presence of the mitogen (Con A, as compared to the control. Conclusion: The significant upregulation in the proliferation of two major cell types modulating the immune system is an indication of the immunostimulatory potential of the plant. It would be worthwhile to further evaluate A. indica on relevant immunomodulatory aspects, especially the in vivo studies in a poultry system.

  8. Discriminating the effects of Cannabis sativa and Cannabis indica: a web survey of medical cannabis users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Daniel D; Mitsouras, Katherine; Irizarry, Kristopher J

    2014-10-01

    To evaluate the opinions of medical cannabis (MC) users on the effects of Cannabis indica vs. those of Cannabis sativa on conditions and symptoms through an online survey. Survey of 95 non-randomly assigned MC users. A two-sided chi-square test followed by Bonferroni post hoc multiple comparison and Fisher exact test were used to determine correlations. The Cronbach α was used to determine internal consistency. Announcements on 13 MC websites with links to SurveyMonkey.com. Self-identified MC users. Web survey. Species effects were compared regarding health symptoms, conditions, purpose, route, and trust in product label. Trust in the purity, the route of administration, or the purpose (recreational vs. medicinal) did not differ between the two species. A preference for C. indica was statistically significant for pain management (p=0.001), helping with sedation (p=0.015), and sleep (p<0.001). C. sativa was preferred for euphoria (p<0.001) and enhancing energy (p=0.022). The conditions reaching statistical significance for C. indica preference were: nonmigraine headaches (p=0.042), glaucoma (p=0.036), neuropathy (p=0.024), spasticity (p=0.048), seizures (p=0.031), insomnia (p<0.001), and joint pain (p=0.048). For C. sativa, no conditions reached significance. The MC websites' descriptions of effects that agreed with the survey results are listed. Some conditions had very few respondents. The internal consistency/reliability (Cronbach α) was adequate for the condition scale but not for the symptom survey. In this anonymous Web survey, which had limitations, the two species had different effect associations on symptoms and conditions, possibly because of ingredient differences. Future surveys and subsequent prospective definitive trials are needed to confirm the findings.

  9. Azadirachtin production by hairy root cultivation of Azadirachta indica in a modified stirred tank reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Smita; Srivastava, A K

    2012-11-01

    Present investigation involves hairy root cultivation of Azadirachta indica in a modified stirred tank reactor under optimized culture conditions for maximum volumetric productivity of azadirachtin. The selected hairy root line (Az-35) was induced via Agrobacterium rhizogenes LBA 920-mediated transformation of A. indica leaf explants (Coimbatore variety, India). Liquid culture of the hairy roots was developed in a modified Murashige and Skoog medium (MM2). To further enhance the productivity of azadirachtin, selected growth regulators (1.0 mg/l IAA and 0.025 mg/l GA(3)), permeabilizing agent (0.5 % v/v DNBP), a biotic elicitor (1 % v/v Curvularia (culture filtrate)) and an indirectly linked biosynthetic precursor (50 mg/l cholesterol) were added in the growth medium on 15th day of the hairy root cultivation period in shake flask. Highest azadirachtin production (113 mg/l) was obtained on 25th day of the growth cycle with a biomass of 21 g/l DW. Further, batch cultivation of hairy roots was carried out in a novel liquid-phase bioreactor configuration (modified stirred tank reactor with polyurethane foam as root support) to investigate the possible scale-up of the established A. indica hairy root culture. A biomass production of 15.2 g/l with azadirachtin accumulation in the hairy roots of 6.4 mg/g (97.28 mg/l) could be achieved after 25 days of the batch cultivation period, which was ~27 and ~14 % less biomass and azadirachtin concentration obtained respectively, in shake flasks. An overall volumetric productivity of 3.89 mg/(l day) of azadirachtin was obtained in the bioreactor.

  10. In vitro immunomodulatory potential of Artemisia indica Willd. in chicken lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruwali, Pushpa; Ambwani, Tanuj Kumar; Gautam, Pankaj

    2018-01-01

    Evaluation of the in vitro immunomodulatory potential of Artemisia indica Willd. methanolic extract in chicken lymphocyte culture system through lymphocyte (B and T cells) proliferation assay, after standardizing the maximum non-cytotoxic dose (MNCD) in chicken lymphocytes. Fresh aerial parts of A. indica Willd. (family: Asteraceae) specimens were collected (altitude 1560 m), gotten authenticated, processed, dried, and Soxhlet extracted to yield methanolic extract (AME). Chicken splenocytes were isolated from spleens collected from healthy birds; lymphocytes were separated by density gradient centrifugation, percentage cell viability determined and final cell count adjusted to 10 7 cells/ml in RPMI-1640 medium. MNCD of AME in chicken lymphocytes was determined through 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-y1)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide dye reduction assay. Immunomodulatory potential of AME was evaluated through lymphocytes proliferation or B and T cells blastogenesis assay in the presence of appropriate mitogens, namely, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and concanavalin A (Con A), respectively. Maximum concentration of AME exhibiting 100% cell viability (MNCD) was 200 μg/ml and was selected for further in vitro analysis. The in vitro exposure of chicken lymphocytes to 200 µg/ml dose of AME, resulted in significant (p<0.05) upregulation of 11.76% in B cell proliferation in the presence of B cell mitogen (LPS) and a significant (p<0.05) increase of 12.018% T cells proliferation in the presence of the mitogen (Con A), as compared to the control. The significant upregulation in the proliferation of two major cell types modulating the immune system is an indication of the immunostimulatory potential of the plant. It would be worthwhile to further evaluate A. indica on relevant immunomodulatory aspects, especially the in vivo studies in a poultry system.

  11. Efficient callus formation and plant regeneration of goosegrass [Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yemets, A I; Klimkina, L A; Tarassenko, L V; Blume, Y B

    2003-02-01

    Efficient methods in totipotent callus formation, cell suspension culture establishment and whole-plant regeneration have been developed for the goosegrass [ Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn.] and its dinitroaniline-resistant biotypes. The optimum medium for inducing morphogenic calli consisted of N6 basal salts and B5 vitamins supplemented with 1-2 mg l(-1) 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), 2 mg l(-1) glycine, 100 mg l(-1) asparagine, 100 mg l(-1) casein hydrolysate, 30 g l(-1) sucrose and 0.6% agar, pH 5.7. The presence of organogenic and embryogenic structures in these calli was histologically documented. Cell suspension cultures derived from young calli were established in a liquid medium with the same composition. Morphogenic structures of direct shoots and somatic embryos were grown into rooted plantlets on medium containing MS basal salts, B5 vitamins, 1 mg l(-1) kinetin (Kn) and 0.1 mg l(-1) indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), 3% sucrose, 0.6% agar, pH 5.7. Calli derived from the R-biotype of E. indica possessed a high resistance to trifluralin (dinitroaniline herbicide) and cross-resistance to a structurally non-related herbicide, amiprophosmethyl (phosphorothioamidate herbicide), as did the original resistant plants. Embryogenic cell suspension culture was a better source of E. indica protoplasts than callus or mesophyll tissue. The enzyme solution containing 1.5% cellulase Onozuka R-10, 0.5% driselase, 1% pectolyase Y-23, 0.5% hemicellulase and N(6) mineral salts with an additional 0.2 M KCl and 0.1 M CaCl(2) (pH 5.4-5.5) was used for protoplast isolation. The purified protoplasts were cultivated in KM8p liquid medium supplemented with 2 mg l(-1) 2,4-D and 0.2 mg l(-1) Kn.

  12. Assessment of Anti-Influenza Activity and Hemagglutination Inhibition of Plumbago indica and Allium sativum Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavan, Rahul Dilip; Shinde, Pramod; Girkar, Kaustubh; Madage, Rajendra; Chowdhary, Abhay

    2016-01-01

    Human influenza is a seasonal disease associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Anti-flu ayurvedic/herbal medicines have played a significant role in fighting the virus pandemic. Plumbagin and allicin are commonly used ingredients in many therapeutic remedies, either alone or in conjunction with other natural substances. Evidence suggests that these extracts are associated with a variety of pharmacological activities. To evaluate anti-influenza activity from Plumbago indica and Allium sativum extract against Influenza A (H1N1)pdm09. Different extraction procedures were used to isolate the active ingredient in the solvent system, and quantitative HPLTC confirms the presence of plumbagin and allicin. The cytotoxicity was carried out on Madin-Darby Canine kidney cells, and the 50% cytotoxic concentration (CC50) values were below 20 mg/mL for both plant extracts. To assess the anti-influenza activity, two assays were employed, simultaneous and posttreatment assay. A. sativum methanolic and ethanolic extracts showed only 14% reduction in hemagglutination in contrast to P. indica which exhibited 100% reduction in both simultaneous and posttreatment assay at concentrations of 10 mg/mL, 5 mg/mL, and 1 mg/mL. Our results suggest that P. indica extracts are good candidates for anti-influenza therapy and should be used in medical treatment after further research. The search for natural antiviral compounds from plants is a promising approach in the development of new therapeutic agents. In the past century, several scientific efforts have been directed toward identifying phytochemicals capable of inhibiting virus. Knowledge of ethnopharmacology can lead to new bioactive plant compounds suitable for drug discovery and development. Macromolecular docking studies provides most detailed possible view of drug-receptor interaction where the structure of drug is designed based on its fit to three dimensional structures of receptor site rather than by analogy to other

  13. In silico Analysis of osr40c1 Promoter Sequence Isolated from Indica Variety Pokkali

    OpenAIRE

    W.S.I. de Silva; M.M.N. Perera; K.L.N.S. Perera; A.M. Wickramasuriya; G.A.U. Jayasekera

    2017-01-01

    The promoter region of a drought and abscisic acid (ABA) inducible gene, osr40c1, was isolated from a salt-tolerant indica rice variety Pokkali, which is 670 bp upstream of the putative translation start codon. In silico promoter analysis of resulted sequence showed that at least 15 types of putative motifs were distributed within the sequence, including two types of common promoter elements, TATA and CAAT boxes. Additionally, several putative cis-acing regulatory elements which may be involv...

  14. Isolation and characterization of a reserve protein from the seeds of Opuntia ficus-indica (Cactaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uchoa A.F.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe here the isolation and characterization of a major albumin from the seeds of Opuntia ficus-indica (Cactaceae. This protein has a molecular mass of 6.5 kDa and was isolated by a combination of gel filtration chromatography and reverse-phase HPLC. The amino acid composition of this protein was determined and it was shown to have similarities with the amino acid composition of several proteins from the 2S albumin storage protein family. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of this protein is Asp-Pro-Tyr-Trp-Glu-Gln-Arg.

  15. THE STRUCTURE AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF SPINES FROM THE CACTUS OPUNTIA FICUS-INDICA

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    Wolfgang Gindl-Altmutter,

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The mechanical properties and structure of cactus Opuntia ficus-indica spines were characterised in bending and by means of x-ray diffraction. Using spruce wood cell walls for reference, the modulus of elasticity of Opuntia cactus spines was high in absolute terms, but comparable when specific values were considered, which can be explained by similarities in the cell wall structure of both materials. Differently from the modulus of elasticity, the bending strength of cactus spines was unexpectedly high both in absolute and in specific terms. The unique cellulose-arabinan composite structure of cactus spines, together with high cellulose crystallinity, may explain this finding.

  16. Review Of Usability Of Azadirachta Indica As A Biopesticide For Better Organic Farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasant Rambhau Damal

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Azadirachta Indica Neem has some sort of well-developed root system that may well extract nutrients with lower soil levels which makes a crucial agent with erosion Control because it can be virtually drought-resistant. As these it can be effective as some sort of dune fixation tree. Indian farmers use Neem cake as a natural manure together with soil amendment the idea expands the productivity of nitrogen fertilizers just by limiting the charge of nitrification together with hampering pests these as nematodes fungi together with insects. This paper provides the brief assessment of literature to know the biopesticide benefits together with functions of Neem.

  17. Vegetative fallows and potential value of the neem tree (Azadirachta indica) in the tropics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radwanski, S.A.; Wickens, G.E.

    1981-01-01

    Research into the systems of agriculture based on vegetative fallows should begin from enquiries into the shrubs and trees most efficient in restoring soil productivity and providing essential products. Azadirachta indica, of the semiarid regions is an outstanding example of a species which is not only an efficient soil ameliorant, but also provides products that are highly competitive in price and quality with petroleum-based synthetics. The launching of a research and development programme leading to the exploitation of this tree is proposed. Several projects that could be studied in such a programme are briefly outlined.

  18. Antidiarrhoeal activity of aqueous extract of Mangifera indica L. leaves in female albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakubu, M T; Salimon, S S

    2015-04-02

    Mangifera indica L. leaves have a long history of indigenous use, as an antidiarrhoeal agent among others, without any scientific study that has substantiated or refuted this claim. Therefore, the aims of this study were to determine the secondary metabolites in the aqueous extract of Mangifera indica leaves and its acclaimed antidiarrhoeal activity in rats. The aqueous leaf extract of Mangifera indica was screened for its constituent secondary plant metabolites. In each of the diarrhoeal models, female albino rats were assigned into 5 groups (A, B, C, D and E) containing five animals each such that rats in groups A and B were the positive and negative controls respectively while those in groups C, D and E received 25, 50 and 100mg/kg body weight of the extract respectively in addition to specific requirements of the model. The extract contained alkaloids (4.20mg/g), flavonoids (13.60mg/g), phenolics (1.50mg/g) and saponins (3.10mg/g) while tannins, anthraquinones, cardiac glycosides and steroids were not detected. In the castor oil-induced diarrhoeal model, the onset time of diarrhoea was significantly prolonged by the 25 and 50mg/kg body weight whereas there was no episode in the 100mg/kg body weight treated animals. The extract (25 and 50mg/kg body weight) decreased the number, water content, fresh weight and total number of wet feaces and increased the inhibition of defecations. All the doses of the extract significantly increased the Na(+) -K(+) ATPase activity in the small intestine. The extract dose dependently decreased the masses and volume of intestinal fluid with corresponding increase in inhibition of intestinal fluid content in the castor oil-induced enteropooling model. The extract also reduced the distance travelled by charcoal meal in the 30min gastrointestinal transit model. All these changes were similar to the reference drugs with the 100mg/kg body weight of the extract exhibiting the most profound antidiarrhoeal activity. The study concluded

  19. The nerve protection and in vivo therapeutic effect of Acalypha indica extract in frogs

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    Ernie H. Purwaningsih

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim To demonstrate nerve protection and/or treatment effect of Acalypha indica Linn. extract on nerve paralysis induced by subcutaneus injection of pancuronium bromide on frog’s back.Methods The study was performed on sixty frogs (Bufo melanostictus Schneider that divided into two groups, i.e. the neuro-protection and neuro-therapy group. Each group was divided further into 6 sub-treatment groups: negative control group treated by water and positive control group treated by piracetam, treatment groups received the extracts 200, 300, 400, 500 mg/kgBW. Pancuronium bromide 0.2% (1 : 20 dilutions were injected subcutaneously as muscle relaxant. The protective effect was studied by giving the extract orally, 1 hour prior to injection; while the therapeutic effect of the extract was studied by 10 minute treatment after injecting pancuronium bromide solution. The parameters measured were the onset and duration of paralysis (in minutes and the recovery time (time needed to recover into normal condition.Results The study showed significantly different protective effect of Acalypha indica Linn. root water extract at 400 and 500 mg/KgBW compared to negative control group and positive control group (piracetam (p < 0.05; while the therapeutic effect was obvious at the dose 200-500 mg/KgBW compared to negative control group (p = 0.000. There was no significant difference compared to positive control group (piracetam, except at 300 mg/KgBW (p = 0.012.Conclusion These results have proven that the water extract of Acalypha indica Linn. root has comparable protective and treatment effect on nerves system, as piracetam, but further studies should be performed to provide more evidences particularly pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies on two animal models that commonly used. (Med J Indones 2010; 19:96-102Keywords: Acalypha indica Linn, Bufo melanostictus Schneider, nerve-protection

  20. Activity of neem tree (Azadirachta indica) leaves aqueous extract on Spodoptera frugiperda

    OpenAIRE

    Prates, Hélio Teixeira; Viana, Paulo Afonso; Waquil, José Magid

    2003-01-01

    A lagarta-do-cartucho do milho (Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith)) tem sido controlada com inseticidas sintéticos. Uma das caracteristicas do nim (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) é sua atividade inseticida contra pragas, como sucedâneo aos sintéticos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a atividade inseticida do extrato aquoso das folhas do nim sobre a lagarta-do-cartucho do milho, em laboratório. Bioensaios com diferentes concentrações de extrato em dieta artificial, tendo o inseticida chlor...

  1. Two neutral alleles of improving male gamete abortion in indica-japonica hybrid rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@It was difficult to use the pronounced heterosis of indica-japonica hybrids rice due to the panicle sterility caused by male and female gamete abortion. The female gamete abortion in most of subspecific hybrids could be solved by using an abortion-neutral gene S5-n, a wide compatibility gene. The problem of male gamete abortion indicated by distorted segregation of marker genes remained to be studied. Segregation distortion via male gamete had been reported on chromosomes 3, 7, 8, 11, and 12.

  2. Quill injury - cause od death of captive indian crested porcupine(Hystrix indica, Kerr, 1792

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Švara

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Indian crested porcupine (Hystrix indica is a member of the family of Old World porcupines (Hystricidae. Its body is covered with multiple layers of quills, which serve for warning and attack if animal is threatened. However, the literature data on injuries caused by Indian crested porcupine are absent. We describe pathomorphological lesions in an Indian crested porcupine from the Ljubljana Zoo, which died after a fight with a younger male that caused a perforative quill injury of the thoracic wall, followed by septicaemia. Macroscopic, microscopic and bacteriological findings were detailed

  3. Chemical characterization of xyloglucan obtained from Tamarindus indica seeds from the semi arid northeastern (Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, Delane da C.; Cunha, Arcelina P.; Silva, Sarah M.F.; Gallao, Maria Izabel; Azeredo, Henriette M.C. de

    2015-01-01

    Playing an important role in food, seeds are sources of carbohydrates, proteins and lipids, so they have been explored for a long time by the food industry. For this reason, the objective of present work is to obtain and characterize xyloglucan obtained from tamarind seeds (Tamarindus indica). In order to assess possible industrial applications of the polysaccharide, it was characterized by Infrared Fourier Transform spectroscopy (FTIR), Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA). Search results showed that it was possible to perform xyloglucan extraction but the process still requires improvements in order to increase the extraction yield. FTIR, NMR and TGA results were similar to those found in literature. (author)

  4. ESTIMACIÓN DE VARIABLES DE OPERACIÓN DE UN BIORREACTOR CON CÉLULAS DE Azadirachta indica A. Juss ESTIMATION OF OPERATION VARIABLES OF A BIOREACTOR WITH Azadirachta indica A. Juss. CELLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Muñoz Cruz

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Se estudiaron las variables de operación de un biorreactor de tanque agitado para el cultivo de células en suspensión de Azadirachta indica A. Juss. Se utilizó carboximetilcelulosa, CMC 0,7 % p/v, para estimar el coeficiente de transferencia de oxígeno, kLa, entre 120 - 400 rpm y entre 0,05 - 0,6 vvm, obteniéndose valores de 0,5 - 8,0 h-1. El kLa para suspensiones de A. indica en erlenmeyers fue de 0,6 - 1,2 h-1. Con los resultados anteriores se definieron las condiciones de operación del biorreactor y se evaluó el crecimiento de células de A. indica a 200 rpm y 0,2 vvm de aire, alcanzando 9,2 g cel secas/l. El crecimiento celular no fue limitado por el suministro de oxígeno. Los tamaños de aglomerados celulares cultivados en erlenmeyers con bafles agitados magnéticamente y en biorreactor fueron similares, pero menores que los obtenidos en erlemeyers con agitación orbital. El presente estudio establece parámetros para la operación de biorreactores con A. indica y confirma que los medios con CMC pueden utilizarse para estimar variables operacionales en biorreactores.Operation variables of a stirred tank bioreactor were studied in order to culture cell suspension of Azadirachta indica A. Juss Carboximethylcelulose, CMC 0,7 % w/v, was used to estimate the coefficient of oxygen transfer, kLa, between 120 - 400 rpm and 0,05 - 0,6 vvm, obtaining values of 0,5 - 8,0 h-1. The kLa for suspension cultures of A. indica in erlenmeyers was 0,6 - 1,2 h-1. Based upon the previous results, the operation conditions of the bioreactor were defined and cell growth of A. indica was evaluated at 200 rpm and 0,2 vvm of air, reaching 9,2 g dry cell/l. Celular growth was not limited by dissolved oxygen. The sizes of cell agglomerates magnetically stirred in erlemeyers with bafles and in the bioreactor were similar, but smaller that those obtained in erlenmeyers with orbital agitation. The present study establishes parameters for operation of bioreactors

  5. Essential oils composition of two Sicilian cultivars of Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill. (Cactaceae) fruits (prickly pear).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zito, Pietro; Sajeva, Maurizio; Bruno, Maurizio; Rosselli, Sergio; Maggio, Antonella; Senatore, Felice

    2013-01-01

    The essential oils composition of the skin, pulp and seeds from fruits of two Sicilian cultivars of Opuntia ficus-indica (cv. Sanguigna and cv. Surfarina) has been obtained by hydrodistillation and the possible antioxidant, antimicrobial and semiochemical roles have been investigated comparing the data with those reported in the literature. The presence of antioxidants and antimicrobials found in this study increases the spectrum of compounds that have beneficial properties in O. ficus-indica. In addition, several compounds identified in this study have been reported to influence the behaviour of Ceratitis capitata, a phytophagous pest which causes severe damages to several crops including O. ficus-indica and the kairomonal activity of the odour of the fruits seems provided by a blend of compounds found in the various matrices analysed.

  6. Pyridine metabolism and trigonelline synthesis in leaves of the mangrove legume trees Derris indica (Millettia pinnata) and Caesalpinia crista.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Yuling; Sasamoto, Hamako; Ashihara, Hiroshi

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to reveal the pyridine metabolism in leaves of two mangrove legumes, Derris indica (= Millettia pinnata or Pongamia pinnata) and Caesalpinia crista. Radioactivity from [carbonyl-14C]nicotinamide supplied exogenously to young leaf disks was recovered in nicotinic acid, nicotinic acid mononucleotide, NAD, NADP, nicotinamide mononucleotide and trigonelline. These mangrove species, especially D. indica, have strong ability to convert nicotinamide to trigonelline, but not to nicotinic acid glucoside. The endogenous trigonelline content in leaves of D. indica was more than 830 microg/g dry weight. This value is 5-12 times greater than that in leaves of Glycine max. There was little short-term effect of 250 and 500 mM NaCl (equivalent to ca. 50% and 100% sea water) on nicotinamide metabolism.

  7. Proximate composition, phytochemical screening, GC-MS studies of biologically active cannabinoids and antimicrobial activities of Cannabis indica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Saqib Isahq

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the proximate composition, minerals analysis, phytochemical screening, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS studies of active cannabinoids and antimicrobial activities of Cannabis indica (C. indica leaves, stems, and seeds. Methods: Standard qualitative protocols of phytochemical screening were accomplished for the identification of biologically active phytochemicals. Minerals in plant samples were analyzed by using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The resins of C. indica were analyzed for medicinally active cannabinoid compounds by GC-MS. The sample for GC-MS study was mixed with small quantity of n-hexane and 30 mL of acetonitrile solution for the identification of cannabinoids. Agar well diffusion method was used for antibacterial activity. For antifungal activity, the tested fungal strains were sub-cultured on Sabouraud’s dextrose agar at 28 °C. Results: Mineral analysis revealed the presence of sodium, potassium, magnesium and some other minerals in all parts of C. indica. Phytochemical investigation showed the presence of alkaloids, saponins, tannins, flavonoids, sterols and terpenoids. C. indica divulged wide spectrum of antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Proteus mirabilis. The extracts of plant leaves, seeds and stems showed significant antifungal activities against Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus parasiticus, and Aspergillus oryzae. The biologically active cannabinoids of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (25.040% and cannabidiol (resorcinol, 2-p-mentha-1,8-dien-4-yl-5-pentyl (50.077% were found in Cannabis resin in high percentage. Conclusions: The findings of the study suggested that the existence of biologically active remedial cannabinoids in elevated concentrations and antimicrobial bioassays of C. indica make it a treasured source to be used in herbal preparation for various ailments.

  8. First record of Hesperolabops nigriceps Reuter (Hemiptera: Miridae) on Opuntia ficus-indica in Milpa Alta, Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomares-Pérez, Martín; Rodríguez-Leyva, Esteban; Brailovsky, Harry; Ramírez-Alarcón, Samuel

    2010-01-01

    In recent years a species of Hesperolabops has become a problem as a pest of nopalitos, Opuntia ficus-indica, in Milpa Alta, in the south of Mexico City, which is the most important production region of this vegetable in the country. A survey of Hesperolabops in Milpa Alta has resulted in the first report of Hesperolabops nigriceps Reuter. This occurrence should be monitored and considered in future studies in order to avoid misidentification of Hesperolabops spp. Kirkaldy native populations there, and to avoid the confusion of the damage that may be caused on O. ficus-indica.

  9. C-glycosylflavones from the aerial parts of Eleusine indica inhibit LPS-induced mouse lung inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Melo, Giany O; Muzitano, Michelle F; Legora-Machado, Alexandre; Almeida, Thais A; De Oliveira, Daniela B; Kaiser, Carlos R; Koatz, Vera Lucia G; Costa, Sônia S

    2005-04-01

    The infusion of aerial parts (EI) of Eleusine indica Gaertn (Poaceae) is used in Brazil against airway inflammatory processes like influenza and pneumonia. Pre-treatment with 400 mg/kg of crude extract inhibited 98% of lung neutrophil recruitment in mice exposed to aerosols of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Gram-negative bacteria, in a dose-dependent manner. At 400 microg/kg, schaftoside (6-C-beta-glucopyranosyl-8-C-alpha-arabinopyranosylapigenin) and vitexin (8-C-beta-glucopyranosylapigenin), isolated from EI, inhibited 62% and 80% of lung neutrophil influx, respectively. These results may justify the popular use of E. indica against airway inflammatory processes.

  10. In silico Analysis of osr40c1 Promoter Sequence Isolated from Indica Variety Pokkali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.S.I. de Silva

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The promoter region of a drought and abscisic acid (ABA inducible gene, osr40c1, was isolated from a salt-tolerant indica rice variety Pokkali, which is 670 bp upstream of the putative translation start codon. In silico promoter analysis of resulted sequence showed that at least 15 types of putative motifs were distributed within the sequence, including two types of common promoter elements, TATA and CAAT boxes. Additionally, several putative cis-acing regulatory elements which may be involved in regulation of osr40c1 expression under different conditions were found in the 5′-upstream region of osr40c1. These are ABA-responsive element, light-responsive elements (ATCT-motif, Box I, G-box, GT1-motif, Gap-box and Sp1, myeloblastosis oncogene response element (CCAAT-box, auxin responsive element (TGA-element, gibberellin-responsive element (GARE-motif and fungal-elicitor responsive elements (Box E and Box-W1. A putative regulatory element, required for endosperm-specific pattern of gene expression designated as Skn-1 motif, was also detected in the Pokkali osr40c1 promoter region. In conclusion, the bioinformatic analysis of osr40c1 promoter region isolated from indica rice variety Pokkali led to the identification of several important stress-responsive cis-acting regulatory elements, and therefore, the isolated promoter sequence could be employed in rice genetic transformation to mediate expression of abiotic stress induced genes.

  11. Optimized Monitoring of Production of Cellulose Nanowhiskers from Opuntia ficus-indica (Nopal Cactus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horacio Vieyra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Preparation of cellulose nanowhiskers (CNWs has grown significantly because they are useful for a wide range of applications. Additional advantage in their design requires that they meet the following characteristics: nontoxicity, abundance, sustainability, renewability, and low cost. To address these requirements, nanowhiskers were prepared from Opuntia ficus-indica (nopal cellulose by acid hydrolysis. Monitoring the process of CNWs preparation is necessary to ensure maximum yield and purity of the end product. In this study, the cellulose preparation was monitored by analyzing microscopic morphology by SEM; the purity degree was determined by fluorescence microscopy as a novel and rapid technique, and FTIR spectroscopy was used for confirmation. The additional parameters that monitored the process were the crystallinity index by X-ray diffraction and the size of the particle by dynamic light scattering (DLS. Nopal cellulose was found to be comparable to commercial microcrystalline cellulose. The use of Opuntia ficus-indica is a viable alternative for the production of highly pure CNWs and the strategy to supervise the preparation process was rapid.

  12. Characterization of Calcium Compounds in Opuntia ficus indica as a Source of Calcium for Human Diet

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    Isela Rojas-Molina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Analyses of calcium compounds in cladodes, soluble dietary fiber (SDF, and insoluble dietary fiber (IDF of Opuntia ficus indica are reported. The characterization of calcium compounds was performed by using Scanning Electron Microscopy, Energy Dispersive Spectrometry, X-ray diffraction, and infrared spectroscopy. Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy and titrimetric methods were used for quantification of total calcium and calcium compounds. Whewellite (CaC2O4·H2O, weddellite (CaC2O4·(H2O2.375, and calcite (CaCO3 were identified in all samples. Significant differences (P≤0.05 in the total calcium contents were detected between samples. CaC2O4·H2O content in cladodes and IDF was significantly higher (P≤0.05 in comparison to that observed in SDF, whereas minimum concentration of CaCO3 was detected in IDF with regard to CaCO3 contents observed in cladodes and SDF. Additionally, molar ratio oxalate : Ca2+ in all samples changed in a range from 0.03 to 0.23. These results support that calcium bioavailability in O. ficus indica modifies according to calcium compounds distribution.

  13. Oil composition and characterisation of phenolic compounds of Opuntia ficus-indica seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chougui, Nadia; Tamendjari, Abderezak; Hamidj, Wahiba; Hallal, Salima; Barras, Alexandre; Richard, Tristan; Larbat, Romain

    2013-08-15

    The seed composition of four varieties of Opuntia ficus-indica growing in Algeria was investigated. Seeds ground into a fine powder were first, subjected to oil extraction and fatty acids analysis. The phenolic compounds were then extracted from the defatted powder of seeds in order to be quantified and characterised by liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS(n)) and to nuclear magnetic resonance (LC-NMR) approaches. In addition, an evaluation of the antioxidant activity of the phenolic extracts was investigated. Gas chromatography analysis of the seed oil showed high percentages of linoleic acid in the four varieties ranging from 58% to 63%. The phenolic profile of the Opuntia ficus-indica seeds displayed a high complexity, with more than 20 compounds detected at 330 nm after the LC separation. Among them, three isomers of feruloyl-sucrose were firmly identified and another was strongly supposed to be a sinapoyl-diglycoside. High correlations were found between phenolic content in the defatted seed extracts and their antioxidant activity. The data indicate that the defatted cactus seed wastes still contain various components that constitute a source for natural foods. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Micromorphology of cactus-pear (Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill) cladodes based on scanning microscopies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Salem-Fnayou, Asma; Zemni, Hassène; Nefzaoui, Ali; Ghorbel, Abdelwahed

    2014-01-01

    Cladode ultrastructural features of two prickly and two spineless Opuntia ficus-indica cultivars were examined using environmental scanning electron and atomic force microscopies. Observations focused on cladode as well as spine and glochid surface micromorphologies. Prickly cultivars were characterized by abundant cracked epicuticular wax deposits covering the cladode surface, with an amorphous structure as observed by AFM, while less abundant waxy plates were observed by ESEM on spineless cultivar cladodes. Further AFM observations allowed a rough granular and crystalloid epicuticular wax structure to be distinguished in spineless cultivars. Regarding spine micromorphology, prickly cultivars had strong persistent spines, observed by ESEM as a compact arrangement of oblong epidermal cells with a rough granular structure. However, deciduous spines in spineless cultivars had a broken transversely fissured epidermis covering a parallel arrangement of fibres. Through AFM, the deciduous spine surface presented an irregular hilly and smooth microrelief while persistent spines exhibited rough helical filamentous prints. ESEM and AFM studies of cladode surfaces from prickly and spineless cactus pear cultivars revealed valuable micro-morphological details that ought to be extended to a large number of O. ficus-indica cultivars. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Antioxidant and antiglycation properties of two mango (Mangifera indica L. cultivars from Senegal

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    Samba Fama Ndoye

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the total phenolic contents, antioxidant and antiglycation activities of leaves, barks, roots and kernels from two cultivars of Mangifera indica (Anacardiaceae. Methods: Total phenolic contents were determined by using Folin-Ciocalteu's method. The antioxidant activities were assessed by three different protocols including DPPH, oxygen radical absorbance capacity and iron (II chelation assays. In addition, in vitro bovine serum albumin/D-ribose assay was chosen to evaluate the antiglycation properties of the extracts. Results: All the investigated extracts were found to contain high level of total phenols as well as potent antioxidant activities. Kernel extracts showed the highest total phenol contents and DPPH radical scavenging activities whereas higher oxygen radical absorbance capacity values were observed for leave, root and bark extracts. Besides, extracts from leaves, roots and barks from both cultivars exhibited potent inhibitory effects against the formation of advanced glycation end products, with IC50 values lower than the standard positive control aminoguanidine. Conclusions: The potent antiglycation and antioxidative activities of these two Mangifera indica cultivars suggest a possible role in targeting aging, diabetic complications and oxidative stress related diseases.

  16. THE USE OF AZADIRACHTA INDICA EXTRACT TO DECREASE OF ALTERNARIA PORRI DISEASE ON ONION

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    Loso Winarto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purple spot caused by Alternaria porri a major disease in the onion crop in the world. The disease is also widespread in the onion crop in Indonesia. This research aim was to know the effect of mimba leaf (Azadirachta indica extract concentration to decrease of Alternaria porri on onion (Allium ascalonicum L.This research conducted at Research Garden of the Center of Agricultural Technology Assessment of North Sumatra Province, from October 2010 until January 2011.The research used non factorial Block Randomized Design (BRD and four replications.The treatment consisted of six levels of Azadirachta indica which is dissolved in one litre of water each treatment. The number of replication are four each treatment. Treatment applied were 0 g plot-1 (control; 100 g plot-1; ; 150 g plot-1 ; 200 g plot-1 ; 250 g plot-1 ; 300 g plot-1 . The results showed that mimba leaf extract significantly affect the intensity of the purple spot disease and onion production.

  17. An endophytic fungus from Azadirachta indica A. Juss. that produces azadirachtin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusari, Souvik; Verma, Vijay C; Lamshoeft, Marc; Spiteller, Michael

    2012-03-01

    Azadirachtin A and its structural analogues are a well-known class of natural insecticides having antifeedant and insect growth-regulating properties. These compounds are exclusive to the neem tree, Azadirachta indica A. Juss, from where they are currently sourced. Here we report for the first time, the isolation and characterization of a novel endophytic fungus from A. indica, which produces azadirachtin A and B in rich mycological medium (Sabouraud dextrose broth), under shake-flask fermentation conditions. The fungus was identified as Eupenicillium parvum by ITS analysis (ITS1 and ITS2 regions and the intervening 5.8S rDNA region). Azadirachtin A and B were identified and quantified by LC-HRMS and LC-HRMS(2), and by comparison with the authentic reference standards. The biosynthesis of azadirachtin A and B by the cultured endophyte, which is also produced by the host neem plant, provides an exciting platform for further scientific exploration within both the ecological and biochemical contexts.

  18. Nesting and feeding habits of Indian giant squirrel (Ratufa indica in Karlapat wildlife sanctuary, India

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    Pradhan, A. K.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Indian giant squirrel (Ratufa indica is one of four species of giant squirrels in the world. It is endemic to India and its populations are severely fragmented. The ecology of squirrels in Asia has been little studied, hindering conservation and management efforts. We studied the Indian giant squirrel’s nesting and feeding habits during spring in the Karlapat Wildlife Sanctuary, India. We surveyed 122.5 km of natural trails for direct observation of these squirrels, their nests and feeding evidence, and we sampled plot–based quadrats to assess the availability of resources. We used Manly’s resource selection function and log–likelihood test ratios to analyse the data for preference. The mean encounter rate of the Indian giant squirrel was 0.57 (± 0.18 SD individuals/km. Haldinia cordifolia (Wi = 4.899, p < 0.001 and Mangifera indica (Wi = 4.322, p = 0.001 were the preferred tree for nesting, whereas Xylia xylocarpa (31.30% and Bauhinia vahlii (28.24% were the most commonly eaten plants. Nest site preference was for taller tree species. As current management practices directly damage the preferred nesting sites and food resources, our findings aim to promote effective conservation of the Indian giant squirrel.

  19. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of Mangifera indica L. extract (Vimang).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido, G; González, D; Delporte, C; Backhouse, N; Quintero, G; Núñez-Sellés, A J; Morales, M A

    2001-02-01

    Vimang is an aqueous extract of Mangifera indica used in Cuba to improve the quality of life in patients suffering from elevated stress. To assess its possible analgesic and antiinflammatory effects, the results of a standard extract evaluation are presented. Analgesia was determined using acetic acid-induced abdominal constriction and formalin-induced licking. Antiinflammatory effects were evaluated using carrageenan- and formalin-induced oedema. Vimang (50-1000 mg/kg, p.o.) exhibited a potent and dose-dependent antinociceptive effect against acetic acid test in mice. The mean potency (DE(50)) was 54.5 mg/kg and the maximal inhibition attained was 94.4%. Vimang (20-1000 mg/kg, p.o.) dose-dependently inhibited the second phase of formalin-induced pain but not the first phase. The DE(50) of the second phase was 8.4 mg/kg and the maximal inhibition was 99.5%, being more potent than indomethacin at doses of 20 mg/kg. Vimang (20-1000 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly inhibited oedema formation (p Vimang could account for the antinociceptive and antiinflammatory actions reported here for the first time for M. indica bark aqueous extract. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Mangifera indica L. extract (Vimang) and mangiferin modulate mouse humoral immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, D; Leiro, J; Delgado, R; Sanmartín, M L; Ubeira, F M

    2003-12-01

    The present study investigated the effects of orally administered Vimang (an aqueous extract of Mangifera indica) and mangiferin (the major polyphenol present in Vimang) on mouse antibody responses induced by inoculation with spores of microsporidian parasites. Inoculation induced specific antibody production with an exponential timecourse, peaking after about one month. Vimang significantly inhibited this antibody production from about three weeks post-inoculation, and most markedly by four weeks post-inoculation; by contrast, mangiferin had no significant effect. Determination of Ig isotypes showed that the IgM to IgG switch began about four weeks post-inoculation, with IgG2a predominating. Vimang significantly inhibited IgG production, but had no effect on IgM. Mangiferin did no affect either IgM or IgG2a, but significantly enhanced production of IgG1 and IgG2b. Neither Vimang nor mangiferin enhanced specific antibody secretion by splenic plasma cells from mice inoculated with microsporidian spores, whether administered in vivo before serum extraction or in vitro to the culture medium. Inoculation with spores induced splenomegaly, which was significantly reduced by Vimang and significantly enhanced by mangiferin. These results suggest that components of Mangifera indica extracts may be of potential value for modulating the humoral response in different immunopathological disorders. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Pembentukan Embrio Endospermik Sekunder Mangga (Mangifera indica L. Gedong Gincu Klon 289

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    Irni Furnawanthi Hindaningrum

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe improvement of Mangifera indica L. by conventional breeding approaches has been confounded by the long generation cycle, low fruit set, single seed per fruit and high degree of cross pollination. Biotechnology complements conventional breeding and expedite the mango improvement programs. Endosperm culture is a direct method to produce triploid plants. This study aimed  to obtain embryo from endosperm culture. The system of secondary somatic embriogenesis in mango described here represents a source of embryogenic material may be used for mass propagation and genetic manipulation of this crop. The method consisted of induction, proliferation, maturation, germination, and histological analysis of the obtaimed embryos. A protocol for plantlet regeneration was developed for Gedong Gincu mango clone 289 through secondary somatic embryogenesis. Primary somatic embryos (proembryo and cotyledonary embryos were cultured in induction medium to induce the secondary somatic embryos. The best proliferation rate was 0.22 in medium with 1 g L-1 Poly Vinyl Pyrrolidone (PVP for multiplication of secondary somatic embryos. Maturation of inoculum derived from the proliferation medium supplemented with 2 g L-1 of activated charcoal on medium containing 0.4 mg L-1 BAP provides the average 2.39 embryo formation of cotyledonari phase. The highest germination frequency (20% was obtained in media with GA3 1.5 mg L-1.Keywords: endosperm, Gedong Gincu, Mangifera indica L, secondary endospermic embrio

  2. Nucleotide variability in the 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase gene from Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, J L; Wickneswari, R; Ismail, B S; Salmijah, S

    2008-02-01

    This study reports the results of the partial DNA sequence analysis of the 5-enolpyruvyl-shikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) gene in glyphosate-resistant (R) and glyphosate-susceptible (S) biotypes of Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn from Peninsular Malaysia. Sequencing results revealed point mutation at nucleotide position 875 in the R biotypes of Bidor, Chaah and Temerloh. In the Chaah R population, substitution of cytosine (C) to adenine (A) resulted in the change of threonine (Thr106) to proline (Pro106) and from C to thymidine (T) in the Bidor R population, leading to serine (Ser106) from Pro106. As for the Temerloh R, C was substituted by T resulting in the change of Pro106 to Ser106. A new mutation previously undetected in the Temerloh R was revealed with C being substituted with A, resulting in the change of Pro106 to Thr106 indicating multiple founding events rather than to the spread of a single resistant allele. There was no point mutation recorded at nucleotide position 875 previously demonstrated to play a pivotal role in conferring glyphosate resistance to E. indica for the Lenggeng, Kuala Selangor, Melaka R populations. Thus, there may be another resistance mechanism yet undiscovered in the resistant Lenggeng, Kuala Selangor and Melaka populations.

  3. Anthelmintic potential of Calotropis procera, Azadirachta indica and Punica granatum against Gastrothylax indicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Rama; Kaur, Kiranjeet; Suri, Mansi; Bagai, Upma

    2016-12-01

    Anthelmintic activity of both ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Calotropis procera flowers, Azadirachta indica leaves and Punica granatum fruit peel in comparison with albendazole was evaluated through in vitro studies by the worm motility inhibition assay. Significant anthelmintic effects (p granatum ethanolic and aqueous extracts respectively, whereas it was 29.23 μg/ml ± 4.51 for albendazole. The mean mortality index (MI) was 1.0 and 0.90 for C. procera , 0.90 for A. indica and 0.73 and 0.80 for P. granatum ethanolic and aqueous extracts respectively whereas for albendazole it was 1.0. Percent mean worm motility inhibition (%WMI) was observed to be between 70 and 100 % for different extracts.Various concentrations (5-5000 μg/ml) of all the plant extracts and albendazole were used to detect their cytotoxic effects against HeLa cell line to determine CC-50 by MTT assay. CC-50 values, of all the plant extracts were determined to be >1000 μg/ml and for albendazole it was found to be >10 μM. All the three plants can be potential sources for novel anthelmintics.

  4. Adsorption Studies of Chromium(VI) on Activated Carbon Derived from Mangifera indica (Mango) Seed Shell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mise, Shashikant; Patil, Trupti Nagendra

    2015-09-01

    The removal of chromium(VI) from synthetic sample by adsorption on activated carbon prepared from Mangifera indica (mango) seed shell have been carried out at room temperature 32 ± 1 °C. The removal of chromium(VI) from synthetic sample by adsorption on two types of activated carbon, physical activation and chemical activation (Calcium chloride and Sodium chloride), Impregnation Ratio's (IR) 0.25, 0.50, 0.75 for optimum time, optimum dosages and variation of pH were studied. It is observed that contact time differs for different carbons i.e. for physically and chemically activated carbons. The contact time decreases for chemically activated carbon compared to the physically activated carbon. It was observed that as dosage increases the adsorption increased along with the increase in impregnation ratio. It was also noted that as I.R. increases the surface area of Mangifera indica shell carbon increased. These dosage data were considered in the construction of isotherms and it was found that adsorption obeys Freundlich Isotherm and does not obey Langmuir Isotherm. The maximum removal of chromium (VI) was obtained in highly acidic medium at a pH of 1.50.

  5. A review on ethnobotany, phytochemistry and pharmacology of Fumaria indica (Fumitory).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Prakash Chandra; Sharma, Nisha; Rao, Ch V

    2012-08-01

    Fumaria indica (Hausskn.) Pugsley (Fumariaceae), known as "Fumitory", is an annual herb found as a common weed all over the plains of India and Pakistan. The whole plant is widely used in traditional and folkloric systems of medicine. In traditional systems of medicine, the plant is reputed for its anthelmintic, diuretic, diaphoretic, laxative, cholagogue, stomachic and sedative activities and is used to purify blood and in liver obstruction in ethnopharmacology. The whole plant is ascribed to possess medicinal virtues in Ayurvedic and Unani systems of medicine and is also used in preparation of important Ayurvedic medicinal preparations and polyherbal liver formulations. The review reveals that phytochemical constituents of wide range have been separated from the plants and it possesses important pharmacological activities like smooth muscle relaxant, spasmogenic and spasmolytic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, neuropharmacological and antibacterial activities. The separation of hepatoprotective and antifungal constituents from this plant was also reported newly. This review highlights the traditional, ethnobotanical, phytochemical, pharmacological information available on Fumaria indica, which might be helpful for scientists and researchers to find out new chemical entities responsible for its claimed traditional uses.

  6. EFECTO ANTIALIMENTARIO DE LOS EXTRACTOS DE SUSPENSIONES CELULARES DE Azadirachta indica SOBRE Spodoptera frugiperda J. E. Smith EN CONDICIONES DE LABORATORIO ANTIFEEDANT EFFECT OF CELL SUSPENSION EXTRACTS OF Azadirachta indica ON Spodoptera frugiperda J. E. Smith UNDER LABORATORY CONDITIONS

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    Jacqueline Capataz Tafur

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Los extractos de neem (Azadirachta indica y sus ingredientes activos como la azadiractina, presentan acción antialimentaria e inhibición del desarrollo de muchos insectos. El objetivo de este estudio fue examinar el efecto antialimentario de los extractos de suspensiones celulares de neem elicitadas a diferentes condiciones de luz y temperatura. Los extractos fueron aplicados en discos de hojas de maíz y sometidas a bioensayos en larvas de segundo instar de Spodoptera frugiperda J. E. Smith (Lepidptera: Noctuidae. Los extractos intracelulares y del medio de cultivo de las suspensiones celulares de A. indica mostraron efecto biológico sobre larvas de S. frugiperda L2, con valores del 100 % de índice antialimentario para los extractos intracelulares de suspensiones de A. indica elicitadas a 15 °C y oscuridad, y del 39,3% para extractos extracelulares (medio de cultivo de suspensiones elicitadas a 35 °C y oscuridad.Extracts of neem (Azadirachta indica and their active ingredients as azadirachtin, present an action and inhibition of the development of many insects. In this study, the antifeedant effect of cell suspension extracts elicited to different conditions of light and temperature was examined. The extracts were applied in corn leaves disks and submitted to bioassays in larvae of second instar of Spodoptera frugiperda J. E. Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae. The intracellular extracts and the culture media (supernatant of the cell suspensions of A. indica showed a biological effect on larvae of S. frugiperda L2, with values of the 100 % of antifeeding index for the intracellular extracts of cells elicited to 15 °C and darkness, and 39,3% of antifeeding index for extracellular extracts (medium of cultivation of elicited suspensions to 35°C , and darkness.

  7. Altas habilidades/superdotação: mitos e dilemas docentes na indicação para o atendimento

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    Sonia Maria Lourenço de Azevedo

    Full Text Available O baixo quantitativo de indicação de alunos com altas habilidades/superdotação apontado pelos professores de um Município da periferia do Rio de Janeiro motivou a investigação das possíveis dificuldades encontradas pelos professores nesse processo. Os sujeitos desta pesquisa são 52 professores divididos em dois grupos: 26 professores que indicaram alunos para o programa de alunos com altas habilidades/ superdotação da Secretaria Municipal de Educação desse Município (grupo 1, e 26 professores que não indicaram alunos (grupo 2. Os fatores utilizados nesta pesquisa foram: (a perfil sociodemográfico dos respondentes; (b levantamento de possíveis elementos da representação social desse professor por meio dos termos indutores: altas habilidades/superdotação e educação especial; (c três dilemas baseados na teoria de julgamento moral e nos mitos referentes a altas habilidades/superdotação. conclui-se que, em ambos os grupos, há fortes indícios de que os mitos acerca das altas habilidades/superdotação influenciam a indicação/não indicação desses alunos, e que esses mitos devem ser discutidos junto aos professores de modo a facilitar a indicação

  8. Optimizing soaking and germination conditions to improve gamma-aminobutyric acid content in japonica and indica germinated brown rice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Q.; Xiang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhu, X.; Evers, J.B.; Werf, van der W.; Duan, L.

    2014-01-01

    Germinated brown rice is a well-known functional food due to its high content of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). This study was designed to test the difference of producing GABA in two domesticated rice genotypes (indica and japonica rice), and the effects of adding exogenous glutamic acid or

  9. Effect of Opuntia ficus-indica flowers maceration on quality and on heat stability of olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammar, Imène; BenAmira, Amal; Khemakem, Ibtihel; Attia, Hamadi; Ennouri, Monia

    2017-05-01

    This study was focused on the evaluation of the quality and the oxidative stability of olive oil added with Opuntia ficus - indica flowers. Two different amounts of O. ficus - indica flowers were considered 5 and 15% (w/w). The olive oils were evaluated towards their quality, fatty acids profile, total phenol contents and thermal properties by differential scanning calorimetry. The oxidative stability was also monitored by employing the Rancimat and the oven test based on accelerating the oxidation process during storage. The addition of O. ficus - indica flowers induced an increase in free acidity values and a variation in fatty acids profile of olive oils but values remained under the limits required for an extra-virgin olive oil. The obtained olive oils were nutritionally enriched due to the increase in their phenols content. The oxidative stability was generally improved, mainly in olive oil enriched with 5% Opuntia ficus - indica flowers. These findings proved that this enriched olive oil could be considered as a product with a greater added value.

  10. Behavioural responses of diamondback moth Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) to extracts derived from Melia azedarach and Azadirachta indica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Charleston, D.S.; Kfir, R.; Vet, L.E.M.; Dicke, M.

    2005-01-01

    The impact of three different doses of botanical insecticide derived from the syringa tree, Melia azedarach and the neem tree, Azadirachta indica was tested on the behaviour of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus). Both botanical insecticides had a significant impact on larval

  11. Hepatoprotective and Antioxidant Effect of Mangifera Indica Leaf Extracts against Mercuric Chloride-induced Liver Toxicity in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karuppanan, Muthupillai; Krishnan, Manigandan; Padarthi, Pavankumar; Namasivayam, Elangovan

    2014-01-01

    To explore the antioxidant and hepatoprotective effect of ethanolic Mangifera indica (EMI) and methanolic Mangifera indica (MMI) leaf extracts in mercuric chloride (HgCl 2 ) induced toxicity in Swiss albino mice. Toxicity in mice was induced with HgCl 2 (5.0 mg/kg, i.p.), followed by oral intervention with EMI and MMI extracts (25 mg and 50 mg/kg. body wt.) for 30 days. The extent of liver damage was assessed from the extents of histopathological, morphological, antioxidant and liver enzymes. Mercuric chloride-induced mice showed an increased cellular damage whereas leaf extracts of EMI and MMI-treated mice showed recovery of damaged hepatocytes. Mercuric chloride intoxicated mice exhibited a significant (p Mangifera indica extract remarkably reduces hepatotoxicity in mice possibly through its antioxidant potentials. How to cite this article: Karuppanan M, Krishnan M, Padarthi P, Namasivayam E. Hepatoprotec-tive and Antioxidant Effect of Mangifera Indica Leaf Extracts against Mercuric Chloride-induced Liver Toxicity in Mice. Euroasian J Hepato-Gastroenterol 2014;4(1):18-24.

  12. Evaluation of the feeding preference between the aquatic macrophytes Egeria densa and Chara indica by the invasive mollusk Melanoides tuberculata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, E L; Henry-Silva, G G

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluated the feeding preference of the invasive mollusk Melaniudes tuberculata between the aquatic macrophytes Egeria densa and Chara indica. The experiment consisted of twelve experimental units (glass aquariums) each of which contained three liters of water and three compartments. Fragments of E. densa and C. indica were placed in separate compartments within each unit; the third compartment, which did not contain macrophytes, was used as the control. Twenty Melanoides tuberculata individuals were placed in each unit and monitored hourly over the course of 24 hours for preferential movements. Physical and chemical water variables were measured at the beginning and end of the experiment. Habitat complexity was determined through collected macrophyte fragments and determined using the Fractop program. After 24 hours, the highest average number of individuals was observed in the treatment with Chara indica (ten individuals), which differed significantly from the treatment with E. densa (four individuals) and the control treatment (two individuals). The number of individuals between the E. densa and control treatment were similar. M. tuberculata showed a clear feeding preference for C. indica.

  13. The Using Of Fenolic Compounds Of Pluchea indica (L.) Less. Leaves Extracts As A Bioinsecticide And Bioherbicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuliani; Rahayu, Y. S.

    2018-01-01

    Pluchea indica (L.) Less. produces secondary metabolites such as lignans, terpenes, phenylpropanoids, benzoids, tannins, flavonoids, and hydroquinone phenols, used to protect plants against various herbivores, and pathogenic microorganisms, and are used as bioherbicides for weed control. The purpose of this study is to describe the effect of phenolic compounds of leaf extract of Pluchea indica (L.) Less. to the mortality of Spodoptera litura (LC 50 and LC 80) and its effect for seed germination inhibitor of Amaranthus spinosus. The research design was Randomized Completely Design (RCD) with one factor i.e concentration.Test of methanol extract bioactivity on instar two S. litura using five levels of concentrations 0%, 6%, 8%, 10% and 12%, whereas in plants Amaranthus spinoususe lower concentrations 0%, 0,125%, 0,50% and 1%. The parameters measured the mortality of S. litura and the seed germination of A. spinosus which included percentage of germination and germination rate. The results show that the biopesticide developed from plants Pluchea indica can result in mortality 81.90% of S. litura at a concentration of 12%, with LC 50 of 4.00 ± 0.60 % and LC 80 of 9.88 ± 0.61% . As for the seed germination of plants, the higher concentration of P. indica leaf extract resulted higher inhibition on seed germination of Amaranthus spinosus

  14. Reactive Oxygen Species Generation-Scavenging and Signaling during Plant-Arbuscular Mycorrhizal and Piriformospora indica Interaction under Stress Condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, Manoj; Bhatt, Deepesh; Prasad, Ram; Gill, Sarvajeet S; Anjum, Naser A; Tuteja, Narendra

    2016-01-01

    A defined balance between the generation and scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is essential to utilize ROS as an adaptive defense response of plants under biotic and abiotic stress conditions. Moreover, ROS are not only a major determinant of stress response but also act as signaling molecule that regulates various cellular processes including plant-microbe interaction. In particular, rhizosphere constitutes the biologically dynamic zone for plant-microbe interactions which forms a mutual link leading to reciprocal signaling in both the partners. Among plant-microbe interactions, symbiotic associations of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and arbuscular mycorrhizal-like fungus especially Piriformospora indica with plants are well known to improve plant growth by alleviating the stress-impacts and consequently enhance the plant fitness. AMF and P. indica colonization mainly enhances ROS-metabolism, maintains ROS-homeostasis, and thereby averts higher ROS-level accrued inhibition in plant cellular processes and plant growth and survival under stressful environments. This article summarizes the major outcomes of the recent reports on the ROS-generation, scavenging and signaling in biotic-abiotic stressed plants with AMF and P. indica colonization. Overall, a detailed exploration of ROS-signature kinetics during plant-AMF/ P. indica interaction can help in designing innovative strategies for improving plant health and productivity under stress conditions.

  15. Field evaluation of the efficacy of neem oil (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) and Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuill. in cotton production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Togbe, C.E.; Haagsma, R.; Zannou, E.; Gbehounou, G.; Déguénon, J.M.; Vodouhe, S.; Kossou, D.; Huis, van A.

    2015-01-01

    Neem oil (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) alone and combined with the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin (isolate Bb11) was applied to control cotton pests. The efficacy of these treatments was compared with that of synthetic insecticides applied either in a calendar-based

  16. Porcine Pancreatic Lipase Inhibitory Agent Isolated from Medicinal Herb and Inhibition Kinetics of Extracts from Eleusine indica (L. Gaertner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siew Ling Ong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Eleusine indica (Linnaeus Gaertner is a traditional herb known to be depurative, febrifuge, and diuretic and has been reported with the highest inhibitory activity against porcine pancreatic lipase (PPL among thirty two plants screened in an earlier study. This study aims to isolate and identify the active components that may possess high potential as an antiobesity agent. Of the screened solvent fractions of E. indica, hexane fraction showed the highest inhibitory activity of 27.01±5.68% at 100 μg/mL. Bioactivity-guided isolation afforded three compounds from the hexane fraction of E. indica, namely, β-sitosterol, stigmasterol, and lutein. The structures of these compounds were elucidated using spectral techniques. Lutein showed an outstanding inhibitory activity against PPL (55.98±1.04%, with activity 60% higher than that of the reference drug Orlistat. The other compounds isolated and identified were β-sitosterol (2.99±0.80% and stigmasterol (2.68±0.38%. The enzyme kinetics of E. indica crude methanolic extract on PPL showed mixed inhibition mechanism.

  17. Porcine Pancreatic Lipase Inhibitory Agent Isolated from Medicinal Herb and Inhibition Kinetics of Extracts from Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Siew Ling; Mah, Siau Hui; Lai, How Yee

    2016-01-01

    Eleusine indica (Linnaeus) Gaertner is a traditional herb known to be depurative, febrifuge, and diuretic and has been reported with the highest inhibitory activity against porcine pancreatic lipase (PPL) among thirty two plants screened in an earlier study. This study aims to isolate and identify the active components that may possess high potential as an antiobesity agent. Of the screened solvent fractions of E. indica , hexane fraction showed the highest inhibitory activity of 27.01 ± 5.68% at 100  μ g/mL. Bioactivity-guided isolation afforded three compounds from the hexane fraction of E. indica , namely,  β -sitosterol, stigmasterol, and lutein. The structures of these compounds were elucidated using spectral techniques. Lutein showed an outstanding inhibitory activity against PPL (55.98 ± 1.04%), with activity 60% higher than that of the reference drug Orlistat. The other compounds isolated and identified were  β -sitosterol (2.99 ± 0.80%) and stigmasterol (2.68 ± 0.38%). The enzyme kinetics of E. indica crude methanolic extract on PPL showed mixed inhibition mechanism.

  18. Alterations in the 5 'untranslated region of the EPSPS gene influence EPSPS overexpression in glyphosate-resistant Eleusine indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chun; Feng, Li; Tian, Xing-Shan

    2018-04-26

    The herbicide glyphosate inhibits the enzyme 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS). Overexpression of the EPSPS gene is one of the molecular mechanisms conferring glyphosate resistance in weeds, but the transcriptional regulation of this gene is poorly understood. The EPSPS gene was found to be significantly up-regulated following glyphosate treatment in a glyphosate- resistant Eleusine indica population from South China. To further investigate the regulation of EPSPS overexpression, the promoter of the EPSPS gene from this E. indica population was cloned and analyzed. Two upstream regulatory sequences, Epro-S (862 bp) and Epro-R (877 bp) of EPSPS were obtained from glyphosate-susceptible (S) and -resistant (R) E. indica plants respectively by HiTAIL-PCR. The Epro-S and Epro-R sequences were 99% homologous, except for the two insertions (3 bp and12 bp) in the R sequence. The 12-base insertion of the Epro-R sequence was located in the 5'-UTR-Py-rich stretch element. The promoter activity tests showed that the 12-base insertion resulted in significant enhancement of the Epro-R promoter activity, whereas the 3-base insertion had little effect on Epro-R promoter activity. Alterations in the 5'-UTR-Py-rich stretch element of EPSPS are responsible for glyphosate induced EPSPS overexpression. Therefore, EPSPS transcriptional regulation confers glyphosate resistance in this E. indica population. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  19. Optimization of extraction method and HPLC analysis of six caffeoylquinic acids in Pluchea indica leaves from different provenances in Thailand

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    Sumet Kongkiatpaiboon

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Pluchea indica (L. Less., Asteraceae, is a medicinal plant which contains a high amount of phenolic compounds such as caffeoylquinic acid derivatives. The leaves have been traditionally used as a nerve tonic and extensively as herbal tea. This study aimed to develop and validate an HPLC method to quantitatively analyze six caffeoylquinic acid derivatives, viz. 3-O-caffeoylquinic acid, 4-O-caffeoylquinic acid, 5-O caffeoylquinic acid, 3,4-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid, 3,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid, and 4,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid in P. indica leaf extract. HPLC was carried out in a Hypersil BDS C18-column eluted with 0.5% acetic acid in water and methanol using gradient elution with a flow rate of 1 ml/min and detection at 326 nm. The method validation was performed to assure its linearity, precision, accuracy and limits of detection and quantitation. Several extraction techniques including maceration, decoction, digestion, Soxhlet extraction, and ultrasound extraction, were used to extract active constituents. The ultrasound extraction with 50% ethanol yielded the highest concentration of these caffeoylquinic acid derivatives in the P. indica leaf extract. Our developed HPLC method is simple and reliable for a routine analysis of the six caffeoylquinic acids in P. indica leaves and could potentially be applied to be used in commercial herbal products.

  20. Effect of coconut palm proximities and Musa spp. germplasm resistance to colonization by Raoiella indica (Acari: Tenuipalpidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) is the predominant host for Raoiella indica Hirst (Acari: Tenuipalpidae), false spider mite infestations do occur on bananas and plantains (Musa spp. Colla). Since its introduction, the banana and plantain industries have been negatively impacted to different deg...

  1. Mango (Mangifera indica L.) cv. Kent fruit mesocarp de novo transcriptome assembly identifies gene families important for ripening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruit ripening is a physiological and biochemical process genetically programmed to regulate fruit quality parameters like firmness, flavor, odor and color, as well as production of ethylene in climacteric fruit. In this study, a transcriptomic analysis of mango (Mangifera indica L.) mesocarp cv. "K...

  2. Radioprotective effect of Tamarindus indica pod extract in Swiss albino mice exposed to whole body electron beam radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nandini, S.; Suchetha Kumari, N.; Ganesh Sanjeev; D'sa, Prima

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the radioprotective effect of Tamarindus indica pod extract against radiation induced damage.The effect of 100 mg of hydroalcoholic extract of Tamarindus indica pod was studied in Swiss albino mice exposed to 6 Gy whole body electron beam radiation. Treatment of mice with extract for 15 days before irradiation reduced the symptoms of radiation sickness when compared with the untreated irradiated group. The irradiated animals showed an elevation in lipid peroxidation and reduction in glutathione, total antioxidants and antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione peroxidase and catalase activities. Radiation induced mice has shown micronucleus in the bone marrow cells. Treatment of mice with Tamarindus indica pod extract before irradiation caused a significant reduction in lipid peroxidation followed by significant elevation in reduced glutathione, total antioxidants, glutathione peroxidase and catalase activity. It also showed a reduction in the micronucleus formation in bone marrow cells. Results indicate that the radioprotective activity of Tamarindus indica pod extract may be due to free radical scavenging attributed as a result of increased antioxidant level in mice. (author)

  3. Antioxidant Phytochemicals of Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill. Cladodes with Potential Anti-spasmodic Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanuzza, Francesco; Occhiuto, Francesco; Monforte, Maria Teresa; Tripodo, Maria Marcella; D'Angelo, Valeria; Galati, Enza Maria

    2017-10-01

    Opuntia ficus-indica (OFI) (L.) Mill. (Cactaceae), a plant widespread in dry regions of the world, shows interesting biological activities (cicatrizant, antiulcer, anti-inflammatory, and hypolipidemic) and is widely used in traditional medicine. Phytochemical analysis and antispasmodic effect of wild OFI cladodes were carried out. Polyphenols and Vitamin E occurrence, in antioxidant pool of OFI cladodes, were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography. The antispasmodic effect of OFI cladodes was assessed in isolated rabbit smooth muscle tissues. The experiments were carried out with preparations of rabbit jejunum and uterus with the spontaneous contractile activity, to evaluate the effect of cumulative concentrations of the extract on basal tone, amplitude, and frequency of contractions. Catechin, quercetin, kaempferol, isorhamnetin and chlorogenic, ferulic, and p-coumaric acid were identified. α-, β-, and γ-tocopherols have been highlighted and α-tocopherol is the major component. OFI cladodes contain significant amount of polyphenols and tocopherols that are effective radical scavengers and inhibited ethanol 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl formation by 50%. OFI cladodes caused a light inhibition of amplitude and frequency of spontaneous contractions and a marked decrease in muscle basal tone of rabbit jejunum preparations. On spontaneously contracting uterus preparations, the addition of increasing concentrations of cladode extract caused uterine muscle relaxation. The contraction of smooth muscle preparations depends on an increase in cytoplasmic free calcium ion concentration, which activates the contractile elements. The flavonoids may suppress the contractility of smooth myocytes, by an inhibition of availability of Ca 2+ for muscle contraction. Opuntia ficus-indica (OFI) cladodes contain significant amount of polyphenols and tocopherols that are effective radical scavengers and inhibited ethanol 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl formation by 50

  4. Antioxidant Phytochemicals of Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill. Cladodes with Potential Anti-spasmodic Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanuzza, Francesco; Occhiuto, Francesco; Monforte, Maria Teresa; Tripodo, Maria Marcella; D’Angelo, Valeria; Galati, Enza Maria

    2017-01-01

    Background: Opuntia ficus-indica (OFI) (L.) Mill. (Cactaceae), a plant widespread in dry regions of the world, shows interesting biological activities (cicatrizant, antiulcer, anti-inflammatory, and hypolipidemic) and is widely used in traditional medicine. Objectives: Phytochemical analysis and antispasmodic effect of wild OFI cladodes were carried out. Material and Methods: Polyphenols and Vitamin E occurrence, in antioxidant pool of OFI cladodes, were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography. The antispasmodic effect of OFI cladodes was assessed in isolated rabbit smooth muscle tissues. The experiments were carried out with preparations of rabbit jejunum and uterus with the spontaneous contractile activity, to evaluate the effect of cumulative concentrations of the extract on basal tone, amplitude, and frequency of contractions. Results: Catechin, quercetin, kaempferol, isorhamnetin and chlorogenic, ferulic, and p-coumaric acid were identified. α-, β-, and γ-tocopherols have been highlighted and α-tocopherol is the major component. OFI cladodes contain significant amount of polyphenols and tocopherols that are effective radical scavengers and inhibited ethanol 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl formation by 50%. OFI cladodes caused a light inhibition of amplitude and frequency of spontaneous contractions and a marked decrease in muscle basal tone of rabbit jejunum preparations. On spontaneously contracting uterus preparations, the addition of increasing concentrations of cladode extract caused uterine muscle relaxation. Conclusion: The contraction of smooth muscle preparations depends on an increase in cytoplasmic free calcium ion concentration, which activates the contractile elements. The flavonoids may suppress the contractility of smooth myocytes, by an inhibition of availability of Ca2+ for muscle contraction. SUMMARY Opuntia ficus-indica (OFI) cladodes contain significant amount of polyphenols and tocopherols that are effective radical

  5. Insecticidal factors from the seeds of Erythrina indica Lam against Hyblaea puera, the most serious defoliator pest of teak

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    B. Deepa

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The organic solvent extracts from the seeds of Erythrina indica were tested for their insecticidal action against Hyblaea puera, the most important defoliator pest of teak. The larvicidal activity of the petroleum ether, chloroform, methanol, ethyl alcohol, ethyl acetate, acetone and water extracts from the seeds of E. indica on the 3rd instar larvae of H. puera showed 100% mortality even with least concentration (0.25%. The ovicidal activity was exhibited by chloroform and ethyl acetate extract. Both the extracts exhibited highest egg hatch inhibition (56% at highest concentration (2%. The least LC50 (1.15% shows that ethyl acetate extract is better than chloroform extract (1.78. Two compounds were isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of the seeds of Erythrina indica by column chromatography. The compounds were identified using HPLC, GC MS, and NMR. Compound 1 was a mixture of linoleic acid and oleic acid. Compound 2 was a mixture of linoleic acid and oleic acid ester with a glycerol unit attached to it. Compounds 1 and 2 were biologically active and exhibited potent insecticidal activity against the 3rd instar larvae of H. puera. The result showed that Compound 2 isolated from E. indica exhibited highest mortality (72% at concentration (0.125%. At highest concentration (0.5% highest mortality (92% was exhibited by Compound 2 which on comparison is on par with the Neemark (Azadirachtin exhibiting highest mortality (100%. The study is complementary with earliar works and proves that the seeds of E. indica has immense potential to be utilized as botanical insecticide.

  6. Colour and spreadability of Neem (Azadirachta Indica A. juss) ointment and cream formulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawiyyah, Azierah; Shamsul Anuar, Mohd

    2018-04-01

    Herbal plants are a major source of raw material for traditional medicines. Recently there has been an increase of interest to study the therapeutic potential of herbal plants as herbal care products. In this study, a preliminary study on the formulation of neem (Azadirachta Indica) ointment and cream have been conducted. The neem leaves were extracted and formulated into ointment and cream. The raw neem extract is added into the ointment and cream bases at four different concentrations (0% w/w, 0.5% w/w, 1% w/w and 2% w/w) and stored at three different storage temperatures (4°C, 25°C and 45°C). The semambu ointment and cream formulated were evaluated in terms of their colour and spreadability. It has been found that the extract content and storage temperature influence the colour and spreadability of the formulated neem ointment and cream.

  7. Phenolic Profiles, Phytchemicals and Mineral Content of Decoction and Infusion of Opuntia ficus-indica Flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammar, Imene; Ennouri, Monia; Bouaziz, Mohamed; Ben Amira, Amal; Attia, Hamadi

    2015-12-01

    Opuntia flowers are a natural source of biologically active compounds and they have been used as medicinal plant for a long time. Despite the various uses reported for the decoction and infusion of these flowers, their characterization has been discarded. In this study, the decoction and infusion prepared from Opuntia ficus-indica were analyzed with respect to their content in minerals and phytochemicals in order to evaluate its nutritional characteristics. The obtained data proved that these preparations are a rich source of minerals mainly K and Ca. Moreover, the phytochemical analysis revealed that they have important polyphenols, flavonoids and tannins contents with the infusion that presented the highest polyphenol levels. LC-MS analyses of decoction and infusion allowed the characterization of 20 phenolic compounds. It is mainly identified by the presence of flavonols glycosides.

  8. Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of Opuntia ficus-indica f. inermis (cactus pear) flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennouri, Monia; Ammar, Imene; Khemakhem, Bassem; Attia, Hamadi

    2014-08-01

    Opuntia ficus-indica f. inermis (cactus pear) flowers have wide application in folk medicine. However, there are few reports focusing on their biological activity and were no reports on their chemical composition. The nutrient composition and hexane extracts of Opuntia flowers at 4 flowering stages and their antibacterial and antifungal activities were investigated. The chemical composition showed considerable amounts of fiber, protein, and minerals. Potassium (K) was the predominant mineral followed by calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), sodium (Na), iron (Fe), and zinc (Zn). The main compounds in the various hexane extracts were 9.12-octadecadienoic acid (29-44%) and hexadecanoic acid (8.6-32%). The antibacterial activity tests showed that O. inermis hexane extracts have high effectiveness against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, making this botanical source a potential contender as a food preservative or food control additive.

  9. Determination of some mineral contents of prickly pear (Opuntia ficus-indica L.) seed flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Juhaimi, Fahad; Özcan, Mehmet Musa

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine some mineral contents of prickly pear (Opuntia fıcus-indica L.) seeds collected from different locations. The mineral contents of seeds were established by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. All the seeds contained Ca, K, Mg and P at high levels. Calcium content ranged between 268.5 (sample no. 11) and 674.8 ppm (sample no. 4). The level of K changed between 346.7 (sample no. 1) and 676.1 ppm (sample no. 13). Phosphorus content of seeds varied between 1,173.6 (sample no. 14) and 1,871.3 ppm (sample no. 1). It is apparent that seeds are good sources of the macro and micro minerals and can be consumed as a food ingredient to provide nutrition.

  10. Hydrothermal carbonization of Opuntia ficus-indica cladodes: Role of process parameters on hydrochar properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpe, Maurizio; Goldfarb, Jillian L; Fiori, Luca

    2018-01-01

    Opuntia ficus-indica cladodes are a potential source of solid biofuel from marginal, dry land. Experiments assessed the effects of temperature (180-250°C), reaction time (0.5-3h) and biomass to water ratio (B/W; 0.07-0.30) on chars produced via hydrothermal carbonization. Multivariate linear regression demonstrated that the three process parameters are critically important to hydrochar solid yield, while B/W drives energy yield. Heating value increased together with temperature and reaction time and was maximized at intermediate B/W (0.14-0.20). Microscopy shows evidence of secondary char formed at higher temperatures and B/W ratios. X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric data, microscopy and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry suggest that calcium oxalate in the raw biomass remains in the hydrochar; at higher temperatures, the mineral decomposes into CO 2 and may catalyze char/tar decomposition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Opuntia ficus indica peel derived pectin mediated hydroxyapatite nanoparticles: Synthesis, spectral characterization, biological and antimicrobial activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopi, D.; Kanimozhi, K.; Kavitha, L.

    2015-04-01

    In the present study, we have adapted a facile and efficient green route for the synthesis of HAP nanoparticles using pectin as a template which was extracted from the peel of prickly pear (Opuntia ficus indica) fruits. The concentration of pectin plays a major role in the behavior of crystallinity, purity, morphology as well as biological property of the as-synthesized HAP nanoparticles. The extracted pectin and the as-synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by various analytical techniques. The in vitro apatite formation on the surface of the as-synthesized nanoparticles in simulated body fluid (SBF) for various days showed an enhanced bioactivity. Also, the antimicrobial activity was investigated using various microorganisms. All the results revealed the formation of pure, low crystalline and discrete granular like HAP nanoparticles of size around 25 nm with enhanced biological and antimicrobial activities. Hence the as-synthesized nanoparticles can act as a better bone regenerating material in the field of biomedicine.

  12. Raman bands in Ag nanoparticles obtained in extract of Opuntia ficus-indica plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocarando-Chacon, J.-G.; Cortez-Valadez, M.; Vargas-Vazquez, D.; Rodríguez Melgarejo, F.; Flores-Acosta, M.; Mani-Gonzalez, P. G.; Leon-Sarabia, E.; Navarro-Badilla, A.; Ramírez-Bon, R.

    2014-05-01

    Silver nanoparticles have been obtained in an extract of Opuntia ficus-indica plant. The size and distribution of nanoparticles were quantified by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The diameter was estimated to be about 15 nm. In addition, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) peaks of silver were observed in these samples. Three Raman bands have been experimentally detected at 83, 110 and 160 cm-1. The bands at 83 and 110 cm-1 are assigned to the silver-silver Raman modes (skeletal modes) and the Raman mode located at 160 cm-1 has been assigned to breathing modes. Vibrational assignments of Raman modes have been carried out based on the Density Functional Theory (DFT) quantum mechanical calculation. Structural and vibrational properties for small Agn clusters with 2≤n≤9 were determined. Calculated Raman modes for small metal clusters have an approximation trend of Raman bands. These Raman bands were obtained experimentally for silver nanoparticles (AgNP).

  13. Green Synthesis of Ag-Cu Nanoalloys Using Opuntia ficus- indica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha-Rocha, O.; Cortez-Valadez, M.; Hernández-Martínez, A. R.; Gámez-Corrales, R.; Alvarez, Ramón A. B.; Britto-Hurtado, R.; Delgado-Beleño, Y.; Martinez-Nuñez, C. E.; Pérez-Rodríguez, A.; Arizpe-Chávez, H.; Flores-Acosta, M.

    2017-02-01

    Bimetallic Ag/Cu nanoparticles have been obtained by green synthesis using Opuntia ficus- indica plant extract. Two synthesis methods were applied to obtain nanoparticles with core-shell and Janus morphologies by reversing the order of precursors. Transmission electronic microscopy revealed size of 10 nm and 20 nm for the core-shell and Janus nanoparticles, respectively. Other small particles with size of up to 2 nm were also observed. Absorption bands attributed to surface plasmon resonance were detected at 440 nm and 500 nm for the core-shell and Janus nanoparticles, respectively. Density functional theory predicted a breathing mode type (BMT) located at low wavenumber due to small, low-energy clusters of (AgCu) n with n = 2 to 9, showing a certain correlation with the experimental one (at 220 cm-1). The dependence of the BMT on the number of atoms constituting the cluster is also studied.

  14. Evaluation of Electrochemical Behavior of Nopal Extract (Opuntia Ficus- Indica as Possible Corrosion Inhibitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araceli Mandujano-Ruíz

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Corrosion is one of the main problems of degradation in components, tooling, equipment and even in structural applications, examples of this are the carbon steels. In the present work, the capacity of corrosion inhibition of a biodegradable organic extract from the Nopal plant (Opuntia ficus-indica, for the protection of carbon steel type AISI 1018 was studied adding 50% v/v of the Nopal extract (EN in a solution of H2SO4 (0.6 mol.l-1. Polarization Resistance (LPR and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS techniques were used for the electrochemical evaluation at room temperature for 24 h in order to obtain corrosion rates (Vcorr and inhibition efficiency (IE. Metallographic examination was also carried out to register the surface damage by corrosion. The results showed a reduction of the Vcorr with a maximum IE value of about 84% by adding the organic- liquid extracted from Nopal.

  15. Extracts of Azadirachta indica and Melia azedarach seeds inhibit folliculogenesis in albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.K. Roop

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The seed oil of Azadirachta indica A. Juss (neem is used in traditional medicine for its antidiabetic, spermicidal, antifertility, antibacterial, and wound healing properties. The present study was undertaken to investigate the quantitative aspects of follicular development in cyclic female albino rats (135 ± 10 g; 8 groups with 6 animals in each group after oral administration of polar (PF and non-polar (NPF fractions of A. indica seed extract at 3 and 6 mg kg body weight-1 day-1 and Melia azedarach Linn. (dharek seed extract at 24 mg kg body weight-1 day-1 for 18 days. The extracts were prepared using a flash evaporator at 35°C and then dissolved in olive oil to prepare doses on a per kg body weight basis. There was a significant reduction (P = 0.05 in the number of normal single layered follicles (A. indica: 0.67 ± 0.33 and 4.67 ± 2.03 after 3 and 6 mg/kg NPF, and 3.33 ± 1.67 and 1.00 ± 1.00 after 3 and 6 mg/kg PF vs control: 72.67 ± 9.14 and M. azedarach: 0.60 ± 0.40 and 1.80 ± 1.2 after 24 mg/kg PF and NPF, respectively, vs control: 73.40 ± 7.02 and follicles in various stages (I-VII of follicular development in all treatment groups. These extracts also significantly reduced (P = 0.05 the total number of normal follicles in the neem (14.67 ± 5.93 and 1.00 ± 1.00 after 3 and 6 mg/kg PF and 3.67 ± 0.88 and 5.33 ± 2.03 after 3 and 6 mg/kg NPF and dharek (13.00 ± 3.58 and 14.60 ± 2.25 after 24 mg/kg NPF and PF treatments compared to control (216.00 ± 15.72 and 222.20 ± 19.52, respectively. Currently, indiscriminate use of persistent and toxic rodenticides to control rodent populations has created serious problems such as resistance and environmental contamination. Therefore, it becomes necessary to use ecologically safe and biologically active botanical substances that are metabolized and are not passed on to the next trophic level, and that interfere with the reproductive potential particularly growth and differentiation of

  16. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Azadirachta indica leaf extract and its antimicrobial study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Pragyan; Das, Bhagyalaxmi; Mohanty, Abhipsa; Mohapatra, Sujata

    2017-11-01

    In this study, green synthesis of silver nanoparticles was done using leaf extracts of Azadirachta indica. The flavonoids and terpenoids present in the extract act as both reducing and capping agent. Microbes ( Escherichia coli and Gram-positive bacteria) were isolated from borewell water using selective media. The silver nanoparticles showed antimicrobial activities against Gram-positive bacteria and E. coli. However the silver nanoparticles were more effective against E. coli as compared to Gram-positive bacteria. Various techniques were used to characterize synthesized silver nanoparticles such as DLS and UV-visible spectrophotometer. The absorbance peak was in the range of 420-450 nm, that varied depending upon the variation in the concentration of neem extract. This is a very rapid and cost-effective method for generation of silver nanoparticle at room temperature, however, its exact dose in water purification has to be determined.

  17. Removal of Malachite Green Dye by Mangifera indica Seed Kernel Powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Dilbagh; Sowmya, V.; Abinandan, S.; Shanthakumar, S.

    2017-11-01

    In this study, batch experiments were carried out to study the adsorption of Malachite green dye from aqueous solution by Mangifera indica (mango) seed kernel powder. The mango seed kernel powder was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Effect of various parameters including pH, contact time, adsorbent dosage, initial dye concentration and temperature on adsorption capacity of the adsorbent was observed and the optimized condition for maximum dye removal was identified. Maximum percentage removal of 96% was achieved with an adsorption capacity of 22.8 mg/g at pH 6 with an initial concentration of 100 mg/l. The equilibrium data were examined to fit the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. Thermodynamic parameters for the adsorption process were also calculated.

  18. Chemical profile of mango (Mangifera indica L.) using electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (ESI-MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Bruno G; Costa, Helber B; Ventura, José A; Kondratyuk, Tamara P; Barroso, Maria E S; Correia, Radigya M; Pimentel, Elisângela F; Pinto, Fernanda E; Endringer, Denise C; Romão, Wanderson

    2016-08-01

    Mangifera indica L., mango fruit, is consumed as a dietary supplement with purported health benefits; it is widely used in the food industry. Herein, the chemical profile of the Ubá mango at four distinct maturation stages was evaluated during the process of growth and maturity using negative-ion mode electrospray ionisation Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (ESI(-)FT-ICR MS) and physicochemical characterisation analysis (total titratable acidity (TA), total soluble solids (TSS), TSS/TA ratio, and total polyphenolic content). Primary (organic acids and sugars) and secondary metabolites (polyphenolic compounds) were mostly identified in the third maturation stage, thus indicating the best stage for harvesting and consuming the fruit. In addition, the potential cancer chemoprevention of the secondary metabolites (phenolic extracts obtained from mango samples) was evaluated using the induction of quinone reductase activity, concluding that fruit polyphenols have the potential for cancer chemoprevention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Antihepatotoxic efficacy of Mangifera indica L. polysaccharides against cyclophosphamide in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahmy, Sohair R; Amien, Ahmed I; Abd-Elgleel, Fathi M; Elaskalany, Sara M

    2016-01-25

    The present study aims to evaluate the possible protective role of polysaccharides extracted from the Egyptian mango Mangifera indica L. (MPS) and/or silymarine against cyclophosphamide (CP) toxicity in male albino rats. The MPS and/or silymarin significantly decreased the activities of serum ASAT and ALAT. However, MPS (1000 mg/kg) normalized their activities towards the normal levels recording 28.75 and 78.75 U/ml respectively. The recorded data also showed the antioxidant effect of MPS by decreasing the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) and increasing the level of reduced glutathione (GSH) as well as normalized the activities of the antioxidant enzyme GST and SOD. Histopathological examinations also confirmed the protective efficacy of MPS against liver toxicity of CP. In conclusion, the recorded results of the present study support the protective role of MPS and/or silymarin against CP-induced hepatic damage. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Molecular diversity of Pakistani mango (Mangifera indica L.) varieties based on microsatellite markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazish, T; Shabbir, G; Ali, A; Sami-Ul-Allah, S; Naeem, M; Javed, M; Batool, S; Arshad, H; Hussain, S B; Aslam, K; Seher, R; Tahir, M; Baber, M

    2017-04-05

    Understanding the genetic diversity of different Pakistani mango varieties is important for germplasm management and varietal characterization. Microsatellites are efficient and highly polymorphic markers for comparative genome mapping, and were used in the present study to determine the genetic relatedness and variability among 15 indigenous mango cultivars (Mangifera indica L.). Overall, 181 bands were produced using 12 simple sequence repeat (SSR) primers. Out of the 12 primers used, 10 were polymorphic and two were monomorphic. Genetic relatedness among cultivars was assessed by constructing a dendrogram using the unweighted pair group method of arithmetic means. The accessions exhibited coefficients of similarity ranging from 75 to 100%, indicating the frequent use of only a few parent cultivars and the presence of inbreeding. The primers used in the present study were found to be valuable for identifying genetic relationships among mango cultivars.

  1. Genetic analysis of Thailand hantavirus in Bandicota indica trapped in Thailand

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    Hugot Jean-Pierre

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Sixty one tissue samples from several rodent species trapped in five provinces of Thailand were examined for the presence of hantaviral markers by enzyme-immunoassay and immunoblotting. Four samples, all from the great bandicoot rat Bandicota indica, were confirmed positive for the hantaviral N-antigen. Two of them were trapped in Nakhon Pathom province, the other two in Nakhon Ratchasima province, approximately 250 km from the other trapping site. When analysed by RT-nested PCR, all four rodents were found positive for the hantaviral S- and M-segment nucleotide sequences. Genetic analysis revealed that the four newly described wild-type strains belong to Thailand hantavirus. On the phylogenetic trees they formed a well-supported cluster within the group of Murinae-associated hantaviruses and shared a recent common ancestor with Seoul virus.

  2. A Mangifera indica L. extract could be used to treat neuropathic pain and implication of mangiferin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido-Suárez, Bárbara B; Garrido, Gabino; Delgado, Rene; Bosch, Fe; del C Rabí, María

    2010-12-09

    It has been accepted that neuroinflammation, oxidative stress and glial activation are involved in the central sensitization underlying neuropathic pain. Vimang is an aqueous extract of Mangifera indica L. traditionally used in Cuba for its analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and immunomodulatory properties. Several formulations are available, and also for mangiferin, its major component. Preclinical studies demonstrated that these products prevented tumor necrosis factor α -induced IκB degradation and the binding of nuclear factor κB to DNA, which induces the transcription of genes implicated in the expression of some mediators and enzymes involved in inflammation, pain, oxidative stress and synaptic plasticity. In this paper we propose its potential utility in the neuropathic pain treatment. This hypothesis is supported in the cumulus of preclinical and clinical evidence around the extract and mangiferin, its major component, and speculates about the possible mechanism of action according to recent advances in the physiopathology of neuropathic pain.

  3. A Mangifera indica L. Extract Could Be Used to Treat Neuropathic Pain and Implication of Mangiferin

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    María del C. Rabí

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available It has been accepted that neuroinflammation, oxidative stress and glial activation are involved in the central sensitization underlying neuropathic pain. Vimang is an aqueous extract of Mangifera indica L. traditionally used in Cuba for its analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and immunomodulatory properties. Several formulations are available, and also for mangiferin, its major component. Preclinical studies demonstrated that these products prevented tumor necrosis factor α -induced IκB degradation and the binding of nuclear factor κB to DNA, which induces the transcription of genes implicated in the expression of some mediators and enzymes involved in inflammation, pain, oxidative stress and synaptic plasticity. In this paper we propose its potential utility in the neuropathic pain treatment. This hypothesis is supported in the cumulus of preclinical and clinical evidence around the extract and mangiferin, its major component, and speculates about the possible mechanism of action according to recent advances in the physiopathology of neuropathic pain.

  4. Mangifera indica extract (Vimang) impairs aversive memory without affecting open field behaviour or habituation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preissler, Thales; Martins, Márcio Rodrigo; Pardo-Andreu, Gilberto L; Henriques, João Antônio Pêgas; Quevedo, João; Delgado, Rene; Roesler, Rafael

    2009-06-01

    Vimang is an aqueous extract of Mangifera indica L, used in Cuba for the treatment of immunopathological disorders. Increasing evidence from preclinical studies indicates that Vimang displays antioxidant, antiallergic, analgesic and antiinflammatory actions. The present study investigated the effects of systemic administration of Vimang on behavioural outcomes of neurological function in rats. A single oral administration of Vimang produced an impairment of short- and long-term retention of memory for aversive training when given either 1 h pretraining or immediately posttraining, but not 8 h posttraining. Vimang did not affect open field behaviour or habituation. The results indicate that Vimang might induce deficits of emotionally motivated memory without affecting nonassociative memory, locomotion, exploratory behaviour or anxiety. (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Preventing hepatocyte oxidative stress cytotoxicity with Mangifera indica L. extract (Vimang).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remirez, Diadelis; Tafazoli, Shahrzad; Delgado, Rene; Harandi, Asghar A; O'Brien, Peter J

    2005-01-01

    Vimang is an aqueous extract of Mangifera indica used in Cuba to improve the quality of life in patients suffering from inflammatory diseases. In the present study we evaluated the effects of Vimang at preventing reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and lipid peroxidation in intact isolated rat hepatocytes. Vimang at 20, 50 and 100 microg/ml inhibited hepatocyte ROS formation induced by glucose-glucose oxidase. Hepatocyte cytotoxicity and lipid peroxidation induced by cumene hydroperoxide was also inhibited by Vimang in a dose and time dependent manner at the same concentration. Vimang also inhibited superoxide radical formation by xanthine oxidase and hypoxanthine. The superoxide radical scavenging and antioxidant activity of the Vimang extract was likely related to its gallates, catechins and mangiferin content. To our knowledge, this is the first report of cytoprotective antioxidant effects of Vimang in cellular oxidative stress models.

  6. Modulation of eosinophil generation and migration by Mangifera indica L. extract (Vimang).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sá-Nunes, Anderson; Rogerio, Alexandre P; Medeiros, Alexandra I; Fabris, Viciany E; Andreu, Gilberto P; Rivera, Dagmar G; Delgado, René; Faccioli, Lúcia H

    2006-09-01

    The effects of Vimang, an aqueous extract of the stem bark of Mangifera indica L. (Anacardiaceae), on cell migration in an experimental model of asthma was investigated. In vivo treatment of Toxocara canis-infected BALB/c mice for 18 days with 50 mg/kg Vimang reduced eosinophil migration into the bronchoalveolar space and peritoneal cavity. Also, eosinophil generation in bone marrow and blood eosinophilia were inhibited in infected mice treated with Vimang. This reduction was associated with inhibition of IL-5 production in serum and eotaxin in lung homogenates. In all these cases the effects of Vimang were more selective than those observed with dexamethasone. Moreover, Vimang treatment is not toxic for the animals, as demonstrated by the normal body weight increase during infection. These data confirm the potent anti-inflammatory effect of Vimang and support its potential use as an alternative therapeutic drug to the treatment of eosinophilic disorders including those caused by nematodes and allergic diseases.

  7. Evaluation of the fatty acid composition of the seeds of Mangifera indica L. and their application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shuhsien; Tokuda, Megumi; Kashiwagi, Ayaka; Henmi, Atsushi; Okada, Yoshiharu; Tachibana, Shinya; Nomura, Masato

    2015-01-01

    Mango (Mangifera indica L.), an edible fruit, is one of the main agricultural products in many tropical regions. Mango varieties differ in not only fruit shape but also aroma, which is an important characteristic. Although the fruit has many uses, the seeds are discarded as waste. Therefore, this study aimed to estimate the fatty acid content of seed oil of mangoes from different cultivation areas (Miyazaki, Japan, and Taiwan), and to evaluate their application in cosmetics. Five fatty acids were identified in the mango seed oil. Oleic acid and stearic acid were the principal components of mango seed oil obtained from Miyazaki (46.1% and 39.8%, respectively) and Taiwan (43.7% and 40.1%, respectively). As a cosmetic ingredient, mango seed oil showed good deodorizing effect on both 2-nonenal and isovaleric acid. The results indicated the potential applications of mango seed oil in the cosmetic industry.

  8. Dispersal of adult black marlin (Istiompax indica) from a Great Barrier Reef spawning aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domeier, Michael L; Speare, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The black marlin (Istiompax indica) is one of the largest bony fishes in the world with females capable of reaching a mass of over 700 kg. This highly migratory predator occurs in the tropical regions of the Pacific and Indian Oceans, and is the target of regional recreational and commercial fisheries. Through the sampling of ichthyoplankton and ovaries we provide evidence that the relatively high seasonal abundance of black marlin off the Great Barrier Reef is, in fact, a spawning aggregation. Furthermore, through the tracking of individual black marlin via satellite popup tags, we document the dispersal of adult black marlin away from the spawning aggregation, thereby identifying the catchment area for this spawning stock. Although tag shedding is an issue when studying billfish, we tentatively identify the catchment area for this stock of black marlin to extend throughout the Coral Sea, including the waters of Papua New Guinea, the Solomon Islands, Micronesia, New Caledonia, Kiribati, Vanuatu, Fiji, Tuvalu and Nauru.

  9. Chromosome characterization of two varieties of Mangifera indica L.¹

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    Neiva Izabel Pierozzi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Chromosome studies were performed in two varieties of Mangifera indica L. (mango, 'IAC-140 Espadona' and in its progenitor 'Espada Stahl'. Both varieties showed 2n=40 chromosomes though the karyotype formulae were 8m + 10sm + 2sm s for 'Stahl' and 7m + 11sm + 2sm s for 'IAC-140'. The varieties showed moderate karyotype asymmetry which was estimated according to four different indices. Both varieties exhibited three chromosome pairs with silver impregnation after NOR-banding. The number of nucleoli within interphase cells varied from one, the commonest, to eight. The nucleolus persistent phenomenon was observed in more than 22% of metaphase cells of both varieties, seeing that in 'Stahl', up to two nucleoli were evidenced. This variety also showed one nucleolus in several anaphase cells. The studies were suitable for evidencing diversity at chromosomal level between these two varieties.

  10. Effects of sunflower wax coating on physicochemical changes of mangifera indica L. in storage life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soomro, R.K.; Sherazi, S.T.H.

    2013-01-01

    Mango (Mangifera indica L.) fruit has a relatively short storage life due to perishable nature. In order to increases the storage life of langra mangoes, fruits were coated with sunflower wax. Mangoes were stored at room and refrigerated temperature. Sunflower wax coating protects the mangoes in greater proportion to change their color, weight loss, moisture loss, pH and total soluble solids content. The sensorial panel also favors the grander role of sunflower wax coating. Application of sunflower wax coatings had no effect on vitamin C content of mangoes variety and could increases mango storage time around 30 days under regular storage conditions. Sunflower wax coating also inhibited the growth of micro-organisms. The data reveal that by applying a sunflower wax coating effectively prolongs the quality which attributes and extends the shelf life of mango. (author)

  11. A new species of Procontarinia (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) damaging fruit of mango, Mangifera indica (Anacardiaceae), in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Ke-Long; Wang, Hao; Wei, De-Wei; Mo, Jian-You; Wang, Yuan-Hong; Bu, Wen-Jun; Kolesik, Peter

    2018-04-23

    Larvae of a previously unknown species of gall midge were found feeding on young fruit of mango, Mangifera indica (Anacardiaceae), in Guangxi Autonomous Region in southern China, causing severe damage to the crop. The new species is named Procontarinia fructiculi Jiao, Wang, Bu Kolesik, its morphology is described, the basic biology is given, and the Cytochrome Oxidase subunit I (COI) mitochondrial gene segment is sequenced and compared to other congeners. Procontarinia contains now 16 described species, each feeding on mango. All but three species cause variously shaped galls on leaves, while P. mangiferae (Felt) malforms inflorescence and young leaves, and two species feed on fruit - P. frugivora Gagné causing deep lesions and P. fructiculi sp. nov. tunnel-like holes. Of the two fruit-feeding species, P. frugivora is confined to the Philippines while the new species has thus far been recorded only from southern China.

  12. Photooxidation of nimbin and salannin, tetranortriterpenoids from the neem tree (Azadirachta indica)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarvis, A.P.; Johnson, S.; Morgan, E.D.; Simmonds, M.S.J.; Blaney, W.M.

    1997-01-01

    Nimbin and salannin, major triterpenoids accompanying azadirachtin in extracts of neem (Azadirachta indica) seeds, were photooxidized by UV light in the presence of oxygen to more polar, unstable intermediates that rearranged on silica gel to two final products in which the furan ring had been oxidized to isomeric hydroxybutenolides. The isomeric hydroxybutenolides were also readily formed when a crude extract of triterpenoids from neem seeds was irradiated, and both isomers of salannin have been isolated from seeds. Photooxidation of nimbin and salannin proceeded much faster than that of azadirachtin. All photoproducts showed some biological activity against Spodoptera littoralis, Locusta migratoria, and Schistocerca gregaria. Isonimbinolide was as potent as azadirachtin at inhibiting feeding in all three species, and it also inhibited the growth of S. littoralis. Isosalanninolide showed potent antifeedant and growth inhibitory activity against S. littoralis

  13. Efficacy of adalimumab in patients with crohn's disease and failure to infliximab therapy: a clinical series Eficacia de Adalimumab en pacientes con enfermedad de Crohn y fracaso previo a la terapia con Infliximab: resultados de una serie clínica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Cordero-Ruiz

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: adalimumab, a human anti-TNF, is an effective induction and maintenance therapy for patients with moderate to severe Crohn's disease. It seems to be effective in patients with resistance to infliximab, too, though the experience is more limited. Aim: to evaluate the efficacy of adalimumab, in patients with Crohn's disease (CD and failure to previous treatment with infliximab. B twenty-five patients with CD and failure to previous treatment with infliximab were enrolled; they were treated with 160/80 (24 patients and 80/40 (1 patient induction doses. We analyze clinical response to treatment with adalimumab by the Crohn's disease Activity Index (CDAI and plasma concentration of C-reactive protein (CRP, steroid sparing and complete fistula closure at week 48. Results: eighteen out of twenty-five patients (72% achieved clinical remission (CDAI score Introducción: adalimumab, un anti-TNF humano, ha demostrado ser efectivo en la inducción y tratamiento de mantenimiento de la enfermedad de Crohn moderada-grave. Existe menos experiencia, pero este fármaco parece también eficaz en los pacientes con pérdida de respuesta o intolerancia al infliximab. Objetivo: evaluar la eficacia de adalimumab durante un año, en nuestra serie de pacientes con enfermedad de Crohn (EC y fracaso en el tratamiento previo con infliximab. Métodos: se incluyen 25 pacientes con enfermedad de Crohn y fracaso previo a la terapia con infliximab, que son tratados con adalimumab. Se utilizaron dosis de inducción de 160/80 mg en 24 pacientes y dosis de 80/40 en un paciente. Analizamos la respuesta clínica al tratamiento con adalimumab mediante el Índice de actividad de la enfermedad de Crohn (CDAI y las concentraciones plasmáticas de proteína C reactiva (PCR, el cese de la corticoterapia y el cierre completo de las fistulas en la semana 48. Resultados: dieciocho de veinticinco pacientes (72% alcanzan la remisión clínica (CDAI < 150 en la semana 24 y 15

  14. Physical Properties and Specific Heat Capacity of Tamarind (Tamarindus indica Seed

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    A. Dauda

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of moisture content on physical properties and specific heat capacity of Tamarindus indica seed. Physical properties investigated were axial dimensions, one thousand seed weight, bulk and true densities, porosity, roundness and sphericity, surface area, angle of repose and static coefficient of friction. The thermal property determined was the specific heat. These properties of Tamarindus indica seed were investigated within the moisture content range of 7.55 - 10.47% (d.b. The length, width and thickness increased from 9.979 to 10.634mm, 8.909 to 10.089mm and 5.039 to 5.658mm, respectively in the above moisture range. One thousand seed weight, surface area, seed volume, true density and porosity, increased from 388.4 to 394.8g, 86.916 to 87.58cm2, 0.353 to 0.366cm3, 1217.5 to 1287.00kg/m3 and 28.22 to 33.87%, respectively, as moisture content increased in the above range, while bulk density decreased from 873.9 to 851.4kg/m3. Roundness and sphericity, and angle of repose also increased from 41 to 42.4% and 73.7 to 76.3% and 36.1 to 38.93o, respectively. Specific heat capacity values increased linearly from 589.00J/kgK to 638.61 J/kgK in the above moisture range.

  15. Innate catalytic and free radical scavenging activities of silver nanoparticles synthesized using Dillenia indica bark extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Alfa S; Jena, Bhabani S

    2017-06-15

    A green approach was envisaged for the rapid synthesis of stable silver nanoparticles in an aqueous medium using phenolic rich ethanolic bark extract from D. indica with marked free radical scavenging and reducing ability. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) was confirmed and characterized by using UV-visible spectroscopy, particle size analyzer, X-ray diffractometry (XRD), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR). Bio-reduction of Ag+ was confirmed with the appearance of golden yellow coloration within 5-10min at 45°C with maximum absorbance at 421nm. XRD analysis of AgNPs indicated the crystalline nature of metallic Ag. As analyzed by TEM, AgNPs were found to be spherical in shape, well dispersed and size varied from 15 to 35nm and dynamic light scattering (DLS) studies showed the average particle size of 29nm with polydispersity index (PDI) of 0.280. Synthesized AgNPs were showing surface functionalization as revealed through FTIR studies. These AgNPs were observed to be highly stable at room temperature (28±2°C) for more than 3months, thereby indicating the ethanolic extract of D. indica was a reducing as well as a capping agent for stabilization of AgNPs. Moreover, these green synthesized AgNPs showed enhanced free radical scavenging and excellent catalytic activities when used in the reduction of 4-nitrophenol and methylene blue dye, at room temperature. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Characterization and evaluation of rice blast resistance of Chinese indica hybrid rice parental lines

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    Yunyu Wu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of resistant varieties and hybrid combinations has been the most effective and economical strategy to control blast disease caused by Magnaporthe oryzae. However, the distribution of major R genes and blast resistance characterization in hybrid rice parents has not been well investigated, resulting in their limited use in hybrid rice blast-resistance breeding. In the present study, 88 elite indica hybrid rice parental lines were evaluated with 30 isolates of M. oryzae collected from the main planting area of indica hybrid rice in China and were characterized for the presence of 11 major resistance genes using molecular markers. The pathogenicity assays showed that four types of hybrid rice parent line showed some resistance to M. oryzae. However, the proportions of highly resistant lines and the mean resistance frequency (RF varied among the four types, with resistance in decreasing order shown by three-line restorer lines, three-line maintainer lines, two-line sterile lines, and two-line restorer lines. All 88 hybrid rice parental lines carried more than one R gene, but none carried the R genes Pi1 and Pi2. Although Pid3 and Pi9 were present only in three-line restorer lines and Pigm only in three-line maintainer lines, the remaining six R genes (Pib, Pid2, Pi5, Pia, Pi54, and Pita were present in the four types of hybrid rice parent with significantly different distribution frequencies. The correlation between R genes and resistance reactions was investigated. The results are expected to provide useful information for rational utilization of major R genes in hybrid rice breeding programs. Keywords: Hybrid rice parental lines, Magnaporthe oryzae, Pi genes, Resistance evaluation, Molecular markers

  17. Comparison of hypotensive, diuretic and renal effects between cladodes of Opuntia ficus-indica and furosemide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakour, Meryem; Al-Waili, Noori; El-Haskoury, Redouan; El-Menyiy, Nawal; Al-Waili, Thia; Al-Waili, Ali; Lyoussi, Badiaa

    2017-09-01

    To investigate the diuretic, hypotensive and renal effect of Opuntia ficus-indica in two different species in oral and intravenous administration. Diuretic activity was evaluated in rats with the plant cladode gel and aqueous extract administrated orally, and was evaluated in rabbits with plant extract administered intravenously. Single and repeated doses of cladode gel or aqueous extract of cladode were tested. Urine volume and blood and urine creatinine, sodium and potassium were measured, and creatinine clearance was calculated. The hypotensive effect of lyophilized extract of cladode was evaluated in rabbits. Two polyethylene PE50 catheters were used: one in the jugular vein for the infusion of the plant extract and the other in the carotid for the evaluation of the arterial pressure. The cladode gel or aqueous extract increased urine volume, creatinine clearance and urinary excretion of sodium and potassium without significant effect on serum creatinine or blood urea. Furosemide, gel and aqueous extract of cladode insignificantly lowered plasma potassium in rats. Intravenous administration of the lyophilized extract caused a significant decrease in mean arterial pressure in rabbits with a significant increase in urine volume and urine sodium and potassium; the effect was dose dependent. Intravenous administration of lyophilized extract did not affect plasma sodium or potassium. Gel and aqueous extract of Opuntia ficus-indica cladode have a significant diuretic effect on rats, and the lyophilized extract has a diuretic and hypotensive effect on normotensive rabbits without deterioration in renal function test. Additional studies on active ingredients are essential to pave the way for clinical studies on diuretic and hypotensive effect of the plant. Copyright © 2017 Hainan Medical University. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. An improved protocol for efficient transformation and regeneration of diverse indica rice cultivars

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    Sahoo Khirod K

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rice genome sequencing projects have generated remarkable amount of information about genes and genome architecture having tremendous potential to be utilized in both basic and applied research. Success in transgenics is paving the way for preparing a road map of functional genomics which is expected to correlate action of a gene to a trait in cellular and organismal context. However, the lack of a simple and efficient method for transformation and regeneration is a major constraint for such studies in this important cereal crop. Results In the present study, we have developed an easy, rapid and highly efficient transformation and regeneration protocol using mature seeds as explants and found its successful applicability to a choice of elite indica rice genotypes. We have optimized various steps of transformation and standardized different components of the regeneration medium including growth hormones and the gelling agent. The modified regeneration medium triggers production of large number of shoots from smaller number of calli and promotes their faster growth, hence significantly advantageous over the existing protocols where the regeneration step requires maximum time. Using this protocol, significantly higher transformation efficiency (up to 46% and regeneration frequency (up to 92% for the untransformed calli and 59% for the transformed calli were achieved for the four tested cultivars. We have used this protocol to produce hundreds of independent transgenic lines of different indica rice genotypes. Upon maturity, these transgenic lines were fertile thereby indicating that faster regeneration during tissue culture did not affect their reproductive potential. Conclusions This speedy, yet less labor-intensive, protocol overcomes major limitations associated with genetic manipulation in rice. Moreover, our protocol uses mature seeds as the explant, which can easily be obtained in quantity throughout the year and kept

  19. Phytochemical, antimicrobial and antioxidant screening of fruits, bark and leaves of lagerstroemia indica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajaib, M.; Arooj, T.

    2016-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate phytochemicals, antimicrobial and antioxidant potential of Lagerstroemia indica L. The phytochemical screening of L. indica revealed the presence of active metabolites such as anthraquinones, reducing sugars, terpenoids, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, alkaloids and cardiac glycosides. Antimicrobial assessment was carried out against Gram-positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus), Gram-negative bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli) and fungal strains (Aspergillus oryzae and Aspergillus niger). Maximum antibacterial potential (58.33 9 ± 0.88 mm) was exhibited by petroleum ether extract of bark against B. subtilis. The maximum antifungal potential 40.33 ± 0.88 mm and 40.0 ± 1.15 mm against A. niger was observed by chloroform extract of bark and fruits respectively. The antioxidant potential was assessed using five assays viz. ABTS activity, DPPH degree radical scavenging activity, metal chelating activity, total flavonoid contents and total phenolic contents. Highest TEAC value 7.946 ± 0.04 mM trolox for ABTS+ assay was observed by aquous extract of leaves. The highest values for total flavonoid contents 1185.740 ± 0.01 mu g/ml and total phenolic contents 40.333 ± 0.23 mu g/ml was exhibited by petroleum ether bark extract. The maximum metal chelating activity 60.302 ± 0.93 was observed by petroleum ether extract of fruit. The highest value of % DPPH degree (92.92 ± 0.08 %) was observed by aquous extract of bark. (author)

  20. Late nitrogen application enhances spikelet number in indica hybrid rice (Oryza sativa L.

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    Wei Zhou

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT To increase rice yield potential, field experiments were conducted in farmers’ paddies in 2011 and 2012 to evaluate the effects of different nitrogen applications on the yield and panicle components of three typical indica hybrid rice varieties in Sichuan Province. The number of grains per panicle resulting from late nitrogen application (LA was 12 % greater than that obtained from traditional nitrogen application (TA; this increase was the main source of improvements in yield. The number of surviving and differentiated spikelets (NSS and NDiS resulting from LA was significantly higher than that measured under TA, especially for the Fyou498 cultivar, where the NSS and NDiS increased by 15 % and 14 %, respectively. Compared with TA, the number of degenerated secondary branches and the percentage of degenerated secondary branches (NDeSB and PDeSB were significantly reduced by 9 % and 11 %, respectively, by LA. This is the first study to demonstrate that an increase in NSS and a decrease in NDeSB lead to yield-improving effects attributable to LA. The grain yields of different varieties ranged from 9225.6 to 9408.7 kg ha−1, the PDeSB was as high as 31 %, and the number of surviving secondary branches (NSSB was significantly and positively correlated with NSS. These data indicate that the yield of indica hybrid rice has considerable potential for being improved, and increasing NSSB is key to increasing NSS and improving the grain yield. These improvements should be pursued so as to increase the yield of hybrid rice to ensure both food security and sustainable agricultural development.

  1. Atheromic and lymphoplasmacytic effects of Mangifera indica methanolic leaf extract on the heart of chinchilla rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngokere, Anthony Ajuluchukwu; Ezeofor, Peace Chinelo; Okoye, Jude Ogechukwu; Chukwuanukwu, Rebecca Chinyelu

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of methanol extract of Mangifera indica on serum concentration of creatine kinase, total white blood cell (WBC) count and lymphocyte counts and the micro-anatomical architecture of the heart in chinchilla rabbits in order to find its safe and toxic levels. A total of 24 Chinchilla rabbits aged 10-14 weeks, divided into four experimental groups were orally administered the doses of none, 500, 1000 and 1500 mg/kg body weight of the methanol extract of M. indica, respectively, for 28 days. The modified International Federation of Clinical Chemistry (IFCC) method was used to estimate the serum concentration of creatine kinase (CK (-MB)) while the haematology auto-analyser was used to estimate the total WBC count and lymphocyte count. The estimated values were subjected to analysis of variance using the SPSS software application (version 16) and expressed as mean±standard deviation. Tissue sections were stained by phosphotungstic acid haematoxylin and haematoxylin and eosin staining techniques. The result showed significant increases in serum concentrations of CK (-MB) (12.05±3.11-21.55±9.93 U/L) and total WBC count (5.33±0.66-6.51±0.38 103/μL) when the control group was compared with the treated groups (p0.05). Significant differences were also observed in the body weight of the treated groups (pindica is indicated to have some health benefits at 500 mg/kg and shows toxicity on the micro-architecture of the heart at a concentration of ≥1000 mg/kg.

  2. Anti-inflammatory effects of aqueous extract of Mangifera indica in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oluwole, Oluwafemi Gabriel; Esume, Celestine

    2015-05-01

    Recent studies in standard laboratories have indicated that a typical mango stem bark aqueous extract (Magnifera indica Linn) possess anti-malaria and anti-fever properties. Recent information also exists in the literature, suggesting its potency as a very effective anti-inflammatory plant extract. This study will therefore contribute immensely to the systemic search for a useful, less toxic and natural bioactive medicinal compound. This study investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of the aqueous extract of Mangifera indica (MI) in a carrageenin-induced rat paw oedema model of acute inflammation. Rats (n=5) were treated orally with MI (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg), acetylsalicylic acid (100 mg/kg) or distilled water (3 mL). Thirty minutes later, acute inflammation was induced with a sub-plantar injection of 0.1 mL of 1% carrageenin solution into the right hind paw of the rats. The paw oedema sizes were measured with the aid of a Vernier calliper over a period of 3 hours. The aqueous extract of MI (50-200 mg/kg, p.o.) produced a dose-dependent and significant inhibition of the acute inflammation induced by the carrageenin in rats when compared with controls. The percentage inhibition of oedema formation produced by MI (200 mg/kg, p.o.) was similar to that elicited by acetylsalicylic acid (100 mg/kg, p.o.). The results of this preliminary investigation suggest that MI contains active compounds with an anti-inflammatory activity. However, more detailed studies using additional models are necessary to further characterise the effects of MI in inflammatory disorders.

  3. Lipid peroxidation inhibition and antiradical activities of some leaf fractions of Mangifera indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badmus, Jelili A; Adedosu, Temitope O; Fatoki, John O; Adegbite, Victor A; Adaramoye, Oluwatosin A; Odunola, Oyeronke A

    2011-01-01

    This study was undertaken to assess in vitro lipid peroxidation inhibitions and anti-radical activities of methanolic, chloroform, ethyl acetate and water fractions of Mangifera indica leaf. Inhibition of Fe(2+)-induced lipid peroxidation (LPO) in egg, brain, and liver homogenates, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and hydroxyl (OH-) radical scavenging activities were evaluated. Total phenol was assessed in all fractions, and the reducing power of methanolic fraction was compared to gallic acid and ascorbic acid. The results showed that Fe2+ induced significant lipid peroxidation (LPO) in all the homogenates. Ethyl acetate fraction showed the highest percentage inhibition of LPO in both egg yolk (68.3%) and brain (66.3%), while the aqueous fraction exerted the highest inhibition in liver homogenate (89.1%) at a concentration of 10 microg/mL. These observed inhibitions of LPO by these fractions were higher than that of ascorbic acid used as a standard. The DPPH radical scavenging ability exhibited by ethyl acetate fraction was found to be the highest with IC50 value of 1.5 microg/mL. The ethyl acetate and methanolic fractions had the highest OH- radical scavenging ability with the same IC50 value of 5 microg/mL. The total phenol content of ethyl acetate fraction was the highest with 0.127 microg/mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE). The reductive potential of methanolic fraction showed a concentration-dependent increase. This study showed that inhibition of LPO and the DPPH and OH- radicals scavenging abilities of Mangifera indica leaf could be related to the presence of phenolic compounds. Therefore, the ethyl acetate fraction of the leaf may be a good source of natural antioxidative agent.

  4. Effects of Mangifera indica L. aqueous extract (Vimang) on primary culture of rat hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodeiro, I; Donato, M T; Jiménez, N; Garrido, G; Delgado, R; Gómez-Lechón, M J

    2007-12-01

    Vimang is an aqueous extract from stem bark of Mangifera indica L. (Mango) with pharmacological properties. It is a mixture of polyphenols (as main components), terpenoids, steroids, fatty acids and microelements. In the present work we studied the cytotoxic effects of Vimang on rat hepatocytes, possible interactions of the extract with drug-metabolizing enzymes and its effects on GSH levels and lipid peroxidation. No cytotoxic effects were observed after 24 h exposure to Vimang of up to 1000 microg/mL, while a moderate cytotoxicity was observed after 48 and 72 h of exposure at higher concentrations (500 and 1000 microg/mL). The effect of the extract (50-400 microg/mL) on several P450 isozymes was evaluated. Exposure of hepatocytes to Vimang at concentrations of up to 100 microg/mL produced a significant reduction (60%) in 7-methoxyresorufin-O-demethylase (MROD; CYP1A2) activity, an increase (50%) in 7-penthoxyresorufin-O-depentylase (PROD; CYP2B1) activity, while no significant effect was observed with other isozymes. To our knowledge, this is the first report regarding the modulation of the activity of the P450 system by an extract of Mangifera indica L. The antioxidant properties of Vimang were also evaluated in t-butyl-hydroperoxide-treated hepatocytes. A 36-h pre-treatment of cells with Vimang (25-200 microg/mL) strongly inhibited the decrease of GSH levels and lipid peroxidation induced by t-butyl-hydroperoxide dose- and time-dependently.

  5. Transcriptome profiling to discover putative genes associated with paraquat resistance in goosegrass (Eleusine indica L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing An

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Goosegrass (Eleusine indica L., a serious annual weed in the world, has evolved resistance to several herbicides including paraquat, a non-selective herbicide. The mechanism of paraquat resistance in weeds is only partially understood. To further study the molecular mechanism underlying paraquat resistance in goosegrass, we performed transcriptome analysis of susceptible and resistant biotypes of goosegrass with or without paraquat treatment. RESULTS: The RNA-seq libraries generated 194,716,560 valid reads with an average length of 91.29 bp. De novo assembly analysis produced 158,461 transcripts with an average length of 1153.74 bp and 100,742 unigenes with an average length of 712.79 bp. Among these, 25,926 unigenes were assigned to 65 GO terms that contained three main categories. A total of 13,809 unigenes with 1,208 enzyme commission numbers were assigned to 314 predicted KEGG metabolic pathways, and 12,719 unigenes were categorized into 25 KOG classifications. Furthermore, our results revealed that 53 genes related to reactive oxygen species scavenging, 10 genes related to polyamines and 18 genes related to transport were differentially expressed in paraquat treatment experiments. The genes related to polyamines and transport are likely potential candidate genes that could be further investigated to confirm their roles in paraquat resistance of goosegrass. CONCLUSION: This is the first large-scale transcriptome sequencing of E. indica using the Illumina platform. Potential genes involved in paraquat resistance were identified from the assembled sequences. The transcriptome data may serve as a reference for further analysis of gene expression and functional genomics studies, and will facilitate the study of paraquat resistance at the molecular level in goosegrass.

  6. Transcriptome profiling to discover putative genes associated with paraquat resistance in goosegrass (Eleusine indica L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Jing; Shen, Xuefeng; Ma, Qibin; Yang, Cunyi; Liu, Simin; Chen, Yong

    2014-01-01

    Goosegrass (Eleusine indica L.), a serious annual weed in the world, has evolved resistance to several herbicides including paraquat, a non-selective herbicide. The mechanism of paraquat resistance in weeds is only partially understood. To further study the molecular mechanism underlying paraquat resistance in goosegrass, we performed transcriptome analysis of susceptible and resistant biotypes of goosegrass with or without paraquat treatment. The RNA-seq libraries generated 194,716,560 valid reads with an average length of 91.29 bp. De novo assembly analysis produced 158,461 transcripts with an average length of 1153.74 bp and 100,742 unigenes with an average length of 712.79 bp. Among these, 25,926 unigenes were assigned to 65 GO terms that contained three main categories. A total of 13,809 unigenes with 1,208 enzyme commission numbers were assigned to 314 predicted KEGG metabolic pathways, and 12,719 unigenes were categorized into 25 KOG classifications. Furthermore, our results revealed that 53 genes related to reactive oxygen species scavenging, 10 genes related to polyamines and 18 genes related to transport were differentially expressed in paraquat treatment experiments. The genes related to polyamines and transport are likely potential candidate genes that could be further investigated to confirm their roles in paraquat resistance of goosegrass. This is the first large-scale transcriptome sequencing of E. indica using the Illumina platform. Potential genes involved in paraquat resistance were identified from the assembled sequences. The transcriptome data may serve as a reference for further analysis of gene expression and functional genomics studies, and will facilitate the study of paraquat resistance at the molecular level in goosegrass.

  7. Mutations and amplification of EPSPS gene confer resistance to glyphosate in goosegrass (Eleusine indica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jingchao; Huang, Hongjuan; Zhang, Chaoxian; Wei, Shouhui; Huang, Zhaofeng; Chen, Jinyi; Wang, Xu

    2015-10-01

    Field-evolved resistance of goosegrass to glyphosate is due to double or single mutation in EPSPS , or amplification of EPSPS leads to increased transcription and protein levels. Glyphosate has been used widely in the south of China. The high selection pressure from glyphosate use has led to the evolution of resistance to glyphosate in weeds. We investigated the molecular mechanisms of three recently discovered glyphosate-resistant Eleusine indica populations (R1, R2 and R3). The results showed that R1 and R2 had double Thr102Ile and Pro106Ser mutation and a single mutation of Pro106Leu in the 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) gene, respectively. Escherichia coli containing the mutated EPSPS genes was tolerant to glyphosate. EPSPS activity in R1 and R2 plants was higher than in the sensitive plants. There was no amino acid substitution in EPSPS gene in R3. However, expression of EPSPS in R3 plants was higher than in glyphosate-susceptible (S) population (13.8-fold) after glyphosate treatment. EPSPS enzyme activity in both R3 and S plants was inhibited by glyphosate, while shikimate accumulation in R3 was significantly lower than for the S population. Further analysis revealed that the genome of R3 contained 28.3-fold more copies of the EPSPS gene than that of susceptible population. EPSPS expression was positively correlated with copy number of EPSPS. In conclusion, mutation of the EPSPS gene and increased EPSPS expression are part of the molecular mechanisms of resistance to glyphosate in Eleusine indica.

  8. Comparative Study of Erythrina indica Lam. (Febaceae) Leaves Extracts for Antioxidant Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakat, SS; Juvekar, AR

    2010-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the antioxidant activity of aqueous and methanol extracts of Erythrina indica Lam leaves by in vitro methods viz. 1, 1-Diphenyl-2-Picrylhydrazyl, nitric oxide radical scavenging activity, and inhibition of lipid peroxidation by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) method on isolated rat liver tissues. Quantitative analysis of antioxidative components like total amount of phenolics, flavonoids, and flavonols were estimated using the spectrophotometric method. Linear regression analysis was used to calculate the IC50 value. Results showed that the aqueous and methanol extracts exhibited significant DPPH radicals scavenging activity with an IC50 value 342.59 ± 19.59, 283.24 ± 12.28 µg/mL respectively. Nitric oxide radicals were significantly scavenged by the aqueous and methanol extracts (IC50 = 250.12 ± 10.66; 328.29 ± 3.74 µg/mL). Lipid peroxidation induced by the Fe2+ was inhibited by the aqueous extract with low IC50 value (97.29 ± 2.05 µg/mL) as compared to methanol extract (IC50 = 283.74 ± 5.70 µg/mL). Both the extracts were exhibited similar quantities of total phenolics. Total flavonoids were found to be in higher quantities than total flavonols in aqueous extract as compared to methanol extract. From the results, it is concluded that the aqueous and methanol extracts of E. indica leaves possesses significant antioxidant activity that may be due to the presence of flavonoids and related polyphenolic compounds. PMID:21331194

  9. Enfermería: siempre dispuesta a traspasar nuevos senderos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lady Carola Lizcano-Villamizar

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available En la actualidad enfermería esta viviendo todo un proceso de evolución, proceso que se ha beneficiado del auge que en el nivel industrial moderno se le está dando ala salud ocupacional. La visión integral que concibe enfermería, le permite adentrarse en todos los espacios y roles del ser humano, y un buen ejemplo es el ámbito laboral, sentando funciones orientadas al fortalecimiento de la salud de los trabajadores, es decir no sólo a proporcionarles una curación en casos de accidentes de trabajo o atención en caso de enfermedades ocupacionales, sino adelantarse a las consecuencias a través del fomento de actitudes sanas.

  10. "Siempre me critican": barriers to reproductive health in Ocotal, Nicaragua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luffy, Samantha M; Evans, Dabney P; Rochat, Roger W

    2015-05-01

    To identify perceived barriers to accessing reproductive health care according to the women of Ocotal, Nicaragua; describe their understanding of their reproductive rights; and document their opinions about Nicaragua's total ban on abortion. From May to June 2014, three focus group discussions were held in Spanish with 17 women from two different neighborhoods (barrios) in the city of Ocotal, Nicaragua. A semi-structured discussion guide with open-ended questions was employed to elucidate local perspectives regarding the focus group discussions themes. Serious obstacles including 1) violence against women, 2) machismo, 3) criticism from others, and 4) lack of communication and education limit women's ability to make their own reproductive health decisions. Women had a pervasive lack of knowledge about reproductive rights and the international human rights documents that define them. In addition, due to religious and cultural ideologies, most women supported the country's total ban on abortion in most circumstances, with the possible exception of rape. Both men and women in Ocotal should be encouraged to participate in community-level programs designed to reduce the impact of the following obstacles to receiving reproductive health care: 1) violence against women and machismo; 2) insufficient, non-standardized sexual education and information about reproductive rights; and 3) poor communication within families and the community at large. Any future public health campaigns to address women's reproductive health needs in Ocotal should implement these types of programs, at the neighborhood level, to reduce stigma surrounding sexual health and activity.

  11. Teorías subjetivas de profesores sobre la motivación y sus expectativas de éxito y fracaso escolar Teorias subjetivas de professores sobre a motivação e suas expectativas de sucesso e fracasso escolar Subjective theories of teachers about motivation and their expectancies about school success and failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Javier Castro-Carrasco

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Investigación cualitativa que busca describir e interpretar las teorías subjetivas de un grupo de profesores de un liceo técnico público acerca de la motivación escolar (rol como agente motivacional y motivación inherente a las alumnas y sus expectativas acerca del éxito y fracaso escolar. Los datos recolectados mediante observación directa de reuniones de profesores y de una entrevista grupal en profundidad, fueron analizados mediante el programa Atlas-Ti, siguiendo orientaciones de la Grounded Theory. Los resultados muestran que la sobreatribución que hacen los profesores acerca de su responsabilidad como agente motivacional ignora otras variables del proceso enseñanza-aprendizaje, dependientes tanto de las alumnas como del contexto educativo, y que sus expectativas de éxito o fracaso se relacionan directamente con los objetivos del establecimiento.Pesquisa qualitativa que procura descrever e interpretar as teorias subjetivas de um grupo de professores de uma escola técnica pública sobre a motivação escolar (seu papel como agente motivacional e motivação relacionada às alunas e suas expectativas a respeito do sucesso e fracasso escolar. Os dados coletados, mediante observação direta de reuniões dos professores e de uma entrevista grupal em profundidade, foram analisados utilizando-se o programa Atlas-Ti, seguindo as orientações da Grounded Theory. Os resultados mostram que a supervalorização, por parte dos professores, quanto à sua responsabilidade como agente motivacional ignora outras variáveis no processo ensino-aprendizagem, dependentes tanto das alunas como do contexto educativo, e que suas expectativas de sucesso ou fracasso se relacionam diretamente com os objetivos do estabelecimento.Qualitative research that looks to describe and to interpret the subjective theories of a group of teachers from a public technical high school about school motivation (its role as a motivational agent and the motivation inherent

  12. The first report of Xenorhabdus indica from Steinernema pakistanense: co-phylogenetic study suggests co-speciation between X. indica and its steinernematid nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, A H; Chaubey, A K; Půža, V

    2018-01-17

    During a survey in agricultural fields of the sub-humid region of Meerut district, India, two strains of entomopathogenic nematodes, labelled CS31 and CS32, were isolated using the Galleria baiting technique. Based on morphological and morphometric studies, and molecular data, the nematodes were identified as Steinernema pakistanense, making this finding the first report of this species from India. For the first time, we performed a molecular and biochemical characterization of the bacterial symbiont of S. pakistanense. Furthermore, a co-phylogenetic analysis of the bacteria from the monophyletic clade containing a symbiont of S. pakistanense, together with their nematode hosts, was conducted, to test the degree of nematode-bacteria co-speciation. Both isolates were also tested in a laboratory assay for pathogenicity against two major pests, Helicoverpa armigera and Spodoptera litura. The morphology of the Indian isolates corresponds mainly to the original description, with the only difference being the absence of a mucron in first-generation females and missing epiptygmata in the second generation. The sequences of bacterial recA and gyrB genes have shown that the symbiont of S. pakistanense is closely related to Xenorhabdus indica, which is associated with some other nematodes from the 'bicornutum' group. Co-phylogenetic analysis has shown a remarkable congruence between the nematode and bacterial phylogenies, suggesting that, in some lineages within the Steinernema / Xenorhabdus complex, the nematodes and bacteria have undergone co-speciation. In the virulence assay, both strains caused a 100% mortality of both tested insects after 48 h, even at the lowest doses of 25 infective juveniles per insect, suggesting that S. pakistanense could be considered for use in the biocontrol of these organisms in India.

  13. Effects of Biopesticides on Foliar Diseases and Japanese Beetle (Popillia japonica) Adults in Roses (Rosa spp.), Oakleaf Hydrangea (Hydrangea quercifolia), and Crapemyrtle (Lagerstroemia indica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study evaluated efficacy of biopesticides for reducing foliar diseases and feeding damage from Japanese beetle adults on hybrid T rose (Rosa spp.), oakleaf hydrangea (Hydrangea quercifolia), and crapemyrtle (Lagerstroemia indica). The materials tested included household soaps with Triclosan act...

  14. Effect of fruit and leaves of Meliaceae plants (Azadirachta indica and Melia azedarach) on the development of Lutzomyia longipalpis larvae (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) under experimental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade-Coelho, Cláudia A; Souza, Nataly A; Gouveia, Cheryl; Silva, Vanderlei C; Gonzalez, Marcelo S; Rangel, Elizabeth F

    2009-09-01

    This no-choice, laboratory study focuses on the feeding of dried, ground, homogeneous powdered, unprocessed fruit and leaves of Azadirachta indica and Melia azedarach to Lutzomyia longipalpis larvae to determine the effects on their mortality and metamorphosis. A. indica and M. azedarach fruit and leaves significantly increased larval mortality in comparison to larvae fed the untreated, standard diet. A. indica fruit and leaves blocked the molting of the larvae to the fourth instar, resulting in them remaining as third instars until the end of the experiment. M. azedarach fruit also blocked the molting of larvae, which remained permanently in the fourth instar. Feeding M. azedarach leaves resulted in greater molt inhibition. All insects in this group stopped their development as second-instar larvae. No antifeedant effect was detected for any experimental treatment. The results indicate that nontoxic, unprocessed materials obtained from A. indica and M. azedarach are potent development inhibitors of L. longipalpis larvae.

  15. Cymothoa indica (Isopoda; Cymothoidae and Alitropus typus (Isopoda; Aegidae on freshwater fish Tilapia mossambica (Cichlidae in Vellar estuary, Southeast coast of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Rameshkumar

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to establish the extent of double parasitation of two species of isopods Cymothoa indica and Alitropus typus on Tilapia mossambica. Cymothoa indica, a typical Indo-Pacific genus, and A. typus, a common crustacean parasite of fish in Southeast Asia, which feeds by sucking blood species, are reported by the first time in the freshwater fish Tilapia from Vellar estuary.

  16. Antinociceptive and Anxiolytic and Sedative Effects of Methanol Extract of Anisomeles indica: An Experimental Assessment in Mice and Computer Aided Models

    OpenAIRE

    Md. Josim Uddin; A. S. M. Ali Reza; Md. Abdullah-Al-Mamun; Mohammad S. H. Kabir; Mst. Samima Nasrin; Sharmin Akhter; Md. Saiful Islam Arman; Md. Atiar Rahman

    2018-01-01

    Anisomeles indica (L.) kuntze is widely used in folk medicine against various disorders including allergy, sores, inflammation, and fever. This research investigated the antinociceptive, anxiolytic and sedative effects of A. indica methanol extract. The antinociceptive activity was assessed with the acetic acid-induced writhing test and formalin-induced flicking test while sedative effects with open field and hole cross tests and anxiolytic effects with elevated plus maze (EPM) and thiopental...

  17. A proteomics approach to study the molecular basis of enhanced salt tolerance in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) conferred by the root mutualistic fungus Piriformospora indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alikhani, Mehdi; Khatabi, Behnam; Sepehri, Mozhgan; Nekouei, Mojtaba Khayam; Mardi, Mohsen; Salekdeh, Ghasem Hosseini

    2013-06-01

    Piriformospora indica is a root-interacting mutualistic fungus capable of enhancing plant growth, increasing plant resistance to a wide variety of pathogens, and improving plant stress tolerance under extreme environmental conditions. Understanding the molecular mechanisms by which P. indica can improve plant tolerance to stresses will pave the way to identifying the major mechanisms underlying plant adaptability to environmental stresses. We conducted greenhouse experiments at three different salt levels (0, 100 and 300 mM NaCl) on barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivar "Pallas" inoculated with P. indica. Based on the analysis of variance, P. indica had a significant impact on the barley growth and shoot biomass under normal and salt stress conditions. P. indica modulated ion accumulation in colonized plants by increasing the foliar potassium (K(+))/sodium (Na(+)) ratio, as it is considered a reliable indicator of salt stress tolerance. P. indica induced calcium (Ca(2+)) accumulation and likely influenced the stress signal transduction. Subsequently, proteomic analysis of the barley leaf sheath using two-dimensional electrophoresis resulted in detection of 968 protein spots. Of these detected spots, the abundance of 72 protein spots changed significantly in response to salt treatment and P. indica-root colonization. Mass spectrometry analysis of responsive proteins led to the identification of 51 proteins. These proteins belonged to different functional categories including photosynthesis, cell antioxidant defense, protein translation and degradation, energy production, signal transduction and cell wall arrangement. Our results showed that P. indica induced a systemic response to salt stress by altering the physiological and proteome responses of the plant host.

  18. First record of Chara indica and Chara zeylanica (Charophyceae, Charales, Characeae in the semiarid reservoirs the state of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil

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    Norma Catarina Bueno

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study we present the first record of the macroalgaes Chara indica and Chara zeylanica for the state of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil, and the semiarid northeastern. Specimens of C. indica and C. zeylanica were collected in Santa Cruz and Umari reservoirs, respectively. Both reservoirs are located in the river basin Apodi-Mossoró (Western State in the Caatinga Biome.

  19. COMPARACIÓN DEL EFECTO HIPOGLICEMIANTE DE LAS PLANTAS Azadirachta indica Y Eucalyptus camaldulensis EN CÉLULAS SANGUÍNEAS HUMANAS | COMPARISON OF THE HYPOGLYCEMIC EFFECT BETWEEN THE PLANTS Azadirachta indica AND Eucalyptus camaldulensis IN HUMAN BLOOD CELLS

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    Nubilde Martínez

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Among the most widely used medicinal plants by people are those that possess hypoglycemic effect, such as Azadirachta indica and Eucalyptus camaldulensis, which are widely distributed in Venezuela. The purpose of this research was to compare the hypoglycemic effect of A. indica and E. camaldulensis using aqueous solutions of each plant, in human blood cells in a normoglycemic medium. Aqueous solutions were used in concentrations of 6.4% m / v, in dosages of 0.01, 0.05, 0.1, 0.175, 0.5, 0.7 and 1.4 g/dL, for each plant, and the concentration of glucose was measured at 0, 90, 210, 300 and 600 sec. Insulin (Humulin® in concentrations of 0.1, 1 and 10 nM, was used as a control to compare its effect against aqueous solutions. Results were analyzed using analysis of variance and comparison of means by the Tukey test. The results indicated that there was a greater hypoglycemic effect for the A. indica aqueous solution compared to the control (p = 0.0074, this effect was shown to be significant (p = 0.0349 in the higher doses 0.7 and 1.4 g/dL. Additionally, there was a notable increase hypoglycemic effect from 210 sec-600 sec (p < 0.0001. The aqueous solution of E. camaldulensis showed erratic behavior and lower effect than the control, without evidence of hypoglycemic effect. It is concluded that the hypoglycemic effect of aqueous extracts of A. indica was evidenced while was not observed in those of E. camaldulensis.

  20. Phenolic Profiling of Duchesnea indica Combining Macroporous Resin Chromatography (MRC with HPLC-ESI-MS/MS and ESI-IT-MS

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    Mingzhi Zhu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Duchesnea indica (D. indica is an important traditional Chinese medicine, and has long been clinically used to treat cancer in Asian countries. It has been described previously as a rich source of phenolic compounds with a broad array of diversified structures, which are the major active ingredients. However, an accurate and complete phenolic profiling has not been determined yet. In the present work, the total phenolic compounds in crude extracts from D. indica were enriched and fractionated over a macroporous resin column, then identified by HPLC-ESI-MS/MS and ESI-IT-MS (ion trap MS. A total of 27 phenolic compounds were identified in D. indica, of which 21 compounds were identified for the first time. These 27 phenolic compounds encompassing four phenolic groups, including ellagitannins, ellagic acid and ellagic acid glycosides, hydroxybenzoic acid and hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives, and flavonols, were then successfully quantified using peak areas against those of the corresponding standards with good linearity (R2 > 0.998 in the range of the tested concentrations. As a result, the contents of individual phenolic compounds varied from 6.69 mg per 100 g dry weight (DW for ellagic acid to 71.36 mg per 100 g DW for brevifolin carboxylate. Not only did this study provide the first phenolic profiling of D. indica, but both the qualitative identification and the subsequent quantitative analysis of 27 phenolic compounds from D. indica should provide a good basis for future exploration of this valuable medicinal plant.

  1. Comparison of the uptake and assimilation of ammonium and nitrate in Indica and Japonica rice plants using the tracer 15N method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ta, T.C.; Ohira, Koji

    1982-01-01

    The uptake of 15 N-labeled ammonium and nitrate and their assimilation in 4-week-old Indica and Japonica rice plants were studied during 24 hr exposure to 2 mM solutions of ( 15 NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 and/or Na 15 NO 3 . Although there was no clear difference in the uptake and assimilation of 15 NH 4+ , significant differences in the uptake and assimilation of 15 NO 3- by both varieties were observed. When NH 4+ or NO 3- was supplied exclusively, the Indica rice plants absorbed the latter more effectively than the Japonica. In addition, despite a preference for uptake of NH 4+ rather than NO 3- as shown by both varieties when both forms were supplied together, the relative amounts of NO 3- uptake by the Indica were higher than those of Japonica. On the other hand, the Indica rice plants reduced the absorbed 15 NO 3- more rapidly than the Japonica. The incorporation 15 NO 3- into the ethanol insoluble nitrogen fraction of the Indica rice also exceeded that of the Japonica. These results suggest that the Indica has the ability to utilize NO 3- as a nitrogen source more effectively than the Japonica rice plants. (author)

  2. Chemical characterization of Azadirachta indica grafted on Melia azedarach and analyses of azadirachtin by HPLC-MS-MS (SRM) and meliatoxins by MALDI-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forim, Moacir Rossi; Cornélio, Vivian Estevam; da Silva, M Fátima das G F; Rodrigues-Filho, Edson; Fernandes, João B; Vieira, Paulo C; Matinez, Sueli Souza; Napolitano, Michael P; Yost, Richard A

    2010-01-01

    Melia azedarach adapted to cool climates was selected as rootstocks for vegetative propagation of Azadirachta indica. Cleft grafting of A. indica on M. azedarach rootstock showed excellent survival. Little is known about the chemistry of grafting. The roots, stems, leaves and seeds of this graft were examined in order to verify if grafted A. indica would produce limonoids different from those found in non-grafted plants. Intact matured fruits were also studied to verify if they were free of meliatoxins. After successive chromatographic separations the extracts afforded several limonoids. HPLC-MS/MS and MALDI-MS were used to develop sensitive methods for detecting azadirachtin on all aerial parts of this graft and meliatoxins in fruits, respectively. The stem afforded the limonoid salannin, which was previously found in the oil seeds of A. indica. Salannin is also found in the root bark of M. azedarach. Thus, the finding of salannin in this study suggests that it could have been translocated from the M. azedarach rootstock to the A. indica graft. HPLC-MS/MS analyses showed that azadirachtin was present in all parts of the fruits, stem, flowers and root, but absent in the leaves. The results of MALDI-MS analyses confirmed the absence of meliatoxins in graft fruits. This study showed that A. indica grafted onto M. azedarach rootstock produces azadirachtin, and also that its fruits are free of meliatoxins from rootstocks, confirming that this graft forms an excellent basis for breeding vigorous Neem trees in cooler regions.

  3. Chemical analysis of nutritional content of prickly pads (Opuntia ficus indica) at varied ages in an organic harvest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Urbiola, Margarita I; Pérez-Torrero, Esther; Rodríguez-García, Mario E

    2011-05-01

    Opuntia ficus indica, also known as prickly pads, are an important part of the human diet and are also used as forage for livestock. This is an interesting vegetable due the environmental conditions in which it grows and its resistance to climatic extremes; however, little is known about its nutritional properties, especially in the later stages of maturity. The objective of this study was to determine the composition of organic prickly pads (Opuntia ficus indica) at differing stages of growth maturity. Chemical proximate analysis and mineral constituent analysis at different maturation stages were carried out in this investigation. As a result, older prickly pads were found to be an important source of nutritional components such as calcium.

  4. Chemical composition of volatiles from Opuntia littoralis, Opuntia ficus-indica, and Opuntia prolifera growing on Catalina Island, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Cynthia R; Setzer, William N

    2014-01-01

    The essential oils from the cladodes of Opuntia littoralis, Opuntia ficus-indica and Opuntia prolifera growing wild on Santa Catalina Island, California, were obtained by hydrodistillation and analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Terpenoids were the dominant class of volatiles in O. littoralis, with the two main components being the furanoid forms of cis-linalool oxide (10.8%) and trans-linalool oxide (8.8%). Fatty acid-derived compounds dominated the essential oil of O. ficus-indica with linoleic acid (22.3%), palmitic acid (12.7%), lauric acid (10.5%) and myristic acid (4.2%) as major fatty acids. O. prolifera oil was composed of 46.6% alkanes and the primary hydrocarbon component was heptadecane (19.2%). Sixteen compounds were common to all the three Opuntia species.

  5. Studi Efisiensi Penyisihan COD dalam Lindi dengan Sistem Evapotranspirasi Menggunakan Tumbuhan Sente (Alocasia macrorrhiza dan Rumput Belulang (Eleusine indica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badrus Zaman

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available COD dalam lindi merupakan salah satu parameter yang secara umum berada pada konsentrasi yang tiggi sebagai salah satu hasil biodegradasi material organik dan anorganik dalam sampah di TPA. Sistem evapotranspirasi yang menggunakan tumbuhan lokal merupakan salah satu sistem yang menjanjikan. Penelitian dilakukan untuk mengetahui efisiensi penyisihan COD dalam lindi dengan reaktor evapotranspirasi secara kontinyu yang menggunakan tumbuhan Tumbuhan Sente (Alocasia macrorrhiza dan Rumput Belulang (Eleusine indica. Hasil uji menunjukkan efisiensi pada semua reaktor mulai sekitar hari ke 3 hingga hari ke 25 mengalami fluktuasi yang cenderung menurun (dari ± 75% menjadi ± 50%, tetapi hari selanjutnya cenderung meningkat. Pola tersebut dipengaruhi oleh peran media tanam, bakteri dalam media tanam, bakteri pada akar tumbuhan dan aktivitas metabolisme tumbuhan uji. Secara keseluruhan reaktor yang menggunakan Tumbuhan Sente (Alocasia macrorrhiza lebih fluktuatif dibandingkan denga menggunakan Rumput Belulang (Eleusine indica yang dipengaruhi pola pertumbuhan dan perkembangannya.

  6. Assessment of the Potential Allelopathic Effects of Pennisetum purpureum Schumach. on the Germination and Growth of Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismail, B.S.; Tan, P.W.; Chuah, T.S.

    2015-01-01

    Pennisetum purpureum Schumach. is a weed that is currently spreading rapidly to many parts of the world particularly tropical countries. The abundance of P. purpureum in Malaysia is presently a serious problem. A study was conducted to investigate and evaluate the potential allelopathic effects of P. purpureum on Eleusine indica L. Gaertn. using the aqueous leaf extract and plant debris incorporated into the soil. Low concentrations of the P. purpureum aqueous extract (2%) and debris incorporated into the soil (25/ 500 g) inhibited germination and seedling growth of the bioassay species (E. indica) by >80 %. The responses of the bioassay species to the aqueous extract and debris-incorporated soil were concentration dependent. The aqueous extract had higher total phenolic content compared to that from the debris incorporated soil, indicating the presence of certain phyto toxic compounds in the leaf debris and leaf extracts. (author)

  7. Comparative Phosphoproteomic Analysis of the Developing Seeds in Two Indica Rice ( Oryza sativa L.) Cultivars with Different Starch Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Yuehan; Zhou, Xin; Chen, Yaling; Bao, Jinsong

    2018-03-21

    Protein phosphorylation plays important roles in regulation of various molecular events such as plant growth and seed development. However, its involvement in starch biosynthesis is less understood. Here, a comparative phosphoproteomic analysis of two indica rice cultivars during grain development was performed. A total of 2079 and 2434 phosphopeptides from 1273 and 1442 phosphoproteins were identified, covering 2441 and 2808 phosphosites in indica rice 9311 and Guangluai4 (GLA4), respectively. Comparative analysis identified 303 differentially phosphorylated peptides, and 120 and 258 specifically phosphorylated peptides in 9311 and GLA4, respectively. Phosphopeptides in starch biosynthesis related enzymes such as AGPase, SSIIa, SSIIIa, BEI, BEIIb, PUL, and Pho1were identified. GLA4 and 9311 had different amylose content, pasting viscosities, and gelatinization temperature, suggesting subtle difference in starch biosynthesis and regulation between GLA4 and 9311. Our study will give added impetus to further understanding the regulatory mechanism of starch biosynthesis at the phosphorylation level.

  8. Post-Harvest Deterioration of Cassava and its Control Using Extracts of Azadirachta Indica and Aframomum Melegueta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. N. Okigbo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Post-harvest deterioration is the most important cause of loss in cassava production and this is mainly as a result of microbial invasion of the tubers. This research was therefore carried out to identify and control the organisms responsible for post-harvest deterioration of cassava tubers. Ethanolic and water extractions of Azadirachta Indica (A. Juss leaves and Aframomum melegueta (Schumann seeds were used as antifungal agents and the susceptibility of four of the isolated pathogenic fungi to them was observed in culture. The tested organisms were Aspergillus niger Van Tiegh, Botryodiplodia theobromae Pat, Fusarium solani (Mart. Sacc and Penicillium oxalicum Currie and Thom. All tested organisms showed different degrees of inhibitions by the extracts with A. niger being the most inhibited by ethanolic extraction of A. melegueta. The overall result showed that A. indica was more active on the organisms though it’s effects and that of A. melegueta were not significantly different (P>0.05.

  9. Effect of temperature of 32P uptake and translocation in varieties and a cross of japonica and indica rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, P.R.; Madhusudhan Rao, L.

    1976-01-01

    Three genotypes of rice, one in each of japonica, indica, and a japonica-indica cross were grown in half-Hoagland culture solution. 32 P (40 μCi/I) was added to each of these culture jars and placed at 10,20,30 and 40degC in growth chamber for a period of 1,5 and 10 h at each temperature. The actual uptake of 32 P in plant was very low at 10 and 20degC; moderately low at 40degC and very low at 30degC in japonica and the cross. The uptake was higher at 30 and 40degC in indica. This indicates their ability in uptake of fertilizer at these temperatures. The percentage of absorbed ions decreased at 10 and 20degC and increased at 30 and 40degC with increased duration in all the genotypes. The actual uptake of ions was in proportion to the absorbed ions at higher temperatures and inversely proportional at lower temperatures. The percentage of translocation of 32 P to shoot increased with time between 20 and 50degC in indica, whereas it was high only at 30 and 40degC in japonica and the cross. The translocation was low at 10degC in all the genotypes. The uptake of 32 P at different concentrations under different diurnal temperatures (20/10, 30/20 and 40/30degC) was also studied. (author)

  10. Infestation of Raoiella indica Hirst (Trombidiformes: Tenuipalpidae) on Host Plants of High Socio-Economic Importance for Tropical America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero-Colina, G; González-Gómez, R; Martínez-Bolaños, L; Otero-Prevost, L G; López-Buenfil, J A; Escobedo-Graciamedrano, R M

    2016-06-01

    The mite Raoiella indica Hirst was recently introduced into America, where it has shown amazing ability to disseminate and broaden its range of hosts. An experiment was conducted in Cancún, Mexico, to determine infestation levels of this mite on plants recorded as hosts: coconut palm (Cocos nucifera) of cultivars Pacific Tall and Malayan Dwarf, oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) hybrids Deli x Ghana and Deli x Nigeria, Dwarf Giant banana (Musa acuminata, AAA subgroup Cavendish), Horn plantain (M. acuminata x Musa balbisiana, AAB subgroup Plantain), lobster claw (Heliconia bihai), and red ginger (Alpinia purpurata). Nursery plants of these host species or cultivars were artificially infested with R. indica in February 2011. In the four replications of 10 plants, each plant was infested with 200 R. indica specimens, and the numbers of infesting mites were recorded for 6 months. A maximum of 18,000 specimens per plant were observed on coconut Pacific Tall and Malayan Dwarf, followed by lobster claw, with a maximum of 1000 specimens per plant. Infestations were minimal for the remaining plants. Mite numbers on all plants declined naturally during the rainy season. All plant materials sustained overlapping mite generations, indicating that they are true hosts. Complementarily, infestation level was determined in backyard bananas and plantains. Correlations of infestation with plant height, distance from coconuts, and exposure to direct sunlight were estimated. Both bananas and plantains were infested by R. indica even when situated far from infested coconut palms. A Spearman correlation was found between infestation and plant height, although it was significant only for Silk plantain.

  11. Chemical composition, leishmanicidal and cytotoxic activities of the essential oils from Mangifera indica L. var. Rosa and Espada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Eduardo H S; Moraes, Marcílio M; Nerys, Laís L de A; Nascimento, Silene C; Militão, Gardênia C G; de Figueiredo, Regina C B Q; da Câmara, Cláudio A G; Silva, Teresinha Gonçalves

    2014-01-01

    The essential oils from Mangifera indica var. Rosa and Espada latex were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed using GC-FID and GC-MS. Twenty-seven components were identified. The main compound in the essential oil from M. indica var. Espada (EOMiE) was terpinolene (73.6%). The essential oil of M. indica var. Rosa (EOMiR) was characterized by high amounts of β-pinene (40.7%) and terpinolene (28.3%). In the test for leishmanicidal activity against promastigotes forms of L. amazonensis, EOMiR and EOMiE showed IC50 (72 h) of 39.1 and 23.0 μg/mL, respectively. In macrophages, EOMiR and EOMiE showed CC50 of 142.84 and 158.65 μg/mL, respectively. However, both were more specific to the parasite than macrophages, with values of selectivity index of 6.91 for EOMiE and 3.66 for EOMiR. The essential oils were evaluated for their cytotoxicity against the human tumor cells HEp-2, HT-29, NCI-H292, and HL-60. The EOMiR and EOMiE were most effective against the HL-60, with IC50 values of 12.3 and 3.6 μg/mL, respectively. The results demonstrated that the essential oils of M. indica can destroy L. amazonensis and inhibit tumor cell growth. These findings contribute to the knowledge of the Brazilian biodiversity as a source of potential therapeutic agents.

  12. Allelopathic potential of leaf and seed of Mucuna bracteata DC. ex Kurz on Eleusine indica (L.) gaertn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halimshah, Syamimi; Ismail B., S.; Ahmad, Wan Juliana Wan

    2015-09-01

    A study was conducted to determine the allelopathic potential of leaf and seed of Mucuna bracteata on the growth of E. indica through aqueous extract and debris (incorporated into the soil) experiment. Three concentrations of leaf and seed aqueous extract (16.7, 33.3 and 66.7 g/L) and debris (2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 g/500 g soil) of M. bracteata were used in the experiment. Complete randomized design (CRD) with three replications was applied in this experiment which was conducted twice. Results demonstrated that the leaf and seed extracts of M. bracteata exhibited higher suppression effect on the growth and germination of E. indica as the concentration increased. The leaf and seed extracts significantly reduced all measured parameters at all concentrations except for the shoot length and germination of E. indica by seed extract at 16.7 g/L which recorded insignificant reduction by 40.5% and 4% respectively. The leaf and seed debris significantly reduced the root length of E. indica at all treatments. Seed debris also showed significant reduction on the germination at all treatments and other seedling growth parameters (shoot length, fresh weight and dry weight) at 2.5 and 10.0 g/500 g soil. Meanwhile, the leaf debris demonstrated stimulation effect on the seedling growth parameters. As a whole, the leaf showed higher suppression effect in aqueous extract experiment while the seed recorded higher suppression effect in the debris experiment. Further studies need to be conducted to investigate the type of inhibition mechanism involved in both experiments.

  13. Study of Hypoglycemic Activity of Aqueous Extract of Leucas indica Linn. Aerial Parts on Streptozotocin Induced Diabetic Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Mahananda Sarkar; Prova Biswas; Amalesh Samanta

    2013-01-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the hypoglycemic activity of the aqueous extract of Leucas indica Linn. on streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. The extract showed a significant dose depended (200 and 400 mg/kg b.w, orally) reduction in fasting blood glucose level, comparing with reference drug, glibenclamide (0.5 mg/kg b.w, orally). In addition, the changes in body weight, analysis of serum biochemical parameters like lipid profile, glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase, glutamate p...

  14. Biology and Life History of Balcha indica, an Ectoparasitoid Attacking the Emerald Ash Borer, Agrilus planipennis, in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Jian J.; Taylor, Philip B.; Fuester, Roger W.

    2011-01-01

    Balcha indica Mani and Kaul (Hymenoptera: Eupelmidae) is a solitary ectoparasitoid attacking larvae, prepupae, and pupae of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Hymenoptera: Eupelmidae). Its fecundity, oviposition rate, longevity, and development time were determined in the laboratory under standard rearing conditions (25 ± 2° C, 65 ± 10% relative humidity, and 14:10 L:D). Adults lived a mean of 59 days with a maximum of 117 days. Lifetime adult fecundity averaged 36 eggs with a maximum 94 eggs per female. The egg stage lasted for a maximum of four days with ∼ 50% eggs hatched within two days. The development time of the first instars lasted for a maximum of nine days; 50% of the first instars completed their development (i.e., molted to the next instar) within five days. Instars of the intermediate and final stage larvae (after molting of the first instars occurred) could not be distinguished until they reached the pupal stage, and 50% of those larvae pupated ∼ 62 days after adult oviposition. Under the standard rearing conditions, 50% of B. indica took ∼ 83 days to complete the life cycle (from egg to adult emergence) ranging from 47 to 129 days. These results suggest that B. indica may not have more than two generations in the mid-Atlantic and Midwest regions of United States, where normal growing seasons—with average temperature above 25° C—are normally less than six months (May–October). Because of the long life span and oviposition period of adults, however, B. indica is likely to have overlapping generations. PMID:22233385

  15. Phytochemical and in vitro and in vivo biological investigation on the antihypertensive activity of mango leaves (Mangifera indica L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronchi, Silas Nascimento; Brasil, Girlandia Alexandre; do Nascimento, Andrews Marques; de Lima, Ewelyne Miranda; Scherer, Rodrigo; Costa, Helber B; Romão, Wanderson; Boëchat, Giovanna Assis Pereira; Lenz, Dominik; Fronza, Marcio; Bissoli, Nazaré Souza; Endringer, Denise Coutinho; de Andrade, Tadeu Uggere

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the antihypertensive effect of leaves Mangifera indica L. using in vitro and in vivo assays. The ethanol extract of leaves of M. indica was fractionated to dichloromethanic, n-butyl alcohol and aqueous fractions. The chemical composition of ethanolic extract and dichloromethanic fraction were evaluated by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Antioxidant activity was evaluated in the DPPH scavenging activity assay. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity was investigated using in vitro and in vivo assays. The chronic antihypertensive assay was performed in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) and Wistar rats treated with enalapril (10 mg/kg), dichloromethanic fraction (100 mg/kg; twice a day) or vehicle control for 30 days. The baroreflex sensitivity was evaluated through the use of sodium nitroprusside and phenylephrine. Cardiac hypertrophy was evaluated by morphometric analysis. The dichloromethanic fraction exhibited the highest flavonoid, total phenolic content and high antioxidant activity. Dichloromethanic fraction elicited ACE inhibitory activity in vitro (99 ± 8%) similar to captopril. LC-MS/MS analysis revealed the presence of ferulic acid (48.3 ± 0.04 µg/g) caffeic acid (159.8 ± 0.02 µg/g), gallic acid (142.5 ± 0.03 µg/g), apigenin (11.0 ± 0.01 µg/g) and quercetin (203.3 ± 0.05 µg/g). The chronic antihypertensive effects elicited by dichloromethanic fraction were similar to those of enalapril, and the baroreflex sensitivity was normalized in SHR. Plasma ACE activity and cardiac hypertrophy were comparable with animals treated with enalapril. Dichloromethanic fraction of M. indica presented an antihypertensive effect, most likely by ACE inhibition, with benefits in baroreflex sensitivity and cardiac hypertrophy. Altogether, the results of the present study suggest that the dichloromethanic fraction of M. indica leaves may have potential as a promoting

  16. Nopal Cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica) as a Source of Bioactive Compounds for Nutrition, Health and Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Karym El-Mostafa; Youssef El Kharrassi; Asmaa Badreddine; Pierre Andreoletti; Joseph Vamecq; M'Hammed Saïd El Kebbaj; Norbert Latruffe; Gérard Lizard; Boubker Nasser; Mustapha Cherkaoui-Malki

    2014-01-01

    Opuntia ficus-indica, commonly referred to as prickly pear or nopal cactus, is a dicotyledonous angiosperm plant. It belongs to the Cactaceae family and is characterized by its remarkable adaptation to arid and semi-arid climates in tropical and subtropical regions of the globe. In the last decade, compelling evidence for the nutritional and health benefit potential of this cactus has been provided by academic scientists and private companies. Notably, its rich composition in polyphenols, vit...

  17. Development and characterization of edible films based on mucilage of Opuntia ficus-indica (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espino-Díaz, Miguel; de Jesús Ornelas-Paz, J; Martínez-Téllez, Miguel A; Santillán, Carlos; Barbosa-Cánovas, Gustavo V; Zamudio-Flores, Paul B; Olivas, Guadalupe I

    2010-08-01

    Mucilage of Opuntia ficus-indica (OFI) was extracted and characterized by its composition and molecular weight distribution. Mucilage film-forming dispersions were prepared under different pHs (3, 4, 5.6, 7, and 8) and calcium concentration (0% and 30% of CaCl(2), with respect to mucilage's weight), and their particle size determined. Mucilage films with and without calcium (MFCa and MF, respectively) were prepared. The effect of calcium and pH on mucilage films was evaluated determining thickness, color, water vapor permeability (WVP), tensile strength (TS), and percentage of elongation (%E). The average molecular weight of the different fractions of mucilage was: 3.4 x 10(6) (0.73%), 1 x 10(5) (1.46%), 1.1 x 10(3) (45.79%), and 2.4 x 10(2) Da (52.03%). Aqueous mucilage dispersions with no calcium presented particles with an average size d(0.5) of 15.4 microm, greater than the dispersions with calcium, 13.2 microm. MFCa films showed more thickness (0.13 mm) than the MF films (0.10 mm). The addition of calcium increased the WVP of the films from 109.94 to 130.45 gmm/m(2)dkPa. Calcium and pH affected the mechanical properties of the films; the largest TS was observed on MF films, whereas the highest %E was observed on MFCa films. The highest differences among MF and MFCa films were observed at pHs 5.6 and 7 for TS and at pHs 4 and 8 for %E. No effect of pH and calcium was observed on luminosity and hue angle. Chroma values were higher for MF when compared with MFCa, and increased as pH of the films increased. Practical Application: In this study mucilage from nopal was extracted and characterized by its ability to form edible films under different pHs, and with or without the addition of calcium. Opuntia ficus-indica mucilage had the ability to form edible films. In general, it can be considered that mucilage films without modification of pH and without the addition of calcium have the best water vapor barrier properties and tensile strength. Mucilage from nopal

  18. Degradation of vitamin C in a product made from mango (Mangifera indica L. and whey protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Alonso Mendoza-Corvis

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the kinetics of vitamin C degradation in a product made from mango pulp (Mangifera indica L. and whey protein powder, in order to determine the effect of temperature on its conservation and further evaluate the behavior of the L*, a*, b* and the total color difference (ΔE in the powder product. Vitamin C was determined by the aoac 967.21/90 method using 2,6-dichlorophenol indophenol, and the color was quantified with a HunterLab Color Flex EZ colorimeter. Vitamin C showed greater stability in the powder product ResumoEsta pesquisa procurou determinar a cinética de degradação da vitamina C em um produto em pó elaborado a base de polpa de manga (Mangifera indica L. var. Hilacha e lactisoro, com o fim de conhecer o efeito da temperatura na sua conservação e ademais avaliar o comportamento dos parâmetros L*, a*, b* e a diferença total da cor (ΔE no produto. A vitamina C determinou-se mediante o método aoac 967.21/90, com 2,6-diclorofenol indofe-nol; enquanto que a cor se quantificou com um colorímetro cor Flex EZ marca HunterLab. A vitamina C exibiu maior estabilidade no produto em pó armazenado a uma temperatura de 4 °C, stored at 4 °C with a concentration at the end of the eighth sampling week of 13.94 ± 1.2 mg/10 0 g-1 sample and showing a first order degradation kinetics with k1 values of 0.014 and 0.041 mg/100 g/week at temperatures of 4 °C and 28 °C, respec-tively. The greatest variations in color occurred in samples stored at 28 °C, indicating the influence of the temperature change on the product compo-nents. In addition, L*, a* and b* parameters were less affected under storage temperature of 4 °C, and their values correspond to a second degree polynomial.

  19. The effectiveness of mimba oil (Azadirachta indica A. Juss spray disinfectant on alginate impression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanoem EH

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Alginate impression contaminated by saliva and blood could potentially cause cross contamination. To prevent this, the impression has to be disinfected by disinfectant liquid, such as mimba oil. Mimba oil (Azadirachta indica A.Juss has some chemical content, such as azadirachtin, which is a phenol group used as antibacterial and antimalaria, nimbolide used as antibacterial and antimalarial, and nimbidin used as antibacterial and antifungal. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to find out the most effective concentration of mimba oil as disinfectant to decrease microorganism colony on alginate impression. Methods: Thirty six samples were taken from 9 respondents. This alginate impression was divided into 4 groups: group 1 sprayed with sterile aquadest (as control group, group 2 sprayed with mimba oil 50% for 30 seconds, group 3 sprayed with mimba oil 75% for 30 seconds, group 4 sprayed with mimba oil 100% for 30 seconds. The microorganism colony was counted by colony counter. The sample data then were analyzed with Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, and was tested with Kruskal Wallis test and Mann Whitney test for further analysis. Results: There was significant difference among each group, p = 0.01 (p < 0.05. Conclusion: In conclusion, usage of 50% concentration of mimba oil as disinfectant is effective to decrease microorganism colony on alginate impression.Latar belakang: Cetakan alginat yang terkontaminasi saliva dan darah dapat berpotensi terjadinya infeksi silang. Untuk mencegah hal tersebut, cetakan didisinfeksi dengan bahan disinfektan cair seperti minyak mimba. Minyak mimba (Azadirachta indica A.Juss memiliki beberapa kandungan kimia, antara lain Azadirachtin yang merupakan kelompok fenol yang memmiliki efek antibakteri dan antimalaria, nimbolide memiliki efek antibakteri dan antimalaria sedangkan nimbidin memiliki efek antibakteri dan antijamur. Tujuan: Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk menentukan konsentrasi yang paling

  20. Phytochemical screening, antioxidant activity, total phenolic and total flavonoid contents of seven local varieties of Rosa indica L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahid, Kiran; Ahmed, Maqsood; Khan, Farah

    2018-05-01

    Rosa indica symbol of godness and beauty known for various healing power, has astringent, sedative, anti-inflammatory and antidepressant qualities. Standard methods were used for qualitative detection of phyto-compounds, and quantitative detection of antioxidants was done using DPPH radical scavenging assay, total phenolics and total flavonoids content were expressed in mg GAE/g dry weight and mg QE/g dry weight. Results revealed phyto-compounds presence in all varieties under study however maximum % inhibition was observed by R. indica var pink perfume (94 ± 0.6) with IC50 value 0.3376 ± 0.01 mg/mL. Highest phenolic and flavonoid content was observed in the leaves extract of R. indica var cardinal red, i.e. 3.3553 ± 0.11 (ethanol) mg of Gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g dry weight and 3.736 ± 0.001(ethanol) mg of quercetin equivalents (QE)/g dry weight, respectively, at conc. 0.125 mg/mL. Our finding provides evidence that all varieties of rose contain medicinally important bioactive compounds and justifies their use for treatment of different diseases.

  1. Production and Characterization of Cosmetic Nanoemulsions Containing Opuntia ficus-indica (L. Mill Extract as Moisturizing Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Cesar de Azevedo Ribeiro

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to produce and characterize an oil in water (O/W nanoemulsion containing Opuntia ficus-indica (L. Mill hydroglycolic extract, as well as evaluate its preliminary and accelerated thermal stability and moisturizing efficacy. The formulations containing 0.5% of xanthan gum (FX and 0.5% of xanthan gum and 1% of Opuntia ficus-indica Mill extract (FXE were white, homogeneous and fluid in aspect. Both formulations were stable during preliminary and accelerated stability tests. FX and FXE presented a pH compatible to skin pH (4.5–6.0; droplet size varying from 92.2 to 233.6 nm; a polydispersion index (PDI around 0.200 and a zeta potential from −26.71 to −47.01 mV. FXE was able to increase the water content of the stratum corneum for 5 h after application on the forearm. The O/W nanoemulsions containing 1% of Opuntia ficus-indica (L. Mill extract presented suitable stability for at least for 60 days. Besides, this formulation was able to increase the water content of stratum corneum, showing its moisturizing efficacy.

  2. Ameliorative Effect of Cactus (Opuntia ficus indica Extract on Lithium-Induced Nephrocardiotoxicity: A Biochemical and Histopathological Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anouar ben Saad

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Opuntia ficus indica (family Cactaceae is used in the treatment of a variety of conditions including metal-induced toxicity. The study reports the protective effects of Opuntia ficus indica (CCE against lithium carbonate-induced toxicity in rats. Nephrocardiotoxicity was induced in male Wistar rats by single dose of lithium carbonate (25 mg/kg b.w twice daily for 30 days. Aqueous extract of Opuntia ficus indica was administered at the dose of 100 mg/kg of b.w by gavage for 60 days. Obtained results revealed that administration of lithium carbonate caused a significant increase in serum creatinine, uric acid, and urea levels. Additionally, a significant decrease in the level of renal and cardiac SOD, CAT, and GPx activities was associated with a significant increase of MDA levels in lithium carbonate group more than those of the control. However, the treatment of experimental rats with CCE prevented these alterations and maintained the antioxidant status. The histopathological observations supported the biochemical evidences of nephrocardioprotection. CCE supplementation could protect against lithium carbonate-induced renal and cardiac injuries in rats, plausibly by the upregulation of antioxidant enzymes and inhibition of MDA to confer the protective effect.

  3. Ameliorative Effect of Cactus (Opuntia ficus indica) Extract on Lithium-Induced Nephrocardiotoxicity: A Biochemical and Histopathological Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, Anouar Ben; Rjeibi, Ilhem; Ncib, Sana; Zouari, Nacim; Zourgui, Lazhar

    2017-01-01

    Opuntia ficus indica (family Cactaceae) is used in the treatment of a variety of conditions including metal-induced toxicity. The study reports the protective effects of Opuntia ficus indica (CCE) against lithium carbonate-induced toxicity in rats. Nephrocardiotoxicity was induced in male Wistar rats by single dose of lithium carbonate (25 mg/kg b.w twice daily for 30 days). Aqueous extract of Opuntia ficus indica was administered at the dose of 100 mg/kg of b.w by gavage for 60 days. Obtained results revealed that administration of lithium carbonate caused a significant increase in serum creatinine, uric acid, and urea levels. Additionally, a significant decrease in the level of renal and cardiac SOD, CAT, and GPx activities was associated with a significant increase of MDA levels in lithium carbonate group more than those of the control. However, the treatment of experimental rats with CCE prevented these alterations and maintained the antioxidant status. The histopathological observations supported the biochemical evidences of nephrocardioprotection. CCE supplementation could protect against lithium carbonate-induced renal and cardiac injuries in rats, plausibly by the upregulation of antioxidant enzymes and inhibition of MDA to confer the protective effect.

  4. Production and characterization of cosmetic nanoemulsions containing Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) mill extract as moisturizing agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Renato Cesar de Azevedo; Barreto, Stella Maria de Andrade Gomes; Ostrosky, Elissa Aarantes; da Rocha-Filho, Pedro Alves; Veríssimo, Lourena Mafra; Ferrari, Márcio

    2015-02-02

    This study aimed to produce and characterize an oil in water (O/W) nanoemulsion containing Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill hydroglycolic extract, as well as evaluate its preliminary and accelerated thermal stability and moisturizing efficacy. The formulations containing 0.5% of xanthan gum (FX) and 0.5% of xanthan gum and 1% of Opuntia ficus-indica MILL extract (FXE) were white, homogeneus and fluid in aspect. Both formulations were stable during preliminary and accelerated stability tests. FX and FXE presented a pH compatible to skin pH (4.5-6.0); droplet size varying from 92.2 to 233.6 nm; a polydispersion index (PDI) around 0.200 and a zeta potential from -26.71 to -47.01 mV. FXE was able to increase the water content of the stratum corneum for 5 h after application on the forearm. The O/W nanoemulsions containing 1% of Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill extract presented suitable stability for at least for 60 days. Besides, this formulation was able to increase the water content of stratum corneum, showing its moisturizing efficacy.

  5. Richness of endophytic fungi isolated from Opuntia ficus-indica Mill. (Cactaceae) and preliminary screening for enzyme production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, J D P; Santos, M G S; Svedese, V M; Lima, D M M; Fernandes, M J S; Paiva, L M; Souza-Motta, C M

    2012-05-01

    Opuntia ficus-indica Mill. (forage cactus) is farmed with relative success in the semi-arid region of the Brazilian northeast for commercial purposes, particularly as forage and food. Endophytic microorganisms are those that can be isolated inside plant tissues and can be a new source to production of enzymes with different potentialities. The objective of this study was to describe the richness of endophytic fungi from O. ficus-indica and to detect the capacity of these species to produce extracellular hydrolytic enzymes. Forty-four endophytic fungi species were isolated. Among them, the most commonly found were Cladosporium cladosporioides (20.43%) and C. sphaerospermum (15.99%). Acremonium terricola, Monodictys castaneae, Penicillium glandicola, Phoma tropica and Tetraploa aristata are being reported for the first time as endophytic fungi for Brazil. The majority of isolated fungi exhibited enzymatic potential. Aspergillus japonicus and P. glandicola presented pectinolytic activity. Xylaria sp. was the most important among the other 14 species with positive cellulase activity. All 24 isolates analysed were xylanase-positive. Protease was best produced by isolate PF103. The results indicate that there is a significant richness of endophytic fungi in O. ficus-indica, and that these isolates indicate promising potential for deployment in biotechnological processes involving production of pectinases, cellulases, xylanases and proteases.

  6. The effect of Piriformospora indica inoculation on salt and drought stress tolerance in Stevia rebaudiana under in vitro conditions

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    Fahimeh Seraj

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effect of Piriformospora indica under salt and drought stresses on some vegetative characteristics and physiological parameters of stevia (Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni medicinal plant, an experiment was conducted in factorial arrangement based on completely randomized design with three replicates at Genetics and Agricultural Biotechnology Institute in Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University. Factors include three levels of osmatic potential (0, -5, and -10 bar and with three osmotic sources including NaCl (Na, Mannitol (M and NaCl+Mannitol (N+M and inoculation of mycorrhizae like fungi at two levels (non-inoculated and inoculation with fungi. The plantlets were treated for 30 days and then some morphological and physiological parameters were measured. Results of ANOVA showed that there was a significant interaction between osmatic source and levels with fungi inoculation for the most determined parameters. Inoculation of stevia plantlets with P. indica at osmatic level of -5 bar caused either by M or M+Na markedly improved dry weight of leaf (112 and 156%, respectively and aerial parts (49 and 144%, respectively as compared to the uninoculated control. Fungi inoculation positively improved vegetative parameters of stevia plant under most osmatic levels and sources. The most ameliorate effect, however, was observed where M as drought stress or M+Na were adjusted to -5 bar. Therefore, the results of this study represented a positive effect of P. indica inoculation in inproving osmotic tolerance of stevia medicinal plant.

  7. GABA-A Receptor Modulation and Anticonvulsant, Anxiolytic, and Antidepressant Activities of Constituents from Artemisia indica Linn

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    Imran Khan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Artemisia indica, also known as “Mugwort,” has been widely used in traditional medicines. However, few studies have investigated the effects of nonvolatile components of Artemisia indica on central nervous system’s function. Fractionation of Artemisia indica led to the isolation of carnosol, ursolic acid, and oleanolic acid which were evaluated for their effects on GABA-A receptors in electrophysiological studies in Xenopus oocytes and were subsequently investigated in mouse models of acute toxicity, convulsions (pentylenetetrazole induced seizures, depression (tail suspension and forced swim tests, and anxiety (elevated plus maze and light/dark box paradigms. Carnosol, ursolic acid, and oleanolic acid were found to be positive modulators of α1β2γ2L GABA-A receptors and the modulation was antagonized by flumazenil. Carnosol, ursolic acid, and oleanolic acid were found to be devoid of any signs of acute toxicity (50–200 mg/kg but elicited anticonvulsant, antidepressant, and anxiolytic activities. Thus carnosol, ursolic acid, and oleanolic acid demonstrated CNS activity in mouse models of anticonvulsant, antidepressant, and anxiolysis. The anxiolytic activity of all three compounds was ameliorated by flumazenil suggesting a mode of action via the benzodiazepine binding site of GABA-A receptors.

  8. Effects of Extract from Mangifera indica Leaf on Monosodium Urate Crystal-Induced Gouty Arthritis in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yan; You, Xiao-Ying; Fu, Kong-Long; Yin, Wan-Le

    2012-01-01

    The leaves of Mangifera indica L. (Anacardiaceae) is used as a medicinal material in traditional herb medicine for a long time in India, China, and other Eastern Asian countries. Our present study investigated the therapeutic effects of the ethanol extract from Mangifera indica (EMI) in rat with monosodium urate (MSU) crystals-induced gouty arthritis. Effects of EMI (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg, p.o.) administrated for 9 days on the ankle swelling, synovial tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and interleukin-1beta (IL-1β) levels were assessed in MSU crystal rat. Data from our study showed that rat with gouty arthritis induced by MSU crystal demonstrated an elevation in ankle swelling, synovial TNF-α, IL-1β mRNA, and protein levels. Oral administration of 100 and 200 mg/kg EMI for 9 days reversed the abnormalities in ankle swelling, synovial TNF-α, IL-1β mRNA, and protein levels. The results indicated that the beneficial antigouty arthritis effect of EMI may be mediated, at least in part, by inhibiting TNF-α and IL-1β expression in the synovial tissues. Our study suggests that Mangifera indica and its extract may have a considerable potential for development as an anti-gouty arthritis agent for clinical application. PMID:23304232

  9. Production of the biopesticide azadirachtin by hairy root cultivation of Azadirachta indica in liquid-phase bioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Smita; Srivastava, Ashok K

    2013-11-01

    Batch cultivation of Azadirachta indica hairy roots was carried out in different liquid-phase bioreactor configurations (stirred-tank, bubble column, bubble column with polypropylene basket, and polyurethane foam disc as root supports) to investigate possible scale-up of the A. indica hairy root culture for in vitro production of the biopesticide azadirachtin. The hairy roots failed to grow in the conventional bioreactor designs (stirred tank and bubble column). However, modified bubble column reactor (with polyurethane foam as root support) configuration facilitated high-density culture of A. indica hairy roots with a biomass production of 9.2 g l(-1)dry weight and azadirachtin yield of 3.2 mg g(-1) leading to a volumetric productivity of azadirachtin as 1.14 mg l(-1) day(-1). The antifeedant activity in the hairy roots was also evaluated by no choice feeding tests with known concentrations of the hairy root powder and its solvent extract separately on the desert locust Schistocerca gregaria. The hairy root powder and its solvent extract demonstrated a high level of antifeedant activity (with an antifeedant index of 97 % at a concentration of 2 % w/v and 83 % at a concentration of 0.05 % (w/v), respectively, in ethanol).

  10. Role of the water extract from Coccinia indica stem on the stimulation of glucose transport in L8 myotubes

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    Chaweewan Jansakul

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Hypoglycemic effect of Coccinia indica used for treatment of diabetes in traditional remedies has known to relate with increased transport of glucose into peripheral tissues. However, the cellular mechanisms for this effect remain unclear. This present study reports that the water extract (WE of C. indica stem exhibited a dose-dependent induction of 2-deoxyglucose (2-DG uptake in rat L8 myotubes. Maximal uptake was observed with approximately 3-fold increase in 2-DG transport in 16 h treatment compared with the control. Effect of WE was stronger than that of 1 mM metformin. The effects of insulin and WE were additive. WE-induced glucose uptake was significantly inhibited by cycloheximide and partially reversed by SB203580. GLUT1 protein was markedly increased in response to WE. Conversely, WE had no effect on GLUT4 protein level. Redistribution of GLUT4 to the plasma membrane was demonstrated. Triterpenoids and carbohydrates were detected in WE. In conclusion, new GLUT1 protein synthesis is necessary for WEstimulated glucose transport while p38-MAPK-dependent activation of transporter intrinsic activity partly contributes to WE action. These results may explain and support the use of C. indica for the prevention and treatment of diabetes.

  11. Jogo (indica-sus: estratégia lúdica na aprendizagem sobre o sistema único de saude

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    Maria Raquel Gomes Maia Pires

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Es cuestionable que tecnología lúdico-educativa en el aprendizaje acerca de SUS favorece la imaginación, relajación, espontaneidad y reflexión en la formación de los profesionales de la salud. Los objetivos fueram desarrollar el juego (INDICA-SUS centrado en diálogo sobre políticas de salud con los juguetones; analizar componentes de relajación, placer, aspectos formativos, emociones y tácticas del desarrollo del (INDICA-SUS; identificar las variables indicativas de lo lúdico en tecnologías educativas para la salud. Enfoque exploratorio, descriptivo, cuantitativo y cualitativo, estudio de caso. Las pruebas se realizaron con partidas testes de 180 participantes, cuestionarios, observación participante, análisis de contenido y prueba estadística de Pearson. Las variables indicativas de ludicidad de tecnologías de educación para la salud incluyen placer y tensión en el juego. El (INDICA-SUS integra carácter inventivo, imaginativo e de intercambio como potencial para la formación; contemplase aprendizaje múltiple y el enseño del SUS, a partir de él.

  12. Analysis of anti-bacterial and anti oxidative activity of Azadirachta indica bark using various solvents extracts

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    Raid Al Akeel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Herbal medications have been used for relief of symptoms of disease. Regardless of the great advances observed in current medicine in recent decades, plants still make a significant contribution to health care. An alarming increase in bacterial strains resistant to a number of antimicrobial agents demands that a renewed effort be made to seek antibacterial agents effective against pathogenic bacteria resistant to or less sensitive to current antibiotics. Anti-bacterial activity of Azadirachta indica stem bark was tested against pathogenic Salmonella paratyphi and Salmonella typhi using various solvent extracts. The in vitro anti-bacterial activity was performed by agar well diffusion method and the results were expressed as the average diameter of zone of inhibition of bacterial growth around the well. The ethanol and methanol extracts showed better anti-bacterial activity with zone of inhibition (20–25 mm when compared with other tested extracts and standard antibiotic Erythromycin (15 mcg with zone of inhibition (13–14 mm. Using Fisher’s exact test of significance difference was found between two Salmonella strains sensitivity patterns against tested extracts (P ⩽ 0.035. Extracts of A. indica stem bark also exhibited significant antioxidant activity, thus establishing the extracts as an antioxidant. The results obtained in this study give some scientific support to the A. indica stem bark for further investigation of compounds and in future could be used as drug.

  13. Ameliorative Effect of Cactus (Opuntia ficus indica) Extract on Lithium-Induced Nephrocardiotoxicity: A Biochemical and Histopathological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ncib, Sana

    2017-01-01

    Opuntia ficus indica (family Cactaceae) is used in the treatment of a variety of conditions including metal-induced toxicity. The study reports the protective effects of Opuntia ficus indica (CCE) against lithium carbonate-induced toxicity in rats. Nephrocardiotoxicity was induced in male Wistar rats by single dose of lithium carbonate (25 mg/kg b.w twice daily for 30 days). Aqueous extract of Opuntia ficus indica was administered at the dose of 100 mg/kg of b.w by gavage for 60 days. Obtained results revealed that administration of lithium carbonate caused a significant increase in serum creatinine, uric acid, and urea levels. Additionally, a significant decrease in the level of renal and cardiac SOD, CAT, and GPx activities was associated with a significant increase of MDA levels in lithium carbonate group more than those of the control. However, the treatment of experimental rats with CCE prevented these alterations and maintained the antioxidant status. The histopathological observations supported the biochemical evidences of nephrocardioprotection. CCE supplementation could protect against lithium carbonate-induced renal and cardiac injuries in rats, plausibly by the upregulation of antioxidant enzymes and inhibition of MDA to confer the protective effect. PMID:29376078

  14. Effect of hyaluronic acid and polysaccharides from Opuntia ficus indica (L.) cladodes on the metabolism of human chondrocyte cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panico, A M; Cardile, V; Garufi, F; Puglia, C; Bonina, F; Ronsisvalle, S

    2007-05-04

    Conventional medications in articular disease are often effective for symptom relief, but they can also cause significant side effects and do not slow the progression of the disease. Several natural substances have been shown to be effective as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs at relieving the symptoms of osteoarthritis (OA), and preliminary evidence suggests that some of these compounds may exert a favourable influence on the course of the disease. In this study, we assay the anti-inflammatory/chondroprotective effect of some lyophilised extracts obtained from Opuntia ficus indica (L.) cladodes and of hyaluronic acid (HA) on the production of key molecules released during chronic inflammatory events such as nitric oxide (NO), glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), prostaglandins (PGE(2)) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in human chondrocyte culture, stimulated with proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta). Further the antioxidant effect of these extracts was evaluated in vitro employing the bleaching of the stable 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH test). All the extracts tested in this study showed an interesting profile in active compounds. Particularly some of these extracts were characterized by polyphenolic and polysaccharidic species. In vitro results pointed out that the extracts of Opuntia ficus indica cladodes were able to contrast the harmful effects of IL-1 beta. Our data showed the protective effect of the extracts of Opuntia ficus indica cladodes in cartilage alteration, which appears greater than that elicited by hyaluronic acid (HA) commonly employed as visco-supplementation in the treatment of joint diseases.

  15. Intoxicação em suínos pela ingestão de sementes de Aeschynomene indica (Leg.Papilionoideae Poisoning in swine from the ingestion of Aeschynomene indica (Leg.Papilionoideae seeds

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    Fabiano N. Oliveira

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Relata-se um surto espontâneo de intoxicação em suínos pela ingestão de sementes de Aeschynomene indica e a reprodução da doença nessa espécie animal. O surto espontâneo ocorreu numa propriedade de criação de suínos localizada na região central do Rio Grande do Sul. Nessa propriedade havia 100 suínos (20 matrizes e 80 suínos jovens de várias categorias. Os suínos eram alimentados com uma ração feita na propriedade pela mistura de 50% farelo de milho, 25% de farelo de soja, 5% de um suplemento vitamínico-mineral de origem comercial e 20% quirera de arroz contaminada por 40% de sementes de A. indica. Embora aparentemente todos os suínos tenham recebido a mesma ração, apenas os suínos de 45 dias de idade foram afetados; as taxas de morbidade, mortalidade e letalidade foram respectivamente 25%-40%, 8,5%-20% e 25%-66%. Os sinais clínicos apareceram cerca de 24 horas após o início da administração da ração contendo sementes de A. indica e incluíam vários graus de incoordenação no andar, quedas, decúbito esternal com membros pélvicos posicionados afastados entre si, decúbito lateral e morte. Não foi possível determinar quantos suínos se recuperaram e quanto tempo levou a recuperação. Um suíno foi submetido à eutanásia e necropsiado na propriedade. A doença foi reproduzida em 5 suínos jovens (A-E alimentados com uma ração contendo 10% (Suíno A, 15% (Suíno B e 20% (Suínos C-E de sementes de A. indica e em um suíno mais velho (Suíno F que recebeu uma ração com 16,5% de sementes de A. indica. Os sinais clínicos foram semelhantes aos observados nos suínos do surto espontâneo. Os Suínos A, B e F foram submetidos à eutanásia e os Suínos C-E morreram de uma doença aguda respectivamente 16, 21 e 24 horas após o início do experimento. Os achados de necropsia incluíam acentuada hiperemia das leptomeninges em todos os suínos, grandes quantidades de sementes de A. indica no estômago e

  16. Analgesic and cytotoxic activity of Acorus calamus L., Kigelia pinnata L., Mangifera indica L. and Tabernaemontana divaricata L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mohammad Ahad Ali; Islam, Mohammad Torequl

    2012-04-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate analgesic and cytotoxic activity of Acorus calamus L., Kigelia pinnata L., Mangifera indica L., Tabernaemontana divaricata L. extracts by using acetic acid-induced writhing method in mice and brine shrimp lethality assay. The ethanolic extracts of the plants were obtained by simple maceration method and were subjected to standardization by using pharmacognostical and phytochemical screening methods, which were followed by acetic acid writhing and brine shrimp lethality test methods. Dose selection was made on the basis of acute oral toxicity study (10-1000 mg/kg body weight). In analgesic test, M. indica L. extract produced 28.16% and 22.02% writhing protection at the doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight in mice, respectively. While the T. divaricata L. extract produced 22.02% and 33.93%, K. pinnata L. extract produced 11.55% and 47.29% and A. calamus L. extract produced 15.16% and 54.51% of writhing protection at the same doses. The percent mortality (mean ± SD) was found to be 58.7 ± 25.22, 56.25 ± 22.88, 52.50 ± 24.37, and 61.25 ± 26.66 with M. indica L., T. divaricata L., K. pinnata L., and A. calamus L., respectively. And the LC(50) and LC(90) values were found to be 100 and 300 μg/mL for M. indica L. and that were (200 and 350 μg/mL), (100 and 350 μg/mL) and (50 and 300 μg/mL) for T. divaricata L., K. pinnata L., and A. calamus L., respectively. Thus it can be concluded that bark of M. indica L., leaves of T. divaricata L., bark of K. pinnata L., and roots of A. calamus L. have significant analgesic and cytotoxic activity and can be preferred in the treatment of pain and tumor.

  17. Analgesic and cytotoxic activity of Acorus calamus L., Kigelia pinnata L., Mangifera indica L. and Tabernaemontana divaricata L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ahad Ali Khan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of the study was to evaluate analgesic and cytotoxic activity of Acorus calamus L., Kigelia pinnata L., Mangifera indica L., Tabernaemontana divaricata L. extracts by using acetic acid-induced writhing method in mice and brine shrimp lethality assay. Materials and Methods: The ethanolic extracts of the plants were obtained by simple maceration method and were subjected to standardization by using pharmacognostical and phytochemical screening methods, which were followed by acetic acid writhing and brine shrimp lethality test methods. Dose selection was made on the basis of acute oral toxicity study (10-1000 mg/kg body weight. Results and Conclusion: In analgesic test, M. indica L. extract produced 28.16% and 22.02% writhing protection at the doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight in mice, respectively. While the T. divaricata L. extract produced 22.02% and 33.93%, K. pinnata L. extract produced 11.55% and 47.29% and A. calamus L. extract produced 15.16% and 54.51% of writhing protection at the same doses. The percent mortality (mean ± SD was found to be 58.7 ± 25.22, 56.25 ± 22.88, 52.50 ± 24.37, and 61.25 ± 26.66 with M. indica L., T. divaricata L., K. pinnata L., and A. calamus L., respectively. And the LC 50 and LC 90 values were found to be 100 and 300 μg/mL for M. indica L. and that were (200 and 350 μg/mL, (100 and 350 μg/mL and (50 and 300 μg/mL for T. divaricata L., K. pinnata L., and A. calamus L., respectively. Thus it can be concluded that bark of M. indica L., leaves of T. divaricata L., bark of K. pinnata L., and roots of A. calamus L. have significant analgesic and cytotoxic activity and can be preferred in the treatment of pain and tumor.

  18. Characterization and pathogenicity of Fusarium species associated with leaf spot of mango (Mangifera indica L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Nurul Husna; Mohd, Masratulhawa; Mohamed Nor, Nik Mohd Izham; Zakaria, Latiffah

    2018-01-01

    Leaf spot diseases are mainly caused by fungi including Fusarium. In the present study several species of Fusarium were isolated from the leaf spot lesion of mango (Mangifera indica L.) Based on morphological characteristics, TEF-1α sequences and phylogenetic analysis, five species were identified as F. proliferatum, F. semitectum, F. mangiferae, F. solani and F. chlamydosporum. Pathogenicity test indicated that representative isolates of F. proliferatum, F. semitectum and F. chlamydosporum were pathogenic on mango leaves causing leaf spot with low to moderate virulence. Nevertheless, abundance of spots on the leaf can disrupt photosynthesis which in turn reduced growth, and lead to susceptibility to infection by opportunistic pathogens due to weakening of the plant. Fusarium solani and F. mangiferae were non-pathogenic and it is possible that both species are saprophyte which associated with nutrient availability on the surface of the leaf through decaying leave tissues. The occurrence of Fusarium spp. on the leaf spot lesion and the effect from the disease needs to be considered when developing disease management method of mango cultivation as numerous spot on the leaves could effect the photosynthesis process and finally giving low yield and less quality of mango. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Iodine application increased ascorbic acid content and modified the vascular tissue in opuntia ficus-indica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osuna, H.T.G.; Morales, R.; Rubio, E.M.; Mendoza, A.B.; Ruvalcaba, R.M

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to discern the effect of applying both iodide and iodate to Opuntia ficus indica irrigation. The effect of iodate (KIO/sub 3/, 10-4 M) and iodide (KI, 10-4 M) on plant growth, yield and morphology was studied. Experiments were carried in three samples under tunnel conditions. In the last sampling, iodine species (KIO/sub 3/, KI) caused a negative effect in biomass. The amount of ascorbic acid, however, was increased over 51% in both iodine treatments. Phosphorus (0.26%), iron (50 ppm), and magnesium (1402 ppm) increases were also observed with iodate treatment in the first sampling, and increases in potassium (46.8 ppm) were apparent in the second. Iodide treatment increased the amounts of copper (1.02 ppm) and manganese (32.80 ppm) in the first sampling. Iodate treatment modified the number of xylem vessels and increased both the mucilage area and amount of druses. In general this study shows that iodate increases the amount of ascorbic acid and the morphology of the vascular tissue. (author)

  20. Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using aqueous extract of Dillenia indica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sett, Arghya; Gadewar, Manoj; Sharma, Pragya; Deka, Manab; Bora, Utpal

    2016-06-01

    In this study, we report a novel method of gold nanoparticle (AuNP) synthesis using aqueous fruit extract of Dillenia indica. The phytochemicals present in the fruit extract act as an effective reducing and capping agent to synthesize AuNPs. The synthesized AuNPs were characterized by spectrophotometry, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), x-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. TEM studies revealed the particles of various sizes and mainly spherical in shape. Selected-area electron diffraction (SAED) patterns and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) images confirmed the crystallinity of the particles. The XRD patterns showed peaks at (111), (200), (220) which exhibited preferential orientation of the AuNPs as face-centered cubic crystal. FTIR measurements confirmed the coating of phenolic compounds on the AuNPs indicating a possible role of biomolecules for the capping and efficient stabilization of the AuNPs. The synthesized AuNPs did not show any form of cytotoxicity in the normal fibroblast cell line L929.

  1. Antioxidant and toxicological evaluation of a Tamarindus indica L. leaf fluid extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escalona-Arranz, J C; Perez-Rosés, R; Rodríguez-Amado, J; Morris-Quevedo, H J; Mwasi, L B; Cabrera-Sotomayor, O; Machado-García, R; Fong-Lórez, O; Alfonso-Castillo, A; Puente-Zapata, E

    2016-01-01

    In the scientific community, there is a growing interest in Tamarindus indica L. leaves, both as a valuable nutrient and as a functional food. This paper focuses on exploring its safety and antioxidant properties. A tamarind leaf fluid extract (TFE) wholly characterised was evaluated for its anti-DPPH activity (IC50 = 44.36 μg/mL) and its reducing power activity (IC50 = 60.87 μg/mL). TFE also exhibited a high ferrous ion-chelating capacity, with an estimated binding constant of 1.085 mol L(-1) while its influence over nitric oxide production in human leucocytes was irregular. At low concentrations, TFE stimulated NO output, but it significantly inhibited it when there was an increase in concentration. TFE was also classified as a non-toxic substance in two toxicity tests: the acute oral toxicity test and the oral mucous irritability test. Further toxicological assays are needed, although results so far suggest that TFE might become a functional dietary supplement.

  2. Procontarinia mangiferae (Felt (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae new pest of mango (Mangifera indica L. in Cuba

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    Jorge Luís Rodríguez Tapia

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The diptera grouped in the family Cecidomyiidae, are considered important pests in the crop of mango (Mangifera indica L.. In the period of 2013-15, prospections were carried out in patios and plantations of several localities of Cuba (Havana, Artemisa, Mayabeque, Ciego de Ávila and Santiago de Cuba, during the stages of vegetative and floral sprouting, to evaluate the presence of insects. Thirteen samplings were made and 25 young leaves and 10 floral shoots were collected per sample, for a total of 325 young leaves and 130 floral shoots in which the number of galls, larvae, pupae and adults of an agallero insect was determined. A total of 2 423 galls were found in young leaves, which represented an average of 7.5 guts per leaf. A total of 207 larvae, 60 pupae and 40 adults were counted among diptera males and females. The morphological characters of the collected insects allowed identifying Procontarinia mangiferae (Felt, belonging to the family Cecidomyiidae, as the cause of the galls in the young leaves and floral shoots in the mango areas sampled.

  3. Extraction and characterization of three polysaccharides extracted from Opuntia ficus indica cladodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayar, Nadia; Kriaa, Mouna; Kammoun, Radhouane

    2016-11-01

    The chemical extraction and the characterization of polysaccharides from mucilage (MC), pectin (PC) and total pectic mucilage fraction (TFC) of Opuntia ficus indica cladodes as well as the evaluation of their antioxidant activities was investigated. The FTIR spectroscopic analysis revealed the presence of carboxyl and hydroxyl groups corresponding to polysaccharides. Uronic acid and the total sugar contents of PC were higher than those of TFC and MC whereas ash content of MC was considerably more important. In addition, the findings showed that all the samples had little protein content and low average molecular weight compared to the results mentioned in literature. Furthermore, MC reached not only the highest water (WHC) and oil holding (OHC) capacities (7.81g/g and 1.34g/g, respectively) but also the highest antioxidant properties (DPPH and ABTS scavenging activities, β-carotene bleaching inhibition activity and reducing power). However, PC had the strongest emulsifying and foaming properties. As for TFC, it had low WHC, OHC and emulsifying properties whereas it had higher foaming properties than MC and greater antioxidant properties compared to PC. These outcomes can encourage the use of PC as a surfactant and MC and TFC as natural antioxidants in food and pharmaceutical industries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Topical Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Isorhamnetin Glycosides Isolated from Opuntia ficus-indica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilena Antunes-Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Opuntia ficus-indica (OFI has been widely used in Mexico as a food and for the treatment of different health disorders such as inflammation and skin aging. Its biological properties have been attributed to different phytochemicals such as the isorhamnetin glycosides which are the most abundant flavonoids. Moreover, these compounds are considered a chemotaxonomic characteristic of OFI species. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of OFI extract and its isorhamnetin glycosides on different inflammatory markers in vitro and in vivo. OFI extract was obtained by alkaline hydrolysis of OFI cladodes powder and pure compounds were obtained by preparative chromatography. Nitric oxide (NO, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2, tumor necrosis factor- (TNF- α, and interleukin- (IL- 6 production were measured. NO production was tested in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells while in vivo studies were carried on croton oil-induced ear edema model. OFI extract and diglycoside isorhamnetin-glucosyl-rhamnoside (IGR at 125 ng/mL suppressed the NO production in vitro (73.5 ± 4.8% and 68.7±5.0%, resp. without affecting cell viability. Likewise, IGR inhibited the ear edema (77.4±5.7% equating the indomethacin effects (69.5±5.3%. Both IGR and OFI extract significantly inhibited the COX-2, TNF-α, and IL-6 production. IGR seems to be a suitable natural compound for development of new anti-inflammatory ingredient.

  5. Impact of cooking process on nutritional composition and antioxidants of cactus cladodes (Opuntia ficus-indica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Santiago, Elsy; Domínguez-Fernández, Maite; Cid, Concepción; De Peña, María-Paz

    2018-02-01

    The impact of cooking methods (boiling, microwaving, griddling and frying in olive and soybean oils) on nutritional composition (protein, minerals, fat, carbohydrates, fibre, fatty acid profile and energy), antioxidant capacity and (poly)phenolic compounds of cactus cladodes (Opuntia ficus-indica) was evaluated. Culinary processes, except boiling, increased soluble and insoluble fibre up to 5.0g/100g becoming a good fibre source. Cactus cladodes fried in olive oil showed a healthier fatty acid profile and lower ω-6/ω-3 ratio than in soybean oil. Flavonoids accounted for 80% of total (poly)phenolic compounds, being isorhamnetin the most abundant. Heat treatment, particularly griddling and microwaving, increased every flavonoid and phenolic acid up to 3.2-fold higher than in raw samples, and consequently their antioxidant capacity. Even boiling induced losses in total (poly)phenols and antioxidant capacity by leaching into water, the main compounds were maintained. Principal Component Analysis distributed heat treated cactus cladodes according to their distinctive polyphenols and antioxidant capacity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Topical anti-inflammatory effects of isorhamnetin glycosides isolated from Opuntia ficus-indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes-Ricardo, Marilena; Gutiérrez-Uribe, Janet A; Martínez-Vitela, Carlos; Serna-Saldívar, Sergio O

    2015-01-01

    Opuntia ficus-indica (OFI) has been widely used in Mexico as a food and for the treatment of different health disorders such as inflammation and skin aging. Its biological properties have been attributed to different phytochemicals such as the isorhamnetin glycosides which are the most abundant flavonoids. Moreover, these compounds are considered a chemotaxonomic characteristic of OFI species. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of OFI extract and its isorhamnetin glycosides on different inflammatory markers in vitro and in vivo. OFI extract was obtained by alkaline hydrolysis of OFI cladodes powder and pure compounds were obtained by preparative chromatography. Nitric oxide (NO), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-) α, and interleukin- (IL-) 6 production were measured. NO production was tested in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells while in vivo studies were carried on croton oil-induced ear edema model. OFI extract and diglycoside isorhamnetin-glucosyl-rhamnoside (IGR) at 125 ng/mL suppressed the NO production in vitro (73.5 ± 4.8% and 68.7 ± 5.0%, resp.) without affecting cell viability. Likewise, IGR inhibited the ear edema (77.4 ± 5.7%) equating the indomethacin effects (69.5 ± 5.3%). Both IGR and OFI extract significantly inhibited the COX-2, TNF-α, and IL-6 production. IGR seems to be a suitable natural compound for development of new anti-inflammatory ingredient.

  7. Depolymerization of polysaccharides from Opuntia ficus indica: Antioxidant and antiglycated activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaouch, Mohamed Aymen; Hafsa, Jawhar; Rihouey, Christophe; Le Cerf, Didier; Majdoub, Hatem

    2015-08-01

    The extraction, purification and degradation of polysaccharides from Opuntia ficus indica cladodes, as well as the evaluation of their antioxidant and antiglycated activities in vitro were investigated. The optimization of the extraction showed that extraction by ultrasound at 40 °C presented the best carbohydrates yield. The degradation of the extracted polysaccharides was achieved by free radical depolymerization with H2O2 in the presence of copper(II) acetate for various reaction times. Sugar contents were determined by colorimetric assays. The macromolecular characteristics of the different isolated and degraded carbohydrates were carried by size exclusion chromatography (SEC/MALS/VD/DRI). These experiments showed that all samples are polysaccharides, which are probably pectins and that molecular weight (Mw) has decreased from 6,800,000 to 14,000 g/mol after 3 h of depolymerization without changing the structure. Preliminary antioxidant and antiglycated tests indicated that degraded polysaccharides for 2 and 3 h showed even better antioxidant and antiglycated activities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Hypocholesterolemic Effect and In Vitro Pancreatic Lipase Inhibitory Activity of an Opuntia ficus-indica Extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla-Camberos, Eduardo; Flores-Fernandez, Jose Miguel; Fernandez-Flores, Ofelia; Gutierrez-Mercado, Yanet; Carmona-de la Luz, Joel; Sandoval-Salas, Fabiola; Mendez-Carreto, Carlos; Allen, Kirk

    2015-01-01

    Cholesterol control is fundamental for prevention of cardiovascular disorders. In this work, the hypocholesterolemic activity of an aqueous Opuntia ficus-indica extract (AOE) was tested in triton-induced mice. The inhibitory activity on pancreatic lipase enzyme was evaluated in vitro by the same extract. Furthermore, polyphenol content of the extract was evaluated. Hypercholesterolemia was induced in three groups of mice by intraperitoneal administration of Triton WR-1339. After induction of hypercholesterolemia, the groups were treated with an AOE (500 mg/kg) and saline solution and the positive control group with orlistat, respectively. Cholesterol levels were measured 24 h later in peripheral blood. The levels of blood cholesterol after administration of AOE significantly decreased compared to negative control. The inhibitory activity of AOE on pancreatic lipase enzyme was evaluated at concentrations from 60 to 1000 μg/mL. The AOE inhibited the pancreatic lipase with an IC50 = 588.5 μg/mL. The AOE had a high content of polyphenolic compounds. These results show that AOE is able to prevent hypercholesterolemia by pancreatic lipase inhibition, in part due to its polyphenolic compounds.

  9. Physicochemical properties and storage stability of margarine containing Opuntia ficus-indica peel extract as antioxidant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chougui, Nadia; Djerroud, Naima; Naraoui, Fatima; Hadjal, Samir; Aliane, Khellaf; Zeroual, Brahim; Larbat, Romain

    2015-04-15

    This study falls within the framework of the industrial exploitation of by-products of the prickly pear (Opuntia ficus-indica). The study aims to evaluate the use of hydro-ethanolic extract of prickly pear peels as a substitute of vitamin E used as antioxidant in margarine preservation. The extract was rich in total phenolics (1512.58 mg GAE/100 g DM). HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS(n) analyses allowed the identification of sixteen compounds belonging to hydroxybenzoic acids, hydroxycinnamic acids and flavonoids. The extract displayed a reducing power and an antiradical activity that were respectively similar to and lower than the two antioxidant standards quercetin and butylated hydroxyanisole. Tests conducted at laboratory and pilot scales showed that the margarines elaborated with peel extract were more resistant to oxidation than the margarine reference with vitamin E. In addition, neither the physicochemical nor the microbiological properties were modified. Prickly pear peels contain bioactive substances that could be used in different food sectors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Optimization of enzymatic extraction of pectin from Opuntia ficus indica cladodes after mucilage removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayar, Nadia; Friji, Marwa; Kammoun, Radhouane

    2018-02-15

    In this study, pectin was isolated from Opuntia ficus indica (OFI) cladodes after removing mucilage using the xylanase and cellulase. The process variables were optimized by the Box Behnken design with three factors at three levels. The optimal extraction condition obtained was: liquid to solid (LS), cellulase to xylanase and enzymes to matter ratios of 22ml/g, 2:1U/U and 4U/g, respectively. The simulated extraction yield of 17.91% was validated by the experimental result (16.67±0.30). The enzyme-extracted pectin from OFI cladodes (EAEPC) was low methylated, with a high uronic acid content, a water and oil holding capacity of 5.42g/g and 1.23g/g, respectively, a good foam and emulsion stability and important DPPH radical scavenging activity. Both the OFI cladodes and enzymatic process present promising alternatives to traditional sources and extraction processes of pectin, respectively. EAEPC thus represents a promising additive in food industries. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Hypocholesterolemic Effect and In Vitro Pancreatic Lipase Inhibitory Activity of an Opuntia ficus-indica Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Padilla-Camberos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cholesterol control is fundamental for prevention of cardiovascular disorders. In this work, the hypocholesterolemic activity of an aqueous Opuntia ficus-indica extract (AOE was tested in triton-induced mice. The inhibitory activity on pancreatic lipase enzyme was evaluated in vitro by the same extract. Furthermore, polyphenol content of the extract was evaluated. Hypercholesterolemia was induced in three groups of mice by intraperitoneal administration of Triton WR-1339. After induction of hypercholesterolemia, the groups were treated with an AOE (500 mg/kg and saline solution and the positive control group with orlistat, respectively. Cholesterol levels were measured 24 h later in peripheral blood. The levels of blood cholesterol after administration of AOE significantly decreased compared to negative control. The inhibitory activity of AOE on pancreatic lipase enzyme was evaluated at concentrations from 60 to 1000 μg/mL. The AOE inhibited the pancreatic lipase with an IC50 = 588.5 μg/mL. The AOE had a high content of polyphenolic compounds. These results show that AOE is able to prevent hypercholesterolemia by pancreatic lipase inhibition, in part due to its polyphenolic compounds.

  12. Potential of Opuntia ficus-indica for air pollution biomonitoring: a lead isotopic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Hayek, Eliane; El Samrani, Antoine; Lartiges, Bruno; Kazpard, Veronique; Benoit, Mathieu; Munoz, Marguerite

    2015-11-01

    Opuntia ficus-indica (Ofi) is a long-domesticated cactus that is widespread throughout arid and semiarid regions. Ofi is grown for both its fruits and edible cladodes, which are flattened photosynthetic stems. Young cladodes develop from mother cladodes, thus forming series of cladodes of different ages. Therefore, successive cladodes may hold some potential for biomonitoring over several years the local atmospheric pollution. In this study, cladodes, roots, dust deposited onto the cladodes, and soil samples were collected in the vicinity of three heavily polluted sites, i.e., a fertilizer industry, the road side of a highway, and mine tailings. The lead content was analyzed using atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX) was used to characterize the cladode surfaces and the nature of dust deposit, and the lead isotopes were analyzed to identify the origin of Pb. The results show that (i) Ofi readily bioaccumulates Pb, (ii) the lead isotopic composition of cladodes evidences a foliar pathway of lead into Ofi and identifies the relative contributions of local Pb sources, and (iii) an evolution of air quality is recorded with successive cladodes, which makes Ofi a potential biomonitor to be used in environmental and health studies.

  13. Pectin from Opuntia ficus indica: Optimization of microwave-assisted extraction and preliminary characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefsih, Khalef; Giacomazza, Daniela; Dahmoune, Farid; Mangione, Maria Rosalia; Bulone, Donatella; San Biagio, Pier Luigi; Passantino, Rosa; Costa, Maria Assunta; Guarrasi, Valeria; Madani, Khodir

    2017-04-15

    Optimization of microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) of water-soluble pectin (WSP) from Opuntia ficus indica cladodes was performed using Response Surface Methodology. The effect of extraction time (X 1 ), microwave power (X 2 ), pH (X 3 ) and solid-to-liquid ratio (X 4 ) on the extraction yield was examined. The optimum conditions of MAE were as follows: X 1 =2.15min; X 2 =517W; X 3 =2.26 and X 4 =2g/30.6mL. The maximum obtained yield of pectin extraction was 12.57%. Total carbohydrate content of WSP is about 95.5% including 34.4% of Galacturonic acid. Pectin-related proteins represent only the 0.66% of WSP mass. HPSEC and light scattering analyses reveal that WSP is mostly constituted of high molecular pectin and FTIR measurements show that the microwave treatment does not alter the chemical structure of WSP, in which Galacturonic acid content and yield are 34.4% and 4.33%, respectively. Overall, application of MAE can give rise to high quality pectin. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of ultrasound treatment in purple cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafra-Rojas, Quinatzin Yadira; Cruz-Cansino, Nelly; Ramírez-Moreno, Esther; Delgado-Olivares, Luis; Villanueva-Sánchez, Javier; Alanís-García, Ernesto

    2013-09-01

    Cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) fruit is a berry with a tasty pulp full of seeds that constitutes about 10-15% of the edible pulp. In Mexico, cactus pear is mainly consumed fresh, but also has the potential to be processed in other products such as juice. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different ultrasound conditions at amplitude levels ranging (40% and 60% for 10, 15, 25 min; 80% for 3, 5, 8, 10, 15 and 25 min) on the characteristics of purple cactus pear juice. The evaluated parameters were related with the quality (stability, °Brix, pH), microbial growth, total phenolic compounds, ascorbic acid and antioxidant activity (ABTS, DPPH and % chelating activity) of purple cactus pear juices. The ultrasound treatment for time period of 15 and 25 min significantly reduced the microbial count in 15 and 25 min, without affecting the juice quality and its antioxidant properties. Juice treated at 80% of amplitude level showed an increased of antioxidant compounds. Our results demonstrated that sonication is a suitable technique for cactus pear processing. This technology allows the achievement of juice safety and quality standards without compromising the retention of antioxidant compounds. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Extraction, characterization and gelling behavior enhancement of pectins from the cladodes of Opuntia ficus indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefsih, Khalef; Delattre, Cédric; Pierre, Guillaume; Michaud, Philippe; Aminabhavi, Tejraj M; Dahmoune, Farid; Madani, Khodir

    2016-01-01

    Total Pectins Fraction (TPF) was extracted at room temperature from dried cladodes of Opuntia ficus indica. TPF is constituted of three pectic fractions WSP, CSP and ASP, which are made up of 66.6%, 44.3% and 81.1% (w/w) of galacturonic acid, respectively. The antioxidant ability of TPF increased with the concentration increasing. It scavenged hydroxyl radical by 90% and chelated 90% of ferrous ions at 5 g/L. FTIR study was carried out. Strong characteristic absorption peaks at 1,618 cm(-1) assigned to the vibration of COO(-) group of galacturonic acid. In the fingerprint region, we noticed three well-defined peaks at 1054, 1085, and 1,154 cm(-1) characteristic of pectic polysaccharides. TPF are non-gelling pectins. The co-crosslinking of TPF with carrageenan was carried out and the gelling behavior was successfully improved. Thermo-sensitive hydrogel was obtained with 82% of TPF and 18% of carrageenan (w/w). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Intestinal Permeability and Cellular Antioxidant Activity of Phenolic Compounds from Mango (Mangifera indica cv. Ataulfo Peels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Pacheco-Ordaz

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Mango (Mangifera indica cv. Ataulfo peel contains bound phenolics that may be released by alkaline or acid hydrolysis and may be converted into less complex molecules. Free phenolics from mango cv. Ataulfo peel were obtained using a methanolic extraction, and their cellular antioxidant activity (CAA and permeability were compared to those obtained for bound phenolics released by alkaline or acid hydrolysis. Gallic acid was found as a simple phenolic acid after alkaline hydrolysis along with mangiferin isomers and quercetin as aglycone and glycosides. Only gallic acid, ethyl gallate, mangiferin, and quercetin were identified in the acid fraction. The acid and alkaline fractions showed the highest CAA (60.5% and 51.5% when tested at 125 µg/mL. The value of the apparent permeability coefficient (Papp across the Caco-2/HT-29 monolayer of gallic acid from the alkaline fraction was higher (2.61 × 10−6 cm/s than in the other fractions and similar to that obtained when tested pure (2.48 × 10−6 cm/s. In conclusion, mango peels contain bound phenolic compounds that, after their release, have permeability similar to pure compounds and exert an important CAA. This finding can be applied in the development of nutraceuticals using this important by-product from the mango processing industry.

  17. Process variables in biomimetic synthesis of silver nanoparticles by aqueous extract of Azadirachta indica (Neem) leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tripathy, A. [VIT University, School of Biotechnology, Chemical and Biomedical Engineering (India); Raichur, Ashok M. [Indian Institute of Science, Department of Materials Engineering (India); Chandrasekaran, N.; Prathna, T. C.; Mukherjee, Amitava, E-mail: amit.mookerjea@gmail.co [VIT University, School of Biotechnology, Chemical and Biomedical Engineering (India)

    2010-01-15

    Owing to widespread applications, synthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticles is recently attracting considerable attention. Increasing environmental concerns over chemical synthesis routes have resulted in attempts to develop biomimetic approaches. One of them is synthesis using plant parts, which eliminates the elaborate process of maintaining the microbial culture and often found to be kinetically favourable than other bioprocesses. The present study deals with investigating the effect of process variables like reductant concentrations, reaction pH, mixing ratio of the reactants and interaction time on the morphology and size of silver nanoparticles synthesized using aqueous extract of Azadirachta indica (Neem) leaves. The formation of crystalline silver nanoparticles was confirmed using X-ray diffraction analysis. By means of UV spectroscopy, Scanning and Transmission Electron Microscopy techniques, it was observed that the morphology and size of the nanoparticles were strongly dependent on the process parameters. Within 4 h interaction period, nanoparticles below 20-nm-size with nearly spherical shape were produced. On increasing interaction time (ageing) to 66 days, both aggregation and shape anisotropy (ellipsoidal, polyhedral and capsular) of the particles increased. In alkaline pH range, the stability of cluster distribution increased with a declined tendency for aggregation of the particles. It can be inferred from the study that fine tuning the bioprocess parameters will enhance possibilities of desired nano-product tailor made for particular applications.

  18. Azadirachta indica leaf powder as a biosorbent for Ni(II) in aqueous medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharyya, Krishna G., E-mail: krishna2604@sify.com [Department of Chemistry, Gauhati University, Guwahati 781014, Assam (India); Sarma, Jyotirekha [Department of Chemistry, Gauhati University, Guwahati 781014, Assam (India); Sarma, Arunima [Department of Chemistry, Morigaon College, Morigaon 782105, Assam (India)

    2009-06-15

    Azadirachta indica leaves are converted to a fine powder for use as a biosorbent for the removal of metal ions in aqueous solution. In this work, the adsorptive interactions between Ni(II) and the powder were studied under a variety of conditions involving variations in pH, Ni(II) concentration, biosorbent amount, interaction time and temperature, all in single batch processes. The experimental data have been interpreted on the basis of existing mathematical models of equilibrium kinetics and thermodynamics. The biosorption of Ni(II) increased in the pH range of 2.0-5.0 with {approx}92.6% adsorption at pH 5.0 for the highest amount of the biosorbent (4 g/L). The biosorption followed second-order kinetics and intra-particle diffusion was likely to have significant influence in controlling the process. The Langmuir monolayer adsorption capacity varied from 2.4 to 9.1 mg/g and the equilibrium coefficient from 1.09 to 2.78 L/g with strong indication that the Ni(II) ions were held on the biosorbent surface by formation of an adsorption complex. The thermodynamic parameters showed the process to be exothermic in nature supported by appropriate ranges of values of enthalpy change, entropy change and Gibbs energy change.

  19. Progress on Azadirachta indica Based Biopesticides in Replacing Synthetic Toxic Pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Suman; Kanwar, Rupinder K; Sehgal, Alka; Cahill, David M; Barrow, Colin J; Sehgal, Rakesh; Kanwar, Jagat R

    2017-01-01

    Over the years, extensive use of commercially available synthetic pesticides against phytophagous insects has led to their bioaccumulation in the environment causing increased resistance and reduction in soil biodiversity. Further, 90% of the applied pesticides enter the various environmental resources as a result of run-off, exposing the farmers as well as consumers of the agricultural produce to severe health issues. Therefore, growing attention has been given toward the development of alternate environmentally friendly pesticides/insecticides that would aid an efficient pest management system and also prevent chronic exposures leading to diseases. One such strategy is, the use of neem plant's (Binomial name: Azadirachta indica ) active ingredients which exhibit agro-medicinal properties conferring insecticidal as well as immunomodulatory and anti-cancer properties. The most prominent constituent of neem is azadirachtin, which has been established as a pivotal insecticidal ingredient. It acts as an antifeedant, repellent, and repugnant agent and induces sterility in insects by preventing oviposition and interrupting sperm production in males. This review discusses, key neem pesticidal components, their active functional ingredients along with recent strategies on employing nanocarriers, to provide controlled release of the active ingredients and to improve their stability and sustainability.

  20. Physiologic and Metabolic Benefits of Formulated Diets and Mangifera indica in Fluoride Toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karn, Sanjay S; Narasimhacharya, A V R L

    2015-06-01

    Fluorosis is a major health problem affecting normal physiological and metabolic functions in people living in endemic fluoride areas. The present work was aimed at investigating the role of basal, high carbohydrate low protein (HCLP) and high protein low carbohydrate (HPLC) diets and Mangifera indica fruit powder as a food supplement in fluoride-induced metabolic toxicity. Exposure to fluoride resulted in elevation of plasma glucose levels, ACP, ALP, SGPT, SGOT, and hepatic G-6-Pase activities, plasma and hepatic lipid profiles with decreased plasma protein, HDL-C, hepatic glycogen content and hexokinase activity in basal, HCLP and HPLC diet fed albino rats. However among the three diets tested, HPLC diet was found to be relatively, a better metabolic regulator. All the three formulated diets (basal, HCLP and HPLC) supplemented with mango fruit powder (5 and 10 g), decreased plasma glucose content, ACP, ALP, SGPT, SGOT and hepatic G-6-Pase activities and plasma as well as hepatic lipid profiles. These diets also elevated the hepatic glycogen content and hexokinase activities. These effects however, were prominent with the HPLC diet supplemented with mango fruit powder and, among the two doses of mango fruit powder, the higher dose (10 g) yielded more promising results. It is surmised that the micronutrients and phytochemicals present in the diets and the mango fruit could be responsible for attenuation of fluoride-induced metabolic toxicity.

  1. An evaluation of water deficit tolerance screening in pigmented indica rice genotypes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chutipaijit, S.; Sompornpailin, K.

    2011-01-01

    Eight pigmented genotypes of indica subspecies were geminated and then treated by mannitol-induced water deficit stress. A change of growth characteristics, photosynthetic pigments, lipid peroxidation, DNA content, proline content and anthocyanin accumulation in stressed seedling (100 mM mannitol) and control plant (0 mM mannitol) were calculated. Growth performances, photosynthetic pigment concentrations , and DNA contents in all rice genotypes were dropped whereas proline, anthocyanin contents and the lipid peroxidation levels were enriched. The stabilization in total photosynthetic pigment concentrations of stressed-seedlings were positively correlated to the proline or anthocyanin accumulation. In contrast, MDA content, the increases in the percentages of drought-stressed seedlings were negatively correlated to the proline or anthocyanin accumulation. The changes in biochemical, physiological and growth parameters were subjected to Wards cluster analysis for water deficit tolerance. These cultivars could be classified into two groups, water deficit sensitive, SY, KD, KLD and TD49 and water deficit tolerance, KS, KK1, KK2 and BSR. (author)

  2. [Effect of a dehydrated extract of nopal (Opuntia ficus indica Mill.) on blood glucose].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frati-Munari, A C; de León, C; Ariza-Andraca, R; Bañales-Ham, M B; López-Ledesma, R; Lozoya, X

    1989-01-01

    To assess if a dehydrated extract of nopal stems retains the effect on glycemia of the entire nopal stems two experiments were performed. A. Six patients with type II diabetes mellitus in fasting condition received 30 capsules containing 10.1 +/- 0.3 g of the extract, and serum glucose levels were measured hourly from 0 to 180 minutes. B. Six healthy volunteers received 30 capsules with the extract followed by 74 g of dextrose orally. Serum glucose measurements were made in a similar fashion. In each experiment a control test with empty capsules was performed. Nopal extract did not reduce fasting glycemia in diabetic subjects. Nevertheless, the extract diminished the increase of serum glucose which followed a dextrose load. Peak serum glucose was 20.3 +/- 18.2 mg/dl (X +/- SD) lower in the test with nopal than in the control one (P less than 0.025). Dehydrated extract of nopal (Opuntia ficus-indica Mill) did not show acute hypoglycemic effect, although could attenuate postprandial hyperglycemia.

  3. Neem (Azadirachta indica a. Juss) components: candidates for the control of Crinipellis perniciosa and Phytophthora ssp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Rezende Ramos, Alessandra; Lüdke Falcão, Loeni; Salviano Barbosa, Guilherme; Helena Marcellino, Lucilia; Silvano Gander, Eugen

    2007-01-01

    Witches' broom and pod rot are the two most devastating diseases of cocoa in South America and Africa, respectively. Their control by means of phytosanitation and chemical fungicides is labor-intensive, costly and, in many cases, environmentally undesirable. Therefore efforts are made in order to identify alternative, environmentally safe and cost-efficient methods for the control of these pathogens. Promising candidates are components of the neem tree (Azadirachta indica), that have been used for centuries in Asia as insecticides, fungicides, anticonceptionals in popular medicine. Here we report about tests on the effect of various concentrations of extracts from neem leaves on growth of mycelia of Crinipellis and Phytophthora and on germination of spores of Crinipellis. We show a 35% growth reduction of mycelia of Phytophthora on neem leaf extract media, whereas growth of mycelia of Crinipellis was not affected, even at the highest concentration of neem leaf extracts used (35%). However, the most dramatic effect of neem leaf extracts is observed on Crinipellis spore germination, here the extracts (20-35%) reduced germination almost completely. Based on these results, we believe that the neem tree might be a source for the production, on small and medium scale, of an effective and cheap formulation for the control of Crinipellis and Phytophthora.

  4. In vitro susceptibility of the pea leafminer liriomyza huidobrensis pupae to entomopathogenic heterorhabditis indica and beauveria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noujeim, E.; Sakr, J.; El Sayegh, D.; Nemer, N.

    2015-01-01

    Given the substantial economic losses associated with various aspects of Liriomyza huidobrensis Blanchard feeding on different crops in Lebanon as well as the ability of this pest to rapidly develop resistance to insecticides, the current study attempted to use biological control agents in vitro to manage this pest. For this reason,sensibility of L. huido brensis pupae was tested against indigeneous entomopathogenic nematode (Heterorhabditis indica) and fungus(Beauveria bassiana). Entomopathogenic nematode solution at 1000IJs per mL was placed in contact with Liriomyza pupae on one hand and pupae of L. huido brensis in direct contact with B. bassianaat the rate of 5000, 500, 50 and 5spores/pupa on the other hand. Results showed a mortality of 53±1.5% for the Liriomyza pupae following the application of entomopathogenic nematodes characterized by a red color and bioluminescence without any emergence of infective juvenile nematodes, one month following the infestation. Treatments with B. bassiana were able to kill 73-97% of the pupae and similarly treatments with B. bassiana and the surfactant Tween 80 were able to kill 73-93% of the pupae. Tween 80 demonstrated to increase the sporulation rate during the first 7 days following the application of the spores of B. bassiana. (author)

  5. Investigation of cream and ointment on antimicrobial activity of Mangifera indica extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amgad A Awad El-Gied

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants have curative properties due to the presence of various complex chemical substance of different composition, which are found as secondary plant metabolites in one or more parts of these plants. Mangifera indica Linn (MI L. is a species of mango in the Anacardiaceae family. Phytoconstituents in the seed extracts may be responsible for the antimicrobial activity of the plant. The purpose of the study was to formulate and evaluate the antimicrobial herbal ointment and cream from extracts of the seeds of mango (MI L. The formulated ointments containing oleaginous-based showed the best formulation compared to the emulsion water in oil type, the ointment and cream bases in different concentration 1%, 5% and 10%. The formulated ointment and cream of MI L. were subjected to evaluation of Uniformity of Weight, measurement of pH, viscosity, Spreadability, Acute skin irritation study, stability study and antimicrobial activity. Our study shows that MI has high potential as an antimicrobial agent when formulated as ointment and creams for topical use. Thus, the present study concludes that the formulated formulations of the MI are safe and efficient carriers, with potent antimicrobial activity.

  6. Geographic distribution and host plants of Raoiella indica and associated mite species in northern Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vásquez, Carlos; de Moraes, Gilberto J

    2013-05-01

    The red palm mite (RPM), Raoiella indica Hirst (Acari: Tenuipalpidae), is an invasive pest in the New World, where it is currently considered a serious threat to coconut and banana crops. It was first reported from northern Venezuela in 2007. To determine its current distribution in this country, surveys were carried out from October 2008 to April 2010 on coconut (Cocos nucifera L.), banana (Musa spp.), ornamental plants and weeds in northern Venezuela. Higher population levels of RPM were registered on commercial coconut farms in Falcón and Sucre states but also on other plant species naturally growing along the coastal line in Anzoategui, Aragua, Carabobo, Monagas and Nueva Esparta states. Out of 34 botanical species evaluated, all RPM stages were observed only on eight arecaceous, one musaceous and one streliziaceous species, indicating that the pest developed and reproduced only on these plants. Mite specimens found on weeds were considered spurious events, as immature stages of the pest were never found on these. Amblyseius largoensis (Muma) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) was the most frequent predatory mite associated with RPM in all sampling sites. The results indicate that RPM has spread to extensive areas of northern Venezuela since its initial detection in Güiria, Sucre state. Considering the report of this pest mite in northern Brazil in the late 2009, additional samplings in southern Venezuela should be carried out, to evaluate the possible presence of RPM also in that region.

  7. Formulación de cápsulas duras de Tamarindus indica L.

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    Jesús Rafael Rodríguez Amado

    Full Text Available Objetivo: formular cápsulas duras a partir de extracto blando de Tamarindus indica L. Métodos: se seleccionaron las cantidades de los excipientes lactosa monohidratada, almidón de maíz y dióxido de silicio coloidal (Aerosil®, utilizando un diseño factorial 2³. Se seleccionó para envasar en cápsulas, el granulado con mejor fluidez y menor humedad residual. Se evaluó la calidad de las cápsulas duras. Resultados: la formulación escogida fue lactosa monohidratada 35,0 g, Aerosil® 3,0 g y almidón de maíz 7,5 g, pues mostró buena fluidez y una humedad residual de 4,17 %. Las cápsulas duras formuladas, presentaron buena calidad tecnológica. Conclusiones: se obtuvieron cápsulas duras que pueden ser preparadas, a pequeña escala, a nivel dispensarial.

  8. Water-deficit tolerant classification in mutant lines of indica rice

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    Suriyan Cha-um

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Water shortage is a major abiotic stress for crop production worldwide, limiting the productivity of crop species, especially in dry-land agricultural areas. This investigation aimed to classify the water-deficit tolerance in mutant rice (Oryza sativa L. spp. indica genotypes during the reproductive stage. Proline content in the flag leaf of mutant lines increased when plants were subjected to water deficit. Relative water content (RWC in the flag leaf of different mutant lines dropped in relation to water deficit stress. A decrease RWC was positively related to chlorophyll a degradation. Chlorophyll a , chlorophyll b , total chlorophyll , total carotenoids , maximum quantum yield of PSII , stomatal conductance , transpiration rate and water use efficiency in mutant lines grown under water deficit conditions declined in comparison to the well-watered, leading to a reduction in net-photosynthetic rate. In addition, when exposed to water deficit, panicle traits, including panicle length and fertile grains were dropped. The biochemical and physiological data were subjected to classify the water deficit tolerance. NSG19 (positive control and DD14 were identified as water deficit tolerant, and AA11, AA12, AA16, BB13, BB16, CC12, CC15, EE12, FF15, FF17, G11 and IR20 (negative control as water deficit sensitive, using Ward's method.

  9. Efecto insecticida del extracto de semillas de Neem (Azadirachta indica sobre Collaria scenica, Stal (Hemiptera: Miridae

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    Daniel Villamil Montero

    2012-07-01

    Abstract. This work was developed with the objetive to evaluate the insecticidal effect of the Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss seeds against grass bug nymphs Collaria scenica Stal. For that, an extract was prepared from green fruits of Neem by rotaevaporación. The extract was diluted in three ppm concentrations corresponding to treatments. Using thin-layer chromatography we identified the presence of Azaridactina. DCA essay was carried out with 4 treatments and 5 repetitions that included the three extract concentrations and a control. In each repetition were used 15 nymphs, randomly placed in plastic boxes with food and the corresponding concentration. Every day an extract application was made and recorded mortality percentage, number of exuviae and number of individuals who came to adulthood in each treatment. The results were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis and Games-Howell for each variable. The three concentrations of Neem seed extract had a negative effect on the development of the bugs. The more concentrated treatment (250 ppm was the most effective, showing a 97% mortality, fewer exuvias and and fewer adults in the end of the experiment.

  10. Rapid green synthesis of spherical gold nanoparticles using Mangifera indica leaf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip, Daizy

    2010-11-01

    This paper reports the rapid biological synthesis of spherical gold nanoparticles at room temperature using fresh/dry leaf extract of Mangifera indica. This is a simple, cost-effective, stable for long time and reproducible aqueous synthesis method to obtain a self-assembly of nearly monodispersed Au nanoparticles of size ˜20 nm and 17 nm. The nanoparticles were obtained within 2 min of addition of the extract to the solution of HAuCl 4·3H 2O and the colloid is found to be stable for more than 5 months. Smaller and more uniformly distributed particles could be obtained with dried leaf extract. The nanoparticles obtained are characterized by UV-vis, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Crystalline nature of the nanoparticles in the fcc structure is confirmed by the peaks in the XRD pattern corresponding to (1 1 1), (2 0 0), (2 2 0), (3 1 1) and (2 2 2) planes, bright circular spots in the selected area electron diffraction (SAED) and clear lattice fringes in the high-resolution TEM image. The possible biomolecules responsible for efficient stabilization are suggested by studying the FTIR spectrum of the sample. This environmentally benign method provides much faster synthesis and colloidal stability comparable to those of chemical reduction.

  11. Mapping of an ultrasonic bath for ultrasound assisted extraction of mangiferin from Mangifera indica leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Vrushali M; Rathod, Virendra K

    2014-03-01

    The present work deals with the mapping of an ultrasonic bath for the maximum extraction of mangiferin from Mangifera indica leaves. I3(-) liberation experiments (chemical transformations) and extraction (physical transformations) were carried out at different locations in an ultrasonic bath and compared. The experimental findings indicated a similar trend in variation in an ultrasonic bath by both these methods. Various parameters such as position and depth of vessel in an ultrasonic bath, diameter and shape of a vessel, frequency and input power which affect the extraction yield have been studied in detail. Maximum yield of mangiferin obtained was approximately 31 mg/g at optimized parameters: distance of 2.54 cm above the bottom of the bath, 7 cm diameter of vessel, flat bottom vessel, 6.35 cm liquid height, 122 W input power and 25 kHz frequency. The present work indicates that the position and depth of vessel in an ultrasonic bath, diameter and shape of a vessel, frequency and input power have significant effect on the extraction yield. This work can be used as a base for all ultrasonic baths to obtain maximum efficiency for ultrasound assisted extraction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Probing the Catalytic Promiscuity of a Regio- and Stereospecific C-Glycosyltransferase from Mangifera indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dawei; Chen, Ridao; Wang, Ruishan; Li, Jianhua; Xie, Kebo; Bian, Chuancai; Sun, Lili; Zhang, Xiaolin; Liu, Jimei; Yang, Lin; Ye, Fei; Yu, Xiaoming; Dai, Jungui

    2015-10-19

    The catalytic promiscuity of the novel benzophenone C-glycosyltransferase, MiCGT, which is involved in the biosynthesis of mangiferin from Mangifera indica, was explored. MiCGT exhibited a robust capability to regio- and stereospecific C-glycosylation of 35 structurally diverse druglike scaffolds and simple phenolics with UDP-glucose, and also formed O- and N-glycosides. Moreover, MiCGT was able to generate C-xylosides with UDP-xylose. The OGT-reversibility of MiCGT was also exploited to generate C-glucosides with simple sugar donor. Three aryl-C-glycosides exhibited potent SGLT2 inhibitory activities with IC50  values of 2.6×, 7.6×, and 7.6×10(-7)  M, respectively. These findings demonstrate for the first time the significant potential of an enzymatic approach to diversification through C-glycosidation of bioactive natural and unnatural products in drug discovery. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Optimization of Freeze Drying Conditions for Purified Pectinase from Mango (Mangifera indica cv. Chokanan Peel

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    Abdul Manap Mohd Yazid

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Response surface methodology (RSM along with central composite design (CCD was applied to optimize the freeze drying conditions for purified pectinase from mango (Mangifera indica cv. Chokanan peel. The effect of pectinase content (−2.66, 62.66 mg/mL, Arabic gum (−1.21, 10.21%, w/v, and maltodextrin (0.73, 7.26%, w/v as independent variables on activity, yield, and storage stability of freeze-dried enzyme was evaluated. Storage stability of pectinase was investigated after one week at 4 °C and yield percentage of the enzyme after encapsulation was also determined. The independent variables had the most significant (p < 0.05 effect on pectinase activity and yield of the enzyme. It was observed that the interaction effect of Arabic gum and maltodextrin improved the enzymatic properties of freeze-dried pectinase. The optimal conditions for freeze-dried pectinase from mango peel were obtained using 30 mg/mL of pectinase content, 4.5 (%, w/v of Arabic gum, and 4 (%, w/v of maltodextrin. Under these conditions, the maximum activity (11.12 U/mL, yield (86.4% and storage stability (84.2% of encapsulated pectinase were achieved.

  14. Intestinal Permeability and Cellular Antioxidant Activity of Phenolic Compounds from Mango (Mangifera indica cv. Ataulfo) Peels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco-Ordaz, Ramón; González-Aguilar, Gustavo A.

    2018-01-01

    Mango (Mangifera indica cv. Ataulfo) peel contains bound phenolics that may be released by alkaline or acid hydrolysis and may be converted into less complex molecules. Free phenolics from mango cv. Ataulfo peel were obtained using a methanolic extraction, and their cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) and permeability were compared to those obtained for bound phenolics released by alkaline or acid hydrolysis. Gallic acid was found as a simple phenolic acid after alkaline hydrolysis along with mangiferin isomers and quercetin as aglycone and glycosides. Only gallic acid, ethyl gallate, mangiferin, and quercetin were identified in the acid fraction. The acid and alkaline fractions showed the highest CAA (60.5% and 51.5%) when tested at 125 µg/mL. The value of the apparent permeability coefficient (Papp) across the Caco-2/HT-29 monolayer of gallic acid from the alkaline fraction was higher (2.61 × 10−6 cm/s) than in the other fractions and similar to that obtained when tested pure (2.48 × 10−6 cm/s). In conclusion, mango peels contain bound phenolic compounds that, after their release, have permeability similar to pure compounds and exert an important CAA. This finding can be applied in the development of nutraceuticals using this important by-product from the mango processing industry. PMID:29419800

  15. Identification of new phytoconstituents and antimicrobial activity in stem bark of Mangifera indica (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ruchi; Singh, S K; Maharia, R S; Garg, A N

    2015-02-01

    Mangifera indica, commonly called mango or amra belonging to a family of Anacardiaceae, is an important medicinal plant widely used in a variety of Ayurvedic preparations. Extract of its bark, leaves, flowers and kernels are being extensively used for curing various chronic diseases. Mango wood is used in yagya as base fire through which medicated smoke is generated. Three new compounds have been isolated from methanolic and hexane extracts of stem bark: 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, mono(2-ethylhexyl)ester and 9,12-tetradecadiene-1-ol-acetate from the hexane extract and 3-chloro-N-(2-phenylethyl) propanamide from the methanolic extract. These were first separated by thin layer chromatography and later in a silica gel column and identified by characteristic infrared bands corresponding to respective functional groups. The compounds were further confirmed on the basis of GC-MS fragmentation pattern after comparing the data with NIST mass spectral database. All three compounds exhibited antimicrobial activity due to triterpenoids and flavonoids. Elemental analyses by INAA show it to be enriched in essential nutrient elements such as Ca, Fe, K, Mn and Zn which all play an important role in enzymatic processes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Optimization of Freeze Drying Conditions for Purified Pectinase from Mango (Mangifera indica cv. Chokanan) Peel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrnoush, Amid; Mustafa, Shuhaimi; Yazid, Abdul Manap Mohd

    2012-01-01

    Response surface methodology (RSM) along with central composite design (CCD) was applied to optimize the freeze drying conditions for purified pectinase from mango (Mangifera indica cv. Chokanan) peel. The effect of pectinase content (−2.66, 62.66 mg/mL), Arabic gum (−1.21, 10.21%, w/v), and maltodextrin (0.73, 7.26%, w/v) as independent variables on activity, yield, and storage stability of freeze-dried enzyme was evaluated. Storage stability of pectinase was investigated after one week at 4 °C and yield percentage of the enzyme after encapsulation was also determined. The independent variables had the most significant (p < 0.05) effect on pectinase activity and yield of the enzyme. It was observed that the interaction effect of Arabic gum and maltodextrin improved the enzymatic properties of freeze-dried pectinase. The optimal conditions for freeze-dried pectinase from mango peel were obtained using 30 mg/mL of pectinase content, 4.5 (%, w/v) of Arabic gum, and 4 (%, w/v) of maltodextrin. Under these conditions, the maximum activity (11.12 U/mL), yield (86.4%) and storage stability (84.2%) of encapsulated pectinase were achieved. PMID:22489134

  17. Mangifera Indica leaf-assisted biosynthesis of well-dispersed silver nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip, Daizy

    2011-01-01

    The use of various parts of plants for the synthesis of nanoparticles is considered as a green technology as it does not involve any harmful chemicals. The present study reports a facile and rapid biosynthesis of well-dispersed silver nanoparticles. The method developed is environmentally friendly and allows the reduction to be accelerated by changing the temperature and pH of the reaction mixture consisting of aqueous AgNO 3 and Mangifera Indica leaf extract. At a pH of 8, the colloid consists of well-dispersed triangular, hexagonal and nearly spherical nanoparticles having size ˜20 nm. The UV-vis spectrum of silver nanoparticles gave surface plasmon resonance (SPR) at 439 nm. The synthesized nanocrystals were characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Water soluble organics present in the leaf are responsible for the reduction of silver ions. This green method provides faster synthesis comparable to chemical methods and can be used in areas such as cosmetics, foods and medical applications.

  18. Investigation of cream and ointment on antimicrobial activity of Mangifera indica extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad El-Gied, Amgad A.; Abdelkareem, Abdelkareem M.; Hamedelniel, Elnazeer I.

    2015-01-01

    Medicinal plants have curative properties due to the presence of various complex chemical substance of different composition, which are found as secondary plant metabolites in one or more parts of these plants. Mangifera indica Linn (MI L.) is a species of mango in the Anacardiaceae family. Phytoconstituents in the seed extracts may be responsible for the antimicrobial activity of the plant. The purpose of the study was to formulate and evaluate the antimicrobial herbal ointment and cream from extracts of the seeds of mango (MI L.) The formulated ointments containing oleaginous-based showed the best formulation compared to the emulsion water in oil type, the ointment and cream bases in different concentration 1%, 5% and 10%. The formulated ointment and cream of MI L. were subjected to evaluation of Uniformity of Weight, measurement of pH, viscosity, Spreadability, Acute skin irritation study, stability study and antimicrobial activity. Our study shows that MI has high potential as an antimicrobial agent when formulated as ointment and creams for topical use. Thus, the present study concludes that the formulated formulations of the MI are safe and efficient carriers, with potent antimicrobial activity. PMID:25878974

  19. Morphological and organoleptic description of mango fruits (Mangifera indica L. cultivated in Jipijapa canton in Ecuador

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    Gabriel-Ortega Julio

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In the year 2016, seventeen cultivars of mango (Mangifera indica L. were collected in local markets and farmers' field of Jipijapa Canton, Ecuador, with the aim of describing and analyzing mango fruits due to their morphological characteristics of sugars (°Brix and total solids. Collections were carried out by stu-dents and teachers of the Research Methodologies course of the Agricultural Engineering Career, of the Southern State University of Manabí (UNESUM. The fruits were characterized by using 16 qualitative and quantitative variables for fruit and seed recommended by UPOV and IPGRI. The percentage of total solids and Brix grades of each harvested crop were also analyzed in the UNESUM bromatology laboratory. Results showed that in the Jipijapa Canton, Ecuador, there is a great biodiversity of native mangoes, which were not characterized. Fruit shapes, pulp color and variable fiber contents were observed. The length of fruit was 6.33 to 12.50 cm, and the width was 5.27 to 8.50 cm, with a length/width ratio between 0.77 and 1.83 cm. The fruit weight was 63.3 to 500 g. No significant differences were observed in the sugars content (°Brix. Finally, it was observed that the range of consumable pulp was 63 to 94% in native cultivars and 86% to 97% in the improved ones.

  20. Effect of elicitors and precursors on azadirachtin production in hairy root culture of Azadirachta indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Smita; Srivastava, A K

    2014-02-01

    The present study involved strategies for enhancement in in vitro azadirachtin (commercially used biopesticide) production by hairy root cultivation of Azadirachta indica. Improvement in the azadirachtin production via triggering its biosynthetic pathway in plant cells was carried out by the exogenous addition of precursors and elicitors in the growth medium. Among the different abiotic stress inducers (Ag(+), Hg(+2), Co(+2), Cu(+2)) and signal molecules (methyl jasmonate and salicylic acid) tested, salicylic acid at 15 mg l(-1) of concentration was found to enhance the azadirachtin yield in the hairy roots to the maximum (up to 4.95 mg g(-1)). Similarly, among the different biotic elicitors tested (filter-sterilized fungal culture filtrates of Phoma herbarium, Alternaria alternata, Myrothecium sp., Fusarium solani, Curvularia lunata, and Sclerotium rolfsii; yeast extract; and yeast extract carbohydrate fraction), addition of filter-sterilized fungal culture filtrate of C. lunata (1 % v/v) resulted in maximum azadirachtin yield enhancement in hairy root biomass (up to 7.1 mg g(-1)) with respect to the control (3.3 mg g(-1)). Among all the biosynthetic precursors studied (sodium acetate, cholesterol, squalene, isopentynyl pyrophosphate, mavalonic acid lactone, and geranyl pyrophosphate), the overall azadirachtin production (70.42 mg l(-1) in 25 days) was found to be the highest with cholesterol (50 mg l(-1)) addition as an indirect precursor in the medium.

  1. Progress on Azadirachta indica Based Biopesticides in Replacing Synthetic Toxic Pesticides

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    Suman Chaudhary

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Over the years, extensive use of commercially available synthetic pesticides against phytophagous insects has led to their bioaccumulation in the environment causing increased resistance and reduction in soil biodiversity. Further, 90% of the applied pesticides enter the various environmental resources as a result of run-off, exposing the farmers as well as consumers of the agricultural produce to severe health issues. Therefore, growing attention has been given toward the development of alternate environmentally friendly pesticides/insecticides that would aid an efficient pest management system and also prevent chronic exposures leading to diseases. One such strategy is, the use of neem plant's (Binomial name: Azadirachta indica active ingredients which exhibit agro-medicinal properties conferring insecticidal as well as immunomodulatory and anti-cancer properties. The most prominent constituent of neem is azadirachtin, which has been established as a pivotal insecticidal ingredient. It acts as an antifeedant, repellent, and repugnant agent and induces sterility in insects by preventing oviposition and interrupting sperm production in males. This review discusses, key neem pesticidal components, their active functional ingredients along with recent strategies on employing nanocarriers, to provide controlled release of the active ingredients and to improve their stability and sustainability.

  2. Progress on Azadirachta indica Based Biopesticides in Replacing Synthetic Toxic Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Suman; Kanwar, Rupinder K.; Sehgal, Alka; Cahill, David M.; Barrow, Colin J.; Sehgal, Rakesh; Kanwar, Jagat R.

    2017-01-01

    Over the years, extensive use of commercially available synthetic pesticides against phytophagous insects has led to their bioaccumulation in the environment causing increased resistance and reduction in soil biodiversity. Further, 90% of the applied pesticides enter the various environmental resources as a result of run-off, exposing the farmers as well as consumers of the agricultural produce to severe health issues. Therefore, growing attention has been given toward the development of alternate environmentally friendly pesticides/insecticides that would aid an efficient pest management system and also prevent chronic exposures leading to diseases. One such strategy is, the use of neem plant's (Binomial name: Azadirachta indica) active ingredients which exhibit agro-medicinal properties conferring insecticidal as well as immunomodulatory and anti-cancer properties. The most prominent constituent of neem is azadirachtin, which has been established as a pivotal insecticidal ingredient. It acts as an antifeedant, repellent, and repugnant agent and induces sterility in insects by preventing oviposition and interrupting sperm production in males. This review discusses, key neem pesticidal components, their active functional ingredients along with recent strategies on employing nanocarriers, to provide controlled release of the active ingredients and to improve their stability and sustainability. PMID:28533783

  3. Larvicidal effects of a neem (Azadirachta indica oil formulation on the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae

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    Knols Bart GJ

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Larviciding is a key strategy used in many vector control programmes around the world. Costs could be reduced if larvicides could be manufactured locally. The potential of natural products as larvicides against the main African malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae s.s was evaluated. Methods To assess the larvicidal efficacy of a neem (Azadirachta indica oil formulation (azadirachtin content of 0.03% w/v on An. gambiae s.s., larvae were exposed as third and fourth instars to a normal diet supplemented with the neem oil formulations in different concentrations. A control group of larvae was exposed to a corn oil formulation in similar concentrations. Results Neem oil had an LC50 value of 11 ppm after 8 days, which was nearly five times more toxic than the corn oil formulation. Adult emergence was inhibited by 50% at a concentration of 6 ppm. Significant reductions on growth indices and pupation, besides prolonged larval periods, were observed at neem oil concentrations above 8 ppm. The corn oil formulation, in contrast, produced no growth disruption within the tested range of concentrations. Conclusion Neem oil has good larvicidal properties for An. gambiae s.s. and suppresses successful adult emergence at very low concentrations. Considering the wide distribution and availability of this tree and its products along the East African coast, this may prove a readily available and cheap alternative to conventional larvicides.

  4. Azadirachtin biosynthesis induction in Azadirachta indica A. Juss cotyledonary calli with elicitor agents

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    Marcelo Rodrigues

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of cell and plant tissues culture techniques to produce economically important active metabolites has been growing. Among these substances, azadirachtin (AZA, produced by the neem tree (Azadirachta indica, has received considerable attention due to its bioinsecticide action. The main goal of this work was to analyze the AZA levels in neem cotyledonary calli. The calli were grown in agitated Woody Plant Medium (WPM liquid medium, supplemented with glucose (Gl, hydrolyzed casein (HC and methyl jasmonate (MeJ as elicitor agent. An interaction was observed between these substances, depending on in vitro cultivation time with orbital agitation. The highest concentrations (average of 0.2470 µg g-1 of AZA were produced in the first and second weeks of culture when the cell mass was grown in a medium with 2% Gl v/v, 500 mg L-1 HC and 100 µM of MeJ. This corresponded to approximately 57% of the AZA content stored in the donor plants seeds, used as a source of explants to induce in vitro callus formation. It was concluded that the nutrition, as well as the concentration of MeJ as signal transduction of secondary metabolism in neem cells, might influence the AZA content produced in vitro.

  5. Chromatographic evaluation and antimicrobial activity of Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss., Meliaceae leaves hydroalcoholic extracts

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    Priscila D. Alves

    Full Text Available Neem (Azadirachta indica is an Indian tree well known for its several pharmacological activities, including antimicrobial activity. More than 300 composites have already been isolated and azadirachtin (AZA is its main active component. In the present work, Neem leaves hydroalcoholic extracts were prepared by percolation in 96% ethanol different concentrations (50%, 60%, 70%, 80% and 90% (v/v. The presence of AZA was tested by TLC by eluting the extracts and a standard solution of AZA through a chromatographic plate developed with anisaldehyde/sulfuric acid solution followed by heating. By HPLC, extracts elution took place on a C18 column, water:acetonitrile (60:40 as mobile phase, 1.0 mL/min flow rate and detection at λ217 nm. The extracts did not display AZA spots or peaks, however, they were tested against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, yeasts and a mold fungus. The extracts were tested in different increasing concentrations, in order to detect a dose-dependent relationship of the activity. Despite the absence of AZA, the 70% and 80% (v/v ethanol extracts showed activity against Staphylococcus aureus. However, this activity was not dose-dependent according to Tukey's test (q0,05;3;7.

  6. Mangifera indica L. (Vimang) protection against serum oxidative stress in elderly humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo-Andreu, Gilberto L; Philip, Sarah J; Riaño, Annia; Sánchez, Carlos; Viada, Carmen; Núñez-Sellés, Alberto J; Delgado, René

    2006-01-01

    We searched for the protective effect of a natural extract from stem bark of Mangifera indica L. extract (Vimang) on age-related oxidative stress. Healthy subjects were classified in two groups, elderly (>65 years) and young group (Vimang tablets, 300 mg each, before meals) for 60 days. Serum concentration of lipid peroxides, serum peroxidation potential, extracellular superoxide dismutase activity (EC-SOD), glutathione status (GSH, GSSG, GSSG/GSH ratio)) and total antioxidant status (TAS) were determined before (both experimental groups) and 15, 30, and 60 days after treatment (only elderly group). We confirmed the existence of an age-associated oxidative stress in human serum as documented by an age-related increase in serum lipoperoxides and GSSG and a decrease in serum antioxidant capacity and EC-SOD activity. Vimang tablet supplementation increased EC-SOD activity (p Vimang tablets prevent age-associated oxidative stress in elderly humans, which could retard the onset of age-associated disease, improving the quality of life for elderly persons.

  7. Case series in patients with zoster-associated pain using Mangifera indica L. extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido-Suárez, Beatriz; Garrido, Gabino; Delgado, Rene; Bosch, Fe; del C Rabí, María

    2011-01-01

    Neuroimmune activation has been proposed as a source of new targets for therapeutic intervention in neuropathic pain. Vimang® is an aqueous extract from Mangifera indica L. (common mango) that is traditionally used in Cuba for its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and immunomodulatory properties. In the present case report, we determine its potential effects in patients with zoster-associated pain. 12 patients with zoster-associated pain (6 with subacute herpetic neuralgia and 6 with post-herpetic neuralgia) received a daily dose of 1,800 mg of extract (2 coated 300 mg tablets, 3 times daily before meals) together with low doses of amitriptyline (10-25 mg/day) for 120 days. In addition to the tablets, patients used Vimang® cream 1.2% as a topical agent. The average daily pain score using the Likert scale, area and rate of dynamic allodynia, rate of thermal allodynia, and frequency of burning spontaneous pain were evaluated. Pain scores and sensory abnormalities decreased significantly (p Vimang® could be beneficial in the treatment of neuropathic pain. However, a controlled clinical trial is necessary to confirm this hypothesis. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Anthelminthic and antiallergic activities of Mangifera indica L. stem bark components Vimang and mangiferin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, D; Escalante, M; Delgado, R; Ubeira, F M; Leiro, J

    2003-12-01

    This study investigated the antiallergic and anthelmintic properties of Vimang (an aqueous extract of Mangifera indica family stem bark) and mangiferin (the major polyphenol present in Vimang) administered orally to mice experimentally infected with the nematode, Trichinella spiralis. Treatment with Vimang or mangiferin (500 or 50 mg per kg body weight per day, respectively) throughout the parasite life cycle led to a significant decline in the number of parasite larvae encysted in the musculature; however, neither treatment was effective against adults in the gut. Treatment with Vimang or mangiferin likewise led to a significant decline in serum levels of specific anti-Trichinella IgE, throughout the parasite life cycle. Finally, oral treatment of rats with Vimang or mangiferin, daily for 50 days, inhibited mast cell degranulation as evaluated by the passive cutaneous anaphylaxis test (sensitization with infected mouse serum with a high IgE titre, then stimulation with the cytosolic fraction of T. spiralis muscle larvae). Since IgE plays a key role in the pathogenesis of allergic diseases, these results suggest that Vimang and mangiferin may be useful in the treatment of diseases of this type. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Protective effect of Mangifera indica L. extract (Vimang) on the injury associated with hepatic ischaemia reperfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Gregorio Martínez; Rodríguez H, María A; Giuliani, Attilia; Núñez Sellés, Alberto J; Rodríguez, Niurka Pons; León Fernández, Olga Sonia; Re, L

    2003-03-01

    The effect of Mangifera indica L. extract (Vimang) on treatment of injury associated with hepatic ischaemia/reperfusion was tested. Vimang protects from the oxidative damage induced by oxygen-based free radicals as shown in several in vitro test systems conducted. The ability of Vimang to reduce liver damage was investigated in rats undergoing right-lobe blood fl ow occlusion for 45 min followed by 45 min of reperfusion. The ischaemia/reperfusion model leads to an increase of transaminase (ALT and AST), membrane lipid peroxidation, tissue neutrophil in filtration, DNA fragmentation, loss of protein -SH groups, cytosolic Ca2+ overload and a decrease of catalase activity. Oral administration of Vimang (50, 110 and 250 mg/kg, b.w.) 7 days before reperfusion, reduced transaminase levels and DNA fragmentation in a dose dependent manner (p Vimang also restored the cytosolic Ca2+ levels and inhibited polymorphonuclear migration at a dose of 250 mg/kg b.w., improved the oxidation of total and non protein sulfhydryl groups and prevented modification in catalase activity, uric acid and lipid peroxidation markers (p Vimang could be a useful new natural drug for preventing oxidative damage during hepatic injury associated with free radical generation. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Report of cases in patients with acute herpetic neuralgia using a Mangifera indica extract

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    Beatriz Garrido-Suárez

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available It has been accepted that neuroinflammation, oxidative stress and glial activation are involved in the central sensitization underlying neuropathic and inflammatory pain. Vimang® is the brand name of an aqueous extract of Mangifera indica L., Anacardiaceae, traditionally used in Cuba for its antioxidant, antiinflammatory, analgesic, and immunomodulatory properties. In the present study, we determined the possible effects of Vimang formulations in acute herpes zoster (n=12 patients, that received a daily dose of 1800 mg of extract (two coated Vimang tablets, 300 mg each, three times daily before meals associated to low doses of amitriptyline (10-25 mg/d. In addition to the tablets, they utilized compresses containing Vimang dissolution at 2% on skin lesions for thirty days. The average daily pain score using a Likert scale and variations in concomitant drug daily dosage were determined. The analgesic effect was observed from week 1 (p<0.001 with respect to baseline data and none showed post-herpetic neuralgia. Significant reduction of antidepressant medication (p<0.01 and analgesic rescue dosages (p=0.0035 with respect to the initial daily dosage were showed. No adverse events were reported. The results obtained in this report of cases suggest that Vimang supplementation might be beneficial to prevent and treat neuropathic pain.

  11. In vivo acute toxicological studies of an antioxidant extract from Mangifera indica L. (Vimang).

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    Garrido, Gabino; Rodeiro, Idania; Hernández, Ivones; García, Gastón; Pérez, Gema; Merino, Nelson; Núñez-Sellés, Alberto; Delgado, René

    2009-01-01

    Mango (Mangifera indica L.) stem bark aqueous extract (MSBE) is a natural product with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and immunomodulatory effects. Its formulations (e.g., tablets, capsules, syrup, vaginal oval, and suppositories) are known by the brand name of Vimang. In view of the ethnomedical, preclinical, and clinical uses of this extract and the necessity to assess its possible toxicological effect on man, a toxicological analysis of a standard extract is reported in this paper. Acute toxicity was evaluated in mice and rats by oral, dermal, and intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration. The extract, by oral or dermal administration, showed no lethality at the limit doses of 2,000 mg/kg body weight and no adverse effects were found. Deaths occurred with the i.p. administration at 200, but not 20 mg/kg in mice. MSBE was also studied on irritant tests in rabbits, and the results showed that it was nonirritating on skin, ocular, or rectal mucosa. The extract had minimal irritancy following vaginal application.

  12. Combination of Mangifera indica L. extract supplementation plus methotrexate in rheumatoid arthritis patients: a pilot study.

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    López Mantecón, Ana M; Garrido, Gabino; Delgado-Hernández, René; Garrido-Suárez, Bárbara B

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the possible therapeutic effects and the safety of Mangifera indica extract (Vimang tablets, 300 mg) combined with methotrexate (MTX) on reducing disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Twenty patients with active RA underwent a year of treatment with MTX (12.5 mg/week) associated to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and/or prednisone (5-10 mg/day) were randomly allocated to the experimental group (n=10), that received the extract supplementation (900 mg/day) or preceding usual treatment (n=10) during 180 days. RA activity was evaluated using the tender and swollen joint counts, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, disease activity score-28 (DAS 28), visual analogue scale (VAS) and health assessment questionnaire (HAQ). Treatment's efficacy was demonstrated with ACR criteria. Only the patients of MTX-Vimang group revealed statistically significant improvement in DAS 28 parameters with respect baseline data but no differences were observed between groups. ACR improvements amounted 80% only in MTX-Vimang group at the 90 days (pVimang group, 100% of patients decreased NSAIDs administration (p<0.01) and 70% of those eradicated gastrointestinal side effects (p<0.01) ensuing of the preceding treatment. Other adverse effects were not reported. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Modulation of rat macrophage function by the Mangifera indica L. extracts Vimang and mangiferin.

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    García, D; Delgado, R; Ubeira, F M; Leiro, J

    2002-05-01

    Vimang is an aqueous extract of Mangiferia indica L., traditionally used in Cuba as an anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antioxidant. In the present study, we investigated the effects of Vimang and of mangiferin (a C-glucosylxanthone present in the extract) on rat macrophage functions including phagocytic activity and the respiratory burst. Both Vimang and mangiferin showed inhibitory effects on macrophage activity: (a) intraperitoneal doses of only 50-250 mg/kg markedly reduced the number of macrophages in peritoneal exudate following intraperitoneal injection of thioglycollate 5 days previously (though there was no significant effect on the proportion of macrophages in the peritoneal-exudate cell population); (b) in vitro concentrations of 0.1-100 microg/ml reduced the phagocytosis of yeasts cells by resident peritoneal and thioglycollate-elicited macrophages; (c) in vitro concentrations of 1-50 microg/ml reduced nitric oxide (NO) production by thioglycollate-elicited macrophages stimulated in vitro with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and IFNgamma; and (d) in vitro concentrations of 1-50 microg/ml reduced the extracellular production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by resident and thioglycollate-elicited macrophages stimulated in vitro with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA). These results suggest that components of Vimang, including the polyphenol mangiferin, have depressor effects on the phagocytic and ROS production activities of rat macrophages and, thus, that they may be of value in the treatment of diseases of immunopathological origin characterized by the hyperactivation of phagocytic cells such as certain autoimmune disorders.

  14. Mangifera indica L. extract (Vimang) inhibits 2-deoxyribose damage induced by Fe (III) plus ascorbate.

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    Pardo-Andreu, Gilberto Lázaro; Delgado, René; Núñez-Sellés, Alberto J; Vercesi, Anibal E

    2006-02-01

    Vimang is an aqueous extract of selected species of Mangifera indica L, used in Cuba as a nutritional antioxidant supplement. Many in vitro and in vivo models of oxidative stress have been used to elucidate the antioxidant mechanisms of this extract. To further characterize the mechanism of Vimang action, its effect on the degradation of 2-deoxyribose induced by Fe (III)-EDTA plus ascorbate or plus hypoxanthine/xanthine oxidase was studied. Vimang was shown to be a potent inhibitor of 2-deoxyribose degradation mediated by Fe (III)-EDTA plus ascorbate or superoxide (O2-). The results revealed that Vimang, at concentrations higher than 50 microM mangiferin equivalent, was equally effective in preventing degradation of both 15 mM and 1.5 mM 2-deoxyribose. At a fixed Fe (III) concentration, increasing the concentration of ligands (either EDTA or citrate) caused a significant reduction in the protective effects of Vimang. When ascorbate was replaced by O2- (formed by hypoxanthine and xanthine oxidase) the protective efficiency of Vimang was also inversely related to EDTA concentration. The results strongly indicate that Vimang does not block 2-deoxyribose degradation by simply trapping *OH radicals. Rather, Vimang seems to act as an antioxidant by complexing iron ions, rendering them inactive or poorly active in the Fenton reaction. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Anti-allergic properties of Mangifera indica L. extract (Vimang) and contribution of its glucosylxanthone mangiferin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Dagmar García; Balmaseda, Ivones Hernández; León, Alina Alvarez; Hernández, Belkis Cancio; Montiel, Lucía Márquez; Garrido, Gabino Garrido; Cuzzocrea, Salvatore; Hernández, René Delgado

    2006-03-01

    Vimang is the brand name of formulations containing an extract of Mangifera indica L., ethnopharmacologically used in Cuba for the treatment of some immunopathological disorders, including bronchial asthma, atopic dermatitis and other allergic diseases. However, the effects of Vimang on allergic response have not been reported until now. In this study, the effects of Vimang and mangiferin, a C-glucosylxanthone isolated from the extract, on different parameters of allergic response are reported. Vimang and mangiferin showed a significant dose-dependent inhibition of IgE production in mice and anaphylaxis reaction in rats, histamine-induced vascular permeability and the histamine release induced by compound 48/80 from rat mast cells, and of lymphocyte proliferative response as evidence of the reduction of the amount of B and T lymphocytes able to contribute to allergic response. In these experiments, ketotifen, promethazine and disodium cromoglicate were used as reference drugs. Furthermore, we demonstrated that Vimang had an effect on an in-vivo model of inflammatory allergy mediated by mast cells. These results constitute the first report of the anti-allergic properties of Vimang on allergic models, as well as suggesting that this natural extract could be successfully used in the treatment of allergic disorders. Mangiferin, the major compound of Vimang, contributes to the anti-allergic effects of the extract.

  16. The Effect of Three Gums on the Retrogradation of Indica Rice Starch

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    Bin Li

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Retrograded starch (RS3 was produced from indica rice starch with three kinds of gums (konjac glucomannan, KGM; carrageenan, CA, USA; and gellan, GA, USA by autoclaving, respectively, and the effect of the gums on the retrogradation behavior of starch was estimated. The influences of polysaccharide concentration, sodium chloride concentration, autoclaving time, refrigerated time, and pH value on RS3 formation were discussed. Except for sodium chloride’s persistent restraint on RS3, the others all forced RS3 yields higher at first, but lowered it after the peak value. The influencing sequence of these impact factors was: sodium chloride concentration > polysaccharide concentration > autoclaving time > refrigerated time > pH value. The results also proved that in the three gums, KGM plays the most significant role in RS3 changing. It was concluded that the incorporation of each of these three gums into starch, especially KGM, results in an increase or decrease of RS3 under different conditions. This phenomenon could be taken into consideration when developing starchy food with appropriate amount of RS3.

  17. Dispersal of adult black marlin (Istiompax indica from a Great Barrier Reef spawning aggregation.

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    Michael L Domeier

    Full Text Available The black marlin (Istiompax indica is one of the largest bony fishes in the world with females capable of reaching a mass of over 700 kg. This highly migratory predator occurs in the tropical regions of the Pacific and Indian Oceans, and is the target of regional recreational and commercial fisheries. Through the sampling of ichthyoplankton and ovaries we provide evidence that the relatively high seasonal abundance of black marlin off the Great Barrier Reef is, in fact, a spawning aggregation. Furthermore, through the tracking of individual black marlin via satellite popup tags, we document the dispersal of adult black marlin away from the spawning aggregation, thereby identifying the catchment area for this spawning stock. Although tag shedding is an issue when studying billfish, we tentatively identify the catchment area for this stock of black marlin to extend throughout the Coral Sea, including the waters of Papua New Guinea, the Solomon Islands, Micronesia, New Caledonia, Kiribati, Vanuatu, Fiji, Tuvalu and Nauru.

  18. A new pentacyclic triterpene with potent antibacterial activity from Limnophila indica Linn. (Druce).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahmachari, Goutam; Mandal, Narayan C; Roy, Rajiv; Ghosh, Ranjan; Barman, Soma; Sarkar, Sajal; Jash, Shyamal K; Mondal, Sadhan

    2013-10-01

    A new pentacyclic triterpenoid constituent, characterized as 3-oxo-olean-12(13),18(19)-dien-29α-carboxylic acid (1) on the basis of detailed spectral studies, was isolated from the aerial parts and roots of Limnophila indica (Scrophulariaceae). Compound 1 exhibited considerable antibacterial activity against three Gram-positive bacteria viz. Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes (MICs within a range of 25-30 μg/ml) and moderate activity against four Gram-negative bacteria Salmonella typhimurium, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Pantoea ananatis (MICs within a range of 30-100 μg/ml). The plant pathogenic bacterium P. ananatis and human pathogenic S. typhimurium responded at comparatively higher concentrations of the compound 1, which were 75 and 100 μg/ml respectively. The compound inhibited the growth of Gram-positive B. subtilis and Gram-negative P. aeruginosa completely with a clear bactericidal mode of action at their MIC values. The compound upon treatment on both B. subtilis and P. aeruginosa released substantial amount of nucleic acid in the external medium and also effected the change of morphology towards pleomorphicity, thereby indicating its probable action on cell membrane. Furthermore, the triterpenoid 1 was found not to inhibit a probiotic lactic acid bacterium Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis LABW4 under in vitro condition and to possess no toxicity in Swiss albino mice. © 2013.

  19. Acaricidal activity of Cymbopogon citratus and Azadirachta indica against house dust mites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanifah, Azima Laili; Awang, Siti Hazar; Ming, Ho Tze; Abidin, Suhaili Zainal; Omar, Maizatul Hashima

    2011-10-01

    To examine the acaricidal effects of the essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus leaf extract (lemongrass) and ethanolic Azadirachta indica leaf extract (neem) against house dust mites Dermatophagoides farinae (D. farinae) and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (D. pteronyssinus). Twenty-five adults mites were placed onto treated filter paper that is soaked with plant extract and been tested at different concentrations (50.00%, 25.00%, 12.50%, 6.25% and 3.13%) and exposure times (24hrs, 48hrs, 72hrs and 96 hrs). All treatments were replicated 7 times, and the experiment repeated once. The topical and contact activities of the two herbs were investigated. Mortalities from lemongrass extract were higher than neem for both topical and contact activities. At 50 % concentration, both 24 hrs topical and contact exposures to lemongrass resulted in more than 91% mortalities for both species of mites. At the same concentration and exposure time, neem resulted in topical mortalities of 40.3% and 15.7% against D. pteronyssinus and D. farinae respectively; contact mortalities were 8.0% and 8.9% against the 2 mites, respectively. There was no difference in topical mortalities of D. pteronyssinus from exposure to concentrations of lemongrass and neem up to 12.50%; lemongrass was more effective than neem at the higher concentrations. Generally, topical mortalities of D. farinae due to lemongrass are higher than that due to neem. Contact mortalities of lemongrass are always higher that neem against both species of mites.

  20. Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss Oil to Tackle Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli

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    Paola Del Serrone

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss oil (NO was assayed against forty-eight isolates of Escherichia coli by standardised disc diffusion test and microdilution test. By molecular biology characterization, fourteen isolates resulted in diarrheagenic E. coli with sixteen primer pairs that specifically amplify unique sequences of virulence genes and of 16S rRNA. The NO showed biological activity against all isolates. The bacterial growth inhibition zone by disc diffusion method (100 µL NO ranged between 9.50 ± 0.70 and 30.00 ± 1.00 mm. The antibacterial activity was furthermore determined at lower NO concentrations (1 : 10–1 : 10,000. The percent of growth reduction ranged between 23.71 ± 1.00 and 99.70 ± 1.53. The highest bacterial growth reduction was 1 : 10 NO concentration with 50 µL of bacterial suspension (ca. 1 × 106 CFU/mL. There is significant difference between the antibacterial activities against pathogenic and nonpathogenic E. coli, as well as NO and ciprofloxacin activities. Viable cells after the different NO concentration treatments were checked by molecular biology assay using PMA dye. On the basis of the obtained results, NO counteracts E. coli and also influences the virulence of E. coli viable cells after NO treatment. The NO metabolomic composition was obtained using fingerprint HPTLC.